WorldWideScience

Sample records for cold forming processes

  1. Friction Modelling In Connection With Cold Forming Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Xincai

    is first coated with aluminate conversion coatings and then lubricated by alkaline soap, molybdenum disulphide (MoS2), alkaline soap followed by molykote grease paste, or kerosene respectively. Steel and stainless steel are first coated with zinc phosphate coatings and then lubricated by either alkaline...... soap or molybdenum disulphide. As processes testing friction sensitive flow, the ring-compression tests and the double cup extrusion tests are carried out. An absolute constant friction model has been proposed to separate the influence of strain hardening from friction. This model has been applied...

  2. Use of Numerical Simulation at Optimisation of Technological Processes of Cold Bulk Forming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav RUSZ

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with numerical and physical modelling aimed at optimisation of production technology and designing of manufacturing tools with use of finite-element method. For the topic of cold bulk forming a manufacture of pressed insert, used in industry as a component for damping system for passenger cars, was simulated. It is a rotationally symmetric component, which is subjected to high axial load, and strength and fatigue characteristics of which depend substantially on service life and reliability of the whole damping system. This component was subjected to analysis of distribution of flow stress and deformation intensity at combined extrusion from the viewpoint of their load with use of simulating software Simufact.Forming 10.0. The simulation process ran smoothly, without sudden changes of the shape leading to formation of possible internal defects.

  3. Influences of rolling method on deformation force in cold roll-beating forming process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yongxiang; Cui, Fengkui; Liang, Xiaoming; Li, Yan

    2018-03-01

    In process, the research object, the gear rack was selected to study the influence law of rolling method on the deformation force. By the mean of the cold roll forming finite element simulation, the variation regularity of radial and tangential deformation was analysed under different rolling methods. The variation of deformation force of the complete forming racks and the single roll during the steady state under different rolling modes was analyzed. The results show: when upbeating and down beating, radial single point average force is similar, the tangential single point average force gap is bigger, the gap of tangential single point average force is relatively large. Add itionally, the tangential force at the time of direct beating is large, and the dire ction is opposite with down beating. With directly beating, deformation force loading fast and uninstall slow. Correspondingly, with down beating, deformat ion force loading slow and uninstall fast.

  4. Cold-formed steel design

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Wei-Wen

    2010-01-01

    The definitive text in the field, thoroughly updated and expanded Hailed by professionals around the world as the definitive text on the subject, Cold-Formed Steel Design is an indispensable resource for all who design for and work with cold-formed steel. No other book provides such exhaustive coverage of both the theory and practice of cold-formed steel construction. Updated and expanded to reflect all the important developments that have occurred in the field over the past decade, this Fourth Edition of the classic text provides you with more of the detailed, up-to-the-minute techni

  5. Cold rolling precision forming of shaft parts theory and technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Jianli; Li, Yongtang

    2017-01-01

    This book presents in detail the theory, processes and equipment involved in cold rolling precision forming technologies, focusing on spline and thread shaft parts. The main topics discussed include the status quo of research on cold rolling precision forming technologies; the design and calculation of process parameters; the numerical simulation of cold rolling forming processes; and the equipment used in cold rolling forming. The mechanism of cold rolling forming is extremely complex, and research on the processes, theory and mechanical analysis of spline cold rolling forming has remained very limited to date. In practice, the forming processes and production methods used are mainly chosen on the basis of individual experience. As such, there is a marked lack of both systematic, theory-based guidelines, and of specialized books covering theoretical analysis, numerical simulation, experiments and equipment used in spline cold rolling forming processes – all key points that are included in this book and ill...

  6. Review on Cold-Formed Steel Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Cher Siang; Mohammad, Shahrin; Md Tahir, Mahmood; Shek, Poi Ngian

    2014-01-01

    The concept of cold-formed light steel framing construction has been widespread after understanding its structural characteristics with massive research works over the years. Connection serves as one of the important elements for light steel framing in order to achieve its structural stability. Compared to hot-rolled steel sections, cold-formed steel connections perform dissimilarity due to the thin-walled behaviour. This paper aims to review current researches on cold-formed steel connections, particularly for screw connections, storage rack connections, welded connections, and bolted connections. The performance of these connections in the design of cold-formed steel structures is discussed. PMID:24688448

  7. Flange Curling in Cold Formed Profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jeppe; Ramonas, Gediminas

    2012-01-01

    The non-linear flange curling phenomenon in cold formed profiles is the tendency of slender flanges to deform towards the neutral axis for increasing flexural curvature. Based on Braziers work, Winter proposed a simple engineering formula for determination of the local flange deformation towards...

  8. The Dominant Snow-forming Process in Warm and Cold Mixed-phase Orographic Clouds: Effects of Cloud Condensation Nuclei and Ice Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, J.; Rosenfeld, D.; Leung, L. R.; DeMott, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    Mineral dust aerosols often observed over California in winter and spring from long-range transport can be efficient ice nuclei (IN) and enhance snow precipitation in mixed-phase orographic clouds. On the other hand, local pollution particles can serve as good CCN and suppress warm rain, but their impacts on cold rain processes are uncertain. The main snow-forming mechanism in warm and cold mixed-phase orographic clouds (refer to as WMOC and CMOC, respectively) could be very different, leading to different precipitation response to CCN and IN. We have conducted 1-km resolution model simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with a spectral-bin cloud microphysical model for WMOC and CMOC cases from CalWater2011. We investigated the response of cloud microphysical processes and precipitation to CCN and IN with extremely low to extremely high concentrations using ice nucleation parameterizations that connect with dust and implemented based on observational evidences. We find that riming is the dominant process for producing snow in WMOC while deposition plays a more important role than riming in CMOC. Increasing IN leads to much more snow precipitation mainly due to an increase of deposition in CMOC and increased rimming in WMOC. Increasing CCN decreases precipitation in WMOC by efficiently suppressing warm rain, although snow is increased. In CMOC where cold rain dominates, increasing CCN significantly increases snow, leading to a net increase in precipitation. The sensitivity of supercooled liquid to CCN and IN has also been analyzed. The mechanism for the increased snow by CCN and caveats due to uncertainties in ice nucleation parameterizations will be discussed.

  9. Cold Forming of Ni-Ti Shape Memory Alloy Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fann, Kaung-Jau; Su, Jhe-Yung

    2018-03-01

    Ni-Ti shape memory alloy has two specific properties, superelasiticity and shape memory effect, and thus is widely applied in diverse industries. To extend its further application, this study attempts to investigate the feasibility of cold forming its sheet blank especially under a bi-axial tensile stress state. Not only experiments but also a Finite Element Analysis (FEA) with DEFORM 2D was conducted in this study. The material data for FEA was accomplished by the tensile test. An Erichsen-like cupping test was performed as well to determine the process parameter for experiment setup. As a result of the study, the Ni-Ti shape memory alloy sheet has a low formability for cold forming and shows a relative large springback after releasing the forming load.

  10. Manipulating cold atoms for quantum information processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, P.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: I will describe how cold atoms can be manipulated to realize arrays of addressable qbits as prototype quantum registers, focussing on how atom chips can be used in combination with cavity qed techniques to form such an array. I will discuss how the array can be generated and steered using optical lattices and the Mott transition, and describe the sources of noise and how these place limits on the use of such chips in quantum information processing. (author)

  11. Аrg-Х Proteo-Processing as Model System for Organization of Karyogenomics Interphase Chromatin of Mature Germs of Wheats, Formed in the Conditions of Cold Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Ivanova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available First experimental data on the epigenetics mechanisms of karyogenomics interphase chromatin of hexaploidy wheat are driven to terminologies of karyogenomics and epibiochemistry. The zones of localization of Arg-X of proteo-processing are educed in nonhistones and core histones, topological associated domens, in the cellular nuclear of mesocotyle of vegetative period of growth morphogeny of mature germs of wheat adapted to cold stress. These data will be useful for those who involved in the development of mathematical logic schemes of the theory and practice of biological specificity, and it could be included in the ontology of the stages karyogenomics plant growth and development.

  12. Food selectivity and processing by the cold-water coral

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oevelen, D.; Mueller, C.E.; Lundälv, T.; Middelburg, J.J.

    2016-01-01

    Cold-water corals form prominent reef ecosystemsalong ocean margins that depend on suspended resourcesproduced in surface waters. In this study, we investigatedfood processing of 13C and 15N labelled bacteria and algaeby the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa. Coral respiration,tissue incorporation

  13. New Challenges to the automotive fasteners and cold formed parts in the chinese markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jin Guang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite of substantial cold forming related R&D, innovations and new inventions have been achieved and reported by research institutes and famous industrial organisations, many small and medium size enterprises in the third world or developing countries considering this R&D activities is too luxury. Most of the third world cold forming factories still dependent on previously successful experiences by using trial an error methods. The author does not make attempt to write a scientific research paper on metal forming processes but, instead, to report the effect, application and impact of the previous and on-going metal forming related research work to the cold forming industry in China. This paper highlights the effect of 1 efficient manufacturing practices, 2 upgrading in process technology and 3improved machines capabilities in upgrading the cold forming operation. Three real-life cold forming examples from Ritai are illustrated showing the transformation from an automotive fasteners maker into a cold formed parts manufacturer.

  14. Springback Compensation in Cold Forming Process for High Strength Steel / Kompensacja sprężynowania w procesie formowania stali na zimno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bałon P.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Process of metal forming in automotive parts construction becomes more and more demanding due to tightened up tolerance and trials to realize very complex and in many cases unworkable design in mass production. Moreover it is required to cut and limit costs of die production and simultaneously keep high quality. Furthermore, construction elements are more often produced from materials which belong to High Strength Steel or Ultra High Strength Steel. Application of this kind of materials considerably reduces construction mass due to high durability. Nevertheless, it results in appearance of springback effect. Springback value depends mainly on used material as well as part geometry and in extreme cases deviation value from target part might reach in some areas high level. Reduction of implementation time, development of metal components and greater restrictions about designing and producing stamping tools generate extra costs. Designing of dies requires using of appropriate Finite Element Method software to make them more economic and less time-consuming. Therefore analysis of forming process alone is not enough to be taken into account. During the design process it is needed to include the die compensation to reach optimized blank sheet. Prediction of springback effect by tryout method and then correction of deviation is difficult arduous and painstaking. Virtual compensation methods make it possible to receive precise result in a short time. This way gives a huge economic advantage eliminating useless milling and allows to produce of die just in time. Optimization process can relate to individual operation as well as take into consideration intermediate stages in the final result, at the same time increasing the accuracy. Die compensation with software application was experimentally verified by prototype die. Quality requirements regarding products of sheet stamping process are very high due to the technologies of automatic assembly of formed

  15. Theories, Methods and Numerical Technology of Sheet Metal Cold and Hot Forming Analysis, Simulation and Engineering Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Ping; Liu, Li-zhong; Zhu, Yi-guo

    2013-01-01

    Over the last 15 years, the application of innovative steel concepts in the automotive industry has increased steadily. Numerical simulation technology of hot forming of high-strength steel allows engineers to modify the formability of hot forming steel metals and to optimize die design schemes. Theories, Methods and Numerical Technology of Sheet Metal Cold and Hot Forming focuses on hot and cold forming theories, numerical methods, relative simulation and experiment techniques for high-strength steel forming and die design in the automobile industry. Theories, Methods and Numerical Technology of Sheet Metal Cold and Hot Forming introduces the general theories of cold forming, then expands upon advanced hot forming theories and simulation methods, including: • the forming process, • constitutive equations, • hot boundary constraint treatment, and • hot forming equipment and experiments. Various calculation methods of cold and hot forming, based on the authors’ experience in commercial CAE software f...

  16. Experimental Study of Axially Tension Cold Formed Steel Channel Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apriani, Widya; Lubis, Fadrizal; Angraini, Muthia

    2017-12-01

    Experimental testing is commonly used as one of the steps to determine the cause of the collapse of a building structure. The collapse of structures can be due to low quality materials. Although material samples have passed laboratory tests and the existing technical specifications have been met but there may be undetected defects and known material after failure. In this paper will be presented Experimental Testing of Axially Tension Cold Formed Steel Channel Members to determine the cause of the collapse of a building roof truss x in Pekanbaru. Test of tensile strength material cold formed channel sections was performed to obtain the main characteristics of Cold Formed steel material, namely ultimate tensile strength loads that can be held by members and the yield stress possessed by channel sections used in construction. Analysis of axially tension cold formed steel channel section presents in this paper was conducted through experimental study based on specificationsAnnualBook of ASTM Standards: Metal Test methods and Analitical Procedures, Section 3 (1991). The result of capacity loads experimental test was compared with design based on SNI 03-7971-2013standard of Indonesia for the design of cold formed steel structural members. The results of the yield stress of the material will be seen against the minimum allowable allowable stress range. After the test, the percentace of ultimate axial tension capacity theory has a result that is 16.46% larger than the ultimate axial tension capacity experimental. When compared with the load that must be borne 5.673 kN/m it can be concluded that 2 specimens do not meet. Yield stress of member has fulfilled requirement that wass bigger than 550 MPa. Based on the curve obtained ultimate axial tension capacity theory, results greater than experimental. The greatest voltage value (fu) is achieved under the same conditions as its yield stress. For this specimen with a melting voltage value fy = 571.5068 MPa has fulfilled the

  17. Comparative assessment of TRU waste forms and processes. Volume I. Waste form and process evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, W.A.; Lokken, R.O.; May, R.P.; Roberts, F.P.; Timmerman, C.L.; Treat, R.L.; Westsik, J.H. Jr.

    1982-09-01

    This study provides an assesses seven waste forms and eight processes for immobilizing transuranic (TRU) wastes. The waste forms considered are cast cement, cold-pressed cement, FUETAP (formed under elevated temperature and pressure) cement, borosilicate glass, aluminosilicate glass, basalt glass-ceramic, and cold-pressed and sintered silicate ceramic. The waste-immobilization processes considered are in-can glass melting, joule-heated glass melting, glass marble forming, cement casting, cement cold-pressing, FUETAP cement processing, ceramic cold-pressing and sintering, basalt glass-ceramic processing. Properties considered included gas generation, chemical durability, mechanical strength, thermal stability, and radiation stability. The ceramic products demonstrated the best properties, except for plutonium release during leaching. The glass and ceramic products had similar properties. The cement products generally had poorer properties than the other forms, except for plutonium release during leaching. Calculations of the Pu release indicated that the waste forms met the proposed NRC release rate limit of 1 part in 10 5 per year in most test conditions. The cast-cement process had the lowest processing cost, followed closely by the cold-pressed and FUETAP cement processes. Joule-heated glass melting had the lower cost of the glass processes. In-can melting in a high-quality canister had the highest cost, and cold-pressed and sintered ceramic the second highest. Labor and canister costs for in-can melting were identified. The major contributor to costs of disposing of TRU wastes in a defense waste repository is waste processing costs. Repository costs could become the dominant cost for disposing of TRU wastes in a commercial repository. It is recommended that cast and FUETAP cement and borosilicate glass waste-form systems be considered. 13 figures, 16 tables

  18. IMPROVED, FAVORABLE FOR ENVIRONMENT POLYURETHANE COLD-BOX-PROCESS (COLD BOX «HUTTENES-ALBERTUS» .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sergini

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of the laboratory and industrial investigations, the purpose of which is improvement of the classical Cold-box-process, i.e. the process of the slugs hardening in cold boxes, are presented.

  19. Forms of Employee Trainings Concerning Aspects of Cold Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komańda Marcin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Research relevance: Cold knowledge is perceived as a key issue in terms of the composition of the company and the sense of the procedures being implemented. Thus, organisation of appropriate forms of employee trainings in this regard becomes essential. Aim of the paper: Distinguishing the existence of schemes of applied forms of employee trainings in the contexts of relation between two aspects of cold knowledge (internal documentation and data bases and the types of enterprises (their formal independence. Research methods applied: A survey based on the purposive sampling of respondents was conducted. A two-tiered clustering analysis and an analysis of correspondence were applied. Main findings: It was possible to distinguish four groups of particular forms of trainings. Three groups are represented by the same main forms of trainings in both cases (documentation/databases. The analysis of correspondence established that respondents from branches as well as head offices of multi-branch enterprises were, in case of trainings concerning internal documentation, more prone to point at two forms of trainings: blended and special, whereas, in case of training within the scope of databases, they were more willing to point at a special form of trainings. Theoretical and/or practical value of the study: Results allow to associate the forms of employee trainings in the chosen aspects of cold knowledge and show the differentiation of their use depending on the type of enterprise. These facts open up a new theoretical perspective for the description of organisation of employee trainings based on formal relations.`

  20. A NEWLY FORMING COLD FLOW PROTOGALACTIC DISK, A SIGNATURE OF COLD ACCRETION FROM THE COSMIC WEB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, D. Christopher; Matuszewski, Mateusz; Morrissey, Patrick; Neill, James D.; Moore, Anna; Steidel, Charles C.; Trainor, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    How galaxies form from, and are fueled by, gas from the intergalactic medium (IGM) remains one of the major unsolved problems in galaxy formation. While the classical Cold Dark Matter paradigm posits galaxies forming from cooling virialized gas, recent theory and numerical simulations have highlighted the importance of cold accretion flows—relatively cool ( T ∼ few × 104 K) unshocked gas streaming along filaments into dark matter halos, including hot, massive, high-redshift halos. These flows are thought to deposit gas and angular momentum into the circumgalactic medium resulting in disk- or ring-like structures, eventually coalescing into galaxies forming at filamentary intersections. We earlier reported a bright, Ly α emitting filament near the QSO HS1549+19 at redshift z = 2.843 discovered with the Palomar Cosmic Web Imager. We now report that the bright part of this filament is an enormous ( R > 100 kpc) rotating structure of hydrogen gas with a disk-like velocity profile consistent with a 4 × 10"1"2 M _⊙ halo. The orbital time of the outer part of the what we term a “protodisk” is comparable to the virialization time and the age of the universe at this redshift. We propose that this protodisk can only have recently formed from cold gas flowing directly from the cosmic web.

  1. A NEWLY FORMING COLD FLOW PROTOGALACTIC DISK, A SIGNATURE OF COLD ACCRETION FROM THE COSMIC WEB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, D. Christopher; Matuszewski, Mateusz; Morrissey, Patrick; Neill, James D. [Cahill Center for Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, 1216 East California Boulevard, Mail Code 278-17, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Moore, Anna [Caltech Optical Observatories, Cahill Center for Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, 1216 East California Boulevard, Mail Code 11-17, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Steidel, Charles C. [Cahill Center for Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, 1216 East California Boulevard, Mail Code 249-17, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Trainor, Ryan, E-mail: cmartin@srl.caltech.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, 501 15 Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2016-06-10

    How galaxies form from, and are fueled by, gas from the intergalactic medium (IGM) remains one of the major unsolved problems in galaxy formation. While the classical Cold Dark Matter paradigm posits galaxies forming from cooling virialized gas, recent theory and numerical simulations have highlighted the importance of cold accretion flows—relatively cool ( T ∼ few × 104 K) unshocked gas streaming along filaments into dark matter halos, including hot, massive, high-redshift halos. These flows are thought to deposit gas and angular momentum into the circumgalactic medium resulting in disk- or ring-like structures, eventually coalescing into galaxies forming at filamentary intersections. We earlier reported a bright, Ly α emitting filament near the QSO HS1549+19 at redshift z = 2.843 discovered with the Palomar Cosmic Web Imager. We now report that the bright part of this filament is an enormous ( R > 100 kpc) rotating structure of hydrogen gas with a disk-like velocity profile consistent with a 4 × 10{sup 12} M {sub ⊙} halo. The orbital time of the outer part of the what we term a “protodisk” is comparable to the virialization time and the age of the universe at this redshift. We propose that this protodisk can only have recently formed from cold gas flowing directly from the cosmic web.

  2. Methanation process utilizing split cold gas recycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajbl, Daniel G.; Lee, Bernard S.; Schora, Jr., Frank C.; Lam, Henry W.

    1976-07-06

    In the methanation of feed gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen in multiple stages, the feed gas, cold recycle gas and hot product gas is mixed in such proportions that the mixture is at a temperature sufficiently high to avoid carbonyl formation and to initiate the reaction and, so that upon complete reaction of the carbon monoxide and hydrogen, an excessive adiabatic temperature will not be reached. Catalyst damage by high or low temperatures is thereby avoided with a process that utilizes extraordinarily low recycle ratios and a minimum of investment in operating costs.

  3. Distribution of Microstructure and Vickers Hardness in Spur Bevel Gear Formed by Cold Rotary Forging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuhao Zhuang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cold rotary forging is a novel metal forming technology which is widely used to produce the high performance gears. Investigating the microstructure and mechanical property of cold rotary forged gears has a great significance in improving their service performance. In this study, the grain morphology in different regions of the spur bevel gear which is processed by cold rotary forging is presented. And the distribution regulars of the grain deformation and Vickers hardness in the transverse and axial sections of the gear tooth are studied experimentally. A three-dimensional rigid-plastic FE model is developed to simulate the cold rotary forging process of a spur bevel gear under the DEFORM-3D software environment. The variation of effective strain in the spur bevel gear has been investigated so as to explain the distribution regulars of the microstructure and Vickers hardness. The results of this research thoroughly reveal the inhomogeneous deformation mechanisms in cold rotary forging of spur bevel gears and provide valuable guidelines for improving the performance of cold rotary forged spur bevel gears.

  4. Study of Cold Coiling Spring Steel on Microstructure and Cold Forming Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Y.; Liang, Y. L.; Ming, Y.; Zhao, F.

    2017-09-01

    Medium-carbon cold-coiling locomotive spring steels were treated by a novel Q-P-T (quenching-partitioning-tempering) process. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the relevant parameters of the steel. Results show that the microstructure of tested steel treated by Q-P-T process is a complex microstructures composed of martensite, bainite and retained austenite. The volume fraction of retained austenite (wt.%) is up to 31%. After pre-deforming and tempering again at 310°C, the plasticity of samples treated by Q-P-T process is still well. Fracture images show that the Q-P-T samples are ductile fracture. It is attributed to the higher volume fraction of the retained austenite and the interactions between the multi-phases in Q-P-T processed sample.

  5. Buckling Behavior of Cold-Formed Studs with Thermal Perforations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garifullin Marsel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that the optimal structural scheme for low-rise buildings that meets all regulatory requirements is a frame system. In this connection, thin-walled cold-formed steel (CFS profiles seem to be the best material for constructing light steel framed (LSF walls. The framework of LSF walls is usually constructed from CFS C-shaped profiles. To increase the thermal effectiveness of a wall, CFS profiles usually have thermal perforations and thus are called thermoprofiles. However, these openings have a negative impact on bearing capacity of profiles and require accurate evaluation. In this article a relatively new reticular-stretched thermoprofile with diamond-shaped openings is considered. The article deals with the buckling analysis of perforated CFS C-sections subjected to compression.

  6. Fatigue life of high strength steel for cold forming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ulewicz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of fatigue tests carried out on STRENX-type high-strength cold forming steel. For high-cycle fatigue tests carried out using low cycle loading frequencies of around 30 Hz, a ROTOFLEX machine was used. For ultra high-cycle tests, a KAUP-ZU testing machine was employed, which enables fatigue tests to be performed with symetric specimen loading (R = -1 and at a frequency of f ≈ 20 kHz. The relationships σa = f(N were determined experimentally in the high and ultra high-cycle region for STRENX high-strength steel. To determine the fatigue crack initiation mechanism, the fractographic analysis of fatigue fractures was made.

  7. Tool Wear and Life Span Variations in Cold Forming Operations and Their Implications in Microforming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders E. W. Jarfors

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The current paper aims to review tooling life span, failure modes and models in cold microforming processes. As there is nearly no information available on tool-life for microforming the starting point was conventional cold forming. In cold forming common failures are (1 over stressing of the tool; (2 abrasive wear; (3 galling or adhesive wear, and (4 fatigue failure. The large variation in tool life observed in production and how to predict this was reviewed as this is important to the viability of microforming based on that the tooling cost takes a higher portion of the part cost. Anisotropic properties of the tool materials affect tool life span and depend on both the as-received and in-service conditions. It was concluded that preconditioning of the tool surface, and coating are important to control wear and fatigue. Properly managed, the detrimental effects from surface particles can be reduced. Under high stress low-cycle fatigue conditions, fatigue failure form internal microstructures and inclusions are common. To improve abrasive wear resistance larger carbides are commonly the solution which will have a negative impact on tooling life as these tend to be the root cause of fatigue failures. This has significant impact on cold microforming.

  8. Cold forming of aluminium - State of the art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels

    1997-01-01

    The ongoing development of cold forging technology has been manifested lately by the increasing application of components in cold forged aluminium alloys. Applying precipitation hardening alloys components with great strength/weight ratio can be produced with a strength comparable...... to that of unalloyed steel. After description of the different types of alloys and their individual properties and applications, the special requirements for tool design by cold forging in aluminium is discussed. Finally, a large number of industrial examples on cold forged aluminium components are presented. (C) 1997...

  9. Food selectivity and processing by the cold-water Coral Lophelia pertusa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oevelen, Dick; Mueller, Christina E.; Lundälv, Tomas; Middelburg, Jack J.

    2016-01-01

    Cold-water corals form prominent reef ecosystems along ocean margins that depend on suspended resources produced in surface waters. In this study, we investigated food processing of 13C and 15N labelled bacteria and algae by the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa. Coral respiration, tissue

  10. Hot and cold pressing of (La,Ce)PO4-based nuclear waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floran, R.J.; Rappaz, M.; Abraham, M.M.; Boatner, L.A.

    1981-01-01

    Synthetic analogs of the mineral monazite [(Ce,La,Ca,Th,U)(P,Si)O 4 ] are promising host phases for the isolation of actinide wastes. In the present investigation, the optimal conditions necessary to form high-density, simulated waste pellets from calcined LaPO 4 and CePO 4 powders have been examined. Pellets that are close to the theoretical density are necessary in order to minimize porosity and hence potential avenues along which fluid/waste interactions can take place. Calcined powders prepared by a urea precipitation process were cold pressed and hot pressed under a range of controlled conditions to form coherent, cylindrical pellets. Changes in density were examined as a function of pressure, temperature and duration of sintering. For cold-pressed pellets, a significant increase in density occurs during sintering between 1000 0 C and 1100 0 C. This increase is correlated with substantial grain coarsening of the pellet microstructure. A comparison of cold and hot pressing techniques suggests that, only after sintering, does the density of cold-pressed pellets approach (but not equal) that of the hot-pressed pellets. Densities >90% of the theoretical value of 5.11 g/cm 3 are easily attainable by hot pressing without sintering. The significance of density differences on pellet stability will be investigated in future leaching studies. The apparent advantages of the higher densities achieved by hot pressing must be weighed against the increased technological/engineering complexities involved when working at sustained high temperatures in a remote environment. Thus the cold pressing technique may ultimately prove more practical for large-scale commercial operations

  11. Micromechanics-based damage model for failure prediction in cold forming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, X.Z.; Chan, L.C., E-mail: lc.chan@polyu.edu.hk

    2017-04-06

    The purpose of this study was to develop a micromechanics-based damage (micro-damage) model that was concerned with the evolution of micro-voids for failure prediction in cold forming. Typical stainless steel SS316L was selected as the specimen material, and the nonlinear isotropic hardening rule was extended to describe the large deformation of the specimen undergoing cold forming. A micro-focus high-resolution X-ray computed tomography (CT) system was employed to trace and measure the micro-voids inside the specimen directly. Three-dimensional (3D) representative volume element (RVE) models with different sizes and spatial locations were reconstructed from the processed CT images of the specimen, and the average size and volume fraction of micro-voids (VFMV) for the specimen were determined via statistical analysis. Subsequently, the micro-damage model was compiled as a user-defined material subroutine into the finite element (FE) package ABAQUS. The stress-strain responses and damage evolutions of SS316L specimens under tensile and compressive deformations at different strain rates were predicted and further verified experimentally. It was concluded that the proposed micro-damage model is convincing for failure prediction in cold forming of the SS316L material.

  12. Application of laser assisted cold spraying process for metal deposition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tlotleng, Monnamme

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Laser assisted cold spraying (LACS) process is a hybrid technique that uses laser and cold spray to deposit solid powders on metal substrates. For bonding to occur, the particle velocities must be supersonic which are achieved by entraining...

  13. The process and risk of the CPR1000 cold function test in the cold area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Tinghao; Zhang Jian; Ji Dapeng; Shi Quanjian; Tian Kuo

    2014-01-01

    Hong yanhe nuclear power station is the first CPR1000 reactor which is under construction in the cold area of north China. It is also the first time to carry out the cold functional test (CFT) in the winter of north China. The preparation and process of CFT are described in the paper. According to the experience feedback of CFT of Unit 1, the risk and solution which are significance for the CFT of the other NPS in the cold area are analysed. (authors)

  14. Experimental Investigation of Tensile Test on Connection of Cold-formed Cut-curved Steel Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sani, Mohd Syahrul Hisyam Mohd; Muftah, Fadhluhartini; Rahman, Nurul Farraheeda Abdul; Fakri Muda, Mohd

    2017-08-01

    Cold-formed steel (CFS) is widely used as structural and non-structural components such as roof trusses and purlin. A CFS channel section with double intermediate web stiffener and lipped is chosen based on the broader usage in roof truss construction. CFS section is cut to form cold-formed pre-cut-curved steel section and lastly strengthened by several types of method or likely known as connection to establish the cold-formed cut-curved steel (CFCCS) section. CFCCS is proposed to be used as a top chord section in the roof truss system. The CFCCS is to resist the buckling phenomena of the roof truss structure and reduced the compression effect on the top chord. The tensile test connection of CFCCS section, especially at the flange element with eight types of connection by welding, plate with self-drilling screw and combination is investigated. The flange element is the weakest part that must be solved first other than the web element because they are being cut totally, 100% of their length for curving process. The testing is done using a universal testing machine for a tensile load. From the experiment, specimen with full welding has shown as a good result with an ultimate load of 13.37 kN and reported having 35.41% when compared with normal specimen without any of connection methods. Furthermore, the experimental result is distinguished by using Eurocode 3. The failure of a full welding specimen is due to breaking at the welding location. Additionally, all specimens with either full weld or spot weld or combination failed due to breaking on weld connection, but specimen with flange plate and self-drilling screw failed due to tilting and bearing. Finally, the full welding specimen is chosen as a good connection to perform the strengthening method of CFCCS section.

  15. The production of advanced glass ceramic HLW forms using cold crucible induction melter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutledge, V.J.; Maio, V.

    2013-01-01

    Cold Crucible Induction Melters (CCIM) will favorably change how High-Level radioactive Waste (from nuclear fuel recovery) is treated in a near future. Unlike the existing Joule-Heated Melters (JHM) currently in operation for the glass-based immobilization of High-Level Waste (HLW), CCIM offers unique material features that will increase melt temperatures, increase throughput, increase mixing, increase loading in the waste form, lower melter foot prints, eliminate melter corrosion and lower costs. These features not only enhance the technology for producing HLW forms, but also provide advantageous attributes to the waste form by allowing more durable alternatives to glass. It is concluded that glass ceramic waste forms that are tailored to immobilize fission products of HLW can be can be made from the HLW processed with the CCIM. The advantageous higher temperatures reached with the CCIM and unachievable with JHM allows the lanthanides, alkali, alkaline earths, and molybdenum to dissolve into a molten glass. Upon controlled cooling they go into targeted crystalline phases to form a glass ceramic waste form with higher waste loadings than achievable with borosilicate glass waste forms. Natural cooling proves to be too fast for the formation of all targeted crystalline phases

  16. Cold crucible induction melter studies for making glass ceramic waste forms: A feasibility assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crum, Jarrod; Maio, Vince; McCloy, John; Scott, Clark; Riley, Brian; Benefiel, Brad; Vienna, John; Archibald, Kip; Rodriguez, Carmen; Rutledge, Veronica; Zhu, Zihua; Ryan, Joe; Olszta, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Glass ceramics are being developed to immobilize fission products, separated from used nuclear fuel by aqueous reprocessing, into a stable waste form suitable for disposal in a geological repository. This work documents the glass ceramic formulation at bench scale and for a scaled melter test performed in a pilot-scale (∼1/4 scale) cold crucible induction melter (CCIM). Melt viscosity, electrical conductivity, and crystallization behavior upon cooling were measured on a small set of compositions to select a formulation for melter testing. Property measurements also identified a temperature range for melter operation and cooling profiles necessary to crystallize the targeted phases in the waste form. Bench scale and melter run results successfully demonstrate the processability of the glass ceramic using the CCIM melter technology

  17. Powder consolidation using cold spray process modeling and emerging applications

    CERN Document Server

    Moridi, Atieh

    2017-01-01

    This book first presents different approaches to modeling of the cold spray process with the aim of extending current understanding of its fundamental principles and then describes emerging applications of cold spray. In the coverage of modeling, careful attention is devoted to the assessment of critical and erosion velocities. In order to reveal the phenomenological characteristics of interface bonding, severe, localized plastic deformation and material jet formation are studied. Detailed consideration is also given to the effect of macroscopic defects such as interparticle boundaries and subsequent splat boundary cracking on the mechanical behavior of cold spray coatings. The discussion of applications focuses in particular on the repair of damaged parts and additive manufacturing in various disciplines from aerospace to biomedical engineering. Key aspects include a systematic study of defect shape and the ability of cold spray to fill the defect, examination of the fatigue behavior of coatings for structur...

  18. Cold spray NDE for porosity and other process anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, S. W.; Larche, M. R.; Prowant, M. S.; Suter, J. D.; Lareau, J. P.; Jiang, X.; Ross, K. A.

    2018-04-01

    This paper describes a technology review of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods that can be applied to cold spray coatings. Cold spray is a process for depositing metal powder at high velocity so that it bonds to the substrate metal without significant heating that would be likely to cause additional residual tensile stresses. Coatings in the range from millimeters to centimeters are possible at relatively high deposition rates. Cold spray coatings that may be used for hydroelectric components that are subject to erosion, corrosion, wear, and cavitation damage are of interest. The topic of cold spray NDE is treated generally, however, but may be considered applicable to virtually any cold spray application except where there are constraints of the hydroelectric component application that bear special consideration. Optical profilometry, eddy current, ultrasound, and hardness tests are shown for one set of good, fair, and poor nickel-chrome (NiCr) on 304 stainless steel (304SS) cold spray samples to demonstrate inspection possibilities. The primary indicator of cold spray quality is the cold spray porosity that is most directly measured with witness-sample destructive examinations (DE)—mostly photo-micrographs. These DE-generated porosity values are correlated with optical profilometry, eddy current, ultrasound, and hardness test NDE methods to infer the porosity and other information of interest. These parameters of interest primarily include: • Porosity primarily caused by improper process conditions (temperature, gas velocity, spray standoff, spray angle, powder size, condition, surface cleanliness, surface oxide, etc.) • Presence/absence of the cold spray coating including possible over-sprayed voids • Coating thicknessOptical profilometry measurements of surface roughness trended with porosity plus, if compared with a reference measurement or reference drawing, would provide information on the coating thickness. Ultrasound could provide similar

  19. Forming processes and mechanics of sheet metal forming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burchitz, I.A.

    2004-01-01

    The report is dealing with the numerical analysis of forming processes. Forming processes is the large group of manufacturing processes used to obtain various product shapes by means of plastic deformations. The report is organized as follows. An overview of the deformation processes and the

  20. Design Optimization of Long-Span Cold-Formed Steel Portal Frames Accounting for Effect of Knee Brace Joint Configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Duoc Phan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The application of cold-formed steel channel sections for portal frames becomes more popular for industrial and residential purposes. Experimental tests showed that such structures with long-span up to 20 m can be achieved when knee brace joints are included. In this paper, the influence of knee brace configuration on the optimum design of long-span cold-formed steel portal frames is investigated. The cold-formed steel portal frames are designed using Eurocode 3 under ultimate limit states. A novel method in handling design constraints integrated with genetic algorithm is proposed for searching the optimum design of cold-formed steel portal frames. The result showed that the proposed routine for design optimization effectively searched the near global optimum solution with the computational time is approximate 50% faster than methods being popularly used in literature. The optimum configuration for knee brace joint can reduce the section size of rafter and so the lighter frame could be obtained especially for long-span portal frame. The minimum weight of main frame obtained from optimization process is approximate 19.72% lighter than a Benchmark Frame used in the full-scale experimental test.

  1. Cold crucible induction melter test for crystalline ceramic waste form fabrication: A feasibility assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoroso, Jake W., E-mail: jake.amoroso@srnl.doe.gov [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Marra, James; Dandeneau, Christopher S. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Brinkman, Kyle; Xu, Yun [Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Tang, Ming [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Maio, Vince [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States); Webb, Samuel M. [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94086 (United States); Chiu, Wilson K.S. [University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269-3139 (United States)

    2017-04-01

    The first scaled proof-of-principle cold crucible induction melter (CCIM) test to process a multiphase ceramic waste form from a simulated combined (Cs/Sr, lanthanide and transition metal fission products) commercial used nuclear fuel waste stream was recently conducted in the United States. X-ray diffraction, 2-D X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy for Cs), and product consistency tests were used to characterize the fabricated CCIM material. Characterization analyses confirmed that a crystalline ceramic with a desirable phase assemblage was produced from a melt using a CCIM. Primary hollandite, pyrochlore/zirconolite, and perovskite phases were identified in addition to minor phases rich in Fe, Al, or Cs. The material produced in the CCIM was chemically homogeneous and displayed a uniform phase assemblage with acceptable aqueous chemical durability.

  2. Cold plasma as a nonthermal food processing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contamination of meats, seafood, poultry, eggs, and fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables is an ongoing concern. Although well-established in non-food applications for surface treatment and modification, cold plasma is a relatively new food safety intervention. As a nonthermal food processing te...

  3. Finite element analysis of composite beam-to-column connection with cold-formed steel section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdaus, Muhammad; Saggaff, Anis; Tahir, Mahmood Md

    2017-11-01

    Cold-formed steel (CFS) sections are well known due to its lightweight and high structural performance which is very popular for building construction. Conventionally, they are used as purlins and side rails in the building envelopes of the industrial buildings. Recent research development on cold-formed steel has shown that the usage is expanded to the use in composite construction. This paper presents the modelling of the proposed composite connection of beam-to-column connection where cold-formed steel of lipped steel section is positioned back-to-back to perform as beam. Reinforcement bars is used to perform the composite action anchoring to the column and part of it is embedded into a slab. The results of the finite element and numerical analysis has showed good agreement. The results show that the proposed composite connection contributes to significant increase to the moment capacity.

  4. Cold Spraying of Armstrong Process Titanium Powder for Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, D.; Fernández, R.; Delloro, F.; Jodoin, B.

    2017-04-01

    Titanium parts are ideally suited for aerospace applications due to their unique combination of high specific strength and excellent corrosion resistance. However, titanium as bulk material is expensive and challenging/costly to machine. Production of complex titanium parts through additive manufacturing looks promising, but there are still many barriers to overcome before reaching mainstream commercialization. The cold gas dynamic spraying process offers the potential for additive manufacturing of large titanium parts due to its reduced reactive environment, its simplicity to operate, and the high deposition rates it offers. A few challenges are to be addressed before the additive manufacturing potential of titanium by cold gas dynamic spraying can be reached. In particular, it is known that titanium is easy to deposit by cold gas dynamic spraying, but the deposits produced are usually porous when nitrogen is used as the carrier gas. In this work, a method to manufacture low-porosity titanium components at high deposition efficiencies is revealed. The components are produced by combining low-pressure cold spray using nitrogen as the carrier gas with low-cost titanium powder produced using the Armstrong process. The microstructure and mechanical properties of additive manufactured titanium components are investigated.

  5. Main processes of the Atlantic cold tongue interannual variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planton, Yann; Voldoire, Aurore; Giordani, Hervé; Caniaux, Guy

    2018-03-01

    The interannual variability of the Atlantic cold tongue (ACT) is studied by means of a mixed-layer heat budget analysis. A method to classify extreme cold and warm ACT events is proposed and applied to ten various analysis and reanalysis products. This classification allows 5 cold and 5 warm ACT events to be selected over the period 1982-2007. Cold (warm) ACT events are defined by the presence of negative (positive) sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies at the center of the equatorial Atlantic in late boreal spring, preceded by negative (positive) zonal wind stress anomalies in the western equatorial Atlantic. An ocean general circulation model capable of reconstructing the interannual variability of the ACT correctly is used to demonstrate that cold ACT events develop rapidly from May to June mainly due to intense cooling by vertical mixing and horizontal advection. The simulated cooling at the center of the basin is the result of the combined effects of non-local and local processes. The non-local process is an upwelling associated with an eastward-propagating Kelvin wave, which makes the mixed-layer more shallow and preconditions the upper layers to be cooled by an intense heat loss at the base of the mixed-layer, which is amplified by a stronger local injection of energy from the atmosphere. The early cooling by vertical mixing in March is also shown to be a good predictor of June cooling. In July, horizontal advection starts to warm the mixed-layer abnormally and damps SST anomalies. The advection anomalies, which result from changes in the horizontal temperature gradient, are associated in some cases with the propagation of Rossby waves along the equator. During warm ACT events, processes are reversed, generating positive SST anomalies: a downwelling Kelvin wave triggers stratification anomalies and mixed-layer depth anomalies, amplified by a weaker injection of energy from the atmosphere in May-June. In July, warm ACT events are abnormally cooled due to

  6. Uranium alloy forming process research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, T.S.; Biesiada, T.A.; Sunwoo, A.; Long, J.; Anklam, T.; Kang, S.W.

    1997-01-01

    The study of modern U-6Nb processes is motivated by the needs to reduce fabrication costs and to improve efficiency in material usage. We have studied two potential options: physical vapor deposition (PVD) for manufacturing near-net-shape U-6Nb, and kinetic-energy metallization (KEM) as a supplemental process for refurbishing recycled parts. In FY 1996, we completed two series of PVD runs and heat treatment analyses, the characterization of the microstructure and mechanical properties, a comparison of the results to data for wrought-processed material, and experimental demonstration of the KEM feasibility process with a wide range of variables (particle materials and sizes, gases and gas pressures, and substrate materials), and computer modeling calculations

  7. THE COLD AND DARK PROCESS AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilmour, J; William Austin, W; Cathy Sizemore, C

    2007-01-01

    The deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) of a facility exposes D and D workers to numerous hazards. One of the more serious hazards is coming into contact to hazardous energy sources (e.g. electrical, pressurized steam). At the Savannah River Site (SRS) a formal process for identifying and eliminating sources of hazardous energy was developed and is called ''Cold and Dark''. Several ''near miss'' events involving cutting of energized conductors during D and D work in buildings thought to be isolated identified the need to have a formal process to identify and isolate these potentially hazardous systems. This process was developed using lessons learned from D and D activities at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Rocky Flats) in Colorado. The Cold and Dark process defines an isolation boundary (usually a building perimeter) and then systematically identifies all of the penetrations through this boundary. All penetrations that involve hazardous energy sources are then physically air-gapped. The final product is a documented declaration of isolation performed by a team involving operations, engineering, and project management. Once the Cold and Dark declaration is made for a building work can proceed without the usual controls used in an operational facility (e.g. lockout/tagout, arc flash PPE). It is important to note that the Cold and Dark process does not remove all hazards from a facility. Work planning and controls still need to address hazards that can be present from such things as chemicals, radiological contamination, residual liquids, etc., as well as standard industrial hazards

  8. Cold comfort at the Magh Mela: social identity processes and physical hardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Kavita; Stevenson, Clifford; Shankar, Shail; Hopkins, Nicholas P; Reicher, Stephen D

    2014-12-01

    Humans inhabit environments that are both social and physical, and in this article we investigate if and how social identity processes shape the experience and negotiation of physically demanding environmental conditions. Specifically, we consider how severe cold can be interpreted and experienced in relation to group members' social identity. Our data comprise ethnographic observation and semi-structured interviews with pilgrims attending a month-long winter Hindu religious festival that is characterized by near-freezing conditions. The analysis explores (1) how pilgrims appraised the cold and how these appraisals were shaped by their identity as pilgrims; (2) how shared identity with other pilgrims led to forms of mutual support that made it easier to cope with the cold. Our findings therefore extend theorizing on social identity processes to highlight their relevance to physical as well as social conditions. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  9. MM99.70 - MODELS FOR FRICTION AND MATERIAL STRESS STRAIN HARDENING IN COLD FORMING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Morten

    1999-01-01

    and tool temperature for four different combination of basic material, conversion layer and lubricant. Furthermore flow stress curves for aluminium, steel and stainless steel are given at varying slug temperatures in the range which can be reached in cold forming (25-200C).The documentation is divided...

  10. New design of process for cold forging to improve multi-stage gas fitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Sung Huang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This work develops a process that solves the problem of the formation of cracks inside forged gas fittings in the cold forging process that arises from poor forging process design. DEFORM-3D forming software was utilized, and macroscopic experiments with optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were conducted to investigate the processed structures and the distribution therein of metal flow lines, and to find the internal micro-cracks to determine whether the cold forging process is reasonable. Analytical results herein demonstrate that the stress and strain inside the gas fitting can be elucidated using metal forming software. Together with experimental results, they demonstrate that a concentration of stress damages the workpiece in the forming process. Moreover, as metal flow lines become narrower, the workpiece becomes more easily damaged. Consequently, the improved cold forging process that is described in this work should be utilized to reduce the occurrence of fine cracks and defects. Planning for proper die design and production, increasing the quality of products, and reducing the number of defective products promote industrial competitiveness.

  11. Processes for production of alternative waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, W.A.; Rusin, J.M.; McElroy, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    During the past 20 years, numerous waste forms and processes have been proposed for solidification of high-level radioactive wastes (HLW). The number has increased significantly during the past 3 to 4 years. At least five factors must be considered in selecting the waste form and process method: 1) processing flexibility, 2) waste loading, 3) canister size and stability, 4) waste form inertness and stability, and 5) processing complexity. This paper describes various waste form processes and operations, and a simple system is proposed for making comparisons. This system suggests that one goal for processes would be to reduce the number of process steps, thereby providing less complex processing systems

  12. Empirical Profiling of Cold Hydrogen Plumes Formed from Venting Of LH2 Storage Vessels: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buttner, William J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rivkin, Carl H [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schmidt, Kara [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hartmann, Kevin S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wright, Hannah [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Weidner, Eveline [Joint Research Centre, Petten, the Netherlands; Ciotti, Michael [H2 Fueling and CIP Markets Engineering

    2017-11-16

    Liquid hydrogen (LH2) storage is a viable approach to assuring sufficient hydrogen capacity at commercial fuelling stations. Presently, LH2 is produced at remote facilities and then transported to the end-use site by road vehicles (i.e., LH2 tanker trucks). Venting of hydrogen to depressurize the transport storage tank is a routine part of the LH2 delivery process. The behaviour of cold hydrogen plumes has not been well-characterized because empirical field data is essentially non-existent. The NFPA 2 Hydrogen Storage Safety Task Group, which consists of hydrogen producers, safety experts, and CFD modellers, has identified the lack of understanding of hydrogen dispersion during LH2 venting of storage vessel as a critical gap for establishing safety distances at LH2 facilities, especially commercial hydrogen fuelling stations. To address this need, the NREL sensor laboratory, in collaboration with the NFPA 2 Safety Task Group developed the Cold Hydrogen Plume Analyzer to empirically characterize the hydrogen plume formed during LH2 storage tank venting. A prototype Analyzer was developed and field-deployed at an actual LH2 venting operation with critical findings that included: - H2 being detected as much as 2 m lower than the release point, which is not predicted by existing models - A small and inconsistent correlation between oxygen depletion and the hydrogen concentration - A negligible to non-existent correlation between in-situ temperature and the hydrogen concentration The Analyzer is currently being upgraded for enhanced metrological capabilities including improved real-time spatial and temporal profiling of the plume and tracking of prevailing weather conditions. Additional deployments are planned to monitor plume behaviour under different wind, humidity, and temperatures. This data will be shared with the NFPA 2 Safety Task Group and ultimately will be used support theoretical models and code requirements prescribed in NFPA 2.

  13. A NEW FORM OF SECURITY COOPERATION AND COLLECTIVECONFLICT MANAGEMENT IN THE POST COLD WARINTERNATIONAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinem KOCAMAZ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available International security environment changed completely after the Cold War.During the Cold War years security challenges wereshaped by competitive powerrelations between Soviet Union and the United States. On the other hand after theend of the Cold War, global security was redefinedand wide range of securitychallenges and threats occurred. After fragmentation of security threats, newthreats emerged such as terrorist attacks, massacres which are made by humansown governments, chronic politic instabilities, environmental degradations etc.Under these circumstances new forms of security cooperation became more vitalin order to cope with these complex challenges. Inthis respect third partiesbecame an actor to manage conflicts, security challenges and crises. Unliketraditional nation-state intervention, regional organizations, international agenciesand non-governmental organizations became more active in conflict managementprocess. In this framework this study will evaluateperformance and theeffectiveness of the main actors in the collectiveconflict management (CCMprocess.

  14. A unified dislocation density-dependent physical-based constitutive model for cold metal forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schacht, K.; Motaman, A. H.; Prahl, U.; Bleck, W.

    2017-10-01

    Dislocation-density-dependent physical-based constitutive models of metal plasticity while are computationally efficient and history-dependent, can accurately account for varying process parameters such as strain, strain rate and temperature; different loading modes such as continuous deformation, creep and relaxation; microscopic metallurgical processes; and varying chemical composition within an alloy family. Since these models are founded on essential phenomena dominating the deformation, they have a larger range of usability and validity. Also, they are suitable for manufacturing chain simulations since they can efficiently compute the cumulative effect of the various manufacturing processes by following the material state through the entire manufacturing chain and also interpass periods and give a realistic prediction of the material behavior and final product properties. In the physical-based constitutive model of cold metal plasticity introduced in this study, physical processes influencing cold and warm plastic deformation in polycrystalline metals are described using physical/metallurgical internal variables such as dislocation density and effective grain size. The evolution of these internal variables are calculated using adequate equations that describe the physical processes dominating the material behavior during cold plastic deformation. For validation, the model is numerically implemented in general implicit isotropic elasto-viscoplasticity algorithm as a user-defined material subroutine (UMAT) in ABAQUS/Standard and used for finite element simulation of upsetting tests and a complete cold forging cycle of case hardenable MnCr steel family.

  15. Prediction on flexural strength of encased composite beam with cold-formed steel section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadavi, Tahir, M. M.

    2017-11-01

    A flexural strength of composite beam designed as boxed shaped section comprised of lipped C-channel of cold-formed steel (CFS) facing each other with reinforcement bars is proposed in this paper. The boxed shaped is kept restrained in position by a profiled metal decking installed on top of the beam to form a slab system. This profiled decking slab is cast by using self-compacting concrete where the concrete is in compression when load is applied to the beam. Reinforcement bars are used as shear connector between slab and CFS as beam. A numerical analysis method proposed by EC4 is used to predict the flexural strength of the proposed composite beam. It was assumed that elasto-plastic behaviour is developed in the cross -sectional of the proposed beam. The calculated predicted flexural strength of the proposed beam shows reasonable flexural strength for cold-formed composite beam.

  16. Experimental study on combined cold forging process of backward cup extrusion and piercing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Robinson; Liewald, Mathias

    2018-05-01

    A reduction in material usage of cold forged components while maintaining the functional requirements can be achieved using hollow or tubular preforms. These preforms are used to meet lightweight requirements and to decrease production costs of cold formed components. To increase production efficiency in common multi-stage cold forming processes, manufacturing of hollow preforms by combining the processes backward cup extrusion and piercing was established and will be discussed in this paper. Corresponding investigations and experimental studies are reported in this article. The objectives of the experimental investigations have been the detection of significant process parameters, determination of process limits for the combined processes and validation of the numerical investigations. In addition, the general influence concerning surface quality and diameter tolerance of hollow performs are discussed in this paper. The final goal is to summarize a guideline for industrial application, moreover, to transfer the knowledge to industry, as regards what are required part geometries to reduce the number of forming stages as well as tool cost.

  17. The Akzo-Fina cold flow improvement process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Free, H.W.H.; Schockaert, T.; Sonnemans, J.W.M. (Akzo Chemicals B.V., Amersfoort (Netherlands). Hydroprocessing Catalysts)

    1993-09-01

    The Akzo-Fina CFI process is a very flexible process in which improvement of cold flow properties, desulfurization and hydroconversion are achieved. One of the main characteristics is the dewaxing obtained by the selective hydrocracking of normal paraffins combined with hydro-desulfurization and hydroconversion. Since its introduction in 1988, five licenses have been sold. The units currently run for heavy gasoil upgrading show an excellent performance and reach pour point improvements of over 50[degree]C, long cycle lengths and product sulfur levels well below 0.05 wt%. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Global land-atmosphere coupling associated with cold climate processes

    OpenAIRE

    Dutra, Emanuel, 1983-

    2011-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento, Ciências Geofísicas e da Geoinformação (Meteorologia), Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2011 This dissertation constitutes an assessment of the role of cold processes, associated with snow cover, in controlling the land-atmosphere coupling. The work was based on model simulations, including offline simulations with the land surface model HTESSEL, and coupled atmosphere simulations with the EC-EARTH climate model. A revised snow scheme was developed and t...

  19. Further assessment studies of the Advanced Cold Process Canister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henshaw, J.; Hoch, A.; Sharland, S.M.

    1990-08-01

    A preliminary assessment of the performance of the Advanced Cold Process Canister (ACPC) was carried out recently by Marsh. The aim of the study presented in this report is to re-examine the validity of some of the assumptions made, and re-evaluate the canister performance as appropriate. Two areas were highlighted in the preliminary study as requiring more detailed quantitative evaluation. 1) Assessment of the risk of internal stress-corrosion cracking induced by irradiation of moist air inside the canister if, under fault conditions, significant water was carried into the canister before sealing. 2) Evaluation of the corrosion behaviour subsequent to first breach of outer container. (author)

  20. An efficient genetic algorithm for the design optimization of cold-formed steel portal frame buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Phan, Thanh Duoc; Lim, James; Tanyimboh, Tiku T.; Sha, Wei

    2013-01-01

    The design optimization of a cold-formed steel portal frame building is considered in this paper. The proposed genetic algorithm (GA) optimizer considers both topology (i.e., frame spacing and pitch) and cross-sectional sizes of the main structural members as the decision variables. Previous GAs in the literature were characterized by poor convergence, including slow progress, that usually results in excessive computation times and/or frequent failure to achieve an optimal or near-optimal sol...

  1. Accurate anisotropic material modelling using only tensile tests for hot and cold forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abspoel, M.; Scholting, M. E.; Lansbergen, M.; Neelis, B. M.

    2017-09-01

    Accurate material data for simulations require a lot of effort. Advanced yield loci require many different kinds of tests and a Forming Limit Curve (FLC) needs a large amount of samples. Many people use simple material models to reduce the effort of testing, however some models are either not accurate enough (i.e. Hill’48), or do not describe new types of materials (i.e. Keeler). Advanced yield loci describe the anisotropic materials behaviour accurately, but are not widely adopted because of the specialized tests, and data post-processing is a hurdle for many. To overcome these issues, correlations between the advanced yield locus points (biaxial, plane strain and shear) and mechanical properties have been investigated. This resulted in accurate prediction of the advanced stress points using only Rm, Ag and r-values in three directions from which a Vegter yield locus can be constructed with low effort. FLC’s can be predicted with the equations of Abspoel & Scholting depending on total elongation A80, r-value and thickness. Both predictive methods are initially developed for steel, aluminium and stainless steel (BCC and FCC materials). The validity of the predicted Vegter yield locus is investigated with simulation and measurements on both hot and cold formed parts and compared with Hill’48. An adapted specimen geometry, to ensure a homogeneous temperature distribution in the Gleeble hot tensile test, was used to measure the mechanical properties needed to predict a hot Vegter yield locus. Since for hot material, testing of stress states other than uniaxial is really challenging, the prediction for the yield locus adds a lot of value. For the hot FLC an A80 sample with a homogeneous temperature distribution is needed which is due to size limitations not possible in the Gleeble tensile tester. Heating the sample in an industrial type furnace and tensile testing it in a dedicated device is a good alternative to determine the necessary parameters for the FLC

  2. Research on corrosion aspects of the advanced cold process canister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackwood, D.J.; Hoch, A.R.; Naish, C.C.; Rance, A.

    1994-01-01

    The Advanced Cold Process Canister (ACPC) is a waste canister being developed jointly by SKB and TVO for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel. It comprises an outer copper canister, with a carbon steel canister inside. A concern regarding the use of the ACPC is that, in the unlikely event that the outer copper canister is penetrated, the anaerobic corrosion of the carbon steel container may result in the formation of hydrogen gas bubbles. These bubbles could disrupt the backfill, and thus increase water flow through the near field and the flux of radionuclides to the host geology. A number of factors that influence the rate at which hydrogen evolves as a result of the anaerobic corrosion of carbon steel in artificial granitic groundwaters have been investigated. A previously observed, time-dependent decline in the hydrogen evolution rate has been confirmed as being due to the production of magnetite film. Once the magnetite film is about 0.7-1.0 μm thick, the rate of hydrogen evolution reaches a steady state value. The pH and the ionic strength of the groundwater were both found to influence the long-term hydrogen evolution rate. The results of the experimental programme were used to update a model of the corrosion behaviour and hydrogen production from the Advanced Cold Process Canister. 36 figs, 5 tabs, 13 refs

  3. Process Reengineering of Cold Chain Logistics of Agricultural Products Based on Low-carbon Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Hong-xia; Shao, Ming

    2012-01-01

    Through the process analysis of cold chain logistics of agricultural products, we find that cold chain logistics of agricultural products contradict the development model of low-carbon economy to some extent. We apply the development idea of low-carbon economy, introduce the third-party logistics companies, establish distribution center of cold chain logistics of agricultural products, and strengthen information sharing, to reengineer the process of cold chain logistics of agricultural produc...

  4. Magnetic filter apparatus and method for generating cold plasma in semicoductor processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Michael C.

    1996-01-01

    Disclosed herein is a system and method for providing a plasma flood having a low electron temperature to a semiconductor target region during an ion implantation process. The plasma generator providing the plasma is coupled to a magnetic filter which allows ions and low energy electrons to pass therethrough while retaining captive the primary or high energy electrons. The ions and low energy electrons form a "cold plasma" which is diffused in the region of the process surface while the ion implantation process takes place.

  5. Magnetic filter apparatus and method for generating cold plasma in semiconductor processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, M.C.

    1996-08-13

    Disclosed herein is a system and method for providing a plasma flood having a low electron temperature to a semiconductor target region during an ion implantation process. The plasma generator providing the plasma is coupled to a magnetic filter which allows ions and low energy electrons to pass therethrough while retaining captive the primary or high energy electrons. The ions and low energy electrons form a ``cold plasma`` which is diffused in the region of the process surface while the ion implantation process takes place. 15 figs.

  6. Optimized manufacture of nuclear fuel cladding tubes by FEA of hot extrusion and cold pilgering processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillac, Alexis; Ly, Céline

    2018-05-01

    Within the forming route of Zirconium alloy cladding tubes, hot extrusion is used to deform the forged billets into tube hollows, which are then cold rolled to produce the final tubes with the suitable properties for in-reactor use. The hot extrusion goals are to give the appropriate geometry for cold pilgering, without creating surface defects and microstructural heterogeneities which are detrimental for subsequent rolling. In order to ensure a good quality of the tube hollows, hot extrusion parameters have to be carefully chosen. For this purpose, finite element models are used in addition to experimental tests. These models can take into account the thermo-mechanical coupling conditions obtained in the tube and the tools during extrusion, and provide a good prediction of the extrusion load and the thermo-mechanical history of the extruded product. This last result can be used to calculate the fragmentation of the microstructure in the die and the meta-dynamic recrystallization after extrusion. To further optimize the manufacturing route, a numerical model of the cold pilgering process is also applied, taking into account the complex geometry of the tools and the pseudo-steady state rolling sequence of this incremental forming process. The strain and stress history of the tube during rolling can then be used to assess the damage risk thanks to the use of ductile damage models. Once validated vs. experimental data, both numerical models were used to optimize the manufacturing route and the quality of zirconium cladding tubes. This goal was achieved by selecting hot extrusion parameters giving better recrystallized microstructure that improves the subsequent formability. Cold pilgering parameters were also optimized in order to reduce the potential ductile damage in the cold rolled tubes.

  7. Process control of an HTGR fuel reprocessing cold pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rode, J.S.

    1976-10-01

    Development of engineering-scale systems for a large-scale HTGR fuel reprocessing demonstration facility is currently underway in a cold pilot plant. These systems include two fluidized-bed burners, which remove the graphite (carbon) matrix from the crushed HTGR fuel by high temperature (900 0 C) oxidation. The burners are controlled by a digital process controller with an all analog input/output interface which has been in use since March, 1976. The advantages of such a control system to a pilot plant operation can be summarized as follows: (1) Control loop functions and configurations can be changed easily; (2) control constants, alarm limits, output limits, and scaling constants can be changed easily; (3) calculation of data and/or interface with a computerized information retrieval system during operation are available; (4) diagnosis of process control problems is facilitated; and (5) control panel/room space is saved

  8. Design Optimization of Long-Span Cold-Formed Steel Portal Frames Accounting for Effect of Knee Brace Joint Configuration

    OpenAIRE

    Thanh Duoc Phan; James B. P. Lim; Meheron Selowara Joo; Hieng-Ho Lau

    2017-01-01

    The application of cold-formed steel channel sections for portal frames becomes more popular for industrial and residential purposes. Experimental tests showed that such structures with long-span up to 20 m can be achieved when knee brace joints are included. In this paper, the influence of knee brace configuration on the optimum design of long-span cold-formed steel portal frames is investigated. The cold-formed steel portal frames are designed using Eurocode 3 under ultimate limit states. A...

  9. Optimization and control of metal forming processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, Gosse Tjipke

    2016-01-01

    Inevitable variations in process and material properties limit the accuracy of metal forming processes. Robust optimization methods or control systems can be used to improve the production accuracy. Robust optimization methods are used to design production processes with low sensitivity to the

  10. Near-field performance of the advanced cold process canister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werme, L.

    1991-12-01

    A near-field performance evaluation of an advanced cold process canister for spent fuel disposal has been performed jointly by TVO, Finland and SKB, Sweden. The canister consists of a steel canister as a load bearing element, with an outer corrosion shield of copper. In the analysis, as well internal (ie corrosion processes from the inside of the canister) as external processes (mechanical and chemical) have been considered both prior to and after canister breach. The major conclusions for the evaluation are: Internal processes cannot cause the canister breach under foreseen conditions, ie local-iced corrosion for the steel or copper canisters can be dismissed as a failure mechanism; The evaluation of the effects of processed outside the canister indicate that there is no rapid mechanism to endanger the integrity of the canister. Consequently the service life of the canister will be several million years. For completeness also evaluation of post-failure behaviour was carried out. Analyses were focussed on low probability phenomena from faults in canisters. Some items were identified where further research is justified in order to increase knowledge of the phenomena and thus strengthen the confidence of safety margins. However, it can be concluded that the risks of these scenarios can be judged to be acceptable. This is due to the fact that firstly, the probability of occurrence of most of these scenarios can be controlled to a large extent through technical measures. Secondly, these analyses indicated that the consequences would not be severe

  11. Near-field performance of the advanced cold process canister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werme, L.

    1990-09-01

    A near-field performance evaluation of an Advanced Cold Process Canister for spent fuel disposal has been performed jointly by TVO, Finland and SKB, Sweden. The canister consists of a steel canister as a load bearing element, with an outer corrosion shield of copper. The canister design was originally proposed by TVO. In the analysis, as well internal (ie corrosion processes from the inside of the canister) as external processes (mechanical and chemical) have been considered both prior to and after canister breach. Throughout the analysis, present day underground conditions has been assumed to persist during the service life of the canister. The major conclusions for the evaluation are: Internal processes cannot cause the canister breach under foreseen conditions, ie localized corrosion for the steel or copper canisters can be dismissed as a failure mechanism. The evaluation of the effects of processes outside the canister indicate that there is no rapid mechanism to endanger the integrity of the canister. Consequently the service life of the canister will be several million years. This factor will ensure the safety of the concept. (orig.)

  12. Adaptive Automatic Gauge Control of a Cold Strip Rolling Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROMAN, N.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper tackles with thickness control structure of the cold rolled strips. This structure is based on the rolls position control of a reversible quarto rolling mill. The main feature of the system proposed in the paper consists in the compensation of the errors introduced by the deficient dynamics of the hydraulic servo-system used for the rolls positioning, by means of a dynamic compensator that approximates the inverse system of the servo-system. Because the servo-system is considered variant over time, an on-line identification of the servo-system and parameter adapting of the compensator are achieved. The results obtained by numerical simulation are presented together with the data taken from real process. These results illustrate the efficiency of the proposed solutions.

  13. CLASSIFICATION OF RESTRAINTS IN THE OPTIMIZATION PROBLEM OF A COLD-FORMED PROFILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Łukowicz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the restraints in the optimization problem. This is an important and complicated issue because it requires taking into account a vast range of information related to the design and production. In order to describe the relations of a specific optimization problem, it is essential to adopt appropriate criteria and to collect information on all kinds of restraints, i.e. boundary conditions. The following paper verifies the various restraints and defines three subsets: design assumptions, technological limitations and standard conditions. The provided classification was made with reference to the analysis of the construction applicability of the newly patented cold-formed profile.

  14. Processability analysis of candidate waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, T.H. Jr.; Dunson, J.B. Jr.; Eisenberg, A.M.; Haight, H.G. Jr.; Mello, V.E.; Schuyler, R.L. III.

    1982-01-01

    A quantitative merit evaluation, or processability analysis, was performed to assess the relative difficulty of remote processing of Savannah River Plant high-level wastes for seven alternative waste form candidates. The reference borosilicate glass process was rated as the simplest, followed by FUETAP concrete, glass marbles in a lead matrix, high-silica glass, crystalline ceramics (SYNROC-D and tailored ceramics), and coated ceramic particles. Cost estimates for the borosilicate glass, high-silica glass, and ceramic waste form processing facilities are also reported

  15. The Investigations of Friction under Die Surface Vibration in Cold Forging Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jinming, Sha

    investigation, and the second stage is to design and manufacture a more practical tool system which can be used to forging some industrial components with larger capacity. The high performance and power piezoelectric actuator stack as the vibration source will be used for designing the vibration system in order...... to 50% with vibration being applied in forming process. Furthermore, by using finite element method, a series of the simulations of the cold forging process under die surface excitation have been implemented in order to further understand the influence of vibration on friction, especially the influence...

  16. The erosion performance of cold spray deposited metal matrix composite coatings with subsequent friction stir processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peat, Tom, E-mail: tompeat12@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, University of Strathclyde, James Weir Building, 75 Montrose Street, Glasgow G1 1XJ (United Kingdom); Galloway, Alexander; Toumpis, Athanasios [Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, University of Strathclyde, James Weir Building, 75 Montrose Street, Glasgow G1 1XJ (United Kingdom); McNutt, Philip [TWI Ltd., Granta Park, Cambridge CB21 6AL (United Kingdom); Iqbal, Naveed [TWI Technology Centre, Wallis Way, Catcliff, Rotherham, S60 5TZ (United Kingdom)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • WC-CoCr, Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}-NiCr and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coatings were cold spray deposited on AA5083 and friction stir processed. • The SprayStirred WC-CoCr demonstrated a hardness increase of 100% over the cold sprayed coating. • As-deposited and SprayStirred coatings were examined under slurry erosion test conditions. • Mass and volume loss was measured following 20-min exposure to the slurry. • The WC-CoCr and Al2O3 demonstrated a reduction in volume loss of approx. 40% over the cold sprayed coating. - Abstract: This study forms an initial investigation into the development of SprayStir, an innovative processing technique for generating erosion resistant surface layers on a chosen substrate material. Tungsten carbide – cobalt chromium, chromium carbide – nickel chromium and aluminium oxide coatings were successfully cold spray deposited on AA5083 grade aluminium. In order to improve the deposition efficiency of the cold spray process, coatings were co-deposited with powdered AA5083 using a twin powder feed system that resulted in thick (>300 μm) composite coatings. The deposited coatings were subsequently friction stir processed to embed the particles in the substrate in order to generate a metal matrix composite (MMC) surface layer. The primary aim of this investigation was to examine the erosion performance of the SprayStirred surfaces and demonstrate the benefits of this novel process as a surface engineering technique. Volumetric analysis of the SprayStirred surfaces highlighted a drop of approx. 40% in the level of material loss when compared with the cold spray deposited coating prior to friction stir processing. Micro-hardness testing revealed that in the case of WC-CoCr reinforced coating, the hardness of the SprayStirred material exhibits an increase of approx. 540% over the unaltered substrate and 120% over the as-deposited composite coating. Microstructural examination demonstrated that the increase in the hardness of the

  17. Iterative solvers in forming process simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Boogaard, Antonius H.; Rietman, Bert; Huetink, Han

    1998-01-01

    The use of iterative solvers in implicit forming process simulations is studied. The time and memory requirements are compared with direct solvers and assessed in relation with the rest of the Newton-Raphson iteration process. It is shown that conjugate gradient{like solvers with a proper

  18. Assessment on Ultimate Load of Cold-formed Steel Channel (CFSC Stub Column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Sani Mohd Syahrul Hisyam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cold-formed steel is used as the non-structural and structural material in civil engineering work and building. Cold-formed steel channel is selected and cut into 100 mm, 200 mm, 300 mm, 400 mm and 500 mm. The slenderness ratio is calculated and noted as a stub or short column because below 40. The column is tested by using Universal Testing Machine to determine the ultimate load of the stub column. Besides, the CFSC is determined the material properties of CFSC for checking it’s the originality of steel based material. The experimental data are tested and compared with the Direct Strength Method (DSM. It showed that the CFSC1 with a height of 100 mm is reported to have a higher value of ultimate load when compared with other samples. When the height of the stub column increased, the ultimate load of the sample is decreased. Then, the CFSC1 also showed a higher in initial stiffness when compared with other samples. All samples are shown having a higher data in ultimate load when compared with the Direct Strength Method prediction. The ultimate load of experimental and DSM all gave a ratio below 1.03. Finally, all samples can further recommend determining the relation between the ultimate loads with variations of height of the column.

  19. The Production of Advanced Glass Ceramic HLW Forms using Cold Crucible Induction Melter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veronica J Rutledge; Vince Maio

    2013-10-01

    Cold Crucible Induction Melters (CCIMs) will favorably change how High-Level radioactive Waste (from nuclear fuel recovery) is treated in the 21st century. Unlike the existing Joule-Heated Melters (JHMs) currently in operation for the glass-based immobilization of High-Level Waste (HLW), CCIMs offer unique material features that will increase melt temperatures, increase throughput, increase mixing, increase loading in the waste form, lower melter foot prints, eliminate melter corrosion and lower costs. These features not only enhance the technology for producing HLW forms, but also provide advantageous attributes to the waste form by allowing more durable alternatives to glass. This paper discusses advantageous features of the CCIM, with emphasis on features that overcome the historical issues with the JHMs presently utilized, as well as the benefits of glass ceramic waste forms over borosilicate glass waste forms. These advantages are then validated based on recent INL testing to demonstrate a first-of-a-kind formulation of a non-radioactive ceramic-based waste form utilizing a CCIM.

  20. Rhodopsin Forms Nanodomains in Rod Outer Segment Disc Membranes of the Cold-Blooded Xenopus laevis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatini Rakshit

    Full Text Available Rhodopsin forms nanoscale domains (i.e., nanodomains in rod outer segment disc membranes from mammalian species. It is unclear whether rhodopsin arranges in a similar manner in amphibian species, which are often used as a model system to investigate the function of rhodopsin and the structure of photoreceptor cells. Moreover, since samples are routinely prepared at low temperatures, it is unclear whether lipid phase separation effects in the membrane promote the observed nanodomain organization of rhodopsin from mammalian species. Rod outer segment disc membranes prepared from the cold-blooded frog Xenopus laevis were investigated by atomic force microscopy to visualize the organization of rhodopsin in the absence of lipid phase separation effects. Atomic force microscopy revealed that rhodopsin nanodomains form similarly as that observed previously in mammalian membranes. Formation of nanodomains in ROS disc membranes is independent of lipid phase separation and conserved among vertebrates.

  1. Effect of small cold forming on the creep behaviour of gas turbine blades made of Nimonic 90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keienburg, K.H.; Krueger, H.; Pickert, U.; Bautz, G.

    1987-01-01

    In order to obtain information on the material behaviour of Nimonic 90 with and without cold forming at the main temperature of use of 560deg C for large gas turbine blades, creep and relaxation samples were taken from the large volume foot of a gas turbine blade, part of which were tensioned by 3% cold in a tensile test machine. The selected cold forming was obtained as the upper limit from DMS measurements on a gas turbine blade when aligning. The negative effect of cold forming on the creep behaviour known from the literature for other γ hardened nickel base alloys was confirmed. The grain (matrix) is strengthened and the grain boundary is simultaneously weakened by cold forming. The material is also sensitized, so that fine separation occurs in the grain at the sliding bands and at the grain boundaries. Both circumstances contribute to the worsening of the creep behaviour, significantly for stresses below the technical elastic limit in the cold formed state. It follows, relative to large gas turbine blades, that: 1) Aligning operations must be restricted to the absolute minimum necessary and should be avoided completely if possible. 2) Aligned blades should be subjected to renewed solution annealing and separation hardening. 3.) Blades deformed in operation should also be subjected to renewed complete heat treatment. (orig.) [de

  2. Development of a novel cold forging process to manufacture eccentric shafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasler, Lukas; Liewald, Mathias

    2018-05-01

    Since the commercial usage of compact combustion engines, eccentric shafts have been used to transform translational into rotational motion. Over the years, several processes to manufacture these eccentric shafts or crankshafts have been developed. Especially for single-cylinder engines manufactured in small quantities, built crankshafts disclose advantages regarding tooling costs and performance. Those manufacturing processes do have one thing in common: They are all executed at elevated temperatures to enable the material to be formed to high forming degree. In this paper, a newly developed cold forging process is presented, which combines lateral extrusion and shifting for manufacturing a crank in one forming operation at room temperature. In comparison to the established upsetting and shifting methods to manufacture such components, the tool cavity or crank web thickness remains constant. Therefore, the developed new process presented in this paper consists of a combination of shifting and extrusion of the billet, which allows pushing material into the forming zone during shifting. In order to reduce the tensile stresses induced by the shifting process, compressive stresses are superimposed. It is expected that the process limits will be expanded regarding the horizontal displacement and form filling. In the following report, the simulation and design of the tooling concept are presented. Experiments were conducted and compared with corresponding simulation results afterwards.

  3. Numerical modeling of axi-symmetrical cold forging process by ``Pseudo Inverse Approach''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halouani, A.; Li, Y. M.; Abbes, B.; Guo, Y. Q.

    2011-05-01

    The incremental approach is widely used for the forging process modeling, it gives good strain and stress estimation, but it is time consuming. A fast Inverse Approach (IA) has been developed for the axi-symmetric cold forging modeling [1-2]. This approach exploits maximum the knowledge of the final part's shape and the assumptions of proportional loading and simplified tool actions make the IA simulation very fast. The IA is proved very useful for the tool design and optimization because of its rapidity and good strain estimation. However, the assumptions mentioned above cannot provide good stress estimation because of neglecting the loading history. A new approach called "Pseudo Inverse Approach" (PIA) was proposed by Batoz, Guo et al.. [3] for the sheet forming modeling, which keeps the IA's advantages but gives good stress estimation by taking into consideration the loading history. Our aim is to adapt the PIA for the cold forging modeling in this paper. The main developments in PIA are resumed as follows: A few intermediate configurations are generated for the given tools' positions to consider the deformation history; the strain increment is calculated by the inverse method between the previous and actual configurations. An incremental algorithm of the plastic integration is used in PIA instead of the total constitutive law used in the IA. An example is used to show the effectiveness and limitations of the PIA for the cold forging process modeling.

  4. Adaptation of the continuous cold trap system of fluidized-bed to the fluoride volatility process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-02-01

    A continuous cold trap system consisting of fluidized condenser and stripper has been evaluated with a view to adapt it to the Fluoride Volatility Process in establishing the continuous purification process without radiation decomposition of PuF 6 . Its feasibility is shown by the test with UF 6 -air. Necessary conditions for the cold trap, and performance of the two inch-dia. fluidized bed cold trap system are presented, and also a model of mist formation in the condenser. (auth.)

  5. Multibarrier waste forms. Part III: Process considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokken, R.O.

    1979-10-01

    The multibarrier concept for the solidification and storage of radioactive waste utilizes up to three barriers to isolate radionuclides from the environment: a solidified waste inner core, an impervious coating, and a metal matrix. The coating and metal matrix give the composite waste form enhanced inertness with improvements in thermal stability, mechanical strength, and leach resistance. Preliminary process flow rates and material costs were evaluated for four multibarrier waste forms with the process complexity increasing thusly: glass marbles, uncoated supercalcine, glass-coated supercalcine, and PyC/Al 2 O 3 -coated supercalcine. This report discusses the process variables and their effect on optimization of product quality, processing simplicity, and material cost. 11 figures, 2 tables

  6. Effective Cross Section of Cold Formed Steel Column Under Axial Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikandan, P.; Pradeep, T.

    2018-06-01

    The compressive resistance of cold-formed steel (CFS) section may be governed by local, distortional or overall buckling and any apparent interaction between these modes. A new inventive stiffened CFS section is elected in this study, selected cross sections geometries and lengths are chosen such that all the types of buckling modes are met with. Buckling plot is plotted using linear elastic buckling analysis software (CUFSM). Using the test results obtained in the literature, the developed finite element model is calibrated and furthers a total of 126 parametric study is conducted such as a consequence of dimensions and the length of the cross section, thickness and yield stress. The FEA included relevant material and geometric imperfections. All the columns are analyzed under pin end conditions with axial compression. The analysis results demonstrate that the DSM equations generally assess the strength of stiffened section conservatively. Modifications to the DSM equations are recommended to evaluate the strength of stiffened section more precisely.

  7. Effective Cross Section of Cold Formed Steel Column Under Axial Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikandan, P.; Pradeep, T.

    2018-02-01

    The compressive resistance of cold-formed steel (CFS) section may be governed by local, distortional or overall buckling and any apparent interaction between these modes. A new inventive stiffened CFS section is elected in this study, selected cross sections geometries and lengths are chosen such that all the types of buckling modes are met with. Buckling plot is plotted using linear elastic buckling analysis software (CUFSM). Using the test results obtained in the literature, the developed finite element model is calibrated and furthers a total of 126 parametric study is conducted such as a consequence of dimensions and the length of the cross section, thickness and yield stress. The FEA included relevant material and geometric imperfections. All the columns are analyzed under pin end conditions with axial compression. The analysis results demonstrate that the DSM equations generally assess the strength of stiffened section conservatively. Modifications to the DSM equations are recommended to evaluate the strength of stiffened section more precisely.

  8. Nuclear structure in cold rearrangement processes in fission and fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armbruster, P.

    1998-11-01

    In fission and fusion of heavy nuclei large numbers of nucleons are rearranged at a scale of excitation energy very small compared to the binding energy of the nuclei. The energies involved are less than 40 MeV at nuclear temperatures below 1.5 MeV. The shapes of the configurations in the rearrangement of a binary system into a monosystem in fusion, or vice versa in fission, change their elongations by as much as 8 fm, the radius of the monosystem. The dynamics of the reactions macroscopically described by a potential energy surface, inertia parameters, dissipation, and a collision energy is strongly modified by the nuclear structure of the participating nuclei. Experiments showing nuclear structure effects in fusion and fission of the heaviest nuclei are reviewed. The reaction kinematics and the multitude of isotopes involved are investigated by detector techniques and by recoil spectrometers. The advancement of the latter allows to find very small reaction branches in the range of 10{sup -5} to 10{sup -10}. The experiments reveal nuclear structure effects in all stages of the rearrangement processes. These are discussed pointing to analogies in fusion and fission on the microscopic scale, notwithstanding that both processes macroscopically are irreversible. Heavy clusters, as 132Sn, 208Pb, nuclei with closed shell configurations N=82,126, Z=50,82 survive in large parts of the nuclear rearrangement. They determine the asymmetry in the mass distribution of low energy fission, and they allow to synthesise superheavy elements, until now up to element 112. Experiments on the cold rearrangement in fission and fusion are presented. Here, in the range of excitation energies below 12 MeV the phenomena are observed most convincingly. (orig.)

  9. Global land-atmosphere coupling associated with cold climate processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Emanuel

    This dissertation constitutes an assessment of the role of cold processes, associated with snow cover, in controlling the land-atmosphere coupling. The work was based on model simulations, including offline simulations with the land surface model HTESSEL, and coupled atmosphere simulations with the EC-EARTH climate model. A revised snow scheme was developed and tested in HTESSEL and EC-EARTH. The snow scheme is currently operational at the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts integrated forecast system, and in the default configuration of EC-EARTH. The improved representation of the snowpack dynamics in HTESSEL resulted in improvements in the near surface temperature simulations of EC-EARTH. The new snow scheme development was complemented with the option of multi-layer version that showed its potential in modeling thick snowpacks. A key process was the snow thermal insulation that led to significant improvements of the surface water and energy balance components. Similar findings were observed when coupling the snow scheme to lake ice, where lake ice duration was significantly improved. An assessment on the snow cover sensitivity to horizontal resolution, parameterizations and atmospheric forcing within HTESSEL highlighted the role of the atmospheric forcing accuracy and snowpack parameterizations in detriment of horizontal resolution over flat regions. A set of experiments with and without free snow evolution was carried out with EC-EARTH to assess the impact of the interannual variability of snow cover on near surface and soil temperatures. It was found that snow cover interannual variability explained up to 60% of the total interannual variability of near surface temperature over snow covered regions. Although these findings are model dependent, the results showed consistency with previously published work. Furthermore, the detailed validation of the snow dynamics simulations in HTESSEL and EC-EARTH guarantees consistency of the results.

  10. Rectangular Gusset Plate Behaviour in Cold-Formed I-Type Steel Connections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bučmys Ž.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cold-formed structure connections utilizing gusset plates are usually semi-rigid. This paper investigates the behaviours of rectangular gusset plates in cold-formed connections of elements whose columns and beams are made with lipped back-to-back C-sections. Methods of calculating strength and stiffness are necessary for such semi-rigid joints. The main task of this paper is to determine a method capable of calculating these characteristics. The proposed analytical method could then be easily adapted to the component method that is described in part 1993-1-8 of the Eurocode. This method allows us to calculate both the strength and stiffness of rectangular gusset plates, assuming that the joint deforms only in plane. This method of design moment resistance calculation was presented taking into account that an entire cross-section shall reach its yield stress. A technique of stiffness calculation was presented investigating the sum of deformations acquired at the bending moment and from shear forces which are transmitted from each beam bolt group. Calculation results according to the suggested method show good agreement of laboratory experimental results of specimens with numerical simulations. Two specimens of beam-to-column connections were tested in the laboratory. Lateral supports were used on the specimens to prevent lateral displacements in order to better investigate the behaviour of the rectangular gusset plate in plane. Experiments were simulated by modelling rectangular gusset plates using standard finite element software ANSYS Workbench 14.0. Three-dimensional solid elements were used for modelling and both geometric and material nonlinear analysis was performed.

  11. Hencky's model for elastomer forming process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleinikov, A. A.; Oleinikov, A. I.

    2016-08-01

    In the numerical simulation of elastomer forming process, Henckys isotropic hyperelastic material model can guarantee relatively accurate prediction of strain range in terms of large deformations. It is shown, that this material model prolongate Hooke's law from the area of infinitesimal strains to the area of moderate ones. New representation of the fourth-order elasticity tensor for Hencky's hyperelastic isotropic material is obtained, it possesses both minor symmetries, and the major symmetry. Constitutive relations of considered model is implemented into MSC.Marc code. By calculating and fitting curves, the polyurethane elastomer material constants are selected. Simulation of equipment for elastomer sheet forming are considered.

  12. Lowland river systems - processes, form and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, M. L.; Kronvang, B.; Sand-Jensen, K.

    2006-01-01

    Present day river valleys and rivers are not as dynamic and variable as they used to be. We will here describe the development and characteristics of rivers and their valleys and explain the background to the physical changes in river networks and channel forms from spring to the sea. We seek...... to answer two fundamental questions: How has anthropogenic disturbance of rivers changed the fundamental form and physical processes in river valleys? Can we use our understanding of fl uvial patterns to restore the dynamic nature of channelised rivers and drained fl oodplains in river valleys?...

  13. Multiphysics modelling of the spray forming process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mi, J.; Grant, P.S.; Fritsching, U.; Belkessam, O.; Garmendia, I.; Landaberea, A.

    2008-01-01

    An integrated, multiphysics numerical model has been developed through the joint efforts of the University of Oxford (UK), University of Bremen (Germany) and Inasmet (Spain) to simulate the spray forming process. The integrated model consisted of four sub-models: (1) an atomization model simulating the fragmentation of a continuous liquid metal stream into droplet spray during gas atomization; (2) a droplet spray model simulating the droplet spray mass and enthalpy evolution in the gas flow field prior to deposition; (3) a droplet deposition model simulating droplet deposition, splashing and re-deposition behavior and the resulting preform shape and heat flow; and (4) a porosity model simulating the porosity distribution inside a spray formed ring preform. The model has been validated against experiments of the spray forming of large diameter IN718 Ni superalloy rings. The modelled preform shape, surface temperature and final porosity distribution showed good agreement with experimental measurements

  14. Simulation of Glass Fiber Forming Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Von der Ohe, Renate

    Two glass fiber forming processes have been simulated using FEM, which are the drawing of continuous glass fibers for reinforcement purposes and the spinning of discontinuous glass fibers - stone wool for insulation. The aim of this work was to set up a numerical model for each process, and to use...... this model in finding relationships between the production conditions and the resulting fiber properties. For both processes, a free surface with large deformation and radiative and convective heat transfer must be taken into account. The continuous fiber drawing has been simulated successfully......, and parametric studies have been made. Several properties that characterize the process have been calculated, and the relationship between the fictive temperature and the cooling rate of the fibers has been found. The model for the discontinuous fiber spinning was brought to the limits of the commercial code...

  15. Global habitat suitability for framework-forming cold-water corals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Davies

    Full Text Available Predictive habitat models are increasingly being used by conservationists, researchers and governmental bodies to identify vulnerable ecosystems and species' distributions in areas that have not been sampled. However, in the deep sea, several limitations have restricted the widespread utilisation of this approach. These range from issues with the accuracy of species presences, the lack of reliable absence data and the limited spatial resolution of environmental factors known or thought to control deep-sea species' distributions. To address these problems, global habitat suitability models have been generated for five species of framework-forming scleractinian corals by taking the best available data and using a novel approach to generate high resolution maps of seafloor conditions. High-resolution global bathymetry was used to resample gridded data from sources such as World Ocean Atlas to produce continuous 30-arc second (∼1 km(2 global grids for environmental, chemical and physical data of the world's oceans. The increased area and resolution of the environmental variables resulted in a greater number of coral presence records being incorporated into habitat models and higher accuracy of model predictions. The most important factors in determining cold-water coral habitat suitability were depth, temperature, aragonite saturation state and salinity. Model outputs indicated the majority of suitable coral habitat is likely to occur on the continental shelves and slopes of the Atlantic, South Pacific and Indian Oceans. The North Pacific has very little suitable scleractinian coral habitat. Numerous small scale features (i.e., seamounts, which have not been sampled or identified as having a high probability of supporting cold-water coral habitat were identified in all ocean basins. Field validation of newly identified areas is needed to determine the accuracy of model results, assess the utility of modelling efforts to identify vulnerable marine

  16. Waste Form Features, Events, and Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R. Schreiner

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate and document the inclusion or exclusion of the waste form features, events and processes (FEPs) with respect to modeling used to support the Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). A screening decision, either Included or Excluded, is given for each FEP along with the technical bases for screening decisions. This information is required by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 10 CFR 63.114 (d, e, and f) [DIRS 156605]. The FEPs addressed in this report deal with the issues related to the degradation and potential failure of the waste form and the migration of the waste form colloids. For included FEPs, this analysis summarizes the implementation of the FEP in TSPA-LA, (i.e., how the FEP is included). For excluded FEPs, this analysis provides the technical bases for exclusion from TSPA-LA (i.e., why the FEP is excluded). This revision addresses the TSPA-LA FEP list (DTN: MO0407SEPFEPLA.000 [DIRS 170760]). The primary purpose of this report is to identify and document the analyses and resolution of the features, events, and processes (FEPs) associated with the waste form performance in the repository. Forty FEPs were identified that are associated with the waste form performance. This report has been prepared to document the screening methodology used in the process of FEP inclusion and exclusion. The analyses documented in this report are for the license application (LA) base case design (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168489]). In this design, a drip shield is placed over the waste package and no backfill is placed over the drip shield (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168489]). Each FEP may include one or more specific issues that are collectively described by a FEP name and a FEP description. The FEP description may encompass a single feature, process or event, or a few closely related or coupled processes if the entire FEP can be addressed by a single specific screening argument or TSPA-LA disposition. The FEPs are

  17. Waste Form Features, Events, and Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Schreiner

    2004-10-27

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate and document the inclusion or exclusion of the waste form features, events and processes (FEPs) with respect to modeling used to support the Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). A screening decision, either Included or Excluded, is given for each FEP along with the technical bases for screening decisions. This information is required by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 10 CFR 63.114 (d, e, and f) [DIRS 156605]. The FEPs addressed in this report deal with the issues related to the degradation and potential failure of the waste form and the migration of the waste form colloids. For included FEPs, this analysis summarizes the implementation of the FEP in TSPA-LA, (i.e., how the FEP is included). For excluded FEPs, this analysis provides the technical bases for exclusion from TSPA-LA (i.e., why the FEP is excluded). This revision addresses the TSPA-LA FEP list (DTN: MO0407SEPFEPLA.000 [DIRS 170760]). The primary purpose of this report is to identify and document the analyses and resolution of the features, events, and processes (FEPs) associated with the waste form performance in the repository. Forty FEPs were identified that are associated with the waste form performance. This report has been prepared to document the screening methodology used in the process of FEP inclusion and exclusion. The analyses documented in this report are for the license application (LA) base case design (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168489]). In this design, a drip shield is placed over the waste package and no backfill is placed over the drip shield (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168489]). Each FEP may include one or more specific issues that are collectively described by a FEP name and a FEP description. The FEP description may encompass a single feature, process or event, or a few closely related or coupled processes if the entire FEP can be addressed by a single specific screening argument or TSPA-LA disposition. The FEPs are

  18. Evaluation of control strategies in forming processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calmano Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Products of forming processes are subject to quality fluctuations due to uncertainty in semi-finished part properties as well as process conditions and environment. An approach to cope with these uncertainties is the implementation of a closed-loop control taking into account the actual product properties measured by sensors or estimated by a mathematical process model. Both methods of uncertainty control trade off with a financial effort. In case of sensor integration the effort is the cost of the sensor including signal processing as well as the design and manufacturing effort for integration. In case of an estimation model the effort is mainly determined by the time and knowledge needed to derive the model, identify the parameters and implement the model into the PLC. The risk of mismatch between model and reality as well as the risk of wrong parameter identification can be assumed as additional uncertainty (model uncertainty. This paper evaluates controlled and additional uncertainty by taking into account process boundary conditions like the degree of fluctuations in semi-finished part properties. The proposed evaluation is demonstrated by the analysis of exemplary processes.

  19. Comparing composts formed by different technological processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyckova, B.; Mudrunka, J.; Kucerova, R.; Glogarova, V.

    2017-10-01

    The presented article compares quality of composts which were formed by different technological processes. The subject to comparison was a compost which was created in a closed fermenter where ideal conditions for decomposition and organic substances conversion were ensured, with compost which was produced in an open box of community composting. The created composts were analysed to determine whether it is more important for the final compost to comply with the composting conditions or better sorting of raw materials needed for compost production. The results of the carried out experiments showed that quality of the resulting compost cannot be determined unequivocally.

  20. Structural aspects of cold-formed steel section designed as U-shape composite beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saggaff, Anis; Tahir, Mahmood Md.; Azimi, Mohammadamin; Alhajri, T. M.

    2017-11-01

    Composite beam construction usually associated with old-style Hot-Rolled Steel Section (HRSS) has proven to act much better in compare with Cold-Formed Steel Section (CFSS) sections due to thicker section. Due, it's getting popular to replace HRSS with CFSS in some aspects as a composite beam. The advantages such as lightweight, cost effective and easy to install have contributed to the apply CFSS as a preferred construction material for composite beam. There is a few technical data available regarding the application of the usage of CFSS as a composite system, despite the potentials use for residential and light-weight industrial constructions. This paper presents an experimental tests results which have been conducted using CFSS as composite beam. Composite action of CFSS arranged as double beam with Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) slab are integrated together with bolted shear connectors were used. A full-scale test comprised of 3 proposed composite beam specimens with bolted shear connector spaced at 300 mm interval of grade 8.8 was using single nut with washer on flange of CFS, cast to the slab and loaded until failed. The test show that the bolted shear connector yielded better capacity of ultimate strength and ultimate moment for the proposed composite beam. It can be concluded that, bolted shear connectors of 16 mm in diameter performed better than the other diameter size of bolted shear connectors.

  1. Inelastic behavior of cold-formed braced walls under monotonic and cyclic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerami, Mohsen; Lotfi, Mohsen; Nejat, Roya

    2015-06-01

    The ever-increasing need for housing generated the search for new and innovative building methods to increase speed and efficiency and enhance quality. One method is the use of light thin steel profiles as load-bearing elements having different solutions for interior and exterior cladding. Due to the increase in CFS construction in low-rise residential structures in the modern construction industry, there is an increased demand for performance inelastic analysis of CFS walls. In this study, the nonlinear behavior of cold-formed steel frames with various bracing arrangements including cross, chevron and k-shape straps was evaluated under cyclic and monotonic loading and using nonlinear finite element analysis methods. In total, 68 frames with different bracing arrangements and different ratios of dimensions were studied. Also, seismic parameters including resistance reduction factor, ductility and force reduction factor due to ductility were evaluated for all samples. On the other hand, the seismic response modification factor was calculated for these systems. It was concluded that the highest response modification factor would be obtained for walls with bilateral cross bracing systems with a value of 3.14. In all samples, on increasing the distance of straps from each other, shear strength increased and shear strength of the wall with bilateral bracing system was 60 % greater than that with lateral bracing system.

  2. Tension Behaviour on the Connection of the Cold-Formed Cut-Curved Steel Channel Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sani, Mohd Syahrul Hisyam Mohd; Muftah, Fadhluhartini; Fakri Muda, Mohd; Siang Tan, Cher

    2017-08-01

    Cold-formed steel (CFS) are utilised as a non-structural and structural element in construction activity especially a residential house and small building roof truss system. CFS with a lot of advantages and some of disadvantages such as buckling that must be prevented for roof truss production are being studied equally. CFS was used as a top chord of the roof truss system which normally a slender section is dramatically influenced to buckling failure and instability of the structure. So, the curved section is produced for a top chord for solving the compression member of the roof truss. Besides, there are lacked of design and production information about the CFS curved channel section. In the study, the CFS is bent by using a cut-curved method because of ease of production, without the use of skilled labour and high cost machine. The tension behaviour of the strengthening method of cut-curved or could be recognised as a connection of the cut-curved section was tested and analysed. There are seven types of connection was selected. From the testing and observation, it is shown the specimen with full weld along the cut section and adds with flange element plate with two self-drilling screws (F7A) was noted to have a higher value of ultimate load. Finally, there are three alternative methods of connection for CFS cut-curved that could be a reference for a contractor and further design.

  3. Miniemulsification process - different form of spontaneous emulsification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Aasser, M.S.; Lack, C.D.; Vanderhoff, J.W.; Fowkes, F.M.

    1988-01-15

    The miniemulsification process involves the use of low concentrations of mixed emulsifier combinations of an ionic surfactant (e.g. sodium lauryl sulfate) and a cosurfactant (e.g. long-chain fatty alcohol - cetyl alcohol). The product is an oil-in-water miniemulsion with an average droplet diameter of 100-400 nm, and excellent shelf stability. The dominant presence of liquid crystals in the aqueous mixed emulsifier system, under conditions of the miniemulsification process, was confirmed by consideration of phase diagrams, conductivity and birefringence studies. Unexpectedly, interfacial tension studies showed relatively high values of 5-15 dyn cm/sup -1/. In spite of these high interfacial tensions, spontaneous emulsification was found at the oil-water interface, contrary to what is known in the field. Adsorption and electrophoretic mobility studies suggested that the miniemulsification process takes place by unidirectional swelling of the lamellar bilayers in the aqueous mixed emulsifier liquid crystal system as a result of absorption of oil, followed by subdivision of these entities. The stability of miniemulsions formed by this process is influenced by a steric component in the mixed emulsifier complex adsorbed at the oil-water interface.

  4. Criticality Safety Evaluation Report for the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility's Process Water Handling System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KESSLER, S.F.

    2000-01-01

    This report addresses the criticality concerns associated with process water handling in the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. The controls and limitations on equipment design and operations to control potential criticality occurrences are identified

  5. Criticality safety evaluation report for the cold vacuum drying facility's process water handling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NELSON, J.V.

    1999-01-01

    This report addresses the criticality concerns associated with process water handling in the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. The controls and limitations on equipment design and operations to control potential criticality occurrences are identified

  6. Investigation of the cold process pipe rupture mechanism

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Cryogenic process pipelines are part of the basic subsystem used in installations for fundamental research in physics, as well as in industrial plants which use LNG or liquid nitrogen. The significant increase in importance of cryogenics entails the need to explore phenomena which have direct impact in the design process of cryogenic systems and their safety systems. These aspects are of high priority due to high investment costs, mainly because of safety issues and reliability. One of the issues which requires thorough investigation is the fracture mechanics of gas pipelines in cryogenic conditions. For this subject, importance is placed not only in when the cracks begin to appear, but also in how they form and how quickly they propagate. Currently, there is a lack of reliable research in the available literature in this area. This is often raised as a significant problem for designers, because knowledge in this topic should be reflected e.g., in the sizing calculations of safety valves for the vacuum syste...

  7. Investigation of the internal behavior in segmented PEMFCs of different flow fields during cold start process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, R.; Ren, Y.S.; Lin, X.W.; Jiang, Z.H.; Yang, Z.; Chang, Y.T.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we have researched the internal behavior in segmented proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) with three different flow fields during cold start process. The change of internal current density and temperature in fuel cells with different flow fields could be obviously shown by the printed circuit board (PCB) technology, and the study shows that the flow field is significant for enhancing the cold start ability and durability. Single serpentine flow field has the best cold start performance, while triple channel serpentine flow field has the best uniformity. It is found that without a robust temperature rising tendency, the cell temperature reaching 0 °C does not definitely mean a successful cold start because the cell temperature might drop down 0 °C again. Polarization curves show that there is almost no performance degradation after successful cold start, but the cell degrades quickly after the failed cold start at −7 °C and −10 °C. Based on these characteristics, we optimized the rapid cold start strategy by using electric heating and make it possible to start up the PEMFC at temperatures down to −20 °C within about 11 min. - Highlights: • Segmented fuel cell were used to record the internal current density and temperature distributions during the cold start. • The effects of flow fields on the PEMFC cold start capacity were evaluated. • The effect of cold start on the performance of fuel cell was evaluated. • An optimized strategy was adopted to improve the cold start capacity.

  8. Effect of cold work and processing orientation on the SCC behavior of Alloy 600

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moshier, W.C.; Brown, C.M.

    1999-01-01

    Cold work accelerates SCC growth rates in Alloy 600. However, the variation in crack growth rates generated from cold worker material has been significant, and the effect has been difficult to quantify. A study was performed in hydrogenated water adjusted to pH 10.2 to systematically evaluate the effect of cold work on Alloy 600 as a function of temperature, amount of cold work, stress intensity factor, and processing orientation. Cold work was introduced into the material by either tensile prestraining or cold rolling plate product. Crack growth rates were determined between 252 and 360 C, stress intensity factors between 21 and 55 MPa√m, and yield strengths between 201 and 827 MPa. The material with the highest yield strength was cold rolled and tested in the longitudinal-transverse (LT) and short-transverse (ST) orientations. Crack growth rates increased with increasing temperature, stress intensity factor, and yield strength. Furthermore, crack growth rates were a strong function of the processing orientation in the cold rolled plate, with growth rates being approximately an order of magnitude greater in the ST orientation compared to the LT orientation. Crack growth rates in the LT orientation were measured between 0.003 and 1.95 x 10 -9 m/s and between 0.066 and 6.3 x 10 -9 m/s in the ST orientation. Activation energies were slightly greater in the ST orientation, ranging from 154 to 191 kcal/mole, compared to activation energies between 126 and 157 kJ/mole in the LT orientation. The results of this study demonstrate that although cold work can be used to accelerate SCC, the orientation of crack growth can significantly affect the results, and must be taken into account when analyzing data from cold worked material

  9. Design of Cold-Formed Steel Screw Connections with Gypsum Sheathing at Ambient and Elevated Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Load-bearing cold-formed steel (CFS walls sheathed with double layers of gypsum plasterboard on both sides have demonstrated good fire resistance and attracted increasing interest for use in mid-rise CFS structures. As the main connection method, screw connections between CFS and gypsum sheathing play an important role in both the structural design and fire resistance of this wall system. However, studies on the mechanical behavior of screw connections with double-layer gypsum sheathing are still limited. In this study, 200 monotonic tests of screw connections with single- or double-layer gypsum sheathing at both ambient and elevated temperatures were conducted. The failure of screw connections with double-layer gypsum sheathing in shear was different from that of single-layer gypsum sheathing connections at ambient temperature, and it could be described as the breaking of the loaded sheathing edge combined with significant screw tilting and the loaded sheathing edge flexing fracture. However, the screw tilting and flexing fracture of the loaded sheathing edge gradually disappear at elevated temperatures. In addition, the influence of the loaded edge distance, double-layer sheathing and elevated temperatures is discussed in detail with clear conclusions. A unified design formula for the shear strength of screw connections with gypsum sheathing is proposed for ambient and elevated temperatures with adequate accuracy. A simplified load–displacement model with the post-peak branch is developed to evaluate the load–displacement response of screw connections with gypsum sheathing at ambient and elevated temperatures.

  10. Torsional Restraint Problem of Steel Cold-Formed Beams Restrained By Planar Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balázs, Ivan; Melcher, Jindřich; Pešek, Ondřej

    2017-10-01

    The effect of continuous or discrete lateral and torsional restraints of metal thinwalled members along their spans can positively influence their buckling resistance and thus contribute to more economical structural design. The prevention of displacement and rotation of the cross-section results in stabilization of the member. The restraints can practically be provided e.g. by planar members of cladding supported by metal members (purlins, girts). The rate of stabilization of a member can be quantified using values of shear and rotational stiffness provided by the adjacent planar members. While the lateral restraint effected by certain shear stiffness can be often considered as sufficient, the complete torsional restraint can be safely considered in some practical cases only. Otherwise the values of the appropriate rotational stiffness provided by adjacent planar members may not be satisfactory to ensure full torsional restraint and only incomplete restraint is available. Its verification should be performed using theoretical and experimental analyses. The paper focuses on problem of steel thin-walled coldformed beams stabilized by planar members and investigates the effect of the magnitude of the rotational stiffness provided by the planar members on the resistance of the steel members. Cold-formed steel beams supporting planar members of cladding are considered. Full lateral restraint and incomplete torsional restraint are assumed. Numerical analyses performed using a finite element method software indicate considerable influence of the torsional restraint on the buckling resistance of a steel thin-walled member. Utilization of the torsional restraint in the frame of sizing of a stabilized beam can result in more efficient structural design. The paper quantifies this effect for some selected cases and summarizes results of numerical analysis.

  11. Wear Improvement of Tools in the Cold Forging Process for Long Hex Flange Nuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsia, Shao-Yi; Shih, Po-Yueh

    2015-09-25

    Cold forging has played a critical role in fasteners and has been widely used in automotive production, manufacturing, aviation and 3C (Computer, Communication, and Consumer electronics). Despite its extensive use in fastener forming and die design, operator experience and trial and error make it subjective and unreliable owing to the difficulty of controlling the development schedule. This study used finite element analysis to establish and simulate wear in automotive repair fastener manufacturing dies based on actual process conditions. The places on a die that wore most quickly were forecast, with the stress levels obtained being substituted into the Archard equation to calculate die wear. A 19.87% improvement in wear optimization occurred by applying the Taguchi quality method to the new design. Additionally, a comparison of actual manufacturing data to simulations revealed a nut forging size error within 2%, thereby demonstrating the accuracy of this theoretical analysis. Finally, SEM micrographs of the worn surfaces on the upper punch indicate that the primary wear mechanism on the cold forging die for long hex flange nuts was adhesive wear. The results can simplify the development schedule, reduce the number of trials and further enhance production quality and die life.

  12. Design optimization of cold-formed steel portal frames taking into account the effect of building topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Duoc T.; Lim, James B. P.; Sha, Wei; Siew, Calvin Y. M.; Tanyimboh, Tiku T.; Issa, Honar K.; Mohammad, Fouad A.

    2013-04-01

    Cold-formed steel portal frames are a popular form of construction for low-rise commercial, light industrial and agricultural buildings with spans of up to 20 m. In this article, a real-coded genetic algorithm is described that is used to minimize the cost of the main frame of such buildings. The key decision variables considered in this proposed algorithm consist of both the spacing and pitch of the frame as continuous variables, as well as the discrete section sizes. A routine taking the structural analysis and frame design for cold-formed steel sections is embedded into a genetic algorithm. The results show that the real-coded genetic algorithm handles effectively the mixture of design variables, with high robustness and consistency in achieving the optimum solution. All wind load combinations according to Australian code are considered in this research. Results for frames with knee braces are also included, for which the optimization achieved even larger savings in cost.

  13. Coating by the Cold Spray Process: a state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Guagliano

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A brief description of cold spray coating process is presented. This paper intends to review some the previous works which are mostly about the influences of the cold spray parameters, mostly the surface ofthe substrate, on the deposition efficiency (DE. Almost all the important parameters, with more focus on the roughness of the substrate, on increasing the DE are briefly studied; this review also includes a description of application of cold spray and of some important effect of this method on substrate properties.On this basis, some possible development in this field of research are drawn and discussed.

  14. Fundamental properties of monolithic bentonite buffer material formed by cold isostatic pressing for high-level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, S.; Yamanaka, Y.; Kato, K.; Asano, H.; Ueda, H.

    1999-01-01

    The methods of fabrication, handling, and emplacement of engineered barriers used in a deep geological repository for high level radioactive waste should be planned as simply as possible from the engineering and economic viewpoints. Therefore, a new concept of a monolithic buffer material around a waste package have been proposed instead of the conventional concept with the use of small blocks, which would decrease the cost for buffer material. The monolithic buffer material is composed of two parts of highly compacted bentonite, a cup type body and a cover. As the forming method of the monolithic buffer material, compaction by the cold isostatic pressing process (CIP) has been employed. In this study, monolithic bentonite bodies with the diameter of about 333 mm and the height of about 455 mm (corresponding to the approx. 1/5 scale for the Japanese reference concept) were made by the CIP of bentonite powder. The dry densities: ρd of the bodies as a whole were measured and the small samples were cut from several locations to investigate the density distribution. The swelling pressure and hydraulic conductivity as function of the monolithic body density for CIP-formed specimens were also measured. High density (ρd: 1.4--2.0 Mg/m 3 ) and homogeneous monolithic bodies were formed by the CIP. The measured results of the swelling pressure (3--15 MPa) and hydraulic conductivity (0.5--1.4 x 10 -13 m/s) of the specimens were almost the same as those for the uniaxial compacted bentonite in the literature. It is shown that the vacuum hoist system is an applicable handling method for emplacement of the monolithic bentonite

  15. Some aspects on the role of hydrogen in the cold crack develoment process on welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourges, P.; Faure, F.

    1983-03-01

    Examination of the hydrogen input during welding (humidity of the electrode coatings, humidity of the wires, ribbon, and weld fluxing) and the means to minimize these hydrogen inputs. Description of various examples of cold crack development in welded joints caused by hydrogen, influence of the chemical composition, of the thermal processing on the two metals joints, influence of sulfur on cold crack on low alloy steels [fr

  16. Corrosion And Thermal Processing In Cold Gas Dynamic Spray Deposited Austenitic Stainless Steel Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Champagne have demonstrated this use of the cold spray technique in the repair of helicopter mast supports in U.S. Army aircraft, with over 50...Process: Fundamentals and Applications, Champagne , V. K., Ed., Woodhead, Boca Raton, FL Chap. 3. [3] Schiel, J. F., 2014, “The cold gas-dynamic spray... Champagne , V. K., Ed., Woodhead, Boca Raton, FL Chap. 2. [15] Han, W., Meng, X. M., Zhang, J. B., and Zhao, J., 2012, “Elastic modulus of 304 stainless

  17. Techno-economic evaluation for the heat integration of vaporisation cold energy in natural gas processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koku, Oludolapo; Perry, Simon; Kim, Jin-Kuk

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Development of thermal integration modelling framework for the utilisation of LNG cold energy. • Feasibility study for various design options for the integration of low-temperature cold energy. • Provision of a design approach for achieving efficient use of cold energy in LNG terminals. • Understanding of techno-economic impacts associated with the thermal integration of LNG cold energy. - Abstract: This paper addresses a conceptual study investigating the techno-economic feasibility for the thermal Integration of LNG cold vaporisation energy in power generation applications. In conventional regasification systems, this valuable LNG cold energy is often being wasted to ambient heat sources, representing a thermodynamic inefficient process with a significant thermal impact on the local environment. A combined facility consisting of a non-integrated Combined Cycle Power Plant (CCPP) and an LNG receiving terminal employing traditional Open Rack Vaporisers (ORV) technology, has been modelled, as a base case. Retrofit strategies for the integration of LNG cold energy have been investigated, and their impacts on power production and system efficiency are systematically compared. Retrofit design options considered in this work include the use of a propane Rankine cycle coupled with the direct expansion of natural gas, the integration of a closed-loop water cycle or open-loop water circuit with a steam Rankine cycle, and the facilitation of integrated air cooling for a gas turbine

  18. New Tribo-systems for Cold Forming of Steel, Stainless Steel and Aluminium Alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Globalisation of industrial production and increasing demands for environmentally benign solutions has forced cold forging industry to search for new, economically optimized tribo-systems, which are less harmful to the working as well as the global environment. The present paper describes efforts...

  19. FATIGUE BEHAVIOR OF HOT-ROLLED STEEL INTENDED FOR COLD FORMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gejza Rosenberg

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In the work, there are presented measured tension and fatigue properties of eight low-carbon steels moulded in form of 20 kg ingots that were processed by controlled regime of rolling /cooling and then exposed to simulated effect of two coiling temperatures. The experimental results presented in the work show, that steels with ferrite-martensite or ferrite-bainitic microstructure have in comparison to ferrite-pearlitic or ferrite-carbidic microstructure better strength-plastic properties, but worse resistance to cyclic loading.

  20. Effect of geometric imperfections on the ultimate moment capacity of cold-formed sigma-shape se

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassem L. Gendy

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, cold formed steel sections are used more and more as primary framing components and as a secondary structural system. They are used as purlins and side rails or floor joist, and after that in the building envelops. Beams are not perfectly straight and are usually associated with geometric imperfections. Initial geometric imperfections can significantly influence the stability response of cold-formed steel members. This paper reports a numerical investigation concerning the effect of these imperfections on the behavior of the simply supported beams subjected to a uniform bending moment. The beam profile is cold formed sigma sections. Group of beams with different overall member slenderness ratios were studied. Several approaches have been utilized to model the geometric imperfections. First, the elastic buckling modes were considered as the imperfect beam shape. In this approach, the elastic buckling analysis was done first to get the elastic buckling modes. In the second approach, the imperfections were considered by assuming the beam bent in a half sine wave along its length. Finally, combination of these two approaches was considered. Results reveal that, the ultimate bending moments of beams with short and intermediate overall slenderness ratios are sensitive to the imperfect shape that comprise compression flange local buckling.

  1. Process optimization of ultrasound-assisted alcoholic-alkaline treatment for granular cold water swelling starches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bo; Liu, Jianli; Gao, Weidong

    2017-09-01

    This paper reports on the process optimization of ultrasonic assisted alcoholic-alkaline treatment to prepare granular cold water swelling (GCWS) starches. In this work, three statistical approaches such as Plackett-Burman, steepest ascent path analysis and Box-Behnken design were successfully combined to investigate the effects of major treatment process variables including starch concentration, ethanol volume fraction, sodium hydroxide dosage, ultrasonic power and treatment time, and drying operation, that is, vacuum degree and drying time on cold-water solubility. Results revealed that ethanol volume fraction, sodium hydroxide dosage, applied power and ultrasonic treatment time were significant factors that affected the cold-water solubility of GCWS starches. The maximum cold-water solubility was obtained when treated at 400W of applied power for 27.38min. Optimum volume fraction of ethanol and sodium hydroxide dosage were 66.85% and 53.76mL, respectively. The theoretical values (93.87%) and the observed values (93.87%) were in reasonably good agreement and the deviation was less than 1%. Verification and repeated trial results indicated that the ultrasound-assisted alcoholic-alkaline treatment could be successfully used for the preparation of granular cold water swelling starches at room temperatures and had excellent improvement on the cold-water solubility of GCWS starches. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Improvement of cold wire drawing process by electropulsing

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Egea, Antonio José; González Rojas, Hernan Alberto; Jorba Peiró, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    The electroplastic effects on wire drawing process assisted with different short time current pulses configurations are investigated experimentally. The current pulses were induced to a specimen during the drawing process. The studied material is the 308L stainless steel. Current densities of 185 A/mm2, frequencies range from 140 to 350 Hz and pulse duration range from 100 to 250 μs were used in the electrically‐assisted wire drawing process. Frequency and pulse duration are...

  3. Cold spraying of aluminum bronze on profiled submillimeter cermet structures formed by laser cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryashin, N. S.; Malikov, A. G.; Shikalov, V. S.; Gulyaev, I. P.; Kuchumov, B. M.; Klinkov, S. V.; Kosarev, V. F.; Orishich, A. M.

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents results of the cold spraying of aluminum bronze coatings on substrates profiled with WC/Ni tracks obtained by laser cladding. Reinforcing cermet frames shaped as grids with varied mesh sizes were clad on stainless steel substrates using a CO2 laser machine "Siberia" (ITAM SB RAS, Russia). As a result, surfaces/substrates with heterogeneous shape, composition, and mechanical properties were obtained. Aluminum bronze coatings were deposited from 5lF-NS powder (Oerlikon Metco, Switzerland) on those substrates using cold spraying equipment (ITAM SB RAS). Data of profiling, microstructure diagnostics, EDS analysis, and mechanical tests of obtained composites is reported. Surface relief of the sprayed coatings dependence on substrate structure has been demonstrated.

  4. Alternative Forms of Compound Fractional Poisson Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Beghin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We study here different fractional versions of the compound Poisson process. The fractionality is introduced in the counting process representing the number of jumps as well as in the density of the jumps themselves. The corresponding distributions are obtained explicitly and proved to be solution of fractional equations of order less than one. Only in the final case treated in this paper, where the number of jumps is given by the fractional-difference Poisson process defined in Orsingher and Polito (2012, we have a fractional driving equation, with respect to the time argument, with order greater than one. Moreover, in this case, the compound Poisson process is Markovian and this is also true for the corresponding limiting process. All the processes considered here are proved to be compositions of continuous time random walks with stable processes (or inverse stable subordinators. These subordinating relationships hold, not only in the limit, but also in the finite domain. In some cases the densities satisfy master equations which are the fractional analogues of the well-known Kolmogorov one.

  5. The effects of atmospheric processes on tehran smog forming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, H; Cohen, D; Babazadeh, M; Rokni, L

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution is one of the most important problems in urban areas that always threaten citizen's health. Photochemical smog is one of the main factors of air pollution in large cities like Tehran. Usually smog is not only a part of nature, but is being analyzed as an independent matter, which highly affects on the nature. It has been used as relationship between atmospheric elements such as temperature, pressure, relative humidity, wind speed with inversion in the time of smog forming and weather map in 500 Hpa level during 9 years descriptive static by using correlation coefficient in this analyze. Results show that there is a meaningful correlation between atmospheric elements and smog forming. This relation is seen between monthly average of these elements and monthly average of smog forming. However, when temperature decreases, corresponding pressure will increase and result of this will be smog forming. Usually smog increases in cold months of year due to enter cold high pressure air masses in Iran during December and January that is simultaneous with decreasing temperature and air pressure increases and inversion height distance decreases from the earth surface which cause to integrate air pollution under its surface, will cause to form smog in Tehran. It shows a meaningful and strong relation, based on resultant relations by correlation coefficient from inversion height and smog forming, so that obtained figure is more than 60% .

  6. A novel methodology for in-process monitoring of flow forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, Andrew; Conway, Alastair; Ion, William

    2017-10-01

    Flow forming (FF) is an incremental cold working process with near-net-shape forming capability. Failures by fracture due to high deformation can be unexpected and sometimes catastrophic, causing tool damage. If process failures can be identified in real time, an automatic cut-out could prevent costly tool damage. Sound and vibration monitoring is well established and commercially viable in the machining sector to detect current and incipient process failures, but not for FF. A broad-frequency microphone was used to record the sound signature of the manufacturing cycle for a series of FF parts. Parts were flow formed using single and multiple passes, and flaws were introduced into some of the parts to simulate the presence of spontaneously initiated cracks. The results show that this methodology is capable of identifying both introduced defects and spontaneous failures during flow forming. Further investigation is needed to categorise and identify different modes of failure and identify further potential applications in rotary forming.

  7. Spent nuclear fuel project cold vacuum drying facility process water conditioning system design description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    This document provides the System Design Description (SDD) for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) Process Water Conditioning (PWC) System. The SDD was developed in conjunction with HNF-SD-SNF-SAR-002, Safety Analysis Report for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility, Phase 2, Supporting Installation of Processing Systems (Garvin 1998), the HNF-SD-SNF-DRD-O02, 1998, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Design Requirements, and the CVDF Design Summary Report. The SDD contains general descriptions of the PWC equipment, the system functions, requirements and interfaces. The SDD provides references for design and fabrication details, operation sequences and maintenance. This SDD has been developed for the SNFP Operations Organization and shall be updated, expanded, and revised in accordance with future design, construction and startup phases of the CVDF until the CVDF final ORR is approved

  8. CRITICAL ASPECTS IN SCRAPS OF COLD SMOKED SALMON PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bernardi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to summarize the critical aspects in the processing of smoked salmon scraps as resulted from seven different lots of samples through microbiological and chemical-physical analysis. Results demonstrate that this product has very variable salt content, high microbial counts influencing the shelf-life, rancidity problems depending on the raw material and is heavily contaminated by Listeria monocytogenes.

  9. Forms, Sources and Processes of Trust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooteboom, B.

    2006-01-01

    This chapter reviews some key points in the analysis of trust, based on Nooteboom (2002)i.The following questions are addressed.What can we have trust in?What is the relation between trust and control?What are the sources of trust? And what are its limits?By what process is trust built up and broken

  10. 238Pu fuel form processes. Savannah River Laboratory monthly report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-05-01

    Progress in the Savannah River 238 Pu fuel form program is summarized. Suspended solids observed in the technical-grade oxalic acid solution used in H-Area B-Line had no significant effect on particle size or morphology. A small but significant increase in product purity was noted with the use of reagent-grade oxalic acid. The density of hot-pressed LCHP pellets made from both problem and standardized feed decreased with longer milling times as was observed for multi-hundred watt (MHW) pellets. The LCHP pellets (greater than 90 percent theoretical density) generally cracked following final heat treatment. Cold-pressing studies indicate the anticipated pressure variation during cold pressing in the PuFF facility will have negligible effect on the density of MHW spheres. Construction of the plutonium experimental facility is 72 percent complete

  11. Signal Processing in Cold Atom Interferometry-Based INS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    angular rotation. Additionally, because of their particle nature, the atoms may be treated as inertial masses and their movement is used to determine the...G(τ)δβ(τ) = Φ(∆t)xi + wdi where β(t) is a Brownian motion process with dispersion Q, andΦ is the discrete-time state transition matrix [14]. That is...identity matrix, I. βA and βG are 3 × 1 vectors of independent, unity Brownian motions, that is, βA(t) ∼ N (0, t · I) and βG(t) ∼ N (0, t · I). The rate

  12. Comparison of Environment Impact between Conventional and Cold Chain Management System in Paprika Distribution Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eidelweijs A Putri

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Pasir Langu village in Cisarua, West Java, is the largest central production area of paprika in Indonesia. On average, for every 200 kilograms of paprika produced, there is rejection amounting to 3 kilograms. This resulted in money loss for wholesalers and wastes. In one year, this amount can be approximately 11.7 million Indonesian rupiahs. Recently, paprika wholesalers in Pasir Langu village recently are developing cold chain management system to maintain quality of paprika so that number of rejection can be reduced. The objective of this study is to compare environmental impacts between conventional and cold chain management system in paprika distribution process using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA methodology and propose Photovoltaic (PV system in paprika distribution process. The result implies that the cold chain system produces more CO2 emission compared to conventional system. However, due to the promotion of PV system, the emission would be reduced. For future research, it is necessary to reduce CO2 emission from transportation process since this process is biggest contributor of CO2 emission at whole distribution process. Keywords: LCA, environmentally friendly distribution, paprika,cold chain, PV system

  13. Environmental prevalence and persistence of Listeria monocytogenes in cold-smoked trout processing plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presence of Listeria monocytogenes on the surfaces of equipment and workers' hands during different production stages, as well as on fish skin and meat during processing and storage of cold-smoked trout, was investigated. Listeria monocytogenes was recovered from 10 (6.06%) of a total 165 cotto...

  14. Leaching characteristics of the metal waste form from the electrometallurgical treatment process: Product consistency testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, S. G.; Keiser, D. D.; Frank, S. M.; DiSanto, T.; Noy, M.

    1999-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory is developing an electrometallurgical treatment for spent fuel from the experimental breeder reactor II. A product of this treatment process is a metal waste form that incorporates the stainless steel cladding hulls, zirconium from the fuel and the fission products that are noble to the process, i.e., Tc, Ru, Nb, Pd, Rh, Ag. The nominal composition of this waste form is stainless steel/15 wt% zirconium/1--4 wt% noble metal fission products/1--2 wt % U. Leaching results are presented from several tests and sample types: (1) 2 week monolithic immersion tests on actual metal waste forms produced from irradiated cladding hulls, (2) long term (>2 years) pulsed flow tests on samples containing technetium and uranium and (3) crushed sample immersion tests on cold simulated metal waste form samples. The test results will be compared and their relevance for waste form product consistency testing discussed

  15. A Study of THT Cold Cores Population in the Star-Forming Region in Serpens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorellino, Eleonora

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this work is to produce the Core Mass Function (CMF) of the Serpens star-forming region and confront it with the Initial Mass Function (IMF), the statistical distribution of initial star mass. As Testi & Sergent (1998) discovered, the power-law index of the slope of the CMF is very close to the one of the Salpeter's IMF (Salpeter, 1955): dN/dM / M2.35. This strongly suggests that the stellar IMF results from the fragmentation process in turbulent cloud cores rather than from stellar accretion mechanisms and gives a huge contribute to undestanding the star formation. For this work, we started from the data delivered by the European satellite Herschel and produced the maps of the Serpens with Unimap code (Piazzo et al, 2015). Hence we obtained a core catalogue with two different softwares getsources (Men'shchikov et al, 2012) and CuTEx (Molinari et al, 2011) and we eliminated from it any source that is not a core. A full discussion of the cores physical propreties as well as the whole region is under preparation.

  16. Insulated Concrete Form Walls Integrated With Mechanical Systems in a Cold Climate Test House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallay, D. [Home Innovation Research Labs, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Wiehagen, J. [Home Innovation Research Labs, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Transitioning from standard light frame to a thermal mass wall system in a high performance home will require a higher level of design integration with the mechanical systems. The much higher mass in the ICF wall influences heat transfer through the wall and affects how the heating and cooling system responds to changing outdoor conditions. This is even more important for efficient, low-load homes with efficient heat pump systems in colder climates where the heating and cooling peak loads are significantly different from standard construction. This report analyzes a range of design features and component performance estimates in an effort to select practical, cost-effective solutions for high performance homes in a cold climate.

  17. In situ Orbit Extraction from Live, High Precision Collisionless Simulations of Systems Formed by Cold Collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noriega-Mendoza, H.; Aguilar, L. A.

    2018-04-01

    We performed high precision, N-body simulations of the cold collapse of initially spherical, collisionless systems using the GYRFALCON code of Dehnen (2000). The collapses produce very prolate spheroidal configurations. After the collapse, the systems are simulated for 85 and 170 half-mass radius dynamical timescales, during which energy conservation is better than 0.005%. We use this period to extract individual particle orbits directly from the simulations. We then use the TAXON code of Carpintero and Aguilar (1998) to classify 1 to 1.5% of the extracted orbits from our final, relaxed configurations: less than 15% are chaotic orbits, 30% are box orbits and 60% are tube orbits (long and short axis). Our goal has been to prove that direct orbit extraction is feasible, and that there is no need to "freeze" the final N-body system configuration to extract a time-independent potential.

  18. Residual stress evaluation and curvature behavior of aluminium 7050 peen forming processed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, R.R. de; Lima, N.B.; Braga, A.P.V.; Goncalves, M.

    2010-01-01

    Shot peening is a superficial cold work process used to increase the fatigue life evaluated by residual stress measurements. The peen forming process is a variant of the shot peening process, where a curvature in the plate is obtained by the compression of the grains near to the surface. In this paper, the influence of the parameters such as: pressure of shot, ball shot size and thickness of aluminum 7050 samples with respect to residual stress profile and resulting arc height was studied. The evaluation of the residual stress profile was obtained by sin 2 Ψ method. (author)

  19. Optimization of the cold processing of 15-15Ti AIM1 austenitic steel cladding tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courtin, Laurine

    2015-01-01

    In order to face the next century energy demand growth, the worldwide development of the 4. generation of nuclear reactors is considered. The construction of a sodium-cooled fast reactor prototype (ASTRID) is currently envisaged at the CEA. The reference material selected for the fuel cladding of its first core is the 15-15Ti-AIM1 austenitic steel (Austenitic Improved Material). The goal of this PhD thesis work is to investigate the different ways of optimization for the cold working steps undergone by the claddings during their manufacture in order to improve their swelling resistance. The main investigations are focused on the conditions of the cold-working steps and the thermal treatments applied throughout the shaping of the claddings, especially of the last solution annealing treatment. The effects of these parameters on the microstructure are investigated (structural refinement, precipitation and the additive elements dissolution and arrangement of the dislocations). This study is divided into three main steps: An analysis of the fabrication routes applied in the past along with the study of the 'cold-work' and the thermal treatments conditions; An assessment of new shaping processes, such as the 'cold-pilgering' and the hammering, in order to verify the conformity of the manufactured tubes with respect to the required specifications; An attempt of optimization of the cold-work routes and the microstructure of the final material. The results of microstructure characterization and the mechanical behavior allow envisaging favorably the use of an alternative process such as the cold pilgering to manufacture claddings. (author) [fr

  20. Influence of the coating process on the tribological conditions during cold forging with a MoS2 based lubricant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Robby; Hagenah, Hinnerk; Merklein, Marion

    2018-05-01

    Cold forging processes such as forward rod extrusion can be used to produce high quality components like connection rods, shafts and gears. The main advantages of these extruded components are sufficient surface quality, work hardening, compressive residual stresses and fatigue strength. Since one technical disadvantage of extruded components lies in the achievable tolerance classes, the improvement of these should be of crucial importance. For instance, the attainable workpiece accuracy and component quality can be influenced by adapting the tribological system in such a way that the resulting friction is specifically controlled in order to improve component forming. Lubricant modification is one practical way of adapting the tribological system to the requirements of the forming process. An industrial established and highly efficient lubricant system is the application of a zinc-phosphate conversion layer with a molybdenum disulfide-based lubricant. While offering many advantages, its tribological conditions seem to depend strongly on the layer weight and the application strategy. These parameters and the respective interdependencies have not been sufficiently investigated yet. In order to examine this, the tribological conditions depending on the layer weight are analyzed in greater detail using the Ring-Compression-Test (RCT). This tribometer provides a comparative representation of the forming conditions during cold forging. Furthermore, a potential dependency between the tribological conditions and two different coating techniques is analyzed. The latter are represented by the industrial standards dipping and dip-drumming.

  1. Cold pressure welding of aluminium-steel blanks: Manufacturing process and electrochemical surface preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Hans Christian; Homberg, Werner; Orive, Alejandro Gonzalez; Grundmeier, Guido; Hordych, Illia; Maier, Hans Jürgen

    2018-05-01

    In this study the manufacture of aluminium-steel blanks by cold pressure welding and their preparation for a welding process through electrochemical surface treatment are investigated and discussed. The cold pressure welding process was done with an incremental rolling tool that allows for the partial pressure welding of two blanks along a prepared path. The influence of the surface preparation by electrochemical deposition of bond promoting organosilane-based agents and roughening on a nano-scale is investigated and compared to conventional surface treatments. Coating the surfaces with a thin organosilane-based film incorporating specific functional groups should promote additional bonding between the mating oxide layers; its influence on the total weld strength is studied. Pressure welding requires suitable process strategies, and the current advances in the proposed incremental rolling process for the combination of mild steel and aluminium are presented.

  2. A General Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian Formulation for the Numerical Simulation of 3D Forming Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boman, R.; Papeleux, L.; Ponthot, J. P.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian formalism is used to compute the steady state of a 2D metal cutting operation and a 3D U-shaped cold roll forming process. Compared to the Lagrangian case, this method allows the use of a refined mesh near the tools, leading to an accurate representation of the chip formation (metal cutting) and the bending of the sheet (roll forming) with a limited computational time. The main problem of this kind of simulation is the rezoning of the nodes on the free surfaces of the sheet. A modified iterative isoparametric smoother is used to manage this geometrically complex and CPU expensive task

  3. Welding of cold worked austenitic steels - comparison of TIG, EB and laser processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, A.; Prunele, D. de; Castilan, F.

    1993-01-01

    Effect of welding on cold worked components is a local falling of their properties. Modifications induced by such an operation depend on the thermal cycle and consequently on the welding process. An experimental study aim of which is to compare respective effects of different welding processes (TIG, EB, laser) has been realized. This publication presents results related to 316L and 316Ti steels. (author). 2 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  4. Insulated Concrete Form Walls Integrated With Mechanical Systems in a Cold Climate Test House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallay, D.; Wiehagen, J.

    2014-09-01

    Transitioning from standard light frame to a thermal mass wall system in a high performance home will require a higher level of design integration with the mechanical systems. The much higher mass in the ICF wall influences heat transfer through the wall and affects how the heating and cooling system responds to changing outdoor conditions. This is even more important for efficient, low-load homes with efficient heat pump systems in colder climates where the heating and cooling peak loads are significantly different from standard construction. This report analyzes a range of design features and component performance estimates in an effort to select practical, cost-effective solutions for high performance homes in a cold climate. Of primary interest is the influence of the ICF walls on developing an effective air sealing strategy and selecting an appropriate heating and cooling equipment type and capacity. The domestic water heating system is analyzed for costs and savings to investigate options for higher efficiency electric water heating. A method to ensure mechanical ventilation air flows is examined. The final solution package includes high-R mass walls, very low infiltration rates, multi-stage heat pump heating, solar thermal domestic hot water system, and energy recovery ventilation. This solution package can be used for homes to exceed 2012 International Energy Conservation Code requirements throughout all climate zones and achieves the DOE Challenge Home certification.

  5. Cold plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marroquin, Christopher M.; O' Connell, Kevin M.; Schultz, Mark D.; Tian, Shurong

    2018-02-13

    A cold plate, an electronic assembly including a cold plate, and a method for forming a cold plate are provided. The cold plate includes an interface plate and an opposing plate that form a plenum. The cold plate includes a plurality of active areas arranged for alignment over respective heat generating portions of an electronic assembly, and non-active areas between the active areas. A cooling fluid flows through the plenum. The plenum, at the non-active areas, has a reduced width and/or reduced height relative to the plenum at the active areas. The reduced width and/or height of the plenum, and exterior dimensions of cold plate, at the non-active areas allow the non-active areas to flex to accommodate surface variations of the electronics assembly. The reduced width and/or height non-active areas can be specifically shaped to fit between physical features of the electronics assembly.

  6. Investigation of cold extrusion process using coupled thermo-mechanical FEM analysis and adaptive friction modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görtan, Mehmet Okan

    2017-10-01

    Cold extrusion processes are known for their excellent material usage as well as high efficiency in the production of large batches. Although the process starts at room temperature, workpiece temperatures may rise above 200°C. Moreover, contact normal stresses can exceed 2500 MPa, whereas surface enlargement values can reach up to 30. These changes affects friction coefficients in cold extrusion processes. In the current study, friction coefficients between a plain carbon steel C4C (1.0303) and a tool steel (1.2379) are determined dependent on temperature and contact pressure using the sliding compression test (SCT). In order to represent contact normal stress and temperature effects on friction coefficients, an empirical adaptive friction model has been proposed. The validity of the model has been tested with experiments and finite element simulations for a cold forward extrusion process. By using the proposed adaptive friction model together with thermo-mechanical analysis, the deviation in the process loads between numerical simulations and model experiments could be reduced from 18.6% to 3.3%.

  7. Characteristics of the cold-water belt formed off Soya Warm Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizu, Miho; Kitade, Yujiro; Matsuyama, Masaji

    2008-12-01

    We examined the data obtained by acoustic Doppler current profiler, conductivity-temperature-depth profiler, and expendable bathythermograph observations, which were collected in the summers of 2000, 2001, and 2002, to clarify the characteristics of the cold-water belt (CWB), i.e., lower-temperature water than the surrounding water extending from the southwest coast of Sakhalin along the offshore side of Soya Warm Current (SWC) and to confirm one of the formation mechanisms of the CWB as suggested by our previous study, i.e., the upwelling due to the convergence of bottom Ekman transport off the SWC region. The CWB was observed at about 30 km off the coast, having a thickness of 14 m and a minimum temperature of 12°C at the sea surface. The CWB does not have the specific water mass, but is constituted of three representative water types off the northeast coast of Hokkaido in summer, i.e., SWC water, Fresh Surface Okhotsk Sea Water, and Okhotsk Sea Intermediate Water. In a comparison of the horizontal distributions of current and temperature, the CWB region is found to be advected to the southeast at an average of 40 ± 29% of the maximum current velocity of the SWC. The pumping speed due to the convergence of the bottom Ekman transport is estimated as (1.5-3.0) × 10-4 m s-1. We examined the mixing ratio of the CWB, and the results implied that the water mass of the CWB is advected southeastward and mixes with a water mass upwelling in a different region off SWC.

  8. Investigation of multi-stage cold forward extrusion process using coupled thermo-mechanical finite element analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görtan, Mehmet Okan

    2018-05-01

    Cold extrusion processes are distinguished by their low material usage as well as great efficiency in the production of mid-range and large component series. Although majority of the cold extruded parts are produced using die systems containing multiple forming stages, this subject has rarely been investigated so far. Therefore, the characteristics of multi-stage cold forward rod extrusion is studied in the current work using thermo-mechanically coupled finite element (FE) analysis. A case hardening steel, 16MnCr5 (1.7131) was used as experimental material. Its strain, strain rate and temperature dependent mechanical characteristics were determined using compression testing and modeled in FE simulations via a Johnson-Cook material model. Friction coefficients for the same material while in contact with a tool steel (1.2379) were determined dependent on temperature and contact pressure using sliding compression test (SCT) and modeled by an adaptive friction model developed by the author. In the first set of simulations, rod material with a diameter of 14.9 mm was extruded down to a diameter of 9.6 mm in a single step using three different die opening angles (2α); 20°, 40° and 60°. In the second set of investigations, the same rod was reduced first to 12 mm and then to 9.6 mm in two steps within the same forming die. Press forces, contact normal stresses between extruded material and forming die, material temperature and axial stresses are compared in these two set of simulations and the differences are discussed.

  9. Seismic Failure Mechanism of Reinforced Cold-Formed Steel Shear Wall System Based on Structural Vulnerability Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihong Ye

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A series of structural vulnerability analyses are conducted on a reinforced cold-formed steel (RCFS shear wall system and a traditional cold-formed steel (CFS shear wall system subjected to earthquake hazard based on forms in order to investigate their failure mechanisms. The RCFS shear wall adopts rigid beam-column joints and continuous concrete-filled CFS tube end studs rather than coupled-C section end studs that are used in traditional CFS shear walls, to achieve the rigid connections in both beam-column joints and column bases. The results show that: the RCFS and traditional CFS shear wall systems both exhibit the maximum vulnerability index associated with the failure mode in the first story. Therefore, the first story is likely to be a weakness of the CFS shear wall system. Once the wall is damaged, the traditional CFS shear wall system would collapse because the shear wall is the only lateral-resisting component. However, the collapse resistance of the RCFS shear wall system is effectively enhanced by the second defense, which is provided by a framework integrated by rigid beam-column joints and fixed column bases. The predicted collapse mode with maximum vulnerability index that was obtained by structural vulnerability analysis agrees well with the experimental result, and the structural vulnerability method is thereby verified to be reasonable to identify the weaknesses of framed structures and predict their collapse modes. Additionally, the quantitative vulnerability index indicates that the RCFS shear wall system exhibits better robustness compared to the traditional one. Furthermore, the “strong frame weak wallboard” and the “strong column weak beam” are proposed in this study as conceptional designations for the RCFS shear wall systems.

  10. Radial-rotation profile forming: A new processing technology of incremental sheet metal forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laue, Robert; Härtel, Sebastian; Awiszus, Birgit

    2018-05-01

    Incremental forming processes (i.e., spinning) of sheet metal blanks into cylindrical cups are suitable for lower lot sizes. The produced cups were frequently used as preforms to produce workpieces in further forming steps with additional functions like profiled hollow parts [1]. The incremental forming process radial-rotation profile forming has been developed to enable the production of profiled hollow parts with low sheet thinning and good geometrical accuracy. The two principal forming steps are the production of the preform by rotational swing-folding [2] and the subsequent radial profiling of the hollow part in one clamping position. The rotational swing-folding process is based on a combination of conventional spinning and swing-folding. Therefore, a round blank rotates on a profiled mandrel and due to the swinging of a cylindrical forming tool, the blank is formed to a cup with low sheet thinning. In addition, thickening results at the edge of the blank and wrinkling occurs. However, the wrinkles are formed into the indentation of the profiled mandrel and can be reshaped as an advantage in the second process step, the radial profiling. Due to the rotation and continuous radial feed of a profiled forming tool to the profiled mandrel, the axial profile is formed in the second process step. Because of the minor relative movement in axial direction between tool and blank, low sheet thinning occurs. This is an advantage of the principle of the process.

  11. Effects of Processing Parameters on the Forming Quality of C-Shaped Thermosetting Composite Laminates in Hot Diaphragm Forming Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, X. X.; Gu, Y. Z.; Sun, J.; Li, M.; Liu, W. P.; Zhang, Z. G.

    2013-10-01

    In this study, the effects of processing temperature and vacuum applying rate on the forming quality of C-shaped carbon fiber reinforced epoxy resin matrix composite laminates during hot diaphragm forming process were investigated. C-shaped prepreg preforms were produced using a home-made hot diaphragm forming equipment. The thickness variations of the preforms and the manufacturing defects after diaphragm forming process, including fiber wrinkling and voids, were evaluated to understand the forming mechanism. Furthermore, both interlaminar slipping friction and compaction behavior of the prepreg stacks were experimentally analyzed for showing the importance of the processing parameters. In addition, autoclave processing was used to cure the C-shaped preforms to investigate the changes of the defects before and after cure process. The results show that the C-shaped prepreg preforms with good forming quality can be achieved through increasing processing temperature and reducing vacuum applying rate, which obviously promote prepreg interlaminar slipping process. The process temperature and forming rate in hot diaphragm forming process strongly influence prepreg interply frictional force, and the maximum interlaminar frictional force can be taken as a key parameter for processing parameter optimization. Autoclave process is effective in eliminating voids in the preforms and can alleviate fiber wrinkles to a certain extent.

  12. Process and magnetic properties of cold pressed Ne Fe B bonded magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, DAniel; Concilio, Gilberto Vicente; Landgraf, Fernando Jose Gomes; Zanchetta, Antonio Carlos

    1996-01-01

    Bonded magnets are polymer composites based on a mixture of a hard magnetic powder and a polymer. This mixture is processed as a traditional powder metallurgy material, cold pressed, or like a thermoplastic material, by injection molding. The polymeric phase to a large extent determines the mechanical properties of the composite, while magnetic powder determines its magnetic properties. They are less expensive and easier to produce, specially in the case of high complexity parts. This paper presents the relationship between process variables and magnetic properties of cold pressed Nd Fe B bonded magnets produced from melt spun flakes mixed with thermosetting resins. The experiments were done using Statistical Design of Experiments. The variables investigates were: uniaxial compaction pressure, binder type; binder content; size of Nd Fe B particles; addition of lubricant; and addition of small quantities of magnetic additives, particles of ferrites, iron, or alnico. (author)

  13. Processing-Microstructure-Property Relationships for Cold Spray Powder Deposition of Al-Cu Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Champagne [18]. The simulations were completed to compare the simulated particle exit velocities versus the measured particle exit velocities. In...620 m/s to 670 m/s [39]. V. Champagne states that for pure aluminum, an acceptable critical velocity for the deposition of pure aluminum is anything...Materials and Processess, vol. 168, no. 5, pp. 53–55, May 2010. [3] V. K. Champagne and P. F. Leyman, “Cold Spray Process Development for the Reclamation

  14. Analysis of Startup Process and Its Optimization for a Two-Stand Reversible Cold Rolling Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangming Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic characteristic analysis of a two-stand reversible cold rolling mill in the startup process was carried out. The delay algorithm of the interstand thickness was proposed. A new method combined with the accelerated secant and the tangent methods was established to solve the simultaneous equations. The thickness and interstand tension transition processes with different static tension establishing processes were analyzed. Both mills were operated under constant rolling force control mode in the above process. The results show that the strip thickness in the rolling gap reduces in the static mill screwdown process. The entry stand runs inversely to establish the static interstand tension. This area becomes an abnormal thickness reduction area of the incoming strip. It results in several abnormal interstand tension increases in the subsequent startup process. The tension increase leads to an impact force on the strip that is the main reason of the strip breakage in the startup process. So the static tension establishing process was optimized, and the interstand tension fluctuation and the strip breakage accidents both reduced significantly. The results are beneficial to the startup process of the two-stand reversible cold rolling mill.

  15. Spring-back of flexible roll forming bending process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y; Kim, D H; Jung, D W

    2015-01-01

    Simulations are now widely used in the field of roll forming because of their convenience. Simulations provide a low cost, secure and fast analysis tool. Flexible roll forming provides the desired shapes with a one time forming process. For roll forming, the velocity of the sheet and friction are important factors to attain an ideal shape. Because it is a complicated process, simulations provide a better understanding of the roll forming process. Simulations were peformed using ABAQUS software linked to elastic-plastic modules which we developed taking into account of interactions between these fields [1]. The application of this method makes it possible to highlight the strain-stress and mechanical behaviour laws and the spring-back. Thus, the flexible roll forming and bending process can be well described by the simulation software and guide the actual machine. (paper)

  16. Thermal energy storage in the form of heat or cold with using of the PCM-based accumulation panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skovajsa Jan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the usage of thermal energy storage in the form of heat and cold with an adaptation of the special device which is composed of the thermal panels. These panels are based on the phase change materials (PCM for normal inner environment temperature in buildings. The energy for the thermal energy storage is possible to get from built-in electric heating foil or from the tube heat exchanger, which is build in the thermal panels. This technology is able to use renewable energy sources, for example, solar thermal collectors and air-to-water heat pump as a source of heat for heating of the hot water tank. In the cooling mode, there is able to use the heat pump or photovoltaics panels in combination with thermoelectric coolers for cooling.

  17. Surface enhanced 316L/SiC nano-composite coatings via laser cladding and following cold-swaging process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuhang; Gao, Shiyou

    2017-10-01

    Cold-swaging is one of a cold deformation processes, and ceramic-reinforcement nano-composite coatings can effectively improve the performance of metal matrix surface. Therefore, the two processes are innovatively combined to further improve the surface properties of the metal matrix in this paper. The microstructure and surface properties of the laser cladding 316L + 10 wt% SiC nano-composite coatings were examined through designed experiments after cold-swaging by self-developed hydraulic machine. Furthermore, the coatings were compared with those without cold-swaging coatings at the same time. The result shows that the cold-swaging process can further enhance the tensile strength, micro-hardness and the wear resistance of the composite coating. This study can be used as a reference for further strengthening of laser cladding nano-composite coatings in future research.

  18. Imulation of polymer forming processes - addressing industrial needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thibault, F.; DiRaddo, R.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the development of simulation and design optimization capabilities, for polymer forming processes, in the context of addressing industrial needs. Accomplishments generated from close to twenty years of research in this field, at the National Research Council (NRC), are presented. Polymer forming processes such as extrusion blow moulding, stretch blow moulding and thermoforming have been the focus of the work, yet the research is extendable to similar polymer forming operations such as micro-blow moulding, sheet blow moulding and composites stamping. The research considers material models, process sequence integration and design optimization, derivative processes and 3D finite elements with multi-body contact.

  19. Status of plutonium ceramic immobilization processes and immobilization forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebbinghaus, B.B.; Van Konynenburg, R.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Vance, E.R.; Jostsons, A. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization, Menai (Australia)] [and others

    1996-05-01

    Immobilization in a ceramic followed by permanent emplacement in a repository or borehole is one of the alternatives currently being considered by the Fissile Materials Disposition Program for the ultimate disposal of excess weapons-grade plutonium. To make Pu recovery more difficult, radioactive cesium may also be incorporated into the immobilization form. Valuable data are already available for ceramics form R&D efforts to immobilize high-level and mixed wastes. Ceramics have a high capacity for actinides, cesium, and some neutron absorbers. A unique characteristic of ceramics is the existence of mineral analogues found in nature that have demonstrated actinide immobilization over geologic time periods. The ceramic form currently being considered for plutonium disposition is a synthetic rock (SYNROC) material composed primarily of zirconolite (CaZrTi{sub 2}O{sub 7}), the desired actinide host phase, with lesser amounts of hollandite (BaAl{sub 2}Ti{sub 6}O{sub 16}) and rutile (TiO{sub 2}). Alternative actinide host phases are also being considered. These include pyrochlore (Gd{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7}), zircon (ZrSiO{sub 4}), and monazite (CePO{sub 4}), to name a few of the most promising. R&D activities to address important technical issues are discussed. Primarily these include moderate scale hot press fabrications with plutonium, direct loading of PuO{sub 2} powder, cold press and sinter fabrication methods, and immobilization form formulation issues.

  20. Status of plutonium ceramic immobilization processes and immobilization forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebbinghaus, B.B.; Van Konynenburg, R.A.; Vance, E.R.; Jostsons, A.

    1996-01-01

    Immobilization in a ceramic followed by permanent emplacement in a repository or borehole is one of the alternatives currently being considered by the Fissile Materials Disposition Program for the ultimate disposal of excess weapons-grade plutonium. To make Pu recovery more difficult, radioactive cesium may also be incorporated into the immobilization form. Valuable data are already available for ceramics form R ampersand D efforts to immobilize high-level and mixed wastes. Ceramics have a high capacity for actinides, cesium, and some neutron absorbers. A unique characteristic of ceramics is the existence of mineral analogues found in nature that have demonstrated actinide immobilization over geologic time periods. The ceramic form currently being considered for plutonium disposition is a synthetic rock (SYNROC) material composed primarily of zirconolite (CaZrTi 2 O 7 ), the desired actinide host phase, with lesser amounts of hollandite (BaAl 2 Ti 6 O 16 ) and rutile (TiO 2 ). Alternative actinide host phases are also being considered. These include pyrochlore (Gd 2 Ti 2 O 7 ), zircon (ZrSiO 4 ), and monazite (CePO 4 ), to name a few of the most promising. R ampersand D activities to address important technical issues are discussed. Primarily these include moderate scale hot press fabrications with plutonium, direct loading of PuO 2 powder, cold press and sinter fabrication methods, and immobilization form formulation issues

  1. Fructooligosaccharides integrity after atmospheric cold plasma and high-pressure processing of a functional orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Francisca Diva Lima; Gomes, Wesley Faria; Cavalcante, Rosane Souza; Tiwari, Brijesh K; Cullen, Patrick J; Frias, Jesus Maria; Bourke, Paula; Fernandes, Fabiano A N; Rodrigues, Sueli

    2017-12-01

    In this study, the effect of atmospheric pressure cold plasma and high-pressure processing on the prebiotic orange juice was evaluated. Orange juice containing 7g/100g of commercial fructooligosaccharides (FOS) was directly and indirectly exposed to a plasma discharge at 70kV with processing times of 15, 30, 45 and 60s. For high-pressure processing, the juice containing the same concentration of FOS was treated at 450MPa for 5min at 11.5°C in an industrial equipment (Hyperbaric, model: 300). After the treatments, the fructooligosaccharides were qualified and quantified by thin layer chromatography. The organic acids and color analysis were also evaluated. The maximal overall fructooligosaccharides degradation was found after high-pressure processing. The total color difference was pressure and plasma processing. citric and ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) showed increased content after plasma and high-pressure treatment. Thus, atmospheric pressure cold plasma and high-pressure processing can be used as non-thermal alternatives to process prebiotic orange juice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Examples on cold forged aluminium components in automotive industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Kolsgaard, A.

    2000-01-01

    The present paper describes the possibilites of applying cold forging for manufacturing of light weight components in aluminium. A short description of the basic cold forming processes forms the basis for describing the great variety in design of cold forged components. Examples are mainly taken ...... from automotive industry but in a few cases also from other industrial sectors to show the possibilities....

  3. A geometric process repair model for a repairable cold standby system with priority in use and repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yuanlin; Wang Guanjun

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a deteriorating cold standby repairable system consisting of two dissimilar components and one repairman is studied. For each component, assume that the successive working times form a decreasing geometric process while the consecutive repair times constitute an increasing geometric process, and component 1 has priority in use and repair. Under these assumptions, we consider a replacement policy N based on the number of repairs of component 1 under which the system is replaced when the number of repairs of component 1 reaches N. Our problem is to determine an optimal policy N* such that the average cost rate (i.e. the long-run average cost per unit time) of the system is minimized. The explicit equation of the average cost rate of the system is derived and the corresponding optimal replacement policy N* can be determined analytically or numerically. Finally, a numerical example with Weibull distribution is given to illustrate some theoretical results in this paper.

  4. Stress corrosion cracking of stainless steel under deaerated high-temperature water. Influence of cold work and processing orientation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terachi, Takumi; Yamada, Takuyo; Chiba, Goro; Arioka, Koji

    2006-01-01

    The influence of cold work and processing orientation on the propagation of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of stainless steel under hydrogenated high-temperature water was examined. It was shown that (1) the crack growth rates increased with heaviness of cold work, and (2) processing orientation affected crack growth rate with cracking direction. Crack growth rates showed anisotropy of T-L>>T-S>L-S, with T-S and L-S branches representing high shear stress direction. Geometric deformation of crystal grains due to cold work caused the anisotropy and shear stress also assisted the SCC propagation. (3) The step intervals of slip like patterns observed on intergranular facets increased cold work. (4) Nano-indentation hardness of the crack tip together with EBSD measurement indicated that the change of hardness due to crack propagation was less than 5% cold-work, even though the distance from the crack tip was 10μm. (author)

  5. Simulation of a Novel Single-column Cryogenic Air Separation Process Using LNG Cold Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jieyu, Zheng; Yanzhong, Li; Guangpeng, Li; Biao, Si

    In this paper, a novel single-column air separation process is proposed with the implementation of heat pump technique and introduction of LNG coldenergy. The proposed process is verifiedand optimized through simulation on the Aspen Hysys® platform. Simulation results reveal that thepower consumption per unit mass of liquid productis around 0.218 kWh/kg, and the total exergy efficiency of the systemis 0.575. According to the latest literatures, an energy saving of 39.1% is achieved compared with those using conventional double-column air separation units.The introduction of LNG cold energy is an effective way to increase the system efficiency.

  6. Residual stress evaluation and curvature behavior of aluminium 7050 peen forming processed; Avaliacao da tensao residual em aluminio 7050 conformado pelo processo peen forming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, R.R. de; Lima, N.B., E-mail: rolivier@ipen.b, E-mail: nblima@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Braga, A.P.V.; Goncalves, M., E-mail: anapaola@ipt.b, E-mail: mgoncalves@ipt.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas (IPT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Shot peening is a superficial cold work process used to increase the fatigue life evaluated by residual stress measurements. The peen forming process is a variant of the shot peening process, where a curvature in the plate is obtained by the compression of the grains near to the surface. In this paper, the influence of the parameters such as: pressure of shot, ball shot size and thickness of aluminum 7050 samples with respect to residual stress profile and resulting arc height was studied. The evaluation of the residual stress profile was obtained by sin{sup 2} {Psi} method. (author)

  7. Numerical simulation of X90 UOE pipe forming process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Tianxia; Ren, Qiang; Peng, Yinghong; Li, Dayong; Tang, Ding; Han, Jianzeng; Li, Xinwen; Wang, Xiaoxiu

    2013-12-01

    The UOE process is an important technique to manufacture large-diameter welding pipes which are increasingly applied in oil pipelines and offshore platforms. The forming process of UOE mainly consists of five successive operations: crimping, U-forming, O-forming, welding and mechanical expansion, through which a blank is formed into a pipe in a UOE pipe mill. The blank with an appropriate edge bevel is bent into a cylindrical shape by crimping (C-forming), U-forming and O-forming successively. After the O-forming, there is an open-seam between two ends of the plate. Then, the blank is welded by automatic four-electrode submerged arc welding technique. Subsequently, the welded pipe is expanded with a mechanical expander to get a high precision circular shape. The multiple operations in the UOE mill make it difficult to control the quality of the formed pipe. Therefore, process design mainly relies on experience in practical production. In this study, the UOE forming of an API X90 pipe is studied by using finite element simulation. The mechanical properties tests are performed on the API X90 pipeline steel blank. A two-dimensional finite element model under the hypothesis of plane strain condition is developed to simulate the UOE process according to data coming from the workshop. A kinematic hardening model is used in the simulation to take the Bauschinger effect into account. The deformation characteristics of the blank during the forming processes are analyzed. The simulation results show a significant coherence in the geometric configurations comparing with the practical manufacturing.

  8. Vanadium dioxide formed by the sol-gel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potember, R.S.; Speck, K.R.; Hu, H.S.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes a process for the deposition of a crystalline vanadium dioxide thin film. It comprises: providing a solution comprising a vanadium tetraalkoxide and solvent; allowing hydrolysis and condensation reactions to progressively form a homogeneous sol from the solution, applying a coating of the sol to the substrate; allowing a gel to form from the sol on the substrate by evaporating the solvent; dehydrating the gel by heat treatment under an inert atmosphere to form the crystalline vanadium dioxide film

  9. Adaptive Control of Freeze-Form Extrusion Fabrication Processes (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhao, Xiyue; Landers, Robert G; Leu, Ming C

    2008-01-01

    Freeze-form Extrusion Fabrication (FEF) is an additive manufacturing process that extrudes high solids loading aqueous ceramic pastes in a layer-by-layer fashion below the paste freezing temperature for component fabrication...

  10. Adaptation of the continuous cold-trap system of fluidized-bed to the fluoride volatility process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    A continuous cold-trap system consisting of fluidized condensor and stripper has been evaluated with a view to adapt it to the Fluoride Volatility Process in establishing the continuous purification process without radiation decomposition of PuF 6 . Its feasibility is shown by the test with UF 6 -air. Necessary conditions for the cold trap, and performance of the 2-in.-dia. fluidized-bed cold-trap system are presented, and also a model of mist formation in the condensor

  11. Possibilities of Particle Finite Element Methods in Industrial Forming Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, J.; Cante, J. C.; Weyler, R.; Hernandez, J.

    2007-04-01

    The work investigates the possibilities offered by the particle finite element method (PFEM) in the simulation of forming problems involving large deformations, multiple contacts, and new boundaries generation. The description of the most distinguishing aspects of the PFEM, and its application to simulation of representative forming processes, illustrate the proposed methodology.

  12. Simultaneous measurement of current and temperature distributions in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell during cold start processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao Kui; Alaefour, Ibrahim E.; Karimi, Gholamreza; Li Xianguo

    2011-01-01

    Cold start is critical to the commercialization of proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) in automotive applications. Dynamic distributions of current and temperature in PEMFC during various cold start processes determine the cold start characteristics, and are required for the optimization of design and operational strategy. This study focuses on an investigation of the cold start characteristics of a PEMFC through the simultaneous measurements of current and temperature distributions. An analytical model for quick estimate of purging duration is also developed. During the failed cold start process, the highest current density is initially near the inlet region of the flow channels, then it moves downstream, reaching the outlet region eventually. Almost half of the cell current is produced in the inlet region before the cell current peaks, and the region around the middle of the cell has the best survivability. These two regions are therefore more important than other regions for successful cold start through design and operational strategy, such as reducing the ice formation and enhancing the heat generation in these two regions. The evolution of the overall current density distribution over time remains similar during the successful cold start process; the current density is the highest near the flow channel inlets and generally decreases along the flow direction. For both the failed and the successful cold start processes, the highest temperature is initially in the flow channel inlet region, and is then around the middle of the cell after the overall peak current density is reached. The ice melting and liquid formation during the successful cold start process have negligible influence on the general current and temperature distributions.

  13. Testing of the Defense Waste Processing Facility Cold Chemical Dissolution Method in Sludge Batch 9 Qualification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Pareizs, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Coleman, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Young, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Brown, L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-05-10

    For each sludge batch that is processed in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) tests the applicability of the digestion methods used by the DWPF Laboratory for elemental analysis of Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) Receipt samples and SRAT Product process control samples. DWPF SRAT samples are typically dissolved using a method referred to as the DWPF Cold Chemical or Cold Chem Method (CC), (see DWPF Procedure SW4- 15.201). Testing indicates that the CC method produced mixed results. The CC method did not result in complete dissolution of either the SRAT Receipt or SRAT Product with some fine, dark solids remaining. However, elemental analyses did not reveal extreme biases for the major elements in the sludge when compared with analyses obtained following dissolution by hot aqua regia (AR) or sodium peroxide fusion (PF) methods. The CC elemental analyses agreed with the AR and PF methods well enough that it should be adequate for routine process control analyses in the DWPF after much more extensive side-by-side tests of the CC method and the PF method are performed on the first 10 SRAT cycles of the Sludge Batch 9 (SB9) campaign. The DWPF Laboratory should continue with their plans for further tests of the CC method during these 10 SRAT cycles.

  14. Research on on-line monitoring technology for steel ball's forming process based on load signal analysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying-jun; Ai, Chang-sheng; Men, Xiu-hua; Zhang, Cheng-liang; Zhang, Qi

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents a novel on-line monitoring technology to obtain forming quality in steel ball's forming process based on load signal analysis method, in order to reveal the bottom die's load characteristic in initial cold heading forging process of steel balls. A mechanical model of the cold header producing process is established and analyzed by using finite element method. The maximum cold heading force is calculated. The results prove that the monitoring on the cold heading process with upsetting force is reasonable and feasible. The forming defects are inflected on the three feature points of the bottom die signals, which are the initial point, infection point, and peak point. A novel PVDF piezoelectric force sensor which is simple on construction and convenient on installation is designed. The sensitivity of the PVDF force sensor is calculated. The characteristics of PVDF force sensor are analyzed by FEM. The PVDF piezoelectric force sensor is fabricated to acquire the actual load signals in the cold heading process, and calibrated by a special device. The measuring system of on-line monitoring is built. The characteristics of the actual signals recognized by learning and identification algorithm are in consistence with simulation results. Identification of actual signals shows that the timing difference values of all feature points for qualified products are not exceed ±6 ms, and amplitude difference values are less than ±3%. The calibration and application experiments show that PVDF force sensor has good static and dynamic performances, and is competent at dynamic measuring on upsetting force. It greatly improves automatic level and machining precision. Equipment capacity factor with damages identification method depends on grade of steel has been improved to 90%.

  15. Comparative assessment of TRU waste forms and processes. Volume II. Waste form data, process descriptions, and costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, W.A.; Lokken, R.O.; May, R.P.; Roberts, F.P.; Thornhill, R.E.; Timmerman, C.L.; Treat, R.L.; Westsik, J.H. Jr.

    1982-09-01

    This volume contains supporting information for the comparative assessment of the transuranic waste forms and processes summarized in Volume I. Detailed data on the characterization of the waste forms selected for the assessment, process descriptions, and cost information are provided. The purpose of this volume is to provide additional information that may be useful when using the data in Volume I and to provide greater detail on particular waste forms and processes. Volume II is divided into two sections and two appendixes. The first section provides information on the preparation of the waste form specimens used in this study and additional characterization data in support of that in Volume I. The second section includes detailed process descriptions for the eight processes evaluated. Appendix A lists the results of MCC-1 leach test and Appendix B lists additional cost data. 56 figures, 12 tables

  16. Apparatus for electrical-assisted incremental forming and process thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, John; Cao, Jian

    2018-04-24

    A process and apparatus for forming a sheet metal component using an electric current passing through the component. The process can include providing an incremental forming machine, the machine having at least one arcuate tipped tool and at least electrode spaced a predetermined distance from the arcuate tipped tool. The machine is operable to perform a plurality of incremental deformations on the sheet metal component using the arcuate tipped tool. The machine is also operable to apply an electric direct current through the electrode into the sheet metal component at the predetermined distance from the arcuate tipped tool while the machine is forming the sheet metal component.

  17. Effect of cold working on nitriding process of AISI 304 and 316 austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Silvio Andre de Lima

    2012-01-01

    The nitriding behavior of AISI 304 and 316 austenitic stainless steel was studied by different cold work degree before nitriding processes. The microstructure, thickness, microhardness and chemical micro-composition were evaluated through optical microscopy, microhardness, scanner electronic microscopy and x ray diffraction techniques. Through them, it was observed that previous plastic deformations do not have influence on layer thickness. However, a nitrided layer thicker can be noticed in the AISI 304 steel. In addition, two different layers can be identified as resulted of the nitriding, composed for austenitic matrix expanded by nitrogen atoms and another thinner immediately below expanded by Carbon atoms. (author)

  18. Criticality safety evaluation report for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility's process water handling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roblyer, S.D.

    1998-01-01

    This report addresses the criticality concerns associated with process water handling in the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF). The controls and limitations on equipment design and operations to control potential criticality occurrences are identified. The effectiveness of equipment design and operation controls in preventing criticality occurrences during normal and abnormal conditions is evaluated and documented in this report. Spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is removed from existing canisters in both the K East and K West Basins and loaded into a multicanister overpack (MCO) in the K Basin pool. The MCO is housed in a shipping cask surrounded by clean water in the annulus between the exterior of the MCO and the interior of the shipping cask. The fuel consists of spent N Reactor and some single pass reactor fuel. The MCO is transported to the CVDF near the K Basins to remove process water from the MCO interior and from the shipping cask annulus. After the bulk water is removed from the MCO, any remaining free liquid is removed by drawing a vacuum on the MCO's interior. After cold vacuum drying is completed, the MCO is filled with an inert cover gas, the lid is replaced on the shipping cask, and the MCO is transported to the Canister Storage Building. The process water removed from the MCO contains fissionable materials from metallic uranium corrosion. The process water from the MCO is first collected in a geometrically safe process water conditioning receiver tank. The process water in the process water conditioning receiver tank is tested, then filtered, demineralized, and collected in the storage tank. The process water is finally removed from the storage tank and transported from the CVDF by truck

  19. The Judicial Process as a Form of Program Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsberry, James

    1980-01-01

    Maintaining that the judicial process is particularly effective as a form of program evaluation, this article details organizational procedures and lists the following advantages for use of the judicial process: issues are investigated in an open forum, the community can participate, and exciting opportunities for teaching and learning are…

  20. Numerical investigations on the rebound phenomena and the bonding mechanisms in cold spray processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viscusi, A.

    2018-05-01

    Cold spray technology is a relatively new additive process allowing to create high quality metallic coatings, on both metallic and non-metallic substrates, without extensive heating of the powders sprayed. Upon impact with a target surface, conversion of kinetic energy to plastic deformation occurs, the solid particles deform and bond together. The actual bonding mechanism for cold spray particles is still not well understood, a high number of works has been carried out during the past two decades, several theories have been proposed to explain the adhesion/rebound mechanisms making the system ineffective for industrial applications. Therefore, the aim of this research activity is to better explain the complex adhesion/rebound phenomena into cold spray impact processes through numerical simulations; for this purpose, on the base of simplified hypothesis and results found in literature, an original 3D Finite Element Method (FEM) model of an aluminium particle impacting on an aluminium substrate was proposed. A cohesive behaviour algorithm was implemented in the particle-substrate contact regions aiming to simulate the bonding between the impacting particle and the substrate under specific working conditions. A rebound coefficient was also defined representing the particle residual energy. Different simulations were performed using a range of impact velocities and varying the interfacial cohesive strength. It was shown that at low impact velocities the rebound phenomenon is governed by the elastic energy stored in the system, meanwhile at high impact velocities, the rebound phenomenon is mainly due to the strain rate effects making the system mechanically stronger; therefore, a specific range of bonding velocities depending on substrate-particle contact area were found.

  1. Experimental and numerical investigation of form-stable dodecane/hydrophobic fumed silica composite phase change materials for cold energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jiajie; Ling, Ziye; Fang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Zhengguo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Form-stable dodecane/fumed silica composite for cold storage is prepared. • A suggesting hypothesis that explains infiltration mechanism is proposed. • The performance of the composite phase change material is investigated. • Numerical simulation of system is carried out and results fit well. - Abstract: A kind of form-stable composite phase change materials used for cold thermal energy storage is prepared by absorbing dodecane into the hydrophobic fumed silica. With relatively suitable pore diameter and hydrophobic groups, hydrophobic fumed silica is beneficial to the penetration and infiltration of dodecane and the leakage problem solving. Scanned by electron micrographs and Fourier transformation infrared, the composite phase change material is characterized to be just physical penetration. Besides, the differential scanning calorimeter and thermo gravimetric analysis reveals the high enthalpy, good thermal stability and cycling performance of this composite phase change material. What’s more, Hot-Disk thermal constants analyzer demonstrates that the composite phase change material has low thermal conductivity which is desired in cold storage application. In the experiment, a cold energy storage system is set up and the results from the experiment show that the system has excellent performance of cold storage by incorporating composite phase change material. Apart from that, the experimental data is found to have a great agreement with the numerical simulation which is carried out by using the commercial computational fluid dynamics software FLUENT.

  2. Investigating Resulting Residual Stresses during Mechanical Forming Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinlabi, Stephen A.; Fatoba, Olawale S.; Mashinini, Peter M.; Akinlabi, Esther T.

    2018-03-01

    Most manufacturing processes such as machining, welding, heat treatment, laser forming, laser cladding and, laser metal deposition, etc. are subjected to a form of heat or energy to change the geometrical shape thus changing the inherent engineering and structural properties of the material. These changes often cause the development of locked up stresses referred to as residual stresses as a result of these activities. This study reports on the residual stresses developed due to the mechanical forming process to maintain a suitable structural integrity for the formed components. The result of the analysis through the X-ray diffraction confirmed that residual stresses were induced in the manufactured parts and further revealed that residual stresses were compressive in nature as found in the parent material but with values less than the parent material.

  3. Overview of friction modelling in metal forming processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Bay, Niels Oluf

    2017-01-01

    In metal forming processes, friction between tool and workpiece is an important parameter influencing the material flow, surface quality and tool life. Theoretical models of friction in metal forming are based on analysis of the real contact area in tool-workpiece interfaces. Several research...... groups have studied and modelled the asperity flattening of workpiece material against tool surface in dry contact or in contact interfaces with only thin layers of lubrication with the aim to improve understanding of friction in metal forming. This paper aims at giving a review of the most important...... future work in order to advance further in modelling of real contact area in relation to implementation of frictional conditions existing finite element codes for simulation of metal forming processes. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd....

  4. Videogame distraction using virtual reality technology for children experiencing cold pressor pain: the role of cognitive processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Emily F; Dahlquist, Lynnda M; Sil, Soumitri; Weiss, Karen E; Herbert, Linda Jones; Wohlheiter, Karen; Horn, Susan Berrin

    2011-01-01

    This study examined whether increasing the demand for central cognitive processing involved in a distraction task, by involving the child in ongoing, effortful interaction with the distraction stimulus, would increase children's tolerance for cold pressor pain. Seventy-nine children ages 6-15 years underwent a baseline cold pressor trial followed by two cold pressor trials in which they received interactive distraction (i.e., used voice commands to play a videogame) or passive distraction (in which they merely watched the output from the same videogame segment) in counterbalanced order. Both distraction conditions were presented via a virtual reality-type helmet. As expected, children demonstrated significant improvement in pain tolerance during distraction relative to baseline. Children showed the greatest improvement during the interactive distraction task. The effects of distraction on children's cold pressor pain tolerance are significantly enhanced when the distraction task also includes greater demands for central cognitive processing.

  5. Desulfotomaculum arcticum sp. nov., a novel spore-forming, moderately thermophilic, sulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from a permanently cold fjord sediment of Svalbard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandieken, Verona; Knoblauch, Christian; Jørgensen, Bo Barker

    2006-01-01

    Strain 15T is a novel spore-forming, sulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from a permanently cold fjord sediment of Svalbard. Sulfate could be replaced by sulfite or thiosulfate. Hydrogen, formate, lactate, propionate, butyrate, hexanoate, methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol, pyruvate, malate...

  6. Scenarios of Earth system change in western Canada: Conceptual understanding and process insights from the Changing Cold Regions Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBeer, C. M.; Wheater, H. S.; Pomeroy, J. W.; Stewart, R. E.; Turetsky, M. R.; Baltzer, J. L.; Pietroniro, A.; Marsh, P.; Carey, S.; Howard, A.; Barr, A.; Elshamy, M.

    2017-12-01

    The interior of western Canada has been experiencing rapid, widespread, and severe hydroclimatic change in recent decades, and this is projected to continue in the future. To better assess future hydrological, cryospheric and ecological states and fluxes under future climates, a regional hydroclimate project was formed under the auspices of the Global Energy and Water Exchanges (GEWEX) project of the World Climate Research Programme; the Changing Cold Regions Network (CCRN; www.ccrnetwork.ca) aims to understand, diagnose, and predict interactions among the changing Earth system components at multiple spatial scales over the Mackenzie and Saskatchewan River basins of western Canada. A particular challenge is in applying land surface and hydrological models under future climates, as system changes and cold regions process interactions are not often straightforward, and model structures and parameterizations based on historical observations and understanding of contemporary system functioning may not adequately capture these complexities. To address this and provide guidance and direction to the modelling community, CCRN has drawn insights from a multi-disciplinary perspective on the process controls and system trajectories to develop a set of feasible scenarios of change for the 21st century across the region. This presentation will describe CCRN's efforts towards formalizing these insights and applying them in a large-scale modelling context. This will address what are seen as the most critical processes and key drivers affecting hydrological, cryospheric and ecological change, how these will most likely evolve in the coming decades, and how these are parameterized and incorporated as future scenarios for terrestrial ecology, hydrological functioning, permafrost state, glaciers, agriculture, and water management.

  7. Advanced Wear Simulation for Bulk Metal Forming Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrens Bernd-Arno

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent decades the finite element method has become an essential tool for the cost-efficient virtual process design in the metal forming sector in order to counter the constantly increasing quality standards, particularly from the automotive industry as well as intensified international competition in the forging industry. An optimized process design taking precise tool wear prediction into account is a way to increase the cost-efficiency of the bulk metal forming processes. The main objective of the work presented in this paper is a modelling algorithm, which allows predicting die wear with respect to a geometry update during the forming simulation. Changes in the contact area caused by geometry update lead to the different die wear distribution. It primarily concerns the die areas, which undergo high thermal and mechanical loads.

  8. Viscous and thermal modelling of thermoplastic composites forming process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Eduardo; Liang, Biao; Hamila, Nahiene; Boisse, Philippe

    2016-10-01

    Thermoforming thermoplastic prepregs is a fast manufacturing process. It is suitable for automotive composite parts manufacturing. The simulation of thermoplastic prepreg forming is achieved by alternate thermal and mechanical analyses. The thermal properties are obtained from a mesoscopic analysis and a homogenization procedure. The forming simulation is based on a viscous-hyperelastic approach. The thermal simulations define the coefficients of the mechanical model that depend on the temperature. The forming simulations modify the boundary conditions and the internal geometry of the thermal analyses. The comparison of the simulation with an experimental thermoforming of a part representative of automotive applications shows the efficiency of the approach.

  9. Regeneration process for a cold trap placed in a liquid metal circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desreumaux, J.; Rebiere, J.

    1989-01-01

    Regeneration of a cold trap containing solid hydride and oxide sodium impurities is made by heating the cold trap for thermally decomposing the impurities. By communication with a vessel containing an absorbing material such as Mg 2 Ni the tritium liberated by heating is absorbed. Liquid effluents made by heating the impurities are drained out of the cold trap [fr

  10. QuikForm: Intelligent deformation processing of structural alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourcier, R.J.; Wellman, G.W.

    1994-09-01

    There currently exists a critical need for tools to enhance the industrial competitiveness and agility of US industries involved in deformation processing of structural alloys. In response to this need, Sandia National Laboratories has embarked upon the QuikForm Initiative. The goal of this program is the development of computer-based tools to facilitate the design of deformation processing operations. The authors are currently focusing their efforts on the definition/development of a comprehensive system for the design of sheet metal stamping operations. The overall structure of the proposed QuikForm system is presented, and the focus of their thrust in each technical area is discussed.

  11. FEM analysis of hollow hub forming in rolling extrusion process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bartnicki

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper are presented the results of numerical calculations of rolling extrusion process of a hollow hub. As the flanges manufacturing at both sides of the product is required, in the analyzed process of rolling extrusion, a rear bumper was implemented as additional tool limiting axial metal flow. Numerical calculations of the hub forming process were conducted basing on finite element method, applying software Deform3D and Simufact in conditions of three dimensional state of strain. The obtained satisfactory results show that it is possible to conduct the further research works of experimental character, with the application of a modernized aggregate for the rolling extrusion process PO-2.

  12. The Effects of The Industrial Cryogenic Process on The Wear Behaviours of AISI D2 Cold Work Tool Steels

    OpenAIRE

    Ersöz, Enes; Ovalı, İsmail

    2018-01-01

    In this study, industrial cryogenic process afterconventional heat treatment process for various holding time was applied toAISI D2 (DIN 1.2379) cold work tool steel. The effects of the industrialcryogenic process on the wear behavior was investigated. In the wear test 5,10and 15 N forces were carried out to all group specimens at a constant shearrate (3,16 m/s) and three different wear distances. Experimental results showthat cryogenic processing of AISI D2 cold work tool steels have a signi...

  13. Visual form-processing deficits: a global clinical classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unzueta-Arce, J; García-García, R; Ladera-Fernández, V; Perea-Bartolomé, M V; Mora-Simón, S; Cacho-Gutiérrez, J

    2014-10-01

    Patients who have difficulties recognising visual form stimuli are usually labelled as having visual agnosia. However, recent studies let us identify different clinical manifestations corresponding to discrete diagnostic entities which reflect a variety of deficits along the continuum of cortical visual processing. We reviewed different clinical cases published in medical literature as well as proposals for classifying deficits in order to provide a global perspective of the subject. Here, we present the main findings on the neuroanatomical basis of visual form processing and discuss the criteria for evaluating processing which may be abnormal. We also include an inclusive diagram of visual form processing deficits which represents the different clinical cases described in the literature. Lastly, we propose a boosted decision tree to serve as a guide in the process of diagnosing such cases. Although the medical community largely agrees on which cortical areas and neuronal circuits are involved in visual processing, future studies making use of new functional neuroimaging techniques will provide more in-depth information. A well-structured and exhaustive assessment of the different stages of visual processing, designed with a global view of the deficit in mind, will give a better idea of the prognosis and serve as a basis for planning personalised psychostimulation and rehabilitation strategies. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Recycling of Manganese Secondary Raw Material Via Cold-Bond Pelletizing Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Y.M.Z.; Mohamed, F.M.

    2004-01-01

    Large quantities of fines were produced during the shipping, transportation, handling and storage of manganese ore sinter imported from different countries to Sinai Company for ferromanganese production. These fines are generally considered as valuable secondary raw materials. Hence, they have a potential to be recycled back to the submerged arc furnace after having been agglomerated. For agglomerates to be considered as feed materials for submerged arc furnace they must have sufficient room temperature strength. Cold-bonded penalization process offers an economically attractive and environmentally viable method for achieving this. Ordinary Portland cement was used in this investigation for the purpose of producing a suitable cold-bonded pellet from such fines. In this investigation, the effect of adding different percentages of Portland cement on the mechanical properties of both green and pellet dried at room temperature for 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28 days of normal curing were studied. The results revealed that, although the compressive strength of green pellets improved with the increase of the amount of cement added. retardation in pellet drop strength was reported. Whereas, the increase in both the cement content and time of drying leads to increase in the mechanical properties of pellets normally cured at room temperature. pellets obtain with the addition of 9% cement shows reasonable mechanical properties to be charged in the submerged are furnace. ferromanganese alloy having a standard range composition was produced in a laboratory submerged are furnace using such pellets

  15. Process for forming seamless tubing of zirconium or titanium alloys from welded precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabol, G.P.; Barry, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    A process is described for forming seamless tubing of a material selected from zirconium, zirconium alloys, titanium, and titanium alloys, from welded precursor tubing of the material, having a heterogeneous structure resulting from the welding thereof. The process consists of: heating successive axial segments of the welded tubing, completely through the wall thereof, including the weld, to uniformly transform the heterogeneous, as welded, material into the beta phase; quenching the beta phase tubing segments, the heating and quenching effected sufficiently rapid enough to produce a fine sized beta grain structure completely throughout the precursor tubing, including the weld, and to prevent growth of beta grains within the material larger than 200 micrometers in diameter; and subsequently uniformly deforming the quenched precursor tubing by cold reduction steps to produce a seamless tubing of final size and shape

  16. Modelling studies for the assessment of the Advanced Cold Process Canister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henshaw, J.; Hoch, A.R.; Sharland, S.M.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Cold Process Canister (ACPC) is a new concept for the encapsulation of spent nuclear fuel for geological disposal. It consists of steel canister encased in a copper overpack. In this paper, modelling studies to assess the performance of the ACPC under repository conditions are presented. The production of nitric acid and ammonia through radiolysis of any water remaining inside the canister under fault conditions has been examined in this study. However, results suggest that only low levels are possible, and the risk of stress-corrosion cracking is considered small. The corrosion behavior subsequent to a breach in the outer canister was also considered. A model was constructed to predict the hydrogen gas production due to corrosion reactions, and evolution of the corrosion behavior

  17. Review of friction modeling in metal forming processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, C.V.; Bay, N.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract In metal forming processes, friction between tool and workpiece is an important parameter influencing the material flow, surface quality and tool life. Theoretical models of friction in metal forming are based on analysis of the real contact area in tool-workpiece interfaces. Several...... research groups have studied and modeled the asperity flattening of workpiece material against tool surface in dry contact or in contact interfaces with only thin layers of lubrication with the aim to improve understanding of friction in metal forming. This paper aims at giving a review of the most...... conditions, normal pressure, sliding length and speed, temperature changes, friction on the flattened plateaus and deformation of the underlying material. The review illustrates the development in the understanding of asperity flattening and the methods of analysis....

  18. Improving process performance in Incremental Sheet Forming (ISF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrogio, G.; Filice, L.; Manco, G. L.

    2011-01-01

    Incremental Sheet Forming (ISF) is a relatively new process in which a sheet clamped along the borders is progressively deformed through a hemispherical tool. The tool motion is CNC controlled and the path is designed using a CAD-CAM approach, with the aim to reproduce the final shape contour such as in the surface milling. The absence of a dedicated setup and the related high flexibility is the main point of strength and the reason why several researchers focused their attentions on the ISF process.On the other hand the process slowness is the most relevant drawback which reduces a wider industrial application. In the paper, a first attempt to overcome this process limitation is presented taking into account a relevant speed increasing respect to the values currently used.

  19. Knowledge Based Cloud FE Simulation of Sheet Metal Forming Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Du; Yuan, Xi; Gao, Haoxiang; Wang, Ailing; Liu, Jun; El Fakir, Omer; Politis, Denis J; Wang, Liliang; Lin, Jianguo

    2016-12-13

    The use of Finite Element (FE) simulation software to adequately predict the outcome of sheet metal forming processes is crucial to enhancing the efficiency and lowering the development time of such processes, whilst reducing costs involved in trial-and-error prototyping. Recent focus on the substitution of steel components with aluminum alloy alternatives in the automotive and aerospace sectors has increased the need to simulate the forming behavior of such alloys for ever more complex component geometries. However these alloys, and in particular their high strength variants, exhibit limited formability at room temperature, and high temperature manufacturing technologies have been developed to form them. Consequently, advanced constitutive models are required to reflect the associated temperature and strain rate effects. Simulating such behavior is computationally very expensive using conventional FE simulation techniques. This paper presents a novel Knowledge Based Cloud FE (KBC-FE) simulation technique that combines advanced material and friction models with conventional FE simulations in an efficient manner thus enhancing the capability of commercial simulation software packages. The application of these methods is demonstrated through two example case studies, namely: the prediction of a material's forming limit under hot stamping conditions, and the tool life prediction under multi-cycle loading conditions.

  20. Colors and geometric forms in the work process information coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čizmić Svetlana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to establish the meaning of the colors and geometric shapes in transmitting information in the work process. The sample of 100 students connected 50 situations which could be associated with regular tasks in the work process with 12 colors and 4 geometric forms in previously chosen color. Based on chosen color-geometric shape-situation regulation, the idea of the research was to find out regularities in coding of information and to examine if those regularities can provide meaningful data assigned to each individual code and to explain which codes are better and applicable represents of examined situations.

  1. Process for forming synapses in neural networks and resistor therefor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chi Y.

    1996-01-01

    Customizable neural network in which one or more resistors form each synapse. All the resistors in the synaptic array are identical, thus simplifying the processing issues. Highly doped, amorphous silicon is used as the resistor material, to create extremely high resistances occupying very small spaces. Connected in series with each resistor in the array is at least one severable conductor whose uppermost layer has a lower reflectivity of laser energy than typical metal conductors at a desired laser wavelength.

  2. Visual form predictions facilitate auditory processing at the N1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Tim; Kim, Jeesun; Davis, Chris

    2017-02-20

    Auditory-visual (AV) events often involve a leading visual cue (e.g. auditory-visual speech) that allows the perceiver to generate predictions about the upcoming auditory event. Electrophysiological evidence suggests that when an auditory event is predicted, processing is sped up, i.e., the N1 component of the ERP occurs earlier (N1 facilitation). However, it is not clear (1) whether N1 facilitation is based specifically on predictive rather than multisensory integration and (2) which particular properties of the visual cue it is based on. The current experiment used artificial AV stimuli in which visual cues predicted but did not co-occur with auditory cues. Visual form cues (high and low salience) and the auditory-visual pairing were manipulated so that auditory predictions could be based on form and timing or on timing only. The results showed that N1 facilitation occurred only for combined form and temporal predictions. These results suggest that faster auditory processing (as indicated by N1 facilitation) is based on predictive processing generated by a visual cue that clearly predicts both what and when the auditory stimulus will occur. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Electrochemical/Pyrometallurgical Waste Stream Processing and Waste Form Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Frank; Hwan Seo Park; Yung Zun Cho; William Ebert; Brian Riley

    2015-07-01

    This report summarizes treatment and waste form options being evaluated for waste streams resulting from the electrochemical/pyrometallurgical (pyro ) processing of used oxide nuclear fuel. The technologies that are described are South Korean (Republic of Korea – ROK) and United States of America (US) ‘centric’ in the approach to treating pyroprocessing wastes and are based on the decade long collaborations between US and ROK researchers. Some of the general and advanced technologies described in this report will be demonstrated during the Integrated Recycle Test (IRT) to be conducted as a part of the Joint Fuel Cycle Study (JFCS) collaboration between US Department of Energy (DOE) and ROK national laboratories. The JFCS means to specifically address and evaluated the technological, economic, and safe guard issues associated with the treatment of used nuclear fuel by pyroprocessing. The IRT will involve the processing of commercial, used oxide fuel to recover uranium and transuranics. The recovered transuranics will then be fabricated into metallic fuel and irradiated to transmutate, or burn the transuranic elements to shorter lived radionuclides. In addition, the various process streams will be evaluated and tested for fission product removal, electrolytic salt recycle, minimization of actinide loss to waste streams and waste form fabrication and characterization. This report specifically addresses the production and testing of those waste forms to demonstrate their compatibility with treatment options and suitability for disposal.

  4. Parameters and mechanisms in the mechanical upgrading of Athabasca oil sands by a cold water process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, G B

    1977-01-01

    The efficiency of sand rejection in the cold water mechanical upgrading of Athabasca oil sands has been studied in the operation of rotary contactors of 8.9 cm and 19.0 cm internal diameter, fitted with lifters. Duration of operation, rate of rotation, linear velocity of lifters, temperature, water to oil sands ratio, depth of charge to lifter height ratio, and internal diameter of the contactor have been identified as important parameters. Surfactant addition and presoaking of the feed had negligible effects on the process. A model has been proposed that accounts for the variation of extraction efficiency as a function of duration of operation, the data showing that both the equilibrium extraction efficiency and the rate constant were greater in the large contactor than the small contactor for equal rates of rotation, except when centrifuging occurred in the large contactor. Sand rejection was promoted by lifter-sand and contactor wall-sand impacts and by the action of shear fields within vortices created by the lifter. The impacts occurred for all loading conditions but the latter mechanism only contributed to the sand rejection process for depth-of-charge to lifter height ratios of one or greater. In addition, the contribution of shear fields was only significant for large water to oil sands ratios. Finally, the sand rejection process was affected significantly by variations in temperature. 37 refs., 34 figs., 11 tabs., 4 illus.

  5. Microstructure Evolution and Mechanical Behavior of 2219 Aluminum Alloys Additively Fabricated by the Cold Metal Transfer Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuewei Fang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this research, four different welding arc modes including conventional cold metal transfer (CMT, CMT-Pulse (CMT-P, CMT-Advanced (CMT-ADV, and CMT pulse advanced (CMT-PADV were used to deposit 2219-Al wire. The effects of different arc modes on porosity, pore size distribution, microstructure evolution, and mechanical properties were thoroughly investigated. The statistical analysis of the porosity and its size distribution indicated that the CMT-PADV process gave the smallest pore area percentage and pore aspect ratio, and had almost no larger pores. The results from optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and fractographic morphology proved that uniform and fine equiaxed grains, evenly distributed Al2Cu second phase particles were formed during the CMT-PADV process. Furthermore, the X-ray diffraction test ascertained that the CMT-PADV sample had the smallest lattice parameter and the highest solute Cu content. Besides, the tensile strength could reach 283 MPa, the data scattering was the smallest, and the strength scattering of the sample in the horizontal direction was the shortest. In addition, the strength properties were nearly isotropic, with only 5 MPa difference in the vertical and horizontal directions. The above mentioned results indicated that the mechanical properties of 2219 aluminum alloy was improved using the CMT-PADV arc mode.

  6. Microstructure Evolution and Mechanical Behavior of 2219 Aluminum Alloys Additively Fabricated by the Cold Metal Transfer Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xuewei; Zhang, Lijuan; Li, Hui; Li, Chaolong; Huang, Ke; Lu, Bingheng

    2018-05-16

    In this research, four different welding arc modes including conventional cold metal transfer (CMT), CMT-Pulse (CMT-P), CMT-Advanced (CMT-ADV), and CMT pulse advanced (CMT-PADV) were used to deposit 2219-Al wire. The effects of different arc modes on porosity, pore size distribution, microstructure evolution, and mechanical properties were thoroughly investigated. The statistical analysis of the porosity and its size distribution indicated that the CMT-PADV process gave the smallest pore area percentage and pore aspect ratio, and had almost no larger pores. The results from optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and fractographic morphology proved that uniform and fine equiaxed grains, evenly distributed Al₂Cu second phase particles were formed during the CMT-PADV process. Furthermore, the X-ray diffraction test ascertained that the CMT-PADV sample had the smallest lattice parameter and the highest solute Cu content. Besides, the tensile strength could reach 283 MPa, the data scattering was the smallest, and the strength scattering of the sample in the horizontal direction was the shortest. In addition, the strength properties were nearly isotropic, with only 5 MPa difference in the vertical and horizontal directions. The above mentioned results indicated that the mechanical properties of 2219 aluminum alloy was improved using the CMT-PADV arc mode.

  7. Microstructure Evolution and Mechanical Behavior of 2219 Aluminum Alloys Additively Fabricated by the Cold Metal Transfer Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xuewei; Li, Hui; Li, Chaolong; Lu, Bingheng

    2018-01-01

    In this research, four different welding arc modes including conventional cold metal transfer (CMT), CMT-Pulse (CMT-P), CMT-Advanced (CMT-ADV), and CMT pulse advanced (CMT-PADV) were used to deposit 2219-Al wire. The effects of different arc modes on porosity, pore size distribution, microstructure evolution, and mechanical properties were thoroughly investigated. The statistical analysis of the porosity and its size distribution indicated that the CMT-PADV process gave the smallest pore area percentage and pore aspect ratio, and had almost no larger pores. The results from optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and fractographic morphology proved that uniform and fine equiaxed grains, evenly distributed Al2Cu second phase particles were formed during the CMT-PADV process. Furthermore, the X-ray diffraction test ascertained that the CMT-PADV sample had the smallest lattice parameter and the highest solute Cu content. Besides, the tensile strength could reach 283 MPa, the data scattering was the smallest, and the strength scattering of the sample in the horizontal direction was the shortest. In addition, the strength properties were nearly isotropic, with only 5 MPa difference in the vertical and horizontal directions. The above mentioned results indicated that the mechanical properties of 2219 aluminum alloy was improved using the CMT-PADV arc mode. PMID:29772708

  8. Information use differences in hot and cold risk processing: When does information about probability count in the Columbia Card Task?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukasz eMarkiewicz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This paper aims to provide insight into information processing differences between hot and cold risk taking decision tasks within a single domain. Decision theory defines risky situations using at least three parameters: outcome one (often a gain with its probability and outcome two (often a loss with a complementary probability. Although a rational agent should consider all of the parameters, decision maker could potentially narrow focus to only some of them, particularly when explicit Type 2 processes do not have the resources to override implicit Type 1 processes. Here we investigate differences in risky situation parameter(s influence on hot and cold decisions. Although previous studies show lower information use in hot as compared to cold processes, they do not provide decision weight changes and therefore do not explain whether this difference results from worse concentration on each parameter of a risky situation (probability, gain amount and loss amount or from ignoring some parameters. Methods: Two studies were conducted, with participants performing the Columbia Card Task (CCT in either its Cold or Hot version. In the first study, participants also performed the Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT to monitor their ability to override Type 1 processing cues (implicit processes with Type 2 explicit processes. Because hypothesis testing required comparison of the relative importance of risky situation decision weights (gain, loss, probability, we developed a novel way of measuring information use in the CCT by employing a conjoint analysis methodology. Results: Across the two studies, results indicated that in the CCT Cold condition decision makers concentrate on each information type (gain, loss, probability, but in the CCT Hot condition they concentrate mostly on a single parameter: probability of gain/loss. We also show that an individual’s CRT score correlates with information use propensity in cold but not hot tasks. Thus

  9. Information Use Differences in Hot and Cold Risk Processing: When Does Information About Probability Count in the Columbia Card Task?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markiewicz, Łukasz; Kubińska, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to provide insight into information processing differences between hot and cold risk taking decision tasks within a single domain. Decision theory defines risky situations using at least three parameters: outcome one (often a gain) with its probability and outcome two (often a loss) with a complementary probability. Although a rational agent should consider all of the parameters, s/he could potentially narrow their focus to only some of them, particularly when explicit Type 2 processes do not have the resources to override implicit Type 1 processes. Here we investigate differences in risky situation parameters' influence on hot and cold decisions. Although previous studies show lower information use in hot than in cold processes, they do not provide decision weight changes and therefore do not explain whether this difference results from worse concentration on each parameter of a risky situation (probability, gain amount, and loss amount) or from ignoring some parameters. Two studies were conducted, with participants performing the Columbia Card Task (CCT) in either its Cold or Hot version. In the first study, participants also performed the Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT) to monitor their ability to override Type 1 processing cues (implicit processes) with Type 2 explicit processes. Because hypothesis testing required comparison of the relative importance of risky situation decision weights (gain, loss, probability), we developed a novel way of measuring information use in the CCT by employing a conjoint analysis methodology. Across the two studies, results indicated that in the CCT Cold condition decision makers concentrate on each information type (gain, loss, probability), but in the CCT Hot condition they concentrate mostly on a single parameter: probability of gain/loss. We also show that an individual's CRT score correlates with information use propensity in cold but not hot tasks. Thus, the affective dimension of hot tasks inhibits correct

  10. Information Use Differences in Hot and Cold Risk Processing: When Does Information About Probability Count in the Columbia Card Task?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markiewicz, Łukasz; Kubińska, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This paper aims to provide insight into information processing differences between hot and cold risk taking decision tasks within a single domain. Decision theory defines risky situations using at least three parameters: outcome one (often a gain) with its probability and outcome two (often a loss) with a complementary probability. Although a rational agent should consider all of the parameters, s/he could potentially narrow their focus to only some of them, particularly when explicit Type 2 processes do not have the resources to override implicit Type 1 processes. Here we investigate differences in risky situation parameters' influence on hot and cold decisions. Although previous studies show lower information use in hot than in cold processes, they do not provide decision weight changes and therefore do not explain whether this difference results from worse concentration on each parameter of a risky situation (probability, gain amount, and loss amount) or from ignoring some parameters. Methods: Two studies were conducted, with participants performing the Columbia Card Task (CCT) in either its Cold or Hot version. In the first study, participants also performed the Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT) to monitor their ability to override Type 1 processing cues (implicit processes) with Type 2 explicit processes. Because hypothesis testing required comparison of the relative importance of risky situation decision weights (gain, loss, probability), we developed a novel way of measuring information use in the CCT by employing a conjoint analysis methodology. Results: Across the two studies, results indicated that in the CCT Cold condition decision makers concentrate on each information type (gain, loss, probability), but in the CCT Hot condition they concentrate mostly on a single parameter: probability of gain/loss. We also show that an individual's CRT score correlates with information use propensity in cold but not hot tasks. Thus, the affective dimension of

  11. Form of prior for constrained thermodynamic processes with uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aneja, Preety; Johal, Ramandeep S.

    2015-05-01

    We consider the quasi-static thermodynamic processes with constraints, but with additional uncertainty about the control parameters. Motivated by inductive reasoning, we assign prior distribution that provides a rational guess about likely values of the uncertain parameters. The priors are derived explicitly for both the entropy-conserving and the energy-conserving processes. The proposed form is useful when the constraint equation cannot be treated analytically. The inference is performed using spin-1/2 systems as models for heat reservoirs. Analytical results are derived in the high-temperatures limit. An agreement beyond linear response is found between the estimates of thermal quantities and their optimal values obtained from extremum principles. We also seek an intuitive interpretation for the prior and the estimated value of temperature obtained therefrom. We find that the prior over temperature becomes uniform over the quantity kept conserved in the process.

  12. Linking legacies: Connecting the Cold War nuclear weapons production processes to their environmental consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    In the aftermath of the Cold War, the US has begun addressing the environmental consequences of five decades of nuclear weapons production. In support of this effort, the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1995 directed the Department of Energy (DOE) to describe the waste streams generated during each step in the production of nuclear weapons. Accordingly, this report responds to this mandate, and it is the Department`s first comprehensive analysis of the sources of waste and contamination generated by the production of nuclear weapons. The report also contains information on the missions and functions of nuclear weapons facilities, on the inventories of waste and materials remaining at these facilities, as well as on the extent and characteristics of contamination in and around these facilities. This analysis unites specific environmental impacts of nuclear weapons production with particular production processes. The Department used historical records to connect nuclear weapons production processes with emerging data on waste and contamination. In this way, two of the Department`s legacies--nuclear weapons manufacturing and environmental management--have become systematically linked. The goal of this report is to provide Congress, DOE program managers, non-governmental analysts, and the public with an explicit picture of the environmental results of each step in the nuclear weapons production and disposition cycle.

  13. Linking legacies: Connecting the Cold War nuclear weapons production processes to their environmental consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    In the aftermath of the Cold War, the US has begun addressing the environmental consequences of five decades of nuclear weapons production. In support of this effort, the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1995 directed the Department of Energy (DOE) to describe the waste streams generated during each step in the production of nuclear weapons. Accordingly, this report responds to this mandate, and it is the Department's first comprehensive analysis of the sources of waste and contamination generated by the production of nuclear weapons. The report also contains information on the missions and functions of nuclear weapons facilities, on the inventories of waste and materials remaining at these facilities, as well as on the extent and characteristics of contamination in and around these facilities. This analysis unites specific environmental impacts of nuclear weapons production with particular production processes. The Department used historical records to connect nuclear weapons production processes with emerging data on waste and contamination. In this way, two of the Department's legacies--nuclear weapons manufacturing and environmental management--have become systematically linked. The goal of this report is to provide Congress, DOE program managers, non-governmental analysts, and the public with an explicit picture of the environmental results of each step in the nuclear weapons production and disposition cycle

  14. Production of press moulds by plasma spray forming process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisov, Y.; Myakota, I.; Polyakov, S.

    2001-01-01

    Plasma spray forming process for production of press moulds which are used for manufacture of articles from plastics was developed. The press moulds were produced by plasma spraying of Cu-Al-Fe-alloy powder on surface of a master model. The master models were made from non-metallic materials with heat resistance below 70 C (wood, gypsum etc). Double cooling system which provides for a control of surface model temperature and quenching conditions of sprayed material was designed. It made possible on the one hand to support model surface temperature below 70 C and on the other hand to provide for temperature conditions of martensite transformation in Cu-Al-system with a fixation of metastable ductile α + β 1 -phase. This allowed to decrease residual stresses in sprayed layer (up to 0,5-2,5 MPa), to increase microhardness of the coating material (up to 1200-1800 MPa) and its ductility (σ B = 70-105 MPa, δ = 6-12 %). This plasma spray forming process makes possible to spray thick layers (5-20 mm and more) without their cracking and deformation. The process is used for a production of press moulds which are applied in shoes industry, for fabrication of toys, souvenirs etc. (author)

  15. Texture and magnetic properties of non-oriented electrical steels processed by an unconventional cold rolling scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Youliang, E-mail: youliang.he@canada.ca [CanmetMATERIALS, Natural Resources Canada, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Hilinski, Erik J. [Formerly Research and Technology Centre, United States Steel Corporation, Munhall, PA (United States); Now Tempel Steel Co., Chicago, IL (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Two non-oriented electrical steels containing 0.9 wt% and 2.8 wt% of silicon were processed using an unconventional cold rolling scheme, i.e. the cold rolling direction (CRD) was intentionally inclined at an angle to the hot rolling direction (HRD) so that the initial texture before cold rolling and the rotation paths of crystals during cold deformation were both altered as compared to conventional cold rolling along the original HRD. The cold-rolled steel strips were then annealed, skin-pass rolled and final annealed. The texture and microstructure of the materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and optical microscopy, and considerable differences in average grain size and texture were observed at different inclination angles. The magnetic properties of the steel strips were measured at 400 Hz and 1.0 T/1.5 T using a specially designed Epstein frame, and apparent differences were also noticed at various angles. The magnetic quality of texture was evaluated using different texture factors/parameters and compared to the measured magnetic properties. Although apparent improvement on the magnetic quality of texture can be noted by inclining the CRD to HRD, the trend does not match the measured magnetic properties at 400 Hz, which may have been affected by other parameters in addition to crystallographic texture. - Highlights: • The cold rolling direction is inclined an angle to the hot rolling direction. • The deformation and annealing textures are both changed by the inclined rolling. • Magnetic quality of texture is improved at specific inclination angles. • Low silicon steel is more sensitive in texture change than high silicon steel. • High frequency core loss does not follow the computed magnetic quality of texture.

  16. Evaluation of microstructure and micro-hardness of 410L SS coatings fabricated using laser assisted cold spraying: process development

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mathebula, TE

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available , contaminating and erosive environments which accelerate the degradation of these components. Surface coatings are generally used to protect and prolong the lifetime of the parts. Laser Assisted Cold Spray (LACS) is a relatively new surface coating process which...

  17. NASA Cold Land Processes Experiment (CLPX 2002/03): Field measurements of snowpack properties and soil moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly Elder; Don Cline; Glen E. Liston; Richard Armstrong

    2009-01-01

    A field measurement program was undertaken as part NASA's Cold Land Processes Experiment (CLPX). Extensive snowpack and soil measurements were taken at field sites in Colorado over four study periods during the two study years (2002 and 2003). Measurements included snow depth, density, temperature, grain type and size, surface wetness, surface roughness, and...

  18. Crystalline Ceramic Waste Forms: Comparison Of Reference Process For Ceramic Waste Form Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkman, K. S. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Marra, J. C. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Amoroso, J. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Tang, M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2013-08-22

    The research conducted in this work package is aimed at taking advantage of the long term thermodynamic stability of crystalline ceramics to create more durable waste forms (as compared to high level waste glass) in order to reduce the reliance on engineered and natural barrier systems. Durable ceramic waste forms that incorporate a wide range of radionuclides have the potential to broaden the available disposal options and to lower the storage and disposal costs associated with advanced fuel cycles. Assemblages of several titanate phases have been successfully demonstrated to incorporate radioactive waste elements, and the multiphase nature of these materials allows them to accommodate variation in the waste composition. Recent work has shown that they can be produced from a melting and crystallization process. The objective of this report is to explore the phase formation and microstructural differences between lab scale melt processing in varying gas environments with alternative densification processes such as Hot Pressing (HP) and Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS). The waste stream used as the basis for the development and testing is a simulant derived from a combination of the projected Cs/Sr separated stream, the Trivalent Actinide - Lanthanide Separation by Phosphorous reagent Extraction from Aqueous Komplexes (TALSPEAK) waste stream consisting of lanthanide fission products, the transition metal fission product waste stream resulting from the transuranic extraction (TRUEX) process, and a high molybdenum concentration with relatively low noble metal concentrations. Melt processing as well as solid state sintering routes SPS and HP demonstrated the formation of the targeted phases; however differences in microstructure and elemental partitioning were observed. In SPS and HP samples, hollandite, pervoskite/pyrochlore, zirconolite, metallic alloy and TiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were observed distributed in a network of fine grains with small residual pores

  19. Modification to the MAPS interview process and electronic form

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2006-01-01

    Based on the first year of experience with e-MAPS and the feedback from departmental users, a number of modifications to the MAPS interview process and the form have been introduced for the 2006 exercise. Definition of signatories The top of the form now also shows the name of the group leader and department head. This is especially useful in cases of detachment. Corrections can be made via the MAPS Coordinator. 'Send back' facility The possibility to send the MAPS report one step backwards is only available to the MAPS coordinators, i.e., from group leader to supervisor, from staff member to group leader, and from group leader to staff member. The form should only be sent back to correct factual errors or oversights, and any send backs will be tracked. Link 'training' part to 'training' application When entering a training objective for 2006, a search menu allows selection from various CERN internal training courses or from conferences. It remains important however to first read the description of the...

  20. Modification to the MAPS interview process and electronic form

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2006-01-01

    Based on the first year of experience with e-MAPS and the feedback from departmental users, a number of modifications to the MAPS interview process and form have been introduced for the 2006 exercise. Definition of signatories The top of the form now also shows the name of the Group Leader and Department Head. This is especially useful in cases of detachment. Corrections can be made via the MAPS Coordinator. 'Send back' facility The possibility to send the MAPS report one step backwards, i.e. from Group Leader to supervisor, from Staff Member to Group Leader, and from Group Leader to Staff Member is only available to the MAPS coordinators. The form should only be sent back to correct factual errors or oversights, and any send- backs will be recorded. Link between 'training' part and 'training' application When entering a training objective for 2006, a search menu allows selection from various CERN internal training courses or from conferences. It is still important, however, to first read the descri...

  1. The Development of Spatial Configuration Processing of Visual Word Forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chienhui Kao

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of spatial relationship, or configuration, among the components of a character is important for visual word form recognition (Kao et al., 2010. We investigated such spatial configuration processing in dyslexics and developing populations. Four types of characters: real- and non-characters and their upside-down versions were used in this study. The task of the observers was to determine whether two characters presented on the display were identical. One group of dyslexic children (Dys and two groups of non-dyslexic controls, one (RL matched Dys in reading performance and the other (CA matched in age, were recruited in this study. Dys performed significantly worse than the control groups for all character types, suggesting a worse visual word form processing in dyslexics. For Dys and CA, the proportional correct response for the upright real characters was better than that for their upside-down versions. RL, (which was younger showed the same effect for the non-characters. Since the non-characters disrupts the global configuration while the inverted characters disrupted both local and global configurations, our results suggest that younger children recognize a word with an analysis of the local configuration while older children, regardless of whether they are dyslexics or not, analyze the global configuration.

  2. Cold Isostatic-Pressured Silver Nanowire Electrodes for Flexible Organic Solar Cells via Room-Temperature Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Ji Hoon; Hwang, Inchan; Um, Han-Don; Lee, Sojeong; Lee, Kangmin; Park, Jeonghwan; Shin, Hyeonoh; Kwon, Tae-Hyuk; Kang, Seok Ju; Seo, Kwanyong

    2017-08-01

    Transparent conducting electrodes (TCEs) are considered to be an essential structural component of flexible organic solar cells (FOSCs). Silver nanowire (AgNW) electrodes are widely used as TCEs owing to their excellent electrical and optical properties. The fabrication of AgNW electrodes has faced challenges in terms of forming large uniform interconnected networks so that high conductivity and reproducibility can be achieved. In this study, a simple method for creating an intimate contact between AgNWs that uses cold isostatic pressing (CIP) is demonstrated. This method increases the conductivity of the AgNW electrodes, which enables the fabrication of high-efficiency inverted FOSCs that have a power conversion efficiency of 8.75% on flexible polyethylene terephthalate with no short circuiting occurring as the CIP process minimizes the surface roughness of the AgNW electrode. This allows to achieve 100% manufacturing yield of FOSCs. Furthermore, these highly efficient FOSCs are proven to only be 2.4% less efficient even for an extreme bending radius of R ≈ 1.5 mm, compared with initial efficiency. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Cold exposure and health effects among frozen food processing workers in eastern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thetkathuek, Anamai; Yingratanasuk, Tanongsak; Jaidee, Wanlop; Ekburanawat, Wiwat

    2015-03-01

    Frozen food processing workers work under a cold environment which can cause several adverse health effects.This study explored factors affecting workers' health in the frozen food industry in Thailand. Participants comprised 497 workers exposed to a cold working environment and 255 office workers who served as the controls. Data were collected by a survey on the work environment, and the interview of workers for abnormal symptoms. The exposed group had the following characteristics: 52.7% male, overall average age of 27 (SD 6.6) years old, attained elementary education (Grade 4 and Grade 6) (54.1%), married (48.9%), smokers (21.3%), alcohol consumption (31.0%), duration of work was between 1 and 5 years (65.2%), working 6 days a week (82.7%), 1-5 hours of overtime per week (33.8%), office workers (33.9%); work category: sizing (6.9%), peeling (28.3%) dissecting (22.2%), and in the warehouse (8.6%). The temperature in the work environment ranged from 17.2°C to 19.2°C in most sections, -18.0°C in the warehouse, and 25°C in the office areas. Warehouse workers had more abnormal symptoms than controls including repeated pain in the musculoskeletal system (OR 11.9; 95% CI 6.12-23.45), disturbance throughout the body (OR 4.60; 95% CI 2.00-10.56), respiratory symptoms (OR 9.73; 95% CI 3.53-26.80), episodic finger symptoms (OR 13.51; 95% CI 5.17-35.33). The study results suggest that workers' health should be monitored especially with regard to back and muscle pain, respiratory symptoms, episodic finger symptoms, and cardiovascular symptoms. Health promotion campaigns such as antismoking and reduction of alcohol consumption should be established because smoking and alcohol consumption are contributing factors to the pathogenesis of Raynaud's phenomenon and peripheral vascular disorders such as hypertension and heart disease.

  4. Modeling The Interaction Effects Between Tools And The Work Piece For Metal Forming Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzke, Martin; Puchhala, Sreedhar; Dackweiler, Harald

    2007-01-01

    In metal forming processes especially in cold forming, elastic deformation of the tools has a big impact on the final shape of the work-piece. Computation of such processes considering the plastic effects of the work-piece and elastic deformations of the tools at a time in a single FE model complicates to manage the convergence criteria. This situation is even aggravated if the contact situations (between working and support rolls) have to be considered in the simulation, which requires a very fine discretization of the contact zones of both the tool and work piece. This paper presents recently developed concept which meets the above mentioned demands very effectively. Within this concept, the computation of the elastic effects of the tools is separated from the process simulation (which considers elastic-plastic effects of the work-piece). Both simulations are coupled via automatic data interchange, which is bi-directional, because both simulations influence each other. The advantages of this concept include a quite easy to handle contact situations in process simulation, smaller stiffness matrix compared to single model approach and good convergence of the computation. This concept is highly generalized and successfully applied to simulate rolling, drawing, extrusion and forging processes. The above mentioned concept is being implemented into the FE package PEP and LARSTRAN/SHAPE. Rolling experiments are conducted in duo and quarto configuration. Optical three-dimensional digitalizing system was used to measure the deformations within the machine and work-piece profile. These results are used for the validation of FE simulations. This work is being sponsored by the German Research Foundation (DFG) through the project ''Interaction effects between processes and structures-SPP1180''

  5. Study on the effectiveness of Extreme Cold Mist MQL system on turning process of stainless steel AISI 316

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamaludin, A. S.; Hosokawa, A.; Furumoto, T.; Koyano, T.; Hashimoto, Y.

    2018-03-01

    Cutting process of difficult-to-cut material such as stainless steel, generates immensely excessive heat, which is one of the major causes related to shortening tool life and lower quality of surface finish. It is proven that application of cutting fluid during the cutting process of difficult-to-cut material is able to improve the cutting performance, but excessive application of cutting fluid leads to another problem such as increasing processing cost and environmental hazardous pollution of workplace. In the study, Extreme Cold Mist system is designed and tested along with various Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL) systems on turning process of stainless steel AISI 316. In the study, it is obtained that, Extreme Cold Mist system is able to reduce cutting force up to 60N and improve the surface roughness of the machined surface significantly.

  6. Preliminary evaluation of alternative waste form solidification processes. Volume I. Identification of the processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treat, R.L.; Nesbitt, J.F.; Blair, H.T.; Carter, J.G.; Gorton, P.S.; Partain, W.L.; Timmerman, C.L.

    1980-04-01

    This document contains preconceptual design data on 11 processes for the solidification and isolation of nuclear high-level liquid wastes (HLLW). The processes are: in-can glass melting (ICGM) process, joule-heated glass melting (JHGM) process, glass-ceramic (GC) process, marbles-in-lead (MIL) matrix process, supercalcine pellets-in-metal (SCPIM) matrix process, pyrolytic-carbon coated pellets-in-metal (PCCPIM) matrix process, supercalcine hot-isostatic-pressing (SCHIP) process, SYNROC hot-isostatic-pressing (SYNROC HIP) process, titanate process, concrete process, and cermet process. For the purposes of this study, it was assumed that each of the solidification processes is capable of handling similar amounts of HLLW generated in a production-sized fuel reprocessing plant. It was also assumed that each of the processes would be enclosed in a shielded canyon or cells within a waste facility located at the fuel reprocessing plant. Finally, it was assumed that all of the processes would be subject to the same set of regulations, codes and standards. Each of the solidification processes converts waste into forms that may be acceptable for geological disposal. Each process begins with the receipt of HLLW from the fuel reprocessing plant. In this study, it was assumed that the original composition of the HLLW would be the same for each process. The process ends when the different waste forms are enclosed in canisters or containers that are acceptable for interim storage. Overviews of each of the 11 processes and the bases used for their identification are presented in the first part of this report. Each process, including its equipment and its requirements, is covered in more detail in Appendices A through K. Pertinent information on the current state of the art and the research and development required for the implementation of each process are also noted in the appendices

  7. An Integrated Numerical Model of the Spray Forming Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pryds, Nini; Hattel, Jesper; Pedersen, Trine Bjerre

    2002-01-01

    of the deposition model is accomplished using a 2D cylindrical heat flow model. This model is now coupled with an atomization model via a log-normal droplet size distribution. The coupling between the atomization and the deposition is accomplished by ensuring that the total droplet size distribution of the spray......In this paper, an integrated approach for modelling the entire spray forming process is presented. The basis for the analysis is a recently developed model which extents previous studies and includes the interaction between an array of droplets and the enveloping gas. The formulation...... is in fact the summation of 'local' droplet size distributions along the r-axis. A key parameter, which determines the yield and the shape of the deposit material, is the sticking efficiency. The sticking phenomenon is therefore incorporated into the deposition model. (C) 2002 Acta Materialia Inc. Published...

  8. Compressive strength test for cemented waste forms: validation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haucz, Maria Judite A.; Candido, Francisco Donizete; Seles, Sandro Rogerio

    2007-01-01

    In the Cementation Laboratory (LABCIM), of the Development Centre of the Nuclear Technology (CNEN/CDTN-MG), hazardous/radioactive wastes are incorporated in cement, to transform them into monolithic products, preventing or minimizing the contaminant release to the environment. The compressive strength test is important to evaluate the cemented product quality, in which it is determined the compression load necessary to rupture the cemented waste form. In LABCIM a specific procedure was developed to determine the compressive strength of cement waste forms based on the Brazilian Standard NBR 7215. The accreditation of this procedure is essential to assure reproductive and accurate results in the evaluation of these products. To achieve this goal the Laboratory personal implemented technical and administrative improvements in accordance with the NBR ISO/IEC 17025 standard 'General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories'. As the developed procedure was not a standard one the norm ISO/IEC 17025 requests its validation. There are some methodologies to do that. In this paper it is described the current status of the accreditation project, especially the validation process of the referred procedure and its results. (author)

  9. Designing Advanced Ceramic Waste Forms for Electrochemical Processing Salt Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, W. L.; Snyder, C. T.; Frank, Steven; Riley, Brian

    2016-01-01

    This report describes the scientific basis underlying the approach being followed to design and develop ''advanced'' glass-bonded sodalite ceramic waste form (ACWF) materials that can (1) accommodate higher salt waste loadings than the waste form developed in the 1990s for EBR-II waste salt and (2) provide greater flexibility for immobilizing extreme waste salt compositions. This is accomplished by using a binder glass having a much higher Na_2O content than glass compositions used previously to provide enough Na+ to react with all of the Cl- in the waste salt and generate the maximum amount of sodalite. The phase compositions and degradation behaviors of prototype ACWF products that were made using five new binder glass formulations and with 11-14 mass% representative LiCl/KCl-based salt waste were evaluated and compared with results of similar tests run with CWF products made using the original binder glass with 8 mass% of the same salt to demonstrate the approach and select a composition for further studies. About twice the amount of sodalite was generated in all ACWF materials and the microstructures and degradation behaviors confirmed our understanding of the reactions occurring during waste form production and the efficacy of the approach. However, the porosities of the resulting ACWF materials were higher than is desired. These results indicate the capacity of these ACWF waste forms to accommodate LiCl/KCl-based salt wastes becomes limited by porosity due to the low glass-to-sodalite volume ratio. Three of the new binder glass compositions were acceptable and there is no benefit to further increasing the Na content as initially planned. Instead, further studies are needed to develop and evaluate alternative production methods to decrease the porosity, such as by increasing the amount of binder glass in the formulation or by processing waste forms in a hot isostatic press. Increasing the amount of binder glass to eliminate porosity will decrease the waste

  10. Designing Advanced Ceramic Waste Forms for Electrochemical Processing Salt Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, W. L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Snyder, C. T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Frank, Steven [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Riley, Brian [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-03-01

    This report describes the scientific basis underlying the approach being followed to design and develop “advanced” glass-bonded sodalite ceramic waste form (ACWF) materials that can (1) accommodate higher salt waste loadings than the waste form developed in the 1990s for EBR-II waste salt and (2) provide greater flexibility for immobilizing extreme waste salt compositions. This is accomplished by using a binder glass having a much higher Na2O content than glass compositions used previously to provide enough Na+ to react with all of the Cl– in the waste salt and generate the maximum amount of sodalite. The phase compositions and degradation behaviors of prototype ACWF products that were made using five new binder glass formulations and with 11-14 mass% representative LiCl/KCl-based salt waste were evaluated and compared with results of similar tests run with CWF products made using the original binder glass with 8 mass% of the same salt to demonstrate the approach and select a composition for further studies. About twice the amount of sodalite was generated in all ACWF materials and the microstructures and degradation behaviors confirmed our understanding of the reactions occurring during waste form production and the efficacy of the approach. However, the porosities of the resulting ACWF materials were higher than is desired. These results indicate the capacity of these ACWF waste forms to accommodate LiCl/KCl-based salt wastes becomes limited by porosity due to the low glass-to-sodalite volume ratio. Three of the new binder glass compositions were acceptable and there is no benefit to further increasing the Na content as initially planned. Instead, further studies are needed to develop and evaluate alternative production methods to decrease the porosity, such as by increasing the amount of binder glass in the formulation or by processing waste forms in a hot isostatic press. Increasing the amount of binder glass to eliminate porosity will decrease

  11. Cold fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Suk Yong; You, Jae Jun

    1996-01-01

    Nearly every technical information is chased in the world. All of them are reviewed and analyzed. Some of them are chosen to study further more to review every related documents. And a probable suggestion about the excitonic process in deuteron absorbed condensed matter is proposed a way to cold fusion. 8 refs. (Author)

  12. Residual stress evaluation and curvature behavior of aluminum 7050 peen forming processed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Rene Ramos de

    2011-01-01

    Shot peening is a superficial cold work process used to increase the fatigue life evaluated by residual stress measurements. The peen forming process is a variant of the shot peening process, where a curvature in the plate is obtained by the compression of the grains near to the surface. In this paper, the influence of the parameters such as: pressure of shot, ball shot size and thickness of aluminum 7050 samples with respect to residual stress profile and resulting arc height was studied. The evaluation of the residual stress profile was obtained by sin 2 ψ method. The results show that the formation of the curvature arc height is proportional to the shot peening pressure, of spheres size and inversely proportional to the thickness of the sample, and that stress concentration factor is larger for samples shot peened with small balls. On final of this paper presents an additional study on micro strain and average crystallite size, which can evaluate the profile of the samples after blasting. (author)

  13. Beneficial effects of laser irradiation on the deposition process of diamond/Ni60 composite coating with cold spray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Jianhua, E-mail: laser@zjut.edu.cn; Yang, Lijing; Li, Bo; Li, Zhihong

    2015-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The hard Ni-based alloy powder as matrix in diamond composite coating was studied. • The influence of laser on diamond distribution of composite coating was analyzed. • The graphitization of diamond was prohibited in supersonic laser deposition process. • The abrasion mechanisms of diamond/Ni60 composite coating were discussed. - Abstract: Although cold spray process has many unique advantages over other coating techniques, it has difficulties in depositing hard materials. This article presents a study in the beneficial effects of laser irradiation on the fabrication process of diamond/Ni60 composite coating using cold spray. The focus of this research is on the comparison between the composite coatings produced with laser cladding (LC) and with supersonic laser deposition (SLD), with respect to diamond graphitization and tribological properties, thus to demonstrate the beneficial effects of laser irradiation on the cold spray process. The influence of deposition temperature on the coating characteristics, such as deposition efficiency, diamond volume fraction, microstructure and phase is also investigated. The tribological properties of the diamond/Ni60 composite coating produced with SLD are determined using a pin-on-disc tribometer, along with the diamond/Ni60 coating produced using LC with the optimal process parameters for comparison. The experimental results show that with the assistance of laser irradiation, diamond/Ni60 composite coating can be successfully deposited using cold spray; the obtained coating is superior to that processed with LC, because SLD can suppress the graphitization of the diamond particles. The diamond/Ni60 composite coating fabricated with SLD has much better tribological properties than the LC coating.

  14. Hot deformation and processing maps of K310 cold work tool steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezatpour, H.R.; Sajjadi, S.A.; Haddad-Sabzevar, M.; Ebrahimi, G.R.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The steady state stresses are related to strain rate and temperature. ► The study led to n DRX = 3.95 and Q DRX = 219.65 kJ/(mol K) and α = 1.2 × 10 −2 MPa −1 . ► The safe domain occurs in the region of 1000–1100 °C for a strain rate of 0.1 s −1 . - Abstract: Hot working response of cold work tool steel K310 was investigated by means of compression test at temperature range of 900–1100 °C. The equivalent strain rates used in these tests were 0.01, 0.1 and 1 s −1 , respectively in order to obtain the processing and stability maps of the studied material following the Dynamic Material Model. All the zones of flow instability were studied through scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The microstructure of the samples after deformation was then analyzed by light microscopy and the differences were compared together. The steady state stress obtained from the flow curves was related to strain rate (ε . ) and temperature (T) by means of the well known Zener–Holloman equation. A least square analysis of the data led to n = 3.95 and Q DRX = 219.65 kJ/mol and α = 1.2 × 10 −2 MPa −1 . Also, hardness results showed that by increasing strain from peak to steady state strain, hardness was decreased.

  15. Cold Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH COLD STRESS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Workers who ... cold environments may be at risk of cold stress. Extreme cold weather is a dangerous situation that ...

  16. Physicochemical studies on sunflower oil blended with cold pressed tiger nut oil during deep frying process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Rehab, F. M.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower oils were blended with different levels of cold pressed tiger nut oil. Blended oils were obtained by mixing tiger nut oil with sunflower oil at the volume ratios of 0:100, 10: 90, 20: 80, 30: 70, 40: 60, 50:50 and 100: 0. The effects of deep frying on physico-chemical parameters (Free Fatty Acid (FFA, Peroxide Value (PV, thiobarbituric acid value (TBA, iodine value, Total Polar Compounds (TPC, color and viscosity were evaluated over 30 hours of the frying process. The total phenolic content of native oils was determined. GLC analysis was performed to illustrate the fatty acid composition of sunflower oil, tiger nut oil and binary mixtures of them as well as their oxidation rates. The pure and blended oils were heated at 180 °C ± 5 °C, then frozen French fried potatoes were fried every 30 min. Oil samples were taken every 5 h and the entire continuous frying period was 30 h. The results showed that fresh sunflower oil had significantly the highest value of COX (7.25; while tiger nut oil had significantly the lowest (2.24. Mixing sunflower oil with different levels of tiger nut oil led to an increase in its stability against oxidation. The phenolic content of cold pressed tiger nut oil was about 3.3 times as high as that of sunflower oil. The analytical data showed that the lowest deterioration during the frying process occurred in tiger nut oil and the highest in sunflower. The changes in the physico-chemical parameters were controlled and significantly (P < 0.05 decreased when tiger nut /sunflower oil (W/W proportions were varied between 20/80 to 50/50. The obtained results indicate that mixing sunflower oil with cold pressed tiger nut oil increased the stability and hence improved the quality of sunflower oil during the frying process.

    Aceites de girasol se mezclaron con diferentes niveles de aceite de chufa prensado en frío. Se obtuvieron mezclas de aceite de chufa con girasol en las proporciones: 0:100, 10: 90, 20: 80, 30

  17. Numerical modeling of cold room's hinged door opening and closing processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, R.; Gaspar, P. D.; Silva, P. D.; Domingues, L. C.

    2016-06-01

    The need of rationalize energy consumption in agrifood industry has fasten the development of methodologies to improve the thermal and energy performances of cold rooms. This paper presents a three-dimensional (3D) transient Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modelling of a cold room to evaluate the air infiltration rate through hinged doors. A species transport model is used for modelling the tracer gas concentration decay technique. Numerical predictions indicate that air temperature difference between spaces affects the air infiltration. For this case study, the infiltration rate increases 0.016 m3 s-1 per K of air temperature difference. The knowledge about the evolution of air infiltration during door opening/closing times allows to draw some conclusions about its influence on the air conditions inside the cold room, as well as to suggest best practices and simple technical improvements that can minimize air infiltration, and consequently improve thermal performance and energy consumption rationalization.

  18. Surface Improvement of Shafts by Turn-Assisted Deep Cold Rolling Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhu Raghavendra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well recognized that mechanical surface enhancement methods can significantly improve the characteristics of highly-stressed metallic components. Deep cold rolling is one of such technique which is particularly attractive since it is possible to generate, near the surface, deep compressive residual stresses and work hardened layers while retaining a relatively smooth surface finish. In this paper, the effect of turn-assisted deep cold rolling on AISI 4140 steel is examined, with emphasis on the residual stress state. Based on the X-ray diffraction measurements, it is found that turn-assisted deep cold rolling can be quite effective in retarding the initiation and initial propagation of fatigue cracks in AISI 4140 steel.

  19. Studies of the remagnetization process in cold drawn Fe-rich thin amorphous wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gawronski, P.; Zhukov, A.P.; Blanco, J.M.; Gonzalez, J.; Zhukova, V.; Kulakowski, K.

    2007-01-01

    Results on local hysteresis loops for Fe-rich amorphous cold-drawn wires with the sample lengths of 30 mm and 70 mm under applied stress, σ, up to 1300 MPa are reported. For both lengths, the magnetization, M, increases with σ and the coercive field, H C , decreases. Near the wire end, M results to be larger than at the wire center, and H C sharply decreases. This reduction is eliminated if the applied stress is large enough. It is assumed, that the magnetic configuration at the wire end for the cold-drawn wires is different from the other wires families

  20. Transcending Rationalism and Constructivism: Chinese Leaders’ Operational Codes, Socialization Processes, and Multilateralism after the Cold War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Kai; Feng, Huiyun

    2015-01-01

    ’ argument to explain China’s pro-multilateralist diplomacy after the Cold War. Using operational code analysis to examine belief changes across three generations of Chinese leadership and on different occasions, we argue that China’s pro-multilateralist behavior is a product of ‘superficial socialization......This paper challenges both rationalist and constructivist approaches in explaining China’s foreign policy behavior toward multilateral institutions after the Cold War. Borrowing insights from socialization theory and operational code analysis, this paper suggests a ‘superficial socialization...

  1. Isotopic exchange processes in cold plasmas of H2/D2 mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Redondo, Miguel; Carrasco, Esther; Herrero, Víctor J; Tanarro, Isabel

    2011-05-28

    Isotope exchange in low pressure cold plasmas of H(2)/D(2) mixtures has been investigated by means of mass spectrometric measurements of neutrals and ions, and kinetic model calculations. The measurements, which include also electron temperatures and densities, were performed in a stainless steel hollow cathode reactor for three discharge pressures: 1, 2 and 8 Pa, and for mixture compositions ranging from 100% H(2) to 100% D(2). The data are analyzed in the light of the model calculations, which are in good global agreement with the experiments. Isotope selective effects are found both in the surface recombination and in the gas-phase ionic chemistry. The dissociation of the fuel gas molecules is followed by wall recycling, which regenerates H(2) and D(2) and produces HD. Atomic recombination at the wall is found to proceed through an Eley-Rideal mechanism, with a preference for reaction of the adsorbed atoms with gas phase D atoms. The best fit probabilities for Eley-Rideal abstraction with H and D are: γ(ER H) = 1.5 × 10(-3), γ(ER D) = 2.0 × 10(-3). Concerning ions, at 1 Pa the diatomic species H(2)(+), D(2)(+) and HD(+), formed directly by electron impact, prevail in the distributions, and at 8 Pa, the triatomic ions H(3)(+), H(2)D(+), HD(2)(+) and D(3)(+), produced primarily in reactions of diatomic ions with molecules, dominate the plasma composition. In this higher pressure regime, the formation of the mixed ions H(2)D(+) and HD(2)(+) is favoured in comparison with that of H(3)(+) and D(3)(+), as expected on statistical grounds. The model results predict a very small preference, undetectable within the precision of the measurements, for the generation of triatomic ions with a higher degree of deuteration, which is probably a residual influence at room temperature of the marked zero point energy effects (ZPE), relevant for deuterium fractionation in interstellar space. In contrast, ZPE effects are found to be decisive for the observed distribution of

  2. Individual differences in temperature perception: evidence of common processing of sensation intensity of warmth and cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Barry G; Akirav, Carol

    2007-01-01

    The longstanding question of whether temperature is sensed via separate sensory systems for warmth and cold was investigated by measuring individual differences in perception of nonpainful heating and cooling. Sixty-two subjects gave separate ratings of the intensity of thermal sensations (warmth, cold) and nociceptive sensations (burning/stinging/pricking) produced by cooling (29 degrees C) or heating (37 degrees C) local regions of the forearm. Stimuli were delivered via a 4 x 4 array of 8 mm x 8 mm Peltier thermoelectric modules that enabled test temperatures to be presented sequentially to individual modules or simultaneously to the full array. Stimulation of the full array showed that perception of warmth and cold were highly correlated (Pearson r = 0.83, p sensations produced by the two temperatures were also correlated, but to a lesser degree (r = 0.44), and the associations between nociceptive and thermal sensations (r = 0.35 and 0.22 for 37 and 29 degrees C, respectively) were not significant after correction for multiple statistical tests. Intensity ratings for individual modules indicated that the number of responsive sites out of 16 was a poor predictor of temperature sensations but a significant predictor of nociceptive sensations. The very high correlation between ratings of thermal sensations conflicts with the classical view that warmth and cold are mediated by separate thermal modalities and implies that warm-sensitive and cold-sensitive spinothalamic pathways converge and undergo joint modulation in the central nervous system. Integration of thermal stimulation from the skin and body core within the thermoregulatory system is suggested as the possible source of this convergence.

  3. Cold fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koster, J.

    1989-01-01

    In this contribution the author the phenomenom of so-called cold fusion, inspired by the memorable lecture of Moshe Gai on his own search for this effect. Thus much of what follows was presented by Dr. Gai; the rest is from independent reading. What is referred to as cold fusion is of course the observation of possible products of deuteron-deuteron (d-d) fusion within deuterium-loaded (dentended) electrodes. The debate over the two vanguard cold fusion experiments has raged under far more public attention than usually accorded new scientific phenomena. The clamor commenced with the press conference of M. Fleishmann and S. Pons on March 23, 1989 and the nearly simultaneous wide circulation of a preprint of S. Jones and collaborators. The majority of work attempting to confirm these observations has at the time of this writing yet to appear in published form, but contributions to conferences and electronic mail over computer networks were certainly filled with preliminary results. To keep what follows to a reasonable length the author limit this discussion to the searches for neutron (suggested by ref. 2) or for excessive heat production (suggested by ref. 1), following a synopsis of the hypotheses of cold fusion

  4. Effect of Web Holes and Bearing Stiffeners on Flexural-Shear Interaction Strength of Steel Cold-Formed C-Channel Sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Faridmehr

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents an investigation on interaction equation between the required flexural strength, M, and the required shear strength, V, of cold-formed C-channels with web holes and bearing stiffeners. The primarily shear condition test was employed to study total 8 back to back lipped C channel sections of 95 and 100 mm depth when bearing stiffeners and circular holes were placed at center and both ends of specimens. The interaction equation were evaluated via Direct Strength Method, DSM, in accordance with the American Iron and Steel Institute for the design of cold-formed steel structural members, AISI 2007. A nonlinear finite element model was developed and verified against the test results in terms of failure buckling modes. It was concluded that the M-V interaction equation for specimens with web stiffeners was conservative where these specimens experienced plastic failure mode rather than local (Msl or distortional (Msd buckling mode. Moreover, the results indicated that proposed M-V interaction equation calculated by local buckling strength (Msl adequately predicted the behavior of specimens with circular web holes.

  5. Effect of deformations on the compactness of odd-Z superheavy nuclei formed in cold and hot fusion reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurjit; Sandhu, Kirandeep; Sharma, Manoj K.

    2018-03-01

    Using the extended fragmentation theory, the compactness of hot and cold fusion reactions is analyzed for odd-Z nuclei ranging Z = 105- 117. The calculations for the present work are carried out at T = 0MeV and ℓ = 0 ħ, as the temperature and angular momentum effects remain silent while addressing the orientation degree of freedom (i.e. compact angle configuration). In the hot fusion, 48Ca (spherical) + actinide (prolate) reaction, the non-equatorial compact (nec) shape is obtained for Z = 113 nucleus. On the other hand, Z > 113 nuclei favor equatorial compact (ec) configuration. The distribution of barrier height (VB) illustrate that the ec-shape is obtained when the magnitude of quadrupole deformation of the nucleus is higher than the hexadecupole deformation. In other words, negligible or small -ve β4-deformations support ec configurations. On the other hand, large (+ve) magnitude of the β4-deformation suggests that the configuration appears for compact angle θc < 90 °, leading to nec structure. Similar deformation effects are observed for Bi-induced reactions, in which not belly-to-belly compact (nbbc) configurations are seen at θc = 42 °. In addition to the effect of β2 and β4-deformations, the exclusive role of octupole deformations (β3) is also analyzed. The β3-deformations do not follow the reflection symmetry as that of β2 and β4, leading to the possible occurrence of compact configuration within 0° to 180° angular range.

  6. ENTREPRENEURIAL OPPORTUNITIES IN FOOD PROCESSING UNITS (WITH SPECIAL REFERENCES TO BYADGI RED CHILLI COLD STORAGE UNITS IN THE KARNATAKA STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. ISHWARA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available After the green revolution, we are now ushering in the evergreen revolution in the country; food processing is an evergreen activity. It is the key to the agricultural sector. In this paper an attempt has been made to study the workings of food processing units with special references to Red Chilli Cold Storage units in the Byadgi district of Karnataka State. Byadgi has been famous for Red Chilli since the days it’s of antiquity. The vast and extensive market yard in Byadagi taluk is famous as the second largest Red Chilli dealing market in the country. However, the most common and recurring problem faced by the farmer is inability to store enough red chilli from one harvest to another. Red chilli that was locally abundant for only a short period of time had to be stored against times of scarcity. In recent years, due to Oleoresin, demand for Red Chilli has grow from other countries like Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, America, Europe, Nepal, Indonesia, Mexico etc. The study reveals that all the cold storage units of the study area have been using vapour compression refrigeration system or method. All entrepreneurs have satisfied with their turnover and profit and they are in a good economic position. Even though the average turnover and profits are increased, few units have shown negligible amount of decrease in turnover and profit. This is due to the competition from increasing number of cold storages and early established units. The cold storages of the study area have been storing Red chilli, Chilli seeds, Chilli powder, Tamarind, Jeera, Dania, Turmeric, Sunflower, Zinger, Channa, Flower seeds etc,. But the 80 per cent of the each cold storage is filled by the red chilli this is due to the existence of vast and extensivered chilli market yard in the Byadgi. There is no business without problems. In the same way the entrepreneurs who are chosen for the study are facing a few problems in their business like skilled labour, technical and management

  7. An NMR-based quenched hydrogen exchange investigation of model amyloid fibrils formed by cold shock protein A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrescu, A T

    2001-01-01

    Acid-denatured cold shock protein A (CspA) self-assembles into polymers with properties typical of amyloid fibrils. In the present work, a quenched hydrogen exchange experiment was used to probe the interactions of CspA fibrils with solvent. Exchange was initiated by incubating suspensions of fibrils in D2O, and quenched by flash freezing. Following lyophilization, exchange-quenched samples were dissolved in 90% DMSO/10% D2O, giving DMSO-denatured monomers. Intrinsic exchange rates for denatured CspA in 90% DMSO/10% D2O (pH* 4.5) were sufficiently slow (approximately 1 x 10(-3) min-1) to enable quantification of NMR signal intensity decays due to H/D exchange in the fibrils. Hydrogen exchange rate constants for CspA fibrils were found to vary less than 3-fold from a mean value of 5 x 10(-5) min-1. The uniformity of rate constants suggests that exchange is in the EX1 limit, and that the mechanism of exchange involves a cooperative dissociation of CspA monomers from fibrils, concomitant with unfolding. Previous studies indicated that the highest protection factors in native CspA are approximately 10(3), and that protection factors for the acid-denatured monomer precursors of CspA fibrils are close to unity. Because exchange in is in the EX1 regime, it is only possible to place a lower limit of at least 10(5) on protection factors in CspA fibrils. The observation that all amide protons are protected from exchange indicates that the entire CspA polypeptide chain is structured in the fibrils.

  8. Both brown adipose tissue and skeletal muscle thermogenesis processes are activated during mild to severe cold adaptation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Naresh C; Singh, Sushant; Reis, Felipe C G; Maurya, Santosh K; Pani, Sunil; Rowland, Leslie A; Periasamy, Muthu

    2017-10-06

    Thermogenesis is an important homeostatic mechanism essential for survival and normal physiological functions in mammals. Both brown adipose tissue (BAT) ( i.e. uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)-based) and skeletal muscle ( i.e. sarcolipin (SLN)-based) thermogenesis processes play important roles in temperature homeostasis, but their relative contributions differ from small to large mammals. In this study, we investigated the functional interplay between skeletal muscle- and BAT-based thermogenesis under mild versus severe cold adaptation by employing UCP1 -/- and SLN -/- mice. Interestingly, adaptation of SLN -/- mice to mild cold conditions (16 °C) significantly increased UCP1 expression, suggesting increased reliance on BAT-based thermogenesis. This was also evident from structural alterations in BAT morphology, including mitochondrial architecture, increased expression of electron transport chain proteins, and depletion of fat droplets. Similarly, UCP1 -/- mice adapted to mild cold up-regulated muscle-based thermogenesis, indicated by increases in muscle succinate dehydrogenase activity, SLN expression, mitochondrial content, and neovascularization, compared with WT mice. These results further confirm that SLN-based thermogenesis is a key player in muscle non-shivering thermogenesis (NST) and can compensate for loss of BAT activity. We also present evidence that the increased reliance on BAT-based NST depends on increased autonomic input, as indicated by abundant levels of tyrosine hydroxylase and neuropeptide Y. Our findings demonstrate that both BAT and muscle-based NST are equally recruited during mild and severe cold adaptation and that loss of heat production from one thermogenic pathway leads to increased recruitment of the other, indicating a functional interplay between these two thermogenic processes. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Quality Parameters Defined by Chebyshev Polynomials in Cold Rolling Process Chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judin, Mika; Nylander, Jari; Larkiola, Jari; Verho, Martti

    2011-01-01

    The thickness profile of hot strip is of importance to profile, flatness and shape of the final cold rolled product. In this work, strip thickness and flatness profiles are decomposed into independent components by solving Chebyshev polynomials coefficients using matrix calculation. Four terms are used to characterize most common shapes of thickness and flatness profile. The calculated Chebyshev coefficients from different line measurements are combined together and analysed using neural network tools. The most common types of shapes are classified.

  10. Preliminary evaluation of alternative waste form solidification processes. Volume II. Evaluation of the processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-08-01

    This Volume II presents engineering feasibility evaluations of the eleven processes for solidification of nuclear high-level liquid wastes (HHLW) described in Volume I of this report. Each evaluation was based in a systematic assessment of the process in respect to six principal evaluation criteria: complexity of process; state of development; safety; process requirements; development work required; and facility requirements. The principal criteria were further subdivided into a total of 22 subcriteria, each of which was assigned a weight. Each process was then assigned a figure of merit, on a scale of 1 to 10, for each of the subcriteria. A total rating was obtained for each process by summing the products of the subcriteria ratings and the subcriteria weights. The evaluations were based on the process descriptions presented in Volume I of this report, supplemented by information obtained from the literature, including publications by the originators of the various processes. Waste form properties were, in general, not evaluated. This document describes the approach which was taken, the developent and application of the rating criteria and subcriteria, and the evaluation results. A series of appendices set forth summary descriptions of the processes and the ratings, together with the complete numerical ratings assigned; two appendices present further technical details on the rating process

  11. Cold formability of steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafond, G.; Leclerq, G.; Moliexe, F.; Namdar, R.; Roesch, L.; Sanz, G.

    1977-01-01

    This work was essentially aimed to the study of the following three questions. Is it possible to assess the cold formability of steels using simple material properties as criteria. What values of mechanical properties can one expect to reach in cold formed parts. Are there simple ways of characterizing the speroidization treatments carried out on steels before cold forming operations. The present report describes the results obtained during this investigation. It is logically divided into three separate parts. Experimental study of cold formability in wire drawing. Influence of metallurgical variables on mechanical properties of high carbon cold drawn wires. Contribution to the study of characterization methods of cold forming steels subjected to a spheroidization heat treatment

  12. Process and device for forming imprints on ceramic tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of the present invention is a process and a device for making imprints on ceramic tubes and these ceramic tubes with imprints. It is known that in uranium enrichment processes by gaseous diffusion, microporous tubes are used to made the diffuser units used for the application of this isotope enrichment process. It is known that these microporous tubes are generally made in two stages. In a first stage, a macroporous ceramic tube called a ''support'' is made. In a second stage, an internal microporous deposit is made which makes it possible to obtain a tube called a ''barrier'' finally having the required porosity to apply the gaseous diffusion enrichment process. The present invention involves the first stage of the manufacturing process of the barriers and, more precisely, a step in the manufacturing process of the supports that makes it possible to improve the efficiency of these barriers

  13. Process of forming niobium and boron containing titanium aluminide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, S.C.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a method of forming a composition of titanium, aluminum, niobium, and boron of higher ductility comprising casting the following approximate composition: Ti 34-50.5 Al 43-48 Nb 6-16 B 0.5-2.0 and thermomechanically working the cast composition

  14. Full-scale experimental and numerical study about structural behaviour of a thin-walled cold-formed steel building affected by ground settlements due to land subsidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Ortiz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Land subsidence due to ground water withdrawal is a problem in many places around the world (Poland, 1984. This causes differential ground settlements that affect masonry structures, because these structural materials do not exhibit an adequate performance beyond a certain level of angular distortion. This work presents the experimental and numerical results about a study regarding the performance of a full-scale thin-walled cold-formed steel building affected by ground differential settlements due to land subsidence. The experimental stage consisted in the construction of a test-building to be subjected to differential settlements in laboratory. The numerical stage consisted in performing a numerical non-linear static pull-down analysis simulating the differential ground settlements of the test-building. The results show that the structural performance of the tested building was very suitable in terms of ductility.

  15. Simulating Complex, Cold-region Process Interactions Using a Multi-scale, Variable-complexity Hydrological Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, C.; Pomeroy, J. W.; Wheater, H. S.

    2017-12-01

    Accurate management of water resources is necessary for social, economic, and environmental sustainability worldwide. In locations with seasonal snowcovers, the accurate prediction of these water resources is further complicated due to frozen soils, solid-phase precipitation, blowing snow transport, and snowcover-vegetation-atmosphere interactions. Complex process interactions and feedbacks are a key feature of hydrological systems and may result in emergent phenomena, i.e., the arising of novel and unexpected properties within a complex system. One example is the feedback associated with blowing snow redistribution, which can lead to drifts that cause locally-increased soil moisture, thus increasing plant growth that in turn subsequently impacts snow redistribution, creating larger drifts. Attempting to simulate these emergent behaviours is a significant challenge, however, and there is concern that process conceptualizations within current models are too incomplete to represent the needed interactions. An improved understanding of the role of emergence in hydrological systems often requires high resolution distributed numerical hydrological models that incorporate the relevant process dynamics. The Canadian Hydrological Model (CHM) provides a novel tool for examining cold region hydrological systems. Key features include efficient terrain representation, allowing simulations at various spatial scales, reduced computational overhead, and a modular process representation allowing for an alternative-hypothesis framework. Using both physics-based and conceptual process representations sourced from long term process studies and the current cold regions literature allows for comparison of process representations and importantly, their ability to produce emergent behaviours. Examining the system in a holistic, process-based manner can hopefully derive important insights and aid in development of improved process representations.

  16. Development of a new forming process with vertical rolls for electric-resistance-welded pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizutani, W; Nakajima, K

    1981-01-01

    The features of a new process (VRF process) for forming pipes by constraining the strip edges with undriven vertical rolls are described. The equipment characteristics and forming characteristics are compared with conventional processes. The VRF process can reduce edge stretch, forming energy, equipment and energy costs. 27 refs.

  17. Modelling of nitric acid production in the Advanced Cold Process Canister due to irradiation of moist air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henshaw, J.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarises the work performed for SKB of Sweden on the modelling of nitric acid production in the gaseous environment of the Advanced Cold Process Canister (ACPC). The model solves the simultaneous chemical rate equations describing the radiation chemistry of He/Ar/N 2 /O 2 /H 2 O gas mixture, involving over 200 chemical reactions. The amount of nitric acid produced as a function of time for typical ACPC conditions has been calculated using the model and the results reported. 11 refs, 11 figs, 1 tab

  18. Production Equipment and Processes for Bulk Formed Micro Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldan, Nikolas Aulin; Arentoft, Mogens; Eriksen, Rasmus Solmer

    2007-01-01

    Manufacturing techniques for production of small precise metallic parts has gained interest during recent years, an interest led by an industrial demand for components for integrated products like mobile phones, personal digital assistants (PDAs), mp3-players and in the future for spare parts...... has been developed and used to form a number of industrial micro parts in aluminium and silver, with ongoing work on forming of titanium. Manufacture of billets by cropping has been examined using a simple test rig and an automatic cropping device has been designed, manufactured and tested....... for the human body. Micro components have also found several applications within the medical, audiological and dental industry, applications that impose increased demands for biocompatible and corrosion-resistant materials and cleanness. So far these micro components have mainly been manufactured by traditional...

  19. Experimental and numerical investigation on cold flat rolling processes of DC04 sheets with special focus on residual stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, A; Binotsch, C; Awiszus, B; Mehner, T; Sieber, M; Lampke, T

    2016-01-01

    The process of cold flat rolling is a widespread industrial technique to manufacture semi-finished products, e.g., for the automotive or homewares industry. Basic knowledge of the process regarding dimensioning and adjustment of defined characteristics is already state of the art. However, a detailed consideration and analysis with respect to local inhomogeneous residual stresses in several process steps mostly remains disregarded. A broad understanding of the process due to the distribution of residual stresses in the workpiece and the direction of the stress tensors allows for a definition of the characteristics of the workpiece even before the actual manufacturing process. For that purpose, it is necessary to perform numerical investigations by means of the finite element analysis (FEA) of cold flat rolling processes. Within this contribution, several approaches for the calibration of the FEA with the real flat rolling process will be addressed and discussed. To ensure that the numerical consideration provides realistic results, this calibration is indispensable. General parameters such as geometry, height reduction, rolling temperature, process time, and the rolling speed are considered as well as a photogrammetric survey, and calculated residual stresses with results of X-ray diffraction (XRD) will be compared. In the course of the experiments, a good agreement between the stress results of the FEA and the XRD was found in the center of the specimen. In combination with the allocation of the stress orientations, the agreement close to the edges is also fine. Some issues that cause differences between the FEA and the experiment are dis-cussed. (paper)

  20. Cold compaction behavior of nano-structured Nd–Fe–B alloy powders prepared by different processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xiaoya; Hu, Lianxi; Wang, Erde

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Relative density enhancement and nanocrystallization of Nd 2 Fe 14 B phase are two major effective means to improve magnetic properties. Since the matrix Nd 2 Fe 14 B phase in the starting Nd–Fe–B alloy can be disproportionated into a nano-structured mixture of NdH 2.7 , Fe 2 B, and α-Fe phases during mechanical milling in hydrogen. It is thus important to study the densification behavior of nanocrystalline powders to evaluate and predict the cold compactibility of powders. By comparison with the as milled as well as melt-spun Nd 16 Fe 76 B 8 alloy powders, we find that the as-disproportionated Nd 16 Fe 76 B 8 alloy powder exhibits the best cold compactibility. As evident from the illustration presented below, compaction parameters (representing the powder compactibility) have been determined by fitting density–pressure data with double logarithm compaction equation. Densification mechanisms involved during cold compaction process are clarified in our work by referring to microstructure observation of samples prepared by various methods. As a result, highly densified green magnet compact can be obtained by cold pressing of as-disproportionated NdFeB alloy powders. Highlights: ► Nano-structured disproportionated Nd–Fe–B alloy powders by mechanical milling in hydrogen. ► Highly densified green magnet compact by cold pressing of as-disproportionated Nd–Fe–B alloy powders. ► Density–pressure data fitted well by an empirical powder compaction model. ► As-disproportionated powder showed better compactibility than as milled and melt-spun counterparts. ► The effects of physical properties on powder compactibility and densification mechanisms are clarified. - Abstract: The compaction behavior of nano-structured Nd 16 Fe 76 B 8 (atomic ratio) alloy powders, which were prepared by three different processing routes including melt spinning, mechanical milling in argon, and mechanically activated disproportionation by milling in

  1. Cold compaction behavior of nano-structured Nd-Fe-B alloy powders prepared by different processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaoya [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Hu, Lianxi, E-mail: hulx@hit.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Wang, Erde [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2013-02-25

    Graphical abstract: Relative density enhancement and nanocrystallization of Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B phase are two major effective means to improve magnetic properties. Since the matrix Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B phase in the starting Nd-Fe-B alloy can be disproportionated into a nano-structured mixture of NdH{sub 2.7}, Fe{sub 2}B, and {alpha}-Fe phases during mechanical milling in hydrogen. It is thus important to study the densification behavior of nanocrystalline powders to evaluate and predict the cold compactibility of powders. By comparison with the as milled as well as melt-spun Nd{sub 16}Fe{sub 76}B{sub 8} alloy powders, we find that the as-disproportionated Nd{sub 16}Fe{sub 76}B{sub 8} alloy powder exhibits the best cold compactibility. As evident from the illustration presented below, compaction parameters (representing the powder compactibility) have been determined by fitting density-pressure data with double logarithm compaction equation. Densification mechanisms involved during cold compaction process are clarified in our work by referring to microstructure observation of samples prepared by various methods. As a result, highly densified green magnet compact can be obtained by cold pressing of as-disproportionated NdFeB alloy powders. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nano-structured disproportionated Nd-Fe-B alloy powders by mechanical milling in hydrogen. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Highly densified green magnet compact by cold pressing of as-disproportionated Nd-Fe-B alloy powders. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Density-pressure data fitted well by an empirical powder compaction model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer As-disproportionated powder showed better compactibility than as milled and melt-spun counterparts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effects of physical properties on powder compactibility and densification mechanisms are clarified. - Abstract: The compaction behavior of nano-structured Nd{sub 16}Fe{sub 76}B{sub 8} (atomic ratio) alloy

  2. Residual stress evaluation and curvature behavior of aluminum 7050 peen forming processed; Avaliacao da tensao residual em aluminio 7050 conformado pelo processo peen forming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Rene Ramos de

    2011-07-01

    Shot peening is a superficial cold work process used to increase the fatigue life evaluated by residual stress measurements. The peen forming process is a variant of the shot peening process, where a curvature in the plate is obtained by the compression of the grains near to the surface. In this paper, the influence of the parameters such as: pressure of shot, ball shot size and thickness of aluminum 7050 samples with respect to residual stress profile and resulting arc height was studied. The evaluation of the residual stress profile was obtained by sin{sup 2} {psi} method. The results show that the formation of the curvature arc height is proportional to the shot peening pressure, of spheres size and inversely proportional to the thickness of the sample, and that stress concentration factor is larger for samples shot peened with small balls. On final of this paper presents an additional study on micro strain and average crystallite size, which can evaluate the profile of the samples after blasting. (author)

  3. CO II laser free-form processing of hard tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Martin; Klasing, Manfred; Ivanenko, Mikhail; Harbecke, Daniela; Steigerwald, Hendrik; Hering, Peter

    2007-07-01

    Drilling and surface processing of bone and tooth tissue belongs to standard medical procedures (bores and embeddings for implants, trepanation etc.). Small circular bores can be generally quickly produced with mechanical drills. However problems arise at angled drilling, the need to execute drilling procedures without damaging of sensitive soft tissue structures underneath the bone or the attempt to mill small non-circular cavities in hard tissue with high precision. We present investigations on laser hard tissue "milling", which can be advantageous for solving these problems. The processing of bone is done with a CO II laser (10.6 μm) with pulse durations of 50 - 100 μs, combined with a PC-controlled fast galvanic laser beam scanner and a fine water-spray, which helps keeping the ablation process effective and without thermal side-effects. Laser "milling" of non-circular cavities with 1 - 4 mm width and about 10 mm depth can be especially interesting for dental implantology. In ex-vivo investigations we found conditions for fast laser processing of these cavities without thermal damage and with minimised tapering. It included the exploration of different filling patterns (concentric rings, crosshatch, parallel lines, etc.), definition of maximal pulse duration, repetition rate and laser power, and optimal water spray position. The optimised results give evidence for the applicability of pulsed CO II lasers for biologically tolerable effective processing of deep cavities in hard tissue.

  4. Complex life forms may arise from electrical processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elson Edward C

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is still not an appealing and testable model to explain how single-celled organisms, usually following fusion of male and female gametes, proceed to grow and evolve into multi-cellular, complexly differentiated systems, a particular species following virtually an invariant and unique growth pattern. An intrinsic electrical oscillator, resembling the cardiac pacemaker, may explain the process. Highly auto-correlated, it could live independently of ordinary thermodynamic processes which mandate increasing disorder, and could coordinate growth and differentiation of organ anlage.

  5. Savannah River Laboratory monthly report: 238Pu fuel form processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Progress in the Savannah River 238 Pu Fuel Form Program is discussed. Goals of the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) program are to provide technical support for the transfer of the 238 Pu fuel form fabrication operations from Mound Laboratory to new facilities being built at the Savannah River Plant (SRP), to provide the technical basis for 238 Pu scrap recovery at SRP, and to assist in sustaining plant operations. During the period it was found that the density of hot-pressed 238 PuO 2 pellets decreased as the particle size of ball-milled powder decreased;the surface area of calcined 238 PuO 2 powder increased with increasing precipitation temperature and may be related to the variation in ball-milling response observed among different H Area B-Line batches; calcined PuO 2 produced by Pu(III) reverse-strike precipitation was directly fabricated into a pellet without ball milling, slugging, or sharding. The pellet had good appearance with acceptable density and dimensional stability, and heat transfer measurements and calculations showed that the use of hollow aluminum sleeves in the plutonium fuel fabrication (PuFF) storage vault reduced the temperature of shipping cans to 170 0 C and will reduce the temperature at the center of pure plutonium oxide (PPO) spheres to 580 0 C

  6. Laboratory assessment of the mechanical properties of bituminous mixes recycled in situ with cold bitumen processes

    OpenAIRE

    BROSSEAUD, Y; BEGHIN, A; PLACIN, F; GAUDEFROY, V; DELFOSSE, F; BAENA, J

    2006-01-01

    Dans le cadre du programme SCORE (Superior COld REcycling of asphalt pavements), contrat européen du 5ème PCRD, le LCPC a été le leader de la tache 7, concernant l'évaluation des propriétés mécaniques en laboratoire des enrobés recyclés en place au moyen de liants bitumineux à froid. Préalablement à l'étude, un essai croisé sur la détermination du module par traction indirecte a été entrepris entre les laboratoires impliqués dans cette tach pour évaluer les dispersions tant dans la préparatio...

  7. Elastocaloric effects in ultra-fine grained NiTi microwires processed by cold-drawing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuexi Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Efficient elastocaloric cooling in shape memory alloys requires a stable superelastic behavior in which high yield strength is needed. Here Ni50.4Ti49.6 microwires with diameter 130 μm and ultra-fine grains ∼30 nm were prepared by multi-step cold-drawing and low-temperature annealing. Enhanced cyclic stability of the elastocaloric effects induced by the superelastic training was demonstrated. The pre-trained microwire showed a stable ΔSe 43 J/(kg K with a broad working temperature range ΔT ∼ 70 K. The superelastic trained microwire, with giant and stable ΔSe over a wide working temperature window, may act as a promising elastocaloric cooling material for minor-sized devices.

  8. Process of forming a sol-gel/metal hydride composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congdon, James W [Aiken, SC

    2009-03-17

    An external gelation process is described which produces granules of metal hydride particles contained within a sol-gel matrix. The resulting granules are dimensionally stable and are useful for applications such as hydrogen separation and hydrogen purification. An additional coating technique for strengthening the granules is also provided.

  9. Process considerations for hot pressing ceramic nuclear waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, C.N.; Brite, D.W.

    1981-01-01

    Spray calcined simulated ceramic nuclear waste powders were hot pressed in graphite, nickel-lined graphite and ZrO 2 -lined Al 2 O 3 dies. Densification, initial off-gas, waste element retention and pellet-die interactions were evaluated. Indicated process considerations and limitations are discussed. 15 figures

  10. Separation of isoflavones form okara : process mechanisms & synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jankowiak, L.

    2014-01-01

    By-product utilisation, more efficient use of resources, and more sustainable processing have become of the utmost importance for society and the food industry. During soymilk production, a by-product called okara is produced in great quantities. Despite being a by-product, okara contains many

  11. Half-lives for proton emission, alpha decay, cluster radioactivity, and cold fission processes calculated in a unified theoretical framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, S.B.; Tavares, O.A.P.; Guzman, F.; Dimarco, A.; Garcia, F.; Goncalves, M.

    2002-01-01

    Half-life values of spontaneous nuclear decay processes are presented in the framework of the Effective Liquid Drop Model (ELDM) using the combination of varying mass asymmetry shape description for the mass transfer with Werner-Wheeler's inertia coefficient V MAS /WW. The calculated half-lives of ground-state to ground-state transitions for the proton emission, alpha decay, cluster radioactivity, and cold fission processes are compared with experimental data. Results have shown that the ELDM is a very efficient model to describe these different decay processes in a same, unified theoretical framework. A Table listing the predicted half-life values, τ c is presented for all possible cases of spontaneous nuclear break-up such that -7.30 10 τ c [S] 10 (τ/τ c ) > -17.0, where τ is the total half-life of the parent nucleus. (author)

  12. Hypothermic general cold adaptation induced by local cold acclimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savourey, G; Barnavol, B; Caravel, J P; Feuerstein, C; Bittel, J H

    1996-01-01

    To study relationships between local cold adaptation of the lower limbs and general cold adaptation, eight subjects were submitted both to a cold foot test (CFT, 5 degrees C water immersion, 5 min) and to a whole-body standard cold air test (SCAT, 1 degree C, 2 h, nude at rest) before and after a local cold acclimation (LCA) of the lower limbs effected by repeated cold water immersions. The LCA induced a local cold adaptation confirmed by higher skin temperatures of the lower limbs during CFT and a hypothermic insulative general cold adaptation (decreased rectal temperature and mean skin temperature P adaptation was related to the habituation process confirmed by decreased plasma concentrations of noradrenaline (NA) during LCA (P general cold adaptation was unrelated either to local cold adaptation or to the habituation process, because an increased NA during SCAT after LCA (P syndrome" occurring during LCA.

  13. Herpes Simplex Virus (Cold Sores)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print Share Cold Sores in Children: About the Herpes Simplex Virus Page Content ​A child's toddler and ... Cold sores (also called fever blisters or oral herpes) start as small blisters that form around the ...

  14. Tomogram forming process and apparatus using radioactive isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoddart, H.F.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to nuclear medicine and particularly to a tomogram forming apparatus which permits, with great efficiency, the very sensitive quantitative determination and the accurate spatial localization of the radioactivity of a body section of a patient to whom a substance labelled with radioactive isotopes has been administered. This scanner is characterized in that it includes several highly focused collimators placed one after the other, according to an arrangement which surrounds a scanning field. Each collimator is mobile with respect to the adjacent one and a system enables the arrangement to be rotated about the scanning field from one scanning position to another. Another device enables the collimators to be moved so that, for each scanning position, the focus of each collimator uniformly samples at least half the scanning field [fr

  15. Processes to remove acid forming gases from exhaust gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, S.G.

    1994-09-20

    The present invention relates to a process for reducing the concentration of NO in a gas, which process comprises: (A) contacting a gas sample containing NO with a gaseous oxidizing agent to oxidize the NO to NO[sub 2]; (B) contacting the gas sample of step (A) comprising NO[sub 2] with an aqueous reagent of bisulfite/sulfite and a compound selected from urea, sulfamic acid, hydrazinium ion, hydrazoic acid, nitroaniline, sulfanilamide, sulfanilic acid, mercaptopropanoic acid, mercaptosuccinic acid, cysteine or combinations thereof at between about 0 and 100 C at a pH of between about 1 and 7 for between about 0.01 and 60 sec; and (C) optionally contacting the reaction product of step (A) with conventional chemical reagents to reduce the concentrations of the organic products of the reaction in step (B) to environmentally acceptable levels. Urea or sulfamic acid are preferred, especially sulfamic acid, and step (C) is not necessary or performed. 16 figs.

  16. The analysis of bottom forming process for hybrid heating device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bałon, Paweł; Świątoniowski, Andrzej; Kiełbasa, Bartłomiej

    2017-10-01

    In this paper the authors present an unusual method for bottom forming applicable for various industrial purposes including the manufacture of water heaters or pressure equipment. This method allows for the fabrication of the bottom of a given piece of stainless steel into a pre-determined shape conforming to the DIN standard which determines the most advantageous dimensions for the bottom cross section in terms of working pressure loading. The authors checked the validity of the method in a numerical and experimental way generating a tool designed to produce bottoms of specified geometry. Many problems are encountered during the design and production of parts, especially excessive sheet wrinkling over a large area of the part. The experiment showed that a lack of experience and numerical analysis in the design of such elements would result in the production of highly wrinkled parts. This defect would render the parts impossible to assemble with the cylindrical part. Many tool shops employ a method for drawing elements with a spherical surface which involves additional spinning, stamping, and grading operations, which greatly increases the cost of parts production. The authors present and compare two forming methods for spherical and parabolic objects, and experimentally confirm the validity of the sheet reversing method with adequate pressure force. The applied method produces parts in one drawing operation and in a following operation that is based on laser or water cutting to obtain a round blank. This reduces the costs of tooling manufacturing by requiring just one tool which can be placed on any hydraulic press with a minimum force of 2 000 kN.

  17. Sequential optimization and reliability assessment method for metal forming processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahai, Atul; Schramm, Uwe; Buranathiti, Thaweepat; Chen Wei; Cao Jian; Xia, Cedric Z.

    2004-01-01

    Uncertainty is inevitable in any design process. The uncertainty could be due to the variations in geometry of the part, material properties or due to the lack of knowledge about the phenomena being modeled itself. Deterministic design optimization does not take uncertainty into account and worst case scenario assumptions lead to vastly over conservative design. Probabilistic design, such as reliability-based design and robust design, offers tools for making robust and reliable decisions under the presence of uncertainty in the design process. Probabilistic design optimization often involves double-loop procedure for optimization and iterative probabilistic assessment. This results in high computational demand. The high computational demand can be reduced by replacing computationally intensive simulation models with less costly surrogate models and by employing Sequential Optimization and reliability assessment (SORA) method. The SORA method uses a single-loop strategy with a series of cycles of deterministic optimization and reliability assessment. The deterministic optimization and reliability assessment is decoupled in each cycle. This leads to quick improvement of design from one cycle to other and increase in computational efficiency. This paper demonstrates the effectiveness of Sequential Optimization and Reliability Assessment (SORA) method when applied to designing a sheet metal flanging process. Surrogate models are used as less costly approximations to the computationally expensive Finite Element simulations

  18. Island forming processes in the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, T. S.; Humphries, M. S.; Mahomed, I.; Le Roux, P.; Verhagen, B. Th.

    2012-12-01

    The Okavango Delta in Botswana is a large (40,000 km2) alluvial fan that is characterised by the presence of numerous tree-covered islands. Thought to originate from the mound-building activities of termites or through fluvial processes associated with development of scroll bars and inverted channels, islands have been shown to play an important role in the structure and functioning of the Delta through the creation of habitat diversity, focusing of nutrients, and disposal of toxic salts. This study investigates the processes responsible for the maintenance and growth of two such islands in the seasonal swamps. Transpiration by vegetation is shown to result in substantial increases in groundwater salinity beneath the islands, contributing to their growth through chemical precipitation. Detailed chemical analyses revealed that the precipitation of magnesian calcite and silica within the island soils contributes 30-40% of the total island volume. Isotopic analyses of carbonate samples show that vegetation plays an important role in providing carbon for carbonate precipitation. Variations in δ13C carbonate values appear to reflect the relative proportion of C3 to C4 plants on the island, with C4 species becoming more dominant toward island centres in response to increases in groundwater salinity. The study suggests that continued island growth is also related to the deposition of aerosols and the accumulation of dust preferentially on islands and possibly to ongoing termite activity. Tall trees that characterise the island margins trap dust carried from the floodplains, resulting particularly in the lateral growth of islands. Islands in the Okavango are considered to be the product of long-term aggradation processes, with the two islands studied estimated to be in the order of tens of thousands of years old.

  19. Language processing and forms of immediate echolalia in autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paccia, J M; Curcio, F

    1982-03-01

    Several aspects of echolalic speech produced by five autistic children were investigated. We found that the incidence of echolalia was influenced by the type of question addressed to the child and, to a lesser extent, by the child's comprehension of the specific relationships expressed in the question. Additionally, acoustic analysis showed that a substantial proportion of echoes involved a prosodic modification of the examiner's question. Further analyses indicated that some of these modified echoes represent more than just a primitive conversational strategy. Specifically, they seem to reflect a higher level of processing and serve a semantic function, that of affirming the examiner's question.

  20. Leach testing of Idaho Chemical Processing Plant final waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuman, R.P.

    1980-01-01

    A number of pellets and highly durable glasses prepared from nonradioactive-simulated high-level wasste calcines have been leach tested. The leach tests are patterned on the IAEA standard test and the proposed Materials Characterization Center tests. Most tests are made with static distilled water at 25, 70, 95, 250, and 350 0 C and in refluxing distilled water, Soxhlet, at 95 0 C. Leach rates are determined by analyzing the leachate by instrumental activation analysis or spectrochemical analysis and from weight loss. Leaches are run on glass using cast and core drilled cylinders, broken pieces and coarse ground material. Sample form has a considerable effect on leach rates; solid pieces gave higher leach rates than ground glass when expressed in g/cm 2 /day. Cesium, molybdenum and weight loss leach rates of cast glass cylinders in distilled water varied from -7 g/cm 7 /day at 25 0 C to approx. 10 -3 g/cm 2 /day at 250 0 C. The leach rates in static distilled water at 95 0 C were considerably lower than those in refluxing distilled water, Soxhlet, at the same temperature. Even at 25 0 C, sodium, cesium, and molybdenum readily leached from the porous pellets, but the pellets showed no visible attack, even at 250 0 C

  1. Caracterization of the process of forming strategic alliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Mattana

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The union between companies has represented an increase in their competitive capabilities. The strategic alliances have been shown as alternatives for the adequacy of the conduct and organizational framework of the companies toward the market and the world economic juncture. Nevertheless, researches demonstrate that a good number of enterprises of this nature fail. In this sense, this study aimed at characterizing the formation and sustentation of a strategic alliance which has already been formed for 26 years and, thus, verifying the main foundations which are responsible for the maintenance of the union health. The unity of analysis was the alliance between companies as FEMSA and CVI Indústria de Refrigerantes Ltda. Through the method of case study, using the qualitative technique with the aim of describing the case in study, four managers and one collaborator, all of them linked to the alliance, were interviewed. The research allowed establishing that the main foundations of sustaining the alliance in study are in the individual abilities of the partnerships, in the synergy among individual strategies and in the feeling of mutual confidence which exists. Moreover, it was found out that, in the moments of crisis, the major factor responsible for the maintenance of the business is the determination of the upper management on keeping a climate of enthusiasm between the participants of the strategic alliance.

  2. Assessment of the influence of different sample processing and cold storage duration on plant free proline content analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teklić, Tihana; Spoljarević, Marija; Stanisavljević, Aleksandar; Lisjak, Miroslav; Vinković, Tomislav; Parađiković, Nada; Andrić, Luka; Hancock, John T

    2010-01-01

    A method which is widely accepted for the analysis of free proline content in plant tissues is based on the use of 3% sulfosalicylic acid as an extractant, followed by spectrophotometric quantification of a proline-ninhydrin complex in toluene. However, sample preparation and storage may influence the proline actually measured. This may give misleading or difficult to compare data. To evaluate free proline levels fresh and frozen strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) leaves and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] hypocotyl tissues were used. These were ground with or without liquid nitrogen and proline extracted with sulfosalicylic acid. A particular focus was the influence of plant sample cold storage duration (1, 4 and 12 weeks at -20°C) on tissue proline levels measured. The free proline content analyses, carried out in leaves of Fragaria × ananassa Duch. as well as in hypocotyls of Glycine max (L.) Merr., showed a significant influence of the sample preparation method and cold storage period. Long-term storage of up to 12 weeks at -20°C led to a significant increase in the measured proline in all samples analysed. The observed changes in proline content in plant tissue samples stored at -20°C indicate the likelihood of the over-estimation of the proline content if the proline analyses are delayed. Plant sample processing and cold storage duration seem to have an important influence on results of proline analyses. Therefore it is recommended that samples should be ground fresh and analysed immediately. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Study management – process experiences form The Elderly Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilberg, Randi Marie; Andersen, Kjeld; Bogenschutz, Michael P

    and prevention of sites that drift away. Implications The Elderly Study is multi-nationally, including three universities and research center in USA, Germany and Denmark together with a lot of outpatient treatment facilities. The study aims at including 1,000 patients aged 60 and older to examine two therapies......Description An essential, but often not described, part of multisite research projects is the process of managing the overall project per se. The Elderly have implemented strategies and tools used across sites in order to ensure intervention fidelity, uniformness in collection of data...... targeting seniors with alcohol problems. A lot of information, documentations, materials and agreements within and between sites are common phenomenons in the study. Therefore we are using Internet solutions as much as possible. Document management: To avoid having to many different versions of the same...

  4. Neutral processes forming large clones during colonization of new areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafajlović, M; Kleinhans, D; Gulliksson, C; Fries, J; Johansson, D; Ardehed, A; Sundqvist, L; Pereyra, R T; Mehlig, B; Jonsson, P R; Johannesson, K

    2017-08-01

    In species reproducing both sexually and asexually clones are often more common in recently established populations. Earlier studies have suggested that this pattern arises due to natural selection favouring generally or locally successful genotypes in new environments. Alternatively, as we show here, this pattern may result from neutral processes during species' range expansions. We model a dioecious species expanding into a new area in which all individuals are capable of both sexual and asexual reproduction, and all individuals have equal survival rates and dispersal distances. Even under conditions that favour sexual recruitment in the long run, colonization starts with an asexual wave. After colonization is completed, a sexual wave erodes clonal dominance. If individuals reproduce more than one season, and with only local dispersal, a few large clones typically dominate for thousands of reproductive seasons. Adding occasional long-distance dispersal, more dominant clones emerge, but they persist for a shorter period of time. The general mechanism involved is simple: edge effects at the expansion front favour asexual (uniparental) recruitment where potential mates are rare. Specifically, our model shows that neutral processes (with respect to genotype fitness) during the population expansion, such as random dispersal and demographic stochasticity, produce genotype patterns that differ from the patterns arising in a selection model. The comparison with empirical data from a post-glacially established seaweed species (Fucus radicans) shows that in this case, a neutral mechanism is strongly supported. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons ltd on Behalf of European Society for Evolutionary Biology.

  5. Role of aging time on the magnetic properties of Sm2Co17 permanent magnets processed through cold isostatic pressing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramudu, M.; Rajkumar, D. M.

    2018-04-01

    The effect of aging time on the magnetic properties of Sm2Co17 permanent magnets processed through a novel method of cold isostatic pressing was investigated. Sintered Sm2Co17 samples were subjected to different aging times in the range of 10-30 h and their respective microstructures were correlated with the magnetic properties obtained. The values of remanant magnetization (Br) were observed to be constant in samples aged from 10-20 h beyond which a gradual decrease in Br values was observed. The values of coercivity (Hc) displayed a sharp increase in samples aged from 10 to 20 h beyond which the coercivity values showed marginal improvement. Hence a good combination of magnetic properties could be achieved in samples aged for 20 h. A maximum energy product of 27 MGOe was achieved in the 20 h aged sample processed through a novel route.

  6. Study of corrosion resistance properties of nitrided carbon steel using radiofrequency N{sub 2}/H{sub 2} cold plasma process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouanis, F.Z. [Unite Materiaux et Transformations (UMET), Ingenierie des Systemes Polymeres, CNRS UMR 8207, ENSCL, BP 90108, F-59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Jama, C., E-mail: charafeddine.jama@ensc-lille.f [Unite Materiaux et Transformations (UMET), Ingenierie des Systemes Polymeres, CNRS UMR 8207, ENSCL, BP 90108, F-59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Traisnel, M. [Unite Materiaux et Transformations (UMET), Ingenierie des Systemes Polymeres, CNRS UMR 8207, ENSCL, BP 90108, F-59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Bentiss, F. [Laboratoire de Chimie de Coordination et d' Analytique, Faculte des Sciences, Universite Chouaib Doukkali, B.P. 20, M-24000 El Jadida (Morocco)

    2010-10-15

    C38 carbon steel have been plasma-nitrided using a radiofrequency cold plasma discharge treatment in order to investigate the influence of gas composition on corrosion behaviour of nitrided substrates. The investigated C38 steel was nitrided by a RF plasma discharge treatment using two different gas mixtures (75% N{sub 2}/25% H{sub 2} and 25% N{sub 2}/75% H{sub 2}) at different times of plasma-treatment on non-heated substrates. Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA) showed that the nitrided layer formed using 75% N{sub 2}/25% H{sub 2} gas mixture was thicker compared to those formed in the case of 25% N{sub 2}/75% H{sub 2} or pure N{sub 2}. The modifications of the corrosion resistance characteristics of plasma-nitrided C38 steel in 1 M HCl solution were investigated by weight loss measurements and ac impedance technique. The results obtained from these two evaluation methods were in good agreement. It was shown that the nitriding treatment in both cases (75% N{sub 2}/25% H{sub 2} and 25% N{sub 2}/75% H{sub 2}) improves the corrosion resistance of investigated carbon steel, while the better performance is obtained for the 75% N{sub 2}/25% H{sub 2} gas mixture. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was carried out before and after immersion in corrosive medium in order to establish the mechanism of corrosion inhibition using N{sub 2}/H{sub 2} cold plasma nitriding process.

  7. Influence of processing steps in cold-smoked salmon production on survival and growth of persistent and presumed non-persistent Listeria monocytogenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porsby, Cisse Hedegaard; Vogel, Birte Fonnesbech; Mohr, Mona

    2008-01-01

    conditions, (ii) fillets of salmon cold-smoked in a pilot plant and finally, (iii) assessment of the bacterial levels before and after processing during commercial scale production. L. monocytogenes proliferated on salmon blocks that were brined or dipped in liquid smoke and left at 25 degrees C......Cold-smoked salmon is a ready-to-eat product in which Listeria monocytogenes sometimes can grow to high numbers. The bacterium can colonize the processing environment and it is believed to survive or even grow during the processing steps. The purpose of the present study was to determine...... if the steps in the processing of cold-smoked salmon affect Survival and subsequent growth of a persistent strain of L. monocytogenes to a lesser degree than presumed non-persistent strains. We used a sequence of experiments increasing in complexity: (i) small salmon blocks salted, smoked or dried under model...

  8. Implementation of cold risk management in occupational safety, occupational health and quality practices. Evaluation of a development process and its effects at the finnish maritime administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risikko, Tanja; Remes, Jouko; Hassi, Juhani

    2008-01-01

    Cold is a typical environmental risk factor in outdoor work in northern regions. It should be taken into account in a company's occupational safety, health and quality systems. A development process for improving cold risk management at the Finnish Maritime Administration (FMA) was carried out by FMA and external experts. FMA was to implement it. Three years after the development phase, the outcomes and implementation were evaluated. The study shows increased awareness about cold work and few concrete improvements. Concrete improvements in occupational safety and health practices could be seen in the pilot group. However, organization-wide implementation was insufficient, the main reasons being no organization-wide practices, unclear process ownership, no resources and a major reorganization process. The study shows a clear need for expertise supporting implementation. The study also presents a matrix for analyzing the process.

  9. Method of thermally processing superplastically formed aluminum-lithium alloys to obtain optimum strengthening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Claire E. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Optimum strengthening of a superplastically formed aluminum-lithium alloy structure is achieved via a thermal processing technique which eliminates the conventional step of solution heat-treating immediately following the step of superplastic forming of the structure. The thermal processing technique involves quenching of the superplastically formed structure using static air, forced air or water quenching.

  10. 20 CFR 10.7 - What forms are needed to process claims under the FECA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What forms are needed to process claims under the FECA? 10.7 Section 10.7 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT...' COMPENSATION ACT, AS AMENDED General Provisions Definitions and Forms § 10.7 What forms are needed to process...

  11. Surface enhancement of cold work tool steels by friction stir processing with a pinless tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, M. I.; Verdera, D.; Vieira, M. T.; Rodrigues, D. M.

    2014-03-01

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of enhanced tool steel (AISI D2) surfaces produced using a friction stir welding (FSW) related procedure, called friction stir processing (FSP), are analysed in this work. The surface of the tool steel samples was processed using a WC-Co pinless tool and varying processing conditions. Microstructural analysis revealed that meanwhile the original substrate structure consisted of a heterogeneous distribution of coarse carbides in a ferritic matrix, the transformed surfaces consisted of very small carbides, homogenously distributed in a ferrite- bainite- martensite matrix. The morphology of the surfaces, as well as its mechanical properties, evaluated by hardness and tensile testing, were found to vary with increasing tool rotation speed. Surface hardness was drastically increased, relative to the initial hardness of bulk steel. This was attributed to ferrite and carbide refinement, as well as to martensite formation during solid state processing. At the highest rotation rates, tool sliding during processing deeply compromised the characteristics of the processed surfaces.

  12. Investigation of R-Factor for steel moment frame combined with cold-formed steel structures under different load patterns using pushover analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siavash Sadeghi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of Lightweight Steel Frames (LSF has grown considerably in recent years all over the world due to its unique advantages such as being cost-effective and light-weight, easy and quick installment. Another application is to use them in order to increase the number of new floors on the existing buildings. But since the behavior of the combined structure is not clear, there is no possibility of increasing new floors with Lightweight Steel Frames. Therefore, through selecting and modeling three buildings of three, five and seven floors with steel moment frames in SAP2000 software and adding one or two new floors using Lightweight Steel Frames (LSF and conducting a non-linear static analysis with three different lateral load pattern, we dealt with the seismic behavior and determined the behavior coefficient of each of the combined structures. The results indicated that the use of cold-formed structures in order to add story do not have a significant impact on R-factor. In addition, R-factor depends on the type of the side loading pattern.

  13. New Forming Limits For Light Alloys By Means Of Electromagnetic Forming And Numerical Simulation Of The Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimbert, P.; Fernandez, J. I.; Eguia, I.; Gutierrez, M.; Ulacia, I.; Hurtado, I.

    2007-01-01

    It is well known that one of the main advantages of the high speed forming (HSF) processes is the improvement in the forming limits of the used materials.Using the Electromagnetic Forming (EMF) technology two materials have been tested with different mechanical and physical properties: the AA5754 aluminium and the AZ31B magnesium alloys.The EMF process principle can be described as follows: A significant amount of electrical energy is stored in a bank of capacitors which are suddenly discharged releasing all the stored energy. This electric discharge runs through a coil which generates an intense transient magnetic field. At the same time transient Eddy currents are induced in the electrically conductive part placed some millimetres far from the coil. Another intense magnetic field is generated due to those Eddy currents but on the opposite direction as the one generated by the coil. A big magnetic repulsion force is created between the part and the coil. This magnetic repulsion between both fields is used to launch the blank with no physical contact and obtain the desired deformation on it.The Forming Limit Diagrams (FLD) obtained in the EMF experiments were them compared to the ones obtained with the 'Nakazima' method at conventional deformation speed for both alloys. In parallel to these physical experiments, some simulations were carried out. But trying to simulate this process by FEM is a though work. There are several physics and many factors to take into account in a few microseconds deformation process. And all these factors are tightly related with each other, that is why to this date there is no commercial software able to simulate the EMF process accurately.From LABEIN-Tecnalia we are working with to different softwares to simulate the whole process: Maxwell 3D for the electromagnetic part and PAM-STAMP2G for the mechanical part of the problem

  14. Improvement of mechanical strength of sintered Mo alloyed steel by optimization of sintering and cold-forging processes with densification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamakoshi, Y.; Shohji, I.; Inoue, Y.; Fukuda, S.

    2017-10-01

    Powder metallurgy (P/M) materials have been expected to be spread in automotive industry. Generally, since sintered materials using P/M ones contain many pores and voids, mechanical properties of them are inferior to those of conventional wrought materials. To improve mechanical properties of the sintered materials, densification is effective. The aim of this study is to improve mechanical strength of sintered Mo-alloyed steel by optimizing conditions in sintering and cold-forging processes. Mo-alloyed steel powder was compacted. Then, pre-sintering (PS) using a vacuum sintering furnace was conducted. Subsequently, coldforging (CF) by a backward extrusion method was conducted to the pre-sintered specimen. Moreover, the cold-forged specimen was heat treated by carburizing, tempering and quenching (CQT). Afterwards, mechanical properties were investigated. As a result, it was found that the density of the PS specimen is required to be more than 7.4 Mg/m3 to strengthen the specimen by heat treatment after CF. Furthermore, density and the microstructure of the PS specimen are most important factors to make the high density and strength material by CF. At the CF load of 1200 kN, the maximum density ratio reached approximately 99% by the use of the PS specimen with proper density and microstructure. At the CF load of 900 kN, although density ratio was high like more than 97.8%, transverse rupture strength decreased sharply. Since densification caused high shear stress and stress concentration in the surface layer, microcracks occurred by the damages of inter-particle sintered connection of the surface layer. On the contrary, in case of the CF load of 1200 kN, ultra-densification of the surface layer occurred by a sufficient plastic flow. Such sufficient compressed specimens regenerated the sintered connections by high temperature heat treatment and thus the high strength densified material was obtained. These processes can be applicable to near net shape manufacturing

  15. Material characterization and finite element simulations of aluminum alloy sheets during non-isothermal forming process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan

    The utilization of more non-ferrous materials is one of the key factors to succeed out of the constantly increasing demand for lightweight vehicles in automotive sector. Aluminum-magnesium alloys have been identified as the most promising substitutions to the conventional steel without significant compromise in structural stiffness and strength. However, the conventional forming methods to deform the aluminum alloy sheets are either costly or insufficient in formability which limit the wide applications of aluminum alloy sheets. A recently proposed non-isothermal hot stamping approach, which is also referred as Hot Blank - Cold Die (HB-CD) stamping, aims at fitting the commercial grade aluminum alloy sheets, such as AA5XXX and AA7XXX, into high-volume and cost-effective production for automotive sector. In essence, HB-CD is a mutation of the conventional hot stamping approach for boron steel (22MnB5) which deforms the hot blank within the cold tool set. By elevating the operation temperature, the formability of aluminum alloy sheets can be significantly improved. Meanwhile, heating the blank only and deforming within the cold tool sets allow to reduce the energy and time consumed. This research work aims at conducting a comprehensive investigation of HB-CD with particular focuses on material characterization, constitutive modeling and coupled thermo-mechanical finite element simulations with validation. The material properties of AA5182-O, a popular commercial grade of aluminum alloy sheet in automotive sector, are obtained through isothermal tensile testing at temperatures from 25° to 300°, covering a quasi-static strain-rate range (0.001--0.1s-1). As the state-of-the-art non-contact strain measurement technique, digital image correlation (DIC) system is utilized to evaluate the stress-strain curves as well as to reveal the details of material deformation with full-field and multi-axis strain measurement. Material anisotropy is characterized by extracting the

  16. The effect of tooling deformation on process control in multistage metal forming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, Gosse Tjipke; van den Boogaard, Antonius H.; Chinesta, F; Cueto, E; Abisset-Chavanne, E.

    2016-01-01

    Forming of high-strength steels leads to high loads within the production process. In multistage metal forming, the loads in different process stages are transferred to the other stages through elastic deformation of the stamping press. This leads to interactions between process steps, affecting the

  17. Avocado oil extraction processes: method for cold-pressed high-quality edible oil production versus traditional production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Costagli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the avocado fruit (Persea americana Mill. is widely regarded as an important fruit for its nutritional values, as it is rich in vital human nutrients. The avocado fruit is mainly sold fresh on the market, which however trades also a relevant quantity of second-grade fruits with a relatively high oil content. Traditionally, this oil is extracted from dried fruits by means of organic solvents, but a mechanical method is also used in general in locations where drying systems and/or solvent extraction units cannot be installed. These traditional processes yield a grade of oil that needs subsequent refining and is mainly used in the cosmetic industry. In the late 1990s, in New Zeland, a processing company with the collaboration of Alfa Laval began producing cold-pressed avocado oil (CPAO to be sold as edible oil for salads and cooking. Over the last fifteen years, CPAO production has increased in many other countries and has led to an expansion of the market which is set to continue, given the growing interest in highquality and healthy food. Avocado oil like olive oil is extracted from the fruit pulp and in particular shares many principles of the extraction process with extra-vergin olive oil. We conducted a review of traditional and modern extraction methods with particular focus on extraction processes and technology for CPAO production.

  18. Evaluation of the StressWave Cold Working (SWCW) Process on High-Strength Aluminum Alloys for Aerospace

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    Alloy Spot- welds by Cold Working,” 13 International Pacific Conference on Automotive Engineering (IPC-13), Gyeongju, Korea, August 2005. 7. Kim...so that it remains normal to the indenting direction. The restraint provided around the area to be cold worked minimizes surface upset (albeit...direction. The restraint provided around the area to be cold worked minimizes surface upset (albeit small without a PF). The stabilizing aspect

  19. Interactions between motion and form processing in the human visual system

    OpenAIRE

    Mather, G.; Pavan, A.; Bellacosa Marotti, R.; Campana, G.; Casco, C.

    2013-01-01

    The predominant view of motion and form processing in the human visual system assumes that these two attributes are handled by separate and independent modules. Motion processing involves filtering by direction-selective sensors, followed by integration to solve the aperture problem. Form processing involves filtering by orientation-selective and size-selective receptive fields, followed by integration to encode object shape. It has long been known that motion signals can influence form proce...

  20. Process and structures for fabrication of solar cells with laser ablation steps to form contact holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Gabriel; Smith, David D; Dennis, Tim; Waldhauer, Ann; Kim, Taeseok; Cousins, Peter John

    2013-11-19

    Contact holes of solar cells are formed by laser ablation to accomodate various solar cell designs. Use of a laser to form the contact holes is facilitated by replacing films formed on the diffusion regions with a film that has substantially uniform thickness. Contact holes may be formed to deep diffusion regions to increase the laser ablation process margins. The laser configuration may be tailored to form contact holes through dielectric films of varying thickness.

  1. Investigation of the Electrohydraulic Forming Process with respect to the Design of Sharp Edged Contours

    OpenAIRE

    Beerwald, C.; Homberg, W.; Pröbsting, A.

    2010-01-01

    The overcoming of design constraints with respect to forming of sharply contoured sheet metal workpieces made of high strength steel or other materials which are difficult to form is an important aspect in sheet metal part production. One interesting solution to extend existing forming limits can be the use of electrohydraulic forming as single forming operation or in combination with quasi-static hydroforming. Apart from promising results regarding the feasible part geometries this process a...

  2. Feasibility Study on Flexibly Reconfigurable Roll Forming Process for Sheet Metal and Its Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Seok Yoon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A multicurved sheet metal surface for a skin structure has usually been manufactured using a conventional die forming process involving the use of both a die and a press machine in accordance with the product shape. However, such processes are economically inefficient because additional production costs are incurred for the development and management of forming tools. To overcome this drawback, many alternative processes have been developed; however, these still suffer from problems due to defects such as dimples and wrinkles occurring in the sheet. In this study, a new sheet metal forming process called the flexibly reconfigurable roll forming (FRRF process is proposed as an alternative to existing processes. Unlike existing processes, FRRF can reduce additional production costs resulting from material loss and significantly reduce forming errors. Furthermore, it involves the use of a smaller apparatus. The methodology and applicable procedure of the FRRF process are described. Numerical forming simulations of representative multicurved sheet surfaces are conducted using FEM. In addition, a simple apparatus is developed for verifying the feasibility of this process, and a doubly curved metal is formed to verify the applicability of the reconfigurable roller, a critical component in this forming process.

  3. Evidence for Atmospheric Cold-trap Processes in the Noninverted Emission Spectrum of Kepler-13Ab Using HST /WFC3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beatty, Thomas G.; Zhao, Ming; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Wright, Jason T. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Madhusudhan, Nikku [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Tsiaras, Angelos [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, WC1E6BT London (United Kingdom); Knutson, Heather A.; Shporer, Avi, E-mail: tbeatty@psu.edu [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2017-10-01

    We observed two eclipses of the Kepler-13A planetary system, on UT 2014 April 28 and UT 2014 October 13, in the near-infrared using Wide Field Camera 3 on the Hubble Space Telescope . By using the nearby binary stars Kepler-13BC as a reference, we were able to create a differential light curve for Kepler-13A that had little of the systematics typically present in HST /WFC3 spectrophotometry. We measure a broadband (1.1–1.65 μ m) eclipse depth of 734 ± 28 ppm and are able to measure the emission spectrum of the planet at R  ≈ 50 with an average precision of 70 ppm. We find that Kepler-13Ab possesses a noninverted, monotonically decreasing vertical temperature profile. We exclude an isothermal profile and an inverted profile at more than 3 σ . We also find that the dayside emission of Kepler-13Ab appears generally similar to an isolated M7 brown dwarf at a similar effective temperature. Due to the relatively high mass and surface gravity of Kepler-13Ab, we suggest that the apparent lack of an inversion is due to cold-trap processes in the planet’s atmosphere. Using a toy model for where cold traps should inhibit inversions, as well as observations of other planets in this temperature range with measured emission spectra, we argue that with more detailed modeling and more observations we may be able to place useful constraints on the size of condensates on the daysides of hot Jupiters.

  4. Local Scale Radiobrightness Modeling During the Intensive Observing Period-4 of the Cold Land Processes Experiment-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, E.; Tedesco, M.; de Roo, R.; England, A. W.; Gu, H.; Pham, H.; Boprie, D.; Graf, T.; Koike, T.; Armstrong, R.; Brodzik, M.; Hardy, J.; Cline, D.

    2004-12-01

    The NASA Cold Land Processes Field Experiment (CLPX-1) was designed to provide microwave remote sensing observations and ground truth for studies of snow and frozen ground remote sensing, particularly issues related to scaling. CLPX-1 was conducted in 2002 and 2003 in Colorado, USA. One of the goals of the experiment was to test the capabilities of microwave emission models at different scales. Initial forward model validation work has concentrated on the Local-Scale Observation Site (LSOS), a 0.8~ha study site consisting of open meadows separated by trees where the most detailed measurements were made of snow depth and temperature, density, and grain size profiles. Results obtained in the case of the 3rd Intensive Observing Period (IOP3) period (February, 2003, dry snow) suggest that a model based on Dense Medium Radiative Transfer (DMRT) theory is able to model the recorded brightness temperatures using snow parameters derived from field measurements. This paper focuses on the ability of forward DMRT modelling, combined with snowpack measurements, to reproduce the radiobrightness signatures observed by the University of Michigan's Truck-Mounted Radiometer System (TMRS) at 19 and 37~GHz during the 4th IOP (IOP4) in March, 2003. Unlike in IOP3, conditions during IOP4 include both wet and dry periods, providing a valuable test of DMRT model performance. In addition, a comparison will be made for the one day of coincident observations by the University of Tokyo's Ground-Based Microwave Radiometer-7 (GBMR-7) and the TMRS. The plot-scale study in this paper establishes a baseline of DMRT performance for later studies at successively larger scales. And these scaling studies will help guide the choice of future snow retrieval algorithms and the design of future Cold Lands observing systems.

  5. Proteolysis in salmon ( Salmo salar ) during cold storage : Effects of storage time and smoking process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, K.E.; Nielsen, Henrik Hauch

    2001-01-01

    Changes in free amino acids (FAAs), small peptides and myofibrillar proteins were investigated in salmon (Salmo salar) muscle stored at OC for up to 23 days and after the stored salmon was smoked. Storage time and smoking process did not increase the formation of FAAs and small peptides indicating...

  6. An approach to eliminate stepped features in multistage incremental sheet forming process: Experimental and FEA analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nirala, Harish Kumar; Jain, Prashant K.; Tandon, Puneet [PDPM Indian Institute of Information Technology, Design and Manufacturing Jabalpur Jabalpur-482005, Madhya Pradesh (India); Roy, J. J.; Samal, M. K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2017-02-15

    Incremental sheet forming (ISF) is a recently developed manufacturing technique. In ISF, forming is done by applying deformation force through the motion of Numerically controlled (NC) single point forming tool on the clamped sheet metal blank. Single Point Incremental sheet forming (SPISF) is also known as a die-less forming process because no die is required to fabricate any component by using this process. Now a day it is widely accepted for rapid manufacturing of sheet metal components. The formability of SPISF process improves by adding some intermediate stages into it, which is known as Multi-stage SPISF (MSPISF) process. However during forming in MSPISF process because of intermediate stages stepped features are generated. This paper investigates the generation of stepped features with simulation and experimental results. An effective MSPISF strategy is proposed to remove or eliminate this generated undesirable stepped features.

  7. Comparison of high pressure and high temperature short time processing on quality of carambola juice during cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsiao-Wen; Chen, Bang-Yuan; Wang, Chung-Yi

    2018-05-01

    This study validated high hydrostatic pressure processing (HPP) for achieving greater than 5-log reductions of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in carambola juice and determined shelf life of processed juice stored at 4 °C. Carambola juice processed at 600 MPa for 150 s was identified capable of achieving greater than 5.15-log reductions of E. coli O157:H7, and the quality was compared with that of high temperature short time (HTST)-pasteurized juice at 110 °C for 8.6 s. Aerobic, psychrotrophic, E. coli /coliform, and yeasts and moulds in the juice were reduced by HPP or HTST to levels below the minimum detection limit (HTST juices. However, HTST treatment significantly changed the color of juice, while no significant difference was observed between the control and HPP samples. HPP and HTST treatments reduced the total soluble solids in the juice, but maintained higher sucrose, glucose, fructose, and total sugar contents than untreated juice. The total phenolic and ascorbic acid contents were higher in juice treated with HPP than untreated and HTST juice, but there was no significant difference in the flavonoid content. Aroma score analysis showed that HPP had no effect on aroma, maintaining the highest score during cold storage. The results of this study suggest that appropriate HPP conditions can achieve the same microbial safety as HTST, while maintaining the quality and extending the shelf life of carambola juice.

  8. Development of an experimental radioisotope based process tomography system for research applications in a cold trickle bed column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sau, Madhusudan; Kumar, Pravesh; Kumar, Umesh; Acharya, Rajesh; Singh, Gursharan

    2009-01-01

    In chemical and petrochemical engineering applications, random and structured packing are used in process columns to enhance the heat and mass transfer between two phases. The packing used in such columns is meant to obtain a high specific interfacial area. It is of paramount importance for scale-up and design of trickle bed process columns, to understand and predict the complex multiphase fluid dynamics. In simplified terms, the phase holdup, solid packing distribution in terms of density and gas and liquid velocities among other important parameters need to be qualitatively and quantitatively understood. In the petrochemical industry, many processes are carried out using fixed bed reactors with concurrent upward and downward gas and liquid flows. In order to characterize the liquid and gas flow distribution through a mock-up column, data on planar and volume density distribution using computed tomographic measurements are very helpful. The paper describes the development efforts of a multi-detector 137 Cs radioisotope based in-situ tomography scanner suitable for 600mm dia. cold trickle bed reactor. The development work is at present in progress. The schematics and development of the scanner gantry is described in this paper. (author)

  9. Half-lives for proton emission, alpha decay, cluster radioactivity, and cold fission processes calculated in a unified theoretical framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, S.B.; Tavares, O.A.P.; Guzman, F.; Dimarco, A. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Garcia, F. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilheus, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas; Rodriguez, O. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Instituto Superior de Ciencias e Tecnologia Nucleares, La Habana (Cuba); Goncalves, M. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2002-01-01

    Half-life values of spontaneous nuclear decay processes are presented in the framework of the Effective Liquid Drop Model (ELDM) using the combination of varying mass asymmetry shape description for the mass transfer with Werner-Wheeler's inertia coefficient V{sub MAS}/WW. The calculated half-lives of ground-state to ground-state transitions for the proton emission, alpha decay, cluster radioactivity, and cold fission processes are compared with experimental data. Results have shown that the ELDM is a very efficient model to describe these different decay processes in a same, unified theoretical framework. A Table listing the predicted half-life values, {tau}{sub c} is presented for all possible cases of spontaneous nuclear break-up such that -7.30 <{approx_equal} log{sub 10} {tau}{sub c} [S] <{approx_equal} 27.50 and log {sub 10}({tau}/{tau}{sub c}) > -17.0, where {tau} is the total half-life of the parent nucleus. (author)

  10. Longitudinal study on the sources of Listeria monocytogenes contamination in cold-smoked salmon and its processing environment in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Ciccio, Pierluigi; Meloni, Domenico; Festino, Anna Rita; Conter, Mauro; Zanardi, Emanuela; Ghidini, Sergio; Vergara, Alberto; Mazzette, Rina; Ianieri, Adriana

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the sources of Listeria monocytogenes contamination in a cold smoked salmon processing environment over a period of six years (2003-2008). A total of 170 samples of raw material, semi-processed, final product and processing surfaces at different production stages were tested for the presence of L. monocytogenes. The L. monocytogenes isolates were characterized by multiplex PCR for the analysis of virulence factors and for serogrouping. The routes of contamination over the six year period were traced by PFGE. L. monocytogenes was isolated from 24% of the raw salmon samples, 14% of the semi-processed products and 12% of the final products. Among the environmental samples, 16% were positive for L. monocytogenes. Serotyping yielded three serovars: 1/2a, 1/2b, 4b, with the majority belonging to serovars 1/2a (46%) and 1/2b (39%). PFGE yielded 14 profiles: two of them were repeatedly isolated in 2005-2006 and in 2007-2008 mainly from the processing environment and final products but also from raw materials. The results of this longitudinal study highlighted that contamination of smoked salmon occurs mainly during processing rather than originating from raw materials, even if raw fish can be a contamination source of the working environment. Molecular subtyping is critical for the identification of the contamination routes of L. monocytogenes and its niches into the production plant when control strategies must be implemented with the aim to reduce its prevalence during manufacturing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Experimental Testing of Innovative Cold-Formed "GEB" Section / Badania Eksperymentalne Innowacyjnego Kształtownika Giętego Na Zimno Typu "Geb"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukowicz, Agnieszka; Urbańska-Galewska, Elżbieta; Gordziej-Zagórowska, Małgorzata

    2015-03-01

    One of the major advantages of light gauge steel structures made of cold-formed steel sections is their low weight so the production of typical single-storey steel structures of this kind of profiles is still rising. The well known profiles, e.o. Z-sections, C-sections and the so called hat-sections studied and described in the literature, are used mainly as purlins or truss components. A new profile GEB was patented for the use for primary load-bearing member in fabricated steel frames. According to the code [1] every novel cross section should be tested to assign the deformation shape and bearing capacity. The paper deals with the numerical and experimental research of bearing capacity of cold formed GEB profiles. The deformation shape and limit load was obtained from bending tests. The GEB cross section bearing capacity was also determined according to codes [1, 2]. Jedną z najważniejszych zalet lekkich konstrukcji metalowych, wytwarzanych z kształtowników giętych na zimno, jest ich mała masa, dlatego też, producenci coraz częściej wykorzystują możliwości profili giętych do wytwarzania typowych konstrukcji halowych w budownictwie systemowym. Proces gięcia na zimno, pozwala na formowanie różnego rodzaju przekrojów poprzecznych, które mogą być wykorzystywane jako elementy konstrukcji. Typowe kształty elementów. tzn. Z, C oraz tzw. przekroje kapeluszowe, które zostały przebadane i opisane w literaturze, wykorzystuje się głównie jako płatwie lub części składowe wiązarów kratowych. Nowo opatentowany przekrój typu GEB ma być wykorzystany jako element nośny konstrukcji ramowych. W związku z tym innowacyjny kształt oraz parametry geometryczne przekroju takiego kształtownika, związane z możliwością jego wyprodukowania oraz z warunkami nośności, stateczności oraz sztywności, muszą być optymalne. Według normy PN-EN 1993-1-3, każdy nowo uformowany przekrój powinien być przebadany pod kątem nośności elementu i formy

  12. Integration of adaptive process control with computational simulation for spin-forming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raboin, P. J. LLNL

    1998-01-01

    Improvements in spin-forming capabilities through upgrades to a metrology and machine control system and advances in numerical simulation techniques were studied in a two year project funded by Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Numerical analyses were benchmarked with spin-forming experiments and computational speeds increased sufficiently to now permit actual part forming simulations. Extensive modeling activities examined the simulation speeds and capabilities of several metal forming computer codes for modeling flat plate and cylindrical spin-forming geometries. Shape memory research created the first numerical model to describe this highly unusual deformation behavior in Uranium alloys. A spin-forming metrology assessment led to sensor and data acquisition improvements that will facilitate future process accuracy enhancements, such as a metrology frame. Finally, software improvements (SmartCAM) to the manufacturing process numerically integrate the part models to the spin-forming process and to computational simulations

  13. Influence of a cold deformation process by drawing on the electrical properties of copper wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael da Silva Bernardo

    Full Text Available Abstract This article presents a study of the drawing, deformation, hardening and heat treatment of copper wire, in order to investigate the influence of combinations of operating variables (annealing factor, oil emulsion temperature and machine speed during the drawing process on the electrical conductivity of copper wires. The results showed that when the metal is deformed, the value of electrical conductivity suffers a decrease due to the hardening phenomenon. Because of this, it is necessary to heat treat the material. So, it was observed that the annealing factor, which is associated with the thermal treatment temperature, showed a high degree of correlation with the electrical conductivity. This fact is explained by the annealing factor which is responsible for the intensity of the heat treatment. The speed at which the drawing occurs also showed a direct correlation with electric conductivity because the higher the value, the greater the heat treatment temperature and consequently, the greater the electrical conductivity of the material. On the other hand, it had not been possible to establish a conclusion about the correlation between the electrical conductivity and oil emulsion temperature during the drawing process.

  14. Design and construction of a prototype for the continuous extraction of Sacha Inchi seed oil with a cold pressing process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Ramiro Gutiérrez Suquillo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the design of an oil extractor from the Sacha Inchi seed with an extruder screw mechanism allows a maximum yield of 34% through a continuous cold extraction process at working temperatures below 45 ° C. The temperature is a critical parameter because when it exceeds 50 ° C, the oil decreases its nutritional value by the loss of its most important properties such as: Omega 3 (48%, Omega 6 (36%, Omega 9 (8%, digestibility (96%, vitamin A and E. The methodology used for the development of the work was the concurrent and simultaneous design according to the recommendations of National Instruments. The prototype consists of the extruder screw, pressure chamber, feed chamber, sieve and filter. The advantage of modular design is the flexibility it offers, so that when changing certain components it is possible to use the prototype to extract oil of different types and sizes of seeds. The products obtained from this mechanism are: 33.34% of oil and the solid residue known as Cake in 66.66% which has many applications in the field of human food and pets. Due to the processing of a food product, the requirements of ISO 22005 were applied for the design and implementation of the prototype.

  15. Newly-formed emotional memories guide selective attention processes: Evidence from event-related potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Harald T. Schupp; Ursula Kirmse; Ralf Schmälzle; Tobias Flaisch; Britta Renner

    2016-01-01

    Emotional cues can guide selective attention processes. However, emotional stimuli can both activate long-term memory representations reflecting general world knowledge and engage newly formed memory representations representing specific knowledge from the immediate past. Here, the self-completion feature of associative memory was utilized to assess the regulation of attention processes by newly-formed emotional memory. First, new memory representations were formed by presenting pictures depi...

  16. Effect of Various Heat Treatment Processes on Fatigue Behavior of Tool Steel for Cold Forging Die

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, S. U.; Kim, S. S.; Lee, Y. S.; Kwon, Y. N.; Lee, J. H.

    Effects of various heat treatment processes, including "Q/T (quenching and tempering)", "Q/CT/T (Quenching, cryogenic treatment and tempering)", "Q/T (quenching and tempering) + Ti-nitriding" and "Q/CT/T (Cryogenic treatment and tempering) + Ti-nitriding", on S-N fatigue behavior of AISI D2 tool steel were investigated. The optical micrographs and Vicker's hardness values at near surface and core area were examined for each specimen. Uniaxial fatigue tests were performed by using an electro-magnetic resonance fatigue testing machine at a frequency of 80 Hz and an R ratio of -1. The overall resistance to fatigue tends to decrease significantly with Ti-nitriding treatment compared to those for the general Q/T and Q/CT/T specimens. The reduced resistance to fatigue with Ti-nitriding is discussed based on the microstructural and fractographic analyses.

  17. Cold and semi-hot tests of 4-group partitioning process at NUCEF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, Yasuji; Yamaguchi, Isoo; Fujiwara, Takeshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Mizoguchi, Kenichi [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kubota, Masumitsu [Research Organization for Information Science and Technology, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-06-01

    The 4-Group Partitioning Process was tested in the Partitioning Test Facility installed in a hot cell at NUCEF (Nuclear Fuel Cycle Safety Engineering Research Facility) using simulated high-level liquid waste (HLLW) or the simulated HLLW added with a small amount of real HLLW and Tc. Behavior of each element was examined in a series of the following separation steps: pretreatment for HLLW to prepare the feed solution to extraction step, extraction with diisodecylphosphoric acid for the separation of transuranium elements, precipitation by denitration and adsorption step with active carbon for the separation of Tc and platinum group metals, and adsorption with inorganic ion exchangers for the separation of Sr and Cs. It was confined that each element behaved as expected. More than 99.99% of Am were extracted with DIDPA and 99.92% of Am were back-extracted with 4 M nitric acid. In the precipitation step by denitration, ratio of Tc precipitated was 96.2%. The present tests confined the expected performance of each equipment in the Partitioning Test Facility for the separation of elements and gave useful data for the comparison of element behavior with a result of a partitioning test using real HLLW. (author)

  18. Data-based control of a multi-step forming process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, R.; Frey, P.; Hildenbrand, P.; Vogel, M.; Betz, C.; Lechner, M.; Merklein, M.

    2017-09-01

    The fourth industrial revolution represents a new stage in the organization and management of the entire value chain. However, concerning the field of forming technology, the fourth industrial revolution has only arrived gradually until now. In order to make a valuable contribution to the digital factory the controlling of a multistage forming process was investigated. Within the framework of the investigation, an abstracted and transferable model is used to outline which data have to be collected, how an interface between the different forming machines can be designed tangible and which control tasks must be fulfilled. The goal of this investigation was to control the subsequent process step based on the data recorded in the first step. The investigated process chain links various metal forming processes, which are typical elements of a multi-step forming process. Data recorded in the first step of the process chain is analyzed and processed for an improved process control of the subsequent process. On the basis of the gained scientific knowledge, it is possible to make forming operations more robust and at the same time more flexible, and thus create the fundament for linking various production processes in an efficient way.

  19. The reduction of irregularities in the use of “process fmea”: a study for a cold stamping process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Estorilio

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA is a requirement for ISO/TS 16949. However, researches show nonconformities in its use by automotive suppliers. The objective of this study is to identify these nonconformities, aiming to suggest methods for minimizing this problem. Therefore, questionnaires were applied in seven automotive suppliers and, for each one, ten FMEA`s were analysed. The research identified nonconformities in the use of FMEA for the stamping process and highlighted seven influencing factors. Based on this data, a strategy is suggested. A partially parameterised FMEA spreadsheet is suggested and tested in three suppliers, showing significant improvements.

  20. Investigating physical properties of solid dosage forms during pharmaceutical processing : Process analytical applications of vibrational spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Römer, Meike

    2008-01-01

    In order to improve and continuously develop the quality of pharmaceutical products, the process analytical technology (PAT) framework has been adopted by the US Food and Drug Administration. One of the aims of PAT is to identify critical process parameters and their effect on the quality of the final product. Real time analysis of the process data enables better control of the processes to obtain a high quality product. The main purpose of this work was to monitor crucial pharmaceutical...

  1. Process Development And Simulation For Cold Fabrication Of Doubly Curved Metal Plate By Using Line Array Roll Set

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, D. S.; Jung, C. G.; Seong, D. Y.; Yang, D. Y.; Han, J. M.; Han, M. S.

    2007-01-01

    For effective manufacturing of a doubly curved sheet metal, a novel sheet metal forming process is proposed. The suggested process uses a Line Array Roll Set (LARS) composed of a pair of upper and lower roll assemblies in a symmetric manner. The process offers flexibility as compared with the conventional manufacturing processes, because it does not require any complex-shaped die and loss of material by blank-holding is minimized. LARS allows flexibility of the incremental forming process and adopts the principle of bending deformation, resulting in a slight deformation in thickness. Rolls composed of line array roll sets are divided into a driving roll row and two idle roll rows. The arrayed rolls in the central lines of the upper and lower roll assemblies are motor-driven so that they deform and transfer the sheet metal using friction between the rolls and the sheet metal. The remaining rolls are idle rolls, generating bending deformation with driving rolls. Furthermore, all the rolls are movable in any direction so that they are adaptable to any size or shape of the desired three-dimensional configuration. In the process, the sheet is deformed incrementally as deformation proceeds simultaneously in rolling and transverse directions step by step. Consequently, it can be applied to the fabrication of doubly curved ship hull plates by undergoing several passes. In this work, FEM simulations are carried out for verification of the proposed incremental forming system using the chosen design parameters. Based on the results of the simulation, the relationship between the roll set configuration and the curvature of a sheet metal is determined. The process information such as the forming loads and torques acting on every roll is analyzed as important data for the design and development of the manufacturing system

  2. Influence of Filler Alloy Composition and Process Parameters on the Intermetallic Layer Thickness in Single-Sided Cold Metal Transfer Welding of Aluminum-Steel Blanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvayeh, Zahra; Vallant, Rudolf; Sommitsch, Christof; Götzinger, Bruno; Karner, Werner; Hartmann, Matthias

    2017-11-01

    Hybrid components made of aluminum alloys and high-strength steels are typically used in automotive lightweight applications. Dissimilar joining of these materials is quite challenging; however, it is mandatory in order to produce multimaterial car body structures. Since especially welding of tailored blanks is of utmost interest, single-sided Cold Metal Transfer butt welding of thin sheets of aluminum alloy EN AW 6014 T4 and galvanized dual-phase steel HCT 450 X + ZE 75/75 was experimentally investigated in this study. The influence of different filler alloy compositions and welding process parameters on the thickness of the intermetallic layer, which forms between the weld seam and the steel sheet, was studied. The microstructures of the weld seam and of the intermetallic layer were characterized using conventional optical light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results reveal that increasing the heat input and decreasing the cooling intensity tend to increase the layer thickness. The silicon content of the filler alloy has the strongest influence on the thickness of the intermetallic layer, whereas the magnesium and scandium contents of the filler alloy influence the cracking tendency. The layer thickness is not uniform and shows spatial variations along the bonding interface. The thinnest intermetallic layer (mean thickness < 4 µm) is obtained using the silicon-rich filler Al-3Si-1Mn, but the layer is more than twice as thick when different low-silicon fillers are used.

  3. Effects of Forming Process on Composite mode I Interlaminar Fracture Toughness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Xingyi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to compare and analyse the effect of two different kinds of forming process on composite mode I interlaminar fracture toughness, the DCB specimens were tested by using hypothesis inspeetion method.A finite element model was also used to simulate the crack propagation process.The results demonstrate that the average of mode I interlaminar fracture toughness from silicon rubber flexible mold forming is a bit higher than that from metal rigid mold forming.Howevers the variance of mode I interlaminar fracture toughness from the two groups shows no significant difference.The crack propagation process of the two forming process is similar. The established finite element model, which is identical to the test results, can predict the process of the crack expansion effectively.

  4. Interactions between motion and form processing in the human visual system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, George; Pavan, Andrea; Bellacosa Marotti, Rosilari; Campana, Gianluca; Casco, Clara

    2013-01-01

    The predominant view of motion and form processing in the human visual system assumes that these two attributes are handled by separate and independent modules. Motion processing involves filtering by direction-selective sensors, followed by integration to solve the aperture problem. Form processing involves filtering by orientation-selective and size-selective receptive fields, followed by integration to encode object shape. It has long been known that motion signals can influence form processing in the well-known Gestalt principle of common fate; texture elements which share a common motion property are grouped into a single contour or texture region. However, recent research in psychophysics and neuroscience indicates that the influence of form signals on motion processing is more extensive than previously thought. First, the salience and apparent direction of moving lines depends on how the local orientation and direction of motion combine to match the receptive field properties of motion-selective neurons. Second, orientation signals generated by "motion-streaks" influence motion processing; motion sensitivity, apparent direction and adaptation are affected by simultaneously present orientation signals. Third, form signals generated by human body shape influence biological motion processing, as revealed by studies using point-light motion stimuli. Thus, form-motion integration seems to occur at several different levels of cortical processing, from V1 to STS.

  5. Interactions between motion and form processing in the human visual system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George eMather

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The predominant view of motion and form processing in the human visual system assumes that these two attributes are handled by separate and independent modules. Motion processing involves filtering by direction-selective sensors, followed by integration to solve the aperture problem. Form processing involves filtering by orientation-selective and size-selective receptive fields, followed by integration to encode object shape. It has long been known that motion signals can influence form processing in the well-known Gestalt principle of common fate; texture elements which share a common motion property are grouped into a single contour or texture region. However recent research in psychophysics and neuroscience indicates that the influence of form signals on motion processing is more extensive than previously thought. First, the salience and apparent direction of moving lines depends on how the local orientation and direction of motion combine to match the receptive field properties of motion-selective neurons. Second, orientation signals generated by ‘motion-streaks’ influence motion processing; motion sensitivity, apparent direction and adaptation are affected by simultaneously present orientation signals. Third, form signals generated by human body shape influence biological motion processing, as revealed by studies using point-light motion stimuli. Thus form-motion integration seems to occur at several different levels of cortical processing, from V1 to STS.

  6. Cold spray nozzle design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Jeffrey D [Stuart, FL; Sanders, Stuart A [Palm Beach Gardens, FL

    2009-06-09

    A nozzle for use in a cold spray technique is described. The nozzle has a passageway for spraying a powder material, the passageway having a converging section and a diverging section, and at least the diverging section being formed from polybenzimidazole. In one embodiment of the nozzle, the converging section is also formed from polybenzimidazole.

  7. Cold injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, R J

    1995-01-01

    There are two categories of cold injury. The first is hypothermia, which is a systemic injury to cold, and the second is frostbite, which is a local injury. Throughout history, entire armies, from George Washington to the Germans on the Russian Front in World War II, have fallen prey to prolonged cold exposure. Cold injury is common and can occur in all seasons if ambient temperature is lower than the core body temperature. In the 1985 Boston Marathon, even though it was 76 degrees and sunny, there were 75 runners treated for hypothermia. In general, humans adapt poorly to cold exposure. Children are at particular risk because of their relatively greater surface area/body mass ratio, causing them to cool even more rapidly than adults. Because of this, the human's best defense against cold injury is to limit his/her exposure to cold and to dress appropriately. If cold injury has occurred and is mild, often simple passive rewarming such as dry blankets and a warm room are sufficient treatment.

  8. Alternatives for high-level waste forms, containers, and container processing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, T.W.

    1995-01-01

    This study evaluates alternatives for high-level waste forms, containers, container processing systems, and onsite interim storage. Glass waste forms considered are cullet, marbles, gems, and monolithic glass. Small and large containers configured with several combinations of overpack confinement and shield casks are evaluated for these waste forms. Onsite interim storage concepts including canister storage building, bore holes, and storage pad were configured with various glass forms and canister alternatives. All favorable options include the monolithic glass production process as the waste form. Of the favorable options the unshielded 4- and 7-canister overpack options have the greatest technical assurance associated with their design concepts due to their process packaging and storage methods. These canisters are 0.68 m and 0.54 m in diameter respectively and 4.57 m tall. Life-cycle costs are not a discriminating factor in most cases, varying typically less than 15 percent

  9. Experimental Study on Ice Forming Process of Cryogenic Liquid Releasing underwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Wu, Wanqing; Zhang, Xingdong; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Chuanlin; Zhang, Haoran; Wang, Peng

    2017-11-01

    Cryogenic liquid releasing into water would be a process combines hyperactive boiling with ice forming. There are still few researches on the experimental study on the environmental conditions for deciding ice forming speed and liquid surviving state. In this paper, to advance our understanding of ice forming deciding factors in the process of LN2 releasing underwater, a visualization experimental system is built. The results show that the pressure difference significantly influences the ice forming speed and liquid surviving distance, which is observed by the experiment and theoretically analysed by Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. Adding nucleating agent is helpful to provide ice nucleus which can accelerate the ice forming speed. Water flowing has some effect on changing pressure difference, which can affect the ice forming speed and liquid surviving distance.

  10. Human whole body cold adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daanen, Hein A M; Van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D

    2016-01-01

    Reviews on whole body human cold adaptation generally do not distinguish between population studies and dedicated acclimation studies, leading to confusing results. Population studies show that indigenous black Africans have reduced shivering thermogenesis in the cold and poor cold induced vasodilation in fingers and toes compared to Caucasians and Inuit. About 40,000 y after humans left Africa, natives in cold terrestrial areas seems to have developed not only behavioral adaptations, but also physiological adaptations to cold. Dedicated studies show that repeated whole body exposure of individual volunteers, mainly Caucasians, to severe cold results in reduced cold sensation but no major physiological changes. Repeated cold water immersion seems to slightly reduce metabolic heat production, while repeated exposure to milder cold conditions shows some increase in metabolic heat production, in particular non-shivering thermogenesis. In conclusion, human cold adaptation in the form of increased metabolism and insulation seems to have occurred during recent evolution in populations, but cannot be developed during a lifetime in cold conditions as encountered in temperate and arctic regions. Therefore, we mainly depend on our behavioral skills to live in and survive the cold.

  11. Hot granules medium pressure forming process of AA7075 conical parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Guojiang; Zhao, Changcai; Peng, Yaxin; Li, Ying

    2015-05-01

    High strength aluminum alloy plate has a low elongation at room temperature, which leads to the forming of its components need a high temperature. Liquid or gas is used as the pressure-transfer medium in the existing flexible mould forming process, the heat resistance of the medium and pressurizing device makes the application of aluminum alloy plate thermoforming restricted. To solve this problem, the existing medium is replaced by the heat-resisting solid granules and the general pressure equipments are applied. Based on the pressure-transfer performance test of the solid granules medium, the feasibility that the assumption of the extended Drucker-Prager linear model can be used in the finite element analysis is proved. The constitutive equation, the yield function and the theoretical forming limit diagram(FLD) of AA7075 sheet are established. Through the finite element numerical simulation of hot granules medium pressure forming(HGMF) process, not only the influence laws of the process parameters, such as forming temperature, the blank-holder gap and the diameter of the slab, on sheet metal forming performance are discussed, but also the broken area of the forming process is analyzed and predicted, which are coincided with the technological test. The conical part whose half cone angle is 15° and relative height H/d 0 is 0.57, is formed in one process at 250°C. The HGMF process solves the problems of loading and seal in the existing flexible mould forming process and provides a novel technology for thermoforming of light alloy plate, such as magnesium alloy, aluminium alloy and titanium alloy.

  12. A numerical approach to robust in-line control of roll forming processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiebenga, J.H.; Weiss, M.; Rolfe, B.; van den Boogaard, A.H.

    2012-01-01

    The quality of roll formed products is known to be highly sensitive and dependent on the process parameters and thus the unavoidable variations of these parameters during mass production. To maintain a constant high product quality, a new roll former with an adjustable final roll forming stand is

  13. Assessment of processes, facilities, and costs for alternative solid forms for immobilization of SRP defense waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunson, J.B. Jr.; Eisenberg, A.M.; Schuyler, R.L. III; Haight, H.G. Jr.; Mello, V.E.; Gould, T.H. Jr.; Butler, J.L.; Pickett, J.B.

    1982-03-01

    A quantitative merit evaluation which assesses the relative difficulty of remote processing of Savannah River Plant high-level wastes for seven alternative waste forms is presented. The reference borosilicate glass process is rated as the simplest, followed by FUETAP concrete. The other processes evaluated in order of increasing complexity were: glass marbles in a lead matrix, high-silica glass, crystalline ceramic (Synroc-D and tailored ceramic), and coated ceramic particles. Cost appraisals are summarized for the borosilicate glass, high-silica glass, and ceramic waste form processing facilities

  14. The explicit form of the rate function for semi-Markov processes and its contractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sughiyama, Yuki; Kobayashi, Testuya J.

    2018-03-01

    We derive the explicit form of the rate function for semi-Markov processes. Here, the ‘random time change trick’ plays an essential role. Also, by exploiting the contraction principle of large deviation theory to the explicit form, we show that the fluctuation theorem (Gallavotti-Cohen symmetry) holds for semi-Markov cases. Furthermore, we elucidate that our rate function is an extension of the level 2.5 rate function for Markov processes to semi-Markov cases.

  15. Process for forming epitaxial perovskite thin film layers using halide precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clem, Paul G.; Rodriguez, Mark A.; Voigt, James A.; Ashley, Carol S.

    2001-01-01

    A process for forming an epitaxial perovskite-phase thin film on a substrate. This thin film can act as a buffer layer between a Ni substrate and a YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-x superconductor layer. The process utilizes alkali or alkaline metal acetates dissolved in halogenated organic acid along with titanium isopropoxide to dip or spin-coat the substrate which is then heated to about 700.degree. C. in an inert gas atmosphere to form the epitaxial film on the substrate. The YBCO superconductor can then be deposited on the layer formed by this invention.

  16. Modeling of optimization strategies in the incremental CNC sheet metal forming process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bambach, M.; Hirt, G.; Ames, J.

    2004-01-01

    Incremental CNC sheet forming (ISF) is a relatively new sheet metal forming process for small batch production and prototyping. In ISF, a blank is shaped by the CNC movements of a simple tool in combination with a simplified die. The standard forming strategies in ISF entail two major drawbacks: (i) the inherent forming kinematics set limits on the maximum wall angle that can be formed with ISF. (ii) since elastic parts of the imposed deformation can currently not be accounted for in CNC code generation, the standard strategies can lead to undesired deviations between the target and the sample geometry.Several enhancements have recently been put forward to overcome the above limitations, among them a multistage forming strategy to manufacture steep flanges, and a correction algorithm to improve the geometric accuracy. Both strategies have been successful in improving the forming of simple parts. However, the high experimental effort to empirically optimize the tool paths motivates the use of process modeling techniques.This paper deals with finite element modeling of the ISF process. In particular, the outcome of different multistage strategies is modeled and compared to collated experimental results regarding aspects such as sheet thickness and the onset of wrinkling. Moreover, the feasibility of modeling the geometry of a part is investigated as this is of major importance with respect to optimizing the geometric accuracy. Experimental validation is achieved by optical deformation measurement that gives the local displacements and strains of the sheet during forming as benchmark quantities for the simulation

  17. Progress on matrix SiC processing and properties for fully ceramic microencapsulated fuel form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrani, K.A.; Kiggans, J.O.; Silva, C.M.; Shih, C.; Katoh, Y.; Snead, L.L.

    2015-01-01

    The consolidation mechanism and resulting properties of the silicon carbide (SiC) matrix of fully ceramic microencapsulated (FCM) fuel form are discussed. The matrix is produced via the nano-infiltration transient eutectic-forming (NITE) process. Coefficient of thermal expansion, thermal conductivity, and strength characteristics of this SiC matrix have been characterized in the unirradiated state. An ad hoc methodology for estimation of thermal conductivity of the neutron-irradiated NITE–SiC matrix is also provided to aid fuel performance modeling efforts specific to this concept. Finally, specific processing methods developed for production of an optimal and reliable fuel form using this process are summarized. These various sections collectively report the progress made to date on production of optimal FCM fuel form to enable its application in light water and advanced reactors

  18. Form cues and content difficulty as determinants of children's cognitive processing of televised educational messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, T A; Wright, J C; Huston, A C

    1987-06-01

    An experiment was designed to assess the effects of formal production features and content difficulty on children's processing of televised messages about nutrition. Messages with identical content (the same script and visual shot sequence) were made in two forms: child program forms (animated film, second-person address, and character voice narration with sprightly music) and adult program forms (live photography, third-person address, and adult male narration with sedate background music). For each form, messages were made at three levels of content difficulty. Easier versions were longer, more redundant, and used simpler language; difficult versions presented information more quickly with less redundancy and more abstract language. Regardless of form or difficulty level, each set of bits presented the same basic information. Kindergarten children (N = 120) were assigned to view three different bits of the same form type and difficulty embedded in a miniprogram. Visual attention to child forms was significantly greater than to adult forms; free and cued recall scores were also higher for child than for adult forms. Although all recall and recognition scores were best for easy versions and worst for difficult versions, attention showed only minor variation as a function of content difficulty. Results are interpreted to indicate that formal production features, independently of content, influence the effort and level of processing that children use to understand televised educational messages.

  19. /sup 238/Pu fuel form processes quarterly report, April-June 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folger, R. L.

    1980-06-01

    Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) completed the development of a production process to fabricate /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ fuel forms for the GPHS. The fabrication flowsheet was based on a flowsheet originally developed at Los Alamos National Scientific Laboratory (LANSL). A summary report of the SRL process development effort is presented.

  20. High energy density processing of a free form nickel-alumina nanocomposite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viswanathan, V; Agarwal, A; Ocelik, V; De Hosson, J T M; Sobczak, N; Seal, S

    The development of a free form bulk Nickel reinforced Alumina matrix nano composites using Air Plasma Spray and laser processing has been presented. The process consumes less time and requires further minimal machining and therefore is cost effective. The relative differences in using APS over laser

  1. Investigation of the deformation stability in the incremental sheet forming process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Incremental sheet forming (ISF is a highly versatile and flexible process for rapid manufacturing of complex sheet metal parts. One of the unique characters of the ISF process is the improved formability comparing to conventional sheet forming process. This may be due to the localized deformation nature, which increases the deformation stability in the ISF process. Although many hypotheses have been proposed, there is no direct modelling and calculation of the ISF deformation stability. Aiming to obtain a better understanding of the ISF process, an analytical model was developed to investigate and analyse the material deformation stability in this work. Based on the analytical evaluation of stress variations and force equilibrium, a mathematical relationship between the maximum forming angle and the process stability condition was established. To validate the developed model, experiments were carried out by forming a hyperbolic part made of AA1100 material. The maximum forming angle, as an indicator to the ISF formability, was employed compare the analytical evaluation and experimental result. It was found that the ISF deformation stability is one of the key factors that affect the ISF formability.

  2. Formability behavior studies on CP-Al sheets processed through the helical tool path of incremental forming process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markanday, H.; Nagarajan, D.

    2018-02-01

    Incremental sheet forming (ISF) is a novel die-less sheet metal forming process, which can produce components directly from the CAD geometry using a CNC milling machine at less production time and cost. The formability of the sheet material used is greatly affected by the process parameters involved and tool path adopted, and the present study is aimed to investigate the influence of different process parameter values using the helical tool path strategy on the formability of a commercial pure Al and to achieve maximum formability in the material. ISF experiments for producing an 80 mm diameter axisymmetric dome were carried out on 2 mm thickness commercially pure Al sheets for different tool speeds and feed rates in a CNC milling machine with a 10 mm hemispherical forming tool. The obtained parts were analyzed for springback, amount of thinning and maximum forming depth. The results showed that when the tool speed was increased by keeping the feed rate constant, the forming depth and thinning were also increased. On contrary, when the feed rate was increased by keeping the tool speed constant, the forming depth and thinning were decreased. Springback was found to be higher when the feed rate was increased rather than the tool speed was increased.

  3. Reliability Estimation of the Pultrusion Process Using the First-Order Reliability Method (FORM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baran, Ismet; Tutum, Cem Celal; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2013-01-01

    In the present study the reliability estimation of the pultrusion process of a flat plate is analyzed by using the first order reliability method (FORM). The implementation of the numerical process model is validated by comparing the deterministic temperature and cure degree profiles...... with corresponding analyses in the literature. The centerline degree of cure at the exit (CDOCE) being less than a critical value and the maximum composite temperature (Tmax) during the process being greater than a critical temperature are selected as the limit state functions (LSFs) for the FORM. The cumulative...

  4. Cold Sore

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may reduce how often they return. Symptoms A cold sore usually passes through several stages: Tingling and itching. Many people feel an itching, burning or tingling sensation around their lips for a day or so ...

  5. Comparison of plastic strains on AA5052 by single point incremental forming process using digital image processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mugendiran, V.; Gnanavelbabu, A. [Anna University, Chennai, Tamilnadu (India)

    2017-06-15

    In this study, a surface based strain measurement was used to determine the formability of the sheet metal. A strain measurement may employ manual calculation of plastic strains based on the reference circle and the deformed circle. The manual calculation method has a greater margin of error in the practical applications. In this paper, an attempt has been made to compare the formability by implementing three different theoretical approaches: Namely conventional method, least square method and digital based strain measurements. As the sheet metal was formed by a single point incremental process the etched circles get deformed into elliptical shapes approximately, image acquisition has been done before and after forming. The plastic strains of the deformed circle grids are calculated based on the non- deformed reference. The coordinates of the deformed circles are measured by various image processing steps. Finally the strains obtained from the deformed circle are used to plot the forming limit diagram. To evaluate the accuracy of the system, the conventional, least square and digital based method of prediction of the forming limit diagram was compared. Conventional method and least square method have marginal error when compared with digital based processing method. Measurement of strain based on image processing agrees well and can be used to improve the accuracy and to reduce the measurement error in prediction of forming limit diagram.

  6. Comparison of plastic strains on AA5052 by single point incremental forming process using digital image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mugendiran, V.; Gnanavelbabu, A.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a surface based strain measurement was used to determine the formability of the sheet metal. A strain measurement may employ manual calculation of plastic strains based on the reference circle and the deformed circle. The manual calculation method has a greater margin of error in the practical applications. In this paper, an attempt has been made to compare the formability by implementing three different theoretical approaches: Namely conventional method, least square method and digital based strain measurements. As the sheet metal was formed by a single point incremental process the etched circles get deformed into elliptical shapes approximately, image acquisition has been done before and after forming. The plastic strains of the deformed circle grids are calculated based on the non- deformed reference. The coordinates of the deformed circles are measured by various image processing steps. Finally the strains obtained from the deformed circle are used to plot the forming limit diagram. To evaluate the accuracy of the system, the conventional, least square and digital based method of prediction of the forming limit diagram was compared. Conventional method and least square method have marginal error when compared with digital based processing method. Measurement of strain based on image processing agrees well and can be used to improve the accuracy and to reduce the measurement error in prediction of forming limit diagram.

  7. A slow atomic diffusion process in high-entropy glass-forming metallic melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Changjiu; Wong, Kaikin; Krishnan, Rithin P.; Embs, Jan P.; Chathoth, Suresh M.

    2018-04-01

    Quasi-elastic neutron scattering has been used to study atomic relaxation processes in high-entropy glass-forming metallic melts with different glass-forming ability (GFA). The momentum transfer dependence of mean relaxation time shows a highly collective atomic transport process in the alloy melts with the highest and lowest GFA. However, a jump diffusion process is the long-range atomic transport process in the intermediate GFA alloy melt. Nevertheless, atomic mobility close to the melting temperature of these alloy melts is quite similar, and the temperature dependence of the diffusion coefficient exhibits a non-Arrhenius behavior. The atomic mobility in these high-entropy melts is much slower than that of the best glass-forming melts at their respective melting temperatures.

  8. 3-D Modelling of Electromagnetic, Thermal, Mechanical and Metallurgical Couplings in Metal Forming Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chenot, Jean-Loup; Bay, Francois

    2007-01-01

    The different stages of metal forming processes often involve - beyond the mechanical deformations processes - other physical coupled problems, such as heat transfer, electromagnetism or metallurgy. The purpose of this paper is to focus on problems involving electromagnetic couplings. After a brief recall on electromagnetic modeling, we shall then focus on induction heating processes and present some results regarding heat transfer, as well as mechanical couplings. A case showing coupling for metallurgic microstructure evolution will conclude this paper

  9. Vitality Forms Processing in the Insula during Action Observation: A Multivoxel Pattern Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cesare, Giuseppe; Valente, Giancarlo; Di Dio, Cinzia; Ruffaldi, Emanuele; Bergamasco, Massimo; Goebel, Rainer; Rizzolatti, Giacomo

    2016-01-01

    Observing the style of an action done by others allows the observer to understand the cognitive state of the agent. This information has been defined by Stern "vitality forms". Previous experiments showed that the dorso-central insula is selectively active both during vitality form observation and execution. In the present study, we presented participants with videos showing hand actions performed with different velocities and asked them to judge either their vitality form (gentle, neutral, rude) or their velocity (slow, medium, fast). The aim of the present study was to assess, using multi-voxel pattern analysis, whether vitality forms and velocities of observed goal-directed actions are differentially processed in the insula, and more specifically whether action velocity is encoded per se or it is an element that triggers neural populations of the insula encoding the vitality form. The results showed that, consistently across subjects, in the dorso-central sector of the insula there were voxels selectively tuned to vitality forms, while voxel tuned to velocity were rare. These results indicate that the dorso-central insula, which previous data showed to be involved in the vitality form processing, contains voxels specific for the action style processing.

  10. Processing of spent pickling liquor formed during treatment of titanium products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykovsky, N. A.; Rahman, P. A.; Puchkova, L. N.; Fanakova, N. N.

    2017-10-01

    The article presents the research findings on processing of spent acid pickling liquor (SAPL) formed during etching of titanium products. The processing includes neutralizing the SAPL with alkali, filtering, drying and calcining the titanium hydroxide precipitate as well as electrochemical processing of the filtrate in an ion-exchange membrane cell. The proposed SAPL processing procedure allows obtaining titanium dioxide, sodium hydroxide and a mixture of acids. Titanium dioxide can be used in paint-and-varnish industry. The alkali can be used in neutralizing the SAPL. A mixture of acids is suitable for use in etching process of titanium products.

  11. Process for growing a film epitaxially upon an oxide surface and structures formed with the process

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Rodney A.; Walker, Frederick J.

    1995-01-01

    A process and structure wherein a film comprised of a perovskite or a spinel is built epitaxially upon a surface, such as an alkaline earth oxide surface, involves the epitaxial build up of alternating constituent metal oxide planes of the perovskite or spinel. The first layer of metal oxide built upon the surface includes a metal element which provides a small cation in the crystalline structure of the perovskite or spinel, and the second layer of metal oxide built upon the surface includes a metal element which provides a large cation in the crystalline structure of the perovskite or spinel. The layering sequence involved in the film build up reduces problems which would otherwise result from the interfacial electrostatics at the first atomic layers, and these oxides can be stabilized as commensurate thin films at a unit cell thickness or grown with high crystal quality to thicknesses of 0.5-0.7 .mu.m for optical device applications.

  12. Process for growing a film epitaxially upon a MGO surface and structures formed with the process

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Rodney Allen; Walker, Frederick Joseph

    1998-01-01

    A process and structure wherein optical quality perovskites, such as BaTiO.sub.3 or SrTiO.sub.3, are grown upon a single crystal MgO substrate involves the epitaxial build up of alternating planes of TiO.sub.2 and metal oxide wherein the first plane grown upon the MgO substrate is a plane of TiO.sub.2. The layering sequence involved in the film build up reduces problems which would otherwise result from the interfacial electrostatics at the first atomic layers, and these oxides can be stabilized as commensurate thin films at a unit cell thickness or grown with high crystal quality to thicknesses of 0.5-0.7 .mu.m for optical device applications.

  13. A summary of processes relevant for the particle balance of a cold plasma blanket contaminated with a small amount of helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potters, J.H.H.M.; Goedheer, W.J.

    1982-04-01

    A summary is given of the atomic processes which are relevant for the ionization balance and for the transport in a plasma consisting of hydrogen with a small admixture of helium. Attention is paid mainly to processes in plasmas with temperatures below 100 eV and electron densities between 3x10 13 and 3x10 14 cm -3 conditions which prevail in a so-called cold plasma blanket. The species considered are electrons, protons, hydrogen atoms (ground state and excited), α-particles, He + -ions (ground state and excited), and helium atoms (ground state and excited). The discussed processes are charge exchange, ionization, recombination, (de-) excitation, and elastic scattering

  14. FEASIBILITY EVALUATION AND RETROFIT PLAN FOR COLD CRUCIBLE INDUCTION MELTER DEPLOYMENT IN THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY AT SAVANNAH RIVER SITE 8118

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, A; Dan Iverson, D; Brannen Adkins, B

    2008-01-01

    Cold crucible induction melters (CCIM) have been proposed as an alternative technology for waste glass melting at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at Savannah River Site (SRS) as well as for other waste vitrification facilities. Proponents of this technology cite high temperature operation, high tolerance for noble metals and aluminum, high waste loading, high throughput capacity, and low equipment cost as the advantages over existing Joule Heated Melter (JHM) technology. The CCIM uses induction heating to maintain molten glass at high temperature. A water-cooled helical induction coil is connected to an AC current supply, typically operating at frequencies from 100 KHz to 5 MHz. The oscillating magnetic field generated by the oscillating current flow through the coil induces eddy currents in conductive materials within the coil. Those oscillating eddy currents, in turn, generate heat in the material. In the CCIM, the induction coil surrounds a 'Cold Crucible' which is formed by metal tubes, typically copper or stainless steel. The tubes are constructed such that the magnetic field does not couple with the crucible. Therefore, the field generated by the induction coil couples primarily with the conductive medium (hot glass) within. The crucible tubes are water cooled to maintain their temperature between 100 C to 200 C so that a protective layer of molten glass and/or batch material, referred to as a 'skull', forms between them and the hot, corrosive melt. Because the protective skull is the only material directly in contact with the molten glass, the CCIM doesn't have the temperature limitations of traditional refractory lined JHM. It can be operated at melt temperatures in excess of 2000 C, allowing processing of high waste loading batches and difficult-to-melt compounds. The CCIM is poured through a bottom drain, typically through a water-cooled slide valve that starts and stops the pour stream. To promote uniform temperature distribution and

  15. Vision-aided Monitoring and Control of Thermal Spray, Spray Forming, and Welding Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapakis, John E.; Bolstad, Jon

    1993-01-01

    Vision is one of the most powerful forms of non-contact sensing for monitoring and control of manufacturing processes. However, processes involving an arc plasma or flame such as welding or thermal spraying pose particularly challenging problems to conventional vision sensing and processing techniques. The arc or plasma is not typically limited to a single spectral region and thus cannot be easily filtered out optically. This paper presents an innovative vision sensing system that uses intense stroboscopic illumination to overpower the arc light and produce a video image that is free of arc light or glare and dedicated image processing and analysis schemes that can enhance the video images or extract features of interest and produce quantitative process measures which can be used for process monitoring and control. Results of two SBIR programs sponsored by NASA and DOE and focusing on the application of this innovative vision sensing and processing technology to thermal spraying and welding process monitoring and control are discussed.

  16. Analysis of residual stress state in sheet metal parts processed by single point incremental forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maaß, F.; Gies, S.; Dobecki, M.; Brömmelhoff, K.; Tekkaya, A. E.; Reimers, W.

    2018-05-01

    The mechanical properties of formed metal components are highly affected by the prevailing residual stress state. A selective induction of residual compressive stresses in the component, can improve the product properties such as the fatigue strength. By means of single point incremental forming (SPIF), the residual stress state can be influenced by adjusting the process parameters during the manufacturing process. To achieve a fundamental understanding of the residual stress formation caused by the SPIF process, a valid numerical process model is essential. Within the scope of this paper the significance of kinematic hardening effects on the determined residual stress state is presented based on numerical simulations. The effect of the unclamping step after the manufacturing process is also analyzed. An average deviation of the residual stress amplitudes in the clamped and unclamped condition of 18 % reveals, that the unclamping step needs to be considered to reach a high numerical prediction quality.

  17. Preliminary assessment of nine waste-form products/processes for immobilizing transuranic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crisler, L.R.

    1980-09-01

    Nine waste-form processes for reduction of the present and projected Transuranic (TRU) waste inventory to an immobilized product have been evaluated. Product formulations, selected properties, preparation methods, technology status, problem areas needing resolution and location of current research development being pursued in the United States are discussed for each process. No definitive utility ranking is attempted due to the early stage of product/process development for TRU waste containing products and the uncertainties in the state of current knowledge of TRU waste feed compositional and quantitative makeup. Of the nine waste form products/processes included in this discussion, bitumen and cements (encapsulation agents) demonstrate the degree of flexibility necessary to immobilize the wide composition range present in the TRU waste inventory. A demonstrated process called Slagging Pyrolysis Incineration converts a varied compositional feed (municipal wastes) to a ''basalt'' like product. This process/product appears to have potential for TRU waste immobilization. The remaining waste forms (borosilicate glass, high-silica glass, glass ceramics, ''SYNROC B'' and cermets) have potential for immobilizing a smaller fraction of the TRU waste inventory than the above discussed waste forms

  18. Effect of Bottoming on Material Property during Sheet Forming Process through Finite Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinlabi, Stephen A.; Fatoba, Olawale S.; Mashinini, Peter M.; Akinlabi, Esther T.

    2018-03-01

    Metal forming is one of the conventional manufacturing processes of immense relevance till date even though modern manufacturing processes have evolved over the years. It is a known fact that material tends to return or spring back to its original form during forming or bending. The phenomena have been well managed through its application in various manufacturing processes by compensating for the spring back through overbending and bottoming. Overbending is bending the material beyond the desired shape to allow the material to spring back to the expected shape. Bottoming, on the other hand, is a process of undergoing plastic deformation at the point of bending. This study reports on the finite element analysis of the effect of bottoming on the material property during the sheet forming process with the aim of optimising the process. The result of the analysis revealed that the generated plastic strains are in the order between 1.750e00-1 at the peak of the bending and 3.604e00-2, which was at the early stage of the bending.

  19. Influence of inductive heating on microstructure and material properties in roll forming processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guk, Anna; Kunke, Andreas; Kräusel, Verena; Landgrebe, Dirk

    2017-10-01

    The increasing demand for sheet metal parts and profiles with enhanced mechanical properties by using high and ultra-high-strength (UHS) steels for the automotive industry must be covered by increasing flexibility of tools and machines. This can be achieved by applying innovative technologies such as roll forming with integrated inductive heating. This process is similar to indirect press hardening and can be used for the production of hardened profiles and profiles with graded properties in longitudinal and traverse direction. The advantage is that the production of hardened components takes place in a continuous process and the integration of heating and quenching units in the profiling system increases flexibility, accompanied by shortening of the entire process chain and minimizing the springback risk. The features of the mentioned process consists of the combination of inhomogeneous strain distribution over the stripe width by roll forming and inhomogeneity of microstructure by accelerated inductive heating to austenitizing temperature. Therefore, these two features have a direct influence on the mechanical properties of the material during forming and hardening. The aim of this work is the investigation of the influence of heating rates on microstructure evolution and mechanical properties to determine the process window. The results showed that heating rate should be set at 110 K/s for economic integration of inductive heating into the roll forming process.

  20. The Blurred Line between Form and Process: A Comparison of Stream Channel Classification Frameworks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Kasprak

    Full Text Available Stream classification provides a means to understand the diversity and distribution of channels and floodplains that occur across a landscape while identifying links between geomorphic form and process. Accordingly, stream classification is frequently employed as a watershed planning, management, and restoration tool. At the same time, there has been intense debate and criticism of particular frameworks, on the grounds that these frameworks classify stream reaches based largely on their physical form, rather than direct measurements of their component hydrogeomorphic processes. Despite this debate surrounding stream classifications, and their ongoing use in watershed management, direct comparisons of channel classification frameworks are rare. Here we implement four stream classification frameworks and explore the degree to which each make inferences about hydrogeomorphic process from channel form within the Middle Fork John Day Basin, a watershed of high conservation interest within the Columbia River Basin, U.S.A. We compare the results of the River Styles Framework, Natural Channel Classification, Rosgen Classification System, and a channel form-based statistical classification at 33 field-monitored sites. We found that the four frameworks consistently classified reach types into similar groups based on each reach or segment's dominant hydrogeomorphic elements. Where classified channel types diverged, differences could be attributed to the (a spatial scale of input data used, (b the requisite metrics and their order in completing a framework's decision tree and/or, (c whether the framework attempts to classify current or historic channel form. Divergence in framework agreement was also observed at reaches where channel planform was decoupled from valley setting. Overall, the relative agreement between frameworks indicates that criticism of individual classifications for their use of form in grouping stream channels may be overstated. These

  1. Optimization of the single point incremental forming process for titanium sheets by using response surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saidi Badreddine

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The single point incremental forming process is well-known to be perfectly suited for prototyping and small series. One of its fields of applicability is the medicine area for the forming of titanium prostheses or titanium medical implants. However this process is not yet very industrialized, mainly due its geometrical inaccuracy, its not homogeneous thickness distribution& Moreover considerable forces can occur. They must be controlled in order to preserve the tooling. In this paper, a numerical approach is proposed in order to minimize the maximum force achieved during the incremental forming of titanium sheets and to maximize the minimal thickness. A surface response methodology is used to find the optimal values of two input parameters of the process, the punch diameter and the vertical step size of the tool path.

  2. Vitality Forms Processing in the Insula during Action Observation: A Multivoxel Pattern Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cesare, Giuseppe; Valente, Giancarlo; Di Dio, Cinzia; Ruffaldi, Emanuele; Bergamasco, Massimo; Goebel, Rainer; Rizzolatti, Giacomo

    2016-01-01

    Observing the style of an action done by others allows the observer to understand the cognitive state of the agent. This information has been defined by Stern “vitality forms”. Previous experiments showed that the dorso-central insula is selectively active both during vitality form observation and execution. In the present study, we presented participants with videos showing hand actions performed with different velocities and asked them to judge either their vitality form (gentle, neutral, rude) or their velocity (slow, medium, fast). The aim of the present study was to assess, using multi-voxel pattern analysis, whether vitality forms and velocities of observed goal-directed actions are differentially processed in the insula, and more specifically whether action velocity is encoded per se or it is an element that triggers neural populations of the insula encoding the vitality form. The results showed that, consistently across subjects, in the dorso-central sector of the insula there were voxels selectively tuned to vitality forms, while voxel tuned to velocity were rare. These results indicate that the dorso-central insula, which previous data showed to be involved in the vitality form processing, contains voxels specific for the action style processing. PMID:27375461

  3. Improving microbiological safety and quality characteristics of wheat and barley by high voltage atmospheric cold plasma closed processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Los, Agata; Ziuzina, Dana; Akkermans, Simen; Boehm, Daniela; Cullen, Patrick J; Van Impe, Jan; Bourke, Paula

    2018-04-01

    Contamination of cereal grains as a key global food resource with insects or microorganisms is a persistent concern for the grain industry due to irreversible damage to quality and safety characteristics and economic losses. Atmospheric cold plasma presents an alternative to conventional grain decontamination methods owing to the high antimicrobial potential of reactive species generated during the treatment, but effects against product specific microflora are required to understand how to optimally develop this approach for grains. This work investigated the influence of ACP processing parameters for both cereal grain decontamination and grain quality as important criteria for grain or seed use. A high voltage (HV) (80 kV) dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) closed system was used to assess the potential for control of native microflora and pathogenic bacterial and fungal challenge microorganisms, in tandem with effects on grain functional properties. Response surface modelling of experimental data probed the key factors in relation to microbial control and seed germination promotion. The maximal reductions of barley background microbiota were 2.4 and 2.1 log 10  CFU/g and of wheat - 1.5 and 2.5 log 10  CFU/g for bacteria and fungi, respectively, which required direct treatment for 20 min followed by a 24 h sealed post-treatment retention time. In the case of challenge organisms inoculated on barley grains, the highest resistance was observed for Bacillus atrophaeus endospores, which, regardless of retention time, were maximally reduced by 2.4 log 10  CFU/g after 20 min of direct treatment. The efficacy of the plasma treatment against selected microorganisms decreased in the following order: E. coli > P. verrucosum (spores) > B. atrophaeus (vegetative cells) > B. atrophaeus (endospores). The challenge microorganisms were more susceptible to ACP treatment than naturally present background microbiota. No major effect of short term

  4. Process and equipment qualification of the ceramic and metal waste forms for spent fuel treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsden, Ken; Knight, Collin; Bateman, Kenneth; Westphal, Brian; Lind, Paul

    2005-01-01

    The electrometallurgical process for treating sodium-bonded spent metallic fuel at the Materials and Fuels Complex of the Idaho National Laboratory separates actinides and partitions fission products into two waste forms. The first is the metal waste form, which is primarily composed of stainless steel from the fuel cladding. This stainless steel is alloyed with 15w% zirconium to produce a very corrosion-resistant metal which binds noble metal fission products and residual actinides. The second is the ceramic waste form which stabilizes fission product-loaded chloride salts in a sodalite and glass composite. These two waste forms will be packaged together for disposal at the Yucca Mountain repository. Two production-scale metal waste furnaces have been constructed. The first is in a large argon-atmosphere glovebox and has been used for equipment qualification, process development, and process qualification - the demonstration of process reliability for production of the DOE-qualified metal waste form. The second furnace will be transferred into a hot cell for production of metal waste. Prototype production-scale ceramic waste equipment has been constructed or procured; some equipment has been qualified with fission product-loaded salt in the hot cell. Qualification of the remaining equipment with surrogate materials is underway. (author)

  5. Process description and plant design for preparing ceramic high-level waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grantham, L.F.; McKisson, R.L.; Guon, J.; Flintoff, J.F.; McKenzie, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    The ceramics process flow diagram has been simplified and upgraded to utilize only two major processing steps - fluid-bed calcination and hot isostatic press consolidating. Full-scale fluid-bed calcination has been used at INEL to calcine high-level waste for 18 y; and a second-generation calciner, a fully remotely operated and maintained calciner that meets ALARA guidelines, started calcining high-level waste in 1982. Full-scale hot isostatic consolidation has been used by DOE and commercial enterprises to consolidate radioactive components and to encapsulate spent fuel elements for several years. With further development aimed at process integration and parametric optimization, the operating knowledge of full-scale demonstration of the key process steps should be rapidly adaptable to scale-up of the ceramic process to full plant size. Process flowsheets used to prepare ceramic and glass waste forms from defense and commercial high-level liquid waste are described. Preliminary layouts of process flow diagrams in a high-level processing canyon were prepared and used to estimate the preliminary cost of the plant to fabricate both waste forms. The estimated costs for using both options were compared for total waste management costs of SRP high-level liquid waste. Using our design, for both the ceramic and glass plant, capital and operating costs are essentially the same for both defense and commercial wastes, but total waste management costs are calculated to be significantly less for defense wastes using the ceramic option. It is concluded from this and other studies that the ceramic form may offer important advantages over glass in leach resistance, waste loading, density, and process flexibility. Preliminary economic calculations indicate that ceramics must be considered a leading candidate for the form to immobilize high-level wastes

  6. Biomedical Titanium alloy prostheses manufacturing by means of Superplastic and Incremental Forming processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piccininni Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work collects some results of the three-years Research Program “BioForming“, funded by the Italian Ministry of Education (MIUR and aimed to investigate the possibility of using flexible sheet forming processes, i.e. Super Plastic Forming (SPF and Single Point Incremental Forming (SPIF, for the manufacturing of patient-oriented titanium prostheses. The prosthetic implants used as case studies were from the skull; in particular, two different Ti alloys and geometries were considered: one to be produced in Ti-Gr23 by SPF and one to be produced in Ti-Gr2 by SPIF. Numerical simulations implementing material behaviours evaluated by characterization tests were conducted in order to design both the manufacturing processes. Subsequently, experimental tests were carried out implementing numerical results in terms of: (i gas pressure profile able to determine a constant (and optimal strain rate during the SPF process; (ii tool path able to avoid rupture during the SPIF process. Post forming characteristics of the prostheses in terms of thickness distributions were measured and compared to data from simulations for validation purposes. A good correlation between numerical and experimental thickness distributions has been obtained; in addition, the possibility of successfully adopting both the SPF and the SPIF processes for the manufacturing of prostheses has been demonstrated.

  7. Processes of change in a school-based mindfulness programme: cognitive reactivity and self-coldness as mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Gucht, Katleen; Takano, Keisuke; Raes, Filip; Kuppens, Peter

    2018-05-01

    The underlying mechanisms of the effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions for emotional well-being remain poorly understood. Here, we examined the potential mediating effects of cognitive reactivity and self-compassion on symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress using data from an earlier randomised controlled school trial. A moderated time-lagged mediation model based on multilevel modelling was used to analyse the data. The findings showed that post-treatment changes in cognitive reactivity and self-coldness, an aspect of self-compassion, mediated subsequent changes in symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress. These results suggest that cognitive reactivity and self-coldness may be considered as transdiagnostic mechanisms of change of a mindfulness-based intervention programme for youth.

  8. Simulation of an Aspheric Glass Lens Forming Behavior in Progressive GMP Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Sung Ho; Lee, Young Min; Kang, Jeong Jin; Hong, Seok Kwan; Shin, Gwang Ho; Heo, Young Moo; Jung, Tae Sung

    2007-01-01

    Recently, GMP(Glass Molding Press) process is mainly used to produce aspheric glass lenses. Because glass lens is heated at high temperature above Tg (Transformation Temperature) for forming the glass, the quality of aspheric glass lens is deteriorated by residual stresses which are generated in a aspheric glass lens after forming. In this study, as a fundamental study to develop the mold for progressive GMP process, we conducted a aspheric glass lens forming simulation. Prior to a aspheric glass lens forming simulation, compression and thermal conductivity tests were carried out to obtain mechanical and thermal properties of K-PBK40 which is newly developed material for precision molding, and flow characteristics of K-PBK40 were obtained at high temperature. Then, using the flow characteristics obtained, compression simulation was carried out and compared with the experimental result for the purpose of verifying the obtained flow characteristics. Finally, a glass lens press simulation in progressive GMP process was carried out and we could forecast the shape of deformed glass lenses and residual stresses contribution in the structure of deformed glass lenses after forming

  9. Newly-formed emotional memories guide selective attention processes: Evidence from event-related potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schupp, Harald T.; Kirmse, Ursula; Schmälzle, Ralf; Flaisch, Tobias; Renner, Britta

    2016-01-01

    Emotional cues can guide selective attention processes. However, emotional stimuli can both activate long-term memory representations reflecting general world knowledge and engage newly formed memory representations representing specific knowledge from the immediate past. Here, the self-completion feature of associative memory was utilized to assess the regulation of attention processes by newly-formed emotional memory. First, new memory representations were formed by presenting pictures depicting a person either in an erotic pose or as a portrait. Afterwards, to activate newly-built memory traces, edited pictures were presented showing only the head region of the person. ERP recordings revealed the emotional regulation of attention by newly-formed memories. Specifically, edited pictures from the erotic compared to the portrait category elicited an early posterior negativity and late positive potential, similar to the findings observed for the original pictures. A control condition showed that the effect was dependent on newly-formed memory traces. Given the large number of new memories formed each day, they presumably make an important contribution to the regulation of attention in everyday life. PMID:27321471

  10. Newly-formed emotional memories guide selective attention processes: Evidence from event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schupp, Harald T; Kirmse, Ursula; Schmälzle, Ralf; Flaisch, Tobias; Renner, Britta

    2016-06-20

    Emotional cues can guide selective attention processes. However, emotional stimuli can both activate long-term memory representations reflecting general world knowledge and engage newly formed memory representations representing specific knowledge from the immediate past. Here, the self-completion feature of associative memory was utilized to assess the regulation of attention processes by newly-formed emotional memory. First, new memory representations were formed by presenting pictures depicting a person either in an erotic pose or as a portrait. Afterwards, to activate newly-built memory traces, edited pictures were presented showing only the head region of the person. ERP recordings revealed the emotional regulation of attention by newly-formed memories. Specifically, edited pictures from the erotic compared to the portrait category elicited an early posterior negativity and late positive potential, similar to the findings observed for the original pictures. A control condition showed that the effect was dependent on newly-formed memory traces. Given the large number of new memories formed each day, they presumably make an important contribution to the regulation of attention in everyday life.

  11. Machining tools in AISI M2 high-speed steel obtained by spray forming process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesus, Edilson Rosa Barbosa de.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present work was the obtention of AISI M2 high-speed steel by spray forming technique and the material evaluation when used as machining tool. The obtained material was hot rolled at 50% and 72% reduction ratios, and from which it was manufactured inserts for machining tests. The performance of inserts made of the spray formed material was compared to inserts obtained from conventional and powder metallurgy (MP) processed materials. The spray formed material was chemical, physical, mechanical and microstructural characterised. For further characterisation, the materials were submitted to machining tests for performance evaluation under real work condition. The results of material characterisation highlight the potential of the spray forming technique, in the obtention of materials with good characteristics and properties. Under the current processing, hot rolling and heat treatments condition, the analysis of the results of the machining tests revealed a very similar behaviour among the tested materials. Proceeding a criterious analysis of the machining results tests, it was verified that the performance presented by the powder metallurgy material (MP) was slight superior, followed by conventional obtained material (MConv), which presented a insignificant advantage over the spray formed and hot rolled (72% reduction ratio) material. The worst result was encountered for the spray forming and hot rolled (50% reduction ratio) material that presented the highest wear values. (author)

  12. Process for forming a homogeneous oxide solid phase of catalytically active material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Dale L.; Russo, Richard E.; Mao, Xianglei

    1995-01-01

    A process is disclosed for forming a homogeneous oxide solid phase reaction product of catalytically active material comprising one or more alkali metals, one or more alkaline earth metals, and one or more Group VIII transition metals. The process comprises reacting together one or more alkali metal oxides and/or salts, one or more alkaline earth metal oxides and/or salts, one or more Group VIII transition metal oxides and/or salts, capable of forming a catalytically active reaction product, in the optional presence of an additional source of oxygen, using a laser beam to ablate from a target such metal compound reactants in the form of a vapor in a deposition chamber, resulting in the deposition, on a heated substrate in the chamber, of the desired oxide phase reaction product. The resulting product may be formed in variable, but reproducible, stoichiometric ratios. The homogeneous oxide solid phase product is useful as a catalyst, and can be produced in many physical forms, including thin films, particulate forms, coatings on catalyst support structures, and coatings on structures used in reaction apparatus in which the reaction product of the invention will serve as a catalyst.

  13. Machinability of Al 6061 Deposited with Cold Spray Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldwell, Barry; Kelly, Elaine; Wall, Ronan; Amaldi, Andrea; O'Donnell, Garret E.; Lupoi, Rocco

    2017-10-01

    Additive manufacturing techniques such as cold spray are translating from research laboratories into more mainstream high-end production systems. Similar to many additive processes, finishing still depends on removal processes. This research presents the results from investigations into aspects of the machinability of aluminum 6061 tubes manufactured with cold spray. Through the analysis of cutting forces and observations on chip formation and surface morphology, the effect of cutting speed, feed rate, and heat treatment was quantified, for both cold-sprayed and bulk aluminum 6061. High-speed video of chip formation shows changes in chip form for varying material and heat treatment, which is supported by the force data and quantitative imaging of the machined surface. The results shown in this paper demonstrate that parameters involved in cold spray directly impact on machinability and therefore have implications for machining parameters and strategy.

  14. Product consistency test and toxicity characteristic leaching procedure results of the ceramic waste form from the electrometallurgical treatment process for spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, S. G.; Adamic, M. L.: DiSanto, T.; Warren, A. R.; Cummings, D. G.; Foulkrod, L.; Goff, K. M.

    1999-01-01

    The ceramic waste form produced from the electrometallurgical treatment of sodium bonded spent fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II was tested using two immersion tests with separate and distinct purposes. The product consistency test is used to assess the consistency of the waste forms produced and thus is an indicator of a well-controlled process. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure is used to determine whether a substance is to be considered hazardous by the Environmental Protection Agency. The proposed high level waste repository will not be licensed to receive hazardous waste, thus any waste forms destined to be placed there cannot be of a hazardous nature as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Results are presented from the first four fully radioactive ceramic waste forms produced and from seven ceramic waste forms produced from cold surrogate materials. The fully radioactive waste forms are approximately 2 kg in weight and were produced with salt used to treat 100 driver subassemblies of spent fuel

  15. PROCESS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF AN ACTIVATED FORM OF UO$sub 2$

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polissar, M.J.

    1957-09-24

    A process for producing a highly active form of UO/sub 2/ characterized both by rapid oxidation in air and by rapid chlorination with CCl/sub 4/ vapor at an elevated temperature is reported. In accordance with the process, commercial UO/sub 2/, is subjected to a series of oxidation-reduction operations to produce a form of UC/sub 2/ of enhanced reactivity. By treatimg commercial UO/sub 2/ at a temperature between 335 and 485 deg C with methane, then briefly with an oxygen containing gas and followimg this by a second treatment with a methane containing gas, the original relatively stable charge of UO/sub 2/ will be transformed into an active form of UO/sub 2/.

  16. 75 FR 36306 - Chemical Mixtures Containing Listed Forms of Phosphorus and Change in Application Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... have large industrial uses. Regulated chemical mixtures are not items having common household uses... and others from exposure to the toxic chemicals left behind. Executive Order 12988 This regulation... 1117-AA66 Chemical Mixtures Containing Listed Forms of Phosphorus and Change in Application Process...

  17. 78 FR 21912 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Processed Products Family of Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Processed Products Family of Forms AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric... NOAA in the economic and social analyses developed when proposing and evaluating fishery management... collection). Affected Public: Business or other for-profit organizations. Estimated Number of Respondents...

  18. Forming Professional Mobility in the Process of Future Master Philologists' Training in Ukraine and Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenog, Olena

    2016-01-01

    On the basis of scientific research, the experience of higher education institutions in Ukraine and abroad (the USA, the Swiss Confederation) concerning the forming of future philologists' professional mobility in the process of Master training has been generalized. It has been overviewed, that professional mobility is an essential indicator of…

  19. Static friction in rubber-metal contacts with application to rubber pad forming processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deladi, E.L.

    2006-01-01

    A static friction model suitable for rubber-metal contact is presented in this dissertation. In introduction, the motivation and the aims of the research are introduced together with the background regarding the related industrial application, which is the rubber pad forming process.

  20. Rheology as a tool for evaluation of melt processability of innovative dosage forms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aho, Johanna Maaria; Boetker, Johan P; Baldursdottir, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    ) printing, will have an increasingly important role when designing products for flexible dosing, since dosage forms based on compacting of a given powder mixture do not enable manufacturing of optimal pharmaceutical products for personalized treatments. The melt processability of polymers and API...

  1. The impact of recreational MDMA 'ecstasy' use on global form processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Claire; Edwards, Mark; Brown, John; Bell, Jason

    2014-11-01

    The ability to integrate local orientation information into a global form percept was investigated in long-term ecstasy users. Evidence suggests that ecstasy disrupts the serotonin system, with the visual areas of the brain being particularly susceptible. Previous research has found altered orientation processing in the primary visual area (V1) of users, thought to be due to disrupted serotonin-mediated lateral inhibition. The current study aimed to investigate whether orientation deficits extend to higher visual areas involved in global form processing. Forty-five participants completed a psychophysical (Glass pattern) study allowing an investigation into the mechanisms underlying global form processing and sensitivity to changes in the offset of the stimuli (jitter). A subgroup of polydrug-ecstasy users (n=6) with high ecstasy use had significantly higher thresholds for the detection of Glass patterns than controls (n=21, p=0.039) after Bonferroni correction. There was also a significant interaction between jitter level and drug-group, with polydrug-ecstasy users showing reduced sensitivity to alterations in jitter level (p=0.003). These results extend previous research, suggesting disrupted global form processing and reduced sensitivity to orientation jitter with ecstasy use. Further research is needed to investigate this finding in a larger sample of heavy ecstasy users and to differentiate the effects of other drugs. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. A Novel Manufacturing Processing Route for Forming High-Density Ceramic Armor Materials: Phase I - SBIR

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raman, Ramas

    1999-01-01

    .... The effects of applied pressure and pressure-transmitting media (PTM) temperature in controlling density, as well as thermal management issues to prevent cracking in applying the CS/Ceracon process to form TiC and TiB2, have been identified...

  3. Rituals and the participation of urban form : informal and formal image making processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krishnamurthy, S.

    2016-01-01

    The author through this paper hypothesis that the role urban form plays in the act of rituals contributes to an urban imagery that is embedded in various formal and informal socio-spatial processes and practises. By studying the yearly Karaga jatre (ritual) in Bangalore, India ethnographically and

  4. Test plan for formulation and evaluation of grouted waste forms with shine process wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, W. L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Jerden, J. L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this experimental project is to demonstrate that waste streams generated during the production of Mo99 by the SHINE Medical Technologies (SHINE) process can be immobilized in cement-based grouted waste forms having physical, chemical, and radiological stabilities that meet regulatory requirements for handling, storage, transport, and disposal.

  5. COUPLED ATOMIZATION AND SPRAY MODELLING IN THE SPRAY FORMING PROCESS USING OPENFOAM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjesing, Rasmus; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Fritsching, Udo

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents a numerical model capable of simulating the atomization, break-up and in-flight spray phenomena in the spray forming process. The model is developed and implemented in the freeware code openFOAM. The focus is on studying the coupling effect of the melt break-up phenomena...

  6. Novel process chain for hot metal gas forming of ferritic stainless steel 1.4509

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosel, André; Lambarri, Jon; Degenkolb, Lars; Reuther, Franz; Hinojo, José Luis; Rößiger, Jörg; Eurich, Egbert; Albert, André; Landgrebe, Dirk; Wenzel, Holger

    2018-05-01

    Exhaust gas components of automobiles are often produced in ferritic stainless steel 1.4509 due to the low thermal expansion coefficient and the low material price. Until now, components of the stainless steel with complex geometries have been produced in series by means of multi-stage hydroforming at room temperature with intermediate annealing operations. The application of a single-stage hot-forming process, also referred to as hot metal gas forming (HMGF), offers great potential to significantly reduce the production costs of such components. The article describes a novel process chain for the HMGF process. Therefore the tube is heated in two steps. After pre-heating of the semi-finished product outside the press, the tube is heated up to forming start temperature by means of a tool-integrated conductive heating before forming. For the tube of a demonstrator geometry, a simulation model for the conduction heating was set up. In addition to the tool development for this process, experimental results are also described for the production of the demonstrator geometry.

  7. Transformation processes influencing physico-chemical forms of radionuclides and trace elements in natural water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salbu, B.; Riise, G.; Oughton, D.H.

    1995-01-01

    In order to assess short and long term consequences of radionuclides and trace elements introduced to aquatic systems, knowledge on source terms, key factors and key processes influencing the speciation is essential. The mobility, bioavailability and subsequent transfer into food chains depend on the physico-chemical forms on radionuclides and trace metals. In addition, transformation processes and especially the interaction with natural organic matter (NOM) influences the distribution pattern. Furthermore, the prevailing climate conditions, e.g. episodic events and temperature are vital for fluxes and for the kinetics of the transformation processes. In the present work processes in catchments and processes associated with acidification, episodic events, climate conditions (temperature) and mixing zone phenomena influencing the speciation of radionuclides and trace metals are highlighted. These processes should be highly relevant for assessing far field consequences of radionuclides potentially released from disposal sites. (authors). 21 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  8. Process of producing a ceramic matrix composite article and article formed thereby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corman, Gregory Scot [Ballston Lake, NY; McGuigan, Henry Charles [Duanesburg, NY; Brun, Milivoj Konstantin [Ballston Lake, NY

    2011-10-25

    A CMC article and process for producing the article to have a layer on its surface that protects a reinforcement material within the article from damage. The method entails providing a body containing a ceramic reinforcement material in a matrix material that contains a precursor of a ceramic matrix material. A fraction of the reinforcement material is present and possibly exposed at a surface of the body. The body surface is then provided with a surface layer formed of a slurry containing a particulate material but lacking the reinforcement material of the body. The body and surface layer are heated to form the article by converting the precursor within the body to form the ceramic matrix material in which the reinforcement material is contained, and by converting the surface layer to form the protective layer that covers any fraction of the reinforcement material exposed at the body surface.

  9. Dynamic spatial organization of the occipito-temporal word form area for second language processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yue; Sun, Yafeng; Lu, Chunming; Ding, Guosheng; Guo, Taomei; Malins, Jeffrey G; Booth, James R; Peng, Danling; Liu, Li

    2017-08-01

    Despite the left occipito-temporal region having shown consistent activation in visual word form processing across numerous studies in different languages, the mechanisms by which word forms of second languages are processed in this region remain unclear. To examine this more closely, 16 Chinese-English and 14 English-Chinese late bilinguals were recruited to perform lexical decision tasks to visually presented words in both their native and second languages (L1 and L2) during functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning. Here we demonstrate that visual word form processing for L1 versus L2 engaged different spatial areas of the left occipito-temporal region. Namely, the spatial organization of the visual word form processing in the left occipito-temporal region is more medial and posterior for L2 than L1 processing in Chinese-English bilinguals, whereas activation is more lateral and anterior for L2 in English-Chinese bilinguals. In addition, for Chinese-English bilinguals, more lateral recruitment of the occipito-temporal region was correlated with higher L2 proficiency, suggesting higher L2 proficiency is associated with greater involvement of L1-preferred mechanisms. For English-Chinese bilinguals, higher L2 proficiency was correlated with more lateral and anterior activation of the occipito-temporal region, suggesting higher L2 proficiency is associated with greater involvement of L2-preferred mechanisms. Taken together, our results indicate that L1 and L2 recruit spatially different areas of the occipito-temporal region in visual word processing when the two scripts belong to different writing systems, and that the spatial organization of this region for L2 visual word processing is dynamically modulated by L2 proficiency. Specifically, proficiency in L2 in Chinese-English is associated with assimilation to the native language mechanisms, whereas L2 in English-Chinese is associated with accommodation to second language mechanisms. Copyright © 2017

  10. Effect of cold-working and aging processes on the microstructure, mechanical properties and electrical conductivity of Cu–13.5%Mn–4%Ni–1.2%Ti alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehsanian Mofrad, H.; Raygan, Sh.; Amin Forghani, B.; Hanaei, K.; Ahadi, F.K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Mn 2 Ti 4 O precipitates observed in the microstructure of as-cast alloys. ► During aging at 400, 450 and 500 °C hardness reached the value of 139, 165 and 192 HV. ► β-Cu 3 Ti and Ni 3 Ti precipitates formed during over aging at temperatures of 500 °C. ► Electrical conductivity was 29.7% IACS in the 0% cold worked samples aged at 500 °C. ► Conductivity of 28% IACS, hardness of 250 HV obtained by 60% cold work + aging at 450 °C. -- Abstract: In this study, variations of hardness, electrical conductivity, strength, elongation and microstructure of the Cu–13.5%Mn–4%Ni–1.2%Ti alloy were investigated during aging, cold-working and subsequent aging. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy methods were used to evaluate the microstructure of the alloy. Tensile, hardness and electrical conductivity measurements were also used for investigating the effects of processing parameters on the characteristic of the alloy. Hardness value of 190 HV and strength of 644 MPa were obtained after aging the as-cast alloy for 4 h at the temperature of 500 °C. The maximum hardness and strength increased up to 253 HV and 816 MPa, respectively, after aging 60% cold-worked samples for 1 h at the temperature of 500 °C. The dominant strengthening mechanism during aging was attributed to the precipitation of Cu 4 Ti phase. Formation of the β-Cu 3 Ti phase during aging at the temperature of 500 °C was another reason of strengthening. As a result of aging, electrical conductivity of both as-cast and cold-worked alloys was improved. The maximum conductivity of 29.7% IACS was attained after aging the as-cast material at the temperature of 500 °C for 4 h.

  11. [Differences between cold and hot natures of processed Radix ginseng rubra and Panax quinquefolius L. based upon mice temperature tropism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue-Ru; Zhao, Yan-Ling; Wang, Jia-Bo; Zhou, Can-Ping; Liu, Ta-Si; Zhao, Hai-Ping; Ren, Yong-Shen; Yan, Dan; Xiao, Xiao-He

    2009-07-28

    To establish an objective method to estimate the disparity between the cold and hot natures on the basis of an intrinsic correlation between temperature tropism of mice and the cold and hot natures of Chinese medicines. Male KM mice were randomly divided into 7 groups of 6 each, namely the normal group (NM), the weak model group (WM), the strong model group (SM), the weak model plus Radix ginseng rubra group (WM + RG), the weak model plus Panax quinquefolius L. group (WM + PQ), the strong model plus Radix ginseng rubra group (SM + RG) and the strong model plus Panax quinquefolius L. group (SM +PQ). The specific herbal drugs were administered intragastricly. To induce the weak model, mice were fed with a limited supply of feed and forced to swim in cold water until almost drowning while the strong model induced by feeding a high-protein diet with an unlimited feed access. The doses of Radix ginseng rubra and Panax quinquefolius L. were 35 mg/g of body weight per day (counted by the quantity of crude material) and lasting for seven days. The NM and model groups without dosing were intragastricly administered with physiological saline of the same volume to the dosing groups. The percentage of the remaining time of mouse on a high temperature (40 degrees C) pad to the total monitoring time was recorded by a self-designed intelligent animal behavior monitoring system. Meanwhile, the drinking volume of mice in each group was measured. Immediately after experiment, the activities of Na(+)K(+)-ATPase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in liver tissue were measured by assay kits of phosphorus and xanthine oxidase methods respectively. The features of deficient and cold symptom, such as fatigue, stagnant weight growth, decreased water intake, cold limbs and tail etc, were observed in WM group. And the features of heat symptom, such as increased weight and water intake, hyperactivity etc, were observed in SM group. The percentage of time that the mouse remained on 40 degrees C

  12. Simple Closed-Form Expression for Penning Reaction Rate Coefficients for Cold Molecular Collisions by Non-Hermitian Time-Independent Adiabatic Scattering Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, Mariusz; Ben-Asher, Anael; Moiseyev, Nimrod

    2018-01-09

    We present a simple expression and its derivation for reaction rate coefficients for cold anisotropic collision experiments based on adiabatic variational theory and time-independent non-Hermitian scattering theory. We demonstrate that only the eigenenergies of the resulting one-dimensional Schrödinger equation for different complex adiabats are required. The expression is applied to calculate the Penning ionization rate coefficients of an excited metastable helium atom with molecular hydrogen in an energy range spanning from hundreds of kelvins down to the millikelvin regime. Except for trivial quantities like the masses of the nuclei and the bond length of the diatomic molecule participating in the collision, one needs as input data only the complex potential energy surface (CPES). In calculations, we used recently obtained ab initio CPES by D. Bhattacharya et al. ( J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2017 , 13 , 1682 - 1690 ) without fitting parameters. The results show good accord with current measurements ( Nat. Phys. 2017 , 13 , 35 - 38 ).

  13. Combining the pressure effect with local heat treatment for improving the sheet metal forming process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, G.; Piccininni, A.; Guglielmi, P.; Sorgente, D.; Tricarico, L.

    2016-08-01

    The present work deals with the advantages in the Hydromechanical Deep Drawing (HDD) when AA5754 Tailored Heat Treated Blanks (THTBs) are adopted. It is well known that the creation of a suitable distribution of material properties increases the process performance. When non heat-treatable alloys are considered, the THTB approach can be successfully applied to increase the Limit Drawing Ratio (LDR) by changing the peripheral zone into the annealed state starting from a cold-worked blank. If this approach is combined with the advantages of a counterpressure, even more remarkable improvements can be achieved. Due to the large number of involved parameters, the optimized design of both the local treatment and the pressure profile were investigated coupling an axial symmetric Finite Element model with the integration platform modeFRONTIER. Results confirmed the possibility of increasing the LDR from 2.0 (Deep Drawing using a blank in the annealed state) up to about 3.0 if combining the adoption of a THTB with the optimal pressure profile.

  14. The Topographic Design of River Channels for Form-Process Linkages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rocko A; Pasternack, Gregory B; Lin, Tin

    2016-04-01

    Scientists and engineers design river topography for a wide variety of uses, such as experimentation, site remediation, dam mitigation, flood management, and river restoration. A recent advancement has been the notion of topographical design to yield specific fluvial mechanisms in conjunction with natural or environmental flow releases. For example, the flow convergence routing mechanism, whereby shear stress and spatially convergent flow migrate or jump from the topographic high (riffle) to the low point (pool) from low to high discharge, is thought to be a key process able to maintain undular relief in gravel bedded rivers. This paper develops an approach to creating riffle-pool topography with a form-process linkage to the flow convergence routing mechanism using an adjustable, quasi equilibrium synthetic channel model. The link from form to process is made through conceptualizing form-process relationships for riffle-pool couplets into geomorphic covariance structures (GCSs) that are then quantitatively embedded in a synthetic channel model. Herein, GCSs were used to parameterize a geometric model to create five straight, synthetic river channels with varying combinations of bed and width undulations. Shear stress and flow direction predictions from 2D hydrodynamic modeling were used to determine if scenarios recreated aspects of the flow convergence routing mechanism. Results show that the creation of riffle-pool couplets that experience flow convergence in straight channels requires GCSs with covarying bed and width undulations in their topography as supported in the literature. This shows that GCSs are a useful way to translate conceptualizations of form-process linkages into quantitative models of channel form.

  15. A model for managing cold-related health and safety risks at workplaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risikko, Tanja; Mäkinen, Tiina M; Påsche, Arvid; Toivonen, Liisa; Hassi, Juhani

    2003-05-01

    Cold conditions increase health and safety risks at work in several ways. The effects of cold have not been sufficiently taken into consideration in occupational safety and health practices. A systematic model and methods were developed for managing cold-related health and safety risks at workplaces. The development work was performed, in a context-bound manner, in pilot industries and workplaces. The model can be integrated into the company's occupational health and safety management system, such as OHSAS 18001. The cold risks are identified and assessed by using a checklist. The preventive measures are systematically planned in a written form specifically produced for cold workplaces. It includes the organisational and technical preventive measures, protective clothing and personal protective equipment, as well as training and information of the personnel. According to the model, all the workers, foremen, occupational safety personnel and occupational health care personnel are trained to recognise the cold risks and to conduct preventive actions. The developed model was evaluated in the context of cold outdoor (construction) and indoor work (fish processing), and by occupational health and safety professionals. According to the feedback, the model and methods were easy to use after a one-day introduction session. The continuum between the cold risk assessment and management worked well, although there was some overlap in the documentation. The cold risk management model and its methods form an essential part of ISO CD 15743 Strategy for risk assessment, management and work practice in cold environments.

  16. Towards the damage evaluation using Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman (GTN) model for hot forming processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Muhammad; Bambach, Markus

    2018-05-01

    In the production of semi-finished metal products, hot forming is used to eliminate the pores and voids from the casting process under compressive stresses and to modify the microstructure for further processing. In the case of caliber and flat rolling processes, tensile stresses occur at certain roll gap ratios which promote pore formation on nonmetallic inclusion. The formation of new pores contributes to ductile damage and reduces the load carrying capacity of the material. In the literature, the damage nucleation and growth during the hot forming process are not comprehensively described. The aim of this study is to understand the damage initiation and growth mechanism during hot forming processes. Hot tensile tests are performed at different temperatures and strain rates for 16MnCrS5 steel. To investigate the influence of geometrical variations on the damage mechanism, specimens with different stress triaxiality ratios are used. Finite element simulations using the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman (GTN) damage model are performed to estimate the critical void fraction for the damage initiation and the evolution of the void volume fraction. The results showed that the GTN model underestimates the softening of the material due to the independence of the temperature and the strain rate.

  17. Project COLD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanjian, Wendy C.

    1982-01-01

    Describes Project COLD (Climate, Ocean, Land, Discovery) a scientific study of the Polar Regions, a collection of 35 modules used within the framework of existing subjects: oceanography, biology, geology, meterology, geography, social science. Includes a partial list of topics and one activity (geodesic dome) from a module. (Author/SK)

  18. Cold acclimation and cognitive performance: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Douglas M; Bailey, Stephen P; Roelands, Bart; Buono, Michael J; Meeusen, Romain

    2017-12-01

    Athletes, occupational workers, and military personnel experience cold temperatures through cold air exposure or cold water immersion, both of which impair cognitive performance. Prior work has shown that neurophysiological pathways may be sensitive to the effects of temperature acclimation and, therefore, cold acclimation may be a potential strategy to attenuate cold-induced cognitive impairments for populations that are frequently exposed to cold environments. This review provides an overview of studies that examine repeated cold stress, cold acclimation, and measurements of cognitive performance to determine whether or not cold acclimation provides beneficial protection against cold-induced cognitive performance decrements. Studies included in this review assessed cognitive measures of reaction time, attention, logical reasoning, information processing, and memory. Repeated cold stress, with or without evidence of cold acclimation, appears to offer no added benefit of improving cognitive performance. However, research in this area is greatly lacking and, therefore, it is difficult to draw any definitive conclusions regarding the use of cold acclimation to improve cognitive performance during subsequent cold exposures. Given the current state of minimal knowledge on this topic, athletes, occupational workers, and military commands looking to specifically enhance cognitive performance in cold environments would likely not be advised to spend the time and effort required to become acclimated to cold. However, as more knowledge becomes available in this area, recommendations may change. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. SINTERING, A PROCESS OF METAL FORMING AS AN ECONOMIC ALTERNATIVE WITH A LOW ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Silvio Machado Rodríguez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Sintering is a process of metal forming using metal powders, and it has a wide range of applications including for example, the manufacturing of parts for automotive components, home appliances, cutting tools, power tools, for the manufacturing of dental devices, among others. The process is characterized by the production of large-scale low cost parts and has a low environmental impact compared to other existing technologies, it requires less energy for processing and enables high utilization of raw materials. Also, it has the characteristic of obtaining, in most cases, the parts with final tolerances necessary for direct use by the customer, which ultimately reduces considerably the cost of production. The process is characterized by minimizing the loss of raw materials; facilitating precise control of the desired chemical composition; eliminating or reducing machining operations; providing a good surface finish; being an easy production process of automation; obtaining high purity; and ensuring exactly resistance characteristics required for each project.

  20. Development of Aluminum-Lithium 2195 Gores by the Stretch Forming Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volz, M. P.; Chen, P. S.; Gorti, S.; Salvail, P.

    2014-01-01

    Aluminum-Lithium alloy 2195 exhibits higher mechanical properties and lower density than aluminum alloy 2219, which is the current baseline material for Space Launch System (SLS) cryogenic tank components. Replacement of Al 2219 with Al-Li 2195 would result in substantial weight savings, as was the case when this replacement was made on the shuttle external tank. A key component of cryogenic tanks are the gores, which are welded together to make the rounded ends of the tanks. The required thicknesses of these gores depend on the specific SLS configuration and may exceed the current experience base in the manufacture of such gores by the stretch forming process. Here we describe the steps taken to enhance the formability of Al-Li 2195 by optimizing the heat treatment and stretch forming processes for gore thicknesses up to 0.75", which envelopes the maximum expected gore thicknesses for SLS tanks. An annealing treatment, developed at Marshall Space Flight Center, increased the forming range and strain hardening exponent of Al-Li 2195 plates. Using this annealing treatment, one 0.525" thick and two 0.75" thick gores were manufactured by the stretch forming process. The annealing treatment enabled the stretch forming of the largest ever cross sectional area (thickness x width) of an Al-Li 2195 plate achieved by the manufacturer. Mechanical testing of the gores showed greater than expected ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, modulus, and elongation values. The gores also exhibited acceptable fracture toughness at room and LN2 temperatures. All of the measured data indicate that the stretch formed gores have sufficient material properties to be used in flight domes.

  1. Magnesium Repair by Cold Spray

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Champagne, V. K; Leyman, P.F; Helfritch, D. J

    2008-01-01

    .... Army Research Laboratory has developed a cold spray process to reclaim magnesium components that shows significant improvement over existing methods and is in the process of qualification for use on rotorcraft...

  2. An in-process form error measurement system for precision machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Y; Huang, X; Zhang, Y

    2010-01-01

    In-process form error measurement for precision machining is studied. Due to two key problems, opaque barrier and vibration, the study of in-process form error optical measurement for precision machining has been a hard topic and so far very few existing research works can be found. In this project, an in-process form error measurement device is proposed to deal with the two key problems. Based on our existing studies, a prototype system has been developed. It is the first one of the kind that overcomes the two key problems. The prototype is based on a single laser sensor design of 50 nm resolution together with two techniques, a damping technique and a moving average technique, proposed for use with the device. The proposed damping technique is able to improve vibration attenuation by up to 21 times compared to the case of natural attenuation. The proposed moving average technique is able to reduce errors by seven to ten times without distortion to the form profile results. The two proposed techniques are simple but they are especially useful for the proposed device. For a workpiece sample, the measurement result under coolant condition is only 2.5% larger compared with the one under no coolant condition. For a certified Wyko test sample, the overall system measurement error can be as low as 0.3 µm. The measurement repeatability error can be as low as 2.2%. The experimental results give confidence in using the proposed in-process form error measurement device. For better results, further improvement in design and tests are necessary

  3. ASPECTS REGARDING THE OPTIMUM CUTTING TOOL PATH IN PROCESSING FREE-FORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin CHIFAN

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an approach on tool paths optimization in CAM-type software for milling free forms, with the goal to improve efficiency in processing using CNC machine tools. The methodology proposed in this paper, tackles the problem of mechanical processing in 3 axes using ball nose milling cutters of small diameters, which follows a free form profile. I will consider two cases: the first one considers the ball nose end mill route on a free form with an angle of less than 30°, the second one with a tool path greater than 30°. The main objective of this paper is to determine the optimum angle in order to obtain a better surface roughness, a shorter time of processing and also a higher tool-life, all these by considering all other factors that occurs in the manufacturing process. This will be done by indicating and editing the tool path so that the tools will the minimum entries and exits on the surface of the piece. This will lead to a 10% decrease of the working time.

  4. On electromagnetic forming processes in finitely strained solids: Theory and examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J. D.; Triantafyllidis, N.

    2009-08-01

    The process of electromagnetic forming (EMF) is a high velocity manufacturing technique that uses electromagnetic (Lorentz) body forces to shape sheet metal parts. EMF holds several advantages over conventional forming techniques: speed, repeatability, one-sided tooling, and most importantly considerable ductility increase in several metals. Current modeling techniques for EMF processes are not based on coupled variational principles to simultaneously account for electromagnetic and mechanical effects. Typically, separate solutions to the electromagnetic (Maxwell) and motion (Newton) equations are combined in staggered or lock-step methods, sequentially solving the mechanical and electromagnetic problems. The present work addresses these issues by introducing a fully coupled Lagrangian (reference configuration) least-action variational principle, involving magnetic flux and electric potentials and the displacement field as independent variables. The corresponding Euler-Lagrange equations are Maxwell's and Newton's equations in the reference configuration, which are shown to coincide with their current configuration counterparts obtained independently by a direct approach. The general theory is subsequently simplified for EMF processes by considering the eddy current approximation. Next, an application is presented for axisymmetric EMF problems. It is shown that the proposed variational principle forms the basis of a variational integration numerical scheme that provides an efficient staggered solution algorithm. As an illustration a number of such processes are simulated, inspired by recent experiments of freely expanding uncoated and polyurea-coated aluminum tubes.

  5. Formulation and process considerations affecting the stability of solid dosage forms formulated with methacrylate copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petereit, H U; Weisbrod, W

    1999-01-01

    General considerations concerning the stability of coated dosage forms are discussed, in order to avoid predictable interactions which may cause long-term stability problems. As polymers themselves maintain a high chemical stability and a low reactivity, instability phenomena mainly have to be explained by interactions of low molecular weight substances or physical changes. Possible interactions of functional groups can be predicted easily and insulating subcoates are proper countermeasures. Impurities, remaining in the polymeric material from the manufacturing process, may accelerate the hydrolysis of sensitive drugs. Instabilities of coated dosage forms are mainly based on physical interactions, caused by improper formulations of coating suspensions (i.e. plasticizers or pigments) or the film coating process. Residual moisture or solvents, probably enclosed in the core and migrating over time, may increase the permeability of coatings, due to plasticizing effects. The functionality of coatings from aqueous dispersions is linked to coalescence of latex particles. Thus any incomplete film formation, caused by too high or too low coating temperatures, may result in high permeable coatings. During storage, preferably under stress conditions this process will continue and thus change the release profile. Therefore bed temperatures of 10-20 degrees C above MFT must ensure the formation of homogeneous polymer layers during the coating process. Stability test procedures and packaging materials also need to be adapted to the physicochemical properties of the dosage form, in order to get meaningful results in stability tests.

  6. Design of process parameters for the incremental tube forming (ITF) by FEM to control product properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, Esmaeil; Löbbe, Christian; Gallus, Stefan; Izadyar, S. Ahmad; Tekkaya, A. Erman

    2018-05-01

    The incremental tube forming (ITF) is a process combination of the kinematic tube bending and spinning to shape high strength and tailored tubes with variable diameters and thicknesses. In contrast to conventional bending methods, the compressive stress superposition by the spinning process facilitates low bending stresses, so that geometrical errors are avoided and the shape accuracy is improved. The study reveals the interaction of plastic strains of the rolling and bending process through an explicit FEM investigation. For this purpose, the three-dimensional machine set-up is discretized and modeled in terms of the fully disclosed spinning process during the gradual deflection of the tube end for bending. The analysis shows that, depending on the forming tool shape, the stress superposition is accompanied by high plastic strains. Furthermore, this phenomenon is explained by the three dimensional normal and shear strains during the incremental spinning. Analyzing the strains history also shows a nonlinearity between the strains by bending and spinning. It is also shown that process parameters like rotational velocity of the spinning rolls have a huge influence on the deformation pattern. Finally, the method is used for the manufacturing of an example product, which reveals the high process flexibility. In one clamp a component with a graded wall thickness and outside diameter along the longitudinal axis is produced.

  7. A user-centred design process of new cold-protective clothing for offshore petroleum workers operating in the Barents Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naesgaard, Ole Petter; Storholmen, Tore Christian Bjørsvik; Wiggen, Øystein Nordrum; Reitan, Jarl

    2017-12-07

    Petroleum operations in the Barents Sea require personal protective clothing (PPC) to ensure the safety and performance of the workers. This paper describes the accomplishment of a user-centred design process of new PPC for offshore workers operating in this area. The user-centred design process was accomplished by mixed-methods. Insights into user needs and context of use were established by group interviews and on-the-job observations during a field-trip. The design was developed based on these insights, and refined by user feedback and participatory design. The new PPC was evaluated via field-tests and cold climate chamber tests. The insight into user needs and context of use provided useful input to the design process and contributed to tailored solutions. Providing users with clothing prototypes facilitated participatory design and iterations of design refinement. The group interviews following the final field test showed consensus of enhanced user satisfaction compared to PPC in current use. The final cold chamber test indicated that the new PPC provides sufficient thermal protection during the 60 min of simulated work in a wind-chill temperature of -25°C. Accomplishing a user-centred design process contributed to new PPC with enhanced user satisfaction and included relevant functional solutions.

  8. Meat Processing Plant Microbiome and Contamination Patterns of Cold-Tolerant Bacteria Causing Food Safety and Spoilage Risks in the Manufacture of Vacuum-Packaged Cooked Sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultman, Jenni; Rahkila, Riitta; Ali, Javeria; Rousu, Juho; Björkroth, K Johanna

    2015-10-01

    Refrigerated food processing facilities are specific man-made niches likely to harbor cold-tolerant bacteria. To characterize this type of microbiota and study the link between processing plant and product microbiomes, we followed and compared microbiota associated with the raw materials and processing stages of a vacuum-packaged, cooked sausage product affected by a prolonged quality fluctuation with occasional spoilage manifestations during shelf life. A total of 195 samples were subjected to culturing and amplicon sequence analyses. Abundant mesophilic psychrotrophs were detected within the microbiomes throughout the different compartments of the production plant environment. However, each of the main genera of food safety and quality interest, e.g., Leuconostoc, Brochothrix, and Yersinia, had their own characteristic patterns of contamination. Bacteria from the genus Leuconostoc, commonly causing spoilage of cold-stored, modified-atmosphere-packaged foods, were detected in high abundance (up to >98%) in the sausages studied. The same operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were, however, detected in lower abundances in raw meat and emulsion (average relative abundance of 2%±5%), as well as on the processing plant surfaces (food safety concerns related to their resilient existence on surfaces. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Prediction of deformations of steel plate by artificial neural network in forming process with induction heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Truong Thinh; Yang, Young Soo; Bae, Kang Yul; Choi, Sung Nam

    2009-01-01

    To control a heat source easily in the forming process of steel plate with heating, the electro-magnetic induction process has been used as a substitute of the flame heating process. However, only few studies have analyzed the deformation of a workpiece in the induction heating process by using a mathematical model. This is mainly due to the difficulty of modeling the heat flux from the inductor traveling on the conductive plate during the induction process. In this study, the heat flux distribution over a steel plate during the induction process is first analyzed by a numerical method with the assumption that the process is in a quasi-stationary state around the inductor and also that the heat flux itself greatly depends on the temperature of the workpiece. With the heat flux, heat flow and thermo-mechanical analyses on the plate to obtain deformations during the heating process are then performed with a commercial FEM program for 34 combinations of heating parameters. An artificial neural network is proposed to build a simplified relationship between deformations and heating parameters that can be easily utilized to predict deformations of steel plate with a wide range of heating parameters in the heating process. After its architecture is optimized, the artificial neural network is trained with the deformations obtained from the FEM analyses as outputs and the related heating parameters as inputs. The predicted outputs from the neural network are compared with those of the experiments and the numerical results. They are in good agreement

  10. Cold-crucible fabrication of nuclear glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boen, R.

    2010-01-01

    Vitrification has stood the nuclear industry in good stead, for many years now, as a safe long-term conditioning technology for high-level waste. Major advances are nonetheless still being made, with the development of the cold-crucible technology, affording as it does new possibilities, in terms of volume reduction, and of extending the range of waste products amenable to incorporation. Indeed, by allowing higher melting temperatures to be achieved (1200 - 1400 C degrees), this process opens the way to a considerable increase in glass production capacities, and the fabrication of novel matrices, involving higher incorporation rates than current glasses. In the cold-crucible technology, materials put into the crucible are heated directly through induction. The crucible made of metal is cooled by water circulation. Where the glass comes into contact with the cold wall, a thin layer of solidified glass forms, with a thickness of 5-10 mm preventing the metal forming the crucible from coming into contact with the molten glass. A full scale pilot of the cold crucible was constructed at the La Hague vitrification workshop

  11. Evaluating the performance of free-formed surface parts using an analytic network process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xueming; Ma, Yanqiao; Liang, Dezhi

    2018-03-01

    To successfully design parts with a free-formed surface, the critical issue of how to evaluate and select a favourable evaluation strategy before design is raised. The evaluation of free-formed surface parts is a multiple criteria decision-making (MCDM) problem that requires the consideration of a large number of interdependent factors. The analytic network process (ANP) is a relatively new MCDM method that can systematically deal with all kinds of dependences. In this paper, the factors, which come from the life-cycle and influence the design of free-formed surface parts, are proposed. After analysing the interdependence among these factors, a Hybrid ANP (HANP) structure for evaluating the part’s curved surface is constructed. Then, a HANP evaluation of an impeller is presented to illustrate the application of the proposed method.

  12. Springback prediction in sheet metal forming process based on the hybrid SA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yuqin; Jiang Hong; Wang Xiaochun; Li Fuzhu

    2005-01-01

    In terms of the intensive similarity between the sheet metal forming-springback process and that of the annealing of metals, it is suggested that the simulation of the sheet metal forming process is performed with the Nonlinear FEM and the springback prediction is implemented by solving the large-scale combinational optimum problem established on the base of the energy descending and balancing in deformed part. The BFGS-SA hybrid SA approach is proposed to solve this problem and improve the computing efficiency of the traditional SA and its capability of obtaining the global optimum solution. At the same time, the correlative annealing strategies for the SA algorithm are determined in here. By comparing the calculation results of sample part with those of experiment measurement at the specified sections, the rationality of the schedule of springback prediction used and the validity of the BFGS-SA algorithm proposed are verified

  13. Prediction Of Formability In Sheet Metal Forming Processes Using A Local Damage Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, P.; Santos, Abel; Cesar Sa, J.; Andrade Pires, F.; Barata da Rocha, A.

    2007-01-01

    The formability in sheet metal forming processes is mainly conditioned by ductile fracture resulting from geometric instabilities due to necking and strain localization. The macroscopic collapse associated with ductile failure is a result of internal degradation described throughout metallographic observations by the nucleation, growth and coalescence of voids and micro-cracks. Damage influences and is influenced by plastic deformation and therefore these two dissipative phenomena should be coupled at the constitutive level. In this contribution, Lemaitre's ductile damage model is coupled with Hill's orthotropic plasticity criterion. The coupling between damaging and material behavior is accounted for within the framework of Continuum Damage Mechanics (CDM). The resulting constitutive equations are implemented in the Abaqus/Explicit code, for the prediction of fracture onset in sheet metal forming processes. The damage evolution law takes into account the important effect of micro-crack closure, which dramatically decreases the rate of damage growth under compressive paths

  14. An Integrated Approach for the Numerical Modelling of the Spray Forming Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hattel, Jesper; Thorborg, Jesper; Pryds, Nini

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, an integrated approach for modelling the entire spray forming process is presented. The basis for the analysis is a recently developed model which extents previous studies and includes the interaction between an array of droplets and the enveloping gas. The formulation of the depos......In this paper, an integrated approach for modelling the entire spray forming process is presented. The basis for the analysis is a recently developed model which extents previous studies and includes the interaction between an array of droplets and the enveloping gas. The formulation...... is in fact the summation of "local" droplet size distributions along the r-axis. Furthermore, the deposition model proposed in the paper involves both the sticking efficiency of the droplets to the substrate as well as a geometrical model involving the effects of shadowing for the production of billet...

  15. Superplastic forming of rapid solidification processed Al-4Li-0.2Zr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meschter, P.J.; Lederich, R.J.; Sastry, S.M.L.

    1987-01-01

    Aluminum-4 wt pct lithium alloys are attractive as structural materials because they are 13 to 14 pct less dense and have 25 pct larger elastic moduli than high-strength 2XXX-and 7XXX-series aluminum alloys. These low-density alloys can be produced only by rapid solidification processing (RSP). Successful RSP of Al-4Li-0.2Zr, Al-4Li-1Mg-0.2Zr, and Al-4Li-1Cu-0.2Zr alloys with strengths similar to that of 7075-T76 has recently been demonstrated. Net-shaped processing techniques such as superplastic forming are capable of producing complex structural elements while minimizing usage of expensive material; thus, these techniques are particularly applicable to Al-Li alloys. The purpose of this study was to determine the conditions of strain rate and temperature under which RSP Al-4Li alloys could be superplastically formed

  16. Finite element analysis and optimization of process parameters during stamp forming of composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatesan, S; Kalyanasundaram, S

    2010-01-01

    In the manufacture of parts for high performance structures using composite materials, the quality and robustness of the parts is of utmost importance. The quality of the produced parts depends largely on the process parameters and manufacturing methodologies. This study presents the use of a temperature dependant orthotropic material for a coupled structural-thermal analysis of the stamp forming process. The study investigated the effects of process parameters such as pre-heat temperature, blank holder force and process time on the formability of composite materials. Temperature was found to be the dominant factor governing the formability of the composite material while higher blank holder forces were deemed to be important for achieving high quality of the parts manufactured. Finally, an optimum set of parameters was used to compare the simulations with experimental results using an optical strain measurement system.

  17. Application of stochastic dynamic simulation to waste form qualification for the HWVP vitrification process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, W.L.; Westsik, J.H. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Processing steps during the conversion of high-level nuclear waste into borosilicate glass in the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant are being simulated on a computer by addressing transient mass balances. The results are being used to address the US Department of Energy's Waste Form Qualification requirements. The simulated addresses discontinuous (batch) operations and perturbations in the transient behavior of the process caused by errors in measurements and control actions. A collection of tests, based on process measurements, is continually checked and used to halt the simulated process when specified conditions are met. An associated set of control actions is then implemented in the simulation. The results for an example simulation are shown. 8 refs

  18. Cold gelation of globular proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alting, A.C.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords : globular proteins, whey protein, ovalbumin, cold gelation, disulfide bonds, texture, gel hardnessProtein gelation in food products is important to obtain desirable sensory and textural properties. Cold gelation is a novel method to produce protein-based gels. It is a two step process in

  19. Using stable isotopes to monitor forms of sulfur during desulfurization processes: A quick screening method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao-Li; Hackley, Keith C.; Coleman, D.D.; Kruse, C.W.

    1987-01-01

    A method using stable isotope ratio analysis to monitor the reactivity of sulfur forms in coal during thermal and chemical desulfurization processes has been developed at the Illinois State Geological Survey. The method is based upon the fact that a significant difference exists in some coals between the 34S/32S ratios of the pyritic and organic sulfur. A screening method for determining the suitability of coal samples for use in isotope ratio analysis is described. Making these special coals available from coal sample programs would assist research groups in sorting out the complex sulfur chemistry which accompanies thermal and chemical processing of high sulfur coals. ?? 1987.

  20. SUPER LEARNING: PROPITIATORS STRATEGIES OF A PROCESS OF PICK UP OF KNOWLEDGE IN FORM ACCELERATED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilma Álamo Sánchez

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available To analyze the strategies of reception of knowledge in quick form and the definition of derivative thought processes of the learning transpersonal, it implies the development of investigations that you/they allow to capture the meaning of the application of Superaprendizaje strategies. This way, the study is based in the neuroscience and in the pattern of the mental spheres for the interpretation of the metabolic activities of the neurons, propitiators of the recording of information, the conception of the brain triuno, model of multiple intelligence, spirituality, personality, cognitive processes, intuition, meditation, and Superaprendizaje strategies: breathing, relaxation, music, aroma, and communication assertive conscience, they conform learning transpersonal.

  1. A multi-level code for metallurgical effects in metal-forming processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, P.A.; Silling, S.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Computational Physics and Mechanics Dept.; Hughes, D.A.; Bammann, D.J.; Chiesa, M.L. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The authors present the final report on a Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project, A Multi-level Code for Metallurgical Effects in metal-Forming Processes, performed during the fiscal years 1995 and 1996. The project focused on the development of new modeling capabilities for simulating forging and extrusion processes that typically display phenomenology occurring on two different length scales. In support of model fitting and code validation, ring compression and extrusion experiments were performed on 304L stainless steel, a material of interest in DOE nuclear weapons applications.

  2. Calculation of electromagnetic force in electromagnetic forming process of metal sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Da; Liu Xuesong; Fang Kun; Fang Hongyuan

    2010-01-01

    Electromagnetic forming (EMF) is a forming process that relies on the inductive electromagnetic force to deform metallic workpiece at high speed. Calculation of the electromagnetic force is essential to understand the EMF process. However, accurate calculation requires complex numerical solution, in which the coupling between the electromagnetic process and the deformation of workpiece needs be considered. In this paper, an appropriate formula has been developed to calculate the electromagnetic force in metal work-piece in the sheet EMF process. The effects of the geometric size of coil, the material properties, and the parameters of discharge circuit on electromagnetic force are taken into consideration. Through the formula, the electromagnetic force at different time and in different positions of the workpiece can be predicted. The calculated electromagnetic force and magnetic field are in good agreement with the numerical and experimental results. The accurate prediction of the electromagnetic force provides an insight into the physical process of the EMF and a powerful tool to design optimum EMF systems.

  3. Research on Liquid Forming Process of Nickel Superalloys Thin Sheet Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyrcza-Michalska M.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the study of drawability of thin sheet metals made of a nickel superalloy Inconel type. The manufacturing process of axisymmetric cup – cone and a closed section profile in the form of a circular tube were designed and analyzed. In both cases, working fluid-oil was used in place of the rigid tools. The process of forming liquid is currently the only alternative method for obtaining complex shapes, coatings, and especially if we do it with high-strength materials. In the case of nickel superalloys the search for efficient methods to manufacture of the shaped shell is one of the most considerable problems in aircraft industry [1-5]. However, the automotive industries have the same problem with so-called advanced high-strength steels (AHSS. Due to this, both industrial problems have been examined and the emphasis have been put on the process of liquid forming (hydroforming. The study includes physical tests and the corresponding numerical simulations performed, using the software Eta/Dynaform 5.9. Numerical analysis of the qualitative and quantitative forecasting enables the formability of materials with complex and unusual characteristics of the mechanical properties and forming technology. It has been found that only the computer aided design based on physical and numerical modeling, makes efficient plastic processing possible using a method of hydroforming. Drawability evaluation based on the determination of the mechanical properties of complex characteristics is an indispensable element of this design in the best practice of industrial manufacturing products made of thin sheet metals.

  4. Cold fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Suk Yong; Sung, Ki Woong; Kang, Joo Sang; Lee, Jong Jik

    1995-02-01

    So called 'cold fusion phenomena' are not confirmed yet. Excess heat generation is very delicate one. Neutron generation is most reliable results, however, the records are erratic and the same results could not be repeated. So there is no reason to exclude the malfunction of testing instruments. The same arguments arise in recording 4 He, 3 He, 3 H, which are not rich in quantity basically. An experiment where plenty of 4 He were recorded is attached in appendix. The problem is that we are trying to search cold fusion which is permitted by nature or not. The famous tunneling effect in quantum mechanics will answer it, however, the most fusion rate is known to be negligible. The focus of this project is on the theme that how to increase that negligible fusion rate. 6 figs, 4 tabs, 1512 refs. (Author)

  5. Cold fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Suk Yong; Sung, Ki Woong; Kang, Joo Sang; Lee, Jong Jik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-02-01

    So called `cold fusion phenomena` are not confirmed yet. Excess heat generation is very delicate one. Neutron generation is most reliable results, however, the records are erratic and the same results could not be repeated. So there is no reason to exclude the malfunction of testing instruments. The same arguments arise in recording {sup 4}He, {sup 3}He, {sup 3}H, which are not rich in quantity basically. An experiment where plenty of {sup 4}He were recorded is attached in appendix. The problem is that we are trying to search cold fusion which is permitted by nature or not. The famous tunneling effect in quantum mechanics will answer it, however, the most fusion rate is known to be negligible. The focus of this project is on the theme that how to increase that negligible fusion rate. 6 figs, 4 tabs, 1512 refs. (Author).

  6. Cold moderators for pulsed neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews cold moderators in pulsed neutron sources and provides details of the performance of different cold moderator materials and configurations. Analytical forms are presented which describe wavelength spectra and emission time distributions. Several types of cooling arrangements used in pulsed source moderators are described. Choices of materials are surveyed. The author examines some of the radiation damage effects in cold moderators, including the phenomenon of ''burping'' in irradiated cold solid methane. 9 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs

  7. Early Shear Failure Prediction in Incremental Sheet Forming Process Using FEM and ANN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moayedfar, Majid; Hanaei, Hengameh; Majdi Rani, Ahmad; Musa, Mohd Azam Bin; Sadegh Momeni, Mohammad

    2018-03-01

    The application of incremental sheet forming process as a rapid forming technique is rising in variety of industries such as aerospace, automotive and biomechanical purposes. However, the sheet failure is a big challenge in this process which leads wasting lots of materials. Hence, this study tried to propose a method to predict the early sheet failure in this process using mathematical solution. For the feasibility of the study, design of experiment with the respond surface method is employed to extract a set of experiments data for the simulation. The significant forming parameters were recognized and their integration was used for prediction system. Then, the results were inserted to the artificial neural network as input parameters to predict a vast range of applicable parameters avoiding sheet failure in ISF. The value of accuracy R2 ∼0.93 was obtained and the maximum sheet stretch in the depth of 25mm were recorded. The figures generate from the trend of interaction between effective parameters were provided for future studies.

  8. Effects of pharmaceutical processing on pepsin activity during the formulation of solid dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristó, Katalin; Pintye-Hódi, Klára

    2013-02-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pharmaceutical technological methods on pepsin activity during the formulation of solid dosage forms. The circumstances of direct compression and wet granulation were modeled. During direct compression, the heat and the compression force must be taken into consideration. The effects of these parameters were investigated in three materials (pure pepsin, and 1:1 (w/w) pepsin-tartaric acid and 1:1 (w/w) pepsin-citric acid powder mixtures). It was concluded that direct compression is appropriate for the formulation of solid dosage forms containing pepsin through application without acids or with acids at low compression force. The effects of wet granulation were investigated with a factorial design for the same three materials. The factors were time, temperature and moisture content. There was no significant effect of the factors when acids were not applied. Temperature was a significant factor when acids were applied. The negative effect was significantly higher for citric acid than for tartaric acid. It was found that wet granulation can be utilized for the processing of pepsin into solid dosage forms under well-controlled circumstances. The application of citric acid is not recommended during the formulation of solid dosage forms through wet granulation. A mathematically based optimization may be necessary for preformulation studies of the preparation of dosage forms containing sensitive enzymes.

  9. Processing of fine grained AISI 304L austenitic stainless steel by cold rolling and high-temperature short-term annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghizadeh, Meysam; Mirzadeh, Hamed

    2018-05-01

    An advanced thermomechanical process based on the formation and reversion of deformation-induced martensite was used to refine the grain size and enhance the hardness of an AISI 304L austenitic stainless steel. Both low and high reversion annealing temperatures and also the repetition of the whole thermomechanical cycle were considered. While a microstructure with average austenite grain size of a few micrometers was achieved based on cold rolling and high-temperature short-term annealing, an extreme grain refinement up to submicrometer regime was obtained by cold rolling followed by low-temperature long-term annealing. However, the required annealing time was found to be much longer, which negates its appropriateness for industrial production. While a magnificent grain refinement was achieved by one pass of the high-temperature thermomechanical process, the reduction in grain size was negligible by the repetition of the whole cycle. It was found that the hardness of the thermomechanically processed material is much higher than that of the as-received material. The results of the present work were shown to be compatible with the general trend of grain size dependence of hardness for AISI 304L stainless steel based on the Hall-Petch relationship. The results were also discussed based on the X-ray evaluation of dislocation density by modified Williamson-Hall plots.

  10. A conceptual demonstration of freeze desalination-membrane distillation (FD-MD) hybrid desalination process utilizing liquefied natural gas (LNG) cold energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2012-09-01

    The severe global water scarcity and record-high fossil oil price have greatly stimulated the research interests on new desalination technologies which can be driven by renewable energy or waste energy. In this study, a hybrid desalination process comprising freeze desalination and membrane distillation (FD-MD) processes was developed and explored in an attempt to utilize the waste cold energy released from re-gasification of liquefied natural gas (LNG). The concept of this technology was demonstrated using indirect-contact freeze desalination (ICFD) and direct-contact membrane distillation (DCMD) configurations. By optimizing the ICFD operation parameters, namely, the usage of nucleate seeds, operation duration and feed concentration, high quality drinkable water with a low salinity ∼0.144 g/L was produced in the ICFD process. At the same time, using the optimized hollow fiber module length and packing density in the DCMD process, ultra pure water with a low salinity of 0.062 g/L was attained at a condition of high energy efficiency (EE). Overall, by combining FD and MD processes and adopting the optimized operation parameters, the hybrid FD-MD system has been successfully demonstrated. A high total water recovery of 71.5% was achieved, and the water quality obtained met the standard for drinkable water. In addition, with results from specific energy calculation, it was proven that the hybrid process is an energy-saving process and utilization of LNG cold energy could greatly reduce the total energy consumption. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Finite element simulations and experimental investigations on ductile fracture in cold forging of aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Amir; Nikpour, Amin; Saraeian, Payam

    2018-05-01

    Forging is one of the manufacturing processes of aluminium parts which has two major categories: called hot and cold forging. In the cold forging, the dimensional and geometrical accuracy of final part is high. However, fracture may occur in some aluminium alloys during the process because of less workability. Fracture in cold forging can be in the form of ductile, brittle or combination of both depending on the alloy type. There are several criteria for predicting fracture in cold forging. In this study, cold forging process of 6063 aluminium alloy for three different parts is simulated in order to predict fracture. The results of numerical simulations of Freudenthal criterion is in conformity with experimental tests.

  12. Forms And Methods Of Modern Russian Youth Involvement Into The Electoral Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksey D. Maslov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present article authors analyzes forms and methods of modern Russian youth involvement in the electoral process. Involving young people in the electoral process is directly related to the problem of increasing the level of political culture in the society. This article presents the main forms of work to attract young people to participate in elections in our country, according to the Central Election Commission (CEC of Russia, some of the regional election commissions, the Russian Public Opinion Research Center (WCIOM. Authors note that at present there are more than one hundred and sixty legislative acts of the Russian Federation, which reflect certain aspects of the state youth policy. All these measures stimulate the political activity of young people, but in our opinion, that is not enough. The fundamental change in the attitude of young people to politics, to the institution of elections is possible only when young people feel like a real part and the subject of transformation processes in our country. In conclusion authors summarizes, that a fundamental change in the relationship of young people to politics, the institution of elections is possible only, when very young feel a real party and the subject of transformation processes in our country. This is possible only when the state is really and not formally prioritizes youth policy. Young people should have a daily state support for education, starting a business, implementation of acquired skills for a decent fee, starting a family, buying a house, etc.

  13. Radial Basis Functional Model of Multi-Point Dieless Forming Process for Springback Reduction and Compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misganaw Abebe

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Springback in multi-point dieless forming (MDF is a common problem because of the small deformation and blank holder free boundary condition. Numerical simulations are widely used in sheet metal forming to predict the springback. However, the computational time in using the numerical tools is time costly to find the optimal process parameters value. This study proposes radial basis function (RBF to replace the numerical simulation model by using statistical analyses that are based on a design of experiment (DOE. Punch holding time, blank thickness, and curvature radius are chosen as effective process parameters for determining the springback. The Latin hypercube DOE method facilitates statistical analyses and the extraction of a prediction model in the experimental process parameter domain. Finite element (FE simulation model is conducted in the ABAQUS commercial software to generate the springback responses of the training and testing samples. The genetic algorithm is applied to find the optimal value for reducing and compensating the induced springback for the different blank thicknesses using the developed RBF prediction model. Finally, the RBF numerical result is verified by comparing with the FE simulation result of the optimal process parameters and both results show that the springback is almost negligible from the target shape.

  14. An analysis of warm pool and cold tongue El Ninos: air-sea coupling processes, global influences, and recent trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Zeng-Zhen; Kumar, Arun; Wang, Wanqiu [NCEP/NWS/NOAA, Climate Prediction Center, Camp Springs, MD (United States); Jha, Bhaskar; Huang, Boyin [NCEP/NWS/NOAA, Climate Prediction Center, Camp Springs, MD (United States); Wyle Information Systems, Camp Springs, MD (United States); Huang, Bohua [George Mason University, Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Earth Sciences, College of Science, Fairfax, VA (United States); Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies, Calverton, MD (United States)

    2012-05-15

    The differences in tropical air-sea interactions and global climate connection as well as the hindcast skills for the warm pool (WP) and cold tongue (CT) El Ninos are investigated based on observed, (re)analyzed, and model hindcast data. The robustness of observed global climate connection is established from the model simulations. Lastly, variations of atmosphere and ocean conditions in the recent decades, and their possible connection with the frequency increase of the WP El Nino are discussed. Consistent with previous results, our individual case study and composite results suggest that stronger (weaker) and more eastward extended (westward confined) westerly wind along the equatorial Pacific in early months of a year is associated with active (suppressed) air-sea interaction over the cold tongue/the Intertropical Convergence Zone complex, as well as more (less) intensive oceanic thermocline feedback, favoring the CT (WP) El Nino development. The preceding westerly wind signal and air-sea interaction differences may be responsible for the predication skill difference with higher (lower) overall hindcast skill for the CT (WP) El Nino in the Climate Forecast System of National Centers for Environmental Prediction. Our model experiments show that, in addition to the tropics, the eastern Pacific, North America and North Atlantic are the major regions having robust climate differences between the CT and WP El Ninos. Nevertheless, the climate contrasts seem not robust over the Eurasian continent. Also, the frequency increase of the WP El Nino in the recent decades may not be directly connected with the linear trend of the tropical climate. (orig.)

  15. Relationship between Process, form and Representation in the Design Environment of 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bülent Onur TURAN

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Research in design and design methodologies began to appear in industrialized societies in the 1950s and 1960s and design, as an act been described in various ways. After this period, examination of, and debates over the contents and components of design, as well as such topics as the thinking process of the designer, gradually increased and in this context new theories and methods emerged. Today, these examinations and debates have gained a new dimension in terms of developments in science and technology, particularly with the involvement of computer environment and computational technologies in the design process. This work is focused on the interactive transformations between the process, form and representation which determine contemporary architectural discourse.

  16. Visual word form familiarity and attention in lateral difference during processing Japanese Kana words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, A; Sukigara, M

    2000-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between familiarity and laterality in reading Japanese Kana words. In two divided-visual-field experiments, three- or four-character Hiragana or Katakana words were presented in both familiar and unfamiliar scripts, to which subjects performed lexical decisions. Experiment 1, using three stimulus durations (40, 100, 160 ms), suggested that only in the unfamiliar script condition was increased stimulus presentation time differently affected in each visual field. To examine this lateral difference during the processing of unfamiliar scripts as related to attentional laterality, a concurrent auditory shadowing task was added in Experiment 2. The results suggested that processing words in an unfamiliar script requires attention, which could be left-hemisphere lateralized, while orthographically familiar kana words can be processed automatically on the basis of their word-level orthographic representations or visual word form. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  17. Polyethylene encapsulatin of nitrate salt wastes: Waste form stability, process scale-up, and economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalb, P.D.; Heiser, J.H. III; Colombo, P.

    1991-07-01

    A polyethylene encapsulation system for treatment of low-level radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes has been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Polyethylene has several advantages compared with conventional solidification/stabilization materials such as hydraulic cements. Waste can be encapsulated with greater efficiency and with better waste form performance than is possible with hydraulic cement. The properties of polyethylene relevant to its long-term durability in storage and disposal environments are reviewed. Response to specific potential failure mechanisms including biodegradation, radiation, chemical attack, flammability, environmental stress cracking, and photodegradation are examined. These data are supported by results from extensive waste form performance testing including compressive yield strength, water immersion, thermal cycling, leachability of radioactive and hazardous species, irradiation, biodegradation, and flammability. The bench-scale process has been successfully tested for application with a number of specific ''problem'' waste streams. Quality assurance and performance testing of the resulting waste form confirmed scale-up feasibility. Use of this system at Rocky Flats Plant can result in over 70% fewer drums processed and shipped for disposal, compared with optimal cement formulations. Based on the current Rocky Flats production of nitrate salt per year, polyethylene encapsulation can yield an estimated annual savings between $1.5 million and $2.7 million, compared with conventional hydraulic cement systems. 72 refs., 23 figs., 16 tabs

  18. Parallel processing in the brain’s visual form system: An fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihito eShigihara

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We here extend and complement our earlier time-based, magneto-encephalographic (MEG, study of the processing of forms by the visual brain (Shigihara and Zeki, 2013 with a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study, in order to better localize the activity produced in early visual areas when subjects view simple geometric stimuli of increasing perceptual complexity (lines, angles, rhomboids constituted from the same elements (lines. Our results show that all three categories of form activate all three visual areas with which we were principally concerned (V1, V2, V3, with angles producing the strongest and rhomboids the weakest activity in all three. The difference between the activity produced by angles and rhomboids was significant, that between lines and rhomboids was trend significant while that between lines and angles was not. Taken together with our earlier MEG results, the present ones suggest that a parallel strategy is used in processing forms, in addition to the well-documented hierarchical strategy.

  19. The forming process of magnesium alloy for Japanese home electric components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takara, A. [Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Kadoma, Osaka (Japan); Higashi, K. [Osaka Prefecture Univ., Sakai, Osaka (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    Magnesium alloys have replaced resins as a material for the components of electronic products such as cell phone and notebook personal computer mainly, because of their lightness and rigidity. Thin walls, a complicated shape, and high appearance quality are all needed in the external parts. Die-casting and injection molding are the main method of manufacturing magnesium alloy parts. The optimal cast conditions and mold design have been investigated in order that a few defects such as surface cracks and mold cavities in casting parts would be reduced. Instead of cast, plastic forming technologies such as warm drawing and hot forging have been developed to form thinner walls and less defects. Plastic formability of magnesium alloy in hot working is dependent on a grain size of material. The material with fine grains has advantage of being formed at high strain rate. The characteristics of forming processes of magnesium parts for Japanese home electric appliances are compared in the viewpoint of quality, cost, and productivity. (orig.)

  20. Process for forming thin film, heat treatment process of thin film sheet, and heat treatment apparatus therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, S.

    1984-01-01

    The invention provides a process for forming a magnetic thin film on a base film, a heat treatment process of a thin film sheet consisting of the base film and the magnetic thin film, and an apparatus for performing heat treatment of the thin film sheet. Tension applied to the thin film sheet is substantially equal to that applied to the base film when the magnetic thin film is formed thereon. Then, the thin film sheet is treated with heat. The thin film sheet is heated with a given temperature gradient to a reactive temperature at which heat shrinkage occurs, while the tension is being applied thereto. Thereafter, the thin film sheet to which the tension is still applied is cooled with substantially the same temperature gradient as applied in heating. The heat treatment apparatus has a film driving unit including a supply reel, a take-up reel, a drive source and guide rollers; a heating unit including heating plates, heater blocks and a temperature controller for heating the sheet to the reactive temperature; and a heat insulating unit including a thermostat and another temperature controller for maintaining the sheet at the nonreactive temperature which is slightly lower than the reactive temperature

  1. The CMS COLD BOX

    CERN Multimedia

    Brice, Maximilien

    2015-01-01

    The CMS detector is built around a large solenoid magnet. This takes the form of a cylindrical coil of superconducting cable that generates a field of 3.8 Tesla: about 100,000 times the magnetic field of the Earth. To run, this superconducting magnet needs to be cooled down to very low temperature with liquid helium. Providing this is the job of a compressor station and the so-called “cold box”.

  2. Collection and application of by-product formed in e-b flue gas treatment process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.; Tyminski, B.; Zakrzewska-Trznadel, G.; Tokunaga, O.; Machi, S.

    1998-01-01

    In the e-b process SO 2 and NO x are converted into ammonium sulphate and ammonium nitrate, which condenses from gas phase in the form of submicrone particles. These salts are a valuable fertilizer and should be removed from cleaned gas. Bag filter, ESP and wet gravel bed filter were applied for collecting of salt particles in pilot plant facilities. Up to now ESP is considered to be the best filtration method of aerosols formed after irradiation of flue gas. Collected salts after granulation may be used as a fertilizer enriching soil in nitrogen and sulphur or as a component of mixed fertilizer. Analysis of by-products from different e-b pilot plants confirms that it does not contain any harmful substances like heavy metals and fulfill all standards for commercial fertilizers. Also field experiments show that the by-products have the same properties as a commercial fertilizer

  3. Precipitation of Scale-Forming Species During Processing of High-Level Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Hobbs, David T.; Parker, Kent E.; McCready, David E.

    2004-01-01

    High-level wastes from fuel-reprocessing operations are being evaporated at the DOE Savannah River Site to concentrate the liquids to about 30 to 40% of their original volume before they are discharged into a holding tank. Recently, the operation of one of the evaporators became progressively more difficult due to more frequent buildup of limited solubility aluminosilicate compounds resulting in the shutdown of the evaporator. Our research objectives were to identify and characterize the chemistry and microstructure of these scale-forming species and to determine the kinetics of formation and transformation of these solids under evaporator conditions. The data we obtained from these tests showed that hydroxide concentration and process temperature are the key factors that control the rate of formation and transformation of the scale forming solids such as zeolite A, sodalite and cancrinite

  4. Method for Forming Pulp Fibre Yarns Developed by a Design-driven Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiia-Maria Tenhunen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and inexpensive method for producing water-stable pulp fibre yarns using a deep eutectic mixture composed of choline chloride and urea (ChCl/urea was developed in this work. Deep eutectic solvents (DESs are eutectic mixtures consisting of two or more components that together have a lower melting point than the individual components. DESs have been previously studied with respect to cellulose dissolution, functionalisation, and pre-treatment. This new method uses a mixture of choline chloride and urea, which is used as a swelling and dispersing agent for the pulp fibres in the yarn-forming process. Although the pulp seemed to form a gel when dispersed in ChCl/urea, the ultrastructure of the pulp was not affected. To enable water stability, pulp fibres were crosslinked by esterification using polyacrylic acid. ChCl/urea could be easily recycled and reused by distillation. The novel process described in this study enables utilisation of pulp fibres in textile production without modification or dissolution and shortening of the textile value chain. An interdisciplinary approach was used, where potential applications were explored simultaneously with material development from process development to the early phase prototyping.

  5. Management by the process of forming of personality qualities of students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Kowalewskyy

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The new approach is considered to the process of forming of personality qualities of students from positions of the guided system. A management object is presented in an aggregate with a managing subsystem as an open system. The bifurcation phenomena are watched in an educational process. In an experiment took part 326 students in age 17-20 years. The system of pedagogical technologies, able to provide forming of personality qualities of graduating student of higher educational establishment is certain. It is certain that this system allow in the compressed terms to adapt oneself to the corporate culture of firm-employer. Introduction is recommended in practice of preparation of students of complex special fitness of the programs. Underline, that these programs are directed on complex achievement of indexes of physical development and spiritual level. It is marked that the use of synergetics approach in modern practical activity of higher school is instrumental in enriching of educational educate process the methods of pedagogical co-operation.

  6. Hygiene Aspects of the Biogas Process with Emphasis on Spore-Forming Bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagge, Elisabeth

    2009-07-01

    Biogas is a renewable source of energy which can be obtained from processing of biowaste. The digested residues can be used as fertiliser. Biowaste intended for biogas production contains pathogenic micro-organisms. A pre-pasteurisation step at 70 deg C for 60 min before anaerobic digestion reduces non spore-forming bacteria such as Salmonella spp. To maintain the standard of the digested residues it must be handled in a strictly hygienic manner to avoid recontamination and re-growth of bacteria. The risk of contamination is particularly high when digested residues are transported in the same vehicles as the raw material. However, heat treatment at 70 deg C for 60 min will not reduce spore-forming bacteria such as Bacillus spp. and Clostridium spp. Spore-forming bacteria, including those that cause serious diseases, can be present in substrate intended for biogas production. The number of species and the quantity of Bacillus spp. and Clostridium spp. in manure, slaughterhouse waste and in samples from different stages during the biogas process were investigated. The number of species of clostridia seemed to decrease following digestion, likewise the quantity. However, Bacillus spp. seemed to pass unaffected through the biogas process. In laboratory-scale experiments the effects on clostridia during pasteurisation and digestion were investigated. Pathogenic clostridia were inoculated in substrates from homogenisation tanks and digester tanks. The inoculated clostridia remained after pasteurisation, but the impacts of digestion differ between different species. Culture followed by identification of C. chauvoei by PCR in samples from cattle died from blackleg, is faster and safer than culture followed by biochemical identification of C. chauvoei. However, for environmental samples the PCR method is not practically applicable for detection of C. chauvoei. To avoid spreading of diseases via biogas plants when digested residues are spread on arable land, a pasteurisation

  7. Ordering of Nb3Sn layer formed in the bronze process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, S.K.; Nagpal, K.C.; Narlikar, A.G.

    1986-01-01

    The work reported here suggests that the ordering of superconducting Nb 3 Sn compound layers formed in the bronze process is much more intriguing than previously assumed. Various possible mechanisms of ordering of the layers have been examined in conjunction with the observed data on short duration annealed samples. The analysis suggests the ordering to be governed by a sequential operation of both Ist and IInd order kinetics, and seems to fall in line with the studies on disordered bulk samples annealed for long durations. (author)

  8. Working Place as an Organisational Form of the Process of Labour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amosov Oleg Yu.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve efficient functioning of modern production based on application of complex equipment and technology, which is characterised with a big number of internal production links, it is necessary to have an accurate organisation of the working place. The article considers the working place notion not from the position of a portion of space, which is adjusted for performance of production functions by a worker, but as an organisational form of the process of labour, which integrates its following components: organisational, technical, economic, social security of labour and intellectualisation of labour.

  9. Studying properties of carbonaceous reducers and process of forming primary titanium slags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. Balgabekov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available When smelting a rich titanium slag the most suitable are low-ash reducers, and the studies revealed the suitability for this purpose of special coke and coal. An important property of a reducer is its specific resistance. Therefore there were carried out studies for measuring electric resistance of briquettes consisting of ilmenite concentrate and different carbonaceous reducers. It is recommended to jointly smelt the briquetted and powdered burden (the amount of the powdered burden varies form 20 tо 50 %, this leads to the increase of technical-economic indicators of the process.

  10. The interactive alphabet with augmented reality as a form of involving children in educational process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir D. Sekerin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Research objective: to prove the expediency of using technologies with augmented reality in educational process of children in order to increase the level of their involvement and to improve the efficiency of educational process. Materials and methods. The information base of the research was made by scientific publications, information and analytical reviews, periodicals, monographs, information placed in the Internet network, concerning practical application of technologies with augmented reality in educational process, descriptive and comparative methods of analysis form the methodical basis of this research. Results. It is shown that in educational process of children it is expedient to use the modern technological achievements allowing organizing productive interactions and relationship of the students among themselves and with teachers, lecturers. Educational, business, role-playing games, discussions promoting acceleration of acquiring  a new experience and receiving new knowledge are the perspective formats of realizing the educational process. The world of augmented reality has the following properties: combines the real and virtual, interacts in real time mode, and functions in three-dimensional space. The advantages of the Interactive alphabet on the basis of the augmented reality technology are as follows: 1 security of strong emotional responses; 2 the involvement and interactivity promoting steady memorizing; 3 possibilities of interaction with the artificial world by means of gadgets; 4 Digital and offline communication; 5 possibility of carrying out virtual lessons. One of the main features of virtual reality is the feeling of participation and the opportunity to observe everything from the first person. It makes expedient to carry out lessons entirely in the virtual reality. Achievement of full involvement in educational process promotes increase of motivation and progress in knowledge acquisition.  The use of the augmented

  11. Constitutive modeling for analysis and design of aluminum sheet forming processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlat, F.; Chung, K.; Yoon, J-W.; Choi, S-H.

    2000-01-01

    Finite element modeling (FEM) technology is one of the most powerful tools used to design new products, i.e. appliances, automotive, rigid packaging and aerospace parts, etc., and processes. However, FEM users need data and models to characterize the materials used to fabricate the new products. In fact, they need more information than the traditional and standard yield strength, ultimate strength, elongation, etc. Constitutive models and their associated coefficients represent a new way to describe material properties, a way that can be used by FEM users. In order to help manufacturers use more aluminum alloy sheet in their products, appropriate material models are needed to analyze and design specifically for these materials. This work describes a methodology that provides phenomenological constitutive equations based on three main microstructure components of aluminum alloys: dislocation density, second-phase particles and crystallographic texture. Examples of constitutive equations and their applications to numerical sheet forming process analysis and design are provided in this work. (author)

  12. Acquisition of material properties in production for sheet metal forming processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heingärtner, Jörg; Hora, Pavel; Neumann, Anja; Hortig, Dirk; Rencki, Yasar

    2013-01-01

    In past work a measurement system for the in-line acquisition of material properties was developed at IVP. This system is based on the non-destructive eddy-current principle. Using this system, a 100% control of material properties of the processed material is possible. The system can be used for ferromagnetic materials like standard steels as well as paramagnetic materials like Aluminum and stainless steel. Used as an in-line measurement system, it can be configured as a stand-alone system to control material properties and sort out inapplicable material or as part of a control system of the forming process. In both cases, the acquired data can be used as input data for numerical simulations, e.g. stochastic simulations based on real world data

  13. Modelling and simulation of the consolidation behavior during thermoplastic prepreg composites forming process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, H.; Hamila, N.; Boisse, P.

    2017-10-01

    Pre-impregnated thermoplastic composites have recently attached increasing interest in the automotive industry for their excellent mechanical properties and their rapid cycle manufacturing process, modelling and numerical simulations of forming processes for composites parts with complex geometry is necessary to predict and optimize manufacturing practices, especially for the consolidation effects. A viscoelastic relaxation model is proposed to characterize the consolidation behavior of thermoplastic prepregs based on compaction tests with a range of temperatures. The intimate contact model is employed to predict the evolution of the consolidation which permits the microstructure prediction of void presented through the prepreg. Within a hyperelastic framework, several simulation tests are launched by combining a new developed solid shell finite element and the consolidation models.

  14. Reactivity of two hydrate forms of europium(3) ethylenediaminetetraacetate in the processes of central ion substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikitenko, S.I.; Martynenko, L.I.; Pechurova, N.I.

    1985-01-01

    Kinetics of central ion substitution in the system EuA - -Cu 2+ , where A 4- -ethylenediaminetetraacetate (pH 6.0, t=25-55 deg C), has been studied spectrophotometrically. It is shown, that the form EuA(H 2 O) 3 - is more reactive as compared with EuA(H 2 O) 2 - . It is found, that equilibrium constant of the process EuA(H 2 O) 3 - reversible EuA(H 2 O) 2 - (1) equals 1 at t=36.2 deg C. The values ΔH and ΔS of the process (1), constituting 13.0+-3.2 kJ/mol and 41.8+-5.5 J/molxdeg respectively, are calculated

  15. Superplastic forming of 7475 Al sheet after friction stir processing (FSP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, M.; Bingel, W.H.; Fuller, C. [Rockwell Scientific Co., Thousand Oaks, CA (United States); Barnes, A.J. [Superform USA, Riverside, CA (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Since the invention of friction stir welding (FSW) in 1991, an increasing number of successful applications have been found for this unique solid-state welding technique. More recently, attention has been given to utilizing the mechanics of friction stirring to thermo-mechanically modify the microstructure of aluminum alloys to create or enhance superplasticity. Until now, superplasticity induced by friction stir processing (FSP) has only been demonstrated in small samples and evaluated by hot tensile elongation testing. The present work describes what we believe to be the first biaxial testing and full size component superplastic forming of friction stir processed aluminum sheet. The remarkable formability demonstrated in these 'first time' trials is described in detail. (orig.)

  16. Finite Element Simulation of Sheet Metal Forming Process Using Local Interpolation for Tool Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hama, Takayuki; Takuda, Hirohiko; Takamura, Masato; Makinouchi, Akitake; Teodosiu, Cristian

    2005-01-01

    Treatment of contact between a sheet and tools is one of the most difficult problems to deal with in finite-element simulations of sheet forming processes. In order to obtain more accurate tool models without increasing the number of elements, this paper describes a new formulation for contact problems using interpolation proposed by Nagata for tool surfaces. A contact search algorithm between sheet nodes and the interpolated tool surfaces was developed and was introduced into the static-explicit elastoplastic finite-element method code STAMP3D. Simulations of a square cup deep drawing process with a very coarsely discretized punch model were carried out. The simulated results showed that the proposed algorithm gave the proper drawn shape, demonstrating the validity of the proposed algorithm

  17. Process for forming a nickel foil with controlled and predetermined permeability to hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhaupt, Darell E.

    1981-09-22

    The present invention provides a novel process for forming a nickel foil having a controlled and predetermined hydrogen permeability. This process includes the steps of passing a nickel plating bath through a suitable cation exchange resin to provide a purified nickel plating bath free of copper and gold cations, immersing a nickel anode and a suitable cathode in the purified nickel plating bath containing a selected concentration of an organic sulfonic acid such as a napthalene-trisulfonic acid, electrodepositing a nickel layer having the thickness of a foil onto the cathode, and separating the nickel layer from the cathode to provide a nickel foil. The anode is a readily-corrodible nickel anode. The present invention also provides a novel nickel foil having a greater hydrogen permeability than palladium at room temperature.

  18. Process for forming a nickel foil with controlled and predetermined permeability to hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelhaupt, D. E.

    1981-01-01

    The present invention provides a novel process for forming a nickel foil having a controlled and predetermined hydrogen permeability. This process includes the steps of passing a nickel plating bath through a suitable cation exchange resin to provide a purified nickel plating bath free of copper and gold cations, immersing a nickel anode and a suitable cathode in the purified nickel plating bath containing a selected concentration of an organic sulfonic acid such as a napthalene-trisulfonic acid, electrodepositing a nickel layer having the thickness of a foil onto the cathode, and separating the nickel layer from the cathode to provide a nickel foil. The anode is a readilycorrodible nickel anode. The present invention also provides a novel nickel foil having a greater hydrogen permeability than palladium at room temperature

  19. A novel scalable manufacturing process for the production of hydrogel-forming microneedle arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutton, Rebecca E M; Larrañeta, Eneko; Kearney, Mary-Carmel; Boyd, Peter; Woolfson, A David; Donnelly, Ryan F

    2015-10-15

    A novel manufacturing process for fabricating microneedle arrays (MN) has been designed and evaluated. The prototype is able to successfully produce 14×14 MN arrays and is easily capable of scale-up, enabling the transition from laboratory to industry and subsequent commercialisation. The method requires the custom design of metal MN master templates to produce silicone MN moulds using an injection moulding process. The MN arrays produced using this novel method was compared with centrifugation, the traditional method of producing aqueous hydrogel-forming MN arrays. The results proved that there was negligible difference between either methods, with each producing MN arrays with comparable quality. Both types of MN arrays can be successfully inserted in a skin simulant. In both cases the insertion depth was approximately 60% of the needle length and the height reduction after insertion was in both cases approximately 3%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of High-Pressure Processing at Low Temperature and Nisin on Listeria innocua Survival and Sensory Preference of Dry-Cured Cold-Smoked Salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebow, Noelle K; DesRocher, Lisa D; Younce, Frank L; Zhu, Mei-Jun; Ross, Carolyn F; Smith, Denise M

    2017-12-01

    Cold-smoked salmon (CSS) production lacks a validated kill step for Listeria monocytogenes. Although Listeria spp. are reduced by nisin or high-pressure processing (HPP), CSS muscle discoloration is often observed after HPP. Effects of nisin and low-temperature HPP on L. innocua survival (nonpathogenic surrogate for L. monocytogenes), spoilage organism growth, color, and sensory preference and peelability of CSS were studied. Cold-smoked sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) fillets ± nisin (10 μg/g) were inoculated with a 3-strain L. innocua cocktail, vacuum-packaged, frozen at - 30 °C, and high-pressure processed in an ice slurry within an insulated sleeve. Initial experiments indicated that nisin and HPP for 120 s at 450 MPa (N450) and 600 MPa (N600) were most effective against L. innocua, and thus were selected for further storage studies. L. innocua in N450 and N600-treated CSS was reduced 2.63 ± 0.15 and 3.99 ± 0.34 Log CFU/g, respectively, immediately after HPP. L. innocua and spoilage growth were not observed in HPP-treated CSS during 36 d storage at 4 °C. Low-temperature HPP showed a smaller increase in lightness of CSS compared to ambient-temperature HPP performed in previous studies. Sensory evaluation indicated that overall liking of CSS treated with N450 and N600 were preferred over the control by 61% and 62% of panelists, respectively (P high-risk ready-to-eat product that may be contaminated with L. monocytogenes. Results showed that nisin combined with high-pressure processing at low temperature, reduced the population of Listeria and controlled the spoilage organisms during storage. As an added benefit, high-pressure processing at low temperature may reduce lightening of the salmon flesh, leading to enhanced consumer preference. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  1. Effects of radiation processing and some natural anti fungus treatments on navel orange fruits during cold storag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-salhy, F.T.A.; Khafagy, S.A.A.; Zaied, N.S.

    2005-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effects of gamma rays at 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 KGy, hot water at 46 degree c for 5 minutes and long side fungicide treatments such as pro-gib plus (GA3) at 200 ppm and garlic oil at 500 ppm with fruit waxing on storage of W ashington navel o range fruits at 7 ± 1 degree C and 90% RH. The effect was evaluated on physical and chemical properties of treated fruits during 2003 and 2004. The data showed that hot water and natural fungicide treatments greatly affected fruit decay and weight loss % . Irradiation treatment induced slight effect on the juice, total soluble solids (TSS), acidity percentage, long side TSS/acid ratio and L-ascorbic acid concentration. The results suggested that radiation treatment was superior to the treatments in affecting chemical constituents of navel oranges and the applied radiation dose at 0.5 and 1.0 KGy are quite enough to be used for extending the shelf-life of fruits and improving their chemical contents. Meanwhile, hot water and fungicide treatments improved the shelf-life of fruits rather than irradiation and come the second for chemical properties of fruits during cold storage

  2. Dry coating of solid dosage forms: an overview of processes and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foppoli, Anastasia Anna; Maroni, Alessandra; Cerea, Matteo; Zema, Lucia; Gazzaniga, Andrea

    2017-12-01

    Dry coating techniques enable manufacturing of coated solid dosage forms with no, or very limited, use of solvents. As a result, major drawbacks associated with both organic solvents and aqueous coating systems can be overcome, such as toxicological, environmental, and safety-related issues on the one hand as well as costly drying phases and impaired product stability on the other. The considerable advantages related to solventless coating has been prompting a strong research interest in this field of pharmaceutics. In the article, processes and applications relevant to techniques intended for dry coating are analyzed and reviewed. Based on the physical state of the coat-forming agents, liquid- and solid-based techniques are distinguished. The former include hot-melt coating and coating by photocuring, while the latter encompass press coating and powder coating. Moreover, solventless techniques, such as injection molding and three-dimensional printing by fused deposition modeling, which are not purposely conceived for coating, are also discussed in that they would open new perspectives in the manufacturing of coated-like dosage forms.

  3. Disaster forming reasons on fire explosion at an asphalt solidification processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Kazutoshi; Li Yongfu; Sun Jinhua

    2002-01-01

    Disaster forming reasons on fire explosion accident at an asphalt solidification processing facility of the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation formed on 1997 was elucidated. Mixture of salts composing of nitrates, nitrites, and so on with asphalt was filled into a drum at about 180 centigrade, and generated disaster during its natural cooling after about 20 hours. Its reason consisted in change of production condition to make liquid wastes of batches 29 and 30 producing the mixture to contain about 7.7 g/L of salts and liquid wastes supplying rate to reduce to about 160 mL/h. The liquid wastes were mixed with asphalt heated to temperature of about 250 centigrade, when it contained a lot of NaHCO 3 into the salts particles on filling the mixture because moisture was evaporated more rapidly under pressure of phosphates based on the change of production condition. NaHCO 3 directly decomposed to make the salts particles porous and to form a weak redox reaction based on boundary reaction appearing at temperature range from 160 to 200 centigrades. By this reaction, the mixture filled into drum generated thermal accumulation to fire the mixture. (G.K.)

  4. The multi-objective genetic algorithm optimization, of a superplastic forming process, using ansys®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grebenişan Gavril

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the industrial practice, the product is intended to be flawless, with no technological difficulty in making the profile shapes. If this product results without defects, then any Finite Elements Method (FEM based simulation can support that technology. A technology engineer does not propose, very often to analyze the simulation of the design technology, but rather to try to optimize a solution that he feels feasible. Experiments used as the basis for numerical optimization analysis support their research in the field of superplastic forming. Determining the influence of input parameters on the output parameters, Determining the optimal shape of the product and the optimal initial geometry, the prediction of the cracks and possibly the fractures, the prediction of the final thickness of the sheet, these are the objectives of the research and optimization for this project. The results of the numerical simulations have been compared with the measurements made on parts and sections of the parts obtained by superplastic forming. Of course, the consistency of the results, costs, benefits, and times required to perform numerical simulations are evaluated, but they are not objectives for optimizing the superplastic forming process.

  5. Influence of Forming Conditions on Springback in V-bending Process Using Servo Press

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Shinya; Takahashi, Susumu

    To improve fuel efficiency, aluminum alloys and high tensile steel sheets are increasingly being applied to automotive body parts. However, it is difficult to obtain accurate dimensions of formed parts. Therefore, technologies for reducing springback for the part formed by press are strongly demanded. It is said that the die holding time at the bottom dead center of a servo press slide can affect springback. To clarify the forming mechanisms of this phenomenon, a V bending test with a servo press was performed. Aluminum alloys sheets are applied as specimens. The location of press slide was measured by linear scales. It was found that the movement of the slide in a slide motion program differs from the actual movement of the slide. It is important to confirm if the slide is located in the position specified in the program. In addition, a springback angle measurement system is proposed that uses laser displacement measurement apparatus. Because it avoids human error, the proposed measurement system is more accurate than the image processing method.

  6. Influence of pre-heating on the surface modification of powder-metallurgy processed cold-work tool steel during laser surface melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Šturm, Roman, E-mail: roman.sturm@fs.uni-lj.si [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Aškerčeva 6, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Štefanikova, Maria [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Aškerčeva 6, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Steiner Petrovič, Darja [Institute of Metals and Technology, Lepi pot 11, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2015-01-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Heat-treatment protocol for laser surface melting of cold-work tool steel is proposed. • The laser melted steel surface is hardened, and morphologically modified. • The pre-heating of substrate creates a crack-and pore-free steel surface. • The optimum pre-heating temperature is determined to be 350 °C. • Using pre-heating the quantity of retained austenite is reduced. - Abstract: In this study we determine the optimal parameters for surface modification using the laser surface melting of powder-metallurgy processed, vanadium-rich, cold-work tool steel. A combination of steel pre-heating, laser surface melting and a subsequent heat treatment creates a hardened and morphologically modified surface of the selected high-alloy tool steel. The pre-heating of the steel prior to the laser surface melting ensures a crack- and pore-free modified surface. Using a pre-heating temperature of 350 °C, the extremely fine microstructure, which typically evolves during the laser-melting, became slightly coarser and the volume fraction of retained austenite was reduced. In the laser-melted layer the highest values of microhardness were achieved in the specimens where a subsequent heat treatment at 550 °C was applied. The performed thermodynamic calculations were able to provide a very valuable assessment of the liquidus temperature and, especially, a prediction of the chemical composition as well as the precipitation and dissolution sequence for the carbides.

  7. Geometrical Optimization Of Clinch Forming Process Using The Response Surface Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oudjene, M.; Ben-Ayed, L.; Batoz, J.-L.

    2007-01-01

    The determination of optimum tool shapes in clinch forming process is needed to achieve the required high quality of clinch joints. The design of the tools (punch and die) is crucial since the strength of the clinch joints is closely correlated to the tools geometry. To increase the strength of clinch joints, an automatic optimization procedure is developed. The objective function is defined in terms of the maximum value of the tensile force, obtained by separation of the sheets. Feasibility constraints on the geometrical parameters are also taken into account. First, a Python Script is used to generate the ABAQUS finite element model, to run the computations and post-process results, which are exported in an ASCII file. Then, this ASCII file is read by a FORTRAN program, in which the response surface approximation and SQP algorithm are implemented. The results show the potential interest of the developed optimization procedure towards the improvement of the strength of the clinch forming joints to tensile loading

  8. Hot forming and quenching pilot process development for low cost and low environmental impact manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Roger W.; Foster, Alistair; Herrmann Praturlon, Anja

    2017-09-01

    The Hot Forming and in-tool Quenching (HFQ®) process is a proven technique to enable complex shaped stampings to be manufactured from high strength aluminium. Its widespread uptake for high volume production will be maximised if it is able to wholly amortise the additional investment cost of this process compared to conventional deep drawing techniques. This paper discusses the use of three techniques to guide some of the development decisions taken during upscaling of the HFQ® process. Modelling of Process timing, Cost and Life-cycle impact were found to be effective tools to identify where development budget could be focused in order to be able to manufacture low cost panels of different sizes from many different alloys in a sustainable way. The results confirm that raw material cost, panel trimming, and artificial ageing were some of the highest contributing factors to final component cost. Additionally, heat treatment and lubricant removal stages played a significant role in the overall life-cycle assessment of the final products. These findings confirmed development priorities as novel furnace design, fast artificial ageing and low-cost alloy development.

  9. Hybridization of crime fiction genre forms as a representation of contemporary cultural process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Krapivnyk

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The research is devoted to the consideration of hybridization of crime fiction forms in the contemporary cultural process. The work showed that, from the point of view of the culture development, sophistication of the classical crime fiction formula, hybridization of detective fiction with other fiction genres is a natural process of the strive to vary і diversify, combine genres, styles and means of text presentation (from a hard copy or audio book to video and computer games, which is related to the crisis of the Modernity project epoch, where fiction genres were quite self­sufficient, and the transition to the postmodern (or updated Modern, where the human consciousness is dominated by the processes of simultaneous specialization and combination of various industries, in other words, divergence and convergence. It may be claimed that a detective text as one of the most popular genres in the contemporary information culture, in particular, because it reveals secrets, clarifies vague things and assists in discovering the truth, transforms so that there is a process of detectivization of different text products of the cultural industry. At the same time the very detective formula as a component of various genres becomes a tool for playing and influencing the consciousness of a contemporary person.

  10. Study on Pot Forming of Induction Heater Type Rice Cookers by Forging Cast Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Masayuki; Yamaguchi, Mitsugi; Ohashi, Osamu

    This paper describes a study result on pot fabrication by the forging cast process of stainless steel with aluminum. Rice cooked with the new bowl-shaped pot for the induction heater type rice cookers is better tasting than rice cooked with the conventional cylindrical one, due to the achievement of better heat conduction and convection. The conventional pot is made of the clad sheet, consisting of stainless steel and aluminum. However, it is rather difficult to form a bowl shape from the clad sheet, primarily due to the problem of a material spring back. The fabrication of a new type of a pot was made possible by means of the adoption of a forging cast process instead of the clad sheet. In this process, iron powder is inserted between stainless steel and aluminum in order to alleviate the large difference on the coefficient of expansion between each material. It was made clear that the application of two kinds of iron particle, namely 10 μm size powder on the stainless steel side and 44 μm on the aluminum side, enables the joints to become strong enough. The joint strength of the new pot by this fabrication process was confirmed by the tests of the shear strength and the fatigue tests together with the stress analysis.

  11. Setting Mechanical Properties of High Strength Steels for Rapid Hot Forming Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löbbe, Christian; Hering, Oliver; Hiegemann, Lars; Tekkaya, A. Erman

    2016-01-01

    Hot stamping of sheet metal is an established method for the manufacturing of light weight products with tailored properties. However, the generally-applied continuous roller furnace manifests two crucial disadvantages: the overall process time is long and a local setting of mechanical properties is only feasible through special cooling techniques. Hot forming with rapid heating directly before shaping is a new approach, which not only reduces the thermal intervention in the zones of critical formability and requested properties, but also allows the processing of an advantageous microstructure characterized by less grain growth, additional fractions (e.g., retained austenite), and undissolved carbides. Since the austenitization and homogenization process is strongly dependent on the microstructure constitution, the general applicability for the process relevant parameters is unknown. Thus, different austenitization parameters are analyzed for the conventional high strength steels 22MnB5, Docol 1400M, and DP1000 in respect of the mechanical properties. In order to characterize the resulting microstructure, the light optical and scanning electron microscopy, micro and macro hardness measurements, and the X-ray diffraction are conducted subsequent to tensile tests. The investigation proves not only the feasibility to adjust the strength and ductility flexibly, unique microstructures are also observed and the governing mechanisms are clarified. PMID:28773354

  12. Process simulation and experimental validation of Hot Metal Gas Forming with new press hardening steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, A.; Reuther, F.; Neumann, S.; Albert, A.; Landgrebe, D.

    2017-09-01

    One field in the work of the Fraunhofer Institute for Machine Tools and Forming Technology IWU in Chemnitz is industry applied research in Hot Metal Gas Forming, combined with press hardening in one process step. In this paper the results of investigations on new press hardening steels from SSAB AB (Docol®1800 Bor and Docol®2000 Bor) are presented. Hot tensile tests recorded by the project partner (University of West Bohemia, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering) were used to create a material model for thermo-mechanical forming simulations. For this purpose the provided raw data were converted into flow curve approximations of the real stress-real strain-curves for both materials and afterwards integrated in a LS-DYNA simulation model of Hot Metal Gas Forming with all relevant boundary conditions and sub-stages. Preliminary experimental tests were carried out using a tool at room temperature to permit evaluation of the forming behaviour of Docol 1800 Bor and Docol 2000 Bor tubes as well as validation of the simulation model. Using this demonstrator geometry (outer diameter 57 mm, tube length 300 mm, wall thickness 1.5 mm), the intention was to perform a series of tests with different furnace temperatures (from 870 °C to 1035 °C), maximum internal pressures (up to 67 MPa) and pressure build-up rates (up to 40 MPa/s) to evaluate the formability of Docol 1800 Bor and Docol 2000 Bor. Selected demonstrator parts produced in that way were subsequently analysed by wall thickness and hardness measurements. The tests were carried out using the completely modernized Dunkes/AP&T HS3-1500 hydroforming press at the Fraunhofer IWU. In summary, creating a consistent simulation model with all relevant sub-stages was successfully established in LS-DYNA. The computation results show a high correlation with the experimental data regarding the thinning behaviour. The Hot Metal Gas Forming of the demonstrator geometry was successfully established as well. Different hardness values

  13. The Cold Chain Logistics for Perishable Agricultural Products in China

    OpenAIRE

    Hou Yanfang; Xie Dong; Wang Jianbo

    2015-01-01

    This study introduces concepts of the agricultural product cold chain logistics and domestic and international researches. Also, the study discusses issues of Chinese agricultural cold chain logistics in the development process as the following aspects: the dividing of cold chain logistics market, refrigeration hardware facilities, third-party cold chain logistics development, the level of cold chain technologies, cold chain logistics professionals and the legal system and the standard system...

  14. Initiating the Validation of CCIM Processability for Multi-phase all Ceramic (SYNROC) HLW Form: Plan for Test BFY14CCIM-C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maio, Vince [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-08-01

    This plan covers test BFY14CCIM-C which will be a first–of–its-kind demonstration for the complete non-radioactive surrogate production of multi-phase ceramic (SYNROC) High Level Waste Forms (HLW) using Cold Crucible Induction Melting (CCIM) Technology. The test will occur in the Idaho National Laboratory’s (INL) CCIM Pilot Plant and is tentatively scheduled for the week of September 15, 2014. The purpose of the test is to begin collecting qualitative data for validating the ceramic HLW form processability advantages using CCIM technology- as opposed to existing ceramic–lined Joule Heated Melters (JHM) currently producing BSG HLW forms. The major objectives of BFY14CCIM-C are to complete crystalline melt initiation with a new joule-heated resistive starter ring, sustain inductive melting at temperatures between 1600 to 1700°C for two different relatively high conductive materials representative of the SYNROC ceramic formation inclusive of a HLW surrogate, complete melter tapping and pouring of molten ceramic material in to a preheated 4 inch graphite canister and a similar canister at room temperature. Other goals include assessing the performance of a new crucible specially designed to accommodate the tapping and pouring of pure crystalline forms in contrast to less recalcitrant amorphous glass, assessing the overall operational effectiveness of melt initiation using a resistive starter ring with a dedicated power source, and observing the tapped molten flow and subsequent relatively quick crystallization behavior in pans with areas identical to standard HLW disposal canisters. Surrogate waste compositions with ceramic SYNROC forming additives and their measured properties for inductive melting, testing parameters, pre-test conditions and modifications, data collection requirements, and sampling/post-demonstration analysis requirements for the produced forms are provided and defined.

  15. Research on the intermediate process of a free-piston linear generator from cold start-up to stable operation: Numerical model and experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Huihua; Guo, Chendong; Jia, Boru; Zuo, Zhengxing; Guo, Yuyao; Roskilly, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The intermediate process of free-piston linear generator is investigated for the first time. • “Gradually switching strategy” is the best strategy in the intermediate process. • Switching at the top dead center position timing has the least influences on free-piston linear generator. • After the intermediate process, the operation parameters value is smaller than those before the intermediate process. - Abstract: The free-piston linear generator (FPLG) has more merits than the traditional reciprocating engines (TRE), and has been under extensive investigation. Researchers mainly investigated on the starting process and the stable generating process of FPLG, while there has not been any report on the intermediate process from the engine cold start-up to stable operation process. Therefore, this paper investigated the intermediate process of the FPLG in terms of switching strategy and switching position based on simulation results and test results. Results showed that when the motor force of the linear electric machine (LEM) declined gradually from 100% to 0% with an interval of 50%, and then to a resistance force in the opposite direction of piston velocity (generator mode), the operation parameters of the FPLG showed minimal changes. Meanwhile, the engine operated more smoothly when the LEM switched its working mode from a motor to a generator at the piston dead center, compared with that at the middle stroke or a random switching time. More importantly, after the intermediate process, the operation parameters of FPLG were smaller than that before the intermediate process. As a result, a gradual motor/generator switching strategy was recommended and the LEM was suggested to switch its working mode when the piston arrived its dead center in order to achieve smooth engine operation.

  16. Mechanism and Influencing Factors of Iron Nuggets Forming in Rotary Hearth Furnace Process at Lower Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hongliang; Duan, Dongping; Chen, Siming; Yuan, Peng

    2015-10-01

    In order to improve the efficiency of slag and iron separation, a new idea of "the separation of slag (solid state) and iron (molten state) in rotary hearth furnace process at lower temperature" is put forward. In this paper, the forming process of iron nuggets has been investigated. Based on those results, the forming mechanisms and influencing factors of iron nugget at low temperature are discussed experimentally using an electric resistance furnace simulating a rotary hearth furnace process. Results show that the reduction of iron ore, carburization of reduced iron, and the composition and quantity of slag are very important for producing iron nuggets at lower temperature. Reduction reaction of carbon-containing pellets is mainly at 1273 K and 1473 K (1000 °C and 1200 °C). When the temperature is above 1473 K (1200 °C), the metallization rate of carbon-containing pellets exceeds 93 pct, and the reduction reaction is substantially complete. Direct carburization is the main method for carburization of reduced iron. This reaction occurs above 1273 K (1000 °C), with carburization degree increasing greatly at 1473 K and 1573 K (1200 °C and 1300 °C) after particular holding times. Besides, to achieve the "slag (solid state) and iron (molten state) separation," the melting point of the slag phase should be increased. Slag (solid state) and iron (molten state) separation can be achieved below 1573 K (1300 °C), and when the holding time is 20 minutes, C/O is 0.7, basicity is less than 0.5 and a Na2CO3 level of 3 pct, the recovery rate of iron can reach 90 pct, with a proportion of iron nuggets more than 3.15 mm of nearly 90 pct. This study can provide theoretical and technical basis for iron nugget production.

  17. 17 CFR 249.507 - Form 7-M, consent to service of process by an individual nonresident broker-dealer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Form 7-M, consent to service of process by an individual nonresident broker-dealer. 249.507 Section 249.507 Commodity and... Forms for Statements Made in Connection With Exempt Tender Offers § 249.507 Form 7-M, consent to service...

  18. 17 CFR 249.509 - Form 9-M, consent to service of process by a partnership nonresident broker-dealer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Form 9-M, consent to service of process by a partnership nonresident broker-dealer. 249.509 Section 249.509 Commodity and... Forms for Statements Made in Connection With Exempt Tender Offers § 249.509 Form 9-M, consent to service...

  19. Folding and membrane insertion of the pore-forming peptide gramicidin occur as a concerted process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Matthew R; Damianoglou, Angeliki; Rodger, Alison; Dafforn, Timothy R

    2008-11-07

    Many antibiotic peptides function by binding and inserting into membranes. Understanding this process provides an insight into the fundamentals of both membrane protein folding and antibiotic peptide function. For the first time, in this work, flow-aligned linear dichroism (LD) is used to study the folding of the antibiotic peptide gramicidin. LD provides insight into the combined processes of peptide folding and insertion and has the advantage over other similar techniques of being insensitive to off-membrane aggregation events. By combining LD data with conventional measurements of protein fluorescence and circular dichroism, the mechanism of gramicidin insertion is elucidated. The mechanism consists of five separately assignable steps that include formation of a water-insoluble gramicidin aggregate, dissociation from the aggregate, partitioning of peptide to the membrane surface, oligomerisation on the surface and concerted insertion and folding of the peptide to the double-helical form of gramicidin. Measurement of the rates of each step shows that although changes in the fluorescence signal cease 10 s after the initiation of the process, the insertion of the peptide into the membrane is actually not complete for a further 60 min. This last membrane insertion phase is only apparent by measurement of LD and circular dichroism signal changes. In summary, this study demonstrates the importance of multi-technique approaches, including LD, in studies of membrane protein folding.

  20. Cold nuclear fusion device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogino, Shinji.

    1991-01-01

    Selection of cathode material is a key to the attainment of cold nuclear fusion. However, there are only few reports on the cathode material at present and an effective development has been demanded. The device comprises an anode and a cathode and an electrolytic bath having metal salts dissolved therein and containing heavy water in a glass container. The anode is made of gold or platinum and the cathode is made of metals of V, Sr, Y, Nb, Hf or Ta, and a voltage of 3-25V is applied by way of a DC power source between them. The metal comprising V, Sr, Y, Nb, Hf or Ta absorbs deuterium formed by electrolysis of heavy water effectively to cause nuclear fusion reaction at substantially the same frequency and energy efficiency as palladium and titanium. Accordingly, a cold nuclear fusion device having high nuclear fusion generation frequency can be obtained. (N.H.)

  1. Examining leisure event opportunities of Isle Royale National Park: bridging the gap between social process and spatial form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chad D. Pierskalla; Dorothy H. Anderson; David W. Lime

    2000-01-01

    To manage various recreation opportunities, managers and planners must consider the spatial and temporal scale of social process when identifying opportunities on base maps. However, analyses of social process and spatial form are often treated as two distinct approaches--sociological and geographical approaches. A sociologist might control for spatial form by adopting...

  2. European Neutrons form Parasitic Research to Global Strategy: Realizing Plans for a Transnational European Spallation Source in the Wake of the Cold War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiserfeld, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Studies of Big Science have early on focused on instrumentation and scientific co-operation in large organizations, later on to take into account symbolic values and specific research styles while more recently also involving the relevance of commercial interests and economic development as well as the assimilation of research traditions. In accordance with these transformed practices, this presentation will analyze how an organization with the purpose of realizing a Big-Science facility, The European Spallation Source, has successfully managed to present the project as relevant to different national and international policy-makers, to the community of European neutron researchers as well as to different industrial interests. All this has been achieved in a research-policy environment, which has been the subject to drastic transformations, from calls to engage researchers from the former eastern bloc in the early 1990s via competition with American and Asian researchers at the turn of the century 2000 to intensified demands on business applications. During this process, there has also been fierce competition between different potential sites in the U.K., Germany, Spain, Hungary and Sweden, not once, but twice. The project has in addition been plagued by withdrawals of key actors as well as challenging problems in the field of spallation-source construction. Nevertheless, the European Spallation Source has survived from the early 1990s until today, now initiating the construction process at Lund in southern Sweden. In this presentation, the different measures taken and arguments raised by the European Spallation Source project in order to realize the facility will be analysed. Especially the different designs of the European Spallation Source will be analysed as responses to external demands and threats.

  3. Engine Cold Start

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    matching pre- calibrated amplifier • BEI Shaft Encoder (0.2 CAD) • Wolff Instrumented Injector The high speed data was recorded and post-processed by...14. ABSTRACT These fuels were used for testing a GEP 6.5L turbocharged V-8 diesel engine operation in a cold box. This engine architecture is...Z39.18 UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED v EXECUTIVE SUMMARY A fuel’s cetane number is very important for the operation of modern diesel

  4. The communicative process of weather forecasts issued in the probabilistic form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Raimondi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the main purposes of weather forecasting is that of protecting weather-sensitive human activities. Forecasts issued in the probabilistic form have a higher informative content, as opposed to deterministic one, since they bear information that give also a measure of their own uncertainty. However, in order to make an appropriate and effective use of this kind of forecasts in an operational setting, communication becomes significatively relevant.The present paper, after having briefly examined the weather forecasts concerning Hurricane Charley (August 2004, tackles the issue of the communicative process in detail.The bottom line of this study is that for the weather forecast to achieve its best predictive potential, an in-depth analysis of communication issues is necessary.

  5. The communicative process of weather forecasts issued in the probabilistic form (Italian original version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Raimondi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the main purposes of weather forecasting is that of protecting weather-sensitive human activities. Forecasts issued in the probabilistic form have a higher informative content, as opposed to deterministic one, since they bear information that give also a measure of their own uncertainty. However, in order to make an appropriate and effective use of this kind of forecasts in an operational setting, communication becomes significatively relevant.The present paper, after having briefly examined the weather forecasts concerning Hurricane Charley (August 2004, tackles the issue of the communicative process in detail.The bottom line of this study is that for the weather forecast to achieve its best predictive potential, an in-depth analysis of communication issues is necessary.

  6. Superconducting properties of single-crystal Nb sphere formed by large-undercooling solidification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeya, H.; Sung, Y.S.; Hirata, K.; Togano, K

    2003-10-15

    An electrostatic levitation (ESL) system has been used for investigating undercooling effects on superconducting materials. In this report, preliminary experiments on Nb (melting temperature: T{sub m}=2477 deg. C) have been performed by melting Nb in levitation using 150 and 250 W Nd-YAG lasers. Since molten Nb is solidified without any contact in a high vacuum condition, a significantly undercooled state up to 400 deg. C is maintained before recalescence followed by solidification. Spherical single crystals of Nb are formed by the ESL process due to the suppression of heterogeneous nucleation. The field dependence of magnetization of Nb shows a reversible behavior as an ideal type II superconductor, implying that it contains almost no flux-pinning centers.

  7. Effect of continuum damage mechanics on spring back prediction in metal forming processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayebi, Ali; Shahabi, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    The influence of considering the variations in material properties was investigated through continuum damage mechanics according to the Lemaitre isotropic unified damage law to predict the bending force and spring back in V-bending sheet metal forming processes, with emphasis on Finite element (FE) simulation considerations. The material constants of the damage model were calibrated through a uniaxial tensile test with an appropriate and convenient repeating strategy. Holloman’s isotropic and Ziegler’s linear kinematic hardening laws were employed to describe the behavior of a hardening material. To specify the ideal FE conditions for simulating spring back, the effect of the various numerical considerations during FE simulation was investigated and compared with the experimental outcome. Results indicate that considering continuum damage mechanics decreased the predicted bending force and improved the accuracy of spring back prediction.

  8. Characterising the acoustoplastic effect in an ultrasonically assisted metal forming process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, S A; Lucas, M

    2012-01-01

    An investigation through experiments and finite element analysis (FEA) has been carried out to study the effects of applying ultrasonic oscillations to the lower platen in forming tests for two different metals. Previous research has shown that by applying ultrasonic vibrations to the lower platen in compression tests on pure aluminium specimens, the resulting stress-strain relationship can be characterised by a temporary effective softening of the material properties during intervals of ultrasonic excitation. The current research demonstrates this effect in two different metal specimens and additionally shows that finite element simulations can be used to model the behaviour in terms of both volume and surface effects. In this study, the ultrasonic excitation was introduced both prior to and post yield and the process simulations were developed in the FEA software Abaqus. The data recorded from experiments and predicted by the FEA illustrate how ultrasonically assisted metal forming can result in a lowering of the static flow stress, consistent with the effective material softening proposed previously in studies of the acoustoplastic effect.

  9. Consonant and Vowel Processing in Word Form Segmentation: An Infant ERP Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Von Holzen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Segmentation skill and the preferential processing of consonants (C-bias develop during the second half of the first year of life and it has been proposed that these facilitate language acquisition. We used Event-related brain potentials (ERPs to investigate the neural bases of early word form segmentation, and of the early processing of onset consonants, medial vowels, and coda consonants, exploring how differences in these early skills might be related to later language outcomes. Our results with French-learning eight-month-old infants primarily support previous studies that found that the word familiarity effect in segmentation is developing from a positive to a negative polarity at this age. Although as a group infants exhibited an anterior-localized negative effect, inspection of individual results revealed that a majority of infants showed a negative-going response (Negative Responders, while a minority showed a positive-going response (Positive Responders. Furthermore, all infants demonstrated sensitivity to onset consonant mispronunciations, while Negative Responders demonstrated a lack of sensitivity to vowel mispronunciations, a developmental pattern similar to previous literature. Responses to coda consonant mispronunciations revealed neither sensitivity nor lack of sensitivity. We found that infants showing a more mature, negative response to newly segmented words compared to control words (evaluating segmentation skill and mispronunciations (evaluating phonological processing at test also had greater growth in word production over the second year of life than infants showing a more positive response. These results establish a relationship between early segmentation skills and phonological processing (not modulated by the type of mispronunciation and later lexical skills.

  10. Effect of thermal and mechanical parameter’s damage numerical simulation cycling effects on defects in hot metal forming processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Amri, Abdelouahid; el yakhloufi Haddou, Mounir; Khamlichi, Abdellatif

    2017-10-01

    Damage mechanisms in hot metal forming processes are accelerated by mechanical stresses arising during Thermal and mechanical properties variations, because it consists of the materials with different thermal and mechanical loadings and swelling coefficients. In this work, 3D finite element models (FEM) are developed to simulate the effect of Temperature and the stresses on the model development, using a general purpose FE software ABAQUS. Explicit dynamic analysis with coupled Temperature displacement procedure is used for a model. The purpose of this research was to study the thermomechanical damage mechanics in hot forming processes. The important process variables and the main characteristics of various hot forming processes will also be discussed.

  11. Nuclear Waste Vitrification Efficiency: Cold Cap Reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, A.A.; Hrma, P.R.; Pokorny, R.

    2011-01-01

    The cost and schedule of nuclear waste treatment and immobilization are greatly affected by the rate of glass production. Various factors influence the performance of a waste-glass melter. One of the most significant, and also one of the least understood, is the process of batch melting. Studies are being conducted to gain fundamental understanding of the batch reactions, particularly those that influence the rate of melting, and models are being developed to link batch makeup and melter operation to the melting rate. Batch melting takes place within the cold cap, i.e., a batch layer floating on the surface of molten glass. The conversion of batch to glass consists of various chemical reactions, phase transitions, and diffusion-controlled processes. These include water evaporation (slurry feed contains as high as 60% water), gas evolution, the melting of salts, the formation of borate melt, reactions of borate melt with molten salts and with amorphous oxides (Fe 2 O 3 and Al 2 O 3 ), the formation of intermediate crystalline phases, the formation of a continuous glass-forming melt, the growth and collapse of primary foam, and the dissolution of residual solids. To this list we also need to add the formation of secondary foam that originates from molten glass but accumulates on the bottom of the cold cap. This study presents relevant data obtained for a high-level-waste melter feed and introduces a one-dimensional (1D) mathematical model of the cold cap as a step toward an advanced three-dimensional (3D) version for a complete model of the waste glass melter. The 1D model describes the batch-to-glass conversion within the cold cap as it progresses in a vertical direction. With constitutive equations and key parameters based on measured data, and simplified boundary conditions on the cold-cap interfaces with the glass melt and the plenum space of the melter, the model provides sensitivity analysis of the response of the cold cap to the batch makeup and melter

  12. Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse KidsHealth / For Teens / Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse ... resfriado Why Do People Use Cough and Cold Medicines to Get High? There's an ingredient in many ...

  13. Principles of Forming the State Budget of Ukraine: Process and System Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakhozhay Kostyantyn V.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is considering the theoretical and methodological instruments of the State Budget of Ukraine and in view of this providing a more extended characteristic of the principles of the budget system, taking into account the role of the country’s main financial plan at five classical levels of economy. As a result of the research, there determined the necessity of supplementing the legislatively approved principles of the State Budget of Ukraine with the newly introduced principles of economic security and social protection of the population. In order to improve the theoretical and methodological instruments of the State Budget of Ukraine and the visibility of its impact on socio-economic processes under current conditions of the society development as well as to determine its role in the socio-economic space, it is suggested to consider the role of the main financial plan for mega-, macro-, meso-, micro- and nano-levels. Further practical application of the introduced principles of forming the State Budget of Ukraine on the basis of the process and system approach will enable development of many sectors of the national economy; increase the flow of investment; promote political stability; reduce the inflation, unemployment; increase production and exports; reduce the budget deficit and public debt; affect the increase in the financial potential and gold reserves of the state.

  14. Study of Ion Beam Forming Process in Electric Thruster Using 3D FEM Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tao; Jin, Xiaolin; Hu, Quan; Li, Bin; Yang, Zhonghai

    2015-11-01

    There are two algorithms to simulate the process of ion beam forming in electric thruster. The one is electrostatic steady state algorithm. Firstly, an assumptive surface, which is enough far from the accelerator grids, launches the ion beam. Then the current density is calculated by theory formula. Secondly these particles are advanced one by one according to the equations of the motions of ions until they are out of the computational region. Thirdly, the electrostatic potential is recalculated and updated by solving Poisson Equation. At the end, the convergence is tested to determine whether the calculation should continue. The entire process will be repeated until the convergence is reached. Another one is time-depended PIC algorithm. In a global time step, we assumed that some new particles would be produced in the simulation domain and its distribution of position and velocity were certain. All of the particles that are still in the system will be advanced every local time steps. Typically, we set the local time step low enough so that the particle needs to be advanced about five times to move the distance of the edge of the element in which the particle is located.

  15. Analysis of metal forming processes by using physical modeling and new plastic similarity condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gronostajski, Z.; Hawryluk, M.

    2007-01-01

    In recent years many advances have been made in numerical methods, for linear and non-linear problems. However the success of them depends very much on the correctness of the problem formulation and the availability of the input data. Validity of the theoretical results can be verified by an experiment using the real or soft materials. An essential reduction of time and costs of the experiment can be obtained by using soft materials, which behaves in a way analogous to that of real metal during deformation. The advantages of using of the soft materials are closely connected with flow stress 500 to 1000 times lower than real materials. The accuracy of physical modeling depend on the similarity conditions between physical model and real process. The most important similarity conditions are materials similarity in the range of plastic and elastic deformation, geometrical, frictional and thermal similarities. New original plastic similarity condition for physical modeling of metal forming processes is proposed in the paper. It bases on the mathematical description of similarity of the flow stress curves of soft materials and real ones

  16. Cold vacuum drying facility design requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1999-01-01

    This document provides the detailed design requirements for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. Process, safety, and quality assurance requirements and interfaces are specified

  17. Cold vacuum drying facility design requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1999-07-01

    This document provides the detailed design requirements for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. Process, safety, and quality assurance requirements and interfaces are specified.

  18. A new mathematical process for the calculation of average forms of teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehl, A; Blanz, V; Hickel, R

    2005-12-01

    Qualitative visual inspections and linear metric measurements have been predominant methods for describing the morphology of teeth. No quantitative formulation exists for the description of dental features. The aim of this study was to determine and validate a mathematical process for calculation of the average form of first maxillary molars, including the general occlusal features. Stone replicas of 174 caries-free first maxillary molar crowns from young patients ranging from 6 to 9 years of age were measured 3-dimensionally with a laser scanning system at a resolution of approximately 100,000 points. Then, the average tooth was computed, which captured the common features of the molar's surface quantitatively. This new method adapts algorithms both from computer science and neuroscience to detect and associate the same features and same surface points (correspondences) between 1 reference tooth and all other teeth. In this study, the method was tested for 7 different reference teeth. The algorithm does not involve any prior knowledge about teeth and their features. Irrespective of the reference tooth used, the procedure yielded average teeth that showed nearly no differences (less than +/-30 microm). This approach provides a valid quantitative process for calculating 3-dimensional (3D) averages of occlusal surfaces of teeth even in the event of a high number of digitized surface points. Additionally, because this process detects and assigns point-wise feature correspondences between all library teeth, it may also serve as a basis for a more substantiated principal component analysis evaluating the main natural shape deviations from the 3D average.

  19. Cold fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bush, R.T.

    1991-01-01

    The transmission resonance model (TRM) is combined with some electrochemistry of the cathode surface and found to provide a good fit to new data on excess heat. For the first time, a model for cold fusion not only fits calorimetric data but also predicts optimal trigger points. This suggests that the model is meaningful and that the excess heat phenomenon claimed by Fleischmann and Pons is genuine. A crucial role is suggested for the overpotential and, in particular, for the concentration overpotential, i.e., the hydrogen overvoltage. Self-similar geometry, or scale invariance, i.e., a fractal nature, is revealed by the relative excess power function. Heat bursts are predicted with a scale invariance in time, suggesting a possible link between the TRM and chaos theory. The model describes a near-surface phenomenon with an estimated excess power yield of ∼1 kW/cm 3 Pd, as compared to 50 W/cm 3 of reactor core for a good fission reactor. Transmission resonance-induced nuclear transmutation, a new type of nuclear reaction, is strongly suggested with two types emphasized: transmission resonance-induced neutron transfer reactions yielding essentially the same end result as Teller's hypothesized catalytic neutron transfer and a three-body reaction promoted by standing de Broglie waves. In this paper suggestions for the anomalous production of heat, particles, and radiation are given

  20. Imaging with cold neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, E.H.; Kaestner, A.; Josic, L.; Hartmann, S.; Mannes, D.

    2011-01-01

    Neutrons for imaging purposes are provided mainly from thermal beam lines at suitable facilities around the world. The access to cold neutrons is presently limited to very few places only. However, many challenging options for imaging with cold neutrons have been found out, given by the interaction behavior of the observed materials with neutrons in the cold energy range (3-10 A). For absorbing materials, the interaction probability increases proportionally with the wavelength with the consequence of more contrast but less transmission with cold neutrons. Many materials are predominantly scattering neutrons, in particular most of crystalline structural materials. In these cases, cold neutrons play an important role by covering the energy range of the most important Bragg edges given by the lattice planes of the crystallites. This particular behavior can be used for at least two important aspects-choosing the right energy of the initial beam enables to have a material more or less transparent, and a direct macroscopic visualization of the crystalline structure and its change in a manufacturing process. Since 2006, PSI operates its second beam line for neutron imaging, where cold neutrons are provided from a liquid deuterium cold source (operated at 25 K). It has been designed to cover the most current aspects in neutron imaging research with the help of high flexibility. This has been done with changeable inlet apertures, a turbine based velocity selector, two beam positions and variable detector systems, satisfying the demands of the individual investigation. The most important detection system was found to be a micro-tomography system that enables studies in the presently best spatial resolution. In this case, the high contrast from the sample interaction process and the high detection probability for the cold neutrons combines in an ideal combination for the best possible performance. Recently, it was found out that the energy selective studies might become a