WorldWideScience

Sample records for cold war story

  1. Cold War Space Sleuths The Untold Secrets of the Soviet Space Program

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Cold War Space Sleuths reads like a Cold War espionage novel, but the reality of the story about the dedicated amateur observers bent on finding out about Soviet spaceflight during the Cold War is just as exciting and absorbing. Told in the sleuth's own words, each chapter unfolds a piece of the hidden history of what was happening behind the Iron Curtain. Coming from all over the world, including Russia itself, the amateur spies give first-hand accounts of often-forgotten aspects of the Cold War space race. Amongst others, their stories include: - the history of the Kettering Group; - looking inside the Russian archives; - unsolved mysteries, such as why cosmonauts were airbrushed out of the official archives; - reading between the lines of the Soviet media; - the impact of Gorbachev's glasnost on sleuthing; - new research, including chapters by James Oberg, Asif Siddiqi, and Bart Hendrickx.

  2. Commemoration of a cold war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farbøl, Rosanna

    2015-01-01

    This article brings together the fields of Cold War studies and memory studies. In Denmark, a remarkable institutionalisation of Cold War memory has taken place in the midst of a heated ideological battle over the past and whether to remember the Cold War as a ‘war’. Using Danish Cold War museums...... and heritage sites as case studies, this article sheds new light on the politics of history involved in Cold War commemoration. It suggests that the Cold War is commemorated as a war, yet this war memory is of a particular kind: it is a war memory without victims....

  3. 77 FR 43117 - Meeting of the Cold War Advisory Committee for the Cold War Theme Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... the Cold War Advisory Committee for the Cold War Theme Study AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior... Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. Appendix, that the Cold War Advisory Committee for the Cold War Theme Study will... National Park Service (NPS) concerning the Cold War Theme Study. DATES: The teleconference meeting will be...

  4. Cold War Paradigms and the Post-Cold War High School History Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAninch, Stuart A.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses how Cold War ideological models provide a way to examine the U.S. role in world affairs. Discusses and compares on the writings of Paul Gagnon and Noam Chomsky on this topic. Concludes that students should stand outside both models to develop a meaningful perspective on the U.S. role during the Cold War. (CFR)

  5. Social science in the Cold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engerman, David C

    2010-06-01

    This essay examines ways in which American social science in the late twentieth century was--and was not--a creature of the Cold War. It identifies important work by historians that calls into question the assumption that all social science during the Cold War amounts to "Cold War social science." These historians attribute significant agency to social scientists, showing how they were enmeshed in both long-running disciplinary discussions and new institutional environments. Key trends in this scholarship include a broadening historical perspective to see social scientists in the Cold War as responding to the ideas of their scholarly predecessors; identifying the institutional legacies of World War II; and examining in close detail the products of extramural--especially governmental--funding. The result is a view of social science in the Cold War in which national security concerns are relevant, but with varied and often unexpected impacts on intellectual life.

  6. Why the end of the Cold War doesn't matter: the US war of terror in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Stokes, Doug

    2003-01-01

    Orthodox narratives of US foreign policy have been employed as uncontested modes of historical interpretation with US post-Cold War foreign policy in the Third World characterised by discontinuity from its earlier Cold War objectives. Chomsky's work adopts an alternative revisionist historiography that views US post-Cold War foreign policy as characterised by continuity with its earlier Cold War objectives. This article examines the continuities of US post-Cold War policy in Colombia, and exp...

  7. Competing with the Soviets science, technology, and the state in Cold War America

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfe, Audra J

    2013-01-01

    For most of the second half of the twentieth century, the United States and its allies competed with a hostile Soviet Union in almost every way imaginable except open military engagement. The Cold War placed two opposite conceptions of the good society before the uncommitted world and history itself, and science figured prominently in the picture. Competing with the Soviets offers a short, accessible introduction to the special role that science and technology played in maintaining state power during the Cold War, from the atomic bomb to the Human Genome Project. The high-tech machinery of nuclear physics and the space race are at the center of this story, but Audra J. Wolfe also examines the surrogate battlefield of scientific achievement in such diverse fields as urban planning, biology, and economics; explains how defense-driven federal investments created vast laboratories and research programs; and shows how unfamiliar worries about national security and corrosive questions of loyalty crept into the sup...

  8. Leo Szilard Award Lecture: Unwinding the Cold War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Thomas

    1997-04-01

    Two generations of scientists in the US and the Soviet Union spent their lives in the shadow of the cold war, building the scientific and technical infrastructure and shaping the institutional and policy structures that maintained a stable "balance of terror." The cold war is now over, but the lethal products of it, and the decaying institutions and policies that perpetuated it, are probably more dangerous than ever. At the same time, the loss of cold war imperatives means fewer government resources and less policy attention to the problems of reversing the cold war. Moreover, solving these problems will require that the forces and talents of economics and business be integrated with the technical skill and imagination of physical scientists. Science fundamentally involves skills of problem definition and problem-solving. Both American and Russian scientists and engineers must expand their tool kits and the scope of their imaginations if they are to undo the dangerous legacy of the cold war and find productive new roles in a post-cold war world. This address is intended to illustrate how this can be done, using the past five years' experience in developing and implementing the agreement between the U.S. and Russia to motivate, finance, and institutionalize the destruction of approximately 20,000 Russian nuclear weapons through the commercially-driven recovery and destruction of 500 tonnes of highly enriched uranium from those weapons. Such approaches can have benefits much broader than the destruction of weapons, if we can recognize the opportunities and pursue them wisely. Unfortunately, there is a basic lack of imagination and will, one that is further frustrated by bureaucratic inertia and the parochial interests of cold war institutions. The irony is that Russia is more ready to change than the US, but it is the US that is, in principle but perhaps not in practice, most able to help lead the world out of the cold war era.

  9. The Roots of the Religious Cold War: Pre-Cold War Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne Kirby

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is an examination of the roots of the amalgam of complex forces that informed the ‘religious cold war’. It looks at the near and the more distant past. Naturally this includes consideration of the interwar years and those of the Second World War. It also means addressing divisions in Christianity that can be traced back to the end of the third century, to the official split of 1054 between Catholic and Orthodox, the impact of the Crusades and the entrenched hostility that followed the fifty-seven years imposition on Constantinople of a Latin Patriarch. It surveys the rise of significant forces that were to contribute to, as well as consolidate and strengthen, the religious cold war: civil religion, Christian fundamentalism and the Religious Right. The article examines both western and eastern mobilization of national religious resources for political purposes.

  10. Encyclopedia of the Cold War

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, R.

    2008-01-01

    Between 1945 and 1991, tension between the USA, its allies, and a group of nations led by the USSR, dominated world politics. This period was called the Cold War - a conflict that stopped short to a full-blown war. Benefiting from the recent research of newly open archives, the Encyclopedia of the

  11. Mapping Anomalous Democracies During the Cold War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    During the Cold War, a number of countries established stable democracies despite low levels of modernization and a relative lack of democratic neighbour countries—factors otherwise consistently related to the endurance of democracy. Meanwhile, the Cold War superpowers often supported autocracies...... are identified, including Bolivia, Botswana, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Honduras, India, Jamaica, Mauritius, Trinidad and Tobago, and Turkey....

  12. Introduction: the human sciences and Cold War America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Joel

    2011-01-01

    Studies of the history of the human sciences during the Cold War era have proliferated over the past decade--in JHBS and elsewhere. This special issue focuses on the connections between the behavioral sciences and the culture and politics of the Cold War in the United States. In the recent literature, there is a tendency to identify the Cold War human sciences with two main paradigms: that of psychocultural analysis, on the one hand, and of the systems sciences, on the other. The essays in the special issue both extend understanding of each of these interpretive frameworks and help us to grasp their interconnection. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Technophilic hubris and espionage styles during the Cold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macrakis, Kristie

    2010-06-01

    During the Cold War the United States developed an espionage style that reflected its love affair with technology (technophilia) whereas the Soviet Union and the East Bloc continued a tradition of using humans to collect intelligence. This essay places the origins and development of these espionage styles during the Cold War in historical and social context, and assesses their strengths and weaknesses by drawing on examples from particular cases. While the United States won the Cold War, the East Bloc won the spy wars because of a more effective espionage style. I conclude with some reflections on the uses of history for future policy, and suggest areas for further study.

  14. Focus: new perspectives on science and the Cold War. Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyck, Hunter; Kaiser, David

    2010-06-01

    Twenty years after the fall of the Berlin Wall, the Cold War looks ever more like a slice of history rather than a contemporary reality. During those same twenty years, scholarship on science, technology, and the state during the Cold War era has expanded dramatically. Building on major studies of physics in the American context--often couched in terms of "big science"--recent work has broached scientific efforts in other domains as well, scrutinizing Cold War scholarship in increasingly international and comparative frameworks. The essays in this Focus section take stock of current thinking about science and the Cold War, revisiting the question of how best to understand tangled (and sometimes surprising) relationships between government patronage and the world of ideas.

  15. Nuclear deterrence and disarmament after the Cold War

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, R.F. II

    1995-03-01

    During the Cold War, nuclear arms control measures were shaped significantly by nuclear doctrine. Consequently, the negotiation of arms control agreements often became a battleground for different nuclear strategies. The Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union has been declared over. Today, both nuclear weapons policies and arms control objectives are again being reviewed. This document discusses points of this review.

  16. Nationalism, Nuclear Policy and Children in Cold War America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Sharon

    1997-01-01

    Theorizes the place of children in America's "Cold War Consensus" of the 1950s-60s. Counterposes dominant Cold War images of abstract, generic children (inevitably white middle class) to actual children most vulnerable to risks associated with nuclear weapons production and testing. Concludes that in various ways, these children were all…

  17. A radiological legacy. Radioactive residues of the Cold War period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A.J.

    1998-01-01

    A dominating feature of the historical period known as the Cold War was the large-scale production and testing, of nuclear weapons. These military activities brought with them an unprecedented generation of radioactive substances. A fraction of these 'Cold War residues' ended up in the atmosphere and were dispersed throughout the world. Some remained in relatively isolated states in underground geological environments at the production or test site. Others have contaminated areas at times accessible to humans. Augmenting this picture are other scenes of a Cold War legacy. Large amounts of radioactive waste and byproducts are in storage from the production of weapons material. At some point, they are expected to be converted to peaceful applications or sent for final disposal. Over the past decade, the IAEA has been asked to play a greater role in helping countries address this Cold War legacy. A number of scientific assessments of radiological situations created by the Cold War have been carried out by experts convened by the IAEA - at nuclear test sites, nuclear production facilities, and waste dumping sites. This edition of the IAEA Bulletin highlights these cooperative activities in the context of international developments and concerns

  18. Training to Fight Training and Education During the Cold War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Winkler, David

    1997-01-01

    ... requirements of military missions." One of Legacy's nine task areas is the Cold War Project, which seeks to "inventory, protect, and conserve DoD's physical and literary property and relics" associated with the Cold War. In early 1993, Dr...

  19. How Nuclear South Asia is Like Cold War Europe:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cohen, Michael David

    2013-01-01

    Conventional wisdom states that the stability-instability paradox does not explain the effect of nuclear proliferation on the conflict propensity of South Asia and that nuclear weapons have had a different and more dangerous impact in South Asia than Cold War Europe. I argue that the paradox...... Europe and South Asia. Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf may have adopted more moderate foreign policy towards India after experiencing fear of imminent nuclear war during the ten month mobilised crisis in 2002 as Nikita Khrushchev did forty years earlier. I argue that the stability-instability...... explains nuclear South Asia, that the similarities between nuclear South Asia and Cold War Europe are strong, and that conventional instability does not cause revisionist challenges in the long run. I develop and probe a psychological causal mechanism that explains the impact of nuclear weapons on Cold War...

  20. Recent Cold War Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineo, Ronn

    2003-01-01

    Cold War historiography has undergone major changes since the 1991 collapse of the Soviet Union. For two years (1992-1993) the principal Soviet archives fell open to scholars, and although some of the richest holdings are now once again closed, new information continues to find its way out. Moreover, critical documentary information has become…

  1. Science and technology in the global Cold War

    CERN Document Server

    Krige, John

    2014-01-01

    The Cold War period saw a dramatic expansion of state-funded science and technology research. Government and military patronage shaped Cold War technoscientific practices, imposing methods that were project oriented, team based, and subject to national-security restrictions. These changes affected not just the arms race and the space race but also research in agriculture, biomedicine, computer science, ecology, meteorology, and other fields. This volume examines science and technology in the context of the Cold War, considering whether the new institutions and institutional arrangements that emerged globally constrained technoscientific inquiry or offered greater opportunities for it. The contributors find that whatever the particular science, and whatever the political system in which that science was operating, the knowledge that was produced bore some relation to the goals of the nation-state. These goals varied from nation to nation; weapons research was emphasized in the United States and the Soviet Unio...

  2. UNITED STATES DURING THE COLD WAR 1945-1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novita Mujiyati

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available United States and the Soviet Union is a country on the part of allies who emerged as the winner during World War II. However, after reaching the Allied victory in the situation soon changed, man has become an opponent. United States and the Soviet Union are competing to expand the influence and power. To compete the United States strive continuously strengthen itself both in the economic and military by establishing a defense pact and aid agencies in the field of economy. During the Cold War the two are not fighting directly in one of the countries of the former Soviet Union and the United States. However, if understood, teradinya the Korean War and the Vietnam War is a result of tensions between the two countries and is a direct warfare conducted by the United States and the Soviet Union. Cold War ended in conflict with the collapse of the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as the winner of the country.

  3. The Victory Disease and the US Army After the Cold War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allen, John

    1999-01-01

    This study investigates the US Army after the end of the Cold War, specifically how the "Victory Disease" resulting from winning the Cold War caused a complacency in the US Army which eventually led...

  4. Indian foreign policy during the cold war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, Cesar

    2010-01-01

    This article examines India's foreign policy priorities during the years of the Cold War with a focus on international relations. As in the rest of the world, the India's foreign policy was marked by the dynamics of continuity and change in world policy, associated with the historical period of the Cold War (1947-90) and its impact on the neighbouring and regional context of India. As its hypothesis this article argues that this period was characterized by the challenges of consolidating the autonomy of independence, which means: achieving development; solving disputes arising from conflicts with neighbours; and, presenting India as a country committed to peace, which explains not only its position against war and the use of nuclear weapons, but also, with respect to one of the most original aspects of Indian foreign policy, its status as a non-aligned country

  5. The Cold War in the Soviet School: A Case Study of Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    This article is devoted to certain aspects of the cold war reflected in the teaching of mathematics in the Soviet Union. The author deals specifically with direct manifestations of the cold war, not with the teaching of mathematics during the cold war in general. His aim is not to present a comprehensive examination of school programs in…

  6. Scientists study 'cold war' fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, R.

    1993-01-01

    This article describes the epidemiological studies being carried out to determine radiation doses to the public from intentional and accidental releases of radioactive compounds during the Cold War. These studies at present are focused on Hanford, Oak Ridge, and Fernald, with studies beginning at Rocky Flats and Savannah

  7. Sizing Post-Cold War Nuclear Forces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oelrich, I

    2001-01-01

    This study addresses the utility of, and need for, nuclear weapons a decade after the end of the Cold War with special focus on the numbers and types of nuclear weapons appropriate for particular requirements...

  8. New Trends in Cold War History Studiesin China, 2000-2014

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    The study of Cold War history in China has made great progress in the past decade.The works of Chinese scholars are increasingly operating on a comparable level ofresearch and sophistication to their foreign colleagues. In some areas, such as Sino-Soviet relations, Sino-American relations, Japanese-American relations, and thehistory of the Korean War, Chinese scholarship has really blossomed. A number ofChinese Cold War historians have conducted innovative research in new areas, andpresented their findings on a variety of heretofore untapped issues.

  9. The biomedicalisation of war and military remains: US nuclear worker compensation in the 'post-Cold War'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupar, Shiloh

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the recent legislation and administration of United States nuclear worker compensation--the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Programme Act (EEOICPA)--in order to show the domestic impacts of war and the social order that has been established to respond to the Cold War legacy of occupational exposures, illness, and death. Examining the epistemological politics and material effects of compensation, an insufficiently analysed aspect of the Cold War, I argue that the system designed to redress the occupational exposures of nuclear workers accomplishes something else: obscuring the ethical problem of misinformation and missing data from the Cold War era; mobilising an industry of knowledge and market-economic opportunities in the arena of biomedical exposure assessment and dose reconstruction for parts of the former US nuclear complex; and, lastly, dematerialising and depoliticising geographies of the Cold War and its differential impacts through an individualistic epidemiological reprocessing of radiation exposures. The paper shows how the general claims procedure, combined with two methods mandated by EEOICPA--dose reconstruction and the probability of causation--effectively de-link workers from each other, and worksites from homes, pin compensation to a cost-benefit logic, implicate genuine scientific complexity and uncertainty in an ongoing denial of the toxic legacies of war, and ethically undermine the social justice aims of the legislation. The article ends by considering some of the ways that US nuclear workers have responded to living as the remains of both US bomb production and the compensation system.

  10. Challenges to the Japan-U.S. Security Alliance in the Post-Post Cold War Era

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nodomi, Mistsuru

    2005-01-01

    The Japan-U.S. security alliance experienced the Cold War and post Cold War during the twentieth century, and is now facing a post-post Cold War environment triggered by the September 11 terrorist attacks...

  11. A perspective on the history of health and human rights: from the Cold War to the Gold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarantola, Daniel

    2008-04-01

    Through the end of the Cold War, public health policies were predominantly shaped and implemented by governments and these same governments committed themselves to meet their obligations for health under international and national laws. The post-Cold War era has witnessed the entry of new actors in public health and the sharing of power and influences with non-state actors, in particular the private sector and interest groups. This article examines the emergence of human rights and the rise of health on the international development agenda as the Cold War was ending. It highlights the convergence of health and human rights in academic and public discourse since the end of the Cold War in a context of political and economic shifts linked to the ongoing economic globalization. It describes opportunities and challenges for greater synergy between health and rights and proposes a role for health practitioners.

  12. ‘Introducing the Sensational Black Panther!’ Fantastic Four #52–53, the Cold War, and Marvel’s Imagined Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Lund

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses 'Fantastic Four' #52–53 (July–August 1966, in which Black Panther, Marvel’s first black superhero, premiered. It argues that the character as he appeared in these issues is best read as an example of ‘white on black’ representation, or white images of blacks centered on white interests, filtered through Marvel’s then-prevalent Cold War focus. The article first looks at the Fantastic Four as Cold Warriors to contextualize Black Panther. It then goes on to look at how Wakanda, Black Panther’s tribe, and Klaw, the storyline’s villain, are configured in relation to this context, in order to highlight the importance in the story of Cold War conceptions of and fears about the process of decolonization that was taking place on the African continent. Finally, it argues that Black Panther is rhetorically ‘Americanized,’ to better fit with US self-conceptions and to alleviate worries about what Africa’s then-recent decolonization might mean for United States of America.

  13. The Built Environment of Cold War Era Servicewomen

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morrison, Dawn A; Enscore, Susan I

    2006-01-01

    ..., training, and workspaces of military women. This reconsideration led to ever-evolving regulations and standard operating procedures throughout the course of the Cold War concerning this matter...

  14. POST-COLD WAR MILITARY INTERVENTION IN AFRICA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nations Charter, and one of the international community‟s decisive factors in ... evolved since the end of the Cold War in terms of theory, practice and the way .... internal civil strife evolved as an extension of the duty to preserve international.

  15. Overview of U.S. Navy Antisubmarine Warfare (ASW) Organization During the Cold War Era

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manke, Robert C

    2008-01-01

    ...) conducted by the United States during the Cold War. Books and articles have begun to capture the historic context, the strategic intent, and the operational realization of this important element of the Cold War...

  16. Experts in the cold war. War experiences and peace conceptions of US-American physicists 1920-1963

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wunderle, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    The study is dedicated to the American elite of nuclear physicists, which explained after the second world war the possibilities of their science for war and peace. What induced their thinking and handling? The focus lies on the scientific shapings and war experiences of the first really international generation of physicists, which began in the 1920th years their career before many of their representatives had to fly from the NS regime from Europe and cooperated in the Manhattan project in the construction of the atomic bomb. These experiences the author refers to in order to get on the track of the explanations of the exper elite in the immediate afterwar time and in the cold war. How far their internationally and by actual war experiences shaped thinking about their own contribution as scientist to the national security - in the sense of discouragement or the cooperative conflict regulation - found its expression in the cold war, is drawn on different action levels of the participants from the Geneve conference ''Atoms for Peace'' of 1955 until the signing of the so-called Limited Test Ban Treaty of 1963.

  17. American historians on the Cold War: A historiographical interpretation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article categorizes the American historical scholarship on the Cold War into five, perhaps six, clusters. After discussing these clusters, it argues that in spite of paradigmatic differences, there are also areas of agreement in the literature. For one thing, it is clear that before the end of World War II, and therefore before the ...

  18. Cold War Transgressions: Christian Realism, Conservative Socialism, and the Longer 1960s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Thomas Edwards

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay examines the convergence of the Protestant left and traditionalist right during the 1950s. Reinhold Niebuhr and the World Council of Churches challenged Cold War liberalism from within. As they did, they anticipated and even applauded the anti-liberalism of early Cold War conservatives. While exploring intellectual precursors of the New Left, this essay forefronts one forgotten byproduct of the political realignments following World War II: The transgressive politics of “conservative socialism.” Furthermore, this work contributes to growing awareness of ecumenical Christian impact within American life.

  19. Apollo's Warriors: US Air Force Special Operations during the Cold War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hass, Michael

    1997-01-01

    .... Attempting to capture the history of USAF special operations from the beginning of the cold war to the end of the Second Indochina War is an exercise in humility the historian's worst nightmare in some respects...

  20. Security in Northern Europe after the Cold War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Besserudhagen, Svein

    1995-01-01

    The end of the Cold War came with dramatic changes in Europe. NATO is searching for its future in a Europe threatened by instability and break down of government control and law and order in Russia...

  1. Educational Exchange as a Cold War Weapon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anders Bo

    2014-01-01

    American President Harry S. Truman called the Cold War a "struggle for the minds of men," and assigned journalists an important role in the conflict. This study finds that the U.S. Depeartment of State, via the American Embassy in Copenhagen, consciously attempted to shape Danish journalits' view...

  2. Exploring Greenland: science and technology in Cold War settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymann, Matthias; Knudsen, Henrik; Lolck, Maiken L; Nielsen, Henry; Nielsen, Kristian H; Ries, Christopher J

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores a vacant spot in the Cold War history of science: the development of research activities in the physical environmental sciences and in nuclear science and technology in Greenland. In the post-war period, scientific exploration of the polar areas became a strategically important element in American and Soviet defence policy. Particularly geophysical fields like meteorology, geology, seismology, oceanography, and others profited greatly from military interest. While Denmark maintained formal sovereignty over Greenland, research activities were strongly dominated by U.S. military interests. This paper sets out to summarize the limited current state of knowledge about activities in the environmental physical sciences in Greenland and their entanglement with military, geopolitical, and colonial interests of both the USA and Denmark. We describe geophysical research in the Cold War in Greenland as a multidimensional colonial endeavour. In a period of decolonization after World War II, Greenland, being a Danish colony, became additionally colonized by the American military. Concurrently, in a period of emerging scientific internationalism, the U.S. military "colonized" geophysical research in the Arctic, which increasingly became subject to military directions, culture, and rules.

  3. Do not panic: Hawkwind, the Cold War and “the imagination of disaster”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Ihde

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The English rock band, Hawkwind, was amongst the founders of the genre known as “space rock”. From the early 1970s to the early 1990s, their work also included references to Cold War issues. An examination of their concert appearances, musical output and printed matter reveals that relevant material often reflected the “imagination of disaster” made famous in an essay by Susan Sontag. As well, there are correlations between the waxing and waning of Cold War tensions, and the presence and absence of such themes in their work. Thus, their work provides an example of how popular music could serve as a barometer of the impact of the Cold War on popular culture.

  4. Manila and the World Dance Space: Nationalism and Globalization in Cold War Philippines and South East Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yamomo, M.; Villaruz, B.E.; Balme, C.B.; Szymanski-Düll, B.

    2017-01-01

    The rise of South East Asia as a region is inextricably linked to the birth of the Cold War. In no other region did the Cold War feel quite so ‘hot’. After decolonization, South East Asian nation-states forming new national identities each found allegiances with one or other of the two Cold War

  5. Scaling up: human genetics as a Cold War network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindee, Susan

    2014-09-01

    In this commentary I explore how the papers here illuminate the processes of collection that have been so central to the history of human genetics since 1945. The development of human population genetics in the Cold War period produced databases and biobanks that have endured into the present, and that continue to be used and debated. In the decades after the bomb, scientists collected and transferred human biological materials and information from populations of interest, and as they moved these biological resources or biosocial resources acquired new meanings and uses. The papers here collate these practices and map their desires and ironies. They explore how a large international network of geneticists, biological anthropologists, virologists and other physicians and scientists interacted with local informants, research subjects and public officials. They also track the networks and standards that mobilized the transfer of information, genealogies, tissue and blood samples. As Joanna Radin suggests here, the massive collections of human biological materials and data were often understood to be resources for an "as-yet-unknown" future. The stories told here contain elements of surveillance, extraction, salvage and eschatology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Howard Hughes and the Cold War Aviation Film Jet Pilot (1957

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Andrew Voeltz

    2016-10-01

    War.  But sexual intimacy, conspicuous consumption, and aviation technology also inserted themselves into the perfect safetly of American domestic bliss. This paper will analyze how the eccentric Cold War romantic comedy Jet Pilot (1957 so associated with the compulsiveness of Howard Hughes, produced and written by Jules Furthman, directed ( partially by Josef von Sternburg and starring John Wayne and Janet Leigh, reflects all these themes making it the paradigmatic Cold Film that remains a camp classic from the American popular cultyre of the 1950s.

  7. The lab and the land: overcoming the Arctic in Cold War Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farish, Matthew

    2013-03-01

    The militarization of Alaska during and after World War II created an extraordinary set of new facilities. But it also reshaped the imaginative role of Alaska as a hostile environment, where an antagonistic form of nature could be defeated with the appropriate combination of technology and training. One of the crucial sites for this reformulation was the Arctic Aeromedical Laboratory, based at Ladd Air Force Base in Fairbanks. In the first two decades of the Cold War, its employees conducted numerous experiments on acclimatization and survival. The laboratory is now best known for an infamous set of tests involving the application of radioactive tracers to indigenous Alaskans--experiments publicized by post-Cold War panels established to evaluate the tragic history of atomic-era human subject research. But little else has been written about the laboratory's relationship with the populations and landscapes that it targeted for study. This essay presents the laboratory as critical to Alaska's history and the history of the Cold War sciences. A consideration of the laboratory's various projects also reveals a consistent fascination with race. Alaskan Natives were enrolled in experiments because their bodies were understood to hold clues to the mysteries of northern nature. A scientific solution would aid American military campaigns not only in Alaska, but in cold climates everywhere.

  8. Strategic stability in the Cold War. Lessons for continuing challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yost, D.S.

    2011-01-01

    Extending from roughly the end of the Second World War to the collapse of the Soviet empire in 1989-1991, the Cold War period witnessed - among other upheavals - significant conflicts in East Asia and the Middle East, the end of European colonial empires in Africa and Asia, and a remarkable competition between the United States and the Soviet Union across virtually every aspect of endeavor, from economic and cultural activities to military, nuclear, and space capabilities. In this era of great instability scores of new states gained their independence, some great powers lost stature and influence in comparative terms, and millions of people perished in civil and interstate wars and at the hands of repressive governments. Yet it was during this period that the phrase 'strategic stability' gained currency both as an objective and as an apt way of describing four dominant features of the period. First, the United States and the Soviet Union never went to war, although there were several occasions when some observers saw war as a genuine possibility, including the Berlin and Cuban crises, the 1973 Arab-Israeli war, and the 'war scare' of the early 1980's. Second, neither these powers nor any others detonated nuclear weapons to inflict damage on an enemy, though they relied on them for deterrence, alliance cohesion, and other purposes. Third, the configuration of political alignments in Europe and Northeast Asia was remarkably stable from the mid-1950's to the end of the Cold War in 1989-1991. Fourth, the proliferation of nuclear-weapon states was contained to a much lower level than feared by some observers in the 1950's and 1960's. This paper concentrates on the first of the four elements of strategic stability in the Cold War listed above - the fact that the two superpowers did not engage in a direct 'hot war' with each other. It raises the question, to what extent did U.S. analytical models concerning 'crisis stability', 'first-strike stability', and 'arms race

  9. Revolutionary networks. Women’s political and social activism in Cold War Italy and Yugoslavia (1945-1957)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonfiglioli, C.

    2012-01-01

    The Cold War era has generally been represented as a moment of conservatism when it comes to women’s activism. While women’s political participation in the Second World War had been studied in detail, women’s political and social activism in Cold War Europe has remained under-researched. In my

  10. 1948 AND THE COLD WAR IN MALAYA: SAMPLINGS OF MALAY REACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rahman Haji Ismail

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a preliminary report of an on-going research on the reactions of the Malays in Malaya to the coming of the Cold War to the region, with particular reference to the importance of the year 1948. For the majority of the Malays, the Cold War was most popularly associated with the Emergency, which British authorities had declared in the effort to quell the armed uprising mounted by the MCP. The vast majority of Malays in Malaya were not interested in the on-going Cold War between the Western bloc led by the United States on the side the Eastern bloc led by the Soviet Union on the other. The preoccupations of the Malays during the immediate post-Pacific War period was nationalism and the concomitant effort to gain independence for Malaya from Britain. In particular, they had been rather anxious that the Malays, who were the native of the land, were not robbed of the custodianship over Malaya and political privileges of the Malays in independent Malaya. Consumed with these issues, the Malays had little interests in external affairs. It was perhaps the lack of Malay support that foredoomed the fate of communism in Malaya.

  11. The legacy of the cold war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martellini, M.

    1998-01-01

    More than fifty-two years have elapsed since the atomic bomb-was dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Over this period, the United States and the Soviet Union have engaged in a constant nuclear arms-race, in an effort to build a growing number of warheads and launching systems of increasingly higher destructive power, reflecting the logic of the balance of terror and the threat of mutually assured destruction. The years of the Cold War have, in fact, been dominated by the incredibly rapid growth of nuclear arsenals. The end of the Cold War, which was marked by the fall of the Berlin Wall in November 1989, coincided with the beginning of the process of nuclear disarmament and a diversion of funds from the industrial military complex. Nevertheless, 45 years of development and sophistication in nuclear armaments can't be immediately wiped off, for many reasons, the most evident of which being that the nuclear materials that forms the heart of atomic weapons, more precisely known as weapon-grade materials, can't be simply eliminated, as will be explained later in this text. Their dismantlement requires special technical means, which are not yet available to all nuclear powers. There are also other reasons why nuclear disarmament is such a complex and uneven process

  12. Strategic stability in the Cold War. Lessons for continuing challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yost, D.S.

    2011-10-26

    Extending from roughly the end of the Second World War to the collapse of the Soviet empire in 1989-1991, the Cold War period witnessed - among other upheavals - significant conflicts in East Asia and the Middle East, the end of European colonial empires in Africa and Asia, and a remarkable competition between the United States and the Soviet Union across virtually every aspect of endeavor, from economic and cultural activities to military, nuclear, and space capabilities. In this era of great instability scores of new states gained their independence, some great powers lost stature and influence in comparative terms, and millions of people perished in civil and interstate wars and at the hands of repressive governments. Yet it was during this period that the phrase 'strategic stability' gained currency both as an objective and as an apt way of describing four dominant features of the period. First, the United States and the Soviet Union never went to war, although there were several occasions when some observers saw war as a genuine possibility, including the Berlin and Cuban crises, the 1973 Arab-Israeli war, and the 'war scare' of the early 1980's. Second, neither these powers nor any others detonated nuclear weapons to inflict damage on an enemy, though they relied on them for deterrence, alliance cohesion, and other purposes. Third, the configuration of political alignments in Europe and Northeast Asia was remarkably stable from the mid-1950's to the end of the Cold War in 1989-1991. Fourth, the proliferation of nuclear-weapon states was contained to a much lower level than feared by some observers in the 1950's and 1960's. This paper concentrates on the first of the four elements of strategic stability in the Cold War listed above - the fact that the two superpowers did not engage in a direct 'hot war' with each other. It raises the question, to what extent did U.S. analytical models concerning &apos

  13. Movies to the Rescue: Keeping the Cold War Relevant for Twenty-First-Century Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokcek, Gigi; Howard, Alison

    2013-01-01

    What are the challenges of teaching Cold War politics to the twenty-first-century student? How might the millennial generation be educated about the political science theories and concepts associated with this period in history? A college student today, who grew up in the post-Cold War era with the Internet, Facebook, Twitter, smart phones,…

  14. The myth of nuclear deterrence: The lessons of the Cold War

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Yasuhiro

    1997-01-01

    The end of the Cold War has provided a great opportunity and an urgent need for recasting a long-range policy for nuclear weapons. At the moment, however, there is not much prospect of nuclear disarmament by the United States and Russia beyond START II, and no prospect of nuclear disarmament by the other states, while the chances of nuclear proliferation remain high. This paper explores the implications of the Cold War for further nuclear disarmament and preventing future nuclear proliferation, focusing on the notion of nuclear deterrence and the 'crystal ball effect' of nuclear weapons

  15. Public perspectives of nuclear weapons in the post-cold war environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins-Smith, H.C.; Herron, K.G. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Institute for Public Policy; Barke, R.P. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Public Policy

    1994-04-01

    This report summarizes the findings of a nationwide survey of public perceptions of nuclear weapons in the post-cold war environment. Participants included 1,301 members of the general public, 1,155 randomly selected members of the Union of Concerned Scientists, and 1,226 employees randomly selected from the technical staffs of four DOE national laboratories. A majority of respondents from all three samples perceived the post-cold war security environment to pose increased likelihood of nuclear war, nuclear proliferation, and nuclear terrorism. Public perceptions of nuclear weapons threats, risks, utilities, and benefits were found to systematically affect nuclear weapons policy preferences in predictable ways. Highly significant relationships were also found between public trust and nuclear weapons policy preferences. As public trust and official government information about nuclear weapons increased, perceptions of nuclear weapons management risks decreased and perceptions of nuclear weapons utilities and benefits increased. A majority of respondents favored decreasing funding for: (1) developing and testing new nuclear weapons; (2) maintaining existing nuclear weapons, and (3) maintaining the ability to develop and improve nuclear weapons. Substantial support was found among all three groups for increasing funding for: (1) enhancing nuclear weapons safety; (2) training nuclear weapons personnel; (3) preventing nuclear proliferation; and (4) preventing nuclear terrorism. Most respondents considered nuclear weapons to be a persistent feature of the post-cold war security environment.

  16. Rethinking Little Rock: The Cold War Politics of School Integration in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejong-Lambert, William

    2007-01-01

    Though the impact of the cold war on the civil rights movement continued long after the desegregation crisis in Little Rock, the timing of the events in Arkansas, particularly the events at Central High School, constituted a unique moment in the history of the cold war. Up until the fall of 1957, the Soviet Union had been perceived as less…

  17. ‘Resource Wars’ in the Post-Cold War Era: The Persian Gulf Oil, US, and the Iraq War

    OpenAIRE

    S Naji

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on the strategic region of the Persian Gulf and its oil resources, the US energy policy, and the Iraq War as a case in point. It refers to the importance of the Persian Gulf oil in the US policies and the US geopolitical practices to launch conflicts and wars in the post-Cold War era that scholars have categorized as “resource wars.” Reviewing relevant studies has revealed that amongst the natural resources oil as the most vital commodity has always played a major role in ...

  18. "This war for men's minds": the birth of a human science in Cold War America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Nielsen, Janet

    2010-01-01

    The past decade has seen an explosion of work on the history of the human sciences during the Cold War. This work, however, does not engage with one of the leading human sciences of the period: linguistics. This article begins to rectify this knowledge gap by investigating the influence of linguistics and its concept of study, language, on American public, political and intellectual life during the postwar and early Cold War years. I show that language emerged in three frameworks in this period: language as tool, language as weapon, and language as knowledge. As America stepped onto the international stage, language and linguistics were at the forefront: the military poured millions of dollars into machine translation, American diplomats were required to master scores of foreign languages, and schoolchildren were exposed to language-learning on a scale never before seen in the United States. Together, I argue, language and linguistics formed a critical part of the rise of American leadership in the new world order - one that provided communities as dispersed as the military, the diplomatic corps, scientists and language teachers with a powerful way of tackling the problems they faced. To date, linguistics has not been integrated into the broader framework of Cold War human sciences. In this article, I aim to bring both language, as concept, and linguistics, as discipline, into this framework. In doing so, I pave the way for future work on the history of linguistics as a human science.

  19. China's Quest for Security in the Post-Cold War World

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kim, Smauel

    1996-01-01

    China's security behavior, riddled with contradictions and paradoxes, seemed made to order for challenging scholars and policymakers concerned about the shape of things to come in post-Cold War international life...

  20. China–Burma Geopolitical Relations in the Cold War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei FAN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the historical role of geography in the Sino–Burmese relationship in the context of the Cold War, both before and after the Chinese–American détente and rapprochement in the 1970s. It describes Burma’s fear and distrust of China throughout the Cold War, during which it maintained a policy of neutrality and non-alignment. Burma’s geographic location, sandwiched between its giant neighbours India and China, led it to adopt a realist paradigm and pursue an independent foreign policy. Charac-terizing China’s threat to Burmese national security as “grave” during its period of revolutionary export, the article notes that Burma was cowed into deference and that it deliberately avoided antagonizing China. It also looks at the history of China’s attempts to break out of U.S. encirclement after the Korean War and its successful establishment of Burma as an important buffer state. After the U.S.–China rapprochement in 1972, however, Bur-ma’s geographical significance for Beijing declined. In this context, Burma’s closed-door policy of isolation further lessened its strategic importance for China. Since 1988, however, Burma’s strategic importance to China has been on the rise once again, as it plays a greater role as China’s land bridge to the Indian Ocean and in its energy security and expansion of trade and exports.

  1. Tracing Cold War in Post-Modern Management's Hot Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.J. Magala (Slawomir)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractTracing Cold War in post-modern managerial science and ideology one encounters hot issues linking contemporary liberal dogmas and romanticized view of organizational leadership to the dismantling of a welfare state disguised as a liberation of an individual employee, empowerment of an

  2. The Cold War is Over. What Now?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, S. S.

    1995-04-01

    As you might imagine, the end of the Cold War has elicited an intense reexamination of the roles and missions of institutions such as the Los Alamos National Laboratory. During the past few years, the entire defense establishment has undergone substantial consolidation, with a concomitant decrease in support for research and development, including in areas such as materials. The defense industry is down-sizing at a rapid pace. Even universities have experienced significant funding cutbacks from the defense community. I view this as a profound time in history, bringing changes encompassing much more than just the defense world. In fact, support for science and technology is being reexamined across the board more completely than at any other time since the end of World War II.

  3. The Cold War is over. What now?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hecker, S.S.

    1995-05-01

    As you might imagine, the end of the Cold War has elicited an intense reexamination of the roles and missions of institutions such as the Los Alamos National Laboratory. During the past few years, the entire defense establishment has undergone substantial consolidation, with a concomitant decrease in support for research and development, including in areas such as materials. The defense industry is down-sizing at a rapid pace. Even universities have experienced significant funding cutbacks from the defense community. I view this as a profound time in history, bringing changes encompassing much more than just the defense world. In fact, support for science and technology is being reexamined across the board more completely than at any other time since the end of World War II.

  4. Rockets and ray guns the sci-fi science of the Cold War

    CERN Document Server

    May, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    The Cold War saw scientists in East and West racing to create amazing new technologies, the like of which the world had never seen. Yet not everyone was taken by surprise. From super-powerful atomic weapons to rockets and space travel, readers of science fiction (SF) had seen it all before. Sometimes reality lived up to the SF vision, at other times it didn’t. The hydrogen bomb was as terrifyingly destructive as anything in fiction, while real-world lasers didn't come close to the promise of the classic SF ray gun. Nevertheless, when the scientific Cold War culminated in the Strategic Defence Initiative of the 1980s, it was so science-fictional in its aspirations that the media dubbed it “Star Wars”. This entertaining account, offering a plethora of little known facts and insights from previously classified military projects, shows how the real-world science of the Cold War followed in the footsteps of SF – and how the two together changed our perception of both science and scientists, and paved the w...

  5. Understanding the Global Cold War Legacy: Narrating through Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Klein

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The end of the Cold War brought the shrinking and dismantling of vast nuclear weapons complexes. As a result, some landscape architects will find themselves reclaiming a new, very specific type of Cold War landscape: those degraded by nuclear arms testing, production and waste storage. Nuclear landscapes pose multiple and complex challenges. Before designing nuclear reclamations, one must ask: what are the issues? If designers misunderstand the nuclear landscape 'problem', it will be 'solved' in the wrong way. My position is based on the assumption that society desires these landscapes to be reclaimed safely and in ways that allow them to educate the public. Landscape architects can find ways to reclaim nuclear landscapes safely while leaving narratives for generations to come. Perhaps it is too early to describe how nuclear reclamations will look. It is not too early to discuss what designs for nuclear reclamations should accomplish. This paper raises questions critical to the design of nuclear reclamations, both globally and locally. Near precedents - past reclamations that narrate other types of degraded landscapes - are discussed, and it is noted how we can learn from them when considering nuclear landscape reclamation. This paper does not articulate a specific design theory or solution to Cold War nuclear landscapes, but rather, it seeks to pose critical questions that designers should ask. These questions will be broad because we consider nuclear landscapes globally. The questions will require in-depth investigation of local issues as each unique nuclear landscape is considered.

  6. Surface Combatant Planning Since the End of the Cold War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gillen, Daniel

    1998-01-01

    .... This reduction was part of the U.S. military transformation in the post-Cold War period. This thesis examined the major factors that influenced the change in surface combatant planning since 1990, i.e...

  7. Mathematical models, rational choice, and the search for Cold War culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Paul

    2010-06-01

    A key feature of the social, behavioral, and biological sciences after World War II has been the widespread adoption of new mathematical techniques drawn from cybernetics, information theory, and theories of rational choice. Historians of science have typically sought to explain this adoption either by reference to military patronage, or to a characteristic Cold War culture or discursive framework strongly shaped by the concerns of national security. This essay explores several episodes in the history of game theory--a mathematical theory of rational choice--that demonstrate the limits of such explanations. Military funding was indeed critical to game theory's early development in the 1940s. However, the theory's subsequent spread across disciplines ranging from political science to evolutionary biology was the result of a diverse collection of debates about the nature of "rationality" and "choice" that marked the Cold War era. These debates are not easily reduced to the national security imperatives that have been the focus of much historiography to date.

  8. Nowhere to run, rabbit: the cold-war calculus of disease ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Warwick

    2017-06-01

    During the cold war, Frank Fenner (protégé of Macfarlane Burnet and René Dubos) and Francis Ratcliffe (associate of A. J. Nicholson and student of Charles Elton) studied mathematically the coevolution of host resistance and parasite virulence when myxomatosis was unleashed on Australia's rabbit population. Later, Robert May called Fenner the "real hero" of disease ecology for his mathematical modeling of the epidemic. While Ratcliffe came from a tradition of animal ecology, Fenner developed an ecological orientation in World War II through his work on malaria control (with Ratcliffe and Ian Mackerras, among others)-that is, through studies of tropical medicine. This makes Fenner at least a partial exception to other senior disease ecologists in the region, most of whom learned their ecology from examining responses to agricultural challenges and animal husbandry problems in settler colonial society. Here I consider the local ecologies of knowledge in southeastern Australia during this period, and describe the particular cold-war intellectual niche that Fenner and Ratcliffe inhabited.

  9. Engineering Science Education and the Indian Institutes of Technology: Reframing the Context of the "Cold War and Science" (1950-1970)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raina, Dhruv

    2017-01-01

    The last two decades have witnessed a revival of research interest in the Cold War, and on science during the Cold War, from a revised social theoretic perspective. Part of this reframing is evident in explorations of the relationship underpinning the Cold War discourse and modernisation theory. Drawing on this new turn, this article switches the…

  10. Soviet Cultural Diplomacy in Denmark during the Cold War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederichsen, Kim

    2012-01-01

    The article discusses the Soviet apparatus for cultural diplomacy abroad during the Cold War period using the worlds oldest society for friendship with the Soviet Union as a case study. The article looks at question from 3 diffrent angels: 1: Organisation, planning and financing. 2: Activities. 3...

  11. Sewing Seams of Stories: Becoming a Teacher during the First World War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinner, Anita

    2006-01-01

    In this article the author shares a partial biography of Elizabeth Evans, who became a domestic science teacher in Britain during the First World War. This story begins with a small collection of artefacts--professional letters and personal photographs--which infuse our understanding of teaching and learning and Elizabeth's everyday life nearly a…

  12. U.S. War Powers in the 21st Century: Do Post Cold War Conditions Facilitate Abuse of Executive Prerogative in Foreign Affairs?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anders, R

    2001-01-01

    ...: The Legislative Branch declared, or at least authorized and funded, military intervention. The Cold War led directly to an expedient shift of War Powers towards the Executive Branch, during this period to restore balance...

  13. Conceptual Readings into the Cold War: Towards Transnational Approaches from the Perspective of Latin American Studies in Eastern and Western Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Manke

    Full Text Available Abstract This bibliographical and conceptual essay summarizes recent research in Cold War Studies in Europe and the Americas, especially on smaller states in historiographical studies. Against the background of an increasing connectedness and globalization of research about the Cold War, the authors highlight the importance of the full-scale integration of countries and regions of the 'Global South' into Cold War Studies. Critical readings of the newly available resources reveal the existence of important decentralizing perspectives resulting from Cold War entanglements of the 'Global South' with the 'Global North.' As a result, the idea that these state actors from the former 'periphery' of the Cold War should be considered as passive recipients of superpower politics seems rather troubled. The evidence shows (at least partially autonomous and active multiple actors.

  14. The Third World Perspective on the Cold War: Making Curriculum and Pedagogy Relevant in History Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Iftikhar

    2017-01-01

    American and global history curriculum frameworks for high schools across the 50 states generally present the topic of the Cold War from the Western political perspective and contain material about the impact of the US-Soviet ideological rivalry on American society. This article argues that since the Cold War impacted the lives of people in the…

  15. Metaphor and the Rhetorical Invention of Cold War "Idealists."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivie, Robert L.

    1987-01-01

    Presents a procedure for identifying metaphorical concepts guiding the rhetorical invention of three Cold War "idealists": Henry Wallace, J. William Fulbright, and Helen Caldicott, whose collective failure to dispel threatening images of the Soviets is located in a recurrent system of metaphors that promotes a reversal of the enemy-image…

  16. Style and ideology: The cold war 'blend' in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanu Keti

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes cultural policy in Greece from the end of World War II up to the fall of the junta of colonels in 1974. The writer's object is to show how the Cold War favoured defeated Western countries, which participated effectively in the globalisation of American culture, as in the Western world de-nazification was transformed into a purge of communism. Using the careers of three composers active in communist resistance organizations as examples (Iannis Xenakis, Mikis Theodorakis and Alecos Xenos, the writer describes the repercussions of this phenomenon in Greek musical life and creativity.

  17. THE POLITICAL AND STRATEGIC DIMENSION OF CULTURE: INTELLECTUALITY AND ART DURING THE CULTURAL COLD WAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANCISCO J. RUIZ DURÁN

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The central paradigm of the Cold War was a battle of ideas, not a military, economic or political battle. This article analyses the contribution of intellectuals and artists to the propaganda war during the 20th century. It is argued that culture proved to be a very effective weapon back then. Left-wing intellectuals who were contrary to the Soviet Union project forged a novel no-communist thinking that, being supported by the US intelligent services, succeeded in the creation of a new Worldwide cultural paradigm in the context of the Cultural Cold War.

  18. The phytotronist and the phenotype: plant physiology, Big Science, and a Cold War biology of the whole plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munns, David P D

    2015-04-01

    This paper describes how, from the early twentieth century, and especially in the early Cold War era, the plant physiologists considered their discipline ideally suited among all the plant sciences to study and explain biological functions and processes, and ranked their discipline among the dominant forms of the biological sciences. At their apex in the late-1960s, the plant physiologists laid claim to having discovered nothing less than the "basic laws of physiology." This paper unwraps that claim, showing that it emerged from the construction of monumental big science laboratories known as phytotrons that gave control over the growing environment. Control meant that plant physiologists claimed to be able to produce a standard phenotype valid for experimental biology. Invoking the standards of the physical sciences, the plant physiologists heralded basic biological science from the phytotronic produced phenotype. In the context of the Cold War era, the ability to pursue basic science represented the highest pinnacle of standing within the scientific community. More broadly, I suggest that by recovering the history of an underappreciated discipline, plant physiology, and by establishing the centrality of the story of the plant sciences in the history of biology can historians understand the massive changes wrought to biology by the conceptual emergence of the molecular understanding of life, the dominance of the discipline of molecular biology, and the rise of biotechnology in the 1980s. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Superpower nuclear minimalism in the post-Cold War era?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graben, E.K.

    1992-07-01

    With the end of the Cold War and the breakup of the Soviet Union, the strategic environment has fundamentally changed, so it would seem logical to reexamine strategy as well. There are two main schools of nuclear strategic thought: a maximalist school, which emphasizes counterforce superiority and nuclear war-fighting capability, and a MAD-plus school, which emphasizes survivability of an assured destruction capability along with the ability to deliver small, limited nuclear attacks in the event that conflict occurs. The MAD-plus strategy is the more logical of the two strategies, because the maximalist strategy is based on an attempt to conventionalize nuclear weapons which is unrealistic

  20. China’s Bargaining Strategies after the Cold War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Kai; Feng, Huiyun

    2014-01-01

    Applying bargaining theory of international conflicts, we examine the successes and challenges of China’s strategic choices in its ascent after the Cold War. We suggest that China needs to alleviate information and commitment problems in order to rise peacefully. Since 2008, China’s “peaceful rise...... disputes. China should engage in rule-based, institution building, such as a security community between China and ASEAN, to reinforce its peaceful rise commitments....

  1. Overlapping Rivalries : The two Germanys, Israel and the Cold War

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vita, L.

    2017-01-01

    The case of early German-Israeli relations offers unique insight into the dynamics of the German Cold War. As this article shows, the two Germanys were ideologically and geopolitically antithetical, but vis-a-vis the question of relations with Israel East and West German representatives faced a

  2. Post-cold war international relations and foreign policies in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper argues that international relations in Africa have changed especially in content since the abatement of the Cold War. These changes have been accelerated by the pressures unleashed by the international environment, including the reality of Africa's marginalisation and the forces of globalisation. These, along ...

  3. Covert Action: Cold War Dinosaur or "Tool" for the 21st Century?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bonham, Gordon C

    1999-01-01

    .... During the height of the Cold War, while "Mission Impossible" and "Secret Agent" dominated television viewing, covert operations were frequently the instrument of choice to achieve foreign policy objectives...

  4. Eugene Onegin the Cold War Monument: How Edmund Wilson Quarreled with Vladimir Nabokov

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Conley

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The tale of how Edmund Wilson quarreled with Vladimir Nabokov over the latter’s 1964 translation of Eugene Onegin can be instructively read as a politically charged event, specifically a “high culture” allegory of the Cold War. Dissemination of anti-Communist ideals (often in liberal and literary guises was the mandate of the Congress for Cultural Freedom, whose funding and editorial initiatives included the publication of both pre-Revolution Russian literature and, more notoriously, the journal Encounter (1953-1990, where Nabokov’s fiery “Reply” to Wilson appeared. This essay outlines the propaganda value of the Onegin debate within and to Cold War mythology.

  5. The history of Finnish nuclear non-proliferation policy during the cold war. What did the Finns know about nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahosniemi, A.

    2004-03-01

    This article is a summary of the Finnish historical survey during the Cold War. In the article, I try to show how the Finnish Nuclear Non-Proliferation Policy during the Cold War is linked to the broader context of the Finnish foreign and security policy. In the research report I have focused on several questions. One of the most important is the following: What did the Finns know about nuclear weapons during the Cold War? And in this context scientific knowledge is meant by knowing something about nuclear weapons. Basically, the Finnish national based survey of nuclear non-proliferation policy attempted to investigate issues like the kind of research concerning Nuclear Technology in general, Nuclear weapons, and Nuclear weapon policies of super powers in Finland during the Cold War era. (author)

  6. ANFSQ-7 the computer that shaped the cold war

    CERN Document Server

    Ulmann, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    One of the most impressive computer systems ever was the vacuum tube based behemoth AN/FSQ-7, which was the heart of the ""Semi Automatic Ground Environment"". Machines of this type were children of the Cold War and had a tremendous effect not only on this episode in politics but also generated a vast amount of spin-offs which still shape our world.

  7. The American-Israeli Relationship Relevance in a Post-Cold War Environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoff, Michael

    2003-01-01

    .... This relationship has been critical during the period of cold war politics from 1948-1989. However, since the breakup of the Soviet Union, this relationship has been the basis for much of the intensified hatred aimed at the U.S...

  8. Competing Foreign Policy Visions: Rhetorical Hybrids after the Cold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckey, Mary E.

    1995-01-01

    Examines ways in which two very different political actors, George Bush and Bill Clinton, attempted to construct a new foreign policy consensus by blending the rhetorical forms of the Cold War with other foreign policy metaphors. Argues that these hybrids have not proven persuasive as justifications for American actions in foreign policy. (SR)

  9. Mitigation of Selected Hanford Site Manhattan Project and Cold War Era Artifacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prendergast-Kennedy, Ellen L.; Harvey, David W.

    2006-01-01

    This document is the first time that Manhattan Project and Cold War era artifacts from the Hanford Site have been assembled within a publication. The publication presents photographic and written documentation of a number of Manhattan Project and Cold War era artifacts that were identified and tagged during assessment walk throughs of historic buildings on the Hanford Site but which could not be curated within the Hanford collection because they were too large for long-term storage and/or exhibit purposes or were radiologically contaminated. The significance of the artifacts in this publication and a proposed future appendix is based not on the individual significance of any single artifact but on their collective contribution to the science and engineering of creating plutonium and advancing nuclear technology in nuclear fuel and power.

  10. Mitigation of Selected Hanford Site Manhattan Project and Cold War Era Artifacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, Ellen P.; Harvey, David W.

    2006-09-08

    This document is the first time that Manhattan Project and Cold War era artifacts from the Hanford Site have been assembled within a publication. The publication presents photographic and written documentation of a number of Manhattan Project and Cold War era artifacts that were identified and tagged during assessment walk throughs of historic buildings on the Hanford Site but which could not be curated within the Hanford collection because they were too large for long-term storage and/or exhibit purposes or were radiologically contaminated. The significance of the artifacts in this publication and a proposed future appendix is based not on the individual significance of any single artifact but on their collective contribution to the science and engineering of creating plutonium and advancing nuclear technology in nuclear fuel and power.

  11. Between East and West: polio vaccination across the Iron Curtain in Cold War Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargha, Dora

    2014-01-01

    In 1950s Hungary, with an economy and infrastructure still devastated from World War II and facing further hardships, thousands of children became permanently disabled and many died in the severe polio epidemic that shook the globe. The relatively new communist regime invested significantly in solving the public health crisis, initially importing a vaccine from the West and later turning to the East for a new solution. Through the history of polio vaccination in Hungary, this article shows how Cold War politics shaped vaccine evaluation and implementation in the 1950s. On the one hand, the threat of polio created a safe place for hitherto unprecedented, open cooperation among governments and scientific communities on the two sides of the Iron Curtain. On the other hand, Cold War rhetoric influenced scientific evaluation of vaccines, choices of disease prevention, and ultimately the eradication of polio.

  12. Secret Science: Exploring Cold War Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, K.

    2013-12-01

    During the early Cold War - from the immediate postwar period through the 1960s - the United States military carried out extensive scientific studies and pursued technological developments in Greenland. With few exceptions, most of these were classified - sometimes because new scientific knowledge was born classified, but mostly because the reasons behind the scientific explorations were. Meteorological and climatological, ionospheric, glaciological, seismological, and geological studies were among the geophysical undertakings carried out by military and civilian scientists--some in collaboration with the Danish government, and some carried out without their knowledge. This poster will present some of the results of the Exploring Greenland Project that is coming to a conclusion at Denmark's Aarhus University.

  13. Superpower nuclear minimalism in the post-Cold War era?. Revised

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graben, E.K.

    1992-07-01

    With the end of the Cold War and the breakup of the Soviet Union, the strategic environment has fundamentally changed, so it would seem logical to reexamine strategy as well. There are two main schools of nuclear strategic thought: a maximalist school, which emphasizes counterforce superiority and nuclear war-fighting capability, and a MAD-plus school, which emphasizes survivability of an assured destruction capability along with the ability to deliver small, limited nuclear attacks in the event that conflict occurs. The MAD-plus strategy is the more logical of the two strategies, because the maximalist strategy is based on an attempt to conventionalize nuclear weapons which is unrealistic.

  14. Nuclear De-Alerting and the Search for Post-Cold War Nuclear Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fortney, Michael

    1999-01-01

    ...... you just can't seem to get rid of it." While no longer the predominant defense issue, many still grapple with the strategic nuclear issue, wondering what we need to do with our "Cold War" nuclear arsenal...

  15. The Representation of the Cold War in Three Estonian History Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korbits, Keit

    2015-01-01

    The article looks at the discursive strategies different Estonian history textbooks employ to represent the Cold War period, and the "commonsense" ideologies instilled through these representations. The textbooks analysed include two history books dating back to the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic and, for contrast, one written during…

  16. Private Higher Education in a Cold War World: Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, James J.

    2009-01-01

    In Central America the Cold War support of the elites by the United States was designed to ward off the communist threat. At the same time social and economic demands by the working and middle classes created revolutionary movements in the face of rigid and violent responses by Central American governments. Issues of social justice pervaded the…

  17. Environmental histories of the Visegrad Countries. Cold War and the Environmental Sciences

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Olšáková, Doubravka; Oldfield, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 2 (2012), s. 359-361 ISSN 0523-8587 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GPP410/11/P007 Institutional support: RVO:68378114 Keywords : Cold War * environmental history * Visegrad Subject RIV: AB - History

  18. Politics and economics in the Asia-Pacific region: Beyond the Cold War

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byung-Joon Ahn

    1995-01-01

    Linked inexorably by geopolitics and geo-economics, Asia and North America are facing a number of common challenges in the aftermath of the Cold War. The prospects of a North Korea armed with nuclear weapons and medium-range ballistic missiles, and of China becoming another superpower, are impelling both Asia and America, and the US, Japan, and South Korea in particular, to strengthen their partnership for security, interdependence, and democracy. Politics and economics in the Asia-Pacific region are at a crossroads, facing a new era of post-Cold War uncertainty. This chapter addresses the major trends emerging in the region in terms of changing national and international perspectives. It is important to examine what these changes imply for a new security and economic framework in Asia and the Pacific. The gravity of the world's political economy is shifting to this region

  19. War and Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Dale

    2018-01-01

    Whether as context or prospect, reference or substance, warfare invariably features in Pynchon’s fiction: the war of American independence in Mason & Dixon; colonial wars in V.; world war one in Against the Day; world war two in Gravity’s Rainbow; the cold war in The Crying of Lot 49; various...... culture wars – hippies against straights, dopers versus The Man, nerds contra jocks – in Vineland and Inherent Vice; and the war on terror in Bleeding Edge. In these novels warfare occasions, illuminates and interrogates the lineaments of power, not only political or military but also social...... and representational – that mark the post-imperial, cold (and post-cold) war order; from the concentration camps and nuclear explosions of world war two to the ballistic missiles of the cold war, the irregular engagements of terrorism and counter-terrorism, and the digitalized fall-out of cyber-warfare....

  20. The post-cold war decade in the Caucasus: the wars in Chechnya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Sainz Gsell

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the conflict in Chechnya, its origins, development and international repercussions within the context of the Russian Federation and the more general context of the Caucasus, which since the end of the cold war has experienced the appearance of new conflicts and the re-emergence of old ones, largely as a result of the economic and strategic value given to the region due both to the region’s lying on the most direct route between the Caspian and Black Seas and well as to its natural gas and petroleum reserves.

  1. Transcending Rationalism and Constructivism: Chinese Leaders’ Operational Codes, Socialization Processes, and Multilateralism after the Cold War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Kai; Feng, Huiyun

    2015-01-01

    ’ argument to explain China’s pro-multilateralist diplomacy after the Cold War. Using operational code analysis to examine belief changes across three generations of Chinese leadership and on different occasions, we argue that China’s pro-multilateralist behavior is a product of ‘superficial socialization......This paper challenges both rationalist and constructivist approaches in explaining China’s foreign policy behavior toward multilateral institutions after the Cold War. Borrowing insights from socialization theory and operational code analysis, this paper suggests a ‘superficial socialization...

  2. Dismantling the Cold War economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markusen, A.; Yudkin, J.

    1992-01-01

    End-of-the-Cold-War economic realities include political jockeying over the future of weapons systems, a paucity of meaningful conversion efforts, and a suspicion that a weak economy will be unable to compensate for the loss of jobs and purchasing power as defense budgets are reduced. The authors of this book present three interrelated hypotheses: The first is that the existence of a large military production sector has depleted the civilian economy of key resources and has preempted creation of the kind of broad-base civilian-oriented industrial policies needed for economic revitalization. The second is that a large military production sector creates barriers to the movement of resources. The third is that economic depletion and the barriers to moving resources to civilian production make conversion planning essential. This book explains why conversion is difficult, but offers only a few pages of specific conversion proposals

  3. The cold wars a history of superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Matricon, Jean

    1994-01-01

    Among the most peculiar of matter¡¦s behaviors is superconductivity„oelectric current without resistance. Since the 1986 discovery that superconductivity is possible at temperatures well above absolute zero, research into practical applications has flourished. The Cold Wars tells the history of superconductivity, providing perspective on the development of the field and its relationship with the rest of physics. Superconductivity offers an excellent example of the evolution of physics in the twentieth century: the science itself, its foundations, and its social context. The authors also introduce the reader to the fascinating scientific personalities, including 2003 Nobel Prize winners Alexei Alexeievich Abrikosov and Vitali Ginzburg, and political struggles behind this research.

  4. Implications of Sino-American Strategic Competition on Southeast Asia's Post-Cold War Regional Order

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Suryodipuro, Sidharto

    2003-01-01

    .... The study of international politics after the Cold War has rediscovered the importance of regional interaction as the framework for understanding countries' security strategies and the great powers...

  5. The Battle for the History Books: Who Won the Cold War?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerson, Adam

    1990-01-01

    Discusses liberal and conservative foreign policy contributions to the end of the Cold War, as marked by the rapid liberalization of Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. Emphasizes that the collapse of the Soviet empire occurred at the end of a decade of sustained conservative government in every major country of the Western world. (FMW)

  6. Human rhinoviruses: the cold wars resume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, Ian M

    2008-08-01

    Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) are the most common cause of viral illness worldwide but today, less than half the strains have been sequenced and only a handful examined structurally. This viral super-group, known for decades, has still to face the full force of a molecular biology onslaught. However, newly identified viruses (NIVs) including human metapneumovirus and bocavirus and emergent viruses including SARS-CoV have already been exhaustively scrutinized. The clinical impact of most respiratory NIVs is attributable to one or two major strains but there are 100+ distinct HRVs and, because we have never sought them independently, we must arbitrarily divide the literature's clinical impact findings among them. Early findings from infection studies and use of inefficient detection methods have shaped the way we think of 'common cold' viruses today. To review past HRV-related studies in order to put recent HRV discoveries into context. HRV infections result in undue antibiotic prescriptions, sizable healthcare-related expenditure and exacerbation of expiratory wheezing associated with hospital admission. The finding of many divergent and previously unrecognized HRV strains has drawn attention and resources back to the most widespread and frequent infectious agent of humans; providing us the chance to seize the advantage in a decades-long cold war.

  7. Visualizing a monumental past: Archeology, Nasser's Egypt, and the early Cold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruthers, William

    2017-09-01

    This article examines geographies of decolonization and the Cold War through a case study in the making of archeological knowledge. The article focuses on an archeological dig that took place in Egypt in the period between the July 1952 Free Officers' coup and the 1956 Suez crisis. Making use of the notion of the 'boundary object', this article demonstrates how the excavation of ancient Egyptian remains at the site of Mit Rahina helped to constitute Nasserist revolutionary modernity and its relationship to wider, post-Second World War political geographies. The dig took place as a result of an Egyptian-American collaboration designed to institute the possibility of archeology taking place along the lines of the Point Four modernization program promoted by the United States. The article discusses how this situation not only engendered contention surrounding the role of the international 'experts' appointed to run this excavation work, but also - and as a result - helped to constitute the monumental visual and material shape that archeological evidence relating to the Egyptian past could now take. Egypt's revolution sat within wider Cold War political struggles, yet the 'ground-up' realities of this relationship helped to constitute the sort of past (and future) monumentality proposed by Nasser's government.

  8. Not Just About the Science: Cold War Politics and the International Indian Ocean Expedition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, K.

    2016-12-01

    The International Indian Ocean Expedition broke ground for a series of multi-national oceanographic expeditions starting in the late 1950s. In and of itself, it would have been historically significant—like the International Geophysical Year (1957-58)—for pulling together the international scientific community during the Cold War. However, US support for this and follow-on Indian Ocean expeditions were not just about the science; they were also about diplomacy, specifically efforts to bring non-aligned India into the US political orbit and out of the clutches of its Cold War enemy, the Soviet Union. This paper examines the behind-the-scenes efforts at the highest reaches of the US government to extract international political gain out of a large-scale scientific effort.

  9. "Who's winning the human race?"Cold war as pharmaceutical political strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobbell, Dominique A

    2009-10-01

    Between 1959 and 1962, Senator Estes Kefauver led a congressional investigation into the pricing practices of U.S. drug firms. As part of its defense, the industry mobilized the rhetoric of cold war and promoted the industry as a critical national asset in the global war against communism. The industry argued that any effort to undermine corporate innovation by inviting, as Kefauver proposed, greater government involvement in drug development threatened the public's health and invited socialism-in the form of socialized medicine-into the domestic political economy. This strategy proved critical to the industry's efforts to build political support for itself, particularly among the medical profession, and undermine Kefauver's reform agenda.

  10. Risky rays for an improved food supply? National and transnational food irradiation research as a cold war recipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zachmann, Karin

    2013-01-01

    This paper has dealt with an innovation that first emerged as a radiation-employing experimental system roughly by the 1930s. Within the context of World War II and especially in the first decade of the Cold War, protagonists of the nuclear establishment (the military, governmental officials such as representatives of US Atomic Energy Commissions and other national agencies, science managers, researchers, and others) became interested in these experimental systems and their elements - e.g., radioisotopes or ionizing rays that were used to explore processes of life - not primarily in their capacity to produce new ways of knowing, but because of their potential to yield new ways of doing. Therefore, these protagonists pushed the experimental systems into the world outside the laboratory at an early stage of their development. What at first emerged out of scientific curiosity to learn how ionizing rays would influence living matter was quickly employed to serve political purposes under the circumstances of the Cold War. This happened when, e.g., ionizing rays of such radiation employing experimental systems were applied to agriculture and food in order to prove that the atom could be put to peaceful use. Such applications of methods and techniques from experimental systems developed into powerful hybrids of science, technology and politics that decisively determined the global distribution of knowledge and control in and beyond the Cold War era. These hybrids still exist, even though the Cold War ended two decades ago. They exist as projects to introduce high-dose irradiation to ready-made food in order to serve the need of food industries and food retailers to increase turnover and profits. So far, only attentive representatives of consumers have challenged these projects via the mobilization of counter-expertise to the food-safety promises of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division and the Codex Alimentarius Commission. The fight over the safety of irradiated food, ironically

  11. Risky rays for an improved food supply? National and transnational food irradiation research as a cold war recipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zachmann, Karin

    2013-07-01

    This paper has dealt with an innovation that first emerged as a radiation-employing experimental system roughly by the 1930s. Within the context of World War II and especially in the first decade of the Cold War, protagonists of the nuclear establishment (the military, governmental officials such as representatives of US Atomic Energy Commissions and other national agencies, science managers, researchers, and others) became interested in these experimental systems and their elements - e.g., radioisotopes or ionizing rays that were used to explore processes of life - not primarily in their capacity to produce new ways of knowing, but because of their potential to yield new ways of doing. Therefore, these protagonists pushed the experimental systems into the world outside the laboratory at an early stage of their development. What at first emerged out of scientific curiosity to learn how ionizing rays would influence living matter was quickly employed to serve political purposes under the circumstances of the Cold War. This happened when, e.g., ionizing rays of such radiation employing experimental systems were applied to agriculture and food in order to prove that the atom could be put to peaceful use. Such applications of methods and techniques from experimental systems developed into powerful hybrids of science, technology and politics that decisively determined the global distribution of knowledge and control in and beyond the Cold War era. These hybrids still exist, even though the Cold War ended two decades ago. They exist as projects to introduce high-dose irradiation to ready-made food in order to serve the need of food industries and food retailers to increase turnover and profits. So far, only attentive representatives of consumers have challenged these projects via the mobilization of counter-expertise to the food-safety promises of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division and the Codex Alimentarius Commission. The fight over the safety of irradiated food, ironically

  12. "Agricultural Statecraft" in the Cold War: a case study of Poland and the West from 1945 to 1957.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, Robert Mark

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines how the rise and fall of Polish agriculture affected the larger political and economic relationship among Poland and three key members of the western alliance - the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Federal Republic of Germany - in the first decade of the Cold War. This period is revealing precisely because the reversal of fortunes in the Polish agricultural economy required the Polish government and some western counterparts to maneuver through periods of both agricultural advantage and disadvantage. Agricultural strategies as means and ends motivated the Polish, British, West German, and American governments to actions that bent, stretched, and limited some well-established practices in Cold War relations across divided Europe. By explicating the political consequences of changing flows of agricultural exports and imports in one specific context, this essay serves as case study of the role of agriculture in the global context of the Cold War.

  13. Learning Large Lessons: The Evolving Roles of Ground Power and Air Power in the Post-Cold War Era. Executive Summary

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, David E

    2007-01-01

    U.S. post-Cold War military operations have witnessed a shift in the relative roles of ground power and air power in war fighting, but the joint war fighting potential of this shift is not being fully realized...

  14. Swedish Military Bases of the Cold War The Making of a New Cultural Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Strömberg

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The fall of the Berlin Wall and the dissolution of the Soviet Union completely transformed the military-political situation in the Nordic countries. The movement from invasion defence to input defence in Sweden has made many of the subter-ranean modern fortresses and permanent defence systems of the Cold War unnec-essary. The current problem is what the administration authorities will do with the superfluous military buildings: let them fall into decay, preserve or reuse them – and for what purpose? The aim of this article is to describe and analyze the cultural as well as spatial foundation of a new genre of heritage industry in Sweden – the cultural heritage of the Cold War – whose value is negotiated through a range of processes by the different stakeholders involved – emotional, social and cultural processes as well as legal and economic processes. The subterranean fortresses of Hemsö and Aspö are used as empirical case studies in the article. They both describe the making of a cultural heritage and illustrate the problems related to the ambitions of convert-ing cultural heritage into tourist attractions. One of the conclusions is that the previous making of the industrial cultural heritage in the 1980s and 1990s has many things in common with the one of the Cold War. The “post-military” landscape of bunkers and rusting barbed wires is regarded with the same romanticism and with similar preservation ideologies and economic interests as the post-industrial landscape was earlier. Similar negotiation issues appear, and these negotiations are carried out by similar stakeholders. The difference is that the military culture heritage of the Cold War was developed through a deeply centralized selection process directed by administration authori-ties, but was also influenced by certain persuasion campaigns and preservation actions made by local stakeholders such as retired officers and municipality ad-ministrations.

  15. Evaluating and managing Cold War era historic properties : the cultural significance of U.S. Air Force defensive radar systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whorton, M.

    1999-01-20

    Aircraft and later missile radar early warning stations played an important role in the Cold War. They are associated with important technological, social, political, and military themes of the Cold War and are worthy of preservation. The scope and scale of these systems make physical preservation impractical, but the U.S. Air Force program of historical evaluation and documentation of these systems will provide valuable information to future generations studying this historic period.

  16. Lobotomies and Botulism Bombs: Beckett's Trilogy and the Cold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piette, Adam

    2016-06-01

    The article argues that Beckett's Trilogy stages the effects of a lobotomy operation on a potentially politically subversive writer, and that the consequences of the operation can be traced in both the retreat of the narrator(s) of the Trilogy into the mind and into comatose mental states and in the detail of the operation itself, based on the 'icepick' lobotomies performed by neurologist Walter Freeman in the late 1940s and early 1950s. To write about extreme psychiatric situations in the post-war period is necessarily to invoke the political uses of psychosurgery with which this article engages. The article goes on to consider the figure of the brain-damaged mind as a Cold War trope in the references to botulism and the motif of the penetrated skull in The Unnamable.

  17. Determinants and Politics of German Military Transformation in the Post-Cold War Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Cold War. Additionally, the prevalent antimilitarism called for armed forces that had to break with their historic record of authoritarianism and... paternalism ‖ in NATO affairs. In light of these diverging perceptions, the new Strategic Concept (SC 99), approved at the anniversary summit in

  18. For or against gender equality? Evaluating the post-cold war 'Rule of Law' reforms in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Nyamu-Musembi, Celestine

    2005-01-01

    The central question explored in this paper is: has the post-Cold-War rule of law (ROL) reform agenda in sub-Saharan Africa enhanced or impeded gender equality? Rule of law (ROL) reforms are seen as indispensable to establishing a market economy and democratic rule, the two prongs of the neo-liberal project. In sub-Saharan Africa, legal and institutional reforms that originated with the 'second wave' of political reform in the immediate post-Cold-War era have been justified in terms of these ...

  19. Legacy of Cold War still plagues Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popova, L. [Socio-Ecological Union`s Center, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-07-01

    Seventy years of communist rule and a half-century of nuclear-arms development have left Russia the world`s most polluted country, reports Lydia Popova, director of the Center for Nuclear Ecology and Energy Policy in Moscow. {open_quotes}Russia`s communist government invested enormous sums of money in the military but paid scant attention to environmental protection,{close_quotes} Popova writes. Most of Russia`s radioactive pollution has resulted from poor reprocessing technology, inadequate waste management, nuclear testing, and accidents in the nuclear-power sector. Though the end of the Cold War has been accompanied by disarmament programs, Popova insists that these initiatives will create an additional burden on the environment of the former Soviet Union in the form of nuclear waste products.

  20. Spies, Assassins, and Statesmen in Mexico’s Cold War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wil G. Pansters

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Book Review Essay Eclipse of the Assassins. The CIA, Imperial Politics, and the Slaying of Mexican Journalist Manuel Buendía, by Russell H. Bartley and Sylvia Erickson Bartley. University of Wisconsin Press, 2015. Mexico’s Cold War. Cuba, the United States, and the Legacy of the Mexican Revolution, by Renata Keller. Cambridge University Press, 2015. The Logic of Compromise in Mexico. How the Countryside Was Key to the Emergence of Authoritarianism, by Gladys I. McCormick. The University of North Carolina Press, 2016.

  1. NEMESIS: Keeping Russia an Enemy through Cold War Pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Crosston

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the openly adversarial neoconservative foundation under George Bush to the supposedly more ‘engaged’diplomatic interaction under Barack Obama. What will be exposed is a fairly uninspired and non-innovative American policy that not only fails to consider Russian initiatives from Russia’s own national security perspectives, but aims to contain it within a continued Cold War box that not only sours opportunities for collaboration but guarantees the absence of partnership in areas of global security. This piece examines the consequences of imagining Russia only as nemesis. 

  2. Medicine against Cold War. Physicians in the anti-nuclear peace movement of the 1980ies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemper, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The book on physicians in the anti-nuclear peace movement of the 19080ies covers the following issues: (I) Frame of the subject: methodology, research fields and actors; (II) The social dimension of the physician's movement; (III) IPPNW (International physicians for the prevention of nuclear war) - a political idea is medicalized and organized, 1980 - 1984; (IV) Borderlines of the international peace idea during the Cold War - IPPNW 1980 - 1986.

  3. Experts in the cold war. War experiences and peace conceptions of US-American physicists 1920-1963; Experten im Kalten Krieg. Kriegserfahrungen und Friedenskonzeptionen US-amerikanischer Kernphysiker 1920-1963

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wunderle, Ulrike

    2015-07-01

    The study is dedicated to the American elite of nuclear physicists, which explained after the second world war the possibilities of their science for war and peace. What induced their thinking and handling? The focus lies on the scientific shapings and war experiences of the first really international generation of physicists, which began in the 1920th years their career before many of their representatives had to fly from the NS regime from Europe and cooperated in the Manhattan project in the construction of the atomic bomb. These experiences the author refers to in order to get on the track of the explanations of the exper elite in the immediate afterwar time and in the cold war. How far their internationally and by actual war experiences shaped thinking about their own contribution as scientist to the national security - in the sense of discouragement or the cooperative conflict regulation - found its expression in the cold war, is drawn on different action levels of the participants from the Geneve conference ''Atoms for Peace'' of 1955 until the signing of the so-called Limited Test Ban Treaty of 1963.

  4. Testing times: A nuclear weapons laboratory at the end of the Cold War

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusterson, H.

    1992-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the role of discursive and other practices in the construction of two alternative regimes of truth in regard to nuclear weapons, and in the cultural production of persons at the Livermore Laboratory and in the local anti-nuclear movement. In the 1980s the scientists' regime of truth was challenged by a heterogeneous anti-nuclear movement recruited largely from the humanistic middle class - a class fragment profoundly hostile to the policies of the Reagan Administration. The movement attacked the Laboratory in a number of ways, ranging from local ballot initiatives and lobbying in Washington to civil disobedience at the Laboratory. By the end of the 1980s this movement, in combination with Gorbachev's reforms in the Soviet Union and a decade of internal scandals at the Laboratory, left the Laboratory weakened - though Laboratory scientists and managers are currently working to adapt the system of ideas and practices evolved during the Cold War to legitimate continued weapons work in a post-Cold War environment

  5. International Education during the Cold War: Soviet Social Transformation and American Social Reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsvetkova, Natalia

    2008-01-01

    During the Cold War, the United States and Soviet Union employed various cultural and informational and educational tools to establish and maintain friendly political regimes in foreign states. In this context international education programs became a major part of their strategy to win the "minds" and "allegiance" and to…

  6. From Research to Reality: A Retrospective on the Development and Acquisition of Naval Capabilities During the Cold War Era

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Colvard, James

    2002-01-01

    .... Perhaps at no other period in the Navy's history has the adoption of new technology in the Navy been as pronounced and effective as during the Cold War throughout the fifty or so years following the end of World War II...

  7. Commemorating a war that never came

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farbøl, Rosanna

    2017-01-01

    and activated in the representations stem from cultural memories of the Second World War. In the proccesses of establishing this Cold War cultural memory as a war memory, it has become part of a transcultural passion for memories of traumatic pasts, but the Cold War as cultural memory is a counter-factual war......The Cold War never became the global World War III. It was a war that never broke out. Nevertheless, in some countries like for instance Denmark it is commemorated as exactly that: a war. This is particularly apparent at museums and heritage sites, where the narrative and mnemonic frame works used...... memory. Because the war never broke out, it is a malleable and usable past with a great potential for contestation – and counter-factuality. In Denmark, the Cold War has, moreover, become part of a fierce competition between rivaling memory communities, preventing a common commemoration culture...

  8. Cold War Arms Control Motivations and Techniques - A Guide for the Future?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    White, Elmer

    1996-01-01

    .... This paper provides a brief historical account of some of the arms control agreements between the U.S. and the Soviet Union, examines their major motivations to enter into negotiations, and illustrates some successful negotiation techniques. The author hypothesizes on the utility of this Cold War arms control experience as a useful guide for arms control in a single superpower world.

  9. Proliferating problems: US management of strategic technology after the Cold War

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, W.J.

    1992-01-01

    The end of the Cold War, political revolutions in Central and Eastern Europe, the globalization of commercial markets, and the proliferation of dangerous technologies to many unstable regions present new challenges for the management of strategic technology. Technology controls designed to enhance national security must address the economic costs of such restrictions. In relations with former Cold War adversaries, technology transfer policy must find innovative ways to encourage cooperative problem solving and pluralistic, democratic, and market-oriented reforms. Also, policy must respond to new threats posed by proliferation in a way that recognizes the limits of technology controls and the need to balance US control interests with demands for technologies with legitimate commercial purposes. Recently, US strategic technology policy has reduced barriers that have traditionally impeded the ability of US exporters to do business in the global marketplace, and US policy is evolving to play a cautious but constructive role in East-West relations. To address more effectively the challenge of proliferation, however, policy makers must better coordinate technology controls with US arms, aid, and diplomatic initiatives toward nations and regions of concern. The first steps toward more effective policy will involve breaking down inter-agency barriers domestically and strengthening emerging multilateral institutions. 23 refs

  10. "Hypothetical machines": the science fiction dreams of Cold War social science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemov, Rebecca

    2010-06-01

    The introspectometer was a "hypothetical machine" Robert K. Merton introduced in the course of a 1956 how-to manual describing an actual research technique, the focused interview. This technique, in turn, formed the basis of wartime morale research and consumer behavior studies as well as perhaps the most ubiquitous social science tool, the focus group. This essay explores a new perspective on Cold War social science made possible by comparing two kinds of apparatuses: one real, the other imaginary. Even as Merton explored the nightmare potential of such machines, he suggested that the clear aim of social science was to build them or their functional equivalent: recording machines to access a person's experiential stream of reality, with the ability to turn this stream into real-time data. In this way, the introspectometer marks and symbolizes a broader entry during the Cold War of science-fiction-style aspirations into methodological prescriptions and procedural manuals. This essay considers the growth of the genre of methodological visions and revisions, painstakingly argued and absorbed, but punctuated by sci-fi aims to transform "the human" and build newly penetrating machines. It also considers the place of the nearly real-, and the artificial "near-substitute" as part of an experimental urge that animated these sciences.

  11. Beyond the cold war nuclear legacy: offense-defense and the role of nuclear deterrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, L.A.

    2001-01-01

    Since the September 11 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, the defense community of the United States focused overwhelmingly on countering the threat of global terrorism. This focus rightly reflects the danger of additional terrorist attacks against the American homeland, including conceivably even with nuclear weapons or radiological devices. At the same time, the December, 2001 announcement of the U.S. decision to withdraw from the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty after the six month waiting period serves as a reminder that there still is considerable other outstanding 'defense business' confronting the United States and its European allies. In particular, it is increasingly essential to re-craft the Cold War nuclear weapons legacy, not only in its own right but because doing so can also have important payoffs for the success of the U.S.-led global anti-terrorist campaign. The following paper first describes some of the main features of the Cold War nuclear legacy. It then sketches a number of different schools of thought or camps that exist within the U.S. defense community in answer to the question, 'what next with nuclear weaponry?' In light of those contending positions, it then sets out a possible way ahead - moving to re-craft U.S. strategic dealings with Russia toward a non-adversary relationship, to avoid a new Cold War with China, and to put in place the right mix of offensive and defensive, nuclear and non-nuclear capabilities to contain 21. century proliferation dangers. (author)

  12. Beyond the cold war nuclear legacy: offense-defense and the role of nuclear deterrence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, L.A

    2001-07-01

    Since the September 11 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, the defense community of the United States focused overwhelmingly on countering the threat of global terrorism. This focus rightly reflects the danger of additional terrorist attacks against the American homeland, including conceivably even with nuclear weapons or radiological devices. At the same time, the December, 2001 announcement of the U.S. decision to withdraw from the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty after the six month waiting period serves as a reminder that there still is considerable other outstanding 'defense business' confronting the United States and its European allies. In particular, it is increasingly essential to re-craft the Cold War nuclear weapons legacy, not only in its own right but because doing so can also have important payoffs for the success of the U.S.-led global anti-terrorist campaign. The following paper first describes some of the main features of the Cold War nuclear legacy. It then sketches a number of different schools of thought or camps that exist within the U.S. defense community in answer to the question, 'what next with nuclear weaponry?' In light of those contending positions, it then sets out a possible way ahead - moving to re-craft U.S. strategic dealings with Russia toward a non-adversary relationship, to avoid a new Cold War with China, and to put in place the right mix of offensive and defensive, nuclear and non-nuclear capabilities to contain 21. century proliferation dangers. (author)

  13. Beyond the cold war nuclear legacy: offense-defense and the role of nuclear deterrence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, L A

    2001-07-01

    Since the September 11 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, the defense community of the United States focused overwhelmingly on countering the threat of global terrorism. This focus rightly reflects the danger of additional terrorist attacks against the American homeland, including conceivably even with nuclear weapons or radiological devices. At the same time, the December, 2001 announcement of the U.S. decision to withdraw from the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty after the six month waiting period serves as a reminder that there still is considerable other outstanding 'defense business' confronting the United States and its European allies. In particular, it is increasingly essential to re-craft the Cold War nuclear weapons legacy, not only in its own right but because doing so can also have important payoffs for the success of the U.S.-led global anti-terrorist campaign. The following paper first describes some of the main features of the Cold War nuclear legacy. It then sketches a number of different schools of thought or camps that exist within the U.S. defense community in answer to the question, 'what next with nuclear weaponry?' In light of those contending positions, it then sets out a possible way ahead - moving to re-craft U.S. strategic dealings with Russia toward a non-adversary relationship, to avoid a new Cold War with China, and to put in place the right mix of offensive and defensive, nuclear and non-nuclear capabilities to contain 21. century proliferation dangers. (author)

  14. From Kites through Cold War: The Evolution of United States Air Force Manned Airborne ISR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-06

    regarding the Chinese use of kites in war. Likewise, Bernhard Laufer’s comprehensive The Prehistory of Aviation details many of the stories...Cayley (1773-1857) (London, UK: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1968), 3. 5 Berthold Laufer, The Prehistory of Aviation (Chicago, IL: Field Museum...11 Laufer, The Prehistory of Aviation, 35. 12 Ibid., 36. 13 Pelham, Penguin Book of Kites, 9

  15. Cuba and Economic Sanctions: A Cold War Strategy in the 21st Century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kelley, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    .... These sanctions and U.S. attitudes and perceptions were based on objectives driven by the Cold War and as such are outdated and overtaken by events. The sanctions should be lifted and diplomatic ties once again established both to support United States goals in the region and for quality of life improvements for Cuba.

  16. Between anti-communist hysteria and anti-yankee resentment. Salvador Abascal and cold war scenarios in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Alejandro García Naranjo

    2015-01-01

    nation, over Mexico and the world. Confronted with Cold War scenarios, this public leader discredited both communism and the United States for “threatening”, the catholic integrity of the country, in several ways.

  17. The Influence of the Cold War on the Racial Desegregation of American Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watras, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    With the rise of the Cold War, federal officials in the United States sought to end the racial segregation that the U.S. Supreme Court had accepted in the 1896 decision of "Plessy v. Ferguson." Although the reforms began with changes in the armed services, they moved to reduce racial segregation in schools. Many forces brought about the…

  18. "A Hedge against the Future": The Post-Cold War Rhetoric of Nuclear Weapons Modernization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Bryan C.

    2010-01-01

    Rhetoric has traditionally played an important role in constituting the nuclear future, yet that role has changed significantly since the declared end of the Cold War. Viewed from the perspectives of nuclear criticism and postmodern theories of risk and security, current rhetoric of US nuclear modernization demonstrates how contingencies of voice…

  19. On the Cultural Legacy of the Cold War: Sino-US Educational Exchange (1949-1990)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Ning

    2006-01-01

    The Cold War affected the Sino-US educational exchange between 1949 and 1990. During those years, preparation for educational exchanges, personal contact and cross-government relations characterized the three periods of the exchanges. However, even though the relationship had developed very fast, it was by no means smooth sailing. These exchanges…

  20. European Security Organizations in the Post-Cold-War Security Environment. The New Frame of European Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bugai, Veaceslav

    2006-01-01

    .... In particular, it gives an over view of the transformations that occurred within NATO and OSCE in the post-Cold War period, which have created and developed new security mechanisms and policies for dealing with crises...

  1. The Shifting Paradigm of Post-Cold War Counterintelligence Support to USAF Operations: A Middle Eastern Case Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lajeunesse, CGabriel

    1999-01-01

    The threat to US Operations in the Middle East has changed significantly since the end of the Cold War, and although counterintelligence methodology has changed with it, additional modifications are needed...

  2. Making a homefront without a battlefront: The manufacturing of domestic enemies in the early Cold War culture 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Paul Gabilliet

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Although the Cold War was an undeclared conflict without actual battlefront one of its earliest charcteristics was the emergence in the United States of a homefront-based “war culture” targetting domestic enemies. 1947 witnessed the rise in news media of anxieties over alleged threats to domestic stability: in the first few months of the year, a Crime Scare reactivating pre-war concerns about the Mob and, in the summer, the first reported UFO sightings. In both cases the media and public resp...

  3. The Nordic Trade Union Movement and Transnational Anti-Communist Networks in the Early Cold War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Dino

    2014-01-01

    Dino Knudsen investigates how the American trade union movement, including figures such as Jay Lovestone and Irving Brown, established anti-Communist networks among the Nordic Non-Communist Left during the early Cold War. What were the implications of these networks, in the context of the Marshall...

  4. The great war and the cinema The great war and the cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Burns

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Aside from documentary films of the First World War, fiction films may be categorized as period films, cinematic aptations of classic war novels, and, much the greatest in number, fiction films made after the war. The period films are useful for their clues to public attitudes during or in the decades immediately after the conflict. For example, silent films made during the war, like D.W. Griffith’s Hearts of the World (1918, which used actual footage, were propaganda evidently intended to induce the United States to progress from economic assistance to active military participation on the side of the Allies. The story of the young man, Ben Herron, going off to war would become typical in fiction films made thereafter, since such stories have elements that a mass audience, many of whom had fathers, sons, husbands, brothers, etc. in the military, can actually identify with. As propaganda, such movies—and this would be the case with the Second World War even more—may serve an important political end, by arguably having a much greater influence on public consciousness than official government propaganda, which usually arouses more suspicion. In fact, the US government during both world wars would make a direct appeal to Hollywood producers. Aside from documentary films of the First World War, fiction films may be categorized as period films, cinematic aptations of classic war novels, and, much the greatest in number, fiction films made after the war. The period films are useful for their clues to public attitudes during or in the decades immediately after the conflict. For example, silent films made during the war, like D.W. Griffith’s Hearts of the World (1918, which used actual footage, were propaganda evidently intended to induce the United States to progress from economic assistance to active military participation on the side of the Allies. The story of the young man, Ben Herron, going off to war would become typical in fiction films

  5. Crossroads. Life Changing Stories from the Second World War: A (Transmedia Storytelling Approach to World War II Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licia Calvi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Crossroads is the name of the concept that narratively connects several WWII-related cultural institutions in Brabant. We were initially looking for ways to connect 4 otherwise very diverse World War II-related institutions (in fact, 3 museums and a commemoration centre and we found it in this overarching paradigm. Crossroads does not require museums to share their collection items. It offers them instead a tool to build and offer visitors a cohesive experience related to WWII heritage.  This experience is characterized by the specific focus into their WWII stories using storytelling that they can adopt. This paper will highlight the creative process that brought to the development of this concept and will discuss examples of the resulting transmedia narratives.

  6. A REASSESSMENT OF THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE 1948 MADIUN UPRISING TO THE COLD WAR IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine McGregor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the extent to which the Madiun Uprising of 1948 shaped the Cold War in Indonesia. The uprising resulted in severe and lasting antagonisms between the Indonesian Communist Party and members of the Islamic Party Masyumi due to reprisals against Masyumi members after the failure of the uprising and the death of key members of the Communist Party at the hands of the Republic. Although 1948 can be seen as an important flash point in the Cold War for Indonesia, it was not a significant turning point because the communist party recovered from this episode. After surveying a range of interpretations of the Madiun uprising and its significance internationally, this paper provides an overview of the ongoing significance of the Madiun uprising to the image of the Indonesian Communist Party in the 1950s and 1960s. The paper examines an early history war between the Communist Party and Masyumi over how the events at Madiun would be remembered. These debates signal continuing and intense hostility towards the communist party from Masyumi supporters, which endured throughout and even after the 1965–1966 anti-communist killings.

  7. Why we must abolish nuclear weapons after the end of the Cold War

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, Hitoshi

    1997-01-01

    The end of the Cold War has offered a great opportunity to reduce or even abolish nuclear weapons, but the international community seemed to lose interest in nuclear weapons issues. Today, however, there are a lot of other major menaces to the survival of the mankind: pollution, hunger, poverty, ethnic conflicts. So the nuclear weapons issue is merely one of the most pressing threats to survival

  8. Curriculum Evolution at Air Command and Staff College in the Post-Cold War Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, William Robert, II.

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study used a historical research method to eliminate the gap in the historical knowledge of Air Command and Staff College (ACSC) curriculum evolution in the post-Cold War era. This study is the only known analysis of the forces that influenced the ACSC curriculum and the rationale behind curricular change at ACSC in the post-Cold…

  9. A literature review of medical aspects of post-cold war UN peacekeeping operations: trends, lessons learnt, courses of action and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ralph Jay

    2016-08-01

    Post-Cold War United Nations Peace Keeping Operations (UN PKOs) have been increasingly involved in dangerous areas with ill-defined boundaries, harsh and remote geographies, simmering internecine armed conflict and disregard on the part of some local parties for peacekeepers' security and role. In the interest of 'force protection' and optimising operations, a key component of UN PKOs is healthcare and medical treatment. The expectation is that UN PKO medical support will conform to the general intent and structure of UN PKOs. To do so requires effective policies and planning informed by a review of medical aspects crucial to UN PKOs. The intent of this article is to report on a review of principal medical aspects practical to post-Cold War UN PKOs. This review was assembled through a comprehensive, grounded, systematic iterative inquiry of open-source articles. This inquiry revealed that the principal medical aspects in post-Cold War UN missions were the following: (1) the changed nature of UN PKOs, (2) new challenges in terms of proximity and distance to medical care, (3) expanded need for preventive medicine and disease contagion prevention and (4) increased propensity for psychological morbidity and need for intervention. Post Cold War, the dramatically changed nature of UN PKOs has resulted in new challenges mainly in terms of medical logistics, preventive medicine and psychiatry. The changed nature of post-Cold War UN PKOs altered the character of medical support most notably regarding (1) a need for emphasis on immediate response proximate to medical events and rapid transport over long distances and traversing barriers to higher levels of care, (2) proactive contagion and hazard identification and prevention and (3) interventions designed to reduce psychological morbidity. Recommendations are offered about possible courses of action in terms of addressing trends found in identified medical aspects of PKOs. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For

  10. Beyond the Cold-War Reprise of the Arctic Super-Powers. Decoding the Structural Meaning of the Ukrainian Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John McMurtry

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The “Ukraine crisis” repeats a script as old as the Cold War, of which the Arctic was one of its main theatres and that, as suggested by Irina Zhilina in her 2013 study about NATO in the far north for issue 8(1 of Nordicum-Mediterraneum, could regain such a role, were frictions between East and West to resurface. And they have resurfaced. The ongoing Cold-War-like narrative vis-à-vis Ukraine features rising attacks by corporate states and media on the traditional whipping boy of Russia. As usual, “escalating the crisis” is the other Arctic super-power: the US. As usual, alarm about “increasing lawless aggression” is projection of US policy itself.

  11. How Could a Beaver Start a War?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millward, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Students gain a better understanding of war and economics when the variables come alive through stories, artifacts, and paintings. In this article, the author describes a short story about the fur trade which can generate lots of student questions about the fur economics, the Eastern Woodland Indians, trade artifacts, and war. The author also…

  12. The Politics of Identity: History, Nationalism, and the Prospect for Peace in Post-Cold War East Asia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jager, Sheila M

    2007-01-01

    ... of memory, identity, and nationalism. The potential for violent military clashes in the Taiwan Strait and the Korean peninsula largely involve disputes over history and territory, linked as they are to the unresolved legacies of the Cold War...

  13. Working with the Cold War: Types of Knowledge in Swedish and Australian History Textbook Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammert, Niklas; Sharp, Heather

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a comparative analysis of pupils' activities dealing with the Cold War in Swedish and Australian history textbooks. By focusing on textbook activities to which pupils respond in relation to their learning of a particular topic, this study identifies knowledge types included in a selection of history textbooks. The study also…

  14. New wars, new morality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, T.

    2009-01-01

    Has war fundamentally changed? If so, it may be time for reconsidering accepted moral standards for waging wars and for conduct in war. The new war thesis holds that wars have fundamentally altered since the end of the Cold War. Proponents such as Kaldor and Weiss hold that wars today are intrastate

  15. Propagandes, films et guerre du Vietnam : histoires d’hommes et de femmes ou propagande du « genre » de The Deer Hunter (1978 à Path to War (2002 Vietnam War and Films: Men and Women’s Stories or Gender Propaganda? From The DeerHunter (1978 to Path to War (2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Boudet-Brugal

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Drawing from a selection of movies (and a documentary, I propose to study some images of men and women in the context of the Vietnam War, taking a closer look at women’s. To some extent, they contribute to revealing how the “field of battle” has become a “field of gender” and what is at stake. The film as a medium is involved in what we may call “war propaganda”: in the movies, there are elements that are part and parcel of what makes the traditional image of men and women in wartime. It is mostly about defining men as visible acting characters on stage and women as secondary characters (Path to War, playing the part of the apolitical and maternal Other (Heaven and Earth. Indeed, their historical identity mainly defines them as “those who do not make war” (The Deer Hunter. Sometimes, the female image is ambivalent. But the portraits of those who betray their gender, the women warriors (Full Metal Jacket and the unfaithful (Coming Home, though proposing new facets, do integrate into gender war propaganda. Occasionally the images showed also reveal new voices and paths (Regret to Inform, In Country, Heaven and Earth. It is true that overall we encounter no heroines but “super-hero soldiers” who rescue women (Heaven and Earth, Coming Home; however the representations offer a new space, emancipated from historical and social expectations. But do these stories suggest that women’s stories may be war stories and be part of history?

  16. The cold war context of the golden jubilee, or, why we think of mendel as the father of genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Audra J

    2012-01-01

    In September 1950, the Genetics Society of America (GSA) dedicated its annual meeting to a "Golden Jubilee of Genetics" that celebrated the 50th anniversary of the rediscovery of Mendel's work. This program, originally intended as a small ceremony attached to the coattails of the American Institute of Biological Sciences (AIBS) meeting, turned into a publicity juggernaut that generated coverage on Mendel and the accomplishments of Western genetics in countless newspapers and radio broadcasts. The Golden Jubilee merits historical attention as both an intriguing instance of scientific commemoration and as an early example of Cold War political theatre. Instead of condemning either Lysenko or Soviet genetics, the Golden Jubilee would celebrate Mendel - and, not coincidentally, the practical achievements in plant and animal breeding his work had made possible. The American geneticists' focus on the achievements of Western genetics as both practical and theoretical, international, and, above all, non-ideological and non-controversial, was fully intended to demonstrate the success of the Western model of science to both the American public and scientists abroad at a key transition point in the Cold War. An implicit part of this article's argument, therefore, is the pervasive impact of the Cold War in unanticipated corners of postwar scientific culture.

  17. The Falkland Islands War: An Image of War in the 21st Century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allard, J

    1997-01-01

    .... By any reckoning, it was a war that should never have been fought. It was a war unlike any other war in the twentieth century, and since 1945 it was the first war to erupt outside the construct of the Cold War paradigm...

  18. More a plowshare than a sword: the legacy of US Cold War agricultural diplomacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlade, Jacqueline

    2009-01-01

    Recently, agriculture has assumed an elevated role in world diplomacy due to pressing issues like international poverty relief, changing environmental conditions, farm trade imbalances, rising food prices, and the diversion of crops into bio-fuel production. Consequently, agricultural interests and production have become increasingly entwined with the politics of national protectionism and identity, domestic security, and the preservation of trading advantage in developed and developing countries alike. This study examines the current impasse in world agricultural negotiations as an outgrowth of US foreign aid and trade policymaking as it evolved during the Cold War. In particular, it chronicles the historic shift in US foreign policy away from "give-away" food aid and surplus sales and toward the championing of global agricultural redevelopment under such programs as the Marshall Plan and PL 480, the Food for Peace program. As more a plowshare than a sword, the American Cold War push for worldwide agricultural modernization led many countries to experience new levels of food self-efficiency and export capabilities. Along with production parity, however, has come escalating levels of trade competition and national protectionism, which challenges again the achievement of world agricultural stability and prosperity.

  19. GREECE DURING THE EARLY COLD WAR THE VIEW FROM THE WESTERN ARCHIVES:DOCUMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Chourchoulis , Dionysios; Christidis , Christos; Kalogrias , Vaios; Karavis , Periklis-Stelios; Koumas , Manolis; Papastamkou , Sofia

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Greece‘s relation with the West during the Cold War era has constantly attracted theattention of Greek and international scholarship. In this relationship, continuities andbreaks become evident. The postwar era was marked by the continuation of theagonizing Greek effort to integrate in the West. Thus, there was an effort to bringrelations with the major Western European states (Britain, France, West Germany,Italy) back to a kind of normalcy. This, as could be expected,...

  20. External Interventions and Conflicts in Africa after the End of the Cold War

    OpenAIRE

    Pedrosa de Sousa, Ricardo Real

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In light of the persistence of armed conflict within the context of exten-sive foreign interventions, this research investigates the effect of external interventions on state-based conflict intensity. The main study comprises four papers using a mixed method approach analysing conflict interven-tions in Africa from the end of the Cold War up to 2010. An additional paper focuses on the legality of institutional decisions over military inter-ventions in Africa using...

  1. Reanalysis of Korean War Anthropological Records to Support the Resolution of Cold Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Emily K

    2017-09-01

    Re-investigation of previously unidentified remains from the Korean War has yielded 55 new identifications, each with corresponding records of prior anthropological analyses. This study compares biological assessments for age at death, stature, and ancestry across (i) anthropological analyses from the 1950s, (ii) recent anthropological analyses of those same sets of remains, and (iii) the reported antemortem biological information for the identified individual. A comparison of long bone measurements from both the 1950s and during reanalysis is also presented. These comparisons demonstrate commonalities and continuing patterns of errors that are useful in refining both research on Korean War cold case records and forensic anthropological analyses performed using methods developed from the 1950s identifications. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  2. Review of Cold War Freud, Psychiatry in Communist Europe, and Psiquiatría, Psicoánalisis y Cultura Comunista: Batallas Ideológicas en la Guerra Fria [Psychiatry, Psychoanalysis and Communist Culture: Ideological Battles in the Cold War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innamorati, Marco

    2017-08-01

    Reviews the books, Cold War Freud by D. Herzog (2016), Psychiatry in Communist Europe edited by M. Savelli and S. Marks (2015), and Psiquiatría, Psicoánalisis y Cultura Comunista: Batallas Ideológicas en la Guerra Fria [Psychiatry, psychoanalysis and communist culture: Ideological battles in the Cold War] by H. Vezzetti. On the whole, the three books show how the Cold War influenced, in various ways, psychiatric and psychotherapeutic cultures. Beyond the Iron Curtain, as one can perceive from the book edited by Savelli and Marks (2015), politics explicitly set the agenda for the psychological sciences, using them even to invent ad hoc nosologies, useful for purposes related to power. In the United States, on the other hand, as Herzog (2016) pinpoints, the political situation affected the same field, even if indirectly, as in the Christianization of a discipline-psychoanalysis-the creator of which proudly declared himself an atheist Jew. In other Western countries, the relationship between psychiatry and power could bring about paradoxical results. From Vezzetti's (2016) book, one can ascertain that psychiatric culture might assume an overtly opposing stance toward political power. Vezzetti scans the case of Argentina, and partly of France, but they were not isolated cases. In Italy, for example, a movement of radical psychiatrists understood their role as a necessary opposition to political power, having as an aim the "liberation" of patients locked up in the psychiatric hospitals (Foot, 2015). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Military cold injury during the war in the Falkland Islands 1982: an evaluation of possible risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, R P

    2007-01-01

    Throughout the history of war, there have been many instances when the cold has ravaged armies more effectively than their enemies. Delineated risk factors are restricted to negro origins, previous cold injury, moderate but not heavy smoking and the possession of blood group O. No attention has been directed to the possibility that abnormal blood constituents could feasibly predispose to the development of local cold injury. This study considers this possibility and investigates the potential contribution of certain components of the circulating blood which might do so. Three groups of soldiers from two of the battalions who served during the war in the Falklands Islands in 1982 were investigated. The risk factors which were sought included the presence or absence of asymptomatic cryoglobulinaemia, abnormal total protein, albumin, individual gamma globulin or complement C3 or C4 levels, plasma hyperviscosity or evidence of chronic alcoholism manifesting as high haemoglobin, PCV, RBC, MCV or gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT). No cases of cryoglobulinaemia were isolated and there was no haematological evidence to suggest that any of those men who had developed cold injury, one year before this study was performed, had abnormal circulating proteins, plasma hyperviscosity or indicators of alcohol abuse. Individual blood groups were not incriminated as a predisposing factor although the small numbers of negroes in this series fared badly. Although this investigation has excluded a range of potential risk factors which could contribute to the development of cold injury, the problem persists. Two areas of further study are needed: the first involves research into the production of better protective clothing in the form of effective cold weather boots and gloves and the second requires the delineation of those dietary and ethnic factors which allow certain communities to adapt successfully to the cold. A review of the literature in this latter area is presented.

  4. Cold war, quantum foundations, and East-West collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skaar-Jacobsen, Anja [Niels Bohr Archive, Copenhagen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    It is well-known that the cultural cold war changed the ideological line in the Soviet Union from the late 1940s and that this had serious implications for the autonomy of research in genetics and quantum foundations in the East bloc. However, besides the more narrow concern from the point of view of research in quantum foundations, I suggest that the ideological impact on quantum foundations also constituted an obstacle for attempts by Western physicists to bring about a rapprochement between physics in the east and west in general. In connection with re-establishing East-West co-operation between physicists after Stalin's death in 1953 this obstacle needed to be cleared away. In my talk I discuss these issues and how the Institute for Theoretical Physics in Copenhagen came to be an important meeting place for physicists from the East and West from the mid-1950s.

  5. Images of the Second World War in Austrian Literature after 1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Müller

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The author examines selected examples of post-1945 Austrian literature, asking what pictures of the Second World War they imparted and what role they played when, certainly from 1948 on, a certain image of history began to take shape in Austria against the background of the Cold War. This image involved a fade-out in particular of the racist nature of the war, and it had a collectively exonerating and distorting impact. Attention is paid to the stories and novels of former participants in the war and National Socialists, such as, for example, Erich Landgrebe, Erich Kern, Hans Gustl Kernmayr, Kurt Ziesel. A contrast is seen in the anti-war novel, Letzte Ausfahrt (Last Exit (1952 by the former soldier Herbert Zand, who turns against the dominant image of history, as well as in Ingeborg Bachmann's use of war memories as a topic. The texts are read as a reservoir of selective memory: on the one hand they are critical, individual counter-memories and on the other hand, they make a positive contribution to the formation of the aforesaid collective image. One may say that a war of perception was fought around the Second World War; it was undoubtedly won in the immediate post-war years by those literary works that legitimized or at least trivialized the war. The critical voices of Herbert Zand, Gerhard Fritsch, and Ingeborg Bachmann were unfortunately the quieter ones and were not particularly successful in their time.

  6. ROSEE cleans up after the Cold War

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenti, M.

    1994-01-01

    This article describes a robot named ROSEE, designed by engineers at the DOE's Hanford site to minimize the risk of radiation exposure to workers cleaning up to residue left by America's manufacture of nuclear weapons. ROSEE is the acronym for Remotely Operated Sediment Extraction Equipment, a robot designed to vacuum sediment and debris from a nuclear fuels storage pool at the Department of Energy's Hanford nuclear waste storage site in Richland, Wash. The task facing ROSEE involves cleaning out the N basin at Hanford. Work is schedules to begin before the fall. The basin houses nuclear fuel refined during 24 years of the Cold War era. This water-filled structure is 24 feet deep, 87 feet long, and 56 feet wide, approximately three times larger than an Olympic-size swimming pool. Nuclear fuel was contained in honeycomb cells mounted 1 inch from the bottom of the pool. The cells rise 10 feet from the bottom of the basin, and each cell is 21 inches deep and 14 inches wide. The cells now hold radioactive residues that must be removed for final safe disposal

  7. Dealing with a dangerous surplus from the cold war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, L.

    1997-01-01

    The proliferation of nuclear materials is a threat to national security and world peace. This threat complicates the safeguarding and management of fissile materials that have become surplus since the end of the Cold War. The dismantling of weapons and the cessation of new nuclear weapons manufacturing, while positive for world peace, have raised a problem: what to do about the fissile materials recovered from the weapons or in inventories that will remain unused. These materials--primarily plutonium and highly enriched uranium--are environmental, safety, and health concerns. But of more urgency is the threat they pose to national and international security if they fall into the hands of terrorists or rogue nations. As arms reduction continues and amounts of surplus fissile materials increase, the potential for such security breaches will increase

  8. Transnational science during the Cold War: the case of Chinese/American scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zuoyue

    2010-06-01

    This essay examines the experiences of about five thousand Chinese students/scientists in the United States after the Communist takeover of mainland China in 1949. These experiences illustrate the often hidden transnational movements of people, instruments, and ideas in science and technology across the Iron Curtain during the Cold War. I argue that those hundreds who returned to China represented a partial "Americanization" of Chinese science and technology, while the rest of the group staying in the United States contributed to a transnationalization of the American scientific community.

  9. Power Lines: The Rhetoric of Maps as Social Change in the Post-Cold War Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    After the fall of the Berlin Wall and the collapse of state socialism in Eastern and Central Europe, cartographers were faced with choices on how the new post-Cold War political landscape would be mapped. One such group called the Pluto Project had been producing atlases since 1981 with a progressive point of view about the nature of state power…

  10. Post-Cold War Russia/West Relations: U.S. Foreign Policy Initiatives, Sources of Friction, and Prospects for the Future

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lasica, Kristen

    2001-01-01

    .... With the fall of the Soviet Union, the West found itself in a period of global transition during which they had an opportunity to redefine the post-Cold War security arena and secure enduring peace...

  11. Media and Propaganda: The Northcliffe Press and the Corpse Factory Story of World War I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randal Marlin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Demonization of Germans was an early feature of British propaganda in World War I, with numerous atrocities reported in the Bryce Report, 1915. But in April, 1917, a particularly gripping, gruesome, and odium-inducing tale was given credence by the press of Lord Northcliffe, notably The Times and The Daily Mail.These papers seemed to provide convincing proof that the Germans boiled down corpses of their own soldiers for the purpose of producing useful products such as fats, bone meal, pig food and the like. The story is well known, but significant details have been obscured or misrepresented with regard to the way in which it came to be so widely believed. Our purpose here is to straighten out key elements of the record, based on archival findings, and to draw attention to the techniques employed to ensure widespread credence in this false tale. These techniques, and the principles behind their use, have recent and contemporary parallels, some of which are drawn in this paper. The Corpse Factory story succeeded in its goal, but may have made a lasting peace more difficult. Also, official repudiation of the story in 1925 encouraged later disbelief when early reports circulated about the Holocaust under Hitler, thus contributing to the early lack of response by nations asked to accept Jewish refugees.

  12. The Hope for American School Reform: The Cold War Pursuit of Inquiry Learning in Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Ronald W.

    2010-01-01

    As the issue of school reform grows ever more intense, it is imperative that we learn what we can from previous efforts. The new social studies was a 1960's attempt to transform the teaching of history and the social sciences in schools. With origins in the Cold War, the movement sought to develop critical thinkers through "inquiry" and…

  13. Native Americans in Cold War Public Diplomacy: Indian Politics, American History, and the US Information Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denson, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This essay examines the depiction of Native Americans by the US Information Agency (USIA), the bureau charged with explaining American politics to the international public during the Cold War. In the 1950s and 1960s, the USIA broadcast the message that Americans had begun to acknowledge their nation's history of conquest and were working to…

  14. The Relation between Hollywood and the New Threat Perception of the USA after the End of the Cold War from the Perspective of Postmodernism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya Deger

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available After the end of Cold War, the USA became the only super power and there was no threat perception from outside, in other words no enemy anymore. In fact, throughout history the USA faced different threats, that is to say, enemies. The terrorist events experienced in America after the end of Cold War brought about that the new enemy was Middle Easterners. Accordingly, the place of cinema in postmodernism is very significant as it becomes the reflection of the zeitgeist and the mindset of the era in which the film is shot.

  15. On the home front: The cold war legacy of the Hanford nuclear site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenehjem Gerber, M.

    1992-01-01

    The Hanford plutonium factory in Washington State is among the oldest and largest relics of the Cold War and is also among the dirtiest. In this book, the author states that the release of radiaoactive and toxic waste without public knowledge poses fundamental questions about American democracy. No conclusive answers to the problems at Hanford are presented, although the important questions are addressed. The reviewer feels the book may be of use as a reference catalog, within its context as a piece essentially concerned with public relations

  16. THE ROLE OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA IN THE POST-COLD WAR WORLD: A GLOBAL LEADER OR HEGEMON?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Jonev

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors of this paper deal with the role of the USA in the post-Cold War world and their position from the standpoint of relevant indicators and theoretical considerations. This work also refers to path that the United States took from isolationism to the world domination and considers justification of the position of the USA in the period after the Cold War from the point of hegemonic stability theories, while at the end indicates the diversity of understanding of contemporary thinkers regarding the position of the United States as the hegemon or rather “just” a global leader. This paper does not prejudge the final definition of the position of the USA in international relations, but aims to launch discussions on the necessity and justification of the existence of such vision on a global scale.

  17. The Capitalist World-System and U.S. Cold War Policies in the Core and the Periphery: A Comparative Analysis of Post-World War II American Nation-building in Germany and Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Hugh Jo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In response to the emerging cold war, why did the United States stress industrial expansion in Western Europe but focus on primary production alongside policing operations in the non-western world? Examining US postwar occupation in Germany and Korea from a world-systems perspective, this article argues that a given country’s standing in the capitalist economy generally shapes American foreign policy toward that particular country in the early cold war years. A paladin of system-wide prosperity and peace, the United States sought to restore the international division of labor after World War II. Reactions varied across the system, however, because of distinct socio-economic developments. The presence of capital-intensive export-dependent industry afforded western Germany flexible labor-management relations. Politics was overall stable there, and America dispensed with heavy-handed intervention. In southern Korea, labor-exploitive tenancy farming rendered interclass compromise virtually impossible. As intransigent peasants threatened the market economy, the United States used force to keep the ally in the system.

  18. Spinifex People as Cold War Moderns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Castillo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:Verdana;} Aboriginal Australian contemporary artists create works that express indigenous traditions as well as the unprecedented conditions of global modernity. This is especially true for the founders of the Spinifex Arts Project, a collective established in 1997 to create so-called “government paintings”: the large-scale canvases produced as documents of land tenure used in negotiations with the government of Western Australia to reclaim expropriated desert homelands. British and Australian nuclear testing in the 1950s displaced the Anangu juta pila nguru, now known to us as the Spinifex people, from their nomadic lifeworld. Exodus and the subsequent struggle to regain lost homelands through paintings created as corroborating evidence for native title claims make Spinifex canvases not simply expressions of Tjukurpa, or “Dreamings,” but also artifacts of the atomic age and its impact on a culture seemingly far from the front lines of cold war conflict.

  19. Linking Arms: Women and war in Post-Yugoslav states

    OpenAIRE

    Korac, Maja

    1998-01-01

    Violence against women in war has been a prominent news story as this series of case studies developed. The systematic rape of women in Bosnia-Herzegovina, direct attacks upon women as part of the genocide in Rwanda, and the recently revealed stories of Korean and Filipino “comfort women” during the Second World War assaulted us with the vulnerability and dangers which women face in war-generated violence. However, such violence, although often in the news, is sadly only a fraction of the vio...

  20. Bringing radical behaviorism to revolutionary Brazil and back: Fred Keller's Personalized System of Instruction and Cold War engineering education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akera, Atsushi

    2017-09-01

    This article traces the shifting epistemic commitments of Fred S. Keller and his behaviorist colleagues during their application of Skinnerian radical behaviorism to higher education pedagogy. Building on prior work by Alexandra Rutherford and her focus on the successive adaptation of Skinnerian behaviorism during its successive applications, this study utilizes sociologist of science Karin Knorr Cetina's concept of epistemic cultures to more precisely trace the changes in the epistemic commitments of a group of radical behaviorists as they shifted their focus to applied behavioral analysis. The story revolves around a self-paced system of instruction known as the Personalized System of Instruction, or PSI, which utilized behaviorist principles to accelerate learning within the classroom. Unlike Skinner's entry into education, and his focus on educational technologies, Keller developed a mastery-based approach to instruction that utilized generalized reinforcers to cultivate higher-order learning behaviors. As it happens, the story also unfolds across a rather fantastic political terrain: PSI originated in the context of Brazilian revolutionary history, but circulated widely in the U.S. amidst Cold War concerns about an engineering manpower(sic) crisis. This study also presents us with an opportunity to test Knorr Cetina's conjecture about the possible use of a focus on epistemic cultures in addressing a classic problem in the sociology of science, namely unpacking the relationship between knowledge and its social context. Ultimately, however, this study complements another historical case study in applied behavioral analysis, where a difference in outcome helps to lay out the range of possible shifts in the epistemic commitments of radical behaviorists who entered different domains of application. The case study also has some practical implications for those creating distance learning environments today, which are briefly explored in the conclusion. © 2017 Wiley

  1. Nuclear arms control in the post-Cold War era. New conditions, new requirements, and nonproliferation (with special emphasis on Japan and East Asia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, Ryukichi

    1994-01-01

    The paper starts with a general survey of post-Cold War nuclear disarmament, pointing out Japan's positions, policies, and problems in the process. The discussion is not Japan-centered, nor is it an explanation of the Japanese view. It is useful, in this context, to recall that during the Cold War period, Japan was firmly in the ''Western Camp'', relying on the protection of the extended nuclear deterrence provided by the United States. This article is written with that history very much in mind, and by an author who for some years was in a position to represent Japan in such a context. (orig./DG)

  2. Language, Gender and War Situation: “Her/story” in Nwapa's and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The works expose the tribulations that women underwent in the civil war, their active participation and contribution for the sustenance of a troubled society. The exposure not only contradicts the men's stories that portray women as passive participants in Nigeria-Biafra war, they complement and validate the men's stories.

  3. Caulder's Story: "Chinese Handcuffs" and the Untold Story of the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philion, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    Calls attention to an important instructional resource that high school English and history teachers can use to engage their students in critical thinking about the Vietnam War. Gives some ideas for helping teenagers to make connections between the young adult novel "Chinese Handcuffs" and the Vietnam War. Suggests the integration of "Chinese…

  4. My Wartime Self: Meaning Construction in Narratives of World War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie B. Wiest

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We are all storytellers. We tell stories in a variety of settings, to a variety of audiences, and for a variety of reasons. We tell structured stories about personal experiences—narratives—as a means of understanding the past, constructing identities, and communicating ourselves to others. Drawing on social psychological literature on narratives, identities, and autobiographical memories, this study examines the construction, recitation, and evaluation of 28 World War II veterans’ narratives. Findings indicate cultural influences in the ways these veterans constructed their war stories, the ways they constructed meanings about their war experiences, and the ways they constructed their identities in relation to those experiences.

  5. Keeping the Edge. Air Force Materiel Command Cold War Context (1945-1991). Volume 1: Command Lineage Scientific Achievement and Major Tenant Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-08-01

    Cambridge Research Laboratories AFCS Air Force Communications Service AFETR Air Force Eastern Test Range AFFDL Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory...Sacramento Air Logistics Center SMAMA Sacramento Air Materiel Area SOM Skidmore, Owings & Merrill SPACERAD Space Radiation Effects SPADATS Space...a unique post-World War II phenomenon that had a lasting effect —addressed here to illustrate some of the subtleties of the earliest Cold War years

  6. Cold (and hot) wars: Superconductivity and society, from Weissberg-Cibulsky 1931 to the 2003 Nobel prize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waysand, Georges

    2005-01-01

    Far from being a continous flow from its discovery down to its explanation, the actual history of superconductivity has been affected by numerous socio-political turbulences all along the XXth century, through hot and Cold wars. From the 30's to the 2003 Nobel prize for physics most of these turbulences are overviewed. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  7. Cold (and hot) wars: Superconductivity and society, from Weissberg-Cibulsky 1931 to the 2003 Nobel prize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waysand, Georges [Groupe de Physique des Solides, Universites Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6 and Denis Diderot Paris 7, Campus Boucicaut, 140 rue de Lourmel, 75015 Paris (France); Laboratoire Souterrain Bas Bruit de Rustrel-Pays d' Apt (Universite de Nice Sophia-Antipolis), La Grande Combe, 84400 Rustrel (France)

    2005-03-01

    Far from being a continous flow from its discovery down to its explanation, the actual history of superconductivity has been affected by numerous socio-political turbulences all along the XXth century, through hot and Cold wars. From the 30's to the 2003 Nobel prize for physics most of these turbulences are overviewed. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. Airtightness Results of Roof-Only Air Sealing Strategies on 1 ½-Story Homes in Cold Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojczyk, C.; Murry, T.; Mosiman, G.

    2014-07-01

    In this second study on solutions to ice dams in 1-1/2 story homes, the NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership team analyzed five test homes located in both cold and very cold climates for air leakage reduction rates following modifications by independent contractors on owner-occupied homes. These homes were chosen for testing as they are common in Minnesota and very difficult to air seal and insulate effectively. Two projects followed a roof-only Exterior Thermal Moisture Management System (ETMMS) process. One project used an interior-only approach to roof air sealing and insulation. The remaining two projects used a deep energy retrofit approach for whole house (foundation wall, above grade wall, roof) air leakage and heat loss reduction. All were asked to provide information regarding project goals, process, and pre and post-blower door test results. Additional air leakage reduction data was provided by several NorthernSTAR industry partners for interior-applied, roof-only modifications on 1-1/2 story homes. The data represents homes in the general market as well as homes that were part of the state of Minnesota weatherization program. A goal was to compare exterior air sealing methods with interior approaches. This pool of data enabled the team to compare air tightness data from over 220 homes using similar air seal methods.

  9. Hot Water after the Cold War – Water Policy Dynamics in (Semi-Authoritarian States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter P. Mollinga

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This introductory article of the special section introduces the central question that the section addresses: do water policy dynamics in (semi-authoritarian states have specific features as compared to other state forms? The article situates the question in the post-Cold War global water governance dynamics, argues that the state is a useful and required entry point for water policy analysis, explores the meaning of (semi-authoritarian as a category, and finally introduces the three papers, which are on China, South Africa and Vietnam.

  10. The Ukraine Crisis and the End of the Post-Cold War European Order: Options for NATO and the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Struwe, Lars Bangert; Hoffmann, Rune; Pradhan-Blach, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    of economies and societies after the end of the Cold War. An important element in the idea of a united, free Europe is that conflicts must be resolved by peaceful means and not by force of arms. 3. It demonstrates that a number of the partnerships, etc., that have formed the foundation for EU and NATO policies......, have been inadequate. Therefore, the crisis creates a need to rethink Western strategy. In the light of this new risk, the West’s existing policy is inadequate. This does not necessarily mean that the policy hitherto has been mistaken, and it absolutely does not mean that we are facing a new Cold War....... These consequences will apply not least to the West itself because the crisis has revealed differences in priorities among the Western powers and challenged the world view that the West’s policy has been based on. Furthermore, the West must acknowledge that Russia is willing to use military means to accomplish its...

  11. Book Review: A History of the Czechoslovak Ocean Shipping Company, 1948–1989: How a Small, Landlocked Country Ran Maritime Business During the Cold War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taudal Poulsen, René

    2016-01-01

    Review of: Lenka Krátká: A History of the Czechoslovak Ocean Shipping Company, 1948–1989: How a Small, Landlocked Country Ran Maritime Business During the Cold War. Stuttgart: Ibidem Verlag, 2015. x + 271 pp., tables, notes, bibliography. ISBN: 978-3-8382-0666-0, £23.90 (pbk).......Review of: Lenka Krátká: A History of the Czechoslovak Ocean Shipping Company, 1948–1989: How a Small, Landlocked Country Ran Maritime Business During the Cold War. Stuttgart: Ibidem Verlag, 2015. x + 271 pp., tables, notes, bibliography. ISBN: 978-3-8382-0666-0, £23.90 (pbk)....

  12. The great war and the cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Burns

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Aside from documentary films of the First World War, fiction films may be categorized as period films, cinematic aptations of classic war novels, and, much the greatest in number, fiction films made after the war. The period films are useful for their clues to public attitudes during or in the decades immediately after the conflict. For example, silent films made during the war, like D.W. Griffith’s Hearts of the World (1918, which used actual footage, were propaganda evidently intended to induce the United States to progress from economic assistance to active military participation on the side of the Allies. The story of the young man, Ben Herron, going off to war would become typical in fiction films made thereafter, since such stories have elements that a mass audience, many of whom had fathers, sons, husbands, brothers, etc. in the military, can actually identify with. As propaganda, such movies—and this would be the case with the Second World War even more—may serve an important political end, by arguably having a much greater influence on public consciousness than official government propaganda, which usually arouses more suspicion. In fact, the US government during both world wars would make a direct appeal to Hollywood producers.

  13. Spy and Counterspy as a “Cultural Hero” in the Soviet Cinema of the Cold War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoria Sukovataya

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article aim to analyze the evolution of the Soviet spy cinema of the Cold War in the context of the cultural history and the social changes in the USA and the Soviet Union, and the relations with the political opponents. The public reception of the Soviet spy and spying was evolved in the Soviet Union and it was reflected in the cinema plots and characters transformations.

  14. Bringing the Stories Home: Wafaa Bilal’s War on the Public Narrative of War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Hicks

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present article is to examine some artistic representations that persuade us to read the complexity of the narratives of war. To focus this issue, we will analyze Wafaa Bilal’s Domestic Tension exhibition, work which could be defined as a translation of war self-experience into an artistic frame. In this context Domestic Tension configures a space to examine the effects of war violence in modern societies. Under this perspective, art become more than a simple and empty representation of war, but further more the only possible response to human violence.

  15. Nuclear deterrence in the 21. century. Lessons from the cold war for a new era of strategic piracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delpech, Therese

    2013-01-01

    Deterrence remains a primary doctrine for dealing with the threat of nuclear weapons in the 21. century. In this book, the author calls for a renewed intellectual effort to address the relevance of the traditional concepts of first strike, escalation, extended deterrence, and other Cold War-era strategies in today's complex world of additional superpowers (e.g., China), smaller nuclear powers (e.g., Pakistan and North Korea), and non-state actors (e.g., terrorists), as well as the extension of defense and security analysis to new domains, such as outer space and cyber-space. The author draws upon the lessons of the bipolar Cold War era to illustrate new concepts of deterrence that properly account for the variety of nuclear actors, the proliferation of missiles and thermonuclear weapons, and the radical ideologies that all are part of the nuclear scene today. Contents: 1- Introduction, 2 - Why Is This Subject Important?, 3 - Concepts, 4 - Lessons from Crises, 5 - The Age of Small Powers, 6 - Ahead of Us: The Big Piracy Game?, 7 - Space and Cyber-deterrence

  16. Biological warfare warriors, secrecy and pure science in the Cold War: how to understand dialogue and the classifications of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bud, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses a case study from the Cold War to reflect on the meaning at the time of the term 'Pure Science'. In 1961, four senior scientists from Britain's biological warfare centre at Porton Down visited Moscow both attending an International Congress and visiting Russian microbiological and biochemical laboratories. The reports of the British scientists in talking about a limited range of topics encountered in the Soviet Union expressed qualities of openness, sociologists of the time associated with pure science. The paper reflects on the discourses of "Pure Science", secrecy and security in the Cold War. Using Bakhtin's approach, I suggest the cordial communication between scientists from opposing sides can be seen in terms of the performance, or speaking, of one language among several at their disposal. Pure science was the language they were allowed to share outside their institutions, and indeed political blocs.

  17. Naval War College Review. Autumn 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-01

    Almanacco Navale 1988. Genoa, Italy: Institute Idrografico Della Marina, 1988. 1092pp. $59 These two large volumes are awesome compilations of data and...surging west to escape the Russians. This is a story of war eloquently told. Semmlec, Kenneth, ed. The War Despatches of Kenneth Slessor. St. Lucia

  18. "Noi Donne" and "Famiglia Cristiana": Communists, Catholics, and American Female Culture in Cold War Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Jessica L

    2017-01-01

    Italy's Cold War cultural contest for the hearts and minds of Italian women was a three way struggle between the Catholic Church, the Italian Communists, and the United States. The arrival of American consumer products and models in postwar Italy and their growing influence on upper to middle-class, and eventually working-class women, provided the two domestic groups, who previously had been engaged in a bipolar struggle with each other, with a common enemy - the materialistic, immoral, and a...

  19. Airtightness Results of Roof-Only Air Sealing Strategies on 1-1/2 Story Homes in Cold Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojczyk, C.; Murry, T.; Mosiman, G.

    2014-07-01

    In this second study on solutions to ice dams in 1-1/2 story homes, five test homes located in both cold and very cold climates were analyzed for air leakage reduction rates following modifications by independent contractors on owner-occupied homes. The reason for choosing this house type was they are very common in our area and very difficult to air seal and insulate effectively. Two projects followed a roof-only Exterior Thermal Moisture Management System (ETMMS) process. One project used an interior-only approach to roof air sealing and insulation. The remaining two projects used a deep energy retrofit approach for whole house (foundation wall, above grade wall, roof) air leakage and heat loss reduction. All were asked to provide information regarding project goals, process, and pre and post-blower door test results. Additional air leakage reduction data was provided by several NorthernSTAR Building America industry partners for interior-applied, roof-only modifications on 1-1/2 story homes. The data represents homes in the general market as well as homes that were part of the state of Minnesota weatherization program. A goal was to compare exterior air sealing methods with interior approaches. This pool of data enabled us to compare air tightness data from over 220 homes using similar air seal methods.

  20. Animated war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    in production: Gzim Rewind (Sweden, 2011) by Knutte Wester, and In-World War (USA, expected 2011) by DJ Bad Vegan. These films have themes of war and include film scenes that are ‘machinima’ (real-time animation made in 3D graphic environments) within live action film scenes. Machinima harnesses...... DIY multimedia storytellers explore new ways to tell and to ‘animate’ stories. The article contains four parts: introduction to machinima and the notions of resemiosis and authorial practice, presentation of DIY filmmaking as a practice that intertwines with new networked economics, analysis...

  1. Making Sense of War and Peace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    When people tell stories about their past experiences, they often include descriptions that infer changes in trust repertoires over time, especially when the stories relate to serious life dramas like war and peace. A happy ending can make a past war appear meaningful. In this case study......, retrospective narratives summarizing fifty years of history in Aceh, Indonesia, were analyzed using Fuglsang’s & Jagd’s framework (2013). The concept spiritual trust is introduced, and the case study indicates that when neither institutions nor powers are strong enough to support trusting, trust in a divine...... power can provide an alternative framework for sensemaking and trusting. In Aceh, three decades of civil war ended with a peace process in 2005, and extreme distrust was then replaced by institutional trust. Insights from that process are of relevance for the study of trust-repair....

  2. John Foster Dulles, his medical history and its impact on Cold War politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Theodore N; Willett, Christopher G

    2018-01-01

    John Foster Dulles was the United States Secretary of State during the administration of President Dwight D Eisenhower. At the height of the Cold War, Dulles was Eisenhower's emissary, traveling over 450,000 international miles, leading United States foreign policy. In November of 1956, during an international crisis involving the Suez Canal, Dulles became ill and underwent an operation for a perforated colon cancer. During much of his impactful term as Secretary of State, Dulles was being treated for this cancer that ultimately resulted in his death in May of 1959. This paper highlights the medical care of John Foster Dulles and the global events during his illness.

  3. U.S. Foreign Policy Towards Latvia During the Inter-War Period, 1917- 1941

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    Latvia. and Lithuania in Lhe Twentieth Century. New York: Longman, 1991. Hixson, Walter L. George F. Kennan: Cold War Iconoclast . New York: Columbia...Walter L. George F. Kennan: Cold War Iconoclast . New York: Columbia University Press, 1989. Hodgson, Godfrey. The Colonel: The Life and Wars of...Cold War Iconoclast (New York: Columbia University Press, 1989), 7. 64 The Russian Section furnished the State Department with considerable evidence that

  4. [The Early Years of Military Laser Research and Technology in the Federal Republic of Germany During the Cold War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Helmuth

    2014-01-01

    The invention of the laser in 1960 and the innovation process of laser technology during the following years coincided with the dramatic increase of the East-West-conflict during the 1960s - the peak of the so-called Cold War after the erection of the Berlin Wall in 1961. The predictable features of the new device, not only for experimental sciences, but also for technical and military applications, led instantly to a laser hype all over the world. Military funding and research played a major part in this development. Especially in the United States military laser research and development played an important role in the formation of Cold War sciences. The European allies followed this example to a certain degree, but their specific national environments led to quite different solutions and results. This article describes and analyzes the special features and background of this development for the Federal Republic of Germany in the area of conflict between science, politics and industry from 1960 to the early 1970s.

  5. A Waste of a Desert: Nevada and the Cold War Chemical Legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Scarpino

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Taking the lead from Don DeLillo’s epic novel Underworld (1997 – with its overarching theme of “waste” functioning as its unifying metaphor and its picture of the American deserts turned into hazardous waste dumps or missile depots – this essay provides a close reading of the empty spaces of the Nevada desert, spaces that bear the mark left by the nuclear exploitation and the hazardous waste which have plagued Nevada since the Fifties. By linking the history of Nevada to the Cold War, and to the chemical legacy of those years, with its notions of “containment” and “weather control”, Scarpino argues that they be read as interwoven threads of the same discourse.

  6. Uranium mining during the Cold War. The Wismut plant in the Soviet atomic complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boch, Rudolf; Karlsch, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    The book on the Wismut plant covers the following issues: Introduction: history of uranium mining of Wismut. Significance of uranium mining in politics and science: Uranium for the strategic equilibrium; the ore of the Cold War; special zones; ''Party within the Party'', radiation protection in uranium mining; Freiberg's geoscientists searching strategic metals in the 1940ies; end of the shift. Social history and daily routine: Good money for hard work; foreign among ''friends''; personnel data; gainful employment for women and emancipation in the frame of mining; from symphony orchestra to laymen circles; the fightning spirit of pitman-sportsmen.

  7. Political Leaders after the Cold War. The Case of Slobodan Milošević: Toxic vs. Charismatic Leader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Popoiu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The end of the Cold War is often associated with the close of the year 1989, characterizedby the regaining of independence in Eastern Europe countries that were under dictatorships.The endof the Cold War was also connected with the fall of the Berlin Wall or with the disintegration of theSoviet Union in 1991. This paper is aimed to present Slobodan Milošević, analyzed as a toxic but alsoas a charismatic leader. Furthermore, this paper analyses the role of this political leader in Serbia andalso in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. The paper presents the concept of “toxic” leader, with thepurpose of identifying characteristics of this type of leaders. In order to perceive the complexity of theconcept, the paper is focused on a multidimensional study that should emphasize the intentions, thebehaviors, the character of a “toxic” leader, the impact and also the consequences of his decisions andactions. Focusing on Slobodan Milošević, this paper also outlines essential aspects which describe“charismatic” leaders and addresses the challenging possibility of the “charismatic” leaders being“toxic” leaders simultaneously.

  8. The Congress for Cultural Freedom, "Minerva," and the Quest for Instituting "Science Studies" in the Age of Cold War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronova, Elena

    2012-01-01

    The Congress for Cultural Freedom is remembered as a paramount example of the "cultural cold wars." In this paper, I discuss the ways in which this powerful transnational organization sought to promote "science studies" as a distinct--and politically relevant--area of expertise, and part of the CCF broader agenda to offer a renewed framework for…

  9. Trypanosoma cruzi, cancer and the Cold War Trypanosoma cruzi, câncer e a Guerra Fria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai Krementsov

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In the summer of 1946, the international community of cancer researchers was inspired by the announcement that two Soviet scientists, Nina Kliueva and Grigorii Roskin, had discovered anticancer properties in culture extracts made from the South American protozoan, Trypanosoma cruzi, and had produced a preparation - named after its discoverers KR - which showed clear therapeutic effects on cancer patients. Research teams from various countries enthusiastically pursued the promising new line of investigation. The story of the rise and fall of interest in the anticancer properties of T. cruzi in different countries suggests that during the second half of the twentieth century, the Cold War competition between the superpowers played an important role in shaping the research agendas of cancer studies.No verão de 1946, a comunidade internacional que desenvolve pesquisas sobre o câncer, inspirou-se no anúncio de que dois cientistas soviéticos, Nina Kliueva e Grigorii Roskin, descobriram propriedades anticancerígenas em cultura extraída do protozoário existente na América Latina, o Trypanosoma cruzi e produziram um preparado que foi denominado com as iniciais KR - em sua homenagem. Grupos de pesquisadores de diversos países buscaram com entusiasmo as promessas dessa nova linha de investigação. A história da ascensão e queda do interesse nas propriedades anticâncer do T. cruzzi em diferentes países sugere que durante a segunda metade do século 20, a Guerra Fria teve um papel importante na definição das agendas de pesquisas sobre o câncer.

  10. From War to Financial Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    2014-01-01

    The present article analyzes the transformation of the long-term risks of protracted wars from the battlefield to the economic system. Major wars, supplied with strong capacities due to extended manpower resources, advanced logistic capabilities and permanency of campaign, expose their states...... to extremely costly engagements. This includes heavy long-term costs for war veterans. Accordingly, the center of gravity on the battlefield (Clausewitz) is transformed to the financial systems of taxes and credit systems. This is a classical historical lesson; but this story is indeed central to understanding...

  11. The Dostoevsky Machine in Georgetown: scientific translation in the Cold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordin, Michael D

    2016-04-01

    Machine Translation (MT) is now ubiquitous in discussions of translation. The roots of this phenomenon - first publicly unveiled in the so-called 'Georgetown-IBM Experiment' on 9 January 1954 - displayed not only the technological utopianism still associated with dreams of a universal computer translator, but was deeply enmeshed in the political pressures of the Cold War and a dominating conception of scientific writing as both the goal of machine translation as well as its method. Machine translation was created, in part, as a solution to a perceived crisis sparked by the massive expansion of Soviet science. Scientific prose was also perceived as linguistically simpler, and so served as the model for how to turn a language into a series of algorithms. This paper follows the rise of the Georgetown program - the largest single program in the world - from 1954 to the (as it turns out, temporary) collapse of MT in 1964.

  12. Building the general relativity and gravitation community during the Cold War

    CERN Document Server

    Lalli, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    This monograph presents a new perspective on the history of general relativity. It outlines the attempts to establish an institutional framework for the promotion of the field during the Cold War. Readers will learn the difficulties that key figures experienced and overcame during this period of global conflict. The author analyzes the subtle interconnections between scientific and political factors. He shows how politics shaped the evolution of general relativity, even though it is a field with no military applications. He also details how different scientists held quite different views about what “political” meant in their efforts to pursue international cooperation. The narrative examines the specific epistemic features of general relativity that helped create the first official, international scientific society. It answers: Why did relativity bring about this unique result? Was it simply the product of specific actions of particular actors having an illuminated view of international relations in the...

  13. The Chavez Challenge: Venezuela, The United States and the Geo-Politics of Post-Cold War Inter-American Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    the downtrodden, he stresses his own childhood experience with poverty to connect with followers...29 Cammack, “Democracy and Dictatorship in Latin America, 1930-1980,” 163. 30 Castañeda, Utopia Unarmed: The Latin American Left after the Cold War...46. 31 Cammack, “Democracy and Dictatorship in Latin America, 1930-1980,” 164. 32 Ibid., 165. 12 Nationalism is an integral part of his appeal. In

  14. Citizenship Education about War and Peace: A Study of the History of the Vietnam War through Oral History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Thomas E.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses his "History of the Vietnam War" course, which takes oral history as the core of its curriculum. This oral history focuses on personal lives and stories that can bring history to life. The components of the course are as follows: (1) overview of the History of the Vietnam War; (2) email interviews;…

  15. Uncovering the Hidden Histories: Black and Asian People in the Two World Wars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaze, Rupert

    2005-01-01

    The stories we tell in history are often stories about ourselves. This can lead to tremendous distortion. Rupert Gaze was shocked when a young black student told him that there was no point in his studying the Second World War because it had nothing to do with him or his family. While Gaze has worked for the Imperial War Museum (IWM) North, it has…

  16. US policies on combating proliferation of nuclear weapons after the cold war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosaki, Hirofumi

    2005-01-01

    Combating nuclear proliferation has been one of the top priorities for the international community in the post post-Cold War era, and the United States has been taking initiative for tackling the problems. The current Bush administration has placed value high on the effective and concrete actions - including the use of military forces - for such efforts. It is imperative that such actions should be taken in resolving the nuclear proliferation. However, the United States has been criticized that it has disregarded the existing nuclear non-proliferation regime, and that its non-proliferation policy has given negative implications to the regime. Combating nuclear proliferation should be pursued in balanced approach with legitimacy, in consideration of the discriminately nature of the regime as well as of its three pillars - nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear disarmament and peaceful use of nuclear energy. (author)

  17. Military westernization and state repression in the post-Cold War era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swed, Ori; Weinreb, Alexander

    2015-09-01

    The waves of unrest that have shaken the Arab world since December 2010 have highlighted significant differences in the readiness of the military to intervene in political unrest by forcefully suppressing dissent. We suggest that in the post-Cold War period, this readiness is inversely associated with the level of military westernization, which is a product of the acquisition of arms from western countries. We identify two mechanisms linking the acquisition of arms from western countries to less repressive responses: dependence and conditionality; and a longer-term diffusion of ideologies regarding the proper form of civil-military relations. Empirical support for our hypothesis is found in an analysis of 2523 cases of government response to political unrest in 138 countries in the 1996-2005 period. We find that military westernization mitigates state repression in general, with more pronounced effects in the poorest countries. However, we also identify substantial differences between the pre- and post-9/11 periods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. “The works themselves refute geographical separatism”: Exhibiting the Baroque in Cold War Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verity Clarkson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the collaborative exhibition Baroque in Bohemia (1969 to analyse the significance of the baroque style in Cold War cultural diplomacy between Britain and Czechoslovakia. The exhibition’s intended purpose and its ultimate lack of impact is contextualized by wider geo-political events, notably the Soviet suppression of the Prague Spring. It argues that the ambiguity of the term ‘baroque’ was helpful to the organizers, simultaneously emphasizing links with Western European artistic heritage and proclaiming a distinctive national style apart from Soviet control. However, the wider British public’s apparent lack of understanding of baroque aesthetics undermined the curators’ aim of demonstrating ‘solidarity’ between the Czech people and the West.

  19. The Hanford Nuclear Reservation (1943-1987): a case study of the interface between physics and biology during the cold war

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macuglia, Daniele [Fishbein Center for the History of Science and Medicine, University of Chicago, IL (United States)

    2011-07-01

    During its active period (1943-1987) the Hanford Nuclear Reservation shaped the history of US nuclear research. It also constitutes an interesting case study of the interface between physics, biology and the politics of Cold War society. Although supposed to turn the US into a stronger military force during the Cold War, the remarkable biological consequences of the nuclear research carried out in the facility ended up overshadowing its original political purpose. The high-level of radioactive waste harmed thousands of people living in the area, causing relevant environmental disasters which make the site the most contaminated area in the US even today. Nuclear research is uniquely dangerous since radiation can cause severe consequences both in terms of lives injured and environmental damage. I address various ways in which nuclear physics and biology were used - and abused - at the Hanford Site to combine the needs of politics with the needs of a healthy society. This paper further investigates the moral responsibility of science to society and the way in which biological research informed nuclear physics about the deleterious consequences of radiation on environment and on the human body.

  20. The Congress for Cultural Freedom seen from the dynamics of the Cold War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Ruiz Durán

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show how, at the height of the Cold War, the British intelligence services responded to the new spy system created by the Comintern developing a secret campaign of political and cultural propaganda, under the cover of prestigious foundations to channel intellectuals in defense of a liberal democracy. This spy system expected to carry out propaganda secret operations and manipulate the intellectuals from almost the very beginning of the Soviet Revolution. The keystone to win the battle of consciences was the Congress for Cultural Freedom and its editorials, magazines, exhibitions, scholarships, concerts, congresses and conferences. Finally, it will be noted how the Congress for Cultural Freedom implemented the political conception of "non-communist left" to sustain the social democracy in the Western bloc.

  1. Resource Geopolitics: Cold War Technologies, Global Fertilizers, and the Fate of Western Sahara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camprubí, Lino

    2015-07-01

    When, after years of geological and geophysical exploration, a phosphate mine was discovered at Bu-Craa in 1964, Western Sahara received renewed geopolitical attention. Several countries competing for the control of the world fertilizer market, including Morocco, Spain, France, and the United States, developed diverging strategies to gain control of the mineral. After intense negotiations revolving around the materiality of mining technologies and involving reserve estimations, sabotage, and flexing of diplomatic muscles, Morocco took over the Spanish colony in 1975. While this secured Morocco's place in the world market, it condemned the local population to exile and domination. This article explores three technological stages of the exploitation of phosphate in Western Sahara that underpin the geopolitical history. This perspective yields new visions of cold war technology and postcolonial markets.

  2. Blasphemy: How the U.S. Government Practiced a Type of Operational Art to Defend Latin America During the Cold War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    western hemisphere, explains how U.S. policy towards Latin America successfully married a Hobbesian realism with Kantian idealism during the Cold War.4...361. 63 Hendrix, 176. 64 Grandin, 211. 27 hemisphere, and reconciled America’s Kantian idealism with its newfound Hobbesian realism to justify a...Doctrine, permanently locking America’s Hobbesian realism and Kantian idealism into a continuity that protected American interests as it embroiled

  3. Soldiers Magazine | Telling the Soldier's story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldier, fight in the Korean War and serve as a intelligence agent during the Cold War. 14 April 2016 professionals vying for Best Medic bragging rights. 14 October 2016 The U.S. Army's Hispanic-American Medal of possible On Women's Equality Day, learn about 19 ways U.S. Army women helped make the 19th Amendment

  4. Détente from the Air: Monitoring Air Pollution during the Cold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Rachel

    During the period of détente in the 1970s, a Norwegian proposal to construct an air pollution monitoring network for the European continent resulted in the first concrete collaboration between the communist and capitalist blocs after the 1975 Helsinki Accords. Known as the "European-wide monitoring programme" or EMEP, the network earned considerable praise from diplomats for facilitating cooperation across the Iron Curtain. Yet as this article argues, EMEP was strongly influenced by the politics of détente and the constraints of the Cold War even as it helped to decrease tensions. Concerns about national security and sharing data with the enemy shaped both the construction of the monitoring network and the modeling of pollution transport. The article also proposes that environmental monitoring systems like EMEP reveal the ways in which observational technologies can affect conceptions of the natural world and the role of science in public policy.

  5. The image of war in the articles and notes of Vas. I. Nemirovich-Danchenko during the Russian-Turkish (1877—1878 and Russian-Japanese (1904—1905 wars: the stories and the social stereotypes which formed it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. NOVIKOVA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the theme of forming the war image, in particular, considering the influence of Russian social stereotypes in the second half of 19th — early 20th century. The main sources of this work were the articles and notes that were creating by the famous journalist and writer Vas. I. Nemirovich-Danchenko. As a war correspondent he participated in almost all major conflicts of the second half of 19th — early 20th century and left a significant mark in j ournalism and literature. All ofthis works were written during Russian-Turkish (1877—1878 and Russian-Japanese (1904—1905 wars. These were not only main social fears and stereotypes of Russian society about coming war and enemy, but also the stories and collective images brought in the articles to make the stereotypes stronger or to deny it. Nemirovich-Danchenko developed his own personal collection of images and techniques, which he managed to convey the most delicate nuances necessary to achieve its objectives. Formed during the Russian-Turkish war this collection of images has undergone only minor changes. It enriched the author’s reflections on the theme of evolution wars that he had seen. Analysis of materials of this article was produced in accordance with modern views of the scientific community on the problems of formation of the images of war. The aim was to show the real influence of public attitudes and views on the development of stereotypes and their expression in the press. First of all it concerns the period immediately before the war and the development of pre-existing views. The author investigated the prognostic and simultaneous steps of forming the images of war, but left beyond reasoning retrospective (final view.

  6. Nuclear materials control technology in the post-cold war world: Radiation-based methods and information management systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tape, J.W.; Eccleston, G.W.; Ensslin, N.; Markin, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    The end of the cold war is providing both opportunities and requirements for improving the control of nuclear materials around the world. The dismantlement of nuclear weapons and the growth of nuclear power, including the use of plutonium in light water reactors and breeder reactor programs, coupled with enhanced proliferation concerns, drive the need for improved nuclear materials control. We describe nuclear materials control and the role of technology in making controls more effective and efficient. The current use and anticipated development in selected radiation-based methods and related information management systems am described briefly

  7. Post-Cold War frameworks for US nuclear policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackay, L.S. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis contends that the passing of the Cold War has produced a disintegration of the fit between the grand strategy of containment and the nuclear policy of strategic deterrence. The primary sources of that disintegration are: the altered political circumstances from both of largescale military conflict; and the emergence of nuclear proclivities and capabilities in developing states. This thesis uses a three step process to construct a framework for a successor U.S. nuclear policy given the national goals of economic liberty, conservation of national institutions, promotion of democratic principles, and collegiality with like-minded states. The first part is dedicated to the construction of a policy-relevant and paradigmatic description of the nascent security environment. The most useful description is one which emphasizes the structural antipathy between the coterie of economically advanced, culturally similar, and politicially liberal states of western Europe, North America, and northeast Asia, and other, lesser developed polities. The second part, with the aid of simple analytic models, examines the theory of nuclear weapons doctrine as it pertains to an archetypally defined deterrence. Further models incorporating sequential decision making, relative gains analysis, and power/preference asymmetries demonstrate the prevalence and relative strengths and limitations of Prisoner's Dilemma as a deterrence system. The third part integrates the core-periphery paradigm and the analytic insights into a two-tiered framework of companion U.S. nuclear policies. A fourth part summarizes the implications of this analysis for U.S. forces and doctrine

  8. Introduction: Untold Legacies of the First World War in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fell, Alison S; Meyer, Jessica

    2015-05-01

    The current centenary of the First World War provides an unrivalled opportunity to uncover some of the social legacies of the war. The four articles which make up this special issue each examine a different facet of the war's impact on British society to explore an as yet untold story. The subjects investigated include logistics, the history of science, the social history of medicine and resistance to war. This article introduces the four which follow, locating them in the wider historiographic debates around the interface between warfare and societies engaged in war.

  9. Cold War competition and food production in China, 1957-1962.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yixin

    2009-01-01

    This article examines how Mao's grand strategy for Cold War competition inflicted a catastrophic agricultural failure in China and victimized tens of millions of Chinese peasants. It argues that Khrushchev's 1957 boast about the Soviet Union surpassing the United States in key economic areas inspired Mao to launch an industrialization program that would push the People's Republic past Great Britain in some production categories within fifteen years. Beginning in 1958 Mao imposed unrealistic targets on Chinese grain production to extract funds from agriculture for rapid industrial growth. Maoists placed relentless pressure on communist cadres for ruthless implementation of the Great Leap Forward. Contrary to Maoist plans, China's grain output in 1959-1960 declined sharply from 1957 levels and rural per capita grain retention decreased dramatically. Throughout China, party cadres' mismanagement of agricultural production was responsible for the decline in grain output, and the communist state's excessive requisition of grain caused food shortages for the peasants. But the key factor determining the famine's uneven impact on the peasantry in the provinces was the degree to which provincial leaders genuinely and energetically embraced Maoist programs. This is illustrated by a close examination of the Great Leap famine in Anhui Province.

  10. A Review of Supplementary Medical Aspects of Post-Cold War UN Peacekeeping Operations: Trends, Lessons Learned, Courses of Action, and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ralph J

    2015-01-01

    Post-Cold War United Nations Peace Keeping Operations (UN PKOs) have been increasingly involved in dangerous areas with ill-defined boundaries, harsh and remote geographies, simmering internecine armed conflict, and disregard on the part of some local parties for peacekeepers' security and role. In the interest of force protection and optimizing operations, a key component of UN PKOs is healthcare and medical treatment. The expectation is that UN PKO medical support will adjust to the general intent and structure of UN PKOs. To do so requires effective policies and planning informed by a review of all medical aspects of UN PKO operations, including those considered supplementary, that is, less crucial but contributing nonetheless. Medical aspects considered paramount and key to UN PKOs have received relatively thorough treatment elsewhere. The intent of this article is to report on ancillary and supplemental medical aspects practical to post-Cold War UN PKO operations assembled through an iterative inquiry of open-source articles. Recommendations are made about possible courses of action in terms of addressing trends found in such medical aspects of PKOs and relevance of US/NATO/European Union models and research.

  11. Jemen - the Proxy War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena El Ghamari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The military operation in Yemen is significant departure from Saudi Arabia's foreign policy tradition and customs. Riyadh has always relied on three strategies to pursue its interests abroad: wealth, establish a global network and muslim education and diplomacy and meadiation. The term "proxy war" has experienced a new popularity in stories on the Middle East. A proxy war is two opposing countries avoiding direct war, and instead supporting combatants that serve their interests. In some occasions, one country is a direct combatant whilst the other supporting its enemy. Various news sources began using the term to describe the conflict in Yemen immediately, as if on cue, after Saudi Arabia launched its bombing campaign against Houthi targets in Yemen on 25 March 2015. This is the reason, why author try to answer for following questions: Is the Yemen Conflict Devolves into Proxy War? and Who's fighting whom in Yemen's proxy war?" Research area includes the problem of proxy war in the Middle East. For sure, the real problem of proxy war must begin with the fact that the United States and its NATO allies opened the floodgates for regional proxy wars by the two major wars for regime change: in Iraq and Libya. Those two destabilising wars provided opportunities and motives for Sunni states across the Middle East to pursue their own sectarian and political power objectives through "proxy war".

  12. The Molecular Basis of Evolution and Disease: A Cold War Alliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Díaz, Edna

    2017-03-28

    This paper extends previous arguments against the assumption that the study of variation at the molecular level was instigated with a view to solving an internal conflict between the balance and classical schools of population genetics. It does so by focusing on the intersection of basic research in protein chemistry and the molecular approach to disease with the enactment of global health campaigns during the Cold War period. The paper connects advances in research on protein structure and function as reflected in Christian Anfinsen's The molecular basis of evolution, with a political reading of Emilé Zuckerkandl and Linus Pauling's identification of molecular disease and evolution. Beyond atomic fallout, these advances constituted a rationale for the promotion of genetic surveys of human populations in the Third World, in connection with international health programs. Light is shed not only on the experimental roots of the molecular challenge but on the broader geopolitical context where the rising role of biomedicine and public health (particularly the malaria eradication campaigns) had an impact on evolutionary biology.

  13. Sino­Pakistan Relations and the Challenges of Post-­Cold War Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutahir Ahmed

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available China has emerged as the world’s second largest economy, and the largest exporter of goods with 9.6 per cent of the global share. Moreover, the last two decades have seen China emerging as an international and regional power of the 21st century. Thus, in order to continue with the economic benefits, China wants peace and stability as well as to play an active role on international and regional fronts. On the other hand, Pakistan, the world’s sixth most populous country, is a major power of South Asia. While having a developed infrastructure and vibrant political and security institutions, Pakistan is nevertheless currently facing many challenges on the economic front, including political instability and religious extremism. This paper is an attempt to analyze the challenges faced by both China and Pakistan in the post-Cold War era.

  14. Specters of War in Pyongyang: The Victorious Fatherland Liberation War Museum in North Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzy Kim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available While North Korea accused South Korea of starting a “civil war” (naeran during the Korean War, it has now moved away from such depictions to paint the war as an American war of imperialist aggression against Korea that was victoriously thwarted under the leadership of Kim Il Sung. In this regard, it may be more than a coincidence that the Victorious Fatherland Liberation War Museum in Pyongyang was built in the early 1970s, just as the Vietnam War drew to a close with a Vietnamese victory. This article examines the memorialization of the Korean War in North Korea at two pivotal historical points—the end of the Vietnam War in the 1970s and the end of the Cold War in the 1990s—with a particular focus on contemporary exhibitions at the war museum in Pyongyang. Rather than offering a simple comparison of divergent narratives about the war, the article seeks to illustrate that North Korea’s conception of history and its account of the war are staunchly modernist, with tragic consequences.

  15. The Application of Hermeneutical Analysis to Research on the Cold War in Soviet Animation Media Texts from the Second Half of the 1940s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, A. V.

    2015-01-01

    The Cold War era, which spawned a mutual ideological confrontation between communist and capitalist countries, left its mark on all categories of media texts, including cartoons and animations. Cartoons were used by the authorities as tools for delivering the necessary confrontational ideological content in an attractive folkloric, fairy-tale…

  16. Cold injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, R J

    1995-01-01

    There are two categories of cold injury. The first is hypothermia, which is a systemic injury to cold, and the second is frostbite, which is a local injury. Throughout history, entire armies, from George Washington to the Germans on the Russian Front in World War II, have fallen prey to prolonged cold exposure. Cold injury is common and can occur in all seasons if ambient temperature is lower than the core body temperature. In the 1985 Boston Marathon, even though it was 76 degrees and sunny, there were 75 runners treated for hypothermia. In general, humans adapt poorly to cold exposure. Children are at particular risk because of their relatively greater surface area/body mass ratio, causing them to cool even more rapidly than adults. Because of this, the human's best defense against cold injury is to limit his/her exposure to cold and to dress appropriately. If cold injury has occurred and is mild, often simple passive rewarming such as dry blankets and a warm room are sufficient treatment.

  17. Among cosmopolitan values and strategic interests: liberal and realist discourses of canada’s international security policy during post- cold war

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez M., Federmán

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to explain the liberal and realist discourses that underpinned the Canadian International Security Policy (CISP) during the post-Cold War. In particular, it offers evidence to show that Canadian governments inevitably debate between cosmopolitan values and strategic interests in formulating their respective policies of international security. After considering how liberal and realist orientations of this policy have been studied in the literature on CISP, it expl...

  18. Fissile material and international security in the post-Cold War world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luongo, K.N.

    1995-01-01

    Given the number of years this organization has devoted to the issue, the INMM must find it quite interesting that the control of fissile materials has become such a high profile issue in the policy and political communities. But, this evolution in policy is a natural outgrowth of the changing world situation. While just ten years ago the United States and the Soviet Union were churning out the fissile materials needed for weapons, today these former rivals are working together, hand in hand, to corral the danger posed by these materials. And, while it is clear that the world no longer lives on the edge of nuclear war, the nuclear danger still exists, though in a less obvious and perhaps more insidious form. It is a great challenge in this post Cold War-world to contain this nuclear threat. It is prudent and necessary for the United States to be in the forefront of efforts to address and tame this problem. The fundamental threat posed by the proliferation of nuclear weapons and materials is a direct challenge to US and world security. President Clinton has clearly recognized the changed nature of the nuclear danger. To meet this challenge, he also labored to put in place a comprehensive and integrated plan for addressing this threat. The Department of Energy has a unique role in this effort because, as an institution with man decades of experience in fissile material matters, it is able to provide expertise and technical analyses which are essential in defining and implementing policy prescriptions. The President's comprehensive plan to prevent nuclear proliferation and reduce the danger posed by weapons-usable nuclear materials has four essential elements: (1) secure existing stockpiles; (2) limit production and use; (3) eliminate warheads; and (4) strengthen the nonproliferation regime

  19. James V. Neel and Yuri E. Dubrova: Cold War debates and the genetic effects of low-dose radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Donna M; Stawkowski, Magdalena E

    2015-01-01

    This article traces disagreements about the genetic effects of low-dose radiation exposure as waged by James Neel (1915-2000), a central figure in radiation studies of Japanese populations after World War II, and Yuri Dubrova (1955-), who analyzed the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. In a 1996 article in Nature, Dubrova reported a statistically significant increase in the minisatellite (junk) DNA mutation rate in the children of parents who received a high dose of radiation from the Chernobyl accident, contradicting studies that found no significant inherited genetic effects among offspring of Japanese A-bomb survivors. Neel's subsequent defense of his large-scale longitudinal studies of the genetic effects of ionizing radiation consolidated current scientific understandings of low-dose ionizing radiation. The article seeks to explain how the Hiroshima/Nagasaki data remain hegemonic in radiation studies, contextualizing the debate with attention to the perceived inferiority of Soviet genetic science during the Cold War.

  20. Nuclear Italy. An International history of Italian Nuclear Policies during the Cold War

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bini, Elisabetta; Londer, Igor

    2017-01-01

    This book examines the history of Italy’s nuclear policies during the Cold War, by placing the Italian case in an international and comparative framework. It highlights the importance the international context had in shaping the country’s specific experience, and analyzes the ways in which international politics and economics, technological and scientific exchanges, as well as social and cultural movements, influenced Italian nuclear policies, both civilian and military. All the essays published in this volume assume that the history of nuclear energy should be written by adopting an international perspective. The spread of nuclear knowledge (scientific, civilian, as well as military), and the implementation of nuclear policies, have a specific international dimension that should be taken into consideration, since no nuclear program has ever had a distinctly national character, and every country pursuing a nuclear policy has been, in one way or another, deeply influenced by the international context.

  1. Ideological Cooperation versus Cold War Realpolitik - The SED and the Icelandic Socialist Party

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valur Ingimundarson

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the relationship between the East German Socialist Unity Party (SED and the Icelandic Socialist Party (SEI during the Cold War. It details the structural limitations of ideological cooperation between the two parties – Iceland’s NATO membership and the U.S. military presence – as well as its possibilities, especially in the 1950s, through the governmental participation of the SEI. Special attention is devoted to the role played by Einar Olgeirsson, the chairman of the SEI 1939–1968, who was instrumental in forging and developing political, economic, and cultural ties with the SED and the German Democratic Republic. The article argues that this experiment in transnational solidarity between socialist parties from two radically different political systems failed in the end due to several factors, including ideological differences and the political and economic development in Iceland.

  2. An Overdue Post-Cold War Army Structure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dixon, Michael

    2004-01-01

    ...). The Army has rapidly aligned itself with the Department of Defense (DoD) Transformation plan and is aggressively identifying and building required capabilities now in support of the Global War on Terrrorism (GWOT...

  3. The use of blood-type tattoos during the Cold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Elizabeth K; Laumann, Anne E

    2008-03-01

    We have seen a number of individuals who received blood-type tattoos on the left side of the chest as schoolchildren in northwest Indiana during the 1950s. To investigate the history of blood-type tattooing. Historical research was conducted using newspaper and journal articles found in medical libraries, online archives, American Medical Association archives, Chicago Historical Society records, local medical society documents, in addition to personal interviews. Blood-type tattoos were used during the Cold War to enable rapid transfusions as part of a "walking blood bank" in case of atomic attack. Nationwide blood-typing programs occurred to inform individuals of their own blood types and to provide local communities with lists of possible donors. The blood-type tattooing program was part of this effort, but community-wide tattooing occurred only in two parts of the United States: Lake County, Indiana, and Cache and Rich counties, Utah. In these communities, during 1951 and 1952, schoolchildren were tattooed to facilitate emergency transfusions. Events occurred more than 50 years ago, so we relied on original documents and interviews from individuals involved in the program who are still alive. The use of blood-type tattoos was short lived, lasting less than a year, and ultimately failed because physicians did not trust tattoos for medical information.

  4. Scientists in the classroom: Curriculum reform and the Cold War, 1949--1963

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, John Laurence

    This dissertation focuses on the origins of the National Science Foundation-supported curriculum reform movement of the 1950s and 1960s. Using the Physical Science Study Committee (PSSC) and the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS) as exemplars of the curriculum projects that proliferated during this era, this work provides a historical analysis of the shift in school curriculum from the life adjustment, functional approach to schooling prevalent after World War II to the discipline-centered approach characteristic of the 1960s. Important factors in this shift include the rising technological threat posed by the Soviet Union along with the Red Scare in the United States, which aroused public suspicion of the ideological underpinnings of the life adjustment curricular program. The efforts of the scientific elite to develop new science curricula were welcomed as a means to combat both the technological threat of the Soviets and, through science's identification with free inquiry and democracy, the ideological threat of communism. This dissertation specifically illustrates how the key elements of the new science curriculum materials---the focus on inquiry, laboratory work, and instructional technology---were shaped by the social and political atmosphere of the Cold War and how those elements were designed to advance the interests of the American scientific community in the postwar period. This social and political atmosphere, this work argues, was not only responsible for moving science instruction away from an emphasis on the every-day applications of science toward the disciplinary structure of scientific knowledge, but also contributed to a fundamental restructuring of the substantive content of the scientific knowledge itself that made up the subject matter of the new curricula.

  5. Private Military Contractors, War Crimes and International ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The end of the Cold War witnessed the growth and spread of legally established private military contractors (PMCs) playing largely undefined roles in wars, international security and post-conflict reconstruction. The operations of PMCs in Iraq and Afghanistan in the 21st century have been marked by gross human rights ...

  6. Device physics vis-à-vis fundamental physics in Cold War America: the case of quantum optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromberg, Joan Lisa

    2006-06-01

    Historians have convincingly shown the close ties U.S. physicists had with the military during the Cold War and have raised the question of whether this alliance affected the content of physics. Some have asserted that it distorted physics, shifting attention from fundamental problems to devices. Yet the papers of physicists in quantum electronics and quantum optics, fields that have been exemplary for those who hold the distortion thesis, show that the same scientists who worked on military devices simultaneously pursued fundamental and foundational topics. This essay examines one such physicist, Marlan O. Scully, with attention to both his extensive foundational studies and the way in which his applied and basic researches played off each other.

  7. Naval War College Review. Volume 61, Number 1, Winter 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Healy, among others, would contest assertions that the doctrine represented an exercise in international philanthropy . David Healy, Drive to Hegemony...formed an elite force of truly innovative capabilities during the “cold war at sea” with the Soviet Navy. Since the end of the Cold War, the submarine...evidently has extreme respect for the U.S. submarine force, the San Francisco incident appeared to show awareness that even this elite force can make errors

  8. SHORT STORIES IN THE BALKANS AND CONTEMPORARYSHORT STORIES IN THE WORLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Softic - Gasal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative analysis of selected short stories in the Balkan countries, as well as contemporary short stories of the world, will show us that the key themes of those stories are very similar to the short stories written during the period of transition in Bosnia and Herzegovina (1995-2010. For example, the story of the Soul Operation by an Iranian writer Mohsen Mahmalbafa, The Falcons by a Dutch writer Kader Abdolaha and On the Kitchen Stairs by a Polish writer Witold Gombrowic zinter connect with short stories by authors from Bosnia and Herzegovina, such as The Secret of Raspberry jam by Karim Zaimović or The Devilish work of Zoran Riđanović. A common thread manifests itself in the aforementioned stories, more specifically, a common theme which focuses on the need for eradication of the seeds of submission and compliance with the political system. Most authors focus on their domestic political systems; however, some portray and analyze systems in other countries as they see it, such as a Dutch narrator who focuses on a potential threat of infringement of human freedom. Moreover, Bellow Hubei by an Argentinian writer Anhelika Gorodis her underlines the importance of humanization within a political order. Faruk Šehić examines the political system in Bosnia and Herzegovina from a slightly different perspective. His collection of stories Under Pressure emphases the issue of pressure in the above war model of short stories in Bosnia and Herzegovina. These stories are the product of pressure and anxiety, with intent to latently promote new ways of spiritual survival, directly relating to the concept and the theme of the story The Past Age Man by Christian Karlson Stead. Further analysis of the alienation theme singled out short stories in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Plants are Something Else by Alma Lazarevska and Dialogues by Lamija Begagić, and pointed out their connection with some recent international short stories such as The Last Defence by

  9. Xruščev and 1959. Contesting Consumption in the Cold War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Moretto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates an important battle-front of the Cold War: the competition on consumption. It focuses on the year 1959, year of the Soviet exhibition in New York, of the American exhibition in Moscow and of Xruščev’s trip to the U.S., considering the Soviet attempts to develop alternative models of modernity. The “consumption contest” is here analyzed with a particular emphasis on the Soviet culture of consumption in its differences with the American one. The paper uses both official and popular Soviet sources as well as the American press when this helps to clarify the difference between Soviet and American propaganda attitudes, as well as archival documents from the RGAE (Russian State Archive of the Economy. As far as the popular press is concerned, here we have mostly used the Soviet weekly magazine “Ogonek” and the monthly “L’Union Soviétique”. As regards popular American sources, the article takes into consideration the “Ogonek” counterpart “Life”.

  10. Between the West and Asia: "Humanistic" Japanese Family Planning in the Cold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homei, Aya

    2016-12-01

    This paper studies the formation of Japanese ventures in family planning deployed in various villages in Asia from the 1960s onward in the name of development aid. By critically examining how Asia became the priority area for Japan's international cooperation in family planning and by analyzing how the adjective "humanistic" was used to underscore the originality of Japan's family planning program overseas, the paper shows that visions of Japanese actors were directly informed by Japan's delicate position in Cold War geopolitics, between the imagined West represented by the United States and "underdeveloped" Asia, at a time when Japan was striving to (re-)establish its position in world politics and economics. Additionally, by highlighting subjectivities and intra-Asian networks centered on Japanese actors, the paper also aims to destabilize the current historiography on population control which has hitherto focused either on Western actors in the transnational population control movement or on non-Western "acceptors" subjected to the population control programs.

  11. The US role in South Asia since the end of the cold war: from partisan to a balancer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamath, P.M.

    1993-01-01

    It is increasingly becoming clear that the United States (US) is playing the role of a balancer in the South Asian region. The role has relevance as its presence is required by the greater mutual suspicions of each other amongst China, India and Pakistan than fears of these countries towards the US. Only the development of a trilateral common perception of shared interests amongst the three neighbours can keep the US out from the region. On the other hand, the introduction of the cold war might once again bring back the US role as a partisan. 35 refs

  12. The strategic offense initiative? The Soviets and Star Wars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westwick, Peter J.

    2014-05-01

    Historians of the Cold War have paid too little attention to Soviet fears of "space-strike weapons" - that is, possible offensive uses of President Ronald Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative. In fifteen years or so, soldiers will no longer shoot rifles but will use some kind of lightning, some sort of a machine emitting a holocaustal electrical beam. Tell me, what can we invent in this line so as to surprise our neighbors?... Alas, we are only capable of imitating and purchasing weapons from others, and we do well if we manage to repair them ourselves. --Fyodor Dostoevsky, A Writer's Diary, 1873. [Khlinov, a physicist]: "I know that he has made an important discovery concerning the transmission of infra-red rays over a distance.... Heat waves at a temperature of a thousand degrees centigrade transmitted parallel to each other constitute a monstrous weapon of destruction and defense in time of war. The whole secret lies in the transmission of a ray that does not disperse. So far nobody has been able to do this. Judging by your story, Garin has constructed a machine that will do it. If so it is an extremely important discovery." "I've been thinking for a long time that this invention smells of higher politics," said Shelga. --Aleksei Tolstoy, The Garin Death Ray, 1927 (translated by George Hanna)

  13. The strategic offense initiative? The Soviets and Star Wars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westwick, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Historians of the Cold War have paid too little attention to Soviet fears of 'space-strike weapons' - that is, possible offensive uses of President Ronald Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative. In fifteen years or so, soldiers will no longer shoot rifles but will use some kind of lightning, some sort of a machine emitting a holocaustal electrical beam. Tell me, what can we invent in this line so as to surprise our neighbors?... Alas, we are only capable of imitating and purchasing weapons from others, and we do well if we manage to repair them ourselves. --Fyodor Dostoevsky, A Writer's Diary, 1873. [Khlinov, a physicist]: 'I know that he has made an important discovery concerning the transmission of infra-red rays over a distance.... Heat waves at a temperature of a thousand degrees centigrade transmitted parallel to each other constitute a monstrous weapon of destruction and defense in time of war. The whole secret lies in the transmission of a ray that does not disperse. So far nobody has been able to do this. Judging by your story, Garin has constructed a machine that will do it. If so it is an extremely important discovery.' 'I've been thinking for a long time that this invention smells of higher politics,' said Shelga. --Aleksei Tolstoy, The Garin Death Ray, 1927 (translated by George Hanna)

  14. 'Co-operation and Communism cannot work side by side': Organized Consumers and the Early Cold War in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, Peter

    2018-04-02

    This article contributes to a better understanding of labour anti-communism in Britain through an exploration of the evolution of ideas and attitudes within the co-operative movement during the early Cold War. It demonstrates that the period witnessed an increasingly rigid separation of co-operation from communism and argues that this separation made it harder for activists within the co-operative movement to imagine a total or utopian alternative to capitalism. Drawing particularly on a close reading of the co-operative press as well as other sources, the study is divided into three main parts. The first section discusses sympathy among co-operators for the achievements of the Soviet Union, which increased during the war against fascism. The article then moves on to consider the continuing dialogue between British co-operators and their counterparts in European communist states and how international tensions shaped co-operators' views. The final major section explores the hardening of attitude towards communism after Marshall Aid was declared in June 1947, and underlines the role played by figures such as A. V. Alexander and Jack Bailey who worked with the Information Research Department at the Foreign Office to spread anti-communism within the movement. The conclusion reflects, more speculatively, on what implications this shift may have had for the medium and long-term decline of co-operation and the hegemony of capitalist consumerism post-war.

  15. Nordic Narratives of the Second World War : National Historiographies Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    How have the dramatic events of the Second World War been viewed in the Nordic countries? In Nordic Narratives of the Second World War, leading Nordic historians analyse post-war memory and historiography. They explore the relationship between scholarly and public understandings of the war. How have national interpretations been shaped by official security-policy doctrines? And in what way has the end of the Cold War affected the Nordic narratives? The authors not only present the ...

  16. "If You Had Told Me before That These Students Were Russians, I Would Not Have Believed It": An International Project about the (New) "Cold War"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wansink, Bjorn; Zuiker, Itzél; Wubbels, Theo; Kamman, Maurits; Akkerman, Sanne

    2017-01-01

    Bjorn Wansink and his co-authors have aligned their teaching of a recent and controversial historical issue--the Cold War--in the light of a contemporary incident. This article demonstrates a means of ensuring that students understand that different cultures' views of their shared past are nuanced, rather than monolithic--a different concept in…

  17. Red Dawn – the final episode of the Cold war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kovačević

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the period of renewal of the Cold war, after 1980, movies which abandon the idea of the dentate appear, and they represent the response to Soviet expansion taking place under the auspices of diminished military confrontation. Of course, the Hollywood reaction to the real expansion of communism was not at adequate response, but it is a part of the wider restructuring of American politics regarding the Soviet Union, which was evidenced by strengthening defenses through the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI, forcible intervention in Grenada, helping anti-communist movements around the world etc. In opposition to part of the US political scene which shut down attempts to stop the spread of communism across the world, action through popular culture, especially film, created a new climate in which multifaceted pressures on the socialist block were prepared. The movie Red Dawn can be considered part of the reaction of US politics on the particularistic view of the dentate as a shield for military and political spread of the USSR in Africa and other parts of the world. This pressure played on the inherent weaknesses of Soviet society in the 1980’s, a society which, after a brief period of failed transformation fell apart at the start of the final decade of the 20th century.

  18. Fissile materials and international security in the post-Cold War world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    It is essential that members of industry, government and international organizations be able to come together to discuss the latest developments in this vital field at events such as this. Given the number of years this organization has devoted to the issue, the INMM must find it interesting that the control of fissile materials has become such a high-profile issue in the policy and political communities. But, this evolution in policy is a natural outgrowth of the changing world situation. While just 10 years ago the US and Soviet Union were churning out the fissile materials needed for weapons, today these former rivals are working together, hand in hand, to corral the danger posed by these materials. And, while it is clear that the world no longer lives on the edge of nuclear war, the nuclear danger still exists, though in a less obvious and perhaps more insidious form. It is a great challenge in this post-Cold War world to contain this nuclear threat. It is prudent and necessary for the US to be in the forefront of efforts to address and tame this problem. The fundamental threat posed by the proliferation of nuclear weapons and materials is a direct challenge to US and world security. President Clinton has clearly recognized the changed nature of the nuclear danger. To meet this challenge, he has labored to put in place a comprehensive and integrated plan for addressing this threat. The US Department of Energy has a unique role in this effort because, as an institution with many decades of experience in fissile material matters, it is able to provide expertise and technical analyses that are essential in defining and implementing policy prescriptions. The president's comprehensive plan to prevent nuclear proliferation and reduce the danger posed by weapons-usable nuclear materials has four essential elements: secure existing nuclear material stockpiles; limit fissile material production and use, eliminate warheads, and strengthen the nonproliferation regime

  19. Graphical methods and Cold War scientific practice: the Stommel Diagram's intriguing journey from the physical to the biological environmental sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Tiffany C; Doel, Ronald E

    2010-01-01

    In the last quarter of the twentieth century, an innovative three-dimensional graphical technique was introduced into biological oceanography and ecology, where it spread rapidly. Used to improve scientists' understanding of the importance of scale within oceanic ecosystems, this influential diagram addressed biological scales from phytoplankton to fish, physical scales from diurnal tides to ocean currents, and temporal scales from hours to ice ages. Yet the Stommel Diagram (named for physical oceanographer Henry Stommel, who created it in 1963) had not been devised to aid ecological investigations. Rather, Stommel intended it to help plan large-scale research programs in physical oceanography, particularly as Cold War research funding enabled a dramatic expansion of physical oceanography in the 1960s. Marine ecologists utilized the Stommel Diagram to enhance research on biological production in ocean environments, a key concern by the 1970s amid growing alarm about overfishing and ocean pollution. Before the end of the twentieth century, the diagram had become a significant tool within the discipline of ecology. Tracing the path that Stommel's graphical techniques traveled from the physical to the biological environmental sciences reveals a great deal about practices in these distinct research communities and their relative professional and institutional standings in the Cold War era. Crucial to appreciating the course of that path is an understanding of the divergent intellectual and social contexts of the physical versus the biological environmental sciences.

  20. Whose History? An Analysis of the Korean War in History Textbooks from the United States, South Korea, Japan, and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Zhao, Yali; Ogawa, Masato; Hoge, John; Kim, Bok Young

    2009-01-01

    This article examines how recent history textbooks from the United States, Japan, China, and South Korea present the Korean War. The comparative analysis focuses on four areas: the causes of the Korean War, American involvement in the war, Chinese involvement in the war, and the results of the war. Analysis of the central story lines reveals that…

  1. Ukrainian Hybrid War – Quo Vadis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rotărescu Carmen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Although it is known for a long time, hybrid war taken place in Ukraine under the umbrella of Russian Federation surprised the whole world and produced the greatest worry for humankind’s fate since the World War II. The political and military analysts appreciate if the World War III does not come will at least follow a long time of a new cold war. Remembering the hybrid war is not declared, can be prolonged in time and the adversary is unknown, thus neither the aggressor state, it is hard to settle which are the countermeasures and how should be act when this clever adversary attacks you using hostile propaganda, to the limit of trick and war perfidy (the first is allowed as method of war, the latter is not, influences the political decision-makers by blackmail, military, economic and energetic deterrence or nuclear bombardments and undergoes subversive, clandestine actions and particularly it is hard to predict their consequences.

  2. The 1965 coup and reformasi 1998: two critical moments in Indonesia-Malaysia relations during and after the Cold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksum, Ali; Bustami, Reevany

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the significant impact of the two crucial moments in Indonesia namely, the 1965 coup and reformasi (reformation) in May 1998 and the impact towards the Indonesia-Malaysia relationship. History had demonstrated that both events were followed by some changes in the bilateral relationship. The 1965 coup for instance resulted the fall of Sukarno and the collapse of PKI, while reformasi brought the fall of Suharto and the collapse of New Order. However, it was undeniable that the demands of international situation especially during and after the Cold War were significant factor in driving of those events.

  3. The Turtle Went To War. Northern Cheyenne Folk Tales. Indian Culture Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tall Bull, Henry; Weist, Tom

    The book takes its title from the first of nine Northern Cheyenne folk tales, illustrated by Indian children in grades 2-8. The stories are: "The Turtle Went to War" about a turtle who makes war on the Indians and takes two scalps; "The Cat", explaining why cats eat first and wash later; "The Frog and the Watersnake",…

  4. After the War: Nation-Building from FDR to George W. Bush

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dobbins, James; Poole, Michele A; Long, Austin; Runkle, Benjamin

    2008-01-01

    .... The authors start with a review of the post World War II occupations of Germany and Japan. The end of the Cold War brought a second spate of such missions -- in Somalia, Haiti, Bosnia, and Kosovo...

  5. The biological consequences of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrlich, P.R.

    1984-01-01

    The author presents the consensus of a group of biologists on the likely biological effects of a large-scale nuclear war. Such a war would leave, at most, scattered survivors in the Northern Hemisphere. Those survivors would be facing extreme cold, hunger, water shortages, heavy smog and darkness without the support of an organized society. The ecosystems would be severly stressed and changing in ways that can't be predicted. In the Southern Hemisphere, events would depend on the degree of propagation of the atmospheric effects from North to South. People living in those areas will be very strongly affected by the war

  6. "All in the Day's Work": Cold War Doctoring and Its Discontents in William Burroughs's Naked Lunch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Michael

    In Naked Lunch, the institutions and practices of science and medicine, specifically with regard to psychiatry/psychology, are symptoms of a bureaucratic system of control that shapes, constructs, defines, and makes procrustean alterations to both the mind and body of human subjects. Using sickness and junk (or heroin) as convenient metaphors for both a Cold War binary mentality and the mandatory consumption of twentieth-century capitalism, Burroughs presents modern man as fundamentally alienated from any sense of a personal self. Through policing the health of citizens, the doctors are some of the novel's most overt "Senders," or agents of capital-C Control, commodifying and exploiting the individual's humanity (mind and body) as a raw material in the generation of a knowledge that functions only in the legitimation and reinforcement of itself as authoritative.

  7. INTERNAL WARS: RETHINKING PROBLEM AND RESPONSE

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manwaring, Max

    2001-01-01

    ...)--are the most pervasive and likely type of conflict in the post-Cold War era. It is almost certain that the United States will become involved directly or indirectly in some of these conflicts...

  8. Necessary Evil: The Importance of Destruction and Occupation in War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    world wars, the Cold War, and many other military conflicts. As the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle said, “We make war so that we may live in...of ashes—the result of systematic burning at the hands of 1 Aristotle . Nichomachean Ethics...the defeated nation and stew in the rhetoric of how wrongly they had been treated. The small number of occupation soldiers physically present

  9. The strategic offense initiative? The Soviets and Star Wars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westwick, Peter J. [History Department, University of Southern California, Los Angles, California (United States)

    2014-05-09

    Historians of the Cold War have paid too little attention to Soviet fears of 'space-strike weapons' - that is, possible offensive uses of President Ronald Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative. In fifteen years or so, soldiers will no longer shoot rifles but will use some kind of lightning, some sort of a machine emitting a holocaustal electrical beam. Tell me, what can we invent in this line so as to surprise our neighbors?... Alas, we are only capable of imitating and purchasing weapons from others, and we do well if we manage to repair them ourselves. --Fyodor Dostoevsky, A Writer's Diary, 1873. [Khlinov, a physicist]: 'I know that he has made an important discovery concerning the transmission of infra-red rays over a distance.... Heat waves at a temperature of a thousand degrees centigrade transmitted parallel to each other constitute a monstrous weapon of destruction and defense in time of war. The whole secret lies in the transmission of a ray that does not disperse. So far nobody has been able to do this. Judging by your story, Garin has constructed a machine that will do it. If so it is an extremely important discovery.' 'I've been thinking for a long time that this invention smells of higher politics,' said Shelga. --Aleksei Tolstoy, The Garin Death Ray, 1927 (translated by George Hanna)

  10. Civil Wars, Child Soldiers and Post Conflict Peace Building in West

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    The collapse of the cold war and the attendant eruption of violence and civil wars in parts of the ... conscription of children, etc, from schools, orphanages, refugee camps, etc, and (ii) ... Chapter two deserves two observations. First, except for a ...

  11. Hitler's scientists science, war and the devil's pact

    CERN Document Server

    Cornwell, John

    2003-01-01

    In a rich and fascinating history John Cornwell tells the epic story of Germany's scientists from the First World War to the collapse of Hitler's Reich. He shows how Germany became the world's Mecca for inventive genius, taking the lion's share of Nobel awards, before Hitler's regime hijacked science for wars of conquest and genocidal racism. Cornwell gives a dramatic account of the wide ranging Nazi research projects, from rockets to nuclear weapons; the pursuit of advanced technology for irrational ends, concluding with with penetrating relevance for today: the inherent dangers of science without conscience.

  12. Astronomers in the Chemist's War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Virginia L.

    2012-01-01

    World War II, with radar, rockets, and "atomic" bombs was the physicists' war. And many of us know, or think we know, what our more senior colleagues did during it, with Hubble and Hoffleit at Aberdeen; M. Schwarzschild on active duty in Italy; Bondi, Gold, and Hoyle hunkered down in Dunsfeld, Surrey, talking about radar, and perhaps steady state; Greenstein and Henyey designing all-sky cameras; and many astronomers teaching navigation. World War I was The Chemists' War, featuring poison gases, the need to produce liquid fuels from coal on one side of the English Channel and to replace previously-imported dyesstuffs on the other. The talke will focus on what astronomers did and had done to them between 1914 and 1919, from Freundlich (taken prisoner on an eclipse expedition days after the outbreak of hostilities) to Edwin Hubble, returning from France without ever having quite reached the front lines. Other events bore richer fruit (Hale and the National Research Council), but very few of the stories are happy ones. Most of us have neither first nor second hand memories of The Chemists' War, but I had the pleasure of dining with a former Freundlich student a couple of weeks ago.

  13. Raymond Carver's "Vitamins" and the Discourses of the Vietnam War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saman Shariati-Rad

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available By integrating the discourses of the Vietnam War into the texture of his short story "Vitamins," Raymond Carver would like to emphasize that the war was not only fought outside the United States. The present paper is an attempt to show how Carver connects the mechanics of the battlefield to the discourses of similar kind present in the individual and social spheres of the latter part of the twentieth century in America – a view consistent with Carver's interest in drawing attention to the contextual motives behind his characters' moods and actions. Providing an understanding of both Carver's short narrative and the period in which it was written and received, this paper investigates the various clashes of the story's characters within the broader social conflicts surrounding the issues of poverty, racism, and sexism.

  14. "Shocking" masculinity: Stanley Milgram, "obedience to authority," and the "crisis of manhood" in Cold War America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Ian

    2011-06-01

    Stanley Milgram's study of "obedience to authority" is one of the best-known psychological experiments of the twentieth century. This essay examines the study's special charisma through a detailed consideration of the intellectual, cultural, and gender contexts of Cold War America. It suggests that Milgram presented not a "timeless" experiment on "human nature" but, rather, a historically contingent, scientifically sanctioned "performance" of American masculinity at a time of heightened male anxiety. The essay argues that this gendered context invested the obedience experiments with an extraordinary plausibility, immediacy, and relevance. Immersed in a discourse of masculinity besieged, many Americans read the obedience experiments not as a fanciful study of laboratory brutality but as confirmation of their worst fears. Milgram's extraordinary success thus lay not in his "discovery" of the fragility of individual conscience but in his theatrical flair for staging culturally relevant masculine performances.

  15. Emirhan Yeniki’nin “Bir Saatliğine” Hikâyesi Ve Tatar Edebiyatında Savaşın İzleri “For One Hour” Story Of Emirhan Yeniki And The Effects Of War In Tatar Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alsu KAMALİEVA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available War offers a variety of themes for artists with the tragedies it embodies. The war theme is one of the most challenging themes of literary works. Wars that have been experienced throughout the history of humanity have been worked in various literary genres in world literatures. “War” has been widely discussed in Tatar Literature as well. This is strongly related to the fact that Tatar society deeply experienced the sufferings of World War II. As it is known, the Tatar people had livedclosely with Soviet people and struggled against the Nazi Germany inthe Second World War by taking sides with Soviet Union. Many Tatarwriters and artists had been in the war in person and experienced theprocess. EmirhanYeniki, whose name has exceeded the borders of hiscountry, is one of those Tatar artists who experienced the war andreflected it successfully. “Bir Saatliğine” (For One Hour is a significantstory by EmirhanYeniki which established a place for itself in TatarLiterature among the works of war period. In the story, Yeniki tells usabout the Tatar society during the World War II and the meeting of amother with his youngest son of her three children for one hour byenriching the story with psychological analyses. In the “For One Hour”story, we can find about Tatar village life with all its details within thetechnical possibilities of story genre. In addition, the significance of“train”, the means of transportation where the story was set around,among Tatar society is clearly emphasized in the story. Savaş, trajedileriyle, sanatkârlara geniş bir yelpazede tema çeşitliliği verir. Savaş teması, edebi eserlerin de iddialı temalarından biridir. İnsanlık tarihi boyunca yaşanan savaşlar, dünya edebiyatlarında çeşitli edebî türlerde işlenmiştir. Tatar Edebiyatı’nda da savaş teması geniş bir şekilde yer almıştır. Bu durumun ortaya çıkmasında Tatar toplumunun, İkinci Dünya Savaşı’nın bütün acılarını derin

  16. Climate not to blame for African civil wars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhaug, Halvard

    2010-01-01

    Vocal actors within policy and practice contend that environmental variability and shocks, such as drought and prolonged heat waves, drive civil wars in Africa. Recently, a widely publicized scientific article appears to substantiate this claim. This paper investigates the empirical foundation for the claimed relationship in detail. Using a host of different model specifications and alternative measures of drought, heat, and civil war, the paper concludes that climate variability is a poor predictor of armed conflict. Instead, African civil wars can be explained by generic structural and contextual conditions: prevalent ethno-political exclusion, poor national economy, and the collapse of the Cold War system. PMID:20823241

  17. Climate not to blame for African civil wars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhaug, Halvard

    2010-09-21

    Vocal actors within policy and practice contend that environmental variability and shocks, such as drought and prolonged heat waves, drive civil wars in Africa. Recently, a widely publicized scientific article appears to substantiate this claim. This paper investigates the empirical foundation for the claimed relationship in detail. Using a host of different model specifications and alternative measures of drought, heat, and civil war, the paper concludes that climate variability is a poor predictor of armed conflict. Instead, African civil wars can be explained by generic structural and contextual conditions: prevalent ethno-political exclusion, poor national economy, and the collapse of the Cold War system.

  18. Causes of the Vietnam War: An Academic Look at Wilsoniasm and Cold War Effects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Belanger, Jeffrey

    1999-01-01

    At the end of World War II Europe was divided by two ideological super powers. President Truman had hoped that newly conquered Eastern Europe would hold free elections and determine their own course of government...

  19. The Image of War Correspondents in Anglo-American Fiction. Journalism Monographs Number Ninety-Seven.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Howard

    The work of war correspondents involves violence, danger, and drama; and what they endure to get a story is often as interesting as the actual news itself. Anglo-American fiction tends toward an ironic, even cynical, view of combat reporting that serves as a corrective to the notion, fostered in journalists' autobiographies, that war is fun. It…

  20. The atmospheric and climatic consequences of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagan, C.

    1984-01-01

    The author discusses his recent research that has uncovered the fact that nuclear war may carry in its wake a climatic catastrophe, which he calls ''nuclear winter.'' He says the effects of nuclear war would not be restricted to the combatant nations. Agriculture in the Northern Hemisphere would be devasted by even a ''small'' nuclear war. The propagating ecological consequences all over the Earth are likely to be severe. The Southern Hemisphere will be cold and dark. Global arsenals, now about twenty times the nuclear winter threshold, are growing

  1. Petrobarter: oil, inequality, and the political imagination in and after the Cold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Douglas

    2014-04-01

    Petrobarter--the exchange of oil for goods and services without reference to monetary currency--has been a widespread and underappreciated practice among corporations, states, and state agencies over the past half century. Analyzing this practice with reference to anthropological theories of barter adds to our understandings of two significant and intertwined concerns in contemporary social science: (1) the production and reproduction of inequality at various scales, from subnational regions to the international system as a whole, and (2) the generation and fate of mobilizing political imaginaries that challenge the abstracted, universalizing imaginaries so often associated with monetized exchange, especially in capitalist contexts. Barter exchanges featuring oil are, therefore, as analytically significant as the much more commonly studied transactions of oil and money. Ethnographic and historical case studies of petrobarter are drawn from the Perm region of the Russian Urals in the post-Soviet period and the global oil trade in the early Cold War. This view from the perspective of the socialist and postsocialist world, it is argued, provides an instructive counterpoint to the many existing studies of oil and money, both in and beyond anthropology, that are situated in the European-American colonial and postcolonial periphery.

  2. Pre Cold War British Spy Fiction, the “albatross of self” and lines of flight in Gravity’s Rainbow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Wishart Smith

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In his introduction to 'Slow Learner' Thomas Pynchon suggests that an influence in his short story ‘Under the Rose’ was the spy fiction he had read as a child.  What he takes from the form, he says, is an enjoyment of  “lurking, spying, false identities, psychological games.” I hope to show that this youthful reading has interesting things to tell us about Pynchon’s writing beyond ‘Under the Rose’ and in more complex ways than his quote suggests. To do this I want to focus on that perennial issue of spy fiction - the maintenance and manipulation of identity. Negotiating ideas of subjectivity is a core concern in Pynchon’s work and to consider it I want to use the four spy novelists he mentions in the 'Slow Learner' introduction - John Buchan, E. Phillips Oppenheim, Helen MacInnes and Geoffrey Household. This is a more disparate quartet of authors than Pynchon’s grouping suggests and I want to employ them to consider a variety of strategies used to ‘build character’ and the way Pynchon’s work approaches these strategies.  This allows a reflection on questions of disguise, doubles, animals and the nomad within the context of a variety of postcolonial theories and aspects of Deleuze and Guattari’s “nomadology”. 'V 'would appear an obvious place to see connections to spy fiction, but, though I touch on some aspects of this novel, my focus will be very much on 'Gravity’s Rainbow' because it has a much more concerted focus on the subject of Empire. Some intriguing echoes are to be found in the work of Pynchon in these authors and I hope to show how Pynchon’s attempts to formulate US “superimperialism” (Aijaz Ahmad are reflected in the imperial concerns of what I would term the pre-Cold War British Spy fiction that engaged Pynchon in his youth.

  3. War Against the Imagination: Technology, Kids, and Autonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anonymous

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available All children's movies produced, marketed and distributed by corporations are carefully designed sales delivery systems. They exist to sell. Secondarily, but of no less importance, they transmit ideology: even the most banal animated features transmit the social values and expectations of dominant culture. War Against the Imagination begins to develop a critical understanding of how the growing technological sophistication of story-telling media is changing both what and how stories teach young children. How are the boundaries between fantasy and reality disintegrating in the digital age, and of what impact on the lives of kids growing in our communities?

  4. "A Prostitution Alike of Matter and Spirit": Anti-War Discourses in Children's Literature and Childhood Culture before and during World War I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Kimberley

    2013-01-01

    Histories of the First World War have regularly implicated children's literature in boys' eagerness to enlist in the first two years of that conflict. While undoubtedly the majority of children's books, comics and magazines did espouse nationalistic, jingoistic and martial attitudes, there were alternative stories and environments. Looking at the…

  5. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 201 - 250 of 937 ... Vol 39, No 2 (2011), Book Review: Russia's heroes 1941–45, Abstract PDF ... Vol 37, No 2 (2009), Book Review: The hot "Cold War": The USSR in Southern Africa, Abstract ... Vol 23, No 3 (1993), Book review: Under fire - an American story ... Vol 38, No 2 (2010), Book Review: Why nations go to war ...

  6. Physics in WWI: Fighting the Acoustic War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevles, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    World War I was the first high-technology war, and when the United States began to prepare for it in 1915 the federal government turned to the storied inventor Thomas Edison. Edison formed a board that included industrial executives and engineers but only one physicist, its members holding that they wanted people who would do things and not just talk about them. However, in 1916, the nation's scientists managed to create a place for themselves in the preparedness effort by organizing the National Research Council under the National Academy of Sciences. Once the United States went to war, in April 1917, the NRC brought academic and industrial physicists together in efforts to detect incoming aircraft, submerged submarines, and the location of long-range artillery. The efforts employed devices that relied in the main on the detection and identification of sound waves from these weapons. The devices were passive responders, but they were marked by increasing sophistication and enabled the United States and its allies to prosecute an acoustic war. That branch of the war was militarily effective, overshadowed the work of Edison's group, and gained physicists high standing among leaders in both the military and industry.

  7. PROPAGANDA WITH NO RULES, OR INFORMATION CONFLICT IN COLD WAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Елена Анатольевна Котеленец

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The author examines the ways and methods of the ideological struggle between the USSR and the West after the Second World War (1947-1991 including open and secret forms of ideological influence, new technical means, and information institutions. The article focuses on the propaganda actions supporting the Vietnam and Afghan wars, and the conflicts between the NATO and the Warsaw Treaty Organization. It also demonstrates the forms of the national image-making (how a positive or a negative image of a country was constructed, the using of sanctions and the undermining of the pacifist movement.

  8. Nuclear war and other catastrophes. Civil and catastrophe protection in the Federal republic of Germany and the United Kingdom after 1945

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diebel, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The book civil and catastrophe protection in the Federal republic of Germany and the United Kingdom after 1945 discusses the following issues: aerial defense and the atomic bomb (1945 - 1968), crises and catastrophes in the shadow of the bomb (1962 - 1978), civil defense and the comeback of the (nuclear) war (1976 - 1979), civil defense and the second ''Cold War'' (1979 - 1986), Chernobyl and the end of the Cold War (1979 - 1990), war, catastrophe and safety in the 20th century - a conclusion.

  9. Post-cold war United Nations peacekeeping operations: a review of the case for a hybrid level 2+ medical treatment facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ralph Jay

    2015-01-01

    Post-Cold War, UN peacekeeping operations (UN PKOs) have become larger, more mobile, multi-faceted and conducted over vast areas of remote, rugged, and harsh geography. They have been increasingly involved in dangerous areas with ill-defined boundaries, simmering internecine armed conflict, and disregard on the part of some local parties for peacekeepers' security and role. Yet progressively there have been expectations of financial restraint and austerity. Additionally, UN PKOs have become more "robust," that is, engaged in preemptive, assertive operations. A statistically positive and significant relationship exists between missions' size, complexity, remoteness, and aggressive tenor and a higher probability of trauma or death, especially as a result of hostile actions or disease. Therefore, in the interest of "force protection" and optimizing operations, a key component of UN PKOs is health care and medical treatment. The expectation is that UN PKO medical support must conform to the general intent and structure of current UN PKOs to become more streamlined, portable, mobile, compartmentalized, and specialized, but also more varied and complex to address the medical aspects of these missions cost-efficiently. This article contends that establishing a hybrid level 2-a level 2 with level 3 modules and components (i.e., level 2+)-is a viable course of action when considering trends in the medical aspects of Post-Cold War UN PKOs. A level 2 medical treatment facility has the potential to provide needed forward mobile medical treatment, especially trauma care, for extended, complex, large-scale, and comprehensive UN PKOs. This is particularly the case for missions that include humanitarian outreach, preventive medicine, and psychiatry. The level 2 treatment facility is flexible enough to expand into a hybrid level 2+ with augmentation of modules based on changes in mission requirements and variation in medical aspects.

  10. Receptor visualization and the atomic bomb. A historical account of the development of the chemical neuroanatomy of receptors for neurotransmitters and drugs during the Cold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, J M; Mengod, G

    2018-03-01

    This is a historical account of how receptors for neurotransmitters and drugs got to be seen at the regional, cellular, and subcellular levels in brain, in the years going from the end of the World War II until the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Cold War (1945-1991). The realization in the US of the problem of mental health care, as a consequence of the results of medical evaluation for military service during the war, let the US Government to act creating among other things the National Institute for Mental Health (NIMH). Coincident with that, new drug treatments for these disorders were introduced. War science also created an important number of tools and instruments, such as the radioisotopes, that played a significant role in the development of our story. The scientific context was marked by the development of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and the introduction in the early 80's of the DNA recombinant technologies. The concepts of chemical neurotransmission in the brain and of receptors for drugs and transmitters, although proposed before the war, where not generally accepted. Neurotransmitters were identified and the mechanisms of biosynthesis, storage, release and termination of action by mechanisms such as reuptake, elucidated. Furthermore, the synapse was seen with the electron microscope and more important for our account, neurons and their processes visualized in the brain first by fluorescence histochemistry, then using radioisotopes and autoradiography, and later by immunohistochemistry (IHC), originating the Chemical Neuroanatomy. The concept of chemical neurotransmission evolved from the amines, expanded to excitatory and inhibitory amino acids, then to neuropeptides and finally to gases and other "atypical" neurotransmitters. In addition, coexpression of more than one transmitter in a neuron, changed the initial ideas of neurotransmission. The concept of receptors for these and other messengers underwent a significant evolution from an abstract

  11. A NEW FORM OF SECURITY COOPERATION AND COLLECTIVECONFLICT MANAGEMENT IN THE POST COLD WARINTERNATIONAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinem KOCAMAZ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available International security environment changed completely after the Cold War.During the Cold War years security challenges wereshaped by competitive powerrelations between Soviet Union and the United States. On the other hand after theend of the Cold War, global security was redefinedand wide range of securitychallenges and threats occurred. After fragmentation of security threats, newthreats emerged such as terrorist attacks, massacres which are made by humansown governments, chronic politic instabilities, environmental degradations etc.Under these circumstances new forms of security cooperation became more vitalin order to cope with these complex challenges. Inthis respect third partiesbecame an actor to manage conflicts, security challenges and crises. Unliketraditional nation-state intervention, regional organizations, international agenciesand non-governmental organizations became more active in conflict managementprocess. In this framework this study will evaluateperformance and theeffectiveness of the main actors in the collectiveconflict management (CCMprocess.

  12. An exploration of reminiscence and post-war European immigrants living in a multicultural aged-care setting in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Cherie; Schmidt, Rachael

    2009-01-01

    This phenomenological study explores the experiences and perceptions of the telling of life stories of four post-war immigrants living in a multicultural residential aged-care setting in Australia. This study aims to shed light on what participants feel about life stories, and the prospect of involvement in the documentation of their life story in order to provide insight and understanding for optimum programme facilitation and better resident care.Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the four participants. Data were audiotaped and transcribed. Phenomenological methods were used to explicate data.Three main themes emerged: diminution of guilt, social sharing - common bonds and, the urge to 'feel' the past to 'fill' the present. It is apparent that aged survivors of war, and displacement to a new country, feel residual guilt regarding the leaving of their homeland. The prospect of documenting their life stories offers an opportunity to provide an explanation for their decision.Immersion in life stories allows the re-experiencing and sharing of past emotions and sensations. Engagement in occupational reminiscence enhances understanding a person's lived life experience, which adds meaning to one's life. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. A salute to the nurses of World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breakiron, M

    1995-11-01

    The nation recently celebrated the 50th anniversary of World War II (WWII) with a renewed interest in Pearl Harbor and D-Day (ie, the day the Allies invaded Europe.) One group of war heroes--all volunteers--received little attention, although they endured bombings, torpedoes, antiaircraft fire, prison, starvation, and death. They were the nurses of WWII. They served all over the world and left a legacy that today's perioperative nurses are committed to preserving. This article was written to honor the nurses of WWII. It relates only a few stories of thousands that could be told.

  14. Between the West and Asia: “Humanistic” Japanese Family Planning in the Cold War1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homei, Aya

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies the formation of Japanese ventures in family planning deployed in various villages in Asia from the 1960s onward in the name of development aid. By critically examining how Asia became the priority area for Japan’s international cooperation in family planning and by analyzing how the adjective “humanistic” was used to underscore the originality of Japan’s family planning program overseas, the paper shows that visions of Japanese actors were directly informed by Japan’s delicate position in Cold War geopolitics, between the imagined West represented by the United States and “underdeveloped” Asia, at a time when Japan was striving to (re-)establish its position in world politics and economics. Additionally, by highlighting subjectivities and intra-Asian networks centered on Japanese actors, the paper also aims to destabilize the current historiography on population control which has hitherto focused either on Western actors in the transnational population control movement or on non-Western “acceptors” subjected to the population control programs. PMID:29046737

  15. ‘This War for Men’s Minds’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin-Nielsen, Janet

    2010-01-01

    The past decade has seen an explosion of work on the history of the human sciences during the Cold War. This work, however, does not engage with one of the leading human sciences of the period: linguistics. This article begins to rectify this knowledge gap by investigating the influence....... Together, I argue, language and linguistics formed a critical part of the rise of American leadership in the new world order — one that provided communities as dispersed as the military, the diplomatic corps, scientists and language teachers with a powerful way of tackling the problems they faced. To date......, linguistics has not been integrated into the broader framework of Cold War human sciences. In this article, I aim to bring both language, as concept, and linguistics, as discipline, into this framework. In doing so, I pave the way for future work on the history of linguistics as a human science....

  16. Meeting Yesterday Head-On: The Vietnam War in Vietnamese, American, and World History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockard, Craig A.

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that the American-Vietnamese War can be analyzed best in the context of three distinct entities: (1) Vietnam; (2) the United States; and (3) the larger world. Discusses Vietnam's revolutionary tradition, U.S. Cold War foreign policy, and the global context of anticolonialism and antiimperialism. (CFR)

  17. Definitions of Violence: Narratives of Survivors From the War in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basic, Goran

    2018-07-01

    Previous research on violence during the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina has resulted in a one-sided presentation of the phenomenon of "war violence." Researchers have emphasized the importance of narratives in general but have not analyzed stories on war violence that were the product of interpersonal interaction and meaning-making activity. The aim of this article is to fill this knowledge gap by analyzing survivor narratives of the 1990s war in northwestern Bosnia. The focus is on analyzing interviewees' descriptions of wartime violence and the discursive patterns that contribute to constructing the phenomenon of "war violence." My analysis reveals an intimate relationship between how an interviewee interprets the biographical consequences of war violence and the individual's own war experiences. All interviewees described war violence as something that is morally reprehensible. These narratives, from both perpetrators of violence and those subjected to violence, recount violent situations that not only exist as mental constructions but also live on even after the war; thus, they have real consequences for the individuals and their society.

  18. Romania and the New Cold War Security Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    Rossisskiy” refers to citizens of the Russian Federation.199 The Moscow objective is to protect these populations and at the same time to gain influence over...social media with deep economic repercussions. The continuous changes in the Eastern Europe have a great influence on the Romanian security...the nation and the organization that is part of. 15. SUBJECT TERMS National security strategy, Russian way of war, Russian influence in Romania

  19. The Yuan vs. the Dollar: China and the United States are Already in a "Hot" War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daly, William R

    2005-01-01

    ...., "Hot" money in FOREX) reigns as an instrument of economic and financial power. Ironically, just as the Cold War symbolically ended with the fall of the Berlin Wall, this Hot War began with another fall...

  20. Coming in From the Cold ... War: Defense Humint Services Support to Military Operations Other Than War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Becker, David

    2000-01-01

    ...) and theater commander in chiefs (CINCs) in military operations other than war (MOOTW). The examination included a study into the recent history of military HUMINT, and the Department of Defense's (DoD's...

  1. War and Absurdity: Reading the Manifestations of Trauma in Uwem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This essay examines the circumstances of Jubril, Chief Ukongo and Colonel Usenetok, three casualties of Sharia war fleeing to safety in Uwem Akpan's short story, “Luxurious Hearses” in her collection, Say You're One of Them (2008). The paper particularly identifies the loss of personhood that afflicts these individuals as a ...

  2. More than War: Teachers' Stories from Israel and Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Stefanie Karin

    2010-01-01

    Increasingly, the effects of war--threat towards health, socio-economic stability, and social trust--are felt on the streets of cities and towns in conflict zones. Teachers in two locations, one a conflict zone, one post conflict, talk about the ways they respond to violent conflict in their community. Sderot, Israel, sits two kilometers from…

  3. 75 FR 19183 - National Former Prisoner of War Recognition Day, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    ... heroes. Through multiple wars, thousands of American service members have faced unimaginable cruelty and... history books. Yet, their stories are etched in our national conscience, and their courage is enshrined in... received nor burdens borne by these heroes and their families, but neither shall we forget their selfless...

  4. Rockets, radiosensitizers, and RRx-001: an origin story part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oronsky, Bryan; Scicinski, Jan; Ning, Shoucheng; Peehl, Donna; Oronsky, Arnold; Cabrales, Pedro; Bednarski, Mark; Knox, Susan

    2016-03-01

    From Adam and Eve, to Darwinism, origin stories attempt to fill in the blanks, connect the dots, and define the turning points that are fundamental to subsequent developments. The purpose of this review is to present the origin story of a one-of-a-kind anticancer agent, RRx-001, which emerged from the aerospace industry as a putative radiosensitizer; not since the dynamite-to-dilator transformation of nitroglycerin in 1878 or the post-World War II explosive-to-elixir conversion of hydralazine, an ingredient in rocket fuel, to an antihypertensive, an antidepressant and an antituberculant, has energetic chemistry been harnessed for therapeutic purposes. This is Part 1 of the radiosensitization story; Parts 2 and 3, which detail the crossover activity of RRx-001 as a chemosensitizer in multiple tumor types and disease states including malaria, hemorrhagic shock and sickle cell anemia, are the subject of future reviews.

  5. 156 THE GULF WAR AS A FALL OUT OF THE CHANGING GLOBAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    US-led UN forces bombarded Iraq out of Kuwait in 1991 left much to be ... testified that “the Gulf War resulted from a long range Anglo-American policy to control ... the Eastern bloc and the attendant end of the Cold War, it is the position of this ..... Nicaragua, Grenada and Panama nor was USSR given any in Afghanistan.

  6. Game-Changer: The Illusion of War Without Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-28

    War. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1985. _____. A History of Strategy: From Sun Tzu to William S. Lind. Kuovola, Finland: Castalia House...Selected Bibliography 24 iii Paper Abstract In the late 1980s and early 1990s, the “Revolution in Military Affairs” (RMA) argued...SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY Books Bernstein, Peter L. Against the Gods: The Remarkable Story of Risk. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1998

  7. Living the Past: A Story of Tricksters and Spirits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shing, A.

    2017-12-01

    Coming out of my first year of highschool, I have learned two things: Harker is a "land of opportunity" and World History is my favourite course. When my school offered a course on Ecology, I rushed to sign up. Because I was going to Alaska as part of the course, I decided to expand on my interest of the past by looking into the Tlingits, the native people of Alaska. They practice a very rich oral tradition. In Tlingit mythology, Raven is a trickster figure and a key character in many of the world creation stories. Seeing the trickster motif in other native american stories as well, I have decided to make my own trickster figure. I have written a story about a trickster mountain goat and an arrogant glacier. In the style of Tlingit origin stories, I have crafted a story that touches on global warming and receding glaciers. At Bright STaRS, I plan to share my tale and spread the wonders of my journey through the Inian Islands and the cold waters of Alaska. Whether good or bad, humans are connected to all of nature. By sharing my story, I am sharing the connections that I have made and my hopes for a renewable future.

  8. Peaceful atoms in agriculture and food: how the politics of the Cold War shaped agricultural research using isotopes and radiation in post war divided Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachmann, Karin

    2015-01-01

    During the Cold War, the super powers advanced nuclear literacy and access to nuclear resources and technology to a first-class power factor. Both national governments and international organizations developed nuclear programs in a variety of areas and promoted the development of nuclear applications in new environments. Research into the use of isotopes and radiation in agriculture, food production, and storage gained major importance as governments tried to promote the possibility of a peaceful use of atomic energy. This study is situated in divided Germany as the intersection of the competing socio-political systems and focuses on the period of the late 1940s and 1950s. It is argued that political interests and international power relations decisively shaped the development of "nuclear agriculture". The aim is to explore whether and how politicians in both parts of the divided country fostered the new field and exerted authority over the scientists. Finally, it examines the ways in which researchers adapted to the altered political conditions and expectations within the two political structures, by now fundamentally different.

  9. Religion As a Dimension of the Global War on Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weeden, Gary

    2004-01-01

    .... The enemy embraces a much different ideology than the enemy of the Cold War. Armed with a divine mandate and fueled by anger, Islamic militants have an exclusive strategy and a powerful message...

  10. Linking legacies: Connecting the Cold War nuclear weapons production processes to their environmental consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    In the aftermath of the Cold War, the US has begun addressing the environmental consequences of five decades of nuclear weapons production. In support of this effort, the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1995 directed the Department of Energy (DOE) to describe the waste streams generated during each step in the production of nuclear weapons. Accordingly, this report responds to this mandate, and it is the Department's first comprehensive analysis of the sources of waste and contamination generated by the production of nuclear weapons. The report also contains information on the missions and functions of nuclear weapons facilities, on the inventories of waste and materials remaining at these facilities, as well as on the extent and characteristics of contamination in and around these facilities. This analysis unites specific environmental impacts of nuclear weapons production with particular production processes. The Department used historical records to connect nuclear weapons production processes with emerging data on waste and contamination. In this way, two of the Department's legacies--nuclear weapons manufacturing and environmental management--have become systematically linked. The goal of this report is to provide Congress, DOE program managers, non-governmental analysts, and the public with an explicit picture of the environmental results of each step in the nuclear weapons production and disposition cycle

  11. Linking legacies: Connecting the Cold War nuclear weapons production processes to their environmental consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    In the aftermath of the Cold War, the US has begun addressing the environmental consequences of five decades of nuclear weapons production. In support of this effort, the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1995 directed the Department of Energy (DOE) to describe the waste streams generated during each step in the production of nuclear weapons. Accordingly, this report responds to this mandate, and it is the Department`s first comprehensive analysis of the sources of waste and contamination generated by the production of nuclear weapons. The report also contains information on the missions and functions of nuclear weapons facilities, on the inventories of waste and materials remaining at these facilities, as well as on the extent and characteristics of contamination in and around these facilities. This analysis unites specific environmental impacts of nuclear weapons production with particular production processes. The Department used historical records to connect nuclear weapons production processes with emerging data on waste and contamination. In this way, two of the Department`s legacies--nuclear weapons manufacturing and environmental management--have become systematically linked. The goal of this report is to provide Congress, DOE program managers, non-governmental analysts, and the public with an explicit picture of the environmental results of each step in the nuclear weapons production and disposition cycle.

  12. Stephen Jay Gould and the Value of Neutrality of Science During the Cold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Myrna

    2016-12-01

    Stephen Jay Gould was a paleontologist and scientific celebrity at the close of the twentieth century, most famous for his popular writings on evolution and his role in the American creationist controversies of that era. In the early 1980s, Gould was drawn into the "nuclear winter" episode through his friendship with Carl Sagan, an astronomer and popular science celebrity. Sagan helped develop the theory of nuclear winter and subsequently used the theory as evidence to petition the United States government to scale back its nuclear armament. The theory of nuclear winter claimed that even a small nuclear exchange could result in a atmospheric blackening akin to the extinction event of the late Cretaceous. Gould was not a climate scientist but he testified before the U.S. House of Representatives as an expert on historical extinction events. Gould's insistence on the value-neutrality of nuclear winter reveals much about the moral politics of science in late Cold War America. Coming at the heels of leftist scientific activism of the 1980s, the nuclear winter episode demonstrates how value-neutrality emerged the salient feature of scientific involvement in American politics in this period. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Coercive Diplomacy: Countering War-Threatening Crises and Armed Conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Peter Viggo

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays states rarely resort to war to defeat each other or to address war-threatening crises and armed conflicts. Instead, coercive diplomacy has emerged as their strategy of choice when persuasion and other non-military instruments fall short. Coercive diplomacy involves the use of military...... threats and/or limited force (sticks) coupled with inducements and assurances (carrots) in order to influence the opponent to do something it would prefer not to. States use coercive diplomacy in the hope of achieving their objectives without having to resort to full-scale war. This chapter presents...... the strategy of coercive diplomacy and its requirements for success and shows how states have employed it to manage crises and conflicts during the three strategic eras that the world has passed through since the end of the Cold War....

  14. Al Qaeda and the Global War on Terror

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    bookshelf /longitudes-and- attitudes/prologue (accessed May 5, 2010). 44 globalization and the end of the Cold War, nation states simply failed to...and Attitudes: Exploring the World After September 11.” Thomas L. Friedman.com (2002). http://www.thomaslfriedman.com/ bookshelf / longitudes-and

  15. So Much More than a Humble Hall: World War I Memorials in NSW Schools of Arts & Mechanics' Institutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Roger K.; Parkinson, Robert J.; Ryan, Melanie J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper outlines the important role that School of Arts and Mechanics' Institutes played in the story of Australian adult education and highlights their significance in acknowledging those members of their local communities who had served in World War I, in honoring who had fallen, and in stressing the great cost of war to the community. [For…

  16. Apollo's Warriors: US Air Force Special Operations during the Cold War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hass, Michael

    1997-01-01

    .... If John Stuart Mill could come to America a century after his historic judgment to meet such men and women, he would almost certainly understand their modern-day stories without a moment's confusion...

  17. Combining individual memory & collective memory? : Classics Illustrated’s representation of World War II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribbens, Kees

    WWII is widely remembered and represented. Keeping the memories of this international conflict alive, both within academic and popular history writing, occurred largely within various national frameworks. On the one hand, in the immediate post-war world many stories appeared about the great events

  18. TELEVISION in the Age of (Post) Communism : The Case of Romania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mustata, Dana

    2012-01-01

    Emerging scholarship on television in Eastern Europe needs to step away from the political antagonisms of the Cold War before being able to produce histories of the medium, rather than political stories of television. Starting from this premise, the article takes a longue duree perspective at the

  19. The copyright wars three centuries of trans-atlantic battle

    CERN Document Server

    Baldwin, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Today’s copyright wars can seem unprecedented. Sparked by the digital revolution that has made copyright—and its violation—a part of everyday life, fights over intellectual property have pitted creators, Hollywood, and governments against consumers, pirates, Silicon Valley, and open-access advocates. But while the digital generation can be forgiven for thinking the dispute between, for example, the publishing industry and Google is completely new, the copyright wars in fact stretch back three centuries—and their history is essential to understanding today’s battles. The Copyright Wars—the first major trans-Atlantic history of copyright from its origins to today—tells this important story. Peter Baldwin explains why the copyright wars have always been driven by a fundamental tension. Should copyright assure authors and rights holders lasting claims, much like conventional property rights, as in Continental Europe? Or should copyright be primarily concerned with giving consumers cheap and easy ac...

  20. The English Catholic New Left: Battling the Religious Establishment and the Politics of the Cold War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay P. Corrin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In the 1960s there appeared in England a group of young university educated Catholics who sought to merge radical Catholic social teachings with the ideas of Karl Marx and the latest insights of European and American sociologists and literary theorists. They were known as the English Catholic New Left (ECNL. Under the inspiration of their Dominican mentors, they launched a magazine called Slant that served as the vehicle for publishing their ideas about how Catholic theology along with the Social Gospels fused with neo-Marxism could bring a humanistic socialist revolution to Britain. The Catholic Leftists worked in alliance with the activists of the secular New Left Review to achieve this objective. A major influence on the ECNL was the Marxist Dominican friar Laurence Bright and Herbert McCabe, O. P. Slant took off with great success when Sheed and Ward agreed to publish the journal. Slant featured perceptive, indeed at times brilliant, cutting-edge articles by the Catholic Left’s young Turks, including Terry Eagleton, Martin Redfern, Bernard Sharratt, and Angela and Adrian Cunningham, among others. A major target of the Slant project was the Western Alliance’s Cold War strategy of nuclear deterrence, which they saw to be contrary to Christian just war theory and ultimately destructive of humankind. Another matter of concern for the Slant group was capitalist imperialism that ravaged the underdeveloped world and was a major destabilizing factor for achieving world peace and social equality. Despite their failure to achieve a social revolution “baptized by Christianity,” the English Catholic New Left broke new ground in terms of showing how a traditional religion with a highly conservative and sometimes reactionary history had the capacity to offer new paths forward and remain an inspiration to progressive thinking Christians trying to navigate the shoals of a post-modern world.

  1. A Historical Survey of Military Health Services: The Crimean War and Florence Nigtingale

    OpenAIRE

    Unal Demirtas; Gultekin Ozturk; Aslan Ozden

    2014-01-01

    During the Crimean War freezing cold and contagious diseases was more important than the Russian soldiers for the allied armies. Typhus, scorbut, cholera and malaria prepare the dead of a large number of soldiers. According to the resources, the contagious diseases led to death more than ten times of the military actions. That and #8217;s why, The European armies understood the importance of the treatment diseases in the war and the Crimean War became the beginning point in military health co...

  2. Violence and Death in Stories of War Period Writer Omer Seyfettin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Lokman

    2006-01-01

    In this article, a brief biography is given and information is provided on, the period Omer Seyfettin, one of the most widely read children's literature writers in Turkey lived in, and the subject of death and violence in 129 short stories he has written, compiled in 10 books, was analyzed. The data was subjected to computer aided quantitative…

  3. The Island that came in from the Cold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars

    by mercantile and religious forms of colonialism, then by administrative colonialism, cold war colonialism, ‘modernisation’ colonialism – and now resource driven neoliberal colonialism. But we can also ask the more provocative question: Is climate change discourse a form of colonialism? In many parts...

  4. Cold War and the environment: the role of Finland in international environmental politics in the Baltic Sea region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räsänen, Tuomas; Laakkonen, Simo

    2007-04-01

    The Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area signed in 1974 in Helsinki is probably the most important environmental agreement consummated in the Baltic Sea region. This article is the first study that explores the history of this agreement, also known as the Helsinki Convention, by using primary archival sources. The principal sources are the archives of the Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland. We examine the role of Finland in the process that led to the signing of the Helsinki Convention from the perspective of international politics. The study focuses primarily on Finnish, Swedish, and Soviet state-level parties from the end of the 1960s to 1974. We show that Cold War politics affected in several ways negotiations and contents of the Helsinki Convention. We also argue that the Soviet Union used the emerging international environmental issues as a new tool of power politics.

  5. Children's experiences of war: handicapped children in England during the Second World War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheatcroft, Sue

    2008-01-01

    The experiences of children during the Second World War have attracted considerable attention, both scholarly and popular. Not all children however, have received equal attention. Handicapped children are conspicuous by their absence from all types of literature, both on evacuation and on children's experiences of the Second World War. This article restores these children to the story of wartime England and assesses their experiences. It examines the plans that were made for their evacuation and how they were carried out, and compares their lives, both individually and institutionally (i.e. in the various types of 'special' school) with those who, for various reasons, were not evacuated. It also compares their experiences, to a lesser degree, with those of their non-handicapped counterparts. The article argues that for many handicapped children it was a positive experience but one which depended on specific aspects, such as the attitudes of the authorities and of the general public, and perhaps more importantly, the attitudes and quality of the teaching and nursing staff, who were responsible for the children on a daily basis.

  6. Recalling war trauma of the Pacific War and the Japanese occupation in the oral history of Malaysia and Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    The Pacific War and the Japanese Occupation were traumatic periods in the lives of people now over seventy years old in Malaysia and Singapore. This study traces why individuals interviewed for oral history of the Pacific War and the Japanese Occupation have often been able to tell stories of trauma without being overwhelmed by their reminiscences. It emphasizes that memories of traumatic experiences of the Pacific War and the Japanese Occupation in Malaysia and Singapore are mediated and eased by supportive social networks that are part of the interview subject's community. The individual's personal memories of traumatic war experiences are positioned in the context of the collective memory of the group and, thus, are made easier to recall. However, for individuals whose personal memories are at variance with the collective memory of the group they belong to, recalling traumatic experiences is more difficult and alienating as they do not have the support in their community. The act of recalling traumatic memories in the context of the collective memory of a group is particularly relevant in Malaysia and Singapore. These countries have a long history of being plural societies, where although the major ethnic groups -- the Malays, Chinese, and Indians -- have lived side by side peacefully, they have lived in culturally and socially separate worlds, not interacting much with the other groups. The self -- identity of many older people who lived through the Pacific War and the Japanese Occupation is inextricably bound up with their ethnicity. Oral history on war trauma strongly reflects these identities.

  7. Telling Stories about Post-war Britain: Popular Individualism and the 'Crisis' of the 1970s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Emily; Schofield, Camilla; Sutcliffe-Braithwaite, Florence; Thomlinson, Natalie

    2017-06-01

    This article argues that, by the 1970s, people in Britain were increasingly insistent about defining and claiming their individual rights, identities and perspectives. Using individual narratives and testimonies, we show that many were expressing desires for greater personal autonomy and self-determination. We suggest that this was an important trend across the post-war decades, and of particular importance to understanding the 1970s. This popular individualism was not the result of Thatcher; if anything, it was a cause of Thatcherism. But this individualism had multiple political and cultural valences; desires for greater individual self-determination, and anger with the 'establishment' for withholding it, did not lead inexorably to Thatcherism. There were, in fact, some sources for, and potential outlets for, popular individualism on the left-outlets that explicitly challenged class, gender and racial inequalities. With this, we suggest the possibility of a new meta-narrative of post-war Britain, cutting across the political narrative that organizes post-war British history into three periods: social democracy, 'crisis' and the triumph of 'neoliberalism'. The 1970s was a key moment in the spread of a popular, aspirational form of individualism in post-war Britain, and this development is critical to our understanding of the history of the post-war years. © The Author [2017]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Solid state insurrection how the science of substance made American physics matter

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Joseph D

    2018-01-01

    Solid state physics—the study of the physical properties of solid matter—was far and away the most populous subfield of Cold War American physics. But despite prolific contributions to consumer and medical technology, such as the transistor and magnetic resonance imaging, it garnered much less professional prestige and public attention than nuclear and particle physics. Solid State Insurrection argues that solid state physics was nonetheless essential to securing the vast social, political, and financial capital Cold War physics enjoyed. Solid state’s technological bent, and its challenge to the “pure science” ideal many physicists cherished, helped physics as a whole respond more readily to Cold War social, political, and economic pressures. Solid state research kept physics economically and technologically relevant, sustaining its lofty cultural standing and policy influence long after the sheen of the Manhattan Project had faded. By placing solid state at the center of the story of twentieth cent...

  9. Climatic Change, Wars and Dynastic Cycles in China Over the Last Millennium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, D.D.; Jim, C.Y.; Lin, G.C.S.; Wang, J.J.; Lee, H.F. [Department of Geography, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); He, Yuan-Qing [CAREERI, Chinese Academy of Science, Lanzhou, Gansu, 730000 (China)

    2006-06-15

    In recent years, the phenomenon of global warming and its implications for the future of the human race have been intensively studied. In contrast, few quantitative studies have been attempted on the notable effects of past climatic changes upon human societies. This study explored the relationship between climatic change and war in China by comparing high-resolution paleo-climatic reconstructions with known war incidences in China in the last millennium. War frequencies showed a cyclic pattern that closely followed the global paleo-temperature changes. Strong and significant correlations were found between climatic change, war occurrence, harvest level, population size and dynastic transition. During cold phases, China suffered more often from frequent wars, population decline and dynastic changes. The quantitative analyses suggested that the reduction of thermal energy input during a cold phase would lower the land carrying capacity in the traditional agrarian society, and the population size, with significant accretions accrued in the previous warm phase, could not be sustained by the shrinking resource base. The stressed human-nature relationship generated a 'push force', leading to more frequent wars between states, regions and tribes, which could lead to the collapse of dynasties and collapses of human population size. War frequencies varied according to geographical locations (North, Central and South China) due to spatial variations in the physical environment and hence differential response to climatic change. Moreover, war occurrences demonstrated an obvious time lag after an episode of temperature fall, and the three geographical regions experienced different length of time lags. This research also shows that human population increases and collapses were correlated with the climatic phases and the social instabilities that were induced by climate changes during the last millennium. The findings proposed a new interpretation of human

  10. Peacekeeping without banisters : the need for new practices that go beyond just war theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Topolski, A.R.; Forough, M.

    2010-01-01

    While there may be nothing new under the sun in terms of warfare, there are two new trends in the post-Cold war era that are strikingly at odds with each other: the resurgence of just war theory and the increase in UN led peacekeeping operations. On the one hand, there has been an explosion of just

  11. Review of Cold war social science: Knowledge production, liberal democracy, and human nature, and Working knowledge: Making the human sciences from Parsons to Kuhn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Paul

    2013-11-01

    Reviews the books, Cold War Social Science: Knowledge Production, Liberal Democracy, and Human Nature by Mark Solovey and Hamilton Cravens (2012) and Working Knowledge: Making the Human Sciences From Parsons to Kuhn by Joel Isaac (see record 2012-13212-000). Taken together, these two important books make intriguing statements about the way to write the histories of fields like psychology, sociology, anthropology, and economics in the Anglo American world during the 20th century. To date, histories of these fields have drawn on a number of fairly well-established punctuation marks to assist in periodization: the shift from interwar institutionalism in economics to postwar neoclassicism, with its physics-like emphasis on mathematical theory-building; the transition from the regnant prewar behaviorism through a postwar "cognitive revolution" in American psychology; and the move in fields like sociology and anthropology away from positivism and the pursuit of what has sometimes been called "grand theory" in the early postwar era toward a period defined by intellectual and political fragmentation, the reemergence of interpretive approaches and a reaction to the scientistic pretensions of the earlier period. These books, by contrast, provide perspectives orthogonal to such existing narrative frameworks by adopting cross-cutting lenses like the "Cold War" and the working practices of researchers in the social and behavioral sciences. As a result, they do much to indicate the value of casting a historiographical net beyond individual disciplines, or even beyond the "social sciences" or the "human sciences" sensu stricto, in the search for deeper patterns of historical development in these fields. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. The Health Consequences of the Diversion of Resources to War and Preparation for War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Sidel

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Armed conflict damages health in many ways. These include death and disability directly caused by war, destruction of the societal infrastructure that supports health and safety, forced migration of people both within their own country and as refugees to other countries, promotion of violence as a method to settle conflicts and disputes, and the long-term adverse effects on social relationships. This special issue of Social Medicine examines the impact of war on human health from a geographically diverse set of countries and from diverse perspectives. Dr. Andrea Angulo Menasse, a researcher from Mexico City’s Autonomous University, documents the very personal story of how the violence of the Spanish Civil War affected one family. In her case study the trauma suffered by Spanish Republicans is traced through three generations and crosses the Atlantic Ocean as the family moves is exiled in Mexico. Dr. Sachin Ghimire from the Centre of Social Medicine and Community Health of the Jawaharlal Nehru University reports on his fieldwork in Rolpa, Nepal, the district from which the Nepal Civil War (also called the People’s War originated in 1996. Based on 80 interviews, he documents the difficulties faced by health care workers as they negotiated the sometimes deadly task of remaining in communities where control alternated between Nepalese Special Forces and the Maoist rebels. Finally, Colombian researcher, Carlos Iván Pacheco Sánchez, from the University of Rosario in Bogota, brings an epidemiologist’s tools to examine the impact of the ongoing armed conflict in the border Department of Nariño. His discussion is informed by the current debate over health care in Colombia where a recent Constitutional Court decision has found that the current health care system violates the right to health. These three papers amply demonstrate the depth, breadth and relevance of contemporary social medicine.

  13. After triumph and disillusionment, wonder re-enters the story

    CERN Multimedia

    Overbye, D

    2004-01-01

    Modern history saw the landing on the moon and the building of the atomic bomb. After the end of the Cold War, physics is beginning to emerge from its period of darkness into an era, again, of wonder where the solar system is explored, and faster and smarter computers change our world (2 pages)

  14. Creativity, Freedom and the Crash: How the Concept of Creativity Was Used as a Bulwark against Communism during the Cold War, and as a Means to Reconcile Individuals to Neoliberalism Prior to the Great Recession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    At first glance, creativity in the classroom and global capitalism have little in common, yet scratch beneath the surface of "creativity" and we find a discourse of economic and cultural freedom that was used as a bulwark against communism during the Cold War, and more recently to reconcile individuals to neoliberalism in the post-Cold…

  15. Military Exercises in Korea: A Provocation or a Deterrent to War?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chu, John S

    2006-01-01

    The 53-year alliance between the United States and the Republic of Korea (ROK) has been a deterrent to the Stalinist North Korean state along the most heavily militarized zone remaining of the Cold War era...

  16. The International Space of the Danish Testing Community in the Post-war Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Karen Egedal; Ydesen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    International forums and organizations, as well as non-governmental organizations, have played a considerable role in societal developments since the end of World War II. Many changes in post-war Danish public schools like standardized educational testing were formed in dialogue with or initiated......, and up to the end of the Cold War. Exploring the transnational angle is a highly relevant and interesting research topic because it contributes to a deeper understanding of the origin, development and design of Danish school policy and school practice, and the influence from transnational spaces....

  17. Edward Albee’s The Zoo Story: Echo/es of Contemporary Subversive Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naqibun Nabi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The post-world war II American social and cultural setting was ambiguously featured with enforced conformity in the name of prosperity and Americanization of the nation. Despite of this fact, American writers, especially, dramatists conveyed their message against this fixation through variety and intellectuality. Edward Albee’s The Zoo Story is one of those literary assets which dedicatedly cut through the illusions of contemporary American social and cultural ethos. Here, his characters are seen struggling constantly with their insecurities and existential angst in the society. He presents America, the so-called ‘Land of Free and Home of Braves’ (note 1, in such a portrayal that unveils the traps of cages and confinement underneath. The target of this paper is to trace Edward Albee’s heightened awareness about the post-war American socio-cultural reality evident in The Zoo Story. It also looks for the voice in which the text echoes out the anti-communist, materialistic, gender-coded boundaries, coupled with paradoxical media representations, religious bordering and how Albee challenges these issues with an anti-establishment tone. Keywords: subversive culture, anti-communism, media, religion and homosexuality

  18. The relationship between climate change and wars waged between nomadic and farming groups from the Western Han Dynasty to the Tang Dynasty period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Y.; Liu, L.; Fang, X. Q.; Ma, Y. N.

    2016-01-01

    In ancient China, shifts in regional productivity of agriculture and animal husbandry, caused by climate change, either led to wars or peaceful relations between nomadic and farming groups. During the period spanning the Western Han Dynasty to the Tang Dynasty, 367 wars were waged between these groups. While 69 % of the wars were initiated by nomads, 62.4 % were won by the farming groups. On a centennial timescale, the battlegrounds were mostly in northern areas (at an average latitude of 38.92° N) during warm periods, moving southward (at an average latitude of 34.66° N) during cold periods. On a decadal timescale, warm climates corresponded to a high incidence of wars (a correlation coefficient of 0.293). While farming groups were inclined to initiate wars during dry and cold periods, their chances of achieving victory were reduced at such times. The main reasons for this are, first, that a warm climate provided a solid material foundation for nomadic and farming groups, contributing especially to enhanced productivity among the former. However, the overriding desire of nomadic groups to expand essential subsistence means led to wars. Second, during cold periods, farming groups moved to and settled in the south, while nomadic groups occupied the Central Plain. Thus, the locations of the battlefields also changed. While other factors also influenced these wars, climate change served as a backdrop, playing an indirect role in wars between these groups.

  19. Blood on the Wedding Bed : The Capture of Troy, Agamemnon's Murder, and the Arabic Story of al-Zīr as Variants of the 'Avenging Bride' Tale Type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weststeijn, J.

    2017-01-01

    A number of modern Arab thinkers have compared the Story of al-Zīr, a little-known Arabic folk epic, with accounts of the Trojan War and the Oresteia. After dealing with the pitfalls of comparing stories from different cultures, I argue for criteria to distinguish between weak and strong parallels,

  20. Lessons of the Great Patriotic War and World War II for Contemporary Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor I. Belousov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available After the Second World War 70 years have passed. Essentially already gone a generation of people for whom it was not a story, and the nationwide disaster and personal experience. And let time more and more we move away from the victory of 1945, the value and results of the war are enormous for the future of the modern world. Memory of the Great Victory presents to all of us now living, special requirements, the main of which consists in the fact that based on the analysis draw the necessary lessons from the past, draw the right conclusions for the safety of modern Russia. Over the years, the world has changed considerably. On the stage of world politics, a host of new independent states. There are new centers of economic development, and hence the new poles of power. Meanwhile, the events of recent months show that the main results of the Victory have not lost their importance today. This is best spoken of their incessant attempts to challenge by distorting the main points of the war and its lessons. And, obviously, it is no accident the day before and during the celebration of 70th anniversary of Victory wishing her to steal the peoples of Russia have been particularly active, as they claim - stiff and awkward. For domestic historiography it is not something unexpected. On the socio-political, military and economic results of the Second World War written many works, but probably in the light of the development of military-political processes in the world of individual instructive lesson it is important not to forget.

  1. Sex Complexity and Politics in Black Dogs by Ian McEwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasiyannejad, Mina; Talif, Rosli

    Ian McEwan's Black Dogs (BD) is a story of socio-political conflict during the critical era of the Cold War. Black Dogs is riddled with party (political) domination and its outcomes in society. Europe is still suffering the consequences of the Second World War, perhaps the biggest war of the twentieth century. In the aftermath of such worldwide upheaval, the conflicts that were in tandem with the scramble for political domination emerged in diverse ways, affecting nations and their human populations. Systematic sexual assault during the war years showed that sex was used both for intimidation and humiliation. This study attempts to picture the multidimensional aspects of politics which are practically related to the most intimate human relationship, that is, sex. It pictures how personal is equated with the political and vice versa. The theory of sexual politics is the theoretical framework used to scrutinize power-structure relationship. By reviewing the major conflicts in such a scenario, as the Cold War, and societal restriction, this study concludes that conflict in the macrocosm (world and society) affects the microcosm (individual) in McEwan's Black Dogs. It provides a rather broad picture of politics and sexuality and highlights the stresses of wider society on human dysfunctional relationships. Rape as a tactic of war for a political goal demonstrates another aspect of sex. Reviewing the period in which the story takes place and relating it to the conflicts in society, the study goes beyond simple cause and effect problems among individuals and portrays a holistic view of sexuality and society.

  2. World War II, post-war reconstruction and British women chemists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horrocks, Sally

    2011-07-01

    This paper draws on evidence from a range of sources to consider the extent to which World War II served as a turning point in the employment opportunities open to women chemists in Britain. It argues that wartime conditions expanded women's access to some areas of employment, but that these opportunities represented, in many ways, an expansion of existing openings rather than wholly new ones, and not all of them proved permanent. Instead, women chemists benefited more permanently from increased state expenditure on higher education and on research and development after the war. This enabled some women to remain in what had originally been temporary wartime posts and others to secure employment in wholly new positions. Women were most successful in securing positions created by the expansion of state welfare and support for agriculture, but also found new employment opportunities as a result of the heavy investment in weapons development that accelerated with the advent of the Cold War. In higher education, an initial expansion of openings was not sustained, and the proportion of women in university chemistry departments actually fell during the second half of the 1950s. Industry presents a rather ambiguous picture, with many firms continuing to refuse to employ women chemists, whereas elsewhere they enjoyed enhanced opportunities and better salaries than those offered before the war. This did not mean, however, that women chemists received equal treatment to their male colleagues, and, despite the changes, they remained concentrated in subordinate positions and were expected to concentrate on routine work. Prospects in the 1950s were certainly better than they had been during the 1930s, but they remained strongly gendered.

  3. "It's what we're here for:" nurses caring for military personnel during the Persian Gulf Wars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, Patricia; Scott, Jared E; Callister, Lynn Clark

    2008-01-01

    Military nursing service during wartime represents significant contributions to a unique type of health care. The purposes of this study were to: (1) generate themes that elucidate combat nursing experiences, (2) honor nurses who served by sharing their stories, and (3) permanently archive accounts of nursing personnel who served during the Persian Gulf Wars during the late 20th and early 21st centuries. Eleven military nurses who provided health care to American troops in the Persian Gulf participated in a historical study as part of the ongoing Nurses at War oral history project documenting the experiences of nurses during times of armed conflict. The overriding theme, "It's what we're here for," demonstrates the commitment of nurses: a commitment to care and to sacrifice. Other themes drawn from the study included lessons learned from their wartime nursing experiences, sacrifices made, and chronicles of caring. During armed conflict in the Persian Gulf Wars, military nurses' personal stories demonstrated the importance of being engaged in making meaningful professional and historical contributions. These nurses displayed professional commitment and hardiness in the face of difficult life circumstances, saying, "We did what we had to do."

  4. The Great War and Remembrance in Jose Leon Machado's "Memoria das Estrelas sem Brilho"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Milton M.

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes Jose Leon Machado's novel, "Memoria das Estrelas sem Brilho," as a multilayered historical novel in which a war story provides a background for comments on aspects of early twentieth-century Portuguese society, such as male bonding, religion, sexual mores, and social stratification. (Contains 11 notes.)

  5. Medical profession and nuclear war: a social history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, B.; Waitzkin, H.

    1985-01-01

    Since World War II, individual physicians and medical organizations in the US have cooperated with the federal government in preparing for nuclear war. While most physicians have maintained a neutral stance, a minority have resisted federal policies. Health professionals participated actively at the wartime laboratories that developed the atomic bomb and in the medical research that followed Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Professional organizations helped with civil defense planning for nuclear conflict during the Cold War of the late 1950s and early 1960s. Medical resistance to nuclear war began in the same period, gained wide attention with the growth of Physicians for Social Responsibility in the early 1960s, declined during the Vietnam War, and vastly increased in the early 1980s. Activism by health professionals usually has responded to government policies that have increased the perceived risk of nuclear conflict. The recent return of civil defense planning has stimulated opposition in medical circles. Ambiguities of medical professionalism limit the scope of activism in the nuclear arena. These ambiguities concern the interplay of organized medicine and government, tensions between science and politics, and the difficulties of day-to-day work in medicine while the arms race continues

  6. The rocky flats controversy on radionuclide soil action levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earle, T.C.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the Rocky Flats radionuclide soil action level controversy as a case study for the purpose of understanding the nature and value of stakeholder involvement in the management of radiological hazards. The report consists of three main sections. The first section outlines the Rocky Flats story, including the Cold War era, the post-Cold War era, and the transition between the two. This provides the context necessary to understand the radionuclide soil action level controversy, the main events of which are described in the second section. In the final section, the Rocky Flats case is briefly discussed within the framework of a general model of stakeholder involvement and the lessons learned from the case are identified. (author)

  7. Krieg und Literatur War and Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elfi N. Theis

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Schreiben gegen Krieg und Gewalt heißt der Band 19 der Schriften-Reihe des Erich-Maria-Remarque-Archivs, in dem es um Ingeborg Bachmann und die deutschsprachige Literatur 1945-1980 geht. Der Band enthält die Beiträge zu einem Symposion, das am 14.-15. Januar 2005 an der Universität Nottingham stattgefunden hat. Im Mittelpunkt stand die Frage, welche Strategien im Umgang mit Nationalsozialismus, Holocaust, zweitem Weltkrieg, Kaltem Krieg oder Vietnamkrieg und auch dem deutschen Kolonialismus bei Bachmann und anderen deutschsprachigen Autoren zu finden sind. Anlass zur Tagung war die in Wien und Salzburg konzipierte Ausstellung Schreiben gegen den Krieg: Ingeborg Bachmann, 1926-1973. In insgesamt dreizehn Beiträgen wird im vorliegenden Band die literarische Auseinandersetzung mit dem Thema Gewalt und Krieg beleuchtet.Volume 19 of the series published by the Erich-Maria-Remarque Archive is entitled “Writing against War and Violence” (“Schreiben gegen Krieg und Gewalt” and approaches Ingeborg Bachmann and German language literature from 1945 to 1980. The volume contains contributions based on a symposium that took place at the University of Nottingham on January 14-15, 2005. Central to the symposium was the question as to which strategies Bachmann and other German language authors utilized in their approach to National Socialism, the Holocaust, the Second World War, the Cold War, or the Vietnam War, as well as German colonialism. The impetus for the conference was the exhibition Writing Against the War: Ingeborg Bachmann, 1926-1973 conceived in Vienna and Salzburg. In the volume at hand, thirteen contributions in total illuminate literary confrontations with the themes of war and violence.

  8. The framework of studying personal and family stories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Antonijević

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I suggest the analytical framework for interpreting personal and family stories about the loss of possessions, riches, job, reputation and status. I find the theoretic foothold in the decades long folkloristic and anthropological studies of personal stories and life histories, then in the concept by Gary Alan Fine, a sociologist and folklorist, about the idioculture of small groups through the discussion of the family folklore, and last in the discussion of the historic, social-economic and ideological context where personal and family losses occur. The incentive for me to deal with this type of stories resides in the fact that they have not been the subject of scientific analysis, neither in the world, nor in our country, except one work by an American folklorist Stanley Brandes from 1975, which served as my inspiration and model. The material for the analysis was collected in the form of term papers written by four generations of ethnology and anthropology third year students, attending the course in Folklore anthropology at the Ethnology and Anthropology Department of the Faculty of Philosophy of Belgrade University. A typology of these stories has been done, and they are divided into two groups with subtypes: stories about personal causes to material ruin, and about faith (destiny causing the ruin. Further on in the analysis I focused only on the context of the stories with the so-called "pre-destined (faith" causes of ruin, i.e., on the historic, social-economic and ideological changes in Serbia, which happened during the 20th and at the beginning of the 21st century. The context of the revolutionary takeover of power by the Communists after the World War Two is discussed, as well as the violent dispossession of what was until then private property of many families in Serbia, and transferring that property into state and social possession (the so-called stories about nationalization, and also the specific context of post

  9. The United States' Second Major Theater of War: A Bridge Too Far?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christie, R. A

    2000-01-01

    The United States National Security Strategy (NSS), as set forth by President William Jefferson Clinton in 1998, articulated the "Imperative for Engagement" abroad in order to remain secure at home in the aftermath of the "Cold War...

  10. Greed, grievance, leadership and external interventions in the initiation and intensification of the civil war in Angola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Real P. Sousa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the initiation of conflict is fundamental for the success of efforts in conflict prevention. The validity of the mechanisms of the “Greed and Grievance” model, alongside leadership and external interventions are tested in four periods of initiation and intensification of the conflict in Angola. All mechanisms are present but their relative relevance varies throughout the conflict. Among the mechanisms identified in each period the most relevant in the Cold War period are the international and regional interventions in 1961 and 1975 and in the post-Cold War period, the “greed” factors in 1992 (oil and diamonds, poverty and war capital and the UNITA leadership of Jonas Savimbi in 1998. The case study provides evidence that “greed” and “grievance” can be interlinked (such as in 1992 and confirms the relevance of leadership and external interventions mechanisms.

  11. Cobalt Blues The Story of Leonard Grimmett, the Man Behind the First Cobalt-60 Unit in the United States

    CERN Document Server

    Almond, Peter R

    2013-01-01

    For the latter half of the 20th century, cobalt-60 units were the mainstay of radiation treatments for cancer. Cobalt Blues describes the development of the first cobalt-60 unit in the United States and the man behind it, Leonard Grimmett. Conceptually conceived before World War II, it only became possible because of the development of nuclear reactors during the war. Although Grimmett conceived of and published his ideas first, the Canadians built the first units because of the capability of their reactor to produce more suitable cobalt-60 sources. This book tells the story of how Grimmett and others came together at the time that the U S Atomic Energy Agency was pushing the use of radioactivity in medicine. Due to his sudden death, very little information about Grimmett was known until recently, when various documents have come to light, allowing the full story to be told.

  12. The War on Women in Psychoanalytic Theory Building: Past to Present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsam, Rosemary H

    2015-01-01

    Psychoanalysis has both waged "hot" war on women overtly and "cold" war covertly over the years by colluding with cultural stereotypes offered as "theory," starting with Freud and his Viennese circle. True freedom of thinking, however, broke through in Freud's originality even then, and from time to time subsequently in the history of the movement only to keep retreating. Fritz Wittels's thesis on the "Child Woman" will exemplify Horneys (1924, 1926, 1933) and Jones's (1927) grounds for engaging in the "hot war" in the 1920s and challenging the unselfconscious inbuilt denigration of women. This skirmish had little impact, however, in the New World up till the 1970s. In the aftermath of the second wave of feminism, there were (and are) bursts of new thought about sex and gender that remain fragmented and unintegrated into general acceptance. The contemporary situation has been more like a "cold" war waged by ennui in the field. A sexed and agendered theories of mind as a "no man's land" absorb an intense focus away from the sexual and gender specificities that were alive, contentious, and unresolved in Freud's libido theory. The third sociocultural wave of feminism, since the 1990s, has refocused vitality on individuality, race, and varieties of sexual identity. I identify the latter as the psychoanalytic space for a potential renewed interest in theorizing the female body within heterosexual, homosexual, queer, or transgendered individuals. The "wars" have shown how fruitless for peace and new discovery is the compulsive (but still common) close comparison between males and females developmentally. Female development is as fresh and unsettled a theoretical question as it once was with Freud.

  13. Farewell to „eternal peace“? New wars and their moral and legal challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaborowski Holger

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay first discusses modern wars and the idea of „eternal peace“ as developed in modernity. It shows how in the 20th century the reality of war (as well as the concept of peace was already transformed due to the development of new technologies such as the nuclear bomb. Now, peace was replaced by a „cold war“. The essay then goes on to introduce the concept of post-national wars (as opposed to modern national wars. It argues that this concept fails fully to describe contemporary warfare. What is needed is a deeper analysis that considers most recent technological developments such as the world wide web or drone technology and the way these technologies paradigmatically change the concept and reality of war (and of peace, too. The essay concludes by arguing that the moral and legal challenges of this kind of war deserve more attention than they are getting in the current discussion.

  14. From Just War to Nuclear Pacifism: The Evolution of U.S. Christian Thinking about War in the Nuclear Age, 1946–1989

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R. Rock

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available During the Cold War, two basic schools of thought emerged among U.S. Christian leaders and ethicists concerning the implications of the nuclear revolution for the use of force by the United States. The just war thinkers held that nuclear war could in fact be conducted within the bounds of traditional just war principles, particularly those of discrimination and proportionality. Since nuclear weapons could be used in war, it followed that they could and should be developed and produced for that purpose and for the purpose of deterrence. The nuclear pacifists held that nuclear war could not be conducted within the confines of traditional just war principles. Since by its nature nuclear war could not be moral, there was no reason for the development and production of nuclear weapons, except for the purpose of deterrence. And since nuclear deterrence required one to make threats of nuclear destruction that it would not be moral to carry out, and, moreover, carried unacceptable risks of miscalculation and inadvertent or accidental use of nuclear weapons, deterrence itself could not be justified, except perhaps as a temporary way station on the path to nuclear disarmament. Although the just war thinkers initially held sway, over time they became less dominant. By the middle of the 1980s, the U.S. Catholic Church and most of the largest Mainline Protestant denominations had formally adopted a nuclear pacifist position. This essay chronicles the victory of nuclear pacifism in these churches, explains it as a reaction to the nuclear weapons and doctrine advocated by the just war thinkers, and implemented by the U.S. government and military, as well as other events and trends in American society, and inquires as to whether or not the just war thinkers and nuclear pacifists influenced the course of U.S. policy.

  15. Uranium mining during the Cold War. The Wismut plant in the Soviet atomic complex; Uranbergbau im Kalten Krieg. Die Wismut im sowjetischen Atomkomplex. Bd. 1. Studien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boch, Rudolf [TU Chemnitz (Germany). Wirtschafts- und Sozialgeschichte; Karlsch, Rainer (ed.)

    2011-07-01

    The book on the Wismut plant covers the following issues: Introduction: history of uranium mining of Wismut. Significance of uranium mining in politics and science: Uranium for the strategic equilibrium; the ore of the Cold War; special zones; ''Party within the Party'', radiation protection in uranium mining; Freiberg's geoscientists searching strategic metals in the 1940ies; end of the shift. Social history and daily routine: Good money for hard work; foreign among ''friends''; personnel data; gainful employment for women and emancipation in the frame of mining; from symphony orchestra to laymen circles; the fightning spirit of pitman-sportsmen.

  16. Japan's anti-nuclear weapons policy misses its target, even in the war on terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiFilippo, Anthony

    2003-01-01

    While actively working to promote the abolition of all nuclear weapons from the world since the end of the cold war, Japan's disarmament policies are not without problems. Promoting the elimination of nuclear weapons as Japan remains under the US nuclear umbrella creates a major credibility problem for Tokyo, since this decision maintains a Japanese deterrence policy at the same time that officials push for disarmament. Tokyo also advocates a gradual approach to the abolition of nuclear weapons, a decision that has had no effect on those countries that have been conducting sub-critical nuclear testing, nor stopped India and Pakistan from carrying out nuclear tests. Consistent with Article 9 of the Constitution, the Japanese war-renouncing constitutional clause, Tokyo toughened Japan's sizeable Official Development Assistance (ODA) programme in the early 1990s. Because of the anti-military guidelines included in Japan's ODA programme, Tokyo stopped new grant and loan aid to India and Pakistan in 1998 after these countries conducted nuclear tests. However, because of the criticism Japan faced from its failure to participate in the 1991 Gulf War, Tokyo has been seeking a new Japanese role in international security during the post-cold war period. Deepening its commitment to the security alliance with the US, Tokyo has become increasingly influenced by Washington's global polices, including the American war on terrorism. After Washington decided that Pakistan would be a key player in the US war on terrorism, Tokyo restored grant and loan aid to both Islamabad and New Delhi, despite the unequivocal restrictions of Japan's ODA programme.

  17. The War's Positive Impact on the Canadian Astronomical Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, Peter

    2015-01-01

    At the beginning of WWI, the Canadian astronomical community was tiny and astrophysical research was just beginning. By the end of the war, the country had established the forerunner of its National Research Council and had the world's largest fully operational telescope, thanks to the late entry of the USA into the conflict. By 1918, Canada was on the verge of making significant contributions to science.In spite of the immense loss of life in this pointless war, I am aware of only one casualty affecting Canadian professional astronomers, and that was the indirect death of James Chant, son of University of Toronto's only professor of astronomy. Other Canadian astronomers, including Tom Parker, Bert Topham, and Harry Plaskett were on active service; each of their stories is unique.Among those engaged in scientific work during the war were two Canadians temporarily in England: John McLennan whose helium research for dirigibles led him to establish a cryogenic lab in Toronto where the green line in the spectrum of the aurora was identified in 1925, and Allie Douglas who worked as a statistician in the War Office. Later work with Eddington led her to become his biographer and to her distinction as the first person in Canada to earn a PhD in astronomy (in 1926).

  18. Organizing complexity: the hopeful dreams and harsh realities of interdisciplinary collaboration at the rand corporation in the early cold war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessner, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Historians argue that in the early Cold War an interdisciplinary research culture defined the RAND Corporation. However, a significant epistemological gap divided the members of RAND's Social Science Division (SSD) from the rest of the organization. While the social scientists used qualitative methods, most RAND researchers embraced quantified approaches and derided the social sciences as unscientific. This encouraged RAND's social scientists to develop a political-military simulation that embraced everything-politics, culture, and psychology-that RAND's other analysts largely ignored. Yet the fact that the SSD embraced gaming, a heuristic practiced throughout RAND, suggests that the political simulation was nonetheless inspired by social scientists' engagement with their colleagues. This indicates that the concept of interdisciplinarity should move beyond its implication of collaboration to incorporate instances in which research agendas are defined against but also shaped by colleagues in other disciplines. Such a rethinking of the term may make it possible to trace how varieties of interdisciplinary interaction historically informed knowledge production. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Energy security in the post-Cold War era: Identifying future courses for crises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freund, M.T.; Wise, J.A.; Ulibarri, C.A.; Shaw, B.R.; Seely, H.E.; Roop, J.M.

    1994-11-01

    This paper addresses US energy security in the post-Cold War era for a conference on energy security jointly sponsored by the Department of Energy and the National Defense University. It examines the evolving nature of energy security based on analysis of past crisis-inducing events and-discusses potentially important geopolitical, environmental, regulatory, and economic developments during the next twenty-five years. The paper steps beyond the traditional economic focus of energy security issues to examine the interplay between fundamental economic and technical drivers on the one hand, and political, environmental, and perceptual phenomena, on the other hand, that can combine to create crises where none were expected. The paper expands on the premise that the recent demise of the Soviet Union and other changing world conditions have created a new set of energy dynamics, and that it is imperative that the United States revise its energy security perspective accordingly. It proceeds by reviewing key factors that comprise the concepts of ``energy security`` and ``energy crisis`` and how they may fit into the new world energy security equation. The study also presents a series of crisis scenarios that could develop during the next twenty-five years, paying particular attention to mechanisms and linked crisis causes and responses. It concludes with a discussion of factors that may serve to warn analysts and decision makers of impending future crises conditions. The crisis scenarios contained in this report should be viewed only as a representative sample of the types of situations that could occur. They serve to illustrate the variety of factors that can coalesce to produce a ``crisis.``

  20. Planck driven by vision, broken by war

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Brandon R

    2015-01-01

    Planck's Law, an equation used by physicists to determine the radiation leaking from any object in the universe, was described by Albert Einstein as "the basis of all twentieth-century physics." Max Planck is credited with being the father of quantum theory, and his work laid the foundation for our modern understanding of matter and energetic processes. But Planck's story is not well known, especially in the United States. A German physicist working during the first half of the twentieth century, his library, personal journals, notebooks, and letters were all destroyed with his home in World War II. What remains, other than his contributions to science, are handwritten letters in German shorthand, and tributes from other scientists of the time, including his close friend Albert Einstein. In Planck: Driven by Vision, Broken by War, Brandon R. Brown interweaves the voices and writings of Planck, his family, and his contemporaries-with many passages appearing in English for the first time-to create a portrait of...

  1. “The End of Innocence”. The Children of Bukovina in the First World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harieta Mareci-Sabol

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Interest in the children’s experiences in World War One has grown substantially in the last decades. Autobiographies and private memories, documents and all kind of stories present the dimension of warfare and how the children perceived it. Affected by disruption to home life and to schooling, by absent parents, and death, these innocents tried to understand the reasons behind the events that stunned their community, restructuring attitudes towards family, fear, play, and life. This paper aims to expose how the children of the most eastern province of the Austrian Monarchy experienced the Great War, how was manifested the pervasiveness of the war to their everyday lives, and how the combatants – Russians, Austrians, Germans, and Hungarians – were seen by the youngest inhabitants of Bukovina.

  2. Nuclear war and other catastrophes. Civil and catastrophe protection in the Federal republic of Germany and the United Kingdom after 1945; Atomkrieg und andere Katastrophen. Zivil- und Katastrophenschutz in der Bundesrepublik und Grossbritannien nach 1945

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diebel, Martin [Zentrum fuer Zeithistorische Forschung, Potsdam (Germany)

    2017-07-01

    The book civil and catastrophe protection in the Federal republic of Germany and the United Kingdom after 1945 discusses the following issues: aerial defense and the atomic bomb (1945 - 1968), crises and catastrophes in the shadow of the bomb (1962 - 1978), civil defense and the comeback of the (nuclear) war (1976 - 1979), civil defense and the second ''Cold War'' (1979 - 1986), Chernobyl and the end of the Cold War (1979 - 1990), war, catastrophe and safety in the 20th century - a conclusion.

  3. Physics and Diplomacy: A True Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessoms, Allen

    2017-01-01

    Physics has played a prominent role in U.S. diplomacy since the development of nuclear weapons during World War II. The discipline expanded its reach during the Atoms for Peace initiative of president Eisenhower and continued through the Cold War with the Soviet Union. Physics maintains a prominent role in the diplomatic dialogue through efforts in the nuclear non-proliferation arena and in major international science collaborations such as in experiments at CERN, ITER and the International Space Station. Physics has also served as the template for the much broader impact of science on diplomacy. For example, climate change, energy efficiency and ocean science have all benefitted from the path blazed by physicists. But how effective have physicists been in steering clear of political dynamics while trying to infuse scientific facts into policy debates? This talk will consider this through the eyes of a physicist who has spent many years providing advice to policy makers, both inside and outside of government.

  4. Vera Brittain: feminism and pacifism in post-war Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Sánchez, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Trabajo de fin de Grado. Grado en Estudios Ingleses. Curso académico 2015-2016 [EN]This paper deals with Vera Brittain's Testament of Youth as an example of war narrative to establish the importance of the female voice in the complete treatment of a story, as well as the importance of a feminist and pacifist ideology in a modern world. Vera Brittain thus becomes a relevant figure in these fields, considering several aspects of her life: her autobiography, her experience as ...

  5. Relationship between climate change and wars between nomadic and farming groups from the Western Han Dynasty to the Tang Dynasty period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Y.; Liu, L.; Fang, X. Q.; Ma, Y. N.

    2015-07-01

    In ancient China, the change in regional agriculture and animal husbandry productivity caused by climate change led to either wars or peaceful relations between nomadic and farming groups. From the Western Han Dynasty to the Tang Dynasty there were 367 wars between the two groups. The nomadic people initiated 69 % of the wars, but 62.4 % were won by the farmers. On a 30 year-period timescale, warm climates corresponded to a high incidence of wars. The conflicts between the nomadic and farming groups took place in some areas which are sensitive to climate change. During the cold periods, the battlefields were mostly in the southern regions. The main causes which leading to the above results are following: (1) warm climate provided a solid material foundation for nomadic and farming groups, especially contributed to improve the productivity of nomadic group; meanwhile, the excessive desire for essential means of subsistence in nomadic group could led to wars. (2) During the cold periods, people of farming group moved to the south and construct the south, meanwhile, nomadic group occupied the central plains, thus the battlefields also changed. As the background, climate change plays an indirect role in wars between groups.

  6. Nationalism, Mass Politics, and Sport: Cold War Case Studies at Seven Degrees

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Buckel, Bart A

    2008-01-01

    .... The masses were mobilized around myths, legends, and symbols of extraordinary power. Sports and physical culture were viewed initially as a means of creating societies more fit for war and quickly became a tremendous social movement...

  7. Narrating Global Order and Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Levinger

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This thematic issue addresses how strategic narratives affect international order. Strategic narratives are conceived of as stories with a political purpose or narratives used by political actors to affect the behavior of others. The articles in this issue address two significant areas important to the study of international relations: how strategic narratives support or undermine alliances, and how they affect norm formation and contestation. Within a post-Cold War world and in the midst of a changing media environment, strategic narratives affect how the world and its complex issues are understood. This special issue speaks to the difficulties associated with creating creative and committed international cooperation by noting how strategic narratives are working to shape the Post-Cold War international context.

  8. Public Opinion on Long Island about the Vietnam War: A School Year Project Using Local Sources and Perspectives in the Classroom and in Student Research Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlett, Charles

    2004-01-01

    A school-year research experiment using primary resources to teach an important national issue--protest movements against the Vietnam War at the local level--is an excellent way to motivate students and energize classroom teaching. Every local community in America has its own story to tell about the war in Vietnam. Whether it is about a local son…

  9. Darlene J. Sadlier. Americans All. Good Neighbor Cultural Diplomacy in World War II.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Cramer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This publication adds to a rapidly growing volume of scholarship on U.S. cultural diplomacy. Most of this scholarship focuses on the Cold War and on Europe. This volume, in turn, is concerned with a lesser-known episode that came to fruition during World War II and that focused not on Europe but on Latin America. As Nazi German troops entered Paris, the Franklin D. Roosevelt administration set out to launch a massive campaign to win hearts and minds for inter-American cooperation and solidarity. This campaign came to be spearheaded by an emergency agency, the Office of the Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs or CIAA. Headed by the young multimillionaire and entrepreneur Nelson A. Rockefeller, the CIAA existed for only six years, but during its brief existence it helped to construct a dense State-private network that managed cultural relations with foreign countries and that continued to operate and expand long after the war was over. Of course, by then Latin America was no longer at the center of geopolitical attention. Well before the end of hostilities, the State Department began to prepare for the winding down of the CIAA’s cultural programs. The agency itself was abolished in 1946. With the onset of the Cold War, the State-private network reshuffled, its main attention now focusing elsewhere and mainly on Europe.

  10. Stories as case knowledge: case knowledge as stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, K

    2001-09-01

    Every case contains a human story of illness and a medical story of disease, which together cover person management, case management, health system management and self-management. Much of that management can be learned via a thorough set of stories of typical and atypical core cases compiled by clinical teachers. Stories provide a highly flexible framework for illustrating the lessons of experience, the tips and traps for young players, and the dilemmas requiring careful judgement in the trade-offs between benefits and risks. Listening to real stories unfold is much more fun than being lectured (and better remembered). Stories illustrate 'what can happen' in a case as a guide to 'what to do'. A story begins with a real world situation with some predicament and a (causal) sequence of events or plot in which things are resolved one way or another. Patients tell their illness story; their clinician translates that into a disease story. Stories sort out what is important in such a predicament, consider the strategy and tactics of what to do, and speak about the outcomes. Each local situation provides relevance, context and circumstantial detail. Stories about case management can encapsulate practical knowledge, logical deduction, judgement and decision making, sharing with the student all the ingredients that develop expertise. Sometimes it is the plot that is important, sometimes the detail, sometimes it is the underlying message, the parable that resonates with the listener's experiences and feelings.1 Stories can also accommodate the complexity of multiple variables and the influence of other stakeholders, the uncertainties and dilemmas within the trade-offs, and the niceties of 'informed judgement'. This paper makes four points. First, clinical stories recount pointed examples of 'what happened' that expand our expertise in handling 'a case like that'. Second, cases are the unit of clinical work. Case stories expand the dimensions and details of case knowledge

  11. Cold War masculinities in Turkish literature : a survey of March 12 novels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunay-Erkol, Cimen

    2008-01-01

    The military intervention of 12 March 1971 traumatized 1968 radicalism in Turkey “radically”. March 12 novels offer testimonies of the period disguised in imaginative stories about the sufferings and anxieties of individuals in 1970s Turkey. My hypothesis is that the March 12 novel is not simply a

  12. The Politics of Identity: History, Nationalism, and the Prospect for Peace in Post-Cold War East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    Gerow, “Fantasies of War and Nation in Recent Japanese Cinema ,” Japan Focus, accessed at www.japanfocus.org/ products/details/1707J, p. 5. In his...about their country’s remarkable economic resurgence after the Korean War. President Bush was referring to the recent anti- Japanese protests in...interests, the emotional debates surrounding 3 the history of World War II and Japanese colonialism are treated as mere shibboleths of competing elites

  13. Experiences of military nurses in the Iraq and Afghanistan wars: review of research report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulsby, Kari

    2012-01-01

    Scannell-Desch and Doherty's (2010) research study findings are important to evidence-based nursing practice experiences of United States military nurses in the Iraq and Afghanistan wars to expand the research research findings identified common experiences and reoccurring stories and struggles of nurses pre, during, and postemployment in the Iraq and Afghanistan wars. These findings can be used for the education of future deploying military nurses and set the groundwork for further in-depth research studies on military nursing. One suggestion for future research would be a more in-depth study on the challenges faced by military nurses postemployment and interventions to assist in overcoming these challenges.

  14. THE POETICS OF N. N. TOLSTOY’S LONG SHORT STORY “PLASTUN”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V. Belousova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the analysis of the main problems of the long short story “Plastun” by Nikolay Tolstoy (the elder brother of Leo Tolstoy, that is the life of a man kidnapped during the Caucasus War and forced to live all his life in captivity. In the centre of narration there is a real man though described as a generalized character as far as he does not have a personal name. Different periods of his life are marked by certain nicknames, such as Zaychik-Volkovoy-Zaporozetz. The main character tells the listener Tolstoy N. N., who shows the interest and compassion to his life, the story of his childhood and youth. As a child his nickname was a Zaychik. As an adult he became an experienced hunter and an expert in animal habits the fact that explains his new nickname – Volkovoy. The composition of the long short story is full of philosophical, psychological and ethic symbols and personifications, based on Sacred Writings and the Patristic Tradition. The childhood-youth part of the short story is particularly symbolic as then the virgin soul of the hero felt the presence of God and strived to pray. The images-symbols play an important role in the artistic world of the short story: a singing nightingale, birds, men-mice, the “glass” sea, fish and palaces in the Zaychik’s dreams.

  15. U.S. Maritime Strategy In a Post-Cold War World?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-16

    worlo in wnIcn zne East-West squarea off across an iron curzain nas oeen- aramatically transformed . A chain reaction of nhslocic events in Eastern Europe...research will n e to exam int- tne -- ri :.me Componen t ot the Un itec St ates Natioanal M ~r z a , egov ,71tni1n the context of the changing geoo~o...experience. 12 :Zi. Historical BacKqrouna By maritime strategy we mean the principies wnicn govern a war in which the sea is a suostantia! factor. Naval

  16. War Journalism and 'Objectivity'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabel McGoldrick

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This article opens by considering an apparent paradox. Many professional journalists, working on many media in many countries, consider themselves 'objective'. They do not, at least, set out to skew their coverage of important issues in favour of one side or the other. And yet much of their coverage of conflicts shows a discernible dominant pattern of War Journalism - biased in favour of war. This is not because of a lack of objectivity, the article suggests, but a surfeit. The set of conventions many editors and reporters regard as defining 'objective' journalism arose in response to economic and political conditions which rewarded news that could commend itself as unobjectionable to the maximum number of potential customers. Three of the most important conventions privilege official sources; a dualistic construction of stories and event, over process. Each of these, when applied to the representation of conflicts, leads readers and audiences - or leaves them - to over-value violent, reactive responses and under-value non-violent, developmental responses. Industry conventions sit uneasily alongside equally time-honoured expectations of journalism. These are encoded in rules and regulations governing the content of broadcast news, in many jurisdictions which have a public service concept for radio and television. In some respects, War Journalism can be shown to make it more difficult for broadcast news services to fulfil their public service obligations. Awareness is now growing, of the tension between these two pressures on journalism and its influence on the way pressing public debates are shaped and mediated. More Peace Journalism would help to bring public service news back into line with legitimate public expectations.

  17. Behind the Scenes, in the Forefront: Vietnamese Women in War and Peace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lady Borton

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores contributions to Vietnamese history by Vi?t Nam’s first historical generals (who were women as well as by women from the Vietnamese Communist Party’s early years through the French-American War (1945–1954 and the American War (1954?1975. It discusses how women used Confucian subservience, gender-determined dress, and traditional roles to supply local soldiers, gather intelligence, and resist the French and American armies. I provide information, documents, and photographs gathered by completing annotated book translations and by engaging in conversations and interviews conducted in Vietnamese over the course of nearly fifty years, including accounts from both famous and ordinary Vietnamese women. Their stories are unique yet representative of the experiences of many wartime participants.

  18. An Explorative Note on Tourism Development along Former War Front Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Jansen-Verbeke

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Current research about the pro-active role of tourism in valorizing war memories and landscapes still is in an explorative stage; learning from case studies, all marked by their political context, in time and space, and mainly describing local and/or regional key issues. Obviously, creating landscapes of memories for contemporary uses and visitors’ experiences implies a trans-disciplinary understanding of the process of changing values (heritage landscapes and of the intrinsic dynamics of tourism development. Shifting values and creativity in linking histories of war sites and their narratives with places and people today, leads to branding ‘sites of memories’ in the mindset of residents and visitors.We briefly scan four very different examples of border areas with a war history, that became landmarks on the tourist’ maps today.  The challenge for tourism development in former war related sites is to identify the dynamics - in time and space - to assess the political and economic forces and to identify shifts in the process of remembrance and valorization of war heritage sites, in terms of interests in war memories, narratives and experiences. These are now strategically integrated in national, regional and local tourism development planning.Historical military front zones, political borders in past wars, presently marked as tourism destinations, are on the research agenda of ‘War and Tourism’.  The observations below on four different former  war border zones with their specific landmarks and memoryscapes, are inspiring for current tourism development. Four different war border zones were briefly  explored “The Great Wall in China” “The Roman Limes”, The “Wire of Death”  in the  First World War  and the ”Iron Curtain” in the Cold War. These observations can inspire future research on tourismification of war heritage.

  19. Antisocial Personality Disorder and Pathological Narcissism in Prolonged Conflicts and Wars of the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkle, Frederick M

    2016-02-01

    The end of the Cold War brought with it many protracted internal conflicts and wars that have lasted for decades and whose persistent instability lies at the heart of both chronic nation-state and regional instability. Responsibility for these chronically failed states has been attributed to multiple unresolved root causes. With previous governance and parties to power no longer trusted or acceptable, the vacuum of leadership in many cases has been filled with "bad leadership." This Concept piece argues that in a number of cases opportunistic leaders, suffering from severe antisocial character disorders, have emerged first as saviors and then as despots, or as common criminals claiming to be patriots, sharing a psychological framework that differs little from those responsible for World War II and the Cold War that followed. I describe the identifying characteristics of this unique and poorly understood subset of the population who are driven to seek the ultimate opportunity to control, dictate, and live out their fantasies of power on the world scene and discuss why their destructive actions remain unabated in the 21st century. Their continued antisocial presence, influence, and levels of violence must be seen as a global security and strategic issue that is not amenable to conventional diplomatic interventions, negotiations, mediations, or international sanctions.

  20. Russian nursing in the Crimean war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokina, T S

    1995-01-01

    Although the practice of military medicine and surgery goes back to antiquity, the British date the proper care of the wounded from the arrival of Florence Nightingale at Scutari in Turkey on 4 November 1854. The 140th anniversary of her work in that winter of the Crimean war is being celebrated by an exhibition at the Florence Nightingale Museum, 2 Lambeth Palace Road SE1 7EW, from 1 December 1994 till 30 April 1995. For the first time in this country it will tell a little of the other side of the story--the exploits of Russian nurses in caring for the casualties from both sides in the conflict--which is the subject of this article.

  1. Hearing the voices of women in war through continuous quality improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, M; Farrell, J D

    1998-04-01

    During the war in Bosnia-Herzegovina (BIH), the infrastructure of the health care system was destroyed and health officials, health care providers, and women experienced the war from their own perspectives. Using the principles of continuous quality improvement (CQI), these perspectives were honored and served as the basis for an international training program to hear the voices of women in war and the concerns of those who cared for them. With the results of a comprehensive national survey of all partners, the World Health Organization's European Regional Office held a five-day workshop that used CQI methods. The facilitators and 18 nurses, midwives, and physicians from six cantons developed interventions to address the women's needs, as detailed from the women's stories and from the professional perspectives of governmental authorities and health providers. The effort illustrates the ways in which the principles and tools of CQI can be used to capture the needs of the users of the services with those responsible for restructuring the health service and those with overall responsibility for the health of woman throughout the country.

  2. Designing a story database for use in automatic story generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oinonen, Katri; Theune, Mariët; Nijholt, Anton; Uijlings, Jasper; Harper, Richard; Rauterberg, Matthias; Combetto, Marco

    In this paper we propose a model for the representation of stories in a story database. The use of such a database will enable computational story generation systems to learn from previous stories and associated user feedback, in order to create believable stories with dramatic plots that invoke an

  3. The Justifications for War and Peace in World Religions. Part I: Extracts, Summaries and Comparisons of Scriptures in the Abrahamic Religions (Christianity, Islam and Judaism)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    the Tanakh itself is saturated with stories and discussions of war. Such wars include: the ancient Israelites’ battle against the Egyptians ,120 their...the Egyptians and Egyptians with the Assyrians, and then the Egyptians together with the Assyrians shall serve the [the LORD]. In that day Israel...fallen asleep were raised; and coming forth out of the tombs after His resurrection, they entered into the holy city and appeared unto many

  4. Co-Story-ing: Collaborative Story Writing with Children Who Fear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehrsson, Dale-Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    This article offers a guide for using collaborative story writing (co-story-ing), an assessment technique as well as a therapeutic intervention for children who demonstrate fears, extreme shyness and difficulty in establishing relationships. Co-story-ing draws from Gardner's Mutual Story Telling Technique. Co-story-ing guides clients as they…

  5. The inner cold war: state party control and East German society

    OpenAIRE

    Willet, Nicholas A.

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The twentieth century suffered from deep ideological conflict linked to the epoch of total war and the divided character of the international political economy, punctuated by a struggle between Eastern and Western ideas, communism versus liberal democracy. To the surprise of many, this struggle culminated with the complete collapse of communism in Eastern Europe in 1989, symbolized by the tearing down of the Berlin Wall between the Ger...

  6. A Few Considerations on the Role of the President Ronald Reagan in the Collapse of the Communism and the End of the Cold War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadrian Gorun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This short analysis tries to emphasize Ronald Reagan’s role to the collapse of Communist system in Central and Eastern Europe. During his first years as president, he took a hard line against Soviet Union. He described this superpower as „Evil Empire’’, suporting all anti-Communist movements from all over the world. Since 1985, a new era of American-Soviet relations has just begun. Reagan and Gorbachev held four summit conferences between 1985 and 1988: the first in Geneva, Switzerland, the second in Reykjavík, Iceland, the third in Washington, D.C., and the fourth in Moscow. Reagan believed that if he could persuade the Soviets to allow for more democracy and free speech, this would lead to the end of the Cold War and to the end of the Communist system.

  7. Core story creation: analysing narratives to construct stories for learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, Julia; Jarvis, Joy; Thomas, Rebecca

    2018-03-16

    Educational research uses narrative enquiry to gain and interpret people's experiences. Narrative analysis is used to organise and make sense of acquired narrative. 'Core story creation' is a way of managing raw data obtained from narrative interviews to construct stories for learning. To explain how core story creation can be used to construct stories from raw narratives obtained by interviewing parents about their neonatal experiences and then use these stories to educate learners. Core story creation involves reconfiguration of raw narratives. Reconfiguration includes listening to and rereading transcribed narratives, identifying elements of 'emplotment' and reordering these to form a constructed story. Thematic analysis is then performed on the story to draw out learning themes informed by the participants. Core story creation using emplotment is a strategy of narrative reconfiguration that produces stories which can be used to develop resources relating to person-centred education about the patient experience. Stories constructed from raw narratives in the context of constructivism can provide a medium or an 'end product' for use in learning resource development. This can then contribute to educating students or health professionals about patients' experiences. ©2018 RCN Publishing Company Ltd. All rights reserved. Not to be copied, transmitted or recorded in any way, in whole or part, without prior permission of the publishers.

  8. Transnational sense of place: cinematic scenes of Finnish war child memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Kaisa Kuusisto-Arponen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article I discuss the role of popular geopolitics and people's performative repertoires in voicing the social silence. I have selected for close-reading some of the episodes of the film Mother of Mine, which tells the story of a Finnish war child. In my analysis I ask what the transnational memory sites of forced displacement are, how they are depicted, and in general what kind of socio-spatial identity struggles they are involved in. Moreover, in this article I argue that the many forms through which silence becomes expressive need to be studied on the scale of the body and daily performative practices. Thus, I conclude that through several daily practices the Finnish war children unconsciously developed transnational agencies in order to survive and re-create the existential social and spatial ties of belonging.

  9. Parameters, Journal of the US Army War College, Volume 15, Number 4, Winter 1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    too high.36 The scars of itarian and totalitarian states with disen- this war 8000 miles from the American franchised , mobilized populations. To adapt...Former - " - the activities of Soviet front groups and Under Secretary of State Lawrence Eagle- foreign communist parties. All active burger has...and branded * US pressure on Spain over NATO the Sketch and Tribune stories totally false, entry (forged 1981 Reagan- King Juan Carlos the allegation

  10. Pulling History from the Waste Stream: Identification and Collection of Manhattan Project and Cold War Era Artifacts on the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marceau, Thomas E.; Watson, Thomas L.

    2013-01-01

    One man's trash is another man's treasure. Not everything called 'waste' is meant for the refuse pile. The mission of the Curation Program is at direct odds with the remediation objectives of the Hanford Site. While others are busily tearing down and burying the Site's physical structures and their associated contents, the Curation Program seeks to preserve the tangible elements of the Site's history from these structures for future generations before they flow into the waste stream. Under the provisions of a Programmatic Agreement, Cultural Resources staff initiated a project to identify and collect artifacts and archives that have historic or interpretive value in documenting the role of the Hanford Site throughout the Manhattan Project and Cold War Era. The genesis of Hanford's modern day Curation Program, its evolution over nearly two decades, issues encountered, and lessons learned along the way -- particularly the importance of upper management advocacy, when and how identification efforts should be accomplished, the challenges of working within a radiological setting, and the importance of first hand information -- are presented

  11. Pulling History from the Waste Stream: Identification and Collection of Manhattan Project and Cold War Era Artifacts on the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marceau, Thomas E.; Watson, Thomas L.

    2013-11-13

    One man's trash is another man's treasure. Not everything called "waste" is meant for the refuse pile. The mission of the Curation Program is at direct odds with the remediation objectives of the Hanford Site. While others are busily tearing down and burying the Site's physical structures and their associated contents, the Curation Program seeks to preserve the tangible elements of the Site's history from these structures for future generations before they flow into the waste stream. Under the provisions of a Programmatic Agreement, Cultural Resources staff initiated a project to identify and collect artifacts and archives that have historic or interpretive value in documenting the role of the Hanford Site throughout the Manhattan Project and Cold War Era. The genesis of Hanford's modern day Curation Program, its evolution over nearly two decades, issues encountered, and lessons learned along the way -- particularly the importance of upper management advocacy, when and how identification efforts should be accomplished, the challenges of working within a radiological setting, and the importance of first hand information -- are presented.

  12. Masculinities in the Motherland: Gender and Authority in the Soviet Union during the Cold War, 1945-1968

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Erica L.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation starts from the premise that World War II changed Soviet ideas about manhood. The Soviet Union lost twenty-seven million combatants and civilians in World War II--twenty million of whom were men. Delineating, performing, negotiating, and resisting a variety of cultural ideas about manliness shaped Soviet militarism and ideology…

  13. [V.P. Kravkov as a sanitary physician of the Russian Imperial Army (to centenary of beginning of the First World War)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzbekova, D G

    2014-01-01

    The article presents for the first time the description of life story and service of V.P. Kravkov (1859-1920)--participant of Russian-Japanese war and the First World War, doctor of medicine, sanitary physician of the Russian Imperial Army and author of number of books and articles on preventive medicine. During these two wars, V.P. Kravkov organized sanitary epidemiological service in fronts. He kept diary regularly reflecting conditions of sanitary epidemiological service during this period, describing one's own observations and assessing survived events. The manuscripts of diaries are stored in the Russian state library. The diaries made great input into summarizing of experience of the Russian military sanitary service and became valuable monument of military memoirs' literature.

  14. Farm Hall and the German atomic project of World War II a dramatic history

    CERN Document Server

    Cassidy, David C

    2017-01-01

    This gripping book brings back to life the events surrounding the internment of ten German Nuclear Scientists immediately after World War II. It is also an "eye-witness" account of the dawning of the nuclear age, with the dialogue and narrative spanning the period before, during and after atomic bombs were dropped on Japan at the end of the war. This pivotal historical episode is conveyed, along with the emotions as well as the facts, through drama, historical narrative, and photographs of the captive German nuclear scientists - who included Werner Heisenberg, Otto Hahn, and Max von Laue. The unique story that unfolds in the play is based on secretly recorded transcripts of the scientists’ actual conversations at Farm Hall, together with related documents and photographs.

  15. Shaping the National Guard in a Post-War Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    the duties of superintending the common defense, and of watching over the internal peace of the Confederacy. –Alexander Hamilton, Federalist No...armed Nike Missile launcher sites during the Cold War, and in the late 1990s, the NG formed civil support teams capable of an early response to...as “ market states” vs. “nation-states,”84 anti-terrorism/counterinsurgency/asymmetrical operations seem much more likely for the future of the U.S

  16. Vulnerability of the nuclear power plant in war conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stritar, A.; Mavko, B.

    1992-01-01

    In the summer 1991 the Nuclear Power Plant Krsko in Slovenia found itself in the area of military operations. This way probably the first commercial nuclear power plant, to which it was threatened with the air jet attack. A number of never before asked questions had to be answered by the operating staff and supporting organizations. In this paper some aspects of the nuclear power plant safety in war condition are described: the selection of the best plant operating state before the attack and the determination of plant system vulnerability. It was concluded, that the best operating mode, into which the plant should be brought before the attack, is the cold shutdown mode. The problem of Nuclear Power Plant safety in war conditions should be addressed in more detail in the future. (author) [sl

  17. [The war at home: "war amenorrhea" in the First World War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stukenbrock, Karin

    2008-01-01

    In 1917, the Göttingen gynaecologist Dietrich published a short article about a phenomenon which he called "war amenorrhea" ("Kriegsamenorrhoe"). The article attracted the attention of his colleagues. While the affected women did not pay much attention to their amenorrhea, the physicians considered the phenomenon a new disease which was mainly caused by the war. This new disease gave the gynaecologists the opportunity to present their specialty as a discipline with high relevance for medicine in times of war. Nevertheless, there was no consensus about the importance, the incidence, the diagnostic criteria, the causes and the appropriate therapy of"war amenorrhea". Although the gynaecologists failed to define a uniform clinical syndrome, they maintained the construction of "war amenorrhea" after the war and subsumed it under well known types of amenorrhea. We can conclude that under the conditions of war a new disease emerged which was not sharply defined.

  18. My Story: Real Stories of People Living with Thalassemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share Compartir Real Stories from People living with Thalassemia On this Page Rahul’s Story Aaron’s Story Rahul’s ... is Rahul Kapoor, and I was born with thalassemia, a blood disorder which requires transfusions every other ...

  19. Soviet Cultural Diplomacy towards Denmark during the Cold War, 1945-1991

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederichsen, Kim

    bacteriological warfare in Korea, or the campaign against (West) German rearmament.Regarding reception and impact, it is concluded that the Soviet direct and supported activities were aimed at influencing public opinion and thereby give the impression of a public pressure that would in turn affect policy makers...... of the dissertation is that despite some success stories, including a wider audience form the mid-1970s on, it proved very difficult for the Soviet Union to achieve broad public sympathy for its messages as they more often than not seemed alien to the majority of the Danish public and therefore failed to influence...

  20. Hollywood "Takes" on Domestic Subversion: The Role of Women in Cold War America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straughn, Victoria

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the role Hollywood and films had in defining the image of women in post-World War II in the United States. Focuses on the film, "Mildred Pierce," and offers a discussion of the content of this film. Includes a film based lesson plan and three accompanying handouts. (CMK)

  1. From prowar soldier to antiwar activist: Change and continuity in the narratives of political conversion among Iraq War veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Flores

    2016-01-01

    This study examines conversion narratives of Iraq War military veterans who have become antiwar political activists. I examine how antiwar veterans construct and emplot prewar, wartime, and postwar narrative periods to shape and reclaim their moral identities as patriots fighting for a just cause, and how through a communal antiwar story they work to both...

  2. Engineering Manhattan style: Sandia Laboratories as an example of postwar engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    A great deal has been written about the history of science in America since World War II. Much of that work has explored the government`s research and development establishment, focusing on the scientific community immediately after the war. It is generally argued that the apparent triumphs of the huge and expensive wartime research and development projects gave rise to a belief that scientific resources should be nurtured and kept on hand - ready to provide service in an emergency. The Cold War drive for more and better weapons further fed this belief, leading to a massive system of national laboratories, military laboratories, and defense industries. The science of this complex is built on extensive financial support, the central strategy of which is that by steadily, and occasionally even lavishly funding large research programs, you will have a constant stream of scientific ideas that can be applied to national security purposes. What is true of science, is also true, in slightly modified form, of postwar engineering. The story I want to tell you today is, I think, an example of the way Cold War engineering r&d for national security worked. This report describes aspects of the Sandia National Laboratories.

  3. The origins of the vaccine cold chain and a glimpse of the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, John; Cheyne, James

    2017-04-19

    International efforts to eradicate smallpox in the 1960s and 1970s provided the foundation for efforts to expand immunization programmes, including work to develop immunization supply chains. The need to create a reliable system to keep vaccines cold during the lengthy journey from the manufacturer to the point of use, even in remote areas, was a crucial concern during the early days of the Expanded Programme on Immunization. The vaccine cold chain was deliberately separated from other medical distribution systems to assure timely access to and control of vaccines and injection materials. The story of the early development of the vaccine cold chain shows how a number of challenges were overcome with technological and human resource solutions. For example, the lack of methods to monitor exposure of vaccines to heat during transport and storage led to many innovations, including temperature-sensitive vaccine vial monitors and better methods to record and communicate temperatures in vaccine stores. The need for appropriate equipment to store and transport vaccines in tropical developing countries led to innovations in refrigeration equipment as well as the introduction and widespread adoption of novel high performance vaccine cold-boxes and carriers. New technologies also helped to make injection safer. Underlying this work on technologies and equipment was a major effort to develop the human resources required to manage and implement the immunization supply chain. This included creating foundational policies and a management infrastructure; providing training for managers, health workers, technicians, and others. The vaccine cold chain has contributed to one of the world's public health success stories and provides three priority lessons for future: the vaccine supply chain needs to be integrated with other public health supplies, re-designed for efficiency and effectiveness and work is needed in the longer term to eliminate the need for refrigeration in the supply

  4. Les États-Unis, la propagande et la guerre : de Cuba (1898 à l’Irak (2003 The United States and War Propaganda: from the Spanish-American War in Cuba (1898 to the Invasion of Iraq (2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredj Maatoug

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In 1897 Theodore Roosevelt wrote to a friend “I should welcome almost any war, for I think this country needs one”. He was thinking in his deep consciousness that “the Empire” needed war. In 1898 “the splendid little war” against Spain in Cuba was the answer to this expectation. Many decades later, following the dislocation of the USSR and the end of the Cold War, the USA emerged as the only superpower. It was in this context that the September 11 attacks took place. In 2003, Washington declared war on Iraq despite the international opposition. The USA waged a tremendous PR campaign to convince public opinion of the potential threat of Iraqi weapons of mass destruction and of the involvement of the Saddam Hussein regime in the attacks against the World Trade Center. None of these reasons proved to be true, but the war showed the strength of different political and industrial lobbies.

  5. Great War legacies in Serbian culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milojković-Đurić Jelena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the aftermath of the Great War, Ivo Andrić published a number of poems, essays and short stories describing the hard-won victorious outcome as transient to the dire reality of the inordinate loss of human lives and suffering. Yet, personal experiences, although perceived as ephemeral, helped to define the historical discourse capturing man’s resolve to persist in his chosen mission. Over time, Serbian literature and fine arts sustained an unfinished dialogue of the past and the present, merging the individual voices with the collective voices to construct the national narrative. The young writer Miloš Crnjanski observed the sights of destruction and despair that seemed to pale in new literary works pertaining to the war. His novel A Diary about Čarnojević was closely related to his own perilous wartime journey as a conscript in the Austrian army. The vastness of Pannonian plains and Galician woods must have invoked a comparison of sorts with another historic chapter recorded in the collective consciousness of his nation: the Great Migration of Serbs led by Patriarch Arsenije III Čarnojević (Crnojević in 1690. The very title of the novel contained a powerful reference to the migration, and its illustrious historic leader which has not been discussed or explored before.

  6. Identity Loss and Recovery in the Life Stories of Soviet World War II Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Peter G.; Podolskij, Andrei

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: We examined the adjustment to societal change following the fall of communism in a group of Soviet war veterans from Russia and the Ukraine. The focus of the study was on the dynamics of identity development, and especially generativity, in a period of intense social upheaval. Design and Methods: We administered measures of self-esteem,…

  7. The Invasion of Iran by the Allies during World War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Erkan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available When the Nazi Germany attacked the Soviets at the beginning of World War II, the USA, the UK and the Soviet Union took part on the same side and were called the Allies. In order to convey the military aid to the Soviets through Iran, the USA and the UK invaded Iran with the Soviets and dethroned Ahmad Reza Shah, who felt sympathy for Germany. By signing a treaty in 1942, they pledged to evacuate their troops from Iran six months after the war ended. They published a declaration that they would protect Iran’s territorial integrity as well as they repeated these decisions during the conference they made in Tehran in 1943. However; despite these decisions, a hidden rivalry began between the USSR and the West in Iran. The rivalry became very clear towards the end of the war. The Soviets wouldn’t withdraw from Iran. Additionally, they endeavored to divide Iran. The Iran crisis of 1946 between the West and the Soviets formed the start of the Cold War according to some people. As a country, Iran was highly affected by this process.

  8. Diplomatic History of the Great Patriotic War and the New World Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Y. Borisov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available From ancient times, war was called "the creator of all things". And winners created the postwar world order. The article reveals the backstage, the diplomatic history of the Great Patriotic War, which make the picture of the main events of the war, that culminated in victory May 1945 in the capital of the defeated Third Reich, complete. The decisive role of the Soviet Union and its armed forces in the defeat of Nazi Germany and its allies was the strong foundation on which to build the strategy and tactics of Soviet diplomacy during the war. It was implemented in the course of negotiations with the Western Allies - the United States and Britain, led by President Roosevelt and Prime Minister Churchill. World history teaches, large and small wars have been fought on Earth for centuries for specific political interests. In this context, the Second World War has been a shining example not only to curb the aggressor states, the liberation of peoples from the Nazi tyranny, but also an attempt by the victor to organize a new, better postwar world order to guarantee a durable and lasting peace based on the cooperation of the allied states. But the allies in the war did not become allies in the organization of the postwar world. Their collaboration briefly survived the end of hostilities and was overshadowed start turning to the Cold War. It was largely due to the US desire to realize their material advantages to the detriment of the Soviet Union after the war and build a system that would be a one-sided expression of the interests of Washington. Americans, especially after the death of President Roosevelt, and during his successor Truman understood international cooperation as an assertion of its global leadership while ignoring the interests of the Soviet Union, which bore the brunt of the war.

  9. Story asides as a useful construct in examining adults' story recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluck, Susan; Alea, Nicole; Baron-Lee, Jacqueline M.; Davis, Danielle K.

    2016-01-01

    Older adults sometimes exhibit higher levels of off-target verbosity during story recall than do young adults. This appears as the inclusion of extraneous information not directly relevant to the topic. Some production of such material has been clearly related to cognitive decline, particularly older adults’ inability to inhibit production of irrelevant information. In tandem, however, research also suggests that some extraneous information is indirectly related to the topic and may reflect age differences in communicative styles. To further elucidate the social cognitive aspect of this issue, the question of import is: What is the content of the additional information provided by participants during story recall? The present study answers this question. Grounded in the autobiographical memory and life story literatures, we introduce the construct, story asides, and a reliable content-analytic scheme for its assessment. Young and older adults (N = 129) recalled one of two types of stories: a personal autobiographical memory or an experimenter-generated fictional story. Narratives were reliably coded for story asides. As expected, older adults produced more story asides than young adults only for autobiographical stories. The discussion focuses on the role of story asides in everyday communication including the possibility that they may be a sign of communicative expertise. PMID:26751005

  10. Story asides as a useful construct in examining adults' story recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluck, Susan; Alea, Nicole; Baron-Lee, Jacqueline M; Davis, Danielle K

    2016-02-01

    Older adults sometimes exhibit higher levels of off-target verbosity during story recall than do young adults. This appears as the inclusion of extraneous information not directly relevant to the topic. Some production of such material has been clearly related to cognitive decline, particularly older adults' inability to inhibit production of irrelevant information. In tandem, however, research also suggests that some extraneous information is indirectly related to the topic and may reflect age differences in communicative styles. To further elucidate the social-cognitive aspect of this issue, the question of import is: What is the content of the additional information provided by participants during story recall? The present study answers this question. Grounded in the autobiographical memory and life story literatures, we introduce the construct, story asides, and a reliable content-analytic scheme for its assessment. Young and older adults (N = 129) recalled 1 of 2 types of stories: a personal autobiographical memory or an experimenter-generated fictional story. Narratives were reliably coded for story asides. As expected, older adults produced more story asides than young adults only for autobiographical stories. The discussion focuses on the role of story asides in everyday communication including the possibility that they may be a sign of communicative expertise. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. When's a story not at story?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Eva

    . For example, as presented in this paper, a tourist guide tells the same story about a violent motorcycle gang, part of her ancetdotal reportoire, during two guided tours. The story is fixed in content and structure, but when brought into social interaction with tourists, it becomes part of a broader narrative...

  12. My partner's stories: relationships between personal and vicarious life stories within romantic couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panattoni, Katherine; Thomsen, Dorthe Kirkegaard

    2018-06-12

    In this paper, we examined relationships and differences between personal and vicarious life stories, i.e., the life stories one knows of others. Personal and vicarious life stories of both members of 51 young couples (102 participants), based on McAdams' Life Story Interview (2008), were collected. We found significant positive relationships between participants' personal and vicarious life stories on agency and communion themes and redemption sequences. We also found significant positive relationships between participants' vicarious life stories about their partners and those partners' personal life stories on agency and communion, but not redemption. Furthermore, these relationships were not explained by similarity between couples' two personal life stories, as no associations were found between couples' personal stories on agency, communion and redemption. These results suggest that the way we construct the vicarious life stories of close others may reflect how we construct our personal life stories.

  13. La Nación, Peronism, and the Origins of the Cold War in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez-Román, José Antonio

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the international dimension of Argentine domestic policies by exploring one of the strategies of the conservative daily newspaper La Nación, between 1946 and 1950, in order to challenge Juan Perón’s hegemony. La Nación presented the Peronist regime as akin to the totalitarian regimes established under the Soviet Union’s vigilance. This is not surprising, but revealing the complex ideological mechanisms employed by La Nación in its strategy is a noteworthy endeavor. This work will provide a thorough exploration of the process through which La Nación shifted from its former opposition to Peronism, initially identified as a Nazi-Fascist movement, to a new articulation of the regime as a totalitarian one. To some extent this was not so different from the strategy that the United States’ (US intellectual elites were carrying out in order to justify their struggle against a former ally in war as a continuation of purpose and not a rupture. Yet, the most interesting aspect of this evolution in the Argentine case is that it emerged in an autonomous way as a result of specific national and international phenomena. This shows that the characteristics of the early phase of the Cold War were shaped by transnational processes of convergence rather than US hegemony alone.Este artículo analiza la dimensión internacional de la política interna argentina explorando la estrategia del diario conservador La Nación, entre 1946 y 1950 en su enfrentamiento con el gobierno de Juan Domingo Perón. La Nación presentó el régimen peronista como similar a los regímenes totalitarios establecidos bajo el control de la Unión Soviética. Esto no resulta sorprendente, pero comprender los complejos mecanismos ideológicos empleados por La Nación en esta estrategia es un objetivo relevante de investigación. Este artículo ofrece un análisis detallado del proceso que permitió a La Nación transformar su descripción del peronismo como

  14. "The war against women". Media representations of men's violence against women in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, A

    1997-02-01

    This article analyzes how a newspaper in Victoria, Australia, represented violence against women in a special series entitled, "The War Against Women." True to the series title, the series appropriated all of the metaphors of war and dealt with violence against women in much the same fashion as it would report a war, speculating as to its causes, mapping its prevalence, reporting deaths, and referring to "explosions" of violence. As in war coverage, the series included findings of a poll of public opinion, told a story of contrition from an enemy who surrendered (a man in counseling), and offered editorials. While it drew attention to one of society's most pressing and intractable social problems, the paper ignored its own previous reports on domestic violence to gain the shock value of the "new" and, therefore, perpetuated a pattern of "discovery, forgetting, and rediscovery" of violence against women. The paper also failed to apply the feminist notion of a continuum of male violence or to breach the chasm between feminist and public understanding of male violence. Finally, the paper used editorial disclaimers to minimalize men's responsibility and distance itself from feminists. Thus, it placed its critique of men's pervasive violence against women within the hegemonic narratives of gender relations, which hold that women acquiesce in domestic violence, feminists vilify men, and men are a much-maligned group not responsible for the bad behavior of a minority. The paper, thus, conveys that idea that this war will not be won.

  15. Terminating America's wars : the Gulf War and Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Musser, William G.

    2002-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis asks two questions: 1) What factors have contributed to the termination of recent United States wars? and 2) How can elements of national power be applied successfully to terminate the future wars of the United States? To answer these questions, this thesis offers a model of war termination and applies it to cases of war termination, in the Gulf War and in Kosovo. These case studies indicate that termination of future wars ...

  16. Stories: A List of Stories to Tell and to Read Aloud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Ellin, Comp.

    This booklet contains lists of folk and fairy tales, stories to be read aloud, and books of poetry for young children. It includes references to children's stories from many countries, stories of heroes and saints, and stories for special occasions. A section of source materials for the storyteller is also included along with subject and…

  17. [Georg Friedrich Nicolai: war physician against war].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bergen, L

    2017-01-01

    Georg Friedrich Nicolai was a German professor and heart specialist who was one of the few who protested against the war at the beginning of World War I. As a result, he lost his job and was convicted. After the war, right-wing nationalist students and lack of support from his university superiors made it impossible for him to teach. He left Germany in 1922, never to return. In his book, Die Biologie des Krieges (The Biology of War), which was published in neutral Switzerland in 1917, he contradicted the social Darwinist idea - supported by many physicians as well - that war strengthened humanity, people and races, physically and mentally. On the contrary, he argued, war is biologically counterproductive.

  18. Status of Environmental Management Initiatives to Accelerate the Reduction of Environmental Risks and Challenges Posed by the Legacy of the Cold War

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Fifty years of nuclear weapons production and energy research in the United States during the Cold War generated large amounts of radioactive wastes, spent nuclear fuel (SNF), excess plutonium and uranium, thousands of contaminated facilities, and contaminated soil and groundwater. During most of that half century, the Nation did not have the environmental regulatory structure or nuclear waste cleanup technologies that exist today. The result was a legacy of nuclear waste that was stored and disposed of in ways now considered unacceptable. Cleaning up and ultimately disposing of these wastes is the responsibility of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). In 1989, DOE established the Office of Environmental Management (EM) to solve the large scale and technically challenging risks posed by the world's largest nuclear cleanup. This required EM to build a new nuclear cleanup infrastructure, assemble and train a technically specialized workforce, and develop the technologies and tools required to safely decontaminate, disassemble, stabilize, disposition, and remediate unique radiation hazards. The sites where nuclear activities produced legacy waste and contamination include the original Manhattan Project sites--Los Alamos, New Mexico; Hanford, Washington; and Oak Ridge, Tennessee--as well as major Cold War sites, such as Savannah River Site, South Carolina; the Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho; Rocky Flats Plant, Colorado; and Fernald, Ohio. Today EM has responsibility for nuclear cleanup activities at 21 sites covering more than two million acres in 13 states, and employs more than 30,000 Federal and contractor employees, including scientists, engineers and hazardous waste technicians. This cleanup poses unique, technically complex problems, which must be solved under the most hazardous of conditions, and which will require billions of dollars a year for several more decades. The EM program focus during its first 10 years was on managing the most urgent risks and

  19. Status of Environmental Management Initiatives to Accelerate the Reduction of Environmental Risks and Challenges Posed by the Legacy of the Cold War

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-01-01

    Fifty years of nuclear weapons production and energy research in the United States during the Cold War generated large amounts of radioactive wastes, spent nuclear fuel (SNF), excess plutonium and uranium, thousands of contaminated facilities, and contaminated soil and groundwater. During most of that half century, the Nation did not have the environmental regulatory structure or nuclear waste cleanup technologies that exist today. The result was a legacy of nuclear waste that was stored and disposed of in ways now considered unacceptable. Cleaning up and ultimately disposing of these wastes is the responsibility of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). In 1989, DOE established the Office of Environmental Management (EM) to solve the large scale and technically challenging risks posed by the world's largest nuclear cleanup. This required EM to build a new nuclear cleanup infrastructure, assemble and train a technically specialized workforce, and develop the technologies and tools required to safely decontaminate, disassemble, stabilize, disposition, and remediate unique radiation hazards. The sites where nuclear activities produced legacy waste and contamination include the original Manhattan Project sites--Los Alamos, New Mexico; Hanford, Washington; and Oak Ridge, Tennessee--as well as major Cold War sites, such as Savannah River Site, South Carolina; the Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho; Rocky Flats Plant, Colorado; and Fernald, Ohio. Today EM has responsibility for nuclear cleanup activities at 21 sites covering more than two million acres in 13 states, and employs more than 30,000 Federal and contractor employees, including scientists, engineers and hazardous waste technicians. This cleanup poses unique, technically complex problems, which must be solved under the most hazardous of conditions, and which will require billions of dollars a year for several more decades. The EM program focus during its first 10 years was on managing the most urgent risks and

  20. Heroes and Cowards: Genealogy, Subjectivity and War in the Twenty-First Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Lee

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available From the wars of Ancient Greece to the collapsing Islamic State in the present, the same, apparently timeless protagonists appear and their stories told and re-told: the heroes, cowards and other combatants. This article proposes a framework which combines a Foucauldian genealogical approach with his conception of the subject as both constituted in relation to code-oriented moralities, and creatively self-formed in relation to ethics-oriented moralities (Foucault 1992, pp. 5, 25, to understand how it is possible to speak meaningfully of heroes and cowards in the age of the drone and the jihadist. Section one will explore the applicability of Foucauldian genealogy as the methodological basis for understanding present combatants in the context of war. The second section will assess Foucault’s ‘modes of subjectivation’ and ‘practices of the self’ (Foucault 1992, p. 28, as a means of analyzing the emergence of the subject of war over millennia, with emphasis on the ethical dimension of subjectivity that can be applied to heroes and cowards. Then the third section will use insights from Homer and Augustine to begin to illustrate how Foucault’s genealogical approach and his conception of ethical subjectivity combine to enable heroes and cowards to be meaningfully spoken of and better understood in the domain of war today. The purpose of such a study is to set out the basis on which political genealogy after Foucault can provide a nuanced conceptualization of subjectivity in modern war, as those subjects are formed, claimed, valorized and criticized by competing entities in contemporary political discourse.

  1. The Social Apocalypse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clasen, Mathias

    What is the strange attraction of imagining the end of the world? I analyze the allure and the functions of apocalyptic and post-apocalyptic science fiction, exemplified by English-language genre novels (c. 1949-1985). I draw on anthropological, biological and psychological findings to explain why...... such stories overwhelmingly represent the social apocalypse, and why ambivalence saturates such imaginative scenarios: they centrally dramatize the challenges and the values of sociality. Moreover, I argue that uniquely developed human adaptive capacities for imagination, decoupled cognition and mental time......-travel account for the existence and psychological functions of the genre, but that a cultural perspective is indispensable to explaining the modern popularity of such stories, from stories of Cold War nuclear apocalypse to the currently popular zombie-mediated end of the world. Biologically constrained...

  2. American Naval Thinking in the Post-Cold War Era: The U.S. Navy and the Emergence of a Maritime Strategy, 1989-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    reoccurrence of global depression and world war by establishing regimes soon after the Second World War that addressed the factors that were thought to have...Princeton, NJ: Princeton University, 1986), 164. 8 John B. Hattendorf, John R. Wadleigh, and B. Mitchell Simpson, Sailors and Scholars: The Centennial ...Simpson. Sailors and Scholars: The Centennial History of the United States Naval War College. Newport, RI: U.S. Naval War College, 1984. 387

  3. Getting the story right: making computer-generated stories more entertaining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oinonen, K.M.; Theune, Mariet; Nijholt, Antinus; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Maybury, Mark; Stock, Oliviero; Wahlster, Wolfgang

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we describe our efforts to increase the entertainment value of the stories generated by our story generation system, the Virtual Storyteller, at the levels of plot creation, discourse generation and spoken language presentation. We also discuss the construction of a story database that

  4. Beyond Pathologizing Harm: Understanding PTSD in the Context of War Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, Patricia; Halpern, Jodi; Gordon, Deborah R; Popell, Catherine Long; Kelley, Patricia W

    2018-03-01

    An alternative to objectifying approaches to understanding Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) grounded in hermeneutic phenomenology is presented. Nurses who provided care for soldiers injured in the Iraq and Afghanistan wars, and sixty-seven wounded male servicemen in the rehabilitation phase of their recovery were interviewed. PTSD is the one major psychiatric diagnosis where social causation is established, yet PTSD is predominantly viewed in terms of the usual neuro-physiological causal models with traumatic social events viewed as pathogens with dose related effects. Biologic models of causation are applied reductively to both predisposing personal vulnerabilities and strengths that prevent PTSD, such as resiliency. However, framing PTSD as an objective disease state separates it from narrative historical details of the trauma. Personal stories and cultural meanings of the traumatic events are seen as epiphenomenal, unrelated to the understanding of, and ultimately, the therapeutic treatment of PTSD. Most wounded service members described classic symptoms of PTSD: flashbacks, insomnia, anxiety etc. All experienced disturbance in their sense of time and place. Rather than see the occurrence of these symptoms as decontextualized mechanistic reverberations of war, we consider how these symptoms meaningfully reflect actual war experiences and sense of displacement experienced by service members.

  5. Cold War salons, social science, and the cure for modern society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Cole, Jamie

    2009-06-01

    This essay examines how post-World War II Americans linked their understanding of domestic society and international affairs by using a common lens of psychological and characterological analysis for both. That lens was fashioned by social scientists and developed to study conformity and its opposite, creative and autonomous selfhood. Creativity offered a means to achieve the liberal national society they desired. Social scientists managed their technical definitions of conformity and autonomy as a way of defining reasonable political sentiment. This essay details how, ultimately, the forms of self and sociality they advocated for America were grounded in the kinds of community and interpersonal interaction they valued in their own professional lives.

  6. The United States and biological warfare: secrets from the early cold war and Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruwer, A

    2001-01-01

    The United States and Biological Warfare is about accusations that the United States resorted to bacteriological warfare at a time of great military stress during the Korean War. In December 1951, the then US Secretary of Defense ordered early readiness for offensive use of biological weapons. Soon afterwards, the North Korean and Chinese armies accused the United States of starting a large-scale biological warfare experiment in Korea. The US State Department denied the accusation. Both parties to the dispute maintain their positions today. The authors spent 20 years researching the accusations in North America, Europe and Japan. They were the first foreigners to be given access to Chinese classified documents. The reader is also introduced to the concept of 'plausible denial', an official US policy which allowed responsible governmental representatives to deny knowledge of certain events. The authors hope that their work will contribute to the understanding of a time when modern war expanded into a new type of violence.

  7. Historic preservation requirements and the evaluation of cold war era nuclear facilities at Argonne National Laboratory-East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wescott, K. L.

    1999-01-01

    Project design for the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of federal facilities must address the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act which includes compliance with the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA). Section 106 of the NHPA requires that Federal agencies consider any effect their activities may have on historic properties. While a cultural property is not usually considered historic until it has reached an age of 50 years or older, special consideration is given to younger properties if they are of exceptional importance in demonstrating unique development in American history, architecture, archaeology, engineering, or culture. As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) D and D program at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E), site properties are evaluated within the context of the Cold War Era and within themes associated with nuclear technology. Under this program, ANL-E staff have conducted archival research on three nuclear reactor facilities, one accelerator, and one laboratory building. DOE and ANL-E have been working closely with the Illinois Historic Preservation Agency (IHPA) to determine the eligibility of these properties for listing on the National Register of Historic Places. In 1998, in consultation with the IHPA, the DOE determined that the reactor facilities were eligible. Memoranda of Agreement were signed between the DOE and the IHPA stipulating mitigation requirements for the recordation of two of these properties. The laboratory building was recently determined eligible and will likely undergo similar documentation procedures. The accelerator was determined not eligible. Similar studies and determinations will be required for all future D and D projects

  8. Einstein on politics his private thoughts and public stands on nationalism, zionism, war, peace, and the bomb

    CERN Document Server

    Rowe, David E; Schulmann, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The most famous scientist of the twentieth century, Albert Einstein was also one of the century's most outspoken political activists. Deeply engaged with the events of his tumultuous times, from the two world wars and the Holocaust, to the atomic bomb and the Cold War, to the effort to establish a Jewish homeland, Einstein was a remarkably prolific political writer, someone who took courageous and often unpopular stands against nationalism, militarism, anti-Semitism, racism, and McCarthyism. In Einstein on Politics, leading Einstein scholars David Rowe and Robert Schulmann gather Einstein's m

  9. Story quality management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-12-01

    This book is written to explain quality management using stories, which have each story about quality management. The titles of stories are way to tell the meaning in mind, mom, house wife's meal costs a great deal, good bye digestive medicine, beans cooked in soy sauce, wedding and space rocket, each story is used to give descriptions of quality management like procedure and decision for division of labor, quality guaranteed and histogram.

  10. War on!

    OpenAIRE

    Simon , Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    Abstract 'War on' is the leading form of anti-policy in the United States. Since the late 1950s we have seen wars on cancer, poverty, drugs and terror. Thus far, the most far-reaching of these, the war on crime, has transformed American democracy since the 1960s. The deformation of our population and institutions now requires not simply an end to that war and its extension (the 'War on Terror'), but the deployment of a new 'war on' to stimulate change in the governmentalities which...

  11. [Max Planck--an adversary of Christianity? The debate about Planck's attitude towards religion after World War II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löhr, Gebhard

    2012-03-01

    The article discusses a debate which unfolded in the early 1950s and 1960s between East German Marxist philosophers and historians of science and West German theologians and scientists. The subject treated was the attitude towards religion of famous physicist Max Planck who had died a few years earlier, in 1947. The article analyses the different positions of the contributors, mainly with a view to developing a categorial framework usable in descriptions and analyses of the religious attitudes of natural scientists. Moreover the different stages of the debate are outlined in order to exhibit their connections to the larger historical context, i.e. the unfolding of the cold war. In the light of this the debate can be regarded as a religious or ideological war, albeit a cold one, on German soil, which fortunately did not escalate into a hot conflict. It ended, as can be illustrated in a late contribution to the debate, with the collapse of the GDR in 1989 or shortly thereafter.

  12. StoryTrek: Experiencing Stories in the Real World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khaled, Rilla; Barr, Pippin James; Greenspan, Brian

    2011-01-01

    world experience. In early tests we observed the emergence of a number of recurrent themes in participants’ experiences which are characteristic of the StoryTrek system, but which also help us to understand locative media storytelling affordances more generally. In this paper we present the system......In this paper we introduce StoryTrek, a locative hypernarrative system developed to generate stories based on a reader’s location and specific movements in the real world. This creates, for readers, an interplay between navigation, narrative, and agency, as well as between the fictional and real...

  13. StoryTrek: Experiencing Stories in the Real World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khaled, Rilla; Barr, Pippin James; Greenspan, Brian

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we introduce StoryTrek, a locative hypernarrative system developed to generate stories based on a reader’s location and specific movements in the real world. This creates, for readers, an interplay between navigation, narrative, and agency, as well as between the fictional and real...... world experience. In early tests we observed the emergence of a number of recurrent themes in participants’ experiences which are characteristic of the StoryTrek system, but which also help us to understand locative media storytelling affordances more generally. In this paper we present the system...

  14. Fragmented Work Stories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humle, Didde Maria; Reff Pedersen, Anne

    2015-01-01

    stories. We argue that meaning by story making is not always created by coherence and causality; meaning is created by different types of fragmentation: discontinuities, tensions and editing. The objective of this article is to develop and advance antenarrative practice analysis of work stories...

  15. Being at war: Cognitive Approaches to Observational War Documentaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib

    2017-01-01

    : Janus Metz’s Danish ‘Armadillo’ (2010) following a group of soldiers to Afghanistan, and Andreas Dalsgaard and Obiada Zytoon’s Danish-Syrian ‘The War Show’ following a group of young Syrians during the Syrian spring to the civil war and beyond. Based on theories of cognition and emotion and evolutionary......In this article I primarily analyse observational war documentaries in order to deal with how this particular form of documentary contribute to our understanding of how it is to be at war as a soldier or as a civilian in a war zone. I analyse two very different observational war documentaries...... biology the article argues for the importance of this type of documentaries in developing and understanding of what war really is and it is experience, how it is to be at war. The article also puts the films in the broader context of both fictional and documentary war genres trying to map how...

  16. Political Evolution at NATO Level in Post Cold War Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomescu Cătălin Tomiţă

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The beginning of the post Cold era sounds like that: „The world has changed dramatically. The Alliance has made an essential contribution. The peoples of North America and the whole of Europe can now join in a community of shared values based on freedom, democracy, human rights and the rule of law. As an agent of change, a source of stability and the indispensable guarantor of its members' security, our Alliance will continue to play a key role in building a new, lasting order of peace in Europe: a Europe of cooperation and prosperity”[1].

  17. Mechanism of story elements in the Forud story of Shahname

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hojjatollah Hemmati

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Which by their nature narrative structure elements , motifs and narrative action takes place . Author In light of these characteristics and structural elements such as plot , point of view , conflict, crisis , climax and relief , follow the narrative structure down. In this study is to investigate the structure of the story landed in Shahnameh . For this purpose, the definition of story and structure delivers And a review of such issues to investigate this story. And to provide this evidence to conclude that the text of traditions and story And a coherent and systematic plan and that it regulates the relations of cause and effect . And shows the text with the help of fictional elements From a stable position starts And stable position and different ends.     Abstract Which by their nature narrative structure elements , motifs and narrative action takes place . Author In light of these characteristics and structural elements such as plot , point of view , conflict, crisis , climax and relief , follow the narrative structure down. In this study is to investigate the structure of the story landed in Shahnameh . For this purpose, the definition of story and structure delivers And a review of such issues to investigate this story. And to provide this evidence to conclude that the text of traditions and story And a coherent and systematic plan and that it regulates the relations of cause and effect . And shows the text with the help of fictional elements From a stable position starts And stable position and different ends.

  18. Globalizing Contemporary War

    OpenAIRE

    Melissa Zisler

    2009-01-01

    There are a plethora of social problems present throughout theworld in which America has deemed a type of ‘war.’ Some of theseunconventional wars include: The War on Poverty presented in 1964; The War on Drugs announced in 1971; The War on Cancer commencing in1971; The War Against Illiteracy beginning in the 1970s; and afterSeptember 11, 2001 The War on Terror was announced (Raz, 2008).These contemporary ‘wars’ have transformed the meaning of the word‘war.’ Labeling these missions ‘wars,’ pre...

  19. A Historical Survey of Military Health Services: The Crimean War and Florence Nigtingale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unal Demirtas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available During the Crimean War freezing cold and contagious diseases was more important than the Russian soldiers for the allied armies. Typhus, scorbut, cholera and malaria prepare the dead of a large number of soldiers. According to the resources, the contagious diseases led to death more than ten times of the military actions. That and #8217;s why, The European armies understood the importance of the treatment diseases in the war and the Crimean War became the beginning point in military health concept development. Florence Nightingale and a staff of 38 volunteers provide clean bedding, improve ventilation and sewage disposal, and reorganize everyday sanitary procedures at British barracks in Istanbul. She was an early theorist of sanitation and one of the founders of the modern nursing profession. Nightingale worked to improve sanitation, nutrition, and activity of patients at hospitals. Death rates were reduced dramatically with the introduction of such measures. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(1.000: 1-6

  20. Stand Together or Apart: A Thematic Unit for "The Chocolate War" by Robert Cormier and "To Kill a Mockingbird" by Harper Lee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yinger, Lisa

    This thematic unit is all about what a classic novel about race relations in the 1930s American South, "To Kill a Mockingbird," and a frequently banned contemporary teen story about a candy sale, "The Chocolate War," have in common. The unit considers what people have in common, what it means to stand apart, and what…

  1. Life Stories and Trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongshøj, Inge Lise Lundsgaard; Bohn, Annette; Berntsen, Dorthe

    Research has shown a connection between Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and integration of traumatic experiences into the life story. Furthermore, empirical evidence suggests that life story formation begins in mid to late adolescence. Following these findings, the present study investigated...... whether experiencing trauma in youth was associated with a greater risk to integrate the trauma into the life story compared to adult traumatic exposure. Life stories were collected from 115 participants recruited via Amazon Mechanical Turk. Moreover, participants filled out questionnaires regarding...... often integrate the trauma into their life story? Results will be discussed in relation to theories of development of life stories and of PTSD....

  2. The Macroeconomic Effects of War Finance in the United States: World War II and the Korean War.

    OpenAIRE

    Ohanian, Lee E

    1997-01-01

    During World War II, government expenditures were financed primarily by issuing debt. During the Korean War, expenditures were financed almost exclusively by higher taxes, reflecting President Truman's preference for balanced budgets. This paper evaluates quantitatively the economic effects of the different policies used to finance these two wars. Counterfactual experiments are used to explore the implications of financing World War II like the Korean War, and financing the Korean War like Wo...

  3. Cold War Agency: The United States and the Failure of the DIEM Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    the United States by complying with Western norms of democratic leadership , only later developing into an autocratic tyrant; or was Diem’s...2000s to establish democratic regimes in Afghanistan and Iraq reflect an American foreign policy tradition that began at the end of World War II. The...would eventually serve in Vietnam in a failed effort to prevent the Democratic Republic of Vietnam from uniting the country under a communist regime

  4. Heisenberg's war. The secret history of the German bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, T.

    1993-01-01

    The history of Second World War Germany's 'Uranium Project', which often is referred to as the 'myth of the German atomic bomb', has been attracting the mind's of secret service men, futurologists, historians and journalists since after the end of the war it has become possible to lift the veil of secrecy. Powers book adds another one to the many investigations published since them. His approach to the piece of history starts with Heisenberg's visit to the U.S.A. in summer 1939, describes the plans of the German Heereswaffenamt pursued with the Uranium Project, and their counterpart on the side of the Allied Forces where German scientists, as immigrants in England and in the U.S.A., were doing their best to launch research for the development of an atomic bomb. The end of this 'competition' is marked by the internment of the ten German scientists and bomb specialists in Fall Hall. The leading story of the book centers on the small group of scientists around Heisenberg, who cleverly 'torpedoed' the development of the German atomic bomb in the years from 1939 until 1944. (HP) [de

  5. Culture Stories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2007-01-01

    This paper argues for a narrative approach to the study of urban branding and planning. An analytical framework for understanding narratives and place is presented. The notion of the ‘representational logics of urban intervention' captures this idea that urban branding interventions are guided by...... competing stories are told by proponents and opponents of the interventions. The relation to place in the stories differ radically for those favour and those against, and the paper aims throwing light over the complex relationship between story and place....

  6. The Atoms for Peace USIS Films: Spreading the Gospel of the "Blessing" of Atomic Energy in the Early Cold War Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuka Tsuchiya

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In 1955, the U.S. Information Service (USIS Tokyo produced a thirty-minute documentary film Blessing of Atomic Energy in commemoration of the tenth anniversary of the Atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The film introduced how the Japanese government, researchers, and companies were using radioisotopes offered by the U.S. Argonne National Laboratory for the “peaceful” purposes in agriculture, medicine, hygiene, industry, and disaster prevention. The film also showed the mechanism of atomic power generation, and explained that it was already put into practice in the U.S. and Europe. The images of Japanese people enjoying the “blessing” of the “peaceful” use of atomic energy, ten years after the traumatic experience of A-bombs, were not only shown all over Japan, but also translated into different languages and shown in many countries, including the UK, Finland, Indonesia, Sudan, and Venezuela. The film was part of some fifty educational and documentary films produced for President Eisenhower’s “Atoms for Peace” campaign – a global information dissemination programs on the U.S. leadership in the civilian use of nuclear energy. This paper will explore the roles USIS films played in disseminating information on the “peaceful” use of nuclear energy in the early Cold War era.

  7. The Sunni Spring: Counter-Attack in the War for Islamic Civilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    cannot stamp out such practices like the British were able to stamp out sati in India . Unlike the Raj, however, we are in no position to superimpose...The United States toppled the Arab World’s leading secular tyrant and proceeded to rebuild the country’s political system in such a way as to...few thought much about the commonality during the tense years of the Cold War. Pope and Patriarch may have excommunicated each other in the Great

  8. TRASH TO TREASURE: CONVERTING COLD WAR LEGACY WASTE INTO WEAPONS AGAINST CANCER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholas, R.G.; Lacy, N.H.; Butz, T.R.; Brandon, N.E.

    2004-01-01

    As part of its commitment to clean up Cold War legacy sites, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has initiated an exciting and unique project to dispose of its inventory of uranium-233 (233U) stored at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and extract isotopes that show great promise in the treatment of deadly cancers. In addition to increasing the supply of potentially useful medical isotopes, the project will rid DOE of a nuclear concern and cut surveillance and security costs. For more than 30 years, DOE's ORNL has stored over 1,200 containers of fissile 233U, originally produced for several defense-related projects, including a pilot study that looked at using 233U as a commercial reactor fuel. This uranium, designated as special nuclear material, requires expensive security, safety, and environmental controls. It has been stored at an ORNL facility, Building 3019A, that dates back to the Manhattan Project. Down-blending the material to a safer form, rather than continuing to store it, will eliminate a $15 million a year financial liability for the DOE and increase the supply of medical isotopes by 5,700 percent. During the down-blending process, thorium-229 (229Th) will be extracted. The thorium will then be used to extract actinium-225 (225Ac), which will ultimately supply its progeny, bismuth-213 (213Bi), for on-going cancer research. The research includes Phase II clinical trials for the treatment of acute myelogenous leukemia at Sloan-Kettering Memorial Cancer Center in New York, as well as other serious cancers of the lungs, pancreas, and kidneys using a technique known as alpha-particle radioimmunotherapy. Alpha-particle radioimmunotherapy is based on the emission of alpha particles by radionuclides. 213Bi is attached to a monoclonal antibody that targets specific cells. The bismuth then delivers a high-powered but short-range radiation dose, effectively killing the cancerous cells but sparing the surrounding tissue. Production of the actinium and

  9. The Annual Collins Center Senior Symposium: Aligning the Interagency Process for the War on Terrorism (Center for Strategic Leadership, Volume 11-05, June 2005)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tussing, Bert B; Butts, Kent H

    2005-01-01

    .... That process, developed for the challenges of the Cold War, is characterized by stove pipe operations and resourcing initiatives in an era that demands an efficient integration of efforts for results...

  10. Rwanda: a country still in post war syndrome--twelve years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Geraldine

    2006-01-01

    Rwanda, a small country in Central Africa is still trying to survive and rebuild itself some 12 years after the initial deadly war between two ethnic rival groups, the Hutus and the Tutsis. Since my visit in October, 1994, with a handpicked health team (two senior nursing students, an internal medicine physician, social worker, and a nurse volunteer from the District of Columbia community) on a six week mission that was a collaborative effort between Howard University and the Washington, DC based organization, Africare, Inc., very little has happened to better the lives of the citizens. The task at-hand was to assist in the promotion and repairing of a near-fatal health care delivery system, that occurred just six months after the major attack in April. Rwanda experienced a war, noted as the most brutal in the memory of the country, that killed so many people and destroyed so much of the country and its resources. Since our mission, so much has been written and new concerns have surfaced such as "Hotel Rwanda", a million dollar plus movie that truthfully tells the story of how a real-life person actually saved some 1,200 countrymen in what is carefully termed a "genocide", and the book "Left to Tell", written by a female Tutsi survivor, Immaculee Ilibagiza tells the story of how she survived the genocide and discovered that "with God all things are possible." This present article has attempted to discuss the genocide and how it relates, bringing a connection from within the inner world to the outer world through my experience of "having been there and done that" as seen by the naked human eyes.

  11. Climate control: United States weather modification in the cold war and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Kristine C

    2008-03-01

    Rainmaking, hail busting, fog lifting, snowpack enhancing, lightning suppressing, hurricane snuffing...weather control. At the lunatic fringe of scientific discussion in the early twentieth century--and the subject of newspaper articles with tones ranging from skeptical titters to awestruck wonder--weather modification research became more serious after World War II. In the United States, the 'seeds' of silver iodide and dry ice purported to enhance rainfall and bust hailstorms soon became seeds of controversy from which sprouted attempts by federal, state and local government to control the controllers and exploit 'designer weather' for their own purposes.

  12. Photographed by the Earth: War and media in light of nuclear events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Pringle

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article charts a media historical relation between radiation and celluloid film, ranging from the downwind 1956 production of The Conqueror to early scientific imaging practices, war photography, war documentaries, military industrial film, and contemporary artists working on radiation aesthetics. Posing the collection as a diagnostic media ecology, this article argues that the valuable evidence provided by the environmental metadata stored in celluloid film is the product of ecological warfare and violence. By turning to the material sciences for a better understanding of how nuclear weapons affect media on large spatial and temporal scales we gain a parallax view to how photographic practices – defined as the aesthetic exchange of light and energy – occur autonomously within our ecology, although some of these forces are mobilised in deadly and imperceptible ways. By demonstrating that non-human agencies released by Cold War energy policies have contaminated military industrial and commercial film archives alike, this article asserts that nuclear testing and warfare have contributed to a global condition of test-subjectivity that can be evidenced by diagnostic media ecology.

  13. Review Article: The Vanished Ghosts in Two Hungarian Family Memoirs. Farkas, Charles. 2013. Vanished by the Danube: Peace, War, Revolution, and Flight to the West (Introduction by Margaret McMullan. Albany: Excelsior Editions, State University of New York Press. 472 pp. Illus; and Barlay, Nick. 2013. Scattered Ghosts: One Family's Survival through War, Holocaust and Revolution. London and New York: I. B. Tauris. 240 pp. Illus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth G. Biro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent personal documentary works about major historical events of the twentieth century, e.g., World War II, the Holocaust and the 1956 Hungarian Revolution, offer their readers a rich and multifaceted narrative, or a history that is also "his story," "her story" and that of entire families, cohorts and communities. Often, these works are accompanied by visual artifacts such as photographs, family tress, maps etc., or supported by concise historical surveys. Thus these memoirs complete the work of historians with the lived experiences of the few that represent many. Such is the case with two 2013 books by Charles Farkas and Nick Barlay depicting their mid-twentieth century Hungarian families, one Christian and one Jewish, through two World Wars and the anti-communist uprising, culminating in their escape to the West and in the two authors looking back upon the Hungarian past of their families.

  14. The Iraq war: official and unofficial history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Garcia Bonfin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the motivations and the soldiers who fought in the war in Iraq started in March 2003. The attacks of September 11, 2001 transformed the foreign policy of the United States, the years of relative peace conquered at the end of the cold war is over, Americans now had a new enemy, political Islam. Soon after the attacks, the Bush Administration (2001-2009 tried to relate Islamic fighters belonging to Al-Qaeda with the regime of Saddam Hussein, in a clear attempt to justify an invasion on Iraq internally. Externally, the American Government, along with the Briton, claimed that the Iraqis had weapons of mass destruction, which inflicted the UN resolutions imposed on the Iraqi Government during the years 1990. However, neither the inspections and subsequently the invasion were able to find such weapons. What if you saw after the invasion was the huge profit obtained by private military and oil companies. In the research was analyzed as if formed the Middle East, the Empire of the United States on a global scale, the report of the Chief Inspector of UNMOVIC, the UN agency responsible for weapons inspections in Iraq, and the letters of soldiers who fought in Iraq. In historiography, as in what if notes is that there were three present interests in the war in Iraq, economic order first, with the possibility of profit of the private military companies and the opportunity to extract oil; second related to foreign policy, which had the interest in rearranging geopolitics of the region; and third of domestic politics, to which there was an increase in the popularity of the Bush administration, with the war on Terror.

  15. The StorySpinner Sculptural Reader

    OpenAIRE

    Hooper, Clare; Weal, Mark

    2005-01-01

    This demo is of a hypertext reading system called StorySpinner. It follows the sculptural hypertext methodology and has been used as a test bed for experimenting with the authoring of narrative flow in automatically generated stories. Readers are able to select and read one of two available stories. Reading a story involves selecting tarot cards which are mapped to chunks of story text based on possible interpretations of the cards and information concerning current story state.

  16. More than pretty pictures? How illustrations affect parent-child story reading and children's story recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhoot, Andrea Follmer; Beyer, Alisa M.; Curtis, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Previous research showed that story illustrations fail to enhance young preschoolers' memories when they accompany a pre-recorded story (e.g., Greenhoot and Semb, 2008). In this study we tested whether young children might benefit from illustrations in a more interactive story-reading context. For instance, illustrations might influence parent-child reading interactions, and thus children's story comprehension and recall. Twenty-six 3.5- to 4.5-year-olds and their primary caregivers were randomly assigned to an Illustrated or Non-Illustrated story-reading condition, and parents were instructed to “read or tell the story” as they normally would read with their child. Children recalled the story after a distracter and again after 1 week. Analyses of the story-reading interactions showed that the illustrations prompted more interactive story reading and more parent and child behaviors known to predict improved literacy outcomes. Furthermore, in the first memory interview, children in the Illustrated condition recalled more story events than those in the Non-Illustrated condition. Story reading measures predicted recall, but did not completely account for picture effects. These results suggest that illustrations enhance young preschoolers' story recall in an interactive story reading context, perhaps because the joint attention established in this context supports children's processing of the illustrations. PMID:25101018

  17. An International Inquiry: Stories of Poverty--Poverty Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciuffetelli Parker, Darlene; Craig, Cheryl J.

    2017-01-01

    This article features an international inquiry of two high-poverty urban schools, one Canadian and one American. The article examines poverty in terms of "small stories" that educators and students live and tell, often on the edges, unheard and unaccounted for in grand narratives. It also expands the story constellations approach to…

  18. Fairy Tales and Other Stories as Spiritual Guides for Children of War: An Auto-Ethnographic Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerverger, Grace

    2010-01-01

    This article dares to suggest that the use of fairy tales as a pedagogical tool for children in and out of classrooms is and always will be about uplifting the human spirit: a way to survive; a pathway toward hope, especially for vulnerable children suffering from the trauma of war. (Contains 1 note.)

  19. Resource Wars: An On the Ground Understanding of Mountaintop Removal Coal Mining in Appalachia, West Virginia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Fabricant

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article sketches student responses and subsequent political action to directly witnessing the tragedy of Mountaintop Coal Mining (MTR on Kayford Mountain in West Virginia. I have created an "engaged anthropological curriculum" as part of my Resource Wars of 21st Century (an upper level elective course where students spend four days on an active battlefield in order to a expose students first-hand to the stories and testimonials of social, economic, physical degradation caused by MTR.

  20. Stories and story telling in first-levellanguage learning: a re-evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W. Blair

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes that in the midst of all our theories on language teaching and language learning, we might have overlooked an age-old tool that has always been at the disposal of mankind; the telling of stories. Attention is drawn to how some have found in stories and story telling a driving force of natural language acquisition, a key that can unlock the intuitive faculties ofthe mind. A case is being made out for the re-instalment of stories and associated activities as a means of real, heart-felt functional communication in a foreign language, rather than through a direct assault on the structure of the language itself. Met hierdie artikel word daar voorgestel dat daar opnuut gekyk moet word na 'n hulpmiddel wat so oud is as die mensheid self en wat nog altyd tot ons beskikking was, naamlik stories en die vertel daarvan. Die aandag word daarop gevestig dat daar persone is wat in stories en die verbale oordrag daarvan 'n stukrag ontdek het tot natuurlike taalvaardigheid, 'n sleutel tot die intultiewe breinfunksies. Daar word 'n saak uitgemaak vir die terugkeer na stories en gepaardgaande aktiwiteite as middel tot 'n egte, diep deurleefde en funksionele wyse van kommunikasie in 'n vreemde taal, eerder as 'n direkte aanslag op die taalstruktuur self.

  1. Countering war or embracing peace? Dialogues between regionalism and multilateralism in Latin America (1945-1954

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreli Rocha, Alexandre L.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Still an open debate, definitions about the beginning of the Cold War were even more ambiguous to actors at the time concerned with development and exit strategies for the Second World War. That was precisely the scenario to several Latin American leaders who, far from the Iron Curtain, were debating the rise of the UN system and of parliamentary diplomacy. Focusing on a multilateral strategy of action for the post-war international order, our work tries to put together the Pan-Latin, Pan-American and UN policies of Latin Americans since the Chapultepec Conference of February 1945 until the 1954 Conferences of Caracas, which fashioned the Organization of American States’ Cold War status, and of Madrid, which failed to consolidate the Latin Union.Todavía un debate en abierto en la historiografía, la definición sobre los marcos del principio de la Guerra Fría fue aún más ambigua para los actores involucrados en el conflicto bélico precedente y preocupados con el desarrollo y las salidas estratégicas posibles de la Segunda Guerra Mundial. Esta fue la realidad para varios líderes latinoamericanos que, lejos de la Cortina de Hierro, quedaban mucho más preocupados con el surgimiento del sistema de las Naciones Unidas y la diplomacia parlamentaria. Centrándose sobre las estrategias multilaterales para la orden internacional de la posguerra, nuestro trabajo pretende analizar las políticas Pan-Latinas, Pan Americanas y para las Naciones Unidas de la América Latina desde la Conferencia de Chapultepec, en febrero de 1945, hasta las Conferencias de 1954 de Caracas, que consolidó la Organización de los Estados Americanos en un contexto de Guerra Fría, y de Madrid, que no logró consolidar la Unión Latina.

  2. More than pretty pictures? How illustrations affect parent-child story reading and children’s story recall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Follmer Greenhoot

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous research showed that story illustrations fail to enhance young preschoolers’ memories when they accompany a pre-recorded story (e.g., Greenhoot & Semb, 2008. In this study we tested whether young children might benefit from illustrations in a more interactive story-reading context. For instance, illustrations might influence parent-child reading interactions, and thus children’s story comprehension and recall. Twenty-six 3.5- to 4.5-year-olds and their primary caregivers were randomly assigned to an Illustrated or Non-Illustrated story-reading condition, and parents were instructed to read or tell the story as they normally would read with their child. Children recalled the story after a distracter and again after one week. Analyses of the story-reading interactions showed that the illustrations prompted more interactive story reading and more parent and child behaviors known to predict improved literacy outcomes. Furthermore,in the first memory interview, children in the Illustrated condition recalled more story events than those in the Non-Illustrated condition. Story reading measures predicted recall, but did not completely account for picture effects. These results suggest that illustrations enhance young preschoolers’ story recall in an interactive story reading context, perhaps because the joint attention established in this context supports children’s processing of the illustrations.

  3. The biological consequences of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrlich, P.R.

    1985-01-01

    A large-scale nuclear war, as far as we can see, would leave, at most, scattered survivors in the Northern Hemisphere, and those survivors would be facing extreme cold, hunger, water shortages, heavy smog, and so on, and they would be facing it all in twilight or darkness and without the support of an organized society. The ecosystems upon which they would be extremely dependent would be severely stressed, changing in ways that we can hardly predict. Their functioning would be badly impaired. Ecologists do not know enough about these complicated systems to be able to predict their exact state after they had ''recovered''. Whether the biosphere would ever be restored to anything resembling that of today is entirely problematical

  4. StoryTrek

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khaled, Rilla; Barr, Pippin; Greenspan, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Narrative is an important aspect of persuasion, but persua- sive technologies often use narrative in its most traditional, linear form. We present StoryTrek, a prototype system which creates narratives based on a reader’s location and movements in the real world. StoryTrek yields a number of unique...

  5. The War on War League: A South African pacifist movement, 1914 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of the Communist Party. This article however contends that it needs to be understood in its own terms, as a pacifist movement, reflecting a political moment of resistance to the plunge into global war. Keywords: War on War League, South Africa, Pacifism, Anti-War Movement, First World War, Syndicalism, Internationalism, ...

  6. Bookshelf (John R. Huizenga, 'Cold Fusion: the Scientific Fiasco of the Century')

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, Douglas R.O.

    1994-01-01

    ''Cold fusion is dead, isn't it?'' is a question I am often asked. The reply is a strange one, ''Yes, scientifically it is dead, but not from a media point of view or from funding'' In 1989 two electrochemists, Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons, claimed sustained nuclear fusion had been achieved in a test-tube with a palladium cathode and deuterium, observing excess heat, neutrons and tritium. A series of encouraging confirmations and successively greater excess heat claims were seized on by the world's media. The US Government set up a panel of some 20 world-class scientists from several disciplines under John Huizenga, distinguished professor of Chemistry and Physics at the University of Rochester. They concluded that there was no present evidence for the discovery of a new nuclear process termed cold fusion. It might be thought that would end cold fusion, but for interesting reasons, it did not entirely. John Huizenga has written a book describing the curious claims and evidence for cold fusion and has given an excellent explanation of the science involved. This was published as a hardback book of 236 pages, telling the story up to the end of June 1990. Again one might think it was the end of the cold fusion story. Now he has written about what happened in the next two years in a paperback book which contains an epilogue of 51 pages. If you thought the first year was extraordinary, the next two years described in the new edition were even more incredible! In the main part of the book, the basic science is simply and clearly explained. The number of ''miracles'' required for each results or theory is described - a ''miracle'' is a gross violation of previous knowledge and experimental results such as energy conservation. Thus some theories are classified as ''triple miracles''. It might be thought that people who claimed to have observed cold fusion

  7. On the other side of the battle: Russian nurses in the Crimean War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, E R

    1992-01-01

    One redeeming feature that emerged from the horrors of the Crimean War was the skilled and compassionate nursing care provided by women. The work of Florence Nightingale and her nurses with the British forces is a familiar story. What is less well-known is that the fighting forces on the other side of the battle lines also had their contingent of nurses who helped to alleviate the suffering of their sick and wounded. This paper discusses the events leading up to the organization of Russia's volunteer nurses who provided care on their side of the battle.

  8. Some aspects of nuclear power plant safety under war conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stritar, A.; Mavko, B.; Susnik, J.; Sarler, B.

    1993-01-01

    In the summer of 1991, the Krsko nuclear power plant in Slovenia found itself in an area of military operations. This was probably the first commercial nuclear power plant to have been threatened by an attack by fighter jets. A number of never-before-asked questions had to be answered by the operating staff and supporting organizations. Some aspects of nuclear power plant safety under war conditions are described, such as the selection of the best plant operating state before the attack and the determination of plant system vulnerability and dose releases from the potentially damaged spent fuel in the spent-fuel pit. The best operating mode to which the plant should be brought before the attack is cold shutdown, and radiological consequences to the environment after the spent fuel is damaged and the water in the pit is lost are not very high. The problem of nuclear power plant safety under war conditions should be addressed in more detail in the future

  9. National states and international science: A comparative history of international science congresses in Hitler's Germany, Stalin's Russia, and cold war United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doel, Ronald E; Hoffmann, Dieter; Krementsov, Nikolai

    2005-01-01

    Prior studies of modern scientific internationalism have been written primarily from the point of view of scientists, with little regard to the influence of the state. This study examines the state's role in international scientific relations. States sometimes encouraged scientific internationalism; in the mid-twentieth century, they often sought to restrict it. The present study examines state involvement in international scientific congresses, the primary intersection between the national and international dimensions of scientists' activities. Here we examine three comparative instances in which such restrictions affected scientific internationalism: an attempt to bring an international aerodynamics congress to Nazi Germany in the late 1930s, unsuccessful efforts by Soviet geneticists to host the Seventh International Genetics Congress in Moscow in 1937, and efforts by U.S. scientists to host international meetings in 1950s cold war America. These case studies challenge the classical ideology of scientific internationalism, wherein participation by a nation in a scientist's fame spares the scientist conflict between advancing his science and advancing the interests of his nation. In the cases we consider, scientists found it difficult to simultaneously support scientific universalism and elitist practices. Interest in these congresses reached the top levels of the state, and access to patronage beyond state control helped determine their outcomes.

  10. Revolution or Realism? United States-Iran Relations in the Post-Cold War Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    a onally, psychologically and physically emasculated by the revolution. As the principal group supportimg the monarchy, the armed forces were viewed...12-14 and Patrick 0. Ada.., The Fal of th a S dhah n theLmperid Irainm For erM Air Command and Staff Collge , June, 1983. 96Ir," AwW~aU& _ p. 255. 97Fer...36.40. l2 %U~gdý B. Allmbon, Mutin Aueunen of fth AMi&l East. 19-91-96 Strategi Studwe Iztituse,ý U.S. Army War Collge 1992, p. 34. 1992 p. 26W

  11. Cruel Seas: World War 2 Merchant Marine-Related Nautical Fiction from the 1930s to Present

    OpenAIRE

    Krummes, Daniel C

    2015-01-01

    Cruel Seas is an annotated bibliography of fiction in English that involves civilian steamships of the merchant marine in works set during World War Two (or slightly before).  While the subtitle states "1930s to Present," the last entry was added in 2008, and the work will not be updated.  The entries include novels, novellas, and short stories, but exclude poetry, theater plays, and fiction written for juveniles (unless the work can appeal to adults as well). Many of the works invol...

  12. Long way home The life history of Chinese-Indonesian migrants in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumi Kitamura

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to trace the modern history of Indonesia through the experience of two Chinese Indonesians who migrated to the Netherlands at different periods of time. These life stories represent both post-colonial experiences and the Cold War politics in Indonesia. The migration of Chinese Indonesians since the beginning of the twentieth century has had long history, however, most of the previous literature has focused on the experiences of the “Peranakan” group who are not representative of various other groups of Chinese Indonesian migrants who have had different experiences in making their journey to the Netherlands. This paper will present two stories as a parallel to the more commonly known narratives of the “Peranakan” experience.

  13. Impacts of Geoengineering and Nuclear War on Chinese Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, L.; Robock, A.

    2011-12-01

    geoengineering and nuclear war simulations for different regions in China. Without changes of agricultural technology, we found that in both climate scenarios, the national crop production decreases, but different regions responded differently, indicating that the climate under which agriculture is conducted is a key factor to determine the impacts of geoengineering and nuclear war on agriculture. In southern China, the cooling helps the rice and maize grow. In northern China, the cooling makes the temperatures so cold that it hurts crop productivity, and in western China, the reduction of precipitation causes failed crop growth. To adapt to geoengineering and nuclear war scenarios, we could substitute crops that would grow better in the perturbed climate, increase fertilizer usage, irrigate agricultural land, change planting date, or change to seeds which are tolerant of cooler and drier climates.

  14. Lethal Surveillance: Drones and the Geo-History of Modern War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindervater, Katharine Hall

    Interdisciplinary both in scope and method, my dissertation, Lethal Surveillance: Drones and the Geo-History of Modern War, examines the history of drone technology from the start of the 20th century to the present in order to understand the significance of the increasing centrality of drones to current American military engagements and security practices more generally. Much of the scholarship on drones and many other contemporary military technologies tends to view the technology as radically new, missing both the historical development of these objects as well as the perspectives and rationalities that are embedded in their use. For this research, I focused on three main periods of drone research and development: the early years of World War I and II in the UK, the Cold War, and the 1990s. In studying this history of the drone, I found that two key trends emerge as significant: the increasing importance of information to warfare under the rubric of intelligence, reconnaissance and surveillance; and a shift toward more dynamic, speedier, and individualized targeting practices. I argue that the widespread use of drones today thus represents the culmination of attempts in war to effectively link these two trends, creating a practice I call lethal surveillance -- with the armed Predator effectively closing the loop between identifying and killing targets. The concept of lethal surveillance, which in my dissertation I place squarely within the histories of modern scientific thinking and Western liberal governance, allows us to see how techniques of Western state power and knowledge production are merging with practices of killing and control in new ways, causing significant changes to both the operations of the state and to practices of war. Framing the drone through the lens of lethal surveillance, therefore, allows us to see the longer histories the drone is embedded in as well as other security practices it is connected to.

  15. Misrepresenting Atrocities: "Kill Anything that Moves" and the Continuing Distortions of the War in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Zinoman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Nick Turse, Kill Anything that Moves: The Real American War in Vietnam. New York: Picador, 2013. 416 pp. $30 (cloth; $17 (paper; $10 (e-book. While recounting a punishing accumulation of atrocity stories, Kill Anything That Moves advances four relatively straightforward arguments. First, it asserts that this grim dimension of the Vietnam War was ignored at the time, has been neglected in the scholarship, and is today forgotten in popular memory. Second, it claims that American atrocities were pervasive in Vietnam, perpetrated on a massive scale by every military unit, in every theater of battle, during every period of the war. Third, it contends that the proliferation of atrocities and war crimes was largely caused by command policies devised at the highest levels of the U.S. military and government. And fourth, as its subtitle indicates, it suggests that the atrocious record of the U.S. military in Vietnam reveals both the “true nature of the war” (16 and the “true history of Vietnamese civilian suffering” (262 that it left in its wake. In addition to being untrue, these arguments point to the isolation of Turse’s approach from current trends in the historical study of military violence against civilians. For example, most recent work on military atrocities—such as John Horne and Alan Kramer’s magisterial German Atrocities, 1914: A History of Denial (2001—insist that primary and secondary sources on the topic must be treated with special care since they are notoriously vulnerable to politicization and distortion. Turse’s misleading estimate of the size and significance of the existing literature on Vietnam War atrocities flies in the face of this advice. As we will show, academics, lawyers, journalists, activists, and creative artists have been agonizing over American atrocities and war crimes in Vietnam for almost fifty years...

  16. Russian War Prisoners of the First World War in German Camps

    OpenAIRE

    Gulzhaukhar Kokebayeva; Erke Kartabayeva; Nurzipa Alpysbayeva

    2014-01-01

    The article considers the problem of the custody of Russian war prisoners in German camps. The German authorities treated Russian war prisoners in accordance with the ‘Provision of War Prisoners Custody’, approved by the Emperor on 11 August, 1914. The content of this document mainly corresponded to the Hague Convention Respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land. But German authorities discriminated the war prisoners of different nationalities.

  17. Rearticulating the Experience of War in Anonyma: Eine Frau in Berlin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Pötzsch

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Situating itself in the field of cultural memory studies, this article traces the slow emergence in German historical discourse of the narrative of an anonymous German woman who survived the Soviet occupation of Berlin in 1945. I will, firstly, conceptualize the historical condition of the Anonyma as a precarious liminal sphere of transition between competing sovereignties that dislodged her political status as citizen and reconstituted her as bare life in the sense of Agamben. Secondly, I direct focus to the relationship between the personal story of the Anonyma and a historical Master narrative pertaining to the period. The article argues for a close connection between the woman’s form of resistance that aimed at replacing unchecked rape with a form of coerced prostitution to reassert limited control over the borders of her body, and the negative reception her diary received after a first publication in Germany in 1959. Her story implicitly challenges a hegemonic discourse of war that treats mass rape as mainly an assault on the nation’s male defenders and that silences the victims’ traumatic experiences with reference to collective guilt and individual shame or treason.

  18. Ghost-Story Telling: Keeping It Appropriate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weintraub, Jeff

    1996-01-01

    Guidelines for telling ghost stories at camp involve considering children's fears at different ages, telling age appropriate stories, determining appropriate times for telling ghost stories, and minimizing fear when a child becomes frightened by a ghost story. Includes tips on the selection, preparation, and presentation of ghost stories. (LP)

  19. A social theory of war: Clausewitz and war reconsidered

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    of war. I then show how this framework helps us understand some key problems in the political science literature on war and conflict. I attempt to show two main things: (1) that there are different types of wars (and that these differences are not necessarily related to the standing of the actors, i......This article presents a new theory of war that is grounded in the insights of Clausewitz on the social nature of conflict. Clausewitz had argued that war is a political process; he therefore distinguished between ‘war’—understood in political terms—and warfare—understood as fighting. He...... then created a typology covering a spectrum of war ranging from total to limited, the political stakes of a conflict determining where it would fall on the spectrum. I develop and modify this basic framework by arguing that the social organization of the actors has a determining role in predicting the stakes...

  20. The "War Poets": Evolution of a Literary Conscience in World War I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galambos, Ellen

    1983-01-01

    Pre-World War I poetry often used picturesque images which blinded people to the actual horrors of war. The war poets, who experienced the destruction of World War I, led the way in expressing new images of the devastation and death of war, rather than focusing on honor and glory. (IS)

  1. Russian War Prisoners of the First World War in German Camps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulzhaukhar Kokebayeva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the problem of the custody of Russian war prisoners in German camps. The German authorities treated Russian war prisoners in accordance with the ‘Provision of War Prisoners Custody’, approved by the Emperor on 11 August, 1914. The content of this document mainly corresponded to the Hague Convention Respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land. But German authorities discriminated the war prisoners of different nationalities.

  2. Les femmes américaines et la guerre du Vietnam : mise en place et utilisation d’un processus de mimétisme American Women, the Vietnam War and Mimetism:  Constructing and Developing an Unconscious Imitation of the Soldier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Boudet-Brugal

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available By and large, women have been maintained at a “reasonable” distance from the war. Their historic identity has mainly been that of mother, and therefore that of those who do not make war. They are not to belong to this sphere; it is to remain masculine, a men’s world. The Vietnam War (1964-1973 is no exception to the rule. This characteristic may be even more visible in the context of Vietnam given the power granted to authenticity: “having been there” has been essential. However, it seems that, just as Vietnam was a confused war, the border between genders has been sometimes blurred as well. We have thus found that some women have constructed and developed a strange process, a(n (unconscious strategy, in order to enter the world of war while not “having been there” really, while not knowing physically what war is and was. If “Vietnam is the land of [their] imagination”, as Barbara Sonneborn put it (Regret to inform, 1999, mimetism has allowed them to fill out the blanks, to uncover and discover their man’s reality, to “see what it was he saw […] to be in the field with him”, says Gail Gilberg (Snake’s Daugher, 1997. I will therefore expose and study this phenomenon that appears in various women’s stories, written or told, by themselves or others, through their own narrative styles and speeches. In doing so, I intend to examine whether the use of this mechanism reinforces the traditional representations of men and women in war: Does it allow a re-writing of these excluded female voices, while putting forward the specificities of women’s experiences in war? Does it grant women a voice and a visible presence? Considering that “societies are, in some sense, the sum total of the war stories” (Jean B. Elshtain, it seems interesting to examine to what extent this strategy allows the American women to find their place in the story of the Vietnam war, in a very specific way.

  3. Cosmopolitan Counterpoint : Overt and Covert Musical Warfare and Diplomacy in the Early Cold War, 1945-1961

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langenkamp, H.J.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/343083434

    2014-01-01

    Around 1950, when the members of the anti-Nazi alliance found themselves locked into a political and ideological stalemate that none of them could afford to escalate into another ‘hot’ war, culture assumed unprecedented significance as the domain for the performance of superpower rivalries and the

  4. The Vietnam War, the Church, the Christian Democratic Party and the Italian Left Catholics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Saresella

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the years of the Cold War, the conflict in Vietnam assumed the significance of a clash between two civilizations, the West and communism. Italian Catholics thus found themselves not only invoking the end of the conflict, but also expressing their evaluations on the choices made in international politics by the two superpowers. The positions assumed by the ecclesiastic Institution, the Christian Democrats and the Catholic world in Italy towards the war in Indochina were not identical: in fact, if—with a few exceptions—the ecclesiastic hierarchy was distinguished by its extreme caution, in the Catholic party different positions became manifest. It was mainly in Catholic associations, and in general amongst believers closer to the experience of the Vatican Council, that a radical sense of aversion to U.S. foreign policy developed.

  5. World War I psychoneuroses: hysteria goes to war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatu, Laurent; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2014-01-01

    During the First World War, military physicians from the belligerent countries were faced with soldiers suffering from psychotrauma with often unheard of clinical signs, such as camptocormia. These varied clinical presentations took the form of abnormal movements, deaf-mutism, mental confusion, and delusional disorders. In Anglo-Saxon countries, the term 'shell shock' was used to define these disorders. The debate on whether the war was responsible for these disorders divided mobilized neuropsychiatrists. In psychological theories, war is seen as the principal causal factor. In hystero-pithiatism, developed by Joseph Babinski (1857-1932), trauma was not directly caused by the war. It was rather due to the unwillingness of the soldier to take part in the war. Permanent suspicion of malingering resulted in the establishment of a wide range of medical experiments. Many doctors used aggressive treatment methods to force the soldiers exhibiting war neuroses to return to the front as quickly as possible. Medicomilitary collusion ensued. Electrotherapy became the basis of repressive psychotherapy, such as 'torpillage', which was developed by Clovis Vincent (1879-1947), or psychofaradism, which was established by Gustave Roussy (1874-1948). Some soldiers refused such treatments, considering them a form of torture, and were brought before courts-martial. Famous cases, such as that of Baptiste Deschamps (1881-1953), raised the question of the rights of the wounded. Soldiers suffering from psychotrauma, ignored and regarded as malingerers or deserters, were sentenced to death by the courts-martial. Trials of soldiers or doctors were also held in Germany and Austria. After the war, psychoneurotics long haunted asylums and rehabilitation centers. Abuses related to the treatment of the Great War psychoneuroses nevertheless significantly changed medical concepts, leading to the modern definition of 'posttraumatic stress disorder'.

  6. The Cold War legacy of regulatory risk analysis: The Atomic Energy Commission and radiation safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Joseph B.

    From its inception in 1946 the Atomic Energy Commission pioneered the use of risk analysis as a mode of regulatory rationality and political rhetoric, yet historical treatments of risk analysis nearly always overlook the important role it played in the administration of atomic energy during the early Cold War. How this absence from history has been achieved and why it characterizes most historical accounts are the subjects of Chapter II. From there, this study goes on to develop the thesis that the advent of the atomic bomb was a world-shattering event that forced the Truman administration to choose between two novel alternatives: (1) movement towards global governance based initially on cooperative control of atomic energy or (2) unsparing pursuit of nuclear superiority. I refer to these as nuclear internationalism and nuclear nationalism, respectively. Each defined a social risk hierarchy. With the triumph of nuclear nationalism, nuclear annihilation was designated the greatest risk and a strong nuclear defense the primary means of prevention. The AEC's mission in the 1950s consisted of the rapid development of a nuclear arsenal, continual improvements in weapons technologies, and the promotion of nuclear power. The agency developed a risk-based regulatory framework through its dominant position within the National Committee on Radiation Protection. It embraced a technocratic model of risk analysis whose articulation and application it controlled, largely in secret. It used this to undergird a public rhetoric of reassurance and risk minimization. In practice, safety officials adjusted exposure levels within often wide parameters and with considerable fluidity in order to prevent safety concerns from interfering with operations. Secrecy, the political climate of the time, and a lack of accountability enabled the agency to meld technical assessments with social value judgments in a manner reflective of nuclear nationalism's risk hierarchy. In the late fifties

  7. WAR HORSES:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    War Horses: Helhesten and the Danish Avant-Garde During World War II This exhibition is the first to explore the history and significance of the accomplishments of Danish artists working during the Nazi occupation of their country (1940-45), who called themselves Helhesten, such as Ejler Bille......-1951), which they became part of. Cobra greatly influenced the development of European modern art after World War II. The exhibition includes over 100 works and reconstructs for the first time the most important exhibition these artists staged in Denmark during the war, 13 Artists in a Tent (1941). It draws...

  8. Using Counter-Stories to Challenge Stock Stories about Traveller Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Arcy, Kate

    2017-01-01

    Critical Race Theory (CRT) is formed from a series of different methodological tools to expose and address racism and discrimination. Counter-stories are one of these tools. This article considers the potential of counter-stories as a methodological, theoretical and practical tool to analyse existing educational inequalities for Traveller…

  9. Extraordinary renditions: reflections upon the war on terror in British and American screen science fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alec Charles

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Como la Guerra Fría influenció cuarenta años de ciencia ficción televisiva, así la sombra del 11/S formaliza la ciencia ficción popular en los primeros años del siglo XXI. La destrucción de Nueva York ha ocurrido en muchas películas como El día después de mañana, Cloverfield, La Guerra de los Mundos y La Leyenda. Como La Invasión, la última trilogía que reinventa la fábula de la Guerra Fría –La invasión de los ladrones de cuerpos, la Guerra de los Mundos y El hombre Omega- para la era neoconservadora, como 28 días después, 28 semanas después, Jericho y el remade Superviventes con un resurgimiento en un escenario post-apocalíptico que adolece de la serie Day of the Triffids. Como Star Trek: Enterprise vuelve su tradicional liberalismo como un ejercicio de patriotera paranoia, Batalla estelar (otro restaurada reliquia de la Guerra Fría ha presentado una visión más ambigua y problemática de la batalla de la democracia con el fundamentalismo. El re-hecho Doctor Who y Héroes han avanzado similares argumentos de nuevo en el totalizado seudo-utopismo de los cruzados o de los jihadistas a favor del stablishment de un consenso plural.Palabras clave: 11/S, ciencia ficción televisiva, Doctor Who, escenario post-apocalíptico, paranoia patriotera ___________________________ABSTRACT:As the Cold War influenced forty years of screen science fiction, so the shadow of 9/11 informs popular science fiction in the early twenty-first century. The destruction of New York has recurred in such films as The Day After Tomorrow, Cloverfield, War of the Worlds and I Am Legend. Like The Invasion, the latter pair reinvent Cold War fables – Invasion of the Body Snatchers, War of the Worlds and The Omega Man – for the neoconservative age, while 28 Days Later, 28 Weeks Later, Jericho and the remade Survivors witness a resurgence in post-apocalyptic concerns redolent of Day of the Triffids. While Star Trek: Enterprise turned its franchise

  10. "Almost at War". The Mohammed Cartoon Crisis in Norwegian Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solveig Steien

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In January and February 2006, Norwegians witnessed the burning of their national flag in Palestine, the burning of Norwegian embassies and consulates in Syria, Lebanon and Iran; all simply because twelve Danish Mohammed cartoons from Jyllands-Posten had been reprinted in Norway; the cartoons were published in a marginal Christian conservative weekly newspaper, Magazinet, three months after their original appearance in Denmark. In February 2006 the Norwegian ISAF-forces in Afghanistan were attacked. This conflict had a surprising impact on domestic and foreign policy, and the Norwegian publication of the cartoons triggered a global escalation of the controversy; Norwegian newspapers wrote that the country was "almost at war". I have focused on how some leading Norwegian newspapers (Aften, Aftenposten, Dagbladet, Dagens Næringsliv, Dagsavisen and VG covered this unexpected crisis and studied the different discourses that became a substantial part of the media coverage. In my analysis I have used an overall approach of War versus Peace journalism. War and Peace journalism was not created as a concept for analysing media texts or photographs, but to provide practical tools for journalists in the field of conflict and war situations. Nevertheless, this approach gives an opportunity to examine the results of journalistic work and compare them with the press'es ideals and ethical codes. At the same time, the occurrence of discourses like "clash of civilisations", freedom of speech, "us" versus "them", i.e., "us" versus the Muslims, and the newspapers' choice of sources for their stories, seem to fit with a model of War and Peace journalism. The focus is on opinion materials like editorials and comments, as well as on domestic reports and reportage by correspondents. By analysing samples of articles I have tried to outline some areas where the concept of Peace versus War journalism still needs to be developed, in order to become a comprehensive or more

  11. The American Home Front. Revolutionary War, Civil War, World War 1, World War 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Union officer become Supreme Court Justice, spoke of the Civil War’s psychic effect on those who had fought. Determined to act greatly, Holmes and his...than psychic and hardiy limited to those who, like himself, had served in the Union armies. Institutions as well as individuals had emerged from the war...to match unemployed workers with vacant jobs. 39 If by the close of 1918, the government reacted to possible strikes with threatened removal of a

  12. Artifacts as Stories: Understanding Families, Digital Literacies, and Storied Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis Ellison, Tisha

    2016-01-01

    This column focuses on the interactions during family and group conversation circles that not only helped participants talk about personal, emotional, and social issues in their digital stories but also helped them make sense of artifacts and the meanings that stories carry in shared spaces and practices. This work adds to the bourgeoning…

  13. An Analysis on Effects of Story Mapping in Writing Short Stories in EFL Classes, Iraqi Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Bala

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it is investigated that how much story map graphic organizers contribute to foster writing short stories. Eighteen EFL students from foundation year were randomly chosen and provided eight writing courses. First, the writing teacher provided a topic to the students for each course, and asked them to write three short stories about given topics. In the following two lessons, the instructor introduced graphic organizers and taught the elements of short story to the students. Later, they were given another three topics for the following three courses to create short stories using story map graphic organizers created by writing teacher. Then, the researcher selected two of their first and second pieces randomly and developed a scale to assess the students’ first and second products. The results were classified by including story elements.in two tables as percentage.

  14. The Exploration of Political Conflicts and Personal Relationships in Ian McEwan’s The Innocent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Abbasiyannejad

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Political conflicts have historically affected the relationships of nations. Ian McEwan’s The Innocent is an excellent example of a story set within the web of such a conflict—the Cold War—that was brought about by U.S. and Soviet confrontation over spheres of influence after the Second World War. This article aims to show how Ian McEwan pictures Americanization as a form of cultural politics aimed at spreading American influence throughout the occupied countries such as Germany for political domination. Max Weber’s theory of political power along with semiotics as a tool is the framework of the article. Signs that refer to the Americanization process, including inferences in the dialogues, gestures, choice of food, and even clothing, are scrutinized and interpreted within the socio-political context the of Cold War. The analysis of The Innocent provides an example of the ways in which fiction represents political conflicts permeating personal and intimate relationships, and how such conflicts may result in a sense of mistrust and intrigue among both people and nations.

  15. The War on Cancer: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Is Fighting the Good Fight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, Leslie

    2017-01-01

    Located on the north shore of Long Island in New York, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (Figure 1) started out with a marine biology emphasis at the end of the 19th century, but it soon established itself as a prominent cancer research facility. That strong emphasis on cancer work continues today as this private, not-for-profit research institution enters its 127th year (Figure 2).

  16. Biomarker Discovery in Gulf War Veterans: Development of a War Illness Diagnostic Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0382 TITLE: Biomarker Discovery in Gulf War Veterans: Development of a War Illness Diagnostic Panel PRINCIPAL...SUBTITLE Biomarker Discovery in Gulf War Veterans: Development of a War Illness Diagnostic Panel 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0382 5b. GRANT...of the 1990-1991 Gulf War are affected by Gulf War illness (GWI), the chronic condition currently defined only by veterans’ self-reported symptoms

  17. Dardanel Wars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet EYİCİL

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The reason for the opening of the Dardanel Front was to establish a link between allies and Russia and to push The Ottoman Empire out of the war. In order to reach this cause, upon Churchill’s suggestion, the English War Commitee met on 28 January 1915 and decided to attack the Dardanels on February 19. The allies fleet tried to pass the Dardanels several times but they failed. Their biggest attack for the Straits took place on 18 March, which was failed and the fleet lost one third of its power. After the failure on the sea to pass the Straits the allies landed on Gallipoli to invade İstanbul. Landing took place from April 1 to December 22 the wars on lands lasted more than 8 months, during which Turkish army fought heroic battles. Fierce battles took place on Kabatepe, Seddülbahir, Alçıtepe, Kilitbahir, Anafartalar, Arıburnu. Upon failure on the land the allies started to withdraw from this front on 8 January 1915. The Dardanels wars which was lost by the allies caused the First World War to continue two more years. Tsarist regime was collapsed in Russia and its place Bolshevik regime came. The Turks put aside bad results of the Balkan Wars and became again a heroic nation. Because of his successes Mustafa Kemal became a genious commander. Most importantly Dardanels wars gave its honours to the Turkish army

  18. The World of Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    2014-01-01

    The world of the future will not be one without wars. The many hopes we have about a future peace governed by a more or less confederal state will not make wars obsolete. Regular wars and irregular wars will continue and probably about different subjects than we are used to. The article proposes...... that the form of war will be more about temporalities, i.e. fast interchanges or, rather, more risky protracted wars of attrition and exhaustion and less about tactical well defined territories. The West can neither dominate such wars nor establish one world that is ruled or even governed. The risk is that we...

  19. The Image of the West on the Soviet Screen in the Era of the “Cold War”: Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Fedorov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the Soviet films of the "cold war" period about Western world and western characters – in terms of their ideology, social and cultural context. As examples from movies and detective fiction genre – "The Mystery of Two Oceans", "Amphibian Man", "The Case of Corporal Kochetkov", "Gardens of the Scorpion."

  20. “Breaking the Dam to Reunify our Country”: Alternate Histories of the Korean War in Contemporary South Korean Cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Sun

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes three contemporary South Korean films that (represent alternate histories of the Korean War: 2009 Lost Memories (2009 Rosŭt’ŭmemorichŭ (Lee Simyung (I Simyŏng, 2002, Welcome to Dongmakgol (Welk’ŏm t’u Tongmakkol (Park Kwang-hyun (Pak Kwanghyŏn, 2005, and Joint Security Area (Park Chan-wook, 2000. Despite focusing on different eras of history, I argue that they rewrite dominant narratives of the Korean War (Cold War logics of anticommunism v. communism and instead focus on North Korean- South Korean friendships/collaborations. Each film also presents similar situations in which a group of disparate “heroes” (made up of unified Koreans band together to circumvent the circumstances of division. This article analyzes historical conditions that influence the emergence of these similarly-themed films as well as film content in order to further think through memorial legacies of the Korean War, as well as to take seriously the radical possibilities of a different future that each film presents.