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Sample records for cold fusion

  1. Cold fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Suk Yong; Sung, Ki Woong; Kang, Joo Sang; Lee, Jong Jik

    1995-02-01

    So called 'cold fusion phenomena' are not confirmed yet. Excess heat generation is very delicate one. Neutron generation is most reliable results, however, the records are erratic and the same results could not be repeated. So there is no reason to exclude the malfunction of testing instruments. The same arguments arise in recording 4 He, 3 He, 3 H, which are not rich in quantity basically. An experiment where plenty of 4 He were recorded is attached in appendix. The problem is that we are trying to search cold fusion which is permitted by nature or not. The famous tunneling effect in quantum mechanics will answer it, however, the most fusion rate is known to be negligible. The focus of this project is on the theme that how to increase that negligible fusion rate. 6 figs, 4 tabs, 1512 refs. (Author)

  2. Cold fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Suk Yong; Sung, Ki Woong; Kang, Joo Sang; Lee, Jong Jik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-02-01

    So called `cold fusion phenomena` are not confirmed yet. Excess heat generation is very delicate one. Neutron generation is most reliable results, however, the records are erratic and the same results could not be repeated. So there is no reason to exclude the malfunction of testing instruments. The same arguments arise in recording {sup 4}He, {sup 3}He, {sup 3}H, which are not rich in quantity basically. An experiment where plenty of {sup 4}He were recorded is attached in appendix. The problem is that we are trying to search cold fusion which is permitted by nature or not. The famous tunneling effect in quantum mechanics will answer it, however, the most fusion rate is known to be negligible. The focus of this project is on the theme that how to increase that negligible fusion rate. 6 figs, 4 tabs, 1512 refs. (Author).

  3. Cold fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koster, J.

    1989-01-01

    In this contribution the author the phenomenom of so-called cold fusion, inspired by the memorable lecture of Moshe Gai on his own search for this effect. Thus much of what follows was presented by Dr. Gai; the rest is from independent reading. What is referred to as cold fusion is of course the observation of possible products of deuteron-deuteron (d-d) fusion within deuterium-loaded (dentended) electrodes. The debate over the two vanguard cold fusion experiments has raged under far more public attention than usually accorded new scientific phenomena. The clamor commenced with the press conference of M. Fleishmann and S. Pons on March 23, 1989 and the nearly simultaneous wide circulation of a preprint of S. Jones and collaborators. The majority of work attempting to confirm these observations has at the time of this writing yet to appear in published form, but contributions to conferences and electronic mail over computer networks were certainly filled with preliminary results. To keep what follows to a reasonable length the author limit this discussion to the searches for neutron (suggested by ref. 2) or for excessive heat production (suggested by ref. 1), following a synopsis of the hypotheses of cold fusion

  4. Cold fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Suk Yong; You, Jae Jun

    1996-01-01

    Nearly every technical information is chased in the world. All of them are reviewed and analyzed. Some of them are chosen to study further more to review every related documents. And a probable suggestion about the excitonic process in deuteron absorbed condensed matter is proposed a way to cold fusion. 8 refs. (Author)

  5. Cold fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bush, R.T.

    1991-01-01

    The transmission resonance model (TRM) is combined with some electrochemistry of the cathode surface and found to provide a good fit to new data on excess heat. For the first time, a model for cold fusion not only fits calorimetric data but also predicts optimal trigger points. This suggests that the model is meaningful and that the excess heat phenomenon claimed by Fleischmann and Pons is genuine. A crucial role is suggested for the overpotential and, in particular, for the concentration overpotential, i.e., the hydrogen overvoltage. Self-similar geometry, or scale invariance, i.e., a fractal nature, is revealed by the relative excess power function. Heat bursts are predicted with a scale invariance in time, suggesting a possible link between the TRM and chaos theory. The model describes a near-surface phenomenon with an estimated excess power yield of ∼1 kW/cm 3 Pd, as compared to 50 W/cm 3 of reactor core for a good fission reactor. Transmission resonance-induced nuclear transmutation, a new type of nuclear reaction, is strongly suggested with two types emphasized: transmission resonance-induced neutron transfer reactions yielding essentially the same end result as Teller's hypothesized catalytic neutron transfer and a three-body reaction promoted by standing de Broglie waves. In this paper suggestions for the anomalous production of heat, particles, and radiation are given

  6. Cold fusion, Alchemist's dream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, E.D.

    1989-09-01

    In this report the following topics relating to cold fusion are discussed: muon catalysed cold fusion; piezonuclear fusion; sundry explanations pertaining to cold fusion; cosmic ray muon catalysed cold fusion; vibrational mechanisms in excited states of D 2 molecules; barrier penetration probabilities within the hydrogenated metal lattice/piezonuclear fusion; branching ratios of D 2 fusion at low energies; fusion of deuterons into 4 He; secondary D+T fusion within the hydrogenated metal lattice; 3 He to 4 He ratio within the metal lattice; shock induced fusion; and anomalously high isotopic ratios of 3 He/ 4 He

  7. Cold fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-11-01

    I am pleased to forward to you the Final Report of the Cold Fusion Panel. This report reviews the current status of cold fusion and includes major chapters on Calorimetry and Excess Heat, Fusion Products and Materials Characterization. In addition, the report makes a number of conclusions and recommendations, as requested by the Secretary of Energy

  8. Cold nuclear fusion device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogino, Shinji.

    1991-01-01

    Selection of cathode material is a key to the attainment of cold nuclear fusion. However, there are only few reports on the cathode material at present and an effective development has been demanded. The device comprises an anode and a cathode and an electrolytic bath having metal salts dissolved therein and containing heavy water in a glass container. The anode is made of gold or platinum and the cathode is made of metals of V, Sr, Y, Nb, Hf or Ta, and a voltage of 3-25V is applied by way of a DC power source between them. The metal comprising V, Sr, Y, Nb, Hf or Ta absorbs deuterium formed by electrolysis of heavy water effectively to cause nuclear fusion reaction at substantially the same frequency and energy efficiency as palladium and titanium. Accordingly, a cold nuclear fusion device having high nuclear fusion generation frequency can be obtained. (N.H.)

  9. Cold fusion - todays situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malmqvist, K.

    1993-01-01

    A brief review of the history of cold fusion is given. It is noted that it is not possible to draw any definite conclusions about all the experimental and theoretical details, but that some of the results presented do not seem to be reached according to the normal scientific methods. 6 figs

  10. Cold fusion in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, L.

    1989-01-01

    Since early April a great deal of excitement has been created over the Fleischmann/Pons cold fusion experiment, which if it performs as advertised, could turn out to be mankind's best hope of heading off the energy crisis scheduled for early in the next century. Dozens of groups around the world are now attempting to duplicate the experiment to see if Fleischmann and Pons' discovery is an experimental mistake, an unknown electrochemical effect or a new kind of fusion reaction. This article puts the experiment into the perspective of today and looks at how it might affect the energy scene tomorrow if it should turn out to be commercially exploitable. (author)

  11. Experiments in cold fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, E.P.

    1986-01-01

    The work of Steve Jones and others in muon-catalyzed cold fusion of deuterium and hydrogen suggests the possibility of such fusion catalyzed by ions, or combinations of atoms, or more-or-less free electrons in solid and liquid materials. A hint that this might occur naturally comes from the heat generated in volcanic action in subduction zones on the earth. It is questionable whether the potential energy of material raised to the height of a midocean ridge and falling to the depth of an ocean trench can produce the geothermal effects seen in the volcanoes of subduction zones. If the ridge, the trench, the plates, and the asthenosphere are merely visible effects of deeper density-gradient driven circulations, it is still uncertain that observed energy-concentration effects fit the models

  12. The status of cold fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storms, E.

    This report attempts to update the status of the phenomenon of cold fusion. The new field is continuing to grow as a variety of nuclear reactions are discovered to occur in a variety of chemical environments at modest temperatures. However, it must be cautioned that most scientists consider cold fusion as something akin to UFO's, ESP, and numerology.

  13. Cold nuclear fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsyganov, E.N., E-mail: edward.tsyganov@coldfusion-power.com [Cold Fusion Power, International (United States); Bavizhev, M.D. [LLC “Radium”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Buryakov, M.G. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation); Dabagov, S.B. [RAS P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Leninsky pr. 53, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Kashirskoe shosse 31, 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation); Golovatyuk, V.M.; Lobastov, S.P. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-15

    If target deuterium atoms were implanted in a metal crystal in accelerator experiments, a sharp increase in the probability of DD-fusion reaction was clearly observed when compared with the reaction’s theoretical value. The electronic screening potential, which for a collision of free deuterium atoms is about 27 eV, reached 300–700 eV in the case of the DD-fusion in metallic crystals. These data leads to the conclusion that a ban must exist for deuterium atoms to be in the ground state 1s in a niche filled with free conduction electrons. At the same time, the state 2p whose energy level is only 10 eV above that of state 1s is allowed in these conditions. With anisotropy of 2p, 3p or above orbitals, their spatial positions are strictly determined in the lattice coordinate system. When filling out the same potential niches with two deuterium atoms in the states 2p, 3p or higher, the nuclei of these atoms can be permanently positioned without creating much Coulomb repulsion at a very short distance from each other. In this case, the transparency of the potential barrier increases dramatically compared to the ground state 1s for these atoms. The probability of the deuterium nuclei penetrating the Coulomb barrier by zero quantum vibration of the DD-system also increases dramatically. The so-called cold nuclear DD-fusion for a number of years was registered in many experiments, however, was still rejected by mainstream science for allegedly having no consistent scientific explanation. Finally, it received the validation. Below, we outline the concept of this explanation and give the necessary calculations. This paper also considers the further destiny of the formed intermediate state of {sup 4}He{sup ∗}.

  14. Cold fusion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Akihito.

    1994-01-01

    A Pt wire electrode is supported from the periphery relative to a Pd electrode by way of a polyethylene or teflon plate in heavy water, and electrolysis is applied while varying conditions successively in a sawteeth fashion at an initial stage, and after elapse of about one week, a pulse current is supplied to promote nuclear reaction and to generate excess heat greater than a charged electric power. That is, small amount of neutron emission is increased and electrolytic cell temperature is elevated by varying the electrolysis conditions successively in the sawteeth fashion at the initial stage. In addition, when the pulse electric current is supplied after elapse of about one week, the electrolytic cell temperature is abnormally elevated, so that the promotion of nuclear reaction phenomenon and the generation of excess heat greater than the charged electric power are recognized. Then, a way to control power level and time fluctuation of cold fusion is attained, thereby contributing to development of a further method for generating excess heat as desired. In addition, it contributes to a development for a method of obtaining such an excess heat that can be taken as a new energy. (N.H.)

  15. Hesitant birth of cold fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bockris, J.O.

    1992-01-01

    John O'M. Bockris, a distinguished chemistry professor at Texas A ampersand M University, finds the reaction to the announcement of the discovery of cold fusion curious. Two years earlier, he notes, there had been a comparable announcement concerning the discovery of high-temperature superconductivity; it received favorable press coverage for months. The cold-fusion announcement, on the other hand, was met with dour skepticism. When other researchers failed in efforts to duplicate the findings of Martin Fleischmann and B. Stanley Pons, Bockris says, the two scientists were held up to ridicule. Bockris says he found a deep emotional opposition to cold fusion, even within his own department and university. This opposition is fueled in large part, he believes, by big science and the hot fusion lobby. A key indicator of cold fusion is the presence of tritium, Brockis claims. At Texas A ampersand M, large amounts of tritium have been found in some experiments; this also has occurred in experiments at more than 40 laboratories in nine countries, he says. Excess heat production is more difficult to attain, he acknowledges. The cold-fusion controversy has uncovered some unflattering characteristics of the scientific community, Bockris says. Among them are: scientists are no less driven by emotion that business people or politicians; research funding decisions serve to perpetuate the goals of politically powerful interest groups; and ideas have great inertia once planted in a scientist's mind

  16. Cold fusion and hot history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewenstein, B.

    1996-01-01

    The history of cold fusion research following the announcement of the Pons-Fleischmann experiment is described in detail, including all the confusion, responses of scientists, personal impressions, personal quotations, reactions of the media, references to contemporary sources, etc. (P.A.). 5 figs

  17. Cold fusion anomalies more perplexing than ever

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagani, R.

    1989-01-01

    This article addresses the debate over research on cold fusion. Analysis is made of the research efforts that have taken place since cold fusion was first thought to have been discovered in Utah. Research in the Soviet Union on the cold fusion phenomenon is also discussed

  18. The status of 'cold fusion'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagel, David J.

    1998-01-01

    The questions raised by reports of nuclear reactions at low energies, so called 'cold fusion', are not yet answered to the satisfaction of many scientists. Further experimental investigations of these and related questions seems desirable, at least for scientific if not practical reasons. Properly conducted, such investigations would be indistinguishable from normal research. They would yield information germane to accepted areas of scientific inquiry and technological utility

  19. Current status of cold fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsarev, V.A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the term cold fusion (CF) was known up to March 1989 as the synonym of muon-catalyzed fusion, suggested by A.D. Sakharov more than 40 years ago. Broad use of this term for the last two years is associated with other kind of phenomena: fusion at ambient room temperature of nuclei of hydrogen isotopes embedded into crystal lattice. Nowadays only few remember the unbelievable resonance in the whole world, caused by the first claims of CF from Utah and associated with hopes of a simple and ecologically safe solution to the energy problems confronting humanity. The range of the interest reflected also the receptivity of our society for scientific ideas and wide development of telecommunication media. Extraordinary simplicity of CF experiments (in sharp contrast with hug complexity and high cost of thermonuclear researches) stimulated fast involvement of a large number of specialists of various profiles. Participation of small groups and even individual enthusiasts disposing of only simplest physical and chemical equipment became possible. Figuratively speaking, everybody with a pair of strong hands and a spade had a chance to find his nugget of gold in this Klondike. As a result: passion, rush and a very nonuniform composition of participants in this race for cold fusion, far from being all property prepared and having sense of responsibility

  20. Warming up to cold fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storms, E.

    1994-01-01

    The idea that tabletop equipment at room temperature could produce nuclear fusion was widely rejected five years ago by the scientific community. Nevertheless, recent results from numerous labs show that a novel phenomena of some kind may indeed be occurring, though theorist are still groping for an explanation. Many aspects of the cold fusion effect are now reproducible if known procedures are used. Palladium, when reacted with enough deuterium, apparently converts to a special condition of matter in which various nuclear reactions--including deuterium-deuterium fusion--can occur despite the repulsive force of the two positive charged nuclei. These reactions can be made to proceed rapidly enough to produce measurable heat. Scientist have published several dozen models, ranging from highly analytical approaches to pictorial representations, to explain these events. Most theories address only the problem of overcoming the coulombic barrier--how it is possible for nuclei to overcome their natural repulsion for each other without an infusion of massive amounts of energy from the outside. None of the proposed explanations accounts for the full range of experimental observations. Nevertheless a workable theory is crucial if we ever hope to apply cold fusion

  1. Observation of stars produced during cold fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, T.

    1992-01-01

    It has been indicated tht multiple-neutron nuclei such as quad-neutrons can be emitted during cold fusion. These multiple-neutrons might bombard the nuclei of materials outside a cold fusion cell to cause nuclear reactions. In this paper, observations of nuclear emulsions that were irradiated during a cold fusion experiment with heavy water and palladium foil are described. Various traces, like stars, showing nuclear reactions caused by the multiple-neutrons have been clearly observed

  2. Does cold nuclear fusion exist?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brudanin, V.B.; Bystritskij, V.M.; Egorov, V.G.; Shamsutdinov, S.G.; Shyshkin, A.L.; Stolupin, V.A.; Yutlandov, I.A.

    1989-01-01

    The results of investigation of cold nuclear fusion on palladium are given both for electrolysis of heavy water D 2 O and mixture D 2 O + H 2 O) (1:1) and for palladium saturation with gaseous deuterium. The possibility of existance of this phenomenon was examined by detection of neutrons and gamma quanta from reactions: d + d → 3 He + n + 3.27 MeV, p + d → 3 He + γ + 5.5 MeV. Besides these reactions were identified by measuring the characteristic X radiation of palladium due to effect of charged products 3 He, p, t. The upper limits of the intensities of hypothetical sources of neutrons and gamma quanta at the 95% confidence level were obtained to be Q n ≤ 2x10 -2 n/sxcm 3 Pd, Q γ ≤ 2x10 -3 γ/sxcm 3 Pd. 2 refs.; 4 figs.; 2 tabs

  3. Cold fusion reactors and new modern physics

    OpenAIRE

    Huang Zhenqiang Huang Yuxiang

    2013-01-01

    The author of the "modern physics classical particle quantization orbital motion model general solution", referred to as the “new modern physics” a book. “The nuclear force constraint inertial guidance cold nuclear fusion collides” patent of invention referred to as the “cold nuclear fusion reactor” detailed technical data. Now provide to you, hope you help spread and the mainstream of modern physics of academic and fusion engineering academic communication. We work together to promote the c...

  4. Cold fusion catalyzed by muons and electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulsrud, R.M.

    1990-10-01

    Two alternative methods have been suggested to produce fusion power at low temperature. The first, muon catalyzed fusion or MCF, uses muons to spontaneously catalyze fusion through the muon mesomolecule formation. Unfortunately, this method fails to generate enough fusion energy to supply the muons, by a factor of about ten. The physics of MCF is discussed, and a possible approach to increasing the number of MCF fusions generated by each muon is mentioned. The second method, which has become known as ''Cold Fusion,'' involves catalysis by electrons in electrolytic cells. The physics of this process, if it exists, is more mysterious than MCF. However, it now appears to be an artifact, the claims for its reality resting largely on experimental errors occurring in rather delicate experiments. However, a very low level of such fusion claimed by Jones may be real. Experiments in cold fusion will also be discussed

  5. Thinking about the cold fusion fever

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitsunezaki, Akio

    1989-01-01

    The excitement since March 23 on cold fusion seems to be unprecedented evidence that the people of the world are waiting for fusion power with much enthusiasm. Cold fusion is really a surprise because it does not need high temperature and because it seems to be easy to enlarge the test tube into a useful power source if the claim by Professors Pons and Fleischmann at the University of Utah are true. The second announcement of cold fusion came from the Brigham Young University, also in the state of Utah, by Professor Jones, but his report was totally different from that given by Pons and Fleischmann. From the beginning of the 'fever', physicists have been very skeptical about cold fusion. Most of the critics and criticisms are targeted on Pons and Fleischmann rather than Jones, because not only was their paper poor but also their statements have not been scientific. They insisted that the heat came from fusion reaction, but without any scientific proof. They had not carried out the basic control experiment by running the same test with ordinary water instead of heavy water. A meeting on cold fusion was held at JAERI on May 15. At the end of the meeting, the some 260 attendants knew that cold fusion was not conceivable with the current scientific knowledge. (N.K.)

  6. Cold fusion research in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaramuzzi, F.

    1993-01-01

    This paper summarizes cold fusion (CF) research in Italy. In Italy, many Agencies and Universities are moderately funding research in CF, and the scientists have made a few attempts to coordinate each other, organizing meetings and conferences. However, the activity has been mostly the fruit of the scientists' initiative, and never a coordinated proposal of Agencies and Universities. No position on the scientific validity of the subject has been officially taken and the funds for CF have been rather modest. The investments in Italy on CF, the figure referring to 1992 amounts to about 0.5 million dollars, not including expenses for personnel. A number of about 70 scientists, mostly working part-time, is committed all around the Country in research on CF. The lack of offical commitment and effective support by the Research Agencies and the Universities has not prevented scientists from being quite active in performing research. On the other side, it has to be acknowledged that no formal vetoes have been interposed to the free initiative of scientists in this field: on the contrary, some of the Agencies and Universities have moderately funded such an effort. The quality of the experiments in Italy has been increasingly good, and the results obtained are rather out standing in the general panorama of CF. But it is time to perform a more coordinated effort, keeping in mind that material science aspects, such as the characteristics of the materials used, play a very important role in the development of this topic. Thus, a much more intense effort is required to obtain a more substantial progress in the field. The increasingly convincing results obtained by the whole CF community, and the example of the Japanese Government and Industry, which appear to be determined to promoting CF research, have changed the panorama of CF. These are now signs that also the Italian scientific authorities could consider favouring research in this field in the near future. (J.P.N.)

  7. Cold versus hot fusion deuterium branching ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, H.; Bass, R.

    1995-01-01

    A major source of misunderstanding of the nature of cold nuclear fusion has been the expectation that the deuterium branching ratios occurring within a palladium lattice would be consistent with the gas-plasma branching ratios. This misunderstanding has led to the concept of the dead graduate student, the 1989's feverish but fruitless search for neutron emissions from cold fusion reactors, and the follow-on condemnation of the new science of cold fusion. The experimental facts are that in a properly loaded palladium lattice, the deuterium fusion produces neutrons at little above background, a greatly less-than-expected production of tritium (the tritium desert), and substantially more helium-4 than is observed in hot plasma physics. The experimental evidence is now compelling (800 reports of success from 30 countries) that cold nuclear fusion is a reality, that the branching ratios are unexpected, and that a new science is struggling to be recognized. Commercialization of some types of cold fusion devices has already begun

  8. Cold nuclear fusion. Germany 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrescu, Florian Ion

    2012-07-01

    Nuclear fusion is the process by which two or more atomic nuclei join together, or ''fuse'', to form a single heavier nucleus. During this process, matter is not conserved because some of the mass of the fusing nuclei is converted to energy which is released. The binding energy of the resulting nucleus is greater than the binding energy of each of the nuclei that fused to produce it. Fusion is the process that powers active stars. Creating the required conditions for fusion on Earth is very difficult, to the point that it has not been accomplished at any scale for protium, the common light isotope of hydrogen that undergoes natural fusion in stars. In nuclear weapons, some of the energy released by an atomic bomb (fission bomb) is used for compressing and heating a fusion fuel containing heavier isotopes of hydrogen, and also sometimes lithium, to the point of ''ignition''. At this point, the energy released in the fusion reactions is enough to briefly maintain the reaction. Fusion-based nuclear power experiments attempt to create similar conditions using far lesser means, although to date these experiments have failed to maintain conditions needed for ignition long enough for fusion to be a viable commercial power source.

  9. Outline of cold nuclear fusion reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachikawa, Enzo

    1991-01-01

    In 2010, as the total supply capacity of primary energy, 666 million liter is anticipated under the measures of thorough energy conservation. The development of energy sources along the energy policy based on environment preservation, safety, the quantity of resources and economy is strongly demanded. The nuclear power generation utilizing nuclear fission has been successfully carried out. As the third means of energy production, the basic research and technical development have been actively advanced on the energy production utilizing nuclear fusion reaction. The main object of the nuclear fusion research being advanced now is D-D reaction and D-T reaction. In order to realize low temperature nuclear fusion reaction, muon nuclear fusion has been studied so far. The cold nuclear fusion reaction by the electrolysis of heavy water has been reported in 1989, and its outline is ixplained in this report. The trend of the research on cold nuclear fusion is described. But the possibility of cold nuclear fusion as an energy source is almost denied. (K.I.)

  10. Congress turns cold on fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, E.

    1984-01-01

    A 5% cut in fusion research budgets will force some programs to be dropped in order to keep the large machinery running unless US and European scientists collaborate instead of competing. Legislators became uneasy about the escalating costs of the new devices. The 1984 budget of $470 million for magnetic fusion research is only half the projected cost of the Tokomak Fusion Core Experiment (TFCX) planned to ignite, for the first time, a self-sustaining burn. Planning for the TCFX continued despite the message from Congress. Work at the large institutions at Princeton, MIT, etc. may survive at the expense of other programs, some of which will lose academic programs as well. Scientists point to the loss of new ideas and approaches when projects are cancelled. Enthusiasm is growing for international collaboration

  11. Cold valleys in fusion and fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misicu, S.

    2003-01-01

    The cold fission configuration after the preformation of the fragments resembles a short-lived dinuclear or quasi-molecular system. The most conceivable scission configuration is given by two fission fragments in touching with the symmetry axes aligned (pole-pole orientation). This conclusion was based on the simple argument that this configuration offers the optimal tunneling time, i.e. the difference between the Coulomb barrier and the decay energy Q is minimal. Other orientations are apparently precluded in cold spontaneous fission and should be regarded as quasi-fission doorways in the synthesis of superheavy elements by cold fusion. (orig.)

  12. Recent cold fusion claims: are they valid?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalski, Ludwik

    2006-01-01

    Cold fusion consists of nuclear reactions occurring in solid metals loaded with hydrogen. Considerable progress has been made in that area in the last ten years. This 2004 paper summarizes recent claims without attempting to evaluate their validity. The manuscript was submitted to seven physics journals. Unfortunately, the editors rejected it without the benefit of the usual peer-review process. (author)

  13. Neutron measurements in search of cold fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.E.; Goulding, C.A.; Johnson, M.W.; Butterfield, K.B.; Gottesfeld, S.; Baker, D.A.; Springer, T.E.; Garzon, F.H.; Bolton, R.D.; Leonard, E.M.; Chancellor, T.

    1990-01-01

    We have conducted a research for neutron emission from cold fusion systems of the electrochemical type and, to a lesser extent, the high-pressure gas cell type. Using a high-efficiency well counter and an NE 213 scintillator, the experiments were conducted on the earth's surface and in a shielded cave approximately 50 ft underground. After approximately 6500 h of counting time, we have obtained no evidence for cold fusion processes leading to neutron production. However, we have observed all three types of neutron data that have been presented as evidence for cold fusion: large positive fluctuations in the neutron counting rate, weak peaks near 2.5 MeV in the neutron energy spectrum, and bursts of up to 145 neutrons in 500-μs intervals. The data were obtained under circumstances that clearly show our results to be data encountered as a part of naturally occurring neutron background, which is due primarily to cosmic rays. Thus, observing these types of data does not, of itself, provide evidence for the existence of cold fusion processes. Artifacts in the data that were due to counter misbehavior were also to lead to long-term ''neutron bursts'' whose time duration varied from several hours to several days. We conclude that any experiments which attempt to observe neutron emission must include strong steps to ensure that the experiments deal adequately with both cosmic-ray processes and counter misbehavior. 13 refs., 14 figs

  14. Some theories of cold nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preparata, G.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper a review is presented of the main theoretical attempts to describe the phenomenology of cold fusion, whose general structure begins to clearly unravel. The main conclusion is that the approaches that are likely to be of relevance must invoke processes where the elementary components (nuclei and electrons) of condensed matter act in a coherent fashion

  15. Achievement of solid-state plasma fusion ('Cold-Fusion')

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arata, Yoshiaki; Zhang, Yue-Chang

    1995-01-01

    Using a 'QMS' (Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer), the authors detected a significantly large amount (10 20 -10 21 [cm -3 ]) of helium ( 2 4 He), which was concluded to have been produced by a deuterium nuclear reaction within a host solid. These results were found to be fully repeatable and supported the authors' proposition that solid state plasma fusion ('Cold Fusion') can be generated in energetic deuterium Strongly Coupled Plasma ('SC-plasma'). This fusion reaction is thought to be sustained by localized 'Latticequake' in a solid-state media with the deuterium density equivalent to that of the host solid. While exploring this basic proposition, the characteristic differences when compared with ultra high temperature-state plasma fusion ('Hot Fusion') are clarified. In general, the most essential reaction product in both types of the deuterium plasma fusion is considered to be helium, irrespective of the 'well-known and/or unknown reactions', which is stored within the solid-state medium in abundance as a 'Residual Product', but which generally can not enter into nor be released from host-solid at a room temperature. Even measuring instruments with relatively poor sensitivity should be able to easily detect such residual helium. An absence of residual helium means that no nuclear fusion reaction has occurred, whereas its presence provides crucial evidence that nuclear fusion has, in fact, occurred in the solid. (author)

  16. Cold fusion saga: Lesson in science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewenstein, B.V.

    1992-01-01

    A news conference at the University of Utah on March 23, 1989, ignited an explosion of scientific tempers almost as intense as the topic up for discussion - nuclear fusion. Two electrochemists, B. Stanley Pons and Martin Fleischmann, announced they had discovered a method for creating nuclear fusion at room temperature, using simple equipment available in any high school laboratory. This could mean unlimited supplies of cheap electricity in the future. The announcement set off a chain reaction involving the news media and scientists worldwide, notes Bruce V. Lewenstein of Cornell University. For the first six weeks of the saga, Lewenstein recalls, competing claims, counterclaims, and interpretations led to what many headline writers referred to as fusion confusion. Media attention faded gradually, but scientific attention didn't. Over the next two years, laboratory experiments, scientific reports, meetings, and panels kept the issue boiling. The cold-fusion saga, while more intense than some scientific research, followed familiar paths, Lewenstein believes. News coverage, political maneuvering, competition among scientists, parent rights, arguments about the interpretation of experiments - all points of contention - are normal, indeed, one might almost say integral, to modern science, he says. This is the stuff science is made of, he adds. And for those disturbed by the implications, Lewenstein cautions that cold-fusion may be the harbinger for other high-profile science, such as high-temperature superconductors

  17. Present knowledge of nuclear cold fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Violante, V.; Tripodi, P.; Lombardi, C.

    2001-01-01

    The nuclear cold fusion, disclosed with clamour in 1989, was successively deemed by most people a blunder. However, the research activities went on, even if softly, and they have been producing more convincing and reproducible results, as well as theoretical models capable of explaining the noticeable anomalies of this phenomenon with respect to the hot fusion. Then, now the demonstration of the phenomenon may be considered valid and accepted. More time is needed to know whether and how this new process may be exploitable to produce energy on an industrial scale [it

  18. Fusion - still out in the cold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsley, Mike.

    1989-01-01

    Scepticism over the claims made by Professors Martin Fleischman and Stanley Pons about cold fusion is expressed. The background to their experiment and announcement of their results is given. Other research teams have failed to repeat the experiment which claims that deuterium nuclei fused in a special electrochemical cell. If tritium is also produced, as is claimed, this would have important military implications as tritium is used in hydrogen bombs. Failing cold fusion, there is always the JET project but after 10 years and an expenditure of Pound 600 million that has failed to produce a net energy gain it would be better to spend the money developing renewable energy sources. (U.K.)

  19. Observation of tritium in cold fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, M.S.; Malhotra, S.K.; Gaonkar, D.G.; Sadhukhan, H.K.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the results of tritium measurements carried out during the electrolysis of heavy water in different electrolysers employing palladium and titanium as cathodes. The tritium level of electrolytes have been found to be many orders of magnitudes higher than what can be explained on the basis of isotope enrichment and evaporation during electrolysis. The neutron measurement results have also been included and these observations have been attributed to the phenomenon of cold fusion. (author). 6 refs., 1 tab

  20. Cold fusion - no end of discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifritz, W.

    1991-01-01

    In March 1989, Stanley Pons and Martin Fleischmann from the University of Utah/USA reported that they had discovered sporadic heat releases of non-chemical character in electro-chemical cells using palladium electrodes and heavy water. In the meantime, a series of new papers have been published in which similar effects and various explanations were described, although a number of qualified international research instituts could not confirm these findings. The subject matter 'cold fusion' is analysed critically. (orig.) [de

  1. Cold fusion produces more tritium than neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajagopalan, S.R.

    1989-01-01

    The results of the major cold fusion experiments performed in various laboratories of the world and attempts to explain them are reviewed in brief. Particular reference is made to the experiments carried out in the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Bombay. In BARC experiments, it is found that tritium is the primary product of cold fusion. Author has put forward two hypothetical pictures of D-D fusion. (1) When a metal like Pd or Ti is loaded with D 2 , a crack forms. Propogation of such a crack accelerates deuterons which bombard Pd D 2 /D held by Pd or Ti leading to neutron capture or tritium formation with the release of protons and energy. The released protons might transfer its energy to some other deuteron and a chain reaction is started. This chain reaction terminates when a substantial portion of D in the crack tip is transmuted. This picture explains fusion reaction bursts and the random distribution of reaction sites, but does not explain neutron emission. (2) The deuterons accelerated by a propogating crack may hit a Pd/Ti nucleus instead of a deuterium nucleus and may transmute Pd/Ti. (M.G.B.). 18 refs

  2. Cold Fusion Has Now Come Out of the Cold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storms, Edmund

    2003-10-01

    The phenomenon called cold fusion or LENR (Low-Energy-Nuclear-Reaction) has now achieved a level of reproducibility and understanding that warrants re-examination of the claims. A summary of what is known and want is being done worldwide to obtain more knowledge will be given. Rather than disappearing as better data are obtained, the effects are becoming more reproducible and of greater magnitude. Justification for this claim can be obtained at www.LENR-CANR.org. The phenomenon is too important to ignore any longer even though it conflicts with conventional theory.

  3. Verification of cold nuclear fusion reaction, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Zenko; Aratono, Yasuyuki; Hirabayashi, Takakuni

    1991-01-01

    Can cold nuclear fusion reaction occur as is expected? If it occurs, what extent is its reaction probability? At present after 2 years elapsed since its beginning, the clear solution of these questions is not yet obtained. In many reaction systems employing different means, the experiments to confirm the cold nuclear fusion reaction have been attempted. In order to confirm that the nuclear fusion reaction of deuterium mutually has occurred, the neutrons, He-3, protons, tritium or generated heat, which were formed by the reaction and released from the system, are measured. Since it is considered that the frequency of the occurrence at normal temperature of the reaction is very low, it is necessary to select the most suitable method upon evaluating the limit of detection peculiar to the measuring methods. The methods of measuring neutrons, protons, gamma ray and generated heat, and the reaction systems by electrolytic process and dry process are explained. The detection of plural kinds of the reaction products and the confirmation of synchronism of signals are important. (K.I.)

  4. High temperature superconductivity and cold fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabinowitz, M.

    1990-01-01

    There are numerous historical and scientific parallels between high temperature superconductivity (HTSC) and the newly emerging field of cold fusion (CF). Just as the charge carrier effective mass plays an important role in SC, the deuteron effective mass may play a vital role in CF. A new theory including effects of proximity, electron shielding, and decreased effective mass of the fusing nuclei can account for the reported CF results. A quantum-gas model that covers the range from low temperature to superhigh temperature SC indicates an increased T c with reduced dimensionality. A reduced dimensionality effect may also enhance CF. A relation is shown between CF and the significant cluster-impact fusion experiments

  5. Once more about cold nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brudanin, V.B.; Bystritsky, V.M.; Egorov, V.G.

    1989-01-01

    The results of the experiments on the search for cold nuclear d-d fusion in chemically pure titanium are given both for electrolysis of heavy water D 2 O and for titanium saturation with gaseous deuterium. The saturation took place at the temperature of 77K and pressure of 50 and 150 atm. A round of experiments with temperature varying from 1 to 600 atm was carried out. The limiting values of the partial rate of the nuclear reaction of d-d fusion with neutron production were obtained per deuteron (at the 95% confidence level): λ f ≤4x10 -25 s -1 (experiment with electrolysis), λ f ≤7x10 -28 s -1 (experiment with gaseous deuterium). 7 refs.; 5 figs.; 2 tabs

  6. Biases in cold fusion data; and reply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedman, Stuart; Krakauer, Daniel; Jones, S.E.; Decker, D.L.; Tolley, H.D.

    1990-01-01

    These two letters represent a criticism of a claim to have observed ''cold'' nuclear fusion and the original scientists' rebuttal of the claims against them. The first authors suggest that data presented has a peculiar characteristic, which, they claim, indicates a systematic bias in the data collection process, and thus calls the claimed observation into dispute. In reply, the original workers list a huge range of checks they made, before and after receiving the criticism, making allowances for all sorts of external parameters capable of affecting their results. (UK)

  7. Cold fusion, mass media and actual science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orefice, A. (Milan Univ. (Italy))

    1990-03-01

    The peculiar affair of cold nuclear fusion, a recent and exemplary pattern of today's scientific and public habits, is considered. An overview is proposed on the contemporary approach to science and technology, both of the mass media and research worlds. It shows how mass media with its power of suggestion and ability to raise financial resources can lead many researchers into unpredictable - if not irresponsible behaviour. Yet, an eccess of empiricism may often induce researchers to rely rather on serendipity than on deeper meditation.

  8. Cold fusion reactions with 48Ca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaeggeler, H.W.; Jost, D.T.; Tuerler, A.

    1989-04-01

    Cold fusion reactions with 48 Ca on the targets 208 Pb, 209 Bi, 197 Au, 184 W, 180 Hf are reported. The experiments were performed at the velocity filter SHIP of GSI. The maximum cross sections show a steep descent by about four orders of magnitude when going from 224 Th to 228 U as compound nuclei. Between uranium and einsteinium the cross sections stay rather low and increase by about two orders of magnitude for nobelium. For lawrencium the cross section decrease again. 7 figs., 1 tab., 38 refs

  9. Mechanisms of cold fusion: comprehensive explanations by the Nattoh model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Takaaki

    1995-01-01

    The phenomena of cold fusion seem to be very complicated; inconsistent data between the production rates of heat, neutrons, tritiums and heliums. Our thoughts need to drastically change in order to appropriately understand the mechanisms of cold fusion. Here, a review is described for the Nattoh model, that has been developed extensively to provide comprehensive explanations for the mechanisms of cold fusion. Important experimental findings that prove the model are described. Furthermore several subjects including impacts on other fields are also discussed. (author)

  10. Cold fusion labeled fiasco of century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huizenga, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    The gamble of researchers B. Stanley Pons and Martin Fleischmann to go public with their announcement of excess power from nuclear fusion at room temperature before they had solid evidence of fusion products is the scientific fiasco of the century, charges John R. Huizenga of the University of Rochester. He describes the claims of Pons and Fleischmann as a delusion and as pathological science. It would require belief in miracle after miracle for one to accept their discovery, he charges. Huizenga criticizes the researchers on several counts: they failed to challenge their own findings with control experiments and presentations to colleagues; they rushed to publication with unchecked and inaccurate data; they chose an unconventional method, a public press conference, to release scientific findings; their claims were not easily reproduced by others; and they lobbied Congress for funds before their claims were confirmed by independent researchers. Cold fusion producing excess power is an example of bad science where the normal rules and procedures of the scientific process were violated, Huizenga says

  11. Synthesis of superheavy elements by cold fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, S [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung Gmbh (Germany)

    2009-12-31

    The nuclear shell model predicts that the next doubly magic shell-closure beyond {sup 208}Pb is at the proton number Z=114, 120, or 126 and at the neutron number N=172 or 184. The outstanding aim of experimental investigations is the exploration of this region of spherical 'Super Heavy Elements' (SHEs). Using cold fusion reactions which are based on lead and bismuth targets, the new elements from 107 to 112 were synthesized at GSI in Darmstadt, Germany. Some of these results were confirmed at RIKEN in Wako, Japan, where also a relatively neutron-deficient isotope of element 113 was synthesized. In hot fusion reactions of {sup 48}Ca projectiles with actinide targets, a more neutron-rich isotope of element 112 and the new elements from 113 to 116 and even 118 were produced at FLNR in Dubna, Russia. Recently, part of these hot fusion data, which represent the first identification of nuclei located on the predicted island of SHEs, were confirmed in two independent experiments. The decay data reveal that for the heaviest elements, the dominant decay mode is alpha emission rather than fission. The decay properties as well as reaction cross-sections are compared with results of theoretical studies.

  12. Microscopic observations of palladium used for cold fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, T.

    1991-01-01

    This paper examines the microscopic structures of palladium metals used for cold fusion experiments. Tiny spot defects suggesting cold fusion have been observed in grain boundaries as the Nattoh model predicts. The relationship between these defects and a series of neutron busts and an indirect loop of hydrogen chain reactions are discussed

  13. Nuclear transmutation. The reality of cold fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, Tadahiko

    1997-01-01

    The book is introducing the quest on the way to reality of cold fusion. Another point of author is interaction between the quest and social impacts. After the first report on cold fusion by M. Fleischmann and S. Pons on March 1989, the inspired author started a series of following experiments based on his own characteristic background of electrochemistry. The first experiment from March 25 to April 7, 1989 did not show any indications on neutrons, gamma rays, tritium, and heat. The second experiment was initiated at the underground experimental hall of the linear accelerator facilities. This means the shielding of noises coming from outsides. The neutron of about 2.45 MeV was observed after the 1-month continuation of the experiment. The intensity of neutron was nearly 10 to 20 times of the background noise. Furthermore, there were no changes of signals on heat and tritium before and after the experiments. The closed cell experiment was conducted to keep reliability of the experiment. The experiment started on June 1990. In this case, Tritium signals of 100 times of background noise were observed, however, no meaningful signal on neutrons. Anomalous heat was observed after March 24, 1991, where the electric current was increased up to 6 A. On the other hand, there were no appreciable change in neutron and tritium signals. The solid electrolysis was used in the experiment after May 1992, for its high temperature characteristics, where anomalous heat was observed with a certain probability. The experimental system was upgraded in diagnostic methods after 1994. As a result, particular isotopes related to fission reaction were detected. This fact indicates some kinds of transmutations at very local area of the solid surfaces. The author has also pointed out many reactions for a series of this scientific results responded by, for example, well known professors, scientific societies, mass media, and international conferences. Consequently the reactions had almost smeared

  14. Cold fusion: Need to keep door wide open

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S.E.

    1992-01-01

    Steven E. Jones of Brigham Young University in Provo, Utah, began work on cold fusion in 1986. Although insisting his work is markedly different from that of Stanley Pons and Martin Fleischmann at the nearby University of Utah, he nevertheless was tarred by the same brush that besmirched their sensational revelations in 1989. Whereas we were searching for tiny nuclear effects, they were looking for heat production, he explains. In no way, he insists, does his work substantiate the bold claims of heat generation by cold fusion in an electrochemical cell. In fact, Jones doublts Fleischmann and Pons' claims and sees evidence of either self-deception or hype in their actions. He adds, For useful energy production, thermonuclear (hot) fusion remains for more promising than that cold fusion claims of Pons and Fleischmann. But at the same time, Jones finds it necessary to appeal for tolerance for researchers brave enough to continue in the now unfashionable field of cold fusion

  15. A light water excess heat reaction suggests that cold fusion may be alkali-hydrogen fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bush, R.T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Mills and Kneizys presented data in support of a light water excess heat reaction obtained with an electrolytic cell highly reminiscent of the Fleischmann-Pons cold fusion cell. The claim of Mills and Kneizys that their excess heat reaction can be explained on the basis of a novel chemistry, which supposedly also explains cold fusion, is rejected in favor of their reaction being, instead, a light water cold fusion reaction. It is the first known light water cold fusion reaction to exhibit excess heat, it may serve as a prototype to expand our understanding of cold fusion. From this new reactions are deduced, including those common to past cold fusion studies. This broader pattern of nuclear reactions is typically seen to involve a fusion of the nuclides of the alkali atoms with the simplest of the alkali-type nuclides, namely, protons, deuterons, and tritons. Thus, the term alkali-hydrogen fusion seems appropriate for this new type of reaction with three subclasses: alkali-hydrogen fusion, alkali-deuterium fusion, and alkali-tritium fusion. A new three-dimensional transmission resonance model (TRM) is sketched. Finally, preliminary experimental evidence in support of the hypothesis of a light water nuclear reaction and alkali-hydrogen fusion is reported. Evidence is presented that appears to strongly implicate the transmission resonance phenomenon of the new TRM

  16. Sonoluminescence: an IRaser creating cold fusion neutrons?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prevenslik, T.V.

    1996-01-01

    Sonoluminescence can be explained by treating the bubbles as IRasers with standing waves in resonance with the bubble dimensions. Since the IRaser resonant radiation is required to satisfy wave boundary conditions, the water molecules lining the bubble walls undergo a continuous population inversion as the bubble collapses. By stimulated processes, the Planck energy accumulates as the K b T energy of radiation photons is pumped from the surroundings through the rotational state of the water molecule. Bubble collapse occurs almost isothermally with the high IR absorptivity of the water molecule permitting the Planck energy to accumulate to 2∼6 eV only to be released by VIS-UV photon emission because of the low absorptivity of water at VIS-UV frequencies. As the IRaser cavity dimensions collapse to the spacing between water molecules at liquid density, soft x-rays at about 2 keV are predicted. But, this is less than 10 keV necessary for cold fusion so that no neutrons is directly expected yet. Therefore, it is suggested that UV laser enhancement is used to accumulate further bubble collapse energy

  17. Conventional sources of fast neutrons in 'cold fusion' experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cribier, M.; Spiro, M.; Favier, J.

    1989-04-01

    In 'cold fusion' experiments with heavy water a source of neutrons is the dissociation of deuterium induced by alpha particles emitted by natural occurring radioisotopes. We evaluate the rate of fast neutron emission as a function of the concentration of U, Th, Rn in contact with deuterium and discuss the possibility that the neutrons claimed to have been observed in 'cold fusion' experiments could be due to this conventional source

  18. Review for 'Nattoh' model and experimental findings during cold fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Takaaki

    1993-01-01

    A review is described for the Nattoh model that provides the framework of the mechanisms of cold fusion. The model classifies the reactions into two categories: fundamental and associated reactions. The former involves the new 'hydrogen-catalyzed' fusion reaction and the chain-reactions of hydrogens. And extremely exciting physics are involved in the latter. Furthermore experimental findings are described. (author)

  19. Electrochemical 'cold fusion' trials at IPP Garching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosch, H.S.; Gernhardt, J.; Karger, F.; Perchermeier, J.; Wurden, G.A.

    1989-07-01

    Following the report of Fleischmann and Pons, we (The Bavarian Bubble Bottle Team) have attempted to reproduce their claims of cold nuclear fusion, and failed. We note that our measurements would not be able to detect neutrons at the level of Jones et al. Three electrolytic cell experiments were conducted using palladium cathodes and Platinum anodes, in a 0.1 Molar solution of LiD in heavy water, without any signs of neutrons, tritium or gammas above backgrounds, and within ±0.3 Watt accuracy calorimetry, no excess heating. Excess heating at the levels of F P would have been easily detected, if present. Intrinsic tritium, differing from each D 2 O bottle tested, was however observed. The longest duration experiment ran for 21 days, and was an attempt to duplicate the large 'melting incident' of F P . This was terminated on April 28, 1989, by throwing the vacuum-cast 22 gram, deuterium-loaded palladium cathode directly into liquid nitrogen, immediately next to a bare BF 3 counter (backed by 25 cm of moderator), in order to attempt one of the Italian ENEA neutron production variants. No neutrons above backgrounds were seen, while counting for one hour, and also none while the piece warmed to room temperature over the next hour. Post mortem analysis of the darkened, hardened Pd piece showed large crystal grains (up to 2 mmx2 mm), and continuing evolution of gas bubbles at the grain boundaries even four days after the experiment was ended. Eight weeks after loading, the catalytically active palladium piece continued to create heavy water (with exposure to oxygen in the air). (orig.)

  20. Introducing the book 'Cold fusion and the future'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothwell, Jed

    2006-01-01

    Cold fusion will be the ideal source of energy, provided its introduction can be handled properly. A few cells have shown power density and temperatures suitable for real-world applications. Once these cells can be replicated on demand, commercial development will be straightforward. Manufacturing should not be too demanding, so thousands of companies will compete, and costs will fall quickly. The transition from fossil fuel to cold fusion will be rapid. Many extraordinary new applications will become possible, and seemingly intractable problems such as global warming may be fixed. Some examples will be presented. Public support is essential to funding research, and commercialization. 'Cold Fusion and the Future' is the title of a new book by this author. This paper discusses a few of the topics in the book

  1. The DD Cold Fusion-Transmutation Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, Talbot A.

    2005-12-01

    LENR theory must explain dd fusion, alpha-addition transmutations, radiationless nuclear reactions, and three-body nuclear particle reactions. Reaction without radiation requires many-body D Bloch+ periodicity in both location and internal structure dependencies. Electron scattering leads to mixed quantum states. The radiationless dd fusion reaction is 2-D Bloch+ -> {}4 He Bloch2+. Overlap between {}4 He Bloch2+ and surface Cs leads to alpha absorption. In the Iwamura et al. studies active deuterium is created by scattering at diffusion barriers.

  2. On fusion/fission chain reactions in the Fleischmann-Pons cold fusion experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anghaie, S.; Froelich, P.; Monkhorst, H.J.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper the possibility of fusion/fission chain reactions following d-d source reactions in electrochemical cold fusion experiments have been investigated. The recycling factors for the charged particles in fusion reactions with consumable nuclei deuteron, 6 Li nd 7 Li, are estimated. It is concluded that, based on the established nuclear fusion cross sections and electronic stopping power, the recycling factor is four to five orders of magnitude less than required for close to critical conditions. It is argued that the cross generation of charged particles by neutrons does not play a significant role in this process, even if increased densities at the surface of electrodes do occur

  3. Cold fusion valleys for the synthesis of Z=118 isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gherghescu, R.

    2005-01-01

    Cold fusion reactions are investigated with the goal to synthesize Z=118 isotopes with neutron numbers N=162, 168, 172, 176. Potential energy surfaces are calculated as the result of dynamic minimization with independent deformations of the target and projectile, small semi-axis of the projectile and distance between centers as degrees of freedom. An advanced binary macroscopic-microscopic method is used to obtain the deformation energy and the Werner-Wheeler approximation yield the mass tensor. Charge asymmetry is varied for the same mass asymmetry channel which belongs to a given energy valley. The highest penetrability values are obtained for cold fusion channels with Sn, Te and Xe isotopes as projectiles

  4. Study of Cold Fusion Reactions Using Collective Clusterization Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurjit; Sandhu, Kirandeep; Sharma, Manoj K.

    2017-10-01

    Within the framework of the dynamical cluster decay model (DCM), the 1n evaporation cross-sections ({σ }1n) of cold fusion reactions (Pb and Bi targets) are calculated for {Z}{CN}=104-113 superheavy nuclei. The calculations are carried out in the fixed range of excitation energy {E}{CN}* =15+/- 1 {MeV}, so that the comparative analysis of reaction dynamics can be worked out. First of all, the fission barriers (B f ) and neutron separation energies ({S}1n) are estimated to account the decreasing cross-sections of cold fusion reactions. In addition to this, the importance of hot optimum orientations of β 2i-deformed nuclei over cold one is explored at fixed angular momentum and neck-length parameters. The hot optimum orientations support all the target-projectile (t,p) combinations, which are explored experimentally in the cold fusion reactions. Some new target-projectile combinations are also predicted for future exploration. Further, the 1n cross-sections are addressed for {Z}{CN}=104-113 superheavy nuclei at comparable excitation energies which show the decent agrement with experimental data upto {Z}{CN}=109 nuclei. Finally, to understand the dynamics of higher-Z superheavy nuclei, the cross-sections are also calculated at maximum available energies around the Coulomb barrier and the effect of non-sticking moment of inertia ({I}{NS}) is also investigated at these energies. Supported by the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), in the Form of Research Project Grant No. 03(1341)/15/EMR-II, and to DST, New Delhi, for INSPIRE-Fellowship Grant No. DST/INSPIRE/03/2015/000199

  5. LLNL (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) research on cold fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomassen, K I; Holzrichter, J F [eds.

    1989-09-14

    With the appearance of reports on Cold Fusion,'' scientists at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) began a series of increasingly sophisticated experiments and calculations to explain these phenomena. These experiments can be categorized as follows: (a) simple experiments to replicate the Utah results, (b) more sophisticated experiments to place lower bounds on the generation of heat and production of nuclear products, (c) a collaboration with Texas A M University to analyze electrodes and electrolytes for fusion by-products in a cell producing 10% excess heat (we found no by-products), and (d) attempts to replicate the Frascati experiment that first found neutron bursts when high-pressure deuterium gas in a cylinder with Ti chips was temperature-cycled. We failed in categories (a) and (b) to replicate either the Pons/Fleischmann or the Jones phenomena. We have seen phenomena similar to the Frascati results, (d) but these low-level burst signals may not be coming from neutrons generated in the Ti chips. Summaries of our experiments are described in Section II, as is a theoretical effort based on cosmic ray muons to describe low-level neutron production. Details of the experimental groups' work are contained in the six appendices. At LLNL, independent teams were spontaneously formed in response to the early announcements on cold fusion. This report's format follows this organization.

  6. Social Aspects of Cold Fusion: 23 Years Later

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalski L.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The field of Cold Fusion, now called Condensed Matter Nuclear Science (CMNS, re- mains controversial. The original 1989 claim made by M. Fleischmann and S. Pons was that a chemical process in an electrolytic cell could initiate a nuclear reaction–fusion of two deuterium nuclei. More recent CMNS claims, made by experimental scientists, are: emission of charged nuclear projectiles during electrolysis; accumulation of 4 He; production of radioactive isotopes; and transmutation of elements. In the US, CMNS claims have been evaluated in two Department of Energy (DOE investigations, in 1989 and 2004, as summarized in this article. These investigations did not lead to any resolu- tion of the controversy. Scientists and adminstrators are not ideal; competition among them, as among other groups of people, tends to have both positive and negative influ- ences.

  7. Cold fusion 1: the discovery that never was

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Close, F.

    1991-01-01

    In this first of two articles chronicalling the claims to have produced ''cold fusion'' in 1989, the author, a nuclear physicist, explores the evidence against the claim. A brief description is offered of the experimental work that led to the claim and a critique of research methods and lack of proper scientific procedures is offered. The work of many reputable scientific teams across the globe, especially that done at Harwell Laboratory, to replicate the results produced negative results. The author suggests that what positive results exist, subsequent to the original claim, are anecdotal and done by less professionally qualified workers, and can consequently be dismissed. (UK)

  8. Thermal, thermoelectric, and cathode poisoning effects in cold fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keesing, R.G.; Greenhow, R.C.; Cohler, M.D.; McQuillan, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on an unsuccessful attempt to repeat the observations by Fleischmann and Pons of cold nuclear fusion in deuterium-charged palladium; no excess heat is found, nor is any gamma or neutron activity identified. Peltier heating at the palladium/platinum junction is investigated, but no effects are seen; the possibility remains, however, that a large Peltier coefficient may arise for deuterium concentrations that render the palladium-deuterium semiconducting. Finally, the effects of poisoning the palladium with cyanide were investigated

  9. To the non-local theory of cold nuclear fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexeev, Boris V

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we revisit the cold fusion (CF) phenomenon using the generalized Bolzmann kinetics theory which can represent the non-local physics of this CF phenomenon. This approach can identify the conditions when the CF can take place as the soliton creation under the influence of the intensive sound waves. The vast mathematical modelling leads to affirmation that all parts of soliton move with the same velocity and with the small internal change of the pressure. The zone of the high density is shaped on the soliton's front. It means that the regime of the 'acoustic CF' could be realized from the position of the non-local hydrodynamics.

  10. Barrier for cold-fusion production of superheavy elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Takatoshi; Iwamoto, Akira; Moeller, Peter; Sierk, Arnold J.

    2005-01-01

    We estimate the fusion-barrier height B fu (two-body) for approaching ions in cold-fusion reactions in a model where the projectile deformation and quadrupole zero-point vibrational energy are taken into account. This barrier height is defined as the barrier energy at the target and projectile separation distance where an original oblate deformation of projectile and/or target caused by a repulsive Coulomb force turns into a large prolate deformation caused by the attractive nuclear force as the target and projectile come closer. The instability develops before touching because the attractive short-range nuclear force overcomes the repulsive Coulomb force and the shape-stabilizing effect of shell structure. The shell structure of the doubly magic 208 Pb target is sufficiently strong that its shape remains very close to spherical in all cases studied here. The fusion potential for approaching ions in the two-body channel is calculated in the macroscopic-microscopic model with the quadrupole vibrational zero-point energy obtained in the WKB approximation. We compare our results with data from 10 experimental cold-fusion reactions and with the Bass barriers. Differences and similarities between the Yukawa-plus-exponential model and the Bass model are discussed. We also calculate five-dimensional potential-energy surfaces for the single compound system and show that well-established fission and fusion valleys are both present. For heavy systems, B fu (two-body) becomes lower than the fission barrier just beyond the ground state of the compound system. In the vicinity of this transition, the optimum collision energy for formation of evaporation residues can be expected to depend in a delicate fashion on the interplay among B fu (two-body) , the fusion valley, the fission barrier of the compound system, and the one- and two-neutron separation energies S 1n and S 2n . We discuss these issues in detail and calculate fission-barrier heights. Except for reactions in which

  11. Nuclear structure in cold rearrangement processes in fission and fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armbruster, P.

    1998-11-01

    In fission and fusion of heavy nuclei large numbers of nucleons are rearranged at a scale of excitation energy very small compared to the binding energy of the nuclei. The energies involved are less than 40 MeV at nuclear temperatures below 1.5 MeV. The shapes of the configurations in the rearrangement of a binary system into a monosystem in fusion, or vice versa in fission, change their elongations by as much as 8 fm, the radius of the monosystem. The dynamics of the reactions macroscopically described by a potential energy surface, inertia parameters, dissipation, and a collision energy is strongly modified by the nuclear structure of the participating nuclei. Experiments showing nuclear structure effects in fusion and fission of the heaviest nuclei are reviewed. The reaction kinematics and the multitude of isotopes involved are investigated by detector techniques and by recoil spectrometers. The advancement of the latter allows to find very small reaction branches in the range of 10{sup -5} to 10{sup -10}. The experiments reveal nuclear structure effects in all stages of the rearrangement processes. These are discussed pointing to analogies in fusion and fission on the microscopic scale, notwithstanding that both processes macroscopically are irreversible. Heavy clusters, as 132Sn, 208Pb, nuclei with closed shell configurations N=82,126, Z=50,82 survive in large parts of the nuclear rearrangement. They determine the asymmetry in the mass distribution of low energy fission, and they allow to synthesise superheavy elements, until now up to element 112. Experiments on the cold rearrangement in fission and fusion are presented. Here, in the range of excitation energies below 12 MeV the phenomena are observed most convincingly. (orig.)

  12. Role of the press in cold fusion saga

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindley, D.

    1992-01-01

    Press reports of cold-fusion discoveries in Utah and the pending publication of them in Nature magazine caught the associate editor of Nature, David Lindley, by surprise. Like most people, he had never heard of cold fusion. He learned that two papers, one from Steven Jones at Brigham Young University and one from Stanley Pons and Martin Fleischmann of the University of Utah, had been submitted to Nature and were undergoing the magazine's peer-review process. For weeks, Lindley was bombarded by reporters wanting daily progress reports. Many of the reporters considered the peer review a fuddy-duddy procedure meant primarily to impose conformity and suppress revolutionary ideas. In the end, Nature decided to publish the paper by Jones but not the one by Pons and Fleischmann. Because of the doubts cast on Pons and Fleischmann's findings, Nature's decision created no great public stir, Lindley recalls. But it did help reinforce in the authors the belief that they were heretics whom the establishment was out to destroy. Like politicians struggling at the polls, they blamed everyone but themselves, Lindley says. Above all, they blaimed the two all-time favorites - the media and the establishment

  13. Conventional physics can explain cold fusion excess heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, S. R.

    In 1989, when Fleischmann, Pons and Hawkins (FP), claimed they had created room temperature, nuclear fusion in a solid, a firestorm of controversy erupted. Beginning in 1991, the Office of Naval Research began a decade-long study of the FP excess heat effect. This effort documented the fact that the excess heat that FP observed is the result of a form of nuclear fusion that can occur in solids at reduced temperature, dynamically, through a deuteron (d)+d□4He reaction, without high-energy particles or □ rays. A key reason this fact has not been accepted is the lack of a cogent argument, based on fundamental physical ideas, justifying it. In the paper, this question is re-examined, based on a generalization of conventional energy band theory that applies to finite, periodic solids, in which d's are allowed to occupy wave-like, ion band states, similar to the kinds of states that electrons occupy in ordinary metals. Prior to being experimentally observed, the Ion Band State Theory (IBST) of cold fusion predicted a potential d+d□4He reaction, without high energy particles, would explain the excess heat, the 4He would be found in an unexpected place (outside heat-producing electrodes), and high-loading, x□1, in PdDx, would be required.

  14. Experimental studies on cold fusion and hydrogen-metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locou, P.

    2007-01-01

    The cold fusion is a nuclear fusion realized in pervading conditions of temperature and pressure. My own process is parallel to that of the team of the University of Los Angeles, but shaped in 1996 within my personal and private Laboratory: A small cylinder in which we replace the air by some deuterium to the gas state in - 33 d egree (the deuterium is some hydrogen with a neutron, which we find in quantity in the sea water). We introduce a crystal there, extremely rare - the property of which is to emit continuously one thousand times dose of successful energy and it during several years without outside pyro, natural excitement - electric - that is it creates an electric field in the slightest change in temperature. We carry then the whole in + 7 d egree, what generates in some seconds a 200 000 volt electric field, an intense enough field to separate the pits of the deuterium of their electrons and to admit them to collide with those of the crystal. There is a fusion of protons between them (positive particles of the pit (core)) and a emission of neutrons, which do not merge. It is this emission which serves for measuring the quantity of energy produced by the fusion (merger). We so managed to produce some energy in unlimited quantity, allowing us to feed our installation with electric current in total autarky, and to reduce so our costs of functioning to divers domains. This crystal is exceptional in its applications and to give it the name would return has to break our current headway: the thorough problem, in this current period of takeover by the financial bodies of the possible patents, brought to us to the biggest caution as regards our results. And, as we look for no outside financing, we do not need to submit ourselves to the requirements lauded by the scientific Community, only our results are strictly estimated. For example we can make estimate our bars or patches of Hydrogen - Metal: a simple spectroscopy in YEW will give as result, only, the element H

  15. Electron beam welding using fusion and cold wire fill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuncz, F.F.

    1977-01-01

    A straight-fusion (self-filler) welding technique generally poses no problem for electron beam welding. However, where control of penetration is a critical item and burn-through cannot be tolerated, this technique may not be satisfactory. To assure against beam-spike burn-through on a 1/4-inch deep weld joint, a low-power root-fusion pass, supplemented by numerous filler passes, was selected. However, this technique proved to have numerous problems. Voiding and porosity showed frequently in the first applications of this cold-wire filler process. Taper-out cratering, bead-edge undercutting, and spatter were also problems. These imperfections, however, were overcome. Employment of a circle generator provided the necessary heating of the joint walls to eliminate voids. The moving beam spot also provided a stirring action, lessening porosity. Taper-out cratering was eliminated by adjusting the timing of the current cutoff and wire-feed cutoff. Undercutting, bead height, and spatter were controlled by beam defocus

  16. A REALISTIC EXAMINATION OF COLD FUSION CLAIMS 24 YEARS LATER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanahan, K.

    2012-10-22

    On March 29, 1989, chemists Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons announced they had discovered an effect whose explanation was required to lie in the realm of nuclear reactions. Their claim, and those subsequent to it of roughly similar nature, became known as ‘cold fusion’. Research continues to this day on this effect, but what has become clear is that whatever it is, it is not a conventional fusion process. Thus the ‘cold fusion’ moniker is somewhat inappropriate and many current researchers in the field prefer the term “Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR)”, although other terms have been coined for it as well. the results developed out of the LENR research do in fact show something is happening to produce signals which might be interpreted as supporting nuclear reactions (which is what encourages and sustains LENR researchers), but which can also be interpreted via a set of unique and interesting conventional processes. The focus of this document is to describe and address recent objections to such processes so that subsequent LENR research can be guided to develop information that will determine whether either set of explanations has merit. It is hoped that criteria delineated herein will aid the USDOE and other agencies in determining if LENR proposals are meritorious and worthy of support or not.

  17. Some considerations of ''cold fusion'' including the calculation of fusion rates in molecules of hydrogen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowley, S.C.; Kulsrud, R.M.

    1989-11-01

    We calculate the fusion reaction rates in molecules of hydrogen isotopes. The rates are calculated analytically (for the first time) as an asymptotic expansion in the ratio of the electron mass to the reduced mass of the nucleii. The fusion rates of the P-D, D-D, and D-T reactions are given for a variable electron mass by a simple analytic formula. However, we do not know any mechanism by which a sufficiently localized electron in solid can have an 'effective mass' large enough to explain the result of Fleischman and Pons (FP). This calculation indicates that P-D rates should exceed D-D rates for D-D fusion rates less than approximately 10 -23 per molecule per second. The D-D fusion rate is enhanced by a factor of 10 5 at 10,000 degree K if the excited vibrational states are populated with a Boltzmann distribution and the rotational excitations suppressed. The suggestion that experimental results could be explained by bombardment of cold deuterons by kilovolt deuterons is shown to be an unlikely from an energetic point of view. 12 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  18. Experiments in order to reproduce cold fusion results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bimbot, R.; Blain, G.; Boureau, G.; Cieur, M.

    1989-01-01

    Three experiments have been performed in order to try and reproduce the cold fusion experiments reported by FLEISCHMANN and PONS (D 2 O electrolysis) and by the Frascati Group (D 2 absorption in Ti at liquid nitrogen temperature). In the two electrolysis experiments, a Pd cathode was used together with a Pt anode and a Pd (D 2 ) reference electrode, in acid and basic media. The electrolysis cell was surrounded by four neutron counters filled with an organic scintillator (NE213). The electronics made it possible to discriminate neutrons from gamma rays. The global efficiency for neutron detection was 20%, and the detection threshold was equal to 1 neutron/s/4π. A germanium detector (efficiency 70%) and a NaI crystal were used to record gamma ray spectra. In one of the experiments, tritium was measured in the solution before and after electrolysis. None of the two experiments showed neutron, gamma, or tritium production above background. In the third experiment, deuterium was absorbed in titanium by cooling at liquid nitrogen temperature, and desorbed by warming up at room temperature; both neutron and gamma emissions were recorded during these operations. The results of this experiment were also negative [fr

  19. Highlights of papers presented at the workshop on cold fusion phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-09-01

    This report contains highlights of formal oral papers presented at the Workshop on Cold Fusion Phenomena, hosted by Los Alamos National Laboratory and held May 23--25, 1989, in Santa Fe, New Mexico. General topics covered are: physics of fusion reactions; neutron and gamma-ray spectroscopy; colorimetry; and applicable condensed-matter physics, electrochemistry, and analytical chemistry

  20. Cold-fusion as safe and hazardless energy-source of the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, R.C.; Gupta, Sushant

    2012-01-01

    Out of the two processes for nuclear-energy; nuclear-fission is plagued with problem of nuclear-radiation hazard, whereas though nuclear-fusion is safe but almost impossible to be done on earth specially at room- temperature. In 1989, two scientists Fleischmann and Pons in USA proposed a table-top, room temperature electrolysis-experiment of heavy-water with palladium-electrode; this is commonly called cold-fusion wherein nuclear-fusion is said to be taking place. This created a big storm and controversy in the scientific community. Initially the cold-fusion was heavily criticized and several objections (such as: non-reproducibility, non-observation of telltale signature of nuclear-reaction) were raised. The research-work of McKubre and others have clarified the objections and have established that for cold-fusion to take place certain threshold conditions (such as purity of electrode, current-density, deuterium to palladium loading ratio) needs to be satisfied. In due course of time, the Truth prevailed and the cold-fusion got more and more support by many scientists in several countries including India (BARC historic role has been appreciated worldwide). Biggest objection, however, was lack of a proper theory for how Coulomb-repulsion is overcome in cold-fusion. A possible explanation for how the Coulomb-repulsion is overcome, is given in this paper; which is based on a new-found Gupta-Dinu effect, which is a natural outcome of special-relativity via modification in Lorentz force formula. The recent nuclear-accidents have raised international-opinion against nuclear-fission, whereas sin-like hot-fusion on earth is not possible. Now it seems that ultimately it is the cold-fusion which will provide hazardless neat and cheap energy for the 21 st century and India could play a leading role in this direction. (author)

  1. Cold fusion in symmetric 90Zr induced reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, J.G.; Schmidt, K.H.; Hessberger, F.P.; Muenzenberg, G.; Reisdorf, W.; Clerc, H.G.; Sahm, C.C.

    1985-08-01

    Excitation functions for evaporation residues were measured for the reactions 90 Zr+ 89 Y, 90 Zr, 92 Zr, 96 Zr, and 94 Mo. Deexcitation only by γ radiation was found for the compound nuclei 179 Au, 180 Hg, 182 Hg, and 184 Pb. The cross sections for this process were found to be considerably larger than predicted by a statistical-model calculation using standard parameters for the γ-strength function. Fusion probabilities as well as fusion-barrier distributions were deduced from the measured cross sections. There are strong nuclear structure effects in subbarrier fusion. For energies far below the fusion barrier the increase of the fusion probabilities with increasing energy is found to be much steeper than predicted by WKB calculations. As a by-product of this work new α-spectroscopic information could be obtained for neutron deficient isotopes between Ir and Pb. (orig.)

  2. Basic study of cold fusion. 1. The development of excess heat measurement system in electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asaoka, Yoshiyuki; Fujita, Tomonari

    1994-01-01

    We have an opportunity ripe to investigate the cold fusion phenomena. In order to declare the subjects to be examined, the precision calorimetry system was developed to try to reproduce the phenomena. The electrolysis of heavy water with palladium cathode was conducted based on the thought that it is important to confirm the cold fusion phenomena. For precision excess power measurement, the closed cell with recombiner and flow-calorimetry were adopted. The obtained accuracy for the excess power measurement of the system was ±0.2 W at up to 9 W of applied power. This is enough for the excess power reported as the cold fusion phenomena. For farther investigation, measurement of loading ratio of deuterium in the palladium cathode, maintenance of high deuterium loading and analysis of the palladium cathode are to be conducted. (author)

  3. Introducing the book 'Cold fusion and the future'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothwell, Jed

    2006-07-01

    Cold fusion will be the ideal source of energy, provided its introduction can be handled properly. A few cells have shown power density and temperatures suitable for real-world applications. Once these cells can be replicated on demand, commercial development will be straightforward. Manufacturing should not be too demanding, so thousands of companies will compete, and costs will fall quickly. The transition from fossil fuel to cold fusion will be rapid. Many extraordinary new applications will become possible, and seemingly intractable problems such as global warming may be fixed. Some examples will be presented. Public support is essential to funding research, and commercialization. 'Cold Fusion and the Future' is the title of a new book by this author. This paper discusses a few of the topics in the book.

  4. Some experiments on cold fusion by deuterium hydrogen gas infusion in titanium metal alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mestnik Filho, J.; Geraldo, L.P.; Pugliese, R.; Saxena, R.N.; Morato, S.P.; Fulfaro, R.

    1990-05-01

    New results on cold fusion are reported where three different experimental situations have been tried: a) deuterium gas loaded titanium; b) deuterium gas loaded Ti 0.8 Zr 0.2 CrMn alloy and c) titanium and the Ti 0.8 Zr 0.2 CrMn alloy loaded with a mixture of deuterium and hydrogen gases. With these experiments, new thermodynamical non equilibrium conditions were achieved and the possibility of cold fusion between protons and deuterons was also tested. Three independent neutron detectors and one NaI(Tl) were utilized. Despite some large values reported in the literature for the fusion rate, an upper limit of only 8 x 10 -24 fusions/sper deuterium pair or per deuterium-hydrogen pair was determined within the attained accuracy. (author) [pt

  5. Window of cold nuclear fusion and biased-pulse electrolysis experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Akito; Jida, Toshiyuki; Maekawa, Fujio; Sugimoto, Hisashi; Yoshida, Shigeo

    1989-01-01

    Based on the electron screening effect and the excitation of deuteron harmonic oscillators in palladium lattice, theoretical aspects are given to explain the cold fusion phenomena and the possibility of nuclear heating. A narrow window is proposed to meet ≅ 10 watts per cubic centimeter for the nuclear heating, by the hypothetical excitation-screening model. A relatively wide window is feasible to meet a few fusion events per second per cc under the non-stationary conditions of deuteron-charging and discharging. For stationary lattice conditions, the probability of cold fusion is not feasible at all. To confirm the cold fusion phenomena, a heavy water electrolysis experiment was carried out using biased-pulse-electrolytic currents, expecting the enhancement of cold fusion events under charging and discharging of deuterons. For the neutron detection, a cross-checking system between a recoil-proton scintillation detector and a 3 He thermal neutron detector was employed to see coincident time-patterns of neutron emission from an electrolysis cell. To check the energy of emitted neutrons, pulse height spectrum of the recoil-proton detector was monitored. Up to the D-charging time of 300 hr, neutron yields of 1-2 n/s/cc were obtained for time-intervals of 60-200 hr. From the recoil-proton spectra, it was confirmed that 2.45 MeV neutrons by the D(d, n) 3 He fusion branch were emitted. The observed time-patterns of neutron emission suggest the existence of cold fusion under the charging and discharging conditions. (orig.)

  6. Cold fusion in symmetric 90Zr induced reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, J.G.

    1985-02-01

    At the velocity filter SHIP of the Society for Heavy Ion Research in Darmstadt cross sections for evaporation-residue-nucleus formation in the reactions 90 Zr+ 89 Y, sup(90,92,96)Zr, 94 Mo were measured. In four of the reactions leading to the compound nuclei 179 Au, 180 Hg, 182 Hg, and 184 Pb for the first time in reactions of two heavy partners with mass numbers >20 radiative capture, i.e. deexcitation only by emission of γ radiation, was observed. A comparison of the measured cross sections for radiative capture with evaporation calculations leads to the final conclusion that either the γ-strength in the different compound nuclei is very different, or that the energy or angular momentum dependence of the level-density is wrongly described by the Fermi gas model at energies between 5 and 20 MeV. From the cross sections for evaporation-residue-nucleus formation fusion probabilities for central collisions were derived. The fusion probabilities show a strong dependence of the sub-barrier fusion from the nuclear structure of the contributing reaction partners. The slope of the fusion probability below the classical fusion barrier cannot be consistently described even by newer models. Below the lowest fusion barrier the fusion probability decreases with decreasing energy remarkably faster that predicted by a WKB calculation. This indicates that either the shape of the barrier is different from that predicted by the potentials, or that the mass dependence of the tunnel effect is not correctly described by the WKB calculation. (orig.) [de

  7. Cold fusion in the context of a scientific revolution in physics: History and economic ramifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Edward

    2006-01-01

    Scientific revolutions have occurred in an approximately 80 year periodicity since 1500. Economic depressions have occurred at an approximately 40-50 year periodicity since 1790, and the economic depressions are a result of the scientific revolutions. The field of cold fusion is a part of a scientific revolution in physics. Understanding cold fusion phenomena in the broader historical context is helpful for understanding the development of the field and the significance of the phenomena technologically and economically. This paper includes a short history of science and of the recent scientific revolution, and includes predictions about the economic consequences of the development of the paradigm. (author)

  8. On the production of heavy elements by cold fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armbruster, P.

    1985-01-01

    After a short historical introduction (Section 1), this article presents new insights into the mechanism limiting the fusion of heavy nuclides (Section 2). Fusion is finally limited by the increasing Coulomb forces in the formation process of a compound system, as well as in its deexcitation. Moreover, nuclear structure effects in all stages of evaporation residue (EVR) formation are shown to be of importance. The wide field of fusion reaction studies and possible experimental techniques is projected onto the task of element synthesis, and only those aspects that are of relevance here are covered. The better understanding of EVR formation (Section 2) and the new experimental techniques (Section 3) that enabled the production of elements 107-109 (Section 4) are also discussed. In Section 5 ground-state properties and the nuclear structure of the heaviest isotopes, together with their production cross sections, are discussed. Finally, an outlook on how eventually to go beyond Z = 109 is given

  9. Cold, muon-catalyzed fusion - just another swarm experiment?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robson, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    The paper briefly reviewed the muon-catalyzed fusion cycle and indicated how it may be likened to a swarm experiment. In particular, it has been pointed out that an external electric field can influence the properties of a muon swarm (and reactive derivatives), just as it can for ion and electron swarms. Since n 0 is typically around liquid hydrogen densities, very large fields, E≥10 9 V/m, would be required to achieve the desired outcome. This is presently achievable in small regions of intense laser focus, but it remains to be seen whether muon-catalyzed fusion experiments can actually be influenced in this way. 20 refs., 4 figs

  10. Tunnelling effect enhanced by lattice screening as main cold fusion mechanism: An brief theoretical overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frisone, F.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper are illustrated the main features of tunneling traveling between two deuterons within a lattice. Considering the screening effect due lattice electrons we compare the d-d fusion rate evaluated from different authors assuming different screening efficiency and different d-d potentials. Then, we propose a effective potential which describe very well the attractive contribute due to plasmon exchange between two deuterons and by means of it we will compute the d-d fusion rates for different energy values. Finally the good agreement between theoretical and experimental results proves the reality of cold fusion phenomena and the reliability of our model

  11. Bookshelf (John R. Huizenga, 'Cold Fusion: the Scientific Fiasco of the Century')

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, Douglas R.O.

    1994-01-01

    ''Cold fusion is dead, isn't it?'' is a question I am often asked. The reply is a strange one, ''Yes, scientifically it is dead, but not from a media point of view or from funding'' In 1989 two electrochemists, Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons, claimed sustained nuclear fusion had been achieved in a test-tube with a palladium cathode and deuterium, observing excess heat, neutrons and tritium. A series of encouraging confirmations and successively greater excess heat claims were seized on by the world's media. The US Government set up a panel of some 20 world-class scientists from several disciplines under John Huizenga, distinguished professor of Chemistry and Physics at the University of Rochester. They concluded that there was no present evidence for the discovery of a new nuclear process termed cold fusion. It might be thought that would end cold fusion, but for interesting reasons, it did not entirely. John Huizenga has written a book describing the curious claims and evidence for cold fusion and has given an excellent explanation of the science involved. This was published as a hardback book of 236 pages, telling the story up to the end of June 1990. Again one might think it was the end of the cold fusion story. Now he has written about what happened in the next two years in a paperback book which contains an epilogue of 51 pages. If you thought the first year was extraordinary, the next two years described in the new edition were even more incredible! In the main part of the book, the basic science is simply and clearly explained. The number of ''miracles'' required for each results or theory is described - a ''miracle'' is a gross violation of previous knowledge and experimental results such as energy conservation. Thus some theories are classified as ''triple miracles''. It might be thought that people who claimed to have observed cold fusion

  12. Heavy cluster in cold nuclear rearrangements in fusion and fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armbruster, P.

    1997-01-01

    The experimental evidence for the appearance of cluster aspects in the dynamics of large rearrangements processes, as fusion and fission, is presented. Clusters in the sense as used in the following are strongly bound, doubly magic neutron rich nuclei as 48 Ca 28 , 78 Ni 50 , 132 Sn 82 , and 208 Pb 126 , the spherical nuclei Z=114 - 126 and N=184, and nuclei with closed shells N=28, 50, 82, and 126, and Z=28, 50, and 82. As with increasing nucleon numbers, the absolute shell corrections to the binding energies increase, the strongest effects are to be observed for the higher shells. The 132 cluster manifests itself in low energy fission (Faissner, H. and Wildermuth, K. Nucl. Phys., 58 (1964) 177). The 208 Pb cluster gave the new radioactivity (Rose, M.J. and Jones G.A., Nature, 307 (1984) 245) and the first superheavy elements (SHE) (Armbruster P., Ann. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci., 35 (1985) 135-94; Munzenberg, G. Rep. Progr. Phys., 51 (1988) 57). The paper discuss experiments concerning the stability of clusters to intrinsic excitation energy in fusion and fission (Armbruster, P. Lect. Notes Phys., 158 (1982) 1). and the manifestation of clusters in the fusion entrance channel (Armbruster, P., J. Phys. Soc. Jpn., 58 (1989) 232). The importance of compactness of the clustering system seems to be equally decisive in fission and fusion. Finally, it s covered the importance of clusters for the production of SHEs)

  13. LENR/"Cold Fusion" and Modern Physics: A Crisis Within a Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallove, Eugene F. E.

    2004-03-01

    The primary theorists in the field of Cold Fusion/LENR have generally assumed that the excess heat phenomena is commensurate with nuclear ash (such as helium), whether already identified or presumed to be present but not yet found, and moreover that it can be explained by hydrided metal lattice structures acting coherently. Though this was an excellent initial hypothesis, the commensurate nuclear ash hypothesis has not been proved, and appears to be approximately correct in only a few experiments. At the same time, compelling evidence has also emerged for other microphysical sources of energy that were unexpected by accepted physics. The exemplars have been the work Dr. Randell Mills and his colleagues at BlackLight Power Corporation and Dr. Paulo and Alexandra Correa in Canada.This has led to a crisis within a crisis: Neither "cold fusion" nor "Modern Physics" will be able to explain the full range of experimental data now available---not even the data within "mainstream" cold fusion/LENR per se--- by insisting that the fundamental paradigms of Modern Physics are without significant flaw. The present crisis is of magnitude comparable to the Copernican Revolution. Neither Modern Physics nor Cold Fusion/LENR will survive in their present forms when this long delayed revolution has run its course.

  14. A theoretical study of cold nuclear fusion using barrier penetration approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, S.K.; Gupta, R.K.

    1989-06-01

    The cold nuclear fusion process is investigated in terms of barrier penetration calculations by considering both the deuteron-molecule and colliding deuteron-deuteron atoms. Atomic collisions with strongly screened interatomic potential and the resonant state formation can bring agreement with present experimental results. Analysis of the data in terms of the reaction rates is also discussed. (author). 13 refs, 1 tab

  15. Fusion rates for hydrogen isotopic molecules of relevance for ''cold fusion''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szalewicz, K.; Morgan, J.D. III; Monkhorst, H.J.

    1989-01-01

    In response to the recent announcements of evidence for room-temperature fusion in the electrolysis of D 2 O, we have analyzed how the fusion rate depends on the reduced mass of the fusing nuclei, the effective mass of a ''heavy'' electron, and the degree of vibrational excitation. Our results have been obtained both by accurately solving the Schroedinger equation for the hydrogen molecule and by using the WKB approximation. We find that in light of the reported d-d fusion rate, the excess heat in the experiment by Fleischmann, Pons, and Hawkins [J. Electroanal. Chem. 261, 301 (1989)] is difficult to explain in terms of conventional nuclear processes

  16. Why You Should Believe Cold Fusion is Real

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storms, Edmund K.

    2005-03-01

    Nuclear reactions are now claimed to be initiated in certain solid materials at an energy too low to overcome the Coulomb barrier. These reactions include fusion, accelerated radioactive decay, and transmutation involving heavy elements. Evidence is based on hundreds of measurements of anomalous energy using a variety of calorimeters at levels far in excess of error, measurement of nuclear products using many normally accepted techniques, observations of many patterns of behavior common to all studies, measurement of anomalous energetic emissions using accepted techniques, and an understanding of most variables that have hindered reproducibility in the past. This evidence can be found at www.LENR-CANR.orgwww.LENR-CANR.org. Except for an accepted theory, the claims have met all requirements normally required before a new idea is accepted by conventional science, yet rejection continues. How long can the US afford to reject a clean and potentially cheap source of energy, especially when other nations are attempting to develop this energy and the need for such an energy source is so great?

  17. Concerning the modelling of systems in terms of Quantum Electrodynamics: the special case of 'Cold Fusion'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abyaneh, Morteza; Fleischmann, Martin; Del Giudice, Emilio; Vitiello, Giuseppe

    2006-01-01

    A question we are asked repeatedly is: 'what are the causes of the opposition to your belief in the reality of 'Cold Fusion?'. This question is normally asked in the context of the statement that Quantum Mechanics shows that this phenomenon is impossible (a view that we share). Our answer is always based on the statement 'but what about the modelling of such systems in terms of QED?' which is always met by the insistence that Quantum Mechanics shows that Cold Fusion is impossible. We conclude that scientists do not understand QED or, if they have some understanding of this subject, then this must be subject to some major misconceptions. This pointless dialogue (perhaps more correctly described as two monologues conducted in parallel) and the insistence on the primacy of Quantum Mechanics in the modelling of systems in the Natural Sciences is unfortunate because it obscures the outcome of the investigations in the more normal fields of the Natural Sciences (more normal than Cold Fusion). A brief outline of the work which has led to the formulation of the concept of coherence will therefore be given under the aegis of the revolutions in our understanding of the Natural Sciences which has taken place since the latter part of the 19. Century. The main illustration of the way we can demonstrate the applicability of these concepts will be based on the study of nucleation and phase growth. The development of micro-electrode substrates allows us to study the statistics of the formation of the first nucleus; it will be shown that these statistics are strictly in line with concepts developed from QED coherence. We conclude that QED coherence is not just a concept to be confined to sub-atomic physics, cosmology etc. but that it pervades the modelling of the whole of the Natural Sciences including that of 'Cold Fusion'. Some of the major steps which have taken place in the development of this subject area will be illustrated

  18. Relevance, Realization and stability of a cold layer at the plasma edge for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-09-01

    The workshop was dedicated to the realization and stability of a cold layer at the plasma edge for fusion reactors. The subjects of the communications presented were: impurity transport, and control, plasma boundary layers, power balance, radiation control and modifications, limiter discharges, tokamak density limit, Asdex divertor discharges, thermal stability of a radiating diverted plasma, plasma stability, auxiliary heating in Textor, detached plasma in Tore Supra, poloidal divertor tokamak, radiation cooling, neutral-particle transport, plasma scrape-off layer, edge turbulence

  19. Cold fusion reaction ignition at cavitation effect on deuterium-containing media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipson, A.G.; Deryagin, B.V.; Klyuev, V.A.

    1992-01-01

    A possibility to induce 'cold' nuclear fusion reactions in the process of ultrasound cavitation in heavy water is studied. Nonstationary neutron emission is detected under cavitation in D 2 O on titanium vibrator which has the tracks of cavitation erosion (the vibrator ran in D 2 O to 20 hours). Maximum excess over background (12σ) was recorded under cavitation impact on the suspension of LaNi 5 D x dispersed particle in D 2 O

  20. Recent theoretical and experimental evidence on the cold fusion of elementary particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santilli, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    Recent experiments have shown the apparent existence of the cold fusion/chemical synthesis of protons and electrons into neutrons (plus neutrinos), much along Rutherford's original conception. These findings have received indirect, yet significant experimental confirmations in Bose-Einstein correlations, superconductivity and other fields to warrant additional studies. In this paper we present a quantitative theoretical study of the apparent tendency of all massive particles to form a bound state at small distances which is enhanced at low energy. The study is centrally dependent on the isominkowskian geometrization of the expected nonlocal interactions due to total mutual penetrations, and their causal description via the isopoincare symmetry. The cold fusion considered is then made possible by isorenormalizations of the 'intrinsic' characteristics of particles originating from the contact-nonhamiltonian character of the internal nonlocal effects. This latter feature illustrates the reasons why the cold fusion considered is simply beyond the descriptive capacities of relativistic quantum mechanics, but it is fully predicted by its isotopic covering. 23 refs

  1. Observations on the biological cold fusion or the biological transmutation of elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komaki, Hisatoki

    1993-01-01

    In previous paper, the author, with Prof. Dr. C. Louis KERVRAN, suggested the probable occurrence of the biological cold fusion or the biological transmutation of elements. In order to confirm the phenomena, under the more controlled condition, potassium, magnesium, iron and calcium were determined in cells of Aspergillus niger IFO 4066, Penicillium chrysogenum IFO 4689, Rhizopus nigricans IFO 5781, Mucor rouxii IFO 0396, Saccharomyces cerevisiae IFO 0308, Torulopsis utilis IFO 0396, Saccharomyces ellipsoideus IFO 0213 and Hansenula anomala IFO 0118 cultured in normal medium and media deficient in one of potassium, magnesium iron or calcium. Values of potassium 1890-2650 μg, magnesium 380-510 μg, iron 95-120 μg, and calcium 60-95 μg were obtained per g dried cells cultured in each deficient medium, while potassium 8650-11050 μg, magnesium 1920-2160 μg, iron 510-680 μg, and calcium 380-450 μg were found per g dried cells obtained by cultivation in the normal medium. The author would like to suggest the probable occurrence of the phenomena relevant to biological cold fusion. (author)

  2. Conventional Physics can Explain Excess Heat in the Fleischmann-Pons Cold Fusion Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, Scott

    2011-03-01

    In 1989, when Fleischmann and Pons (FP) claimed they had created room temperature, nuclear fusion in a solid, a firestorm of controversy erupted. Beginning in 1991, the Office of Naval Research began a decade-long study of the FP excess heat effect. This effort documented the fact that the excess heat that FP observed is the result of a form of nuclear fusion that can occur in solids at reduced temperature, dynamically, through a deuteron (d)+d?helium-4 reaction, without high-energy particles or ? rays. This fact has been confirmed at SRI and at a number of other laboratories (most notably in the laboratory of Y. Arata, located at Osaka University, Japan). A key reason this fact has not been accepted is the lack of a cogent argument, based on fundamental physical ideas, justifying it. In the paper, this question is re-examined, based on a generalization of conventional energy band theory that applies to finite, periodic solids, in which d's are allowed to occupy wave-like, ion band states, similar to the kinds of states that electrons occupy in ordinary metals. Prior to being experimentally observed, the Ion Band State Theory of cold fusion predicted a potential d+d?helium-4 reaction, without high energy particles, would explain the excess heat, the helium-4 would be found in an unexpected place (outside heat- producing electrodes), and high-loading, x?1, in PdDx, would be required.

  3. Investigation of neutron emission in a cold fusion experiment in palladium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szustakowski, M.; Farny, J.; Muniak, M.; Nowak, A.; Parys, P.; Skrzeczanowski, W.; Socha, R.; Teter, J.; Wolski, J.; Wolowski, J.; Woryna, E.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on the experiments dealing with performance of nuclear fusion at room temperature actually which create a great sensation and are carried out in various laboratories. This interest arises from the results achieved by Fleischmann and Pons, and it results from their paper that there exists a possibility of obtaining an ignition owing to nuclear fusion reactions during usual electrochemical process--namely the electrolysis of D O with use of the system of Pd-Pt electrodes. From this reason the measurements of the yield and behavior of neutron emission give the information about processes of interest. At the IPPLM the cold fusion experiments have been conducted from the beginning of April 1989. In the first experiment the reliable evidence of neutron emission was obtained. A number of irregularly repeated neutron pulses of the level of 10 5 per pulse was recorded. The measurements of the neutron emission, in this experiment, were performed with the use of three independent methods employing the 2.5 MeV neutron spectrometer, the scintillation neutron detector as well as the nuclear track detector. neutron emission had been first recorded after 106 hours of the electrolysis process of D 2 O

  4. Prediction of new tightly bound-states of H2+(d2+) and ''cold fusion''-experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barut, A.O.

    1989-06-01

    It is suggested that in the ''cold-fusion'' experiments of Fleischmann and Pons new tightly-bound molecular states of D 2 + are formed with binding energies predicted to be of the order of 50 keV accounting for the heat released without appreciable fusion. Other tests of the suggested mechanism are proposed and the derivation of the new energy levels is given. (author). 3 refs

  5. Condensed matter nuclear science: Proceedings of the 11. international conference on cold fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biberian, Jean-Paul

    2006-01-01

    The tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion, ICCF 10, was held in Cambridge and then it appeared to the chairman Jean-Paul Biberian that the ideal choice for the venue of ICCF 11 would be Marseille. He considers that the field had matured and it was obvious that a scientific demonstration of Cold Fusion had been made. He realizes that a lot more is needed to be accomplished in the field of research and technology, but the answers to many of the questions of scientific community are available. It is known for sure that the phenomenon announced in 1989 by Martin Fleischmann and Stan Pons was real. Discoveries since their announcement, in particular the discovery that hydrogen, not only deuterium, may be nuclear active under certain conditions. It had been shown that the simple D + D producing helium reaction was not the only reaction channel. One had observed fission and transmutation beyond doubts, but there are probably more reactions than one currently knows. Several important new results were presented during the conference. The team headed by Irving Dardik confirmed that the super-waves they used in their electrolytic experiment help introducing more heat. Also Iwamura et al. showed new transmutation effects in their experiments of diffusion of deuterium gas through a complex structure of palladium and calcium oxide. A team of Russian scientists claimed that their experiments showed the existence of light monopoles. Czerski and Huke who were working in high-energy physics, discovered CMNS when they lowered the energy of the deuterium beam. They demonstrated that the cross section of the deuterium with deuterated metals was much higher than expected. They came to the conclusion that they were doing indeed cold fusion. Another important contribution was the one from the Vysotskii team from Ukraine, who confirmed their biological transmutation experiments. On the theory front there appears to be many problems. The initial idea of the necessity of high

  6. Search for a nuclear signature of the electrolytically induced cold fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojtkowska, J; Glowacki, S; Jaskola, M; Moroz, Z; Ratynski, W [Soltan Inst. for Nuclear Studies, Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Kedzierzawski, P; Zoltowski, P [Soltan Inst. for Nuclear Studies, Otwock-Swierk (Poland)

    1990-01-01

    The neutron flux from the Pd-Pt electrolytic cell filled with D{sub 2}O+D{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and D{sub 2}O+LiOD was measured to search for the ``cold fusion`` induced in the deuterium stored in the palladium electrode. The fast-neutron ``long counter``, the scintillation detector with the NE - 213 liquid scintillator and with the PSD gamma-neutron distinguishing system and the scintillation detector of fast-neutron and/or gamma-ray bursts were used. No direct correlation was observed between the neutron flux measured in the presence or absence of the electrolysis. The upper limit is given for the neutron flux induced by the process under study. (author).

  7. Dynamic response of thermal neutron measurements in electrochemically produced cold fusion subject to pulsed current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granada, Jose; Converti, Jose; Mayer, Roberto; Guido, German; Florido, Pablo; Patino, Nestor; Sobehart, Leonardo; Gomez, Silvia; Larreteguy, Axel

    1988-01-01

    The present work shows the results of measurements performed on electrolytic cells using a high efficiency (22%) neutron detection system in combination with a procedure involving a non-stationary current through the cell's circuit. Cold fusion was produced in electrolytic cells containing LiH dissolved in heavy water with a palladium cathode. The dynamic response to low frequency current pulses was measured. Characteristic patterns showing one or two bumps were obtained in a repeatable fashion. These patterns are strongly dependent on the previous charging history of the cathode. The technique employed seems to be very convenient as a research tool for a systematic study of the different variables governing the phenomenon. (Author)

  8. Search for a nuclear signature of the electrolytically induced cold fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojtkowska, J.; Glowacki, S.; Jaskola, M.; Moroz, Z.; Ratynski, W.; Kedzierzawski, P.; Zoltowski, P.

    1990-01-01

    The neutron flux from the Pd-Pt electrolytic cell filled with D 2 O+D 2 SO 4 and D 2 O+LiOD was measured to search for the ''cold fusion'' induced in the deuterium stored in the palladium electrode. The fast-neutron ''long counter'', the scintillation detector with the NE - 213 liquid scintillator and with the PSD gamma-neutron distinguishing system and the scintillation detector of fast-neutron and/or gamma-ray bursts were used. No direct correlation was observed between the neutron flux measured in the presence or absence of the electrolysis. The upper limit is given for the neutron flux induced by the process under study. (author)

  9. Search for evidence of nuclear involvement in the fatal explosion of a 'cold fusion' experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, P.M.; Whipple, R.E.; Andresen, B.D.; Russo, R.E.; Bazan, F.; Brunk, J.L.; Wong, K.M.

    1995-01-01

    Forensic analyses of debris from the fatal explosion of an electrochemical 'cold fusion' cell at SRI International were conducted at LLNL at the request of Cal-OSHA. One investigation focused on the possibility of conventional nuclear reaction mechanisms contributing to the total energy inventory of the incident. Selected metal components of the electrolysis apparatus were subjected to nondestructive γ-ray spectrometry with high-sensitivity, low-background Ge detector systems. The anticipated analytes in these studies were radioactivation products potentially induced in the explosion residue by either fast or thermal neutrons. The results of this investigation were negative within the temporal constraints of the incident and the analytical sensitivities of the instrumentation. (author) 5 refs.; 1 fig.; 2 tabs

  10. Mission to Mars by catalyzed nuclear reactions of the commercialized cold fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Tae Ho

    2016-01-01

    The chemical compound source is deficient to reach to the power as much as the journey to Mars, unless the massive equipment is installed like the nuclear fusion reactor. However, there is very significant limitations of making up the facility due to the propellant power. Therefore, the light and cheap energy source, Low energy nuclear reactions (LENRs), powered rocket has been proposed. In this paper, the power conditions by LENRs are analyzed. After the successful Apollo mission to Moon of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in the U.S. government, the civilian companies have proposed for the manned mission to Mars for the commercial journey purposes. The nuclear power has been a critical issue for the energy source in the travel, especially, by the LENR of LENUCO, Champaign, USA. As the velocity of the rocket increases, the mass flow rate decreases. It could be imaginable to take the reasonable velocity of spacecraft. The energy of the travel system is and will be created for the better one in economical and safe method. There is the imagination of boarding pass for spacecraft ticket shows the selected companies of cold fusion products. In order to solve the limitations of the conventional power sources like the chemical and solar energies, it is reasonable to design LENR concept. Since the economical and safe spacecraft is very important in the long journey on and beyond the Mars orbit, a new energy source, LENR, should be studied much more

  11. Mission to Mars by catalyzed nuclear reactions of the commercialized cold fusion power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Tae Ho [Yonsei University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The chemical compound source is deficient to reach to the power as much as the journey to Mars, unless the massive equipment is installed like the nuclear fusion reactor. However, there is very significant limitations of making up the facility due to the propellant power. Therefore, the light and cheap energy source, Low energy nuclear reactions (LENRs), powered rocket has been proposed. In this paper, the power conditions by LENRs are analyzed. After the successful Apollo mission to Moon of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in the U.S. government, the civilian companies have proposed for the manned mission to Mars for the commercial journey purposes. The nuclear power has been a critical issue for the energy source in the travel, especially, by the LENR of LENUCO, Champaign, USA. As the velocity of the rocket increases, the mass flow rate decreases. It could be imaginable to take the reasonable velocity of spacecraft. The energy of the travel system is and will be created for the better one in economical and safe method. There is the imagination of boarding pass for spacecraft ticket shows the selected companies of cold fusion products. In order to solve the limitations of the conventional power sources like the chemical and solar energies, it is reasonable to design LENR concept. Since the economical and safe spacecraft is very important in the long journey on and beyond the Mars orbit, a new energy source, LENR, should be studied much more.

  12. Some thoughts on a simple mechanism for the 2H + 2H → 4He cold fusion reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, A.E.

    1993-01-01

    A speculative mechanism for the creation of 4 He using cold fusion is proposed. The nuclear transformation can be made by the fusion of two excited rotating ground states of deuterium into a highly excited rotating ground state of 4 He. Under compression and relatively stable conditions, the formation of such a bound, stretched-out pnnp state of 4 He would be favored (with respect to Coulomb repulsion) over other nuclear ground states without as much angular momentum. The reaction likely occurs at the surface of palladium. A more descriptive name for this reaction is compressed-rotational-shielded (CRS) fusion. Potential experimental conditions for enhancing the initiation of CRS fusion are discussed. 8 refs., 2 figs

  13. Accountability in Science During the Information Era: Lessons Drawn from the "Cold Fusion Furor"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, Scott

    2001-04-01

    As guest editor of a recent Ethics in Science publication(S. R. Chubb, Accountability in Research, v 8), #'s 1 and 2, 1 (2000). journals/149/149-top.htm>(http://www.gbhap us.com/journals/149/149-top.htm), I requested key players, from both sides of the Cold Fusion (CF) debate, to attempt to go beyond questions involving the merits of CF, by addressing a more basic issue: have CF claims been judged effectively. All participants agreed that this has not occurred. Three factors seem to have been responsible: 1. Errors in the initial neutron measurements, 2. Events immediately prior to and during a specific APS session, held 1 May 1989, and 3. Irresponsible use of FAX machines and the Internet. The resulting furor, fueled by these Information Era Technologies (IET's), has evolved into such a serious breakdown in communication that, even after 11 years, it is impossible to rule-out the possibility that a number of important new discoveries may have occurred. Regardless of the merits of the claims, two lessons can be drawn from the debate: 1. Individuals and groups must be held accountable for their actions and statements, 2. When IET users fail to respect each other, IET's can seriously impede communication.

  14. Examination of a proposed phonon-coupling mechanism for cold fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, O.H.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper the proposed nuclear energy in an atomic lattice (NEAL) mechanism for nuclear fusion in a cathode during electrolysis of D 2 O is examined. In this mechanism, coupled harmonic motion of deuterons is supposed to lead to a reduction in the width of the Coulomb barrier for proton-deuteron (p-d) fusion in palladium, thereby substantially increasing the fusion rate. Instead, it is argued that deuteron-deuteron coupling does not have an important effect and that interaction with phonons does not enhance the p-d fusion rate

  15. Lenr and "cold Fusion" Excess Heat:. Their Relation to Other Anomalous Microphysical Energy Experiments and Emerging New Energy Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallove, Eugene F.

    2005-12-01

    During the past 15 years, indisputable experimental evidence has built up for substantial excess heat (far beyond ordinary chemical energy) and low-energy nuclear reaction phenomena in specialized heavy hydrogen and ordinary hydrogen-containing systems.1 The primary theorists in the field that is properly designated Cold Fusion/LENR have generally assumed that the excess heat phenomena is commensurate with nuclear ash (such as helium), whether already identified or presumed to be present but not yet found. That was an excellent initial hypothesis. However, the commensurate nuclear ash hypothesis has not been proved, and appears to be approximately correct in only a few experiments. During this same period, compelling evidence although not as broadly verified as data from cold fusion/LENR has also emerged for other microphysical sources of energy that were previously unexpected by accepted physics. The exemplar of this has been the "hydrino" physics work of Dr. Randall Mills and his colleagues at Black-Light Power Corporation, which was a radical outgrowth from the cold fusion field that emerged publicly in May 1991.2 Even more far-reaching is the work in vacuum energy extraction pioneered by Dr. Paulo and Alexandra Correa, which first became public in 1996.3 This vacuum energy experimentation began in the early 1980s and has been reduced to prototype technological devices, such as the patented PAGDTM (pulsed abnormal glow discharge) electric power generator, as well as many published experiments that can be performed in table-top fashion to verify the Correa Aetherometry (non-luminiferous or non-electromagnetic aether measurement science).4 In an era when mainstream science and its media is all agog about dark matter and dark energy composing the vast bulk of the universe, there is a great need to reconcile, if possible, the significant bodies of evidence from these three major experimental and theoretical streams: cold fusion/LENR, hydrino physics, and

  16. Preliminary results of cold fusion studies using a five module high current electrolytic cell (Paper No. A2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayar, M.G.; Mitra, S.K.; Raghunathan, P.; Krishnan, M.S.; Malhotra, S.K.; Gaonkar, D.G.; Sikka, S.K.; Shyam, A.; Chitra, V.

    1989-01-01

    A high current modular palladium-nickel electrolytic cell was designed and operated to observe cold fusion reactions. The cathode was made up of palladium (25 per cent)-silver and the anode was made up of porous nickel. Using NaOD in D 2 O (20 per cent) as an electrolyte, the electrolyser was operated continuously at a current of 60 to 65 amps and applied voltage of ∼ 12.5V. The deuterium and oxygen gases produced were carried out of the cell to a recombination unit consisting of burner and condenser. The resultant heavy water was recycled back to the electrolyser. Measurement of the neutron output and tritium content of the electrolyte during and after electrolysis conclusively showed occurrence of cold fusion reactions. Gross neutron to tritium yield ratio was observed to be ∼ 10 -9 which should be taken as a lower limit, because a considerable quantity of tritium carried away by the gas stream could not recovered and taken into account. (M.G.B.). 2 tabs., 2 figs

  17. Fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Mahaffey, James A

    2012-01-01

    As energy problems of the world grow, work toward fusion power continues at a greater pace than ever before. The topic of fusion is one that is often met with the most recognition and interest in the nuclear power arena. Written in clear and jargon-free prose, Fusion explores the big bang of creation to the blackout death of worn-out stars. A brief history of fusion research, beginning with the first tentative theories in the early 20th century, is also discussed, as well as the race for fusion power. This brand-new, full-color resource examines the various programs currently being funded or p

  18. On a possibility of cold fusion in deuterium-saturated YBa2Cu3O7-x ceramics in superconducting state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipson, A.G.; Sakov, D.M.; Toporov, Yu.P.; Gromov, V.V.; Deryagin, B.V.

    1991-01-01

    A possibility to generate neutrons by deuterated YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x ceramics in superconducting (T c ) and normal (T>T c ) states is studied. The presented data points to a relationship between the processes of cold nuclear fusion and high-temperature superconductivity in YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x pellets deuterated at T c (77< T<90 K)

  19. The big experimental manual of Free Energy. Cold Fusion - Tesla-Waves - Space-Quantum-Energy - a.o.; Das grosse Freie Energie Experimentier-Handbuch. Kalte Fusion - Tesla-Wellen - Raum-Quanten-Energie - u.v.m.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lay, P.; Chmela, H.; Wiedergut, W.

    2004-07-01

    The main topics of the lectures are: Experiments on cold fusion; Information on space-quantum energy; phenomena of rotating magnets; advanced electrostatic motors; generation of scalar waves; complex rotating fields and levitation from an advanced view; free energy converters. (GL)

  20. Effect of deformations on the compactness of odd-Z superheavy nuclei formed in cold and hot fusion reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurjit; Sandhu, Kirandeep; Sharma, Manoj K.

    2018-03-01

    Using the extended fragmentation theory, the compactness of hot and cold fusion reactions is analyzed for odd-Z nuclei ranging Z = 105- 117. The calculations for the present work are carried out at T = 0MeV and ℓ = 0 ħ, as the temperature and angular momentum effects remain silent while addressing the orientation degree of freedom (i.e. compact angle configuration). In the hot fusion, 48Ca (spherical) + actinide (prolate) reaction, the non-equatorial compact (nec) shape is obtained for Z = 113 nucleus. On the other hand, Z > 113 nuclei favor equatorial compact (ec) configuration. The distribution of barrier height (VB) illustrate that the ec-shape is obtained when the magnitude of quadrupole deformation of the nucleus is higher than the hexadecupole deformation. In other words, negligible or small -ve β4-deformations support ec configurations. On the other hand, large (+ve) magnitude of the β4-deformation suggests that the configuration appears for compact angle θc < 90 °, leading to nec structure. Similar deformation effects are observed for Bi-induced reactions, in which not belly-to-belly compact (nbbc) configurations are seen at θc = 42 °. In addition to the effect of β2 and β4-deformations, the exclusive role of octupole deformations (β3) is also analyzed. The β3-deformations do not follow the reflection symmetry as that of β2 and β4, leading to the possible occurrence of compact configuration within 0° to 180° angular range.

  1. The precipitation response of 20%-cold-worked type 316 stainless steel to simulated fusion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maziasz, P.J.

    1979-01-01

    The precipitation response of 20%-cold-worked type 316 stainless steel has been examined after irradiation in HFIR at 380-600 0 C, after irradiation in EBR-II at 500 0 C, and after thermal aging at 600 to 750 0 C. Eta phase forms during exposure to all environments. It constitutes a major portion of the precipitation response, and is rich in Ni, Si and Mo relative to M 23 C 6 after thermal aging. It is not normally reported in 20%-cold-worked type 316 stainless steel. The eta, M 23 C 6 , Laves, sigma, and chi precipitate phases appear at similar temperatures after HFIR, EBR-II, or thermal exposure. There are, however, some differences in relative amounts, size, and distribution of phases among the various environments. Eta phase is the only carbide-type phase observed after irradiation in HFIR from 380-550 0 C. The large cavities associated with it at 380 0 C contribute significantly to swelling. Re-solution of fine M 23 C 6 , eta, and Laves particles and re-precipitation of massive particles of sigma, M 23 C 6 and chi are observed after recrystallization in HFIR. (orig.)

  2. Stimulated cold fusion by positronium atoms, cross sections, and wall interactions in plasmas, used to diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emami, Z.

    2005-01-01

    Because of the technical complexities, involved in the controlled thermonuclear, reactions, a simple vicegerent agent cold plasma, stimulated by positronium atoms (achieved through a ring storage) as stimulus, introduced by this author in ITC 12 conference. In the present paper, the interaction between γ rays emitted through positronium atoms annihilation (in the forms of doublet and triplet electromagnetic photonic radiation) with plasma particles (including electrons, ions and neutral particles) investigated. Proper lifetime of singlet γ rays τs are about 100 ns and from that of triplet γ rays, i.e τt about 100 fems, reside in the following transition times in Ne and Argon elements in He-Ne and Ar lasers respectively: Ne*(3S2) [transition time τ = 105 ns] -> Ne*(2P4); Ar+*(3P4 4S) [transition time τ = 105 fems] -> Ar+(3P5). Then the interactions of γ rays with mater in plasma could follow up as treated from that of the laser and mater in one extreme while the comparison of this situation with normal plasmas in other extreme could serve as diagnostics key role in magnetically confined plasmas reactors. Collisions between charge and neutral species in plasma with electromagnetic radiation (γ photonic radiation) including the energy loss and scattering lead to different consequences. Light electrons can take up appreciably amounts of energy from the incident rays, lead to heating cold plasma, whereas massive ions absorb very little energy. Thus loss of incident energy in radiation occurs almost entirely in collisions with electrons , which, referred to the γ rays energy this would led to plasma heating about thermonuclear reaction ( Eγ = hν = 0.5 MeV). The heavy ions and neutral species in interaction with electromagnetic γ radiation, result on the other hand in scattering, in turn may increase the ionization level of the cold plasma, toward fully ionized plasma. Although all the essential features of these different interaction cross sections deduced

  3. A 1.5--4 Kelvin detachable cold-sample transfer system: Application to inertially confined fusion with spin-polarized hydrogens fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, N.; Barden, J.; Fan, Q.; Honig, A.

    1990-01-01

    A compact cold-transfer apparatus for engaging and retrieving samples at liquid helium temperatures (1.5--4K), maintaining the samples at such temperatures for periods of hours, and subsequently inserting them in diverse apparatuses followed by disengagement, is described. The properties of several thermal radiation-insulating shrouds, necessary for very low sample temperatures, are presented. The immediate intended application is transportable target-shells containing highly spin-polarized deuterons in solid HD or D 2 for inertially confined fusion (ICF) experiments. The system is also valuable for unpolarized high-density fusion fuels, as well as for other applications which are discussed. 9 refs., 6 figs

  4. Electrical phenomena in breaking the adhesive contact and in the destruction of solids. Development stages: From the gas discharge to cold nuclear fusion (on the 90th anniversary of the Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences, B. V. Deryagin)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khrustalev, Yu.A.

    1993-01-01

    A brief review is presented of the research performed mainly by B. V. Deryagin and his coworkers into the electrophysical phenomena that accompany the breaking of an adhesive bond and of solids themselves by a mechanical action (the charging of fresh surfaces and gas discharge processes, caused by an excess charge, the emission of electrons and of x-ray radiation, as well as cold nuclear fusion). The relationship between the emission of electrons and mechanochemical processes in solids is pointed out. 118 refs

  5. Cold Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH COLD STRESS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Workers who ... cold environments may be at risk of cold stress. Extreme cold weather is a dangerous situation that ...

  6. Massachusetts Institute of Technology Plasma Fusion Center, 1988--1989 report to the President

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-07-01

    This report discusses the following topics on fusion energy: cold fusion; alcator confinement experiments; applied plasma physics research; fusion systems; coherent electromagnetic wave generation; and fusion technology and engineering

  7. Kinetic advantage of controlled intermediate nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Xiaoming

    2012-01-01

    The dominated process of controlled fusion is to let nuclei gain enough kinetic energy to overcome Coulomb barrier. As a result, a fusion scheme can consider two factors in its design: to increase kinetic energy of nuclei and to alter the Coulomb barrier. Cold Fusion and Hot fusion are all one-factor schemes while Intermediate Fusion is a twofactors scheme. This made CINF kinetically superior. Cold Fusion reduces deuteron-deuteron distance, addressing Coulomb barrier, and Hot Fusion heat up plasma into extreme high temperature, addressing kinetic energy. Without enough kinetic energy made Cold Fusion skeptical. Extreme high temperature made Hot Fusion very difficult to engineer. Because CIFN addresses both factors, CIFN is a more promising technique to be industrialized.

  8. The abundant excess heat production during low energy nuclear reaction in the nano scale solid state the cold fusion, 14 years' legacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Tae Ho; Miley, George H.; Lipson, Andrei; Kim, Sung O.; Luo, Nie; Castano, Carlos H.

    2002-01-01

    The quite abundant excess heat and radioactive materials are found during the solid state reaction. This phenomenon has done during the Low Energy Nuclear Reaction (LENR) in the nano scale molecular structure electrodes and Hydrogen compound electrolytes. The Palladium (or Nickel) and Platinum are incorporated as the electrode and the Light Water (H 2 O) as the electrolyte. The excess heat was produced up to 40% in year 2001. The Alpha particles are also detected. The computer code, Coherent Lattice Accelerator Inter-Ionic Reaction Enhancer (CLAIRE) Code System, is constructed for the simulation. The 0.1 A of the distance between two the Hydrogen ion (proton) and Palladium nucleus is the critical point for the nuclear fusion reaction

  9. The abundant excess heat production during low energy nuclear reaction in the nano scale solid state the cold fusion, 14 years' legacy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Tae Ho; Miley, George H.; Lipson, Andrei; Kim, Sung O.; Luo, Nie; Castano, Carlos H. [The University of Illinois, Urbana (United States)

    2002-05-01

    The quite abundant excess heat and radioactive materials are found during the solid state reaction. This phenomenon has done during the Low Energy Nuclear Reaction (LENR) in the nano scale molecular structure electrodes and Hydrogen compound electrolytes. The Palladium (or Nickel) and Platinum are incorporated as the electrode and the Light Water (H{sub 2}O) as the electrolyte. The excess heat was produced up to 40% in year 2001. The Alpha particles are also detected. The computer code, Coherent Lattice Accelerator Inter-Ionic Reaction Enhancer (CLAIRE) Code System, is constructed for the simulation. The 0.1 A of the distance between two the Hydrogen ion (proton) and Palladium nucleus is the critical point for the nuclear fusion reaction.

  10. Certain physicochemical characteristics of Bi1.4Y0.6O3 prepared by the method of direct high-frequency fusion in cold crucible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poluyan, A.F.; Lashneva, V.V.; Vecher, A.A.; Voropaev, A.G.; Savitskij, A.A.; Tatarintsev, V.M.

    1988-01-01

    Electric properties and the nature of conductivity of Bi 1.4 V 0.6 O 3 solid solution prepared by the method of direct high-frequency melting in the cold crucible are studied. A sample of Bi 1.4 Y 0.6 O 3 composition synthesized by this technique has a higher electric conductivity value as compared with analogous polycrystal sample has a cubic face-centered structure of the τ-Bi 2 O 3 type. On the basis of experimental e.m.f. values temperature dependences of pressures of oxygen dissociation for Bi 2 O 3 and Bi 1.4 Y 0.6 O 3 are calculated. Bi 1.4 Y 0.6 O 3 solid solution has lower values of Po 2 dissociation pressure as compared with bismuth oxide. This expands the limits of its application

  11. Catalysed fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Farley, Francis

    2012-01-01

    A sizzling romance and a romp with subatomic particles at CERN. Love, discovery and adventure in the city where nations meet and beams collide. Life in a large laboratory. As always, the challenges are the same. Who leads? Who follows? Who succeeds? Who gets the credit? Who gets the women or the men? Young Jeremy arrives in CERN and joins the quest for green energy. Coping with baffling jargon and manifold dangers, he is distracted by radioactive rats, lovely ladies and an unscrupulous rival. Full of doubts and hesitations, he falls for a dazzling Danish girl, who leads him astray. His brilliant idea leads to a discovery and a new route to cold fusion. But his personal life is scrambled. Does it bring fame or failure? Tragedy or triumph?

  12. Fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    This textbook covers the physics and technology upon which future fusion power reactors will be based. It reviews the history of fusion, reaction physics, plasma physics, heating, and confinement. Descriptions of commercial plants and design concepts are included. Topics covered include: fusion reactions and fuel resources; reaction rates; ignition, and confinement; basic plasma directory; Tokamak confinement physics; fusion technology; STARFIRE: A commercial Tokamak fusion power plant. MARS: A tandem-mirror fusion power plant; and other fusion reactor concepts

  13. Cold Fusion Production and Decay of Neutron-Deficient Isotopes of Dubnium and Development of Extraction Systems for Group V Elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gates, Jacklyn M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2008-07-31

    Excitation functions for the 1n and 2n exit channels of the 208Pb(51V,xn)259-xDb reaction were measured. A maximum cross section of the 1n exit channel of 2070$+1100\\atop{-760}$ pb was measured at an excitation energy of 16.0 ± 1.8 MeV. For the 2n exit channel, a maximum cross section of 1660$+450\\atop{-370}$ pb was measured at 22.0 ± 1.8 MeV excitation energy. The 1n excitation function for the 209Bi(50Ti,n)258Db reaction was remeasured, resulting in a cross section of 5480$+1730\\atop{-1370}$ pb at an excitation energy of 16.0 ± 1.6 MeV. Differences in cross section maxima are discussed in terms of the fusion probability below the barrier. The extraction of niobium (Nb) and tantalum (Ta) from hydrochloric acid and mixed hydrochloric acid/lithium chloride media by bis(2-ethylhexyl) hydrogen phosphate (HDEHP) and bis(2-ethylhexyl) hydrogen phosphite (BEHP) was studied. The goal of the experiments was to find a system that demonstrates selectivity among the members of group five of the Periodic Table and is also suitable for the study of dubnium (Db, Z = 105). Experiments with niobium and tantalum were performed with carrier (10-6 M), carrier free (10-10 M) and trace (10-16 M) concentrations of metal using hydrochloric acid solution with concentrations ranging from 1 - 11 M. The extraction of niobium and tantalum from mixed hydrochloric acid/lithium chloride media by HDEHP and BEHP as a function of hydrogen ion (H+) concentration was also investigated. The data obtained are used as the basis to discuss the speciation of niobium and tantalum under the conditions studied and to evaluate possible extraction mechanisms. The 74Se(18O,p3n)88gNb excitation function was measured to determine the best energy for producing the 88Nb used in chemistry experiments. A maximum cross section of 495 +- 5 mb was observed at an 18O energy of 74.0 Me

  14. Cold plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marroquin, Christopher M.; O' Connell, Kevin M.; Schultz, Mark D.; Tian, Shurong

    2018-02-13

    A cold plate, an electronic assembly including a cold plate, and a method for forming a cold plate are provided. The cold plate includes an interface plate and an opposing plate that form a plenum. The cold plate includes a plurality of active areas arranged for alignment over respective heat generating portions of an electronic assembly, and non-active areas between the active areas. A cooling fluid flows through the plenum. The plenum, at the non-active areas, has a reduced width and/or reduced height relative to the plenum at the active areas. The reduced width and/or height of the plenum, and exterior dimensions of cold plate, at the non-active areas allow the non-active areas to flex to accommodate surface variations of the electronics assembly. The reduced width and/or height non-active areas can be specifically shaped to fit between physical features of the electronics assembly.

  15. Cold injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, R J

    1995-01-01

    There are two categories of cold injury. The first is hypothermia, which is a systemic injury to cold, and the second is frostbite, which is a local injury. Throughout history, entire armies, from George Washington to the Germans on the Russian Front in World War II, have fallen prey to prolonged cold exposure. Cold injury is common and can occur in all seasons if ambient temperature is lower than the core body temperature. In the 1985 Boston Marathon, even though it was 76 degrees and sunny, there were 75 runners treated for hypothermia. In general, humans adapt poorly to cold exposure. Children are at particular risk because of their relatively greater surface area/body mass ratio, causing them to cool even more rapidly than adults. Because of this, the human's best defense against cold injury is to limit his/her exposure to cold and to dress appropriately. If cold injury has occurred and is mild, often simple passive rewarming such as dry blankets and a warm room are sufficient treatment.

  16. Heat and cold accumulators in vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauranen, P.; Wikstroem, L. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Advanced Materials, Tampere (Finland)); Heikkinen, J. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Building Services and Indoor Environment, Espoo (Finland)); Laurikko, J.; Elonen, T. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Emission Control, Espoo (Finland)); Seppaelae, A. (Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Applied Thermodynamics, Espoo (Finland)). Email: ari.seppala@tkk.fi

    2009-07-01

    Phase Change Material (PCM) based heat and cold accumulators have been tailored for transport applications including a mail delivery van as well as the cold chains of foodstuff and blood products. The PCMs can store relative large amount of thermal energy in a narrow temperature interval as latent heat of fusion of their melting and crystallization processes. Compact heat and cold accumulators can be designed using PCMs. The aim of the project has been to reduce the exhaust gas and noise emissions and improve the fuel economy of the transport systems and to improve the reliability of the cold chains studied by storing thermal energy in PCM accumulators. (orig.)

  17. Cold Sore

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may reduce how often they return. Symptoms A cold sore usually passes through several stages: Tingling and itching. Many people feel an itching, burning or tingling sensation around their lips for a day or so ...

  18. EMP Fusion

    OpenAIRE

    KUNTAY, Isık

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel fusion scheme, called EMP Fusion, which has the promise of achieving breakeven and realizing commercial fusion power. The method is based on harnessing the power of an electromagnetic pulse generated by the now well-developed flux compression technology. The electromagnetic pulse acts as a means of both heating up the plasma and confining the plasma, eliminating intermediate steps. The EMP Fusion device is simpler compared to other fusion devices and this reduces...

  19. Status of cold fusion research in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Akira

    2015-01-01

    In Japan, the Condensed Matter Nuclear Science (CMNS) works have been centering around the Japan CF-Research Society (JCFRS) established in 1999. Recently, about 10 research groups were actively working in the CMNS field, and have been exchanging information mainly in the annual meetings of JCFRS in addition to the International ICCF conferences. For many years efforts have been exclusively devoted to clarification of the underlying physics of excess heat phenomenon and isotopic composition change. Recently, however, an entrepreneur group, Clean Planet Inc., has entered into the CMNS field in Japan, and joined Mizuno to form the above-mentioned group and made a presentation at the LANR/CF Colloquium, at MIT in March 2014. In their work they used glow discharge to form surface nanostructures on nickel mesh wires that are to be subjected to deuterium exposure. They claimed excess power on the order of kilowatts with a coefficient of performance of 1.9. Confirmation of their claim by third parties is highly expected

  20. Osteoclast Fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marie Julie Møller, Anaïs; Delaissé, Jean-Marie; Søe, Kent

    2017-01-01

    on the nuclearity of fusion partners. While CD47 promotes cell fusions involving mono-nucleated pre-osteoclasts, syncytin-1 promotes fusion of two multi-nucleated osteoclasts, but also reduces the number of fusions between mono-nucleated pre-osteoclasts. Furthermore, CD47 seems to mediate fusion mostly through...... individual fusion events using time-lapse and antagonists of CD47 and syncytin-1. All time-lapse recordings have been studied by two independent observers. A total of 1808 fusion events were analyzed. The present study shows that CD47 and syncytin-1 have different roles in osteoclast fusion depending...... broad contact surfaces between the partners' cell membrane while syncytin-1 mediate fusion through phagocytic-cup like structure. J. Cell. Physiol. 9999: 1-8, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc....

  1. Fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancox, R.

    1981-01-01

    The principles of fusion power, and its advantages and disadvantages, are outlined. Present research programmes and future plans directed towards the development of a fusion power reactor, are summarized. (U.K.)

  2. Fusion rings and fusion ideals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Troels Bak

    by the so-called fusion ideals. The fusion rings of Wess-Zumino-Witten models have been widely studied and are well understood in terms of precise combinatorial descriptions and explicit generating sets of the fusion ideals. They also appear in another, more general, setting via tilting modules for quantum......This dissertation investigates fusion rings, which are Grothendieck groups of rigid, monoidal, semisimple, abelian categories. Special interest is in rational fusion rings, i.e., fusion rings which admit a finite basis, for as commutative rings they may be presented as quotients of polynomial rings...

  3. Fusion: introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2006-01-01

    The article gives an overview and introduction to the activities of SCK-CEN's research programme on fusion. The decision to construct the ITER international nuclear fusion experiment in Cadarache is highlighted. A summary of the Belgian contributions to fusion research is given with particular emphasis on studies of radiation effects on diagnostics systems, radiation effects on remote handling sensing systems, fusion waste management and socio-economic studies

  4. Project COLD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanjian, Wendy C.

    1982-01-01

    Describes Project COLD (Climate, Ocean, Land, Discovery) a scientific study of the Polar Regions, a collection of 35 modules used within the framework of existing subjects: oceanography, biology, geology, meterology, geography, social science. Includes a partial list of topics and one activity (geodesic dome) from a module. (Author/SK)

  5. Membrane fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Pól Martin

    2015-01-01

    At Stanford University, Boxer lab, I worked on membrane fusion of small unilamellar lipid vesicles to flat membranes tethered to glass surfaces. This geometry closely resembles biological systems in which liposomes fuse to plasma membranes. The fusion mechanism was studied using DNA zippering...... between complementary strands linked to the two apposing membranes closely mimicking the zippering mechanism of SNARE fusion complexes....

  6. Fusion Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-07-01

    This first issue of a quarterly newsletter announces the startup of the Tokamak de Varennes, describes Canada's national fusion program, and outlines the Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Program. A map gives the location of the eleven principal fusion centres in Canada. (L.L.)

  7. Fusion neutronics

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yican

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a systematic and comprehensive introduction to fusion neutronics, covering all key topics from the fundamental theories and methodologies, as well as a wide range of fusion system designs and experiments. It is the first-ever book focusing on the subject of fusion neutronics research. Compared with other nuclear devices such as fission reactors and accelerators, fusion systems are normally characterized by their complex geometry and nuclear physics, which entail new challenges for neutronics such as complicated modeling, deep penetration, low simulation efficiency, multi-physics coupling, etc. The book focuses on the neutronics characteristics of fusion systems and introduces a series of theories and methodologies that were developed to address the challenges of fusion neutronics, and which have since been widely applied all over the world. Further, it introduces readers to neutronics design’s unique principles and procedures, experimental methodologies and technologies for fusion systems...

  8. Fusion Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Lackner, Karl; Tran, Minh Quang [eds.

    2012-09-15

    Recreating the energy production process of the Sun - nuclear fusion - on Earth in a controlled fashion is one of the greatest challenges of this century. If achieved at affordable costs, energy supply security would be greatly enhanced and environmental degradation from fossil fuels greatly diminished. Fusion Physics describes the last fifty years or so of physics and research in innovative technologies to achieve controlled thermonuclear fusion for energy production. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been involved since its establishment in 1957 in fusion research. It has been the driving force behind the biennial conferences on Plasma Physics and Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion, today known as the Fusion Energy Conference. Hosted by several Member States, this biennial conference provides a global forum for exchange of the latest achievements in fusion research against the backdrop of the requirements for a net energy producing fusion device and, eventually, a fusion power plant. The scientific and technological knowledge compiled during this series of conferences, as well as by the IAEA Nuclear Fusion journal, is immense and will surely continue to grow in the future. It has led to the establishment of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), which represents the biggest experiment in energy production ever envisaged by humankind.

  9. Fusion breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    The fusion breeder is a fusion reactor designed with special blankets to maximize the transmutation by 14 MeV neutrons of uranium-238 to plutonium or thorium to uranium-233 for use as a fuel for fission reactors. Breeding fissile fuels has not been a goal of the US fusion energy program. This paper suggests it is time for a policy change to make the fusion breeder a goal of the US fusion program and the US nuclear energy program. The purpose of this paper is to suggest this policy change be made and tell why it should be made, and to outline specific research and development goals so that the fusion breeder will be developed in time to meet fissile fuel needs

  10. Plasma nuclear fusion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Shunpei; Miyanaga, Shoji; Wakaizumi, Kazuhiro; Takemura, Yasuhiko.

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear fusion reactions are attained by plasma gas phase reactions using magnetic fields and microwaves, and the degree of the reactions is controlled. That is, deuterium (D 2 ) is introduced into a plasma container by utilizing the resonance of microwaves capable of generating plasmas at high density higher by more than 10 - 10 3 times as compared with the high frequency and magnetic fields, and an electric energy is applied to convert gaseous D 2 into plasmas and nuclear fusion is conducted. Further, the deuterium ions in the plasmas are attracted to a surface of a material causing nuclear fusion under a negatively biased electric field from the outside (typically represented by Pd or Ti). Then, deuterium nuclei (d) or deuterium ions collide to the surface of the cathode on the side of palladium to conduct nuclear reaction at the surface or the inside (vicinity) thereof. However, a DC bias is applied as an external bias with the side of the palladium being negative. The cold nuclear fusion was demonstrated by placing a neutron counter in the vicinity of the container and confirming neutrons generated there. (I.S.)

  11. Fusion Implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    If a fusion DEMO reactor can be brought into operation during the first half of this century, fusion power production can have a significant impact on carbon dioxide production during the latter half of the century. An assessment of fusion implementation scenarios shows that the resource demands and waste production associated with these scenarios are manageable factors. If fusion is implemented during the latter half of this century it will be one element of a portfolio of (hopefully) carbon dioxide limiting sources of electrical power. It is time to assess the regional implications of fusion power implementation. An important attribute of fusion power is the wide range of possible regions of the country, or countries in the world, where power plants can be located. Unlike most renewable energy options, fusion energy will function within a local distribution system and not require costly, and difficult, long distance transmission systems. For example, the East Coast of the United States is a prime candidate for fusion power deployment by virtue of its distance from renewable energy sources. As fossil fuels become less and less available as an energy option, the transmission of energy across bodies of water will become very expensive. On a global scale, fusion power will be particularly attractive for regions separated from sources of renewable energy by oceans

  12. Thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisse, J.

    2000-01-01

    This document takes stock of the two ways of thermonuclear fusion research explored today: magnetic confinement fusion and inertial confinement fusion. The basic physical principles are recalled first: fundamental nuclear reactions, high temperatures, elementary properties of plasmas, ignition criterion, magnetic confinement (charged particle in a uniform magnetic field, confinement and Tokamak principle, heating of magnetized plasmas (ohmic, neutral particles, high frequency waves, other heating means), results obtained so far (scale laws and extrapolation of performances, tritium experiments, ITER project), inertial fusion (hot spot ignition, instabilities, results (Centurion-Halite program, laser experiments). The second part presents the fusion reactor and its associated technologies: principle (tritium production, heat source, neutron protection, tritium generation, materials), magnetic fusion (superconducting magnets, divertor (role, principle, realization), inertial fusion (energy vector, laser adaptation, particle beams, reaction chamber, stresses, chamber concepts (dry and wet walls, liquid walls), targets (fabrication, injection and pointing)). The third chapter concerns the socio-economic aspects of thermonuclear fusion: safety (normal operation and accidents, wastes), costs (costs structure and elementary comparison, ecological impact and external costs). (J.S.)

  13. Fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, T.K.

    1977-01-01

    Three types of thermonuclear fusion devices currently under development are reviewed for an electric utilities management audience. Overall design features of laser fusion, tokamak, and magnetic mirror type reactors are described and illustrated. Thrusts and trends in current research on these devices that promise to improve performance are briefly reviewed. Twenty photographs and drawings are included

  14. Can 250+ fusions per muon be achieved?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S.E.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear fusion of hydrogen isotopes can be induced by negative muons (μ) in reactions such as: μ - + d + t → α + n + μ - . This reaction is analagous to the nuclear fusion reaction achieved in stars in which hydrogen isotopes (such as deuterium, d, and tritium, t) at very high temperatures first penetrate the Coulomb repulsive barrier and then fuse together to produce an alpha particle (α) and a neutron (n), releasing energy. The muon in general reappears after inducing fusion so that the reaction can be repeated many (N) times. Thus, the muon may serve as an effective catalyst for nuclear fusion. Muon-catalozed fusion is unique in that it proceeds rapidly in deuterium-tritium mixtures at relatively cold temperatures, e.g., room temperature. The need for plasma temperatures to initiate fusion is overcome by the presence of the muon

  15. Atomic fusion, Gerrard atomic fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerrard, T.H.

    1980-01-01

    In the approach to atomic fusion described here the heat produced in a fusion reaction, which is induced in a chamber by the interaction of laser beams and U.H.F. electromagnetic beams with atom streams, is transferred to a heat exchanger for electricity generation by a coolant flowing through a jacket surrounding the chamber. (U.K.)

  16. Peaceful fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Englert, Matthias [IANUS, TU Darmstadt (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    Like other intense neutron sources fusion reactors have in principle a potential to be used for military purposes. Although the use of fissile material is usually not considered when thinking of fusion reactors (except in fusion-fission hybrid concepts) quantitative estimates about the possible production potential of future commercial fusion reactor concepts show that significant amounts of weapon grade fissile materials could be produced even with very limited amounts of source materials. In this talk detailed burnup calculations with VESTA and MCMATH using an MCNP model of the PPCS-A will be presented. We compare different irradiation positions and the isotopic vectors of the plutonium bred in different blankets of the reactor wall with the liquid lead-lithium alloy replaced by uranium. The technical, regulatory and policy challenges to manage the proliferation risks of fusion power will be addressed as well. Some of these challenges would benefit if addressed at an early stage of the research and development process. Hence, research on fusion reactor safeguards should start as early as possible and accompany the current research on experimental fusion reactors.

  17. Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse KidsHealth / For Teens / Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse ... resfriado Why Do People Use Cough and Cold Medicines to Get High? There's an ingredient in many ...

  18. Laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, D.E.T.F.

    1976-01-01

    A short survey is given on laser fusion its basic concepts and problems and the present theoretical and experimental methods. The future research program of the USA in this field is outlined. (WBU) [de

  19. Fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    The efforts of the Chemical Technology Division in fusion energy include the areas of fuel handling, processing, and containment. Current studies are concerned largely with the development of vacuum pumps for fusion reactors and experiments and with development and evaluation of techniques for recovering tritium from solid or liquid breeding blankets. In addition, a small effort is devoted to support of the ORNL design of a major Tokamak experiment, The Next Step (TNS)

  20. Laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Key, M.H.; Oxford Univ.

    1990-04-01

    The use of lasers to drive implosions for the purpose of inertially confined fusion is an area of intense activity where progress compares favourably with that made in magnetic fusion and there are significant prospects for future development. In this brief review the basic concept is summarised and the current status is outlined both in the area of laser technology and in the most recent results from implosion experiments. Prospects for the future are also considered. (author)

  1. Nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-zaelic, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear fusion can be relied on to solve the global energy crisis if the process of limiting the heat produced by the fusion reaction (Plasma) is successful. Currently scientists are progressively working on this aspect whereas there are two methods to limit the heat produced by fusion reaction, the two methods are auto-restriction using laser beam and magnetic restriction through the use of magnetic fields and research is carried out to improve these two methods. It is expected that at the end of this century the nuclear fusion energy will play a vital role in overcoming the global energy crisis and for these reasons, acquiring energy through the use of nuclear fusion reactors is one of the most urge nt demands of all mankind at this time. The conclusion given is that the source of fuel for energy production is readily available and inexpensive ( hydrogen atoms) and whole process is free of risks and hazards, especially to general health and the environment . Nuclear fusion importance lies in the fact that energy produced by the process is estimated to be about four to five times the energy produced by nuclear fission. (author)

  2. Plasma physics for controlled fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Miyamoto, Kenro

    2016-01-01

    This new edition presents the essential theoretical and analytical methods needed to understand the recent fusion research of tokamak and alternate approaches. The author describes magnetohydrodynamic and kinetic theories of cold and hot plasmas in detail. The book covers new important topics for fusion studies such as plasma transport by drift turbulence, which depend on the magnetic configuration and zonal flows. These are universal phenomena of microturbulence. They can modify the onset criterion for turbulent transport, instabilities driven by energetic particles as well as alpha particle generation and typical plasma models for computer simulation. The fusion research of tokamaks with various new versions of H modes are explained. The design concept of ITER, the international tokamak experimental reactor, is described for inductively driven operations as well as steady-state operations using non-inductive drives. Alternative approaches of reversed-field pinch and its relaxation process, stellator includi...

  3. ''Solid-state fusion'' effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, D.T.

    1990-01-01

    The ''Solid-State Fusion'' or ''Cold Fusion'' phenomenon, including excess heat generation and the production of nuclear particles, was first reported by Professors Martin Fleischmann and B. Stanley Pons in March 1989. The phenomenon described (the anomalous effects observed when deuterium oxide (heavy water) is electrolysed using a palladium cathode and a platinum anode in the presence of lithium deuteroxide) has many fascinating facets, not least of which is the fact that investigators are unable to produce the effects ''on demand''. Many of the experimental variables which seem to be significant were described and discussed at the ''First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion'' which was held in Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, from 29th to 31st March 1990. The information presented at the conference is summarised here. Some papers addressed the excess heat effects observed, some the nuclear particles, and others the theoretical aspects. These are reviewed. At the end of the conference Fleischmann summarised all the areas where apparent evidence for solid state fusion had been obtained during the past year, namely: excess enthalpy, bursts in enthalpy; tritium, bursts in tritium; neutrons, bursts in neutrons; X-rays, gamma rays and bursts in these. He recommended that emphasis should now be concentrated on confirming reaction products, such as He 4 . New theories were emerging, but one year was too short a time in which to evaluate them fully. (author)

  4. Workshop on cold-blanket research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-05-01

    The objective of the workshop was to identify and discuss cold-plasma blanket systems. In order to minimize the bombardment of the walls by hot neutrals the plasma should be impermeable. This requires a density edge-thickness product of nΔ > 10 15 cm -2 . An impermeable cold plasma-gas blanket surrounding a hot plasma core reduces the plasma wall/limiter interaction. Accumulation of impurities in this blanket can be expected. Fuelling from a blanket may be possible as shown by experimental results, though not fully explained by classical transport of neutrals. Refuelling of a reacting plasma had to be ensured by inward diffusion. Experimental studies of a cold impermeable plasma have been done on the tokamak-like Ringboog device. Simulation calculations for the next generation of large tokamaks using a particular transport model, indicate that the plasma edge profile can be controlled to reduce the production of sputtered impurities to an acceptable level. Impurity control requires a small fraction of the radial space to accomodate the cold-plasma layer. The problem of exhaust is, however, more complicated. If the cold-blanket scheme works as predicted in the model calculations, then α-particles generated by fusion will be transported to the cold outside layer. The Communities' experimental programme of research has been discussed in terms of the tokamaks which are available and planned. Two options present themselves for the continuation of cold-blanket research

  5. Use of high current density superconducting coils in fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.A.

    1979-11-01

    Superconducting magnets will play an important role in fusion research in years to come. The magnets which are currently proposed for fusion research use the concept of cryostability to insure stable operation of the superconducting coils. This paper proposes the use of adiabatically stable high current density superconducting coils in some types of fusion devices. The advantages of this approach are much lower system cold mass, enhanced cryogenic safety, increased access to the plasma and lower cost

  6. Image fusion tool: Validation by phantom measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zander, A.; Geworski, L.; Richter, M.; Ivancevic, V.; Munz, D.L.; Muehler, M.; Ditt, H.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Validation of a new image fusion tool with regard to handling, application in a clinical environment and fusion precision under different acquisition and registration settings. Methods: The image fusion tool investigated allows fusion of imaging modalities such as PET, CT, MRI. In order to investigate fusion precision, PET and MRI measurements were performed using a cylinder and a body contour-shaped phantom. The cylinder phantom (diameter and length 20 cm each) contained spheres (10 to 40 mm in diameter) which represented 'cold' or 'hot' lesions in PET measurements. The body contour-shaped phantom was equipped with a heart model containing two 'cold' lesions. Measurements were done with and without four external markers placed on the phantoms. The markers were made of plexiglass (2 cm diameter and 1 cm thickness) and contained a Ga-Ge-68 core for PET and Vitamin E for MRI measurements. Comparison of fusion results with and without markers was done visually and by computer assistance. This algorithm was applied to the different fusion parameters and phantoms. Results: Image fusion of PET and MRI data without external markers yielded a measured error of 0 resulting in a shift at the matrix border of 1.5 mm. Conclusion: The image fusion tool investigated allows a precise fusion of PET and MRI data with a translation error acceptable for clinical use. The error is further minimized by using external markers, especially in the case of missing anatomical orientation. Using PET the registration error depends almost only on the low resolution of the data

  7. Fusion events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboufirassi, M; Angelique, J.C.; Bizard, G.; Bougault, R.; Brou, R.; Buta, A.; Colin, J.; Cussol, D.; Durand, D.; Genoux-Lubain, A.; Horn, D.; Kerambrun, A.; Laville, J.L.; Le Brun, C.; Lecolley, J.F.; Lefebvres, F.; Lopez, O.; Louvel, M.; Meslin, C.; Metivier, V.; Nakagawa, T.; Peter, J.; Popescu, R.; Regimbart, R.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Tamain, B.; Vient, E.; Wieloch, A.; Yuasa-Nakagawa, K.

    1998-01-01

    The fusion reactions between low energy heavy ions have a very high cross section. First measurements at energies around 30-40 MeV/nucleon indicated no residue of either complete or incomplete fusion, thus demonstrating the disappearance of this process. This is explained as being due to the high amount o energies transferred to the nucleus, what leads to its total dislocation in light fragments and particles. Exclusive analyses have permitted to mark clearly the presence of fusion processes in heavy systems at energies above 30-40 MeV/nucleon. Among the complete events of the Kr + Au reaction at 60 MeV/nucleon the majority correspond to binary collisions. Nevertheless, for the most considerable energy losses, a class of events do occur for which the detected fragments appears to be emitted from a unique source. These events correspond to an incomplete projectile-target fusion followed by a multifragmentation. Such events were singled out also in the reaction Xe + Sn at 50 MeV/nucleon. For the events in which the energy dissipation was maximal it was possible to isolate an isotropic group of events showing all the characteristics of fusion nuclei. The fusion is said to be incomplete as pre-equilibrium Z = 1 and Z = 2 particles are emitted. The cross section is of the order of 25 mb. Similar conclusions were drown for the systems 36 Ar + 27 Al and 64 Zn + nat Ti. A cross section value of ∼ 20 mb was determined at 55 MeV/nucleon in the first case, while the measurement of evaporation light residues in the last system gave an upper limit of 20-30 mb for the cross section at 50 MeV/nucleon

  8. Nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, H.

    1978-01-01

    A comprehensive survey is presented of the present state of knowledge in nuclear fusion research. In the first part, potential thermonuclear reactions, basic energy balances of the plasma (Lawson criterion), and the main criteria to be observed in the selection of appropriate thermonuclear reactions are dealt with. This is followed by a discussion of the problems encountered in plasma physics (plasma confinement and heating, transport processes, plasma impurities, plasma instabilities and plasma diagnostics) and by a consideration of the materials problems involved, such as material of the first wall, fuel inlet and outlet, magnetic field generation, as well as repair work and in-service inspections. Two main methods have been developed to tackle these problems: reactor concepts using the magnetic pinch (stellarator, Tokamak, High-Beta reactors, mirror machines) on the one hand, and the other concept using the inertial confinement (laser fusion reactor). These two approaches and their specific problems as well as past, present and future fusion experiments are treated in detail. The last part of the work is devoted to safety and environmental aspects of the potential thermonuclear aspects of the potential thermonuclear reactor, discussing such problems as fusion-specific hazards, normal operation and potential hazards, reactor incidents, environmental pollution by thermal effluents, radiological pollution, radioactive wastes and their disposal, and siting problems. (orig./GG) [de

  9. Short fusion

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    French and UK researchers are perfecting a particle accelerator technique that could aid the quest for fusion energy or make X-rays that are safer and produce higher-resolution images. Led by Dr Victor Malka from the Ecole Nationale Superieure des Techniques Avancees in Paris, the team has developed a better way of accelerating electrons over short distances (1 page).

  10. Magnetic fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This document is a detailed lecture on thermonuclear fusion. The basic physics principles are recalled and the technological choices that have led to tokamaks or stellarators are exposed. Different aspects concerning thermonuclear reactors such as safety, economy and feasibility are discussed. Tore-supra is described in details as well as the ITER project

  11. Grooved cold moderator tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, K.; Kiyanagi, Y.; Iwasa, H.; Watanabe, N.; Ikeda, S.; Carpenter, J.M.; Ishikawa, Y.

    1983-01-01

    We performed some grooved cold moderator experiments for methane at 20 K by using the Hokkaido University linac to obtain information to be used in the planning of the KENS-I' project. Cold neutron gains, spatial distribution of emitted beams and time distribution of the neutrons in the grooved cold moderator were measured. Furthermore, we assessed the effects of the grooved cold moderator on the performances of the spectrometers presently installed at the KENS-I cold source. We concluded that the grooved cold moderator benefited appreciably the performances of the spectrometers

  12. Magnetic fusion; La fusion magnetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This document is a detailed lecture on thermonuclear fusion. The basic physics principles are recalled and the technological choices that have led to tokamaks or stellarators are exposed. Different aspects concerning thermonuclear reactors such as safety, economy and feasibility are discussed. Tore-supra is described in details as well as the ITER project.

  13. 8th International School of Fusion Reactor Technology "Ettore Majorana"

    CERN Document Server

    Leotta, G G; Muon-catalyzed fusion and fusion with polarized nuclei

    1988-01-01

    The International School of Fusion Reactor Technology started its courses 15 years ago and since then has mantained a biennial pace. Generally, each course has developed the subject which was announced in advance at the closing of the previous course. The subject to which the present proceedings refer was chosen in violation of that rule so as to satisfy the recent and diffuse interest in cold fusion among the main European laboratories involved in controlled thermonuclear research (CTR). In the second half of 1986 we started to prepare a workshop aimed at assessing the state of the art and possibly of the perspectives of muon- catalyzed fusion. Research in this field has recently produced exciting experimental results open to important practical applications. We thought it worthwhile to consider also the beneficial effects and problems of the polarization ofthe nuclei in both cold and thermonuclear fusion. In preparing the 8th Course on Fusion Reactor Technology, it was necessary to abandon the tradi...

  14. Conceptualizing Cold Disasters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauta, Kristian Cedervall; Dahlberg, Rasmus; Vendelø, Morten Thanning

    2017-01-01

    In the present article, we explore in more depth the particular circumstances and characteristics of governing what we call ‘cold disasters’, and thereby, the paper sets out to investigate how disasters in cold contexts distinguish themselves from other disasters, and what the implications hereof...... are for the conceptualization and governance of cold disasters. Hence, the paper can also be viewed as a response to Alexander’s (2012a) recent call for new theory in the field of disaster risk reduction. The article is structured in four overall parts. The first part, Cold Context, provides an overview of the specific...... conditions in a cold context, exemplified by the Arctic, and zooms in on Greenland to provide more specific background for the paper. The second part, Disasters in Cold Contexts, discusses “cold disasters” in relation to disaster theory, in order to, elucidate how cold disasters challenge existing...

  15. Working in the Cold

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    During the winter, many workers are outdoors, working in cold, wet, icy, or snowy conditions. Learn how to identify symptoms that tell you there may be a problem and protect yourself from cold stress.

  16. Colds and the Flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease (COPD). What medicines can I give my child? There is no cure for the cold or the flu, and antibiotics do not work against the viruses that cause colds and the flu. Pain relievers such as ...

  17. Cold knife cone biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... biopsy; Pap smear - cone biopsy; HPV - cone biopsy; Human papilloma virus - cone biopsy; Cervix - cone biopsy; Colposcopy - cone biopsy Images Female reproductive anatomy Cold cone biopsy Cold cone removal References Baggish ...

  18. Cold medicines and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ingredient. Avoid giving more than one OTC cold medicine to your child. It may cause an overdose with severe side ... the dosage instructions strictly while giving an OTC medicine to your child. When giving OTC cold medicines to your child: ...

  19. Splenogonadal Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Lang Chen

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Splenogonadal fusion (SGF is a rare congenital non-malignant anomaly characterized by fusion of splenic tissue to the gonad, and can be continuous or discontinuous. Very few cases have been diagnosed preoperatively, and many patients who present with testicular swelling undergo unnecessary orchiectomy under the suspicion of testicular neoplasm. A 16-year-old boy presented with a left scrotal mass and underwent total excision of a 1.6-cm tumor without damaging the testis, epididymis or its accompanying vessels. Pathologic examination revealed SFG (discontinuous type. If clinically suspected before surgery, the diagnosis may be confirmed by Tc-99m sulfur colloid imaging, which shows uptake in both the spleen and accessory splenic tissue within the scrotum. Frozen section should be considered if there remains any doubt regarding the diagnosis during operation.

  20. Laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliezer, S.

    1982-02-01

    In this paper, the physics of laser fusion is described on an elementary level. The irradiated matter consists of a dense inner core surrounded by a less dense plasma corona. The laser radiation is mainly absorbed in the outer periphery of the plasma. The absorbed energy is transported inward to the ablation surface where plasma flow is created. Due to this plasma flow, a sequence of inward going shock waves and heat waves are created, resulting in the compression and heating of the core to high density and temperature. The interaction physics between laser and matter leading to thermonuclear burn is summarized by the following sequence of events: Laser absorption → Energy transport → Compression → Nuclear Fusion. This scenario is shown in particular for a Nd:laser with a wavelength of 1 μm. The wavelength scaling of the physical processes is also discussed. In addition to the laser-plasma physics, the Nd high power pulsed laser is described. We give a very brief description of the oscillator, the amplifiers, the spatial filters, the isolators and the diagnostics involved. Last, but not least, the concept of reactors for laser fusion and the necessary laser system are discussed. (author)

  1. Fusion spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peacock, N.J.

    1995-09-01

    This article traces developments in the spectroscopy of high temperature laboratory plasma used in controlled fusion research from the early 1960's until the present. These three and a half decades have witnessed many orders of magnitude increase in accessible plasma parameters such as density and temperature as well as particle and energy confinement timescales. Driven by the need to interpret the radiation in terms of the local plasma parameters, the thrust of fusion spectroscopy has been to develop our understanding of (i) the atomic structure of highly ionised atoms, usually of impurities in the hydrogen isotope fuel; (ii) the atomic collision rates and their incorporation into ionization structure and emissivity models that take into account plasma phenomena like plasma-wall interactions, particle transport and radiation patterns; (iii) the diagnostic applications of spectroscopy aided by increasingly sophisticated characterisation of the electron fluid. These topics are discussed in relation to toroidal magnetically confined plasmas, particularly the Tokamak which appears to be the most promising approach to controlled fusion to date. (author)

  2. The fusion rate in the transmission resonance model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaendel, M.

    1992-01-01

    Resonant transmission of deuterons through a chain of target deuterons in a metal matrix has been suggested as an explanation for the cold fusion phenomena. In this paper the fusion rate in such transmission resonance models is estimated, and the basic physical constraints are discussed. The dominating contribution to the fusion yield is found to come from metastable states. The fusion rate is well described by the Wentzel-Kramer-Brillouin approximation and appears to be much too small to explain the experimental anomalies

  3. Fusion Machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weynants, R.R.

    2004-01-01

    A concise overview is given of the principles of inertial and magnetic fusion, with an emphasis on the latter in view of the aim of this summer school. The basis of magnetic confinement in mirror and toroidal geometry is discussed and applied to the tokamak concept. A brief discussion of the reactor prospects of this configuration identifies which future developments are crucial and where alternative concepts might help in optimising the reactor design. The text also aims at introducing the main concepts encountered in tokamak research that will be studied and used in the subsequent lectures

  4. How cold is cold dark matter?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armendariz-Picon, Cristian; Neelakanta, Jayanth T.

    2014-01-01

    If cold dark matter consists of particles, these must be non-interacting and non-relativistic by definition. In most cold dark matter models however, dark matter particles inherit a non-vanishing velocity dispersion from interactions in the early universe, a velocity that redshifts with cosmic expansion but certainly remains non-zero. In this article, we place model-independent constraints on the dark matter temperature to mass ratio, whose square root determines the dark matter velocity dispersion. We only assume that dark matter particles decoupled kinetically while non-relativistic, when galactic scales had not entered the horizon yet, and that their momentum distribution has been Maxwellian since that time. Under these assumptions, using cosmic microwave background and matter power spectrum observations, we place upper limits on the temperature to mass ratio of cold dark matter today (away from collapsed structures). These limits imply that the present cold dark matter velocity dispersion has to be smaller than 54 m/s. Cold dark matter has to be quite cold, indeed

  5. Fusion Canada issue 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-02-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on Fusion Materials Research, ITER physics research, fusion performance record at JET, and design options for reactor building. 4 figs

  6. Molecular Diagnostics of Fusion and Laboratory Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantz, U.

    2005-05-01

    The presence of molecules in the cold scrape-off layer of fusion experiments and industrial plasmas requires an understanding of the molecular dynamics in these low temperature plasmas. Suitable diagnostic methods can provide an insight in molecular processes in the plasma volume as well as for plasma surface interactions. A very simple but powerful technique is the molecular emission spectroscopy. Spectra are obtained easily, whereas interpretation might be very complex and relies on the availability of atomic and molecular data. Examples are given for hydrogen plasmas and plasmas with hydrocarbons which both are of importance in industrial applications as well as in fusion experiments.

  7. Molecular Diagnostics of Fusion and Laboratory Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fantz, U.

    2005-01-01

    The presence of molecules in the cold scrape-off layer of fusion experiments and industrial plasmas requires an understanding of the molecular dynamics in these low temperature plasmas. Suitable diagnostic methods can provide an insight in molecular processes in the plasma volume as well as for plasma surface interactions. A very simple but powerful technique is the molecular emission spectroscopy. Spectra are obtained easily, whereas interpretation might be very complex and relies on the availability of atomic and molecular data. Examples are given for hydrogen plasmas and plasmas with hydrocarbons which both are of importance in industrial applications as well as in fusion experiments

  8. Cold formability of steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafond, G.; Leclerq, G.; Moliexe, F.; Namdar, R.; Roesch, L.; Sanz, G.

    1977-01-01

    This work was essentially aimed to the study of the following three questions. Is it possible to assess the cold formability of steels using simple material properties as criteria. What values of mechanical properties can one expect to reach in cold formed parts. Are there simple ways of characterizing the speroidization treatments carried out on steels before cold forming operations. The present report describes the results obtained during this investigation. It is logically divided into three separate parts. Experimental study of cold formability in wire drawing. Influence of metallurgical variables on mechanical properties of high carbon cold drawn wires. Contribution to the study of characterization methods of cold forming steels subjected to a spheroidization heat treatment

  9. Revitalizing Fusion via Fission Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manheimer, Wallace

    2001-10-01

    Existing tokamaks could generate significant nuclear fuel. TFTR, operating steady state with DT might generate enough fuel for a 300 MW nuclear reactor. The immediate goals of the magnetic fusion program would necessarily shift from a study of advanced plasma regimes in larger sized devices, to mostly known plasmas regimes, but at steady state or high duty cycle operation in DT plasmas. The science and engineering of breeding blankets would be equally important. Follow on projects could possibly produce nuclear fuel in large quantity at low price. Although today there is strong opposition to nuclear power in the United States, in a 21st century world of 10 billion people, all of whom will demand a middle class life style, nuclear energy will be important. Concern over greenhouse gases will also drive the world toward nuclear power. There are studies indicating that the world will need 10 TW of carbon free energy by 2050. It is difficult to see how this can be achieved without the breeding of nuclear fuel. By using the thorium cycle, proliferation risks are minimized. [1], [2]. 1 W. Manheimer, Fusion Technology, 36, 1, 1999, 2.W. Manheimer, Physics and Society, v 29, #3, p5, July, 2000

  10. Fusion cuisine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Chris; Broersma, Marcel

    2018-01-01

    JJournalism studies as an academic field is characterized by multidisciplinarity. Focusing on one object of study, journalism and the news, it established itself by integrating and synthesizing approaches from established disciplines – a tendency that lives on today. This constant gaze to the out......JJournalism studies as an academic field is characterized by multidisciplinarity. Focusing on one object of study, journalism and the news, it established itself by integrating and synthesizing approaches from established disciplines – a tendency that lives on today. This constant gaze...... to the outside for conceptual inspiration and methodological tools lends itself to a journalism studies that is a fusion cuisine of media, communication, and related scholarship. However, what happens when this object becomes as fragmented and multifaceted as the ways we study it? This essay addresses...

  11. Cold Antimatter Plasmas, and Aspirations for Cold Antihydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-06-24

    UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADP012494 TITLE: Cold Antimatter Plasmas, and Aspirations for Cold...part numbers comprise the compilation report: ADP012489 thru ADP012577 UNCLASSIFIED Cold Antimatter Plasmas, and Aspirations for Cold Antihydrogen G...and positrons. The antiprotons come initially from the new Antiproton Decel- erator facility at CERN. Good control of such cold antimatter plasmas is

  12. Knudsen and inverse Knudsen layer effect on tail ion distribution and fusion reactivity in inertial confinement fusion targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDevitt, C. J.; Tang, X.-Z.; Guo, Z.; Berk, H. L.

    2014-10-01

    A series of reduced models are used to study the fast ion tail in the vicinity of a transition layer between plasmas at disparate temperatures and densities, which is typical of the gas-pusher interface in inertial confinement fusion targets. Emphasis is placed on utilizing progressively more comprehensive models in order to identify the essential physics for computing the fast ion tail at energies comparable to the Gamow peak. The resulting fast ion tail distribution is subsequently used to compute the fusion reactivity as a function of collisionality and temperature. It is found that while the fast ion distribution can be significantly depleted in the hot spot, leading to a reduction of the fusion reactivity in this region, a surplus of fast ions is present in the neighboring cold region. The presence of this fast ion surplus in the neighboring cold region is shown to lead to a partial recovery of the fusion yield lost in the hot spot.

  13. Towards nuclear fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-11-01

    The results of nuclear fusion researches in JAERI are summarized. In this report, following themes are collected: the concept of fusion reactor (including ITER), fusion reactor safety, plasma confinement, fusion reactor equipment, and so on. Includes glossary. (J.P.N.)

  14. Fusion Canada issue 28

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue the Canada - US fusion meeting in Montreal, fusion breeder work in Chile, new management at CFFTP, fast electrons in tokamaks: new data from TdeV, a program review of CCFM and Velikhov to address Montreal fusion meeting. 1 fig

  15. Fusion systems engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Summaries of research are included for each of the following topics: (1) fusion reactor systems studies, (2) development of blanket processing technology for fusion reactors, (3) safety studies of fusion concepts, (4) the MACK/MACKLIB system for nuclear response functions, and (5) energy storage and power supply systems for fusion reactors

  16. Working in the Cold

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-02-08

    During the winter, many workers are outdoors, working in cold, wet, icy, or snowy conditions. Learn how to identify symptoms that tell you there may be a problem and protect yourself from cold stress.  Created: 2/8/2016 by National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).   Date Released: 2/8/2016.

  17. Cold-Weather Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Cold-Weather Sports KidsHealth / For Teens / Cold-Weather Sports What's in this article? What to Do? Classes ... weather. What better time to be outdoors? Winter sports can help you burn calories, increase your cardiovascular ...

  18. COLD-WORKED HARDWARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Strizhak

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The different types of cold-worked accessory are examined in the article. The necessity of development of such type of accessory in the Republic of Belarus due to requirements of market is shown. High emphasis is placed on the methods of increase of plasticity of cold-worked accessory from usual mill of RUP and CIS countries.

  19. Liquid metal cold trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hundal, R.

    1976-01-01

    A cold trap assembly for removing impurities from a liquid metal is described. A hole between the incoming impure liquid metal and purified outgoing liquid metal acts as a continuous bleed means and thus prevents the accumulation of cover gases within the cold trap assembly

  20. Fusion systems engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    Research during this report period has covered the following areas: (1) fusion reactor systems studies, (2) development of blanket processing technology for fusion reactors, (3) safety studies of fusion concepts, (4) MACKLIB-IV, a new library of nuclear response functions, (5) energy storage and power supply requirements for commercial fusion reactors, (6) blanket/shield design evaluation for commercial fusion reactors, and (7) cross section measurements, evaluations, and techniques

  1. Fusion fuel and renewables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entler, Slavomir

    2015-01-01

    It is shown that fusion fuel meets all aspects applied when defining renewables. A table of definitions of renewables is presented. The sections of the paper are as follows: An industrial renewable source; Nuclear fusion; Current situation in research; Definitions of renewable sources; Energy concept of nuclear fusion; Fusion fuel; Natural energy flow; Environmental impacts; Fusion fuel assessment; Sustainable power; and Energy mix from renewables. (P.A.)

  2. Fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-09-01

    The main purpose of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is to develop an experimental fusion reactor through the united efforts of many technologically advanced countries. The ITER terms of reference, issued jointly by the European Community, Japan, the USSR, and the United States, call for an integrated international design activity and constitute the basis of current activities. Joint work on ITER is carried out under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), according to the terms of quadripartite agreement reached between the European Community, Japan, the USSR, and the United States. The site for joint technical work sessions is at the MaxPlanck Institute of Plasma Physics. Garching, Federal Republic of Germany. The ITER activities have two phases: a definition phase performed in 1988 and the present design phase (1989--1990). During the definition phase, a set of ITER technical characteristics and supporting research and development (R ampersand D) activities were developed and reported. The present conceptual design phase of ITER lasts until the end of 1990. The objectives of this phase are to develop the design of ITER, perform a safety and environmental analysis, develop site requirements, define future R ampersand D needs, and estimate cost, manpower, and schedule for construction and operation. A final report will be submitted at the end of 1990. This paper summarizes progress in the ITER program during the 1989 design phase

  3. Electrochemically induced nuclear fusion of deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorne, J.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper cold fusion of deuterium by electrolysis of heavy water onto a palladium (or titanium) cathode is reported. Contrary to the assumption of Fleishmann and Pons that electrochemically compressed D + exists inside the palladium cathode, the observations of Jones et al. can be partially explained by the simultaneous presence of deuteride D - and the highly mobile positive deuterium ion D + . The opposite charges reduce the intranuclear distance and enhance the tunneling fusion rate. Furthermore, alloying of lithium with palladium can stabilize a negatively charged deuteride ion due to the salinelike character of lithium deuteride. The enormous pressure (or fugacity), achieved by the applied electrochemical potential (10 30 atm), is a virtual pressure that would have existed in equilibrium with palladium deuteride (PdD x ). It is speculated that nuclear fusion occurs at the surface, and the PdD x serves as a reservoir for the supply of deuteride ions

  4. Investigations and calculations toward increasing the efficiency of muon catalyzed fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monkhorst, H.J.

    1989-11-01

    A brief summary of results during this report period is given. Some of the topics investigated includes: (1) calculations of sticking fractions and d-t fusion from dtμ(JV) states, (2) ddμ sticking fractions, (3) the reactivation coefficient in d-t fusion, (4) fusion rates for all XYμ(JV)(JV=0,1), (5) nuclear effects on energy shifts and fusion rates for (J=O) states of dtμ, (6) and some comments on cold fusion

  5. Human whole body cold adaptation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, Hein A.M.; Van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D.

    2016-01-01

    Reviews on whole body human cold adaptation generally do not distinguish between population studies and dedicated acclimation studies, leading to confusing results. Population studies show that indigenous black Africans have reduced shivering thermogenesis in the cold and poor cold induced

  6. Muon-catalyzed fusion theory - introduction and review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    Muon-catalyzed fusion (μCF) has proved to be a fruitful subject for basic physics research as well as a source of cold nuclear fusion. Experiments have demonstrated that over 100 fusions per muon can be catalyzed by formation of the dtμ molecules in mixtures of deuterium and tritium. After a brief review of the subject's history, the dtμ catalysis cycle and the principle relations used in its analysis are described. Some of the important processes in the μCF cycle are then discussed. Finally, the status of current research is appraised. (author)

  7. Fusion technology: The Iter fusion experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietz, K.J.

    1994-01-01

    Plans for the Iter international fusion experiment, in which the European Union, Japan, Canada, Russia, Sweden, Switzerland, and the USA cooperate, were begun in 1985, and construction work started in early 1994. These activities serve for the preparation of the design and construction documents for a research reactor in which a stable fusion plasma is to be generated. This is to be the basis for the construction of a fusion reactor for electricity generation. Preparatory work was performed in the Tokamak experiments with JET and TFTR. The fusion power of 1.5 GW will be attained, thus enabling Iter to keep a deuterium-tritium plasma burning. (orig.) [de

  8. Review of fusion synfuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillo, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    Thermonuclear fusion offers an inexhaustible source of energy for the production of hydrogen from water. Depending on design, electric generation efficiencies of approx. 40 to 60% and hydrogen production efficiencies by high-temperature electrolysis of approx. 50 to 65% are projected for fusion reactors using high-temperatures blankets. Fusion/coal symbiotic systems appear economically promising for the first generation of commercial fusion synfuels plants. Coal production requirements and the environmental effects of large-scale coal usage would be greatly reduced by a fusion/coal system. In the long term, there could be a gradual transition to an inexhaustible energy system based solely on fusion

  9. Barriers to fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berriman, A.C.; Butt, R.D.; Dasgupta, M.; Hinde, D.J.; Morton, C.R.; Newton, J.O.

    1999-01-01

    The fusion barrier is formed by the combination of the repulsive Coulomb and attractive nuclear forces. Recent research at the Australian National University has shown that when heavy nuclei collide, instead of a single fusion barrier, there is a set of fusion barriers. These arise due to intrinsic properties of the interacting nuclei such deformation, rotations and vibrations. Thus the range of barrier energies depends on the properties of both nuclei. The transfer of matter between nuclei, forming a neck, can also affect the fusion process. High precision data have been used to determine fusion barrier distributions for many nuclear reactions, leading to new insights into the fusion process

  10. Chilling Out With Colds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and use the time to read, listen to music, or watch a movie. In other words, chill out and you might prevent a cold! Reviewed by: Patricia ... Policy Permissions Guidelines Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Notice ...

  11. Cold Vacuum Drying Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Located near the K-Basins (see K-Basins link) in Hanford's 100 Area is a facility called the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF).Between 2000 and 2004, workers at the...

  12. Investigation of cold nuclear fusion in condensed matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S.E.; Berrondo, M.; Czirr, J.B.; Decker, D.L.; Harrison, K.; Jensen, G.L.; Palmer, E.P.; Rees, L.B.; Shelton, D.S.; Taylor, S.; Vanfleet, H.B.; Wang, J.C.; Bennion, D.N.; Harb, J.N.; Pitt, W.G.; Thorne, J.M.; Anderson, A.N.; McMurtry, G.; Murphy, N.

    1992-01-01

    Recent research has been directed towards finding means to produce neutron emissions at will, to demonstrate reproducibility, and to permit in-depth studies of the origin of neutron emissions. this goal has been pursued in the Kamiokande detector in Japan and has led to the development of a deep underground laboratory in a tunnel in the Wasatch mountains near Brigham Young University. New counters for low-level neutron emissions are being utilized. Calorimetric tools have also been developed

  13. Dence Cold Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavinskiy Alexey

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Possible way to create dense cold baryonic matter in the laboratory is discussed. The density of this matter is comparable or even larger than the density of neutron star core. The properties of this matter can be controlled by trigger conditions. Experimental program for the study of properties of dense cold matter for light and heavy ion collisions at initial energy range √sNN~2-3GeV is proposed..

  14. Proceedings of an international symposium on muon catalysed fusion μCF - 89, held at Keble College, Oxford, 11-13 September 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, J.D.

    1990-05-01

    In this booklet of conference proceedings, there are sections dedicated to experimental and theoretical work on muon catalyzed fusion. The final section deals with cold fusion. The booklet commences with a description of how muon catalyzed fusion came about and the basic theory behind it. (U.K.)

  15. Hypothermic general cold adaptation induced by local cold acclimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savourey, G; Barnavol, B; Caravel, J P; Feuerstein, C; Bittel, J H

    1996-01-01

    To study relationships between local cold adaptation of the lower limbs and general cold adaptation, eight subjects were submitted both to a cold foot test (CFT, 5 degrees C water immersion, 5 min) and to a whole-body standard cold air test (SCAT, 1 degree C, 2 h, nude at rest) before and after a local cold acclimation (LCA) of the lower limbs effected by repeated cold water immersions. The LCA induced a local cold adaptation confirmed by higher skin temperatures of the lower limbs during CFT and a hypothermic insulative general cold adaptation (decreased rectal temperature and mean skin temperature P adaptation was related to the habituation process confirmed by decreased plasma concentrations of noradrenaline (NA) during LCA (P general cold adaptation was unrelated either to local cold adaptation or to the habituation process, because an increased NA during SCAT after LCA (P syndrome" occurring during LCA.

  16. Austenitic stainless steel bulk property considerations for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattas, R.F.

    1979-04-01

    The bulk properties of annealed 304, 316, and 20% cold-worked 316 stainless steels are evaluated for the temperature and radiation conditions expected in a near-term fusion reactor. Of interest are the thermophysical properties, void swelling produced by neutron radiaion, and the tensile, creep, and fatigue properties before and after irradiation

  17. Fusion reactor design studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmert, G.A.; Kulcinski, G.L.; Santarius, J.F.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics on the ARIES tokamak: systems; plasma power balance; impurity control and fusion ash removal; fusion product ripple loss; energy conversion; reactor fueling; first wall design; shield design; reactor safety; and fuel cost and resources

  18. Laser fusion: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyer, K.

    1975-01-01

    The laser fusion concept is described along with developments in neodymium and carbon dioxide lasers. Fuel design and fabrication are reviewed. Some spin-offs of the laser fusion program are discussed. (U.S.)

  19. Fusion Canada issue 23

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-01-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue TdeV tokamak updates, fusion research in Korea, CCFM program review, TdeV divertor plasma, and CFFTP program review. 4 figs.

  20. Fusion Canada issue 27

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue ITER reactor siting, a major upgrade for TdeV tokamak, Ceramic Breeders: new tritium mapping technique and Joint Fusion Symposium. 2 figs

  1. Fusion Canada issue 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    Fusion Canada's publication of the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is the CFFTP Industrial Impact Study, CCFM/TdeV Update:helium pumping, research funds, and deuterium in beryllium - high temperature behaviour. 3 figs

  2. Fusion Canada issue 23

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue TdeV tokamak updates, fusion research in Korea, CCFM program review, TdeV divertor plasma, and CFFTP program review. 4 figs

  3. Canada's Fusion Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D. P.

    1990-01-01

    Canada's fusion strategy is based on developing specialized technologies in well-defined areas and supplying these technologies to international fusion projects. Two areas are specially emphasized in Canada: engineered fusion system technologies, and specific magnetic confinement and materials studies. The Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project focuses on the first of these areas. It tritium and fusion reactor fuel systems, remote maintenance and related safety studies. In the second area, the Centre Canadian de fusion magnetique operates the Tokamak de Varennes, the main magnetic fusion device in Canada. Both projects are partnerships linking the Government of Canada, represented by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, and provincial governments, electrical utilities, universities and industry. Canada's program has extensive international links, through which it collaborates with the major world fusion programs, including participation in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor project

  4. Fusion systems engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Information is given on each of the following topics: (1) fusion reactor systems studies, (2) development of blanket processing technology for fusion reactors, (3) safety studies of CTR concepts, and (4) cross section measurements and techniques

  5. Fusion Canada issue 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-02-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a funding report for CFFTP, a technical update for Tokamak de Varennes and a network for university research by the National Fusion Program. 4 figs

  6. Cold moderators at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, A. T.

    1997-09-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) cold moderators were not an 'Oak Ridge first', but would have been the largest both physically and in terms of cold neutron flux. Two cold moderators were planned each 410 mm in diameter and containing about 30L of liquid deuterium. They were to be completely independent of each other. A modular system design was used to provide greater reliability and serviceability. When the ANS was terminated, upgrading of the resident High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) was examined and an initial study was made into the feasibility of adding a cold source. Because the ANS design was modular, it was possible to use many identical design features. Sub-cooled liquid at 4 bar abs was initially chosen for the HFIR design concept, but this was subsequently changed to 15 bar abs to operate above the critical pressure. As in the ANS, the hydrogen will operate at a constant pressure throughout the temperature range and a completely closed loop with secondary containment was adopted. The heat load of 2 kW made the heat flux comparable with that of the ANS. Subsequent studies into the construction of cryogenic moderators for the proposed new Synchrotron Neutron source indicated that again many of the same design concepts could be used. By connecting the two cold sources together in series, the total heat load of 2 kW is very close to that of the HFIR allowing a very similar supercritical hydrogen system to be configured. The two hydrogen moderators of the SNS provide a comparable heat load to the HFIR moderator. It is subsequently planned to connect the two in series and operate from a single cold loop system, once again using supercritical hydrogen. The spallation source also provided an opportunity to re-examine a cold pellet solid methane moderator operating at 20K.

  7. Fusion Canada issue 18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-08-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on the ITER agreement signed with the EDA, the robotic maintenance for NET, the CFFTP Fusion Pilot Study, the new IEA joint programs on environment, safety and economic aspects of fusion power, and a review by the CCFM advisory committee. 3 figs.

  8. User's perspective on fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashworth, C.P.

    1976-01-01

    The need in fusion, from the electric utilities viewpoint, is for fusion to be a real option, not huge, complicated nuclear plants costing $10 billion each and requiring restructuring the energy industry to provide and use them. A course for future fusion reactor work in order to be a real option is discussed. The advantages of alternate concepts to the tokamak are presented

  9. Fusion Canada issue 17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on increased funding for the Canadian Fusion Program, news of the compact Toroid fuelling gun, an update on Tokamak de Varennes, the Canada - U.S. fusion meeting, measurements of plasma flow velocity, and replaceable Tokamak divertors. 4 figs

  10. Fusion Canada issue 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on the ITER agreement signed with the EDA, the robotic maintenance for NET, the CFFTP Fusion Pilot Study, the new IEA joint programs on environment, safety and economic aspects of fusion power, and a review by the CCFM advisory committee. 3 figs

  11. CO2-laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stark, E.E. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The basic concept of laser fusion is described, with a set of requirements on the laser system. Systems and applications concepts are presented and discussed. The CO 2 laser's characteristics and advantages for laser fusion are described. Finally, technological issues in the development of CO 2 laser systems for fusion applications are discussed

  12. Fusion Canada issue 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-11-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on availability of Canadian Tritium, an ITER update, a CCFM update on Tokamak and the new team organization, an international report on Fusion in Canada and a Laser Fusion Project at the University of Toronto. 3 figs.

  13. Heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangerter, R.O.

    1986-01-01

    This report on the International Symposium on Heavy Ion Fusion held May 27-29, 1986 summarizes the problems and achievements in the areas of targets, accelerators, focussing, reactor studies, and system studies. The symposium participants recognize that there are large uncertainties in Heavy Ion Fusion but many of them are also optimistic that HIF may ultimately be the best approach to fusion

  14. Fusion Canada issue 17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-05-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on increased funding for the Canadian Fusion Program, news of the compact Toroid fuelling gun, an update on Tokamak de Varennes, the Canada - U.S. fusion meeting, measurements of plasma flow velocity, and replaceable Tokamak divertors. 4 figs.

  15. Fusion Canada issue 25

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue an economic impact study of the Canadian site for ITER, Harvey Skarsgard: fusion pioneer retires, NFP: Phillips and Holtslander exchange roles, Europe's fusion funding proposals and an update of CCFM/TdeV. 1 fig

  16. Fusion reactors - types - problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitter, K.H.

    1979-07-01

    A short account is given of the principles of fusion reactions and of the expected advantages of fusion reactors. Descriptions are presented of various Tokamak experimental devices being developed in a number of countries and of some mirror machines. The technical obstacles to be overcome before a fusion reactor could be self-supporting are discussed. (U.K.)

  17. Fusion Canada issue 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-11-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on availability of Canadian Tritium, an ITER update, a CCFM update on Tokamak and the new team organization, an international report on Fusion in Canada and a Laser Fusion Project at the University of Toronto. 3 figs

  18. Cold water injection nozzles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kura, Masaaki; Maeda, Masamitsu; Endo, Takio.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To inject cold water in a reactor without applying heat cycles to a reactor container and to the inner wall of a feedwater nozzle by securing a perforated plate at the outlet of the cold water injection nozzle. Constitution: A disc-like cap is secured to the final end of a return nozzle of a control rod drive. The cap prevents the flow of a high temperature water flowing downward in the reactor from entering into the nozzle. The cap is perforated with a plurality of bore holes for injecting cold water into the reactor. The cap is made to about 100 mm in thickness so that the cold water passing through the bore holes is heated by the heat conduction in the cap. Accordingly, the flow of high temperature water flowing downwardly in the reactor is inhibited by the cap from backward flowing into the nozzle. Moreover, the flow of the cold water in the nozzle is controlled and rectified when passed through the bore holes in the cap and then injected into the reactor. (Yoshino, Y.)

  19. Pinch me - I'm fusing. Fusion Power - what is it? What is a z pinch? And why are z-pinches a promising fusion power technology?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DERZON, MARK S.

    2000-01-01

    The process of combining nuclei (the protons and neutrons inside an atomic nucleus) together with a release of kinetic energy is called fusion. This process powers the Sun, it contributes to the world stockpile of weapons of mass destruction and may one day generate safe, clean electrical power. Understanding the intricacies of fusion power, promised for 50 years, is sometimes difficult because there are a number of ways of doing it. There is hot fusion, cold fusion and con-fusion. Hot fusion is what powers suns through the conversion of mass energy to kinetic energy. Cold fusion generates con-fusion and nobody really knows what it is. Even so, no one is generating electrical power for you and me with either method. In this article the author points out some basic features of the mainstream approaches taken to hot fusion power, as well as describe why z pinches are worth pursuing as a driver for a power reactor and how it may one day generate electrical power for mankind

  20. Viral membrane fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, Stephen C.

    2015-01-01

    Membrane fusion is an essential step when enveloped viruses enter cells. Lipid bilayer fusion requires catalysis to overcome a high kinetic barrier; viral fusion proteins are the agents that fulfill this catalytic function. Despite a variety of molecular architectures, these proteins facilitate fusion by essentially the same generic mechanism. Stimulated by a signal associated with arrival at the cell to be infected (e.g., receptor or co-receptor binding, proton binding in an endosome), they undergo a series of conformational changes. A hydrophobic segment (a “fusion loop” or “fusion peptide”) engages the target-cell membrane and collapse of the bridging intermediate thus formed draws the two membranes (virus and cell) together. We know of three structural classes for viral fusion proteins. Structures for both pre- and postfusion conformations of illustrate the beginning and end points of a process that can be probed by single-virion measurements of fusion kinetics. - Highlights: • Viral fusion proteins overcome the high energy barrier to lipid bilayer merger. • Different molecular structures but the same catalytic mechanism. • Review describes properties of three known fusion-protein structural classes. • Single-virion fusion experiments elucidate mechanism

  1. Viral membrane fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Stephen C., E-mail: harrison@crystal.harvard.edu

    2015-05-15

    Membrane fusion is an essential step when enveloped viruses enter cells. Lipid bilayer fusion requires catalysis to overcome a high kinetic barrier; viral fusion proteins are the agents that fulfill this catalytic function. Despite a variety of molecular architectures, these proteins facilitate fusion by essentially the same generic mechanism. Stimulated by a signal associated with arrival at the cell to be infected (e.g., receptor or co-receptor binding, proton binding in an endosome), they undergo a series of conformational changes. A hydrophobic segment (a “fusion loop” or “fusion peptide”) engages the target-cell membrane and collapse of the bridging intermediate thus formed draws the two membranes (virus and cell) together. We know of three structural classes for viral fusion proteins. Structures for both pre- and postfusion conformations of illustrate the beginning and end points of a process that can be probed by single-virion measurements of fusion kinetics. - Highlights: • Viral fusion proteins overcome the high energy barrier to lipid bilayer merger. • Different molecular structures but the same catalytic mechanism. • Review describes properties of three known fusion-protein structural classes. • Single-virion fusion experiments elucidate mechanism.

  2. Fusion technology 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferro, C.; Gasparatto, M.; Knoepfel, H.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the biennial series of symposia on the title subject, organized by the European Fusion Laboratories, is the exchange of information on the design, construction and operation of fusion experiments and on the technology being developed for the next step devices and fusion reactors. The coverage of the volume includes the technological aspects of fusion reactors in relation to new developments, this forming a guideline for the definition of future work. These proceedings comprise three volumes and contain both the invited lectures and contributed papers presented at the symposium which was attended by 569 participants from around the globe. The 343 papers, including 12 invited papers, characterize the increasing interest of industry in the fusion programme, giving a broad and current overview on the progress and trends fusion technology is experiencing now, as well as indicating the future for fusion devices

  3. Cold regions isotope applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrigo, L.D.; Divine, T.E.

    1976-04-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) started the Cold Regions Isotope Applications Program in FY-1975 to identify special conditions in the Arctic and similar geographic areas (Cold Regions) where radioisotope power, heater, or sterilization systems would be desirable and economically viable. Significant progress was made in the first year of this program and all objectives for this initial 12-month period were achieved. The major conclusions and recommendations resulting for this effort are described below. The areas of interest covered include: radiosterilization of sewage; heating of septic tanks; and radioisotope thermoelectric generators as power sources for meteorological instruments and navigational aids

  4. Ion distribution in the hot spot of an inertial confinement fusion plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xianzhu; Guo, Zehua; Berk, Herb

    2012-10-01

    Maximizing the fusion gain of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) for inertial fusion energy (IFE) applications leads to the standard scenario of central hot spot ignition followed by propagating burn wave through the cold/dense assembled fuel. The fact that the hot spot is surrounded by cold but dense fuel layer introduces subtle plasma physics which requires a kinetic description. Here we perform Fokker-Planck calculations and kinetic PIC simulations for an ICF plasma initially in pressure balance but having large temperature gradient over a narrow transition layer. The loss of the fast ion tail from the hot spot, which is important for fusion reactivity, is quantified by Fokker-Planck models. The role of electron energy transport and the ambipolar electric field is investigated via kinetic simulations and the fluid moment models. The net effect on both hot spot ion temperature and the ion tail distribution, and hence the fusion reactivity, is elucidated.

  5. Commemoration of a cold war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farbøl, Rosanna

    2015-01-01

    This article brings together the fields of Cold War studies and memory studies. In Denmark, a remarkable institutionalisation of Cold War memory has taken place in the midst of a heated ideological battle over the past and whether to remember the Cold War as a ‘war’. Using Danish Cold War museums...... and heritage sites as case studies, this article sheds new light on the politics of history involved in Cold War commemoration. It suggests that the Cold War is commemorated as a war, yet this war memory is of a particular kind: it is a war memory without victims....

  6. Economics of fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This report provides the results of a study of methods of economic analysis applied to the evaluation of fusion research. The study recognizes that a hierarchy of economic analyses of research programs exists: standard benefit-cost analysis, expected value of R and D information, and expected utility analysis. It is shown that standard benefit-cost analysis, as commonly applied to research programs, is inadequate for the evaluation of a high technology research effort such as fusion research. A methodology for performing an expected value analysis is developed and demonstrated and an overview of an approach to perform an expected utility analysis of fusion research is presented. In addition, a potential benefit of fusion research, not previously identified, is discussed and rough estimates of its magnitude are presented. This benefit deals with the effect of a fusion research program on optimal fossil fuel consumption patterns. The results of this study indicate that it is both appropriate and possible to perform an expected value analysis of fusion research in order to assess the economics of a fusion research program. The results indicate further that the major area of benefits of fusion research is likely due to the impact of a fusion research program on optimal fossil fuel consumption patterns and it is recommended that this benefit be included in future assessments of fusion research economics

  7. Economics of fusion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1977-10-15

    This report provides the results of a study of methods of economic analysis applied to the evaluation of fusion research. The study recognizes that a hierarchy of economic analyses of research programs exists: standard benefit-cost analysis, expected value of R and D information, and expected utility analysis. It is shown that standard benefit-cost analysis, as commonly applied to research programs, is inadequate for the evaluation of a high technology research effort such as fusion research. A methodology for performing an expected value analysis is developed and demonstrated and an overview of an approach to perform an expected utility analysis of fusion research is presented. In addition, a potential benefit of fusion research, not previously identified, is discussed and rough estimates of its magnitude are presented. This benefit deals with the effect of a fusion research program on optimal fossil fuel consumption patterns. The results of this study indicate that it is both appropriate and possible to perform an expected value analysis of fusion research in order to assess the economics of a fusion research program. The results indicate further that the major area of benefits of fusion research is likely due to the impact of a fusion research program on optimal fossil fuel consumption patterns and it is recommended that this benefit be included in future assessments of fusion research economics.

  8. Cold spray nozzle design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Jeffrey D [Stuart, FL; Sanders, Stuart A [Palm Beach Gardens, FL

    2009-06-09

    A nozzle for use in a cold spray technique is described. The nozzle has a passageway for spraying a powder material, the passageway having a converging section and a diverging section, and at least the diverging section being formed from polybenzimidazole. In one embodiment of the nozzle, the converging section is also formed from polybenzimidazole.

  9. Recent Cold War Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineo, Ronn

    2003-01-01

    Cold War historiography has undergone major changes since the 1991 collapse of the Soviet Union. For two years (1992-1993) the principal Soviet archives fell open to scholars, and although some of the richest holdings are now once again closed, new information continues to find its way out. Moreover, critical documentary information has become…

  10. Expert Cold Structure Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, T.; Demuysere, P.

    2011-05-01

    The EXPERT Program is funded by ESA. The objective of the EXPERT mission is to perform a sub-orbital flight during which measurements of critical aero- thermodynamic phenomena will be obtained by using state-of-the-art instrumentation. As part of the EXPERT Flight Segment, the responsibility of the Cold Structure Development Design, Manufacturing and Validation was committed to the Belgian industrial team SONACA/SABCA. The EXPERT Cold Structure includes the Launcher Adapter, the Bottom Panel, the Upper Panel, two Cross Panels and the Parachute Bay. An additional Launcher Adapter was manufactured for the separation tests. The selected assembly definition and manufacturing technologies ( machined parts and sandwich panels) were dictated classically by the mass and stiffness, but also by the CoG location and the sensitive separation interface. Used as support for the various on-board equipment, the Cold Structure is fixed to but thermally uncoupled from the PM 1000 thermal shield. It is protect on its bottom panel by a thermal blanket. As it is a protoflight, analysis was the main tool for the verification. Low level stiffness and modal analysis tests have also been performed on the Cold Structure equipped with its ballast. It allowed to complete its qualification and to prepare SONACA/SABCA support for the system dynamic tests foreseen in 2011. The structure was finally coated with a thermal control black painting and delivered on time to Thales Alenia Space-Italy end of March 201.

  11. Detection of cold pain, cold allodynia and cold hyperalgesia in freely behaving rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woolf Clifford J

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pain is elicited by cold, and a major feature of many neuropathic pain states is that normally innocuous cool stimuli begin to produce pain (cold allodynia. To expand our understanding of cold induced pain states we have studied cold pain behaviors over a range of temperatures in several animal models of chronic pain. Results We demonstrate that a Peltier-cooled cold plate with ± 1°C sensitivity enables quantitative measurement of a detection withdrawal response to cold stimuli in unrestrained rats. In naïve rats the threshold for eliciting cold pain behavior is 5°C. The withdrawal threshold for cold allodynia is 15°C in both the spared nerve injury and spinal nerve ligation models of neuropathic pain. Cold hyperalgesia is present in the spared nerve injury model animals, manifesting as a reduced latency of withdrawal response threshold at temperatures that elicit cold pain in naïve rats. We also show that following the peripheral inflammation produced by intraplantar injection of complete Freund's adjuvant, a hypersensitivity to cold occurs. Conclusion The peltier-cooled provides an effective means of assaying cold sensitivity in unrestrained rats. Behavioral testing of cold allodynia, hyperalgesia and pain will greatly facilitate the study of the neurobiological mechanisms involved in cold/cool sensations and enable measurement of the efficacy of pharmacological treatments to reduce these symptoms.

  12. Possible in-lattice confinement fusion (LCF). Dynamic application of atomic and nuclear data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawarasaki, Yuuki

    1995-01-01

    New scheme of a nuclear fusion reactor system is proposed, the basic concept of which comes from ingenious combination of hitherto developed techniques and verified facts; 1) so-called cold fusion (CF), 2) plasma of both magnetic confinement fusion (MCF) and inertial confinement fusion (ICF), and 3) accelerator-based D-T(D) neutron source. Details of the LCF reactor physics require dynamics of atomic data as well as nuclear data; interaction of ions with matters in solid and the problems of radiation damage. (author)

  13. Burning Cold: Involvement of TRPA1 in Noxious Cold Sensation

    OpenAIRE

    Kwan, Kelvin Y.; Corey, David P.

    2009-01-01

    Soon after its discovery ten years ago, the ion channel TRPA1 was proposed as a sensor of noxious cold. Evidence for its activation by painfully cold temperatures (below ~15° C) has been mixed, however. Some groups found that cold elicits a nonselective conductance in cells expressing TRPA1; others found no activation, or argued that activation is an indirect effect of elevated \\(Ca^{ 2+}\\) . Sensory cells from the trigeminal and dorsal root ganglia that are activated by cold were sometimes c...

  14. Materials handbook for fusion energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of this work is to provide a consistent and authoritative source of material property data for use by the fusion community in concept evaluation, design, and performance/verification studies of the various fusion energy systems. A second objective is the early identification of areas in the materials data base where insufficient information or voids exist. The effort during this reporting period has focused on two areas: (1) publication of data pages, and (2) automation of the data pages. The data pages contained new engineering information on lithium and stainless steel along with additional Supporting Documentation pages on annealed and cold worked stainless steel. These pages were distributed in May. In the area of automation, work is proceeding on schedule toward the formation of an electronic materials data base for the MFE computer network

  15. Recycling fusion materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooms, L.

    2005-01-01

    The inherent safety and environmental advantages of fusion power in comparison with other energy sources play an important role in the public acceptance. No waste burden for future generations is therefore one of the main arguments to decide for fusion power. The waste issue has thus been studied in several documents and the final conclusion of which it is stated that there is no permanent disposal waste needed if recycling is applied. But recycling of fusion reactor materials is far to be obvious regarding mostly the very high specific activity of the materials to be handled, the types of materials and the presence of tritium. The main objective of research performed by SCK-CEN is to study the possible ways of recycling fusion materials and analyse the challenges of the materials management from fusion reactors, based on current practices used in fission reactors and the requirements for the manufacture of fusion equipment

  16. The controlled thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barre, Bertrand

    2014-01-01

    After some generalities on particle physics, and on fusion and fission reactions, the author outlines that the fission reaction is easier to obtain than the fusion reaction, evokes the fusion which takes place in stars, and outlines the difficulty to manage and control this reaction: one of its application is the H bomb. The challenge is therefore to find a way to control this reaction and make it a steady and continuous source of energy. The author then presents the most promising way: the magnetic confinement fusion. He evokes its main issues, the already performed experiments (tokamak), and gives a larger presentation of the ITER project. Then, he evokes another way, the inertial confinement fusion, and the two main experimental installations (National Ignition Facility in Livermore, and the Laser Megajoule in Bordeaux). Finally, he gives a list of benefits and drawbacks of an industrial nuclear fusion

  17. Laser fusion overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuckolls, J.

    1976-01-01

    Because of recent breakthroughs in the target area, and in the glass laser area, the scientific feasibility of laser fusion--and of inertial fusion--may be demonstrated in the early 1980's. Then the development in that time period of a suitable laser (or storage ring or other driving source) would make possible an operational inertial fusion reactor in this century. These are roughly the same time scales as projected by the Tokamak magnetic confinement approach. It thus appears that the 15-20 year earlier start by magnetic confinement fusion may be overcome. Because inertial confinement has been demonstrated, and inertial fusion reactors may operate on smaller scales than Tokamaks, laser fusion may have important technical and economic advantages

  18. Synthetic fuels and fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fillo, J A; Powell, J; Steinberg, M [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA)

    1981-03-01

    The decreasing availability of fossil fuels emphasizes the need to develop systems which will produce synthetic fuel to substitute for and supplement the natural supply. An important first step in the synthesis of liquid and gaseous fuels is the production of hydrogen. Thermonuclear fusion offers an inexhaustible source of energy for the production of hydrogen from water. Depending on design, electric generation efficiencies of approx. equal to 40-60% and hydrogen production efficiencies by high temperature electrolysis of approx. equal to 50-70% are projected for fusion reactors using high temperature blankets. Fusion/coal symbiotic systems appear economically promising for the first generation of commercial fusion synfuels plants. Coal production requirements and the environmental effects of large-scale coal usage would be greatly reduced by a fusion/coal system. In the long-term, there could be a gradual transition to an inexhaustible energy system based solely on fusion.

  19. Flu and Colds: In Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to prevent colds or relieve cold symptoms. Andrographis (Andrographis paniculata) Chinese herbal medicines Green tea Guided imagery Hydrotherapy ... measurements (VAS) to assess the effectiveness of standardized Andrographis paniculata extract SHA-10 in reducing the symptoms of ...

  20. Herpes Simplex Virus (Cold Sores)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print Share Cold Sores in Children: About the Herpes Simplex Virus Page Content ​A child's toddler and ... Cold sores (also called fever blisters or oral herpes) start as small blisters that form around the ...

  1. Plasma physics for controlled fusion. 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, Kenro

    2016-08-01

    This new edition presents the essential theoretical and analytical methods needed to understand the recent fusion research of tokamak and alternate approaches. The author describes magnetohydrodynamic and kinetic theories of cold and hot plasmas in detail. The book covers new important topics for fusion studies such as plasma transport by drift turbulence, which depend on the magnetic configuration and zonal flows. These are universal phenomena of microturbulence. They can modify the onset criterion for turbulent transport, instabilities driven by energetic particles as well as alpha particle generation and typical plasma models for computer simulation. The fusion research of tokamaks with various new versions of H modes are explained. The design concept of ITER, the international tokamak experimental reactor, is described for inductively driven operations as well as steady-state operations using non-inductive drives. Alternative approaches of reversed-field pinch and its relaxation process, stellator including quasi-symmetric system, open-end system of tandem mirror and inertial confinement are also explained. Newly added and updated topics in this second edition include zonal flows, various versions of H modes, and steady-state operations of tokamak, the design concept of ITER, the relaxation process of RFP, quasi-symmetric stellator, and tandem mirror. The book addresses graduate students and researchers in the field of controlled fusion.

  2. Plasma physics for controlled fusion. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Kenro

    2016-01-01

    This new edition presents the essential theoretical and analytical methods needed to understand the recent fusion research of tokamak and alternate approaches. The author describes magnetohydrodynamic and kinetic theories of cold and hot plasmas in detail. The book covers new important topics for fusion studies such as plasma transport by drift turbulence, which depend on the magnetic configuration and zonal flows. These are universal phenomena of microturbulence. They can modify the onset criterion for turbulent transport, instabilities driven by energetic particles as well as alpha particle generation and typical plasma models for computer simulation. The fusion research of tokamaks with various new versions of H modes are explained. The design concept of ITER, the international tokamak experimental reactor, is described for inductively driven operations as well as steady-state operations using non-inductive drives. Alternative approaches of reversed-field pinch and its relaxation process, stellator including quasi-symmetric system, open-end system of tandem mirror and inertial confinement are also explained. Newly added and updated topics in this second edition include zonal flows, various versions of H modes, and steady-state operations of tokamak, the design concept of ITER, the relaxation process of RFP, quasi-symmetric stellator, and tandem mirror. The book addresses graduate students and researchers in the field of controlled fusion.

  3. Imaging with cold neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, E.H.; Kaestner, A.; Josic, L.; Hartmann, S.; Mannes, D.

    2011-01-01

    Neutrons for imaging purposes are provided mainly from thermal beam lines at suitable facilities around the world. The access to cold neutrons is presently limited to very few places only. However, many challenging options for imaging with cold neutrons have been found out, given by the interaction behavior of the observed materials with neutrons in the cold energy range (3-10 A). For absorbing materials, the interaction probability increases proportionally with the wavelength with the consequence of more contrast but less transmission with cold neutrons. Many materials are predominantly scattering neutrons, in particular most of crystalline structural materials. In these cases, cold neutrons play an important role by covering the energy range of the most important Bragg edges given by the lattice planes of the crystallites. This particular behavior can be used for at least two important aspects-choosing the right energy of the initial beam enables to have a material more or less transparent, and a direct macroscopic visualization of the crystalline structure and its change in a manufacturing process. Since 2006, PSI operates its second beam line for neutron imaging, where cold neutrons are provided from a liquid deuterium cold source (operated at 25 K). It has been designed to cover the most current aspects in neutron imaging research with the help of high flexibility. This has been done with changeable inlet apertures, a turbine based velocity selector, two beam positions and variable detector systems, satisfying the demands of the individual investigation. The most important detection system was found to be a micro-tomography system that enables studies in the presently best spatial resolution. In this case, the high contrast from the sample interaction process and the high detection probability for the cold neutrons combines in an ideal combination for the best possible performance. Recently, it was found out that the energy selective studies might become a

  4. Magnetic-fusion program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-08-01

    In February 1980, the Director of Energy Research requested that the Energy Research Advisory Board (ERAB) review the Department of Energy (DOE) Magnetic Fusion Program. Of particular concern to the DOE was the judicious choice of the next major steps toward demonstration of economic power production from fusion. Of equal concern was the overall soundness of the DOE Magnetic Fusion Program: its pace, scope, and funding profiles. Their finding and recommendations are included

  5. Magnetic fusion technology

    CERN Document Server

    Dolan, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic Fusion Technology describes the technologies that are required for successful development of nuclear fusion power plants using strong magnetic fields. These technologies include: ? magnet systems, ? plasma heating systems, ? control systems, ? energy conversion systems, ? advanced materials development, ? vacuum systems, ? cryogenic systems, ? plasma diagnostics, ? safety systems, and ? power plant design studies. Magnetic Fusion Technology will be useful to students and to specialists working in energy research.

  6. Status of fusion maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    Effective maintenance will be an essential ingredient in determining fusion system productivity. This level of productivity will result only after close attention is paid to the entire system as an entity and appropriate integration of the elements is made. The status of fusion maintenance is reviewed in the context of the entire system. While there are many challenging developmental tasks ahead in fusion maintenance, the required technologies are available in several high-technology industries, including nuclear fission

  7. Membrane fusion and exocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, R; Südhof, T C

    1999-01-01

    Membrane fusion involves the merger of two phospholipid bilayers in an aqueous environment. In artificial lipid bilayers, fusion proceeds by means of defined transition states, including hourglass-shaped intermediates in which the proximal leaflets of the fusing membranes are merged whereas the distal leaflets are separate (fusion stalk), followed by the reversible opening of small aqueous fusion pores. Fusion of biological membranes requires the action of specific fusion proteins. Best understood are the viral fusion proteins that are responsible for merging the viral with the host cell membrane during infection. These proteins undergo spontaneous and dramatic conformational changes upon activation. In the case of the paradigmatic fusion proteins of the influenza virus and of the human immunodeficiency virus, an amphiphilic fusion peptide is inserted into the target membrane. The protein then reorients itself, thus forcing the fusing membranes together and inducing lipid mixing. Fusion of intracellular membranes in eukaryotic cells involves several protein families including SNAREs, Rab proteins, and Sec1/Munc-18 related proteins (SM-proteins). SNAREs form a novel superfamily of small and mostly membrane-anchored proteins that share a common motif of about 60 amino acids (SNARE motif). SNAREs reversibly assemble into tightly packed helical bundles, the core complexes. Assembly is thought to pull the fusing membranes closely together, thus inducing fusion. SM-proteins comprise a family of soluble proteins that bind to certain types of SNAREs and prevent the formation of core complexes. Rab proteins are GTPases that undergo highly regulated GTP-GDP cycles. In their GTP form, they interact with specific proteins, the effector proteins. Recent evidence suggests that Rab proteins function in the initial membrane contact connecting the fusing membranes but are not involved in the fusion reaction itself.

  8. Fusion facility siting considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussell, G.T.

    1985-01-01

    Inherent in the fusion program's transition from hydrogen devices to commercial power machines is a general increase in the size and scope of succeeding projects. This growth will lead to increased emphasis on safety, environmental impact, and the external effects of fusion in general, and of each new device in particular. A critically important consideration in this regard is site selection. The purpose of this paper is to examine major siting issues that may affect the economics, safety, and environmental impact of fusion

  9. Fusion research principles

    CERN Document Server

    Dolan, Thomas James

    2013-01-01

    Fusion Research, Volume I: Principles provides a general description of the methods and problems of fusion research. The book contains three main parts: Principles, Experiments, and Technology. The Principles part describes the conditions necessary for a fusion reaction, as well as the fundamentals of plasma confinement, heating, and diagnostics. The Experiments part details about forty plasma confinement schemes and experiments. The last part explores various engineering problems associated with reactor design, vacuum and magnet systems, materials, plasma purity, fueling, blankets, neutronics

  10. Nuclear fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinghee, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    In this chapter, fusion is compared with other inexhaustible energy sources. Research is currently being conducted both within and outside the USA. The current confinement principles of thermonuclear reactions are reveiwed with the discussion of economics mainly focusing on the magnetic confinement concepts. Environmental, health and safety factors are of great concern to the public and measures are being taken to address them. The magnetic fusion program logic and the inertial fusion program logic are compared

  11. Human whole body cold adaptation.

    OpenAIRE

    Daanen, Hein A.M.; Van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Reviews on whole body human cold adaptation generally do not distinguish between population studies and dedicated acclimation studies, leading to confusing results. Population studies show that indigenous black Africans have reduced shivering thermogenesis in the cold and poor cold induced vasodilation in fingers and toes compared to Caucasians and Inuit. About 40,000?y after humans left Africa, natives in cold terrestrial areas seems to have developed not only behavioral adaptations...

  12. Inertial confinement fusion (ICF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuckolls, J.

    1977-01-01

    The principal goal of the inertial confinement fusion program is the development of a practical fusion power plant in this century. Rapid progress has been made in the four major areas of ICF--targets, drivers, fusion experiments, and reactors. High gain targets have been designed. Laser, electron beam, and heavy ion accelerator drivers appear to be feasible. Record-breaking thermonuclear conditions have been experimentally achieved. Detailed diagnostics of laser implosions have confirmed predictions of the LASNEX computer program. Experimental facilities are being planned and constructed capable of igniting high gain fusion microexplosions in the mid 1980's. A low cost long lifetime reactor design has been developed

  13. Inertial fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decroisette, M.; Andre, M.; Bayer, C.; Juraszek, D.; Le Garrec, B.; Deutsch, C.; Migus, A.

    2005-01-01

    We first recall the scientific basis of inertial fusion and then describe a generic fusion reactor with the different components: the driver, the fusion chamber, the material treatment unit, the target factory and the turbines. We analyse the options proposed at the present time for the driver and for target irradiation scheme giving the state of art for each approach. We conclude by the presentation of LMJ (laser Megajoule) and NIF (national ignition facility) projects. These facilities aim to demonstrate the feasibility of laboratory DT ignition, first step toward Inertial Fusion Energy. (authors)

  14. Laser fusion program overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmett, J.L.

    1977-01-01

    This program is structured to proceed through a series of well defined fusion milestones to proof of the scientific feasibility, of laser fusion with the Shiva Nova system. Concurrently, those key technical areas, such as advanced lasers, which are required to progress beyond proof of feasibility, are being studied. We have identified and quantified the opportunities and key technical issues in military applications, such as weapons effects simulations, and in civilian applications, such as central-station electric power production. We summarize the current status and future plans for the laser fusion program at LLL, emphasizing the civilian applications of laser fusion

  15. Frontiers in fusion research

    CERN Document Server

    Kikuchi, Mitsuru

    2011-01-01

    Frontiers in Fusion Research provides a systematic overview of the latest physical principles of fusion and plasma confinement. It is primarily devoted to the principle of magnetic plasma confinement, that has been systematized through 50 years of fusion research. Frontiers in Fusion Research begins with an introduction to the study of plasma, discussing the astronomical birth of hydrogen energy and the beginnings of human attempts to harness the Sun's energy for use on Earth. It moves on to chapters that cover a variety of topics such as: * charged particle motion, * plasma kinetic theory, *

  16. Fusion of Nonionic Vesicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulut, Sanja; Oskolkova, M. Z.; Schweins, R.

    2010-01-01

    We present an experimental study of vesicle fusion using light and neutron scattering to monitor fusion events. Vesicles are reproducibly formed with an extrusion procedure using an single amphiphile triethylene glycol mono-n-decyl ether in water. They show long-term stability for temperatures ar...... a barrier to fusion changing from 15 k(B)T at T = 26 degrees C to 10k(H) T at T = 35 degrees C. These results are compatible with the theoretical predictions using the stalk model of vesicle fusion....

  17. Fusion reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    Nuclear fusion could soon become a viable energy source. Work in plasma physics, fusion technology and fusion safety is progressing rapidly in a number of Member States and international collaboration continues on work aiming at the demonstration of fusion power generation. Safety of fusion reactors and technological and radiological aspects of waste management are important aspects in the development and design of fusion machines. In order to provide an international forum to review and discuss the status and the progress made since 1983 in programmes related to operational safety aspects of fusion reactors, their waste management and decommissioning concepts, the IAEA had organized the Technical Committee on ''Fusion Reactor Safety'' in Culham, 3-7 November 1986. All presentations of this meeting were divided into four sessions: 1. Statements on National-International Fusion Safety Programmes (5 papers); 2. Operation and System Safety (15 papers); 3. Waste Management and Decommissioning (5 papers); 4. Environmental Impacts (6 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each of these 31 papers. Refs, figs, tabs

  18. Magnetic fusion reactor economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    An almost primordial trend in the conversion and use of energy is an increased complexity and cost of conversion systems designed to utilize cheaper and more-abundant fuels; this trend is exemplified by the progression fossil fission → fusion. The present projections of the latter indicate that capital costs of the fusion ''burner'' far exceed any commensurate savings associated with the cheapest and most-abundant of fuels. These projections suggest competitive fusion power only if internal costs associate with the use of fossil or fission fuels emerge to make them either uneconomic, unacceptable, or both with respect to expensive fusion systems. This ''implementation-by-default'' plan for fusion is re-examined by identifying in general terms fusion power-plant embodiments that might compete favorably under conditions where internal costs (both economic and environmental) of fossil and/or fission are not as great as is needed to justify the contemporary vision for fusion power. Competitive fusion power in this context will require a significant broadening of an overly focused program to explore the physics and simbiotic technologies leading to more compact, simplified, and efficient plasma-confinement configurations that reside at the heart of an attractive fusion power plant

  19. Human whole body cold adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daanen, Hein A M; Van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D

    2016-01-01

    Reviews on whole body human cold adaptation generally do not distinguish between population studies and dedicated acclimation studies, leading to confusing results. Population studies show that indigenous black Africans have reduced shivering thermogenesis in the cold and poor cold induced vasodilation in fingers and toes compared to Caucasians and Inuit. About 40,000 y after humans left Africa, natives in cold terrestrial areas seems to have developed not only behavioral adaptations, but also physiological adaptations to cold. Dedicated studies show that repeated whole body exposure of individual volunteers, mainly Caucasians, to severe cold results in reduced cold sensation but no major physiological changes. Repeated cold water immersion seems to slightly reduce metabolic heat production, while repeated exposure to milder cold conditions shows some increase in metabolic heat production, in particular non-shivering thermogenesis. In conclusion, human cold adaptation in the form of increased metabolism and insulation seems to have occurred during recent evolution in populations, but cannot be developed during a lifetime in cold conditions as encountered in temperate and arctic regions. Therefore, we mainly depend on our behavioral skills to live in and survive the cold.

  20. The need to be cold : cold warriors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregoire, L.

    2008-10-15

    This article discussed the changing climate of Ellesmere Island and the adaptation of the Inuit in response to the climate change, with particular reference to Canada's most northern community of Grise Fiord. Because of the changing climate, the vast northern landscape that the Inuit navigated for centuries by reading its subtle signs is becoming warmer, softer, and unpredictable. The geographic history and demographics of Grise Fiord were described. The community's main water supply comes from a glacier which is sinking. The negative impacts of ice shrinkage on this northern community and on the environment were presented. These included more international shipping through the Arctic, more resource exploration, a greater risk of environmental contamination, and reduced habitat for the polar bears and seals that eat, mate, and reproduce on the ice. Climate change impacts on the sea and sea ice were also discussed. Several photographs illustrating the changing climate were presented. The article noted that climate change could destroy the Inuit culture, making climate change an issue of human rights, notably the right to live connected to the land and the right to be cold. It was concluded that in one generation, Inuit were swept up by both a social and an economic upheaval. In one more generation, they will undergo an environmental shift. 13 figs.

  1. WISPy cold dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arias, Paola [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Pontificia Univ. Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile). Facultad de Fisica; Cadamuro, Davide; Redondo, Javier [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Goodsell, Mark [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Jaeckel, Joerg [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. for Particle Physics Phenomenology; Ringwald, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    Very weakly interacting slim particles (WISPs), such as axion-like particles (ALPs) or hidden photons (HPs), may be non-thermally produced via the misalignment mechanism in the early universe and survive as a cold dark matter population until today. We find that, both for ALPs and HPs whose dominant interactions with the standard model arise from couplings to photons, a huge region in the parameter spaces spanned by photon coupling and ALP or HP mass can give rise to the observed cold dark matter. Remarkably, a large region of this parameter space coincides with that predicted in well motivated models of fundamental physics. A wide range of experimental searches - exploiting haloscopes (direct dark matter searches exploiting microwave cavities), helioscopes (searches for solar ALPs or HPs), or light-shining-through-a-wall techniques - can probe large parts of this parameter space in the foreseeable future. (orig.)

  2. Progress with cold antihydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Charlton, M; Amsler, C; Bonomi, G; Bowe, P D; Canali, C; Carraro, C; Cesar, C L; Doser, M; Fontana, A; Fujiwara, M C; Funakoshi, R; Genova, P; Hangst, J S; Hayano, R S; Johnson, I; Jørgensen, L V; Kellerbauer, A G; Lagomarsino, V; Landua, Rolf; Lodi-Rizzini, E; Macri, M; Madsen, N; Manuzio, G; Mitchard, D; Montagna, P; Pruys, H; Regenfus, C; Rotondi, A; Testera, G; Variola, A; Venturelli, L; Van der Werf, D P; Yamazaki, Y; Zurlo, N

    2006-01-01

    The creation of cold antihydrogen by the ATHENA and ATRAP collaborations, working at CERN's unique Antiproton Decelerator (AD) facility, has ushered in a new era in atomic physics. This contribution will briefly review recent results from the ATHENA experiment. These include discussions of antiproton slowing down in a cold positron gas during antihydrogen formation, information derived on the dependence of the antihydrogen formation rate upon the temperature of the stored positron plasma and, finally, upon the spatial distribution of the emitted anti-atoms. We will discuss the implications of these studies for the major outstanding goal of trapping samples of antihydrogen for precise spectroscopic comparisons with hydrogen. The physics motivations for undertaking these challenging experiments will be briefly recalled.

  3. Cold source economic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuster, Serge.

    1975-01-01

    This computer code is intended for the statement of the general economic balance resulting from using a given cold source. The balance includes the investments needed for constructing the various materials, and also production balances resulting from their utilization. The case of either using an open circuit condenser on sea or river, or using air cooling systems with closed circuits or as auxiliaries can be dealt with. The program can be used to optimize the characteristics of the various parts of the cold source. The performance of the various materials can be evaluated for a given situation from using very full, precise economic balances, these materials can also be classified according to their possible uses, the outer constraints being taken into account (limits for heat disposal into rivers or seas, water temperature, air temperature). Technical choices whose economic consequences are important have been such clarified [fr

  4. The CMS COLD BOX

    CERN Multimedia

    Brice, Maximilien

    2015-01-01

    The CMS detector is built around a large solenoid magnet. This takes the form of a cylindrical coil of superconducting cable that generates a field of 3.8 Tesla: about 100,000 times the magnetic field of the Earth. To run, this superconducting magnet needs to be cooled down to very low temperature with liquid helium. Providing this is the job of a compressor station and the so-called “cold box”.

  5. Clumpy cold dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Joseph; Stebbins, Albert

    1993-01-01

    A study is conducted of cold dark matter (CDM) models in which clumpiness will inhere, using cosmic strings and textures suited to galaxy formation. CDM clumps of 10 million solar mass/cu pc density are generated at about z(eq) redshift, with a sizable fraction surviving. Observable implications encompass dark matter cores in globular clusters and in galactic nuclei. Results from terrestrial dark matter detection experiments may be affected by clumpiness in the Galactic halo.

  6. Engine Cold Start

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    matching pre- calibrated amplifier • BEI Shaft Encoder (0.2 CAD) • Wolff Instrumented Injector The high speed data was recorded and post-processed by...14. ABSTRACT These fuels were used for testing a GEP 6.5L turbocharged V-8 diesel engine operation in a cold box. This engine architecture is...Z39.18 UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED v EXECUTIVE SUMMARY A fuel’s cetane number is very important for the operation of modern diesel

  7. Incomplete fusion studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, B.P.

    2011-01-01

    In order to study the incomplete fusion reaction dynamics at energies ≅ 4-7 MeV/nucleon, several experiments have been carried out using accelerator facilities available in India. The measurements presented here cover a wide range of projectile-target combinations and enhance significantly our knowledge about incomplete fusion reaction dynamics. Here, the three sets of measurements have been presented; (i) excitation functions, (ii) forward recoil range distributions and (iii) the spin distributions. The first evidence of these reactions has been obtained from the measurement and analysis of excitation functions for xn/αxn/2αxn-channels. The measured excitation functions have been analyzed within the framework of compound nucleus model. The results obtained indicate the occurrence of fusion incompleteness at low beam energies. However, in order to determine the relative contribution of complete and incomplete fusion reaction processes, the recoil range distributions of the heavy residues have also been measured and analyzed within the framework of breakup fusion model which confirmed the fusion incompleteness in several heavy ion reactions involving α-emitting reaction channels. Further, in order to study the role of l-values in these reactions the spin distributions of the residues populated in case of complete and incomplete channels have been measured and are found to be distinctly different. The analysis of the data on spin distribution measurements indicate that the mean values of driving input angular momenta associated with direct-α-emitting (incomplete fusion) channels are higher than that observed for fusion-evaporation xn or α-emitting (complete fusion) channels, and is found to increase with direct α-multiplicity in the forward cone. One of the important conclusions drawn in the present work is that, there is significant incomplete fusion contribution even at energies slightly above the barrier. Further, the projectile structure has been found to

  8. Mirror fusion--fission hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    The fusion-fission concept and the mirror fusion-fission hybrid program are outlined. Magnetic mirror fusion drivers and blankets for hybrid reactors are discussed. Results of system analyses are presented and a reference design is described

  9. Support for cold neutron utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kye Hong; Han, Young Soo; Choi, Sungmin; Choi, Yong; Kwon, Hoon; Lee, Kwang Hee

    2012-06-01

    - Support for experiments by users of cold neutron scattering instrument - Short-term training of current and potential users of cold neutron scattering instrument for their effective use of the instrument - International collaboration for advanced utilization of cold neutron scattering instruments - Selection and training of qualified instrument scientists for vigorous research endeavors and outstanding achievements in experiments with cold neutron - Research on nano/bio materials using cold neutron scattering instruments - Bulk nano structure measurement using small angle neutron scattering and development of analysis technique

  10. Cell fusion and nuclear fusion in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Daisuke; Ohtsu, Mina; Higashiyama, Tetsuya

    2016-12-01

    Eukaryotic cells are surrounded by a plasma membrane and have a large nucleus containing the genomic DNA, which is enclosed by a nuclear envelope consisting of the outer and inner nuclear membranes. Although these membranes maintain the identity of cells, they sometimes fuse to each other, such as to produce a zygote during sexual reproduction or to give rise to other characteristically polyploid tissues. Recent studies have demonstrated that the mechanisms of plasma membrane or nuclear membrane fusion in plants are shared to some extent with those of yeasts and animals, despite the unique features of plant cells including thick cell walls and intercellular connections. Here, we summarize the key factors in the fusion of these membranes during plant reproduction, and also focus on "non-gametic cell fusion," which was thought to be rare in plant tissue, in which each cell is separated by a cell wall. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cold neutron production and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Kazuhiko; Watanabe, Noboru.

    1976-01-01

    The first part gives general introduction to cold neutrons, namely the definition and the role as a probe in basic science and technology. The second part reviews various methods of cold neutron production. Some physical characteristics required for cold moderators are presented, and a list summarizes a number of cold moderators and their reactor physics constants. The definition of flux gain factor and the measured values for liquid light- and heavy-hydrogen are also given. The cold neutron spectra in methane and liquid hydrogen measured by LINAC time-of-flight method are presented to show the advantage of solid methane. The cold neutron sources using experimental reactors or linear accelerators are explained along with the examples of existing facilities. Two Japanese programs, the one is the use of a high flux reactor and the other is the use of a LINAC, are also presented. The third part of this report reviews the application areas of cold neutrons. (Aoki, K.)

  12. Is Self-Interacting Dark Matter Undergoing Dark Fusion?

    OpenAIRE

    McDermott, Samuel D.

    2018-01-01

    We suggest that two-to-two dark matter fusion may be the relaxation process that resolves the small-scale structure problems of the cold collisionless dark matter paradigm. In order for the fusion cross section to scale correctly across many decades of astrophysical masses from dwarf galaxies to galaxy clusters, we require the fractional binding energy released to be greater than vn∼(10−(2−3))n, where n=1, 2 depends on local dark sector chemistry. The size of the dark-sector interaction cross...

  13. The fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennan, M.H.

    1974-01-01

    Basic principles of the fusion reactor are outlined. Plasma heating and confinement schemes are described. These confinement systems include the linear Z pinch, magnetic mirrors and Tokamaks. A fusion reactor is described and a discussion is given of its environmental impact and its fuel situation. (R.L.)

  14. Fusion Canada issue 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-08-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue are Canada-ITER contributions, NET Fuel Processing Loop, Bilateral Meeting for Canada-Europe, report from Tokamak de Varennes and a report from the University of Toronto on materials research for Fusion Reactors. 3 figs

  15. Fusion Canada issue 15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on the 1996 IAEA Fusion Conference site, operations at the Tokamak de Varennes including divertor pumping of impurities and pumping of carbon monoxide and methane, a discussion of the CFFTP and it's role. 1 fig

  16. Energy by nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buende, R.; Daenner, W.; Herold, H.; Raeder, J.

    1976-12-01

    This report reviews the state of knowledge in a number of fields of fusion research up to autumn 1976. Section 1 gives a very brief presentation of the elementary fusion reactions, the energies delivered by them and the most basic energy balances leading to Lawson-type diagrams. Section 2 outlines the reserves and cost of lithium and deuterium, gives estimates of the total energy available from DT fusion and comments on production technology, availlability and handling of the fuels. In section 3 a survey is given of the different concepts of magnetic confinement (stellarators, tokamaks, toroidal pinches, mirror machines, two-component plasmas), of confinement by walls, gas blankets and imploding liners and, finally, of the concepts of interial confinement (laser fusion, beam fusion). The reactors designed or outlined on the basis of the tokamak, high-β, mirror, and laser fusion concepts are presented in section 4, which is followed in section 5 by a discussion of the key problems of fusion power plants. The present-day knowledge of the cost structure of fusion power plants and the sensitivity of this structure with respect to the physical and technical assumptions made is analysed in section 6. Section 7 and 8 treat the aspects of safety and environment. The problems discussed include the hazard potentials of different designs (radiological, toxicological, and with respect to stored energies), release of radioactivity, possible kinds of malfunctioning, and the environmental impact of waste heat, radiation and radioactive waste (orig.) [de

  17. Fusion helps diversification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, S.; Ren, Z.; de Rijke, M.

    2014-01-01

    A popular strategy for search result diversification is to first retrieve a set of documents utilizing a standard retrieval method and then rerank the results. We adopt a different perspective on the problem, based on data fusion. Starting from the hypothesis that data fusion can improve performance

  18. Fusion Canada issue 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue a bi-lateral meeting between Canada and Japan, water and hydrogen detritiation, in-situ tokamak surface analysis, an update of CCFM/TdeV and tritium accounting Industry guidance in Fusion, fast probe for plasma-surface interaction. 4 figs

  19. International fusion research council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belozerov, A.N.

    1977-01-01

    A brief history of the International Fusion Research Council (IFRC) is given and the minutes of the 1976 meeting in Garching are summarized. At the Garching meeting, the IFRC evaluated the quality of papers presented at recent IAEA conferences on plasma physics and controlled thermonuclear research, and made recommendations on the organization and timing of future meetings on nuclear fusion

  20. Fusion Canada issue 15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-10-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on the 1996 IAEA Fusion Conference site, operations at the Tokamak de Varennes including divertor pumping of impurities and pumping of carbon monoxide and methane, a discussion of the CFFTP and it`s role. 1 fig.

  1. Magnetic Fusion Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-02-01

    This Plan reflects the present conditions of the energy situation and is consistent with national priorities for the support of basic and applied research. It is realistic in taking advantage of the technical position that the United States has already established in fusion research to make cost-effective progress toward the development of fusion power as a future energy option

  2. Fusion Canada issue 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-08-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue are Canada-ITER contributions, NET Fuel Processing Loop, Bilateral Meeting for Canada-Europe, report from Tokamak de Varennes and a report from the University of Toronto on materials research for Fusion Reactors. 3 figs.

  3. Sensor Data Fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plascencia, Alfredo; Stepán, Petr

    2006-01-01

    The main contribution of this paper is to present a sensor fusion approach to scene environment mapping as part of a Sensor Data Fusion (SDF) architecture. This approach involves combined sonar array with stereo vision readings.  Sonar readings are interpreted using probability density functions...

  4. Coatings for laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowdermilk, W.H.

    1981-01-01

    Optical coatings are used in lasers systems for fusion research to control beam propagation and reduce surface reflection losses. The performance of coatings is important in the design, reliability, energy output, and cost of the laser systems. Significant developments in coating technology are required for future lasers for fusion research and eventual power reactors

  5. Fusion reactor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sethi, V.K.; Scholz, R.; Nolfi, F.V. Jr.; Turner, A.P.L.

    1980-01-01

    Data are given for each of the following areas: (1) effects of irradiation on fusion reactor materials, (2) hydrogen permeation and materials behavior in alloys, (3) carbon coatings for fusion applications, (4) surface damage of TiB 2 coatings under energetic D + and 4 He + irradiations, and (5) neutron dosimetry

  6. The IGNITEX fusion project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrera, R.

    1987-01-01

    The author discusses the recently proposed fusion ignition experiment, IGNITEX. He emphasizes the basic ideas of this concept rather than the specific details of the physics and engineering aspects of the experiment. This concept is a good example of the importance of maintaining an adequate balance between the basic scientific progress in fusion physics and the new technologies that are becoming available in order to make fusion work. The objective of the IGNITEX project is to produce and control ignited plasmas for scientific study in the simplest and least expensive way possible. Being able to study this not-yet-produced regime of plasma operation is essential to fusion research. Two years after the fission nuclear reaction was discovered, a non-self-sustained fission reaction was produced in a laboratory, and in one more year a self-sustained reaction was achieved at the University of Chicago. However, after almost forty years of fusion research, a self-sustained fusion reaction has yet not been produced in a laboratory experiment. This fact indicates the greater difficulty of the fusion experiment. Because of the difficulty involved in the production of a self-sustained fusion reaction, it is necessary to propose such an experiment with maximum ignition margins, maximum simplicity, and minimum financial risk

  7. Controlled thermonuclear fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Bobin, Jean Louis

    2014-01-01

    The book is a presentation of the basic principles and main achievements in the field of nuclear fusion. It encompasses both magnetic and inertial confinements plus a few exotic mechanisms for nuclear fusion. The state-of-the-art regarding thermonuclear reactions, hot plasmas, tokamaks, laser-driven compression and future reactors is given.

  8. Fusion Power Deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, J.A.; Ogden, J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Fusion power plants could be part of a future portfolio of non-carbon dioxide producing energy supplies such as wind, solar, biomass, advanced fission power, and fossil energy with carbon dioxide sequestration. In this paper, we discuss key issues that could impact fusion energy deployment during the last half of this century. These include geographic issues such as resource availability, scale issues, energy storage requirements, and waste issues. The resource needs and waste production associated with fusion deployment in the U.S. should not pose serious problems. One important feature of fusion power is the fact that a fusion power plant should be locatable within most local or regional electrical distribution systems. For this reason, fusion power plants should not increase the burden of long distance power transmission to our distribution system. In contrast to fusion power, regional factors could play an important role in the deployment of renewable resources such as wind, solar and biomass or fossil energy with CO2 sequestration. We examine the role of these regional factors and their implications for fusion power deployment

  9. Fusion Canada issue 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-05-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a technical update on Tokamak de Varennes, a report on the Beatrix II Breeding Materials Test Program, the Tritium glovebox system for UPM, Saudi Arabia, a broad update of the Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project is also included. 1 fig

  10. Fusion Canada issue 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-10-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on Darlington`s Tritium Removal Facility, work at universities on Deuterium Diffusivity in Beryllium, Fusion Studies, confinement research and the operation of divertors at Tokamak de Varennes. 5 figs.

  11. Fusion Canada issue 22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-10-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue a bi-lateral meeting between Canada and Japan, water and hydrogen detritiation, in-situ tokamak surface analysis, an update of CCFM/TdeV and tritium accounting Industry guidance in Fusion, fast probe for plasma-surface interaction. 4 figs.

  12. Fusion Canada issue 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-05-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a technical update on Tokamak de Varennes, a report on the Beatrix II Breeding Materials Test Program, the Tritium glovebox system for UPM, Saudi Arabia, a broad update of the Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project is also included. 1 fig.

  13. Fusion Canada issue 19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on the IAEA Plasma Biasing Meeting, the new IEA program -Nuclear Technology of Fusion reactors, TFTR tritium purification system, an update by CCFM on machine additions and modifications, and news of a new compact Toroid injector at the University of Saskatchewan. 1 fig

  14. Fusion Canada issue 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on a fusion cooperation agreement between Japan and Canada, an update at Tokamak de Varennes on plasma biasing experiments and boronization tests and a collaboration between Canada and the U.S. on a compact toroid fuelling gun. 4 figs

  15. Fusion Canada issue 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-10-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on Darlington's Tritium Removal Facility, work at universities on Deuterium Diffusivity in Beryllium, Fusion Studies, confinement research and the operation of divertors at Tokamak de Varennes. 5 figs

  16. Controlled Nuclear Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasstone, Samuel

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by The United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Importance of Fusion Energy; Conditions for Nuclear Fusion; Thermonuclear Reactions in Plasmas; Plasma Confinement by Magnetic Fields; Experiments With Plasmas; High-Temperature…

  17. Industry's role in inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    This paper is an address to the Tenth Symposium on Fusion Engineering. The speaker first addressed the subject of industry's role in inertial fusion three years earlier in 1980, outlining programs that included participation in the Shiva construction project, and the industrial participants' program set up in the laser fusion program to bring industrial scientists and engineers into the laboratory to work on laser fusion. The speaker is now the president of KMS Fusion, Inc., the primary industrial participant in the inertial fusion program. The outlook for fusion energy and the attitude of the federal government toward the fusion program is discussed

  18. Towards fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkataraman, G.

    1975-01-01

    An attempt has been made to present general but broad review of the recent developments in the field of plasma physics and its application to fusion power. The first chapter describes the fusion reactions and fusion power systems. The second chapter deals in detail with production and behaviour of plasma, screening, oscillations, instability, energy losses, temperature effects, etc. Magnetic confinements, including pinch systems, toroidal systems such as Tokamac and stellarator, minor machine, etc. are discussed in detail in chapter III. Laser produced plasma, laser implosion and problems associated with it and future prospects are explained in chapter IV. Chapter V is devoted entirely to the various aspects of hybrid systems. The last chapter throws light on problems of fusion technology, such as plasma heating, vacuum requirements, radiation damage, choice of materials, blanket problems, hazards of fusion reactions, etc. (K.B.)

  19. Fusion fuel blanket technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hastings, I.J.; Gierszewski, P.

    1987-05-01

    The fusion blanket surrounds the burning hydrogen core of a fusion reactor. It is in this blanket that most of the energy released by the nuclear fusion of deuterium-tritium is converted into useful product, and where tritium fuel is produced to enable further operation of the reactor. As fusion research turns from present short-pulse physics experiments to long-burn engineering tests in the 1990's, energy removal and tritium production capabilities become important. This technology will involve new materials, conditions and processes with applications both to fusion and beyond. In this paper, we introduce features of proposed blanket designs and update and status of international research. In focusing on the Canadian blanket technology program, we discuss the aqueous lithium salt blanket concept, and the in-reactor tritium recovery test program

  20. Decomposition of incomplete fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobotka, L.B.; Sarantities, D.G.; Stracener, D.W.; Majka, Z.; Abenante, V.; Semkow, T.M.; Hensley, D.C.; Beene, J.R.; Halbert, M.L.

    1989-01-01

    The velocity distribution of fusion-like products formed in the reaction 701 MeV 28 Si+ 100 Mo is decomposed into 26 incomplete fusion channels. The momentum deficit of the residue per nonevaporative mass unit is approximately equal to the beam momentum per nucleon. The yields of the incomplete fusion channels correlate with the Q-value for projectile fragmentation rather than that for incomplete fusion. The backward angle multiplicities of light particles and heavy ions increase with momentum transfer, however, the heavy ion multiplicities also depend on the extent of the fragmentation of the incomplete fusion channel. These data indicate that at fixed linear momentum transfer, increased fragmentation of the unfused component is related to a reduced transferred angular momentum. 22 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  1. Nuclear fusion: The issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    The taming of fusion energy, has proved one of the most elusive quests of modern science. For four decades, the United States has doggedly pursued energy's holy grail, pumping more than $9 billion into research and reactor prototypes. This year, the federal government is slated to spend $339 million on fusion, more than the combined amount the government will spend for research on oil, natural gas, solar power, wind power, geothermal energy, biofuels and conservation. This article summarizes the technical, political in terms of international cooperation, economic, planning, etc. issues surrounding the continued development of fusion as a possible power source for the next century. Brief descriptions of how fusion works and of the design of a tokamak fusion machine are included

  2. Fusion safety data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laats, E.T.; Hardy, H.A.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this Fusion Safety Data Base Program is to provide a repository of data for the design and development of safe commercial fusion reactors. The program is sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fusion Energy. The function of the program is to collect, examine, permanently store, and make available the safety data to the entire US magnetic-fusion energy community. The sources of data will include domestic and foreign fusion reactor safety-related research programs. Any participant in the DOE Program may use the Data Base Program from his terminal through user friendly dialog and can view the contents in the form of text, tables, graphs, or system diagrams

  3. Compact fusion reactors

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Fusion research is currently to a large extent focused on tokamak (ITER) and inertial confinement (NIF) research. In addition to these large international or national efforts there are private companies performing fusion research using much smaller devices than ITER or NIF. The attempt to achieve fusion energy production through relatively small and compact devices compared to tokamaks decreases the costs and building time of the reactors and this has allowed some private companies to enter the field, like EMC2, General Fusion, Helion Energy, Lawrenceville Plasma Physics and Lockheed Martin. Some of these companies are trying to demonstrate net energy production within the next few years. If they are successful their next step is to attempt to commercialize their technology. In this presentation an overview of compact fusion reactor concepts is given.

  4. Some fusion perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNally, J.R. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Some of the concepts of nuclear fusion reactions, advanced fusion fuels, environmental impacts, etc., are explored using the following general outline: I. Principles of Fusion (Nuclear Fuels and Reactions, Lawson Condition, n tau vs T, Nuclear Burn Characteristics); II. Magnetic Mirror Possibilities (the Ion Layer and Electron Layer, Exponential Build-up at MeV energies, Lorentz trapping at GeV energies); III. Pellet Fuel Fusion Prospects (Advanced Pellet Fuel Fusion Prospects, Burn Characteristics and Applications, Excitation-heating Prospects for Runaway Ion Temperatures). Inasmuch as the outline is very skeletal, a significant research and development effort may be in order to evaluate these prospects in more detail and hopefully ''harness the H-bomb'' for peaceful applications, the author concludes. 28 references

  5. Investigations of image fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhong

    1999-12-01

    The objective of image fusion is to combine information from multiple images of the same scene. The result of image fusion is a single image which is more suitable for the purpose of human visual perception or further image processing tasks. In this thesis, a region-based fusion algorithm using the wavelet transform is proposed. The identification of important features in each image, such as edges and regions of interest, are used to guide the fusion process. The idea of multiscale grouping is also introduced and a generic image fusion framework based on multiscale decomposition is studied. The framework includes all of the existing multiscale-decomposition- based fusion approaches we found in the literature which did not assume a statistical model for the source images. Comparisons indicate that our framework includes some new approaches which outperform the existing approaches for the cases we consider. Registration must precede our fusion algorithms. So we proposed a hybrid scheme which uses both feature-based and intensity-based methods. The idea of robust estimation of optical flow from time- varying images is employed with a coarse-to-fine multi- resolution approach and feature-based registration to overcome some of the limitations of the intensity-based schemes. Experiments show that this approach is robust and efficient. Assessing image fusion performance in a real application is a complicated issue. In this dissertation, a mixture probability density function model is used in conjunction with the Expectation- Maximization algorithm to model histograms of edge intensity. Some new techniques are proposed for estimating the quality of a noisy image of a natural scene. Such quality measures can be used to guide the fusion. Finally, we study fusion of images obtained from several copies of a new type of camera developed for video surveillance. Our techniques increase the capability and reliability of the surveillance system and provide an easy way to obtain 3-D

  6. Assessing the thermal performance of three cold energy storage materials with low eutectic temperature for food cold chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yu-Chu M.; Chen, Yen-Hong A.

    2016-01-01

    Development a novel inorganic salt eutectic solution for cold energy storage material (ESM) have succeeded conducted in this study. The eutectic solutions shows a low melting temperature and high latent heat of fusion value as effect of addition nano copper powder into the eutectic solution. We report a new simulation technique of thermal property as well as test results of three inorganic salts. The thermal property of three inorganic salts were simulated using the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) method with the help of three binary phase diagrams. The simulation shows the liquidus temperature of each binary phase diagram conforming nicely to the theoretical prediction of the Gibbs-Duhem equation. In order to predict cold storage keeping time, we derived a heat transfer model based on energy conservation law. Three ESMs were tested for their cold energy storage performance and thermal properties aging for durability. The empirical results indicate that, for food cold chain, the melting point rule is superior with less deviation. With this information, one can pre-estimate the basic design parameters with great accuracy; the cost of design and development for a new cold storage logistics system can be dramatically reduced. - Highlights: • For these three ESMs, their modified values of melting point and latent heat are presented in Table 2. • But, TC is usually not a constant like TE. • The freezing time underwent a drop ∼10% in the binary eutectic region.

  7. US fusion community discussion on fusion strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marton, W.A.

    1998-01-01

    On April 26 - May 1, 1998, a US Fusion Community Forum for Major Next-Step Experiments was held at Madison, Wisconsin, USA. Both the Single Integrated Step strategy and the Multiple Machine strategy have substantial support from the about 180 scientists and engineers who participated

  8. Materials for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrlich, K.; Kaletta, D.

    1978-03-01

    The following report describes five papers which were given during the IMF seminar series summer 1977. The purpose of this series was to discuss especially the irradiation behaviour of materials intended for the first wall of future fusion reactors. The first paper deals with the basic understanding of plasma physics relating to the fusion reactor and presents the current state of art of fusion technology. The next two talks discuss the metals intended for the first wall and structural components of a fusion reactor. Since 14 MeV neutrons play an important part in the process of irradiation damage their role is discussed in detail. The question which machines are presently available to simulate irradiation damage under conditions similar to the ones found in a fusion reactor are investigated in the fourth talk which also presents the limitations of the different methods of simulation. In this context also discussed is the importance future intensive neutron sources and materials test reactors will have for this problem area. The closing paper has as a theme the review of the present status of research of metallic and non-metallic materials in view of the quite different requirements for different fusion systems; a closing topic is the world supply on rare materials required for fusion reactors. (orig) [de

  9. Fusion research in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoletnik, S.

    2004-01-01

    Hungarian fusion research started in the 1970s, when the idea of installing a small tokamak experiment emerged. In return to computer equipment a soviet tokamak was indeed sent to Hungary and started to operate as MT-1 at the Central Research Institute for Physics (KFKI) in 1979. Major research topics included diagnostic development, edge plasma studies and investigation of disruptions. Following a major upgrade in 1992 (new vacuum vessel, active position control and PC network based data acquisition system) the MT-1M tokamak was used for the study of transport processes with trace impurity injection, micropellet ablation studies, X-ray tomography and laser blow-off diagnostic development. Although funding ceased in the middle of the 90's the group was held alive by collaborations with EU fusion labs: FZ -Juelich, IPP-Garching and CRPP-EPFL Lausanne. In 1998 the machine was dismantled due to reorganization of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. New horizons opened to fusion research from 1999, when Hungary joined EURATOM and a fusion Association was formed. Since then fusion physics studies are done in collaboration with major EU fusion laboratories, Hungarian researchers also play an active role in JET diagnostics upgrade and ITER design. Major topics are pellet ablation studies, plasma turbulence diagnosis using Beam Emission Spectroscopy and other techniques, tomography and plasma diagnostics using various neutral beams. In fusion relevant technology R and D Hungary has less records. Before joining EURATOM some materials irradiation studies were done at the Budapest Research Reactor at KFKI-AEKI. The present day fusion technology programme focuses still on irradiation studies, nuclear material database and electromagnetic testing techniques. Increasing the fusion technology research activities is a difficult task, as the competition in Hungarian industry is very strong and the interest of organizations in long-term investments into R and D is rather weak and

  10. Mirror fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    Conceptual design studies were made of fusion reactors based on the three current mirror-confinement concepts: the standard mirror, the tandem mirror, and the field-reversed mirror. Recent studies of the standard mirror have emphasized its potential as a fusion-fission hybrid reactor, designed to produce fuel for fission reactors. We have designed a large commercial hybrid and a small pilot-plant hybrid based on standard mirror confinement. Tandem mirror designs include a commercial 1000-MWe fusion power plant and a nearer term tandem mirror hybrid. Field-reversed mirror designs include a multicell commercial reactor producing 75 MWe and a single-cell pilot plant

  11. Mirror fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, G.A.; Moir, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    We have carried out conceptual design studies of fusion reactors based on the three current mirror confinement concepts: the standard mirror, the tandem mirror, and the field-reversed mirror. Recent studies of the standard mirror have emphasized its potential as a fusion-fission hybrid reactor, designed to produce fission fuel for fission reactors. We have designed a large commercial hybrid based on standard mirror confinement, and also a small pilot plant hybrid. Tandem mirror designs include a commercial 1000 MWe fusion power plant and a nearer term tandem mirror hybrid. Field-reversed mirror designs include a multicell commercial reactor producing 75 MWe and a single cell pilot plant

  12. Fusion Reactor Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of SCK-CEN's programme on fusion reactor materials is to contribute to the knowledge on the radiation-induced behaviour of fusion reactor materials and components as well as to help the international community in building the scientific and technical basis needed for the construction of the future reactor. Ongoing projects include: the study of the mechanical and chemical (corrosion) behaviour of structural materials under neutron irradiation and water coolant environment; the investigation of the characteristics of irradiated first wall material such as beryllium; investigations on the management of materials resulting from the dismantling of fusion reactors including waste disposal. Progress and achievements in these areas in 2001 are discussed

  13. Remote sensing image fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Alparone, Luciano; Baronti, Stefano; Garzelli, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    A synthesis of more than ten years of experience, Remote Sensing Image Fusion covers methods specifically designed for remote sensing imagery. The authors supply a comprehensive classification system and rigorous mathematical description of advanced and state-of-the-art methods for pansharpening of multispectral images, fusion of hyperspectral and panchromatic images, and fusion of data from heterogeneous sensors such as optical and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images and integration of thermal and visible/near-infrared images. They also explore new trends of signal/image processing, such as

  14. Beam dancer fusion device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, H.B.

    1984-01-01

    To accomplish fusion of two or more fusion fuel elements numerous minute spots of energy or laser light are directed to a micro target area, there to be moved or danced about by a precision mechanical controlling apparatus at the source of the laser light or electromagnetic energy beams, so that merging and coinciding patterns of light or energy beams can occur around the area of the fuel atoms or ions. The projecting of these merging patterns may be considered as target searching techniques to locate responsive clusters of fuel elements and to compress such elements into a condition in which fusion may occur. Computerized programming may be used

  15. Fusion Reactor Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of SCK-CEN's programme on fusion reactor materials is to contribute to the knowledge on the behaviour of fusion reactor materials and components during and after irradiation. Ongoing projects include: the study of the mechanical behaviour of structural materials under neutron irradiation; the investigation of the characteristics of irradiated first wall material such as beryllium; the detection of abrupt electrical degradation of insulating ceramics under high temperature and neutron irradiation; and the study of dismantling and waste disposal strategy for fusion reactors. Progress and achievements in these areas in 2000 are discussed

  16. Japanese fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, T.

    1987-01-01

    The Japan experience during thirty years in nuclear fusion research is reported, after attending the 1st Geneva Conference in 1955, Osaka University, immedeately began linear pinch study using capacitor bank discharge. Subsequently to his trial several groups were organized to ward fusion R and D at universities in Tokyo, Nagoya, Kyoto, Sendai and son on. Based upon the recommendation of Japan Science Council, Institut of Plasma Physics (IPP) was established at Nagoya University in 1961 When the 1st International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research was held in Saltzburg. The gloomy Bohm barrier had stood in front of many of experiments at that time. (author) [pt

  17. GsLRPK, a novel cold-activated leucine-rich repeat receptor-like protein kinase from Glycine soja, is a positive regulator to cold stress tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liang; Wu, Kangcheng; Gao, Peng; Liu, Xiaojuan; Li, Guangpu; Wu, Zujian

    2014-02-01

    Plant LRR-RLKs serve as protein interaction platforms, and as regulatory modules of protein activation. Here, we report the isolation of a novel plant-specific LRR-RLK from Glycine soja (termed GsLRPK) by differential screening. GsLRPK expression was cold-inducible and shows Ser/Thr protein kinase activity. Subcellular localization studies using GFP fusion protein indicated that GsLRPK is localized in the plasma membrane. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that temperature, salt, drought, and ABA treatment can alter GsLRPK gene transcription in G. soja. However, just protein induced by cold stress not by salinity and ABA treatment in tobacco was found to possess kinase activity. Furthermore, we found that overexpression of GsLRPK in yeast and Arabidopsis can enhance resistance to cold stress and increase the expression of a number of cold responsive gene markers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Production of titanium alloy powders by vacuum fusion-centrifugation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decours, Jacques; Devillard, Jacques; Sainfort, G.

    1975-01-01

    This work presents a method of preparing powdered TA6V and TA6Z5D alloys by fusion-centrifugation under electron bombardment. An industrial capacity apparatus for the production of metallic powders is described and the characteristics of the powders obtained are presented. Solid parts were shaped by sintering and drawing at temperatures between 850 and 1100 deg C. The structure and mechanical properties of the cold densified products before and after heat treatment are compared [fr

  19. Inertial thermonuclear fusion by laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watteau, J.P.

    1993-12-01

    The principles of deuterium tritium (DT) magnetic or inertial thermonuclear fusion are given. Even if results would be better with heavy ions beams, most of the results on fusion are obtained with laser beams. Technical and theoretical aspects of the laser fusion are presented with an extrapolation to the future fusion reactor. (A.B.). 34 refs., 17 figs

  20. Inertial fusion commercial power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, B.G.

    1994-01-01

    This presentation discusses the motivation for inertial fusion energy, a brief synopsis of five recently-completed inertial fusion power plant designs, some general conclusions drawn from these studies, and an example of an IFE hydrogen synfuel plant to suggest that future fusion studies consider broadening fusion use to low-emission fuels production as well as electricity

  1. Why and how of fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, G.H.

    1977-01-01

    The potential advantages of fusion power are listed. The approaches to plasma containment are mentioned and the status of the fusion program is described. The ERDA and EPRI programs are discussed. The Fusion Energy Foundation's activities are mentioned. Fusion research at the U. of Ill. is described briefly

  2. Fusion in the energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusion energy is the fundamental energy source of the Universe, as the energy of the Sun and the stars are produced by fusion of e.g. hydrogen to helium. Fusion energy research is a strongly international endeavor aiming at realizing fusion energy production in power plants on Earth. Reaching...... of integration into the future electricity system and socio-economic studies of fusion energy will be presented, referring to the programme of Socio-Economic Research on Fusion (SERF) under the European Fusion Energy Agreement (EFDA)....

  3. Fusion-power demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, C.D.; Logan, B.G.; Carlson, G.A.; Neef, W.S.; Moir, R.W.; Campbell, R.B.; Botwin, R.; Clarkson, I.R.; Carpenter, T.J.

    1983-01-01

    As a satellite to the MARS (Mirror Advanced Reactor Study) a smaller, near-term device has been scoped, called the FPD (Fusion Power Demonstration). Envisioned as the next logical step toward a power reactor, it would advance the mirror fusion program beyond MFTF-B and provide an intermediate step toward commercial fusion power. Breakeven net electric power capability would be the goal such that no net utility power would be required to sustain the operation. A phased implementation is envisioned, with a deuterium checkout first to verify the plasma systems before significant neutron activation has occurred. Major tritium-related facilities would be installed with the second phase to produce sufficient fusion power to supply the recirculating power to maintain the neutral beams, ECRH, magnets and other auxiliary equipment

  4. International aspects of fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacey, W.M. Jr.

    1979-12-01

    International collaborative efforts in magnetic confinement fusion in which the USA is involved are reviewed. These efforts are carried under the auspices of international agencies and through bilateral agreements

  5. Magnetic fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The efforts of the Chemical Technology Division in the area of fusion energy include fuel handling, processing, and containment. These studies are closely coordinated with the ORNL Fusion Energy Division. Current experimental studies are concerned with the development of vacuum pumps for fusion reactors, the evaluation and development of techniques for recovering tritium (fuel) from either solid or liquid lithium containing blankets, and the use of deep beds of sorbents as roughing pumps and/or transfer operations. In addition, a small effort is devoted to the support of the ORNL design of The Next Step (TNS) in tokamak reactor development. The more applied studies--vacuum pump development and TNS design--are funded by the DOE/Magnetic Fusion Energy, and the more fundamental studies--blanket recovery and sorption in deep beds--are funded by the DOE/Basic Energy Sciences

  6. Fusion technology programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finken, D.

    1984-04-01

    KfK participates to the Fusion Technology Programme of the European Community. Most of the work in progress addresses the Next European Torus (NET) and the long term technology aspects as defined in the 82/86 programme. A minor part serves to preparation of future contributions and to design studies on fusion concepts in a wider perspective. The Fusion Technology Programme of Euratom covers mainly aspects of nuclear engineering. Plasma engineering, heating, refueling and vacuum technology are at present part of the Physics Programme. In view of NET, integration of the different areas of work will be mandatory. KfK is therefore prepared to address technical aspects beyond the actual scope of the physics experiments. The technology tasks are reported project wise under title and code of the Euratom programme. Most of the projects described here are shared with other European fusion laboratories as indicated in the table annexed to this report. (orig./GG)

  7. Fusion-breeder program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    The various approaches to a combined fusion-fission reactor for the purpose of breeding 239 Pu and 233 U are described. Design aspects and cost estimates for fuel production and electricity generation are discussed

  8. Cell fusions in mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, Lars-Inge; Bjerregaard, Bolette; Talts, Jan Fredrik

    2008-01-01

    Cell fusions are important to fertilization, placentation, development of skeletal muscle and bone, calcium homeostasis and the immune defense system. Additionally, cell fusions participate in tissue repair and may be important to cancer development and progression. A large number of factors appear...... to regulate cell fusions, including receptors and ligands, membrane domain organizing proteins, proteases, signaling molecules and fusogenic proteins forming alpha-helical bundles that bring membranes close together. The syncytin family of proteins represent true fusogens and the founding member, syncytin-1......, has been documented to be involved in fusions between placental trophoblasts, between cancer cells and between cancer cells and host ells. We review the literature with emphasis on the syncytin family and propose that syncytins may represent universal fusogens in primates and rodents, which work...

  9. Fusion Canada issue 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-06-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on operation at Tokamak de Varennes, CRITIC irradiations at AECL, Tritium systems at TFTR, physics contribution at ITER. 4 figs.

  10. Fusion technology (FT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The annual report of tha fusion technology (FT) working group discusses the projects carried out by the participating institutes in the fields of 1) fuel injection and plasma heating, 2) magnetic field technology, and 3) systems investigations. (HK) [de

  11. Fusion technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-08-01

    This report includes information on the following chapters: (1) conceptual design studies, (2) magnetics, (3) plasma heating, fueling, and exhaust, (4) materials for fusion reactors, (5) alternate applications, and (6) environment and safety

  12. Fusion reactor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowcliffe, A.F.; Burn, G.L.; Knee', S.S.; Dowker, C.L.

    1994-02-01

    This is the fifteenth in a series of semiannual technical progress reports on fusion reactor materials. This report combines research and development activities which were previously reported separately in the following progress reports: Alloy Development for Irradiation Performance; Damage Analysis and Fundamental Studies; Special purpose Materials. These activities are concerned principally with the effects of the neutronic and chemical environment on the properties and performance of reactor materials; together they form one element of the overall materials programs being conducted in support of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. The Fusion Reactor Materials Program is a national effort involving several national laboratories, universities, and industries. The purpose of this series of reports is to provide a working technical record for the use of the program participants, and to provide a means of communicating the efforts of materials scientists to the rest of the fusion community, both nationally and worldwide

  13. Fusion cost normalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulte, S.C.; Willke, T.L.

    1978-01-01

    The categorization and accounting methods described in this paper provide a common format that can be used to assess the economic character of magnetically confined fusion reactor design concepts. The format was developed with assistance from the fusion economics community, thus ensuring that the methods meet with the approval of potential users. The format will aid designers in the preparation of design concept cost estimates and also provide policy makers with a tool to assist in appraising which design concepts may be economically promising. Adherence to the format when evaluating prospective fusion reactor design concepts will result in the identification of the more promising concepts, thus enabling the fusion power alternatives with better economic potential to be quickly and efficiently developed

  14. Complimentary Advanced Fusion Exploration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alford, Mark G; Jones, Eric C; Bubalo, Adnan; Neumann, Melissa; Greer, Michael J

    2005-01-01

    .... The focus areas were in the following regimes: multi-tensor homographic computer vision image fusion, out-of-sequence measurement and track data handling, Nash bargaining approaches to sensor management, pursuit-evasion game theoretic modeling...

  15. Fusion plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Stacey, Weston M

    2012-01-01

    This revised and enlarged second edition of the popular textbook and reference contains comprehensive treatments of both the established foundations of magnetic fusion plasma physics and of the newly developing areas of active research. It concludes with a look ahead to fusion power reactors of the future. The well-established topics of fusion plasma physics -- basic plasma phenomena, Coulomb scattering, drifts of charged particles in magnetic and electric fields, plasma confinement by magnetic fields, kinetic and fluid collective plasma theories, plasma equilibria and flux surface geometry, plasma waves and instabilities, classical and neoclassical transport, plasma-materials interactions, radiation, etc. -- are fully developed from first principles through to the computational models employed in modern plasma physics. The new and emerging topics of fusion plasma physics research -- fluctuation-driven plasma transport and gyrokinetic/gyrofluid computational methodology, the physics of the divertor, neutral ...

  16. Fusion power demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, C.D.; Logan, B.G.

    1983-01-01

    As a satellite to the MARS (Mirror Advanced Reactor Study) a smaller, near-term device has been scoped, called the FPD (Fusion Power Demonstration). Envisioned as the next logical step toward a power reactor, it would advance the mirror fusion program beyond MFTF-B and provide an intermediate step toward commercial fusion power. Breakeven net electric power capability would be the goal such that no net utility power would be required to sustain the operation. A phased implementation is envisioned, with a deuterium checkout first to verify the plasma systems before significant neutron activation has occurred. Major tritium-related facilities would be installed with the second phase to produce sufficient fusion power to supply the recirculating power to maintain the neutral beams, ECRH, magnets and other auxiliary equipment

  17. Optical Fiber Fusion Splicing

    CERN Document Server

    Yablon, Andrew D

    2005-01-01

    This book is an up-to-date treatment of optical fiber fusion splicing incorporating all the recent innovations in the field. It provides a toolbox of general strategies and specific techniques that the reader can apply when optimizing fusion splices between novel fibers. It specifically addresses considerations important for fusion splicing of contemporary specialty fibers including dispersion compensating fiber, erbium-doped gain fiber, polarization maintaining fiber, and microstructured fiber. Finally, it discusses the future of optical fiber fusion splicing including silica and non-silica based optical fibers as well as the trend toward increasing automation. Whilst serving as a self-contained reference work, abundant citations from the technical literature will enable readers to readily locate primary sources.

  18. Controlled thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakanaka, P.H.

    1984-01-01

    A simplified review on the status of the controlled thermonuclear fusion research aiming to present the motivation, objective, necessary conditions and adopted methods to reach the objective. (M.C.K.) [pt

  19. Fusion safety program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crocker, J.G.; Holland, D.F.; Herring, J.S.

    1980-09-01

    The program plan consists of research that has been divided into 13 different areas. These areas focus on the radioactive inventories that are expected in fusion reactors, the energy sources potentially available to release a portion of these inventories, and analysis and design techniques to assess and ensure that the safety risks associated with operation of magnetic fusion facilities are acceptably low. The document presents both long-term program requirements that must be fulfilled as part of the commercialization of fusion power and a five-year plan for each of the 13 different program areas. Also presented is a general discussion of magnetic fusion reactor safety, a method for establishing priorities in the program, and specific priority ratings for each task in the five-year plan

  20. Fusion Revisits CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    It's going to be a hot summer at CERN. At least in the Main Building, where from 13 July to 20 August an exhibition is being hosted on nuclear fusion, the energy of the Stars. Nuclear fusion is the engine driving the stars but also a potential source of energy for mankind. The exhibition shows the different nuclear fusion techniques and research carried out on the subject in Europe. Inaugurated at CERN in 1993, following collaboration between Lausanne's CRPP-EPFL and CERN, with input from Alessandro Pascolini of Italy's INFN, this exhibition has travelled round Europe before being revamped and returning to CERN. 'Fusion, Energy of the Stars', from 13 July onwards, Main Building

  1. Fusion Simulation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwald, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Many others in the fusion energy and advanced scientific computing communities participated in the development of this plan. The core planning team is grateful for their important contributions. This summary is meant as a quick overview the Fusion Simulation Program's (FSP's) purpose and intentions. There are several additional documents referenced within this one and all are supplemental or flow down from this Program Plan. The overall science goal of the DOE Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) Fusion Simulation Program (FSP) is to develop predictive simulation capability for magnetically confined fusion plasmas at an unprecedented level of integration and fidelity. This will directly support and enable effective U.S. participation in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) research and the overall mission of delivering practical fusion energy. The FSP will address a rich set of scientific issues together with experimental programs, producing validated integrated physics results. This is very well aligned with the mission of the ITER Organization to coordinate with its members the integrated modeling and control of fusion plasmas, including benchmarking and validation activities. (1). Initial FSP research will focus on two critical Integrated Science Application (ISA) areas: ISA1, the plasma edge; and ISA2, whole device modeling (WDM) including disruption avoidance. The first of these problems involves the narrow plasma boundary layer and its complex interactions with the plasma core and the surrounding material wall. The second requires development of a computationally tractable, but comprehensive model that describes all equilibrium and dynamic processes at a sufficient level of detail to provide useful prediction of the temporal evolution of fusion plasma experiments. The initial driver for the whole device model will be prediction and avoidance of discharge-terminating disruptions, especially at high performance, which are a critical

  2. The fusion dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carruthers, R.

    1981-01-01

    The present position in fusion research is reviewed and discussed with relation to the requirements of an economic reactor. Meeting these requirements calls for a mission-oriented project of interdisciplinary character whose timely evolution from one with a research orientation, is a challenging management problem. The cost-effectiveness of future expenditure on fusion research is dependent upon acknowledging this challenge and realistically facing the difficult tasks which it presents. (U.K.)

  3. Possible fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, S.

    1976-05-01

    A scheme to improve performance characteristics of a tokamak-type fusion reactor is proposed. Basically, the tokamak-type plasma could be moved around so that the plasma could be heated by compression, brought to the region where the blanket surrounds the plasma, and moved so as to keep wall loading below the acceptable limit. This idea should be able to help to economize a fusion reactor

  4. Fusion power plant economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    The rationale, methodology, and updated comparative results of cost projections for magnetic-fusion-energy central-station electric power plants are considered. Changing market and regulatory conditions, particularly in the U.S., prompt fundamental reconsideration of what constitutes a competitive future energy-source technology and has implications for the direction and emphasis of appropriate near-term research and development programs, for fusion and other advanced generation systems. 36 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Sonoluminescence and bubble fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Arakeri, Vijay H

    2003-01-01

    Sonoluminescence (SL), the phenomenon of light emission from nonlinear motion of a gas bubble, involves an extreme degree of energy focusing. The conditions within the bubble during the last stages of the nearly catastrophic implosion are thought to parallel the efforts aimed at developing inertial confinement fusion. A limited review on the topic of SL and its possible connection to bubble nuclear fusion is presented here. The emphasis is on looking for a link between the various forms o...

  6. Fusion reactor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The following topics are briefly discussed: (1) surface blistering studies on fusion reactor materials, (2) TFTR design support activities, (3) analysis of samples bombarded in-situ in PLT, (4) chemical sputtering effects, (5) modeling of surface behavior, (6) ion migration in glow discharge tube cathodes, (7) alloy development for irradiation performance, (8) dosimetry and damage analysis, and (9) development of tritium migration in fusion devices and reactors

  7. Bringing together fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leiser, M.

    1982-01-01

    The increasing involvement of the IAEA in fusion, together with the growing efforts devoted to this area, are described. The author puts forward the idea that one of the most important aspects of this involvement is in providing a world-wide forum for scientists. The functions of the IFRC (International Fusion Research Council) as an advisory group are outlined, and the role played by IFRC in the definition and objectives of INTOR (International Tokamak Reactor) are briefly described

  8. Fusion Canada issue 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on Canada's plans to participate in the Engineering Design Activities (EDA), bilateral meetings with Canada and the U.S., committee meeting with Canada-Europe, an update at Tokamak de Varennes on Plasma Biasing experiments and boronized graphite tests, fusion materials research at the University of Toronto using a dual beam accelerator and a review of the CFFTP and the CCFM. 2 figs

  9. Conference on Norwegian fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The question of instituting a systematic research programme in Norway on aspects of thermonuclear and plasma physics has been raised. The conference here reported was intended to provide basic information on the status of fusion research internationally and to discuss a possible Norwegian programme. The main contributions covered the present status of fusion research, international cooperation, fusion research in small countries and minor laboratories, fusion research in Denmark and Sweden, and a proposed fusion experiment in Bergen. (JIW)

  10. Status of fusion technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, Ashok

    1978-01-01

    The current status of fusion technology is surveyed. Limited reserves of fossil fuel and dangers of proliferation from nuclear reactors have brought into focus the need to develop an optional energy source. Fusion is being looked upon as an optional energy source which is free from environmental hazards unlike fossil fuels and nuclear reactors. Investments in R and D of fusion energy have increased rapidly in USA, Japan, USSR and European countries. Out of the various fusion fuels known, a mixture of D and T is widely chosen. The main problem in fusion technology is the confinement of plasma for a time sufficient to start the fusion reaction. This can be done magnetically or inertially. The three approaches to magnetic confinement are : (1) tokamak, (2) mirror and (3) pinch. Inertial confinement makes use of lasers or electron beams or ion beams. Both the methods of confinement i.e. magnetic and inertial have problems which are identified and their nature is discussed. (M.G.B.)

  11. Energy from inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    This book contains 22 articles on inertial fusion energy (IFE) research and development written in the framework of an international collaboration of authors under the guidance of an advisory group on inertial fusion energy set up in 1991 to advise the IAEA. It describes the actual scientific, engineering and technological developments in the field of inertial confinement fusion (ICF). It also identifies ways in which international co-operation in ICF could be stimulated. The book is intended for a large audience and provides an introduction to inertial fusion energy and an overview of the various technologies needed for IFE power plants to be developed. It contains chapters on (i) the fundamentals of IFE; (ii) inertial confinement target physics; (iii) IFE power plant design principles (requirements for power plant drivers, solid state laser drivers, gas laser drivers, heavy ion drivers, and light ion drivers, target fabrication and positioning, reaction chamber systems, power generation and conditioning and radiation control, materials management and target materials recovery), (iv) special design issues (radiation damage in structural materials, induced radioactivity, laser driver- reaction chamber interfaces, ion beam driver-reaction chamber interfaces), (v) inertial fusion energy development strategy, (vi) safety and environmental impact, (vii) economics and other figures of merit; (viii) other uses of inertial fusion (both those involving and not involving implosions); and (ix) international activities. Refs, figs and tabs

  12. Perspectives of fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, V.O.

    1984-01-01

    New and practically inexhaustible sources of energy must be developed for the period when oil, coal and uranium will become scarce and expensive. Nuclear fusion holds great promise as one of these practically inexhaustible energy sources. Based on the deuteriumtritium reaction with tritium obtained from naturally occuring lithium, which is also widely available in Europe, the accessible energy resources in the world are 3.10 12 to 3.10 16 toe; based on the deuterium-deuterium reaction, the deuterium content of the oceans corresponds to 10 20 toe. It is presently envisaged that in order to establish fusion as a large-scale energy source, three major thresholds must be reached: - Scientific feasibility, - Technical feasibility, i.e. the proof that the basic technical problems of the fusion reactor can be solved. - Commercial feasibility, i.e. proof that fusion power reactors can be built on an industrial scale, can be operated reliably and produce usable energy at prices competitive with other energy sources. From the above it is clear that the route to commercial fusion will be long and costly and involve the solution of extremely difficult technical problems. In view of the many steps which have to be taken, it appears unlikely that commercial fusion power will be in general use within the next 50 years and by that time world-wide expenditure on research, development and demonstration may well have exceeded 100 Bio ECU. (author)

  13. Plasma Physics An Introduction to Laboratory, Space, and Fusion Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Piel, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Plasma Physics gives a comprehensive introduction to the basic processes in plasmas and demonstrates that the same fundamental concepts describe cold gas-discharge plasmas, space plasmas, and hot fusion plasmas. Starting from particle drifts in magnetic fields, the principles of magnetic confinement fusion are explained and compared with laser fusion. Collective processes are discussed in terms of plasma waves and instabilities. The concepts of plasma description by magnetohydrodynamics, kinetic theory, and particle simulation are stepwise introduced. Space charge effects in sheath regions, double layers and plasma diodes are given the necessary attention. The new fundamental mechanisms of dusty plasmas are explored and integrated into the framework of conventional plasmas. The book concludes with a brief introduction to plasma discharges. Written by an internationally renowned researcher in experimental plasma physics, the text keeps the mathematical apparatus simple and emphasizes the underlying concepts. T...

  14. Plasma physics an introduction to laboratory, space, and fusion plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Piel, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    The enlarged new edition of this textbook provides a comprehensive introduction to the basic processes in plasmas and demonstrates that the same fundamental concepts describe cold gas-discharge plasmas, space plasmas, and hot fusion plasmas. Starting from particle drifts in magnetic fields, the principles of magnetic confinement fusion are explained and compared with laser fusion. Collective processes are discussed in terms of plasma waves and instabilities. The concepts of plasma description by magnetohydrodynamics, kinetic theory, and particle simulation are stepwise introduced. Space charge effects in sheath regions, double layers and plasma diodes are given the necessary attention. The novel fundamental mechanisms of dusty plasmas are explored and integrated into the framework of conventional plasmas. The book concludes with a concise description of modern plasma discharges. Written by an internationally renowned researcher in experimental plasma physics, the text keeps the mathematical apparatus simple a...

  15. Controlled thermonuclear fusion: research on magnetic fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paris, P.J.

    1988-12-01

    Recent progress in thermonuclear fusion research indicates that the scientists' schedule for the demonstration of the scientific feasibility will be kept and that break-even will be attained in the course of the next decade. To see the implementation of ignition, however, the generation of future experiments must be awaited. These projects are currently under study. With technological research going on in parallel, they should at the same time contribute to the design of a reactor. Fusion reactors will be quite different from the fission nuclear reactors we know, and the waste of the plants will also be of a different nature. It is still too early to define the precise design of a fusion reactor. On the basis of a toric machine concept like that of the tokamak, we can, however, envisage that the problems with which we are confronted will be solved one after the other. As we have just seen, these will be the objectives of the future experimental installations where ignition will be possible and where the flux of fast neutrons will be so strong that they will allow the study of low-activation materials which will be used in the structure of the reactor. But this is also a task in which from now onwards numerous laboratories in Europe and in the world participate. The works are in fact punctiform, and often the mutual incidences can only be determined by an approach simulated by numerical codes. (author) 19 figs., 6 tabs., 8 refs

  16. Cold moderator scattering kernels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacFarlane, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    New thermal-scattering-law files in ENDF format have been developed for solid methane, liquid methane liquid ortho- and para-hydrogen, and liquid ortho- and para-deuterium using up-to-date models that include such effects as incoherent elastic scattering in the solid, diffusion and hindered vibration and rotations in the liquids, and spin correlations for the hydrogen and deuterium. These files were generated with the new LEAPR module of the NJOY Nuclear Data Processing System. Other modules of this system were used to produce cross sections for these moderators in the correct format for the continuous-energy Monte Carlo code (MCNP) being used for cold-moderator-design calculations at the Los Alamos Neutron Scattering Center (LANSCE). 20 refs., 14 figs

  17. Monitoring the vaccine cold chain.

    OpenAIRE

    Cheriyan, E

    1993-01-01

    Maintaining the vaccine cold chain is an essential part of a successful immunisation programme. A continuous electronic temperature monitor helped to identify breaks in the cold chain in the community and the study led to the issue of proper guidelines and replacement of faulty equipment.

  18. Cold gelation of globular proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alting, A.C.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords : globular proteins, whey protein, ovalbumin, cold gelation, disulfide bonds, texture, gel hardnessProtein gelation in food products is important to obtain desirable sensory and textural properties. Cold gelation is a novel method to produce protein-based gels. It is a two step process in

  19. Initial heating in cold cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, H.A.M.; Teunissen, L.P.J.; Hoogh, I.M. de

    2012-01-01

    During the initial minutes after entering a cold car, people feel uncomfortably cold. Six different warming systems were investigated in a small car in order to find out how to improve the feeling of comfort using 16 volunteers. The methods were: no additional warming next to a standard heating

  20. Facts about the Common Cold

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... different viruses. Rhinovirus is the most common cause, accounting for 10 to 40 percent of colds. Other common cold viruses include coronavirus and ... RSS | Terms Of Use | Privacy | Sitemap Our Family Of Sites ... Introduction Risk Factors Screening Symptoms Tumor Testing Summary '; var ...

  1. Development of cold neutron spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Changhee; Lee, C. H.; So, J. Y.; Park, S.; Han, Y. S.; Cho, S. J.; Moon, M. K.; Choi, Y. H.; Sun, G. M.

    2012-03-01

    Cold Neutron Triple Axsis Spectrometer (Cold-TAS) Development Ο Fabrication and Installation of the Major Cold-TAS Components Ο Performance Test of the Cold-TAS □ Cold Neutron Time-of-Flight Spectrometer(DC-TOF) Development Ο Fabrication of the Major DC-TOF Components Ο Development DC-TOF Data Reduction Software □ Expected Contribution The two world-class inelastic neutron scattering instruments measure atomic or molecular scale dynamics of meV energy range. This unprecedented measurement capability in the country will enable domestic and international scientists to observe new phenomena in their materials research to obtain world class results. Especially those who work in the fields of magnetic properties of superconductors and multiferroics, molecular dynamics, etc. will get more benefit from these two instruments

  2. Status of beryllium development for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billone, M.C.; Macaulay-Newcombe, R.G.

    1995-01-01

    Beryllium is a leading candidate material for the neutron multiplier of tritium breeding blankets and the plasma-facing component of first-wall and divertor systems. Depending on the application, the fabrication methods proposed include hot-pressing, hot-isostatic-pressing, cold-isostatic-pressing/sintering, rotary electrode processing and plasma spraying. Product forms include blocks, tubes, pebbles, tiles and coatings. While, in general, beryllium is not a leading structural material candidate, its mechanical performance, as well as its performance with regard to sputtering, heat transport, tritium retention/release, helium-induced swelling and chemical compatibility, is an important consideration in first-wall/blanket design. Differential expansion within the beryllium causes internal stresses which may result in cracking, thereby affecting the heat transport and barrier performance of the material. Overall deformation can result in loading of neighboring structural material. Thus, in assessing the performance of beryllium for fusion applications, it is important to have a good database in all of these performance areas, as well as a set of properties correlations and models for the purpose of interpolation/extrapolation.In this current work, the range of anticipated fusion operating conditions is reviewed. The thermal, mechanical, chemical compatibility, tritium retention/release, and helium retention/swelling databases are then reviewed for fabrication methods and fusion operating conditions of interest. Properties correlations and uncertainty ranges are also discussed. In the case of the more complex phenomena of tritium retention/release and helium-induced swelling, fundamental mechanisms and models are reviewed in more detail. Areas in which additional data are needed are highlighted, along with some trends which suggest ways of optimizing the performance of beryllium for fusion applications. (orig.)

  3. Advanced fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Yukihiro

    2003-01-01

    The main subjects on fusion research are now on D-T fueled fusion, mainly due to its high fusion reaction rate. However, many issues are still remained on the wall loading by the 14 MeV neutrons. In the case of D-D fueled fusion, the neutron wall loading is still remained, though the technology related to tritium breeding is not needed. The p- 6 Li and p- 11 B fueled fusions are not estimated to be the next generation candidate until the innovated plasma confinement technologies come in useful to achieve the high performance plasma parameters. The fusion reactor of D- 3 He fuels has merits on the smaller neutron wall loading and tritium handling. However, there are difficulties on achieving the high temperature plasma more than 100 keV. Furthermore the high beta plasma is needed to decrease synchrotron radiation loss. In addition, the efficiency of the direct energy conversion from protons coming out from fusion reaction is one of the key parameters in keeping overall power balance. Therefore, open magnetic filed lines should surround the plasma column. In this paper, we outlined the design of the commercial base reactor (ARTEMIS) of 1 GW electric output power configured by D- 3 He fueled FRC (Field Reversed Configuration). The ARTEMIS needs 64 kg of 3 He per a year. On the other hand, 1 million tons of 3 He is estimated to be in the moon. The 3 He of about 10 23 kg are to exist in gaseous planets such as Jupiter and Saturn. (Y. Tanaka)

  4. Ion beam inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangerter, R.O.

    1995-01-01

    About twenty years ago, A. W. Maschke of Brookhaven National Laboratory and R. L. Martin of Argonne National Laboratory recognized that the accelerators that have been developed for high energy and nuclear physics are, in many ways, ideally suited to the requirements of inertial fusion power production. These accelerators are reliable, they have a long operating life, and they can be efficient. Maschke and Martin noted that they can focus ion beams to small focal spots over distances of many meters and that they can readily operate at the high pulse repetition rates needed for commercial power production. Fusion, however, does impose some important new constraints that are not important for high energy or nuclear physics applications. The most challenging new constraint from a scientific standpoint is the requirement that the accelerator deliver more than 10 14 W of beam power to a small quantity (less than 100 mg) of matter. The most challenging constraint from an engineering standpoint is accelerator cost. Maschke showed theoretically that accelerators could produce adequate work. Heavy-ion fusion is widely recognized to be a promising approach to inertial fusion power production. It provides an excellent opportunity to apply methods and technology developed for basic science to an important societal need. The pulsed-power community has developed a complementary, parallel approach to ion beam fusion known as light-ion fusion. The talk will discuss both heavy-ion and light-ion fusion. It will explain target physics requirements and show how they lead to constraints on the usual accelerator parameters such as kinetic energy, current, and emittance. The talk will discuss experiments that are presently underway, specifically experiments on high-current ion sources and injectors, pulsed-power machines recirculating induction accelerators, and transverse beam combining. The talk will give a brief description of a proposed new accelerator called Elise

  5. Fusion Canada issue 29

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue Canada-Europe Accords: 5 year R and D collaboration for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) AECL is designated to arrange and implement the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) and the ITER Engineering Design Activities (EDA) while EUROTAM is responsible for operating Europe's Fusion R and D programs plus MOU and EDA. The MOU includes tokamaks, plasma physics, fusion technology, fusion fuels and other approaches to fusion energy (as alternatives to tokamaks). STOR-M Tokamak was restarted at the University of Saskatchewan following upgrades to the plasma chamber to accommodate the Compact Toroid (CT) injector. The CT injector has a flexible attachment thus allowing for injection angle adjustments. Real-time video images of a single plasma discharge on TdeV showing that as the plasma density increases, in a linear ramp divertor, the plasma contact with the horizontal plate decreases while contact increases with the oblique plate. Damage-resistant diffractive optical elements (DOE) have been developed for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) research by Gentac Inc. and the National Optics Institute, laser beam homogeniser and laser harmonic separator DOE can also be made using the same technology. Studies using TdeV indicate that a divertor will be able to pump helium from the tokamak with a detached-plasma divertor but helium extraction performance must first be improved, presently the deuterium:helium retention radio-indicates that in order to pump enough helium through a fusion reactor, too much deuterium-tritium fuel would be pumped out. 2 fig

  6. Advanced fusion reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomita, Yukihiro [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)

    2003-04-01

    The main subjects on fusion research are now on D-T fueled fusion, mainly due to its high fusion reaction rate. However, many issues are still remained on the wall loading by the 14 MeV neutrons. In the case of D-D fueled fusion, the neutron wall loading is still remained, though the technology related to tritium breeding is not needed. The p-{sup 6}Li and p-{sup 11}B fueled fusions are not estimated to be the next generation candidate until the innovated plasma confinement technologies come in useful to achieve the high performance plasma parameters. The fusion reactor of D-{sup 3}He fuels has merits on the smaller neutron wall loading and tritium handling. However, there are difficulties on achieving the high temperature plasma more than 100 keV. Furthermore the high beta plasma is needed to decrease synchrotron radiation loss. In addition, the efficiency of the direct energy conversion from protons coming out from fusion reaction is one of the key parameters in keeping overall power balance. Therefore, open magnetic filed lines should surround the plasma column. In this paper, we outlined the design of the commercial base reactor (ARTEMIS) of 1 GW electric output power configured by D-{sup 3}He fueled FRC (Field Reversed Configuration). The ARTEMIS needs 64 kg of {sup 3}He per a year. On the other hand, 1 million tons of {sup 3}He is estimated to be in the moon. The {sup 3}He of about 10{sup 23} kg are to exist in gaseous planets such as Jupiter and Saturn. (Y. Tanaka)

  7. Stat-of-the art of nuclear fusion and its future outlook in

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelaziz, M.E.; Elnadi, A.M.; Masoud, M.; Elshaer, M.A.; Khalil, S.M.

    1993-01-01

    The study in this project is carried out with the objective of being able to present a clear view for the state-of-the art of nuclear fusion as one of the most promising coming energy source and its future outlook in Egypt. The study introduce a summary of the world energy problem and the advantages of thermonuclear fusion energy compared to other energy sources. A description of the two main techniques of confining plasma in the fusion experiments, namely the magnetic and the inertial confinement. These techniques are discussed and investigated through linear pinches and tokamaks. Tokamaks showed to be a promising machines for achieving the controlled thermonuclear fusion power reactor. Recent development of the research on laser fusion together with fast progress in pellet and laser technology suggest that it may be possible to achieve laser fusion power reactor. The story of the strange phenomena of cold fusion, muon-catalyzed fusion, and cold fusion in condensed matter are also studied and showed to be non promising. The project study in details the future fusion reactor, its nuclear engineering and its safety and environmental aspects. The study is based on the magnetic fusion using the tokamak configuration. The positive safety and environmental aspects of fusion reactors, if exist, is also investigated. Status of plasma physics and nuclear fusion activities and strategies in the developing countries (including egypt and the arab countries) are reviewed, besides, some national programmes are proposed. In addition, the status of international activities in plasma technology and its application are represented. Future outlook for egyptian programmes on different plasma technologies are studied. Finally, conclusions and recommendations are presented which summarized the principle achiements and future research opportunities in nuclear fusion activities. In fact, it must be emphasized that fusion is an exciting and challenging field of research -the most

  8. Fusion with highly spin polarized HD and D2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honig, A.; Letzring, S.; Skupsky, S.

    1993-01-01

    The experimental efforts over the past 5 years have been aimed at carrying out ICF shots with spin-polarized D fuel. The authors successfully prepared polarized D in HD, and solved the problems of loading target shells with their carefully prepared isotopic mixtures, polarizing them so that the D polarization remains metastably frozen-in for about half a day, and carrying out the various cold transfer requirements at Syracuse, where the target is prepared, and at Rochester, where the cold target is inserted into the OMEGA fusion chamber. A principal concern during this past year was overcoming difficulties encountered in maintaining the integrity of the fragile cold target during the multitude of cold-transfers required for the experiment. These difficulties arose from insufficient rigidity of the cold transfer systems, which were constrained to be of small diameter by the narrow central access bore of the dilution refrigerator, and were exacerbated by the multitude of required target shell manipulations between different environments, each with different coupling geometry, including target shell permeation, polarization, storage, transport, retrieval and insertion into OMEGA. The authors did solve all of these problems, and were able to position a cold, high density but unpolarized target with required precision in OMEGA. Upon shooting the accurately positioned unpolarized high density cold target, no neutron yield was observed. Inspection inside the OMEGA tank after the shot indicated the absence of neutron yield was due to mal-timing or insufficient retraction rate of OMEGA's fast shroud mechanism, resulting in interception of at least 20 of the 24 laser beams by the faulty shroud. In spite of this, all elements of the complex experiment the authors originally undertook have been successfully demonstrated, and the cold retrieval concepts and methods they developed are being utilized on the ICF upgrades at Rochester and at Livermore

  9. Myoblast fusion in Drosophila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haralalka, Shruti [Stowers Institute for Medical Research, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Abmayr, Susan M., E-mail: sma@stowers.org [Stowers Institute for Medical Research, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, MO 66160 (United States)

    2010-11-01

    The body wall musculature of a Drosophila larva is composed of an intricate pattern of 30 segmentally repeated muscle fibers in each abdominal hemisegment. Each muscle fiber has unique spatial and behavioral characteristics that include its location, orientation, epidermal attachment, size and pattern of innervation. Many, if not all, of these properties are dictated by founder cells, which determine the muscle pattern and seed the fusion process. Myofibers are then derived from fusion between a specific founder cell and several fusion competent myoblasts (FCMs) fusing with as few as 3-5 FCMs in the small muscles on the most ventral side of the embryo and as many as 30 FCMs in the larger muscles on the dorsal side of the embryo. The focus of the present review is the formation of the larval muscles in the developing embryo, summarizing the major issues and players in this process. We have attempted to emphasize experimentally-validated details of the mechanism of myoblast fusion and distinguish these from the theoretically possible details that have not yet been confirmed experimentally. We also direct the interested reader to other recent reviews that discuss myoblast fusion in Drosophila, each with their own perspective on the process . With apologies, we use gene nomenclature as specified by Flybase (http://flybase.org) but provide Table 1 with alternative names and references.

  10. Fusion, magnetic confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berk, H.L.

    1992-01-01

    An overview is presented of the principles of magnetic confinement of plasmas for the purpose of achieving controlled fusion conditions. Sec. 1 discusses the different nuclear fusion reactions which can be exploited in prospective fusion reactors and explains why special technologies need to be developed for the supply of tritium or 3 He, the probable fuels. In Sec. 2 the Lawson condition, a criterion that is a measure of the quality of confinement relative to achieving fusion conditions, is explained. In Sec. 3 fluid equations are used to describe plasma confinement. Specific confinement configurations are considered. In Sec. 4 the orbits of particle sin magneti and electric fields are discussed. In Sec. 5 stability considerations are discussed. It is noted that confinement systems usually need to satisfy stability constraints imposed by ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory. The paper culminates with a summary of experimental progress in magnetic confinement. Present experiments in tokamaks have reached the point that the conditions necessary to achieve fusion are being satisfied

  11. Fusion technology programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finken, D.

    1986-05-01

    In 1982, KfK joined the fusion programme of EURATOM as a further association introducing its experience in nuclear technology. KfK closely cooperates with IPP Garching, the two institutions forming a research unit aiming at planning and realization of future development steps of fusion. KfK has combined its forces in the Nuclear Fusion Project (PKF) with participation of several KfK departments to the project tasks. Previous work of KfK in magnetic fusion has addressed mainly superconducting magnets, plasma heating by cluster ions and studies on structural materials. At present, emphasis of our work has concentrated increasingly on the nuclear part, i.e. the first wall and blanket structures and the elements of the tritium extraction and purification system. Associated to this component development are studies of remote maintenance and safety. Most of the actual work addresses NET, the next step to a demonstration of fusion feasibility. NET is supposed to follow JET, the operating plasma physics experiment of Euratom, on the 1990's. Detailed progress of the work in the past half year is described in this report. (orig./GG)

  12. Challenges of nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunkel, W.B.

    1987-01-01

    After 30 years of research and development in many countries, the magnetic confinement fusion experiments finally seem to be getting close to the original first goal: the point of ''scientific break-even''. Plans are being made for a generation of experiments and tests with actual controlled thermonuclear fusion conditions. Therefore engineers and material scientists are hard at work to develop the required technology. In this paper the principal elements of a generic fusion reactor are described briefly to introduce the reader to the nature of the problems at hand. The main portion of the presentation summarises the recent advances made in this field and discusses the major issues that still need to be addressed in regard to materials and technology for fusion power. Specific examples are the problems of the first wall and other components that come into direct contact with the plasma, where both lifetime and plasma contamination are matters of concern. Equally challenging are the demands on structural materials and on the magnetic-field coils, particularly in connection with the neutron-radiation environment of fusion reactors. Finally, the role of ceramics must be considered, both for insulators and for fuel breeding purposes. It is evident that we still have a formidable task before us, but at this point none of the problems seem to be insoluble. (author)

  13. The need for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llewellyn Smith, Chris

    2005-01-01

    World energy use is predicted to double in the next 40 years. Currently 80% is provided by burning fossil fuels, but this is not sustainable indefinitely because (i) it is driving climate change, and (ii) fossil fuels will eventually be exhausted (starting with oil). The resulting potential energy crisis requires increased investment in energy research and development (which is currently very small on the scale of the $3 trillion p.a. energy market, and falling). The wide portfolio of energy work that should be supported must include fusion, which is one of the very few options that are capable in principle of supplying a large fraction of need. The case for fusion has been strengthened by recent advances in plasma physics and fusion technology that are reflected in the forthcoming European Fusion Power Plant Conceptual Study, which addresses safety and cost issues. The big questions are - How can we deliver fusion power as fast as possible? How long is it likely to take? I argue for a fast track programme, and describe a fast-track model developed at Culham, which is intended to stimulate debate on the way ahead and the resources that are needed

  14. Myoblast fusion in Drosophila

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haralalka, Shruti; Abmayr, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    The body wall musculature of a Drosophila larva is composed of an intricate pattern of 30 segmentally repeated muscle fibers in each abdominal hemisegment. Each muscle fiber has unique spatial and behavioral characteristics that include its location, orientation, epidermal attachment, size and pattern of innervation. Many, if not all, of these properties are dictated by founder cells, which determine the muscle pattern and seed the fusion process. Myofibers are then derived from fusion between a specific founder cell and several fusion competent myoblasts (FCMs) fusing with as few as 3-5 FCMs in the small muscles on the most ventral side of the embryo and as many as 30 FCMs in the larger muscles on the dorsal side of the embryo. The focus of the present review is the formation of the larval muscles in the developing embryo, summarizing the major issues and players in this process. We have attempted to emphasize experimentally-validated details of the mechanism of myoblast fusion and distinguish these from the theoretically possible details that have not yet been confirmed experimentally. We also direct the interested reader to other recent reviews that discuss myoblast fusion in Drosophila, each with their own perspective on the process . With apologies, we use gene nomenclature as specified by Flybase (http://flybase.org) but provide Table 1 with alternative names and references.

  15. Material for fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abhishek, Anuj; Ranjan, Prem

    2011-01-01

    To make nuclear fusion power a reality, the scientists are working restlessly to find the materials which can confine the power generated by the fusion of two atomic nuclei. A little success in this field has been achieved, though there are still miles to go. Fusion reaction is a special kind of reaction which must occur at very high density and temperature to develop extremely large amount of energy, which is very hard to control and confine within using the present techniques. As a whole it requires the physical condition that rarely exists on the earth to carry out in an efficient manner. As per the growing demand and present scenario of the world energy, scientists are working round the clock to make effective fusion reactions to real. In this paper the work presently going on is considered in this regard. The progress of the Joint European Torus 2010, ITER 2005, HiPER and minor works have been studied to make the paper more object oriented. A detailed study of the technological and material requirement has been discussed in the paper and a possible suggestion is provided to make a contribution in the field of building first ever nuclear fusion reactor

  16. Coatings for fusion reactor environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattox, D.M.

    1979-01-01

    The internal surfaces of a tokamak fusion reactor control the impurity injection and gas recycling into the fusion plasma. Coating of internal surfaces may provide a desirable and possibly necessary design flexibility for achieving the temperatures, ion densities and containment times necessary for net energy production from fusion reactions to take place. In this paper the reactor environments seen by various componentare reviewed along with possible materials responses. Characteristics of coating-substrate systems, important to fusion applications, are delineated and the present status of coating development for fusion applications is reviewed. Coating development for fusion applications is just beginning and poses a unique and important challenge for materials development

  17. Fusion: Energy for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    Fusion, which occurs in the sun and the stars, is a process of transforming matter into energy. If we can harness the fusion process on Earth, it opens the way to assuring that future generations will not want for heat and electric power. The purpose of this booklet is to introduce the concept of fusion energy as a viable, environmentally sustainable energy source for the twenty-first century. The booklet presents the basic principles of fusion, the global research and development effort in fusion, and Canada's programs for fusion research and development

  18. Vacuum engineering for fusion research and fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pittenger, L.C.

    1976-01-01

    The following topics are described: (1) surface pumping by cryogenic condensation, (2) operation of large condensing cryopumps, (3) pumping for large fusion experiments, and (4) vacuum technology for fusion reactors

  19. Cold Rydberg molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raithel, Georg; Zhao, Jianming

    2017-04-01

    Cold atomic systems have opened new frontiers at the interface of atomic and molecular physics. These include research on novel types of Rydberg molecules. Three types of molecules will be reviewed. Long-range, homonuclear Rydberg molecules, first predicted in [1] and observed in [2], are formed via low-energy electron scattering of the Rydberg electron from a ground-state atom within the Rydberg atom's volume. The binding mostly arises from S- and P-wave triplet scattering. We use a Fermi model that includes S-wave and P-wave singlet and triplet scattering, the fine structure coupling of the Rydberg atom and the hyperfine structure coupling of the 5S1/2 atom (in rubidium [3]). The hyperfine structure gives rise to mixed singlet-triplet potentials for both low-L and high-L Rydberg molecules [3]. A classification into Hund's cases [3, 4, 5] will be discussed. The talk further includes results on adiabatic potentials and adiabatic states of Rydberg-Rydberg molecules in Rb and Cs. These molecules, which have even larger bonding length than Rydberg-ground molecules, are formed via electrostatic multipole interactions. The leading interaction term of neutral Rydberg-Rydberg molecules is between two dipoles, while for ionic Rydberg molecules it is between a dipole and a monopole. NSF (PHY-1506093), NNSF of China (61475123).

  20. Cold-Adapted Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georlette, D.; Bentahir, M.; Claverie, P.; Collins, T.; D'amico, S.; Delille, D.; Feller, G.; Gratia, E.; Hoyoux, A.; Lonhienne, T.; Meuwis, M.-a.; Zecchinon, L.; Gerday, Ch.

    In the last few years, increased attention has been focused on enzymes produced by cold-adapted micro-organisms. It has emerged that psychrophilic enzymes represent an extremely powerful tool in both protein folding investigations and for biotechnological purposes. Such enzymes are characterised by an increased thermosensitivity and, most of them, by a higher catalytic efficiency at low and moderate temperatures, when compared to their mesophilic counterparts. The high thermosensitivity probably originates from an increased flexibility of either a selected area of the molecular edifice or the overall protein structure, providing enhanced abilities to undergo conformational changes during catalysis at low temperatures. Structure modelling and recent crystallographic data have allowed to elucidate the structural parameters that could be involved in this higher resilience. It was demonstrated that each psychrophilic enzyme adopts its own adaptive strategy. It appears, moreover, that there is a continuum in the strategy of protein adaptation to temperature, as the previously mentioned structural parameters are implicated in the stability of thermophilic proteins. Additional 3D crystal structures, site-directed and random mutagenesis experiments should now be undertaken to further investigate the stability-flexibility-activity relationship.

  1. Observations of cold antihydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, J N; Gabrielse, G; Oxley, P; Speck, A; Storry, C H; Wessels, M; Grzonka, D; Oelert, W; Schepers, G; Sefzick, T; Walz, J; Pittner, H; Hänsch, T W; Hessels, E A

    2004-01-01

    ATRAP's e/sup +/ cooling of p in a nested Penning trap has led to reports of cold H produced during such cooling by the ATHENA and ATRAP collaborations. To observe H, ATHENA uses coincident annihilation detection and ATRAP uses field ionization followed by p storage. Advantages of ATRAP's field ionization method include the complete absence of any background events, and the first way to measure which H states are produced. ATRAP enhances the H production rate by driving many cycles of e/sup +/ cooling in the nested trap, with more H counted in an hour than the sum of all the other antimatter atoms ever reported. The number of H counted per incident high energy p is also higher than ever observed. The first measured distribution of H states is made using a pre-ionizing electric field between separated production and detection regions. The high rate and the high Rydberg states suggest that the H is formed via three-body recombination, as expected. (22 refs).

  2. Observations of cold antihydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, J.N.; Bowden, N.S.; Gabrielse, G.; Oxley, P.; Speck, A.; Storry, C.H.; Wessels, M.; Grzonka, D.; Oelert, W.; Schepers, G.; Sefzick, T.; Walz, J.; Pittner, H.; Haensch, T.W.; Hessels, E.A.

    2004-01-01

    ATRAP's e + cooling of p-bar in a nested Penning trap has led to reports of cold H-bar produced during such cooling by the ATHENA and ATRAP collaborations. To observe H-bar, ATHENA uses coincident annihilation detection and ATRAP uses field ionization followed by p-bar storage. Advantages of ATRAP's field ionization method include the complete absence of any background events, and the first way to measure which H-bar states are produced. ATRAP enhances the H-bar production rate by driving many cycles of e + cooling in the nested trap, with more H-bar counted in an hour than the sum of all the other antimatter atoms ever reported. The number of H-bar counted per incident high energy p-bar is also higher than ever observed. The first measured distribution of H-bar states is made using a pre-ionizing electric field between separated production and detection regions. The high rate and the high Rydberg states suggest that the H-bar is formed via three-body recombination, as expected

  3. Controlled thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trocheris, M.

    1975-01-01

    An outline is given of the present position of research into controlled fusion. After a brief reminder of the nuclear reactions of fusion and the principle of their use as a source of energy, the results obtained by the method of magnetic confinement are summarized. Among the many solutions that have been imagined and tried out to achieve a magnetic containing vessel capable of holding the thermonuclear plasma, the devices of the Tokamak type have a good lead and that is why they are described in greater detail. An idea is then given of the problems that arise when one intends conceiving the thermonuclear reactor based on the principle of the Tokamaks. The last section deals with fusion by lasers which is a new and most attractive alternative, at least from the viewpoint of basis physics. The report concludes with an indication of the stages to be passed through to reach production of energy on an industrial scale [fr

  4. Peaceful Uses of Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teller, E.

    1958-07-03

    Applications of thermonuclear energy for peaceful and constructive purposes are surveyed. Developments and problems in the release and control of fusion energy are reviewed. It is pointed out that the future of thermonuclear power reactors will depend upon the construction of a machine that produces more electric energy than it consumes. The fuel for thermonuclear reactors is cheap and practically inexhaustible. Thermonuclear reactors produce less dangerous radioactive materials than fission reactors and, when once brought under control, are not as likely to be subject to dangerous excursions. The interaction of the hot plasma with magnetic fields opens the way for the direct production of electricity. It is possible that explosive fusion energy released underground may be harnessed for the production of electricity before the same feat is accomplished in controlled fusion processes. Applications of underground detonations of fission devices in mining and for the enhancement of oil flow in large low-specific-yield formations are also suggested.

  5. Ceramics for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinard, F.W. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Ceramics are required for a variety of uses in both near-term fusion devices and in commercial powerplants. These materials must retain adequate structural and electrical properties under conditions of neutron, particle and ionizing irradiation; thermal and applied stresses; and physical and chemical sputtering. Ceramics such as Al 2 O 3 , MgAl 2 O 4 , BeO, Si 3 N 4 and SiC are currently under study for fusion applications, and results to date show widely-varying responses to the fusion environment. Materials can be identified today that will meet initial operating requirements, but improvements in physical properties are needed to achieve satisfactory lifetimes for critical applications. (author)

  6. Inverse fusion PCR cloning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Spiliotis

    Full Text Available Inverse fusion PCR cloning (IFPC is an easy, PCR based three-step cloning method that allows the seamless and directional insertion of PCR products into virtually all plasmids, this with a free choice of the insertion site. The PCR-derived inserts contain a vector-complementary 5'-end that allows a fusion with the vector by an overlap extension PCR, and the resulting amplified insert-vector fusions are then circularized by ligation prior transformation. A minimal amount of starting material is needed and experimental steps are reduced. Untreated circular plasmid, or alternatively bacteria containing the plasmid, can be used as templates for the insertion, and clean-up of the insert fragment is not urgently required. The whole cloning procedure can be performed within a minimal hands-on time and results in the generation of hundreds to ten-thousands of positive colonies, with a minimal background.

  7. Laser for fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzrichter, J.F.

    1995-01-01

    Solid state lasers have proven to be very versatile tools for the study and demonstration of inertial confinement fusion principles. When lasers were first contemplated to be used for the compression of fusion fuel in the late 1950s, the laser output energy levels were nominally one joule and the power levels were 10 3 watts (pulse duration's of 10 -3 sec). During the last 25 years, lasers optimized for fusion research have been increased in power to typically 100,000 joules with power levels approaching 10 14 watts. As a result of experiments with such lasers at many locations, DT target performance has been shown to be consistent with high gain target output. However, the demonstration of ignition and gain requires laser energies of several megajoules. Laser technology improvements demonstrated over the past decade appear to make possible the construction of such multimegajoule lasers at affordable costs. (author)

  8. Ceramics for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinard, F.W. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Ceramics are required for a variety of uses in both near-term fusion devices and in commercial powerplants. These materials must retain adequate structural and electrical properties under conditions of neutron, particle, and ionizing irradiation; thermal and applied stresses; and physical and chemical sputtering. Ceramics such as Al 2 O 3 , MgAl 2 O 4 , BeO, Si 3 N 4 and SiC are currently under study for fusion applications, and results to date show widely-varying response to the fusion environment. Materials can be identified today which will meet initial operating requirements, but improvements in physical properties are needed to achieve satisfactory lifetimes for critical applications

  9. Fusion Reactor Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2002-04-01

    The objective of SCK-CEN's programme on fusion reactor materials is to contribute to the knowledge on the radiation-induced behaviour of fusion reactor materials and components as well as to help the international community in building the scientific and technical basis needed for the construction of the future reactor. Ongoing projects include: the study of the mechanical and chemical (corrosion) behaviour of structural materials under neutron irradiation and water coolant environment; the investigation of the characteristics of irradiated first wall material such as beryllium; investigations on the management of materials resulting from the dismantling of fusion reactors including waste disposal. Progress and achievements in these areas in 2001 are discussed.

  10. Fusion reactor wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    The fusion reactor currently is being developed as a clean source of electricity with an essentially infinite source of fuel. These reactors are visualized as using a fusion reaction to generate large quantities of high temperature energy which can be used as process heat or for the generation of electricity. The energy would be created primarily as the kinetic energy of neutrons or other reaction products. Neutron energy could be converted to high-temperature heat by moderation and capture of the neutrons. The energy of other reaction products could be converted to high-temperature heat by capture, or directly to electricity by direct conversion electrostatic equipment. An analysis to determine the wastes released as a result of operation of fusion power plants is presented

  11. Heavy ion inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.; Sessler, A.M.

    1980-01-01

    Inertial fusion has not yet been as well explored as magnetic fusion but can offer certain advantages as an alternative source of electric energy for the future. Present experiments use high-power beams from lasers and light-ion diodes to compress the deuterium-tritium (D-T) pellets but these will probably be unsuitable for a power plant. A more promising method is to use intense heavy-ion beams from accelerator systems similar to those used for nuclear and high-energy physics; the present paper addresses itself to this alternative. As will be demonstrated the very high beam power needed poses new design questions, from the ion-source through the accelerating system, the beam transport system, to the final focus. These problems will require extensive study, both theoretically and experimentally, over the next several years before an optimum design for an inertial fusion driver can be arrived at. (Auth.)

  12. On impact fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winterberg, F.

    1997-01-01

    Impact fusion is a promising, but much less developed road towards inertial confinement fusion. It offers an excellent solution to the so-called stand-off problem for thermonuclear microexplosions but is confronted with the challenge to accelerate macroscopic particles to the needed high velocities of 10 2 -10 3 km/s. To reach these velocities, two ways have been studied in the past. The electric acceleration of a beam of microparticles, with the particles as small as large clusters, and the magnetic acceleration of gram-size ferromagnetic or superconducting projectiles. For the generation of an intense burst of soft X-rays used for the indirect drive, impact fusion may offer new promising possibilities

  13. Fusion research at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-03-01

    The ORNL Fusion Program includes the experimental and theoretical study of two different classes of magnetic confinement schemes - systems with helical magnetic fields, such as the tokamak and stellarator, and the ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) class of toroidally linked mirror systems; the development of technologies, including superconducting magnets, neutral atomic beam and radio frequency (rf) heating systems, fueling systems, materials, and diagnostics; the development of databases for atomic physics and radiation effects; the assessment of the environmental impact of magnetic fusion; and the design of advanced demonstration fusion devices. The program involves wide collaboration, both within ORNL and with other institutions. The elements of this program are shown. This document illustrates the program's scope; and aims by reviewing recent progress

  14. Canadian fusion program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, T.S.

    1982-06-01

    The National Research Council of Canada is establishing a coordinated national program of fusion research and development that is planned to grow to a total annual operating level of about $20 million in 1985. The long-term objective of the program is to put Canadian industry in a position to manufacture sub-systems and components of fusion power reactors. In the near term the program is designed to establish a minimum base of scientific and technical expertise sufficient to make recognized contributions and thereby gain access to the international effort. The Canadian program must be narrowly focussed on a few specializations where Canada has special indigenous skills or technologies. The programs being funded are the Tokamak de Varennes, the Fusion Fuels Technology Project centered on tritium management, and high-power gas laser technology and associated diagnostic instrumentation

  15. Ceramics for fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinard, F.W. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Ceramics are required for a number of applications in fusion devices, among the most critical of which are magnetic coil insulators, windows for RF heating systems, and structural uses. Radiation effects dominate consideration of candidate materials, although good pre-irradiation properties are a requisite. Materials and components can be optimized by careful control of chemical and microstructural content, and application of brittle material design and testing techniques. Future directions for research and development should include further extension of the data base in the areas of electrical, structural, and thermal properties; establishment of a fission neutron/fusion neutron correlation including transmutation gas effects; and development of new materials tailored to meet the specific needs of fusion reactors

  16. Heavy ion inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.; Sessler, A.M.

    1980-07-01

    Inertial fusion has not yet been as well explored as magnetic fusion but can offer certain advantages as an alternative source of electric energy for the future. Present experiments use high-power beams from lasers and light-ion diodes to compress the deuterium-tritium (D-T) pellets but these will probably be unsuitable for a power plant. A more promising method is to use intense heavy-ion beams from accelerator systems similar to those used for nuclear and high-energy physics; the present paper addresses itself to this alternative. As will be demonstrated the very high beam power needed poses new design questions, from the ion source through the accelerating system, the beam transport system, to the final focus. These problems will require extensive study, both theoretically and experimentally, over the next several years before an optimum design for an inertial fusion driver can be arrived at

  17. Alternate laser fusion drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleasance, L.D.

    1979-11-01

    One objective of research on inertial confinement fusion is the development of a power generating system based on this concept. Realization of this goal will depend on the availability of a suitable laser or other system to drive the power plant. The primary laser systems used for laser fusion research, Nd 3+ : Glass and CO 2 , have characteristics which may preclude their use for this application. Glass lasers are presently perceived to be incapable of sufficiently high average power operation and the CO 2 laser may be limited by and issues associated with target coupling. These general perceptions have encouraged a search for alternatives to the present systems. The search for new lasers has been directed generally towards shorter wavelengths; most of the new lasers discovered in the past few years have been in the visible and ultraviolet region of the spectrum. Virtually all of them have been advocated as the most promising candidate for a fusion driver at one time or another

  18. Cold-formed steel design

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Wei-Wen

    2010-01-01

    The definitive text in the field, thoroughly updated and expanded Hailed by professionals around the world as the definitive text on the subject, Cold-Formed Steel Design is an indispensable resource for all who design for and work with cold-formed steel. No other book provides such exhaustive coverage of both the theory and practice of cold-formed steel construction. Updated and expanded to reflect all the important developments that have occurred in the field over the past decade, this Fourth Edition of the classic text provides you with more of the detailed, up-to-the-minute techni

  19. Neutrons and fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maynard, C.W.

    1976-01-01

    The production of energy from fusion reactions does not require neutrons in the fundamental sense that they are required in a fission reactor. Nevertheless, the dominant fusion reaction, that between deuterium and tritium, yields a 14 MeV neutron. To contrast a fusion reactor based on this reaction with the fission case, 3 x 10 20 such neutrons produced per gigawatt of power. This is four times as many neutrons as in an equivalent fission reactor and they carry seven times the energy of the fission neutrons. Thus, they dominate the energy recovery problem and create technological problems comparable to the original plasma confinement problem as far as a practical power producing device is concerned. Further contrasts of the fusion and fission cases are presented to establish the general role of neutrons in fusion devices. Details of the energy deposition processes are discussed and those reactions necessary for producing additional tritium are outlined. The relatively high energy flux with its large intensity will activate almost any materials of which the reactor may be composed. This activation is examined from the point of view of decay heat, radiological safety, and long-term storage. In addition, a discussion of the deleterious effects of neutron interactions on materials is given in some detail; this includes the helium and hydrogen producing reactions and displacement rate of the lattice atoms. The various materials that have been proposed for structural purposes, for breeding, reflecting, and moderating neutrons, and for radiation shielding are reviewed from the nuclear standpoint. The specific reactions of interest are taken up for various materials and finally a report is given on the status and prospects of data for fusion studies

  20. Insulators for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-04-01

    Design studies for fusion devices and reactors have become more detailed in recent years and with this has come a better understanding of requirements and operating conditions for insulators in these machines. Ceramic and organic insulators are widely used for many components of fusion devices and reactors namely: radio frequency (RF) energy injection systems (BeO, Al 2 O 3 , Mg Al 2 O 4 , Si 3 N 4 ); electrical insulation for the torus structure (SiC, Al 2 O 3 , MgO, Mg Al 2 O 4 , Si 4 Al 2 O 2 N 6 , Si 3 N 4 , Y 2 O 3 ); lightly-shielded magnetic coils (MgO, MgAl 2 O 4 ); the toroidal field coil (epoxies, polyimides), neutron shield (B 4 C, TiH 2 ); high efficiency electrical generation; as well as the generation of very high temperatures for high efficiency hydrogen production processes (ZrO 2 and Al 2 O 3 - mat, graphite and carbon - felt). Timely development of insulators for fusion applications is clearly necessary. Those materials to be used in fusion machines should show high resistance to radiation damage and maintain their structural integrity. Now the need is urgent for a variety of radiation resistant materials, but much effort in these areas is required for insulators to be considered seriously by the design community. This document contains 14 papers from an IAEA meeting. It was the objective of this meeting to identify existing problems in analysing various situations of applications and requirements of electrical insulators and ceramics in fusion and to recommend strategies and different stages of implementation. This meeting was endorsed by the International Fusion Research Council

  1. International fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pease, R.S.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear energy of the light elements deuterium and lithium can be released if the 100 MK degree temperature required for deuterium-tritium thermonuclear fusion reactions can be achieved together with sufficient thermal insulation for a net energy yield. Progress of world-wide research shows good prospect for these physical conditions being achieved by the use of magnetic field confinement and of rapidly developing heating methods. Tokamak systems, alternative magnetic systems and inertial confinement progress are described. International co-operation features a number of bilateral agreements between countries: the Euratom collaboration which includes the Joint European Torus, a joint undertaking of eleven Western European nations of Euratom, established to build and operate a major confinement experiment; the development of co-operative projects within the OECD/IEA framework; the INTOR workshop, a world-wide study under IAEA auspices of the next major step in fusion research which might be built co-operatively; and assessments of the potential of nuclear fusion by the IAEA and the International Fusion Research Council. The INTOR (International Tokamak Reactor) studies have outlined a major plant of the tokamak type to study the engineering and technology of fusion reactor systems, which might be constructed on a world-wide basis to tackle and share the investment risks of the developments which lie ahead. This paper summarizes the recent progress of research on controlled nuclear fusion, featuring those areas where international co-operation has played an important part, and describes the various arrangements by which this international co-operation is facilitated. (author)

  2. Intense fusion neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuteev, B. V.; Goncharov, P. R.; Sergeev, V. Yu.; Khripunov, V. I.

    2010-01-01

    The review describes physical principles underlying efficient production of free neutrons, up-to-date possibilities and prospects of creating fission and fusion neutron sources with intensities of 10 15 -10 21 neutrons/s, and schemes of production and application of neutrons in fusion-fission hybrid systems. The physical processes and parameters of high-temperature plasmas are considered at which optimal conditions for producing the largest number of fusion neutrons in systems with magnetic and inertial plasma confinement are achieved. The proposed plasma methods for neutron production are compared with other methods based on fusion reactions in nonplasma media, fission reactions, spallation, and muon catalysis. At present, intense neutron fluxes are mainly used in nanotechnology, biotechnology, material science, and military and fundamental research. In the near future (10-20 years), it will be possible to apply high-power neutron sources in fusion-fission hybrid systems for producing hydrogen, electric power, and technological heat, as well as for manufacturing synthetic nuclear fuel and closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Neutron sources with intensities approaching 10 20 neutrons/s may radically change the structure of power industry and considerably influence the fundamental and applied science and innovation technologies. Along with utilizing the energy produced in fusion reactions, the achievement of such high neutron intensities may stimulate wide application of subcritical fast nuclear reactors controlled by neutron sources. Superpower neutron sources will allow one to solve many problems of neutron diagnostics, monitor nano-and biological objects, and carry out radiation testing and modification of volumetric properties of materials at the industrial level. Such sources will considerably (up to 100 times) improve the accuracy of neutron physics experiments and will provide a better understanding of the structure of matter, including that of the neutron itself.

  3. Intense fusion neutron sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuteev, B. V.; Goncharov, P. R.; Sergeev, V. Yu.; Khripunov, V. I.

    2010-04-01

    The review describes physical principles underlying efficient production of free neutrons, up-to-date possibilities and prospects of creating fission and fusion neutron sources with intensities of 1015-1021 neutrons/s, and schemes of production and application of neutrons in fusion-fission hybrid systems. The physical processes and parameters of high-temperature plasmas are considered at which optimal conditions for producing the largest number of fusion neutrons in systems with magnetic and inertial plasma confinement are achieved. The proposed plasma methods for neutron production are compared with other methods based on fusion reactions in nonplasma media, fission reactions, spallation, and muon catalysis. At present, intense neutron fluxes are mainly used in nanotechnology, biotechnology, material science, and military and fundamental research. In the near future (10-20 years), it will be possible to apply high-power neutron sources in fusion-fission hybrid systems for producing hydrogen, electric power, and technological heat, as well as for manufacturing synthetic nuclear fuel and closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Neutron sources with intensities approaching 1020 neutrons/s may radically change the structure of power industry and considerably influence the fundamental and applied science and innovation technologies. Along with utilizing the energy produced in fusion reactions, the achievement of such high neutron intensities may stimulate wide application of subcritical fast nuclear reactors controlled by neutron sources. Superpower neutron sources will allow one to solve many problems of neutron diagnostics, monitor nano-and biological objects, and carry out radiation testing and modification of volumetric properties of materials at the industrial level. Such sources will considerably (up to 100 times) improve the accuracy of neutron physics experiments and will provide a better understanding of the structure of matter, including that of the neutron itself.

  4. Confinement inertial fusion. Power reactors of nuclear fusion by lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velarde, G.; Ahnert, C.; Aragones, J.M.; Leira, G; Martinez-Val, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    The energy crisis and the need of the nuclear fusion energy are analized. The nuclear processes in the laser interation with the ablator material are studied, as well as the thermohydrodinamic processes in the implossion, and the neutronics of the fusion. The fusion reactor components are described and the economic and social impact of its introduction in the future energetic strategies.(author)

  5. Nuclear fusion: Pursuing the Soft [Symposium on fusion technology] option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenward, M.

    1991-01-01

    Fusion research has come a long way since the fusion community held the first Symposium on fusion technology (Soft) in Britain 30 years ago. Some of the recent achievements of the Jet project are reported from this year's symposium, the 16th in the series, held in London at the beginning of September. (author)

  6. Fusion Energy Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitson, M.O.

    1982-01-01

    Fusion Energy Update (CFU) provides monthly abstracting and indexing coverage of current scientific and technical reports, journal articles, conference papers and proceedings, books, patents, theses, and monographs for all sources on fusion energy. All information announced in CFU, plus additional backup information, is included in the energy information data base of the Department of Energy's Technical Information Center. The subject matter covered by CFU includes plasma physics, the physics and engineering of blankets, magnet coils and fields, power supplies and circuitry, cooling systems, fuel systems, radiation hazards, power conversion systems, inertial confinement systems, and component development and testing

  7. Fusion Reactor Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2000-01-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on fusion reactor materials includes: (1) the study of the mechanical behaviour of structural materials under neutron irradiation (including steels, inconel, molybdenum, chromium); (2) the determination and modelling of the characteristics of irradiated first wall materials such as beryllium; (3) the detection of abrupt electrical degradation of insulating ceramics under high temperature and neutron irradiation; (4) the study of the dismantling and waste disposal strategy for fusion reactors.; (5) a feasibility study for the testing of blanket modules under neutron radiation. Main achievements in these topical areas in the year 1999 are summarised

  8. Vacuum fusion of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stohr, J.A.

    1957-01-01

    After having outlined that vacuum fusion and moulding of uranium and of its alloys have some technical and economic benefits (vacuum operations avoid uranium oxidation and result in some purification; precision moulding avoids machining, chip production and chemical reprocessing of these chips; direct production of the desired shape is possible by precision moulding), this report presents the uranium fusion unit (its low pressure enclosure and pumping device, the crucible-mould assembly, and the MF supply device). The author describes the different steps of cast production, and briefly comments the obtained results

  9. Pulsed power for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, T.H.

    1976-01-01

    A review which traces the development of high power pulsed accelerators from the original inception at the Atomic Weapons Research Establishment, Aldermaston, England, for Bremsstrahlung output, through the low impedance accelerators, to the double-sided accelerators for fusion will be given. Proto II is presently being assembled at Sandia and preliminary testing on the Marx has been completed. Examples of various techniques will be shown from Sandia accelerators. Requirements for accelerators capable of achieving fusion levels will be developed and problem areas outlined. The diode insulator flashover problem presently limits the maximum current available from the accelerators

  10. Atomic data for fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, H.T.; Kirkpatrick, M.I.; Alvarez, I.; Cisneros, C.; Phaneuf, R.A. (eds.); Barnett, C.F.

    1990-07-01

    This report provides a handbook of recommended cross-section and rate-coefficient data for inelastic collisions between hydrogen, helium and lithium atoms, molecules and ions, and encompasses more than 400 different reactions of primary interest in fusion research. Published experimental and theoretical data have been collected and evaluated, and the recommended data are presented in tabular, graphical and parametrized form. Processes include excitation and spectral line emission, charge exchange, ionization, stripping, dissociation and particle interchange reactions. The range of collision energies is appropriate to applications in fusion-energy research.

  11. Small mirror fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, G.A.; Schultz, K.R.; Smith, A.C. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Basic requirements for the pilot plants are that they produce a net product and that they have a potential for commercial upgrade. We have investigated a small standard mirror fusion-fission hybrid, a two-component tandem mirror hybrid, and two versions of a field-reversed mirror fusion reactor--one a steady state, single cell reactor with a neutral beam-sustained plasma, the other a moving ring field-reversed mirror where the plasma passes through a reaction chamber with no energy addition

  12. Thermonuclear fusion power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehnert, B

    1977-01-01

    The present state and future possibilities of controlled-nuclear-fusion research are reviewed, including basic concepts and problems, as well as various approaches based on magnetic- and nonmagnetic-confinement schemes. Considerable progress has so far been made in both plasma physics and fusion-reactor technology, and a closer relationship has been established between theory and experiments. Still, none of the present approaches will, for certain, lead to the final solution of a full-scale reactor. Intensified work along broad lines, with emphasis also on basic research and new ideas, is necessary for future success.

  13. The European Fusion Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palumbo, D.

    1983-01-01

    The European Fusion Programme is coordinated by Euratom and represents a long term cooperative project of Member States of the European Communities in the field of fusion, designed to lead to the joint construction of prototypes. The main lines of the programme proposed for 1982 to 1986 are: (1) the continuation of a strong effort on tokamaks with emphasis on JET construction, operation and upgrading, (2) conceptual design of NET and development of the related technology, and (3) further work on two alternative magnetic confinement systems. The current status and future plans for this programme are discussed in the paper. (author)

  14. Atomic data for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, H.T.; Kirkpatrick, M.I.; Alvarez, I.; Cisneros, C.; Phaneuf, R.A.; Barnett, C.F.

    1990-07-01

    This report provides a handbook of recommended cross-section and rate-coefficient data for inelastic collisions between hydrogen, helium and lithium atoms, molecules and ions, and encompasses more than 400 different reactions of primary interest in fusion research. Published experimental and theoretical data have been collected and evaluated, and the recommended data are presented in tabular, graphical and parametrized form. Processes include excitation and spectral line emission, charge exchange, ionization, stripping, dissociation and particle interchange reactions. The range of collision energies is appropriate to applications in fusion-energy research

  15. Fusion Reactor Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2000-07-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on fusion reactor materials includes: (1) the study of the mechanical behaviour of structural materials under neutron irradiation (including steels, inconel, molybdenum, chromium); (2) the determination and modelling of the characteristics of irradiated first wall materials such as beryllium; (3) the detection of abrupt electrical degradation of insulating ceramics under high temperature and neutron irradiation; (4) the study of the dismantling and waste disposal strategy for fusion reactors.; (5) a feasibility study for the testing of blanket modules under neutron radiation. Main achievements in these topical areas in the year 1999 are summarised.

  16. Advanced fusion concepts program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dove, W.F.

    1978-01-01

    While the prospects for the eventual development of a tokamak-based fusion reactor appear promising at the present time, the Department of Energy maintains a vigorous program in alternate magnetic fusion concepts. Several of the concepts presently supported include the toroidal reversed field pinch, Tormac, Elmo Bumpy Torus, and various linear options. Recent technical accomplishments and program evaluations indicate that the possibility now exists for undertaking the next development stage, a proof-of-principle experiment, for a few of the most promising alternate concepts

  17. Fusion welding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kenneth C.; Jones, Eric D.; McBride, Marvin A.

    1983-01-01

    A process for the fusion welding of nickel alloy steel members wherein a ferrite containing pellet is inserted into a cavity in one member and melted by a welding torch. The resulting weld nugget, a fusion of the nickel containing alloy from the members to be welded and the pellet, has a composition which is sufficiently low in nickel content such that ferrite phases occur within the weld nugget, resulting in improved weld properties. The steel alloys encompassed also include alloys containing carbon and manganese, considered nickel equivalents.

  18. Fusion technology programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finken, D.

    1985-05-01

    In the current Fusion Technology Programme of the European Community the KfK association is working at present on 16 R and D contracts. Most of the work is strongly oriented towards the Next European Torus. Direct support to NET is given by three KfK delegates being member of the NET study group. In addition to the R and D contracts the association is working on 11 NET study contracts. Though KfK contributes to all areas defined in fusion technology, the main emphasis is put on superconducting magnet and breeding blanket development. Other important fields are tritium technology, materials research, and remote handling. (orig./GG)

  19. 1991 US-Japan workshop on Nuclear Fusion in Dense Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichimaru, S.; Tajima, T.

    1991-10-01

    The scientific areas covered at the Workshop may be classified into the following subfields: (1) basic theory of dense plasma physics and its interface with atomic physics and nuclear physics; (2) physics of dense z-pinches, ICF plasmas etc; (3) stellar interior plasmas; (4) cold fusion; and (5) other dense plasmas

  20. Multisensor data fusion algorithm development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yocky, D.A.; Chadwick, M.D.; Goudy, S.P.; Johnson, D.K.

    1995-12-01

    This report presents a two-year LDRD research effort into multisensor data fusion. We approached the problem by addressing the available types of data, preprocessing that data, and developing fusion algorithms using that data. The report reflects these three distinct areas. First, the possible data sets for fusion are identified. Second, automated registration techniques for imagery data are analyzed. Third, two fusion techniques are presented. The first fusion algorithm is based on the two-dimensional discrete wavelet transform. Using test images, the wavelet algorithm is compared against intensity modulation and intensity-hue-saturation image fusion algorithms that are available in commercial software. The wavelet approach outperforms the other two fusion techniques by preserving spectral/spatial information more precisely. The wavelet fusion algorithm was also applied to Landsat Thematic Mapper and SPOT panchromatic imagery data. The second algorithm is based on a linear-regression technique. We analyzed the technique using the same Landsat and SPOT data.

  1. Atomic physics issues in fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, D.E.

    1982-01-01

    Atomic physics issues have played a large role in controlled fusion research. A general introduction to the present role of atomic processes in both inertial and magnetic controlled fusion work is presented. (Auth.)

  2. Bringing fusion electric power closer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kintner, E.

    1977-01-01

    A review of the controlled fusion research program is given. The tokamak research program is described. Beam injection heating, control systems, and the safety of fusion reactors are topics that are also discussed

  3. Fusion technology status and requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomassen, K.I.

    1982-01-01

    This paper summarizes the status of fusion technology and discusses the requirements to be met in order to build a demonstration fusion plant. Strategies and programmatic considerations in pursuing engineering feasibility are also outlined

  4. The quest for fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.L.

    1997-10-01

    A brief history of the magnetic fusion program from the point of view of a stellarator enthusiast who worked at a major tokamak laboratory. The reason that success in the magnetic fusion energy program is essential is presented. (author)

  5. Prospect for inertial fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, C.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents recent inertial fusion experiments at Osaka. The inertial fusion energy reactor used for these experiments was designed according to some principles based on environmental, social and safety considerations. (TEC). 1 fig., 1 ref

  6. Accelerator and fusion research division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    This report contains brief discussions on research topics in the following area: Heavy-Ion Fusion Accelerator Research; Magnetic Fusion Energy; Advanced Light Source; Center for Beam Physics; Superconducting Magnets; and Bevalac Operations

  7. Is Self-Interacting Dark Matter Undergoing Dark Fusion?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDermott, Samuel D.

    2017-11-02

    We suggest that two-to-two dark matter fusion may be the relaxation process that resolves the small-scale structure problems of the cold collisionless dark matter paradigm. In order for the fusion cross section to scale correctly across many decades of astrophysical masses from dwarf galaxies to galaxy clusters, we require the fractional binding energy released to be greater than v^n ~ [10^{-(2-3)}]^n, where n=1,2 depends on local dark sector chemistry. The size of the dark-sector interaction cross sections must be sigma ~ 0.1-1 barn, moderately larger than for Standard Model deuteron fusion, indicating a dark nuclear scale Lambda ~ O(100 MeV). Dark fusion firmly predicts constant sigma v below the characteristic velocities of galaxy clusters. Observations of the inner structure of galaxy groups with velocity dispersion of several hundred kilometer per second, of which a handful have been identified, could differentiate dark fusion from a dark photon model.

  8. Hydrothermal Cold Sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Xiaoyu

    C, respectively. Process variables were defined and effects of individual parameters were studied systematically through control variable method with Li2MoO4-water system. Crystalline structure, fractured surface morphology and chemical bonding information of the cold sintered pellets were studied with X-ray diffraction (XRD), field effect scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and Raman spectroscopy, etc. Densification mechanism studies were conducted on ZnO. Through comparison experiments, it was found that the Zn2+ concentration in the solution is critical for densification, while dissolution of grains only serves as a means to the former. Through pressure dependent studies, a critical value was found, which correlated well with the hydrostatic pressure keeping liquid water from thermal expansion. These results confirmed establishment of hydrothermal condition that would be important for mass transport in densification. Densification rate variations with process time was estimated and similar time dependence to Kingery's model was found. The densification process was proposed to be consist of three consecutive stages, which are quick initial compaction, grain rearrangement and dissolution-reprecipitation events. Binary metal oxides with different acidities were subjected to cold sintering with various aqueous solutions in establishing a criteria for material selection. It was found that in general materials with high solubility at around neutral pH, high dissolution kinetics and similar free energy to their hydroxides or hydrates at ambient would be more likely for full densification with high phase purity. The anions in solution should also be wisely selected to avoid stable compound or complex formation. To extend the applicable material list for full densification, non-aqueous solvent of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) based solution was studied for cold sintering. Both improvement of pellet density and suppression of hydroxide formation were achieved for MnO by using DMSO

  9. Fusion engineering device design description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flanagan, C.A.; Steiner, D.; Smith, G.E.

    1981-12-01

    The US Magnetic Fusion Engineering Act of 1980 calls for the operation of a Fusion Engineering Device (FED) by 1990. It is the intent of the Act that the FED, in combination with other testing facilities, will establish the engineering feasibility of magnetic fusion energy. During 1981, the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC), under the guidance of a Technical Management Board (TMB), developed a baseline design for the FED. This design is summarized herein.

  10. Fusion Engineering Device design description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flanagan, C.A.; Steiner, D.; Smith, G.E.

    1981-12-01

    The US Magnetic Fusion Engineering Act of 1980 calls for the operation of a Fusion Engineering Device (FED) by 1990. It is the intent of the Act that the FED, in combination with other testing facilities, will establish the engineering feasibility of magnetic fusion energy. During 1981, the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC), under the guidance of a Technical Management Board (TMB), developed a baseline design for the FED. This design is summarized herein

  11. Fusion reactor development: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    This paper is a review of the current prospects for fusion reactor development based upon the present status in plasma physics research, fusion technology development and reactor conceptual design for the tokamak magnetic confinement concept. Recent advances in tokamak plasma research and fusion technology development are summarized. The direction and conclusions of tokamak reactor conceptual design are discussed. The status of alternate magnetic confinement concept research is reviewed briefly. A feasible timetable for the development of fusion reactors is presented

  12. Fusion engineering device design description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flanagan, C.A.; Steiner, D.; Smith, G.E.

    1981-12-01

    The US Magnetic Fusion Engineering Act of 1980 calls for the operation of a Fusion Engineering Device (FED) by 1990. It is the intent of the Act that the FED, in combination with other testing facilities, will establish the engineering feasibility of magnetic fusion energy. During 1981, the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC), under the guidance of a Technical Management Board (TMB), developed a baseline design for the FED. This design is summarized herein

  13. Phonon forces and cold denaturatio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Jakob

    2003-01-01

    Protein unfolds upon temperature reduction as Well as upon In increase in temperature, These phenomena are called cold denaturation and hot denaturation, respectively. The contribution from quantum mode forces to denaturation is estimated using a simple phenomenological model describing the molec......Protein unfolds upon temperature reduction as Well as upon In increase in temperature, These phenomena are called cold denaturation and hot denaturation, respectively. The contribution from quantum mode forces to denaturation is estimated using a simple phenomenological model describing...... the molecule Is a continuum. The frequencies of the vibrational modes depend on the molecular dimensionality; hence, the zero-point energies for the folded and the denatured protein are estimated to differ by several electron volts. For a biomolecule such an energy is significant and may contribute to cold...... denaturing. This is consistent with the empirical observation that cold denaturation is exothermic anti hot denaturation endothermic....

  14. Cold Weather and Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Cold Weather and Cardiovascular Disease Updated:Sep 16,2015 Th is winter ... and procedures related to heart disease and stroke. Cardiovascular Conditions • Conditions Home • Arrhythmia and Atrial Fibrillation • Cardiac ...

  15. Magnesium Repair by Cold Spray

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Champagne, V. K; Leyman, P.F; Helfritch, D. J

    2008-01-01

    .... Army Research Laboratory has developed a cold spray process to reclaim magnesium components that shows significant improvement over existing methods and is in the process of qualification for use on rotorcraft...

  16. Nonfreezing Cold-Induced Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    cold injury. ( Modi - fi ed from Jia J, Pollock M: The pathogenesis of non-freezing cold nerve injury: Observations in the rat, Brain 120:631, 1997...myelitis and sinus development ( Figures 7-17 to 7-19 ). Appearance and behavior of the neuropathic foot have many similarities to those of the diabetic ...foot. In the diabetic foot, infections tend to be polymicrobial with Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Enterococcus and

  17. Tip model of cold fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goennenwein, F.; Boersig, B.

    1991-01-01

    Cold fission is defined to be the limiting case of nuclear fission where virtually all of the available energy is converted into the total kinetic energy of the fragments. The fragments have, therefore, to be born in or at least close to their respective ground states. Starting from the viewpoint that cold fission corresponds to most compact scission configurations, energy constraints have been exploited to calculate minimum tip distances between the two nascent fragments in binary fission. Crucial input parameters to this tip model of cold fission are the ground-state deformations of fragment nuclei. It is shown that the minimum tip distances being compatible with energy conservation vary strongly with both the mass and charge fragmentation of the fission prone nucleus. The tip distances refer to nuclei with equivalent sharp surfaces. In keeping with the size of the surface width of leptodermous nuclei, only configurations where the tip distances are smaller than a few fm may be considered as valid scission configurations. From a comparison with experimental data on cold fission this critical tip distance appears to be 3.0 fm for the model parameters chosen. Whenever the model calculation yields tip distances being smaller than the critical value, a necessary condition for attaining cold fission is considered to be fulfilled. It is shown that this criterion allows to understand in fair agreement with experiment which mass fragmentations are susceptible to lead to cold fission and which fragment-charge divisions are the most favored in each isobaric mass chain. Being based merely on energy arguments, the model cannot aim at predicting fragment yields in cold fission. However, the tip model proposed appears well suited to delineate the phase space where cold fission phenomena may come into sight. (orig.)

  18. Graphite for fusion energy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eatherly, W.P.; Clausing, R.E.; Strehlow, R.A.; Kennedy, C.R.; Mioduszewski, P.K.

    1987-03-01

    Graphite is in widespread and beneficial use in present fusion energy devices. This report reflects the view of graphite materials scientists on using graphite in fusion devices. Graphite properties are discussed with emphasis on application to fusion reactors. This report is intended to be introductory and descriptive and is not intended to serve as a definitive information source

  19. Fusion reactor radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaser, J.D.; Postma, A.K.; Bradley, D.J.

    1976-01-01

    Quantities and compositions of non-tritium radioactive waste are estimated for some current conceptual fusion reactor designs, and disposal of large amounts of radioactive waste appears necessary. Although the initial radioactivity of fusion reactor and fission reactor wastes are comparable, the radionuclides in fusion reactor wastes are less hazardous and have shorter half-lives. Areas requiring further research are discussed

  20. Hugging fusion and related topics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwamoto, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-07-01

    An important problem related to the synthesis of very heavy nuclides by fusion of two heavy-ions is the extra push effect. To avoid it, we propose a hugging fusion, which is the fusion of two well-deformed heavy-ions. (author)

  1. Review of Inertial Confinement Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, M. G.

    The physics of inertial confinement fusion is reviewed. The trend to short-wavelength lasers is argued, and the distinction between direct and indirect (soft X-ray) drive is made. Key present issues include the non-linear growth of Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) instabilities, the seeding of this instability by the initial laser imprint, the relevance of self-generated magnetic fields, and the importance of parametric instabilities (stimulated Brillouin and Raman scattering) in gas-filled hohlraums. Experiments are reviewed which explore the R-T instability in both planar and converging geometry. The employment of various optical smoothing techniques is contrasted with the overcoating of the capsule by gold coated plastic foams to reduce considerably the imprint problem. The role of spontaneously generated magnetic fields in non-symmetric plasmas is discussed. Recent hohlraum compression results are presented together with gas bag targets which replicate the long-scale-length low density plasmas expected in NIF gas filled hohlraums. The onset of first Brillouin and then Raman scattering is observed. The fast ignitor scheme is a proposal to use an intense short pulse laser to drill a hole through the coronal plasma and then, with laser excited fast electrons, create a propagating thermonuclear spark in a dense, relatively cold laser-compressed target. Some preliminary results of laser hole drilling and 2-D and 3-D PIC simulations of this and the > 10^8 Gauss self-generated magnetic fields are presented. The proposed National Ignition Facility (NIF) is described.

  2. Bubble fusion: Preliminary estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    The collapse of a gas-filled bubble in disequilibrium (i.e., internal pressure much-lt external pressure) can occur with a significant focusing of energy onto the entrapped gas in the form of pressure-volume work and/or acoustical shocks; the resulting heating can be sufficient to cause ionization and the emission of atomic radiations. The suggestion that extreme conditions necessary for thermonuclear fusion to occur may be possible has been examined parametrically in terms of the ratio of initial bubble pressure relative to that required for equilibrium. In this sense, the disequilibrium bubble is viewed as a three-dimensional ''sling shot'' that is ''loaded'' to an extent allowed by the maximum level of disequilibrium that can stably be achieved. Values of this disequilibrium ratio in the range 10 -5 --10 -6 are predicted by an idealized bubble-dynamics model as necessary to achieve conditions where nuclear fusion of deuterium-tritium might be observed. Harmonic and aharmonic pressurizations/decompressions are examined as means to achieve the required levels of disequilibrium required to create fusion conditions. A number of phenomena not included in the analysis reported herein could enhance or reduce the small levels of nuclear fusions predicted

  3. Fusion technology 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaumont, B.; Libeyre, P.; Gentile, B. de; Tonon, G.

    1998-01-01

    The Symposium On Fusion Technology (SOFT) is held every two years with the objective to set the stage for the exchange of information on the design, construction and operation of fusion experiments and on the technology which is being developed for the next step devices and fusion reactors. By decision of the International Organizing Committee, the 20. SOFT includes invited talks, and oral and poster contributions in the following topics: plasma facing components, plasma heating and current drive, plasma engineering and control, experimental systems and diagnostics, magnets and power supplies, fuel technologies, remote operation, blanket and shield technologies, safety and environment, and system engineering and future devices. This symposium differs from the previous ones of this series by the way the present proceedings are produced. In order to have the written material available to the participants and the community at the nearest to the conference event, the papers have been collected 2 months in advance and printed in the present books. The goal was to deliver them to each participant upon arrival to the conference centre. These books contain all the papers corresponding to poster presentation, and the abstracts of the oral contributions and invited papers. The papers corresponding to these presentations, both oral and invited, will be published in 1999, after a standard review process, in a supplement of Fusion Engineering and Design. (author)

  4. Fusion of biological membranes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 64; Issue 6. Fusion of biological membranes. K Katsov M Müller M Schick. Invited Talks:- Topic 11. Biologically motivated problems (protein-folding models, dynamics at the scale of the cell; biological networks, evolution models, etc.) Volume 64 Issue 6 June 2005 pp ...

  5. Future with fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschfeld, F.

    1977-01-01

    This article reviews several current approaches to the development of nuclear fusion power sources by the year 2000. First mentioned is the only project to develop a nonpolluting, radiation-free source by using only natural and nonradioactive isotopes (nuclei of deuterium, helium 3 and boron) as ''advanced'' fuels. This system will also be capable of direct conversion of the released energy into electricity. Next described is the PACER concept, in which thermonuclear burning of deuterium occurs in fusion explosion taking place underground (e.g., in a salt dome). The released energy is absorbed in high-pressure steam which is then piped to a surface heat exchanger to provide steam for a turbogenerator. After filtration, the steam is returned. The PACER system also produces fissionable fuel. The balance of the article reviews three ''magnetic fusion'' approaches. Tokamak, mirror and theta pinch systems utilize magnetic fields to confine a plasma for either pulsed or steady-state operation. The tokamak and theta pinch are toroidal in shape, while the mirror can be thought of as a magnetic field configuration of roughly tubular shape that confines the plasma by means of higher fields at the ends than at its center. The tokamak approach accounts for about 65 percent of the magnetic fusion research and development, while theta pinches and mirrors represent about 15 percent each. Refs

  6. Fusion Canada issue 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-05-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue are CFFTP highlights on the Karlsruhe Isotope Separation System, a report on ITER tritium process systems, an experimental update on Tokamak de Varennes and Canada-U.S. bilateral technical collaboration topics. 2 figs

  7. Charged particle fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangerter, R.O.; Meeker, D.J.

    1977-01-01

    The power, voltage, energy and other requirements of electron and ion beam fusion targets are reviewed. Single shell, multiple shell and magnetically insulated target designs are discussed. Questions of stability are also considered. In particular, it is shown that ion beam targets are stabilized by an energy spread in the ion beam

  8. Mars manned fusion spaceship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedrick, J.; Buchholtz, B.; Ward, P.; Freuh, J.; Jensen, E.

    1991-01-01

    Fusion Propulsion has an enormous potential for space exploration in the near future. In the twenty-first century, a usable and efficient fusion rocket will be developed and in use. Because of the great distance between other planets and Earth, efficient use of time, fuel, and payload is essential. A nuclear spaceship would provide greater fuel efficiency, less travel time, and a larger payload. Extended missions would give more time for research, experiments, and data acquisition. With the extended mission time, a need for an artificial environment exists. The topics of magnetic fusion propulsion, living modules, artificial gravity, mass distribution, space connection, and orbital transfer to Mars are discussed. The propulsion system is a magnetic fusion reactor based on a tandem mirror design. This allows a faster, shorter trip time and a large thrust to weight ratio. The fuel proposed is a mixture of deuterium and helium. Helium can be obtained from lunar mining. There will be minimal external radiation from the reactor resulting in a safe, efficient propulsion system

  9. Magnetic fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNamara, B.

    1977-01-01

    A brief review of fusion research during the last 20 years is given. Some highlights of theoretical plasma physics are presented. The role that computational plasma physics is playing in analyzing and understanding the experiments of today is discussed. The magnetic mirror program is reviewed

  10. Fusion development and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, D.B.

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: superconducting magnet technology high field superconductors; advanced magnetic system and divertor development; poloidal field coils; gyrotron development; commercial reactor studies -- Aries; ITER physics; ITER superconducting PF scenario and magnet analysis; and safety, environmental and economic factors in fusion development

  11. Fusion energy studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The following topics are considered: (1) cryosorption vacuum pumping for fusion reactors, (2) TNS support studies, (3) tritium recovery from irradiated Li-Al and SAP, (4) actinide oxides, nitrides, and carbides, and (5) transition metal-actinide-C phase equilibria

  12. Fusion technology programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finken, D.

    1985-10-01

    KfK is involved in the European Fusion Programme predominantly in the NET and Fusion Technology part. The following fields of activity are covered: Studies for NET, alternative confinement concepts, and needs and issues of integral testing. Research on structural materials. Development of superconducting magnets. Gyrotron development (part of the Physics Programme). Nuclear technology (breeding materials, blanket design, tritium technology, safety and environmental aspects of fusion, remote maintenance). Reported here are status and results of work under contracts with the CEC within the NET and Technology Programme. The aim of the major part of this R and D work is the support of NET, some areas (e.g. materials, safety and environmental impact, blanket design) have a wider scope and address problems of a demonstration reactor. In the current working period, several new proposals have been elaborated to be implemented into the 85/89 Euratom Fusion Programme. New KfK contributions relate to materials research (dual beam and fast reactor irradiations, ferritic steels), to blanket engineering (MHD-effects) and to safety studies (e.g. magnet safety). (orig./GG)

  13. Research into thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumacher, U.

    1989-01-01

    The experimental and theoretical studies carried out in close international cooperation in the field of thermonuclear fusion by magnetic plasma confinement have achieved such progress towards higher plasma temperatures and densities, longer confinement times and, thus, increased fusion product, that emphasis now begins to be shifted from problems of physics to those of technology as a next major step is being prepared towards a large international project (ITER) to achieve thermonuclear burning. The generation and maintenance of a burning fusion plasma in an experimental physics phase will be followed by a phase of technical materials studies at high fluxes of fusion neutrons. These goals have been pursued since 1983 by an international study group at Garching working on the design of a Next European Torus (NET). Since May 1988, an international study group comprising ten experts each from the USSR, USA, Japan, and the European Community has begun to work on a design draft of ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) in Garching under the auspices of IAEA. (orig.) [de

  14. Fusion reactor materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1989-01-01

    This paper discuses the following topics on fusion reactor materials: irradiation, facilities, test matrices, and experimental methods; dosimetry, damage parameters, and activation calculations; materials engineering and design requirements; fundamental mechanical behavior; radiation effects; development of structural alloys; solid breeding materials; and ceramics.

  15. Fusion Canada issue 21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-08-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue Europe proposes Canada`s participation in ITER, tritium for JET, CCFM/TdeV-Tokamak helium pumping and TdeV update, ITER-related R and D at CFFTP, ITER Deputy Director visits Canada, NFP Director to Chair IFRC, Award for Akira Hirose. 3 figs.

  16. Advanced lasers for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupke, W.F.; George, E.V.; Haas, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    Laser drive systems' performance requirements for fusion reactors are developed following a review of the principles of inertial confinement fusion and of the technical status of fusion research lasers (Nd:glass; CO 2 , iodine). These requirements are analyzed in the context of energy-storing laser media with respect to laser systems design issues: optical damage and breakdown, medium excitation, parasitics and superfluorescence depumping, energy extraction physics, medium optical quality, and gas flow. Three types of energy-storing laser media of potential utility are identified and singled out for detailed review: (1) Group VI atomic lasers, (2) rare earth solid state hybrid lasers, and (3) rare earth molecular vapor lasers. The use of highly-radiative laser media, particularly the rare-gas monohalide excimers, are discussed in the context of short pulse fusion applications. The concept of backward wave Raman pulse compression is considered as an attractive technique for this purpose. The basic physics and device parameters of these four laser systems are reviewed and conceptual designs for high energy laser systems are presented. Preliminary estimates for systems efficiencies are given. (Auth.)

  17. International fusion og spaltning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone L.

    Bogen analyserer de nye muligheder fra 2007 i europæisk ret med hensyn til fusion eller spaltning mellem aktieselskaber og anpartsselskaber med hjemsted i forskellige europæiske lande. Bogen gennemgår de nye muligheder for strukturændringer, der herved er opstået mulighed for, og den sætter fokus...

  18. Fusion program overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, J.F.

    1983-01-01

    There has been and continues to be a perceived need for the fusion energy option in our energy future. The National Energy Plan states that ''the Federal Government recognizes a direct responsibility to demonstrate the scientific and engineering feasibility of fusion''. The goal of the program, in exercising this responsibility, is to develop the knowledge base upon which decisions on the commercial feasibility of fusion will be made after the conclusion of the present scientific feasibility phase of the program. The strategy is to preceed sequentially through a product definition phase, to the product development phase. Product definition is the identification of an attractive fusion reactor concept supported by a sound base of scientific and technological information. Product development is the further refinement of scientific, technological and engineering information base of the selected concept to provide a firm basis for commercial application. Each of these phases will be discussed with special emphasis on the relationship between the annual appropriation process and the influence of external forces on the pace of the program. This discussion will include the use of international cooperation to maintain and extend program scope. Further discussion will cover the important scientific and technological advances of the last few years and the way in which they have influenced the development of our management strategy to maximize our resources

  19. Fusion Canada issue 16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-01-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on Ontario Hydro`s contract for tritium supply from Germany, a CCFM update on plasma biasing, divertor operation, radiofrequency plasma current drive and the plasma heating system for the Tokamak de Varennes, and an agreement for ITER engineering design activities. 5 figs.

  20. Rencontre on fusion technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Read, S.F.J.

    1979-02-01

    This report of a rencontre held to consider the technology of magnetic confinement fusion devices gives the agenda for the meeting and lists those topics which were identified as areas of research. These topics included materials, tritium, structures and heat transfer, neutronics and nuclear data, and corrosion problems. (UK)

  1. Bouillabaisse sushi fusion power

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    "If avant-garde cuisine is any guide, Japanese-French fusion does not work all that well. And the interminable discussions over the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) suggest that what is true of cooking is true of physics" (1 page)

  2. Status of inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.

    1987-04-01

    The technology advancement to high-power beams has also given birth to new technologies. That class of Free Electron Lasers that employs rf linacs, synchrotrons, and storage rings - although the use the tools of High Energy Physics (HEP) - was developed well behind the kinetic energy frontier. The induction linac, however, is something of an exception; it was born directly from the needs of the magnetic fusion program, and was not motivated by a high-energy physics application. The heavy-ion approach to inertial fusion starts with picking from the rich menu of accelerator technologies those that have, ab initio, the essential ingredients needed for a power plant driver: multigap acceleration - which leads to reliability/lifetime; electrical efficiency; repetition rate; and beams that can be reliably focused over a suitably long distance. The report describes the programs underway in Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research as well as listing expected advances in driver, target, and beam quality areas in the inertial fusion power program

  3. Fusion reactor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This paper discuses the following topics on fusion reactor materials: irradiation, facilities, test matrices, and experimental methods; dosimetry, damage parameters, and activation calculations; materials engineering and design requirements; fundamental mechanical behavior; radiation effects; development of structural alloys; solid breeding materials; and ceramics

  4. Fusion meets electronics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řípa, Milan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 2 (2011), s. 8-8 ISSN 1818-5355 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : fusion * AMPER 2011 * ITER * COMPASS * IPP * CR Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics http://www.jet.efda.org/ multimedia /newsletter/current/

  5. Fusion Canada issue 21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue Europe proposes Canada's participation in ITER, tritium for JET, CCFM/TdeV-Tokamak helium pumping and TdeV update, ITER-related R and D at CFFTP, ITER Deputy Director visits Canada, NFP Director to Chair IFRC, Award for Akira Hirose. 3 figs

  6. Fusion Canada issue 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-05-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue are CFFTP highlights on the Karlsruhe Isotope Separation System, a report on ITER tritium process systems, an experimental update on Tokamak de Varennes and Canada-U.S. bilateral technical collaboration topics. 2 figs.

  7. Controlled thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebut, P.H.

    1992-01-01

    The author gives a chronological account of the research about thermonuclear fusion and presents the principle of JET thermonuclear reactor based upon the magnetic confinement. The problems of heating and confining a thermonuclear plasma may be regarded as solved. They make possible the definition of the size and geometry needed to realize a next-step tokamak (ITER, NET projects)

  8. Fusion Canada issue 26

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue tritium supply for Japanese research, Canada to host the 1995 IAEA Conference on Tritium, studies on the tokamak divertor and edge plasma studies, a tritium field release study, erosion studies on plasma facing materials, G. Pacher returns to CCFM and an update on CCFM/TdeV

  9. Fusion target design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangerter, R.O.

    1978-01-01

    Most detailed fusion target design is done by numerical simulation using large computers. Although numerical simulation is briefly discussed, this lecture deals primarily with the way in which basic physical arguments, driver technology considerations and economical power production requirements are used to guide and augment the simulations. Physics topics discussed include target energetics, preheat, stability and symmetry. A specific design example is discussed

  10. Fusion Canada issue 16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on Ontario Hydro's contract for tritium supply from Germany, a CCFM update on plasma biasing, divertor operation, radiofrequency plasma current drive and the plasma heating system for the Tokamak de Varennes, and an agreement for ITER engineering design activities. 5 figs

  11. Fusion Canada issue 24

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue the opening of the Garching ITER site, a CCFM/TdeV update,a tritium release field test, measuring radial profile of plasma current density on TdeV, power supplies for TdeV, 5th International Tritium Technology conference, and 1994 basic tritium course. 4 figs

  12. Controlled nuclear fusion apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussard, R.W.; Coppi, B.

    1982-01-01

    A fusion power generating device is disclosed having a relatively small and inexpensive core region which may be contained within an energy absorbing blanket region. The fusion power core region contains apparatus of the toroidal type for confining a high density plasma. The fusion power core is removable from the blanket region and may be disposed and/or recycled for subsequent use within the same blanket region. Thermonuclear ignition of the plasma is obtained by feeding neutral fusible gas into the plasma in a controlled manner such that charged particle heating produced by the fusion reaction is utilized to bootstrap the device to a region of high temperatures and high densities wherein charged particle heating is sufficient to overcome radiation and thermal conductivity losses. The high density plasma produces a large radiation and particle flux on the first wall of the plasma core region thereby necessitating replacement of the core from the blanket region from time to time. A series of potentially disposable and replaceable central core regions are disclosed for a large-scale economical electrical power generating plant

  13. lysosome tethering and fusion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    AMIT TULI

    LYSOSOME. MTOC. LATE ENDOSOME. Arl8b promotes the assembly of the HOPS complex on the lysosomes to mediate late endosome-lysosome fusion and cargo delivery to lysosomes. Khatter D et al., J Cell Science 2015. Khatter D et al., Cellular Logistics 2015 ...

  14. RNA-seq of 272 gliomas revealed a novel, recurrent PTPRZ1-MET fusion transcript in secondary glioblastomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Zhao-Shi; Chen, Hui-Min; Yang, Ming-Yu; Zhang, Chuan-Bao; Yu, Kai; Ye, Wan-Lu; Hu, Bo-Qiang; Yan, Wei; Zhang, Wei; Akers, Johnny; Ramakrishnan, Valya; Li, Jie; Carter, Bob; Liu, Yan-Wei; Hu, Hui-Min; Wang, Zheng; Li, Ming-Yang; Yao, Kun; Qiu, Xiao-Guang; Kang, Chun-Sheng; You, Yong-Ping; Fan, Xiao-Long; Song, Wei Sonya; Li, Rui-Qiang; Su, Xiao-Dong; Chen, Clark C; Jiang, Tao

    2014-11-01

    Studies of gene rearrangements and the consequent oncogenic fusion proteins have laid the foundation for targeted cancer therapy. To identify oncogenic fusions associated with glioma progression, we catalogued fusion transcripts by RNA-seq of 272 gliomas. Fusion transcripts were more frequently found in high-grade gliomas, in the classical subtype of gliomas, and in gliomas treated with radiation/temozolomide. Sixty-seven in-frame fusion transcripts were identified, including three recurrent fusion transcripts: FGFR3-TACC3, RNF213-SLC26A11, and PTPRZ1-MET (ZM). Interestingly, the ZM fusion was found only in grade III astrocytomas (1/13; 7.7%) or secondary GBMs (sGBMs, 3/20; 15.0%). In an independent cohort of sGBMs, the ZM fusion was found in three of 20 (15%) specimens. Genomic analysis revealed that the fusion arose from translocation events involving introns 3 or 8 of PTPRZ and intron 1 of MET. ZM fusion transcripts were found in GBMs irrespective of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) mutation status. sGBMs harboring ZM fusion showed higher expression of genes required for PIK3CA signaling and lowered expression of genes that suppressed RB1 or TP53 function. Expression of the ZM fusion was mutually exclusive with EGFR overexpression in sGBMs. Exogenous expression of the ZM fusion in the U87MG glioblastoma line enhanced cell migration and invasion. Clinically, patients afflicted with ZM fusion harboring glioblastomas survived poorly relative to those afflicted with non-ZM-harboring sGBMs (P < 0.001). Our study profiles the shifting RNA landscape of gliomas during progression and reveled ZM as a novel, recurrent fusion transcript in sGBMs. © 2014 Bao et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  15. Controlled thermonuclear fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walstrom, P.L.

    1976-01-01

    Controlled production of energy by fusion of light nuclei has been the goal of a large portion of the physics community since the 1950's. In order for a fusion reaction to take place, the fuel must be heated to a temperature of 100 million degrees Celsius. At this temperature, matter can exist only in the form of an almost fully ionized plasma. In order for the reaction to produce net power, the product of the density and energy confinement time must exceed a minimum value of 10 20 sec m -3 , the so-called Lawson criterion. Basically, two approaches are being taken to meet this criterion: inertial confinement and magnetic confinement. Inertial confinement is the basis of the laser fusion approach; a fuel pellet is imploded by intense laser beams from all sides and ignites. Magnetic confinement devices, which exist in a variety of geometries, rely upon electromagnetic forces on the charged particles of the plasma to keep the hot plasma from expanding. Of these devices, the most encouraging results have been achieved with a class of devices known as tokamaks. Recent successes with these devices have given plasma physicists confidence that scientific feasibility will be demonstrated in the next generation of tokamaks; however, an even larger effort will be required to make fusion power commercially feasible. As a result, emphasis in the controlled thermonuclear research program is beginning to shift from plasma physics to a new branch of nuclear engineering which can be called fusion engineering, in which instrumentation and control engineers will play a major role. Among the new problem areas they will deal with are plasma diagnostics and superconducting coil instrumentation

  16. Cold urticaria. Dissociation of cold-evoked histamine release and urticara following cold challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keahey, T M; Greaves, M W

    1980-02-01

    Nine patients with acquired cold urticaria were studied to assess the effects of beta-adrenergic agents, xanthines, and corticosteroids on cold-evoked histamine release from skin in vivo. The patients, in all of whom an immediate urticarial response developed after cooling of the forearm, demonstrated release of histamine into the venous blood draining that forearm. Following treatment with aminophylline and albuterol in combination or prednisone alone, suppression of histamine release occurred in all but one patient. In some patients, this was accompanied by a subjective diminution in pruritus or buring, but there was no significant improvement in the ensuing edema or erythema. In one patient, total suppression of histamine release was achieved without any effect on whealing and erythema in response to cold challenge. Our results suggest that histamine is not central to the pathogenesis of vascular changes in acquired cold urticaria.

  17. Cold acclimation and cognitive performance: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Douglas M; Bailey, Stephen P; Roelands, Bart; Buono, Michael J; Meeusen, Romain

    2017-12-01

    Athletes, occupational workers, and military personnel experience cold temperatures through cold air exposure or cold water immersion, both of which impair cognitive performance. Prior work has shown that neurophysiological pathways may be sensitive to the effects of temperature acclimation and, therefore, cold acclimation may be a potential strategy to attenuate cold-induced cognitive impairments for populations that are frequently exposed to cold environments. This review provides an overview of studies that examine repeated cold stress, cold acclimation, and measurements of cognitive performance to determine whether or not cold acclimation provides beneficial protection against cold-induced cognitive performance decrements. Studies included in this review assessed cognitive measures of reaction time, attention, logical reasoning, information processing, and memory. Repeated cold stress, with or without evidence of cold acclimation, appears to offer no added benefit of improving cognitive performance. However, research in this area is greatly lacking and, therefore, it is difficult to draw any definitive conclusions regarding the use of cold acclimation to improve cognitive performance during subsequent cold exposures. Given the current state of minimal knowledge on this topic, athletes, occupational workers, and military commands looking to specifically enhance cognitive performance in cold environments would likely not be advised to spend the time and effort required to become acclimated to cold. However, as more knowledge becomes available in this area, recommendations may change. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Accelerators for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangerter, R.O.

    1985-10-01

    Large fusion devices will almost certainly produce net energy. However, a successful commercial fusion energy system must also satisfy important engineering and economic constraints. Inertial confinement fusion power plants driven by multi-stage, heavy-ion accelerators appear capable of meeting these constraints. The reasons behind this promising outlook for heavy-ion fusion are given in this report. This report is based on the transcript of a talk presented at the Symposium on Lasers and Particle Beams for Fusion and Strategic Defense at the University of Rochester on April 17-19, 1985

  19. Commercial application of laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, L.A.

    1976-01-01

    The fundamentals of laser-induced fusion, some laser-fusion reactor concepts, and attendant means of utilizing the thermonuclear energy for commercial electric power generation are discussed. Theoretical fusion-pellet microexplosion energy release characteristics are described and the effects of pellet design options on pellet-microexplosion characteristics are discussed. The results of analyses to assess the engineering feasibility of reactor cavities for which protection of cavity components is provided either by suitable ablative materials or by diversion of plasmas by magnetic fields are presented. Two conceptual laser-fusion electric generating stations, based on different laser-fusion reactor concepts, are described

  20. Prospects for alternative Fusion Fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glancy, J.

    1986-01-01

    The author has worked on three different magnetic confinement concepts for alternate fusion fueled reactors: tokamaks; tanden mirrors, and reversed field pinches. The focus of this article is on prospects for alternate fusion fuels as the author sees them relative to the other choices: increased numbers of coal plants, fission reactors, renewables, and D-T fusion. Discussion is limited on the consideration of alternate fusion fuels to the catalyzed deuterium-deuterium fuel cycle. Reasons for seeking an alternate energy source are cost, a more secure fuel supply, environmental impact and safety. The technical risks associated with development of fusion are examined briefly