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Sample records for cold rolling evolution

  1. Evolution of microstructure and property of NiTi alloy induced by cold rolling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y.; Li, J.Y.; Liu, M.; Ren, Y.Y.; Chen, F.; Yao, G.C.; Mei, Q.S.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the combination effect of plastic deformation and phase transformation on the evolution of microstructure and property of NiTi alloy. Samples of Ni 50.9 Ti 49.1 alloy were deformed by cold rolling to different strains/thickness reductions (4%–56%). X-ray diffraction, transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) and microhardness measurements were applied for characterization of the microstructure and property of the cold-rolled samples. Experimental results indicated the non-monotonic variations of microstructure parameters and mechanical property with strain, indicating the different processes in microstructure and property evolution of NiTi subjected to cold rolling. TEM observations further showed the dominating mechanisms of microstructure evolution at different strain levels, leading to the gradual reduction of grain size of NiTi to the nanoscale by cold rolling. The results were discussed and related to deformation of martensite, forward and reverse martensitic transformations and dynamic recrystallization. The present study provided experimental evidences for the enhanced formation of nanograins in NiTi by plastic deformation coupled with phase transformation. - Highlights: • Cold rolling of NiTi to thickness reductions from 4% to 56%. • Fluctuation behaviors in microstructure and property evolutions of NiTi. • Deformation coupled with phase transformation enhanced nanocrystallization of NiTi.

  2. Evolution of microstructure and mechanical properties during annealing of cold-rolled AA8011 alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Rajat Kumar [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India)], E-mail: r.roy@rediffmail.com; Kar, Sujoy [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, OH 43210 (United States); Das, Siddhartha [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India)], E-mail: sdas@metal.iitkgp.ernet.in

    2009-01-22

    The evolution of recrystallized microstructure of cold-rolled aluminium alloy AA8011 is investigated with the help of optical metallography, orientation imaging microscopy (OIM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), electrical resistivity and microhardness measurements at different annealing conditions. Tensile testing of the isochronally annealed specimens is performed to examine the effect of annealing temperature and microstructure on mechanical properties. Precipitates affect the grain growth behaviour and texture evolution. Normal grain growth takes place prior to abnormal grain growth. A wide range of grain size distribution and a combination of cube, rolling and random texture is observed at complete recrystallized condition. Our results provide not only new insight into aluminium packaging materials (i.e., foils, cans, and air conditioning ducts) but also a platform to better understand the recrystallization of a wide range of related alloys.

  3. Effect of skin pass rolling reduction rate on the texture evolution of a non-oriented electrical steel after inclined cold rolling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehdi, Mehdi [CanmetMATERIALS, Natural Resources Canada, Hamilton, ON L8P 0A5 (Canada); Department of Mechanical, Automotive, and Materials Engineering, University of Windsor, Windsor, ON N9B 3P4 (Canada); He, Youliang, E-mail: youliang.he@canada.ca [CanmetMATERIALS, Natural Resources Canada, Hamilton, ON L8P 0A5 (Canada); Hilinski, Erik J. [Tempel Steel Co., Chicago, IL 60640-1020 (United States); Edrisy, Afsaneh [Department of Mechanical, Automotive, and Materials Engineering, University of Windsor, Windsor, ON N9B 3P4 (Canada)

    2017-05-01

    In order to promote the magnetically favourable <001>//ND texture (θ-fibre) and minimize the unfavourable <111>//ND fibre (γ-fibre) in non-oriented electrical steel, an unconventional cold rolling scheme was employed in this study, in which the cold rolling was carried out at an angle (i.e. 30°, 45°, 60°, and 90°) to the hot rolling direction (HRD). After annealing, two steel sheets (i.e. those after cold rolling at 60° and 45° to the HRD) were found to have considerably different textures from other sheets, i.e. showing the strongest and the weakest θ-fibre textures, respectively. These two sheets were then subjected to skin pass rolling to various reduction rates from 5–20% to investigate the effect of rolling reduction on the evolution of texture. It was found that during skin pass rolling, the cube texture ({001}<100>) was gradually weakened and the rotated cube orientation ({001}<110>) was strengthened. With the increase of the reduction rate, the {112}<110> orientation on the α-fibre became a major component. Upon final annealing, the cube texture was slightly restored, but the volume fraction was considerably lower than that before skin pass rolling. - Highlights: • Inclined cold rolling optimizes the textures of non-oriented electrical steels. • A 60° angle to the hot rolling direction results in the largest improvement of the favorable texture. • Skin pass rolling weakens the cube texture and promotes the {112}<110> texture. • Final annealing restores some of the cube texture and strengthens the rotated cube texture. • Low Taylor factor of the cube orientation leads to its easy deformation in skin pass rolling.

  4. Model for texture evolution in cold rolling of 2.4 wt.-% Si non-oriented electrical steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, X.; Hojda, S.; Dierdorf, J.; Lohmar, J.; Hirt, G.

    2017-10-01

    Iron loss and limited magnetic flux density are constraints for NGO electrical steel used in highly efficient electrical machinery cores. The most important factors that affect these properties are the final microstructure and the texture of the NGO steel. Reviewing the whole process chain, cold rolling plays an important role because the recrystallization and grain growth during the final heat treatment can be strongly affected by the stored energy and microstructure of cold rolling, and some texture characteristics can be inherited as well. Therefore, texture evolution during cold rolling of NGO steel is worth a detailed investigation. In this paper, texture evolution in cold rolling of non-oriented (NGO) electrical steel is simulated with a crystal plasticity finite element method (CPFEM) model. In previous work, a CPFEM model has been implemented for simulating the texture evolution with periodic boundary conditions and a phenomenological constitutive law. In a first step the microstructure in the core of the workpiece was investigated and mapped to a representative volume element to predict the texture evolution. In this work an improved version of the CPFEM model is described that better reflects the texture evolution in cold rolling of NGO electrical steel containing 2.4 wt.-% Si. This is achieved by applying the deformation gradient and calibrating the flow curve within the CPFEM model. Moreover, the evolution of dislocation density is calculated and visualized in this model. An in depth comparison of the numerical and experimental results reveals, that the improved CPFEM model is able to represent the important characteristics of texture evolution in the core of the workpiece during cold rolling with high precision.

  5. Strain-Induced Martensitic Transformation and Texture Evolution in Cold-Rolled Co–Cr Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Onuki

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Co–Cr alloys have been used in biomedical purposes such as stents and artificial hip joints. However, the difficulty of plastic deformation limits the application of the alloys. During the deformation, Co–Cr alloys often exhibit strain-induced martensitic transformation (SIMT, which is a possible reason for the low formability. The distinct increase in dislocation density in the matrix phase may also result in early fractures. Since these microstructural evolutions accompany the textural evolution, it is crucial to understand the relationship among the SIMT, the increase in dislocations, and the texture evolution. To characterize those at the same time, we conducted time-of-flight neutron diffraction experiments at iMATERIA beamline at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility (MLF, Ibaraki, Japan. The cold-rolled sheets of Co–29Cr–6Mo (CCM and Co–20Cr–15W–10Ni (CCWN alloys were investigated in this study. As expected from the different stacking fault energies, the SIMT progressed more rapidly in the CCM alloy. The dislocation densities of the matrix phases of the CCM and CCWN alloys increased similarly with an increase in the rolling reduction. These results suggest that the difference in deformability between the CCM and CCWN alloys originate not from the strain hardening of the matrix phase but from the growth behaviors of the martensitic phase.

  6. Effect of initial microstructure on the microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of Ti during cold rolling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolyarov, V.V.; Zhu, Y.T.; Raab, G.I.; Zharikov, A.I.; Valiev, R.Z.

    2004-01-01

    Ultrafine-grained (UFG) Ti rods were produced via cold rolling UFG and coarse-grained (CG) Ti stocks. The initial UFG stock was produced via equal channel angular pressing. It was found that the initial UFG structure had beneficial influence on the mechanical properties of the cold-rolled Ti rods. Compared with Ti rods with initial CG microstructure, the Ti rods with the initial UFG microstructure have both higher strength and higher ductility after being cold rolled to varying strains. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the Ti rods with the initial UFG microstructure had finer, more homogeneous microstructures after cold rolling. This study demonstrates the merit of UFG Ti processed by ECAP for further shaping and forming into structural components with superior mechanical properties

  7. Evolution of Microstructure and Texture during Annealing of Aluminum AA1050 Cold Rolled to High and Ultrahigh Strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishin, Oleg; Juul Jensen, Dorte; Hansen, Niels

    2010-01-01

    The microstructure and texture of commercial purity aluminum (AA1050) have been investigated after cold rolling to von Mises strains of 3.6 to 6.4 followed by recovery and recrystallization during annealing. The evolution of structural parameters of the deformed microstructure, such as boundary...

  8. Microstructural evolution in warm-rolled and cold-rolled strip cast 6.5 wt% Si steel thin sheets and its influence on magnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xianglong, E-mail: 215454278@qq.com; Liu, Zhenyu, E-mail: zyliu@mail.neu.edu.cn; Li, Haoze; Wang, Guodong

    2017-07-01

    Highlights: • The experimental materials used in the study are based on strip casting. • Magnetic properties between warm rolled and cold rolled sheets are investigated. • Cold rolled 6.5% Si sheet has better magnetic properties than warm rolled sheet. • The γ and λ-fiber recrystallization textures can be optimized after cold rolling. • Cold rolling should be more suitable for fabricating 6.5% Si steel thin sheets. - Abstract: 6.5 wt% Si steel thin sheets were usually fabricated by warm rolling. In our previous work, 6.5 wt% Si steel thin sheets with good magnetic properties had been successfully fabricated by cold rolling based on strip casting. In the present work, the main purposes were to find out the influences of warm rolling and cold rolling on microstructures and magnetic properties of the thin sheets with the thickness of 0.2 mm, and to confirm which rolling method was more suitable for fabricating 6.5 wt% Si steel thin sheets. The results showed that the cold rolled sheet could obtain good surface quality and flatness, while the warm rolled sheet could not. The intensity of γ-fiber rolling texture (<1 1 1>//ND) of cold rolled specimen was weaker than that of the warm rolled specimen, especially for the {1 1 1}<1 1 2> component at surface layer and {1 1 1}<1 1 0> component at center layer. After the same annealing treatment, the cold rolled specimen, which had higher stored energy and weaker intensity of γ-fiber rolling texture, could obtain smaller recrystallization grain size, weaker intensity of γ-fiber recrystallization texture and stronger intensity of λ-fiber recrystallization texture. Therefore, due to the good surface quality, smaller recrystallization grain size and optimum recrystallization texture, the cold rolled specimen possessed improved magnetic properties, and cold rolling should be more suitable for fabricating 6.5 wt% Si steel thin sheets.

  9. Evolution of orientations and deformation structures within individual grains in cold rolled columnar grained nickel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, G.L.; Godfrey, A.; Winther, Grethe

    2011-01-01

    Columnar grained Ni is used as a model material allowing simultaneous non-surface investigations of the evolution of crystallographic orientations and deformation microstructures within individual grains as a function of rolling strain up to ε=0.7. Electron channelling contrast and electron...... backscattered diffraction are used to visualise microstructures and crystallographic orientations. It is found that both the microstructural and the textural development depend strongly on the initial grain orientation. A grain size effect is observed on the deformation-induced orientation scatter within...

  10. Medium carbon steel deep drawing: A study on the evolution of mechanical properties, texture and simulations, from cold rolling to the end product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plaut, Ronald L. [University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil)], E-mail: rlplaut@usp.br; Padilha, Angelo F. [University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Lima, N.B. [IPEN-CNEN/SP, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Herrera, Clara [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Eisenforschung (Germany); Filho, Antenor Ferreira [Industrial Director, Brasmetal Waelzholz S/A, Diadema (Brazil); Yoshimura, Leandro H. [CCS Consulting, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2009-01-15

    Medium carbon steels are mostly used for simple applications; nevertheless new applications have been developed for which good sheet formability is required. This class of steels has an inherent low formability. A medium carbon hot rolled SAE 1050 steel has been selected for this study. It has been cold rolled with reductions in the 7-80% range. Samples have been used to assess the cold work hardening curve. For samples with a 50 and 80% thickness reduction, an annealing heat treatment has been performed to obtain recrystallization. The material has been characterized in the 'as received', cold rolled and annealed conditions, using several methods: optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction (texture), Vickers hardness and tensile testing. The 50% cold rolled and recrystallized material has been further studied in terms of sheet metal formability and texture evolution during the actual stamping of a steel toecap that has been used to validate the finite element simulations.

  11. Effect of cold rolling on the microstructural evolution of new β-typed Ti–6Mo–6V–5Cr–3Sn–2.5Zr alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Gwnaghyo; Lee, Kwangmin, E-mail: kmlee@jnu.ac.kr

    2017-01-15

    A Ti–6Mo–6V–5Cr–3Sn–2.5Zr (wt.%) alloy was designed as a new metastable β-Ti alloy. The effect that cold rolling had on the microstructural evolution of the material was investigated via optical microscopy (OM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements. A single β phase formed in the alloy after solution treatment at 780 °C for 30 min followed by water quenching. The solution-treated alloy was cold rolled with thickness reductions of 10%, 30%, 50% and 70%, and the hardness values increased as the thickness of the specimen decreased. The textures of the cold rolled specimen were characterized according to the 〈110〉 partial parallel to the rolling direction as the rolling reduction increased. The crystallographic orientation showed principal α-fiber textures for (111)〈110〉 and (112)〈110〉. The cold deformation led to the appearance of martensite α″ phases, particularly stress-induced martensite (SIM) α″ phases. - Highlights: • Effect of cold rolling on new β-typed Ti-6Mo-6V-5Cr-3Sn-2.5Zr alloy was studied. • A single β phase was obtained after solution treatment at 780 °C for 30 min. • α-Fiber textures became dominated with the increase in cold rolling reduction. • A stress-induced α″ martensite was caused by cold rolling.

  12. Microstructural Evolution During Cold Rolling and Subsequent Annealing in Low-Carbon Steel with Different Initial Microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Toshio; Dannoshita, Hiroyuki; Maruoka, Kuniaki; Ushioda, Kohsaku

    2017-08-01

    Microstructural evolution during cold rolling and subsequent annealing of low-carbon steel with different initial microstructures was investigated from the perspective of the competitive phenomenon between recrystallization of ferrite and reverse phase transformation from ferrite to austenite. Three kinds of hot-rolled sheet specimens were prepared. Specimen P consisted of ferrite and pearlite, specimen B consisted of bainite, and specimen M consisted of martensite. The progress of recovery and recrystallization of ferrite during annealing was more rapid in specimen M than that in specimens P and B. In particular, the recrystallized ferrite grains in specimen M were fine and equiaxed. The progress of ferrite-to-austenite phase transformation during intercritical annealing was more rapid in specimen M than in specimens P and B. In all specimens, the austenite nucleation sites were mainly at high-angle grain boundaries, such as those between recrystallized ferrite grains. The austenite distribution was the most uniform in specimen M. Thus, we concluded that fine equiaxed recrystallized ferrite grains were formed in specimen M, leading to a uniform distribution of austenite.

  13. 3D microstructural evolution of primary recrystallization and grain growth in cold rolled single-phase aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Khaled; Zöllner, Dana; Field, David P.

    2018-04-01

    Modeling the microstructural evolution during recrystallization is a powerful tool for the profound understanding of alloy behavior and for use in optimizing engineering properties through annealing. In particular, the mechanical properties of metallic alloys are highly dependent upon evolved microstructure and texture from the softening process. In the present work, a Monte Carlo (MC) Potts model was used to model the primary recrystallization and grain growth in cold rolled single-phase Al alloy. The microstructural representation of two kinds of dislocation densities, statistically stored dislocations and geometrically necessary dislocations were quantified based on the ViscoPlastic Fast Fourier transform method. This representation was then introduced into the MC Potts model to identify the favorable sites for nucleation where orientation gradients and entanglements of dislocations are high. Additionally, in situ observations of non-isothermal microstructure evolution for single-phase aluminum alloy 1100 were made to validate the simulation. The influence of the texture inhomogeneity is analyzed from a theoretical point of view using an orientation distribution function for deformed and evolved texture.

  14. Microstructure and texture evolution of ultra-thin grain-oriented silicon steel sheet fabricated using strip casting and three-stage cold rolling method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hong-Yu; Liu, Hai-Tao, E-mail: liuht@ral.neu.edu.cn; Wang, Yin-Ping; Wang, Guo-Dong

    2017-03-15

    A 0.1 mm-thick grain-oriented silicon steel sheet was successfully produced using strip casting and three-stage cold rolling method. The microstructure, texture and inhibitor evolution during the processing was briefly analyzed. It was found that Goss texture was absent in the hot rolled sheet because of the lack of shear deformation. After normalizing, a large number of dispersed MnS precipitates with the size range of 15–90 nm were produced. During first cold rolling, dense shear bands were generated in the deformed ferrite grains, resulting in the intense Goss texture after first intermediate annealing. The microstructure was further refined and homogenized during the subsequent cold rolling and annealing processes. After primary recrystallization annealing, a homogeneous microstructure consisting of fine and equiaxed grains was produced while the associated texture was characterized by a strong γ-fiber texture. Finally, a complete secondary recrystallization microstructure consisting of entirely large Goss grains was produced. The magnetic induction B{sub 8} and iron loss P{sub 10/400} was 1.79 T and 6.9 W/kg, respectively. - Highlights: • Ultra-thin grain-oriented silicon steel was produced by strip casting process. • Microstructure, texture and inhibitor evolution was briefly investigated. • Goss texture was absent in primary recrystallization annealed sheet. • MnS precipitates with a size range of 15–90 nm formed after normalizing. • A complete secondary recrystallization microstructure was produced.

  15. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties Evolution of the Al, C-Containing CoCrFeNiMn-Type High-Entropy Alloy during Cold Rolling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimova, Margarita; Stepanov, Nikita; Shaysultanov, Dmitry; Chernichenko, Ruslan; Yurchenko, Nikita; Sanin, Vladimir; Zherebtsov, Sergey

    2017-12-29

    The effect of cold rolling on the microstructure and mechanical properties of an Al- and C-containing CoCrFeNiMn-type high-entropy alloy was reported. The alloy with a chemical composition (at %) of (20-23) Co, Cr, Fe, and Ni; 8.82 Mn; 3.37 Al; and 0.69 C was produced by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis with subsequent induction. In the initial as-cast condition the alloy had an face centered cubic single-phase coarse-grained structure. Microstructure evolution was mostly associated with either planar dislocation glide at relatively low deformation during rolling (up to 20%) or deformation twinning and shear banding at higher strain. After 80% reduction, a heavily deformed twinned/subgrained structure was observed. A comparison with the equiatomic CoCrFeNiMn alloy revealed higher dislocation density at all stages of cold rolling and later onset of deformation twinning that was attributed to a stacking fault energy increase in the program alloy; this assumption was confirmed by calculations. In the initial as-cast condition the alloy had low yield strength of 210 MPa with yet very high uniform elongation of 74%. After 80% rolling, yield strength approached 1310 MPa while uniform elongation decreased to 1.3%. Substructure strengthening was found to be dominated at low rolling reductions (<40%), while grain (twin) boundary strengthening prevailed at higher strains.

  16. Effects of Cold Rolling Reduction and Initial Goss Grains Orientation on Texture Evolution and Magnetic Performance of Ultra-thin Grain-oriented Silicon Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIANG Rui-yang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The ultra-thin grain-oriented silicon steel strips with a thickness of 0.06-0.12mm were produced by one-step-rolling methods with different Goss-orientation of grain-oriented silicon steel sheets. The effect of cold rolling reduction and initial Goss-orientation of samples on texture evolution and magnetic performance of ultra-thin grain-oriented silicon steel strips was studied by EBSD. The result shows that with the increase of cold rolling reduction and decrease of strips thickness, the recrystallization texture is enhanced after annealing.When the cold rolling reduction is 70%,RD//〈001〉 recrystallization texture is the sharpest, and the magnetic performance is the best. The higher degree of Goss orientation in initial sample is, the better magnetic performance of ultra-thin grain-oriented silicon steel.Therefore, for producing an ultra-thin grain-oriented silicon steel with high performance, a material with a concentrated orientation of Goss grains can be used.

  17. Microstructural Evolutions During Reversion Annealing of Cold-Rolled AISI 316 Austenitic Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghizadeh, Meysam; Mirzadeh, Hamed

    2018-06-01

    Microstructural evolutions during reversion annealing of a plastically deformed AISI 316 stainless steel were investigated and three distinct stages were identified: the reversion of strain-induced martensite to austenite, the primary recrystallization of the retained austenite, and the grain growth process. It was found that the slow kinetics of recrystallization at lower annealing temperatures inhibit the formation of an equiaxed microstructure and might effectively impair the usefulness of this thermomechanical treatment for the objective of grain refinement. By comparing the behavior of AISI 316 and 304 alloys, it was found that the mentioned slow kinetics is related to the retardation effect of solute Mo in the former alloy. At high reversion annealing temperature, however, an equiaxed austenitic microstructure was achieved quickly in AISI 316 stainless steel due to the temperature dependency of retardation effect of molybdenum, which allowed the process of recrystallization to happen easily. Conclusively, this work can shed some light on the issues of this efficient grain refining approach for microstructural control of austenitic stainless steels.

  18. The evolution with strain of the stored energy in different texture components of cold-rolled IF steel revealed by high resolution X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wauthier-Monnin, A. [LSPM–CNRS, Université Paris 13, 99, Av. J.B. Clément, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); ArcelorMittal Research Voie Romaine BP 30320, 57 283 Maizières-les Metz (France); Chauveau, T.; Castelnau, O. [LSPM–CNRS, Université Paris 13, 99, Av. J.B. Clément, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Réglé, H. [ArcelorMittal Research Voie Romaine BP 30320, 57 283 Maizières-les Metz (France); Bacroix, B., E-mail: brigitte.bacroix@univ-paris13.fr [LSPM–CNRS, Université Paris 13, 99, Av. J.B. Clément, 93430 Villetaneuse (France)

    2015-06-15

    During the deformation of low carbon steel by cold-rolling, dislocations are created and stored in grains depending on local crystallographic orientation, deformation, and deformation gradient. Orientation dependent dislocation densities have been estimated from the broadening of X-ray diffraction lines measured on a synchrotron beamline. Different cold-rolling levels (from 30% to 95% thickness reduction) have been considered. It is shown that the present measurements are consistent with the hypothesis of the sole consideration of screw dislocations for the analysis of the data. The presented evolutions show that the dislocation density first increases within the α fiber (=(hkl)<110>) and then within the γ fiber (=(111)). A comparison with EBSD measurements is done and confirms that the storage of dislocations during the deformation process is orientation dependent and that this dependence is correlated to the cold-rolling level. If we assume that this dislocation density acts as a driving force during recrystallization, these observations can explain the fact that the recrystallization mechanisms are generally different after moderate or large strains. - Highlights: • Dislocation densities are assessed by XRD in main texture components of a steel sheet. • Dislocation densities vary with both strain and texture components. • The analysis relies on the sole presence of screw dislocations. • The measured dislocation densities include the contribution of both SSD and GND.

  19. Roll force prediction of high strength steel using foil rolling theory in cold skin pass rolling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Gil Ho; Jung, Jae Chook

    2013-01-01

    Skin pass rolling is a very important process for applying a certain elongation to a strip in the cold rolling and annealing processes, which play an important role in preventing the stretching of the yield point when the material is processed. The exact prediction of the rolling force is essential for obtaining a given elongation with the steel grade and strip size. Unlike hot rolling and cold rolling, skin pass rolling is used to apply an elongation of within 2% to the strip. Under a small reduction, it is difficult to predict the rolling force because the elastic deformation behavior of the rolls is complicated and a model for predicting the rolling force has not yet been established. Nevertheless, the exact prediction of the rolling force in skin pass rolling has gained increasing importance in recent times with the rapid development of high strength steels for use in automobiles. In this study, the possibility of predicting the rolling force in skin pass rolling for producing various steel grades was examined using foil rolling theory, which is known to have similar elastic deformation behavior of rolls in the roll bite. It was found that a noncircular arc model is more accurate than a circular model in predicting the roll force of high strength steel below TS 980 MPa in skin pass rolling

  20. Cold rolling precision forming of shaft parts theory and technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Jianli; Li, Yongtang

    2017-01-01

    This book presents in detail the theory, processes and equipment involved in cold rolling precision forming technologies, focusing on spline and thread shaft parts. The main topics discussed include the status quo of research on cold rolling precision forming technologies; the design and calculation of process parameters; the numerical simulation of cold rolling forming processes; and the equipment used in cold rolling forming. The mechanism of cold rolling forming is extremely complex, and research on the processes, theory and mechanical analysis of spline cold rolling forming has remained very limited to date. In practice, the forming processes and production methods used are mainly chosen on the basis of individual experience. As such, there is a marked lack of both systematic, theory-based guidelines, and of specialized books covering theoretical analysis, numerical simulation, experiments and equipment used in spline cold rolling forming processes – all key points that are included in this book and ill...

  1. The effect of roll gap geometry on microstructure in cold-rolled aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishin, Oleg; Bay, B.; Winther, G.

    2004-01-01

    Microstructure and texture are analyzed through the thickness of two aluminum plates cold-rolled 40% with different roll gap geometries. It is found that both texture and microstructure are strongly affected by the rolling geometry. After rolling with intermediate-size draughts a rolling-type tex......Microstructure and texture are analyzed through the thickness of two aluminum plates cold-rolled 40% with different roll gap geometries. It is found that both texture and microstructure are strongly affected by the rolling geometry. After rolling with intermediate-size draughts a rolling...... layers. In these layers, extended planar dislocation boundaries are frequently found to be inclined closely to the rolling direction. The subsurface and central layers of this plate exhibit microstructures similar to those in the plate rolled with intermediate draughts. It is suggested...

  2. Development of microtextures in cold rolled iron-oligocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeslau, J.; Raabe, D.

    1994-01-01

    The evolution of microtexture in cold rolled Fe-oligocrystals was investigated. The use of oligocrystals, i.e. polycrystals consisting of only a few large grains, allows the investigation of the development of the orientation distribution (OD) within single grains with respect to the rolling degree, to the initial grain orientation and to the geometrical and orientational constraints imposed by the neighbouring grains. It is shown that during deformation the average misorientation between adjacent regions within a single grain increases and that fragmentation of initially homogeneous grains occurs. It is revealed that the starting orientation of the grain has a considerable impact on the formation of the single grain OD. The experiments were carried out by use of single orientation measurement in the scanning electron microscope and by taking X-ray pole figures (PF). (orig.)

  3. Lubrication in cold rolling : Numerical simulation using multigrid techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lugt, Pieter Martin

    1992-01-01

    In the cold rolling process a lubricant is applied on the rolls and/or the strip mate­rial. Due to the velocities of the rolls and the strip, part of the lubricant is sheared into the contact causing, amongst others, a reduction of the friction. In this thesis a physical-mathematical model is

  4. Progress in cold roll bonding of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Long; Nagai, Kotobu; Yin Fuxing

    2008-01-01

    Layered composite materials have become an increasingly interesting topic in industrial development. Cold roll bonding (CRB), as a solid phase method of bonding same or different metals by rolling at room temperature, has been widely used in manufacturing large layered composite sheets and foils. In this paper, we provide a brief overview of a technology using layered composite materials produced by CRB and discuss the suitability of this technology in the fabrication of layered composite materials. The effects of process parameters on bonding, mainly including process and surface preparation conditions, have been analyzed. Bonding between two sheets can be realized when deformation reduction reaches a threshold value. However, it is essential to remove surface contamination layers to produce a satisfactory bond in CRB. It has been suggested that the degreasing and then scratch brushing of surfaces create a strong bonding between the layers. Bonding mechanisms, in which the film theory is expressed as the major mechanism in CRB, as well as bonding theoretical models, have also been reviewed. It has also been showed that it is easy for fcc structure metals to bond compared with bcc and hcp structure metals. In addition, hardness on bonding same metals plays an important part in CRB. Applications of composites produced by CRB in industrial fields are briefly reviewed and possible developments of CRB in the future are also described. Corrections were made to the abstract and conclusion of this article on 18 June 2008. The corrected electronic version is identical to the print version. (topical review)

  5. Advanced cold rolled steels for automotive applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, Harald; Mattissen, Dorothea; Schaumann, Thomas Wilhelm [ThyssenKrupp Steel AG, Center of Materials Excellence, Dortmund (Germany)

    2009-01-15

    Advanced high-strength steels offer a great potential for the further development of automobile bodies-in-white due to their combined mechanical properties of high formability and strength. They represent the first choice in material selection for strength and crash-relevant parts with challenging geometries. The intensive development of multiphase steels by ThyssenKrupp Steel has led to hot dip galvanizing concepts with an outstanding forming potential. Hot rolled, hot dip galvanized complex-phase steels are currently produced in addition to cold rolled dual phase (DP) and retained austenite (RA) or transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steels. New continuously annealed grades of steel are being developed with tensile strength levels of up to 1000 MPa in combination with sufficient ductility for the high demands of structural automobile components. These steels make use of the classic advantages of microalloying as well as the principles of DP steels and RA / TRIP steels. Further improvement of properties will be reached by the new class of high manganese alloyed steels. (orig.)

  6. Advanced cold rolled steels for automotive applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, H. [ThyssenKrupp Steel AG, Eberhardstrasse 12, 44145 Dortmund (Germany); Mattissen, D.; Schaumann, T.W. [ThyssenKrupp Steel AG, Duisburg (Germany)

    2006-09-15

    Advanced multiphase steels offer a great potential for bodies-in-white through their combination of formability and achievable component strength levels. They are first choice for strength and crash-relevant parts of challenging geometry. The intensive development of high-strength multiphase steels by ThyssenKrupp has led to hot dip galvanizing concepts with an outstanding forming potential. Hot rolled, hot dip galvanized complex phase steels are currently produced in addition to cold rolled DP and RA steels. New continuously annealed grades with tensile strength levels of up to 1000 MPa in combination with sufficient ductility for applications mainly in the field of structural automobile elements make use of the classic advantages of microalloying as well as the principles of DP and TRIP steels. Further improvement of properties will be reached by the new class of high manganese alloyed steels. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Fortschrittliche Multiphasen-Staehle eroeffnen wegen der inzwischen erreichbaren Kombination aus Umformbarkeit und Bauteilfestigkeit ein enormes Potenzial fuer Rohkarosserien. Sie stellen eine erste Wahl dar, wenn es um Festigkeit und um Crashsicherheit geht und besondere Anforderungen an die Bauteilgeometrien gestellt werden. Bei ThyssenKrupp hat die Entwicklung hochfester Multiphasen-Staehle in Verbindung mit dem Feuerverzinken zur Realisierung von Blechhalbzeugen gefuehrt, die hervorragend formbar sind. Es werden heute feuerverzinkte Komplexphasenstaehle neben den bewaehrten kaltgewalzten Dualphasen(DP) - und Retained Austenit(RA)-Staehlen produziert. Die neuen kontinuierlich gegluehten Stahlvarianten mit Festigkeiten bis zu 1000 MPa in Kombination mit der bei Strukturbauteilen im Automobilbau geforderten Duktilitaet nutzen sowohl die klassischen Vorteile des Mikrolegierens aus und dazu die Prinzipien, die man bei DP- und TRIP-Staehlen anwendet. Eine weitere Verbesserung des Eigenschaftsprofils wird mit dem

  7. Fabrication of cold-rolled bands of the alloy-ehi 702 in rolls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuchin, V.N.; Gindin, A.Sh.; Shaburov, V.E.; Vladimirov, S.M.; Sokolov, V.A.; Shavkun, V.V.; Perepelitsa, I.V.; Markov, V.V.; Naymov, E.P.; Evstaf'ev, P.P.

    1977-01-01

    The questions are discussed, connected with the manufacture of cold-rolled strip of alloy EI702 in reels from strip blanks. It has been established that in the manufacture of hot-rolled stock from EI702 slabs it is necessary to use powerful rolling equipment because of high resistance to deformation. The reel method for manufacturing EI702 alloy improves the rolled stock and increases percentage of serviceable stock, as well as the output

  8. Dimensional ranges and rolling efficiency in a tandem cold rolling mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larkiola, J.

    1997-12-31

    In this work, physical models and a neural network theory have been combined in order to predict the properties of a steel strip and to optimise the process parameters in cold rolling. The prediction of the deformation resistance of the material and the friction parameter is based on the physical model presented by Bland, Ford and Ellis and artificial neural network computing (ANN). The accuracy of these models has been tested and proved by using a large amount of the measured data. With the aid of these models it has been shown that (a) the small change to the relative reduction distribution can have a clear effect upon the rolling efficiency, (b) the dimensional ranges of the tandem cold roll mill can be determined and optimised and (c) the possibility to cold roll a new product of new width, strength or thickness can be determined and the parameters of the tandem cold rolling process can be optimised. (orig.) 43 refs.

  9. Nucleation at hardness indentations in cold rolled Al

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, C.L.; Zhang, Yubin; Wu, G.L.

    2015-01-01

    Nucleation of recrystallization near hardness indentations has been investigated in slightly cold rolled high purity aluminium. Samples were cold rolled to 12% and 20% reductions in thickness and indentations were done with two different loads (500 g and 2000 g). The samples were annealed at 300 °C...... for 1 h and nuclei were identified. It is found that the indentations are preferential nucleation sites. With EBSD maps around indentation tips, the orientation relationship between nuclei and matrix is analyzed. Finally, effects of rolling reduction and indentation load on local misorientations...... and stored energy distributions and thus on nucleation are discussed....

  10. Reversed Microstructures and Tensile Properties after Various Cold Rolling Reductions in AISI 301LN Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antti Järvenpää

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Heavy cold rolling is generally required for efficient grain size refinement in the martensitic reversion process, which is, however, not desirable in practical processing. In the present work, the influence of cold rolling reductions of 32%, 45% and 63% on the microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of a metastable austenitic AISI 301LN type steel were investigated in detail adopting scanning electron microscopy with the electron backscatter diffraction method and mechanical testing. A completely austenitic microstructure and a partially reversed counterpart were created. It was found that the fraction of grains with a size of 3 µm or larger, called medium-sized grains, increased with decreasing the prior cold rolling reduction. These grains are formed mainly from the shear-reversed austenite, transformed from slightly-deformed martensite, by gradual evolution of subgrains to grains. However, in spite of significant amounts of medium-sized grains, the tensile properties after the 32% or 45% cold rolling reductions were practically equal to those after the 63% reduction. The austenite stability against the formation of deformation-induced martensite in subsequent straining was reduced by lowering the cold rolling reduction, due to the larger grain size of medium-sized grains and the shift of their orientation towards {211} .

  11. Rolling of molybdenum and niobium tubes on cold-rolling mill with high stiff stand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potapov, I N; Shejkh-Ali, A D; Filimonov, G V; Lunev, A G

    1984-03-01

    To develop the technique of tube production the process of rolling is studied and comparative evaluation of the structure formed is carried out. It is shown that billets of rods deformed by screw rolling have the improved plastic properties and are deformed on cold-rolling mill (CRM) with a high degree of reduction without defect formation. High stiff stand of the CRM permits to produce high-quality molybdenum tubes.

  12. Development of microstructure and texture in Fe–26Mn–3Si–3Al alloy during cold-rolling and annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalska, Joanna; Ratuszek, Wiktoria; Witkowska, Małgorzata; Zielińska-Lipiec, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We report evolution of microstructure and texture in the Fe–26Mn–3Si–3Al alloy during cold-rolling and annealing. • Mechanical twinning and martensitic transformation (γ → ε and γ → ε → α′) had occurred during cold-rolling. • The crystallographic relations between austenite γ and martensite ε have been ascertained. • During annealing the reverse martensite to austenite transformation occurred. - Abstract: Fe–26 wt.% Mn–3 wt.% Si–3 wt.% Al alloy was cast, forged, hot-rolled at temperatures between 1200 °C and 900 °C and cold-rolled with 5–66% reductions in thickness. The specimens which were cold-rolled 57% were annealed in the temperature range 500–750 °C. Microstructure and texture of this alloy, which has a low stacking fault energy, were evaluated after cold-rolling and after subsequent annealing, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy showed that mechanical twinning and martensitic transformations (γ → ε and γ → ε → α′) took place during cold-rolling. The crystallographic Burgers relations {0 0 0 1}ε || {1 1 1}γ and 〈1 1 2 0〉ε || 〈1 1 0〉γ between martensite (ε) and austenite (γ), were found in the cold-rolled material. During annealing the reverse martensite to austenite transformation occurred

  13. Influences of rolling method on deformation force in cold roll-beating forming process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yongxiang; Cui, Fengkui; Liang, Xiaoming; Li, Yan

    2018-03-01

    In process, the research object, the gear rack was selected to study the influence law of rolling method on the deformation force. By the mean of the cold roll forming finite element simulation, the variation regularity of radial and tangential deformation was analysed under different rolling methods. The variation of deformation force of the complete forming racks and the single roll during the steady state under different rolling modes was analyzed. The results show: when upbeating and down beating, radial single point average force is similar, the tangential single point average force gap is bigger, the gap of tangential single point average force is relatively large. Add itionally, the tangential force at the time of direct beating is large, and the dire ction is opposite with down beating. With directly beating, deformation force loading fast and uninstall slow. Correspondingly, with down beating, deformat ion force loading slow and uninstall fast.

  14. Calculation and experimental technique of determination of rolling procedure for cold-rolling tube mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igoshin, V.F.; Aleshin, V.A.; Khoroshikh, Yu.G.; Bogatov, A.A.; Mizhiritskij, O.I.

    1983-01-01

    Calculation and experimental technique of determination of tube cold rolling procedure has been developed. Rolling procedure based on the usage of regression equation epsilon=1.24 psi, where psi is the relative reduction of area, delta-permissible reduction during rolling, has been tested on 08Kh18N10T steel. The effect of tube geometry, tool calibration parameters, lubrication conditions etc. on metal deformability in taking into account experimentally. The use of the technique proposed has allowed to shorten the time of mastering of the production of tubes from different steels

  15. Cell and band structures in cold rolled polycrystalline copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ananthan, V.S.; Leffers, Torben; Hansen, Niels

    1991-01-01

    dislocation walls (DDWs) and cells develop during the initial stages of cold rolling. Grains having a high density of DDWs are described as high wall density (HWD) structures, and grains having a low density of DDWs are described as low wall density (LWD) structures. These structures are characterised by cell...

  16. Adaptive Automatic Gauge Control of a Cold Strip Rolling Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROMAN, N.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper tackles with thickness control structure of the cold rolled strips. This structure is based on the rolls position control of a reversible quarto rolling mill. The main feature of the system proposed in the paper consists in the compensation of the errors introduced by the deficient dynamics of the hydraulic servo-system used for the rolls positioning, by means of a dynamic compensator that approximates the inverse system of the servo-system. Because the servo-system is considered variant over time, an on-line identification of the servo-system and parameter adapting of the compensator are achieved. The results obtained by numerical simulation are presented together with the data taken from real process. These results illustrate the efficiency of the proposed solutions.

  17. Recycle of valuable products from oily cold rolling mill sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Zhang, Shen-gen; Tian, Jian-jun; Pan, De-an; Liu, Yang; Volinsky, Alex A.

    2013-10-01

    Oily cold rolling mill (CRM) sludge contains lots of iron and alloying elements along with plenty of hazardous organic components, which makes it as an attractive secondary source and an environmental contaminant at the same time. The compound methods of "vacuum distillation + oxidizing roasting" and "vacuum distillation + hydrogen reduction" were employed for the recycle of oily cold rolling mill sludge. First, the sludge was dynamically vacuum distilled in a rotating furnace at 50 r/min and 600°C for 3 h, which removed almost hazardous organic components, obtaining 89.2wt% ferrous resultant. Then, high purity ferric oxide powders (99.2wt%) and reduced iron powders (98.9wt%) were obtained when the distillation residues were oxidized and reduced, respectively. The distillation oil can be used for fuel or chemical feedstock, and the distillation gases can be collected and reused as a fuel.

  18. Improved Fatigue Performance of Threaded Drillstring Connections by Cold Rolling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristoffersen, Steinar

    2002-01-01

    The research work presented in this thesis is concerned with analytical, numerical and experimental studies of the effect of cold rolling on the fatigue behaviour of threaded drillstring connections. A comprehensive literature study is made of the various effects on the fatigue behaviour of residual stresses introduced by mechanical deformation of notched components. Some of the effects studied are cyclic hardening behaviour after prestraining, cyclic creep, fatigue initiation in prestrained materials, short cracks and crack growth models including crack closure. Residual stresses were introduced in the surface of a smooth pipe by a rolling device to simulate a cold rolling process and verify the calculated residual stresses by measurements. Strain hardening and contact algorithm of the two bodies were incorporated in the FE analyses. Two significant errors were found in the commercial software package for residual stress evaluation, Restran v. 3.3.2a also called SINT, when using the Schajer method. The Schajer algorithm is the only hole-drilling algorithm without theoretical shortcomings, and is recommended when measuring large residual stress gradients in the depth direction. Using the Schajer method solved by in-house Matlab-routines good agreement between measured residual stress gradients and residual stress gradients from FE analyses was found. Full scale fatigue tests were performed on pipes cut from used drillstrings with notches of similar geometry as threads used in drillstring connections. The simulated threads consisted of four full depth helix notches with runouts at the surface. The pipe threads were cold rolled and fatigue tested in a full-scale four-point rotating bending fatigue testing rig. The test results showed that cold rolling had an effect on the crack initiation period. A major part of the fatigue life was with cracks observed at the notch root, but due to the increased fatigue crack propagation resistance the final fracture initiated at

  19. A new transducer for local load measurements of friction and roll pressure in cold flat rolling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagergren, J.; Wanheim, Tarras; Precz, W.

    2006-01-01

    The only way to establish the true rolling pressure and the true friction condition in cold rolling is to conduct measurements in the roll bite. A new transducer design is therefore proposed, in order to overcome problems in previous measurements in the past 70 years. The new idea is to increase ...... and able to avoid signal disturbance. The pressure and friction stress distribution results was as expected by the authors and showed good reproducibility, together with a proven agreement between recorded and simulated signals....... selected from a steady state with no disturbance from the material flow. The transducer was able to simultaneously measure both the normal pressure and the friction stress. An estimation of the coefficient of friction was accordingly performed. The new transducer works very well, it was seen to be robust...

  20. Cold-rolled steel strip X-ray thickness gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong Jianmin; Cong Peng; Li Litao

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a cold-rolled steel strip X-ray thickness gauge. This gauge uses two-detector construction including penetrating ionization chamber and measuring ionization chamber. Standard magazine box is composed of three rotating plates driving by stepper motor, including 13 pieces of standard sample to build up 154 thickness value, obtaining standard sample curve covering thickness range of 0.1 mm to 5 mm. Automation system include Siemens S7-200 PLC as key controlling unit, embedded controlling system for data acquisition and computing, and PC as man-machine interface, and employ Ethernet (TCP/IP) or RS485/232 as communication protocol. Reversing Cold mill AGC closed-loop control operation test demonstrates that the gauge can adapt to the severe production environment, operate stably and reliably, measurement precision can reached to ±0.19%, reproducibility to ±0.09%, and stability to ±0.06%, response time range from 4 ms to 200 ms and be adjustable. So it can meet the high demanding of cold-rolled plate/strip production. (authors)

  1. Microstructure evolution during spray rolling and heat treatment of 2124 Al

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHugh, K.M. [Industrial Technology Department, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-2050 (United States)], E-mail: kevin.mchugh@inl.gov; Lin, Y.; Zhou, Y.; Johnson, S.B.; Delplanque, J.-P.; Lavernia, E.J. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2008-03-25

    Spray rolling is a strip-casting technology that combines elements of spray forming and twin-roll casting. It consists of atomizing molten metal with a high velocity inert gas, quenching the resultant droplets in flight, and directing the spray between mill rolls. In-flight convection heat transfer from atomized droplets and conduction heat transfer at the rolls rapidly remove the metal's latent heat. Hot deformation of the semi-solid material in the rolls results in fully consolidated, rapidly-solidified strip. Spray rolling operates at a higher solidification rate than conventional twin-roll casting and is able to process a broader range of alloys at high production rates. A laboratory-scale strip caster was constructed and used to evaluate the interplay of processing parameters and strip quality for strips up to 200 mm wide and 1.6-6.4 mm thick. This paper examines microstructure evolution during spray rolling and explores how gas-to-metal mass flow ratio influences the microstructure and mechanical properties of spray-rolled 2124 Al. The influences of solution heat treatment and cold rolling on grain structure and constituent particle spheroidization are also examined.

  2. The Effect of Cold Rolling on the Hydrogen Susceptibility of 5083 Aluminum Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.P. Georgiou

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses in investigating the effect of cold deformation on the cathodic hydrogen charging of 5083 aluminum alloy. The aluminium alloy was submitted to a cold rolling process, until the average thickness of the specimens was reduced by 7% and 15%, respectively. A study of the structure, microhardness, and tensile properties of the hydrogen charged aluminium specimens, with and without cold rolling, indicated that the cold deformation process led to an increase of hydrogen susceptibility of this aluminum alloy.

  3. Ultrafine Structure and High Strength in Cold-Rolled Martensite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Xiaoxu; Morito, S.; Hansen, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Structural refinement by cold rolling (10 to 80 pct reductions) of interstitial free (IF) steel containing Mn and B has been investigated from samples with different initial structures: (a) lath martensite, (b) coarse ferrite (grain size 150 mu m), and (c) fine ferrite (22 mu m). Unalloyed IF steel....... At low to medium strains, lath martensite transforms into a cell block structure composed of cell block boundaries and cell boundaries with only a negligible change in strength. At medium to large strains, cell block structures in all samples refine with increasing strain and the hardening rate...... is constant (stage IV). A strong effect of the initial structure is observed on both the structural refinement and the strength increase. This effect is largest in lath martensite and smallest in unalloyed ferrite. No saturation in structural refinement and strength is observed. The discussion covers...

  4. Adhesiveness of cold rolled steels for car body parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleiner Marques Marra

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the adhesiveness of uncoated and zinc-electrogalvanized steel sheets used in the automotive industry. Three types of adhesives, one acrylic and two epoxy resins, were employed to join low carbon cold rolled steels, one uncoated and another electrogalvanized, both previously degreased or chemically pickled. Mechanical strength of the joints was evaluated by the T-peel and tensile strength tests. Steel grade, surface condition and heating below the cure temperatures did not influence the joints' mechanical strength. However, their shear strength decreased drastically as the test temperature increased. The exposure of the joints to an atmosphere with 90% relative humidity at 40 °C caused reduction of their shear strength. Epoxy adhesives showed higher mechanical strength, but exhibited higher degradation by humidity.

  5. Texture and superelastic behavior of cold-rolled TiNbTaZr alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Liqiang; Lu Weijie; Qin Jining; Zhang Fan; Zhang Di

    2008-01-01

    This work investigates the deformation texture and strain-induced α'' martensite texture of TiNbTaZr alloy during cold rolling. The alloy is rolled by 20% and 90% reductions without changing rolling direction. Textures of cold-rolled specimens are investigated by X-ray diffraction measurements. Besides {2 2 1} β β twinning texture, {1 0 0} β β texture is developed in the specimen with 20% reduction. In the 90% cold-rolled specimen, {1 0 0} β β texture appears along rolling direction and strain-induced α'' martensite texture tends to [0 1 0] and [0 0 1] directions along rolling direction (RD) and transverse direction (TD), respectively. Superelastic strain (ε SE ) exhibits higher value along RD and TD. Pure elastic strain (ε E ) shows higher value along RD and 45 deg. from RD

  6. TOPICAL REVIEW Progress in cold roll bonding of metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Li, Kotobu Nagai and Fuxing Yin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Layered composite materials have become an increasingly interesting topic in industrial development. Cold roll bonding (CRB, as a solid phase method of bonding same or different metals by rolling at room temperature, has been widely used in manufacturing large layered composite sheets and foils. In this paper, we provide a brief overview of a technology using layered composite materials produced by CRB and discuss the suitability of this technology in the fabrication of layered composite materials. The effects of process parameters on bonding, mainly including process and surface preparation conditions, have been analyzed. Bonding between two sheets can be realized when deformation reduction reaches a threshold value. However, it is essential to remove surface contamination layers to produce a satisfactory bond in CRB. It has been suggested that the degreasing and then scratch brushing of surfaces create a strong bonding between the layers. Bonding mechanisms, in which the film theory is expressed as the major mechanism in CRB, as well as bonding theoretical models, have also been reviewed. It has also been showed that it is easy for fcc structure metals to bond compared with bcc and hcp structure metals. In addition, hardness on bonding same metals plays an important part in CRB. Applications of composites produced by CRB in industrial fields are briefly reviewed and possible developments of CRB in the future are also described.

  7. Effects of microalloying on hot-rolled and cold-rolled Q&P steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo de Araujo, Ana Luiza

    Third generation advanced high strength steels (AHSS) have been a major focus in steel development over the last decade. The premise of these types of steel is based on the potential to obtain excellent combinations of strength and ductility with low-alloy compositions by forming mixed microstructures containing retained austenite (RA). The development of heat treatments able to achieve the desired structures and properties, such as quenching and partitioning (Q&P) steels, is driven by new requirements to increase vehicle fuel economy by reducing overall weight while maintaining safety and crashworthiness. Microalloying additions of niobium (Nb) and vanadium (V) in sheet products are known to provide strengthening via grain refinement and precipitation hardening and may influence RA volume fraction and transformation behavior. Additions of microalloying elements in Q&P steels have not been extensively studied to date, however. The objective of the present study was to begin to understand the potential roles of Nb and V in hot-rolled and cold-rolled Q&P steel. For that, a common Q&P steel composition was selected as a Base alloy with 0.2C-1.5Si-2.0Mn (wt. %). Two alloys with an addition of Nb (0.02 and 0.04 wt. %) and one with an addition of V (0.06 wt. %) to the Base alloy were investigated. Both hot-rolled and cold-rolled/annealed Q&P simulations were conducted. In the hot-rolled Q&P study, thermomechanical processing was simulated via hot torsion testing in a GleebleRTM 3500, and four coiling temperatures (CT) were chosen. Microstructural evaluation (including RA measurements via electron backscattered diffraction - EBSD) and hardness measurements were performed for all alloys and coiling conditions. The analysis showed that Nb additions led to overall refinement of the prior microstructure. Maximum RA fractions were measured at the 375 °C CT, and microalloying was associated with increased RA in this condition when compared to the Base alloy. A change in

  8. Strain hardening of cold-rolled lean-alloyed metastable ferritic-austenitic stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papula, Suvi [Aalto University School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, P.O. Box 14200, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland); Anttila, Severi [Centre for Advanced Steels Research, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4200, 90014 Oulu (Finland); Talonen, Juho [Outokumpu Oyj, P.O. Box 245, FI-00181 Helsinki (Finland); Sarikka, Teemu; Virkkunen, Iikka; Hänninen, Hannu [Aalto University School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, P.O. Box 14200, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland)

    2016-11-20

    Mechanical properties and strain hardening of two pilot-scale lean-alloyed ferritic-austenitic stainless steels having metastable austenite phase, present at 0.50 and 0.30 volume fractions, have been studied by means of tensile testing and nanoindentation. These ferritic-austenitic stainless steels have high strain-hardening capacity, due to the metastable austenite phase, which leads to an improved uniform elongation and higher tensile strength in comparison with most commercial lean duplex stainless steels. According to the results, even as low as 0.30 volume fraction of austenite seems efficient for achieving nearly 40% elongation. The austenite phase is initially the harder phase, and exhibits more strain hardening than the ferrite phase. The rate of strain hardening and the evolution of the martensite phase were found to depend on the loading direction: both are higher when strained in the rolling direction as compared to the transverse direction. Based on the mechanical testing, characterization of the microstructure by optical/electron microscopy, magnetic balance measurements and EBSD texture analysis, this anisotropy in mechanical properties of the cold-rolled metastable ferritic-austenitic stainless steels can be explained by the elongated dual-phase microstructure, fiber reinforcement effect of the harder austenite phase and the presence and interplay of rolling textures in the two phases.

  9. Effect of cold-rolling on pitting corrosion of 304 austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peguet, L.; Malki, B.; Baroux, B.

    2004-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: This paper deals with a not very often investigated topic on relation between cold-working and stainless steels localized corrosion resistance. It is devoted to the study of the cold-rolling effects on the pitting corrosion behavior of a 304 stainless steel grade in chloride containing aqueous electrolytes. It focus particularly on the analysis of metastable pitting transients observed at Open Circuit Potential using an experimental protocol including two identical working electrodes connected through a zero-impedance. As received the used specimens were heat-treated at 1100 C for 30 s and cold-rolled at 10%, 20%, 30% up to a final reduction pass of 70% inducing a large amount of α'-martensite. Then, current-potential fluctuations measurements were performed at OCP in NaCl 0.1 M + FeCl 3 2.10 -4 M containing aqueous solution during 24 h from the immersion time. As expected, a detrimental effect on corrosion behavior induced by cold rolling has been confirmed. Surprisingly, this is a nonlinear effect as a function of cold-rolling rate which controverts the hypothesis that strain induced martensite is the principal factor to explain this kind of sensibilizing. In particular, the results show a maximum of the metastable pits initiation frequency at 20% of cold-rolling rate. Moreover, the passive film/electrochemical double layer resistance and capacity deduced from the transients study show an analog nonlinear behavior. So, the transfer resistance show a minimum around 10-20% of cold-rolling rate where one can assume an increase of the electrons transfer kinetics through the interface. Conversely, the interfacial capacity is the highest at 20% of cold-rolling rate. Finally, It is expected a combined effect of the cold-rolled induced martensite and the dislocations arrangement via the mechano-chemical theory discussed by Gutman. (authors)

  10. Evolution of fuel plate parameters during deformation in rolling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durazzo, M., E-mail: mdurazzo@ipen.br [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute – IPEN/CNEN-SP, São Paulo (Brazil); Vieira, E.; Urano de Carvalho, E.F. [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute – IPEN/CNEN-SP, São Paulo (Brazil); Riella, H.G. [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute – IPEN/CNEN-SP, São Paulo (Brazil); Chemical Engineering Department, Santa Catarina Federal University, Florianópolis (Brazil)

    2017-07-15

    The Nuclear and Energy Research Institute – IPEN/CNEN-SP routinely produces the nuclear fuel necessary for operating its research reactor, IEA-R1. This fuel consists of fuel plates containing U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-Al composites as the meat, which are fabricated by rolling. The rolling process currently deployed was developed based on information obtained from literature, which was used as a premise for defining the current manufacturing procedures, according to a methodology with an essentially empirical character. Despite the current rolling process being perfectly stable and highly reproducible, it is not well characterized and is therefore not fully known. The objective of this work is to characterize the rolling process for producing dispersion fuel plates. Results regarding the evolution of the main parameters of technological interest, after each rolling pass, are presented. Some defects that originated along the fuel plate deformation during the rolling process were characterized and discussed. The fabrication procedures for manufacturing the fuel plates are also presented. - Highlights: •Evolution of defects when manufacturing dispersion fuel plates. •Aspects of dispersion fuel plates fabrication. •What happen during the manufacturing of dispersion fuel plates? •Clarifying the deformation of fuel plates by rolling.

  11. Study Friction Distribution during the Cold Rolling of Material by Matroll Software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdollahi, H.; Dehghani, K.

    2007-01-01

    Rolling process is one of the most important ways of metal forming. Since the results of this process are almost finished product, therefore controlling the parameters affecting this process is very important in order to have cold rolling products with high quality. Among the parameters knowing the coefficient of friction within the roll gap is known as the most significant one. That is because other rolling parameters such as rolling force, pressure in the roll gap, forward slip, surface quality of sheet, and the life of work rolls are directly influenced by friction. On the other hand, in rolling calculation due to lake of a true amount for coefficient of friction a supposed value is considered for it. In this study, a new software (Matroll), is introduced which can determine the coefficient of friction (COF) and plot the friction hills for an industrial mill. Besides, based on rolling equations, it offers about 30 rolling parameters as outputs. Having the rolling characteristics as inputs, the software is able to calculate the coefficient of friction. Many rolling passes were performed on real industrial aluminum mill. The coefficient of friction was obtained for all passes. The results are in good agreement with the findings of the other researchers

  12. Nondestructive characterization of recovery and recrystallization in cold rolled low carbon steel by magnetic hysteresis loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-de-Guerenu, A.; Gurruchaga, K.; Arizti, F.

    2007-01-01

    How structure sensitive parameters derived from hysteresis loops can provide nondestructive information about the evolution of the microstructure of cold rolled low carbon steel as a result of recovery and recrystallization processes during the annealing is shown. The coercive field, remanent induction and hysteresis losses can be used to monitor the decrease in the dislocation density during recovery. These parameters are also influenced by the average grain refinement that takes place during recrystallization, which compensates the variation produced by the annihilation of dislocations during recrystallization. The maximum of the induction and of the relative differential permeability are shown to be very sensitive to the onset and to the monitoring of the recrystallization, respectively. The correlations between coercive field and remanent induction and hysteresis losses can also be used to distinguish between recovery and recrystallization

  13. Analytical solution for shear bands in cold-rolled 1018 steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voyiadjis, George Z.; Almasri, Amin H.; Faghihi, Danial; Palazotto, Anthony N.

    2012-06-01

    Cold-rolled 1018 (CR-1018) carbon steel has been well known for its susceptibility to adiabatic shear banding under dynamic loadings. Analysis of these localizations highly depends on the selection of the constitutive model. To deal with this issue, a constitutive model that takes temperature and strain rate effect into account is proposed. The model is motivated by two physical-based models: the Zerilli and Armstrong and the Voyiadjis and Abed models. This material model, however, incorporates a simple softening term that is capable of simulating the softening behavior of CR-1018 steel. Instability, localization, and evolution of adiabatic shear bands are discussed and presented graphically. In addition, the effect of hydrostatic pressure is illustrated.

  14. Magnetostriction of heavily deformed Fe–Co binary alloys prepared by forging and cold rolling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaura, Shin-ichi, E-mail: yamaura@imr.tohoku.ac.jp [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Nakajima, Takashi [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Satoh, Takenobu; Ebata, Takashi [Tohoku Steel, Co., Ltd., 23 Nishigaoka, Murata, Murata-machi, Shibata 989-1393 (Japan); Furuya, Yasubumi [North Japan Research Institute for Sustainable Energy, Hirosaki University, 2-1-3 Matsubara, Aomori 030-0813 (Japan)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • The as-forged Fe{sub 25}Co{sub 75} alloy shows the magnetostriction of 108 ppm. • The as-cold rolled Fe{sub 25}Co{sub 75} alloy shows the magnetostriction of 140 ppm. • Magnetostriction of Fe–Co alloy reached the maximum in a single bcc state. • Fcc phase is harmful to the increase in magnetostriction of Fe–Co alloy. • Fcc phase precipitation in Fe–Co alloy can be suppressed by cold rolling. - Abstract: Magnetostriction of Fe{sub 1−x}Co{sub x} (x = 50–90 at%) alloys prepared by forging and subsequent cold-rolling was studied as functions of alloy compositions and thermomechanical treatments. Magnetostriction of the as-forged Fe{sub 25}Co{sub 75} alloy was 108 ppm and that of the as-cold rolled Fe{sub 25}Co{sub 75} alloy measured parallel to the rolling direction (RD) was 128 ppm. The cold-rolled Fe{sub 25}Co{sub 75} alloy possessed a nearly {1 0 0}<0 1 1> texture, leading to the maximum magnetostriction of 140 ppm when measured at an angle of 45° to RD. Moreover, the fully annealed Fe{sub 25}Co{sub 75} and Fe{sub 20}Co{sub 80} alloys were gradually cold rolled and magnetostriction were measured. Results showed that the magnetostriction of those cold-rolled alloys drastically increased with increasing reduction rate. According to the XRD and TEM observations, intensity of the fcc peak gradually decreased with increasing reduction rate and that the alloys became to be in a bcc single state at a reduction rate higher than 90%, leading to a drastic increase in magnetostriction.

  15. Magnetostriction of heavily deformed Fe–Co binary alloys prepared by forging and cold rolling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaura, Shin-ichi; Nakajima, Takashi; Satoh, Takenobu; Ebata, Takashi; Furuya, Yasubumi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The as-forged Fe 25 Co 75 alloy shows the magnetostriction of 108 ppm. • The as-cold rolled Fe 25 Co 75 alloy shows the magnetostriction of 140 ppm. • Magnetostriction of Fe–Co alloy reached the maximum in a single bcc state. • Fcc phase is harmful to the increase in magnetostriction of Fe–Co alloy. • Fcc phase precipitation in Fe–Co alloy can be suppressed by cold rolling. - Abstract: Magnetostriction of Fe 1−x Co x (x = 50–90 at%) alloys prepared by forging and subsequent cold-rolling was studied as functions of alloy compositions and thermomechanical treatments. Magnetostriction of the as-forged Fe 25 Co 75 alloy was 108 ppm and that of the as-cold rolled Fe 25 Co 75 alloy measured parallel to the rolling direction (RD) was 128 ppm. The cold-rolled Fe 25 Co 75 alloy possessed a nearly {1 0 0}<0 1 1> texture, leading to the maximum magnetostriction of 140 ppm when measured at an angle of 45° to RD. Moreover, the fully annealed Fe 25 Co 75 and Fe 20 Co 80 alloys were gradually cold rolled and magnetostriction were measured. Results showed that the magnetostriction of those cold-rolled alloys drastically increased with increasing reduction rate. According to the XRD and TEM observations, intensity of the fcc peak gradually decreased with increasing reduction rate and that the alloys became to be in a bcc single state at a reduction rate higher than 90%, leading to a drastic increase in magnetostriction

  16. Analysis of local dislocation densities in cold-rolled alloy 690 using transmission electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Tae-Young; Kim, Sung Woo; Hwang, Seong Sik

    2016-01-01

    Service failure of alloy 690 in NPP has not been reported. However, some research groups reported that primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) occurred in severely cold-rolled alloy 690. Transgranular craking was also reported in coll-rolled alloy 690 with a banded structure. In order to understand the effect of cold rolling on the cracking of alloy 690, many research groups have focused on the local strain and the cracked carbide induced by cold-rolling, by using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has been widely used to characterize structural materials because this technique has superior spatial resolution and allows for the analysis of crystallographic and chemical information. The aim of the present study is to understand the mechanism of the abnormally high crack growth rate (CGR) in cold-rolled alloy 690 with a banded structure. The local dislocation density was measured by TEM to confirm the effects of local strain on the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of alloy 690 with a banded structure. The effects of intragranular carbides on the SCC were also evaluated in this study. The local dislocation densities were directly measured using TEM to understand the effect of local strain on the SCC of Ni-based alloy 690 with a banded structure. The dislocation densities in the interior of the grains sharply increased in highly cold-rolled specimens due to intragranular carbide, which acted as a dislocation source

  17. Control of surface thermal scratch of strip in tandem cold rolling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinshan; Li, Changsheng

    2014-07-01

    The thermal scratch seriously affects the surface quality of the cold rolled stainless steel strip. Some researchers have carried out qualitative and theoretical studies in this field. However, there is currently a lack of research on effective forecast and control of thermal scratch defects in practical production, especially in tandem cold rolling. In order to establish precise mathematical model of oil film thickness in deformation zone, the lubrication in cold rolling process of SUS410L stainless steel strip is studied, and major factors affecting oil film thickness are also analyzed. According to the principle of statistics, mathematical model of critical oil film thickness in deformation zone for thermal scratch is built, with fitting and regression analytical method, and then based on temperature comparison method, the criterion for deciding thermal scratch defects is put forward. Storing and calling data through SQL Server 2010, a software on thermal scratch defects control is developed through Microsoft Visual Studio 2008 by MFC technique for stainless steel in tandem cold rolling, and then it is put into practical production. Statistics indicate that the hit rate of thermal scratch is as high as 92.38%, and the occurrence rate of thermal scratch is decreased by 89.13%. Owing to the application of the software, the rolling speed is increased by approximately 9.3%. The software developed provides an effective solution to the problem of thermal scratch defects in tandem cold rolling, and helps to promote products surface quality of stainless steel strips in practical production.

  18. Force prediction in cold rolling mills by polynomial methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicu ROMAN

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A method for steel and aluminium strip thickness control is provided including a new technique for predictive rolling force estimation method by statistic model based on polynomial techniques.

  19. A Coupled Model for Work Roll Thermal Contour with Subsectional Cooling in Aluminum Strip Cold Rolling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao Jian

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Little attention had been given to the evaluation of subsectional cooling control ability under complicated working conditions. In this paper, heat generation was calculated by using finite difference method. Strip hardening, work roll elastic deformation and elastic recovery of strip were taken into account. The mean coefficient of convective heat transfer on work roll surface was simulated by FLUENT. Calculation model had used the alternative finite difference scheme, which improved the model stability and computing speed. The simulation result shows that subsectional cooling control ability is different between different rolling passes. Positive and negative control abilities are roughly the same in the same pass. The increase of rolled length, working pressure of header and friction coefficient has positive effect on subsectional cooling control ability, and the rolling speed is on the contrary. On the beginning of the pass, when work roll surface has not reached the stable temperature, control ability of subsectional cooling is mainly affected by rolled length. The effect of mean coefficient of convective heat transfer and coefficient of friction is linear. When rolling speed is over 500 m/min, control ability of subsectional cooling becomes stable.

  20. Texture evolution of experimental silicon steel grades. Part I: Hot rolling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval Robles, J.A., E-mail: jsandoval.uanl@yahoo.com [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, Ave. Universidad S/N, Cd. Universitaria, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León C.P. 66450 (Mexico); Salas Zamarripa, A.; Guerrero Mata, M.P. [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, Ave. Universidad S/N, Cd. Universitaria, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León C.P. 66450 (Mexico); Cabrera, J. [Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Departament de Ciència dels Materials I Enginyeria Metal-lúrgica, Av. Diagonal 647, Barcelona 08028 (Spain)

    2017-05-01

    The metallurgical understanding of the deformation processes during the fabrication of non-oriented electrical steels plays a key role in improving their final properties. Texture control and optimization is critical in these steels for the enhancement of their magnetic properties. The aim of the present work is to study the texture evolution of six non-oriented experimental silicon steel grades during hot rolling. These steels were low carbon steel with a silicon content from 0.5 to 3.0 wt%. The first rolling schedule was performed in the austenitic (γ-Fe) region for the steel with a 0.5 wt% of silicon content, while the 1.0 wt% silicon steel was rolled in the two-phase (α+γ) region. Steels with higher silicon content were rolled in the ferritic (α-Fe) region. The second rolling schedule was performed in the α-Fe region. Samples of each stage were analyzed by means of Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD). Findings showed that the texture was random and heterogeneous in all samples after 60% of rolling reduction, which is due to the low deformation applied during rolling. After the second rolling program, localized deformation and substructured grains near to surface were observed in all samples. The Goss {110}<001>texture-component was found in the 0.5 and 1.0 wt.-%silicon steels. This is due to the thermomechanical conditions and the corresponding hot band microstructure obtained after the first program. Moreover, the α<110>//RD and the γ <111>//ND fiber components of the texture presented a considerable increment as the silicon content increases. Future research to be published soon will be related to the texture evolution during the cold-work rolling process. - Highlights: • We analyze six silicon steel experimental grades alloys trough the rolling process. • Material was subjected to a hot deformation process in the α-γ region. • No recrystalization was observed during-after the rolling schedules. • Rise of the magnetic texture components

  1. Effects of recrystallization annealing on mechanical properties of cold-rolled PdNi5 wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Ivanović

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was to determine the influence of the recrystallization temperature and recrystallization time on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the PdNi5 alloy subjected to cold deformation in the process of rolling at a constant deformation degree. The samples of PdNi5 alloy were recrystallization annealed within the temperature range of 200-1000ºC and annealing time range of 20-45 min after cold rolling with deformation degree of 97%. The tensile test was carried out using universal material testing machine. The hardness was also measured on the combined device for measuring Vickers and Brinell hardness. Metallographic observations were performed on an optical microscope. The analysis of the results of investigations regarding the microstructural changes and corresponding mechanical properties of cold-rolled PdNi5 strips shows that annealing temperature of 500ºC was sufficient to activate the energy for various recrystallization processes causing a change in the mechanical properties of cold-rolled PdNi5 strips. The annealing time, at constant annealing temperature, almost did not affect a recrystallization temperature and the mechanical properties of the cold-rolled PdNi5 strips.

  2. The Corrosion Behavior of Cold-Rolled 304 Stainless Steel In Salt Spray Environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, M.F.; Young, M.C.; Huang, J.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Saline corrosion is one of the major degradation mechanisms for stainless steel type 304 (SS304) dry storage cask during the spent fuel interim storage period. Slow strain rate test (SSRT) and neutral salt spray test (NSS) were performed at 85 degrees Celsius and 200 degrees Celsius with 0.5 wt% sodium chloride mist sprayed on the cold-rolled SS304 specimens of different degrees of reduction in this study. The weight changes of the NSS specimens tested at 85 degrees Celsius for 2000 hours differed greatly from those at 200 degrees Celsius. The weight loss of NSS specimens was not significant at 85 degrees Celsius but the weight gain decreased gradually with increasing the cold-rolled reduction. The yield strength (YS) and ultimate tensile stress (UTS) values obtained from the SSRT tests for lightly cold-rolled specimens in the salt spray environment at 85 degrees Celsius and 200 degrees Celsius are slightly lower than in air. But for those with 20% reductions, the specimen strengths were no longer changed by the saline corrosion. The preliminary results demonstrated that the quality and performance of cold-rolled SS304 is acceptable for fabrication of dry storage casks. However, more work on the corrosion behavior of cold-rolled stainless steel in the saline atmosphere is needed to better understand its long-term performance.

  3. Static Recovery Modeling of Dislocation Density in a Cold Rolled Clad Aluminum Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penlington, Alex

    Clad alloys feature one or more different alloys bonded to the outside of a core alloy, with non-equilibrium, interalloy interfaces. There is limited understanding of the recovery and recrystallization behaviour of cold rolled clad aluminum alloys. In order to optimize the properties of such alloys, new heat treatment processes may be required that differ from what is used for the monolithic alloys. This study examines the recovery behaviour of a cold rolled Novelis Fusion(TM) alloy containing an AA6XXX core with an AA3003 cladding on one side. The bond between alloys appears microscopically discrete and continuous, but has a 30 microm wide chemical gradient. The as-deformed structure at the interalloy region consists of pancaked sub-grains with dislocations at the misorientation boundaries and a lower density organized within the more open interiors. X-ray line broadening was used to extract the dislocation density from the interalloy region and an equivalently deformed AA6XXX following static annealing using a modified Williamson-Hall analysis. This analysis assumed that Gaussian broadening contributions in a pseudo-Voigt function corresponded only to strain from dislocations. The kinetics of the dislocation density evolution to recrystallization were studied isothermally at 2 minute intervals, and isochronally at 175 and 205°C. The data fit the Nes model, in which the interalloy region recovered faster than AA6XXX at 175°C, but was slower at 205°C. This was most likely caused by change in texture and chemistry within this region such as over-aging of AA6XXX . Simulation of a continuous annealing and self homogenization process both with and without pre-recovery indicates a detectable, though small change in the texture and grain size in the interalloy region.

  4. Surface Improvement of Shafts by Turn-Assisted Deep Cold Rolling Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhu Raghavendra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well recognized that mechanical surface enhancement methods can significantly improve the characteristics of highly-stressed metallic components. Deep cold rolling is one of such technique which is particularly attractive since it is possible to generate, near the surface, deep compressive residual stresses and work hardened layers while retaining a relatively smooth surface finish. In this paper, the effect of turn-assisted deep cold rolling on AISI 4140 steel is examined, with emphasis on the residual stress state. Based on the X-ray diffraction measurements, it is found that turn-assisted deep cold rolling can be quite effective in retarding the initiation and initial propagation of fatigue cracks in AISI 4140 steel.

  5. X-ray diffraction analysis of cold rolled strip from jewelry 585 gold alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karastojković Zoran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Here is investigated an golden alloy 585 as one of widely used gold alloy in jewelry production. Insufficient data, even in nowadays, exist about the production schedule of gold alloys, including melting, rolling and heat treatment regimes. The structures of complex alloys, such as used golden alloy, are less known and/or investigated. Principally, the constitutional diagram of Au-Ag-Cu system is known, as a (metastable equilibrium diagram. But, after relatively fast cooling from liquid state during casting will be obtained polycrystalline grains, different from equilibrium conditions. Such polycrystalline material frequently undergoes to rolling for obtaining a desired shape of (semiproduct. Those processes, casting and rolling, will show the influence on the final structure to be obtained, also on properties of such treated alloy. The structural changes and obtained phases in metal working processes of 585 gold alloy still are not well examined, so here is provided an XRD examination after heavy reduction at cold rolling of a strip. The castings were in the flat form in dimension of 4,5x50x50mm, than cold rolled to 1,5mm, intermediate annealed and finally cold rolled to thickness of 0,5mm with height reduction of 66,7%.

  6. Hydrogen Permeation in Cold-Rolled High-Mn Twinning-Induced Plasticity Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Do Kyeong; Hwang, A. In; Byeon, Woo Jun; Noh, Seung Jeong; Suh, Dong-Woo

    2017-11-01

    Hydrogen permeation is investigated in cold-rolled Fe-0.6C-18Mn-(1.5Al) alloys. The hydrogen mobility is lower in cold-rolled alloys compared with annealed alloys. Al-containing alloy shows less deceleration of hydrogen mobility compared with the Al-free alloy. This is attributed to the reduced formation of mechanical twins and dislocations. Mechanical twins trap hydrogen strongly but are vulnerable to crack initiation; suppression of these is thought to be a major favorable influence of Al on hydrogen-induced mechanical degradation.

  7. Microstructure and Property Modifications of Cold Rolled IF Steel by Local Laser Annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallberg, Håkan; Adamski, Frédéric; Baïz, Sarah; Castelnau, Olivier

    2017-10-01

    Laser annealing experiments are performed on cold rolled IF steel whereby highly localized microstructure and property modification are achieved. The microstructure is seen to develop by strongly heterogeneous recrystallization to provide steep gradients, across the submillimeter scale, of grain size and crystallographic texture. Hardness mapping by microindentation is used to reveal the corresponding gradients in macroscopic properties. A 2D level set model of the microstructure development is established as a tool to further optimize the method and to investigate, for example, the development of grain size variations due to the strong and transient thermal gradient. Particular focus is given to the evolution of the beneficial γ-fiber texture during laser annealing. The simulations indicate that the influence of selective growth based on anisotropic grain boundary properties only has a minor effect on texture evolution compared to heterogeneous stored energy, temperature variations, and nucleation conditions. It is also shown that although the α-fiber has an initial frequency advantage, the higher probability of γ-nucleation, in combination with a higher stored energy driving force in this fiber, promotes a stronger presence of the γ-fiber as also observed in experiments.

  8. Premature failure analysis of forged cold back-up roll in a continuous tandem mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rad, Hamid Reza Bakhsheshi; Monshi, Ahmad; Idris, Mohd Hasbullah; Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq Abdul; Jafari, Hassan

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Metal wrapping and strip welding in work/back-up rolls contact zone caused spalling. → MnS inclusion and pore initiated crack which propagated in milling led to spalling. → Retained austenite conversion to α'-martensite accelerated spalling failure. → Needle shaped carbide (Fe,Mo,Cr) 7 C 3 , may cause poor service life of back-up roll. -- Abstract: In this paper, premature failure of a forged back-up roll from a continuous tandem mill was investigated. Microstructural evolutions of the spalled specimen and surface of the roll were characterized by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and ferritscopy, while hardness value of the specimen was measured by Vickers hardness testing. The results revealed that the presence of pore and MnS inclusion with spherical and oval morphologies were the main contributing factors responsible for the poor life of the back-up roll. In addition, metal pick up and subsequently strip welding on the surface of the work roll were found as the major causes of failure in work roll which led to spalling occurrence in the back-up roll. Furthermore, relatively high percentage of retained austenite, say 9%, in outer surface of the back-up roll contributed spalling due to conversion of this meta-stable phase to martensite and creation of volume expansion on the outer surface through work hardening during mill campaign.

  9. Micro-Plasto-Hydrodynamic Lubrication a Fundamental Mechanism in Cold Rolling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugier, Maxime; Boman, Romain; Legrand, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents recent investigations in Micro-Plasto-Hydrodynamic (MPH) lubrication. Industrial evidences of the existence of MPH lubrication mechanism for cold rolling processes are presented. A new lubrication model developed for strip drawing processes is then applied to predict the MPH...

  10. Contribution to study on recovery and recrystallization of cold rolling zircaloy-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persiano, A.I.C.

    1977-01-01

    Recovery and recrystallization of work-hardened (40-60% - Cold rolling) Zircaloy-4 were studied between 200 and 600 0 C with times varying from 15 to 240 minutes, from electrical resistance and hardness measurements. Activation energy calculation for the recovery and recrystallization processes using the samples work-hardened 60% gave 0,7 and 2,1 eV. (author)

  11. Influence of cold rolling and fatigue on the residual stress state of a metal matrix composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanus, E.; Ericsson, T.; Lu, J.; Decomps, F.

    1993-01-01

    The large difference in the coefficient of thermal expansion between the matrix alloy and the particle in a metal matrix composite gives rise to residual stresses in the material. In the present work the effect of cold rolling and four-point bending fatigue on the residual stress state of a silicon carbide particle reinforced aluminium alloy (AA 2014) has been investigated. The three dimensional stress state measured in both phases: matrix and reinforcement, has been determined by using an X-ray diffraction technique. It was found that cold rolling induces surface compressive macrostresses of about -250 MPa, with a penetration depth around 2 mm. The absolute values of the pseudomacrostresses in both phases are significantly reduced due to the single track rolling. Stress relaxation occurs during four-point bending fatigue. (orig.)

  12. Effect of reduction ratio on annealing texture and r-value directionality for a cold-rolled Al-5% Mg alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Shi-Hoon; Choi, Jae-Kwon; Kim, Hyoung-Wook; Kang, Seok-Bong

    2009-01-01

    The evolution of the macrotexture and r-value directionality of cold-rolled Al-5% Mg alloys during annealing at various temperatures was investigated to seek an optimum annealing condition to improve the formability of TRBs. The change of volume fractions for the typical texture components of Al-5% Mg alloys was calculated using a misorientation approach in 3-D Euler space. A visco-plastic self-consistent (VPSC) polycrystal model was used to predict r-value directionality of the cold-rolled and annealed Al-5% Mg alloys. The electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique was used to investigate a rapid change of the initial deformation texture in the specimen deformed by a reduction of 9% during annealing. The results showed that an optimum annealing temperature for achieving the low planar anisotropy was strongly dependent on the rolling reduction ratio.

  13. A Study of the Batch Annealing of Cold-Rolled HSLA Steels Containing Niobium or Titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Chao; Garcia, C. Isaac; Choi, Shi-Hoon; DeArdo, Anthony J.

    2015-08-01

    The batch annealing behavior of two cold-rolled, microalloyed HSLA steels has been studied in this program. One steel was microalloyed with niobium while the other with titanium. A successfully batch annealed steel will exhibit minimum variation in properties along the length of the coil, even though the inner and outer wraps experience faster heating and cooling rates and lower soaking temperatures, i.e., the so-called "cold spot" areas, than the mid-length portion of the coil, i.e., the so-called "hot spot" areas. The variation in strength and ductility is caused by differences in the extent of annealing in the different areas. It has been known for 30 years that titanium-bearing HSLA steels show more variability after batch annealing than do the niobium-bearing steels. One of the goals of this study was to try to explain this observation. In this study, the annealing kinetics of the surface and center layers of the cold-rolled sheet were compared. The surface and center layers of the niobium steel and the surface layer of the titanium steel all showed similar annealing kinetics, while the center layer of the titanium steel exhibited much slower kinetics. Metallographic results indicate that the stored energy of the cold-rolled condition, as revealed by grain center sub-grain boundary density, appeared to strongly influence the annealing kinetics. The kinetics were followed by the Kernel Average Misorientation reconstruction of the microstructure at different stages on annealing. Possible pinning effects caused by microalloy precipitates were also considered. Methods of improving uniformity and increasing kinetics, involving optimizing both hot-rolled and cold-rolled microstructure, are suggested.

  14. Cold rolled texture and microstructure in types 304 and 316L austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasnik, D.N.; Samajdar, I.; Gopalakrishnan, I.K.; Yakhmi, J.V.; Kain, V.

    2003-01-01

    Two grades of austenitic stainless steel (ASS), types 304 (UNS S 30400) and 316L (UNS S 31603), were cold rolled to different reductions by unidirectional and by cross-rolling. The steels had reasonable difference in stacking fault energy (estimated respectively as 15 and 61 mJ/m 2 in types 304 and 316L) and also in starting (or pre-deformation) crystallographic texture-being relatively weak and reasonably strong in types 304 and 316L respectively. The cold rolling increased texturing in type 304, but not in type 316L ASS. The more significant effect of cold rolled texture development was in the relative increase of Brass ({011} ) against Copper ({112} ) and S ({231} ) orientations. In type 304 the increase in Brass was significant, while in type 316L the increase in Copper and S was stronger. This effect could be captured by Taylor type deformation texture simulations considering stronger twinning contributions in type 304 - for example the respective 'best-fits' (in terms of matching the changes in the volume fractions of Brass against Copper and S) were obtained by full constraint Taylor model with 1:100 and 1:10 slip:twin activities in types 304 and 316L ASS respectively. Microstructural developments during cold rolling were generalized as strain induced martensite formation and developments of dislocation substructure. The former, as estimated by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), increased with cold reduction, being significantly more in type 304 and was also noticeably stronger in both grades under cross-rolling. The most significant aspect of substructural developments was the formation of strain localizations. These were observed as dense dislocation walls (DDWs), micro-bands (MBs) and twin lamellar structures (TLS). The TLS contribution gained significance at higher reductions and during cross-rolling, especially in type 304. Large misorientation development and the accompanying grain splittings were always associated with such strain localizations

  15. Effect of cold rolling on microstructure and mechanical property of extruded Mg–4Sm alloy during aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Rongguang, E-mail: lirongguang1980@126.com [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shenyang University of Chemical Technology, Shenyang 110142 (China); Xin, Renlong; Chapuis, Adrien; Liu, Qing [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400045 (China); Fu, Guangyan; Zong, Lin; Yu, Yongmei; Guo, Beitao; Guo, Shuguo [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shenyang University of Chemical Technology, Shenyang 110142 (China)

    2016-02-15

    Microstructure and mechanical properties of the Mg–4Sm (wt.%) alloy, prepared via combined processes of extrusion, cold rolling and aging, have been investigated. The hot extruded alloy exhibits a weak rare earth magnesium alloy texture with < 11 − 21 >//ED, while the cold-rolled alloy shows a stronger basal texture with < 0001 >//ND. Many tensile twins and double twins are observed in grains after rolling. The cold-rolled alloy shows a weak age-hardening response compared with the extruded alloy, which is the result of more precipitation in the twin boundary during aging. The rolled alloy exhibits almost no precipitate free zone during aging compared with the extruded alloy. The higher proof stress of the rolled alloy in peak-aged condition is attributed to the presence of twin boundaries, stronger basal texture, higher dislocation density, and the suppression of precipitate free zone compared with the extruded alloy. - Highlights: • No precipitate free zone appears in cold-rolled alloy after aging. • Segregation and precipitates are observed in twin boundaries and grain boundaries. • Cold-rolled alloy shows a weak age-hardening response.

  16. Texture and magnetic properties of non-oriented electrical steels processed by an unconventional cold rolling scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Youliang, E-mail: youliang.he@canada.ca [CanmetMATERIALS, Natural Resources Canada, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Hilinski, Erik J. [Formerly Research and Technology Centre, United States Steel Corporation, Munhall, PA (United States); Now Tempel Steel Co., Chicago, IL (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Two non-oriented electrical steels containing 0.9 wt% and 2.8 wt% of silicon were processed using an unconventional cold rolling scheme, i.e. the cold rolling direction (CRD) was intentionally inclined at an angle to the hot rolling direction (HRD) so that the initial texture before cold rolling and the rotation paths of crystals during cold deformation were both altered as compared to conventional cold rolling along the original HRD. The cold-rolled steel strips were then annealed, skin-pass rolled and final annealed. The texture and microstructure of the materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and optical microscopy, and considerable differences in average grain size and texture were observed at different inclination angles. The magnetic properties of the steel strips were measured at 400 Hz and 1.0 T/1.5 T using a specially designed Epstein frame, and apparent differences were also noticed at various angles. The magnetic quality of texture was evaluated using different texture factors/parameters and compared to the measured magnetic properties. Although apparent improvement on the magnetic quality of texture can be noted by inclining the CRD to HRD, the trend does not match the measured magnetic properties at 400 Hz, which may have been affected by other parameters in addition to crystallographic texture. - Highlights: • The cold rolling direction is inclined an angle to the hot rolling direction. • The deformation and annealing textures are both changed by the inclined rolling. • Magnetic quality of texture is improved at specific inclination angles. • Low silicon steel is more sensitive in texture change than high silicon steel. • High frequency core loss does not follow the computed magnetic quality of texture.

  17. Annealing Behavior of Nanostructured Aluminum Produced by Cold Rolling to Ultrahigh Strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, W.Q.; Godfrey, A.; Hansen, Niels

    2009-01-01

    The isochronal annealing behavior of nanostructured commercial purity aluminum (AA1100 and AA1200) produced by either cold rolling (CR) or accumulative roll bonding (ARB) up to ultrahigh strains of about 99.5 pct reduction in thickness has been studied in the temperature range from 200 degrees C...... to 420 degrees C. Microstructural and texture measurements were made using data from electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) investigations, and the change in mechanical strength was followed using hardness measurements. A large effect of the rolling strain is observed on recovery at temperatures below...... for analyzing the uniformity of the structural coarsening, based on analysis of the crystallite size distribution with respect to the mode, is described. The analysis demonstrates that annealing leads to locally nonuniform changes in the microstructure, and to a description of the annealing process...

  18. Robust Backstepping Control for Cold Rolling Main Drive System with Nonlinear Uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The nonlinear model of main drive system in cold rolling process, which considers the influence with parameter uncertainties such as clearance and variable friction coefficient, as well as external disturbance by roll eccentricity and variation of strip material quality, is built. By transformation, the lower triangular structure form of main drive system is obtained. The backstepping algorithm based on signal compensation is proposed to design a linear time-invariant (LTI robust controller, including a nominal controller and a robust compensator. A comparison with PI controller shows that the controller has better disturbance attenuation performance and tracking behaviors. Meanwhile, according to its LTI characteristic, the robust controller can be realized easily; therefore it is also appropriated to high speed dynamic rolling process.

  19. Synthesis, Characterization and Tribological Evaluation of New Generation Materials for Aluminum Cold Rolling Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponnekanti Nagendramma

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present concept of being globally “green” puts additional demands on lubricants. They are to be biodegradable and ecofriendly. Therefore, in a search for alternate lubricants meeting the above demands, we have synthesized biodegradable new generation esters using alcohols such as 2,2-dimethyl-1,3-propane diol and 2,2-diethyl-1,3-propane diol and fatty acids like caproic and 2-ethyl caproic in presence of indigenous ion exchange resin catalyst. The synthesized esters were analyzed and characterized for their physico chemical properties. In addition, with a view to finding out the possibility of using these esters as aluminum cold rolling oils, their lubricity characteristics, biodegradability and toxicity were also investigated. The products were found to have good potential for use in biodegradable aluminum cold rolling oils meeting IS: 14385-2002 specification.

  20. Effect of Ti solute on the recovery of cold-rolled V-Ti alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leguey, T.; Munoz, A.; Pareja, R.

    1999-01-01

    The recovery characteristics of cold-rolled pure V and V-Ti alloys with compositions of 0.3, 1 and 4.5 at.% Ti have been investigated by positron annihilation spectroscopy. The recovery is accomplished in two stages. Fifty percent cold rolling induces the formation of microvoids in V-0.3Ti and V-1Ti but not in V-4.5Ti. The first recovery stage in pure V, V-0.3Ti and V-1Ti starts with the dissolution of microvoids. The recovery curves of the annihilation parameters for the alloys indicate the formation of Ti-rich precipitates during the first recovery stage. These precipitates act as very efficient vacancy sinks. The second recovery stage starting for annealing temperatures above ≅1150 K is attributed to annealing of vacancies associated to the precipitates. (orig.)

  1. Analysis of Startup Process and Its Optimization for a Two-Stand Reversible Cold Rolling Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangming Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic characteristic analysis of a two-stand reversible cold rolling mill in the startup process was carried out. The delay algorithm of the interstand thickness was proposed. A new method combined with the accelerated secant and the tangent methods was established to solve the simultaneous equations. The thickness and interstand tension transition processes with different static tension establishing processes were analyzed. Both mills were operated under constant rolling force control mode in the above process. The results show that the strip thickness in the rolling gap reduces in the static mill screwdown process. The entry stand runs inversely to establish the static interstand tension. This area becomes an abnormal thickness reduction area of the incoming strip. It results in several abnormal interstand tension increases in the subsequent startup process. The tension increase leads to an impact force on the strip that is the main reason of the strip breakage in the startup process. So the static tension establishing process was optimized, and the interstand tension fluctuation and the strip breakage accidents both reduced significantly. The results are beneficial to the startup process of the two-stand reversible cold rolling mill.

  2. Fiber vs Rolling Texture: Stress State Dependence for Cold-Drawn Wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorina, M. A.; Karabanalov, M. S.; Stepanov, S. I.; Demakov, S. L.; Loginov, Yu. N.; Lobanov, M. L.

    2018-02-01

    The texture of the cold-drawn copper wire was investigated along the radius using electron backscatter diffraction. The complex fiber texture of the central region of the wire was considered as the rolling texture consisting of a set of preferred orientations. The texture of the periphery region was revealed to be similar to the shear texture. The orientation-dependent properties of the wire were proven to be determined by the texture of the near-surface layers.

  3. Quality Parameters Defined by Chebyshev Polynomials in Cold Rolling Process Chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judin, Mika; Nylander, Jari; Larkiola, Jari; Verho, Martti

    2011-01-01

    The thickness profile of hot strip is of importance to profile, flatness and shape of the final cold rolled product. In this work, strip thickness and flatness profiles are decomposed into independent components by solving Chebyshev polynomials coefficients using matrix calculation. Four terms are used to characterize most common shapes of thickness and flatness profile. The calculated Chebyshev coefficients from different line measurements are combined together and analysed using neural network tools. The most common types of shapes are classified.

  4. Positron annihilation in gaseous nitrided cold-rolled FeNiTi films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chechenin, NG; van Veen, A; Galindo, RE; Schut, H; Chezan, A; Boerma, DO; Triftshauser, W; Kogel, G; Sperr, P

    2001-01-01

    Positron beam analysis (PBA) was performed on cold-rolled Fe0.94Ni0.04Ti0.02 foils, which were subjected to different thermal treatments in an atmosphere of a gas mixture of NH3+H-2 (nitriding). The nitriding of the samples in the alpha -region (alphaN) of Lehrer diagram for the Fe-N system produced

  5. Penelitian Menggunakan Cold Roll Box (CRB) Dengan Phase Change Materials (PCMs) Untuk Mempertahankan Kesegaran Produk Pertanian

    OpenAIRE

    Pudjiastuti, Wiwik; Hendartini, Hendartini; Supeni, Guntarti; Listyarini, Arie

    2011-01-01

    Penelitian tentang sistem distribusi menggunakan Cold Roll Box (CRB) dengan Phase Change Materials (PCMs) untuk mempertahankan kesegaran produk pertanian telah dilakukan dengan kerjasama antara Balai Besar Kimia dan Kemasan (BBKK) dengan KITECH, Korea. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mendapatkan satu sistem yang paling efektif untuk distribusi produk-produk pertanian yang memerlukan pendingin dalam rangka mempertahankan kualitas dan kesegarannya. Sebagai media pendingin pada sistem in...

  6. Effect of Local Strain Distribution of Cold-Rolled Alloy 690 on Primary Water Stress Corrosion Crack Growth Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim S.-W.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to study the stress corrosion crack growth behavior of cold-rolled Alloy 690 in the primary water of a pressurized water reactor. Compared with Alloy 600, which shows typical intergranular cracking along high angle grain boundaries, the cold-rolled Alloy 690, with its heterogeneous microstructure, revealed an abnormal crack growth behavior in mixed mode, that is, in transgranular cracking near a banded region, and in intergranular cracking in a matrix region. From local strain distribution analysis based on local mis-orientation, measured along the crack path using the electron back scattered diffraction method, it was suggested that the abnormal behavior was attributable to a heterogeneity of local strain distribution. In the cold-rolled Alloy 690, the stress corrosion crack grew through a highly strained area formed by a prior cold-rolling process in a direction perpendicular to the maximum principal stress applied during a subsequent stress corrosion cracking test.

  7. Magnesium-Nickel alloy for hydrogen storage produced by melt spinning followed by cold rolling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Rodrigo Leiva

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Severe plastic deformation routes (SPD have been shown to be attractive for short time preparation of magnesium alloys for hydrogen storage, generating refined microstructures and interesting hydrogen storage properties when compared to the same materials processed by high-energy ball milling (HEBM, but with the benefit of higher air resistance. In this study, we present results of a new processing route for Mg alloys for hydrogen storage: rapid solidification followed by cold work. A Mg97Ni3 alloy was processed by melt spinning (MS and by extensive cold rolling (CR. Submitting Mg97Ni3 ribbons between steel plates to cold rolling has shown to be a viable procedure, producing a thin cold welded foil, with little material waste. The as-processed material presents a high level of [002] fiber texture, a sub microcrystalline grain structure with a high density of defects, and also a fine dispersion of Mg2Ni nanoparticles. This refined microstructure allied to the developed texture resulted in enhanced activation and H-sorption kinetics properties.

  8. Evolution of Oxide Inclusions in Si-Mn Killed Steels During Hot-Rolling Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen; Guo, Changbo; Zhang, Lifeng; Ling, Haitao; Li, Chao

    2017-10-01

    The evolution of oxide inclusions in Si-Mn killed steels refined by slags of different basicity during a four-pass industrial hot-rolling process was investigated using an automated microscopy system. High-basicity refining slag induced the formation of CaO- and Al2O3-containing inclusions, while refining slag with 0.8 basicity induced dominant inclusions of SiO2 and MnO-SiO2. CaO-SiO2-Al2O3 inclusions mainly formed endogenously during solidification and cooling of Ca-containing steels, where Ca originated from slag-steel reactions. However, the larger-sized higher-CaO inclusions originated from slag entrainment. Different inclusions presented different hot-rolling behaviors. The inclusion composition changed by deformation and new phase formation. The dominant oxide types were unchanged under refinement by low-basicity slag; however, they changed under refinement with high-basicity slag. The deformation index of inclusions decreased with increasing accumulated reduction (AR) of the steel. The difference in deformation index between different inclusion types was the largest in the first rolling stage and decreased in subsequent stages. SiO2-CaO and SiO2-MnO-CaO inclusions had larger deformation indices during hot rolling but smaller indices in the last two stages. High-basicity slag increased inclusion complexity; from the perspective of cold-drawing performance, low-basicity refining slag is better for the industrial production of tire-cord steels.

  9. Characterization of the deformation texture after tensile test and cold rolling of a Ti-6Al-4V sheet alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehdi, B; Badji, R; Azzeddine, H; Alili, B; Bradai, D; Ji, V

    2015-01-01

    The deformation texture after cold rolling and tensile test of an industrial Ti-6Al-4V sheet alloy was studied using X-ray diffraction. The alloy was subjected to a cold rolling to different thickness reductions (from 20% to 60%) and then tensile tests have been carried out along three directions relatively to the rolling direction (0°, 45° and 90°). The experimental results were compared to the existing literature and discussed in terms of active plastic deformation mechanisms. (paper)

  10. Magnet properties of Mn70Ga30 prepared by cold rolling and magnetic field annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ener, Semih; Skokov, Konstantin P.; Karpenkov, Dmitriy Yu.; Kuz'min, Michael D.; Gutfleisch, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The remanence and coercivity of arc melted Mn 70 Ga 30 can be substantially improved by cold rolling. For best performance the rolled material should be annealed at T=730 K in the presence of a magnetic field of 1 T. The so-obtained magnet has a remanence of 0.239 T and a coercivity of 1.24 T at room temperature. The underlying reason for the high coercivity and remanence is the increase of the content of a metastable ferrimagnetic D0 22 phase at the expense of the normally stable anti-ferromagnetic D0 19 . Magnetic field significantly increases the nucleation rate of the ferromagnetic D0 22 phase that leads to grain size refinement and as a consequence of improving remanence and coercive field. - Highlights: • Alternative synthesis method for D0 22 phase formation in Mn–Ga is developed. • Effect of cold rolling and annealing on magnetic properties of Mn 70 Ga 30 is examined. • Small magnetic fields are sufficient to accelerate nucleation of the D0 22 phase

  11. Research and Development Trend of Shape Control for Cold Rolling Strip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong-Cheng; Liu, Hong-Min; Liu, Jun

    2017-09-01

    Shape is an important quality index of cold rolling strip. Up to now, many problems in the shape control domain have not been solved satisfactorily, and a review on the research progress in the shape control domain can help to seek new breakthrough directions. In the past 10 years, researches and applications of shape control models, shape control means, shape detection technology, and shape control system have achieved significant progress. In the aspect of shape control models, the researches in the past improve the accuracy, speed and robustness of the models. The intelligentization of shape control models should be strengthened in the future. In the aspect of the shape control means, the researches in the past focus on the roll optimization, mill type selection, process optimization, local strip shape control, edge drop control, and so on. In the future, more attention should be paid to the coordination control of both strip shape and other quality indexes, and the refinement of control objective should be strengthened. In the aspects of shape detection technology and shape control system, some new types of shape detection meters and shape control systems are developed and have successfully industrial applications. In the future, the standardization of shape detection technology and shape control system should be promoted to solve the problem of compatibility. In general, the four expected development trends of shape control for cold rolling strip in the future are intelligentization, coordination, refinement, and standardization. The proposed research provides new breakthrough directions for improving shape quality.

  12. Effect of surface shear on cube texture formation in heavy cold-rolled Cu-45 at%Ni alloy substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Hui; Suo, Hongli; Liang, Yaru

    2015-01-01

    Two types of Cu-45 at%Ni alloy thin tapes with and without surface shear were obtained by different heavy cold rolling processes. The deformation and recrystallization textures of the two tapes were thoroughly investigated by electron back scattering diffraction technique. The results showed...... that a shear texture mainly covered the surface of the heavy deformed tapes because of the fraction between the surface of rolling mills and the thin tapes when the rolling force strongly reduced at high strain, which significantly reduced the fraction of rolling texture on the surface of the Cu-45at %Ni alloy...

  13. EBSD characterization of twinning in cold-rolled CP-Ti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X.; Duan, Y.L.; Xu, G.F.; Peng, X.Y.; Dai, C.; Zhang, L.G.; Li, Z.

    2013-01-01

    This work presents the use of a mechanical testing system and the electron backscatter diffraction technique to study the mechanical properties and twinning systems of cold-rolled commercial purity titanium, respectively. The dependence of twinning on the matrix orientation is analyzed by the distribution map of Schmid factor. The results showed that the commercial purity titanium experienced strong strain hardening and had excellent formability during rolling. Both the (112 ¯ 2) ¯ 3 ¯ > compressive twins and (101 ¯ 2) ¯ 1 ¯ > tensile twins were dependent on the matrix orientation. The Schmid factor of a grain influenced the activation of a particular twinning system. The specific rolling deformation of commercial purity titanium controlled the number and species of twinning systems and further changed the mechanical properties. - Highlights: • CP-Ti experienced strain hardening and had excellent formability. • Twins were dependent on the matrix orientation. • Schmid factor of a grain influenced the activation of a twinning system. • Rolling deformation controlled twinning systems and mechanical properties

  14. Cold rolling texture development of α/γ duplex stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akdut, N.; Foct, J.; Gottstein, G.

    1996-01-01

    The cold rolling texture development of two α/γ duplex stainless steels (DSS) with similar volume fractions of both phases but with totally different microstructures were investigated. Due to the limited number of available pole figures using X-rays, for the calculation of the ODFs both a direct method and a recent iterative series expansion method were used. The results were checked by neutron diffraction measurements. The austenitic phases of both DSS behave similarly to single phase materials with a low stacking fault energy which develop a brass-type rolling texture. In contrast, the texture development of the ferritic phases strongly differs from those of single phase ferrites. Instead of a fibre type texture the α-phase in both DSS exhibits a peak dominated texture regardless of whether it is the matrix phase or not. These differences, as well as the sharpness of both phases, are explained by the presence of the second phase. (orig.)

  15. Texture Of Zircaloy-4 Result Of Beta-Quenching, Cold Rolling And Recrystallization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futichah; Sulistioso

    1998-01-01

    Differences of crystallographic texture of zircaloy-4 plate depends on cold working and heat treatment.To determine the change of zircaloy-4 textures, the solid solution treatment process at beta phase which was followed by quenching on water was employed for this sample. The next step was cold rolling until deformation epsilon = 1.62. The specimens were recrystallized at 750 o C, for 2 hours. The result of beta-quench gave a spread and different orientations and the main orientation occurred at (0001)[1010] and (0001)[1120]. Result of cold rolling with epsilon = 1.39 and epsilon 1.62 is the deformation texture at the main orientation of (0001)[1010] with the angle of inclination was around 38 o. However, the result of Recrystallization process on 750 o C for 2 hours gave annealing textures with orientations of (0001)[1120]. It means that the recrystallization process of zircaloy-4 plate can not remove the deformation textures, but can change the crystallographic orientation

  16. Blue tetrazolium as a novel corrosion inhibitor for cold rolled steel in hydrochloric acid solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xianghong; Deng Shuduan; Fu Hui

    2010-01-01

    The inhibition effect of blue tetrazolium (BT) on the corrosion of cold rolled steel (CRS) in 1.0 M HCl solution at 20 o C was investigated by weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) methods. The results show that BT is a very good inhibitor, and the adsorption of BT on CRS surface obeys Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Polarization curves reveal that BT acts as a mixed-type inhibitor. EIS spectra exhibit one capacitive loop and confirm the inhibitive ability. The inhibition action of BT is also evidenced by SEM images.

  17. A model for prediction of profile and flatness of hot and cold rolled flat products in four-high mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overhagen, Christian; Mauk, Paul Josef

    2018-05-01

    For flat rolled products, the thickness profile in the transversal direction is one of the most important product properties. For further processing, a defined crown of the product is necessary. In the rolling process, several mechanical and thermal influences interact with each other to form the strip shape at the roll gap exit. In the present analysis, a process model for rolling of strip and sheet is presented. The core feature of the process model is a two-dimensional stress distribution model based on von Karman's differential equation. Sub models for the mechanical influences of work roll flattening as well as work and backup roll deflection and the thermal influence of work roll expansion have been developed or extended. The two-dimensional stress distribution serves as an input parameter for the roll deformation models. For work roll flattening, a three-dimensional model based on the Boussinesq problem is adopted, while the work and backup roll deflection, including contact flattening is calculated by means of finite beam elements. The thermal work roll crown is calculated with help of an axisymmetric numerical solution of the heat equation for the work roll, considering azimuthal averaging for the boundary conditions at the work roll surface. Results are presented for hot rolling of a strip in a seven-stand finishing train of a hot strip mill, showing the calculated evolution of the strip profile. A variation of the strip profile from the first to the 20th rolled strip is shown. This variation is addressed to the progressive increase of work roll temperature during the first 20 strips. It is shown that a CVC® system can lead to improvements in strip profile and therefore flatness.

  18. Effects by the microstructure after hot and cold rolling on the texture and grain size after final annealing of ferritic non-oriented FeSi electrical steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, J.; Stöcker, A.; Franke, A.; Kawalla, R.

    2018-04-01

    The magnetic properties of fully processed non-oriented FeSi electrical steel are characterized by their magnetization behavior and specific magnetic losses. The magnetic properties are determined by the texture and microstructure. Less gamma fiber intensity and a high intensity of preferable texture components, especially cube fiber texture, are desirable to obtain an excellent magnetizing behavior. Furthermore, large grain sizes are necessary to reach low values of the specific magnetic losses. The fabrication route of the fully processed non-oriented electrical steels comprises a heavy cold rolling of the hot rolled material before final annealing. To fulfill the requirements on large grain size for low loss materials, grain growth, which appears after complete recrystallization, plays an important role. In this paper we will analyze the influence of different microstructures of the hot strip and the resulting microstructure after cold rolling on the appearance of recrystallization and grain growth after final annealing. The evolution of texture reflects the present ongoing softening processes: recovery, recrystallization and finally grain growth at the given annealing conditions. It will be shown that the image of texture at recrystallization is remarkable different from the texture at grain growth. Substantially grain growth is obtained at lower annealing temperatures for an optimum microstructure of the hot rolled material.

  19. Effects by the microstructure after hot and cold rolling on the texture and grain size after final annealing of ferritic non-oriented FeSi electrical steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Schneider

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The magnetic properties of fully processed non-oriented FeSi electrical steel are characterized by their magnetization behavior and specific magnetic losses. The magnetic properties are determined by the texture and microstructure. Less gamma fiber intensity and a high intensity of preferable texture components, especially cube fiber texture, are desirable to obtain an excellent magnetizing behavior. Furthermore, large grain sizes are necessary to reach low values of the specific magnetic losses. The fabrication route of the fully processed non-oriented electrical steels comprises a heavy cold rolling of the hot rolled material before final annealing. To fulfill the requirements on large grain size for low loss materials, grain growth, which appears after complete recrystallization, plays an important role. In this paper we will analyze the influence of different microstructures of the hot strip and the resulting microstructure after cold rolling on the appearance of recrystallization and grain growth after final annealing. The evolution of texture reflects the present ongoing softening processes: recovery, recrystallization and finally grain growth at the given annealing conditions. It will be shown that the image of texture at recrystallization is remarkable different from the texture at grain growth. Substantially grain growth is obtained at lower annealing temperatures for an optimum microstructure of the hot rolled material.

  20. Corrosion Inhibition of Cold-rolled Low Carbon Steel with Pulse Fiber Laser Ablation in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Sze Ney; Wong, Wai Yin; Walvekar, Rashmi; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H.; Khalid, Mohammad; Lim, Kean Long

    2018-04-01

    This study aims at the use of a fiber laser for modifying the surface properties of cold-rolled low carbon steel via a pulse laser ablation technique in water. The effect on the corrosion behavior of the fiber laser-treated metal surface was investigated in NaCl and HCl environments. Electrochemical tests showed significant improvement in the corrosion resistance of the laser-treated sample in NaCl, with an increase in open-circuit potential (OCP) from - 0.65 to - 0.60 V and an inhibition efficiency of 89.22% as obtained from the impedance study. Such improvement was less significant in an acidic environment. Lower corrosion rates of 20.9 mpy and 5.819 × 103 mpy were obtained for the laser-treated samples in neutral and acidic electrolytes, respectively, than the corrosion rates obtained for the as-received samples (33.2 mpy and 11.98 × 103 mpy). Morphological analysis indicated a passive film built by spherical grains of regular size on the metal surface after laser treatment. The corrosion inhibition effects in NaCl were evident by the nonexistence of the common corrosion products of lepidocrocite and crystalline structures that were seen on as-received samples; only polyhedral crystals with micrograins grown on them were seen covering the laser-treated surface. Therefore, the laser treatment using a fiber laser source improved the corrosion resistance of cold-rolled low carbon steel.

  1. Microstructural evaluation of Ti-35Nb-7,5 T alloy deformed by cold rolling and annealed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giudice, M.L.C.; Hayama, A.O.F.; Button, S.T.; Caram, R.

    2010-01-01

    This work presents the main results of microstructural characterization of Ti- 35Nb-7.5Ta (% in weight) deformed by cold rolling and annealed. Samples were obtained by electric arc melting, heat treated at 1000 deg C for 8 hours and water quenched. Samples were deformed by cold rolling in multiple passes up to a maximum reduction of 84%. Deformed samples were encapsulated in quartz under vacuum and annealed at 600, 700 e 800 deg C, in variable times and water quenched. Characterization was carried out using light optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Vickers hardness test and acoustic emission measurements to determine the Young's modulus. The results show the orientation occurrence of the martensitic phase in relation to the cold rolling direction in deformed samples. In samples annealed at 600 deg C recovery is predominant and samples annealed at 800 deg C for 60 min are fully recrystallized. (author)

  2. Abnormal devitrification behavior and mechanical response of cold-rolled Mg-rich Mg-Cu-Gd metallic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.I.; Kim, J.W.; Oh, H.S.; Park, J.S.; Park, E.S.

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal devitrification behavior and mechanical response of Mg 75 Cu 15 Gd 10 (relatively strong glass former with higher structural stability) and Mg 85 Cu 5 Gd 10 (relatively fragile glass former with lower structural stability) metallic glasses, fabricated by repeated forced cold rolling, have been investigated. When metallic glasses were cold-rolled up to a thickness reduction ratio of ∼33%, the heat of relaxation (ΔH relax. ) below T g of the cold-rolled specimens was reduced, which indicates the formation of local structural ordering via cold rolling due to stress-induced relaxation. The local structural ordering results in abnormal devitrification behavior, such as higher resistance of glass-to-supercooled liquid transition and delayed growth, in the following heat treatment due to increased nuclei density and pinning site. In particular, the fragility index, m, could assist in understanding structural stability and local structural variation by mechanical processing as well as compositional tuning. Indeed, we examine the shear avalanche size to rationalize the variation of the deformation unit size depending on the structural instability before and after cold rolling. The deformation mode in Mg 85 Cu 5 Gd 10 metallic glass might change from self-organized critical state to chaotic state by cold rolling, which results in unique hardening behavior under the condition for coexisting well distributed local structural ordering and numerous thinner shear deformed areas. These results would give us a guideline for atomic scale structural manipulation of metallic glasses, and help develop novel metallic glass matrix composites with optimal properties through effective mechanical processing as well as heat treatment.

  3. Microstructure-grain orientation relationship in coarse grain nickel cold-rolled to large strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H.S.; Godfrey, A.; Hansen, N.; Xie, J.X.; Liu, Q.

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between crystallographic orientation and the deformation microstructure formed during cold-rolling to high strains (up to ε vM = 4.5) has been investigated. The starting material was Ni (99.96% purity) with a coarse initial average grain size (approximately 500 μm). Microstructural characterization was carried out using a combination of electron channeling contrast imaging and electron back-scatter diffraction orientation mapping. An orientation dependence of the deformation microstructure was observed even at the highest strain examined. A large increase in the average boundary misorientation is found at strains above ε vM = 1.8 for regions with the {1 1 2} and {1 2 3} orientations. This increase accompanies the structural transition from a medium strain microstructure to a high strain lamellar microstructure. In contrast, the average misorientation in regions of {1 1 0} orientation increases only slowly even up to the highest strain examined

  4. New technology for recycling materials from oily cold rolling mill sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Liu; Shen-gen Zhang; Jian-jun Tian; De-an Pan; Ling Meng; Yang Liu

    2013-01-01

    Oily cold rolling mill (CRM) sludge is one of metallurgical industry solid wastes. The recycle of these wastes can not only protect the environment but also permit their reutilization. In this research, a new process of“hydrometallurgical treatment+hydrothermal synthesis”was investigated for the combined recovery of iron and organic materials from oily CRM sludge. Hydrometallurgical treatment, mainly including acid leaching, centrifugal separation, neutralization reaction, oxidizing, and preparation of hydrothermal reaction precursor, was first utilized for processing the sludge. Then, micaceous iron oxide (MIO) pigment powders were prepared through hydrothermal reaction of the obtained precursor in alkaline media. The separated organic materials can be used for fuel or chemical feedstock. The quality of the prepared MIO pigments is in accordance with the standards of MIO pigments for paints (ISO 10601-2007). This clean, eff ective, and economical technology off ers a new way to recycle oily CRM sludge.

  5. Estimation of residual stress in cold rolled iron-disks from strain measurements on the high resolution Fourier diffractometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksenov, V.L.; Balagurov, A.M.; Taran, Yu.V.

    1995-01-01

    The results of estimating residual stresses in cold rolled iron disks by measurements with the high resolution Fourier diffractometer (HRFD) at the IBR-2 pulsed reactor are presented. These measurements were made for calibration of magnetic and ultrasonic measurements carried out at the Fraunhofer-Institute for Nondestructive Testing in Saarbrucken (Germany). The tested objects were cold rolled steel disks of 2.5 mm thickness and diameter of about 500 mm used for forming small, gas pressure tanks. Neutron diffraction experiments were carried out at the scattering angle 2θ=+152 d eg with resolution Δd/d=1.5·10 -3 . The gauge volume was chosen according to the magnetic measurements lateral resolution 20x20 mm 2 . In the nearest future the neutron diffraction measurements with cold rolled iron disks at the scattering angle 2θ=±90 0 are planned. Also the texture analysis will be included in the Rietveld refinement procedure for more correct calculation of residual stress fields in the cold rolled materials. 8 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  6. Evolution of microstructure and texture during recovery and recrystallization in heavily rolled aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishin, Oleg; Godfrey, A.; Yu, Tianbo

    2015-01-01

    The annealing behavior of nanostructured aluminum AA1050 prepared by cold rolling to an ultrahigh strain (εvM = 6.4) has been investigated using both transmission electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction techniques, paying particular attention to changes in microstructure...

  7. Microstructure Evolution During Creep of Cold Worked Austenitic Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishan Yadav, Hari; Ballal, A. R.; Thawre, M. M.; Vijayanand, V. D.

    2018-04-01

    The 14Cr–15Ni austenitic stainless steel (SS) with additions of Ti, Si, and P has been developed for their superior creep strength and better resistance to void swelling during service as nuclear fuel clad and wrapper material. Cold working induces defects such as dislocations that interact with point defects generated by neutron irradiation and facilitates recombination to make the material more resistant to void swelling. In present investigation, creep properties of the SS in mill annealed condition (CW0) and 40 % cold worked (CW4) condition were studied. D9I stainless steel was solution treated at 1333 K for 30 minutes followed by cold rolling. Uniaxial creep tests were performed at 973 K for various stress levels ranging from 175-225 MPa. CW4 samples exhibited better creep resistance as compared to CW0 samples. During creep exposure, cold worked material exhibited phenomena of recovery and recrystallization wherein new strain free grains were observed with lesser dislocation network. In contrast CW0 samples showed no signs of recovery and recrystallization after creep exposure. Partial recrystallization on creep exposure led to higher drop in hardness in cold worked sample as compared to that in mill annealed sample. Accelerated precipitation of carbides at the grain boundaries was observed during creep exposure and this phenomenon was more pronounced in cold worked sample.

  8. Precipitation in cold-rolled Al–Sc–Zr and Al–Mn–Sc–Zr alloys prepared by powder metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlach, M.; Stulikova, I.; Smola, B.; Kekule, T.; Kudrnova, H.; Danis, S.; Gemma, R.; Ocenasek, V.; Malek, J.; Tanprayoon, D.; Neubert, V.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of cold-rolling on thermal, mechanical and electrical properties, microstructure and recrystallization behaviour of the AlScZr and AlMnScZr alloys prepared by powder metallurgy were studied. The powder was produced by atomising in argon with 1% oxygen and then consolidated by hot extrusion at 350 °C. The electrical resistometry and microhardness together with differential scanning calorimetry measurements were compared with microstructure development observed by transmission and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and electron backscatter diffraction. Fine (sub)grain structure developed and fine coherent Al 3 Sc and/or Al 3 (Sc,Zr) particles precipitated during extrusion at 350 °C in the alloys studied. Additional precipitation of the Al 3 Sc and/or Al 3 (Sc,Zr) particles and/or their coarsening was slightly facilitated by the previous cold rolling. The presence of Sc,Zr-containing particles has a significant antirecrystallization effect that prevents recrystallization at temperatures minimally up to 420 °C. The precipitation of the Al 6 Mn- and/or Al 6 (Mn,Fe) particles of a size ∼ 1.0 μm at subgrain boundaries has also an essential antirecrystallization effect and totally suppresses recrystallization during 32 h long annealing at 550 °C. The texture development of the alloys seems to be affected by high solid solution strengthening by Mn. The precipitation of the Mn-containing alloy is highly enhanced by a cold rolling. The apparent activation energy of the Al 3 Sc particles formation and/or coarsening and that of the Al 6 Mn and/or Al 6 (Mn,Fe) particle precipitation in the powder and in the compacted alloys were determined. The cold deformation has no effect on the apparent activation energy values of the Al 3 Sc-phase and the Al 6 Mn-phase precipitation. - Highlights: • The Mn, Sc and Zr additions to Al totally suppresses recrystallization at 550 °C. • The Sc,Zr-containing particle precipitation is slightly facilitated by

  9. Effect of Li content on microstructure, texture and mechanical properties of cold rolled Mg–3Al–1Zn alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Ying [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, National Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloys, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Jiang, Bin, E-mail: jiangbinrong@cqu.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, National Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloys, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Chongqing Academy of Science and Technology, Chongqing 401123 (China); Li, Ruihong; He, Junjie [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, National Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloys, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Xia, Xiangsheng [No. 59 Institute of China Ordnance Industry, Chongqing 400039 (China); Pan, Fusheng [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, National Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloys, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Chongqing Academy of Science and Technology, Chongqing 401123 (China)

    2015-04-17

    Cold rolling of the as-extruded Mg–3Al–1Zn (AZ31) sheets containing different Li contents (Li=1, 3, 5; wt%) was performed at room temperature with a rolling reduction of 5%, and the microstructure, texture and tensile properties of the cold rolled and annealed sheets were investigated. The results indicated that the AZ31 sheet with a high Li content exhibited a high degree of dynamic recrystallization (DRX). Besides, the strain hardening rate of the annealed AZ31 sheets with a high Li content was more likely to be volatile, which can be attributed to Li atoms interacting with dislocations and influencing the movement of dislocations during the process of deformation. Furthermore, the Li addition to AZ31 alloy decreased the axial ratio (c/a) and led to a weak basal texture tilted towards the transverse direction (TD), and therefore improved the ductility and formability of the cold rolled and annealed AZ31 sheets. AZ31–3Li (LAZ331) sheet possessed excellent comprehensive mechanical properties and presented to be the best option in industrial processes considering the costing saving and property improvement.

  10. Cold-rolled sheets production of stainless martensite-ageing steel smelted by vacuum arc and electroslag techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivkin, A A; Grishkov, A I; Suslin, A P; Nesterenko, A A; Lola, V N [Tsentral' nyj Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Chernoj Metallurgii, Moscow (USSR)

    1975-05-01

    In cooperation with a number of metallurgical works the production of a high strength sheet stainless maraging steel EHP678 (000KH11N10M2T) has been tested by rolling cylindrical ingots of vacuum arc smelting at the blooming (the mass of rough ingots was 5.1 to 6.0 t, that of cleaned ingots - 3.8 to 5.1 t) or rectangular ingots of electroslag smelting (13 t) at the slabbing. The recommended regimes of heating and deformation are much similar to those used for the steel-KH18N10T. The output of valid cold-rolled sheets proved to be rather low (0.24 t/t for the vacuum arc smelting and 0.30 t/t for the electroslag smelting) mainly due to the losses on cleaning and a considerable portion of wrong-size slabs. The data are presented on the steel-EHP678 properties after various heat treatments. For the production of wide cold-rolled sheets of the steel EHP678 it is recommended to use steelmaking procedure with electroslag smelting including open-hearth melting in arc furnaces, rolling of ingots at the slabbing with heating up to 1260-1280 deg C (hold-up of 4.5 to 5 hrs); electroslag smelting for rectangular section slabs, rolling of ingots of electroslag smelting at the slabbing with their heating up to 1250 deg C (hold-up of 5.5 to 6 hrs), rolling at the 1680-type mill with heating up to 1250-1260 deg C (hold-up of 4 to 4.5 hrs ensuring the rolling temperature after a rough group not below 1100 deg C), quenching of hot-rolled sheets heating up to 920-940 deg C (hold-up of 3 to 3.5 min/mm), shot peening of sheets for descaling (provided the respective equipment is available) with a subsequent short-time pickling in an acid solution and cold rolling with a summary deformation of 35 to 45 %. The steelmaking with the electroslag smelting is much more profitable as regards to the fine technology of number of the main procedures, convenient cooperation of the works and a considerably greater output of the final products out of one ton of the steel produced.

  11. The microstructure and creep behavior of cold rolled udimet 188 sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehlert, C J; Longanbach, S C

    2011-06-01

    Udimet 188 was subjected to thermomechanical processing (TMP) in an attempt to understand the effects of cold-rolling deformation on the microstructure and tensile-creep behavior. Commercially available sheet was cold rolled to varying amounts of deformation (between 5-35% reduction in sheet thickness) followed by a solution treatment at 1,464 K (1,191 °C) for 1 h and subsequent air cooling. This sequence was repeated four times to induce a high-volume fraction of low-energy grain boundaries. The resultant microstructure was characterized using electron backscattered diffraction. The effect of the TMP treatment on the high-temperature [1,033-1,088 K (760-815 °C)] creep behavior was evaluated. The measured creep stress exponents (6.0-6.8) suggested that dislocation creep was dominant at 1,033 K (760 °C) for stresses ranging between 100-220 MPa. For stresses ranging between 25-100 MPa at 1,033 K (760 °C), the stress exponents (2.3-2.8) suggested grain boundary sliding was dominant. A significant amount of grain boundary cracking was observed both on the surface and subsurface of deformed samples. To assess the mechanisms of crack nucleation, in situ scanning electron microscopy was performed during the elevated-temperature tensile-creep deformation. Cracking occurred preferentially along general high-angle grain boundaries (GHAB) and less than 25% of the cracks were found on low-angle grain boundaries (LAB) and coincident site lattice boundaries (CSLB). Creep rupture experiments were performed at T = 1,088 K (815 °C) and σ = 165 MPa and the greatest average time-to-rupture was exhibited by the TMP sheet with the greatest fraction of LAB+CSLB. However, a clear correlation was not exhibited between the grain boundary character distribution and the minimum creep rates. The findings of this work suggest that although grain boundary engineering may be possible for this alloy, simply relating the fraction of grain boundary types to the creep resistance is not

  12. Corrosion behaviour of Fe-Mn-Si based shape memory steels trained by cold rolling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soederberg, O.; Liu, X.W.; Ullakko, K.; Lindroos, V.K.

    1999-01-01

    Fe-Mn-Si based high nitrogen steels have been studied in recent years for potential industrial applications. These steels show good shape memory properties, high strength and excellent ductility. In the present study, the effects of training history on the corrosion properties of Fe-Mn-Si-Cr-Ni based high nitrogen steels were investigated. The corrosion behaviour of shape memory alloys was analyzed by implementing anodic polarisation measurements and immersion tests. The shape memory steels in annealed, deformed and recovered conditions were studied to examine the training effect on their corrosion behaviour. The features of the anodic polarisation curves indicated a general corrosion type of these steels. The experimental results showed that Cr and Mn had a marked influence on the corrosion behaviour of the steels, followed by Ni, N and V. It was also apparent that the deformation during the shape memory training by cold rolling decreased the corrosion stability, and the recovery heating reduced further their corrosion resistance. However, further studies are needed in order to better understand the corrosion behaviour of the investigated alloys. (orig.)

  13. Elimination of Lubricants from Aluminum Cold Rolled Products Using Short Laser Pulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima M.S.F.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a new technique to remove the surface impurities from the aluminum cold-worked sheets. The method consists to concentrate a short-time high-power pulsed laser on the materials surface and scan it in order to cover a desired area. Incrustations ablation is obtained as long as the fluency and the peak power are high enough to produce vaporization of the contaminated layer without affecting the material surface properties. The present problem consists in eliminating a desiccated soap of about 1 g/m² from the surface of a 6016-class aluminum alloy sheet. The soap is originated from the rolling process. The present laser method is intended to replace water washing when the piece cannot be soaked, when drying is difficult due to the geometry, or when environmental restrictions apply. Best results were obtained when the pulse length was 100 ns and the average laser power was 95 W. In these conditions, the surface was completely cleaned and the aluminum alloy did not suffer any structural modification.

  14. Characterization of a cold-rolled 2101 lean duplex stainless steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassani, Paola; Breda, Marco; Brunelli, Katya; Mészáros, Istvan; Passaretti, Francesca; Zanellato, Michela; Calliari, Irene

    2013-08-01

    Duplex stainless steels (DSS) may be defined as a category of steels with a two-phase ferritic-austenitic microstructure, which combines good mechanical and corrosion properties. However, these steels can undergo significant microstructural modification as a consequence of either thermo-mechanical treatments (ferrite decomposition, which causes σ- and χ-phase formation and nitride precipitation) or plastic deformation at room temperature [austenite transformation into strain-induced martensite (SIM)]. These secondary phases noticeably affect the properties of DSS, and therefore are of huge industrial interest. In the present work, SIM formation was investigated in a 2101 lean DSS. The material was subjected to cold rolling at various degrees of deformation (from 10 to 80% thickness reduction) and the microstructure developed after plastic deformation was investigated by electron backscattered diffraction, X-ray diffraction measurements, and hardness and magnetic tests. It was observed that SIM formed as a consequence of deformations higher than ~20% and residual austenite was still observed at 80% of thickness reduction. Furthermore, a direct relationship was found between microstructure and magnetic properties.

  15. Two pyrazine derivatives as inhibitors of the cold rolled steel corrosion in hydrochloric acid solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng Shuduan, E-mail: dengshuduan@163.co [Faculty of Wood Science and Decoration Technology, Southwest Forestry University, Kunming 650224 (China); Li Xianghong; Fu Hui [Department of Fundamental Courses, Southwest Forestry University, Kunming 650224 (China)

    2011-02-15

    Research highlights: Two pyrazine derivatives of 2-aminopyrazine (AP) and 2-amino-5-bromopyrazine (ABP) are good inhibitors for the corrosion of steel in 1.0 M HCl solution. The inhibition efficiency follows the order: ABP > AP. The substitution Br of ABP is the additional centre of adsorption and increases the electron density of pyrazine ring, which can facilitate its adsorption on the metal surface. For either ABP or AP, the adsorption obeys Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Both ABP and AP act as mixed-type inhibitors. - Abstract: The inhibition effect of two pyrazine derivatives of 2-aminopyrazine (AP) and 2-amino-5-bromopyrazine (ABP) on the corrosion of cold rolled steel (CRS) in 1.0 M hydrochloric acid (HCl) was studied by weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization curves, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) methods. The results show that both AP and ABP are good inhibitors, and inhibition efficiency follows the order: ABP > AP. The adsorption of each inhibitor on CRS surface obeys Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Potentiodynamic polarization curves show that two pyrazine derivatives act as mixed-type inhibitors. EIS spectra exhibit one capacitive loop and confirm the inhibitive ability.

  16. Two pyrazine derivatives as inhibitors of the cold rolled steel corrosion in hydrochloric acid solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Shuduan; Li Xianghong; Fu Hui

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Two pyrazine derivatives of 2-aminopyrazine (AP) and 2-amino-5-bromopyrazine (ABP) are good inhibitors for the corrosion of steel in 1.0 M HCl solution. → The inhibition efficiency follows the order: ABP > AP. The substitution Br of ABP is the additional centre of adsorption and increases the electron density of pyrazine ring, which can facilitate its adsorption on the metal surface. → For either ABP or AP, the adsorption obeys Langmuir adsorption isotherm. → Both ABP and AP act as mixed-type inhibitors. - Abstract: The inhibition effect of two pyrazine derivatives of 2-aminopyrazine (AP) and 2-amino-5-bromopyrazine (ABP) on the corrosion of cold rolled steel (CRS) in 1.0 M hydrochloric acid (HCl) was studied by weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization curves, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) methods. The results show that both AP and ABP are good inhibitors, and inhibition efficiency follows the order: ABP > AP. The adsorption of each inhibitor on CRS surface obeys Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Potentiodynamic polarization curves show that two pyrazine derivatives act as mixed-type inhibitors. EIS spectra exhibit one capacitive loop and confirm the inhibitive ability.

  17. Influence of cold rolling and strain rate on plastic response of powder metallurgy and chemical vapor deposition rhenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeppel, B.J.; Subhash, G.

    1999-01-01

    The plastic response of two kinds of rhenium processed via powder metallurgy (PM) and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) were investigated under uniaxial compression over a range of strain rates. The PM rhenium, further cold rolled to 50 and 80 pct of the original thickness, was also investigated to assess the influence of cold work on the plastic behavior. A strong basal texture was detected in all the preceding materials as a result of processing and cold work. Both CVD and PM rhenium exhibited an increase in yield strength and flow stress with increasing strain rate. In PM rhenium, cold work resulted in an increase in hardness and yield strength and a decrease in the work hardening rate. The deformed microstructures revealed extensive twinning in CVD rhenium. At large strains, inhomogeneous deformation mode in the form of classical cup and cone fracture was noticed

  18. Internal friction in cold-rolled metallic glasses Cu50Ti50 and Ni78Si8B14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolotukhin, I.V.; Khonik, V.A.; Ryabtseva, T.N.; Belyavskii, V.I.

    1989-01-01

    The influence of cold rolling on the low temperature (30 to 300 K) internal friction of metallic glasses Cu 50 Ti 50 and Ni 78 Si 8 B 14 is investigated. It is shown that cold rolling of both metallic glasses up to 2 to 6% results in the appearance of a high relaxation damping peak around 260 to 280 K. The internal friction background below the peak shows a strong amplitude dependence. In highly predeformed specimens (∼ 16%) the internal friction peak is absent. Electron irradiation (2 MeV, 10 19 cm -2 ) leads to the suppression of the deformation-induced internal friction peak. The results are interpreted in the framework of the dislocation models of plastic flow of metallic glasses. (author)

  19. Correlation between Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior and Fracture Surface Roughness on Cold-Rolled Austenitic Stainless Steels in Gaseous Hydrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Cheng Chen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Austenitic stainless steels are often considered candidate materials for use in hydrogen-containing environments because of their low hydrogen embrittlement susceptibility. In this study, the fatigue crack growth behavior of the solution-annealed and cold-rolled 301, 304L, and 310S austenitic stainless steels was characterized in 0.2 MPa gaseous hydrogen to evaluate the hydrogen-assisted fatigue crack growth and correlate the fatigue crack growth rates with the fracture feature or fracture surface roughness. Regardless of the testing conditions, higher fracture surface roughness could be obtained in a higher stress intensity factor (∆K range and for the counterpart cold-rolled specimen in hydrogen. The accelerated fatigue crack growth of 301 and 304L in hydrogen was accompanied by high fracture surface roughness and was associated with strain-induced martensitic transformation in the plastic zone ahead of the fatigue crack tip.

  20. Study on the effect of post-annealing on the microstructural evolutions and mechanical properties of rolled CGPed Aluminum-Manganese-Silicon alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jandaghi, Mohammad Reza, E-mail: mrj.sharif86@gmail.com [Young Researchers and Elites Club, Saveh Branch, Islamic Azad University, Saveh (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pouraliakbar, Hesam [Young Researchers and Elites Club, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-01-02

    Sheet specimens of Al-Mn-Si alloy were severe plastically deformed (SPDed) through constrained groove pressing (CGP). SPDing by the strain of 2.32, samples were ultimately undergone cold rolling and post-annealing, respectively. According to the optical microscopy observations, rolling changed the semi-elongated and wavy morphology achieved by CGP into lamellar structure. This was also promoted the formation of some shear and deformation bands within processed material matrix due to the geometrical effect of applied deformation path. Evolution of intermetallic particles were characterized using field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). Dual-strained sheets were finally annealed at 150, 250 and 350 °C for 1 h. Mechanical examinations including tension and hardness were performed at room temperature. Results alluded to the fact that samples were exhibited thermal stability up to around 250 °C since rolling reduction increment diminished this critical temperature to about 150 °C. Rolling of CGPed sheet by the strain of 1.27 enhanced the ultimate tensile strength and Vickers hardness by 53.62% and 16.53%, respectively, while the elongation to failure decreased by 1.84%. Eventually, the maximum elongation of 34% and toughness of 33.3 J m{sup −3} were traced on the mentioned specimen by post-annealing at 350 °C. - Highlights: • Further straining through cold-rolling was imposed to two-pass CGPed sheets. • Post-annealing effect at 150, 250 and 350 °C was studied for Al-Mn-Si specimens. • Evolutions of microstructure and intermetallic particles were characterized. • Mechanical properties of different rolled CGPed samples were examined.

  1. Evolution of microstructure, macrotexture and microtexture during hot rolling of Ti-6Al-4V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ari-Gur, P.; Semiatin, S.L.

    1998-01-01

    The evolution of microstructure, macrotexture and microtexture during subtransus hot working of Ti-6Al-4V with two different types of transformed β starting microstructures (lamellar colony, acicular martensitic α) was investigated. Globularization of the transformed microstructures required heavy rolling reductions or moderate reductions coupled with near transus post-rolling heat treatment. Despite the sluggish dynamic globularization kinetics, noticeable macrotexture changes were noted after low reductions, an effect ascribed to the rotations associated with kinking and bending of the lamellar acicular plates. Noticeable microtextures, noted in samples with an initial lamellar colony microstructure, persisted through hot rolling suggesting that dynamic globularization does not involve recrystallization. In contrast, hot rolled material with a starting acicular α microstructure exhibited weak microtextures and strong macrotextures. The absence of microtexture in these latter cases was explained on the basis of multiple transformation variants within each colony/prior β grain following the β-annealing-and-water-quenching process used to obtain the microstructure. (orig.)

  2. Influence of prior cold rolling reduction on microstructure and mechanical properties of a reversion annealed high-Mn austenitic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behjati, P., E-mail: p.behjatipournaki@ma.iut.ac.ir [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kermanpur, A. [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Karjalainen, L.P.; Järvenpää, A.; Jaskari, M. [Centre for Advanced Steels Research, University of Oulu, FIN-90014 Oulu (Finland); Samaei Baghbadorani, H. [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Najafizadeh, A. [Foulad Institute of Technology, Fouladshahr, Isfahan 84916-63763 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hamada, A. [Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department, Faculty of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, Suez University, Suez 43721 (Egypt)

    2016-01-05

    The martensitic reversion is known to be effective in refining the grain size of metastable austenitic stainless steels. However, severe cold rolling reductions are generally required for this process. In this study, the influence of the degree of prior cold rolling and subsequent annealing on the microstructure and mechanical properties of a metastable high-Mn austenitic steel was investigated. Three cold rolling reductions of 20%, 35% and 50% were applied at ambient temperature before the annealing at 700 °C for the durations of 10, 100 and 1000 s. Microstructures were examined by optical, scanning and transmission electron microscopes. Mechanical properties were measured by hardness and tensile tests. The microstructure changes were followed by magnetic measurements and X-ray diffraction. It was shown that a relatively small reduction of 35% and 100 s annealing could provide efficient grain refinement (the average size of 0.5 µm) and accordingly an outstanding combination of strength-ductility properties with the yield strength 890 MPa, tensile strength 1340 MPa and elongation 41% was achieved. The occurrence of martensite reversion and recrystallization processes with different contributions in dependence on degree of prior deformation before annealing was discussed.

  3. Cold-Rolled Strip Steel Stress Detection Technology Based on a Magnetoresistance Sensor and the Magnetoelastic Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Ben; Zang, Yong; Han, Xiaohui; Zheng, Kailun

    2018-05-21

    Driven by the demands for contactless stress detection, technologies are being used for shape control when producing cold-rolled strips. This paper presents a novel contactless stress detection technology based on a magnetoresistance sensor and the magnetoelastic effect, enabling the detection of internal stress in manufactured cold-rolled strips. An experimental device was designed and produced. Characteristics of this detection technology were investigated through experiments assisted by theoretical analysis. Theoretically, a linear correlation exists between the internal stress of strip steel and the voltage output of a magneto-resistive sensor. Therefore, for this stress detection system, the sensitivity of the stress detection was adjusted by adjusting the supply voltage of the magnetoresistance sensor, detection distance, and other relevant parameters. The stress detection experimental results showed that this detection system has good repeatability and linearity. The detection error was controlled within 1.5%. Moreover, the intrinsic factors of the detected strip steel, including thickness, carbon percentage, and crystal orientation, also affected the sensitivity of the detection system. The detection technology proposed in this research enables online contactless detection and meets the requirements for cold-rolled steel strips.

  4. Tribology and Tool Wear of Hot Dip Galvanized Zinc Magnesium Alloys on Cold Rolled Steel Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, A. E.; Berger, E.; Freudenthaler, J.; Leomann, F.; Walch, C.

    2011-05-01

    Recently zinc based coatings on cold rolled steel with improved functionality in terms of forming and/or corrosion behaviour have been intensively investigated in the steel industry1,2,3. One of the most promising products are zinc magnesium alloys produced in hot dip galvanizing process. These coatings were already introduced in construction industry a few years ago1. With some modifications the improved properties of the coating are also interesting for automotive industry. In the present work the tribological potential of hot dip galvanized zinc magnesium coatings (HDG/ZM) produced at an industrial line under regular production, was studied in terms of sliding properties, adhesive and abrasive tool wear. First a short introduction into surface morphology of HDG/ZM will be given. For the tribological characterization of the material, which is the main topic of the contribution, different tests were performed on hot dip galvanised zinc magnesium material and results were compared with classic hot dip galvanized zinc coating (HDG/Z). The investigations are mainly based on the strip draw test which allows the determination of the friction coefficient directly by using a constant contact pressure. Deep drawing property was tested by forming model cups. The abrasive tool wear was tested using a standard test for material used in automotive industry. The adhesive tool wear was investigated by characterizing the coating material transferred to the tool in the strip draw test. All performed tests show an improved drawability of HDG/ZM compared to classical HDG/Z reference material. However the most promising difference between HDG/ZM and HDG/Z is that galling was found to be less for HDG/ZM than for HDG/Z. Therefore HDG/ZM is an interesting system not only with respect to corrosion protection but also in terms of tribology and provides clear advantages in formability.

  5. Tribology and Tool Wear of Hot Dip Galvanized Zinc Magnesium Alloys on Cold Rolled Steel Sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raab, A. E.; Berger, E.; Freudenthaler, J.; Leomann, F.; Walch, C.

    2011-01-01

    Recently zinc based coatings on cold rolled steel with improved functionality in terms of forming and/or corrosion behaviour have been intensively investigated in the steel industry. One of the most promising products are zinc magnesium alloys produced in hot dip galvanizing process. These coatings were already introduced in construction industry a few years ago. With some modifications the improved properties of the coating are also interesting for automotive industry. In the present work the tribological potential of hot dip galvanized zinc magnesium coatings (HDG/ZM) produced at an industrial line under regular production, was studied in terms of sliding properties, adhesive and abrasive tool wear.First a short introduction into surface morphology of HDG/ZM will be given. For the tribological characterization of the material, which is the main topic of the contribution, different tests were performed on hot dip galvanised zinc magnesium material and results were compared with classic hot dip galvanized zinc coating (HDG/Z). The investigations are mainly based on the strip draw test which allows the determination of the friction coefficient directly by using a constant contact pressure. Deep drawing property was tested by forming model cups. The abrasive tool wear was tested using a standard test for material used in automotive industry. The adhesive tool wear was investigated by characterizing the coating material transferred to the tool in the strip draw test.All performed tests show an improved drawability of HDG/ZM compared to classical HDG/Z reference material. However the most promising difference between HDG/ZM and HDG/Z is that galling was found to be less for HDG/ZM than for HDG/Z. Therefore HDG/ZM is an interesting system not only with respect to corrosion protection but also in terms of tribology and provides clear advantages in formability.

  6. The evolution of texture in aluminum alloy sheet during asymmetric rolling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K-H.; Lee, D.N.

    2000-01-01

    Asymmetric rolling, in which the upper and lower roll radii are different, imposes shear deformation on sheets through the thickness, which in turn gives rise to shear deformation textures in the sheets through the thickness. A component of ND// in the shear deformation textures can improve the plastic strain ratios of aluminum sheets. In order to understand the evolution of ND// , the strain histories and distributions in the sheets during the asymmetric rolling are calculated by the finite element method. The strain history and distribution are used to calculate crystallographic orientations and stable orientations based on the Taylor-Bishop-Hill theory and the Renouward-Wintenberger theory. The shear deformation texture can vary with the ratio of shear to normal strain increments. As the ratio increases from zero to infinity, the texture moves from the plane strain compression texture (β fiber) to the ideal shear deformation texture consisting of {001} , {111} , and {111} . The ratio increases with rolling reduction per pass in asymmetric rolling. However, it is practically difficult to the rolling reduction per pass high enough to obtain the ideal shear deformation texture. Imposing the positive and negative shear deformations on the sheet by reversing the shearing direction can give rise to the ideal shear deformation texture. This has been discussed. (author)

  7. Experimental and numerical investigation on cold flat rolling processes of DC04 sheets with special focus on residual stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, A; Binotsch, C; Awiszus, B; Mehner, T; Sieber, M; Lampke, T

    2016-01-01

    The process of cold flat rolling is a widespread industrial technique to manufacture semi-finished products, e.g., for the automotive or homewares industry. Basic knowledge of the process regarding dimensioning and adjustment of defined characteristics is already state of the art. However, a detailed consideration and analysis with respect to local inhomogeneous residual stresses in several process steps mostly remains disregarded. A broad understanding of the process due to the distribution of residual stresses in the workpiece and the direction of the stress tensors allows for a definition of the characteristics of the workpiece even before the actual manufacturing process. For that purpose, it is necessary to perform numerical investigations by means of the finite element analysis (FEA) of cold flat rolling processes. Within this contribution, several approaches for the calibration of the FEA with the real flat rolling process will be addressed and discussed. To ensure that the numerical consideration provides realistic results, this calibration is indispensable. General parameters such as geometry, height reduction, rolling temperature, process time, and the rolling speed are considered as well as a photogrammetric survey, and calculated residual stresses with results of X-ray diffraction (XRD) will be compared. In the course of the experiments, a good agreement between the stress results of the FEA and the XRD was found in the center of the specimen. In combination with the allocation of the stress orientations, the agreement close to the edges is also fine. Some issues that cause differences between the FEA and the experiment are dis-cussed. (paper)

  8. Precipitation in cold-rolled Al-Sc-Zr and Al-Mn-Sc-Zr alloys prepared by powder metallurgy

    KAUST Repository

    Vlach, Martin

    2013-12-01

    The effects of cold-rolling on thermal, mechanical and electrical properties, microstructure and recrystallization behaviour of the AlScZr and AlMnScZr alloys prepared by powder metallurgy were studied. The powder was produced by atomising in argon with 1% oxygen and then consolidated by hot extrusion at 350 C. The electrical resistometry and microhardness together with differential scanning calorimetry measurements were compared with microstructure development observed by transmission and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and electron backscatter diffraction. Fine (sub)grain structure developed and fine coherent Al3Sc and/or Al3(Sc,Zr) particles precipitated during extrusion at 350 C in the alloys studied. Additional precipitation of the Al3Sc and/or Al3(Sc,Zr) particles and/or their coarsening was slightly facilitated by the previous cold rolling. The presence of Sc,Zr-containing particles has a significant antirecrystallization effect that prevents recrystallization at temperatures minimally up to 420 C. The precipitation of the Al6Mn- and/or Al 6(Mn,Fe) particles of a size ~ 1.0 μm at subgrain boundaries has also an essential antirecrystallization effect and totally suppresses recrystallization during 32 h long annealing at 550 C. The texture development of the alloys seems to be affected by high solid solution strengthening by Mn. The precipitation of the Mn-containing alloy is highly enhanced by a cold rolling. The apparent activation energy of the Al3Sc particles formation and/or coarsening and that of the Al6Mn and/or Al 6(Mn,Fe) particle precipitation in the powder and in the compacted alloys were determined. The cold deformation has no effect on the apparent activation energy values of the Al3Sc-phase and the Al 6Mn-phase precipitation. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  9. Precipitation in cold-rolled Al-Sc-Zr and Al-Mn-Sc-Zr alloys prepared by powder metallurgy

    KAUST Repository

    Vlach, Martin; Stulí ková , Ivana; Smola, Bohumil; Kekule, Tomá š; Kudrnová , Hana; Daniš, Stanislav; Gemma, Ryota; Očená šek, Vladivoj; Má lek, Jaroslav; Tanprayoon, Dhritti; Neubert, Volkmar

    2013-01-01

    The effects of cold-rolling on thermal, mechanical and electrical properties, microstructure and recrystallization behaviour of the AlScZr and AlMnScZr alloys prepared by powder metallurgy were studied. The powder was produced by atomising in argon with 1% oxygen and then consolidated by hot extrusion at 350 C. The electrical resistometry and microhardness together with differential scanning calorimetry measurements were compared with microstructure development observed by transmission and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and electron backscatter diffraction. Fine (sub)grain structure developed and fine coherent Al3Sc and/or Al3(Sc,Zr) particles precipitated during extrusion at 350 C in the alloys studied. Additional precipitation of the Al3Sc and/or Al3(Sc,Zr) particles and/or their coarsening was slightly facilitated by the previous cold rolling. The presence of Sc,Zr-containing particles has a significant antirecrystallization effect that prevents recrystallization at temperatures minimally up to 420 C. The precipitation of the Al6Mn- and/or Al 6(Mn,Fe) particles of a size ~ 1.0 μm at subgrain boundaries has also an essential antirecrystallization effect and totally suppresses recrystallization during 32 h long annealing at 550 C. The texture development of the alloys seems to be affected by high solid solution strengthening by Mn. The precipitation of the Mn-containing alloy is highly enhanced by a cold rolling. The apparent activation energy of the Al3Sc particles formation and/or coarsening and that of the Al6Mn and/or Al 6(Mn,Fe) particle precipitation in the powder and in the compacted alloys were determined. The cold deformation has no effect on the apparent activation energy values of the Al3Sc-phase and the Al 6Mn-phase precipitation. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  10. Evolution of velocity dispersion along cold collisionless flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banik, Nilanjan; Sikivie, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    We found that the infall of cold dark matter onto a galaxy produces cold collisionless flows and caustics in its halo. If a signal is found in the cavity detector of dark matter axions, the flows will be readily apparent as peaks in the energy spectrum of photons from axion conversion, allowing the densities, velocity vectors and velocity dispersions of the flows to be determined. We also discuss the evolution of velocity dispersion along cold collisionless flows in one and two dimensions. A technique is presented for obtaining the leading behaviour of the velocity dispersion near caustics. The results are used to derive an upper limit on the energy dispersion of the Big Flow from the sharpness of its nearby caustic, and a prediction for the dispersions in its velocity components

  11. Magnet properties of Mn{sub 70}Ga{sub 30} prepared by cold rolling and magnetic field annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ener, Semih, E-mail: ener@fm.tu-darmstadt.de [Materials Science, Technische Universität Darmstadt, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Skokov, Konstantin P. [Materials Science, Technische Universität Darmstadt, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Karpenkov, Dmitriy Yu. [Materials Science, Technische Universität Darmstadt, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Faculty of Physics, Tver State University, 170100 Tver (Russian Federation); Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, 236041 Kaliningrad (Russian Federation); Kuz' min, Michael D. [Materials Science, Technische Universität Darmstadt, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Gutfleisch, Oliver [Materials Science, Technische Universität Darmstadt, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Fraunhofer IWKS, Project Group for Material Cycles and Resource Strategy, 63457 Hanau (Germany)

    2015-05-15

    The remanence and coercivity of arc melted Mn{sub 70}Ga{sub 30} can be substantially improved by cold rolling. For best performance the rolled material should be annealed at T=730 K in the presence of a magnetic field of 1 T. The so-obtained magnet has a remanence of 0.239 T and a coercivity of 1.24 T at room temperature. The underlying reason for the high coercivity and remanence is the increase of the content of a metastable ferrimagnetic D0{sub 22} phase at the expense of the normally stable anti-ferromagnetic D0{sub 19}. Magnetic field significantly increases the nucleation rate of the ferromagnetic D0{sub 22} phase that leads to grain size refinement and as a consequence of improving remanence and coercive field. - Highlights: • Alternative synthesis method for D0{sub 22} phase formation in Mn–Ga is developed. • Effect of cold rolling and annealing on magnetic properties of Mn{sub 70}Ga{sub 30} is examined. • Small magnetic fields are sufficient to accelerate nucleation of the D0{sub 22} phase.

  12. Influence of cold rolling direction on texture, inhibitor and magnetic properties in strip-cast grain-oriented 3% silicon steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, F., E-mail: fangfengdbdx@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Rolling Technology and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Lu, X.; Zhang, Y.X.; Wang, Y.; Jiao, H.T.; Cao, G.M.; Yuan, G.; Xu, Y.B. [State Key Laboratory of Rolling Technology and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Misra, R.D.K. [Laboratory for Excellence in Advanced Steel Research, Department of Metallurgical, Materials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso, EL Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Wang, G.D. [State Key Laboratory of Rolling Technology and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China)

    2017-02-15

    An unconventional cold rolling scheme (inclined rolling at 0°, 30°, 45°, 90° during second-stage cold rolling process) was adopted to process grain-oriented silicon steel based on strip casting process. The influences of inclination angles on microstructure, texture, inhibitor and magnetic properties were studied by a combination of EBSD, XRD and TEM. It was found that the α-fiber texture was weakened and γ-fiber was strengthened in cold rolled sheet with increase in inclination angle. The primary recrystallization sheet exhibited more homogeneous microstructure with relatively strong γ-fiber, medium α-fiber texture, weak λ-fiber texture and Goss component at high inclination angles. Fine and homogeneous inhibitors were obtained after primary annealing with increase in inclination angle from 0° to 90° because of more uniform deformation after inclined rolling. The grain-oriented silicon steel experienced completely secondary recrystallization at various inclination angles after final annealing process, with superior magnetic properties at 0° and 90°. Furthermore, Goss nuclei capable of final secondary recrystallization in strip casting process newly formed both in-grain shear bands and grain boundaries region during second-stage cold rolling and subsequent annealing process, which is different from the well-accepted results that Goss texture originated from the subsurface layer of the hot rolled sheet or during intermediate annealing process. In addition, the Goss texture that nucleated in-grain shear bands was weaker but more accurate as compared to that in grain boundaries region. - Highlights: • Inclined cold rolling was adopted to process strip-cast grain-oriented silicon steel. • Influence of inclination angles on texture, inhibitor and magnetic properties was studied. • The initial texture was changed with respect to the inclination angle. • Homogeneous inhibitors were obtained after primary annealing at various inclination angles.

  13. Orientation effect on recovery and recrystallization of cold rolled niobium single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasan, R. [Center for Accelerated Maturation of Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)], E-mail: rajagopalan.5@osu.edu; Viswanathan, G.B.; Levit, V.I.; Fraser, H.L. [Center for Accelerated Maturation of Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2009-05-15

    Single crystal sheets of niobium with initial orientations of (0 0 1) [11-bar0], (1 1 0) [11-bar 0] and (1 1 1) [11-bar0] were rolled at room temperature in the strain range of 25-50%. The deformed specimens were vacuum annealed at temperatures of 800 deg. C, 1000 deg. C, and 1200 deg. C for 3 h. TEM, SEM-OIM and optical microscopy revealed orientation stability in (0 0 1) and (1 1 0) rolled samples with no recrystallization observed after annealing. Samples rolled along (1 1 1) partially recrystallized after annealing at 1000 deg. C and 1200 deg. C. A relatively small increase was observed in hardness of (0 0 1) rolled crystals between 25% and 50% strain, implying low work hardening rates. (1 1 1) rolled samples showed higher hardening rates, and enhanced recovery in hardness values after annealing, due to partial recrystallization. Conditions have been identified for the deformation and annealing of niobium single crystals, enabling the preservation of single crystal structure and near-complete recovery of mechanical properties. A simple crystallographic model is proposed, giving an explanation for the observed orientation stability in (0 0 1) and (1 1 0) rolled samples, and the tendency towards instability and recrystallization in (1 1 1) rolled samples.

  14. The Work Softening by Deformation-Induced Disordering and Cold Rolling of 6.5 wt pct Si Steel Thin Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianglong; Li, Haoze; Zhang, Weina; Liu, Zhenyu; Wang, Guodong; Luo, Zhonghan; Zhang, Fengquan

    2016-09-01

    As-cast strip of 6.5 wt pct Si steel was fabricated by twin-roll strip casting. After hot rolling at 1323 K (1050 °C), thin sheets with the thickness of 0.35 mm were produced by warm rolling at 373 K (100 °C) with rolling reductions of 15, 25, 35, 45, 55, and 65 pct. Influence of warm rolling reduction on ductility was investigated by room temperature bending test. The measurement of macro-hardness showed that "work softening" could begin when the warm rolling reduction exceeded 35 pct. The room temperature ductility of the thin sheets gradually increased with the increase of warm rolling reductions, and the plastic deformation during bending began to form when the warm rolling reduction was greater than 45 pct, the 65 pct rolled thin sheet exhibited the maximum plastic deformation of about 0.6 pct during bending at room temperature, with a few small dimples having been observed on the fracture surfaces. B2-ordered domains were formed in the 15, 25, 35, 45, and 55 pct rolled specimens, and their average size decreased with the increase of warm rolling reductions. By contrast, no B2-ordered domain could be found in the 65 pct rolled specimen. It had been observed that large-ordered domains could be split into several small parts by the slip of partial super-dislocations during warm rolling, which led to significant decrease of the order degree to cause the phenomenon of deformation-induced disordering. On the basis of these results, cold rolling schedule was developed to successfully fabricate 0.25-mm-thick sheets with good surface qualities and magnetic properties from warm rolled sheets.

  15. Effect of cold rolling on the formation and distribution of nanoclusters during pre-aging in an Al–Mg–Si alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serizawa, A.; Sato, T.; Miller, M.K.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of high densities of dislocations on the formation behavior of two types of nano-scale clusters (nanoclusters), which are formed at room temperature or during pre-aging at ∼373 K in an Al–Mg–Si alloy, was investigated by atom probe tomography. Cold rolling was applied to modify the formation behavior and/or the characteristics of the nanoclusters and also the precipitation sequence, which involve both nanoclusters and a strengthening phase to improve the bake-hardening response. Nanoclusters formed during pre-aging tended to form along the dislocations. Cold rolling accelerated the preferential formation of the nanoclusters, whereas the number density of the nanoclusters decreased by cold rolling before pre-aging. However, the number density of the nanoclusters was considerably higher than that of the β″ phase. Cold rolling before pre-aging enhanced the age-hardenability the most compared with other processes such as the contemporary pre-aging process. It is considered that the nanoclusters along dislocations lead to the preferential transformation to the β″ phase and then the rapid growth of the β″ phase. The nanoclusters formed on dislocations are effective in improving the bake-hardening response for the duration of the bake-hardening process. The kinetics and the distribution of the nanoclusters were found to be affected by the dislocations which were induced by cold rolling.

  16. Jet evolution in hot and cold QCD matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domdey, Svend Oliver

    2010-07-23

    In this thesis, we study the evolution of energetic partons in hot and cold QCD matter. In both cases, interactions with the medium lead to energy loss of the parton and its transverse momentum broadens. The propagation of partons in cold nuclear matter can be investigated experimentally in deep-inelastic scattering (DIS) on nuclei. We use the dipole model to calculate transverse momentum broadening in DIS on nuclei and compare to experimental data from HERMES. In hot matter, the evolution of the parton shower is strongly modified. To calculate this modification, we construct an additional scattering term in the QCD evolution equations which accounts for scattering of partons in the quark-gluon plasma. With this scattering term, we compute the modified gluon distribution in the shower at small momentum fractions. Furthermore, we calculate the modified fragmentation function of gluons into pions. The scattering term causes energy loss of the parton shower which leads to a suppression of hadrons with large transverse momentum. In the third part of this thesis, we study double dijet production in hadron collisions. This process contains information about the transverse parton distribution of hadrons. As main result, we find that double dijet production will allow for a study of the transverse growth of hadronic wave functions at the LHC. (orig.)

  17. Hydrogen storage in MgH2 - LaNi5 nanocomposites produced by cold rolling under inert atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquez, J.J.; Silva, W.B.; Leiva, D.R.; Ishikawa, T.T.; Kiminami, C.S.; Botta, W.J.; Floriano, R.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effects of the addition of LaNi5 in magnesium hydride H-sorption/desorption behavior was addressed. MgH 2 - X mol.% LaNi 5 (X=0.67; 1.50 and 2.54) mixtures were processed by cold rolling (CR) inside a glove box under controlled atmosphere, with oxygen and moisture contents below 0.1 ppm. Structural characterization showed that during the H-absorption/desorption cycles, a mixture of phases consisting of MgH 2 , LaH 3 and Mg 2 NiH 4 is formed, which has an important role in the hydrogen storage kinetic properties. The mixture MgH 2 -1.50 mol.% LaNi 5 was able to absorb/desorb 4.0 wt.% H 2 in less than 15 min at 100 and 280 °C respectively. The DSC analysis showed that the LaNi 5 additive lowers the temperature at which the H-desorption starts in cold rolled MgH 2 by around 50 °C. (author)

  18. Evolution of structure in cold dark matter universes

    OpenAIRE

    Consortium, The Virgo; :; Jenkins, A.; Frenk, C. S.; Pearce, F. R.; Thomas, P. A.; Colberg, J. M.; White, S. D. M.; Couchman, H. M. P.; Peacock, J. A.; Efstathiou, G.; Nelson, A. H.

    1997-01-01

    We present an analysis of the clustering evolution of dark matter in four cold dark matter (CDM) cosmologies. We use a suite of high resolution, 17-million particle, N-body simulations which sample volumes large enough to give clustering statistics with unprecedented accuracy. We investigate both a flat and an open model with Omega_0=0.3, and two models with Omega=1, one with the standard CDM power spectrum and the other with the same power spectrum as the Omega_0=0.3 models. The amplitude of...

  19. Cladding of aluminum on AISI 304L stainless steel by cold roll bonding: Mechanism, microstructure, and mechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akramifard, H.R., E-mail: akrami.1367@ut.ac.ir [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 11155-4563, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mirzadeh, H., E-mail: hmirzadeh@ut.ac.ir [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 11155-4563, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Advanced Metalforming and Thermomechanical Processing Laboratory, School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Parsa, M.H., E-mail: mhparsa@ut.ac.ir [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 11155-4563, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Center of Excellence for High Performance Materials, School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Advanced Metalforming and Thermomechanical Processing Laboratory, School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-09-08

    The AA1050 aluminum alloy and AISI 304L stainless steel sheets were stacked together to fabricate Al/304L/Al clad sheet composites by the cold roll bonding process, which was performed at temperatures of ∼100 and 23 °C to produce austenitic and austenitic–martensitic microstructures in the AISI 304L counterpart, respectively. The peel test results showed that the threshold reduction required to make a suitable bond at room temperature is below 10%, which is significantly lower than the required reduction for cold roll bonding of Al sheets. The tearing of the Al sheet during the peel test signified that the bond strength of the roll bonded sheets by only 38% reduction has reached the strength of Al, which is a key advantage of the developed sheets. The extrusion of Al through the surface cracks and settling inside the 304L surface valleys due to strong affinity between Al and Fe was found to be the bonding mechanism. Subsequently, the interface and tensile behaviors of three-layered clad sheets after soaking at 200–600 °C for 1 h were investigated to characterize the effect of annealing treatment on the formation and thickening of intermetallic compound layer and the resultant mechanical properties. Field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and optical microscopy techniques revealed that an intermediate layer composed mainly of Al{sub 13}Fe{sub 4}, FeC and Al{sub 8}SiC{sub 7} forms during annealing at 500–600 °C. A significant drop in tensile stress–strain curves after the maximum point (UTS) was correlated to the interface debonding. It was found that the formation of intermediate layer by post heat treatment deteriorates the bond quality and encourages the debonding process. Moreover, the existence of strain-induced martensite in clad sheets was found to play a key role in the enhancement of tensile strength.

  20. Evolution of the texture, mechanical properties, and microstructure of Cu-2.7Be alloys during hot cross-rolling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Daibo; Liu, Chuming; Liu, Yadi; Gao, Yonghao; Jiang, Shunong [Central South University, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changsha (China); Han, Tan [Suzhou Kinkou Copper Industry Limited Liability Company, Taicang (China)

    2015-09-15

    The evolution of the microstructure and texture of Cu-2.7Be alloys during hot rolling was investigated and related to the mechanical properties of the resulting sheets. Hot cross-rolling is shown to be an effective way to refine the hard and brittle secondary-phase particles in Cu-2.7Be alloys. The Cu- and brass-type textures increase and decrease in prevalence, respectively, during the rolling process. The yield strengths along the first and second rolling directions, and 45 to the former, are all enhanced because the corresponding Schmid factors decrease as the sheets are rolled thinner. The ductility anisotropy of the as-rolled sheets is related to the distribution and shape of the secondary-phase particles therein. (orig.)

  1. Effect of the cold-rolling parameters and the yield strength of the strip material on the friction stresses in a deformation zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garber, E. A.; Yagudin, I. V.; Ermilov, V. V.; Traino, A. I.

    2009-10-01

    The reliability of the methods of determining the friction coefficient is analyzed, since the friction stresses in the deformation zone during cold rolling significantly affect the quality of cold-rolled sheets and the energy consumption. The well-known experimental data and empirical dependences are shown to contradict each other, and the statistical assurance of these dependences is absent. A database on the interrelated technological and energy-force parameters of a five-stand cold-rolling mill, which includes a wide range of steel grades and strip sizes and shapes, is analyzed. Regression analysis is used to obtain a statistically reliable regression dependence of the friction coefficient in the deformation zone on the most significant technological parameters. The application of this dependence decreases the error of energy-force calculations by more than two times.

  2. Texture evolution during the recrystallization of a warm-rolled low-carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Araiza, M.; Godet, S.; Jacques, P.J.; Jonas, J.J.

    2006-01-01

    The texture changes taking place during the recrystallization of a warm-rolled low-carbon steel were examined using electron backscattered diffraction. The deformation textures of the warm-rolled material are similar in shape to those of cold-rolled materials, but are somewhat more intense. The recrystallization textures resemble the deformation textures but with a more extended α fibre that includes the {1 1 3} orientation; the γ fibre extends to the {5 5 4} orientation. These two orientations are related to the {1 1 2} deformed grains by near 26 deg, rotations about selected axes. Nevertheless, both orientations appear in the early stages of recrystallization, an observation that does not support the oriented growth theory. The {1 1 1} orientations are the first to recrystallize while the α fibre is present until the end of recrystallization. It is finally consumed by all types of grains as well as by subgrain coalescence. The similarities in the growth rates for the {1 1 1} and random orientations and the late disappearance of the α fibre suggest that recrystallization takes place according to the high stored energy oriented nucleation concept

  3. Recovery and recrystallization in commercial purity aluminum cold rolled to an ultrahigh strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishin, Oleg; Godfrey, A.; Juul Jensen, Dorte

    2013-01-01

    , but with different textures and different spatial arrangements of the rolling texture components. Annealing leads initially to a coarsening of the lamellar microstructure, accompanied by a reduction in the HAB fraction. Ex-situ experiments using very short annealing times indicate that such microstructural changes...

  4. Analysis and development of the method for calculating calibration of the working plank in the cold tube roller rolling mills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Pilipenko

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Analysis and development of the existing method of calculation of the calibrated profile of the working strips mills CTRR roller cold rolling pipe to ensure the required distribution of energy-power parameters along the cone. In presented paper, which has for aim the development of existing method for calculating the profile of calibrated working plank in the cold tube roller rolling mills, the analysis had been made and it was proposed to use Besier-lines while building the the profile of the plank working surface. It was established that the use of Besier spline-curve for calculating the calibration of supporting planks creates the possibility to calculate the parameters proceeding from reduction over the external diameter. The proposed method for calculating deformation parameters in CTRR mills is the result of development of existing method and as such shows the scientific novelty. Comparison of the plots for distribution of the force parameters of the CTRR process along the cone of deformation presents as evidence the advantage of the method to be proposed. The decrease of reduction value at the end of deformation zone favors the manufacture of tubes with lesser wall thickness deviation (especially longitudinal one, caused with waviness induced by the cold pilgering process. Joined the further development of the method of calculating the deformation parameters CTRR. It is proposed for the calculation of the calibration work surface support bracket mills CTRR to use a spline Bezier. The practical significance of the proposed method consists in the fact that calculation of all zones of the plank by means of one dependence allows simplifying the process of manufacturing the latter in machines with programmed numerical control. In this case the change of reduction parameters over the thickness of the wall will not exert the considerable influence on the character of the force parameters (the character and not the value distribution along the

  5. Rietveld and impedance analysis of cold and hot rolled duplex and lean duplex steels for application in paper and pulp industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteves, Luiza; Lins, Vanessa de Freitas Cunha, E-mail: luizaeq@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Quimica; Paiva, Paulo Renato Perdigao [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais (CEFET), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Viana, Adolfo Kalergis do Nascimento [APERAM South America, Timoteo, MG (Brazil)

    2017-01-15

    In this study, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Rietveld Refinement were performed to identify and quantify the ferrite and austenite phase of cold and hot rolled duplex stainless steels (UNS S31803) and lean duplex stainless steels (UNS S32304). Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was applied to evaluate the chemical behavior of duplex and lean duplex stainless steels in white, green, and black liquors of paper and pulp industry. Rietveld analysis results showed a higher austenite content than the standard limit for duplex steels in the hot rolled condition. The hot rolling condition plays a major role in improving corrosion resistance in white liquor mainly for the lean duplex steel. (author)

  6. Rietveld and impedance analysis of cold and hot rolled duplex and lean duplex steels for application in paper and pulp industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteves, Luiza; Lins, Vanessa de Freitas Cunha; Viana, Adolfo Kalergis do Nascimento

    2017-01-01

    In this study, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Rietveld Refinement were performed to identify and quantify the ferrite and austenite phase of cold and hot rolled duplex stainless steels (UNS S31803) and lean duplex stainless steels (UNS S32304). Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was applied to evaluate the chemical behavior of duplex and lean duplex stainless steels in white, green, and black liquors of paper and pulp industry. Rietveld analysis results showed a higher austenite content than the standard limit for duplex steels in the hot rolled condition. The hot rolling condition plays a major role in improving corrosion resistance in white liquor mainly for the lean duplex steel. (author)

  7. Study of grain structure evolution during annealing of a twin-roll-cast Mg alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, A.; Samajdar, I.; Nie, J.F.; Tewari, A.

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of microstructure under static annealing was studied for mid-thickness section of a twin-roll-cast (TRC) magnesium alloy. Annealing was performed at 300 °C and 500 °C for different times. Microstructural evolution was quantitatively analyzed, from optical micrographs, using grain path envelope analysis. Additional information from electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) was used for addressing the possible mechanism(s). It was found that the TRC structure had a bimodal grain size, which was preserved even after annealing at 300 °C. However, the annealing at 500 °C led to a unimodal grain size. This difference in the grain size distribution created a contrasting behavior in the normalized standard deviations. This was primarily attributed to a competition between recovery and recrystallization, and their respective dominance at 300° and 500 °C. A deformation induced recrystallization recovery (DIRR) model was proposed. The proposed model could successfully address the experimental microstructural evolution. - Highlights: • Annealing of twin roll cast (TRC) magnesium alloy was done at temperatures of 300 °C and 500 °C. • TRC had bimodal structure. Bimodality preserved for annealing at 300 °C. Annealing at 500 °C led to unimodal structure. • Grain evolution was described based on the competition between recovery and recrystallization. • Deformation induced recrystallization recovery (DIRR) mechanistic model was developed.

  8. Studing the Influence of Six Main Industrial Losses on Overall Equipment Effectiveness in Cold Rolling Unit of Mobarakeh Steel Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    seyed Akbar Nilipour Tabatabaei

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE is a key indicator and a basis for evaluating the effectiveness of equipments as well as assessing the effectiveness of the Total Productive Maintenance (TPM system. This indicator together with overall equipment performance can be used in production lines such as steel production. The aim of this article is to study the influence of six main industrial losses on the OEE indicator . For this purpose, the OEE has been calculated in the cold rolling production lines of Mobarakeh Steel Complex the gap between production lines and the global industrial standards has been studied the causes of production system inefficiency has been investigated and the effectiveness of TPM system, equipments' bottlenecks and the influence of the main industry losses on OEE have been studied. The findings imply that the influence of the variation of availability and performance rates on OEE is high, while the influence of the variation of quality rate on OEE is not considerable.

  9. Assessment of recovery and recrystallisation behaviours of cold rolled IF steel through non-destructive electromagnetic characterisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Rajat K.; Dutta, Siuli; Panda, Ashis K.; Rajinikanth, V.; Das, Swapan K.; Mitra, Amitava; Strangwood, M.; Davis, Claire L.

    2018-07-01

    The recovery and recrystallisation behaviours of cold rolled IF steel have been investigated by destructive (optical microscopy and hardness) and non-destructive electromagnetic sensor, (which allows direct measurement of strip samples with no surface preparation) techniques. The onset and completion of recrystallisation are clearly monitored through destructive techniques of optical microscopy and hardness measurements. The nucleation of new recrystallised grains is observed in the sample annealed at 600 °C/15 min, while completion of recrystallisation takes place at 700 °C/15 min. The destructive techniques are not very accurate in monitoring recovery, for example, changes in hardness of accounting for ≈60% change in the coercivity value. Therefore, the measurement of magnetic softening through an electromagnetic sensor acts a crucial role for understanding recovery and recrystallisation behaviours of steels during industrial processing. The present investigation is aimed not only for controlling product quality but also saving characterisation time through off line monitoring during steel processing at industry.

  10. HREM studies on the microstructure of severely cold-rolled TiNi alloy after reverse martensitic transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Y.F.; Zhao, L.C.

    2000-01-01

    The microstructure of Ti-49.8at.%Ni alloy, which was cold rolled to about 30% reduction in thickness in its martensitic condition and subsequently heated up to 200 C for half an hour, has been studied by high resolution electron microscopy. The interface between parent phase and martensite is not smooth and well coherent. The boundary between two subgrains of the parent phase is not straight but perfectly coherent, with partial dislocation observed at the interface. Inside some parent phase grains, thin plate-like {114} and spear-like {112} twin-related parent phase variant pairs are observed. The {114} twinning boundary is relatively straight, but with two or three atomic-height blurred layers existing near the interface. (orig.)

  11. Imposition of Antidumping Duty (BAMD Towards China’s Cold Rolled Coil/Sheet (CRC/S Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lila Pratiwi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Steel industry is a strategic sector in the economy of a country. Steel industry in Indonesia has not been able to fulfill their domestic demand that is still necessary to import steel product. However, many of these imported products are sold at dumping prices, especially those from china giving rise to unfair trade. One of trade remedy measures as a result of unfair trade remedies can recover trough the imposition of antidumping duty. In 2013, Indonesia imposes antidumping duty for Cold Rolled Coil/Sheet (CRC/S from China and other countries. Imposition of antidumping duty will be analyzed descriptively with the antidumping agreement conformity. While, it cannot be denied that political factors also determine imposition of antidumping duty. It is need to use analytical theory of justice in order to enforce fair-trade

  12. Analysis of the influence of the anisotropy induced by cold rolling on duplex and super-austenitic stainless steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martino Labanti

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This report contains the results obtained from the mechanical characterization tests carried out on two different stainless steel (duplex 6%Ni, 22%Cr and super-austenitic 31%Ni, 28%Cr used for the manufacturing of pipes which are employed in the oil production. The activity has been performed in order to evaluate the effects of anisotropy, induced by cold rolling, on the mechanical characteristics of the investigated steels, measured in the three main directions. Considering the small size of the component, the method and the specimens used for the tests were not the standard one. The procedure carried out provided the strain measurement of the specimen during testing by means of resistive strain gages, bonded on the specimens.

  13. Investigation of the effect of heat treatment on the structure of the cold-rolled ferrite stainless steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. Л. Грешта

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The work presents the estimation of a factor, namely, the solid solution super saturation by carbon and nitrogen on crystalline nature of high-chromium ferrite (HCF in defining the inhibition mechanism of recrystallization processes in ferritic stainless steel. The essence of the study was to conduct an additional heat treatment of hot (h/r tackle for the following modes: annealing 800 ° C - 4 hours, tempering with temperatures of 900, 1000, 1100 ° C after exposure to 1 min/mm. It is established that the determining factor that influences the amount of the carbide phase in c/r sheet is prior treatment of h/r tackle. A definite connection between the volume fraction of the secondary phase and the degree of cold deformation was observed. In the structure of cold-rolled sheet the same pattern with respect to the degree of implementation processes allocation of excess phases is maintained as in hot-rolled, after appropriate heat treatment. The smallest amount of the secondary phase structure was observed in the letter after hardening from 1100 °C - 1 min/mm. The reason is the thermodynamic state of HCF, to which at 1100 °C all the excess carbon and nitrogen must exist in solid solution. Thus, it is found that according to the present analysis of structural changes it should be noted that the best option of thermal prior treatment of h/r tackle is the annealing at 800 °C – 4 hours

  14. Accelerated carbonation using municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash and cold-rolling wastewater: Performance evaluation and reaction kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, E-E [Department of Biochemistry, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wu-Hsing Street, Taipei City, Taiwan 110, Taiwan, ROC (China); Pan, Shu-Yuan [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71 Chou-Shan Rd., Taipei City, Taiwan 10673, Taiwan, ROC (China); Yang, Liuhanzi [School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Haidin District, Beijing 100084 (China); Chen, Yi-Hung [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, National Taipei University of Technology, 1, Sec. 3, Zhongxiao E. Rd., Taipei City, Taiwan 10608, Taiwan, ROC (China); Kim, Hyunook [Department of Energy and Environmental System Engineering, University of Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chiang, Pen-Chi, E-mail: pcchiang@ntu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71 Chou-Shan Rd., Taipei City, Taiwan 10673, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Carbonation was performed using CO{sub 2}, wastewater and bottom ash in a slurry reactor. • A maximum capture capacity of 102 g CO{sub 2} per kg BA was achieved at mild conditions. • A maximum carbonation conversion of MSWI-BA was predicted to be 95% by RSM. • The CO{sub 2} emission from Bali incinerator could be expected to reduce by 6480 ton/y. • The process energy consumption per ton CO{sub 2} captured was estimated to be 180 kW h. - Abstract: Accelerated carbonation of alkaline wastes including municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash (MSWI-BA) and the cold-rolling wastewater (CRW) was investigated for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) fixation under different operating conditions, i.e., reaction time, CO{sub 2} concentration, liquid-to-solid ratio, particle size, and CO{sub 2} flow rate. The MSWI-BA before and after carbonation process were analyzed by the thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The MSWI-BA exhibits a high carbonation conversion of 90.7%, corresponding to a CO{sub 2} fixation capacity of 102 g per kg of ash. Meanwhile, the carbonation kinetics was evaluated by the shrinking core model. In addition, the effect of different operating parameters on carbonation conversion of MSWI-BA was statistically evaluated by response surface methodology (RSM) using experimental data to predict the maximum carbonation conversion. Furthermore, the amount of CO{sub 2} reduction and energy consumption for operating the proposed process in refuse incinerator were estimated. Capsule abstract: CO{sub 2} fixation process by alkaline wastes including bottom ash and cold-rolling wastewater was developed, which should be a viable method due to high conversion.

  15. FATIGUE BEHAVIOR OF HOT-ROLLED STEEL INTENDED FOR COLD FORMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gejza Rosenberg

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In the work, there are presented measured tension and fatigue properties of eight low-carbon steels moulded in form of 20 kg ingots that were processed by controlled regime of rolling /cooling and then exposed to simulated effect of two coiling temperatures. The experimental results presented in the work show, that steels with ferrite-martensite or ferrite-bainitic microstructure have in comparison to ferrite-pearlitic or ferrite-carbidic microstructure better strength-plastic properties, but worse resistance to cyclic loading.

  16. Microstructure and microtexture evolutions of deformed oxide layers on a hot-rolled microalloyed steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Xianglong; Jiang, Zhengyi; Zhao, Jingwei; Wei, Dongbin; Zhou, Cunlong; Huang, Qingxue

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Microtexture development of deformed oxide layers is investigated. • Magnetite shares the {0 0 1} fibre texture with wustite. • Hematite develops the {0 0 0 1} basal fibre parallel to the oxide growth. • Stress relief and ion vacancy diffusion mechanism for magnetite seam. - Abstract: Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis has been presented to investigate the microstructure and microtexture evolutions of deformed oxide scale formed on a microalloyed steel during hot rolling and accelerated cooling. Magnetite and wustite in oxide layers share a strong {0 0 1} and a weak {1 1 0} fibres texture parallel to the oxide growth. Trigonal hematite develops the {0 0 0 1} basal fibre parallel to the crystallographic plane {1 1 1} in magnetite. Taylor factor estimates have been conducted to elucidate the microtexture evolution. The fine-grained magnetite seam adjacent to the substrate is governed by stress relief and ions vacancy diffusion mechanism

  17. Effect of cold rolling on the superconducting and electronic properties of two amorphous alloys; Nb50Zr35Si15 and Nb70Zr15Si15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, A.; Masumoto, T.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of cold rolling on the superconducting properties was examined for amorphous Nb 50 Zr 35 Si 15 and Nb 70 Zr 15 Si 15 superconductors. Cold rolling to 10 to 20% reduction in thickness results in a rise of superconducting transition temperature (Tsub(c)) and a decrease in transition width (ΔTsub(c)), upper critical field gradient near Tsub(c) [dHsub(c2)/dT)sub(Tsub(c)], critical current density [Jsub(c)(H)] and normal electrical resistivity (rhosub(n)). Changes of about 7% for Tsub(c), 33% for ΔTsub(c), 12% for -(dHsub(c2)/dT)sub(Tsub(c) and 70% for Jsub(c)(H) are found. The rise of Tsub(c) upon cold rolling was considered to originate from the increase in the electron-phonon coupling constant (lambda) due to an increase in the electronic density of states at the Fermi level [N(Esub(f))] and a decrease in the phonon frequency (ω), while the decreases in ΔTsub(c), Jsub(c)(H) and rhosub(n) were attributed to the decrease in fluxoid pinning force due to an increase in homogeneity in the amorphous structure. From the results described above, the following two conclusions were derived: (a) cold rolling causes changes in electronic and phonon-states in the quenched amorphous phase, and (b) deformation upon cold rolling occurs not only in the coarse deformation bands observable by optical microscopy, but also on a much finer scale comparable to the coherence length (approx. = 7.7 nm). (author)

  18. Influence of cold rolling and ageing treatment on microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti-30Nb-5Ta-6Zr alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Zhao, Juan; Dai, Shijuan; Chen, Feng; Yu, Xinquan; Zhang, Youfa

    2013-11-01

    In this study, the relationship between deformation mechanism and rolling reductions was investigated, and the effects of deformation reductions on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the alloys both cold rolled and aged were revealed. It was found that the equiaxed β grains of the Ti-30Nb-5Ta-6Zr alloy have elongated gradually with increasing the deformation reduction. The deformation mechanism of dislocation slipping, deformed twins and SIM α″ phase appeared in the alloy deformed by 23% and 66%. The type of twins of the alloy deformed by 23% and 66% are {112}〈111〉 and {332}〈113〉 respectively. When the reduction was up to 85%, dislocation slipping was the main mode of deformation accompanying with SIM α″ phase occurred. With increasing deformation reduction, the average size of lenticular precipitation α phase decreased gradually. The strength of cold rolled and aged samples increased with increasing deformation reduction, while elastic modulus decreased. Due to the precipitation α phase, the elastic modulus of aged samples was higher than cold rolled. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Kelvin-Helmholtz evolution in subsonic cold streams feeding galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, Adrianna; Coffing, S.; Kuranz, C.; Drake, R. P.; Klein, S.; Trantham, M.; Malamud, G.

    2017-10-01

    The most prolific star formers in cosmological history lie in a regime where dense filament structures carried substantial mass into the galaxy to sustain star formation without producing a shock. However, hydrodynamic instabilities present on the filament surface limit the ability of such structures to deliver dense matter deeply enough to sustain star formation. Simulations lack the finite resolution necessary to allow fair treatment of the instabilities present at the stream boundary. Using the Omega EP laser, we simulate this mode of galaxy formation with a cold, dense, filament structure within a hotter, subsonic flow and observe the interface evolution. Machined surface perturbations stimulate the development of the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability due to the resultant shear between the two media. A spherical crystal imaging system produces high-resolution radiographs of the KH structures along the filament surface. The results from the first experiments of this kind, using a rod with single-mode, long-wavelength modulations, will be discussed. This work is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, through the NNSA-DS and SC-OFES Joint Program in High-Energy-Density Laboratory Plasmas, Grant Number DE-NA0002956, and the National Laser User Facility Program, Grant Number DE-NA0002719, and through.

  20. Process Development And Simulation For Cold Fabrication Of Doubly Curved Metal Plate By Using Line Array Roll Set

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, D. S.; Jung, C. G.; Seong, D. Y.; Yang, D. Y.; Han, J. M.; Han, M. S.

    2007-01-01

    For effective manufacturing of a doubly curved sheet metal, a novel sheet metal forming process is proposed. The suggested process uses a Line Array Roll Set (LARS) composed of a pair of upper and lower roll assemblies in a symmetric manner. The process offers flexibility as compared with the conventional manufacturing processes, because it does not require any complex-shaped die and loss of material by blank-holding is minimized. LARS allows flexibility of the incremental forming process and adopts the principle of bending deformation, resulting in a slight deformation in thickness. Rolls composed of line array roll sets are divided into a driving roll row and two idle roll rows. The arrayed rolls in the central lines of the upper and lower roll assemblies are motor-driven so that they deform and transfer the sheet metal using friction between the rolls and the sheet metal. The remaining rolls are idle rolls, generating bending deformation with driving rolls. Furthermore, all the rolls are movable in any direction so that they are adaptable to any size or shape of the desired three-dimensional configuration. In the process, the sheet is deformed incrementally as deformation proceeds simultaneously in rolling and transverse directions step by step. Consequently, it can be applied to the fabrication of doubly curved ship hull plates by undergoing several passes. In this work, FEM simulations are carried out for verification of the proposed incremental forming system using the chosen design parameters. Based on the results of the simulation, the relationship between the roll set configuration and the curvature of a sheet metal is determined. The process information such as the forming loads and torques acting on every roll is analyzed as important data for the design and development of the manufacturing system

  1. Superplasticity behaviors of Al-Zn-Mg-Zr cold-rolled alloy sheet with minor Sc addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, H. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University (Light Alloy Research Institute, Central South University), Changsha 410083 (China); Nonferrous Metal Oriented Advanced Structural Materials and Manufacturing Cooperative Innovation Center, Changsha 410083 (China); Pan, Q.L., E-mail: pql2016@126.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University (Light Alloy Research Institute, Central South University), Changsha 410083 (China); Nonferrous Metal Oriented Advanced Structural Materials and Manufacturing Cooperative Innovation Center, Changsha 410083 (China); Yu, X.H.; Huang, X.; Sun, X.; Wang, X.D.; Li, M.J.; Yin, Z.M. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University (Light Alloy Research Institute, Central South University), Changsha 410083 (China); Nonferrous Metal Oriented Advanced Structural Materials and Manufacturing Cooperative Innovation Center, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2016-10-31

    A refined microstructure of Al-Zn-Mg-Sc-Zr alloy sheet was produced by simple hot and cold rolling to an average grain size of 3 µm. Experiments were completed in electro-fluid servo-fatigue tester and results were investigated by means of optical microscope (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Superplastic deformation was conducted and superplastic ductility of ≥200% was achieved at a testing temperature range from 425 ºC to 500 ºC and relative high strain rate range of 1×10{sup −3} s{sup −1}~1×10{sup −1} s{sup −1}. The maximum elongation of 539% was obtained at 500 ºC and 1×10{sup −2} s{sup −1}. In addition, the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) analyses showed that the presence of Al{sub 3} (Sc, Zr) particles in pinning grain boundaries and dislocations had a great influence on the superplastic deformation. The analyses of superplastic test data calculated out the coherent strain rates sensitivity parameter of 0.43 and the average activation energy of 143.762 kJ/mol. The data interpreted that the dominant deformation mechanism was grain boundary sliding controlled by lattice self-diffusion.

  2. Online Surface Defect Identification of Cold Rolled Strips Based on Local Binary Pattern and Extreme Learning Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the production of cold-rolled strip, the strip surface may suffer from various defects which need to be detected and identified using an online inspection system. The system is equipped with high-speed and high-resolution cameras to acquire images from the moving strip surface. Features are then extracted from the images and are used as inputs of a pre-trained classifier to identify the type of defect. New types of defect often appear in production. At this point the pre-trained classifier needs to be quickly retrained and deployed in seconds to meet the requirement of the online identification of all defects in the environment of a continuous production line. Therefore, the method for extracting the image features and the training for the classification model should be automated and fast enough, normally within seconds. This paper presents our findings in investigating the computational and classification performance of various feature extraction methods and classification models for the strip surface defect identification. The methods include Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT, Speeded Up Robust Features (SURF and Local Binary Patterns (LBP. The classifiers we have assessed include Back Propagation (BP neural network, Support Vector Machine (SVM and Extreme Learning Machine (ELM. By comparing various combinations of different feature extraction and classification methods, our experiments show that the hybrid method of LBP for feature extraction and ELM for defect classification results in less training and identification time with higher classification accuracy, which satisfied online real-time identification.

  3. 2-Mercaptopyrimidine as an effective inhibitor for the corrosion of cold rolled steel in HNO_3 solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xianghong; Deng, Shuduan; Lin, Tong; Xie, Xiaoguang; Du, Guanben

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • MP acts an effective inhibitor in HNO_3, but other pyrimidine derivatives are poor. • MP is a mixed inhibitor, while mainly retards anodic reaction. • EIS exhibit depressed capacitive loops whose diameters are increased with MP. • The most active adsorption site is S atom for any MP molecular form. • The adsorptive order is thiol-MP < thione-MP < p-thiol-MP < p-thione-MP. - Abstract: The inhibition effect of five pyrimidine derivatives (2-chloropyrimidine, 2-hydroxypyrimidine, 2-bromopyrimidine, 2-aminopyrimidine, 2-mercaptopyrimidine) on the corrosion of cold rolled steel (CRS) in 0.1 M HNO_3 solution was comparatively examined. 2-Mercaptopyrimidine (MP) was found to be an effective inhibitor with the inhibition efficiency as high as 99.1% at a low concentration 0.50 mM. But other four pyrimidine derivatives exhibited poor inhibitive ability. The addition of MP caused both anodic and cathodic curves to low current densities, and was found to significantly strengthen the impedance. Quantum chemical calculation and molecular dynamic simulation were performed to theoretically investigate the adsorption mechanism.

  4. Effect of cold rolling on fatigue crack propagation of TiNi/A16061 shape memory composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jin Kyung; Lee, Sang Pill; Park, Young Chul; Lee, Kyu Chang; Cho, Youn Ho; Lee, Joon Hyun

    2005-01-01

    TiNi alloy fiber was used to recover the original shape of materials using its shape memory effect. The shape memory alloy plays an important role within the metal matrix composite. The shape memory alloy can control the crack propagation in metal matrix composite, and improve the tensile strength of the composite. In this study, TiNi/A16061 Shape Memory Alloy(SMA) composite was fabricated by hot press method, and pressed by a roller for its strength improvement. The four kinds of specimens were fabricated with 0%, 3.2%, 5.2% and 7% volume fraction of TiNi alloy fiber, respectively. A fatigue test has performed to evaluate the crack initiation and propagation for the TiNi/A16061 SMA composite fabricated by this method. In order to study the shape memory effect of the TiNi alloy fiber, the test has also done under both conditions of the room temperature and high temperature. The relationship between the crack growth rate and the stress intensity factor was clarified for the composite, and the cold rolling effect was also studied

  5. The Effect of Ultrafast Heating on Cold-Rolled Low Carbon Steel: Formation and Decomposition of Austenite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Manuel Castro Cerda

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of heating rate on the formation and decomposition of austenite was investigated on cold-rolled low carbon steel. Experiments were performed at two heating rates, 150 °C/s and 1500 °C/s, respectively. The microstructures were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD. Experimental evidence of nucleation of austenite in α/θ, as well as in α/α boundaries is analyzed from the thermodynamic point of view. The increase in the heating rates from 150 °C/s to 1500 °C/s has an impact on the morphology of austenite in the intercritical range. The effect of heating rate on the austenite formation mechanism is analyzed combining thermodynamic calculations and experimental data. The results provide indirect evidence of a transition in the mechanism of austenite formation, from carbon diffusion control to interface control mode. The resulting microstructure after the application of ultrafast heating rates is complex and consists of a mixture of ferrite with different morphologies, undissolved cementite, martensite, and retained austenite.

  6. Analysis of Metal Flow Behavior and Residual Stress Formation of Complex Functional Profiles under High-Speed Cold Roll-Beating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengkui Cui

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To obtain a good surface layer performance of the complex functional profile during the high-speed cold roll-beating forming process, this paper analyzed the metal plastic flow and residual stress-formed mechanism by using a theoretical model of the metal flow and residual stress generation. By using simulation software, the cold roll-beating forming process of a spline shaft was simulated and analyzed. The metal flow and residual stress formation law in the motion were researched. In a practical experiment, the changes in the grains in the spline tooth profile section and the residual stress distribution on the tooth profile were studied. A microcorrespondence relationship was established between the metal plastic flow and the residual stress generation. The conclusions indicate that the rate at which the metal flow decreases changes gradually at different metal layers. The residual stress value is directly related to the plastic flow difference. As the roll-beating speed increases, the uneven degree of plastic deformation at the workpiece surface increases, and the residual stress in the tooth profile is generally greater. At the same roll-beating speed, the rate change trend of the metal flow decreases gradually from the surface to the inner layer and from the dedendum to the addendum. The residual stress distribution on the surface of the tooth profile decreases from the dedendum to the addendum. These findings provide a basis and guidance for the controlled use of residual stress, obtaining better surface layer quality in the high-speed cold roll-beating process of the complex functional profile.

  7. Mechanical properties of Fe -10Ni -7Mn martensitic steel subjected to severe plastic deformation via cold rolling and wire drawing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghasemi-Nanesa, H; Shirazi, H [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 14395-731 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nili-Ahmadabadi, M, E-mail: sut.caster.81710018@gmail.co, E-mail: nili@ut.ac.i [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 14395-731 (Iran, Islamic Republic of) and Center of Excellence for High Performance Materials, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 14395-731, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-07-01

    Fe-Ni-Mn martensitic steels are one of the major groups of ultra-high strength steels that have good mechanical properties and ductility in as annealed condition but they suffer from severe inter-granular embitterment after aging. In this paper, the effect of heavy shaped cold rolling and wire drawing on the mechanical properties of Fe-Ni-Mn steel was investigated. This process could provide a large strain deformation in this alloy. The total strain was {epsilon} {approx}7. Aging behavior and tensile properties of Fe-10Ni-7Mn were studied after aging at 753 K. The results showed that the ultimate tensile strength and ductility after cold rolling, wire drawing and aging increased up to 2540 MPa and 7.1 %, respectively, while the conventional steels show a premature fracture stress of 830 MPa with about zero ductility after aging.

  8. Mechanical properties of Fe -10Ni -7Mn martensitic steel subjected to severe plastic deformation via cold rolling and wire drawing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi-Nanesa, H.; Nili-Ahmadabadi, M.; Shirazi, H.

    2010-07-01

    Fe-Ni-Mn martensitic steels are one of the major groups of ultra-high strength steels that have good mechanical properties and ductility in as annealed condition but they suffer from severe inter-granular embitterment after aging. In this paper, the effect of heavy shaped cold rolling and wire drawing on the mechanical properties of Fe-Ni-Mn steel was investigated. This process could provide a large strain deformation in this alloy. The total strain was epsilon ~7. Aging behavior and tensile properties of Fe-10Ni-7Mn were studied after aging at 753 K. The results showed that the ultimate tensile strength and ductility after cold rolling, wire drawing and aging increased up to 2540 MPa and 7.1 %, respectively, while the conventional steels show a premature fracture stress of 830 MPa with about zero ductility after aging.

  9. Retarding effect of prior-overloading on stress corrosion cracking of cold rolled 316L SS in simulated PWR water environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junjie; Lu, Zhanpeng; Xiao, Qian; Ru, Xiangkun; Ma, Jiarong; Shoji, Tetsuo

    2017-12-01

    The effect of prior single tensile overloading on the stress corrosion cracking behavior of cold rolled 316L in a simulated PWR water environment at 310 °C was investigated. SCC growth retardation by overloading was observed in cold rolled 316L specimens in both the T-L and L-T orientations. The stretch zone observed on the fracture surfaces of the overloaded specimens affected SCC propagation. The compressive residual stress induced by overloading process reduced the effective driving force of SCC propagation. The negative dK/da effect ahead of the crack tip likely contributes to the retardation of SCC growth. The duration of overloading is dependent on water chemistry and the local stress conditions.

  10. Effect of Annealing on Mechanical Properties and Formability of Cold Rolled Thin Sheets of Fe-P P/M Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Shefali; Ravi Kumar, D.; Aravindan, S.

    2016-10-01

    Phosphorus in steel is known to increase strength and hardness and decrease ductility. Higher phosphorus content (more than 0.05%), however, promotes brittle behavior due to segregation of Fe3P along the grain boundaries which makes further mechanical working of these alloys difficult. In this work, thin sheets of Fe-P alloys (with phosphorus in range of 0.1-0.35%) have been developed through processing by powder metallurgy followed by hot rolling and cold rolling. The effect of phosphorus content and annealing parameters (temperature and time) on microstructure, mechanical properties, formability in biaxial stretching and fracture behavior of the cold rolled and annealed sheets has been studied. A comparison has also been made between the properties of the sheets made through P/M route and the conventional cast route with similar phosphorus content. It has been shown that thin sheets of Fe-P alloys with phosphorous up to 0.35% possessing a good combination of strength and formability can be produced through rolling of billets of these alloys made through powder metallurgy technique without the problem of segregation.

  11. The effects of cold rolling and the subsequent heat treatments on the shape memory and the superelasticity characteristics of Cu73Al16Mn11 shape memory alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babacan, N.; Ma, J.; Turkbas, O. S.; Karaman, I.; Kockar, B.

    2018-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of thermo-mechanical treatments on the shape memory and the superelastic characteristics of Cu73Al16Mn11 (at%) shape memory alloy were investigated. 10%, 50% and 70% cold rolling and subsequent heat treatment processes were conducted to achieve strengthening via grain size refinement. 70% grain size reduction compared to the homogenized condition was obtained using 70% cold rolling and subsequent recrystallization heat treatment technique. Moreover, 10% cold rolling was applied to homogenized specimen to reveal the influence of the low percentage cold rolling reduction with no heat treatment on shape memory properties of Cu73Al16Mn11 (at%) alloy. Stress free transformation temperatures, monotonic tension and superelasticity behaviors of these samples were compared with those of the as-aged sample. Isobaric heating-cooling experiments were also conducted to see the dimensional stability of the samples as a function of applied stress. The 70% grain-refined sample exhibited better dimensional stability showing reduced residual strain levels upon thermal cycling under constant stress compared with the as-aged material. However, no improvement was achieved with grain size reduction in the superelasticity experiments. This distinctive observation was attributed to the difference in the magnitude of the stress levels achieved during two different types of experiments which were the isobaric heating-cooling and superelasticity tests. Intergranular fracture due to the stress concentration overcame the strengthening effect via grain refinement in the superelasticity tests at higher stress values. On the other hand, the strength of the material and resistance of material against plastic deformation upon phase transformation were increased as a result of the grain refinement at lower stress values in the isobaric heating-cooling experiments.

  12. Measurements of Residual Stresses In Cold-Rolled 304 Stainless Steel Plates Using X-Ray Diffraction with Rietveld Refinement Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parikin; Killen, P; Rafterry, A.

    2009-01-01

    The determination of the residual stresses using X-ray powder diffraction in a series of cold-rolled 304 stainless steel plates, deforming 0, 34, 84, 152, 158, 175 and 196 % reduction in thickness has been carried out. The diffraction data were analyzed using the Rietveld structure refinement method. The analysis shows that for all specimens, the martensite particles are closely in compression and the austenite matrix is in tension. Both the martensite and austenite, for a sample reducing 34% in thickness (containing of about 1% martensite phase) the average lattice strains are anisotropic and decrease approximately exponential with an increase in the corresponding percent reduction (essentially phase content). It is shown that this feature can be qualitatively understood by taking into consideration the thermal expansion mismatch between the martensite and austenite grains. Also, for all cold-rolled stainless steel specimens, the diffraction peaks are broader than the unrolled one (instrumental resolution), indicating that the strains in these specimens are inhomogeneous. From an analysis of the refined peak shape parameters, the average root-mean square strain, which describes the distribution of the inhomogeneous strain field, was predicted. The average residual stresses in cold-rolled 304 stainless steel plates showed a combination effect of hydrostatic stresses of the martensite particles and the austenite matrix. (author)

  13. Mechanisms of ultrafine-grained austenite formation under different isochronal conditions in a cold-rolled metastable stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celada-Casero, C., E-mail: c.celada@cenim.csic.es [MATERALIA group, Dpt. of Physical Metallurgy, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas (CENIM-CSIC), Av. Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Huang, B.M. [National Taiwan University, Dpt. of Materials Science and Engineering, 1 Roosvelt Road, Section 4, 10617 Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Aranda, M.M. [MATERALIA group, Dpt. of Physical Metallurgy, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas (CENIM-CSIC), Av. Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Yang, J.-R. [National Taiwan University, Dpt. of Materials Science and Engineering, 1 Roosvelt Road, Section 4, 10617 Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Martin, D. San [MATERALIA group, Dpt. of Physical Metallurgy, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas (CENIM-CSIC), Av. Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-08-15

    The primary objective of this work is to obtain fundamental insights on phase transformations, with focus on the reaustenitization process (α′→γ transformation), of a cold-rolled (CR) semi-austenitic metastable stainless steel upon different isochronal conditions (0.1, 1, 10 and 100 °C/s). For this purpose, an exhaustive microstructural characterization has been performed by using complementary experimental such as scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), micro-hardness Vickers and magnetization measurements. It has been detected that all microstructural changes shift to higher temperatures as the heating rate increases. The reaustenitization occurs in two-steps for all heating rates, which is attributed to the chemical banding present in the CR state. The α′→γ transformation is controlled by the migration of substitutional alloying elements across the austenite/martensite (γ/α′) interface, which finally leads to ultrafine-grained reaustenitized microstructures (440–280 nm). The morphology of the martensite phase in the CR state has been found to be the responsible for such a grain refinement, along with the presence of χ-phase and nanometric Ni{sub 3}(Ti,Al) precipitates that pin the austenite grain growth, especially upon slowly heating at 0.1 °C/s. - Highlights: •Ultrafine-grained austenite structures are obtained isochronally at 0.1–100 °C/s •The α′→γ transformation occurs in two steps due to the initial chemical banding •A diffusional mechanism governs the α′→γ transformation for all heating rates •The dislocation-cell-type of martensite promotes a diffusional mechanism •Precipitates located at α′/γ interfaces hinder the austenite growth.

  14. γ→α′ Martensitic transformation and magnetic property of cold rolled Fe–20Mn–4Al–0.3C steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Biao; Li, Changsheng, E-mail: lics@ral.neu.edu.cn; Han, Yahui; Wang, Jikai

    2016-12-01

    Direct γ→α′ martensitic transformation during cold rolling deformation was investigated for a high-Mn non-magnetic steel. Its influence on magnetic property was also analyzed. The magnetization under rolling reduction less than 50% almost presents a linear increase with the applied magnetic field. With deformation up to 73% and 93% thickness reductions, strain induced α′-martensite transformation starts to occur, causing the steel to be slightly magnetized. The α′-martensite prefers to nucleate directly at either microband–microband or microband-twin intersections without participation of intermediate ε-martensite. The volume fraction of α′-martensite is estimated as 0.070% and 0.17%, respectively, based on the magnetic hysteresis loops. Such a small fraction of ferromagnetic α′-martensite shows little influence on the magnetic induction intensity and low relative permeability. - Highlights: • Magnetic property of high-Mn austenitic steel was examined after cold rolling. • Nucleation mode for direct γ→α′ martensitic transformation was observed and discussed. • Volume fraction of strain induced α′-martensite was estimated by magnetic measurement.

  15. Characters of alloy Zr-0.4%Mo-0.5%Fe-0.5%Cr post heat treatment and cold rolling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sungkono; Siti Aidah

    2014-01-01

    Research and development of Zr-Mo-Fe-Cr alloys aimed to obtain PWR fuel element structure material with high burn up. In this study of the Zr-0.4%Mo-0.5%Fe-0.5%Cr alloys was prepared from zirconium sponge, molybdenum, iron and chromium powder. The alloy were heat treated at varying temperatures of 650 and 750 °C and retention time of 1, 1.5 and 2 hours. The objectives of this research was to obtain effect of thickness reduction on the character of Zr-0.4%Mo-0.5%Fe-0.5%Cr alloy. The results of this experiment showed that the microstructures of Zr-0.4%Mo-0.5%Fe-0.5%Cr alloy after heat treatment and cold rolling exhibits that the higher of the thickness reduction has applied on the alloy caused the microstructure to evolve from deformed equiaxial grains into flat bar grains and then into deformed flat bar grains. However, the higher of the temperature and the retention time then the larger grain structures so that the cold rolling causes the shape of the grains structure into a flat bar with a relatively larger size which affects the lower hardness. The Zr-0.4%Mo-0.5%Fe-0.5%Cr alloy after heat treatment (650-750°C; 1.5-2 hours) can undergo cold deformation without cracking at a thickness reduction between 5 to 15%. (author)

  16. Tracking the evolution of a cold stress associated gene family in cold tolerant grasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandve, Simen R; Rudi, Heidi; Asp, Torben

    2008-01-01

    to the repeat motifs of the IRI-domain in cold tolerant grasses. Finally we show that the LRR-domain of carrot and grass IRI proteins both share homology to an Arabidopsis thaliana LRR-trans membrane protein kinase (LRR-TPK). Conclusion The diverse IRI-like genes identified in this study tell a tale...... of a complex evolutionary history including birth of an ice binding domain, a burst of gene duplication events after cold tolerant grasses radiated from rice, protein domain structure differentiation between paralogs, and sub- and/or neofunctionalisation of IRI-like proteins. From our sequence analysis we...

  17. Development of Goss texture in Al–0.3%Cu annealed after heavy rolling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shuai, L. F.; Huang, T. L.; Wu, G. L.

    2018-01-01

    The evolution of the microstructure and texture during annealing has been studied in the center layer of 95% cold rolled Al–0.3%Cu with a large initial grain size. The cold-rolled condition is characterized by a strong Brass texture component and a deformed microstructure comprising lamellar stru...... grain size of Goss-oriented grains and strengthening of the Goss texture. As a result, new low angle boundaries are formed between Goss-oriented grains in this strongly textured material....

  18. Method of Maintaining the Required Values of Surface Roughness and Prediction of Technological Conditions for Cold Sheet Rolling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valíček J.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is based on results obtained from topography of surfaces of sheets rolled from deep-drawing steel of the type KOHAL grade 697, non-alloy low-carbon structural steel EN 10263-2:2004 and aluminium. The presented results document correctness of the assumption that the rolling force Froll increases with the increasing reduction Δh and the quality of the rolled surface is improved at the simultaneous increasing of strength of rolled sheets and the decreasing of size of structural grains. The experiment was performed on the two-high rolling stand DUO 210 SVa, which enables only non-continuous technology in contrast to the rolling mill with continuous reduction on one sheet in several degrees on rolling trains, in consequence of which the obtained height parameters of the section are in close correlation with the predicted dependence. Contribution of the work consists in the creation of a mathematical model (algorithm for predicting technological parameters of the two-high rolling stand DUO 210 SVa at change of the absolute reduction Δh, for example for a deep-drawing steel of the type KOHAL grade 697 and non-alloy lowcarbon structural steel PN EN 10263-2:2004 and aluminium, and also in the development of a method of calculation applicable to any material being rolled in general, because the authors have found that various materials can be differentiated by a derived analytical criterion IKP. This criterion is a function of ratio between the modulus of elasticity of reference material and that of actually rolled material. The reference material is here deep-drawing steel of the type KOHAL grade 697. Verification was carried out by measuring changes of final surface roughness profile and final strength of rolled sheets of the stated materials in relation to reductions and those were compared with theoretically predicted values. It is possible to identify and predict on the basis of this algorithm an instant state of surface topography in

  19. A Study of the Cold Resistance of Pipe Coiled Stock Produced at Foundry-Rolling Works. Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagmet, O. A.; Naumenko, V. V.; Smetanin, K. S.

    2018-03-01

    Results of a study of coiled stock from low-carbon steels alloyed with manganese and silicon and different additives of niobium and titanium are presented. The coiled stock is produced at foundry-rolling works by the method of direct rolling of thin slabs right after their continuous casting. The microdeformation of the crystal lattice and the crystallographic texture are determined. The conditions of formation of the most favorable structure and texture in the steels are specified.

  20. Synergism between rare earth cerium(IV) ion and vanillin on the corrosion of cold rolled steel in 1.0 M HCl solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Xianghong [Department of Fundamental Courses, Southwest Forestry University, Kunming 650224 (China)], E-mail: xianghong-li@163.com; Deng Shuduan [Department of Wood Science and Technology, Southwest Forestry University, Kunming 650224 (China); Fu Hui [Department of Fundamental Courses, Southwest Forestry University, Kunming 650224 (China); Mu Guannan [Department of Chemistry, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091 (China)

    2008-12-15

    The synergism between rare earth cerium(IV) ion and vanillin on the corrosion of cold rolled steel (CRS) in 1.0 M HCl solution was first investigated by weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, ultraviolet and visible spectrophotometer (UV-vis), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscope (AFM). The results revealed that vanillin had a moderate inhibitive effect, and the adsorption of vanillin obeyed the Temkin adsorption isotherm. For rare earth Ce{sup 4+}, it had a negligible effect. However, incorporation of Ce{sup 4+} with vanillin significantly improved the inhibition performance, and produced strong synergistic inhibition effect. Depending on the results, the synergism mechanism was proposed.

  1. Synergism between rare earth cerium(IV) ion and vanillin on the corrosion of cold rolled steel in 1.0 M HCl solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xianghong; Deng Shuduan; Fu Hui; Mu Guannan

    2008-01-01

    The synergism between rare earth cerium(IV) ion and vanillin on the corrosion of cold rolled steel (CRS) in 1.0 M HCl solution was first investigated by weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, ultraviolet and visible spectrophotometer (UV-vis), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscope (AFM). The results revealed that vanillin had a moderate inhibitive effect, and the adsorption of vanillin obeyed the Temkin adsorption isotherm. For rare earth Ce 4+ , it had a negligible effect. However, incorporation of Ce 4+ with vanillin significantly improved the inhibition performance, and produced strong synergistic inhibition effect. Depending on the results, the synergism mechanism was proposed

  2. Development and evolution of biaxial texture of rolled nickel tapes by ion beam bombardment for high Tc coated conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.S.; Wu, K.; Shi, K.; Liu, Q.; Han, Z.

    2004-01-01

    High quality YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x films on metallic substrates with high critical current densities well over 10 6 A/cm 2 can be prepared by the rolling assisted biaxially textured substrates (RABiTS) method. Nickel or its alloys have been used as biaxially textured substrates formed through a specific rolling and high temperature annealing procedures. In this paper, we report a newly developed process for developing biaxial texture in rolled Ni tape by argon ion beam bombardment. It is named the ion-beam structure modification (ISM) process. In the ISM processed Ni foils, X-ray diffraction ω scans showed the full width-half maximum (FWHM) value of the (2 0 0) peak was 5.7 deg. . And the electron back scattering diffraction (EBSP) analysis based on scanning electron microscopy showed good {1 0 0} cubic orientation and the mean grain size was determined as about 25 μm. The texture evolution of rolled Ni foils during ISM process is reported also. For ISM process, local temperature elevation and distribution arises from the ion bombardment, coupled with anisotropic incident ion penetration and propagation as a result of channeling effects in the metal lattice, are expected to play the major roles in the development of grain reorientation in the Ni foil. Due to the simplicity and efficiency of the ISM process, the technique shows a great promise for application in the industrial scale production of long-lengths of superconductor tapes

  3. Political Evolution at NATO Level in Post Cold War Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomescu Cătălin Tomiţă

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The beginning of the post Cold era sounds like that: „The world has changed dramatically. The Alliance has made an essential contribution. The peoples of North America and the whole of Europe can now join in a community of shared values based on freedom, democracy, human rights and the rule of law. As an agent of change, a source of stability and the indispensable guarantor of its members' security, our Alliance will continue to play a key role in building a new, lasting order of peace in Europe: a Europe of cooperation and prosperity”[1].

  4. In situ observation of texture and microstructure evolution during rolling and globularization of Ti-6Al-4V

    KAUST Repository

    Warwick, Jonnathan L W

    2013-03-01

    The evolution of texture in β-annealed Ti-6Al-4V during α-β rolling and so-called recrystallization annealing has been examined using synchrotron X-ray diffraction and ex situ characterization. During rolling, the initial α (0 0 0 2) texture softens and the colony α becomes kinked. During globularization, the texture strengthens as highly strained (and hence misoriented) areas of the laths disappear and this strengthening continues once coarsening of the primary α becomes dominant. At shorter heat treatment times the αs laths that form on cooling do so with a range of variant-related orientations to the β, but at longer annealing times this αs takes on the orientation of the surrounding αp. The implications for the mechanical performance of macrozone-containing bimodal Ti-6Al-4V material are discussed. © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Processing of fine grained AISI 304L austenitic stainless steel by cold rolling and high-temperature short-term annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghizadeh, Meysam; Mirzadeh, Hamed

    2018-05-01

    An advanced thermomechanical process based on the formation and reversion of deformation-induced martensite was used to refine the grain size and enhance the hardness of an AISI 304L austenitic stainless steel. Both low and high reversion annealing temperatures and also the repetition of the whole thermomechanical cycle were considered. While a microstructure with average austenite grain size of a few micrometers was achieved based on cold rolling and high-temperature short-term annealing, an extreme grain refinement up to submicrometer regime was obtained by cold rolling followed by low-temperature long-term annealing. However, the required annealing time was found to be much longer, which negates its appropriateness for industrial production. While a magnificent grain refinement was achieved by one pass of the high-temperature thermomechanical process, the reduction in grain size was negligible by the repetition of the whole cycle. It was found that the hardness of the thermomechanically processed material is much higher than that of the as-received material. The results of the present work were shown to be compatible with the general trend of grain size dependence of hardness for AISI 304L stainless steel based on the Hall-Petch relationship. The results were also discussed based on the X-ray evaluation of dislocation density by modified Williamson-Hall plots.

  6. The effects of cold rolling orientation and water chemistry on stress corrosion cracking behavior of 316L stainless steel in simulated PWR water environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Junjie [Institute of Materials Science, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Mailbox 269, 149 Yanchang Road, Shanghai, 200072 (China); Lu, Zhanpeng, E-mail: zplu@t.shu.edu.cn [Institute of Materials Science, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Mailbox 269, 149 Yanchang Road, Shanghai, 200072 (China); State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steels, Shanghai University, 149 Yanchang Road, Shanghai, 200072 (China); Xiao, Qian; Ru, Xiangkun; Han, Guangdong; Chen, Zhen [Institute of Materials Science, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Mailbox 269, 149 Yanchang Road, Shanghai, 200072 (China); Zhou, Bangxin [Institute of Materials Science, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Mailbox 269, 149 Yanchang Road, Shanghai, 200072 (China); State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steels, Shanghai University, 149 Yanchang Road, Shanghai, 200072 (China); Shoji, Tetsuo [New Industry Creation Hatchery Center, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

    2016-04-15

    Stress corrosion cracking behaviors of one-directionally cold rolled 316L stainless steel specimens in T–L and L–T orientations were investigated in hydrogenated and deaerated PWR primary water environments at 310 °C. Transgranular cracking was observed during the in situ pre-cracking procedure and the crack growth rate was almost not affected by the specimen orientation. Locally intergranular stress corrosion cracks were found on the fracture surfaces of specimens in the hydrogenated PWR water. Extensive intergranular stress corrosion cracks were found on the fracture surfaces of specimens in deaerated PWR water. More extensive cracks were found in specimen T–L orientation with a higher crack growth rate than that in the specimen L–T orientation with a lower crack growth rate. Crack branching phenomenon found in specimen L–T orientation in deaerated PWR water was synergistically affected by the applied stress direction as well as the preferential oxidation path along the elongated grain boundaries, and the latter was dominant. - Highlights: • Transgranular fatigue crack growth rate was not affected by the cold rolling orientation. • Locally intergranular SCC was found in the hydrogenated PWR water. • Extensive intergranular SCC cracks were found in deaerated PWR water. • T–L specimen showed more extensive SCC cracks and a higher crack growth rate. • Crack branching related to the applied stress and the preferential oxidation path.

  7. Features of structure formation in the low modulus quasi-single crystal from Zr-25%Nb alloy at cold rolling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaenkova, M.; Perlovich, Yu.; Fesenko, V.; Babich, Y.; Zaripova, M.; Krapivka, N.

    2018-05-01

    The paper presents the results of investigation of the regularities of the structure and texture formation during rolling of single crystals of Zr-25%Nb alloy differing in their initial orientations relative to the external principal directions in the rolled plate: normal (ND) and rolling directions (RD). The features of rolled single crystals with initial orientations of planes {001}, {011} or {111} parallel to the rolling plane and different crystallographic directions along RD are considered. A comparison of the peculiarities of plastic deformation in a polycrystalline alloy of the same composition is made. For the samples studied, a decrease in the lattice parameter of the β-phase has been recorded, the minimum of the parameter being observed for different degrees of deformation, varying from 20 to 50%. Observed decrease in the unit cell parameter can be connected with the precipitation of the α(α')-Zr phase from the deformed nonequilibrium β-phase of the Zr-25%Nb alloy, i.e. change in the composition of the solid solution. Distributions of the increase in the dimensions of the deformed single crystal along RD and the transverse direction (TD) with its deformation up to 30% in thickness, which indicate the anisotropy of the plasticity of single crystals during their rolling, are constructed on stereographic projection. It is shown, that the deformation of single crystals occurs practically without increasing of their dimensions in the direction with a total thickness deformation of up to 30%. Direction is characterized by maximum hardening (microhardness) with indentation along it, which causes low plasticity of deformed and annealed foils from Zr-25%Nb alloy at the stretching along and across RD, that is connected with the features of their crystallographic texture.

  8. Curriculum Evolution at Air Command and Staff College in the Post-Cold War Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, William Robert, II.

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study used a historical research method to eliminate the gap in the historical knowledge of Air Command and Staff College (ACSC) curriculum evolution in the post-Cold War era. This study is the only known analysis of the forces that influenced the ACSC curriculum and the rationale behind curricular change at ACSC in the post-Cold…

  9. Structure and hot-rolled reinforcement rods properties evolution in the process of long service life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikryukov, V.R.; Syomin, A.P.; Konovalov, S.V.; Ivanov, Yu.F.; Gromov, V.E.

    2006-01-01

    The physical nature of mechanical properties of hot-rolled reinforcement rods degradation during long-life operation is established by methods of transmission diffraction electron microscopy. It is shown that strength and plasticity properties decrease is due to cementite plates cutting and dissolution, microcracks formation process as a result of interstitial phase inclusions creation in the near-surface layer of material

  10. Structure and hot-rolled reinforcement rods properties evolution in the process of long service life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikryukov, V R [Siberian State Industrial University, Kirov str., 42. 654007, Novokuznetsk (Russian Federation); Syomin, A P [Siberian State Industrial University, Kirov str., 42. 654007, Novokuznetsk (Russian Federation); Konovalov, S V [Siberian State Industrial University, Kirov str., 42. 654007, Novokuznetsk (Russian Federation); Ivanov, Yu F [Siberian State Industrial University, Kirov str., 42. 654007, Novokuznetsk (Russian Federation); Gromov, V E [Siberian State Industrial University, Kirov str., 42. 654007, Novokuznetsk (Russian Federation)

    2006-08-25

    The physical nature of mechanical properties of hot-rolled reinforcement rods degradation during long-life operation is established by methods of transmission diffraction electron microscopy. It is shown that strength and plasticity properties decrease is due to cementite plates cutting and dissolution, microcracks formation process as a result of interstitial phase inclusions creation in the near-surface layer of material.

  11. Research on the Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of Ti Micro-Alloyed Cold Rolled Hot-Dip Galvanizing DP980 Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yun; Kuang, Shuang; Qi, Xiumei; Xie, Chunqian; Liu, Guanghui

    Effects of galvanizing simulation parameters on microstructures and mechanical properties of Ti-microalloyed cold rolled hot-dip galvanizing DP980 steel were investigated in this study by optical microscopy (OM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and tensile test. Moreover, the precipitation behavior of Ti in the experimental steel was also studied. The results show that, as the heating temperature increases, the tensile strength of experimental galvanizing DP980 steel decreases while the yield ratio and elongation of the steel are enhanced. The microstructures of experimental steels exhibit typical dual phase steel character and the volume fractions of MA islands are almost 30%. In addition, lots of nano-sized TiC precipitates can be found in the ferrite grains.

  12. The effects of strain rate and carbon concentration on the dynamic strain aging of cold rolled Ni-based alloy in high temperature water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuang, Wenjun; Was, Gary S.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The stress amplitude of serrations first increases with decreasing strain rate and then gradually saturates. The matrix carbon concentration affects the stress amplitude and the tendency to saturation. - Abstract: The effect of strain rate on dynamic strain aging of cold-rolled Ni-based alloy was investigated. With decreasing strain rate, the stress amplitude of serrations first increased and then saturated. Compared with the solution-annealed condition, the thermally-treated condition produced smaller stress amplitudes that saturated at a lower strain rate. Observations are consistent with a mechanism in which the locking strength of solute atmospheres first increases with increasing solute atom arrival at dislocations and gradually saturates as solute reaches a critical level

  13. Functional evolution of leptin of Ochotona curzoniae in adaptive thermogenesis driven by cold environmental stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Environmental stress can accelerate the directional selection and evolutionary rate of specific stress-response proteins to bring about new or altered functions, enhancing an organism's fitness to challenging environments. Plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae, an endemic and keystone species on Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, is a high hypoxia and low temperature tolerant mammal with high resting metabolic rate and non-shivering thermogenesis to cope in this harsh plateau environment. Leptin is a key hormone related to how these animals regulate energy homeostasis. Previous molecular evolutionary analysis helped to generate the hypothesis that adaptive evolution of plateau pika leptin may be driven by cold stress. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To test the hypothesis, recombinant pika leptin was first purified. The thermogenic characteristics of C57BL/6J mice injected with pika leptin under warm (23±1°C and cold (5±1°C acclimation is investigated. Expression levels of genes regulating adaptive thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue and the hypothalamus are compared between pika leptin and human leptin treatment, suggesting that pika leptin has adaptively and functionally evolved. Our results show that pika leptin regulates energy homeostasis via reduced food intake and increased energy expenditure under both warm and cold conditions. Compared with human leptin, pika leptin demonstrates a superior induced capacity for adaptive thermogenesis, which is reflected in a more enhanced β-oxidation, mitochondrial biogenesis and heat production. Moreover, leptin treatment combined with cold stimulation has a significant synergistic effect on adaptive thermogenesis, more so than is observed with a single cold exposure or single leptin treatment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings support the hypothesis that cold stress has driven the functional evolution of plateau pika leptin as an ecological adaptation to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

  14. Evolution of the Radial Abundance Gradient and Cold Gas along the Milky Way Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Q. S.; Chang, R. X.; Yin, J.

    2014-03-01

    We have constructed a phenomenological model of the chemical evolution of the Milky Way disk, and treated the molecular and atomic gas separately. Using this model, we explore the radial profiles of oxygen abundance, the surface density of cold gas, and their time evolutions. It is shown that the model predictions are very sensitive to the adopted infall time-scale. By comparing the model predictions with the observations, we find that the model adopting the star formation law based on H_2 can properly predict the observed radial distributions of cold gas and oxygen abundance gradient along the disk. We also compare the model results with the predictions of the model which adopts the instantaneous recycling approximation (IRA), and find that the IRA assumption has little influence on the model results, especially in the low-density gas region.

  15. Examining the microtexture evolution in a hole-edge punched into 780 MPa grade hot-rolled steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, J.H.; Kim, M.S. [Department of Printed Electronics Engineering, Sunchon National University, 315 Maegok, Sunchon, Jeonnam 540-950 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, S.I.; Seo, S.J. [POSCO Technical Research Laboratories, Gwangyang 545-090 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, S.-H., E-mail: shihoon@sunchon.ac.kr [Department of Printed Electronics Engineering, Sunchon National University, 315 Maegok, Sunchon, Jeonnam 540-950 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    The deformation behavior in the hole-edge of 780 MPa grade hot-rolled steel during the punching process was investigated via microstructure characterization and computational simulation. Microstructure characterization was conducted to observe the edges of punched holes through the thickness direction, and electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) was used to analyze the heterogeneity of the deformation. Finite element analysis (FEA) that could account for a ductile fracture criterion was conducted to simulate the deformation and fracture behaviors of 780 MPa grade hot-rolled steel during the punching process. Calculation of rotation rate fields at the edges of the punched holes during the punching process revealed that metastable orientations in Euler space were confined to specific orientation groups. Rotation-rate fields effectively explained the stability of the initial texture components in the hole-edge region during the punching process. A visco-plastic self-consistent (VPSC) polycrystal model was used to calculate the microtexture evolution in the hole-edge region during the punching process. FEA revealed that the heterogeneous effective strain was closely related to the heterogeneity of the Kernel average misorientation (KAM) distribution in the hole-edge region. A simulation of the deformation microtexture evolution in the hole-edge region using a VPSC model was in good agreement with the experimental results. - Highlights: •We analyzed the microstructure in a hole-edge punched in HR 780HB steel. •Rotation rate fields revealed the stability of the initial texture components. •Heterogeneous effective stain was closely related to the KAM distribution. •VPSC model successfully simulated the deformation microtexture evolution.

  16. Imposition of Antidumping Duty (BAMD) Towards China€™s Cold Rolled Coil/Sheet (CRC/S) Products

    OpenAIRE

    Pratiwi, Lila

    2013-01-01

    Steel industry is a strategic sector in the economy of a country. Steel industry in Indonesia has not been able to fulfill their domestic demand that is still necessary to import steel product. However, many of these imported products are sold at dumping prices, especially those from china giving rise to unfair trade. One of trade remedy measures as a result of unfair trade remedies can recover trough the imposition of antidumping duty. In 2013, Indonesia imposes antidumping duty for Cold Rol...

  17. Evolution of magnetism by rolling up hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets tailored with superparamagnetic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Da Young; Choi, Kyoung Hwan; Park, Jeong Eon; Suh, Dong Hack

    2017-02-01

    Controlling tunable properties by rolling up two dimensional nanomaterials is an exciting avenue for tailoring the electronic and magnetic properties of materials at the nanoscale. We demonstrate the tailoring of a magnetic nanocomposite through hybridization with magnetic nanomaterials using hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) templates as an effective way to evolve magnetism for the first time. Boron nitride nanosheets exhibited their typical diamagnetism, but rolled-up boron nitride sheets (called nanoscrolls) clearly have para-magnetism in the case of magnetic susceptibility. Additionally, the Fe 3 O 4 NP sample shows a maximum ZFC curve at about 103 K, which indicates well dispersed superparamagnetic nanoparticles. The ZFC curve for the h-BN-Fe 3 O 4 NP scrolls exhibited an apparent rounded maximum blocking temperature at 192 K compared to the Fe 3 O 4 NPs, leading to a dramatic increase in T B . These magnetic nanoscroll derivatives are remarkable materials and should be suitable for high-performance composites and nano-, medical- and electromechanical-devices.

  18. Microstructural evolution, mechanical properties, and strain hardening behavior of ultrafine grained commercial pure copper during the accumulative roll bonding process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fattah-alhosseini, A. [Department of Materials Engineering, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan 65178-38695 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Imantalab, O., E-mail: o.imantalab@gmail.com [Department of Materials Engineering, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan 65178-38695 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mazaheri, Y. [Department of Materials Engineering, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan 65178-38695 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Keshavarz, M.K. [Department of Engineering Physics, Polytechnique Montreal, Montreal (Canada)

    2016-01-05

    In this study, the microstructural evolution, mechanical properties, and strain hardening behavior of commercial pure copper processed by the accumulative roll bonding (ARB) were investigated. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) micrographs and atomic force microscopy (AFM) images indicated that with increasing the number of ARB cycles, the grain size of samples decreased. An Ultrafine grained (UFG) structure with an average grain size of about 200 nm was achieved after four cycles of ARB. The yield and ultimate tensile strength of pure copper with the UFG microstructure was reached about 360 MPa and 396 MPa (about 400% and 100% higher than that of the annealed state), respectively. All ARB-processed copper samples showed lower strain hardening exponent in comparison with the annealed state. Moreover, the strain hardening rate increased with increasing ARB cycles up to 3 cycles and then decreased.

  19. Microstructural evolution, mechanical properties, and strain hardening behavior of ultrafine grained commercial pure copper during the accumulative roll bonding process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fattah-alhosseini, A.; Imantalab, O.; Mazaheri, Y.; Keshavarz, M.K.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the microstructural evolution, mechanical properties, and strain hardening behavior of commercial pure copper processed by the accumulative roll bonding (ARB) were investigated. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) micrographs and atomic force microscopy (AFM) images indicated that with increasing the number of ARB cycles, the grain size of samples decreased. An Ultrafine grained (UFG) structure with an average grain size of about 200 nm was achieved after four cycles of ARB. The yield and ultimate tensile strength of pure copper with the UFG microstructure was reached about 360 MPa and 396 MPa (about 400% and 100% higher than that of the annealed state), respectively. All ARB-processed copper samples showed lower strain hardening exponent in comparison with the annealed state. Moreover, the strain hardening rate increased with increasing ARB cycles up to 3 cycles and then decreased.

  20. Microstructural evolution and strain hardening behavior of the cold-drawn austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jeom Yong; Jin, Won

    1998-01-01

    The strain induced α ' -martensite formation and the strain hardening behavior of metastable austenitic stainless steel during cold drawing have been investigated. The strain induced α ' -martensite nucleates mainly at the intersection of the mechanical twins rather than ε-martensite. It could be explained by the increase of stacking fault energy which arises from the heat generated during high speed drawing and, for AISI 304/Cu, the additional effect of Cu additions. The strain hardening behavior of austenitic stainless steel is strongly related to the microstructural evolution accompanied by strain induced α ' -martensite. The work hardening rates of cold-drawn 304 increased with increasing interstitial element(C,N) contents which affect the strength of the strain induced α ' -martensite

  1. Hot-rolled and cold-finished zirconium and zirconium alloy bars, rod, and wire for nuclear application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The specification covers hot- and cold-finished zirconium alloy bars, rod, and wire, other than those required for reforging, including rounds, squares, and shapes. One unalloyed grade and three alloy grades for use in nuclear applications are described. The products covered include the following sections and sizes: bars, rounds in coils for subsequent reworking (6.4 to 19 mm) and flats (6.4 to 250 mm); rods, rounds in coils for subsequent reworking (6.4 to 19 mm); wire (9.5 mm). The specification covers ordering information, manufacture, condition, chemical requirements, mechanical properties, corrosion properties, permissible variations in dimensions, significance of numerical limits, lot size, special tests, workmanship, finish, inspection, certification, packaging and marking

  2. Effect of bainitic transformation temperature on the mechanical behavior of cold-rolled TRIP steels studied with in-situ high-energy X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, B. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Yang, W.Y., E-mail: wyyang@ustb.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Li, L.F.; Sun, Z.Q. [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2014-05-01

    The effect of bainitic transformation temperature (400 and 450 °C) after intercritical annealing on the mechanical behavior of a low alloyed C–Mn–Al–Si cold-rolled TRIP steel was investigated using the in-situ high-energy X-ray diffraction technique. It was found that the mechanical behaviors of TRIP steels were dominated by the micromechanical behaviors of constituent phases, such as yield strength of each phase and stress partitioning among different phases, as well as the transformation kinetics of retained austenite during plastic deformation. The microstructures obtained at different bainitic transformation temperatures were similar, but exhibited obviously different mechanical behaviors. The retained austenite in the sample treated at 450 °C with lower carbon content and yield strength was less stable and transformed into martensite at a relatively faster speed during deformation leading to a higher ultimate tensile strength but a smaller uniform elongation. In addition, stress partitioning among constituent phases was also obtained for the investigated steels in such a way that the ferrite matrix undertook smaller stresses and the bainitic ferrite, martensite and retained austenite bore larger ones during plastic deformation. The retained austenite in the sample treated at 400 °C with higher carbon content displayed significantly higher strength and relatively stronger work-hardening capabilities during deformation in comparison to those of the sample treated at 450 °C.

  3. Corrosion protective performance of amino trimethylene phosphonic acid-metal complex layers fabricated on the cold-rolled steel substrate via one-step assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ru; He, Wei; Zhai, Tianhua; Ma, Houyi

    2018-06-01

    Seeing that amino trimethylene phosphonic acid (ATMP) possesses very strong complexation ability to metal ions and the phosphonic acid group has good affinity for the oxidized iron surface, herein a simple and rapid film-forming method (one-step assembly method) was developed to construct the ATMP-Zn complex conversion layers (ATMP-Zn layers for short) on the cold-rolled steel (CRS) substrate. Zinc ions were found to participate in the formation process of ATMP-based composite film, which made the Zn-containing ATMP film significantly different in appearance, thickness, microstructure and film-forming mechanisms from the Zn-free ATMP film. There was mainly iron (ш) phosphonate in the Zn-free ATMP film, whereas there were Zn2+-ATMP complex and a certain amount of ZnO in the ATMP-Zn composite film. In addition, electrochemical test results clearly indicate that corrosion resistance of ATMP-Zn composite film was greatly enhanced due to the presence of Zn component. Moreover, the corrosion resistance performance could be controlled by adjusting film-forming time, pH and ATMP concentration in the film-forming solutions. The present study provides a new method for the design and fabrication of high-quality environmentally-friendly conversion layers.

  4. A Comparative Study on the Static Recrystallization Behavior of Cold-Rolled Mg-3Al-1Zn Alloy Stimulated by Electropulse Treatment and Conventional Heat Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaopei; Li, Xiaohui; Kure-Chu, Song-Zhu; Tang, Guoyi

    2018-02-01

    Cold-rolled AZ31 Mg alloy strips, with a reduction of 33 pct, were subjected to electropulse treatment (EPT) and conventional heat treatment (HT) to evaluate the respective influences of electropulses and temperature on the recrystallization behavior of AZ31. The highest measured temperature during the EPT (543 K) was used in HT. The electron backscattered diffraction results demonstrated that the EPT-stimulated recrystallization was completed within 8 seconds, whereas for HT, recrystallization was still far from completion even after 240 seconds. It was found that both the nucleation and grain growth of these two processes were totally different. In the EPT samples, nucleation tended to occur preferentially near extension twin boundaries and grain boundaries by continuous recrystallization, whereas in the HT samples, nucleation occurred mainly by grain boundaries bulging via discontinuous recrystallization. As grain growth proceeded, the texture intensities of the EPT samples decreased gradually and finally evolved into an obvious transverse-direction-split texture. This is likely attributable to the impact of electropulses on the boundary energy and the contribution of nonbasal dislocations; however, the basal-type textures of the HT samples were notably strengthened, which is associated with a 30 deg〈0001〉 orientation with respect to the deformed texture.

  5. Electrochemical studies of adsorption and inhibition effect of new synthesized triazinane-amide derivatives on cold rolled steel in 0.5 M HCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abo-Elenien, O.M.; Zohdy, K.M.; Abdelkreem, M.

    2012-01-01

    The adsorption and inhibition effects of new synthesized triazinane-amide derivatives (TAZA) on cold rolled steel (CRS) in 0.5 M HCl at concentration 100-500 ppm and 25.65 .C were studied by mean of weight loss and potentiodynamic polarization techniques. The results showed that the TAZA was a good inhibitor in 0.5 M HCl. The inhibition efficiency (IE) increased with the increase of inhibitor T AZA c oncentration. The adsorption of TAZA on the CRS surfaces followed the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The thermodynamic and kinetic parameters show evidence of the stability control of the film formation on the CRS surfaces. The polarization curves revealed that the TAZA can act as cathodic and anodic protectors in the same time. Such protection phenomena were evidenced by the means of the weight loss and polarization methods. Significantly, the high efficient process of the film formation in terms of the corrosion rate, efficiency control was found with 300 ppm dose of TAZA, as evidenced from the electrochemical impedance and scanning electron microscope techniques

  6. Effects of aging and sheet thickness on the room temperature deformation behavior and in-plane anisotropy of cold rolled and solution treated Nimonic C-263 alloy sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ankamma, Kandula; Chandra Mohan Reddy, Gangireddy [Mahatma Ghandi Institute of Technology, Hyderabad (India). Mechanical Engineering Dept.; Singh, Ashok Kumar; Prasad, Konduri Satya [Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO), Hyderabad (India). Defence Metallurgical Research Lab.; Komaraiah, Methuku [Malla Reddy College of Engineering and Technology, Secunderabad (India); Eswara Prasad, Namburi [Regional Centre for Military Airworthiness (Materials), Hyderabad (India)

    2011-10-15

    The deformation behavior under uni-axial tensile loading is investigated and reported in the case of cold rolled Nimonic C-263 alloy sheet products of different thicknesses (0.5 mm and 1 mm) in the solution treated and aged conditions. The studies conducted include (i) Microstructure, (ii) X-ray diffraction, (iii) Texture and (iv) Tensile properties and inplane anisotropy in the yield behavior (both tensile yield strength and ultimate tensile strength as well as ductility). The results of the present study showed that despite the presence of weak crystallographic texture in this crystal symmetric material, the degrees of in-plane anisotropy in strength as well as plastic deformation properties are found to be significant in both solution treated and aged conditions, thus having significant technological relevance for both further processing and design purposes. Further, the influence of aging and sheet thickness on the tensile deformation behaviour is also found to be considerable. A brief discussion on the technological implications of these results is also included. (orig.)

  7. Effect of Annealing Temperature on the Microstructure, Tensile Properties, and Fracture Behavior of Cold-Rolled High-Mn Light-Weight Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae-Hyun; Cho, Kyung Mox [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seong-Jun; Moon, Joonoh; Kang, Jun-Yun; Park, Jun-Young; Lee, Tae-Ho [Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    The effects of the annealing temperature on the microstructure and tensile properties of cold-rolled light-weight steels are investigated using two Fe-30Mn-xAl-0.9C alloys that contain different Al content. The initial alloy microstructure is composed of a single austenite or a mixture of austenite and ferrite depending on the nominal aluminum content. For the alloy with 9 wt%Al content, the recrystallization and grain growth of austenite occurrs depending on the annealing temperature. However, for the alloy with 11 wt%Al content, the β-Mn phase is observed after annealing for 10 min at 550~800 ℃. The β-Mn transformation kinetics is the fastest at 700 ℃. The formation of the β-Mn phase has a detrimental effect on the ductility, and this leads to significant decreases in the total elongation. The same alloy also forms κ-carbide and DO3 ordering at 550~900 ℃. The investigated alloys exhibit a fully recrystallized microstructure after annealing at 900 ℃ for 10 min, which results in a high total elongation of 25~55%with a high tensile strength of 900~1170 MPa.

  8. Synergistic inhibition effect of 5-aminotetrazole and 4,6-dihydroxypyrimidine on the corrosion of cold rolled steel in H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xianghong, E-mail: xianghong-li@163.com [Yunnan Key Laboratory of Wood Adhesives and Glue Products, Southwest Forestry University, Kunming 650224 (China); Faculty of Science, Southwest Forestry University, Kunming 650224 (China); Deng, Shuduan [Yunnan Key Laboratory of Wood Adhesives and Glue Products, Southwest Forestry University, Kunming 650224 (China); Xie, Xiaoguang [School of Chemical Science and Technology, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091 (China); Du, Guanben [Yunnan Key Laboratory of Wood Adhesives and Glue Products, Southwest Forestry University, Kunming 650224 (China)

    2016-09-15

    The synergistic inhibition effect of 5-aminotetrazole (AT) and 4,6-dihydroxypyrimidine (DHP) on the corrosion of cold rolled steel (CRS) in H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} solution was studied by weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization curves, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electron microscope (SEM), quantum chemical calculation and molecular dynamics (MD) methods. The results show that AT exhibits a moderate inhibitive effect, and DHP has a poor effect. However, incorporation AT with DHP significantly improves the inhibitive performance, and yields synergism. The adsorption of AT in the absence and presence of DHP obeys Langmuir adsorption isotherm. AT/DHP mixture acts as a mixed-type inhibitor. The combined AT and DHP molecules co-adsorb on the Fe (001) surface in the nearly flat manner, and the adsorption energy is larger than individual AT or DHP. - Highlights: • There is a synergistic inhibition effect of AT and DHP for steel in H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} solution. • The adsorption of AT whether it is mixed with DHP or not obeys Langmuir isotherm. • The AT/DHP mixture behaves as a mixed-type inhibitor. • E{sub HOMO} increases and E{sub LUMO} decreases in the combined AT and DHP. • AT and DHP co-adsorb on Fe (001) surface with the nearly flat manner.

  9. Inhibition effect of tetradecylpyridinium bromide on the corrosion of cold rolled steel in 7.0 M H3PO4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianghong Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Inhibition effect of cationic surfactant of tetradecylpyridinium bromide (TDPB on the corrosion of cold rolled steel (CRS in phosphoric acid produced by dihydrate wet method process (7.0 M H3PO4 was investigated by weight loss and potentiodynamic polarization methods and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Quantum chemical calculation was applied to elucidate the adsorption mode of the inhibitor molecule on steel surface. The results show that TDPB acts as a good inhibitor, and its maximum inhibition efficiency is higher than 90% even at low concentration. The adsorption of TDPB obeys the Langmuir adsorption isotherm equation. Polarization curves indicate that TDPB behaves as a mixed-type inhibitor in H3PO4. EIS spectra exhibit one capacitive loop which indicates that the corrosion reaction is controlled by charge transfer process. The inhibition action of TDPB could also be evidenced by surface SEM images. Density functional theory (DFT calculations suggest that the pyridine ring is the active adsorption center. Depending on the results, the inhibitive mechanism is proposed from the viewpoint of adsorption theory.

  10. FRACTIONAL RECRYSTALLIZATION KINETICS IN DIRECTLY COLD ROLLED Al-Mg, Al-Mg-Sc AND Al-Mg-Sc-Zr ALLOY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Kaiser

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of texture as a function of recrystallization has been characterized for directly cold rolled Al-6Mg, Al-6Mg-0.4Sc and Al-6Mg-0.4Sc-0.2Zr alloys. Samples were annealed isothermally at 400 °C for 1 to 240 minutes to allow recrystallization. Recrystallization kinetics of the alloys is analyzed from the micro-hardness variation. Isothermally annealed samples of aluminum alloys were also studied using JMAK type analysis to see if there exists any correlation between the methods. Recrystallization fraction behavior between two methods the scandium added alloys show the higher variation due to precipitation hardening and higher recrystallization behavior. The scandium and zirconium as a combined shows the more variation due to formation of Al3(Sc, Zr precipitate. From the microstructure it is also observed that the base Al-Mg alloy attained almost fully re-crystallized state after annealing at 400 °C for 60 minutes

  11. Comparative assessment of microstructure and texture in the Fe-30.5Mn-8.0Al-1.2C and Fe-30.5Mn-2.1Al-1.2C steels under cold rolling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Mendes Souza

    Full Text Available Abstract Investigation of microstructure and texture has been done for cold rolled Fe-30.5Mn-8.0Al-1.2C (8Al and Fe-30.5Mn-2.1Al-1.2C (2Al (wt.% steels. They were rolled to a strain of ~0.70. Refinement of a crystallographic slip band substructure in low to medium rolling strain and nucleation of twins on the mature slip bands at a higher strain were suggested as deformation mechanisms in the 8Al steel. Mainly shear banding contributed to the formation of a Copper texture in such steel. Brass-texture development in the 2Al steel is mainly due to deformation twinning and shear banding formation. Detailed images of KAM maps showed that the stored deformation energy was mainly localized in the twinned areas and shear bands, which generated the inhomogeneous deformation microstructures in both steels at a higher strain. Goss and Brass texture intensity decreases and Cu-texture intensity increases as the Al wt.% increases in different cold rolled High-Mn (Mn ~30 wt.% steels.

  12. Microstructural evolution of cold-sprayed Inconel 625 superalloy coatings on low alloy steel substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhuri, Atanu; Raghupathy, Y.; Srinivasan, Dheepa; Suwas, Satyam; Srivastava, Chandan

    2017-01-01

    This study illustrates microstructural evolution of INCONEL 625 superalloy coatings cold-sprayed on a 4130 chrome alloy steel with medium carbon content. INCONEL 625 powder (5–25 μm) were successfully cold sprayed without any oxidation. The comprehensive microstructure analysis of the as-sprayed coatings and of the substrate-coating interface was carried out using EBSD, TEM, and XRD. The coating microstructure at the substrate-coating interface was markedly different from the microstructure away from the interface. The coating microstructure at steel-coating interface consisted of a fine layer of small grains. The microstructure beyond this fine layer can be divided into splats, inter splat and intra splat boundaries. Both splat and splat boundaries exhibited deformation induced dislocations. Dynamic recovery of dislocations-ridden regions inside the splat was responsible for the development of sub grain structure inside a splat with both low and high angle grain boundaries. Splat-splat (inter splat) boundary consisted of a relatively high density of dislocations and shear bands as a result of adiabatic shear flow localisation. This flow instability is believed to enhance the microstructural integrity by eliminating porosity at splat-splat boundaries. Based on the microstructural analysis using electron microscopy, a plausible mechanism for the development of microstructure has been proposed in this work. Cold spray technique can thus be deployed to develop high quality coatings of commercial importance. - Graphical abstract: Schematics of the evolution of microstructure at the 4130 steel substrate close to interface. i) initial deformation close to interface. ii) Accumulation of dislocation in the substrate. iii) Formation of cell structure due to dislocation tangling and arrangement. iv) Dislocation rearrangement and subgrain formation. v.a) Formation HAGB from dislocation accumulation into LAGB. v.b) HAGB formation through DRX by progressive lattice rotation

  13. Interfacial layers evolution during annealing in Ti-Al multi-laminated composite processed using hot press and roll bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, A. H.; Eghbali, B.

    2016-09-01

    Ti-Al multi-laminated composites have great potential in high strength and low weight structures. In the present study, tri-layer Ti-Al composite was synthesized by hot press bonding under 40 MPa at 570 °C for 1 h and subsequent hot roll bonding at about 450 °C. This process was conducted in two accumulative passes to 30% and to 67% thickness reduction in initial and final passes, respectively. Then, the final annealing treatments were done at 550, 600, 650, 700 and 750 °C for 2, 4 and 6 h. Investigations on microstructural evolution and thickening of interfacial layers were performed by scanning electron microscopes, energy dispersive spectrometer, X-ray diffraction and micro-hardness tests. The results showed that the thickening of diffusion layers corresponds to amount of deformation. In addition to thickening of the diffusion layers, the thickness of aluminum layers decreased and after annealing treatment at 750 °C for 6 h the aluminum layers were consumed entirely, which occurred because of the enhanced interdiffusion of Ti and Al elements. Scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive spectrometer showed that the sequence of interfacial layers as Ti3Al-TiAl-TiAl2-TiAl3 which are believed to be the result of thermodynamic and kinetic of phase formation. Micro-hardness results presented the variation profile in accordance with the sequence of intermetallic phases and their different structures.

  14. A feasibility study on different NDT techniques used for testing bond quality in cold roll bonded Al-Sn alloy/steel bimetal strips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tallafuss Philipp Johannes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents non-destructive testing (NDT results for the detection of bond defects in aluminium-tin (Al-Sn alloy/steel bimetal strips. Among all types of bimetal strip that are used in the automotive industry for plain journal engine bearings, Al-Sn alloys cold roll bonded (CRB onto steel backing is the most common type. The difficulty to evaluate the metallurgical bond between the two dissimilar metals is a major industrial concern, which comprises the risk that bearings fail in the field. Considering the harsh performance requirements, 100% online non-destructive testing would be desirable to significantly reduce the business risk. Nowadays bimetal strip manufacturers still rely on destructive testing through different peel-off tests. This work offers the results from four independent NDT studies, using active thermography, shearography, ultrasound and guided wave electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs and samples with different artificially implanted defects, to explore the feasibility to qualitatively indicate the occurrence of bond defects. A destructive peel off test was used to correlate the NDT results with known bond quality. The studies were done under laboratory conditions, and in case of ultrasound also online under production conditions. During the ultrasound online test, the requirements that a NDT technique has to fulfil for online inspection of Al-Sn alloy/steel bimetal strip were established. For active thermography, shearography and guided wave EMAT techniques, it was theoretically analysed, if the laboratory test results could be transferred to testing under production conditions. As a result, guided waves using EMATs, among the four tested methods, are best suited for online inspection of Al-Sn alloy/steel bimetal strip. This research was carried out in collaboration with MAHLE Engine Systems UK Ltd., an Al-Sn alloy/steel bimetal strip manufacturer for the automotive industry.

  15. [Isolation of an excellent bio-flocculant-producing strain and its application in the treatment of cold-rolling waste oily water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Guo-Yuan; Ding, Cui-Ping; Yang, Jia-Xuan

    2011-09-01

    An excellent strain (designated as T-3) which produces bio-flocculants was isolated from soil samples, and identified as Klebsiella sp. species based on the analysis of morphology, physiology and biochemistry and 16S rDNA sequences measurement. The effects of culture conditions such as pH values, temperature, carbon sources and nitrogen sources on bio-flocculants production by T-3 strain were studied. The experiment results show that T-3 strain has better adaptability to carbon sources and nitrogen sources, and higher capacity of bio-flocculants was obtained when the initial pH value of culture and temperature were 9 and 25 degrees C respectively. Based on the colorimetric reactions of proteins and polysaccharide substance, ultraviolet scanning analysis and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy analysis, it is found that the bio-flocculants produced by T-3 strain contains -OH and -COO(-) groups and belongs to anionic type flocculant. Moreover, the main component is polysaccharides. The treatment of oily cold-rolling wastewater by the bio-flocculant was investigated and the better result was obtained. When the dosages of CaCl2, bio-flocculants and poly aluminium chloride were 4 g x L(-1), 10% (volume fraction) and 1 g x L(-1) respectively, and the pH value was 7.0, the oil concentration, COD and turbidity were decreased to 10 mg x L(-1), 218.4 mg x L(-1) and 1.36 from 4 819 mg x L(-1), 28 456.8 mg x L(-1) and 3 950 with the removal efficiencies of 99.79%, 92.32% and 99.97% respectively. The interaction between flocculant and oily droplets is achieved by the interaction of Van der Waals force, hydrogen bond and the bridged coordination of Ca2+, in which the bridged coordination of Ca2+ is the dominant.

  16. Influence of structure and properties of tubular billets of the 12 Kh 18N10T steel on deformability of tubes at cold-rolling mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vil'yams, O.S.; Bol'shova, N.M.; Olejnik, O.V.; Velikotnaya, E.S.

    1979-01-01

    Metallographic analysis of the defects of the ''oblique cracks'' type on the surface of hot-rolled tubes of the 12Kh18N10T steel has been carried out. Recommended is the complex of mechanical properties and the structure factors (grain size) of conversion hot-rolled tubes, providing the combination of ductility and high rapture strength during rolling at pilger mills. At a grain size not coarser than number 5, a billet must have σsub(T) 5 >=40 %. Hot-rolled coarse-grained billet is not recommended for warm rolng because of high strain hardening

  17. An Isocurvature Cold Dark Matter Cosmogony. I. A Worked Example of Evolution through Inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peebles, P. J. E.

    1999-01-01

    I present a specific worked example of evolution through inflation to the initial conditions for an isocurvature cold dark matter (ICDM) model for structure formation. The model invokes three scalar fields: one that drives power-law inflation, one that survives to become the present-day CDM, and one that gives the CDM field a mass that slowly decreases during inflation and therefore ``tilts'' the primeval mass fluctuation spectrum of the CDM. The functional forms for the potentials and the parameter values that lead to an observationally acceptable model for structure formation do not seem to be out of line with current ideas about the physics of the very early universe. I argue in an accompanying paper that the model offers a not unacceptable fit to main observational constraints.

  18. The evolution of X-ray clusters in a cold plus hot dark matter universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Greg L.; Klypin, Anatoly; Loken, Chris; Norman, Michael L.; Burns, Jack O.

    1994-01-01

    We present the first self-consistently computed results on the evolution of X-ray properties of galaxy clusters in a cold + hot dark matter (CHDM) model. We have performed a hydrodynamic plus N-body simulation for the COBE-compatible CHDM model with standard mass components: Omega(sub hot) = 0.3, Omega (sub cold) = 0.6 and Omega(sub baryon) = 0.1 (h = 0.5). In contrast with the CDM model, which fails to reproduce the observed temperature distribution function dN/dT (Bryan et al. 1994b), the CHDM model fits the observational dN/dT quite well. Our results on X-ray luminosity are less firm but even more intriguing. We find that the resulting X-ray luminosity functions at redshifts z = 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.7 are well fit by observations, where they overlap. The fact that both temperatures and luminosities provide a reasonable fit to the available observational data indicates that, unless we are missing some essential physics, there is neither room nor need for a large fraction of gas in rich clusters: 10% (or less) in baryons is sufficient to explain their X-ray properties. We also see a tight correlation between X-ray luminosity and gas temperature.

  19. Evolution of microstructure at hot band annealing of ferritic FeSi steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Jürgen, E-mail: juergen.schneider@t-online.de [Institute of Metal Forming, Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg, Bernhard-von Cotta-Str. 4, D-09596 Freiberg (Germany); Stahlzentrum Freiberg e.V., Leipziger Straße 34, D-09599 Freiberg (Germany); Li, Guangqiang [State Key Lab. of Refractories and Metallurgy, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, No. 947 Heping Avenue, Qingshan District, Wuhan 430081 (China); Franke, Armin [Stahlzentrum Freiberg e.V., Leipziger Straße 34, D-09599 Freiberg (Germany); Zhou, Bowen [State Key Lab. of Refractories and Metallurgy, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, No. 947 Heping Avenue, Qingshan District, Wuhan 430081 (China)

    2017-02-15

    The magnetic properties of the finally fabricated nonoriented FeSi steels critically depend on the microstructure and on the occurring crystallographic texture. The fabrication route comprises hot rolling, coiling and cooling, hot band annealing before cold rolling (optional), cold rolling and the final thermal treatment. As well known there is an interplay between the microstructure and texture during the various processing steps. For that reason, it is of interest to know more on the evolution of the microstructure at hot band annealing of hot band prepared in different ways. In this paper we will summarize our recent results on the evolution of microstructure during thermal annealing of hot band: thermal treatment following immediately the last pass of hot rolling or a hot band annealing as a separate processing step before cold rolling.

  20. The Molecular Basis of Evolution and Disease: A Cold War Alliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Díaz, Edna

    2017-03-28

    This paper extends previous arguments against the assumption that the study of variation at the molecular level was instigated with a view to solving an internal conflict between the balance and classical schools of population genetics. It does so by focusing on the intersection of basic research in protein chemistry and the molecular approach to disease with the enactment of global health campaigns during the Cold War period. The paper connects advances in research on protein structure and function as reflected in Christian Anfinsen's The molecular basis of evolution, with a political reading of Emilé Zuckerkandl and Linus Pauling's identification of molecular disease and evolution. Beyond atomic fallout, these advances constituted a rationale for the promotion of genetic surveys of human populations in the Third World, in connection with international health programs. Light is shed not only on the experimental roots of the molecular challenge but on the broader geopolitical context where the rising role of biomedicine and public health (particularly the malaria eradication campaigns) had an impact on evolutionary biology.

  1. Effect of current frequency on the mechanical properties, microstructure and texture evolution in AZ31 magnesium alloy strips during electroplastic rolling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaopei [Advanced Materials Institute, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Beijing National Center for Electron Microscopy, School of Materials Science and Engineering, The State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, Laboratory of Advanced Materials (MOE), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Tang, Guoyi; Kuang, Jie; Li, Xiaohui [Advanced Materials Institute, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Zhu, Jing, E-mail: jzhu@tsinghua.edu.cn [Advanced Materials Institute, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Beijing National Center for Electron Microscopy, School of Materials Science and Engineering, The State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, Laboratory of Advanced Materials (MOE), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2014-08-26

    The effect of electroplastic rolling (ER) on the mechanical properties, microstructure and texture in the AZ31 magnesium alloy strips has been investigated by tensile testing and electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) methods. It is shown that the mechanical properties, microstructure, and texture are highly current frequency-dependent. Best mechanical properties are obtained from the 500 Hz ER specimen by carrying out tensile tests for all the rolled strips. Besides, the frequencies of twin boundaries, which are reduced to the minimum at 500 Hz, vary with the current frequency. Moreover, it can be seen from the calculated (0001) and (101{sup ¯}0) pole figures that texture evolved into an obvious off-basal texture, and non-basal slip systems are activated under 500 Hz. The mechanisms of twinning growth and texture evolution in AZ31 magnesium alloy strips during ER are considered to be responsible for the experimental results.

  2. Hot rolling of thick uranium molybdenum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMint, Amy L.; Gooch, Jack G.

    2015-11-17

    Disclosed herein are processes for hot rolling billets of uranium that have been alloyed with about ten weight percent molybdenum to produce cold-rollable sheets that are about one hundred mils thick. In certain embodiments, the billets have a thickness of about 7/8 inch or greater. Disclosed processes typically involve a rolling schedule that includes a light rolling pass and at least one medium rolling pass. Processes may also include reheating the rolling stock and using one or more heavy rolling passes, and may include an annealing step.

  3. Precursor evolution and SCC initiation of cold-worked alloy 690 in simulated PWR primary water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai, Ziqing; Kruska, Karen; Toloczko, Mychailo B.; Bruemmer, Stephen M.

    2017-03-27

    Stress corrosion crack initiation of two thermally-treated, cold-worked (CW) alloy 690 materials was investigated in 360oC simulated PWR primary water using constant load tensile (CLT) tests and blunt notch compact tension (BNCT) tests equipped with direct current potential drop (DCPD) for in-situ detection of cracking. SCC initiation was not detected by DCPD for the 21% and 31%CW CLT specimens loaded at their yield stress after ~9,220 h, however intergranular (IG) precursor damage and isolated surface cracks were observed on the specimens. The two 31%CW BNCT specimens loaded at moderate stress intensity after several cyclic loading ramps showed DCPD-indicated crack initiation after 10,400h exposure at constant stress intensity, which resulted from significant growth of IG cracks. The 21%CW BNCT specimens only exhibited isolated small IG surface cracks and showed no apparent DCPD change throughout the test. Interestingly, post-test cross-section examinations revealed many grain boundary (GB) nano-cavities in the bulk of all the CLT and BNCT specimens particularly for the 31%CW materials. Cavities were also found along GBs extending to the surface suggesting an important role in crack nucleation. This paper provides an overview of the evolution of GB cavities and will discuss their effects on crack initiation in CW alloy 690.

  4. Deformation path effects on the internal stress development in cold worked austenitic steel deformed in tension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, I.I.; Grant, B.; Sherry, A.H.; Quinta da Fonseca, J.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of cold work level and strain paths on the flow stress of austenitic stainless steels, including Bauschinger effect and associated internal stresses were investigated with both mechanical testing and neutron diffraction techniques. The main objective was to assess the effects of cold rolling: to 5%, 10%, 20% and 40% reduction and uniaxial straining on the evolution of the internal strains during the re-straining to 5% tensile strain in-situ, which is relevant for stress corrosion cracking (SCC) studies. The results of mechanical testing showed that the yield strength of material increased when it was reloaded in the forward direction and decreased well below the flow stress when the loading direction was reversed, showing a strong Bauschinger effect. The magnitude of Bauschinger effect is independent on whether tensile or compressive prestraining comes first but rather on the amount of prestrain. The assessment of the effect of prestraining methods showed that the magnitude of yield asymmetry was higher in the material prestrained by uniaxial deformation than those prestrained by cold rolling. Neutron diffraction test results showed that the elastic lattice strain difference between the maximum and minimum strain values increased consistently with the applied stress during the re-straining to 5% tensile strain in-situ along the 3 orthogonal directions of the rolled plate. It also emerged that, following the in-situ loading of cold rolled materials to 5% tensile strain, the largest strain difference occurred in the material prestrained to 20% reduction. In cold rolled samples, the peak width increased with cold work levels and during re-straining to 5% along rolling, transverse to rolling and normal directions which simulated reversed condition. In contrast to the cold rolled samples, there was neither increase nor decrease in the peak width of samples prestrained by uniaxial deformation on re-straining in reverse direction. This was rationalised in

  5. Sub-horizon evolution of cold dark matter perturbations through dark matter-dark energy equivalence epoch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piattella, O.F.; Martins, D.L.A.; Casarini, L.

    2014-01-01

    We consider a cosmological model of the late universe constituted by standard cold dark matter plus a dark energy component with constant equation of state w and constant effective speed of sound. By neglecting fluctuations in the dark energy component, we obtain an equation describing the evolution of sub-horizon cold dark matter perturbations through the epoch of dark matter-dark energy equality. We explore its analytic solutions and calculate an exact w-dependent correction for the dark matter growth function, logarithmic growth function and growth index parameter through the epoch considered. We test our analytic approximation with the numerical solution and find that the discrepancy is less than 1% for 0k = during the cosmic evolution up to a = 100

  6. Effect of Thermomechanical Processing on Microstructure, Texture Evolution, and Mechanical Properties of Al-Mg-Si-Cu Alloys with Different Zn Contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X. F.; Guo, M. X.; Chen, Y.; Zhu, J.; Zhang, J. S.; Zhuang, L. Z.

    2017-07-01

    The effect of thermomechanical processing on microstructure, texture evolution, and mechanical properties of Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloys with different Zn contents was studied by mechanical properties, microstructure, and texture characterization in the present study. The results show that thermomechanical processing has a significant influence on the evolution of microstructure and texture and on the final mechanical properties, independently of Zn contents. Compared with the T4P-treated (first preaged at 353 K (80 °C) for 12 hours and then naturally aged for 14 days) sheets with high final cold rolling reduction, the T4P-treated sheets with low final cold rolling reduction possess almost identical strength and elongation and higher average r values. Compared with the intermediate annealed sheets with high final cold rolling reduction, the intermediate annealed sheets with low final cold rolling reduction contain a higher number of particles with a smaller size. After solution treatment, in contrast to the sheets with high final cold rolling reduction, the sheets with low final cold rolling reduction possess finer grain structure and tend to form a weaker recrystallization texture. The recrystallization texture may be affected by particle distribution, grain size, and final cold rolling texture. Finally, the visco-plastic self-consistent (VPSC) model was used to predict r values.

  7. 'We are left in the cold': nurses' perceptions and responses to antiretroviral treatment roll-out in the Free State, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wet, Katinka; du Plooy, Shirley

    2012-01-01

    The unprecedented roll-out of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in South Africa is a complex process where no previous endeavour exists that can measure, predict, or direct an intervention of this scale. In the Free State province, unique characteristics and problems distinguish its ART programme, although countrywide problems also occur within the province. The Free State province faces high vacancy rates among its health-care workers, the programme has lower patient enrolment rates because of an obsession with quality to the detriment of quantity, and various incidents of ART shortages have also shook the province. The ART roll-out intervention thus far has been largely nurse-driven (however not nurse initiated), and they form what many refer to as the 'backbone' of the programme. In order to respond to the challenges faced by these front-line ART providers, continuous transformations inevitably take place to respond to new needs associated with the roll-out programme, but also to strengthen the primary health-care system in general. The objective of this article is to present a typology of contradictory contextual factors in the antiretroviral programme as identified through group interviews that were conducted with PNs at public health-care clinics in the five districts of the Free State province during 2005 and 2006. We intend to show that transformations often have contradictory and problematic outcomes as expressed and perceived by the nurses themselves. This unprecedented endeavour of ART roll-out inevitably has to treasure and support its most valued implementers, i.e. the front-line providers who are not only professionals in the health-care setting, but also social agents in a wider contextual framework.

  8. Modification of the Structure of Low-Carbon Pipe Steel by Helical Rolling, and the Increase in Its Strength and Cold Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derevyagina, L. S.; Gordienko, A. I.; Pochivalov, Yu. I.; Smirnova, A. S.

    2018-01-01

    The paper reports the investigation results on the microstructure and mechanical properties of low-carbon pipe steel after helical rolling. The processing of the steel leads to the refinement of ferritic grains from 12 (for the coarse-grained state) to 5 μm, to the strengthening of ferrite by carbide particles, a decrease in the total fraction of perlite grains, a more uniform alternation of ferrite and perlite, and the formation of regions with bainitic structure. The mechanical properties of the steel have been determined in the conditions of static and dynamic loading in the range of test temperatures from +20 to-70°C. As a result of processing, the ultimate tensile strength increases (from 650 to 770 MPa at a rolling temperature from 920°C) and the viscoplastic properties at negative temperatures are improved significantly. The ductile-brittle transition temperature of the rolled steel decreases from-32 to-55°C and the impact toughness at the test temperature-40°C increases eight times compared to the initial state of the steel.

  9. Microstructure Evolution and Mechanical Properties of Al-TiB2/TiC In Situ Aluminum-Based Composites during Accumulative Roll Bonding (ARB Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinfeng Nie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a kind of Al-TiB2/TiC in situ composite was successfully prepared using the melt reaction method and the accumulative roll-bonding (ARB technique. The microstructure evolution of the composites with different deformation treatments was characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM and a transmission electron microscope (TEM. The mechanical properties of the Al-TiB2/TiC in situ composite were also studied with tensile and microhardness tests. It was found that the distribution of reinforcement particles becomes more homogenous with an increasing ARB cycle. Meanwhile, the mechanical properties showed great improvement during the ARB process. The ultimate tensile strength (UTS and microhardness of the composites were increased to 173.1 MPa and 63.3 Hv after two ARB cycles, respectively. Furthermore, the strengthening mechanism of the composite was analyzed based on its fracture morphologies.

  10. The evolution of high summit metabolism and cold tolerance in birds and its impact on present-day distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, David L; Garland, Theodore

    2009-01-01

    Summit metabolic rate (M(sum), maximum cold-induced metabolic rate) is positively correlated with cold tolerance in birds, suggesting that high M(sum) is important for residency in cold climates. However, the phylogenetic distribution of high M(sum) among birds and the impact of its evolution on current distributions are not well understood. Two potential adaptive hypotheses might explain the phylogenetic distribution of high M(sum) among birds. The cold adaptation hypothesis contends that species wintering in cold climates should have higher M(sum) than species wintering in warmer climates. The flight adaptation hypothesis suggests that volant birds might be capable of generating high M(sum) as a byproduct of their muscular capacity for flight; thus, variation in M(sum) should be associated with capacity for sustained flight, one indicator of which is migration. We collected M(sum) data from the literature for 44 bird species and conducted both conventional and phylogenetically informed statistical analyses to examine the predictors of M(sum) variation. Significant phylogenetic signal was present for log body mass, log mass-adjusted M(sum), and average temperature in the winter range. In multiple regression models, log body mass, winter temperature, and clade were significant predictors of log M(sum). These results are consistent with a role for climate in determining M(sum) in birds, but also indicate that phylogenetic signal remains even after accounting for associations indicative of adaptation to winter temperature. Migratory strategy was never a significant predictor of log M(sum) in multiple regressions, a result that is not consistent with the flight adaptation hypothesis.

  11. Effects of hot rolled microstructure after twin-roll casting on microstructure, texture and magnetic properties of low silicon non-oriented electrical steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hai-Tao; Wang, Yin-Ping; An, Ling-Zi; Wang, Zhao-Jie; Hou, Dao-Yuan; Chen, Jun-Mou; Wang, Guo-Dong

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a 0.71 wt%Si+0.44 wt%Al as-cast strip was produced by novel twin-roll casting. Some as-cast samples were respectively reheated and hot rolled at different temperatures in order to obtain different microstructure prior to cold rolling and annealing. The effects of the hot rolled microstructure on microstructure, texture evolution and magnetic properties were investigated in detail. A coarse deformed microstructure with λ-fiber texture was formed after hot rolling at 850–1050 °C, finally leading to an inhomogeneous recrystallization microstructure with strong λ-fiber, Goss and extremely weak γ-fiber texture. By contrast, a fine transformed microstructure was formed after hot rolling at 1150–1250 °C, finally leading to a fine and homogeneous recrystallization microstructure with stronger α-fiber, γ-fiber and much weaker λ-fiber texture. It should be noted that both the magnetic induction and core loss non-monotonically decreased or increased according to the hot rolling temperature. The unfavorable α-fiber and γ-fiber textures in the annealed sheets were much weaker than those of the conventional products regardless of the hot rolling temperature, thus contributing to a much higher magnetic induction. However, the average grain size in the annealed sheets was much lower than those of the conventional products regardless of the hot rolling temperature, thus leading to a higher core loss except the case of 1050 °C. Hence, it is underscored that better integrated magnetic properties than those of the conventional products can be obtained by optimizing the hot rolled microstructure to produce final desirable recrystallization microstructure and texture. - Highlights: • Non-oriented silicon steel was fabricated using twin-roll casting route. • Microstructure and texture evolution were clarified. • Effects of the hot rolled microstructure were investigated in detail. • Formation mechanism of the recrystallization texture was explored.

  12. Effects of hot rolled microstructure after twin-roll casting on microstructure, texture and magnetic properties of low silicon non-oriented electrical steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hai-Tao, E-mail: liuht@ral.neu.edu.cn; Wang, Yin-Ping; An, Ling-Zi; Wang, Zhao-Jie; Hou, Dao-Yuan; Chen, Jun-Mou; Wang, Guo-Dong

    2016-12-15

    In this work, a 0.71 wt%Si+0.44 wt%Al as-cast strip was produced by novel twin-roll casting. Some as-cast samples were respectively reheated and hot rolled at different temperatures in order to obtain different microstructure prior to cold rolling and annealing. The effects of the hot rolled microstructure on microstructure, texture evolution and magnetic properties were investigated in detail. A coarse deformed microstructure with λ-fiber texture was formed after hot rolling at 850–1050 °C, finally leading to an inhomogeneous recrystallization microstructure with strong λ-fiber, Goss and extremely weak γ-fiber texture. By contrast, a fine transformed microstructure was formed after hot rolling at 1150–1250 °C, finally leading to a fine and homogeneous recrystallization microstructure with stronger α-fiber, γ-fiber and much weaker λ-fiber texture. It should be noted that both the magnetic induction and core loss non-monotonically decreased or increased according to the hot rolling temperature. The unfavorable α-fiber and γ-fiber textures in the annealed sheets were much weaker than those of the conventional products regardless of the hot rolling temperature, thus contributing to a much higher magnetic induction. However, the average grain size in the annealed sheets was much lower than those of the conventional products regardless of the hot rolling temperature, thus leading to a higher core loss except the case of 1050 °C. Hence, it is underscored that better integrated magnetic properties than those of the conventional products can be obtained by optimizing the hot rolled microstructure to produce final desirable recrystallization microstructure and texture. - Highlights: • Non-oriented silicon steel was fabricated using twin-roll casting route. • Microstructure and texture evolution were clarified. • Effects of the hot rolled microstructure were investigated in detail. • Formation mechanism of the recrystallization texture was explored.

  13. Efficient rolling texture predictions and texture-sensitive thermomechanical properties of α-uranium foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Matthew A.; Klein, Robert W.; Calhoun, Christopher A.; Knezevic, Marko; Garlea, Elena; Agnew, Sean R.

    2017-11-01

    Finite element (FE) analysis was used to simulate the strain history of an α-uranium foil during cold straight-rolling, with the sheet modeled as an isotropic elastoplastic continuum. The resulting strain history was then used as input for a viscoplastic self-consistent (VPSC) polycrystal plasticity model to simulate crystallographic texture evolution. Mid-plane textures predicted via the combined FE→VPSC approach show alignment of the (010) poles along the rolling direction (RD), and the (001) poles along the normal direction (ND) with a symmetric splitting along RD. The surface texture is similar to that of the mid-plane, but with a shear-induced asymmetry that favors one of the RD split features of the (001) pole figure. Both the mid-plane and surface textures predicted by the FE→VPSC approach agree with published experimental results for cold straight-rolled α-uranium plates, as well as predictions made by a more computationally intensive full-field crystal plasticity based finite element model. α-uranium foils produced by cold-rolling must typically undergo a recrystallization anneal to restore ductility prior to their final application, resulting in significant texture evolution from the cold-rolled plate deformation texture. Using the texture measured from a foil in the final recrystallized state, coefficients of thermal expansion and the elastic stiffness tensors were calculated using a thermo-elastic self-consistent model, and the anisotropic yield loci and flow curves along the RD, TD, and ND were predicted using the VPSC code.

  14. Tracking trails by cracking codes : Molecular biogeography and evolution of benthic cold-water seaweeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oppen, Madeleine Josephine Henriette

    1995-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis was to examine the evolutionary diversification and biogeography of some polar and cold-temperatsee aweeds. Distribution patterns and dispersal routes were investigated in three species exhibiting a bipolar disjunction and one with an amphi-Atlantic distribution, by

  15. Microfossils, a Key to Unravel Cold-Water Carbonate Mound Evolution through Time: Evidence from the Eastern Alboran Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Stalder

    Full Text Available Cold-water coral (CWC ecosystems occur worldwide and play a major role in the ocean's carbonate budget and atmospheric CO2 balance since the Danian (~65 m.y. ago. However their temporal and spatial evolution against climatic and oceanographic variability is still unclear. For the first time, we combine the main macrofaunal components of a sediment core from a CWC mound of the Melilla Mounds Field in the Eastern Alboran Sea with the associated microfauna and we highlight the importance of foraminifera and ostracods as indicators of CWC mound evolution in the paleorecord. Abundances of macrofauna along the core reveal alternating periods dominated by distinct CWC taxa (mostly Lophelia pertusa, Madrepora oculata that correspond to major shifts in foraminiferal and ostracod assemblages. The period dominated by M. oculata coincides with a period characterized by increased export of refractory organic matter to the seafloor and rather unstable oceanographic conditions at the benthic boundary layer with periodically decreased water energy and oxygenation, variable bottom water temperature/density and increased sediment flow. The microfaunal and geochemical data strongly suggest that M. oculata and in particular Dendrophylliidae show a higher tolerance to environmental changes than L. pertusa. Finally, we show evidence for sustained CWC growth during the Alleröd-Younger-Dryas in the Eastern Alboran Sea and that this period corresponds to stable benthic conditions with cold/dense and well oxygenated bottom waters, high fluxes of labile organic matter and relatively strong bottom currents.

  16. Texture evolution in Nd:YAG-laser welds of AZ31 magnesium alloy hot rolled sheets and its influence on mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commin, Lorelei; Dumont, Myriam; Rotinat, Rene; Pierron, Fabrice; Masse, Jean-Eric; Barrallier, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → AZ31 LBW fusion zone results in Mg 17 (Al-Zn) 12 precipitation, twins formation and {0 0 2} texture modification. → The mechanical properties were reduced after LBW but the fracture occurred in the base metal. → The mechanical properties were reduced after LBW but the fracture occurred in the base metal. → A recovery of elongation and UTS can be achieved by a 300 deg. C/1 h heat treatment. The texture evolution is mainly responsible for the yield strength reduction in the fusion zone. - Abstract: AZ31 hot rolled magnesium alloy presents a strong basal texture. Using laser beam welding (LBW) as a joining process induces high temperature gradients leading to major texture changes. Electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) was used to study the texture evolution, and tensile tests coupled with speckle interferometry were performed to understand its influence on mechanical properties. The random texture obtained in the LBW fusion zone is mainly responsible for the yield strength reduction.

  17. Mean and variance evolutions of the hot and cold temperatures in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parey, Sylvie [EDF/R and D, Chatou Cedex (France); Dacunha-Castelle, D. [Universite Paris 11, Laboratoire de Mathematiques, Orsay (France); Hoang, T.T.H. [Universite Paris 11, Laboratoire de Mathematiques, Orsay (France); EDF/R and D, Chatou Cedex (France)

    2010-02-15

    In this paper, we examine the trends of temperature series in Europe, for the mean as well as for the variance in hot and cold seasons. To do so, we use as long and homogenous series as possible, provided by the European Climate Assessment and Dataset project for different locations in Europe, as well as the European ENSEMBLES project gridded dataset and the ERA40 reanalysis. We provide a definition of trends that we keep as intrinsic as possible and apply non-parametric statistical methods to analyse them. Obtained results show a clear link between trends in mean and variance of the whole series of hot or cold temperatures: in general, variance increases when the absolute value of temperature increases, i.e. with increasing summer temperature and decreasing winter temperature. This link is reinforced in locations where winter and summer climate has more variability. In very cold or very warm climates, the variability is lower and the link between the trends is weaker. We performed the same analysis on outputs of six climate models proposed by European teams for the 1961-2000 period (1950-2000 for one model), available through the PCMDI portal for the IPCC fourth assessment climate model simulations. The models generally perform poorly and have difficulties in capturing the relation between the two trends, especially in summer. (orig.)

  18. Kulturens rolle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasse, Cathrine

    2007-01-01

    Kulturens rolle. Herunder kulturens betydning for psykologisk teori og forskning set i lyset af den stigende globalisering og væksten i kulturmøder. Der gives eksempler fra hverdagssituationer, den pædagogiske praksis, fra indvandrerforskning, turister men også fra avisernes referater af kulturmø......Kulturens rolle. Herunder kulturens betydning for psykologisk teori og forskning set i lyset af den stigende globalisering og væksten i kulturmøder. Der gives eksempler fra hverdagssituationer, den pædagogiske praksis, fra indvandrerforskning, turister men også fra avisernes referater af...

  19. Inelastic properties evolution of alloy steels in martensitic and cold-worked states subjected to heat treatments up to 600/sup 0/C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isore, A; Miyada, L T

    1975-05-01

    Two internal friction peaks were observed in a ball-bearing steel in the martensitic and cold-worked states, near 220 and 280/sup 0/C for a frequency of about 1,3 Hz. From peaks evolution by annealing up to 600/sup 0/C, it is possible to follow the decomposition stages of martensitic and recrystallization of cold-worked pearlite. Annealed martensite and cold worked pearlite have the same anelastic behaviour. From existing atomistic models, it is possible to interpret these peaks by dislocations-interstitial carbon and dislocations-carbides interactions.

  20. Inelastic properties evolution of alloy steels in martensitic and cold-worked states subjected to heat treatments up to 6000C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isore, A.; Miyada, L.T.

    1975-01-01

    Two internal friction peaks were observed in a ball-bearing steel in the martensitic and cold-worked states, near 220 and 280 0 C for a frequency of about 1,3 Hz. From peaks evolution by annealing up to 600 0 C, it is possible to follow the decomposition stages of martensitic and recrystallization of cold-worked pearlite. Annealed martensite and cold worked pearlite have the same anelastic behaviour. From existing atomistic models, it is possible to interpret these peaks by dislocations-interstitial carbon and dislocations-carbides interactions

  1. Recrystallization of deformed copper - kinetics and microstructural evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Fengxiang

    The objective of this study is to investigate the recrystallization kinetics and microstructural evolution in copper deformed to high strains, including copper deformed by cold-rolling and copper deformed by dynamic plastic deformation (DPD). Various characterization techniques were used, including...... electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), Vickers hardness test, 3D X-ray diffraction (3DXRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). For the cold-rolled samples, a series of initial parameters was investigated for their effects on the recrystallization kinetics and textures, including initial grain...

  2. [Comporison Sduty of Microstructure by Metallographicalk on the Polarized Light and Texture by XRD of CC 5083 and CC 5182 Aluminium Alloy after Cold Rolling and Recrystallization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-biao; Li, Yong-wei; Tan, Yuan-biao; Ma, Min; Wang, Xue-min; Liu, Wen-chang

    2015-03-01

    At present the study of relation between microstructure, texture and performance of CC 5083 aluminium alloy after cold tolling and recrystallization processes is still finitude. So that the use of the CC 5083 aluminium alloy be influenced. Be cased into electrical furnace, hot up with unlimited speed followed the furnace hot up to different temperature and annealed 2h respectively, and be cased into salt-beth furnace, hot up quickly to different temperature and annealed 30 min respectively for CC 5083 and CC 5182 aluminum alloy after cold roling with 91.5% reduction. The microstructure be watched use metallographic microscope, the texture be inspected by XRD. The start temperature of recrystallization and grain grow up temperature within annealing in the electric furnace of CC 5083 aluminum alloy board is 343 degrees C, and the shap of grain after grow up with long strip (the innovation point ); The start temperature of recrystallization within annealling in the salt bath furnace of CC 5083 is 343 degrees C. The start temperature and end temperature of recrystallization within annealling of CC 5083 and CC 5182 aluminum alloy is 371 degrees C. The grain grow up outstanding of cold rooled CC 5152 aluminum alloy after annealed with 454 degrees C in the electric furnace and salt bath furnace. The start temperature of grain grow up of CC 5083 alluminurn alloy annealed in the electric furnace and salt bath furnace respectively is higher than the start temperature of grain grow up of CC 5182 alluminum alloy annealed in the electric furnace and salt bath furnace respectively. The strat temperature of recrystallization grain grow up is higher than which annealled with other three manner annealing process. The recrystallization temperature of CC 5182 annealed in the salt bath furnace is higher than which annealed in the electric furnace. The recrystallization temperature of the surface layer of CC 5083 and CC 5182 aluminum alloy is higher than the inner layer (the innovation

  3. Phase transformation kinetics in rolled U-10 wt. % Mo foil: Effect of post-rolling heat treatment and prior γ-UMo grain size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jana, Saumyadeep; Overman, Nicole; Varga, Tamas; Lavender, Curt; Joshi, Vineet V.

    2017-12-01

    The effect of sub-eutectoid heat treatment on the phase transformation behavior in rolled U-10 wt.percent Mo (U10Mo) foils was systematically investigated. The as-cast 5 mm thick foils were initially homogenized at 900 degrees C for 48 hours and were hot rolled to 2 mm and later cold rolled down to 0.2 mm. Three starting microstructures were evaluated: (i) hot- + cold-rolled to 0.2 mm (as-rolled condition), (ii) hot- + cold-rolled to 0.2 mm + annealed at 700 deg. C for 1 hour, and (iii) hot- + cold-rolled to 0.2 mm + annealed at 1000 deg. C for 60 hours. U10Mo rolled foils went through various degrees of decomposition when subjected to the sub-eutectoid heat-treatment step and formed a lamellar microstructure through a cellular reaction mostly along the previous γ-UMo grain boundaries.

  4. Microstructural evolution of a cold work tool steel after pulsed laser remelting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kosec

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is the investigation of micro-structural behaviour of a Mat. No. 1.2379 (EN-X160CrMoV121; AISI D2 cold work tool steel after remelting with a precise pulsed Nd:YAG laser. The investigated steel is one of the most hard to weld tool steels, due to large amount of alloying elements. The analysis was done on single spots remelted with specific laser pulse shape and parameters, assuring crack-less solidification. Re-solidifi ed areas were investigated with microscopy, hardness measurements, X-ray spectroscopy and diffraction method. Laser treatment causes rapid solidifi cation leading into a formation of a fine dendritic microstructures containing high amount of retained austenite causing a significant decrease of hardness.

  5. Effect of asymmetric hot rolling on texture, microstructure and magnetic properties in a non-grain oriented electrical steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, S., E-mail: Shangping.chen@tatasteel.com [Tata Steel, 1970 CA IJmuiden (Netherlands); Butler, J. [Tata Steel, S60 3AR South Yorkshire (United Kingdom); Melzer, S. [Tata Steel, 1970 CA IJmuiden (Netherlands)

    2014-11-15

    In this study, both asymmetric hot rolling (AHR) and conventional hot rolling (CHR) were carried out to study the effect of the hot rolling conditions on the evolution of the texture and microstructure in a non-grain oriented (NGO) steel. The microstructure and texture in the subsequent processing stages were characterised and related to the final magnetic properties. The results show that AHR, compared with CHR, tends to homogenise texture through thickness of the hot band strips. AHR results in a higher fraction of the θ-fibre ({0 0 1}) and a lower fraction of the γ-fibre ({1 1 1}) in the hot band strips, which are favourable features in relation to the magnetic properties of the strip. However, the favourable features observed in hot rolled AHR strips are eliminated after cold rolling and annealing. Contrarily, the required θ-fibre is decreased and the unwanted γ-fibre is intensified in the AHR sheet after cold rolling and their strength is maintained in the subsequent process steps. On the other hand, AHR does not produce a discernible change in the grain size in the hot band annealed strip and in the final annealed sheet, except that the magnetic anisotropy in the AHR is improved after skin pass and extra annealing as the result of the redistribution of the texture components within the θ-fibre, no significant improvement of the magnetic properties as a direct consequence of the application of asymmetric hot rolling has been observed under the current AHR experimental conditions. - Highlights: • Asymmetrical hot rolling (AHR) produces more uniform distribution of texture through the thickness of the hot rolled strips and of the hot band annealed strips when compared with conventional hot rolling (CHR). • AHR results in a higher fraction of the θ-fibre ({0 0 1}) and a lower fraction of the γ-fibre ({1 1 1}) in the hot band strips. The θ-fibre is decreased but the γ-fibre is intensified in the AHR sheet after cold rolling

  6. Effect of asymmetric hot rolling on texture, microstructure and magnetic properties in a non-grain oriented electrical steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.; Butler, J.; Melzer, S.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, both asymmetric hot rolling (AHR) and conventional hot rolling (CHR) were carried out to study the effect of the hot rolling conditions on the evolution of the texture and microstructure in a non-grain oriented (NGO) steel. The microstructure and texture in the subsequent processing stages were characterised and related to the final magnetic properties. The results show that AHR, compared with CHR, tends to homogenise texture through thickness of the hot band strips. AHR results in a higher fraction of the θ-fibre ({0 0 1}) and a lower fraction of the γ-fibre ({1 1 1}) in the hot band strips, which are favourable features in relation to the magnetic properties of the strip. However, the favourable features observed in hot rolled AHR strips are eliminated after cold rolling and annealing. Contrarily, the required θ-fibre is decreased and the unwanted γ-fibre is intensified in the AHR sheet after cold rolling and their strength is maintained in the subsequent process steps. On the other hand, AHR does not produce a discernible change in the grain size in the hot band annealed strip and in the final annealed sheet, except that the magnetic anisotropy in the AHR is improved after skin pass and extra annealing as the result of the redistribution of the texture components within the θ-fibre, no significant improvement of the magnetic properties as a direct consequence of the application of asymmetric hot rolling has been observed under the current AHR experimental conditions. - Highlights: • Asymmetrical hot rolling (AHR) produces more uniform distribution of texture through the thickness of the hot rolled strips and of the hot band annealed strips when compared with conventional hot rolling (CHR). • AHR results in a higher fraction of the θ-fibre ({0 0 1}) and a lower fraction of the γ-fibre ({1 1 1}) in the hot band strips. The θ-fibre is decreased but the γ-fibre is intensified in the AHR sheet after cold rolling

  7. Adição de grafite na conformação de substratos cerâmicos porosos processados por rolos a frio Addition of graphite in the conformation of ceramic porous substrates processed by cold roll pressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Koshimizu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento de substratos cerâmicos porosos de fina espessura (The development of porous ceramic substrates with thickness less than 1 mm presents a great technology interesting for electro-electronic or catalytic applications. Among all the techniques of ceramic conformation, the viscoplastic processing shows great advantages decreasing the amount of liquids and the particles agglomeration from an intensive shearing of the ceramic paste. This process allows the conformation of ceramic samples in a simple way and without toxic additives, the opposite of tape casting, which is the method often applied. The substrates were conformed by cold roll pressing in a thickness between 400 and 700 µm, and with the rotation of rollers of 15 rpm. Theses were dried before the firing at 1600 ºC for 1 h. As a pore-forming agent it was studied the graphite powder which was added to the alumina plastic paste in two different concentrations, 9 and 18 wt%, which results in an apparent porosity of 21 and 52%, respectively.

  8. Axial Force Analysis and Roll Contour Configuration of Four-High CVC Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-ming Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze the influence of technical parameters on work roll axial force of four-high continuous variable crown (CVC mill, the deformation analyzing model with top roll system and strip was established based on influence function method. Then a CVC work roll curve designing scheme was proposed and it was carried out on some cold rolling mill considering the requirement of comprehensive work roll axial force minimization. The status of comprehensive work roll axial force is improved considering the rolling schedule that is beneficial to the roller bearing. Corresponding to the newly designed work roll contour, the backup roll end chamfer was designed considering comprehensive performance of interroll stress concentration, comprehensive work roll axial force, and strip shape control ability. The distribution of roll wear with newly designed backup roll contour is more even according to the field application data. The newly established roll configuration scheme is beneficial to four-high CVC mill.

  9. Final stages of evolution of cold, mass-accreting white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernanz, M.; Isern, J.; Canal, R.; Labay, J.; Mochkovitch, R.

    1988-01-01

    The evolution of solid C + O white dwarf models upon mass accretion is calculated up to the point of either explosive thermonuclear ignition or gravitational collapse. It is shown that both explosions and quiet collapses to a neutron star are possible for each of two different phase diagrams for high-density C + O mixtures. The ranges of initial masses and temperatures and of accretion rates leading to the different outcomes are determined. Problems concerning the chemical composition of the accreted matter and the effects of tidal dissipation are discussed. 68 references

  10. Development of TRIP-Aided Lean Duplex Stainless Steel by Twin-Roll Strip Casting and Its Deformation Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Weina; Liu, Xin; Liu, Zhenyu; Wang, Guodong

    2016-12-01

    In the present work, twin-roll strip casting was carried out to fabricate thin strip of a Mn-N alloyed lean duplex stainless steel with the composition of Fe-19Cr-6Mn-0.4N, in which internal pore defects had been effectively avoided as compared to conventional cast ingots. The solidification structure observed by optical microscope indicated that fine Widmannstatten structure and coarse-equiaxed crystals had been formed in the surface and center, respectively, with no columnar crystal structures through the surface to center of the cast strip. By applying hot rolling and cold rolling, thin sheets with the thickness of 0.5 mm were fabricated from the cast strips, and no edge cracks were formed during the rolling processes. With an annealing treatment at 1323 K (1050 °C) for 5 minutes after cold rolling, the volume fractions of ferrite and austenite were measured to be approximately equal, and the distribution of alloying elements in the strip was further homogenized. The cold-rolled and annealed sheet exhibited an excellent combination of strength and ductility, with the ultimate tensile strength and elongation having been measured to be 1000 MPa and 65 pct, respectively. The microstructural evolution during deformation was investigated by XRD, EBSD, and TEM, indicating that ferrite and austenite had different deformation mechanisms. The deformation of ferrite phase was dominated by dislocation slipping, and the deformation of austenite phase was mainly controlled by martensitic transformation in the sequence of γ→ ɛ-martensite→ α'-martensite, leading to the improvement of strength and plasticity by the so-called transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) effect. By contrast, lean duplex stainless steels of Fe-21Cr-6Mn-0.5N and Fe-23Cr-7Mn-0.6N fabricated by twin-roll strip casting did not show TRIP effects and exhibited lower strength and elongation as compared to Fe-19Cr-6Mn-0.4N.

  11. Evolution through cold and deep waters: the molecular phylogeny of the Lithodidae (Crustacea: Decapoda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Sally; Thatje, Sven

    2018-04-01

    The objectives of this work are to use gene sequence data to assess the hypothesis that the Lithodinae arose from ancestors with uncalcified abdomens in shallow waters of the North-East Pacific, investigate the monophyly and interrelationships of genera within the Lithodinae and to estimate the scale and minimum number of biogeographic transitions from the shallow environment to the deep sea and vice versa. To do this, phylogenetic analysis from three mitochondrial and three nuclear markers was conducted using minimum evolution, maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods. The Lithodinae as defined to include North Pacific genus Cryptolithodes may be paraphyletic, with the Hapalogastrinae and Cryptolithodes as sister taxa. This implies that the soft-bodied abdomen of the Hapalogastrinae might not be plesiomorphic for the Lithodidae. Paralomis, Lopholithodes, Phyllolithodes, Lithodes and Neolithodes share a common ancestor, from which the North Pacific Hapalogastrinae did not descend. Lithodid ancestors are likely to have had a north Pacific, shallow water distribution and to have had planktotrophic larvae. North Pacific genus Paralithodes is paraphyletic; P. brevipes is the most basal member of the genus (as sampled) while P. camtschaticus and P. platypus are more closely related to the genera Lithodes and Neolithodes. Genera Lithodes, Neolithodes and Paralomis (as sampled) are monophyletic if Glyptolithodes is included within Paralomis. Lopholithodes is closely related to, but not included within, the Paralomis genus. Paralomis is divided into at least two major lineages: one containing South Atlantic, West African, and Indian Ocean species, and the other containing Pacific and South American species. Several species of Paralomis do not resolve consistently with any other groups sampled, implying a complex and possibly rapid global evolution early in the history of the genus. Relationships within the Lithodes genus vary between analytical methods, suggesting that

  12. Effects of homogenization treatment on recrystallization behavior of 7150 aluminum sheet during post-rolling annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Zhanying; Zhao, Gang; Chen, X.-Grant

    2016-01-01

    The effects of two homogenization treatments applied to the direct chill (DC) cast billet on the recrystallization behavior in 7150 aluminum alloy during post-rolling annealing have been investigated using the electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique. Following hot and cold rolling to the sheet, measured orientation maps, the recrystallization fraction and grain size, the misorientation angle and the subgrain size were used to characterize the recovery and recrystallization processes at different annealing temperatures. The results were compared between the conventional one-step homogenization and the new two-step homogenization, with the first step being pretreated at 250 °C. Al_3Zr dispersoids with higher densities and smaller sizes were obtained after the two-step homogenization, which strongly retarded subgrain/grain boundary mobility and inhibited recrystallization. Compared with the conventional one-step homogenized samples, a significantly lower recrystallized fraction and a smaller recrystallized grain size were obtained under all annealing conditions after cold rolling in the two-step homogenized samples. - Highlights: • Effects of two homogenization treatments on recrystallization in 7150 Al sheets • Quantitative study on the recrystallization evolution during post-rolling annealing • Al_3Zr dispersoids with higher densities and smaller sizes after two-step treatment • Higher recrystallization resistance of 7150 sheets with two-step homogenization

  13. Biological feedbacks as cause and demise of the Neoproterozoic icehouse: astrobiological prospects for faster evolution and importance of cold conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janhunen, Pekka; Kaartokallio, Hermanni; Oksanen, Ilona; Lehto, Kirsi; Lehto, Harry

    2007-02-14

    Several severe glaciations occurred during the Neoproterozoic eon, and especially near its end in the Cryogenian period (630-850 Ma). While the glacial periods themselves were probably related to the continental positions being appropriate for glaciation, the general coldness of the Neoproterozoic and Cryogenian as a whole lacks specific explanation. The Cryogenian was immediately followed by the Ediacaran biota and Cambrian Metazoan, thus understanding the climate-biosphere interactions around the Cryogenian period is central to understanding the development of complex multicellular life in general. Here we present a feedback mechanism between growth of eukaryotic algal phytoplankton and climate which explains how the Earth system gradually entered the Cryogenian icehouse from the warm Mesoproterozoic greenhouse. The more abrupt termination of the Cryogenian is explained by the increase in gaseous carbon release caused by the more complex planktonic and benthic foodwebs and enhanced by a diversification of metazoan zooplankton and benthic animals. The increased ecosystem complexity caused a decrease in organic carbon burial rate, breaking the algal-climatic feedback loop of the earlier Neoproterozoic eon. Prior to the Neoproterozoic eon, eukaryotic evolution took place in a slow timescale regulated by interior cooling of the Earth and solar brightening. Evolution could have proceeded faster had these geophysical processes been faster. Thus, complex life could theoretically also be found around stars that are more massive than the Sun and have main sequence life shorter than 10 Ga. We also suggest that snow and glaciers are, in a statistical sense, important markers for conditions that may possibly promote the development of complex life on extrasolar planets.

  14. Biological feedbacks as cause and demise of the Neoproterozoic icehouse: astrobiological prospects for faster evolution and importance of cold conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekka Janhunen

    Full Text Available Several severe glaciations occurred during the Neoproterozoic eon, and especially near its end in the Cryogenian period (630-850 Ma. While the glacial periods themselves were probably related to the continental positions being appropriate for glaciation, the general coldness of the Neoproterozoic and Cryogenian as a whole lacks specific explanation. The Cryogenian was immediately followed by the Ediacaran biota and Cambrian Metazoan, thus understanding the climate-biosphere interactions around the Cryogenian period is central to understanding the development of complex multicellular life in general. Here we present a feedback mechanism between growth of eukaryotic algal phytoplankton and climate which explains how the Earth system gradually entered the Cryogenian icehouse from the warm Mesoproterozoic greenhouse. The more abrupt termination of the Cryogenian is explained by the increase in gaseous carbon release caused by the more complex planktonic and benthic foodwebs and enhanced by a diversification of metazoan zooplankton and benthic animals. The increased ecosystem complexity caused a decrease in organic carbon burial rate, breaking the algal-climatic feedback loop of the earlier Neoproterozoic eon. Prior to the Neoproterozoic eon, eukaryotic evolution took place in a slow timescale regulated by interior cooling of the Earth and solar brightening. Evolution could have proceeded faster had these geophysical processes been faster. Thus, complex life could theoretically also be found around stars that are more massive than the Sun and have main sequence life shorter than 10 Ga. We also suggest that snow and glaciers are, in a statistical sense, important markers for conditions that may possibly promote the development of complex life on extrasolar planets.

  15. Microstructure Evolution and Mechanical Behavior of 2219 Aluminum Alloys Additively Fabricated by the Cold Metal Transfer Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuewei Fang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this research, four different welding arc modes including conventional cold metal transfer (CMT, CMT-Pulse (CMT-P, CMT-Advanced (CMT-ADV, and CMT pulse advanced (CMT-PADV were used to deposit 2219-Al wire. The effects of different arc modes on porosity, pore size distribution, microstructure evolution, and mechanical properties were thoroughly investigated. The statistical analysis of the porosity and its size distribution indicated that the CMT-PADV process gave the smallest pore area percentage and pore aspect ratio, and had almost no larger pores. The results from optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and fractographic morphology proved that uniform and fine equiaxed grains, evenly distributed Al2Cu second phase particles were formed during the CMT-PADV process. Furthermore, the X-ray diffraction test ascertained that the CMT-PADV sample had the smallest lattice parameter and the highest solute Cu content. Besides, the tensile strength could reach 283 MPa, the data scattering was the smallest, and the strength scattering of the sample in the horizontal direction was the shortest. In addition, the strength properties were nearly isotropic, with only 5 MPa difference in the vertical and horizontal directions. The above mentioned results indicated that the mechanical properties of 2219 aluminum alloy was improved using the CMT-PADV arc mode.

  16. Precursor Evolution and Stress Corrosion Cracking Initiation of Cold-Worked Alloy 690 in Simulated Pressurized Water Reactor Primary Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai, Ziqing [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 622 Horn Rapids Road, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99352.; Toloczko, Mychailo [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 622 Horn Rapids Road, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99352.; Kruska, Karen [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 622 Horn Rapids Road, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99352.; Bruemmer, Stephen [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 622 Horn Rapids Road, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99352.

    2017-05-22

    Stress corrosion crack initiation of two thermally-treated, cold-worked (CW) alloy 690 (UNS N06690) materials was investigated in 360oC simulated PWR primary water using constant load tensile (CLT) tests and blunt notch compact tension (BNCT) tests equipped with direct current potential drop (DCPD) for in-situ detection of cracking. SCC initiation was not detected by DCPD for either the 21% or 31%CW CLT specimens loaded at their yield stress after ~9,220 hours, however intergranular (IG) precursor damage and isolated surface cracks were observed on the specimens. The two 31%CW BNCT specimens loaded at moderate stress intensity after several cyclic loading ramps showed DCPD-indicated crack initiation after 10,400 hours of exposure at constant stress intensity, which was resulted from significant growth of IG cracks. The 21%CW BNCT specimens only exhibited isolated small IG surface cracks and showed no apparent DCPD change throughout the test. Post-test cross-section examinations revealed many grain boundary (GB) nano-cavities in the bulk of all the CLT and BNCT specimens particularly for the 31%CW materials. Cavities were also found along GBs extending to the surface suggesting an important role in crack nucleation. This paper provides an overview of the evolution of GB cavities and discusses their effects on crack initiation in CW alloy 690.

  17. Microstructure Evolution and Mechanical Behavior of 2219 Aluminum Alloys Additively Fabricated by the Cold Metal Transfer Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xuewei; Zhang, Lijuan; Li, Hui; Li, Chaolong; Huang, Ke; Lu, Bingheng

    2018-05-16

    In this research, four different welding arc modes including conventional cold metal transfer (CMT), CMT-Pulse (CMT-P), CMT-Advanced (CMT-ADV), and CMT pulse advanced (CMT-PADV) were used to deposit 2219-Al wire. The effects of different arc modes on porosity, pore size distribution, microstructure evolution, and mechanical properties were thoroughly investigated. The statistical analysis of the porosity and its size distribution indicated that the CMT-PADV process gave the smallest pore area percentage and pore aspect ratio, and had almost no larger pores. The results from optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and fractographic morphology proved that uniform and fine equiaxed grains, evenly distributed Al₂Cu second phase particles were formed during the CMT-PADV process. Furthermore, the X-ray diffraction test ascertained that the CMT-PADV sample had the smallest lattice parameter and the highest solute Cu content. Besides, the tensile strength could reach 283 MPa, the data scattering was the smallest, and the strength scattering of the sample in the horizontal direction was the shortest. In addition, the strength properties were nearly isotropic, with only 5 MPa difference in the vertical and horizontal directions. The above mentioned results indicated that the mechanical properties of 2219 aluminum alloy was improved using the CMT-PADV arc mode.

  18. Microstructure Evolution and Mechanical Behavior of 2219 Aluminum Alloys Additively Fabricated by the Cold Metal Transfer Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xuewei; Li, Hui; Li, Chaolong; Lu, Bingheng

    2018-01-01

    In this research, four different welding arc modes including conventional cold metal transfer (CMT), CMT-Pulse (CMT-P), CMT-Advanced (CMT-ADV), and CMT pulse advanced (CMT-PADV) were used to deposit 2219-Al wire. The effects of different arc modes on porosity, pore size distribution, microstructure evolution, and mechanical properties were thoroughly investigated. The statistical analysis of the porosity and its size distribution indicated that the CMT-PADV process gave the smallest pore area percentage and pore aspect ratio, and had almost no larger pores. The results from optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and fractographic morphology proved that uniform and fine equiaxed grains, evenly distributed Al2Cu second phase particles were formed during the CMT-PADV process. Furthermore, the X-ray diffraction test ascertained that the CMT-PADV sample had the smallest lattice parameter and the highest solute Cu content. Besides, the tensile strength could reach 283 MPa, the data scattering was the smallest, and the strength scattering of the sample in the horizontal direction was the shortest. In addition, the strength properties were nearly isotropic, with only 5 MPa difference in the vertical and horizontal directions. The above mentioned results indicated that the mechanical properties of 2219 aluminum alloy was improved using the CMT-PADV arc mode. PMID:29772708

  19. Analysis of factors influencing the bond strength in roll bonding processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaledi, Kavan; Wulfinghoff, Stephan; Reese, Stefanie

    2018-05-01

    Cold Roll Bonding (CRB) is recognized as an industrial technique in which the metal sheets are joined together in order to produce laminate metal composites. In this technique, a metallurgical bond resulting from severe plastic deformation is formed between the rolled metallic layers. The main objective of this paper is to analyse different factors which may affect the bond formation in rolling processes. To achieve this goal, first, an interface model is employed which describes both the bonding and debonding. In this model, the bond strength evolution between the metallic layers is calculated based on the film theory of bonding. On the other hand, the debonding process is modelled by means of a bilinear cohesive zone model. In the numerical section, different scenarios are taken into account to model the roll bonding process of metal sheets. The numerical simulation includes the modelling of joining during the roll bonding process followed by debonding in a Double Cantilever Beam (DCB) peeling test. In all simulations, the metallic layers are regarded as elastoplastic materials subjected to large plastic deformations. Finally, the effects of some important factors on the bond formation are numerically investigated.

  20. A novel ultra-low carbon grain oriented silicon steel produced by twin-roll strip casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yang, E-mail: wy069024019@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Zhang, Yuan-Xiang; Lu, Xiang; Fang, Feng; Xu, Yun-Bo; Cao, Guang-Ming; Li, Cheng-Gang [State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Misra, R.D.K. [Laboratory for Excellence in Advanced Steel Research, Department of Metallurgical, Materials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Wang, Guo-Dong [State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China)

    2016-12-01

    A novel ultra-low carbon grain oriented silicon steel was successfully produced by strip casting and two-stage cold rolling method. The microstructure, texture and precipitate evolution under different first cold rolling reduction were investigated. It was shown that the as-cast strip was mainly composed of equiaxed grains and characterized by very weak Goss texture ({110}<001>) and λ-fiber (<001>//ND). The coarse sulfides of size ~100 nm were precipitated at grain boundaries during strip casting, while nitrides remained in solution in the as-cast strip and the fine AlN particles of size ~20–50 nm, which were used as grain growth inhibitors, were formed in intermediate annealed sheet after first cold rolling. In addition, the suitable Goss nuclei for secondary recrystallization were also formed during intermediate annealing, which is totally different from the conventional process that the Goss nuclei originated in the subsurface layer of the hot rolled sheet. Furthermore, the number of AlN inhibitors and the intensity of desirable Goss texture increased with increasing first cold rolling reduction. After secondary recrystallization annealing, very large grains of size ~10–40 mm were formed and the final magnetic induction, B{sub 8}, was as high as 1.9 T. - Highlights: • A novel chemical composition base on strip casting silicon steel was proposed. • The ultra-low carbon design could shorten the processing routes. • The novel composition and processes were beneficial to obtain more inhibitors. • The magnetic induction of grain oriented silicon steel was significantly improved.

  1. Synchrotron high energy X-ray diffraction study of microstructure evolution of severely cold drawn NiTi wire during annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Cun; Aoun, Bachir; Cui, Lishan; Liu, Yinong; Yang, Hong; Jiang, Xiaohua; Cai, Song; Jiang, Daqiang; Liu, Zunping; Brown, Dennis E.; Ren, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Microstructure evolution of a cold-drawn NiTi shape memory alloy wire was investigated by means of in-situ synchrotron high-energy X-ray diffraction during continuous heating. The cold-drawn wire contained amorphous regions and nano-crystalline domains in its microstructure. Pair distribution function analysis revealed that the amorphous regions underwent structural relaxation via atomic rearrangement when heated above 100 °C. The nano-crystalline domains were found to exhibit a strong cold work induced lattice strain anisotropy along 〈111〉, which coincides with the crystallographic fiber orientation of the domains along the wire axial direction. The lattice strain anisotropy systematically decreased upon heating above 200 °C, implying a structural recovery. Crystallization of the amorphous phase led to a broadening of the angular distribution of 〈111〉 preferential orientations of grains along the axial direction as relative to the original 〈111〉 axial fiber texture of the nanocrystalline domains produced by the severe cold wire drawing deformation.

  2. New Numerical Solution of von Karman Equation of Lengthwise Rolling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Pernis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The calculation of average material contact pressure to rolls base on mathematical theory of rolling process given by Karman equation was solved by many authors. The solutions reported by authors are used simplifications for solution of Karman equation. The simplifications are based on two cases for approximation of the circular arch: (a by polygonal curve and (b by parabola. The contribution of the present paper for solution of two-dimensional differential equation of rolling is based on description of the circular arch by equation of a circle. The new term relative stress as nondimensional variable was defined. The result from derived mathematical models can be calculated following variables: normal contact stress distribution, front and back tensions, angle of neutral point, coefficient of the arm of rolling force, rolling force, and rolling torque during rolling process. Laboratory cold rolled experiment of CuZn30 brass material was performed. Work hardening during brass processing was calculated. Comparison of theoretical values of normal contact stress with values of normal contact stress obtained from cold rolling experiment was performed. The calculations were not concluded with roll flattening.

  3. Cold-seep-driven carbonate deposits at the Central American forearc: contrasting evolution and timing in escarpment and mound settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebetrau, V.; Augustin, N.; Kutterolf, S.; Schmidt, M.; Eisenhauer, A.; Garbe-Schönberg, D.; Weinrebe, W.

    2014-10-01

    Continuous surface cores of cold-seep carbonates were recovered offshore Pacific Nicaragua and Costa Rica from 800 to 1,500-m water depths (Meteor 66/3) in order to decipher their evolution and methane enriched fluid emanation in contrasting geological settings. Cores from the mounds Iguana, Perezoso, Baula V and from the Jaco Scarp escarpment were used for a multi-method approach. For both settings aragonite was revealed as dominant authigenic carbonate phase in vein fillings and matrix cementation, followed by Mg-calcite as second most abundant. This common precipitation process of CaCO3 polymorphs could be ascribed as indirectly driven by chemical changes of the advecting pore water due to anaerobic oxidation of methane. A more direct influence of seep-related microbial activity on the authigenic mineral assemblage in both settings is probably reflected by the observed minor amounts of dolomite and a dolomite-like CaMg carbonate (MgCO3 ~ 42 %). δ13C data of Jaco Scarp samples are significantly lower (-43 to -56 ‰ PDB) than for mound samples (-22 to -36 ‰ PDB), indicating differences in fluid composition and origin. Noteworthy, δ18O values of Scarp samples correlate most closely with the ocean signature at their time of formation. Documenting the archive potential, a high resolution case study of a mound core implies at least 40 changes in fluid supply within a time interval of approximately 14 ky. As most striking difference, the age data indicate a late-stage downward-progressing cementation front for all three mound cap structures (approx. 2-5 cm/ky), but a significantly faster upward carbonate buildup in the bulging sediments on top of the scarp environment (approx. 120 cm/ky). The latter data set leads to the hypothesis of chemoherm carbonate emplacement in accord with reported sedimentation rates until decompression of the advective fluid system, probably caused by the Jaco Scarp landslide and dating this to approximately 13,000 years ago.

  4. Direct investigations on strain-induced cold crystallization behavior and structure evolutions in amorphous poly(lactic acid) with SAXS and WAXS measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Chengbo; Li, Hongfei; Zhang, Wenyang

    2016-01-01

    scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements. The data obtained from the stretched samples within 70-90 degrees C showed that all of the formed crystals are disordered alpha' form with more compact chain packing than that of the cold crystallization. Upon stretching at 70 degrees C, the mesocrystal appears......Strain-induced cold crystallization behavior and structure evolution of amorphous poly(lactic acid) (PLA) stretched within 70-90 degrees C were investigated via in situ synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) measurements as well as differential...... in strain-induced crystallization behavior of amorphous PLA within 70-90 degrees C can be attributed to the competition between chain orientation caused by stretching and chain relaxation. It was proposed that the strain-induced mesocrystal/crystal and the lamellae are formed from the mesophase originally...

  5. Investigation of the Microstructure Evolution and Deformation Mechanisms of a Mg-Zn-Zr-RE Twin-Roll-Cast Magnesium Sheet by In-Situ Experimental Techniques

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Máthis, K.; Horváth, Klaudia; Farkas, Gergely; Choe, H.; Shin, K. S.; Vinogradov, A.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 2 (2018), č. článku 200. ISSN 1996-1944 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36566G; GA MŠk EF16_013/0001794 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : magnesium * twin roll casting * neutron diffraction * acoustic emission * twinning * yield strength Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics OBOR OECD: Audio engineering, reliability analysis Impact factor: 2.654, year: 2016

  6. Rolling induced size effects in elastic–viscoplastic sheet metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim Lau

    2015-01-01

    sheet rolling, where a non-homogeneous material deformation takes place between the rollers. Large strain gradients develop where the rollers first come in contact with the sheet, and a higher order plasticity model is employed to illustrate their influence at small scales. The study reveals...... presented revolves around the rolling induced effect of visco-plasticity (ranging hot and cold rolling) in combination with strain gradient hardening – including both dissipative and energetic contributions. To bring out first order effects on rolling at small scale, the modeling efforts are limited to flat...

  7. Surface asperity evolution and microstructure analysis of Al 6061T5 alloy in a quasi-static cold uniaxial planar compression (CUPC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hejie; Jiang, Zhengyi; Wei, Dongbin; Gao, Xingjian; Xu, Jianzhong; Zhang, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We used AFM and EBSD to analyses the surface asperity flattening process. • Analysis of the influence of deformation rate on the surface asperity flattening. • Investigation of the effect of lubrication on microstructure development. • Deformation rate influence the generation of orientation components obviously. - Abstract: In a quasi-static cold uniaxial planar compression, surface asperity evolution and microstructure analysis of Al 6061T5 alloy are carried out by employing Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) and Electron Backscattered Diffraction (EBSD) methods. Strain rate affects the surface asperity evolution obviously. While lubrication can hinder the surface asperity flattening by constraining the surface localized deformation. Lubrication can accelerate the crystallization in CUPC process. It also impedes the activation of some orientation components by hindering the activation of related slip systems in light metal Al alloy

  8. Effect of rolling reduction on the development of rolling and recrystallization textures in Al-Mg alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endou, S; Inagaki, H [Shonan Inst. of Tech., Fujisawashi (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    In order to investigate the effect of Mg content on the development of the rolling textures in Al pure Al, Al-3% Mg alloy and Al-5% Mg alloy were cold rolled by varying rolling reductions up to 97%. Their rolling textures were investigated by the orientation distribution function analysis. The extent of work hardening introduced by cold rolling was estimated by the hardness measurements. It was found that, at all rolling reductions, the main orientations of the rolling textures depended strongly on the Mg content. In pure Al, {l_brace}123{r_brace} left angle 634 right angle was always the main orientation, whereas {l_brace}112{r_brace} left angle 111 right angle was most strong in the Al-3%Mg alloy. In the Al-5% Mg alloy, the development of both {l_brace}123{r_brace} left angle 634 right angle and {l_brace}112{r_brace} left angle 111 right angle were strongly suppressed, whereas {l_brace}110{r_brace} left angle 112 right angle developed remarkably. In pure Al, most of the texture development occurred at the later half of work hardening, i.e. at rolling reductions above 70%. With increasing Mg content, rolling texture tended to develop already at lower rolling reductions. Dynamic recovery, which occurred at very high rolling reductions, suppressed the development of the rolling textures. All these results strongly suggested that the formation of dislocation cell structures and shear banding are origins of the formation of these rolling textures. On annealing these specimens at 450 C for 30 min, recrystallization textures developed only in specimens having strong rolling textures, i. e. in the specimens cold rolled more than 70%. {l_brace}100{r_brace} left angle 001 right angle developed only in pure Al and in the Al-3% Mg ally, in which {l_brace}123{r_brace} left angle 634 right angle and {l_brace}112{r_brace} left angle 111 right angle were strong in the rolling textures. Recrystallization textures of the Al-5% Mg alloy was wather random. Its main orientation, {l

  9. Residual stresses evolution in hardening, cold drawn or shot-peening carbon steel as a function of the heating temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vannes, A.-B.; Parisot, Alain; Fougeres, Roger; Theolier, Maurice

    1977-01-01

    Residual stress variations are studied in hardening, cold-drawn, shot-peening carbon steel samples as a function of heating temperature or the tempering one. For temperatures between 100 0 C and 250 0 C, a relative maximum is observed for the mean level of the residual stresses. These results are explained on the basis of two antagonistic mechanisms: restoration and ageing [fr

  10. Cold Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH COLD STRESS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Workers who ... cold environments may be at risk of cold stress. Extreme cold weather is a dangerous situation that ...

  11. Effects of initial microstructure and texture on microstructure, texture evolution and magnetic properties of non-oriented electrical steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hai-Tao, E-mail: liuht@ral.neu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, P.O. Box 105, Shenyang 110819 (China); Institute of Research of Iron and Steel, Shasteel, Zhangjiagang 215625, Jiangsu (China); Li, Hua-Long [Institute of Research of Iron and Steel, Shasteel, Zhangjiagang 215625, Jiangsu (China); Wang, Hui [Science and Technology on Surface Physics and Chemistry Laboratory, P.O. Box No. 9-35, Huafengxincun, Jiangyou City, Sichuan Province 621908 (China); National Key Laboratory for Nuclear Fuel and Materials, Nuclear Power Institute of China, Chengdu 610041 (China); Liu, Yi; Gao, Fei; An, Ling-Zi; Zhao, Shi-Qi; Liu, Zhen-Yu; Wang, Guo-Dong [State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, P.O. Box 105, Shenyang 110819 (China)

    2016-05-15

    An equiaxed grained as-cast strip and a columnar grained as-cast strip was produced by using twin-roll strip casting, respectively. Both as-cast strips mainly containing 0.71 wt%Si and 0.44 wt%Al were cold rolled and annealed with or without the hot rolling prior to cold rolling. Microstructure, texture evolution along the whole processing routes and the magnetic properties were investigated in detail. It was found that the equiaxed grained strip was characterized by almost random texture while the columnar grained strip was dominated by strong λ-fiber (<001>‖ND) texture. After cold rolling and annealing, all the final sheets of both the as-cast strips showed extremely weak γ-fiber (<111>‖ND) recrystallization texture. In addition, the finally annealed sheets of the equiaxed grained strip were dominated by relatively weak λ-fiber and strong Goss ({110}<001>) recrystallization texture while those of the columnar grained strip were dominated by much stronger λ-fiber and much weaker Goss recrystallization texture regardless of whether the hot rolling was adopted before cold rolling, thus the former showed much lower magnetic induction than the latter. On the other hand, even though the finally annealed sheets of the equiaxed grained strip showed a little more homogeneous recrystallization microstructure with a little bigger grain size than those of the columnar grained strip in the case of no hot rolling, a much higher iron loss was displayed. By contrast, in the case of hot rolling, the former exhibited a little lower iron loss than the latter as a result of the more significant increase in grain size and λ-fiber recrystallization texture. The introduction of the hot rolling could increase the grain size, strengthen λ-fiber texture and weaken Goss texture of the finally annealed sheets of both the as-cast strips, leading to a much improvement in both the magnetic induction and iron loss. - Highlights: • Equiaxed and columnar grained as-cast strips were

  12. Inflation with a constant rate of roll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motohashi, Hayato; Starobinsky, Alexei A.; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi

    2015-01-01

    We consider an inflationary scenario where the rate of inflaton roll defined by ·· φ/H φ-dot remains constant. The rate of roll is small for slow-roll inflation, while a generic rate of roll leads to the interesting case of 'constant-roll' inflation. We find a general exact solution for the inflaton potential required for such inflaton behaviour. In this model, due to non-slow evolution of background, the would-be decaying mode of linear scalar (curvature) perturbations may not be neglected. It can even grow for some values of the model parameter, while the other mode always remains constant. However, this always occurs for unstable solutions which are not attractors for the given potential. The most interesting particular cases of constant-roll inflation remaining viable with the most recent observational data are quadratic hilltop inflation (with cutoff) and natural inflation (with an additional negative cosmological constant). In these cases even-order slow-roll parameters approach non-negligible constants while the odd ones are asymptotically vanishing in the quasi-de Sitter regime

  13. xCOLD GASS: The Complete IRAM 30 m Legacy Survey of Molecular Gas for Galaxy Evolution Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saintonge, Amélie; Catinella, Barbara; Tacconi, Linda J.; Kauffmann, Guinevere; Genzel, Reinhard; Cortese, Luca; Davé, Romeel; Fletcher, Thomas J.; Graciá-Carpio, Javier; Kramer, Carsten; Heckman, Timothy M.; Janowiecki, Steven; Lutz, Katharina; Rosario, David; Schiminovich, David; Schuster, Karl; Wang, Jing; Wuyts, Stijn; Borthakur, Sanchayeeta; Lamperti, Isabella; Roberts-Borsani, Guido W.

    2017-12-01

    We introduce xCOLD GASS, a legacy survey providing a census of molecular gas in the local universe. Building on the original COLD GASS survey, we present here the full sample of 532 galaxies with CO (1–0) measurements from the IRAM 30 m telescope. The sample is mass-selected in the redshift interval 0.01 {10}9 {M}ȯ . The CO (1–0) flux measurements are complemented by observations of the CO (2–1) line with both the IRAM 30 m and APEX telescopes, H I observations from Arecibo, and photometry from SDSS, WISE, and GALEX. Combining the IRAM and APEX data, we find that the ratio of CO (2–1) to CO (1–0) luminosity for integrated measurements is {r}21=0.79+/- 0.03, with no systematic variations across the sample. The CO (1–0) luminosity function is constructed and best fit with a Schechter function with parameters {L}{CO}* =(7.77+/- 2.11)× {10}9 {{K}} {km} {{{s}}}-1 {{pc}}2, {φ }* =(9.84+/- 5.41)× {10}-4 {{Mpc}}-3, and α =-1.19+/- 0.05. With the sample now complete down to stellar masses of 109 {M}ȯ , we are able to extend our study of gas scaling relations and confirm that both molecular gas fractions ({f}{{{H}}2}) and depletion timescale ({t}{dep}({{{H}}}2)) vary with specific star formation rate (or offset from the star formation main sequence) much more strongly than they depend on stellar mass. Comparing the xCOLD GASS results with outputs from hydrodynamic and semianalytic models, we highlight the constraining power of cold gas scaling relations on models of galaxy formation.

  14. The effect of rolling draughts on texture and microstructure in aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishin, Oleg; Juul Jensen, D.; Bay, B.

    1999-01-01

    The texture gradients and microstructural variations are investigated in commercially pure aluminium plates 40% cold-rolled either with small draughts or with intermediate draughts. In these two samples, different textures are observed near the quarter thickness layer. A pronounced shear texture...... is found in the sample rolled with small draughts, while a rolling texture is observed in the sample rolled with intermediate draughts. Also, significant differences were found in the rolled microstrucrures near the quarter thickness. After rolling with intermediate draughts, extended dislocation...... boundaries preferentially aligned at an angle of about 25-45o to the rolling direction are observed in the longitudinal section. After rolling with small draughts, extended dislocation boundaries are preferentially aligned closer to the rolling direction. These results are discribed and discussed....

  15. Evolution of Microstructure in Rolled Mg-Based Alloy. Textural Aspect / Ewolucja Mikrostruktury W Walcowanym Stopie Na Bazie Mg. Aspekt Teksturowy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drzymała P.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium alloys are the lightest structural materials, which makes them particularly suitable for use in the aircraft and automotive industry. However, due to hexagonal close-packed crystal structure, resulting in insufficient number of independent slip systems, magnesium alloys exhibit poor formability at room temperature. Conventional methods of work hardening of magnesium alloys requires the temperature about 300°C, which favours simultaneously processes of thermal recovery and grain growth, but decreases beneficial microstructure strengthening effect. Thus, it is a crucial to undertake development of a technology for semi-finished magnesium alloys elements, which will ensure better mechanical properties of the final products by forming desirable microstructure. In the paper we present the development of crystallographic texture of the Mg-based alloy (Mg-AZ31 in the form of pipe extruded at 430°C and subjected to pilger rolling at relatively low temperature.

  16. Evolution of body size, vision, and biodiversity of coral-associated organisms: evidence from fossil crustaceans in cold-water coral and tropical coral ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klompmaker, Adiël A; Jakobsen, Sten L; Lauridsen, Bodil W

    2016-06-16

    Modern cold-water coral and tropical coral environments harbor a highly diverse and ecologically important macrofauna of crustaceans that face elevated extinction risks due to reef decline. The effect of environmental conditions acting on decapod crustaceans comparing these two habitats is poorly understood today and in deep time. Here, we compare the biodiversity, eye socket height as a proxy for eye size, and body size of decapods in fossil cold-water and tropical reefs that formed prior to human disturbance. We show that decapod biodiversity is higher in fossil tropical reefs from The Netherlands, Italy, and Spain compared to that of the exceptionally well-preserved Paleocene (Danian) cold-water reef/mound ecosystem from Faxe (Denmark), where decapod diversity is highest in a more heterogeneous, mixed bryozoan-coral habitat instead of in coral and bryozoan-dominated facies. The relatively low diversity at Faxe was not influenced substantially by the preceding Cretaceous/Paleogene extinction event that is not apparent in the standing diversity of decapods in our analyses, or by sampling, preservation, and/or a latitudinal diversity gradient. Instead, the lower availability of food and fewer hiding places for decapods may explain this low diversity. Furthermore, decapods from Faxe are larger than those from tropical waters for half of the comparisons, which may be caused by a lower number of predators, the delayed maturity, and the increased life span of crustaceans in deeper, colder waters. Finally, deep-water specimens of the benthic crab Caloxanthus from Faxe exhibit a larger eye socket size compared to congeneric specimens from tropical reefs, suggesting that dim light conditions favored the evolution of relatively large eyes. The results suggest a strong habitat control on the biodiversity of crustaceans in coral-associated environments and that the diversity difference between deep, cold-water reefs and tropical reefs evolved at least ~63 million years ago

  17. To study the mechanical properties of unidirectionally and cross rolled Ni-Cu alloy produced in VIM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afzal, M.; Ajmal, M.; Butt, Z.T.

    2009-01-01

    Ni-Cu alloy was developed by melting in a vacuum induction furnace using pure elements i.e., Ni, Cu, Fe, Si, Mn and Cr. Four heats of approximately 4 kg each were prepared. All the heats have been casted in an ingot of 10 cm long and 5 cm in diameter in vacuum. These ingots were hot forged at a temperature of 900 deg. C to break down the cast dendritic structure. All forged plates were cut into two halve. One half was rolled in unidirectional while other was rolled in multiple directions (cross rolling). During rolling after every 25 % reduction, the cold rolled samples were annealed at a temperature of 900 deg. C for one hour. Each plate was cold rolled to a final thickness of 0.345 mm. Half of these rolled plate produced either by cross rolling or unidirectional rolling were annealed at 900 deg. C for 20 minutes. The mechanical properties of each rolled plate in cold reduction and in annealed were also measured. Unidirectional rolling and cross rolling has almost similar mechanical properties. The annealing of cross rolled and unidirectional rolling drastically reduced the yield strength. It was observed that the Ni-Cu alloy produced has slightly lower yield and ultimate tensile strength compared to the values reported in standards of Monel-400. However, it is within the acceptable range to be used for the various applications. (author)

  18. Rolling Force Prediction in Heavy Plate Rolling Based on Uniform Differential Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate prediction of the rolling force is critical to assuring the quality of the final product in steel manufacturing. Exit thickness of plate for each pass is calculated from roll gap, mill spring, and predicted roll force. Ideal pass scheduling is dependent on a precise prediction of the roll force in each pass. This paper will introduce a concept that allows obtaining the material model parameters directly from the rolling process on an industrial scale by the uniform differential neural network. On the basis of the characteristics that the uniform distribution can fully characterize the solution space and enhance the diversity of the population, uniformity research on differential evolution operator is made to get improved crossover with uniform distribution. When its original function is transferred with a transfer function, the uniform differential evolution algorithms can quickly solve complex optimization problems. Neural network structure and weights threshold are optimized by uniform differential evolution algorithm, and a uniform differential neural network is formed to improve rolling force prediction accuracy in process control system.

  19. The Genome Sequence of the psychrophilic archaeon, Methanococcoides burtonii: the Role of Genome Evolution in Cold-adaptation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Michelle A.; Lauro, Federico M.; Williams, Timothy J.; Burg, Dominic; Siddiqui, Khawar S.; De Francisci, David; Chong, Kevin W.Y.; Pilak, Oliver; Chew, Hwee H.; De Maere, Matthew Z.; Ting, Lily; Katrib, Marilyn; Ng, Charmaine; Sowers, Kevin R.; Galperin, Michael Y.; Anderson, Iain J.; Ivanova, Natalia; Dalin, Eileen; Martinez, Michelle; Lapidus, Alla; Hauser, Loren; Land, Miriam; Thomas, Torsten; Cavicchioli, Ricardo

    2009-04-01

    Psychrophilic archaea are abundant and perform critical roles throughout the Earth's expansive cold biosphere. Here we report the first complete genome sequence for a psychrophilic methanogenic archaeon, Methanococcoides burtonii. The genome sequence was manually annotated including the use of a five tiered Evidence Rating system that ranked annotations from Evidence Rating (ER) 1 (gene product experimentally characterized from the parent organism) to ER5 (hypothetical gene product) to provide a rapid means of assessing the certainty of gene function predictions. The genome is characterized by a higher level of aberrant sequence composition (51%) than any other archaeon. In comparison to hyper/thermophilic archaea which are subject to selection of synonymous codon usage, M. burtonii has evolved cold adaptation through a genomic capacity to accommodate highly skewed amino acid content, while retaining codon usage in common with its mesophilic Methanosarcina cousins. Polysaccharide biosynthesis genes comprise at least 3.3% of protein coding genes in the genome, and Cell wall/membrane/envelope biogenesis COG genes are over-represented. Likewise, signal transduction (COG category T) genes are over-represented and M. burtonii has a high 'IQ' (a measure of adaptive potential) compared to many methanogens. Numerous genes in these two over-represented COG categories appear to have been acquired from {var_epsilon}- and {delta}-proteobacteria, as do specific genes involved in central metabolism such as a novel B form of aconitase. Transposases also distinguish M. burtonii from other archaea, and their genomic characteristics indicate they play an important role in evolving the M. burtonii genome. Our study reveals a capacity for this model psychrophile to evolve through genome plasticity (including nucleotide skew, horizontal gene transfer and transposase activity) that enables adaptation to the cold, and to the biological and physical changes that have

  20. Rolling Shutter Motion Deblurring

    KAUST Repository

    Su, Shuochen

    2015-06-07

    Although motion blur and rolling shutter deformations are closely coupled artifacts in images taken with CMOS image sensors, the two phenomena have so far mostly been treated separately, with deblurring algorithms being unable to handle rolling shutter wobble, and rolling shutter algorithms being incapable of dealing with motion blur. We propose an approach that delivers sharp and undis torted output given a single rolling shutter motion blurred image. The key to achieving this is a global modeling of the camera motion trajectory, which enables each scanline of the image to be deblurred with the corresponding motion segment. We show the results of the proposed framework through experiments on synthetic and real data.

  1. Characterization of a cold-active esterase from Serratia sp. and improvement of thermostability by directed evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Huang; Zhang, Shaowei; Gao, Haofeng; Hu, Nan

    2016-01-22

    In recent years, cold-active esterases have received increased attention due to their attractive properties for some industrial applications such as high catalytic activity at low temperatures. An esterase-encoding gene (estS, 909 bp) from Serratia sp. was identified, cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli DE3 (BL21). The estS encoded a protein (EstS) of 302 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 32.5 kDa. It showed the highest activity at 10 °C and pH 8.5. EstS was cold active and retained ~92 % of its original activity at 0 °C. Thermal inactivation analysis showed that the T1/2 value of EstS was 50 min at 50 °C (residual activity 41.23 %) after 1 h incubation. EstS is also quite stable in high salt conditions and displayed better catalytic activity in the presence of 4 M NaCl. To improve the thermo-stability of EstS, variants of estS gene were created by error-prone PCR. A mutant 1-D5 (A43V, R116W, D147N) that showed higher thermo-stability than its wild type predecessor was selected. 1-D5 showed enhanced T1/2 of 70 min at 50 °C and retained 63.29 % of activity after incubation at 50 °C for 60 min, which were about 22 % higher than the wild type (WT). CD spectrum showed that the secondary structure of WT and 1-D5 are more or less similar, but an increase in β-sheets was recorded, which enhanced the thermostability of mutant protein. EstS was a novel cold-active and salt-tolerant esterase and half-life of mutant 1-D5 was enhanced by 1.4 times compared with WT. The features of EstS are interesting and can be exploited for commercial applications. The results have also provided useful information about the structure and function of Est protein.

  2. An advanced dissymmetric rolling model for online regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Trong-Son

    2017-10-01

    Roll-bite model is employed to predict the rolling force, torque as well as to estimate the forward slip for preset or online regulation at industrial rolling mills. The rolling process is often dissymmetric in terms of work-rolls rotation speeds and diameters as well as the friction conditions at upper and lower contact surfaces between work-rolls and the strip. The roll-bite model thus must be able to account for these dissymmetries and in the same time has to be accurate and fast enough for online applications. In the present study, a new method, namely Adapted Discretization Slab Method (ADSM) is proposed to obtain a robust roll-bite model, which can take into account the aforementioned dissymmetries and has a very short response time, lower than one millisecond. This model is based on the slab method, with an adaptive discretization and a global Newton-Raphson procedure to improve the convergence speed. The model was validated by comparing with other dissymmetric models proposed in the literature, as well as Finite Element simulations and industrial pilot trials. Furthermore, back-calculation tool was also constructed for friction management for both offline and online applications. With very short CPU time, the ADSM-based model is thus attractive for all online applications, both for cold and hot rolling.

  3. Ship Roll Damping Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Tristan; Blanke, Mogens

    2012-01-01

    limitations and large variations of the spectral characteristics of wave-induced roll motion. This tutorial paper presents an account of the development of various ship roll motion control systems together with the challenges associated with their design. It discusses the assessment of performance...

  4. Cosmology with rolling tachyon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Email: sami@iucaa.ernet.in. Abstract. We examine the possibility of rolling tachyon to play the dual role of inflaton at early epochs and dark matter at late times. We argue that enough inflation can be generated with the rolling tachyon either by invoking the large number of branes or brane world assisted inflation. However ...

  5. Origins of Rolling Friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Rod

    2017-01-01

    When a hard object rolls on a soft surface, or vice versa, rolling friction arises from deformation of the soft object or the soft surface. The friction force can be described in terms of an offset in the normal reaction force or in terms of energy loss arising from the deformation. The origin of the friction force itself is not entirely clear. It…

  6. A computer system to aid in the planning of steel rolls cuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Maculan

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The planning of cuts in steel rolls is a combinatory optimization problem. Some companies of the metallurgical industry use the steel cold lamination process so that it acquires the necessary physical properties. In this case, the cutting patterns should consist of compartments of items compatible with the lamination process, hindering the task of cuts planning. A compartment represents an intermediate roll to be laminated, so that it is possible to combine intermediate rolls with different lamination needs in the same roll of the stock. In this work the prototype of the RollCut System will be presented to aid with the cuts planning.

  7. Behaviors of Deformation, Recrystallization and Textures Evolution of Columnar Grains in 3%Si Electrical Steel Slabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHAO Yuan-yuan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The behaviors of deformation and recrystallization and textures evolution of 3% (mass fraction Si columnar-grained electrical steel slabs were investigated by electron backscatter diffractometer technique and X-ray diffraction. The results indicate that the three columnar-grained samples have different initial textures with the long axes arranged along rolling, transverse and normal directions. Three shear orientations can be obtained in surface layer after hot rolling, of which Goss orientation is formed easily. The α and γ fibre rolling orientations are obtained in RD sample, while strong γ fibre orientations in TD sample and sharp {100} orientations in ND sample are developed respectively. In addition, cube orientation can be found in all the three samples. The characteristics of hot rolled orientations in center region reveal distinct dependence on initial columnar-grained orientations. Strong {111}〈112〉 orientation in RD and TD samples separately comes from Goss orientation of hot rolled sheets, and sharp rotated cube orientation in ND sample originates from the initial {100} orientation of hot rolled sheets after cold rolling. Influenced by initial deviated orientations and coarse grain size, large orientation gradient of rotated cube oriented grain can be observed in ND sample. The coarse {100} orientated grains of center region in the annealed sheets show the heredity of the initial columnar-grained orientations.

  8. Modified Korteweg-deVries soliton evolution at critical density of negative ions in an inhomogeneous magnetized cold plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Dhananjay K.; Malik, Hitendra K.

    2007-01-01

    Soliton propagation at critical density of negative ions is studied for weakly inhomogeneous magnetized cold plasma having positive ions, negative ions, and electrons. A general phase velocity relation is obtained and possible modes are studied for different cases involving different constituents of the plasma. Two types of modes (fast and slow) are found to propagate for the equal mass of the positive and negative ions. However, a limit on the obliqueness of magnetic field is obtained for the propagation of slow mode. For both types of modes, a variable coefficient modified Korteweg-deVries equation with an additional term arisen due to the density gradient is realized, which admits solutions for compressive solitons and rarefactive solitons of the same amplitudes at critical negative ion density. The propagation characteristics of these solitons are studied under the effect of densities of ions, magnetic field, and its obliqueness. The amplitudes of fast and slow wave solitons show their opposite behavior with the negative ion concentration, which is consistent with the variation of phase velocities with the negative ion density

  9. Mechanical matching and microstructural evolution at the coating/substrate interfaces of cold-sprayed Ni, Al coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H.; Lee, S.; Shin, H.; Ko, K.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of mechanical hard/soft matching of raw powder and substrate in the cold gas dynamic spraying process (CDSP) on the formation of intermetallic compounds was examined. Instead of pre-alloyed materials, pure Al and Ni were selected as a soft and a hard material, respectively, and post-annealing was used for compound formation. Most of the aluminide layers were observed in the coated layer, but not in the substrate, along with the entire original interface for both Al coating on a Ni substrate and vice versa. Thickening of the compound layer depended mainly on the creation of defects during spraying and intrinsic diffusivity of atoms moving toward the coating side. When Ni was coated, the compound layer was made thicker by fast diffusion of Al, while the thickness was limited in soft Al coating on hard Ni substrate. However, the composition of the compound can be affected by relative transfer of diffusing atoms toward both the coating and the substrate. So, for Ni coating on an Al substrate, most of the intermetallic compound formed was Ni-rich and conversion of the Al-rich compound was observed after post-annealing above 500 deg. C.

  10. Estimation and correlation of strengthening components to the evolution of microstructure following cold work and articial aging in AA6111 aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quainoo, G K; Yannacopoulos, S; Sargent, C M

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the contributions of the various strengthening components following the application of cold work and precipitation in AA6111 has been evaluated and correlated by means of tensile testing and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results show a considerable improvement in yield and tensile strength with increasing level of cold work. The component of strength developed from cold work and precipitation respectively increases with increasing level of cold work. The recovery strength (softening) also increases with increasing level of cold work. TEM showed a strong interaction of strengthening precipitates with dislocations. The density of dislocation tangles is shown to increase with increasing degree of cold work.

  11. Natural cold baryogenesis from strongly interacting electroweak symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konstandin, Thomas; Servant, Géraldine, E-mail: tkonstan@cern.ch, E-mail: geraldine.servant@cern.ch [CERN Physics Department, Theory Division, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2011-07-01

    The mechanism of ''cold electroweak baryogenesis'' has been so far unpopular because its proposal has relied on the ad-hoc assumption of a period of hybrid inflation at the electroweak scale with the Higgs acting as the waterfall field. We argue here that cold baryogenesis can be naturally realized without the need to introduce any slow-roll potential. Our point is that composite Higgs models where electroweak symmetry breaking arises via a strongly first-order phase transition provide a well-motivated framework for cold baryogenesis. In this case, reheating proceeds by bubble collisions and we argue that this can induce changes in Chern-Simons number, which in the presence of new sources of CP violation commonly lead to baryogenesis. We illustrate this mechanism using as a source of CP violation an effective dimension-six operator which is free from EDM constraints, another advantage of cold baryogenesis compared to the standard theory of electroweak baryogenesis. Our results are general as they do not rely on any particular UV completion but only on a stage of supercooling ended by a first-order phase transition in the evolution of the universe, which can be natural if there is nearly conformal dynamics at the TeV scale. Besides, baryon-number violation originates from the Standard Model only.

  12. Natural cold baryogenesis from strongly interacting electroweak symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstandin, Thomas; Servant, Géraldine

    2011-01-01

    The mechanism of ''cold electroweak baryogenesis'' has been so far unpopular because its proposal has relied on the ad-hoc assumption of a period of hybrid inflation at the electroweak scale with the Higgs acting as the waterfall field. We argue here that cold baryogenesis can be naturally realized without the need to introduce any slow-roll potential. Our point is that composite Higgs models where electroweak symmetry breaking arises via a strongly first-order phase transition provide a well-motivated framework for cold baryogenesis. In this case, reheating proceeds by bubble collisions and we argue that this can induce changes in Chern-Simons number, which in the presence of new sources of CP violation commonly lead to baryogenesis. We illustrate this mechanism using as a source of CP violation an effective dimension-six operator which is free from EDM constraints, another advantage of cold baryogenesis compared to the standard theory of electroweak baryogenesis. Our results are general as they do not rely on any particular UV completion but only on a stage of supercooling ended by a first-order phase transition in the evolution of the universe, which can be natural if there is nearly conformal dynamics at the TeV scale. Besides, baryon-number violation originates from the Standard Model only

  13. Microstructure and Texture Evolution in Temper Rolled Fe-Si Steels with New System Nano-Inhibitors Under the Dynamic Annealing Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kováč F.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates the microstructure and texture evolution in grain-oriented electrotechnical steel with a new inhibition system based on vanadium carbides nano-particles. The novel approach for the preparation of this steel with appropriate final magnetic properties combines not only nanoinhibitors based on the vanadium carbides precipitations but also includes straininduced grain growth mechanism in combination with dynamic continuous annealing during the secondary recrystallization. The experimental grain-oriented steel with proposed new chemical composition was prepared in laboratory conditions. The texture analysis has shown that suggested procedure led the formation of sufficiently strong {110} Goss texture during the short time period of a final annealing process, which is comparable to that obtained in the conventionally treated grain-oriented steels.

  14. Crystal plasticity modeling of through-thickness texture heterogeneity in heavily rolled aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delannay, Laurent; Mishin, Oleg V.

    2013-01-01

    from hot rolling producing shear near the surface and conditions approaching plane strain compression in the center layer. Model predictions confirm experimental observations that such a gradient strengthens significantly during further heavy cold rolling. Copyright © 2013 Trans Tech Publications Ltd....

  15. Magnon inflation: slow roll with steep potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adshead, Peter [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign,Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Blas, Diego [Theoretical Physics Department, CERN,CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Burgess, C.P.; Hayman, Peter [Physics & Astronomy, McMaster University,Hamilton, ON, L8S 4M1 (Canada); Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Patil, Subodh P. [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of Geneva,24 Quai Ansermet, Geneva, CH-1211 (Switzerland)

    2016-11-04

    We find multi-scalar effective field theories (EFTs) that can achieve a slow inflationary roll despite having a scalar potential that does not satisfy G{sup ab}∂{sub a}V∂{sub b}V≪V{sup 2}/M{sub p}{sup 2} (where G{sub ab} is the target-space metric). They evade the usual slow-roll conditions on V because their kinetic energies are dominated by single-derivative terms rather than the usual two-derivative terms. Single derivatives dominate during slow roll and so do not require a breakdown of the usual derivative expansion that underpins calculational control in much of cosmology. The presence of such terms requires some sort of UV Lorentz-symmetry breaking during inflation (besides the usual cosmological breaking). Chromo-natural inflation provides one particular example of a UV theory that can generate the multi-field single-derivative terms we consider, and we argue that the EFT we find indeed captures the slow-roll conditions for its background evolution. We also show that our EFT can be understood as a multi-field generalization of the single-field Cuscuton models. The multi-field case introduces a new feature, however: the scalar kinetic terms define a target-space 2-form, F{sub ab}, whose antisymmetry gives new ways for slow roll to be achieved.

  16. Magnon Inflation: Slow Roll with Steep Potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Adshead, Peter; Burgess, C P; Hayman, Peter; Patil, Subodh P

    2016-01-01

    We find multi-scalar effective field theories (EFTs) that can achieve a slow inflationary roll despite having a scalar potential that does not satisfy the usual slow-roll condition (d V)^2 << V^2/Mp^2. They evade the usual slow-roll conditions on $V$ because their kinetic energies are dominated by single-derivative terms rather than the usual two-derivative terms. Single derivatives dominate during slow roll and so do not require a breakdown of the usual derivative expansion that underpins calculational control in much of cosmology. The presence of such terms requires some sort of UV Lorentz-symmetry breaking during inflation (besides the usual cosmological breaking). Chromo-natural inflation provides an example of a UV theory that can generate the multi-field single-derivative terms we consider, and we argue that the EFT we find indeed captures the slow-roll conditions for the background evolution for Chromo-natural inflation. We also show that our EFT can be understood as a multi-field generalization ...

  17. NUMERICAL EVALUATION OF TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION IN THE ROLLING MILL ROLLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Claudino de Lira Júnior

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In hot rolling processes occur changes in the profile of the rolling mill rolls (expansion and contraction and constant wear due to mechanical stress and continuous thermal cycles of heating/cooling caused by contact rolled material- working roll and the cooling system by water jets in their surface, decreasing their lifetime. This paper presents a computational model to simulate the thermal performance of rolling mill rolls. The model was developed using the finite volume method for a transient two-dimensional system and allows calculating the temperature distribution of the rolling mill rolls under various conditions of service. Here it is investigated the influence of flow rate and temperature of the cooling water on the temperature distribution. The results show that the water temperature has greater influence than the water flow to control the surface temperature of the cylinders.

  18. Effect of rolling deformation and solution treatment on microstructure ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Bengal Engineering and Science ... lume percent of elongated band of δ-ferrite (∼40%) and austenite phase which ... Duplex stainless steel; hot rolling; cold deformation; microstructure; tensile properties. 1. ... ssure vessels, storage tanks, rotors, impellers and shafts,.

  19. Review on Cold-Formed Steel Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Cher Siang; Mohammad, Shahrin; Md Tahir, Mahmood; Shek, Poi Ngian

    2014-01-01

    The concept of cold-formed light steel framing construction has been widespread after understanding its structural characteristics with massive research works over the years. Connection serves as one of the important elements for light steel framing in order to achieve its structural stability. Compared to hot-rolled steel sections, cold-formed steel connections perform dissimilarity due to the thin-walled behaviour. This paper aims to review current researches on cold-formed steel connections, particularly for screw connections, storage rack connections, welded connections, and bolted connections. The performance of these connections in the design of cold-formed steel structures is discussed. PMID:24688448

  20. Evolution of microstructure, texture and inhibitor along the processing route for grain-oriented electrical steels using strip casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hai-Tao, E-mail: liuht@ral.neu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, P.O. Box 105, Shenyang 110819 (China); Institute of Research of Iron and Steel, Shasteel, Zhangjiagang 215625, Jiangsu (China); Yao, Sheng-Jie [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology at Weihai, 264209 (China); Sun, Yu; Gao, Fei; Song, Hong-Yu; Liu, Guo-Huai [State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, P.O. Box 105, Shenyang 110819 (China); Li, Lei; Geng, Dian-Qiao [Key Laboratory of Electromagnetic Processing of Materials, Ministry of Education, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Liu, Zhen-Yu; Wang, Guo-Dong [State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, P.O. Box 105, Shenyang 110819 (China)

    2015-08-15

    In the present work, a regular grade GO sheet was produced successively by strip casting, hot rolling, normalizing annealing, two-stage cold rolling with intermediate annealing, primary recrystallization annealing, secondary recrystallization annealing and purification. The aim of this paper was to characterize the evolution of microstructure, texture and inhibitor along the new processing route by comprehensive utilization of optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. It was found that a fine microstructure with the ferrite grain size range of 7–12 μm could be obtained in the primary recrystallization annealed sheet though a very coarse microstructure was produced in the initial as-cast strip. The main finding was that the “texture memory” effect on Goss texture started on the through-thickness intermediate annealed strip after first cold rolling, which was not similar to the “texture memory” effect on Goss texture starting on the surface layers of the hot rolled strip in the conventional production route. As a result, the origin of Goss nuclei capable of secondary recrystallization lied in the grains already presented in Goss orientation in the intermediate annealed strip after first cold rolling. Another finding was that fine and dispersive inhibitors (mainly AlN) were easy to be produced in the primary recrystallization microstructure due to the initial rapid solidification during strip casting and the subsequent rapid cooling, and the very high temperature reheating usually used before hot rolling in the conventional production route could be avoided. - Highlights: • A regular grade grain-oriented electrical steel was produced. • Evolution of microstructure, texture and inhibitor was characterized. • Origin of Goss nuclei lied in the intermediate annealed strip. • A fine primary recrystallization microstructure could be produced. • Effective inhibitors were easy to be obtained in the new processing route.

  1. Through process texture evolution of new thin-gauge non-oriented electrical steels with high permeability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ning; Yang, Ping, E-mail: yangp@mater.ustb.edu.cn; Mao, Wei-Min

    2016-01-01

    This paper demonstrated new methods for producing high permeability thin-gauge non-oriented electrical steels with columnar-grained 3.05% Si cast slabs containing carbon and MnS precipitates, and the texture evolution was investigated. The magnetic properties of 0.2 mm final sheets were greatly improved by the optimized texture comprising {100}〈0vw〉 and strong {hk0}〈001〉 components, and the best combination of B{sub 50} and P{sub 1.5} was exhibited as 1.764 T and 2.45 W/kg respectively. The texture evolution depended on both the moderate inhibiting effect of coarse MnS precipitates and rolling methods. {100}〈0vw〉 texture could be retained from columnar grains, and strong {hk0}〈001〉 texture was obtained by two-stage rolling in distinct ways: On one hand, for the sample corresponding to low second-stage rolling reduction of 60%, based on the large grain size prior to cold rolling, the higher strain of first-stage cold rolling promoted {hk0}〈001〉 nucleation during intermediate annealing. {hk0}〈001〉 grains were further increased after moderate second-stage cold rolling and decarburization annealing, consequently leading to the final strong {100}–{110}〈001〉 texture and uniform microstructure by quantity and size priorities, and the optimum magnetic properties were achieved; on the other hand, secondary recrystallization occurred on fine-grained decarburized matrix at higher second-stage rolling strains and greatly improved the magnetic induction in RD. The level of abnormal Goss grains growth was decreased in the sample corresponding to 80% second-stage rolling reduction, and normal growth of other beneficial grains lowered the magnetic anisotropy, suggesting another potential way for non-oriented electrical steel production. In addition, the effect of carbon was discussed. - Highlights: • New thin-gauge non-oriented electrical steels with high permeability were fabricated. • The magnetic properties were improved by {100}〈0vw〉 and

  2. Human whole body cold adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daanen, Hein A M; Van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D

    2016-01-01

    Reviews on whole body human cold adaptation generally do not distinguish between population studies and dedicated acclimation studies, leading to confusing results. Population studies show that indigenous black Africans have reduced shivering thermogenesis in the cold and poor cold induced vasodilation in fingers and toes compared to Caucasians and Inuit. About 40,000 y after humans left Africa, natives in cold terrestrial areas seems to have developed not only behavioral adaptations, but also physiological adaptations to cold. Dedicated studies show that repeated whole body exposure of individual volunteers, mainly Caucasians, to severe cold results in reduced cold sensation but no major physiological changes. Repeated cold water immersion seems to slightly reduce metabolic heat production, while repeated exposure to milder cold conditions shows some increase in metabolic heat production, in particular non-shivering thermogenesis. In conclusion, human cold adaptation in the form of increased metabolism and insulation seems to have occurred during recent evolution in populations, but cannot be developed during a lifetime in cold conditions as encountered in temperate and arctic regions. Therefore, we mainly depend on our behavioral skills to live in and survive the cold.

  3. Rolling at small scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim L.; Niordson, Christian F.; Hutchinson, John W.

    2016-01-01

    The rolling process is widely used in the metal forming industry and has been so for many years. However, the process has attracted renewed interest as it recently has been adapted to very small scales where conventional plasticity theory cannot accurately predict the material response. It is well....... Metals are known to be stronger when large strain gradients appear over a few microns; hence, the forces involved in the rolling process are expected to increase relatively at these smaller scales. In the present numerical analysis, a steady-state modeling technique that enables convergence without...

  4. METHOD OF ROLLING URANIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C.S.

    1959-08-01

    A method is described for rolling uranium metal at relatively low temperatures and under non-oxidizing conditions. The method involves the steps of heating the uranium to 200 deg C in an oil bath, withdrawing the uranium and permitting the oil to drain so that only a thin protective coating remains and rolling the oil coated uranium at a temperature of 200 deg C to give about a 15% reduction in thickness at each pass. The operation may be repeated to accomplish about a 90% reduction without edge cracking, checking or any appreciable increase in brittleness.

  5. Ti-based bulk metallic glass with high cold workability at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.M.; Park, J.S.; Kim, J.H.; Lee, M.H.; Kim, D.H.; Kim, W.T.

    2005-01-01

    The cold workability of Ti-based bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) have been investigated. Ti 45 Zr 16 Be 20 Cu 10 Ni 9 BMG with a large compressive plastic strain of 4.7% shows a high cold workability, i.e. total reduction ratio of 50% by cold rolling at room temperature. The multiple shear bands formed during rolling are effective in enhancing the plasticity. The cold rolled Ti 45 Zr 16 Be 20 Cu 10 Ni 9 BMG (reduction ratio: 30%) exhibits a large plastic strain of ∝14%. (orig.)

  6. Some properties of aluminum-uranium alloys in the cast, rolled and annealed conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, T.I.; McGee, I.J.; Norlock, L.R.

    1960-06-01

    The metallographic and hardness changes associated with the rolling and subsequent. annealing of aluminum alloys containing up to 30-wt.% uranium have been described. The alloys possessed good rolling properties. However the richer alloys were unusual in that after an initial reduction,, further cold rolling caused softening. In the alloy range examined, increasing uranium contents caused reduced preferred orientation. Qualitative explanations have been proposed to account for the observations on roll softening and preferred orientation. Heat-treating and ageing experiments confirmed that the solid solubility of uranium in aluminum is negligible. (author)

  7. Observations and simulations of the seasonal evolution of snowpack cold content and its relation to snowmelt and the snowpack energy budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Keith S.; Kittel, Timothy G. F.; Molotch, Noah P.

    2018-05-01

    Cold content is a measure of a snowpack's energy deficit and is a linear function of snowpack mass and temperature. Positive energy fluxes into a snowpack must first satisfy the remaining energy deficit before snowmelt runoff begins, making cold content a key component of the snowpack energy budget. Nevertheless, uncertainty surrounds cold content development and its relationship to snowmelt, likely because of a lack of direct observations. This work clarifies the controls exerted by air temperature, precipitation, and negative energy fluxes on cold content development and quantifies the relationship between cold content and snowmelt timing and rate at daily to seasonal timescales. The analysis presented herein leverages a unique long-term snow pit record along with validated output from the SNOWPACK model forced with 23 water years (1991-2013) of quality controlled, infilled hourly meteorological data from an alpine and subalpine site in the Colorado Rocky Mountains. The results indicated that precipitation exerted the primary control on cold content development at our two sites with snowfall responsible for 84.4 and 73.0 % of simulated daily gains in the alpine and subalpine, respectively. A negative surface energy balance - primarily driven by sublimation and longwave radiation emission from the snowpack - during days without snowfall provided a secondary pathway for cold content development, and was responsible for the remaining 15.6 and 27.0 % of cold content additions. Non-zero cold content values were associated with reduced snowmelt rates and delayed snowmelt onset at daily to sub-seasonal timescales, while peak cold content magnitude had no significant relationship to seasonal snowmelt timing. These results suggest that the information provided by cold content observations and/or simulations is most relevant to snowmelt processes at shorter timescales, and may help water resource managers to better predict melt onset and rate.

  8. Person og Rolle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szatkowski, Janek

    2011-01-01

    Distinktionen mellem person og rolle forslås som grundlag for et præcist og anlytisk anvendeligt begreb om performativitet. Begrebet tager sigte på at beskrive enkeltindividers og gruppers kommunikation med henblik på hvordan kommunikation etableres. Performativitet gør det muligt at iagttage den...

  9. Ship Roll Motion Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Tristan; Blanke, Mogens

    2010-01-01

    . This tutorial paper presents an account of the development of various ship roll motion control systems and the challenges associated with their design. The paper discusses how to assess performance, the applicability of dierent models, and control methods that have been applied in the past....

  10. Rolling Cylinder Phase 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margheritini, Lucia; Taraborrelli, Valeria Taraborrelli

    Margheritini and Valeria Taraborrelli(valeria.taraborrelli@hotmail.it) with a total of 3 day visit from the developers. Laboratory tests in irregular waves will be performed by Lucia Margheritini. The report is aimed at the first stage testing of the Rolling Cylinder wave energy device. This phase includes...

  11. Cold plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marroquin, Christopher M.; O' Connell, Kevin M.; Schultz, Mark D.; Tian, Shurong

    2018-02-13

    A cold plate, an electronic assembly including a cold plate, and a method for forming a cold plate are provided. The cold plate includes an interface plate and an opposing plate that form a plenum. The cold plate includes a plurality of active areas arranged for alignment over respective heat generating portions of an electronic assembly, and non-active areas between the active areas. A cooling fluid flows through the plenum. The plenum, at the non-active areas, has a reduced width and/or reduced height relative to the plenum at the active areas. The reduced width and/or height of the plenum, and exterior dimensions of cold plate, at the non-active areas allow the non-active areas to flex to accommodate surface variations of the electronics assembly. The reduced width and/or height non-active areas can be specifically shaped to fit between physical features of the electronics assembly.

  12. Precision ring rolling technique and application in high-performance bearing manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available High-performance bearing has significant application in many important industry fields, like automobile, precision machine tool, wind power, etc. Precision ring rolling is an advanced rotary forming technique to manufacture high-performance seamless bearing ring thus can improve the working life of bearing. In this paper, three kinds of precision ring rolling techniques adapt to different dimensional ranges of bearings are introduced, which are cold ring rolling for small-scale bearing, hot radial ring rolling for medium-scale bearing and hot radial-axial ring rolling for large-scale bearing. The forming principles, technological features and forming equipments for three kinds of precision ring rolling techniques are summarized, the technological development and industrial application in China are introduced, and the main technological development trend is described.

  13. Rolling bearing analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Harris, Tedric A

    2001-01-01

    One of the most well-known experts in the field brings cutting-edge research to practitioners in the new edition of this important reference. Covers the improved mathematical calculations for rolling bearing endurance developed by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and the Society of Lubrication and Tribology Engineers. Updated with new material on Condition-Based Maintenance, new testing methods, and new bearing materials.

  14. Roll of honour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moxon, Suzanne

    1999-07-01

    This article gives details of the design and construction of dams selected by members of the dam construction industry for praise as feats of construction. The dams covered in the roll of honour include the dam at the Guri hydroelectric power station in Venezuela on the Caroni river, the Contra dam on the Verzrasca river in Switzerland, and the double curvature arc Ertan dam on the Yalong river in China. (UK)

  15. Shear Roll Mill Reactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    pneumatically operated paste dumper and belt conveyor system, the loss in weight feeder system, the hydraulically operated shear roll mill, the pellet...out feed belt conveyor , and the pack out system comprised of the metal detector, scale, and pack out empty and full drum roller conveyors . Page | 4...feed hopper and conveyor supplying the loss in weight feeder were turned on, and it was verified that these items functioned as designed . The

  16. Cold injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, R J

    1995-01-01

    There are two categories of cold injury. The first is hypothermia, which is a systemic injury to cold, and the second is frostbite, which is a local injury. Throughout history, entire armies, from George Washington to the Germans on the Russian Front in World War II, have fallen prey to prolonged cold exposure. Cold injury is common and can occur in all seasons if ambient temperature is lower than the core body temperature. In the 1985 Boston Marathon, even though it was 76 degrees and sunny, there were 75 runners treated for hypothermia. In general, humans adapt poorly to cold exposure. Children are at particular risk because of their relatively greater surface area/body mass ratio, causing them to cool even more rapidly than adults. Because of this, the human's best defense against cold injury is to limit his/her exposure to cold and to dress appropriately. If cold injury has occurred and is mild, often simple passive rewarming such as dry blankets and a warm room are sufficient treatment.

  17. Slipping and rolling on an inclined plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghamohammadi, Cina; Aghamohammadi, Amir

    2011-01-01

    In the first part of the paper, using a direct calculation two-dimensional motion of a particle sliding on an inclined plane is investigated for general values of friction coefficient (μ). A parametric equation for the trajectory of the particle is also obtained. In the second part of the paper, the motion of a sphere on the inclined plane is studied. It is shown that the evolution equation for the contact point of a sliding sphere is similar to that of a point particle sliding on an inclined plane whose friction coefficient is 7/2 μ. If μ > 2/7 tan θ, for any arbitrary initial velocity and angular velocity, the sphere will roll on the inclined plane after some finite time. In other cases, it will slip on the inclined plane. In the case of rolling, the centre of the sphere moves on a parabola. Finally the velocity and angular velocity of the sphere are exactly computed.

  18. The Effect of Rolling As-Cast and Homogenized U-10Mo Samples on the Microstructure Development and Recovery Curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Vineet V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Paxton, Dean M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lavender, Curt A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Burkes, Douglas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-07-30

    Over the past several years Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been actively involved in supporting the U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration Office of Material Management and Minimization (formerly Global Threat Reduction Initiative). The U.S. High- Power Research Reactor (USHPRR) project is developing alternatives to existing highly enriched uranium alloy fuel to reduce the proliferation threat. One option for a high-density metal fuel is uranium alloyed with 10 wt% molybdenum (U-10Mo). Forming the U-10Mo fuel plates/foils via rolling is an effective technique and is actively being pursued as part of the baseline manufacturing process. The processing of these fuel plates requires systematic investigation/understanding of the pre- and post-rolling microstructure, end-state mechanical properties, residual stresses, and defects, their effect on the mill during processing, and eventually, their in-reactor performance. In the work documented herein, studies were conducted to determine the effect of cold and hot rolling the as-cast and homogenized U-10Mo on its microstructure and hardness. The samples were homogenized at 900°C for 48 h, then later annealed for several durations and temperatures to investigate the effect on the material’s microstructure and hardness. The rolling of the as-cast plate, both hot and cold, was observed to form a molybdenum-rich and -lean banded structure. The cold rolling was ineffective, and in some cases exacerbated the as-cast defects. The grains elongated along the rolling direction and formed a pancake shape, while the carbides fractured perpendicularly to the rolling direction and left porosity between fractured particles of UC. The subsequent annealing of these samples at sub-eutectoid temperatures led to rapid precipitation of the ' lamellar phase, mainly in the molybdenum-lean regions. Annealing the samples above the eutectoid temperature did not refine the grain size or the banded

  19. Influence of rolling and annealing conditions on texture and mechanical properties of zirconium (1960)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orssaud, J.

    1958-06-01

    Rolling and annealing textures of KROLL zirconium samples at several rolling rates were studied by pole figures with an automatic recorder versus the position in the sheet thickness. Tensile tests, hardness measurements and micrographic examinations allowed to study the evolution of the recrystallization and the variation of the mechanical properties after rolling and/or annealing. Annealing textures slightly varies with the annealing temperature. Annealing at 500 deg. C gives several peculiarities. This temperature seems characteristic in the study of zirconium. (author) [fr

  20. Effect of Rolling and Subsequent Annealing on Microstructure, Microtexture, and Properties of an Experimental Duplex Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Arka; Patra, Sudipta; Chakrabarti, Debalay; Singh, Shiv Brat

    2017-12-01

    A lean duplex stainless steel (LDSS) has been prepared with low-N content and processed by different thermo-mechanical schedules, similar to the industrial processing that comprised hot-rolling, cold-rolling, and annealing treatments. The microstructure developed in the present study on low-N LDSS has been compared to that of high-N LDSS as reported in the literature. As N is an austenite stabilizer, lower-N content reduced the stability of austenite and the austenite content in low-N LDSS with respect to the conventional LDSS. Due to low stability of austenite in low-N LDSS, cold rolling resulted in strain-induced martensitic transformation and the reversion of martensite to austenite during subsequent annealing contributed to significant grain refinement within the austenite regions. δ-ferrite grains in low-N LDSS, on the other hand, are refined by extended recovery mechanism. Initial solidification texture (mainly cube texture) within the δ-ferrite region finally converted into gamma-fiber texture after cold rolling and annealing. Although MS-brass component dominated the austenite texture in low-N LDSS after hot rolling and cold rolling, that even transformed into alpha-fiber texture after the final annealing. Due to the significant grain refinement and formation of beneficial texture within both austenite and ferrite, good combination of strength and ductility has been achieved in cold-rolled and annealed sample of low-N LDSS steel.

  1. Roll-to-Roll production of carbon nanotubes based supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jingyi; Childress, Anthony; Karakaya, Mehmet; Roberts, Mark; Arcilla-Velez, Margarita; Podila, Ramakrishna; Rao, Apparao

    2014-03-01

    Carbon nanomaterials provide an excellent platform for electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLCs). However, current industrial methods for producing carbon nanotubes are expensive and thereby increase the costs of energy storage to more than 10 Wh/kg. In this regard, we developed a facile roll-to-roll production technology for scalable manufacturing of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) with variable density on run-of-the-mill kitchen Al foils. Our method produces MWNTs with diameter (heights) between 50-100 nm (10-100 μm), and a specific capacitance as high as ~ 100 F/g in non-aqueous electrolytes. In this talk, the fundamental challenges involved in EDLC-suitable MWNT growth, roll-to-roll production, and device manufacturing will be discussed along with electrochemical characteristics of roll-to-roll MWNTs. Research supported by NSF CMMI Grant1246800.

  2. Spray rolling aluminum alloy strip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHugh, Kevin M.; Delplanque, J.-P.; Johnson, S.B.; Lavernia, E.J.; Zhou, Y.; Lin, Y

    2004-10-10

    Spray rolling combines spray forming with twin-roll casting to process metal flat products. It consists of atomizing molten metal with a high velocity inert gas, cooling the resultant droplets in flight and directing the spray between mill rolls. In-flight convection heat transfer from atomized droplets teams with conductive cooling at the rolls to rapidly remove the alloy's latent heat. Hot deformation of the semi-solid material in the rolls results in fully consolidated, rapidly solidified product. While similar in some ways to twin-roll casting, spray rolling has the advantage of being able to process alloys with broad freezing ranges at high production rates. This paper describes the process and summarizes microstructure and tensile properties of spray-rolled 2124 and 7050 aluminum alloy strips. A Lagrangian/Eulerian poly-dispersed spray flight and deposition model is described that provides some insight into the development of the spray rolling process. This spray model follows droplets during flight toward the rolls, through impact and spreading, and includes oxide film formation and breakup when relevant.

  3. A cold-adapted endoglucanase from camel rumen with high catalytic activity at moderate and low temperatures: an anomaly of truly cold-adapted evolution in a mesophilic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili Ghadikolaei, Kamran; Gharechahi, Javad; Haghbeen, Kamahldin; Akbari Noghabi, Kambiz; Hosseini Salekdeh, Ghasem; Shahbani Zahiri, Hossein

    2018-03-01

    Endoglucanases are important enzymes in plant biomass degradation. They have current and potential applications in various industrial sectors including human and animal food processing, textile, paper, and renewable biofuel production. It is assumed that the cold-active endoglucanases, with high catalytic rates in moderate and cold temperatures, can improve the cost-effectiveness of industrial processes by lowering the need for heating and, thus, energy consumption. In this study, the endoglucanase CelCM3 was procured from a camel rumen metagenome via gene cloning and expression in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The maximum activity of the enzyme on carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) was obtained at pH 5 and 30 °C with a V max and K m of 339 U/mg and 2.57 mg/ml, respectively. The enzyme with an estimated low melting temperature of 45 °C and about 50% activity at 4 °C was identified to be cold-adapted. A thermodynamic analysis corroborated that CelCM3 with an activation energy (E a ), enthalpy of activation (ΔH), and Gibb's free energy (ΔG) of, respectively, 18.47 kJ mol -1 , 16.12 kJ mol -1 , and 56.09 kJ mol -1 is a cold-active endoglucanase. In addition, CelCM3 was tolerant of metal ions, non-ionic detergents, urea, and organic solvents. Given these interesting characteristics, CelCM3 shows promise to meet the requirements of industrial applications.

  4. Crystallographic texture and microstructural changes in fusion welds of recrystallized Zry-4 rolled plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moya Riffo, A.; Vicente Alvarez, M.A.; Santisteban, J.R.; Vizcaino, P.; Limandri, S.; Daymond, M.R.; Kerr, D.; Okasinski, J.; Almer, J.; Vogel, S.C.

    2017-01-01

    This work presents a detailed characterization of the microstructural and crystallographic texture changes observed in the transition region in a weld between two Zircaloy-4 cold rolled and recrystallized plates. The microstructural study was performed by optical microscopy under polarized light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Texture changes were characterized at different lengthscales: in the micrometric size, orientation imaging maps (OIM) were constructed by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), in the millimetre scale, high energy XRD experiments were done at the Advanced Photon Source (USA) and compared to neutron diffraction texture determinations performed in the HIPPO instrument at Los Alamos National Laboratory. In the heat affected zone (HAZ) we observed the development of Widmanstätten microstructures, typical of the α(hcp) to β(bcc) phase transformation. Associated with these changes a rotation of the c-poles is found in the HAZ and fusion zone. While the base material shows the typical texture of a cold rolled plate, with their c-poles pointing 35° apart from the normal direction of the plate in the normal-transversal line, in the HAZ, c-poles align along the transversal direction of the plate and then re-orient along different directions, all of these changes occurring within a lengthscale in the order of mm. The evolution of texture in this narrow region was captured by both OIM and XRD, and is consistent with previous measurements done by Neutron Diffraction in the HIPPO diffractometer at Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA. The microstructural and texture changes along the HAZ were interpreted as arising due to the effect of differences in the cooling rate and β grain size on the progress of the different α variants during transformation. Fast cooling rates and large β grains are associated to weak variant selection during the β−>α transformation, while slow cooling rates and fine β grains result in strong variant selection.

  5. Crystallographic texture and microstructural changes in fusion welds of recrystallized Zry-4 rolled plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moya Riffo, A., E-mail: alvaromoya@cab.cnea.gov.ar [Neutron Physics Department, Centro Atómico Bariloche, CNEA-CONICET (Argentina); Vicente Alvarez, M.A.; Santisteban, J.R. [Neutron Physics Department, Centro Atómico Bariloche, CNEA-CONICET (Argentina); Vizcaino, P. [Zirconium Technology Department, Centro Atómico Ezeiza, CNEA-CONICET (Argentina); Limandri, S. [Facultad de Matemática, Astronomía y Física, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba (Argentina); Daymond, M.R.; Kerr, D. [Dept. Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Okasinski, J.; Almer, J. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne (United States); Vogel, S.C. [Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-05-15

    This work presents a detailed characterization of the microstructural and crystallographic texture changes observed in the transition region in a weld between two Zircaloy-4 cold rolled and recrystallized plates. The microstructural study was performed by optical microscopy under polarized light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Texture changes were characterized at different lengthscales: in the micrometric size, orientation imaging maps (OIM) were constructed by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), in the millimetre scale, high energy XRD experiments were done at the Advanced Photon Source (USA) and compared to neutron diffraction texture determinations performed in the HIPPO instrument at Los Alamos National Laboratory. In the heat affected zone (HAZ) we observed the development of Widmanstätten microstructures, typical of the α(hcp) to β(bcc) phase transformation. Associated with these changes a rotation of the c-poles is found in the HAZ and fusion zone. While the base material shows the typical texture of a cold rolled plate, with their c-poles pointing 35° apart from the normal direction of the plate in the normal-transversal line, in the HAZ, c-poles align along the transversal direction of the plate and then re-orient along different directions, all of these changes occurring within a lengthscale in the order of mm. The evolution of texture in this narrow region was captured by both OIM and XRD, and is consistent with previous measurements done by Neutron Diffraction in the HIPPO diffractometer at Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA. The microstructural and texture changes along the HAZ were interpreted as arising due to the effect of differences in the cooling rate and β grain size on the progress of the different α variants during transformation. Fast cooling rates and large β grains are associated to weak variant selection during the β−>α transformation, while slow cooling rates and fine β grains result in strong variant selection.

  6. Deformation-strengthening during rolling Cu60Zr20Ti20 bulk metallic glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Q.P.; Li, J.F.; Hu, Yuyan

    2007-01-01

    Mechanical strength evolutions during rolling the Cu60Zr20Ti20 bulk metallic glass (BMG) at room temperature (RT) and cryogenic temperature (CT) have been investigated by measuring the microhardness. The hardness slightly increases during the initial rolling stage as a result of the gradually...

  7. Cold Sore

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may reduce how often they return. Symptoms A cold sore usually passes through several stages: Tingling and itching. Many people feel an itching, burning or tingling sensation around their lips for a day or so ...

  8. Improving cold chain systems: Challenges and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, Ashvin; Brison, Michael; LeTallec, Yann

    2017-04-19

    While a number of new vaccines have been rolled out across the developing world (with more vaccines in the pipeline), cold chain systems are struggling to efficiently support national immunization programs in ensuring the availability of safe and potent vaccines. This article reflects on the Clinton Health Access Initiative, Inc. (CHAI) experience working since 2010 with national immunization programs and partners to improve vaccines cold chains in 10 countries-Ethiopia, Nigeria, Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania, Uganda, Cameroon, Mozambique, Lesotho and India - to identify the root causes and solutions for three common issues limiting cold chain performance. Key recommendations include: Collectively, the solutions detailed in this article chart a path to substantially improving the performance of the cold chain. Combined with an enabling global and in-country environment, it is possible to eliminate cold chain issues as a substantial barrier to effective and full immunization coverage over the next few years. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Prediction of deformation textures in asymmetric rolling of aluminium alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Shore, Diarmuid; Nguyen-Minh, Tuan; Kestens, Leo; Van Bael, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Asymmetric cold rolling (ASR) has been shown to have potential to improve the formability of aluminium sheet alloys in deep drawing by increasing the normal plastic anisotropy, mainly as a result of the additional shear strains it imposes and the consequent alteration of the crystallographic texture. It is generally found that the process produces shear strains that vary across the sheet thickness, resulting in heterogeneity of the texture and related properties. While it may be a typical des...

  10. Roll back malaria update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    This article presents the activities under WHO's Roll Back Malaria (RBM) program in Asia, particularly in Nepal, Indonesia, India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and the Philippines. In India, the RBM program will start in 5 districts with a major malaria problem. A national committee has been formed by researchers, which will be able to provide operational and strategic support and research expertise in relation to malaria. In Bangladesh, the RBM program was initiated in the sparsely populated hill tract areas of Banderban and Chittagong where access to health care is very poor. At the district level, effective partnerships with private practitioners, politicians, community leaders, school teachers, the press and district Ministry of Health officials are operating to plan for rolling back malaria. In Myanmar, Cambodia, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Yunnan province of China, Vietnam, and Thailand, the focus of the RBM program was to move health care closer to the malaria-infected communities. WHO¿s Global Health Leadership Fellowship Programme, supported by the UN Foundation and Rockefeller Foundation, enables potential leaders to experience the work of UN agencies and contribute to the work of the organization for 2 years. Three out of four persons appointed to the RBM program received prestigious awards: Dr. Paola Marchesini of Brazil; Dr. Tieman Diarra of Mali; and Dr. Bob Taylor of the UK.

  11. Roll-to-roll UV imprint lithography for flexible electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maury, P.; Turkenburg, D.H.; Stroeks, N.; Giesen, P.; Barbu, I.; Meinders, E.R.; Bremen, A. van; Iosad, N.; Werf, R. van der; Onvlee, H.

    2011-01-01

    We propose a roll-to-roll UV imprint lithography tool as a way to pattern flexible PET foil with µm-resolution. As a way to overcome dimensional instability of the foil and its effect on overlay, a self-align approach was investigated, that permits to make several layers in a single lithography

  12. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ROLLING AND SLIP RESISTANCE IN ROLLING BEARINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Bondarenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. About one of the causes of slip rolling is known from the second half of the 19th century, it was believed that the slip resistance appears at the place of contact due to different speeds on the arc of contact. Only in the mid-20th century it was proved that this resistance is negligible in rolling resistance. However (for some unknown reason it is ignored the fact that in practice in rolling bearings may rotate both the inner ring with a stationary outer one, and vice versa almost in equal relations. It is not taken into account the fact that the ball or roller in the rolling bearings runs the different distance along the roller path of the outer and inner bearing cages in one revolution. This fact is not taken into account in determining the calculated values for the friction coefficient of a rolling bearing reduced to the shaft. Therefore, the aim of this work is to determine the influence of path length on the track riding the outer and inner race of the bearing on the determination of the calculated value of the coefficient of friction of rolling bearings is given to the shaft. Methodology. The solution technique is based on the theory of plane motion of a rigid body, the theory of Hertzian contact deformation and the analytical dependencies for determination of coefficient of rolling friction. Findings. The obtained dependences on determination of rolling resistance of the balls or rollers along the bearing tracks of inner and outer bearing cages as well as path difference metering of the rolling on them allows to analytically obtain the rolling resistance and slipping for any size of bearings and different devices of bearing units. It is also possible at the design stage of rolling nodes to handle not only the design but also the content of the node. Originality. Using the analytical dependences for determination of the rolling resistance of bodies at point and line contacts, and also account for the difference in the path of the

  13. LEDs are on a roll

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, P.W.M.; Mol, A.M.B. van

    2011-01-01

    Light-emitting diodes are more efficient than conventional lighting, but high production costs limit their uptake. Organic versions that can be produced using a cheap newspaper-style 'roll-to-roll' printing process are likely to revolutionize our lighting and signage, say Paul Blom and Ton van Mol.

  14. Anisotropic constant-roll inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Asuka; Soda, Jiro [Kobe University, Department of Physics, Kobe (Japan)

    2018-01-15

    We study constant-roll inflation in the presence of a gauge field coupled to an inflaton. By imposing the constant anisotropy condition, we find new exact anisotropic constant-roll inflationary solutions which include anisotropic power-law inflation as a special case. We also numerically show that the new anisotropic solutions are attractors in the phase space. (orig.)

  15. Rolling up a Graphene Sheet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calvaresi, Matteo; Quintana, Mildred; Rudolf, Petra; Zerbetto, Francesco; Prato, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    Carbon Nanotubes, CNTs, have been described as rolled-up graphene layers. Matching this concept to experiments has been a great experimental challenge for it requires a method to exfoliate graphite, generate ordered and stable dangling carbon bonds, and roll up the layer without affecting the

  16. Rudder roll stabilization for ships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Amerongen, J.; van der Klugt, P.G.M.; van Nauta lemke, H.R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the design of an autopilot for rudder roll stabilization for ships. This autopilot uses the rudder not only for course keeping but also for reduction of the roll. The system has a series of properties which make the controller design far from straightforward: the process has

  17. Computational design of rolling bearings

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen-Schäfer, Hung

    2016-01-01

    This book comprehensively presents the computational design of rolling bearings dealing with many interdisciplinary difficult working fields. They encompass elastohydrodynamics (EHD), Hertzian contact theory, oil-film thickness in elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL), bearing dynamics, tribology of surface textures, fatigue failure mechanisms, fatigue lifetimes of rolling bearings and lubricating greases, Weibull distribution, rotor balancing, and airborne noises (NVH) in the rolling bearings. Furthermore, the readers are provided with hands-on essential formulas based on the up-to-date DIN ISO norms and helpful examples for computational design of rolling bearings. The topics are intended for undergraduate and graduate students in mechanical and material engineering, research scientists, and practicing engineers who want to understand the interactions between these working fields and to know how to design the rolling bearings for automotive industry and many other industries.

  18. Water Impingement Erosion of Deep-Rolled Ti64

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Ma

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the Liquid Impingement Erosion (LIE performances of deep-rolling (DR treated and non-treated Ti64 were investigated. Various erosion stages, from the incubation to the terminal erosion stages, could be observed. A full factorial design of experiments was used to study the effect of DR process parameters (Feed Rate, Spindle Velocity, Number of Passes, Pressure on the residual stress distribution, microhardness and surface roughness of the treated Ti64 specimens. The DR-treated Ti64 specimens exhibited improved surface microhardness, surface roughness, and large magnitude of compressive residual stresses, which were attributed to the amount of cold work induced by the DR process. Although DR improved the mechanical properties of the Ti64, the results showed that the treatment has little or no effect on the LIE performance of Ti64 but different damage modes were observed in these two cases. Evolution of the erosion stages was described based on water-hammer pressure, stress waves, radial wall jetting, and hydraulic penetration modes. The initial erosion stages were mainly influenced by water-hammer pressure and stress waves, whereas the intermediate erosion stages were influenced by the combination of the four modes together. The final erosion stages contain the four modes, however the erosion was greatly driven by the radial jetting and hydraulic penetration modes, where more material was removed. The failure mechanism of the final stages of the LIE test of both DR-treated and non-treated Ti64 was characterized as fatigue fracture. However, a brittle fracture behavior was observed in the initial and intermediate erosion stages of the DR-treated Ti64, whereas a ductile fracture behavior was observed in the non-treated Ti64. This was concluded from the micrographs of the LIE damage through different erosion stages.

  19. Development of rolled joints for zirconium-2.5 wt % niobium pressure tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhusoodanan, K.; Sinha, R.K.; Samuel, K.A.; Joeman, V.

    1992-01-01

    Due to its higher strength and lower deuterium pick-up rate, as compared to the existing cold worked zircaloy-2 material, cold worked zirconium-2.5 wt% niobium (Zr-2.5%Nb) alloy is to be used as the pressure tube material in all forthcoming Indian PHWRs starting with KAPP-2. These pressure tubes, which carry the fuel bundles are to be joined to the S.S 403 end-fittings through rolled joints. Since the new pressure tubes have a lower wall thickness and higher room temperature yield stress, than zircaloy-2 tubes the design parameters of the rolled joint had to be developed afresh. Further, since Zr-2.5%Nb is susceptible to delayed hydride cracking, it is necessary to limit the residual stress near the rolled joint to a minimum. Since the high residual stress is due to the initial assembly clearance between the pressure tube and end-fitting, a modified rolled joint had to be developed, referred to as zero clearance rolled joint. This paper provides details of the work carried out at Reactor Engineering Division of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay towards the development of the design of the rolled joint as well as the tooling and procedures required for achieving zero-clearance fit-ups at site. The requirements to be met by the Zr-2.5% Nb pressure tubes for achieving acceptable rolled joints are highlighted. (author). 5 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  20. Effect of rolling temperature on 12Kh18N10T steel tube hardening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yushkevich, P.M.; Stepanovich, V.E.; Manankova, L.V.; Usenko, V.N.; Semenov, I.A.

    1984-01-01

    Mechanical properties and substructure of tubes at the constant reduction degree k(the ratio of deformation over wall thickness to deformation over diameter), depending on strain degree during cold and hot tube rolling, have been studied. The investigations are carried out using hot-rolled tubes with the dimensions 88x8 mm of 12Kh1hN10T steel. With the decrease of strain over the wall of the tube, produced of 12Kh18N10T steel as to strain over diameter the values of yield strength and ultimate strength increase with simultaneous decrease in ductility during warm rolling and yield strength and ultimate strength decrease with the increase in ductility-during cold rolling. During warm rolling of the tubes at 250 deg C the hardening of 12Kh18N10T steel is higher, than at the rolling temperature 150 deg C. The optimum temperature range of warm rolling is 120-150 deg C. Grain orientation in the metal of the tubes and degree of texture perfection increase with the temperature increase of the tube warm drolling as compared with col rolli

  1. The influence of strain on annealing behaviour of heavily rolled aluminium AA1050

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishin, Oleg; Juul Jensen, Dorte; Hansen, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Deformation structures and annealing behaviour have been analysed in the centre layer of two AA1050 samples cold-rolled to von Mises strains of 3.6 and 6.4. During annealing at 270-300°C structural coarsening and discontinuous recrystallization occurred in both samples. In the coarsened microstru......Deformation structures and annealing behaviour have been analysed in the centre layer of two AA1050 samples cold-rolled to von Mises strains of 3.6 and 6.4. During annealing at 270-300°C structural coarsening and discontinuous recrystallization occurred in both samples. In the coarsened...

  2. Development of nondestructive measurement of cold work rate, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamimura, Hideaki; Igarashi, Miyuki; Satoh, Masakazu; Miura, Makoto

    1978-01-01

    Cold-worked type 316 stainless steel will be used as fuel cladding material for the proto-type fast reactor MONJU. Cold work rate is an important parameter in swelling behavior of fuel cladding. It has been shown that austenitic stainless steel undergoes martensitic transformation during cold working. Nondestructive evaluation of cold work rate will be expected by measuring residual magnetism produced in the presence of martensitic phase when cold worked austenitic stainless steel is magnetized. In the previous work, the residual magnetism of cladding tubes of type 316 stainless steel was measured. The results have shown high degree of the correlation between residual magnetism and cold work rate. This paper reports the results of measurement on cold-rolled type 316 stainless steel plate samples. Dimensions of the specimens are 100 mm long and 3.5 and 7 mm wide. The apparatus and experimental procedures were similar to the previous work. Good agreement was found between the estimated cold work rate obtained in the previous work and that for cold rolled plate specimens. Measurement of residual magnetism in identical direction with magnetization showed smaller dispersion of data as compared with that in transverse direction. The residual magnetism near specimen surface hardly decreased when the surface of specimen was chemically removed. The reason for the comparative decrease in residual magnetism at 10% and 15% cold work rate is not clear. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  3. Cold fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koster, J.

    1989-01-01

    In this contribution the author the phenomenom of so-called cold fusion, inspired by the memorable lecture of Moshe Gai on his own search for this effect. Thus much of what follows was presented by Dr. Gai; the rest is from independent reading. What is referred to as cold fusion is of course the observation of possible products of deuteron-deuteron (d-d) fusion within deuterium-loaded (dentended) electrodes. The debate over the two vanguard cold fusion experiments has raged under far more public attention than usually accorded new scientific phenomena. The clamor commenced with the press conference of M. Fleishmann and S. Pons on March 23, 1989 and the nearly simultaneous wide circulation of a preprint of S. Jones and collaborators. The majority of work attempting to confirm these observations has at the time of this writing yet to appear in published form, but contributions to conferences and electronic mail over computer networks were certainly filled with preliminary results. To keep what follows to a reasonable length the author limit this discussion to the searches for neutron (suggested by ref. 2) or for excessive heat production (suggested by ref. 1), following a synopsis of the hypotheses of cold fusion

  4. Project COLD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanjian, Wendy C.

    1982-01-01

    Describes Project COLD (Climate, Ocean, Land, Discovery) a scientific study of the Polar Regions, a collection of 35 modules used within the framework of existing subjects: oceanography, biology, geology, meterology, geography, social science. Includes a partial list of topics and one activity (geodesic dome) from a module. (Author/SK)

  5. Cold fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Suk Yong; You, Jae Jun

    1996-01-01

    Nearly every technical information is chased in the world. All of them are reviewed and analyzed. Some of them are chosen to study further more to review every related documents. And a probable suggestion about the excitonic process in deuteron absorbed condensed matter is proposed a way to cold fusion. 8 refs. (Author)

  6. Stress and accidental defect detection on rolling mill rolls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auzas, J.-D.

    1999-01-01

    During the rolling mill process, rolls are submitted to high pressures that can lead to local decohesion or metallurgical changes. Both these cracks or softened areas must be detected as soon as they appear because of the risk of spalling, marks on the product, and mill wreck. These defects can be detected using the eddy current method, and particularly sensors specially developed for micro-defects detection. These sensors must be adapted to the environment of a roll grinding machine on which they must be installed. Users' schedule of conditions also require them to be attached to a wide range of eddy current generator and automatic computerized interpretation. Mill requirements for new high tech roll grades and quality lead to continuous development and improvement of the tools that will provide immediate 'go - no go' information. This paper is an update of these developments. (author)

  7. Using cold deformation methods in flow-production of steel high precision shaped sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajtsev, M.L.; Makhnev, I.F.; Shkurko, I.I.

    1975-01-01

    A final size with a preset tolerance and a required surface finish of steel high-precision sections could be achieved by a cold deformation of hot-rolled ingots-by drawing through dismountable, monolith or roller-type drawing tools or by cold rolling in roller dies. The particularities of the both techniques are compared as regards a number of complicated shaped sections and the advantages of cold rolling are showna more uniform distribution of deformations (strain hardening) across the section, that is a greater margin of plasticity with the same reductions, the less number of the operations required. Rolling is recommended in all the cases when possible as regards the section shape and the bulk volume. The rolling-mill for the calibration of high-precision sections should have no less than two shafts (so that the size could be controlled in both directions) and arrangements to withstand high axial stresses on the rollers (the stresses appearing during rolling in skew dies). When manufacturing precise shaped sections by the cold rolling method the operations are less plentiful than in the cold drawing manufacturing

  8. Roll bonding of strained aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staun, Jakob M.

    2003-01-01

    This report investigates roll bonding of pre-strained (å ~ 4) aluminium sheets to produce high strain material from high purity aluminium (99.996%) and commercial pure aluminium (99.6%). The degree of bonding is investigated by optical microscopy and ultrasonic scanning. Under the right...... of the cross rolled volume fraction is found. To further asses this effect, and the anisotropy, it is necessary to acquire knowledge about both texture and microstructure, e.g. by TEM. Roll bonding of pre-strained aluminium is found to be a possible alternative to ARB in the quest for ultra-fine grained...

  9. Manufacturing Demonstration Facility: Roll-to-Roll Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datskos, Panos G [ORNL; Joshi, Pooran C [ORNL; List III, Frederick Alyious [ORNL; Duty, Chad E [ORNL; Armstrong, Beth L [ORNL; Ivanov, Ilia N [ORNL; Jacobs, Christopher B [ORNL; Graham, David E [ORNL; Moon, Ji Won [ORNL

    2015-08-01

    This Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF)e roll-to-roll processing effort described in this report provided an excellent opportunity to investigate a number of advanced manufacturing approaches to achieve a path for low cost devices and sensors. Critical to this effort is the ability to deposit thin films at low temperatures using nanomaterials derived from nanofermentation. The overarching goal of this project was to develop roll-to-roll manufacturing processes of thin film deposition on low-cost flexible substrates for electronics and sensor applications. This project utilized ORNL s unique Pulse Thermal Processing (PTP) technologies coupled with non-vacuum low temperature deposition techniques, ORNL s clean room facility, slot dye coating, drop casting, spin coating, screen printing and several other equipment including a Dimatix ink jet printer and a large-scale Kyocera ink jet printer. The roll-to-roll processing project had three main tasks: 1) develop and demonstrate zinc-Zn based opto-electronic sensors using low cost nanoparticulate structures manufactured in a related MDF Project using nanofermentation techniques, 2) evaluate the use of silver based conductive inks developed by project partner NovaCentrix for electronic device fabrication, and 3) demonstrate a suite of low cost printed sensors developed using non-vacuum deposition techniques which involved the integration of metal and semiconductor layers to establish a diverse sensor platform technology.

  10. Rolling Process Modeling Report: Finite-Element Prediction of Roll Separating Force and Rolling Defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soulami, Ayoub [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lavender, Curt A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Paxton, Dean M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Burkes, Douglas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-04-23

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been investigating manufacturing processes for the uranium-10% molybdenum (U-10Mo) alloy plate-type fuel for the U.S. high-performance research reactors. This work supports the Convert Program of the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) Global Threat Reduction Initiative. This report documents modeling results of PNNL’s efforts to perform finite-element simulations to predict roll separating forces and rolling defects. Simulations were performed using a finite-element model developed using the commercial code LS-Dyna. Simulations of the hot rolling of U-10Mo coupons encapsulated in low-carbon steel have been conducted following two different schedules. Model predictions of the roll-separation force and roll-pack thicknesses at different stages of the rolling process were compared with experimental measurements. This report discusses various attributes of the rolled coupons revealed by the model (e.g., dog-boning and thickness non-uniformity).

  11. Cold fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Suk Yong; Sung, Ki Woong; Kang, Joo Sang; Lee, Jong Jik

    1995-02-01

    So called 'cold fusion phenomena' are not confirmed yet. Excess heat generation is very delicate one. Neutron generation is most reliable results, however, the records are erratic and the same results could not be repeated. So there is no reason to exclude the malfunction of testing instruments. The same arguments arise in recording 4 He, 3 He, 3 H, which are not rich in quantity basically. An experiment where plenty of 4 He were recorded is attached in appendix. The problem is that we are trying to search cold fusion which is permitted by nature or not. The famous tunneling effect in quantum mechanics will answer it, however, the most fusion rate is known to be negligible. The focus of this project is on the theme that how to increase that negligible fusion rate. 6 figs, 4 tabs, 1512 refs. (Author)

  12. Cold fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Suk Yong; Sung, Ki Woong; Kang, Joo Sang; Lee, Jong Jik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-02-01

    So called `cold fusion phenomena` are not confirmed yet. Excess heat generation is very delicate one. Neutron generation is most reliable results, however, the records are erratic and the same results could not be repeated. So there is no reason to exclude the malfunction of testing instruments. The same arguments arise in recording {sup 4}He, {sup 3}He, {sup 3}H, which are not rich in quantity basically. An experiment where plenty of {sup 4}He were recorded is attached in appendix. The problem is that we are trying to search cold fusion which is permitted by nature or not. The famous tunneling effect in quantum mechanics will answer it, however, the most fusion rate is known to be negligible. The focus of this project is on the theme that how to increase that negligible fusion rate. 6 figs, 4 tabs, 1512 refs. (Author).

  13. Systematics of constant roll inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anguelova, Lilia; Suranyi, Peter; Wijewardhana, L. C. R.

    2018-02-01

    We study constant roll inflation systematically. This is a regime, in which the slow roll approximation can be violated. It has long been thought that this approximation is necessary for agreement with observations. However, recently it was understood that there can be inflationary models with a constant, and not necessarily small, rate of roll that are both stable and compatible with the observational constraint ns ≈ 1. We investigate systematically the condition for such a constant-roll regime. In the process, we find a whole new class of inflationary models, in addition to the known solutions. We show that the new models are stable under scalar perturbations. Finally, we find a part of their parameter space, in which they produce a nearly scale-invariant scalar power spectrum, as needed for observational viability.

  14. Grease lubrication in rolling bearings

    CERN Document Server

    Lugt, Piet M

    2012-01-01

    The definitive book on the science of grease lubrication for roller and needle bearings in industrial and vehicle engineering. Grease Lubrication in Rolling Bearings provides an overview of the existing knowledge on the various aspects of grease lubrication (including lubrication systems) and the state of the art models that exist today. The book reviews the physical and chemical aspects of grease lubrication, primarily directed towards lubrication of rolling bearings. The first part of the book covers grease composition, properties and rheology, including thermal

  15. Rolling Resistance Measurement and Model Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lasse Grinderslev; Larsen, Jesper; Fraser, Elsje Sophia

    2015-01-01

    There is an increased focus worldwide on understanding and modeling rolling resistance because reducing the rolling resistance by just a few percent will lead to substantial energy savings. This paper reviews the state of the art of rolling resistance research, focusing on measuring techniques, s......, surface and texture modeling, contact models, tire models, and macro-modeling of rolling resistance...

  16. Pre-fermentative cold maceration in presence of non-Saccharomyces strains: Evolution of chromatic characteristics of Sangiovese red wine elaborated by sequential inoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benucci, Ilaria; Cerreti, Martina; Liburdi, Katia; Nardi, Tiziana; Vagnoli, Paola; Ortiz-Julien, Anne; Esti, Marco

    2018-05-01

    Two different Metschnikowia strains (M. pulcherrima MP 346 or M. fructicola MF 98-3) were applied for the first time, during pre-fermentative cold maceration (PCM) in order to enhance the properties and stability of Sangiovese wine color. During the 2014 and 2015 vintages a total of eight wines were produced with 24 h of cold maceration (PCM 24 h) or 72 h (PCM 72 h), respectively. PCM was carried out in presence of MP 346 or MF 98-3 or pectic enzyme (Cuvée Rouge). The sequential inoculation of S. cerevisiae strain was carried out at the end of PCM. After 12 months in the bottle, the MP 346 and MF 98-3 wines contained much higher levels of total flavonoids than the Control sample for both vintages and regardless PCM duration. Moreover, in both vintages only MF 98-3 showed a higher color intensity than the Control sample after 12 months in the bottle. However, neither PCM duration nor the microbial/enzymatic treatment increased the level of anthocyanins at draining off. Both wines produced by the pre-fermentative inoculum with Metschnikowia strains (MP 346 and MF 98-3) retained their red hue, regardless the duration of pre-fermentative and fermentative macerations, while the Control wines were characterized by faster rates of color loss. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Controlled rolling process for dual phase steels and application to rod, wire, sheet and other shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Gareth; Ahn, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Nack-Joon

    1986-01-01

    An improved, energy efficient, hot rolling method for direct production of cold formable dual-phase steel is provided. The steel is heated to completely austenitize it and then continuously hot rolled and cooled down into the ferrite-austenite two phase region to a temperature which is just below the effective Ar.sub.3 temperature. The hot rolled steel is then rapidly quenched to provide an alloy containing strong, tough lath martensite (fibers) in a ductile soft ferrite matrix. The method is particularly useful for providing rods in which form the alloy is capable of being drawn into high strength wire or the like in a cold drawing operation without any intermediate annealing or patenting, and has excellent strength, ductility and fatigue characteristics.

  18. Microstructure and mechanical properties of Mg-Al-Mn-Ca alloy sheet produced by twin roll casting and sequential warm rolling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yinong; Kang, Suk Bong; Cho, Jaehyung

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → This work, taking AM30 + 0.2Ca alloy as experimental material, will provide some new information as follows: one is microstructural difference between twin roll cast and ingot cast AM31-0.2Ca alloy. The other is the comparison of tensile properties after warm rolling and annealing. Suggesting the possibility of the development of wrought magnesium alloy sheets by strip casting. - Abstract: Microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of twin roll cast (TRC) Mg-3.3 wt.%Al-0.8 wt.%Mn-0.2 wt.%Ca (AM31 + 0.2Ca) alloy strip during warm rolling and subsequent annealing were investigated in this paper. The as-TRC alloy strip shows columnar dendrites in surface and equiaxed dendrites in center regions, as well as finely dispersed primary Al 8 Mn 5 particles on interdendritic boundaries which result in the beneficial effect on microstructural refinement of strip casting. The warm rolled sheets show intensively deformed band or shear band structures, as well as finely and homogeneously dispersed Al-Mn particles. No evident dynamic recrystallization (DRX) takes place during warm rolling process, which is more likely attributed to the finely dispersed particle and high solid solution of Al and Mn atoms in α-Mg matrix. After annealing at 350 deg. C for 1 h, the warm rolled TRC sheets show fine equiaxed grains around 7.8 μm in average size. It has been shown that the present TRC alloy sheet has superior tensile strength and comparative elongation compared to commercial ingot cast (IC) one, suggesting the possibility of the development of wrought magnesium alloy sheets by twin roll strip casting processing. The microstructural evolution during warm rolling and subsequent annealing as well as the resulting tensile properties were analyzed and discussed.

  19. Influence of cold deformation on martensite transformation and mechanical properties of Ti-Nb-Ta-Zr alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Liqiang; Lu Weijie; Qin Jining; Zhang Fan; Zhang Di

    2009-01-01

    Ti-35Nb-2Ta-3Zr alloy was fabricated by vacuum consumable arc melting furnace and hot pressing. Microstructure and phase transformation of solution-treated (ST) and cold-rolled (CR) plates of Ti-Nb-Ta-Zr alloy were observed. Different microstructure of strain-induced martensite transformation during cold deformation were investigated. With the increase of reduction of cold rolling, microstructure of α''-phase changed from acicular martensite to butterfly shaped martensite and showed variant crossed and cross-hatched when the reduction of cold rolling was over 60%. Mechanical properties and SEM images of the fracture surface indicated that the alloy fabricated by cold deformation showed favorable strength and plasticity. Owing to the excellent cold workability and biomedical safety of elements of Nb, Ta and Zr, Ti-Nb-Ta-Zr alloy contributed much to medical applications

  20. Rolling Bearing Life Prediction, Theory, and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    2016-01-01

    A tutorial is presented outlining the evolution, theory, and application of rolling-element bearing life prediction from that of A. Palmgren, 1924; W. Weibull, 1939; G. Lundberg and A. Palmgren, 1947 and 1952; E. Ioannides and T. Harris, 1985; and E. Zaretsky, 1987. Comparisons are made between these life models. The Ioannides-Harris model without a fatigue limit is identical to the Lundberg-Palmgren model. The Weibull model is similar to that of Zaretsky if the exponents are chosen to be identical. Both the load-life and Hertz stress-life relations of Weibull, Lundberg and Palmgren, and Ioannides and Harris reflect a strong dependence on the Weibull slope. The Zaretsky model decouples the dependence of the critical shear stress-life relation from the Weibull slope. This results in a nominal variation of the Hertz stress-life exponent. For 9th- and 8th-power Hertz stress-life exponents for ball and roller bearings, respectively, the Lundberg-Palmgren model best predicts life. However, for 12th- and 10th-power relations reflected by modern bearing steels, the Zaretsky model based on the Weibull equation is superior. Under the range of stresses examined, the use of a fatigue limit would suggest that (for most operating conditions under which a rolling-element bearing will operate) the bearing will not fail from classical rolling-element fatigue. Realistically, this is not the case. The use of a fatigue limit will significantly overpredict life over a range of normal operating Hertz stresses. (The use of ISO 281:2007 with a fatigue limit in these calculations would result in a bearing life approaching infinity.) Since the predicted lives of rolling-element bearings are high, the problem can become one of undersizing a bearing for a particular application. Rules had been developed to distinguish and compare predicted lives with those actually obtained. Based upon field and test results of 51 ball and roller bearing sets, 98 percent of these bearing sets had acceptable

  1. Rock and roll and neofolk music in Yugoslavia and Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Đurković, Miša

    2013-01-01

    Rock and roll (including pop-rock) and neo-folk are two the most dominant popular music genres of this region in the last half century. Five decades of living together have brought the different relationships between them and the different perceptions of these relationships. Unfortunately reflection of ideological discourse dominated in relation to objective and professional research and monitoring of the evolution of both genres, which would necessarily include the analysis of cross-overing,...

  2. Effects of cold working on the pitting corrosion behavior s of AISI 304 stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Kee Min; Kim, Jong Soo; Kim, Young Jun; Kwon, Houk Sang [KAIST, Daejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    These microstructural changes by cold working can lead improvement of mechanical properties, however from a corrosion resistant point of view, the effects of cold working on the corrosion resistance of stainless steel have been argued. Several studies has been focused on the influence of cold working on the localized corrosion resistance of stainless steels. However, the opinions about the role of cold working on the localized corrosion resistance are highly in consistence. Some studies report that the pitting potential of austenitic stainless steels decreased with cold working level, on the other hands, other studies claimed that the pitting resistance was increased by cold working. Therefore it is necessary to verify how cold working affects pitting corrosion behavior of austenitic stainless steels. In the present work, the influence of cold working on the localized corrosion of AISI 304stainless steel in the neutral chloride solution was studied based on point defect model (PDM). The fraction of deformation-induced martensite was linearly increased with cold rolling level. Through cold rolling, the pitting potential was decreased, the metastable pitting event density was significantly increased and the repassivation potential was decreased. The overall localized corrosion resistance was decreased with cold working, however cold working level increased from 30 % to 50 %, localized corrosion resistance was recovered. The accumulated cation vacancy generates a void at metal/film interface, therefore film breakdown accelerates for cold worked alloys.

  3. Effects of cold working on the pitting corrosion behavior s of AISI 304 stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Kee Min; Kim, Jong Soo; Kim, Young Jun; Kwon, Houk Sang

    2015-01-01

    These microstructural changes by cold working can lead improvement of mechanical properties, however from a corrosion resistant point of view, the effects of cold working on the corrosion resistance of stainless steel have been argued. Several studies has been focused on the influence of cold working on the localized corrosion resistance of stainless steels. However, the opinions about the role of cold working on the localized corrosion resistance are highly in consistence. Some studies report that the pitting potential of austenitic stainless steels decreased with cold working level, on the other hands, other studies claimed that the pitting resistance was increased by cold working. Therefore it is necessary to verify how cold working affects pitting corrosion behavior of austenitic stainless steels. In the present work, the influence of cold working on the localized corrosion of AISI 304stainless steel in the neutral chloride solution was studied based on point defect model (PDM). The fraction of deformation-induced martensite was linearly increased with cold rolling level. Through cold rolling, the pitting potential was decreased, the metastable pitting event density was significantly increased and the repassivation potential was decreased. The overall localized corrosion resistance was decreased with cold working, however cold working level increased from 30 % to 50 %, localized corrosion resistance was recovered. The accumulated cation vacancy generates a void at metal/film interface, therefore film breakdown accelerates for cold worked alloys

  4. Robust Rudder Roll Damping Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, C.

    The results of a systematic research to solve a specific ship motion control problem, simultaneous roll damping and course keeping using the rudder are presented in this thesis. The fundamental knowledge a priori is that rudder roll damping is highly sensitive to the model uncertainty, therefore H-infinity...... theory is used to deal with the problem. The necessary mathematical tools and the H-Infinity theory as the basis of controller design are presented in Chapter 2 and 3. The mu synthesis and the D-K iteration are introduced in Chapter 3. The ship dynamics and modeling technology are discussed in Chapter 4...

  5. Rock and roll and neofolk music in Yugoslavia and Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurković Miša

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rock and roll (including pop-rock and neo-folk are two the most dominant popular music genres of this region in the last half century. Five decades of living together have brought the different relationships between them and the different perceptions of these relationships. Unfortunately reflection of ideological discourse dominated in relation to objective and professional research and monitoring of the evolution of both genres, which would necessarily include the analysis of cross-overing, lending and other forms of proliferation that certainly marked their evolution. This kind of topic deserves serious monographic study. But since there are no neither sketches of this process, we intend to offer in the form of article one such analysis, to demonstrate how this proliferation flowed and led to a convergence of some of the main trends within both genres. The author first displays tradition of integrating of folk elements in domestic rock and roll, and then presents the evolution of neo-folk toward modern expressions which includes many loans from the Rock and Roll. In this regard, there are also various other methodological issues that are partially dis­cussed by the end of the text. As for example. question of how to distinguish between neo-folk and World music.

  6. Texture evolution in Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) steel tubes during pilgering process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakhitova, E.; Sornin, D.; Barcelo, F.; François, M.

    2017-10-01

    Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) steels are foreseen as fuel cladding material in the coming generation of Sodium Fast Reactors (SFR). Cladding tubes are manufactured by hot extrusion and subsequent cold forming steps. In this study, a 9 wt% Cr ODS steel exhibiting α-γ phase transformation at high temperature is cold formed under industrial conditions with a large section reduction in two pilgering steps. The influence of pilgering process parameters and intermediate heat treatment on the microstructure evolution is studied experimentally using Electron Backscattering Diffraction (EBSD) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) methods. Pilgered samples show elongated grains and a high texture formation with a preferential orientation along the rolling direction. During the heat treatment, grain morphology is recovered from elongated grains to almost equiaxed ones, while the well-known α-fiber texture presents an unexpected increase in intensity. The remarkable temperature stability of this fiber is attributed to a crystallographic structure memory effect during phase transformations.

  7. Non-linear time series analysis on flow instability of natural circulation under rolling motion condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wenchao; Tan, Sichao; Gao, Puzhen; Wang, Zhanwei; Zhang, Liansheng; Zhang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Natural circulation flow instabilities in rolling motion are studied. • The method of non-linear time series analysis is used. • Non-linear evolution characteristic of flow instability is analyzed. • Irregular complex flow oscillations are chaotic oscillations. • The effect of rolling parameter on the threshold of chaotic oscillation is studied. - Abstract: Non-linear characteristics of natural circulation flow instabilities under rolling motion conditions were studied by the method of non-linear time series analysis. Experimental flow time series of different dimensionless power and rolling parameters were analyzed based on phase space reconstruction theory. Attractors which were reconstructed in phase space and the geometric invariants, including correlation dimension, Kolmogorov entropy and largest Lyapunov exponent, were determined. Non-linear characteristics of natural circulation flow instabilities under rolling motion conditions was studied based on the results of the geometric invariant analysis. The results indicated that the values of the geometric invariants first increase and then decrease as dimensionless power increases which indicated the non-linear characteristics of the system first enhance and then weaken. The irregular complex flow oscillation is typical chaotic oscillation because the value of geometric invariants is at maximum. The threshold of chaotic oscillation becomes larger as the rolling frequency or rolling amplitude becomes big. The main influencing factors that influence the non-linear characteristics of the natural circulation system under rolling motion are thermal driving force, flow resistance and the additional forces caused by rolling motion. The non-linear characteristics of the natural circulation system under rolling motion changes caused by the change of the feedback and coupling degree among these influencing factors when the dimensionless power or rolling parameters changes

  8. The effect of roll with passive segment on the planetary rolling process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Ling Zeng

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In three-roll planetary rolling process, there is secondary torsion phenomenon that may lead to rolling instability. This article proposed a new idea to alleviate the secondary torsion phenomenon by dividing the secondary torsion segment out of the roll as an independent and passive one. To study the performance of the roll with passive segment, the three-dimensional finite element models of planetary rolling process using actual roll or new roll with passive segment involving elastic–plastic and thermal–mechanical coupling were established by the software ABAQUS/Explicit, and a series of analysis had been done successfully. The rolling temperature and rolling force of planetary mill were in good agreement with the measured results, which indicated that the finite element method would supply important reference merit for three-dimensional thermo-mechanical simulation of the three-roll planetary rolling process. Comparing the simulation results of the two models, the results indicated that the change in the roll structure had just a little influence on the metal deformation, temperature, and rolling force, but it lessened the secondary torsion deformation effectively and improved the outside roundness of the rolled tube slightly. The research provided a new idea for the roll design of three-roll planetary mill (PSW.

  9. Microstructural characterization of Cu82.3Al8.3Mn9.4 shape memory alloy after rolling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Gojić

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the microstructure of Cu82.3Al8.3Mn9.4 (in wt. % shape memory alloy after hot and cold rolling was investigated. The Cu82.3Al8.3Mn9.4 alloy was produced by a vertical continuous casting method in the form a cylinder rod of 8 mm in diameter. After the casting, hot and cold rolling was performed. By hot rolling a strip with a thickness of 1.75 mm was obtained, while by cold rolling a strip with a thickness of 1.02 mm was produced. After the rolling process, heat treatment was performed. Heat treatment was carried out by solution annealing at 900 °C held for 30 minutes and water quenched immediately after heating. The microstructure characterization of the investigated alloy was carried out by optical microscopy (OM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM equipped with a device for energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS. Phase transformation temperatures and fusion enthalpies were determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC method. The homogenous martensite microstructure was confirmed by OM and SEM micrographs after casting. During rolling the two-phase microstructure occurred. Results of DSC analysis showed martensite start (Ms, martensite finish (Mf, austenite start (As and austenite finish (Af temperatures.

  10. Scientific and Technological Principles of Development of New Cold-Resistant Arc-Steels (Steels for Arctic Applications)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sych, O. V.; Khlusova, E. I.; Yashin, E. A.

    2017-12-01

    The paper presents the results of quantitative analysis of C, Mn, Ni and Cu content on strength and cold-resistance of rolled plates. Relations between the ferritic-bainitic structure morphology and anisotropy and steel performance characteristics have been established. Influence of thermal and deformation rolling patterns on steel structure has been studied. The steel chemical composition has been improved and precision thermomechanical processing conditions for production of cold-resistant Arc-steel plates have been developed.

  11. Rolling motion in moving droplets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    motions. The two limits of a thin sheet-like drop in sliding motion on a surface, and a spherical drop in roll, have been extensively .... rigid body rotation. The solid body rotation makes sense in the context of small Reynolds. (Re) number flows ...

  12. Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse KidsHealth / For Teens / Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse ... resfriado Why Do People Use Cough and Cold Medicines to Get High? There's an ingredient in many ...

  13. Cold fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bush, R.T.

    1991-01-01

    The transmission resonance model (TRM) is combined with some electrochemistry of the cathode surface and found to provide a good fit to new data on excess heat. For the first time, a model for cold fusion not only fits calorimetric data but also predicts optimal trigger points. This suggests that the model is meaningful and that the excess heat phenomenon claimed by Fleischmann and Pons is genuine. A crucial role is suggested for the overpotential and, in particular, for the concentration overpotential, i.e., the hydrogen overvoltage. Self-similar geometry, or scale invariance, i.e., a fractal nature, is revealed by the relative excess power function. Heat bursts are predicted with a scale invariance in time, suggesting a possible link between the TRM and chaos theory. The model describes a near-surface phenomenon with an estimated excess power yield of ∼1 kW/cm 3 Pd, as compared to 50 W/cm 3 of reactor core for a good fission reactor. Transmission resonance-induced nuclear transmutation, a new type of nuclear reaction, is strongly suggested with two types emphasized: transmission resonance-induced neutron transfer reactions yielding essentially the same end result as Teller's hypothesized catalytic neutron transfer and a three-body reaction promoted by standing de Broglie waves. In this paper suggestions for the anomalous production of heat, particles, and radiation are given

  14. Maintenance Appointments in Railway Rolling Stock Rescheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Wagenaar (Joris); L.G. Kroon (Leo); M.E. Schmidt (Marie)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis paper addresses the Rolling Stock Rescheduling Problem (RSRP), while taking maintenance appointments into account. After a disruption, the rolling stock of the disrupted passenger trains has to be rescheduled in order to restore a feasible rolling stock circulation. Usually, a

  15. Rolling block mazes are PSPACE-complete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchin, K.; Buchin, M.

    2012-01-01

    In a rolling block maze, one or more blocks lie on a rectangular board with square cells. In most mazes, the blocks have size k × m × n where k, m, n are integers that determine the size of the block in terms of units of the size of the board cells. The task of a rolling block maze is to roll a

  16. Efficient Circulation of Railway Rolling Stock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alfieri, A.; Groot, R.; Kroon, L.G.; Schrijver, A.

    2006-01-01

    Railway rolling stock (locomotives, carriages, and train units) is one of the most significant cost sources for operatorsof passenger trains, both public and private. Rolling stock costsare due to material acquisition, power supply, and material maintenance. The efficient circulation of rolling

  17. A study of residual stress and plastic deformation of a bar with gap size changes between rolls in a two cross roll straightener

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Hyun Soo; Hahm, Ju Hee; Lee Young Ho

    2012-01-01

    Cold drawn(CD) bars feature superb surface roughness, dimensional precision, and straightness. They are used in the manufacture of automotive parts and home electrical appliances. Two cross roll straighteners have been used to manufacture of automotive parts and home electrical appliances. Two cross roll straighteners have been used to manufacture CD bars for these industries. This study investigated the variation of the gap size between the two cross rolls. It was found that changes in the gap size have a large influence on the residual stress and plastic deformation. Finite element method(FEM) simulations were performed to study the influence of the gap size on the residual stress in CD bars, and experiments were performed to verify the FEM results. The residual stresses were measured with X ray diffraction in both the axial and the hoop directions

  18. Towards roll-to-roll manufacturing of polymer photonic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbaraman, Harish; Lin, Xiaohui; Ling, Tao; Guo, L. Jay; Chen, Ray T.

    2014-03-01

    Traditionally, polymer photonic devices are fabricated using clean-room processes such as photolithography, e-beam lithography, reactive ion etching (RIE) and lift-off methods etc, which leads to long fabrication time, low throughput and high cost. We have utilized a novel process for fabricating polymer photonic devices using a combination of imprinting and ink jet printing methods, which provides high throughput on a variety of rigid and flexible substrates with low cost. We discuss the manufacturing challenges that need to be overcome in order to realize true implementation of roll-to-roll manufacturing of flexible polymer photonic systems. Several metrology and instrumentation challenges involved such as availability of particulate-free high quality substrate, development and implementation of high-speed in-line and off-line inspection and diagnostic tools with adaptive control for patterned and unpatterned material films, development of reliable hardware, etc need to be addressed and overcome in order to realize a successful manufacturing process. Due to extreme resolution requirements compared to print media, the burden of software and hardware tools on the throughput also needs to be carefully determined. Moreover, the effect of web wander and variations in web speed need to accurately be determined in the design of the system hardware and software. In this paper, we show the realization of solutions for few challenges, and utilizing these solutions for developing a high-rate R2R dual stage ink-jet printer that can provide alignment accuracy of web speed of 5m/min. The development of a roll-to-roll manufacturing system for polymer photonic systems opens limitless possibilities for the deployment of high performance components in a variety of applications including communication, sensing, medicine, agriculture, energy, lighting etc.

  19. Design of a Small Scale Roll to Roll Device

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Amon A; White, Edward; Kramer, Rebecca Krone

    2014-01-01

    In the soft robotics field, hyperelastic polymer films are used in conjunction with eutectic gallium indium to create flexible strain gages. However, rapid large scale manufacturing methods of such sensors have yet to be developed. Developing new manufacturing methods will allow for researchers to build and test new soft sensor concepts faster but also pave the way for future mass-production of these sensors for consumer or industrial consumption. One of those methods would be a Roll to...

  20. Perovskite solar cells for roll-to-roll fabrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uddin Ashraf

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Perovskite solar cell (PSCs is considered as the game changer in emerging photovoltaics technology. The highest certified efficiency is 22% with high temperature processed (∼500 °C TiO2 based electron transport layer (ETL. High temperature process is a rudimentary hindrance towards roll-to-roll processing of PSCs on flexible substrates. Low temperature solution process (<150 °C ZnO based ETL is one of the most promising candidate for large scale roll-to-roll fabrication of cells as it has nearly identical electron affinity (4.2 eV of TiO2. The mixed organic perovskite (MA0.6FA0.4PbI3 devices with Al doped ZnO (AZO ETL demonstrate average cell efficiency over 16%, which is the highest ever reported efficiency for this device configuration. The energy level alignment and related interfacial charge transport dynamics at the interface of ZnO and perovskite films and the adjacent charge transport layers are investigated. Significantly improved device stability, hysteresis free device photocurrent have been observed in MA0.6FA0.4PbI3 cells. A systematic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, frequency dependent capacitance spectra, surface morphology and topography characterization have been conducted to understand the role of interfacial electronic properties between perovskite and neighbouring layers in perovskite device. A standardized degradation study, interfacial electronic property and capacitive spectra analysis of aged device, have been measured to understand the enhanced device stability in mixed MA0.6FA0.4PbI3 cells. Slow perovskite material decomposition rate and augmented device lifetime with AZO based devices have been found to be correlated with the more hydrophobic and acidic nature of AZO surface compared to pristine ZnO film.

  1. On the constant-roll inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Zhu; Gong, Yungui

    2018-03-01

    The primordial power spectra of scalar and tensor perturbations during slow-roll inflation are usually calculated with the method of Bessel function approximation. For constant-roll or ultra slow-roll inflation, the method of Bessel function approximation may be invalid. We compare the numerical results with the analytical results derived from the Bessel function approximation, and we find that they differ significantly on super-horizon scales if the constant slow-roll parameter ηH is not small. More accurate method is needed for calculating the primordial power spectrum for constant-roll inflation.

  2. Improved Dutch Roll Approximation for Hypersonic Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang-Liang Yin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An improved dutch roll approximation for hypersonic vehicle is presented. From the new approximations, the dutch roll frequency is shown to be a function of the stability axis yaw stability and the dutch roll damping is mainly effected by the roll damping ratio. In additional, an important parameter called roll-to-yaw ratio is obtained to describe the dutch roll mode. Solution shows that large-roll-to-yaw ratio is the generate character of hypersonic vehicle, which results the large error for the practical approximation. Predictions from the literal approximations derived in this paper are compared with actual numerical values for s example hypersonic vehicle, results show the approximations work well and the error is below 10 %.

  3. Roll type conducting polymer legs for rigid-flexible thermoelectric generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teahoon Park

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A roll-type conducting polymer film was explored as a flexible organic p-type thermoelectric leg using poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT doped with tosylate. The PEDOT films were prepared through solution casting polymerization and rolled up for a roll-type leg. Due to the high flexibility, the roll-type PEDOT leg enabled easy contact to both top and bottom electrodes. Simulation on the dynamic heat transfer and convective cooling for a vertically roosted rod- and roll-type PEDOT leg showed that the temperature difference (ΔT between the hot and cold sides of the leg was much higher in the roll than that of the rod. The PEDOT legs were integrated with n-type Bi2Te3 blocks, to give a 36-couple rigid-flexible thermoelectric generator (RF-TEG. The maximum output voltage from the 36-couple RF-TEG under a ΔT of 7.9 K was determined as 36.7 mV along with a high output power of 115 nW. A wearable RF-TEG was prepared upon the combination of the 36-couple RF-TEG with an arm warmer, to afford an output voltage of 10.6 mV, which was generated constantly and steadily from human wrist heat.

  4. Tachyon constant-roll inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, A.; Saaidi, Kh.; Golanbari, T.

    2018-04-01

    The constant-roll inflation is studied where the inflaton is taken as a tachyon field. Based on this approach, the second slow-roll parameter is taken as a constant which leads to a differential equation for the Hubble parameter. Finding an exact solution for the Hubble parameter is difficult and leads us to a numerical solution for the Hubble parameter. On the other hand, since in this formalism the slow-roll parameter η is constant and could not be assumed to be necessarily small, the perturbation parameters should be reconsidered again which, in turn, results in new terms appearing in the amplitude of scalar perturbations and the scalar spectral index. Utilizing the numerical solution for the Hubble parameter, we estimate the perturbation parameter at the horizon exit time and compare it with observational data. The results show that, for specific values of the constant parameter η , we could have an almost scale-invariant amplitude of scalar perturbations. Finally, the attractor behavior for the solution of the model is presented, and we determine that the feature could be properly satisfied.

  5. Phase evolution and mechanical behavior of 0.36 wt% C high strength TRIP-assisted steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Swarup Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Partha Protim [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur, Howrah 711 103 (India)

    2012-12-15

    Phase evolution in a 0.36 wt% C steel has been studied by thermodynamic calculation and dilatometric analysis with an aim to achieve high strength TRIP-assisted steel with bainitic microstructure. The equilibrium phase fraction calculated as the function of temperature indicated the formation of {delta}-ferrite ({approx}98%) at 1417 C. In contrast, similar calculation under para-equilibrium condition exhibited transformation of {delta}-ferrite to austenite at the temperature below 1300 C. During further cooling two-phase ({alpha}+{gamma}) microstructure has been found to be stable at the intercritical temperature range. The experimentally determined CCT diagram has revealed that adequate hardenability is achievable in the steel under continuous cooling condition at cooling rate >5 C s{sup -1}. In view of the aforesaid results, the steel has been hot rolled and subjected to different process schedule conducive to the evolution of bainitic microstructure. The hot rolled steel has exhibited reasonably good tensile properties. However, cold deformation of the hot rolled sample followed by intercritical annealing and subsequent isothermal bainitic transformation has resulted in high strength (>1000 MPa) with attractive elongation due to the favorable work hardening condition during plastic deformation offered by the multiphase microstructure. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Inlet effects on roll-wave development in shallow turbulent open-channel flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campomaggiore Francesca

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work investigates the effect of the flow profile induced by an inlet condition on the roll-wave evolution in turbulent clear-water flows. The study employs theoretical and numerical analyses. Firstly, the influence of the inlet condition on the spatial evolution of a single perturbation in a hypercritical flow is examined through the expansion near a wavefront analysis. The results show that an accelerated unperturbed profile reduces the disturbance spatial growth. A decelerated profile causes an increase. The effect of the flow profile on the spatial evolution of roll-wave trains is then numerically investigated solving the Saint Venant equations with a second-order Runge-Kutta Total Variation Diminishing (TVD Finite Volume scheme. The numerical simulations comply with the analytical results for the initial and transition phases of the roll-wave development. The unperturbed profile influences even the roll-waves statistical characteristics in the final stage, with a more evident effect in case of accelerated profiles. The influence of the flow profile should be therefore accounted for in the formulation of predictive criteria for roll-waves appearance based on the estimation of the disturbance spatial growth rate.

  7. Promoting Ti{sub 4}C{sub 2}S{sub 2} strain induced precipitation during asymmetrical hot rolling to improve r value and advantaged texture in Ti stabilized IF steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Futao, E-mail: dongft@sina.com [College of Metallurgy and Energy, Hebei United University, Tangshan 063000 (China); Xue, Fei [College of Electrical Engineering, Hebei United University, Tangshan 063000 (China); Du, Linxiu; Liu, Xianghua [The State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China)

    2015-01-25

    Highlights: • We study Ti{sub 4}C{sub 2}S{sub 2} strain induced precipitation in Ti stabilized IF steel. • The PTT diagram is obtained by plotting 1/A{sub r}–time curves. • Hot rolling at the nose of P{sub s} line effectively promotes Ti{sub 4}C{sub 2}S{sub 2} precipitation. • Annealed sheet with promoted Ti{sub 4}C{sub 2}S{sub 2} exhibits higher r value and stronger γ fiber texture. • Adverse impact of tiny TiC has been significantly mitigated. - Abstract: The kinetic of Ti{sub 4}C{sub 2}S{sub 2} strain induced precipitation in a Ti stabilized IF steel was investigated using two stage interrupted compression test with high true strain (0.5). The PTT (precipitation–time–temperature) diagram was obtained by plotting 1/A{sub r}–time curves. TEM (transmission electron microscopy) observation confirmed that the evolution of Ti{sub 4}C{sub 2}S{sub 2} precipitate in the quenched samples of thermal simulation is in good agreement with the PTT diagram. Hot strips were produced at three different rolling temperatures with high strain and slight shear deformation. It was found that hot rolling at the nose temperature of the P{sub s} line of the PTT diagram can effectively promote the precipitation of Ti{sub 4}C{sub 2}S{sub 2} and retard the precipitation of TiC. Cold rolled and annealed sheets from hot strip containing higher volume fraction of Ti{sub 4}C{sub 2}S{sub 2} exhibited higher r value and stronger γ fiber texture with equal {1 1 1}〈1 1 2〉 and {1 1 1}〈1 1 0〉 components. By contrast, cold rolled and annealed sheets from hot strips containing lower volume fraction of Ti{sub 4}C{sub 2}S{sub 2} represented lower r values and weaker γ fiber texture with significant drops from {1 1 1}〈1 1 2〉 to {1 1 1}〈1 1 0〉 component.

  8. 78 FR 69371 - Diffusion-Annealed, Nickel-Plated Flat-Rolled Steel Products From Japan: Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ... this investigation are flat-rolled, cold-reduced steel products, regardless of chemistry; whether or... 7210.70.6090, 7212.40.1000, 7212.40.5000, 7219.90.0020, 7219.90.0025, 7219.90.0060, 7219.90.0080, 7220.... Results of the DP Analysis f. Export Price g. Normal Value h. Level of Trade i. Affiliated Party...

  9. Influence of rolling direction and carbide precipitation on IGSCC susceptibility in hydrogenated high temperature water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arioka, Koji; Yamada, Takuyo; Terachi, Takumi; Chiba, Goro

    2005-01-01

    IGSCC growth behaviors of austenitic stainless steels in hydrogenated high temperature water were studied using compact type specimens (0.5T for cold worked materials). The effect of cold rolling direction, alloy composition and carbide precipitation on crack growth behaviors was studied in hydrogenated high temperature water. Then, to examine the effect of cold work and carbide precipitation on IGSCC behaviors, the role of grain boundary sliding studied in high temperature air using CT specimens. The similar dependences of carbide precipitation and cold work on IGSCC and creep behaviors suggest that grain boundary sliding might play an important role by itself or in conjunction with other reactions such as crack tip dissolution etc. (author)

  10. Fluid management in roll-to-roll nanoimprint lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, A.; Bonnecaze, R. T.

    2013-06-01

    The key process parameters of UV roll-to-roll nanoimprint lithography are identified from an analysis of the fluid, curing, and peeling dynamics. The process includes merging of droplets of imprint material, curing of the imprint material from a viscous liquid to elastic solid resist, and pattern replication and detachment of the resist from template. The time and distances on the web or rigid substrate over which these processes occur are determined as function of the physical properties of the uncured liquid, the cured solid, and the roller configuration. The upper convected Maxwell equation is used to model the viscoelastic liquid and to calculate the force on the substrate and the torque on the roller. The available exposure time is found to be the rate limiting parameter and it is O(√Rho /uo), where R is the radius of the roller, ho is minimum gap between the roller and web, and uo is the velocity of the web. The residual layer thickness of the resist should be larger than the gap between the roller and the substrate to ensure complete feature filling and optimal pattern replication. For lower residual layer thickness, the droplets may not merge to form a continuous film for pattern transfer.

  11. Grooved cold moderator tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, K.; Kiyanagi, Y.; Iwasa, H.; Watanabe, N.; Ikeda, S.; Carpenter, J.M.; Ishikawa, Y.

    1983-01-01

    We performed some grooved cold moderator experiments for methane at 20 K by using the Hokkaido University linac to obtain information to be used in the planning of the KENS-I' project. Cold neutron gains, spatial distribution of emitted beams and time distribution of the neutrons in the grooved cold moderator were measured. Furthermore, we assessed the effects of the grooved cold moderator on the performances of the spectrometers presently installed at the KENS-I cold source. We concluded that the grooved cold moderator benefited appreciably the performances of the spectrometers

  12. The real time rolling shutter

    OpenAIRE

    Monaghan, David; O'Connor, Noel E.; Cleary, Anne; Connolly, Denis

    2015-01-01

    From an early age children are often told either, you are creative you should do art but stay away from science and maths. Or that you are mathematical you should do science but you're not that creative. Compounding this there also exist some traditional barriers of artistic rhetoric that say, "don't touch, don't think and don't be creative, we've already done that for you, you can just look...". The Real Time Rolling Shutter is part of a collaborative Art/Science partnership whose core tenet...

  13. Grooved tube plug rolls in

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krausser, P.

    1991-01-01

    The removable plugs used to date by the Power Generation Group (KWU) of Siemens to seal defective steam generator tubes have a good track record. Their sealing principle is based on the elastic tensioning of three seal disks against the inside wall of the tube. Now a further removable plug is available -a roll-in plug with a metal-coated surface. It is particularly suitable for use in the roller-expanded zone of the tubes at the tube sheet. The plugs can be used in both Siemens-KWU steam generators and in steam generators manufactured in compliance with the guidelines of the ASME Code. (author)

  14. ROLL OUT THE TALENT : Final project report

    OpenAIRE

    Eerola, Tuomas; Tuominen, Pirjo; Hakkarainen, Riitta-Liisa; Laurikainen, Marja; Mero, Niina

    2014-01-01

    The ROLL OUT THE TALENT project was born out of the desire to recognise and support the strengths of vocational students and to develop new and innovative operating models. ROLL OUT THE TALENT promoted regional cooperation between institutes and companies. The project produced operating and study path models that take into consideration the individual strengths of vocational students and the principles of lifelong learning. This is the final report of the ROLL OUT THE TALENT project, and ...

  15. Investigation of the influence of the chemical composition of HSLA steel grades on the microstructure homogeneity during hot rolling in continuous rolling mills using a fast layer model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidtchen, M; Kawalla, R; Rimnac, A; Bragin, S; Linzer, B; Warczok, P; Kozeschnik, E; Bernhard, C

    2016-01-01

    The newly developed LaySiMS simulation tool provides new insight for inhomogeneous material flow and microstructure evolution in an endless strip production (ESP) plant. A deepened understanding of the influence of inhomogeneities in initial material state, temperature profile and material flow and their impact on the finished product can be reached e.g. by allowing for variable layer thickness distributions in the roll gap. Coupling temperature, deformation work and work hardening/recrystallization phenomena accounts for covering important effects in the roll gap. The underlying concept of the LaySiMS approach will be outlined and new insight gained regarding microstructural evolution, shear and inhomogeneous stress and strain states in the roll gap as well as local residual stresses will be presented. For the case of thin slab casting and direct rolling (TSDR) the interrelation of inhomogeneous initial state, micro structure evolution and dissolution state of micro alloying elements within the roughing section of an ESP line will be discussed. Special emphasis is put on the influence of the local chemical composition arising from direct charging on throughthickness homogeneity of the final product. It is concluded that, due to the specific combination of large reductions in the high reduction mills (HRM) and the highly inhomogeneous inverse temperature profile, the ESP-concept provides great opportunities for homogenizing the microstructure across the strip thickness. (paper)

  16. Annealing of (DU-10Mo)-Zr Co-Rolled Foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, Robin Montoya; Alexander, David John; Mccabe, Rodney James; Clarke, Kester Diederik; Scott, Jeffrey E.; Montalvo, Joel Dwayne; Papin, Pallas; Ansell, George S.

    2017-01-01

    Producing uranium-10wt% molybdenum (DU-10Mo) foils to clad with Al first requires initial bonding of the DU-10Mo foil to zirconium (Zr) by hot rolling, followed by cold rolling to final thickness. Rolling often produces wavy (DU-10Mo)-Zr foils that should be flattened before further processing, as any distortions could affect the final alignment and bonding of the Al cladding to the Zr co-rolled surface layer; this bonding is achieved by a hot isostatic pressing (HIP) process. Distortions in the (DU-10Mo)-Zr foil may cause the fuel foil to press against the Al cladding and thus create thinner or thicker areas in the Al cladding layer during the HIP cycle. Post machining is difficult and risky at this stage in the process since there is a chance of hitting the DU-10Mo. Therefore, it is very important to establish a process to flatten and remove any waviness. This study was conducted to determine if a simple annealing treatment could flatten wavy foils. Using the same starting material (i.e. DU-10Mo coupons of the same thickness), five different levels of hot rolling and cold rolling, combined with five different annealing treatments, were performed to determine the effect of these processing variables on flatness, bonding of layers, annealing response, microstructure, and hardness. The same final thickness was reached in all cases. Micrographs, textures, and hardness measurements were obtained for the various processing combinations. Based on these results, it was concluded that annealing at 650°C or higher is an effective treatment to appreciably reduce foil waviness.

  17. Annealing of (DU-10Mo)-Zr Co-Rolled Foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacheco, Robin Montoya [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Alexander, David John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mccabe, Rodney James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Clarke, Kester Diederik [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Scott, Jeffrey E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Montalvo, Joel Dwayne [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Papin, Pallas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ansell, George S. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-01-20

    Producing uranium-10wt% molybdenum (DU-10Mo) foils to clad with Al first requires initial bonding of the DU-10Mo foil to zirconium (Zr) by hot rolling, followed by cold rolling to final thickness. Rolling often produces wavy (DU-10Mo)-Zr foils that should be flattened before further processing, as any distortions could affect the final alignment and bonding of the Al cladding to the Zr co-rolled surface layer; this bonding is achieved by a hot isostatic pressing (HIP) process. Distortions in the (DU-10Mo)-Zr foil may cause the fuel foil to press against the Al cladding and thus create thinner or thicker areas in the Al cladding layer during the HIP cycle. Post machining is difficult and risky at this stage in the process since there is a chance of hitting the DU-10Mo. Therefore, it is very important to establish a process to flatten and remove any waviness. This study was conducted to determine if a simple annealing treatment could flatten wavy foils. Using the same starting material (i.e. DU-10Mo coupons of the same thickness), five different levels of hot rolling and cold rolling, combined with five different annealing treatments, were performed to determine the effect of these processing variables on flatness, bonding of layers, annealing response, microstructure, and hardness. The same final thickness was reached in all cases. Micrographs, textures, and hardness measurements were obtained for the various processing combinations. Based on these results, it was concluded that annealing at 650°C or higher is an effective treatment to appreciably reduce foil waviness.

  18. Asymmetric Rolling Process Simulations by Dynamic Explicit Crystallographic Homogenized Finite Element Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngoc Tam, Nguyen; Nakamura, Yasunori; Terao, Toshihiro; Kuramae, Hiroyuki; Nakamachi, Eiji; Sakamoto, Hidetoshi; Morimoto, Hideo

    2007-01-01

    Recently, the asymmetric rolling (ASR) has been applied to the material processing of aluminum alloy sheet to control micro-crystal structure and texture in order to improve the mechanical properties. Previously, several studies aimed at high formability sheet generation have been carried out experimentally, but finite element simulations to predict the deformation induced texture evolution of the asymmetrically rolled sheet metals have not been investigated rigorously. In this study, crystallographic homogenized finite element (FE) codes are developed and applied to analyze the asymmetrical rolling processes. The textures of sheet metals were measured by electron back scattering diffraction (EBSD), and compared with FE simulations. The results from the dynamic explicit type Crystallographic homogenization FEM code shows that this type of simulation is a comprehensive tool to predict the plastic induced texture evolution

  19. Interlayer adhesion in roll-to-roll processed flexible inverted polymer solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Dupont, Stephanie R.; Oliver, Mark; Krebs, Frederik C.; Dauskardt, Reinhold H.

    2012-01-01

    The interlayer adhesion of roll-to-roll processed flexible inverted P3HT:PCBM bulk heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells is reported. Poor adhesion between adjacent layers may result in loss of device performance from delamination driven

  20. Radiometric study of creep in ingot rolling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubicek, P.; Zamyslovsky, Z.; Uherek, J.

    The radiometric study of creep during ingot rolling performed in the rolling mill of the Vitkovice Iron and Steel Works and the first results are described. Selected sites in 3 to 8 ton ingots were labelled with 2 to 3.7x10 5 Bq of 60 Co and after rolling into blocks, the transposition of the labelled sites of the ingots was investigated. The results indicate creep during rolling, local extension in certain sites under study and help to determine the inevitable bottom crop incurred in the forming. Finally, the requirements put on the radiometric apparatus for the next stages of technological research are presented. (author)

  1. METHOD OF HOT ROLLING URANIUM METAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, A.R.

    1959-03-10

    A method is given for quickly and efficiently hot rolling uranium metal in the upper part of the alpha phase temperature region to obtain sound bars and sheets possessing a good surface finish. The uranium metal billet is heated to a temperature in the range of 1000 deg F to 1220 deg F by immersion iii a molten lead bath. The heated billet is then passed through the rolls. The temperature is restored to the desired range between successive passes through the rolls, and the rolls are turned down approximately 0.050 inch between successive passes.

  2. Study of the structure of intermetalics from Fe - Al system after the hot rolling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jabłońska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of structure analysis of Fe - Al alloys after hot rolling deformation. Microstructure analysis were performed before and after deformation using a scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM technique. The detailed quantities research of the structures was conducted using scanning electron microscopy (SEM equipped with the gun with cold field emission and the detector of electron back scattering diffraction (EBSD.

  3. Rolling into spatial disorientation: Simulator demonstration of the post-roll (Gillingham) illusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooij, S.A.E.; Groen, E.L.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Spatial disorientation (SD) is still a contributing factor in many aviation accidents, stressing the need for adequate SD training scenarios. In this article we focused on the post-roll effect (the sensation of rolling back after a roll maneuver, such as an entry of a coordinated turn)

  4. Conceptualizing Cold Disasters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauta, Kristian Cedervall; Dahlberg, Rasmus; Vendelø, Morten Thanning

    2017-01-01

    In the present article, we explore in more depth the particular circumstances and characteristics of governing what we call ‘cold disasters’, and thereby, the paper sets out to investigate how disasters in cold contexts distinguish themselves from other disasters, and what the implications hereof...... are for the conceptualization and governance of cold disasters. Hence, the paper can also be viewed as a response to Alexander’s (2012a) recent call for new theory in the field of disaster risk reduction. The article is structured in four overall parts. The first part, Cold Context, provides an overview of the specific...... conditions in a cold context, exemplified by the Arctic, and zooms in on Greenland to provide more specific background for the paper. The second part, Disasters in Cold Contexts, discusses “cold disasters” in relation to disaster theory, in order to, elucidate how cold disasters challenge existing...

  5. Working in the Cold

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    During the winter, many workers are outdoors, working in cold, wet, icy, or snowy conditions. Learn how to identify symptoms that tell you there may be a problem and protect yourself from cold stress.

  6. Colds and the Flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease (COPD). What medicines can I give my child? There is no cure for the cold or the flu, and antibiotics do not work against the viruses that cause colds and the flu. Pain relievers such as ...

  7. Cold knife cone biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... biopsy; Pap smear - cone biopsy; HPV - cone biopsy; Human papilloma virus - cone biopsy; Cervix - cone biopsy; Colposcopy - cone biopsy Images Female reproductive anatomy Cold cone biopsy Cold cone removal References Baggish ...

  8. Cold medicines and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ingredient. Avoid giving more than one OTC cold medicine to your child. It may cause an overdose with severe side ... the dosage instructions strictly while giving an OTC medicine to your child. When giving OTC cold medicines to your child: ...

  9. Microstructural characterization of Zr1Nb alloy after hot rolling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, A.C. [Universidade Estadual do Mato Grosso do Sul (UEMS), MS (Brazil); Rossi, J.L.; Martinez, L.G.; Mucsi, C.S. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Tsakiropoulos, P. [University of Sheffield (United Kingdom); Ceoni, F.C.; Grandini, C.R. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: The different research lines within the scope in engineering and materials science have developed new materials that can be used in different industrial sectors, such as, energy, health and transportation. For the nuclear industry, for example, the Zr alloys, are of great interest due to its good mechanical properties, excellent corrosion resistance and above all, the high permeability to thermal neutrons. In the health sector, the zirconium poses one of the lowest Young's modulus when compared to other metallic biomaterials, e.g., pure Zr is 68 GPa, bone mineral hydroxyapatite is 80 GPa, for Ti alloys is 90 GPa and above, for Nb is 105 GPa and stainless steels above 189 GPa. This is particularly important for implants in bones, whose elasticity modulus can reach 30 GPa and it is desirable an as close match as possible. However, the zirconium alloys, have great chemical affinity with oxygen and nitrogen. Moreover, oxides and nitrides may form during the melting process, heat treatment and hot rolling, changing the physic-chemical properties of the alloy. This experimental work shows the results of the evolution of the microstructure after hot rolling of the Zr1Nb alloy. It was possible to confirm the absence of formation of oxides and nitrides, thus confirming the of the experimental method of melting and hot rolling of the Zr1Nb alloy. (author)

  10. Robust Tension Control of Strip for 5-Stand Tandem Cold Mills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrooz Shafiei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tandem cold rolling process is a nonlinear complex system with external and internal uncertainties and significant disturbances. The improvement in the quality of the final output depends on the control strategy of centerline thickness and interstand tension. This paper focuses on interstand tension control problem in 5-stand tandem cold rolling mills. Tension dynamics can be described by a nominal model perturbed by parametric uncertainties. In order to overcome the model uncertainties and external disturbances, suboptimal H∞ and μ controllers are proposed and the Hankel-norm approximation is used to reduce the order of μ controller. The performance of the proposed controllers is demonstrated by some simulations.

  11. On solitary surface waves in cold plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladimirov, S.V.; Yu, M.Y.; Stenflo, L.

    1993-01-01

    A new type of nonlinear electromagnetic solitary surface waves propagating along the boundary of a cold plasma is discussed. These waves are described by a novel nonlinear evolution equation, obtained when the nonlinear surface currents at the boundary are taken into consideration. (Author)

  12. Roll forming of eco-friendly stud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keum, Y. T.; Lee, S. Y.; Lee, T. H.; Sim, J. K.

    2013-12-01

    In order to manufacture an eco-friendly stud, the sheared pattern is designed by the Taguchi method and expanded by the side rolls. The seven geometrical shape of sheared pattern are considered in the structural and thermal analyses to select the best functional one in terms of the durability and fire resistance of dry wall. For optimizing the size of the sheared pattern chosen, the L9 orthogonal array and smaller-the-better characteristics of the Taguchi method are used. As the roll gap causes forming defects when the upper-and-lower roll type is adopted for expanding the sheared pattern, the side roll type is introduced. The stress and strain distributions obtained by the FEM simulation of roll-forming processes are utilized for the design of expanding process. The expanding process by side rolls shortens the length of expanding process and minimizes the cost of dies. Furthermore, the stud manufactured by expanding the sheared pattern of the web is an eco-friend because of the scrapless roll-forming process. In addition, compared to the conventionally roll-formed stud, the material cost is lessened about 13.6% and the weight is lightened about 15.5%.

  13. Pipe Rolling from Continuous Cast Metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhordania, I.; Chkhartishvili, I.; Lordkipanidze, J.; Melashvili, Z.; Papava, K.; Khundadze, K.

    2007-01-01

    The approach to manufacturing of high quality pipes as a result of solid and hollow billet rolling from continuous cast metal is shown. Optimal parameters of piercing, temperature of piercing and piercing rolling mill rollers speed have been experimentally established. (author)

  14. Numerical analysis of Swiss roll metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demetriadou, A; Pendry, J B

    2009-01-01

    A Swiss roll metamaterial is a resonant magnetic medium, with a negative magnetic permeability for a range of frequencies, due to its self-inductance and self-capacitance components. In this paper, we discuss the band structure, S-parameters and effective electromagnetic parameters of Swiss roll metamaterials, with both analytical and numerical results, which show an exceptional convergence.

  15. Efficient Circulation of Railway Rolling Stock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Alfieri (Arianna); R. Groot (Rutger); L.G. Kroon (Leo); A. Schrijver (Lex)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractRailway rolling stock (locomotives, carriages, and train units) is one of the most significant cost sources for operatorsof passenger trains, both public and private. Rolling stock costsare due to material acquisition, power supply, and material maintenance. The efficient circulation of

  16. How decoherence affects the probability of slow-roll eternal inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddy, Kimberly K.; Carroll, Sean M.; Pollack, Jason

    2017-07-01

    Slow-roll inflation can become eternal if the quantum variance of the inflaton field around its slowly rolling classical trajectory is converted into a distribution of classical spacetimes inflating at different rates, and if the variance is large enough compared to the rate of classical rolling that the probability of an increased rate of expansion is sufficiently high. Both of these criteria depend sensitively on whether and how perturbation modes of the inflaton interact and decohere. Decoherence is inevitable as a result of gravitationally sourced interactions whose strength are proportional to the slow-roll parameters. However, the weakness of these interactions means that decoherence is typically delayed until several Hubble times after modes grow beyond the Hubble scale. We present perturbative evidence that decoherence of long-wavelength inflaton modes indeed leads to an ensemble of classical spacetimes with differing cosmological evolutions. We introduce the notion of per-branch observables—expectation values with respect to the different decohered branches of the wave function—and show that the evolution of modes on individual branches varies from branch to branch. Thus, single-field slow-roll inflation fulfills the quantum-mechanical criteria required for the validity of the standard picture of eternal inflation. For a given potential, the delayed decoherence can lead to slight quantitative adjustments to the regime in which the inflaton undergoes eternal inflation.

  17. Constant-roll (quasi-)linear inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, A.; Marzola, L.; Pappas, T.; Racioppi, A.; Tamvakis, K.

    2018-05-01

    In constant-roll inflation, the scalar field that drives the accelerated expansion of the Universe is rolling down its potential at a constant rate. Within this framework, we highlight the relations between the Hubble slow-roll parameters and the potential ones, studying in detail the case of a single-field Coleman-Weinberg model characterised by a non-minimal coupling of the inflaton to gravity. With respect to the exact constant-roll predictions, we find that assuming an approximate slow-roll behaviour yields a difference of Δ r = 0.001 in the tensor-to-scalar ratio prediction. Such a discrepancy is in principle testable by future satellite missions. As for the scalar spectral index ns, we find that the existing 2-σ bound constrains the value of the non-minimal coupling to ξphi ~ 0.29–0.31 in the model under consideration.

  18. Analytical method for establishing indentation rolling resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gładysiewicz Lech

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Belt conveyors are highly reliable machines able to work in special operating conditions. Harsh environment, long distance of transporting and great mass of transported martials are cause of high energy usage. That is why research in the field of belt conveyor transportation nowadays focuses on reducing the power consumption without lowering their efficiency. In this paper, previous methods for testing rolling resistance are described, and new method designed by authors was presented. New method of testing rolling resistance is quite simple and inexpensive. Moreover it allows to conduct the experimental tests of the impact of different parameters on the value of indentation rolling resistance such as core design, cover thickness, ambient temperature, idler travel frequency, or load value as well. Finally results of tests of relationship between rolling resistance and idler travel frequency and between rolling resistance and idler travel speed was presented.

  19. Analytical method for establishing indentation rolling resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gładysiewicz, Lech; Konieczna, Martyna

    2018-01-01

    Belt conveyors are highly reliable machines able to work in special operating conditions. Harsh environment, long distance of transporting and great mass of transported martials are cause of high energy usage. That is why research in the field of belt conveyor transportation nowadays focuses on reducing the power consumption without lowering their efficiency. In this paper, previous methods for testing rolling resistance are described, and new method designed by authors was presented. New method of testing rolling resistance is quite simple and inexpensive. Moreover it allows to conduct the experimental tests of the impact of different parameters on the value of indentation rolling resistance such as core design, cover thickness, ambient temperature, idler travel frequency, or load value as well. Finally results of tests of relationship between rolling resistance and idler travel frequency and between rolling resistance and idler travel speed was presented.

  20. New perspectives on constant-roll inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicciarella, Francesco; Mabillard, Joel; Pieroni, Mauro

    2018-01-01

    We study constant-roll inflation using the β-function formalism. We show that the constant rate of the inflaton roll is translated into a first order differential equation for the β-function which can be solved easily. The solutions to this equation correspond to the usual constant-roll models. We then construct, by perturbing these exact solutions, more general classes of models that satisfy the constant-roll equation asymptotically. In the case of an asymptotic power law solution, these corrections naturally provide an end to the inflationary phase. Interestingly, while from a theoretical point of view (in particular in terms of the holographic interpretation) these models are intrinsically different from standard slow-roll inflation, they may have phenomenological predictions in good agreement with present cosmological data.

  1. Upscaling of polymer solar cell fabrication using full roll-to-roll processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C; Tromholt, Thomas; Jørgensen, Mikkel

    2010-01-01

    factors (excluding bus bars) of 50, 67 and 75% respectively. In addition modules with lengths of 6, 10, 20, 22.5 and 25 cm were explored. The devices were prepared by full roll-to-roll solution processing in a web width of 305 mm and roll lengths of up to 200 m. The devices were encapsulated...... with a barrier material in a full roll-to-roll process using standard adhesives giving the devices excellent stability during storage and operation. The total area of processed polymer solar cell was around 60 m2 per run. The solar cells were characterised using a roll-to-roll system comprising a solar simulator...... to the cost for electricity using existing technologies the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) is expected to be significantly higher than the existing technologies due to the inferior operational lifetime. The presented devices are thus competitive for consumer electronics but ill-suited for on...

  2. Effect of Starting As-cast Structure on the Microstructure-Texture Evolution During Subsequent Processing and Finally Ridging Behavior of Ferritic Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modak, Pranabananda; Patra, Sudipta; Mitra, Rahul; Chakrabarti, Debalay

    2018-06-01

    Effect of the initial as-cast structure on the microstructure-texture evolution during thermomechanical processing of 409L grade ferritic stainless steel was studied. Samples from the regions of cast slab having `columnar,' `equiaxed,' and a mixture of `columnar' and `equiaxed' grains were subjected to two different processing schedules: one with intermediate hot-band annealing before cold-rolling followed by final annealing, and another without any hot-band annealing. EBSD study reveals that large columnar crystals with cube orientation are very difficult to deform and recrystallize uniformly. Resultant variations in ferrite grain structure and retention of cube-textured band in cold-rolled and annealed sheet contribute to ridging behavior during stretch forming. Initial equiaxed grain structure is certainly beneficial to reduce or even eliminate ridging defect by producing uniform ferrite grain structure, free from any texture banding. Application of hot-band annealing treatment is also advantageous as it can maximize the evolution of beneficial gamma-fiber texture and eliminate the ridging defect in case of completely `equiaxed' starting structure. Such treatment reduces the severity of ridging even if the initial structure contains typically mixed `columnar-equiaxed' grains.

  3. How cold is cold dark matter?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armendariz-Picon, Cristian; Neelakanta, Jayanth T.

    2014-01-01

    If cold dark matter consists of particles, these must be non-interacting and non-relativistic by definition. In most cold dark matter models however, dark matter particles inherit a non-vanishing velocity dispersion from interactions in the early universe, a velocity that redshifts with cosmic expansion but certainly remains non-zero. In this article, we place model-independent constraints on the dark matter temperature to mass ratio, whose square root determines the dark matter velocity dispersion. We only assume that dark matter particles decoupled kinetically while non-relativistic, when galactic scales had not entered the horizon yet, and that their momentum distribution has been Maxwellian since that time. Under these assumptions, using cosmic microwave background and matter power spectrum observations, we place upper limits on the temperature to mass ratio of cold dark matter today (away from collapsed structures). These limits imply that the present cold dark matter velocity dispersion has to be smaller than 54 m/s. Cold dark matter has to be quite cold, indeed

  4. Effects of rolling temperature on microstructure, texture, formability and magnetic properties in strip casting Fe-6.5 wt% Si non-oriented electrical steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hai-Tao; Li, Hao-Ze; Li, Hua-Long; Gao, Fei; Liu, Guo-Huai; Luo, Zhong-Han; Zhang, Feng-Quan; Chen, Sheng-Lin; Cao, Guang-Ming; Liu, Zhen-Yu; Wang, Guo-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Fe-6.5 wt% Si non-oriented electrical steel sheets with a thickness of 0.50 mm were produced by using a new processing route: strip casting followed by hot rolling, intermediate temperature (150–850 °C) rolling and final annealing. The present study focused on exploring the effects of rolling temperature varying from 150 to 850 °C on the microstructure and texture evolution, the formability and final magnetic properties. The microstructure and texture evolution at the various processing steps were investigated in detail by using OM, XRD, EBSD and TEM. It was found that the formability during rolling, the microstructure and texture before and after annealing and final magnetic properties highly depended on rolling temperature. The formability during rolling was gradually improved with increasing rolling temperature due to the slipping of dislocation. In particular, the rolling temperature dominated the formation of in-grain shear bands in the rolled microstructure, which played an important role in the development of final recrystallization microstructure and texture. In the case of lower temperature (150–450 °C) rolling, an inhomogeneous microstructure with a large amount of in-grain shear bands was formed in the rolled sheets, which finally resulted in a fine and inhomogeneous annealing microstructure dominated by mild λ-fiber texture composed of cube and {001}〈210〉 components and α*-fiber texture concentrated on {115}〈5–10 1〉 component. By contrast, in the case of higher temperature (650–850 °C) rolling, a relatively homogeneous microstructure without in-grain shear bands was formed instead in the rolled sheets, which finally led to a coarse and relatively homogeneous annealing microstructure characterized by strong α-fiber and γ-fiber texture. Accordingly, on the whole, both the magnetic induction (B 8 and B 50 ) and iron loss (P 15/50 and P 10/400 ) decreased with raising rolling temperature. - Highlights: • Fe−6.5 wt% Si sheet was

  5. Effects of rolling temperature on microstructure, texture, formability and magnetic properties in strip casting Fe-6.5 wt% Si non-oriented electrical steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hai-Tao, E-mail: liuht@ral.neu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, P.O. Box 105, Shenyang 110819 (China); Institute of Research of Iron and Steel, Shasteel, Zhangjiagang 215625, Jiangsu (China); Li, Hao-Ze [State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, P.O. Box 105, Shenyang 110819 (China); Li, Hua-Long [Institute of Research of Iron and Steel, Shasteel, Zhangjiagang 215625, Jiangsu (China); Gao, Fei; Liu, Guo-Huai [State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, P.O. Box 105, Shenyang 110819 (China); Luo, Zhong-Han; Zhang, Feng-Quan; Chen, Sheng-Lin [National Engineering Research Center for Silicon Steel, Wuhan Iron & Steel (Group) Corp, Wuhan 430083 (China); Cao, Guang-Ming; Liu, Zhen-Yu; Wang, Guo-Dong [State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, P.O. Box 105, Shenyang 110819 (China)

    2015-10-01

    Fe-6.5 wt% Si non-oriented electrical steel sheets with a thickness of 0.50 mm were produced by using a new processing route: strip casting followed by hot rolling, intermediate temperature (150–850 °C) rolling and final annealing. The present study focused on exploring the effects of rolling temperature varying from 150 to 850 °C on the microstructure and texture evolution, the formability and final magnetic properties. The microstructure and texture evolution at the various processing steps were investigated in detail by using OM, XRD, EBSD and TEM. It was found that the formability during rolling, the microstructure and texture before and after annealing and final magnetic properties highly depended on rolling temperature. The formability during rolling was gradually improved with increasing rolling temperature due to the slipping of dislocation. In particular, the rolling temperature dominated the formation of in-grain shear bands in the rolled microstructure, which played an important role in the development of final recrystallization microstructure and texture. In the case of lower temperature (150–450 °C) rolling, an inhomogeneous microstructure with a large amount of in-grain shear bands was formed in the rolled sheets, which finally resulted in a fine and inhomogeneous annealing microstructure dominated by mild λ-fiber texture composed of cube and {001}〈210〉 components and α*-fiber texture concentrated on {115}〈5–10 1〉 component. By contrast, in the case of higher temperature (650–850 °C) rolling, a relatively homogeneous microstructure without in-grain shear bands was formed instead in the rolled sheets, which finally led to a coarse and relatively homogeneous annealing microstructure characterized by strong α-fiber and γ-fiber texture. Accordingly, on the whole, both the magnetic induction (B{sub 8} and B{sub 50}) and iron loss (P{sub 15/50} and P{sub 10/400}) decreased with raising rolling temperature. - Highlights: • Fe−6

  6. Effect of cold plastic deformation on the properties of semihard-magnetic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalev, P.M.; Khazanov, S.A.; Chernyak, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of pass and overall reduction during cold plastic deformation on magnetic properties of the 25KKh15 and 25KFN14 iron-cobalt alloys has been studied. It has been found out that gamma-α transformation which intensity id defined by the deformation temperature occurs during the 25KFN14 and 25KKh15 alloy cold rolling. The pass reduction decrease fostering complete proceeding of #betta#-α transformation is equivalent to the increase of overall reduction

  7. Characterization of a hot-rolled Cu--Al--Ni--Ti shape memory alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segui, C.; Pons, J.; Cesari, E.

    1999-01-01

    The changes in the martensitic transformation of a Cu-Al-Ni-Ti alloy hot-rolled at different temperatures have been studied in detail, covering different aspects such as ageing in the parent phase at temperatures ranging between 250 and 350 o C, stabilisation of the martensite and betatization of the previously hot-rolled specimens. Besides the evolution of transformation temperatures upon different thermal treatments, special attention has been paid to the changes in mechanical properties of the alloy, such as elastic modulus and internal friction. These results are analysed in relation to the microstructural changes as observed by transmission electron microscopy. (orig.)

  8. High-strength high-conductivity Cu-Nb microcomposite sheet fabricated via multiple roll bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, S.C.; Delagi, R.G.; Forster, J.A.; Krotz, P.D.

    1993-01-01

    Copper-niobium microcomposites are a new class of high-strength high-conductivity materials that have attractive properties for room- and elevated-temperature applications. Since Nb has little solid solubility in Cu, addition of Nb to Cu does not affect its conductivity. Copper-niobium microcomposites are melted and cast so that the microstructure of cast Cu-Nb ingots consists of 1- to 10 μm Nb dendrites uniformly distributed within the copper matrix. Extensive wire drawing with a true processing strain (η> 12) of Cu-Nb alloy leads to refinement and elongation of Nb dendrites into 1- to 10 nm-thick filaments. The presence of such fine Nb filaments causes a significant increase in the strength of Cu-Nb wires. The tensile strength of heavily drawn Cu-Nb wires was determined to be significantly higher than the values predicted by the rule of mixtures. This article reports the fabrication of high-strength Cu-Nb microcomposite sheet by multiple roll bonding. It is difficult and impractical to attain high processing strains (η>3) by simple cold rolling. In most practical cold-rolling operation, the thickness reduction does not exceed 90 pct (η ≅2). Therefore, innovative processing is required to generate high strength in Cu-Nb microcomposite sheet. Multiple roll bonding of Cu-Nb has been utilized to store high processing strain ( η>10) in the material and refine the Nb particle size within the copper matrix. This article describes the microstructure, mechanical properties, and thermal stability of roll-bonded Cu-Nb microcomposite sheet

  9. Effect of cold work and processing orientation on the SCC behavior of Alloy 600

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moshier, W.C.; Brown, C.M.

    1999-01-01

    Cold work accelerates SCC growth rates in Alloy 600. However, the variation in crack growth rates generated from cold worker material has been significant, and the effect has been difficult to quantify. A study was performed in hydrogenated water adjusted to pH 10.2 to systematically evaluate the effect of cold work on Alloy 600 as a function of temperature, amount of cold work, stress intensity factor, and processing orientation. Cold work was introduced into the material by either tensile prestraining or cold rolling plate product. Crack growth rates were determined between 252 and 360 C, stress intensity factors between 21 and 55 MPa√m, and yield strengths between 201 and 827 MPa. The material with the highest yield strength was cold rolled and tested in the longitudinal-transverse (LT) and short-transverse (ST) orientations. Crack growth rates increased with increasing temperature, stress intensity factor, and yield strength. Furthermore, crack growth rates were a strong function of the processing orientation in the cold rolled plate, with growth rates being approximately an order of magnitude greater in the ST orientation compared to the LT orientation. Crack growth rates in the LT orientation were measured between 0.003 and 1.95 x 10 -9 m/s and between 0.066 and 6.3 x 10 -9 m/s in the ST orientation. Activation energies were slightly greater in the ST orientation, ranging from 154 to 191 kcal/mole, compared to activation energies between 126 and 157 kJ/mole in the LT orientation. The results of this study demonstrate that although cold work can be used to accelerate SCC, the orientation of crack growth can significantly affect the results, and must be taken into account when analyzing data from cold worked material

  10. Design and analysis of roll cage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angadi, Gurusangappa; Chetan, S.

    2018-04-01

    Wildlife fire fighting vehicles are used to extinguish fires in forests, in this process vehicles face falling objects like rocks, tree branches and other objects. Also due to uneven conditions of the terrain like cliff edges, uneven surfaces etc. makes the vehicle to roll over and these can cause injuries to both the driver and the operator. Roll over of a vehicle is a common incident which makes fatal injuries to the operator and also stands next to the crash accidents. In order to reduce the injury level and continuous roll over of the vehicle it is necessary to equip suitable roll cage according to standards of vehicle. In this present work roll cage for pump operator in wildfire fighting vehicle is designed and analysis is carried out in computer simulated environment when seating position of operator seated outside of the cabin. According to NFPA 1906 standards wildlife fire apparatus, Design and Test procedures that are carried out in Hyperworks maintaining SAE J1194.1983 standards. G load case, roof crush analysis and pendulum impact analysis tests are carried out on roll cage to ensure the saftey of design. These load cases are considerd to satisfy the situation faced in forest terrain. In these test procedures roll cage is analysed for stresses and deformation in various load cases. After recording results these are compared with standards mentioned in SAE J1194.1983.

  11. Inflationary dynamics with a smooth slow-roll to constant-roll era transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odintsov, S.D. [ICREA, Passeig Luis Companys, 23, 08010 Barcelona (Spain); Oikonomou, V.K., E-mail: odintsov@ieec.uab.es, E-mail: v.k.oikonomou1979@gmail.com [Laboratory for Theoretical Cosmology, Tomsk State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics (TUSUR), Lenin Avenue 40, 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2017-04-01

    In this paper we investigate the implications of having a varying second slow-roll index on the canonical scalar field inflationary dynamics. We shall be interested in cases that the second slow-roll can take small values and correspondingly large values, for limiting cases of the function that quantifies the variation of the second slow-roll index. As we demonstrate, this can naturally introduce a smooth transition between slow-roll and constant-roll eras. We discuss the theoretical implications of the mechanism we introduce and we use various illustrative examples in order to better understand the new features that the varying second slow-roll index introduces. In the examples we will present, the second slow-roll index has exponential dependence on the scalar field, and in one of these cases, the slow-roll era corresponds to a type of α-attractor inflation. Finally, we briefly discuss how the combination of slow-roll and constant-roll may lead to non-Gaussianities in the primordial perturbations.

  12. Strain and stress tensors of rolled uranium plate by Rietveld refinement of TOF neutron-diffraction data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balzar, D.; Popa, N.C.; Vogel, S.

    2010-01-01

    We report the complete macroscopic average strain and stress tensors for a cold-rolled uranium plate, based on the neutron TOF measurements. Both tensors were determined by the least-squares refinement of the interplanar spacings of 19 Bragg reflections. Based on the pole figures, as determined by GSAS, a triclinic sample symmetry of the uranium plate was assumed. Strain and stress are tensile in both the transverse and rolling directions and very small in the normal direction (through the thickness of the plate). Shear strain and stress components are compressive and of significant magnitude.

  13. Look! It's Rock'n'roll!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindelof, Anja

    2007-01-01

    , and dates. Consult your library or click here for more information on citing sources. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Anja Mølle Lindelof. (2007). Look! it's rock'n'roll! how television participated in shaping the visual genre conventions of popular music...... to personal names, capitalization, and dates. Consult your library or click here for more information on citing sources. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Anja Mølle Lindelof. "Look! It's Rock'n'roll! How television participated in shaping the visual genre....... Pay special attention to personal names, capitalization, and dates. Consult your library or click here for more information on citing sources. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- TY - JOUR T1 - Look! It's Rock'n'roll! How television participated in shaping...

  14. Replication of nanopits and nanopillars by roll-to-roll extrusion coating using a structured cooling roll

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murthy, Swathi; Pranov, Henrik; Pedersen, Henrik Chresten

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates a novel, very high throughput, roll-to-roll (R2R) process for nanostructuring of polymer foils, called R2R extrusion coating. It has the potential to accelerate the integration of nanostructured materials in consumer products for a variety of applications, including optical....../height of 100 nm. The best replication was achieved in polypropylene, by running at high roller line-speed of 60 m/min, and high cooling roller temperature of 70°C. Replication in other common polymers like polyethylene and polystyrene was not possible for the parameter range used for the investigation......., technical, and functional surfaces and devices. In roll-to-roll extrusion coating, a molten polymer film is extruded through a flat die forming a melt curtain, and then laminated onto a carrier foil. The lamination occurs as the melt curtain is pressed between a cooling roller and a counter roller...

  15. Cold formability of steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafond, G.; Leclerq, G.; Moliexe, F.; Namdar, R.; Roesch, L.; Sanz, G.

    1977-01-01

    This work was essentially aimed to the study of the following three questions. Is it possible to assess the cold formability of steels using simple material properties as criteria. What values of mechanical properties can one expect to reach in cold formed parts. Are there simple ways of characterizing the speroidization treatments carried out on steels before cold forming operations. The present report describes the results obtained during this investigation. It is logically divided into three separate parts. Experimental study of cold formability in wire drawing. Influence of metallurgical variables on mechanical properties of high carbon cold drawn wires. Contribution to the study of characterization methods of cold forming steels subjected to a spheroidization heat treatment

  16. Cold fusion, Alchemist's dream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, E.D.

    1989-09-01

    In this report the following topics relating to cold fusion are discussed: muon catalysed cold fusion; piezonuclear fusion; sundry explanations pertaining to cold fusion; cosmic ray muon catalysed cold fusion; vibrational mechanisms in excited states of D 2 molecules; barrier penetration probabilities within the hydrogenated metal lattice/piezonuclear fusion; branching ratios of D 2 fusion at low energies; fusion of deuterons into 4 He; secondary D+T fusion within the hydrogenated metal lattice; 3 He to 4 He ratio within the metal lattice; shock induced fusion; and anomalously high isotopic ratios of 3 He/ 4 He

  17. Roll paper pilot. [mathematical model for predicting pilot rating of aircraft in roll task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, F. R.; Dillow, J. D.; Hannen, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    A mathematical model for predicting the pilot rating of an aircraft in a roll task is described. The model includes: (1) the lateral-directional aircraft equations of motion; (2) a stochastic gust model; (3) a pilot model with two free parameters; and (4) a pilot rating expression that is a function of rms roll angle and the pilot lead time constant. The pilot gain and lead time constant are selected to minimize the pilot rating expression. The pilot parameters are then adjusted to provide a 20% stability margin and the adjusted pilot parameters are used to compute a roll paper pilot rating of the aircraft/gust configuration. The roll paper pilot rating was computed for 25 aircraft/gust configurations. A range of actual ratings from 2 to 9 were encountered and the roll paper pilot ratings agree quite well with the actual ratings. In addition there is good correlation between predicted and measured rms roll angle.

  18. Plasmonic color metasurfaces fabricated by a high speed roll-to-roll method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murthy, Swathi; Pranov, Henrik; Feidenhans'l, Nikolaj Agentoft

    2017-01-01

    Lab-scale plasmonic color printing using nano-structured and subsequently metallized surfaces have been demonstrated to provide vivid colors. However, upscaling these structures for large area manufacturing is extremely challenging due to the requirement of nanometer precision of metal thickness....... In this study, we have investigated a plasmonic color meta-surface design that can be easily upscaled. We have demonstrated the feasibility of fabrication of these plasmonic color surfaces by a high-speed roll-to-roll method, comprising roll-to-roll extrusion coating at 10 m min-1 creating a polymer foil having...... 100 nm deep pits of varying sub-wavelength diameter and pitch length. Subsequently this polymer foil was metallized and coated also by high-speed roll-to-roll methods. The perceived colors have high tolerance towards the thickness of the metal layer, when this thickness exceeds the depths of the pits...

  19. Rolling scheduling of electric power system with wind power based on improved NNIA algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Q. S.; Luo, C. J.; Yang, D. J.; Fan, Y. H.; Sang, Z. X.; Lei, H.

    2017-11-01

    This paper puts forth a rolling modification strategy for day-ahead scheduling of electric power system with wind power, which takes the operation cost increment of unit and curtailed wind power of power grid as double modification functions. Additionally, an improved Nondominated Neighbor Immune Algorithm (NNIA) is proposed for solution. The proposed rolling scheduling model has further improved the operation cost of system in the intra-day generation process, enhanced the system’s accommodation capacity of wind power, and modified the key transmission section power flow in a rolling manner to satisfy the security constraint of power grid. The improved NNIA algorithm has defined an antibody preference relation model based on equal incremental rate, regulation deviation constraints and maximum & minimum technical outputs of units. The model can noticeably guide the direction of antibody evolution, and significantly speed up the process of algorithm convergence to final solution, and enhance the local search capability.

  20. Cold Antimatter Plasmas, and Aspirations for Cold Antihydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-06-24

    UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADP012494 TITLE: Cold Antimatter Plasmas, and Aspirations for Cold...part numbers comprise the compilation report: ADP012489 thru ADP012577 UNCLASSIFIED Cold Antimatter Plasmas, and Aspirations for Cold Antihydrogen G...and positrons. The antiprotons come initially from the new Antiproton Decel- erator facility at CERN. Good control of such cold antimatter plasmas is

  1. Decision Support for the Rolling Stock Dispatcher

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Julie Jespersen

    Real-time recovery is receiving a fast growing interest in an increasingly competitive railway operation market. This thesis considers the area of rolling stock dispatching which is one of the typical real-time railway dispatching problems. All work of the thesis is based on the network...... and planning processes of the railway operator DSB S-tog a/s. In the thesis the problems existing in the railway planning process from the strategic to real-time level are briefly sketched. Network planning, line planning, timetabling, crew and rolling stock planning is outlined and relevant references...... are given. Specifically the thesis references the operation research studies based on the railway operation of DSB S-tog a/s. Subsequently the process of dispatching is outlined with a specific emphasis on rolling stock. The rolling stock recovery problem is the problem of assigning train units to train...

  2. Terras: NATO õppuste roll Euroopas kasvab

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2013-01-01

    Kaitseväe juhataja kindralmajor Riho Terrase sõnul suureneb lähiaastatel NATO õppuste roll Euroopas, sest Afganistanis sõdides saadud kogemust on vaja säilitada ning kasutada seda kollektiivkaitse tugevdamiseks

  3. Effect of cold working and aging on high temperature deformation of high Mn stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, M.; Habara, Y.; Matsuki, R.; Aoyama, H.

    1999-01-01

    By the addition of N, the strength of high Mn stainless steel can be increased. Cold rolling and aging are effective to increase its strength further, and with those treatments this grade is often used for high temperature applications. In this study, creep deformation behavior and high temperature strength of the high Mn stainless steel in cold rolled and aged conditions are discussed as compared to Type 304 stainless steel. It has been revealed that as-rolled specimens show instant elongation at the beginning of creep tests and its amount is larger in the high Mn grade than in Type 304. Also, the creep rate of the high Mn stainless steel is smaller than that of Type 304. These facts may be related to the change in microstructure. (orig.)

  4. Disk partition function and oscillatory rolling tachyons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokela, Niko; Jaervinen, Matti; Keski-Vakkuri, Esko; Majumder, Jaydeep

    2008-01-01

    An exact cubic open string field theory rolling tachyon solution was recently found by Kiermaier et al and Schnabl. This oscillatory solution has been argued to be related by a field redefinition to the simple exponential rolling tachyon deformation of boundary conformal theory. In the latter approach, the disk partition function takes a simple form. Out of curiosity, we compute the disk partition function for an oscillatory tachyon profile, and find that the result is nevertheless almost the same

  5. Characterization of microstructure, texture and magnetic properties in twin-roll casting high silicon non-oriented electrical steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hao-Ze; Liu, Hai-Tao, E-mail: liuht@ral.neu.edu.cn; Liu, Zhen-Yu, E-mail: zyliu@mail.neu.edu.cn; Lu, Hui-Hu; Song, Hong-Yu; Wang, Guo-Dong

    2014-02-15

    An Fe-6.5 wt.% Si-0.3 wt.% Al as-cast sheet was produced by twin-roll strip casting process, then treated with hot rolling, warm rolling and annealing. A detailed study of the microstructure and texture evolution at different processing stages was carried out by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction and electron backscattered diffraction analysis. The initial as-cast strip showed strong columnar grains and pronounced < 001 >//ND texture. The hot rolled and warm rolled sheets were characterized by large amounts of shear bands distributed through the thickness together with strong < 110 >//RD texture and weak < 111 >//ND texture. After annealing, detrimental < 111 >//ND texture almost disappeared while beneficial (001)<210 >, (001)<010 >, (115)<5 − 10 1 > and (410) < 001 > recrystallization textures were formed, thus the magnetic induction of the annealed sheet was significantly improved. The recrystallization texture in the present study could be explained by preferred nucleation and grain growth mechanism. - Highlights: • A high silicon as-cast strip with columnar structure was produced. • A thin warm rolled sheet without large edge cracks was obtained. • Microstructure and texture evolution at each stage were investigated. • Beneficial (001)<210 >, (001)<010 >, (410)<001 > recrystallization textures were formed. • The magnetic induction of annealed sheet was significantly improved.

  6. Maintenance in Railway Rolling Stock Rescheduling for Passenger Railways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Wagenaar (Joris); L.G. Kroon (Leo)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThis paper addresses the Rolling Stock Rescheduling Problem (RSRP), while taking maintenance appointments into account. After a disruption, the rolling stock of passenger trains has to be rescheduled in order to maintain a feasible rolling stock circulation. A limited number of rolling

  7. A jelly-roll process for high temperature superconducting tapes and wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuei, C.C.; Chi, C.C.; Frey, T.; Mitzi, D.B.; Kazyaka, T.; Haugan, T.; Ye, J.; Patel, S.; Shaw, D.T.; Wu, M.K.

    1992-01-01

    As an alternative to the powder-in-tube method, a new technique called the jelly-roll process is proposed for making high-T c superconducting tapes and wires. A normal-metal sheet coated with high-T c cuprate is configured in a jelly-roll fashion and cold worked into tapes or wires made of alternating cuprate superconductor and normal metal layers. The feasibility of this new process is demonstrated for both the YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 /Ag and Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8 /Ag composite systems. The role of reduction in the cross-sectional area by cold-rolling, heat treatment and oxygenation in optimizing T c and J c has been studied. Preliminary results indicate that partialmelt texturing, in the Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8 /Ag system, results in a relatively field independent J c (H c (H = 0) ∝5 X 10 4 A cm -2 at 4.2 K

  8. A jelly-roll process for high temperature superconducting tapes and wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuei, C C; Chi, C C; Frey, T; Mitzi, D B; Kazyaka, T [IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY (United States); Haugan, T; Ye, J; Patel, S; Shaw, D T [New York State Inst. on Superconductivity, SUNY, Buffalo, Amherst, NY (United States); Wu, M K [Dept. of Physics, National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu (Taiwan)

    1992-07-01

    As an alternative to the powder-in-tube method, a new technique called the jelly-roll process is proposed for making high-T[sub c] superconducting tapes and wires. A normal-metal sheet coated with high-T[sub c] cuprate is configured in a jelly-roll fashion and cold worked into tapes or wires made of alternating cuprate superconductor and normal metal layers. The feasibility of this new process is demonstrated for both the YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub 7]/Ag and Bi[sub 2]Sr[sub 2]CaCu[sub 2]O[sub 8]/Ag composite systems. The role of reduction in the cross-sectional area by cold-rolling, heat treatment and oxygenation in optimizing T[sub c] and J[sub c] has been studied. Preliminary results indicate that partialmelt texturing, in the Bi[sub 2]Sr[sub 2]CaCu[sub 2]O[sub 8]/Ag system, results in a relatively field independent J[sub c] (H< or approx.7T) with J[sub c](H = 0) [proportional to]5 X 10[sup 4] A cm[sup -2] at 4.2 K.

  9. Time evolution of morphology in mechanically alloyed Fe-Cu

    KAUST Repository

    Wille, Catharina Gabriele

    2011-05-01

    Being widely accessible as well as already utilised in many applications, Fe-Cu acts as an ideal binary model alloy to elaborate the enforced nonequilibrium enhanced solubility in such a solution system that shows a limited regime of miscibility and characterised by a large positive heat of mixing. In addition to the detailed analysis of ball milled Fe-Cu powders by means of Atom Probe Tomography (APT), site specific structural analysis has been performed in this study using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM).In this contribution results on powders with low Cu concentrations (2.5-10 at%) are presented. Combining a ductile element (Cu, fcc) and a brittle one (Fe, bcc), striking differences in morphology were expected and found on all length-scales, depending on the mixing ratio of the two elements. However, not only could the atomic mixing of Fe and Cu be evaluated, but also the distribution of impurities, mostly stemming from the fabrication procedure. The combination of APT and TEM enables a correlation between the structural evolution and the chemical mixing during the milling process. For the first time, a clear distinction can be drawn between the morphological evolution at the surface and in the interior of the powder particles. This became possible owing to the site specific sample preparation of TEM lamellae by Focussed Ion Beam (FIB). Surprisingly, the texture arising from the ball milling process can directly be related to the classical rolling texture of cold rolled Fe. In addition, full homogeneity can be achieved even on the nano-scale for this material as shown by APT, resulting in an extended miscibility region in comparison to the equilibrium phase diagram. Grain sizes were determined by means of XRD and TEM. The strain corrected XRD results are in very good agreement with the values derived by TEM, both confirming a truly nanocrystalline structure. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  10. Working in the Cold

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-02-08

    During the winter, many workers are outdoors, working in cold, wet, icy, or snowy conditions. Learn how to identify symptoms that tell you there may be a problem and protect yourself from cold stress.  Created: 2/8/2016 by National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).   Date Released: 2/8/2016.

  11. Cold-Weather Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Cold-Weather Sports KidsHealth / For Teens / Cold-Weather Sports What's in this article? What to Do? Classes ... weather. What better time to be outdoors? Winter sports can help you burn calories, increase your cardiovascular ...

  12. Cold fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-11-01

    I am pleased to forward to you the Final Report of the Cold Fusion Panel. This report reviews the current status of cold fusion and includes major chapters on Calorimetry and Excess Heat, Fusion Products and Materials Characterization. In addition, the report makes a number of conclusions and recommendations, as requested by the Secretary of Energy

  13. COLD-WORKED HARDWARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Strizhak

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The different types of cold-worked accessory are examined in the article. The necessity of development of such type of accessory in the Republic of Belarus due to requirements of market is shown. High emphasis is placed on the methods of increase of plasticity of cold-worked accessory from usual mill of RUP and CIS countries.

  14. Liquid metal cold trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hundal, R.

    1976-01-01

    A cold trap assembly for removing impurities from a liquid metal is described. A hole between the incoming impure liquid metal and purified outgoing liquid metal acts as a continuous bleed means and thus prevents the accumulation of cover gases within the cold trap assembly

  15. Secondary recrystallization behavior in a twin-roll cast grain-oriented electrical steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hong-Yu; Liu, Hai-Tao, E-mail: liuht@ral.neu.edu.cn; Wang, Yin-Ping; Wang, Guo-Dong

    2017-04-15

    The microstructure and texture evolution along the processing was investigated with a particular focus on the secondary recrystallization behavior in a 0.23 mm-thick twin-roll cast grain-oriented electrical steel. A striking feature is that Goss orientation originated during twin-roll casting as a result of shear deformation and it was further enhanced during hot rolling and normalizing. After primary recrystallization annealing, a homogeneous microstructure associated with a sharp γ-fiber texture was produced. During secondary recrystallization annealing, the γ-fiber texture was first strengthened and weakened with increasing temperature prior to the onset of secondary recrystallization. Goss grains always exhibited more 20–45° misoriented boundaries than the matrix. The matrix was quite stable during secondary recrystallization with the aid of dense inhibitors. Finally, a complete secondary recrystallization microstructure consisting of large Goss grains was produced. The grain boundary characteristics distribution indicated that the high energy model was responsible for the abnormal growth of Goss grains under the present conditions. - Highlights: • A 0.23 mm twin-roll cast grain-oriented silicon steel sheet was produced. • Goss orientation originated during twin-roll casting. • Secondary recrystallization behavior was briefly investigated. • γ-fiber texture was enhanced prior to the onset of secondary recrystallization. • A complete secondary recrystallization microstructure was produced.

  16. Microstructure based procedure for process parameter control in rolling of aluminum thin foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannes, Kronsteiner; Kabliman, Evgeniya; Klimek, Philipp-Christoph

    2018-05-01

    In present work, a microstructure based procedure is used for a numerical prediction of strength properties for Al-Mg-Sc thin foils during a hot rolling process. For this purpose, the following techniques were developed and implemented. At first, a toolkit for a numerical analysis of experimental stress-strain curves obtained during a hot compression testing by a deformation dilatometer was developed. The implemented techniques allow for the correction of a temperature increase in samples due to adiabatic heating and for the determination of a yield strength needed for the separation of the elastic and plastic deformation regimes during numerical simulation of multi-pass hot rolling. At the next step, an asymmetric Hot Rolling Simulator (adjustable table inlet/outlet height as well as separate roll infeed) was developed in order to match the exact processing conditions of a semi-industrial rolling procedure. At each element of a finite element mesh the total strength is calculated by in-house Flow Stress Model based on evolution of mean dislocation density. The strength values obtained by numerical modelling were found in a reasonable agreement with results of tensile tests for thin Al-Mg-Sc foils. Thus, the proposed simulation procedure might allow to optimize the processing parameters with respect to the microstructure development.

  17. Manufacture of thin-walled clad tubes by pressure welding of roll bonded sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Hans Christian; Grydin, Olexandr; Stolbchenko, Mykhailo; Homberg, Werner; Schaper, Mirko

    2017-10-01

    Clad tubes are commonly manufactured by fusion welding of roll bonded metal sheets or, mechanically, by hydroforming. In this work, a new approach towards the manufacture of thin-walled tubes with an outer diameter to wall thickness ratio of about 12 is investigated, involving the pressure welding of hot roll bonded aluminium-steel strips. By preparing non-welded edges during the roll bonding process, the strips can be zip-folded and (cold) pressure welded together. This process routine could be used to manufacture clad tubes in a continuous process. In order to investigate the process, sample tube sections with a wall thickness of 2.1 mm were manufactured by U-and O-bending from hot roll bonded aluminium-stainless steel strips. The forming and welding were carried out in a temperature range between RT and 400°C. It was found that, with the given geometry, a pressure weld is established at temperatures starting above 100°C. The tensile tests yield a maximum bond strength at 340°C. Micrograph images show a consistent weld of the aluminium layer over the whole tube section.

  18. Roll-to-roll printed silver nanowires for increased stability of flexible ITO-free organic solar cell modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benatto, Gisele Alves dos Reis; Roth, Bérenger; Corazza, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We report the use of roll-to-roll printed silver nanowire networks as front electrodes for fully roll-to-roll processed flexible indium-tin-oxide (ITO) free OPV modules. We prepared devices with two types of back electrodes, a simple PEDOT:PSS back electrode and a PEDOT:PSS back electrode...

  19. 75 FR 42782 - Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From Brazil, Japan, and Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ...)] Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From Brazil, Japan, and Russia AGENCY: United... Brazil and Japan, and the suspended investigation on hot-rolled steel from Russia. SUMMARY: The... Japan, and the suspended investigation on hot-rolled steel from Russia would be likely to lead to...

  20. 75 FR 62566 - Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From Brazil, Japan, and Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ...)] Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From Brazil, Japan, and Russia AGENCY: United... antidumping duty investigation on hot-rolled steel from Russia. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice of... suspended investigation on hot-rolled steel from Russia would be likely to lead to continuation or...

  1. Optimized manufacture of nuclear fuel cladding tubes by FEA of hot extrusion and cold pilgering processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillac, Alexis; Ly, Céline

    2018-05-01

    Within the forming route of Zirconium alloy cladding tubes, hot extrusion is used to deform the forged billets into tube hollows, which are then cold rolled to produce the final tubes with the suitable properties for in-reactor use. The hot extrusion goals are to give the appropriate geometry for cold pilgering, without creating surface defects and microstructural heterogeneities which are detrimental for subsequent rolling. In order to ensure a good quality of the tube hollows, hot extrusion parameters have to be carefully chosen. For this purpose, finite element models are used in addition to experimental tests. These models can take into account the thermo-mechanical coupling conditions obtained in the tube and the tools during extrusion, and provide a good prediction of the extrusion load and the thermo-mechanical history of the extruded product. This last result can be used to calculate the fragmentation of the microstructure in the die and the meta-dynamic recrystallization after extrusion. To further optimize the manufacturing route, a numerical model of the cold pilgering process is also applied, taking into account the complex geometry of the tools and the pseudo-steady state rolling sequence of this incremental forming process. The strain and stress history of the tube during rolling can then be used to assess the damage risk thanks to the use of ductile damage models. Once validated vs. experimental data, both numerical models were used to optimize the manufacturing route and the quality of zirconium cladding tubes. This goal was achieved by selecting hot extrusion parameters giving better recrystallized microstructure that improves the subsequent formability. Cold pilgering parameters were also optimized in order to reduce the potential ductile damage in the cold rolled tubes.

  2. Human whole body cold adaptation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, Hein A.M.; Van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D.

    2016-01-01

    Reviews on whole body human cold adaptation generally do not distinguish between population studies and dedicated acclimation studies, leading to confusing results. Population studies show that indigenous black Africans have reduced shivering thermogenesis in the cold and poor cold induced

  3. Preorganization of Nanostructured Inks for Roll-to-Roll-Coated Polymer Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C; Senkovskyy, Volodymyr; Kiriy, Anton

    2010-01-01

    , a preorganized ink was obtained that was used to make polymer solar cell modules in a full roll-to-roll coating and printing process operating in ambient air. The polymer solar cells were thus prepared by a mixture of slot die and flat-bed screen printing. Various polymer solar cell modules were prepared ranging...

  4. Technology development for roll-to-roll production of organic photovoltaics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galagan, Y.O.; Vries, I.G. de; Langen, A.P.; Andriessen, H.A.J.M.; Verhees, W.J.H.; Veenstra, S.C.; Kroon, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    In order to reach the objective of low-cost, large area organic photovoltaic systems, we build up a knowledge base concerning the influence of process conditions on the performance of polymer solar cells. A large area solar cell module, with roll-to-roll coated PEDOT:PSS and photoactive layers

  5. Material-Process-Performance Relationships for Roll-to-Roll Coated PEM Electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauger, Scott; Neyerlin, K.C.; Stickel, Jonathan; Ulsh, Michael; More, Karren; Wood, David

    2017-04-26

    Roll-to-roll (R2R) coating is the most economical and highest throughput method for producing fuel cell electrodes. R2R coating encompasses many different methodologies to create uniform films on a moving web substrate. Here we explore two coating methods, gravure and slot die, to understand the impacts of each on film uniformity and performance.

  6. Roll-to-roll paper sensors (ROPAS); Wireless communicating sensors on paper in the logistic chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rentrop, C.; Rubingh, J.E.J.M.; Lelieveld, R.; Sandberg, H.

    2014-01-01

    The ROPAS project (Roll-to-roll paper sensors) combines high end electronics and wireless sensors with low cost paper substrates and processing techniques that can be applied on a large scale. Paper is the next step in the printed electronics roadmap of utilising cheaper substrate materials as a

  7. Influence of cold deformation and annealing on hydrogen embrittlement of cold hardening bainitic steel for high strength bolts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hui, Weijun, E-mail: wjhui@bjtu.edu.cn [School of Mechanical, Electronic and Control Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Zhang, Yongjian; Zhao, Xiaoli; Shao, Chengwei [School of Mechanical, Electronic and Control Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Wang, Kaizhong; Sun, Wei; Yu, Tongren [Technical Center, Maanshan Iron & Steel Co., Ltd., Maanshan 243002, Anhui (China)

    2016-04-26

    The influence of cold drawing and annealing on hydrogen embrittlement (HE) of newly developed cold hardening bainitic steel was investigated by using slow strain rate testing (SSRT) and thermal desorption spectrometry (TDS), for ensuring safety performance of 10.9 class high strength bolts made of this kind of steel against HE under service environments. Hydrogen was introduced into the specimen by electrochemical charging. TDS analysis shows that the hydrogen-charged cold drawn specimen exhibits an additional low-temperature hydrogen desorption peak besides the original high-temperature desorption peak of the as-rolled specimen, causing remarkable increase of absorbed hydrogen content. It is found that cold drawing significantly enhances the susceptibility to HE, which is mainly attributed to remarkable increase of diffusible hydrogen absorption, the occurrence of strain-induced martensite as well as the increase of strength level. Annealing after cold deformation is an effective way to improve HE resistance and this improvement strongly depends on annealing temperature, i.e. HE susceptibility decreases slightly with increasing annealing temperature up to 200 °C and then decreases significantly with further increasing annealing temperature. This phenomenon is explained by the release of hydrogen, the recovery of cold worked microstructure and the decrease of strength with increasing annealing temperature.

  8. Research on the rolling moment in the symmetrical and asymmetrical rolling process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexa, V.; Raţiu, S. A.; Kiss, I.; Cioată, C. G.

    2017-01-01

    Research distribution the rolling moments symmetrical and asymmetrical report presents great importance both in theory and to introduce clarifications to the calculation of rolling resistance line assemblies. Clarifying individuals of metallic material deformation between the rolls single cylinder diameters act of any difference of work and analysis of advance and delay phenomena. Torque drive value for each of the rolling cylinders was done by reducing the thickness of the laminate samples, an experimental facility located in the laboratory of plastic deformation of the Faculty of Engineering Hunedoara. The analysis of research results show that in terms of power consumption for deformation and safety equipment in operation is rational for mills which require such a difference between the work rolls to execute about one cylinder operated.

  9. Effect of hot rolling on the structure and the mechanical properties of nitrogen-bearing austenitic-martensitic 14Kh15AN4M steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannykh, O. A.; Betsofen, S. Ya.; Lukin, E. I.; Blinov, V. M.; Voznesenskaya, N. M.; Tonysheva, O. A.; Blinov, E. V.

    2016-04-01

    The effect of the rolling temperature and strain on the structure and the properties of corrosionresistant austenitic-martensitic 14Kh15AN4M steel is studied. The steel is shown to exhibit high ductility: upon rolling in the temperature range 700-1100°C at a reduction per pass up to 80%, wedge steel specimens are uniformly deformed along and across the rolling direction without cracking and other surface defects. Subsequent cold treatment and low-temperature tempering ensure a high hardness of the steel (50-56 HRC). Austenite mainly contributes to the hardening upon rolling in the temperature range 700-800°C at a reduction of 50-70%, and martensite makes the main contribution at higher temperatures and lower strains. Texture does not form under the chosen deformation conditions, which indicates dynamic recrystallization with the nucleation and growth of grains having no preferential orientation.

  10. Autonomous Supervision and Control of Parametric Roll Resonance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galeazzi, Roberto

    therefore two objectives. The first is to develop methods for detection of the inception of parametric roll resonance. The second is to develop control strategies to stabilize the motion after parametric roll has started. Stabilisation of parametric roll resonance points to two possible courses of action...... strategies are then combined to stabilise parametric roll resonance within few roll cycles. Limitations on the maximum stabilisable roll angle are analysed and linked to the ii slew rate saturation and hydrodynamic stall characteristics of the fin stabilisers. The study on maximum stabilisable roll angle...... leads to the requirements for early detection. Two novel detectors are proposed, which work within a shorttime prediction horizon, and issue early warnings of parametric roll inception within few roll cycles from its onset. The main idea behind these detection schemes is that of exploiting the link...

  11. Hot embossing holographic images in BOPP shrink films through large-area roll-to-roll nanoimprint lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Menglin; Lin, Shiwei, E-mail: linsw@hainu.edu.cn; Jiang, Wenkai; Pan, Nengqian

    2014-08-30

    Highlights: • High-quality holographic images were replicated in large-area shrink film. • Surface morphology evolution was analyzed in films embossed at different temperatures. • Optical, mechanical, and thermal characteristics were systematically analyzed. - Abstract: Diffraction grating-based holographic images have been successfully replicated in biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP) shrink films through large-area roll-to-roll nanoimprint technique. Such hot embossing of holographic images on BOPP films represents a promising means of creating novel security features in packaging applications. The major limitation of the high-quality replication is the relatively large thermal shrinkage of BOPP shrink film. However, although an appropriate shrinkage is demanded after embossing, over-shrinking not only causes distortion in embossed images, but also reduces the various properties of BOPP shrink films mainly due to the disappearance of orientation. The effects of embossing temperature on the mechanical, thermal and optical properties as well as polymer surface morphologies were systematically analyzed. The results show that the optimal process parameters are listed as follows: the embossing temperature at 104–110 °C, embossing force 6 kg/cm{sup 2} and film speed 32 m/min. The variation in flow behavior of polymer surface during hot embossing process is highly dependent on the temperature. In addition, the adhesion from the direct contact between the rubber press roller and polymer surfaces is suggested to cause the serious optical properties failure.

  12. Numerical cooling strategy design for hot rolled dual phase steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suwanpinij, Piyada; Prahl, Ulrich; Bleck, Wolfgang [RWTH Aachen (DE). Dept. of Ferrous Metallurgy (IEHK); Togobytska, Nataliya; Weiss, Wolf; Hoemberg, Dietmar [Weierstrass-Institut fuer Angewandte Analysis und Stochastik (WIAS) im Forschungsverbund Berlin e.V. (Germany)

    2010-10-21

    In this article, the Mo-Mn dual phase steel and its process parameters in hot rolling are discussed. The process window was derived by combining the experimental work in a hot deformation dilatometer and numerical calculation of process parameters using rate law models for ferrite and martensite transformation. The ferrite formation model is based on the Leblond and Devaux approach while martensite formation is based on the Koistinen- Marburger (K-M) formula. The carbon enrichment during ferrite formation is taken into account for the following martensite formation. After the completion of the parameter identification for the rate law model, the evolution of phases in multiphase steel can be addressed. Particularly, the simulations allow for predicting the preferable degree of retained strain and holding temperature on the run out table (ROT) for the required ferrite fraction. (orig.)

  13. Chilling Out With Colds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and use the time to read, listen to music, or watch a movie. In other words, chill out and you might prevent a cold! Reviewed by: Patricia ... Policy Permissions Guidelines Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Notice ...

  14. Cold Vacuum Drying Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Located near the K-Basins (see K-Basins link) in Hanford's 100 Area is a facility called the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF).Between 2000 and 2004, workers at the...

  15. f(R) constant-roll inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motohashi, Hayato [Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular (IFIC), Valencia (Spain); Starobinsky, Alexei A. [L.D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-08-15

    The previously introduced class of two-parametric phenomenological inflationary models in general relativity in which the slow-roll assumption is replaced by the more general, constant-roll condition is generalized to the case of f(R) gravity. A simple constant-roll condition is defined in the original Jordan frame, and exact expressions for a scalaron potential in the Einstein frame, for a function f(R) (in the parametric form) and for inflationary dynamics are obtained. The region of the model parameters permitted by the latest observational constraints on the scalar spectral index and the tensor-to-scalar ratio of primordial metric perturbations generated during inflation is determined. (orig.)

  16. Influence of Surge on Extreme Roll Amplitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidic-Perunovic, Jelena; Rognebakke, Olav; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2008-01-01

    Interference of the wave-induced ship surge motion with roll dynamics has been studied. The surge motion has been included in a previously derived hydrodynamic roll prediction model in order to account for the ship speed variation due to the longitudinal incident wave pressure force. Depending...... balanced in order to determine the added thrust term that would represent actions to maintain speed The resulting forward speed variation affects the frequency of encounter and the parametric roll resonant condition is directly influenced by this speed variation. The analysis procedure is demonstrated...... for an example containership sailing mainly in head sea condition and higher sea states. Sensitivity of the results to the added thrust model and vertical motion calculation is discussed....

  17. Dence Cold Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavinskiy Alexey

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Possible way to create dense cold baryonic matter in the laboratory is discussed. The density of this matter is comparable or even larger than the density of neutron star core. The properties of this matter can be controlled by trigger conditions. Experimental program for the study of properties of dense cold matter for light and heavy ion collisions at initial energy range √sNN~2-3GeV is proposed..

  18. Ring rolling process simulation for geometry optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchi, Rodolfo; Del Prete, Antonio; Donatiello, Iolanda; Calabrese, Maurizio

    2017-10-01

    Ring Rolling is a complex hot forming process where different rolls are involved in the production of seamless rings. Since each roll must be independently controlled, different speed laws must be set; usually, in the industrial environment, a milling curve is introduced to monitor the shape of the workpiece during the deformation in order to ensure the correct ring production. In the present paper a ring rolling process has been studied and optimized in order to obtain anular components to be used in aerospace applications. In particular, the influence of process input parameters (feed rate of the mandrel and angular speed of main roll) on geometrical features of the final ring has been evaluated. For this purpose, a three-dimensional finite element model for HRR (Hot Ring Rolling) has been implemented in SFTC DEFORM V11. The FEM model has been used to formulate a proper optimization problem. The optimization procedure has been implemented in the commercial software DS ISight in order to find the combination of process parameters which allows to minimize the percentage error of each obtained dimension with respect to its nominal value. The software allows to find the relationship between input and output parameters applying Response Surface Methodology (RSM), by using the exact values of output parameters in the control points of the design space explored through FEM simulation. Once this relationship is known, the values of the output parameters can be calculated for each combination of the input parameters. After the calculation of the response surfaces for the selected output parameters, an optimization procedure based on Genetic Algorithms has been applied. At the end, the error between each obtained dimension and its nominal value has been minimized. The constraints imposed were the maximum values of standard deviations of the dimensions obtained for the final ring.

  19. Hypothermic general cold adaptation induced by local cold acclimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savourey, G; Barnavol, B; Caravel, J P; Feuerstein, C; Bittel, J H

    1996-01-01

    To study relationships between local cold adaptation of the lower limbs and general cold adaptation, eight subjects were submitted both to a cold foot test (CFT, 5 degrees C water immersion, 5 min) and to a whole-body standard cold air test (SCAT, 1 degree C, 2 h, nude at rest) before and after a local cold acclimation (LCA) of the lower limbs effected by repeated cold water immersions. The LCA induced a local cold adaptation confirmed by higher skin temperatures of the lower limbs during CFT and a hypothermic insulative general cold adaptation (decreased rectal temperature and mean skin temperature P adaptation was related to the habituation process confirmed by decreased plasma concentrations of noradrenaline (NA) during LCA (P general cold adaptation was unrelated either to local cold adaptation or to the habituation process, because an increased NA during SCAT after LCA (P syndrome" occurring during LCA.

  20. Study of rolled uranium annealing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabane, G.

    1954-06-01

    The dilatometric study of rolled uranium clearly shows not only the expansions or contractions induced by stress relief or diffusion of vacancies, but also the slope variations of the cooling curves, which are the best evidence of a texture change. Under the microscope, hard-rolled sheets appear as a mixture of two distinct structures; it is also possible by intermediate annealing to prepare homogeneous sheets of either structure, i.e. twinned or untwinned. All these sheets which have similar textures, undergo at first a primary recrystallization beginning at 320 deg C, then a texture change without any apparent crystal growth, at about 430 deg C. (author) [fr

  1. Generalized slow roll for noncanonical kinetic terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Wayne

    2011-01-01

    We show that the generalized slow roll approach for calculating the power spectrum where the inflationary slow roll parameters are neither small nor slowly varying can be readily extended to models with noncanonical kinetic terms in the inflaton action. For example, rapid sound speed variations can arise in Dirac-Born-Infeld models with features in the warp factor leading to features in the power spectrum. Nonetheless there remains a single source function for deviations that is simply related to the power spectrum. Empirical constraints on this source function can be readily interpreted in the context of features in the inflaton potential or sound speed.

  2. Computer-aided roll pass design in rolling of airfoil shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgerman, N.; Lahoti, G. D.; Altan, T.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes two computer-aided design (CAD) programs developed for modeling the shape rolling process for airfoil sections. The first program, SHPROL, uses a modular upper-bound method of analysis and predicts the lateral spread, elongation, and roll torque. The second program, ROLPAS, predicts the stresses, roll separating force, the roll torque and the details of metal flow by simulating the rolling process, using the slab method of analysis. ROLPAS is an interactive program; it offers graphic display capabilities and allows the user to interact with the computer via a keyboard, CRT, and a light pen. The accuracy of the computerized models was evaluated by (a) rolling a selected airfoil shape at room temperature from 1018 steel and isothermally at high temperature from Ti-6Al-4V, and (b) comparing the experimental results with computer predictions. The comparisons indicated that the CAD systems, described here, are useful for practical engineering purposes and can be utilized in roll pass design and analysis for airfoil and similar shapes.

  3. Inflation with a smooth constant-roll to constant-roll era transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odintsov, S. D.; Oikonomou, V. K.

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we study canonical scalar field models, with a varying second slow-roll parameter, that allow transitions between constant-roll eras. In the models with two constant-roll eras, it is possible to avoid fine-tunings in the initial conditions of the scalar field. We mainly focus on the stability of the resulting solutions, and we also investigate if these solutions are attractors of the cosmological system. We shall calculate the resulting scalar potential and, by using a numerical approach, we examine the stability and attractor properties of the solutions. As we show, the first constant-roll era is dynamically unstable towards linear perturbations, and the cosmological system is driven by the attractor solution to the final constant-roll era. As we demonstrate, it is possible to have a nearly scale-invariant power spectrum of primordial curvature perturbations in some cases; however, this is strongly model dependent and depends on the rate of the final constant-roll era. Finally, we present, in brief, the essential features of a model that allows oscillations between constant-roll eras.

  4. Cold moderators at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, A. T.

    1997-09-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) cold moderators were not an 'Oak Ridge first', but would have been the largest both physically and in terms of cold neutron flux. Two cold moderators were planned each 410 mm in diameter and containing about 30L of liquid deuterium. They were to be completely independent of each other. A modular system design was used to provide greater reliability and serviceability. When the ANS was terminated, upgrading of the resident High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) was examined and an initial study was made into the feasibility of adding a cold source. Because the ANS design was modular, it was possible to use many identical design features. Sub-cooled liquid at 4 bar abs was initially chosen for the HFIR design concept, but this was subsequently changed to 15 bar abs to operate above the critical pressure. As in the ANS, the hydrogen will operate at a constant pressure throughout the temperature range and a completely closed loop with secondary containment was adopted. The heat load of 2 kW made the heat flux comparable with that of the ANS. Subsequent studies into the construction of cryogenic moderators for the proposed new Synchrotron Neutron source indicated that again many of the same design concepts could be used. By connecting the two cold sources together in series, the total heat load of 2 kW is very close to that of the HFIR allowing a very similar supercritical hydrogen system to be configured. The two hydrogen moderators of the SNS provide a comparable heat load to the HFIR moderator. It is subsequently planned to connect the two in series and operate from a single cold loop system, once again using supercritical hydrogen. The spallation source also provided an opportunity to re-examine a cold pellet solid methane moderator operating at 20K.

  5. Reactive boundary layers in metallic rolling contacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burbank, John

    2016-05-01

    In order to meet the goal of reducing CO{sub 2} emissions, automotive industry places significant importance on downsizing components to achieve greater efficiency through lower weight and reduced friction. As friction reductions are associated with energy efficiency and wear protection with resource conservation, ever greater attention has been given to adamantine carbon- based coatings and high-alloyed steels. Such applications are, however, associated with high production costs and energy expenditures, as well as many technical difficulties. Therefore a key issue in meeting the goals of friction reduction, wear protection and development of comprehensive lightweight strategies is whether or not the functional profiles of state-of-the art alloys can be enhanced by affordable solutions. The running-in phase of mechanical systems is inevitable and, from a tribological standpoint, critical for the lifetime of such systems, though receives little attention and is poorly understood. The growth of micro-cracks accelerates premature material failure and wear during this phase of heightened friction. With this in mind, the ultimate goal of this current work is to transfer the running-in phase into the final step of the mechanical finishing process through the targeted pre-conditioning of novel, high toughness steel bearings without thermo-chemical treatments and compare these to conventional, case-hardened steels. Two mechanisms were investigated: a. Cold work hardening and b. Chemical tribofilm formation. Steels that showed a tendency toward work hardening and tribofilm formation in previous testing were chosen for this investigation. Thorough characterization of the chosen steels was carried out before any pre-conditioning techniques were applied. The widely used 20MnCr5, seen as a reference gear steel, underwent case-hardening and subsequent deep freezing treatments in an attempt to yield discrete sample groups with respect to residual austenite. This allowed for a

  6. Reactive boundary layers in metallic rolling contacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burbank, John

    2016-01-01

    In order to meet the goal of reducing CO 2 emissions, automotive industry places significant importance on downsizing components to achieve greater efficiency through lower weight and reduced friction. As friction reductions are associated with energy efficiency and wear protection with resource conservation, ever greater attention has been given to adamantine carbon- based coatings and high-alloyed steels. Such applications are, however, associated with high production costs and energy expenditures, as well as many technical difficulties. Therefore a key issue in meeting the goals of friction reduction, wear protection and development of comprehensive lightweight strategies is whether or not the functional profiles of state-of-the art alloys can be enhanced by affordable solutions. The running-in phase of mechanical systems is inevitable and, from a tribological standpoint, critical for the lifetime of such systems, though receives little attention and is poorly understood. The growth of micro-cracks accelerates premature material failure and wear during this phase of heightened friction. With this in mind, the ultimate goal of this current work is to transfer the running-in phase into the final step of the mechanical finishing process through the targeted pre-conditioning of novel, high toughness steel bearings without thermo-chemical treatments and compare these to conventional, case-hardened steels. Two mechanisms were investigated: a. Cold work hardening and b. Chemical tribofilm formation. Steels that showed a tendency toward work hardening and tribofilm formation in previous testing were chosen for this investigation. Thorough characterization of the chosen steels was carried out before any pre-conditioning techniques were applied. The widely used 20MnCr5, seen as a reference gear steel, underwent case-hardening and subsequent deep freezing treatments in an attempt to yield discrete sample groups with respect to residual austenite. This allowed for a more

  7. Multi-cycle rolled aluminum alloy 3103 sandwiches: mechanical properties and stamp ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nosova Ekaterina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Constructional part producing by sheet stamping of multilayer composites requires the stamping ability data. The aim of a work is to estimate mechanical properties, stamping ratio and anisotropy indexes of 2, 4, 8 and 12 layer sandwiches produced from aluminium alloy AA3103. The pieces were received by the cold rolling. Interoperation annealing was at 500°C for 1 hour. Charts of tensile strength, yield stress, elongation depending on layer thickness were composed. It was found that cold strain hardening does not disappear after annealing if the foil’s thickness become 0.4 mm and less. Microstructure analysis has shown a good contact between layers for all samples and thicker outer layers.

  8. Measurement of Normal and Friction Forces in a Rolling Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Poul; Arentoft, Mogens; Wanheim, Tarras

    2004-01-01

    by the fric-tion conditions. To achieve this important informa-tion, measurements of the normal pressure and friction stresses in the deformation zone are re-quested. The direction of the friction stresses is changing during the rolling gap. At the entrance of the de-formation zone, the peripherical velocity...... of the roll is higher than for the incoming material, which causes frictional stresses at the material acting in the rolling direction. At the outlet of the rolling gap, the velocity of the deformed material exceeds the velocity of the roll, generating frictional stresses contrary to the direction of rolling....... In a narrow area in the deformation zone, the velocity of the de-formed material is equal to the velocity of the rolls. This area or line is named “neutral line”. The posi-tion of the neutral line depends on friction, reduc-tion ratio, diameter of the rolls, and width of the sheet....

  9. NON-CENTRAL ROLLING OF FLAT WORKS WITH TAPERED THICKNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Isaevich

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The way of forming of variable shape strips with rolling in non-drive waves with rounding by the movable arbor strip is analyzed. The way of rolling with derivation of speeds of deforming instruments is offered.

  10. Rolling Friction on a Wheeled Laboratory Cart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungan, Carl E.

    2012-01-01

    A simple model is developed that predicts the coefficient of rolling friction for an undriven laboratory cart on a track that is approximately independent of the mass loaded onto the cart and of the angle of inclination of the track. The model includes both deformation of the wheels/track and frictional torque at the axles/bearings. The concept of…

  11. 9 CFR 381.159 - Poultry rolls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry rolls. 381.159 Section 381.159... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions and Standards of Identity or Composition § 381...

  12. The riddles of rock and roll

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J.M. d' Anjou (Leo)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractRock and roll has often been equated with rebellion. The genre, though, is just a form of popular music and many of the important players in the game of promoting it were, like the saying goes, only in it for the money. As a rule, music like that will be supportive of the social order

  13. Statistical prediction of parametric roll using FORM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Choi, Ju-hyuck; Nielsen, Ulrik Dam

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has shown that the First Order Reliability Method (FORM) can be an efficient method for estimation of outcrossing rates and extreme value statistics for stationary stochastic processes. This is so also for bifurcation type of processes like parametric roll of ships. The present...

  14. Crowdsourcing rock n' roll multimedia retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoek, Cees G.M.; Freiburg, Bauke; Oomen, Johan; Ordelman, Roeland J.F.

    2010-01-01

    In this technical demonstration, we showcase a multimedia search engine that facilitates semantic access to archival rock n' roll concert video. The key novelty is the crowdsourcing mechanism, which relies on online users to improve, extend, and share, automatically detected results in video

  15. Detection of Parametric Roll on Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galeazzi, Roberto; Blanke, Mogens; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2012-01-01

    phenomenon could make the navigator change ship’s speed and heading, and these remedial actions could make the vessel escape the bifurcation. This chapter proposes non-parametric methods to detect the onset of parametric roll resonance. Theoretical conditions for parametric resonance are re...... on experimental data from towing tank tests and data from a container ship passing an Atlantic storm....

  16. Cold water injection nozzles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kura, Masaaki; Maeda, Masamitsu; Endo, Takio.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To inject cold water in a reactor without applying heat cycles to a reactor container and to the inner wall of a feedwater nozzle by securing a perforated plate at the outlet of the cold water injection nozzle. Constitution: A disc-like cap is secured to the final end of a return nozzle of a control rod drive. The cap prevents the flow of a high temperature water flowing downward in the reactor from entering into the nozzle. The cap is perforated with a plurality of bore holes for injecting cold water into the reactor. The cap is made to about 100 mm in thickness so that the cold water passing through the bore holes is heated by the heat conduction in the cap. Accordingly, the flow of high temperature water flowing downwardly in the reactor is inhibited by the cap from backward flowing into the nozzle. Moreover, the flow of the cold water in the nozzle is controlled and rectified when passed through the bore holes in the cap and then injected into the reactor. (Yoshino, Y.)

  17. Lengthening the lifetime of roll-to-roll produced polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Morten Vesterager

    the knowledge of the degradation mechanisms involved in roll-to-roll coated polymer solar cells. While only a part of the experiments have directly involved roll-to-roll coated devices, most of the work is applicable to coated devices. The first part of the dissertation is devoted to the study of in......The field of polymer solar cells is a field with an exponential growth in the number of published papers. It is a field defined by a set of challenges including; efficiency, stability and processability. Before all of these challenges have been addressed; polymer solar cells...... will not be a commercial success. This dissertation is devoted primarily to the study of the stability of polymer solar cells, and more specifically to designing and verifying experimental techniques, procedures, and automated solutions to stability tests and characterization. The goal of the project was to expand...

  18. Effect of Rolling Resistance in Dem Models With Spherical Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubina Radek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The rolling resistance is an artificial moment arising on the contact of two discrete elements which mimics resistance of two grains of complex shape in contact rolling relatively to each other. The paper investigates the influence of rolling resistance on behaviour of an assembly of spherical discrete elements. Besides the resistance to rolling, the contacts between spherical particles obey the Hertzian law in normal straining and Coulomb model of friction in shear.

  19. Electron backscatter diffraction study of deformation and recrystallization textures of individual phases in a cross-rolled duplex steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaid, Md; Bhattacharjee, P.P., E-mail: pinakib@iith.ac.in

    2014-10-15

    The evolution of microstructure and texture during cross-rolling and annealing was investigated by electron backscatter diffraction in a ferritic–austenitic duplex stainless steel. For this purpose an alloy with nearly equal volume fraction of the two phases was deformed by multi-pass cross-rolling process up to 90% reduction in thickness. The rolling and transverse directions were mutually interchanged in each pass by rotating the sample by 90° around the normal direction. In order to avoid deformation induced phase transformation and dynamic strain aging, the rolling was carried out at an optimized temperature of 898 K (625 °C) at the warm-deformation range. The microstructure after cross warm-rolling revealed a lamellar structure with alternate arrangement of the bands of two phases. Strong brass and rotated brass components were observed in austenite in the steel after processing by cross warm-rolling. The ferrite in the cross warm-rolling processed steel showed remarkably strong RD-fiber (RD//< 011 >) component (001)< 011 >. The development of texture in the two phases after processing by cross warm-rolling could be explained by the stability of the texture components. During isothermal annealing of the 90% cross warm-rolling processed material the lamellar morphology was retained before collapse of the lamellar structure to the mutual interpenetration of the phase bands. Ferrite showed recovery resulting in annealing texture similar to the deformation texture. In contrast, the austenite showed primary recrystallization without preferential orientation selection leading to the retention of deformation texture. The evolution of deformation and annealing texture in the two phases of the steel was independent of one another. - Highlights: • Effect of cross warm-rolling on texture formation is studied in duplex steel. • Brass texture in austenite and (001)<110 > in ferrite are developed. • Ferrite shows recovery during annealing retaining the (001

  20. Roll-to-Roll fabrication of large area functional organic materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Roar R.; Hösel, Markus; Krebs, Frederik C

    2013-01-01

    With the prospect of extremely fast manufacture of very low cost devices, organic electronics prepared by thin film processing techniques that are compatible with roll-to-roll (R2R) methods are presently receiving an increasing interest. Several technologies using organic thin films...... research fields such as organic photovoltaics, organic thin film transistors, light-emitting diodes, polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells, and electrochromic devices. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part B: Polym Phys 000: 000–000, 2012...