WorldWideScience

Sample records for cold energy utilization

  1. Performance of cryogenic thermoelectric generators in LNG cold energy utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Wei; Hu Peng; Chen Zeshao; Jia Lei

    2005-01-01

    The cold energy of liquefied natural gas (LNG) is generally wasted when the LNG is extracted for utilization. This paper proposes cryogenic thermoelectric generators to recover this cold energy. The theoretical performance of the generator has been analyzed. An analytical method and numerical method of calculation of the optimum parameters of the generator have been demonstrated

  2. Energetic recovery from LNG gasification plant : cold energy utilization in agro-alimentary industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messineo, A.; Panno, D.

    2009-01-01

    It is known how the complete gasification of liquefied natural gas (LNG) can return about 230 kWh/t of energy. Nevertheless out of 51 gasification plants in the world, only 31 of them are equipped with systems for the partial recovery of the available energy. At the moment most of these plants mainly produce electric energy; however the employment of the cold energy results very interesting, in fact, it can be recovered for agrofood transformation and conservation as well as for some loops in the cold chain. Cold energy at low temperatures requires high amounts of mechanical energy and it unavoidably increases as the required temperature diminishes. Cold energy recovery from LNG gasification would allow considerable energy and economic savings to these applications, as well as environmental benefits due to the reduction of climate-changing gas emissions. The task of this work is to assess the possibility to create around a gasification plant an industrial site for firms working on the transformation and conservation of agrofood products locally grown. The cold recovered from gasification would be distributed to those firms through an opportune liquid Co 2 network distribution capable of supplying the cold to the different facilities. A LNG gasification plant in a highly agricultural zone in Sicily would increase the worth of the agrofood production, lower transformation and conservation costs when compared to the traditional systems and bring economic and environmental benefits to the interested areas. [it

  3. A combined power cycle utilizing low-temperature waste heat and LNG cold energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Xiaojun; Che Defu

    2009-01-01

    This paper has proposed a combined power system, in which low-temperature waste heat can be efficiently recovered and cold energy of liquefied natural gas (LNG) can be fully utilized as well. This system consists of an ammonia-water mixture Rankine cycle and an LNG power generation cycle, and it is modelled by considering mass, energy and species balances for every component and thermodynamic analyses are conducted. The results show that the proposed combined cycle has good performance, with net electrical efficiency and exergy efficiency of 33% and 48%, respectively, for a typical operating condition. The power output is equal to 1.25 MWh per kg of ammonia-water mixture. About 0.2 MW of electrical power for operating sea water pumps can be saved. Parametric analyses are performed for the proposed combined cycle to evaluate the effects of key factors on the performance of the proposed combined cycle through simulation calculations. Results show that a maximum net electrical efficiency can be obtained as the inlet pressure of ammonia turbine increases and the peak value increases as the ammonia mass fraction increases. Exergy efficiency goes up with the increased ammonia turbine inlet pressure. With the ammonia mass fraction increases, the net electrical efficiency increases, whereas exergy efficiency decreases. For increasing LNG turbine inlet pressure or heat source temperature, there is also a peak of net electrical efficiency and exergy efficiency. With the increase of LNG gas turbine outlet pressure, exergy efficiency increases while net electrical efficiency drops

  4. Support for cold neutron utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kye Hong; Han, Young Soo; Choi, Sungmin; Choi, Yong; Kwon, Hoon; Lee, Kwang Hee

    2012-06-01

    - Support for experiments by users of cold neutron scattering instrument - Short-term training of current and potential users of cold neutron scattering instrument for their effective use of the instrument - International collaboration for advanced utilization of cold neutron scattering instruments - Selection and training of qualified instrument scientists for vigorous research endeavors and outstanding achievements in experiments with cold neutron - Research on nano/bio materials using cold neutron scattering instruments - Bulk nano structure measurement using small angle neutron scattering and development of analysis technique

  5. A conceptual demonstration of freeze desalination-membrane distillation (FD-MD) hybrid desalination process utilizing liquefied natural gas (LNG) cold energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2012-09-01

    The severe global water scarcity and record-high fossil oil price have greatly stimulated the research interests on new desalination technologies which can be driven by renewable energy or waste energy. In this study, a hybrid desalination process comprising freeze desalination and membrane distillation (FD-MD) processes was developed and explored in an attempt to utilize the waste cold energy released from re-gasification of liquefied natural gas (LNG). The concept of this technology was demonstrated using indirect-contact freeze desalination (ICFD) and direct-contact membrane distillation (DCMD) configurations. By optimizing the ICFD operation parameters, namely, the usage of nucleate seeds, operation duration and feed concentration, high quality drinkable water with a low salinity ∼0.144 g/L was produced in the ICFD process. At the same time, using the optimized hollow fiber module length and packing density in the DCMD process, ultra pure water with a low salinity of 0.062 g/L was attained at a condition of high energy efficiency (EE). Overall, by combining FD and MD processes and adopting the optimized operation parameters, the hybrid FD-MD system has been successfully demonstrated. A high total water recovery of 71.5% was achieved, and the water quality obtained met the standard for drinkable water. In addition, with results from specific energy calculation, it was proven that the hybrid process is an energy-saving process and utilization of LNG cold energy could greatly reduce the total energy consumption. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cold recovery during regasification of LNG part one: Cold utilization far from the regasification facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Rocca, Vincenzo

    2010-01-01

    The paper deals with cold recovery during LNG regasification. The applications analyzed pertain to the use in deep freezing agro food industry and in space air conditioning facilities in commercial sector (Supermarkets and Hypermarkets) of cold recovered from the regasification process. A modular LNG regasification unit is proposed having the regasification capacity of 2 BCM/year of gas and it is based on use of a Power Cycle working with Ethane, this unit allows operation of cold energy transfer, contained in LNG to be regasified, in a range of temperatures suitable for multipurpose use of cold, reducing regasification process irreversibility. Some electric energy is produced by the Power Cycle, but the purpose of the modular unit is to deliver cold suitable for industrial and commercial use in the proper temperature range utilizing Carbon dioxide as secondary fluid to transfer cold from regasification site to far end users. The subject is divided in two papers: this paper deals with facilities delivering cold released during LNG regasification and related pipeline facilities to transfer cold at far end users while the other paper pertains to analysis of end users applications. Results of a detailed thermodynamic and economic analysis demonstrate the suitability of the proposal.

  7. Strengthening power generation efficiency utilizing liquefied natural gas cold energy by a novel two-stage condensation Rankine cycle (TCRC) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao, Junjiang; Lin, Yan; Zhang, Ruixiang; Zhang, Ning; He, Gaohong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A two-stage condensation Rankine cycle (TCRC) system is proposed. • Net power output and thermal efficiency increases by 45.27% and 42.91%. • The effects of the condensation temperatures are analyzed. • 14 working fluids (such as propane, butane etc.) are compared. - Abstract: For the low efficiency of the traditional power generation system with liquefied natural gas (LNG) cold energy utilization, by improving the heat transfer characteristic between the working fluid and LNG, this paper has proposed a two-stage condensation Rankine cycle (TCRC) system. Using propane as working fluid, compared with the combined cycle in the conventional LNG cold energy power generation method, the net power output, thermal efficiency and exergy efficiency of the TCRC system are respectively increased by 45.27%, 42.91% and 52.31%. Meanwhile, the effects of the first-stage and second-stage condensation temperature and LNG vaporization pressure on the performance and cost index of the TCRC system (net power output, thermal efficiency, exergy efficiency and UA) are analyzed. Finally, using the net power output as the objective function, with 14 organic fluids (such as propane, butane etc.) as working fluids, the first-stage and second-stage condensation temperature at different LNG vaporization pressures are optimized. The results show that there exists a first-stage and second-stage condensation temperature making the performance of the TCRC system optimal. When LNG vaporization pressure is supercritical pressure, R116 has the best economy among all the investigated working fluids, and while R150 and R23 are better when the vaporization pressure of LNG is subcritical.

  8. Methanation process utilizing split cold gas recycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajbl, Daniel G.; Lee, Bernard S.; Schora, Jr., Frank C.; Lam, Henry W.

    1976-07-06

    In the methanation of feed gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen in multiple stages, the feed gas, cold recycle gas and hot product gas is mixed in such proportions that the mixture is at a temperature sufficiently high to avoid carbonyl formation and to initiate the reaction and, so that upon complete reaction of the carbon monoxide and hydrogen, an excessive adiabatic temperature will not be reached. Catalyst damage by high or low temperatures is thereby avoided with a process that utilizes extraordinarily low recycle ratios and a minimum of investment in operating costs.

  9. Energy utilization in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klassen, J.

    1976-04-01

    The situation of the energy supply of Canada is characterized by its geographic location and by the dispersal of the energy consumers over a wide area. At present, the energy supply leaving the successful CANDU nuclear energy programme out of account, is based mainly on crude oil, natural gas, and electricity as well as on coal imported from the USA. The targets of Canadian enery policies and energy research are stated as follows: a) Reducing and optimizing energy consumption, b) introducing district heating, and c) utilizing the extensive local coal deposits. (GG) [de

  10. Clean energy utilization technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honma, Takuya

    1992-01-01

    The technical development of clean energy including the utilization of solar energy was begun in 1973 at the time of the oil crisis, and about 20 years elapsed. Also in Japan, the electric power buying system by electric power companies for solar light electric power and wind electric power has been started in 1992, namely their value as a merchandise was recognized. As for these two technologies, the works of making the international standards and JIS were begun. The range of clean energy or natural energy is wide, and its kinds are many. The utilization of solar heat and the electric power generation utilizing waves, tide and geotherm already reached the stage of practical use. Generally in order to practically use new energy, the problem of price must be solved, but the price is largely dependent on the degree of spread. Also the reliability, durability and safety must be ensured, and the easiness of use, effectiveness and trouble-saving maintenance and operation are required. For the purpose, it is important to packaging those skillfully in a system. The cases of intelligent natural energy systems are shown. Solar light and wind electric power generation systems and the technology of transporting clean energy are described. (K.I.)

  11. Heat pipe based cold energy storage systems for datacenter energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Randeep; Mochizuki, Masataka; Mashiko, Koichi; Nguyen, Thang

    2011-01-01

    system concept. -- Highlights: → The paper presents novel concept for datacenter thermal management using heat-pipe based energy conservation system utilizing cold ambient energy. → Two type of system: ice storage and cold water storage has been identified and discussed. → Ice storage or two-phase system can provide long term storage and can be used as datacenter emergency support system. → Cold water or single-phase system can be employed as precooler for coolant before it is cooled by electrical chiller. → These two types of storage approaches can help to minimize chiller electrical load thus saving electricity and associated cost.

  12. COOLCEP (cool clean efficient power): A novel CO{sub 2}-capturing oxy-fuel power system with LNG (liquefied natural gas) coldness energy utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Na; Han, Wei [Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Lior, Noam [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6315 (United States); Liu, Meng [Division of Research and Environment Standardization, China National Institute of Standardization, Beijing 100080 (China)

    2010-02-15

    A novel liquefied natural gas (LNG) fueled power plant is proposed, which has virtually zero CO{sub 2} and other emissions and a high efficiency. The plant operates as a subcritical CO{sub 2} Rankine-like cycle. Beside the power generation, the system provides refrigeration in the CO{sub 2} subcritical evaporation process, thus it is a cogeneration system with two valued products. By coupling with the LNG evaporation system as the cycle cold sink, the cycle condensation process can be achieved at a temperature much lower than ambient, and high-pressure liquid CO{sub 2} can be withdrawn from the cycle without consuming additional power. Two system variants are analyzed and compared, COOLCEP-S and COOLCEP-C. In the COOLCEP-S cycle configuration, the working fluid in the main turbine expands only to the CO{sub 2} condensation pressure; in the COOLCEP-C cycle configuration, the turbine working fluid expands to a much lower pressure (near-ambient) to produce more power. The effects of some key parameters, the turbine inlet temperature and the backpressure, on the systems' performance are investigated. It was found that at the turbine inlet temperature of 900 C, the energy efficiency of the COOLCEP-S system reaches 59%, which is higher than the 52% of the COOLCEP-C one. The capital investment cost of the economically optimized plant is estimated to be about 750 EUR/kWe and the payback period is about 8-9 years including the construction period, and the cost of electricity is estimated to be 0.031-0.034 EUR/kWh. (author)

  13. COOLCEP (cool clean efficient power): A novel CO2-capturing oxy-fuel power system with LNG (liquefied natural gas) coldness energy utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Na; Lior, Noam; Liu, Meng; Han, Wei

    2010-01-01

    A novel liquefied natural gas (LNG) fueled power plant is proposed, which has virtually zero CO 2 and other emissions and a high efficiency. The plant operates as a subcritical CO 2 Rankine-like cycle. Beside the power generation, the system provides refrigeration in the CO 2 subcritical evaporation process, thus it is a cogeneration system with two valued products. By coupling with the LNG evaporation system as the cycle cold sink, the cycle condensation process can be achieved at a temperature much lower than ambient, and high-pressure liquid CO 2 can be withdrawn from the cycle without consuming additional power. Two system variants are analyzed and compared, COOLCEP-S and COOLCEP-C. In the COOLCEP-S cycle configuration, the working fluid in the main turbine expands only to the CO 2 condensation pressure; in the COOLCEP-C cycle configuration, the turbine working fluid expands to a much lower pressure (near-ambient) to produce more power. The effects of some key parameters, the turbine inlet temperature and the backpressure, on the systems' performance are investigated. It was found that at the turbine inlet temperature of 900 o C, the energy efficiency of the COOLCEP-S system reaches 59%, which is higher than the 52% of the COOLCEP-C one. The capital investment cost of the economically optimized plant is estimated to be about 750 EUR/kWe and the payback period is about 8-9 years including the construction period, and the cost of electricity is estimated to be 0.031-0.034 EUR/kWh.

  14. Energy utilities and the Internet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The chances for energy utilities in the Netherlands to present themselves on the Internet are briefly outlined. It appears that other businesses are ahead of the Dutch utilities in offering electronic services with respect to energy

  15. Hydrogen and energy utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hustadt, Daniel [Vattenfall Europe Innovation GmbH (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Renewable electricity generation plays one major role with the biggest share being wind energy. At the end of the year 2009 a wind power plant capacity of around 26 GW was installed in Germany. Several outlooks come to the conclusion that this capacity can be doubled in ten years (compare Figure 1). Additionally the German government has set a target of 26 GW installed off-shore capacity in North and Baltic Sea until 2030. At Vattenfall only a minor percentage of the electricity production comes from wind power today. This share will be increased up to 12% until 2030 following Vattenfall's strategy 'Making Electricity Clean'. This rapid development of wind power offers several opportunities but also means some challenges to Utilities. (orig.)

  16. The sun also can cold. In the summer, the adsorption chillers utilizes the capacity of solar thermal energy; Die Sonne kann auch kalt. Adsorptionskaeltemaschine lastet im Sommer die Solarthermie besser aus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, Andre [SorTec AG, Halle an der Saale (Germany)

    2013-06-15

    A combination of solar thermal systems with adsorption chillers from SorTech (Speyer, Federal Republic of Germany) enables an environmentally friendly and efficient recovery of coldness for the solar cooling of buildings by means of excess heat energy.

  17. Wind energy under cold climate conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maribo Pedersen, B.

    1999-03-01

    There is an increasing interest in wind energy production under different climatic conditions, among them cold climate and icing conditions. More and more wind turbines are being installed in cold climates and even adapted technology has been developed for that environment. Various national activities are going on in at least Finland, Canada, Italy, Sweden, etc. and international collaboration has been carried out within the European Union's Non-nuclear energy programme. Wind turbine operation is affected by both the cold temperatures and the formation of ice on the blades and the supporting structure. Cold temperatures can be handled by material selections known in other technical fields but to prevent icing, new techniques have to be - and have been - developed. Icing affects the reliability of anemometers, which concerns both turbine control and resource estimation, and changes the aerodynamics of the blades, which eventually stops the turbine. In addition, occasional icing events can locally affect public safety. The development of applied technology has entered some different paths and different solutions are tried out. As the applications are entering a commercial phase, these is a request to gather the experiences and monitor the reliability in a form that can be utilised by developers, manufactureres, consultants and other tenderers. The Topical Experts Meeting will focus on site classification, operational experiences, modelling and mesurements of ice induced loads and safety aspects. (EHS)

  18. Scheme of energy utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-04-01

    This scheme defines the objectives relative to the renewable energies and the rational use of the energy in the framework of the national energy policy. It evaluates the needs and the potentialities of the regions and preconizes the actions between the government and the territorial organizations. The document is presented in four parts: the situation, the stakes and forecasts; the possible actions for new measures; the scheme management and the regional contributions analysis. (A.L.B.)

  19. Environmental issues: I - Energy utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dincer, I.

    2001-01-01

    In this article, energy utilization and its major environmental impacts are discussed from the standpoint of sustainable development, including anticipated patterns of future energy use and consequent environmental issues and policies. Overall, the paper also examines several issues related to energy utilization, environment, sustainable development from both current and future perspectives, and energy use and its environmental impacts in the transportation sector. Finally, the conclusions and recommendations are presented in the form to be beneficial to energy scientists, engineers and energy policy makers. (author)

  20. Electric energy utilization and conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathy, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    Various aspects of electric energy utilization and conservation are discussed. First chapter reviews thermodynamic aspects of energy conservation. Subsequent chapters describe possibilities and methods of energy conservation in thermal power plants, airconditioning and ventilation systems, electric lighting systems, electric heating systems in industries, and railway electrification. Chapter 8 describes various modes of energy storage and compares their economies. The next chapter discusses various facets of energy economics and the last chapter discusses the practical aspects of energy conservation in different industries and power utilities. (M.G.B.). 100 refs

  1. Solar energy storage and utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, S. W.; Bloom, A. M.

    1976-01-01

    A method of storing solar energy in the ground for heating residential buildings is described. The method would utilize heat exchanger pipes with a circulating fluid to transfer the energy beneath the surface as well as to extract the stored energy.

  2. Utilization of cold neutron beams at intermediate flux reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.D.

    1992-01-01

    With the advent of cold neutron beam (CNB) facilities at U.S. reactors [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in 1991; Cornell University and the University of Texas at Austin, anticipated in 1992], it is appropriate to reexamine the types of research for which they are likely to be best suited or uniquely suited. With the exception of a small-angle neutron scattering facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory, there has been no prior experience in the United States with such beams, but they have been extensively used at European reactors where cold neutron sources and neutron guides were developed some years age. This paper does not discuss specialized cases such as ultracold neutrons or very high flux facilities such as the Institute Laue-Langevin ractor and the proposed advanced neutron source. Instead, it concentrates on potential utilization of CNBs at intermediate-flux reactors such as at Cornell and Texas, i.e., in the 1-MW range and operated <24 h a day

  3. Wind energy utilization: A bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Bibliography cites documents published to and including 1974 with abstracts and references, and is indexed by topic, author, organization, title, and keywords. Topics include: Wind Energy Potential and Economic Feasibility, Utilization, Wind Power Plants and Generators, Wind Machines, Wind Data and Properties, Energy Storage, and related topics.

  4. New Energy Utility Business Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potocnik, V.

    2016-01-01

    Recently a lot of big changes happened in the power sector: energy efficiency and renewable energy sources are quickly progressing, distributed or decentralised generation of electricity is expanding, climate change requires reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and price volatility and incertitude of fossil fuel supply is common. Those changes have led to obsolescence of vertically integrated business models which have dominated in energy utility organisations for a hundred years and new business models are being introduced. Those models take into account current changes in the power sector and enable a wider application of energy efficiency and renewable energy sources, especially for consumers, with the decentralisation of electricity generation and complying with the requirements of climate and environment preservation. New business models also solve the questions of financial compensations for utilities because of the reduction of centralised energy generation while contributing to local development and employment.(author).

  5. Geothermal energy utilization and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Dickson, Mary H; Fanelli, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Geothermal energy refers to the heat contained within the Earth that generates geological phenomena on a planetary scale. Today, this term is often associated with man's efforts to tap into this vast energy source. Geothermal Energy: utilization and technology is a detailed reference text, describing the various methods and technologies used to exploit the earth's heat. Beginning with an overview of geothermal energy and the state of the art, leading international experts in the field cover the main applications of geothermal energy, including: electricity generation space and district heating space cooling greenhouse heating aquaculture industrial applications The final third of the book focuses upon environmental impact and economic, financial and legal considerations, providing a comprehensive review of these topics. Each chapter is written by a different author, but to a set style, beginning with aims and objectives and ending with references, self-assessment questions and answers. Case studies are includ...

  6. Energy conversion and utilization technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The DOE Energy Conversion and Utilization Technologies (ECUT) Program continues its efforts to expand the generic knowledge base in emerging technological areas that support energy conservation initiatives by both the DOE end-use sector programs and US private industry. ECUT addresses specific problems associated with the efficiency limits and capabilities to use alternative fuels in energy conversion and end-use. Research is aimed at understanding and improving techniques, processes, and materials that push the thermodynamic efficiency of energy conversion and usage beyond the state of the art. Research programs cover the following areas: combustion, thermal sciences, materials, catalysis and biocatalysis, and tribology. Six sections describe the status of direct contact heat exchange; the ECUT biocatalysis project; a computerized tribology information system; ceramic surface modification; simulation of internal combustion engine processes; and materials-by-design. These six sections have been indexed separately for inclusion on the database. (CK)

  7. Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-05-01

    Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents provides materials that clarify the authority for Federal agencies to enter into utility energy services contracts (UESCs), as well as sample documents and resources to ease utility partnership contracting.

  8. Direct utilization of geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, J. W.

    2010-01-01

    The worldwide application of geothermal energy for direct utilization is reviewed. This paper is based on the world update for direct-use presented at the World Geothermal Congress 2010 in Bali, Indonesia (WGC2010) which also includes material presented at three world geothermal congresses in Italy, Japan and Turkey (WGC95, WGC2000 and WGC2005). This report is based on country update papers prepared for WGC2010 and data from other sources. Final update papers were received from 70 countries of which 66 reported some direct utilization of geothermal energy for WGC2010. Twelve additional countries were added to the list based on other sources of information. The 78 countries having direct utilization of geothermal energy, is a significant increase from the 72 reported in 2005, the 58 reported in 2000, and the 28 reported in 1995. An estimate of the installed thermal power for direct utilization at the end of 2009, reported from WGC2010 is 48,493 MW th , almost a 72 % increased over the 2005 data, growing at a compound rate of 11.4% annually with a capacity factor of 0.28. The thermal energy used is 423,830 TJ/year (117,740 GWh/yr), about a 55% increase over 2005, growing at a compound rate of 9.2% annually. The distribution of thermal energy used by category is approximately 47.2% for ground-source heat pumps, 25.8% for bathing and swimming (including balneology), 14.9% for space heating (of which 85% is for district heating), 5.5% for greenhouses and open ground heating, 2.8% for industrial process heating, 2.7% for aquaculture pond and raceway heating, 0.4% for agricultural drying, 0.5% for snow melting and cooling, and 0.2% for other uses. Energy savings amounted to 250 million barrels (38 million tonnes) of equivalent oil annually, preventing 33 million tonnes of carbon and 107 million tonnes of CO 2 being released to the atmosphere which includes savings in geothermal heat pump cooling (compared to using fuel oil to generate electricity). (author)

  9. Direct Utilization of Geothermal Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. Lund

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The worldwide application of geothermal energy for direct utilization is reviewed. This paper is based on the world update for direct-use presented at the World Geothermal Congress 2010 in Bali, Indonesia (WGC2010 [1] which also includes material presented at three world geothermal congresses in Italy, Japan and Turkey (WGC95, WGC2000 and WGC2005. This report is based on country update papers prepared for WGC2010 and data from other sources. Final update papers were received from 70 countries of which 66 reported some direct utilization of geothermal energy for WGC2010. Twelve additional countries were added to the list based on other sources of information. The 78 countries having direct utilization of geothermal energy, is a significant increase from the 72 reported in 2005, the 58 reported in 2000, and the 28 reported in 1995. An estimate of the installed thermal power for direct utilization at the end of 2009, reported from WGC2010 is 48,493 MWt, almost a 72 % increased over the 2005 data, growing at a compound rate of 11.4% annually with a capacity factor of 0.28. The thermal energy used is 423,830 TJ/year (117,740 GWh/yr, about a 55% increase over 2005, growing at a compound rate of 9.2% annually. The distribution of thermal energy used by category is approximately 47.2% for ground-source heat pumps, 25.8% for bathing and swimming (including balneology, 14.9% for space heating (of which 85% is for district heating, 5.5% for greenhouses and open ground heating, 2.8% for industrial process heating, 2.7% for aquaculture pond and raceway heating, 0.4% for agricultural drying, 0.5% for snow melting and cooling, and 0.2% for other uses. Energy savings amounted to 250 million barrels (38 million tonnes of equivalent oil annually, preventing 33 million tonnes of carbon and 107 million tonnes of CO2 being release to the atmosphere which includes savings in geothermal heat pump cooling (compared to using fuel oil to generate electricity.

  10. Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Karen; Vasquez, Deb

    2017-01-01

    The Federal Energy Management Program's 'Utility Energy Service Contracts: Enabling Documents' provide legislative information and materials that clarify the authority for federal agencies to enter into utility energy service contracts, or UESCs.

  11. Utilization of the organ care system as ex-vivo lung perfusion after cold storage transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohite, P N; Maunz, O; Popov, A-F; Zych, B; Patil, N P; Simon, A R

    2015-11-01

    The Organ Care System (OCS) allows perfusion and ventilation of the donor lungs under physiological conditions. Ongoing trials to compare preservation with OCS Lung with standard cold storage do not include donor lungs with suboptimal gas exchange and donor lungs treated with OCS following cold storage transportation. We present a case of a 48-yr-old man who received such lungs after cold storage transportation treated with ex-vivo lung perfusion utilizing OCS. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Heat to electricity conversion by cold carrier emissive energy harvesters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strandberg, Rune

    2015-01-01

    This paper suggests a method to convert heat to electricity by the use of devices called cold carrier emissive energy harvesters (cold carrier EEHs). The working principle of such converters is explained and theoretical power densities and efficiencies are calculated for ideal devices. Cold carrier EEHs are based on the same device structure as hot carrier solar cells, but works in an opposite way. Whereas a hot carrier solar cell receives net radiation from the sun and converts some of this radiative heat flow into electricity, a cold carrier EEH sustains a net outflux of radiation to the surroundings while converting some of the energy supplied to it into electricity. It is shown that the most basic type of cold carrier EEHs have the same theoretical efficiency as the ideal emissive energy harvesters described earlier by Byrnes et al. In the present work, it is also shown that if the emission from the cold carrier EEH originates from electron transitions across an energy gap where a difference in the chemical potential of the electrons above and below the energy gap is sustained, power densities slightly higher than those given by Byrnes et al. can be achieved

  13. Utilization of atomic energy in Asia and nuclear nonproliferation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Makoto

    1995-01-01

    The economical growth in East Asia is conspicuous as it was called East Asian Miracle, and also the demand of energy increased rapidly. The end of Cold War created the condition for the further development in this district. Many countries advanced positively the plan of atomic energy utilization, and it can be said that the smooth progress of atomic energy utilization is the key for the continuous growth in this district in view of the restriction of petroleum resources and its price rise in future and the deterioration of global environment. The nuclear nonproliferation treaty (NPT) has accomplished large role, but also its limitation became clear. At present, there is not the local security system in Asia, but in order that the various countries in Asia make the utilization of atomic energy and the security compatible, it is useful to jointly develop safety technology, execute security measures and form the nuclear fuel cycle as Asia. Energy and environmental problems in Asia are reported. Threat is essentially intention and capability, and the regulation only by capability regardless of intention brings about unrealistic result. The limitation of the NPT is discussed. The international relation of interdependence deepends after Cold War, and the security in Asia after Cold War is considered. As the mechanism of forming the nuclear fuel cycle for whole Asia, it is desirable to realize ASIATOM by accumulating the results of possible cooperation. (K.I.)

  14. Utility Energy Services Contracts Lessons Learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-08-01

    This document describes best practices in the use of Utility Energy Services Contracts. The recommendations were generated by a group of innovative energy managers in many successful projects. The topics include project financing, competition between utility franchises, and water conservation.

  15. Fiscal 1997 survey report. Investigational study on the cascade utilization of thermal energy (cold heat and hot heat) (feasibility study by the off-line system); 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Netsu energy (reinetsu to onnetsu) no cascade riyo ni kansuru chosa kenkyu (off-line hoshiki ni yoru feasibility study)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper studied a system to effectively use unused and low-grade thermal energy (cold heat and hot heat) in the Tokyo-Yokohama seaside area. For transportation of thermal energy, the batch transportation, that is, off-line system was discussed which uses insulated tank loaded barges and railroad freight trains. Thermal energy supply sources are 1) 0.3 million kW class thermal power plant, and 2) LNG storage base of 3 million ton/year class. Thermal energy users are Tokyo (Haneda) Airport D.H.C. (District Heating/Cooling Co.), MM 21 D.H.C. and Shin-Kawasaki D.H.C. The cold heat energy supplied to these three is about 1.5 million Mcal/daytimes300 days/year, and the hot heat energy supplied is about 1.33 million Mcal/daytimes150 days/year. Cold heat is obtained from seawater after the LNG vaporization, and hot heat from heat extracted from thermal turbine. Subcooled ice was selected for cold heat medium, and PCM-120A for hot heat medium. For batch transportation, an STL heat storage system is used which transports plastic capsules sealed with heat medium. Oil saving of 62,000 tons/year and CO2 reduction of about 53,000 tons/year can be expected. 85 figs., 98 tabs.

  16. Study on garbage disposal mode with low energy consumption for villages and towns in cold region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Yi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Through field research of typical villages and towns in China's northern cold region, this paper research energy consumption and resource recovery in the process of village and town garbage collection and disposal and organizes current situation and problems of village and town garbage collection and disposal. At present, village and town garbage collection and disposal means and thoughts are traditional and lag behind in China's northern cold region. There is the lack of garbage collection and disposal mode suitable for cold villages and towns. Thus, village and town resources are not effectively utilized, and residents’ living environment is affected continuously. This paper selects two mature garbage disposal methods: sanitary landfill and incineration power generation. Meanwhile, energy consumption and ultimate emission utilization of two schemes in garbage collection and disposal links are overall compared to propose garbage collection and disposal mode with low energy consumption suitable for green villages and towns in cold region. Besides, various control indexes of village and town garbage disposal schemes are explained in detail in combination of specific conditions.

  17. Modelling of biomass utilization for energy purpose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grzybek, Anna [ed.

    2010-07-01

    the overall farms structure, farms land distribution on several separate subfields for one farm, villages' overpopulation and very high employment in agriculture (about 27% of all employees in national economy works in agriculture). Farmers have low education level. In towns 34% of population has secondary education and in rural areas - only 15-16%. Less than 2% inhabitants of rural areas have higher education. The structure of land use is as follows: arable land 11.5%, meadows and pastures 25.4%, forests 30.1%. Poland requires implementation of technical and technological progress for intensification of agricultural production. The reason of competition for agricultural land is maintenance of the current consumption level and allocation of part of agricultural production for energy purposes. Agricultural land is going to be key factor for biofuels production. In this publication research results for the Project PL0073 'Modelling of energetical biomass utilization for energy purposes' have been presented. The Project was financed from the Norwegian Financial Mechanism and European Economic Area Financial Mechanism. The publication is aimed at moving closer and explaining to the reader problems connected with cultivations of energy plants and dispelling myths concerning these problems. Exchange of fossil fuels by biomass for heat and electric energy production could be significant input in carbon dioxide emission reduction. Moreover, biomass crop and biomass utilization for energetical purposes play important role in agricultural production diversification in rural areas transformation. Agricultural production widening enables new jobs creation. Sustainable development is going to be fundamental rule for Polish agriculture evolution in long term perspective. Energetical biomass utilization perfectly integrates in the evolution frameworks, especially on local level. There are two facts. The fist one is that increase of interest in energy crops in Poland has been

  18. Modelling of biomass utilization for energy purpose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grzybek, Anna (ed.)

    2010-07-01

    the overall farms structure, farms land distribution on several separate subfields for one farm, villages' overpopulation and very high employment in agriculture (about 27% of all employees in national economy works in agriculture). Farmers have low education level. In towns 34% of population has secondary education and in rural areas - only 15-16%. Less than 2% inhabitants of rural areas have higher education. The structure of land use is as follows: arable land 11.5%, meadows and pastures 25.4%, forests 30.1%. Poland requires implementation of technical and technological progress for intensification of agricultural production. The reason of competition for agricultural land is maintenance of the current consumption level and allocation of part of agricultural production for energy purposes. Agricultural land is going to be key factor for biofuels production. In this publication research results for the Project PL0073 'Modelling of energetical biomass utilization for energy purposes' have been presented. The Project was financed from the Norwegian Financial Mechanism and European Economic Area Financial Mechanism. The publication is aimed at moving closer and explaining to the reader problems connected with cultivations of energy plants and dispelling myths concerning these problems. Exchange of fossil fuels by biomass for heat and electric energy production could be significant input in carbon dioxide emission reduction. Moreover, biomass crop and biomass utilization for energetical purposes play important role in agricultural production diversification in rural areas transformation. Agricultural production widening enables new jobs creation. Sustainable development is going to be fundamental rule for Polish agriculture evolution in long term perspective. Energetical biomass utilization perfectly integrates in the evolution frameworks, especially on local level. There are two facts. The fist one is that increase of interest in energy crops in Poland

  19. Technology assessment of long distance liquid natural gas pipelines. Phase 8. Cold utilization and rural service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-02-01

    This phase of the investigation presents a summary of material relating to: (1) actual or potential applications for the very large refrigeration effects inherent in the vaporization of liquid natural gas; and (2) rural service gas supplies adjacent to the route of a trunk liquid natural gas line. A variety of concepts for cold utilization are discussed. The Canadian prospects for cold utilization include: electric power generation; oxygen production for integration with a coal gasification project; and the use of refrigeration stages in the petrochemical processing of natural gas, for example, ethane separation and processing to produce ethylene and ammonia.

  20. The utilization of wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-10-01

    The statistics of the wind energy in the three aerology stations in the Shahbanu Farah Dam region - over a period of eight years - were evaluated and analyzed. The average of maximal velocity calculations indicates a speed of 15 m/s. The yearly physical conversion value of this energy, is 150,000 kW/h which is quite sufficient for a family of five persons. On a larger scale, this power can be used to supply the energy required for the sediment dredging activities of the Shahbanu Farah Dam. (author)

  1. Environmental impacts of energy utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prado, C.P.C. do; Orsini, C.M.Q.; Rodrigues, D.; Barolli, E.; Nogueira, F.R.; Bosco, F.A.R.; Tabacniks, M.H.; Artaxo Netto, P.E.

    1981-04-01

    A survey is done of the available data on the physical environmental impacts in Brazil, derived from energetic systems such as: petroleum, hydroelectricity, firewood, coal, ethanol, methanol and hydrogen. A critical evalution of these data is done with respect to the preservation of the environment. The necessity of studying the environmental impact of the utilization of ethanol, nuclear fuels and coal is stressed. (M.A.) [pt

  2. Optimal utilization of energy resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, E. A.

    1977-10-15

    General principles that should guide the extraction of New Zealand's energy resources are presented. These principles are based on the objective of promoting the general economic and social benefit obtained from the use of the extracted fuel. For a single resource, the central question to be answered is, simply, what quantity of energy should be extracted in each year of the resource's lifetime. For the energy system as a whole the additional question must be answered of what mix of fuels should be used in any year. The analysis of optimal management of a single energy resource is specifically discussed. The general principles for optimal resource extraction are derived, and then applied to the examination of the characteristics of the optimal time paths of energy quantity and price; to the appraisal of the efficiency, in resource management, of various market structures; to the evaluation of various energy pricing policies; and to the examination of circumstances in which market organization is inefficient and the guidelines for corrective government policy in such cases.

  3. Optimal utilization of energy resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, E.A.

    1977-10-15

    General principles that should guide the extraction of New Zealand's energy resources are presented. These principles are based on the objective of promoting the general economic and social benefit obtained from the use of the extracted fuel. For a single resource, the central question to be answered is, simply, what quantity of energy should be extracted in each year of the resource's lifetime. For the energy system as a whole the additional question must be answered of what mix of fuels should be used in any year. The analysis of optimal management of a single energy resource is specifically discussed. The general principles for optimal resource extraction are derived, and then applied to the examination of the characteristics of the optimal time paths of energy quantity and price; to the appraisal of the efficiency, in resource management, of various market structures; to the evaluation of various energy pricing policies; and to the examination of circumstances in which market organization is inefficient and the guidelines for corrective government policy in such cases.

  4. Utilization of renewable energy in architectural design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Lei; QIN Youguo

    2007-01-01

    Renewable energy does not simply equal to using a photovoltaic (PV) board.In addition to heating,ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) engineering considerations,the design approaches of architects are crucial to the utilization condition and methods of renewable energy.Through profound comprehension of the relationship between renewable energy utilization and design approaches,we can achieve a dual-standard of building environment performance and esthetics.

  5. Sustainable energy utilization in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alakangas, E.

    1996-12-31

    Finland tops the statistics for the industrialised world in the utilisation of bioenergy. In 1995 bioenergy, including peat-fired heat and power, accounted for 20 % of the total energy consumption. The declared goal of the government is to increase the use of bioenergy by not less than 25 % (1.5 million toe by the year 2005). Research and development plays a crucial role in the promotion of the expanded use of bioenergy in Finland. The aim is to identify and develop technologies for establishing and sustaining economically, environmentally and socially viable bioenergy niches in the energy system

  6. Utilization of Screw Piles in High Seismicity Areas of Cold and Warm Permafrost

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    This work was performed in support of the AUTC project Utilization of Screw Piles in : High Seismicity Areas of Cold and Warm Permafrost under the direction of PI Dr. Kenan : Hazirbaba. Surface wave testing was performed at 30 sites in the City...

  7. Geothermal energy utilization in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svalova, V. [Institute of Environmental Geoscience, RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-01

    Geothermal energy use is the way to clean, sustainable energy development for the world. Russia has rich high and low temperature geothermal resources and is making progress using them - mostly with low-temperature geothermal resources and heat pumps This is optimal for many regions of Russia -in the European part, in the Urals and others. Electricity is generated by some geothermal power plants (GeoPP) only in the Kamchatka Peninsula and Kuril Islands There are two possible ways of using geothermal resources, depending on the properties of thermal waters heat/power and mineral extraction. The mineral-extraction direction is basic for geothermal waters, which contain valuable components in industrial quantities The most significant deposits of thermal waters represent the brines containing from 35 up to 400 and more g/l of salts. These are the minerals of many chemical dements. (author)

  8. The Sustainable Energy Utility (SEU) Model for Energy Service Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houck, Jason; Rickerson, Wilson

    2009-01-01

    Climate change, energy price spikes, and concerns about energy security have reignited interest in state and local efforts to promote end-use energy efficiency, customer-sited renewable energy, and energy conservation. Government agencies and utilities have historically designed and administered such demand-side measures, but innovative…

  9. Ultimate energy density of observable cold baryonic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattimer, James M; Prakash, Madappa

    2005-03-25

    We demonstrate that the largest measured mass of a neutron star establishes an upper bound to the energy density of observable cold baryonic matter. An equation of state-independent expression satisfied by both normal neutron stars and self-bound quark matter stars is derived for the largest energy density of matter inside stars as a function of their masses. The largest observed mass sets the lowest upper limit to the density. Implications from existing and future neutron star mass measurements are discussed.

  10. Light Duty Utility Arm system pre-operational (cold test) test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, K.L.

    1995-01-01

    The Light Duty Utility (LDUA) Cold Test Facility, located in the Hanford 400 Area, will be used to support cold testing (pre- operational tests) of LDUA subsystems. Pre-operational testing is composed of subsystem development testing and rework activities, and integrated system qualification testing. Qualification testing will be conducted once development work is complete and documentation is under configuration control. Operational (hot) testing of the LDUA system will follow the testing covered in this plan and will be covered in a separate test plan

  11. Optimization of waste heat utilization in cold end system of thermal power station based on neural network algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zenghui

    2018-04-01

    At present, the flue gas waste heat utilization projects of coal-fired boilers are often limited by low temperature corrosion problems and conventional PID control. The flue gas temperature cannot be reduced to the best efficiency temperature of wet desulphurization, resulting in the failure of heat recovery to be the maximum. Therefore, this paper analyzes, researches and solves the remaining problems of the cold end system of thermal power station, so as to provide solutions and theoretical support for energy saving and emission reduction and upgrading and the improvement of the comprehensive efficiency of the units.

  12. Analysis of China's energy utilization for 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ming; Wang Wenwen

    2011-01-01

    China is the world's second-largest energy producer and consumer, so that it is very necessary to analyze China's energy situation for saving energy consumption and reducing GHG emission. Energy flow chart is taken as a useful tool for sorting out and displaying energy statistics data. Energy statistics data is the premise and foundation for analyzing energy situation. However, there exit many differences between China and foreign energy balance. Based on the international criterion of energy balance and some advices given by related experts, the author properly adjusts China's energy balance. And the purpose of this paper is to draft China's energy flow chart for 2007, which is used to study the characteristics of energy production and consumption in China. We find that: (1) coal is the main energy in China, which accounted for 73.2% of total energy supply in 2007; (2) thermal power accounted for 83.2% of the total electricity supply, and 78.43% thermal power was based on coal; (3) in 2007, the secondary industrial sector consumed about 69.93% of energy; (4) China's energy utilization efficiency was about 33.23% in 2007. - Research highlights: → Based on the international criterion of energy balance and some advices given by related experts, the author properly adjusts China's energy balance. → The purpose of this paper is to draft China's energy flow chart for 2007, which is used to study the characteristics of energy production and consumption in China. → We find that China's energy utilization efficiency was about 33.23% in 2007.

  13. Wind energy systems. Application to regional utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    This study developed a generic planning process that utilities can use to determine the feasibility of utilizing WECS (Wind Energy Conversion Systems) as part of their future mix of equipment. While this is primarily an economic process, other questions dealing with WECS availability, capacity credit, operating reserve, performance of WECS arrays, etc., had to be addressed. The approach was to establish the worth, or breakeven value, of WECS to the utility and to determine the impact that WECS additions would have on the utilities mix of conventional source.

  14. Public utility regulation and national energy policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, P.

    1980-09-01

    The linkage between Public Utility Commission (PUC) regulation, the deteriorating financial health of the electric utility industry, and implementation of national energy policy, particularly the reduction of foreign petroleum consumption in the utility sector is examined. The role of the Nation's utilities in the pursuit of national energy policy goals and postulates a linkage between PUC regulation, the poor financial health of the utility industry, and the current and prospective failure to displace foreign petroleum in the utility sector is discussed. A brief history of PUC regulation is provided. The concept of regulatory climate and how the financial community has developed a system of ranking regulatory climate in the various State jurisdictions are explained. The existing evidence on the hypothesis that the cost of capital to a utility increases and its availability is reduced as regulatory climate grows more unfavorable from an investor's point of view is analyzed. The implications of this cost of capital effect on the electric utilities and collaterally on national energy policy and electric ratepayers are explained. Finally various State, regional and Federal regulatory responses to problems associated with PUC regulation are examined.

  15. Unutilized energy utilizing systems. ; Power and levelling measures and unutilized energies. Miriyo energy katsuyo system. ; Denryoku fuka heijunka taisaku to miriyo energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuromoto, E. (The Tokyo Electric Power Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-02-12

    This paper explains quantitatively performance of heat storage tanks contributing largely to levelling power loads, and promoting and spreading more effective use of unutilized energies. A model case was used to compare differences in effectiveness of unutilized energy utilization with and without use of heat storage tanks. The heat demand used was a value in a day with a peak room cooling demand, and a heat supply system using water heat source heat pumps that utilize sewage treated water was used to manufacture cold water. As a result, the effective utilization rate of unutilized energy was increased to about 1.3 times when heat storage tanks were used. Effectiveness of a heat storage tank comes from its capability that excess amount of cold water manufactured during nighttime when heat demand falls by utilizing sewage treated water is stored in the heat storage tank, and the stored cold water can be supplied being mixed with cold water manufactured during daytime when heat demand rises sharply in daytime. Because sewage treated water has its annual temperature difference stabilized at about 10[degree]C, a heat pump utilizing the sewage treated water can reduce power required to produce heat of 1 Gcal by about 40% during room heating and about 15% during room cooling over the heating tower type heat pump. 8 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Land use and energy utilization. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, T.O.; Nathans, R.; Palmedo, P.F.

    1977-06-01

    Land use plays an important role in structuring the basic patterns in which energy is consumed in many areas of the U.S. Thus, in considering policies at a national or local level, which are aimed at either utilizing energy supplies in a more efficient manner, or in establishing the compatibility of new energy supply, conversion, and end use technologies with our existing social patterns of energy use, it is important to understand the interdependencies between land use and energy. The Land Use-Energy Utilization Project initiated in July 1974 was designed to explore the quantitative relationships between alternative regional land-use patterns and their resultant energy and fuel demands and the impacts of these demands on the regional and national energy supply-distribution systems. The project studies and analyses described briefly in this report provide a framework for delineating the energy system impacts of current and projected regional land-use development; a base of information dealing with the energy intensiveness of assorted land-use activities; models that enable Federal and regional planners to estimate the ranges of potential energy savings that could be derived from employing alternative land-use activity configurations; and a user manual for allowing local land use planners to carry out their own land use-energy impact evaluations. Much remains to be done to elucidate the complicated interdependencies between land use and energy utilization: what is accomplished here is an initial structuring of the problem. On the other hand, the recent increase in interest in establishing new ways for the U.S. to achieve energy conservation suggests that actions will be taken in the near future to tie land-use development to national and local targets for conservation.

  17. Time-grated energy-selected cold neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, T.E. Jr.; Brun, T.O.; Claytor, T.N.; Farnum, E.H.; Greene, G.L.; Morris, C.

    1998-01-01

    A technique is under development at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE), Manuel Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center (Lujan Center) for producing neutron radiography using only a narrow energy range of cold neutrons. The technique, referred to as Time-Gated Energy-Selected (TGES) neutron radiography, employs the pulsed neutron source at the Lujan Center with time of flight to obtain a neutron pulse having an energy distribution that is a function of the arrival time at the imager. The radiograph is formed on a short persistence scintillator and a gated, intensified, cooled CCD camera is employed to record the images, which are produced at the specific neutron energy range determined by the camera gate. The technique has been used to achieve a degree of material discrimination in radiographic images. For some materials, such as beryllium and carbon, at energies above the Bragg cutoff the neutron scattering cross section is relatively high while at energies below the Bragg cutoff the scattering cross section drops significantly. This difference in scattering characteristics can be recorded in the TGES radiography and, because the Bragg cutoff occurs at different energy levels for various materials, the approach can be used to differentiate among these materials. This paper outlines the TGES radiography technique and shows an example of radiography using the approach

  18. Utilities and energy efficiency Denmark report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olesen, G.B.; Lyck, N.C.

    1996-11-01

    The report is the Danish contribution to the project `Utilities and Energy Efficiency` produced for the European Commission by IET, Nikkel straat 15, 4823 AE Breda, The Netherlands. Information is given under the headings of existing situation and desired situation. Recommendations are also given under the headings of legislation concerning the objectives of the utilities, of government programs and targets, of organizational structure, required market dependence and internal objectives of the utilities, for regulation and standardization, and of tariff structure. Flow diagrams are presented for the Danish energy system 1990, 1993. The 1993 follow up of the energy plan `Energy 2000` points out that the goals set up at that time, first and foremost the 20% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions in 2005 compared to the 1988 level, will not be reached without changes in policy, such as an increase in the use of renewable energy, more transparent and consistent tariff systems as a greater incentive for energy conservation, regulations on thermal insulation of houses, increase in public information activities,a new subsidy scheme to stimulate improvements of energy efficiency in buildings and regulations on energy supply to large buildings. (ARW) 55 refs.

  19. Geothermal Energy Utilization for the Homeowner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, John W

    1978-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe how geothermal energy can be utilized for residential space heating. Background information on the resource introduce this natural source of energy, followed by an explanation of the development of the resource (mainly by drilling wells) and the extraction of the energy. Various types of heat convectors and heat exchangers are described, along with how to estimate energy requirements and the associated costs. Finally, regulations and tax advantages are covered together with additional sources of information and a list of agencies who can provide assistance.

  20. Cold exposure enhances fat utilization but not non-esterified fatty acids, glycerol or catecholamines availability during submaximal walking and running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Daniel Gagnon

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Cold exposure modulates the use of carbohydrates and fat during exercise. This phenomenon has mostly been observed in controlled cycling studies, but not during walking and running when core temperature and oxygen consumption are controlled, as both may alter energy metabolism. This study aimed at examining energy substrate availability and utilization during walking and running in the cold when core temperature and oxygen consumption are maintained. Ten lightly clothed male subjects walked or ran for 60-min, at 50% and 70% of maximal oxygen consumption, respectively, in a climatic chamber set at 0°C or 22°C. Thermal, cardiovascular, and oxidative responses were measured every 15-min during exercise. Blood samples for serum non-esterified fatty acids, glycerol, glucose, beta-hydroxybutyrate, plasma catecholamines, and serum lipids were collected immediately prior, and at 30- and 60-min of exercise. Skin temperature strongly decreased while core temperature did not change during cold trials. Heart rate was also lower in cold trials. A rise in fat utilization in the cold was seen through lower respiratory quotient (-0.03 ± 0.02, greater fat oxidation (+0.14 ± 0.13 g•min-1 and contribution of fat to total energy expenditure (+1.62 ± 1.99 kcal•min-1. No differences from cold exposure were observed in blood parameters. During submaximal walking and running, a greater reliance on derived fat sources occurs in the cold, despite the absence of concurrent alterations in non-esterified fatty acids, glycerol, or catecholamine concentrations. This disparity may suggest a greater reliance on intra-muscular energy sources such as triglycerides during both walking and running.

  1. Optimization of joint energy micro-grid with cold storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bin; Luo, Simin; Tian, Yan; Chen, Xianda; Xiong, Botao; Zhou, Bowen

    2018-02-01

    To accommodate distributed photovoltaic (PV) curtailment, to make full use of the joint energy micro-grid with cold storage, and to reduce the high operating costs, the economic dispatch of joint energy micro-grid load is particularly important. Considering the different prices during the peak and valley durations, an optimization model is established, which takes the minimum production costs and PV curtailment fluctuations as the objectives. Linear weighted sum method and genetic-taboo Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm are used to solve the optimization model, to obtain optimal power supply output. Taking the garlic market in Henan as an example, the simulation results show that considering distributed PV and different prices in different time durations, the optimization strategies are able to reduce the operating costs and accommodate PV power efficiently.

  2. Report on a feasibility survey of the cold accumulated heat use energy system in Hokkaido; Hokkaido ni okeru reichikunetsu riyo energy system no kanosei chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    A survey was conducted of various systems which use in summer cold heat from the snow stored in winter. A model of the cold accumulated heat system of the type which has a high possibility of the introduction was built to study a possibility of the realization. Types of the model system were selected assuming the utilization of cold heat energy of snow in Sapporo, a typical large city in the cold heavy-snow area. Studies were made on each model of urban type commercial facilities, urban type offices, suburban type shopping center, and suburban type hospitals. For each model, more than one systems were studied according to types and forms of the storage tank, and heat recovery methods. As a result, it was found that cold heat energy of snow can be utilized almost effectively by making an appropriate study of the energy balance like the possible supply of cold heat exceeded the demand in two models of an urban type office building and an suburban type hospital. Further, operating expenses of typical models were roughly calculated. 51 figs., 20 figs.

  3. Utilization of Geothermal Energy in Slovakia

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Wittenberger; Ján Pinka

    2005-01-01

    Owing to favourable geological conditions, Slovakia is a country abundant in occurrence of low-enthalpy sources. The Slovakian government sponsors new renewable ecological energy sources, among which belongs the geothermal energy. Geothermal water is utilized for recreation (swimming pools, spas), agriculture (heating of greenhouses, fishing) and heating of houses. The effectivity of utilisation is about 30 % due to its seasonal use. That is why the annual house-heating and the hot water supp...

  4. Energy Optimized Envelope for Cold Climate Indoor Agricultural Growing Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Hachem-Vermette

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of the development of building envelope design for improved energy performance of a controlled indoor agricultural growing center in a cold climate zone (Canada, 54° N. A parametric study is applied to analyze the effects of envelope parameters on the building energy loads for heating, cooling and lighting, required for maintaining growing requirement as obtained in the literature. A base case building of rectangular layout, incorporating conventionally applied insulation and glazing components, is initially analyzed, employing the EnergyPlus simulation program. Insulation and glazing parameters are then modified to minimize energy loads under assumed minimal lighting requirement. This enhanced design forms a base case for analyzing effects of additional design parameters—solar radiation control, air infiltration rate, sky-lighting and the addition of phase change materials—to obtain an enhanced design that minimizes energy loads. A second stage of the investigation applies a high lighting level to the enhanced design and modifies the design parameters to improve performance. A final part of the study is an investigation of the mechanical systems and renewable energy generation. Through the enhancement of building envelope components and day-lighting design, combined heating and cooling load of the low level lighting configuration is reduced by 65% and lighting load by 10%, relative to the base case design. Employing building integrated PV (BIPV system, this optimized model can achieve energy positive status. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC, are discussed, as potential means to offset increased energy consumption associated with the high-level lighting model.

  5. Modeling energy flexibility of low energy buildings utilizing thermal mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foteinaki, Kyriaki; Heller, Alfred; Rode, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    In the future energy system a considerable increase in the penetration of renewable energy is expected, challenging the stability of the system, as both production and consumption will have fluctuating patterns. Hence, the concept of energy flexibility will be necessary in order for the consumption...... to match the production patterns, shifting demand from on-peak hours to off-peak hours. Buildings could act as flexibility suppliers to the energy system, through load shifting potential, provided that the large thermal mass of the building stock could be utilized for energy storage. In the present study...... the load shifting potential of an apartment of a low energy building in Copenhagen is assessed, utilizing the heat storage capacity of the thermal mass when the heating system is switched off for relieving the energy system. It is shown that when using a 4-hour preheating period before switching off...

  6. Review of Energy Harvesters Utilizing Bridge Vibrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Ullah Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For health monitoring of bridges, wireless acceleration sensor nodes (WASNs are normally used. In bridge environment, several forms of energy are available for operating WASNs that include wind, solar, acoustic, and vibration energy. However, only bridge vibration has the tendency to be utilized for embedded WASNs application in bridge structures. This paper reports on the recent advancements in the area of vibration energy harvesters (VEHs utilizing bridge oscillations. The bridge vibration is narrowband (1 to 40 Hz with low acceleration levels (0.01 to 3.8 g. For utilization of bridge vibration, electromagnetic based vibration energy harvesters (EM-VEHs and piezoelectric based vibration energy harvesters (PE-VEHs have been developed. The power generation of the reported EM-VEHs is in the range from 0.7 to 1450000 μW. However, the power production by the developed PE-VEHs ranges from 0.6 to 7700 μW. The overall size of most of the bridge VEHs is quite comparable and is in mesoscale. The resonant frequencies of EM-VEHs are on the lower side (0.13 to 27 Hz in comparison to PE-VEHs (1 to 120 Hz. The power densities reported for these bridge VEHs range from 0.01 to 9539.5 μW/cm3 and are quite enough to operate most of the commercial WASNs.

  7. Advanced energy utilization MHD power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The 'Technical Committee on Advanced Energy Utilization MHD Power Generation' was started to establish advanced energy utilization technologies in Japan, and has been working for three years from June 2004 to May 2007. This committee investigated closed cycle MHD, open cycle MHD, and liquid metal MHD power generation as high-efficiency power generation systems on the earth. Then, aero-space application and deep space exploration technologies were investigated as applications of MHD technology. The spin-off from research and development on MHD power generation such as acceleration and deceleration of supersonic flows was expected to solve unstart phenomena in scramjet engine and also to solve abnormal heating of aircrafts by shock wave. In addition, this committee investigated researches on fuel cells, on secondary batteries, on connection of wind power system to power grid, and on direct energy conversion system from nuclear fusion reactor for future. The present technical report described results of investigations by the committee. (author)

  8. Thermodynamic basis for effective energy utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, J. T.

    1977-10-15

    A major difficulty in a quantitative assessment of effective energy utilization is that energy is always conserved (the First Law of Thermodynamics). However, the Second Law of Thermodynamics shows that, although energy cannot be destroyed, it can be degraded to a state in which it is of no further use for performing tasks. Thus, in considering the present world energy crisis, we are not really concerned with the conservation of energy but with the conservation of its ability to perform useful tasks. A measure of this ability is thermodynamic availability or, a less familiar term, exergy. In a real sense, we are concerned with an entropy-crisis, rather than an energy crisis. Analysis of energy processes on an exergy basis provides significantly different insights into the processes than those obtained from a conventional energy analysis. For example, process steam generation in an industrial boiler may appear quite efficient on the basis of a conventional analysis, but is shown to have very low effective use of energy when analyzed on an exergy basis. Applications of exergy analysis to other systems, such as large fossil and nuclear power stations, are discussed, and the benefits of extraction combined-purpose plants are demonstrated. Other examples of the application of the exergy concept in the industrial and residential energy sectors are also given. The concept is readily adaptable to economic optimization. Examples are given of economic optimization on an availability basis of an industrial heat exchanger and of a combined-purpose nuclear power and heavy-water production plant. Finally, the utility of the concept of exergy in assessing the energy requirements of an industrial society is discussed.

  9. Solar energy utilization by physical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, M

    1974-04-19

    On the basis of the estimated contributions of these differing methods of the utilization of solar energy, their total energy delivery impact on the projected U.S. energy economy (9) can be evaluated (Fig. 5). Despite this late energy impact, the actual sales of solar energy utilization equipment will be significant at an early date. Potential sales in photovoltaic arrays alone could exceed $400 million by 1980, in order to meet the projected capacity buildup (10). Ultimately, the total energy utilization equipment industry should attain an annual sales volume of several tens of billion dollars in the United States, comparable to that of several other energy related industries. Varying amounts of technology development are required to assure the technical and economic feasibility of the different solar energy utilization methods. Several of these developments are far enough along that the paths can be analyzed from the present time to the time of demonstration of technical and economic feasibility, and from there to production and marketing readiness. After that point, a period of market introduction will follow, which will differ in duration according to the type of market addressed. It may be noted that the present rush to find relief from the current energy problem, or to be an early leader in entering a new market, can entail shortcuts in sound engineering practice, particularly in the areas of design for durability and easy maintenance, or of proper application engineering. The result can be loss of customer acceptance, as has been experienced in the past with various products, including solar water heaters. Since this could cause considerable delay in achieving the expected total energy impact, it will be important to spend adequate time at this stage for thorough development. Two other aspects are worth mentioning. The first is concerned with the economic impacts. Upon reflection on this point, one will observe that largescale solar energy utilization will

  10. Thorium resources and energy utilization (14)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unesaki, Hironobu

    2014-01-01

    After the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station of Tokyo Electric Power Company, thorium reactor has been attracting attention from the viewpoint of safety. Regarding thorium as the resources for nuclear energy, this paper explains its estimated reserves in the whole world and each country, its features such as the situation of utilization, and the reason why it attracts attention now. The following three items are taken up here as the typical issues among the latest topics on thorium: (1) utilization of thorium as a tension easing measure against environmental effects involved in nuclear energy utilization, (2) thorium-based reactor as the next generation type reactor with improved safety, and (3) thorium utilization as the improvement policy of nuclear proliferation resistance. The outline, validity, and problems of these items are explained. Thorium reactor has been adopted as a research theme since the 1950s up to now mainly in the U.S. However, it is not enough in the aspect of technological development and also insufficient in the verification of reliability based on technological demonstration, compared with uranium-fueled light-water reactor. This paper explains these situations, and discusses the points for thorium utilization and future prospects. (A.O.)

  11. Energy-filtered cold electron transport at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadrachalam, Pradeep; Subramanian, Ramkumar; Ray, Vishva; Ma, Liang-Chieh; Wang, Weichao; Kim, Jiyoung; Cho, Kyeongjae; Koh, Seong Jin

    2014-09-10

    Fermi-Dirac electron thermal excitation is an intrinsic phenomenon that limits functionality of various electron systems. Efforts to manipulate electron thermal excitation have been successful when the entire system is cooled to cryogenic temperatures, typically distribution corresponds to an effective electron temperature of ~45 K, can be transported throughout device components without external cooling. This is accomplished using a discrete level of a quantum well, which filters out thermally excited electrons and permits only energy-suppressed electrons to participate in electron transport. The quantum well (~2 nm of Cr2O3) is formed between source (Cr) and tunnelling barrier (SiO2) in a double-barrier-tunnelling-junction structure having a quantum dot as the central island. Cold electron transport is detected from extremely narrow differential conductance peaks in electron tunnelling through CdSe quantum dots, with full widths at half maximum of only ~15 mV at room temperature.

  12. The energy-efficiency business - Energy utility strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loebbe, S.

    2009-01-01

    This article takes a look at the energy-efficiency business and the advantages it offers. The author quotes that energy-efficiency can contribute to making savings in primary energy, minimise the economic impact of global warming, improve reliability of supply and protect the gross national product. The advantages of new products for the efficient use of energy are reviewed and the resulting advantages for power customers are noted. Also, possibilities for the positioning of electricity suppliers in the environmental niche is noted. The partial markets involved and estimates concerning the impact of energy-efficiency measures are reviewed. Climate protection, co-operation with energy agencies, consulting services and public relations aspects are also discussed. The prerequisites for successful marketing by the utilities are examined and new business models are discussed along with the clear strategies needed. The development from an electricity utility to a system-competence partner is reviewed

  13. Role of energy cost in the yield of cold ternary fission of Cf

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The energy costs in the cold ternary fission of 252Cf for various light charged particle emission are calculated by including Wong's correction for Coulomb potential. Energy cost is found to be higher in cold fission than in normal fission. It is found that energy cost always increases with decrease in experimental yield ...

  14. Specific energy of cold crack initiation in welding low alloy high-strength steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brednev, V.I.; Kasatkin, B.S.

    1988-01-01

    Methods for determination of energy spent on cold crack initiation, when testing welded joint samples by the Implant method, are described. Data on the effect of the steel alloying system, cooling rate of welded joints, content of diffusion hydrogen on the critical specific energy spent on the development of local plastic deformation upto cold crack initiation are presented. The value of specific energy spent on cold crack initiation is shown to be by two-three orders lower than the value of impact strength minimum accessible. The possibility to estimate welded joint resistance to cold crack initiation according to the critical specific energy is established

  15. Energy utilization, environmental pollution and renewable energy sources in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocak, M.; Ocak, Z.; Bilgen, S.; Keles, S.; Kaygusuz, K. [Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry

    2004-04-01

    In this study, energy utilization and its major environmental impacts are discussed from the standpoint of sustainable development, including anticipated patterns of future energy use and subsequent environmental issues in Turkey. Several aspects relating to energy utilization, renewable energy, energy efficiency, environment and sustainable development are examined from both current and future perspectives. Turkey is an energy importing country, more than half of the energy requirement has been supplied by imports. Domestic oil and lignite reserves are limited, and the lignites are characterised by high ash, sulfur and moisture content. Because of increasing energy consumption, environmental pollution is becoming a serious problem in the future for the country. In this regard, renewable energy resources appear to be one of the most efficient and effective solutions for sustainable energy development and environmental pollution prevention in Turkey. Turkey's geographical location has several advantages for extensive use of most of these renewable energy sources. Especially hydropower, biomass, geothermal, solar and wind energy should be considered and seriously supported by governments and private sectors.

  16. Energy utilization, environmental pollution and renewable energy sources in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocak, M.; Ocak, Z.; Bilgen, S.; Keles, S.; Kaygusuz, K.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, energy utilization and its major environmental impacts are discussed from the standpoint of sustainable development, including anticipated patterns of future energy use and subsequent environmental issues in Turkey. Several aspects relating to energy utilization, renewable energy, energy efficiency, environment and sustainable development are examined from both current and future perspectives. Turkey is an energy importing country, more than half of the energy requirement has been supplied by imports. Domestic oil and lignite reserves are limited, and the lignites are characterised by high ash, sulfur and moisture content. Because of increasing energy consumption, environmental pollution is becoming a serious problem in the future for the country. In this regard, renewable energy resources appear to be one of the most efficient and effective solutions for sustainable energy development and environmental pollution prevention in Turkey. Turkey's geographical location has several advantages for extensive use of most of these renewable energy sources. Especially hydropower, biomass, geothermal, solar and wind energy should be considered and seriously supported by governments and private sectors

  17. Assessing the thermal performance of three cold energy storage materials with low eutectic temperature for food cold chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yu-Chu M.; Chen, Yen-Hong A.

    2016-01-01

    Development a novel inorganic salt eutectic solution for cold energy storage material (ESM) have succeeded conducted in this study. The eutectic solutions shows a low melting temperature and high latent heat of fusion value as effect of addition nano copper powder into the eutectic solution. We report a new simulation technique of thermal property as well as test results of three inorganic salts. The thermal property of three inorganic salts were simulated using the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) method with the help of three binary phase diagrams. The simulation shows the liquidus temperature of each binary phase diagram conforming nicely to the theoretical prediction of the Gibbs-Duhem equation. In order to predict cold storage keeping time, we derived a heat transfer model based on energy conservation law. Three ESMs were tested for their cold energy storage performance and thermal properties aging for durability. The empirical results indicate that, for food cold chain, the melting point rule is superior with less deviation. With this information, one can pre-estimate the basic design parameters with great accuracy; the cost of design and development for a new cold storage logistics system can be dramatically reduced. - Highlights: • For these three ESMs, their modified values of melting point and latent heat are presented in Table 2. • But, TC is usually not a constant like TE. • The freezing time underwent a drop ∼10% in the binary eutectic region.

  18. Waste utilization in electric energy industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parate, N.S.; Harris, E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that electric energy is an integral element of today's economy and the standard quality of life. The availability of energy at an affordable cost has always been of basic concern because of the intimate relationship of energy to our societal development and progress. Coal and Uranium are the primary alternative energy sources for large electric power plants. Coal remains the dominant fuel for electric generation. The pressurized fluidized bed combustion technology has the potential of utilizing all types of coal, including coal with high ash, high sulphur, and high moisture content. Fluidized bed combustion is a firing technique which fulfills today's pollution control requirements without downstream flue gas cleaning plants like scrubbers, baghouses, and precipitators

  19. Utilization of geothermal energy in the USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kononov, V.I.; Dvorov, I.M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that at present geothermal energy is utilized in the USSR mostly for district heating, and for industrial and agricultural purposes. The populations of 7 towns have district heating that is supplied by thermal waters. The population supplied totals about 125,000 people. The total area of greenhouses is 850,000 m 2 . Electric energy generated at geothermal power stations still remains negligible with the installed capacity of the single Pauzhetka station (Kamchatka) being 11 MW. another station at Mutnovka is currently under construction and is expected to be producing 50 MW by 1992 and 200 MW by 1998. The proven geothermal resources in the USSR provide hope for a significant increase in the utilization of the earth's deep heat in the near future

  20. Energy-, environmental and economic evaluation of energy crops utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    This preliminary project is prepared in order to clarify the economic possibilities and rentability of energy crops. Examples of energy crop resource potential, environmental and economic consequences are calculated on the basis of existing data. Utilization of annual and perennial crops is evaluated with regard to the usual following of agricultural areas, and to the traditional power generation in a coal-fueled plant. Two technological options are discussed: one based on energy crop fuels supplementing the conventional coal fuel, and the other based on a separate biomass-fueled boiler, connected to the conventional coal-fueled unit. Implementation of the main project,following the preliminary one will permit to estimate the future prospects and strategies of energy crop utilization as a profitable energy resource. (EG)

  1. Freeze desalination of seawater using LNG cold energy

    KAUST Repository

    Chang, Jian; Zuo, Jian; Lu, Kang-Jia; Chung, Neal Tai-Shung

    2016-01-01

    With the aid of cold energy from regasification of liquefied natural gas (LNG), freeze desalination (FD) is an emerging technology for seawater desalination because of its low energy characteristics and insensitivities to fouling problems. This work aims to investigate the major operating parameters of FD such as coolant temperature, freezing duration, supercooling, seeding, agitation, crystallizer material and subsequent washing procedure on ice production and water quality. It was found that the optimal freezing duration per batch was 1 h for an iron crystallizer and 1.5 h for a glass crystallizer. The optimal coolant temperature should be around −8 °C. The optimal amount of washing water to clean the raw ice was about 50 wt% of the raw ice. Over 50 wt% of the feed could be recovered as raw ice within 1 h, which means an overall ice recovery rate of higher than 25% (of the original seawater), considering the consumption of washing water. Both artificial and real seawater were tested under the optimized conditions. The total dissolved solid in the product ice was around 300 ppm, which met the World Health Organization (WHO) potable water salinity standard of 500 ppm. Therefore, the process parameters optimized in this study can be directly used for the freeze desalination of seawater.

  2. Freeze desalination of seawater using LNG cold energy

    KAUST Repository

    Chang, Jian

    2016-06-23

    With the aid of cold energy from regasification of liquefied natural gas (LNG), freeze desalination (FD) is an emerging technology for seawater desalination because of its low energy characteristics and insensitivities to fouling problems. This work aims to investigate the major operating parameters of FD such as coolant temperature, freezing duration, supercooling, seeding, agitation, crystallizer material and subsequent washing procedure on ice production and water quality. It was found that the optimal freezing duration per batch was 1 h for an iron crystallizer and 1.5 h for a glass crystallizer. The optimal coolant temperature should be around −8 °C. The optimal amount of washing water to clean the raw ice was about 50 wt% of the raw ice. Over 50 wt% of the feed could be recovered as raw ice within 1 h, which means an overall ice recovery rate of higher than 25% (of the original seawater), considering the consumption of washing water. Both artificial and real seawater were tested under the optimized conditions. The total dissolved solid in the product ice was around 300 ppm, which met the World Health Organization (WHO) potable water salinity standard of 500 ppm. Therefore, the process parameters optimized in this study can be directly used for the freeze desalination of seawater.

  3. Comfort and performance of power line maintainers' gloves during electrical utility work in the cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, S; Boyle, C; Wells, R

    2014-01-01

    Electrical utility workers wear thick rubber gloves and often work in the cold. To document the challenge of working in the cold and the effectiveness of different glove/liner combinations in keeping workers' hands warm. Ten experienced male electrical utility employees worked in a controlled temperature walk-in chamber at -20 °C for 45 minutes for each of five glove conditions: standard five-finger rubber gloves with cotton liners and gauntlets, mitten style gloves, a prototype wool liner, and two heating options; glove or torso. Dependent measures were maximum grip force, skin temperatures, finger dexterity and sensitivity to touch, ratings of perceived effort and a rating of thermal sensation. Participants' hand skin temperatures decreased, they perceived their hands to be much colder, their finger sensitivity decreased and their ratings of perceived exertion increased, however their performance did not degrade over the 45 minute trials. The mitten-style gloves showed a smaller drop in skin temperature for the 3rd and 5th digits (pglove conditions. Mitten style gloves kept workers' hands warmer than the standard five finger glove.

  4. Development of technologies for solar energy utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    With relation to the development of photovoltaic power systems for practical use, studies were made on thin-substrate polycrystalline solar cells and thin-film solar cells as manufacturing technology for solar cells for practical use. The technological development for super-high efficiency solar cells was also being advanced. Besides, the research and development have been conducted of evaluation technology for photovoltaic power systems and systems to utilize the photovoltaic power generation and peripheral technologies. The demonstrative research on photovoltaic power systems was continued. The international cooperative research on photovoltaic power systems was also made. The development of a manufacturing system for compound semiconductors for solar cells was carried out. As to the development of solar energy system technologies for industrial use, a study of elemental technologies was first made, and next the development of an advanced heat process type solar energy system was commenced. In addition, the research on passive solar systems was made. An investigational study was carried out of technologies for solar cities and solar energy snow melting systems. As international joint projects, studies were made of solar heat timber/cacao drying plants, etc. The paper also commented on projects for international cooperation for the technological development of solar energy utilization systems. 26 figs., 15 tabs.

  5. Solar energy utilizing technology for future cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Kei

    1987-11-20

    This report proposes solar energy utilizing technologies for future cities, centering on a system that uses Fresnel lenses and optical fiber cables. This system selects out beams in the visible range and the energy can be sent to end terminals constantly as long as sunlight is available. Optical energy is concentrated 4,000-fold. The system can provide long-distance projection of parallel rays. It will be helpful for efficient utilization of light in cities and can increase the degree of freedom in carrying out urban development. The total efficiency for the introduction into optical fiber can be up to 40 percent. With no heating coil incorporated, there is no danger of fire. The standard size of a light condenser is 2 m in dome diameter and 2.5 m in height. Auxiliary artificial light is used for backup purposes when it is cloudy. Heat pumps operating on solar thermal energy are employed to maintain air conditioning for 24 hours a day in order to ensure the establishment of an environment where residential areas exist in the neighborhood of office areas. Seven automatic solar light collection and transfer systems are currently in practical use at the Arc Hills building. The combination of Fresnel lens and optical fiber is more than six times as high in efficiency as a reflecting mirror. (5 figs, 3 tabs, 8 photos, 6 refs)

  6. Development of coal energy utilization technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Coal liquefaction produces new and clean energy by performing hydrogenation, decomposition and liquefaction on coal under high temperatures and pressures. NEDO has been developing bituminous coal liquefaction technologies by using a 150-t/d pilot plant. It has also developed quality improving and utilization technologies for liquefied coal, whose practical use is expected. For developing coal gasification technologies, construction is in progress for a 200-t/d pilot plant for spouted bed gasification power generation. NEDO intends to develop coal gasification composite cycle power generation with high efficiency and of environment harmonious type. This paper summarizes the results obtained during fiscal 1994. It also dwells on technologies to manufacture hydrogen from coal. It further describes development of technologies to manufacture methane and substituting natural gas (SNG) by hydrogenating and gasifying coal. The ARCH process can select three operation modes depending on which of SNG yield, thermal efficiency or BTX yield is targeted. With respect to promotion of coal utilization technologies, description is given on surveys on development of next generation technologies for coal utilization, and clean coal technology promotion projects. International coal utilization and application projects are also described. 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Cold exposure lowers energy expenditure at the cellular level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seyeon; Chun, Sohyun; Kim, Danuh

    2013-06-01

    Mitochondrial function is intimately involved in various metabolic processes and is therefore essential to maintain cell viability. Of particular importance is the fact that mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm ) is coupled with oxidative phosphorylation to drive adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis. We have examined the effects of cold temperature stress on ΔΨm and the role of cold temperature receptor expression on ΔΨm . Human bronchial endothelial cell line, BEAS-2B, and human embryonic kidney, HEK293, cell line were transfected with the gene for cold temperature responsive receptor protein TRPM8 or TRPA1, and exposed to cold temperature. ΔΨm was monitored using 5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'-tetraethylbenzimidazoyl carbocyanine iodide derivative (JC-10), a ΔΨm probe. While cold temperatures significantly increased ΔΨm and mitochondrial ATP levels in cells transfected with temperature responsive receptor TRPM8 or TRPA1, no change was noted in wild-type cells. Moreover, the change in ΔΨm and ATP level was a dynamic process. ΔΨm was raised to peak levels within 10 min of cold exposure, followed by a return to baseline levels at 30 min. Our findings suggest that cold temperature exposure increased mitochondrial ΔΨm via a mechanism involving cold temperature receptors. © 2013 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  8. Research on Utilization of Geo-Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Michaela; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena; GeoEn Working Group

    2013-04-01

    The world's energy demand will increase year by year and we have to search for alternative energy resources. New concepts concerning the energy production from geo-resources have to be provided and developed. The joint project GeoEn combines research on the four core themes geothermal energy, shale gas, CO2 capture and CO2 storage. Sustainable energy production from deep geothermal energy resources is addressed including all processes related to geothermal technologies, from reservoir exploitation to energy conversion in the power plant. The research on the unconventional natural gas resource, shale gas, is focussed on the sedimentological, diagenetic and compositional characteristics of gas shales. Technologies and solutions for the prevention of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide are developed in the research fields CO2 capture technologies, utilization, transport, and CO2 storage. Those four core themes are studied with an integrated approach using the synergy of cross-cutting methodologies. New exploration and reservoir technologies and innovative monitoring methods, e.g. CSMT (controlled-source magnetotellurics) are examined and developed. All disciplines are complemented by numerical simulations of the relevant processes. A particular strength of the project is the availability of large experimental infrastructures where the respective technologies are tested and monitored. These include the power plant Schwarze Pumpe, where the Oxyfuel process is improved, the pilot storage site for CO2 in Ketzin and the geothermal research platform Groß Schönebeck, with two deep wells and an experimental plant overground for research on corrosion. In addition to fundamental research, the acceptance of new technologies, especially in the field of CCS is examined. Another focus addressed is the impact of shale gas production on the environment. A further important goal is the education of young scientists in the new field "geo-energy" to fight skills shortage in this field

  9. Research opportunities to advance solar energy utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Nathan S

    2016-01-22

    Major developments, as well as remaining challenges and the associated research opportunities, are evaluated for three technologically distinct approaches to solar energy utilization: solar electricity, solar thermal, and solar fuels technologies. Much progress has been made, but research opportunities are still present for all approaches. Both evolutionary and revolutionary technology development, involving foundational research, applied research, learning by doing, demonstration projects, and deployment at scale will be needed to continue this technology-innovation ecosystem. Most of the approaches still offer the potential to provide much higher efficiencies, much lower costs, improved scalability, and new functionality, relative to the embodiments of solar energy-conversion systems that have been developed to date. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  10. Development of cold and drought tolerant short-season maize germplasm for fuel and feed utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo J Carena

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Maize has become a profitable alternative for North Dakota (ND farmers and ranchers. However, U.S. northern industry hybrids still lack cold and drought stress tolerance as well as adequate grain quality for ethanol and feedstock products. Moreover, there is a need to increase the value of feedstock operations before and after ethanol utilization. The ND maize breeding program initiated the development of hybrids with high quality protein content through the Early Quality Protein Maize for Feedstock (EarlyQPMF project. The North Dakota State University (NDSU maize breeding program acts as a genetic provider to foundation seed companies, retailer seed companies, processing industry, and breeders nationally and internationally. In the past 10 years, NDSU was awarded 9 PVP maize certificates and released 38 maize products. Within those, 13 inbred lines were exclusively released to a foundation seed company for commercial purposes. In addition, 2 hybrids were identified for commercial production in central and western ND.

  11. Detection of cold gas releases in space via low energy neutral atom imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McComas, D.J.; Funsten, H.O.; Moore, K.R.; Scime, E.E.; Thomsen, M.F.

    1993-01-01

    Low energy neutral atoms (LENAs) are produced in space plasmas by charge exchange between the ambient magnetospheric plasma ions and cold neutral atoms. Under normal conditions these cold neutrals come from the terrestrial geocorona, a shroud of few-eV hydrogen atoms surrounding the Earth. As a consequence of this charge exchange, it has become possible to remotely image many regions of the magnetosphere for the first time utilizing recently developed LENA imaging technology. In addition to the natural hydrogen geocorona, conventional explosions and maneuvering thruster firings can also introduce large amounts of cold gas into the space environment. In this paper the authors examine whether such potentially clandestine activities could also be remotely observed for the first time via LENA imaging. First, they examine the fluxes of LENAs produced in the space environment from a conventional explosion. Then they review the present state of the art in the emerging field of LENA detection and imaging. Recent work has shown that LENAs can be imaged by first converting the neutrals to ions with ultra-thin (10s of angstrom) foils and then electrostatically analyzing these newly created ions to reject the large (> 10 10 cm -2 s -1 ) UV background to which the low energy detectors are sensitive. They conclude that the sensitivities for present LENA imager designs may be just adequate for detecting some man-made releases. With additional improvements in LENA detection capabilities, this technique could become an important new method for monitoring for conventional explosions, as well as other man-made neutral releases, in the space environment

  12. Techno-economic evaluation for the heat integration of vaporisation cold energy in natural gas processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koku, Oludolapo; Perry, Simon; Kim, Jin-Kuk

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Development of thermal integration modelling framework for the utilisation of LNG cold energy. • Feasibility study for various design options for the integration of low-temperature cold energy. • Provision of a design approach for achieving efficient use of cold energy in LNG terminals. • Understanding of techno-economic impacts associated with the thermal integration of LNG cold energy. - Abstract: This paper addresses a conceptual study investigating the techno-economic feasibility for the thermal Integration of LNG cold vaporisation energy in power generation applications. In conventional regasification systems, this valuable LNG cold energy is often being wasted to ambient heat sources, representing a thermodynamic inefficient process with a significant thermal impact on the local environment. A combined facility consisting of a non-integrated Combined Cycle Power Plant (CCPP) and an LNG receiving terminal employing traditional Open Rack Vaporisers (ORV) technology, has been modelled, as a base case. Retrofit strategies for the integration of LNG cold energy have been investigated, and their impacts on power production and system efficiency are systematically compared. Retrofit design options considered in this work include the use of a propane Rankine cycle coupled with the direct expansion of natural gas, the integration of a closed-loop water cycle or open-loop water circuit with a steam Rankine cycle, and the facilitation of integrated air cooling for a gas turbine

  13. Solar energy utilization in the USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shpil'rajn, Eh.Eh.

    1993-01-01

    The conditions for solar energy utilization in the USSR are not too favorable. Only in the country's southern regions is there sufficient insolation to make solar energy utilization economical. In higher latitudes only seasonable use of solar energy is reasonable. Up to now, the main application of solar energy was to produce low temperature heat for hot water production, drying of agricultural goods, space heating and thermal treating of concrete. A substantial part of the solar heating installations is flat plate solar collectors. The total installed area of solar collectors slightly exceeds 100,000 m 2 . The collectors are produced by industry, as well as by small enterprises. In some cases selective coatings are used over the absorber plates; black nickel or chromium is the main coating material. Recently, new projects were launched to develop and produce advanced collectors with enhanced efficiency and reliability. Substantial progress has been made in the USSR in developing and producing photovoltaic cells, mainly for space applications. Terrestrial applications of photovoltaic is only in the very early stage. About 100 Kw of photovoltaic cells are produced annually in the USSR, based on mono or polycrystalline silicon. Some experimental photovoltaic-arrays in the range of several tenth of Kw are installed in different places. Research and development work is carried out to produce thin film cells. Effort are in progress to construct automated production lines for 1 MW per year of crystalline and amorphous silicon. In the Crimea, a solar power plant SES-5 (5 MW peak power) was commissioned some years ago. The plant is of a tower type, with a circular helioscope field. The plants working fluid is steam. The experienced gained demonstrates that this design concept has several disadvantages. The cost of electricity produced by such type plants extremely high. Recently, alternative types of solar power plants have been under development, in particular, a project

  14. Kauai Island Utility Cooperative energy storage study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhil, Abbas Ali; Yamane, Mike (Kauai Island Utility Cooperative, Lihu' e, HI); Murray, Aaron T.

    2009-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories performed an assessment of the benefits of energy storage for the Kauai Island Utility Cooperative. This report documents the methodology and results of this study from a generation and production-side benefits perspective only. The KIUC energy storage study focused on the economic impact of using energy storage to shave the system peak, which reduces generator run time and consequently reduces fuel and operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. It was determined that a 16-MWh energy storage system would suit KIUC's needs, taking into account the size of the 13 individual generation units in the KIUC system and a system peak of 78 MW. The analysis shows that an energy storage system substantially reduces the run time of Units D1, D2, D3, and D5 - the four smallest and oldest diesel generators at the Port Allen generating plant. The availability of stored energy also evens the diurnal variability of the remaining generation units during the off- and on-peak periods. However, the net economic benefit is insufficient to justify a load-leveling type of energy storage system at this time. While the presence of storage helps reduce the run time of the smaller and older units, the economic dispatch changes and the largest most efficient unit in the KIUC system, the 27.5-MW steam-injected combustion turbine at Kapaia, is run for extra hours to provide the recharge energy for the storage system. The economic benefits of the storage is significantly reduced because the charging energy for the storage is derived from the same fuel source as the peak generation source it displaces. This situation would be substantially different if there were a renewable energy source available to charge the storage. Especially, if there is a wind generation resource introduced in the KIUC system, there may be a potential of capturing the load-leveling benefits as well as using the storage to dampen the dynamic instability that the wind generation could introduce

  15. Aligning Utility Incentives with Investment in Energy Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describes the financial effects on a utility of its spending on energy efficiency programs, how those effects could constitute barriers to more aggressive and sustained utility investment in energy efficiency.

  16. Optimal energy management for a mechanical-hybrid vehicle with cold start conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkel, van K.; Klemm, W.P.A.; Hofman, T.; Vroemen, B.G.; Steinbuch, M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the design of an optimal Energy Management Strategy (EMS) for a hybrid vehicle that starts with a cold powertrain. The cold start negatively affects the combustion and transmission efficiency of the powertrain, caused by the higher frictional losses due to increased hydrodynamic

  17. Modeling and simulation to determine the potential energy savings by implementing cold thermal energy storage system in office buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rismanchi, B.; Saidur, R.; Masjuki, H.H.; Mahlia, T.M.I.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Simulating the CTES system behavior based on Malaysian climate. • Almost 65% of power is used for cooling for cooling the office buildings, every day. • The baseline shows an acceptable match with real data from the fieldwork. • Overall, the energy used for full load storage is much than the conventional system. • The load levelling storage strategy has 3.7% lower energy demand. - Abstract: In Malaysia, air conditioning (AC) systems are considered as the major energy consumers in office buildings with almost 57% share. During the past decade, cold thermal energy storage (CTES) systems have been widely used for their significant economic benefits. However, there were always doubts about their energy saving possibilities. The main objective of the present work is to develop a computer model to determine the potential energy savings of implementing CTES systems in Malaysia. A case study building has been selected to determine the energy consumption pattern of an office building. In the first step the building baseline model was developed and validated with the recorded data from the fieldwork. Once the simulation results reach an acceptable accuracy, different CTES system configuration was added to the model to predict their energy consumption pattern. It was found that the overall energy used by the full load storage strategy is considerably more than the conventional system. However, by applying the load leveling storage strategy, and considering its benefits to reduce the air handling unit size and reducing the pumping power, the overall energy usage was almost 4% lower than the non-storage system. Although utilizing CTES systems cannot reduce the total energy consumption considerably, but it has several outstanding benefits such as cost saving, bringing balance in the grid system, reducing the overall fuel consumption in the power plants and consequently reducing to total carbon footprint

  18. Cold sprayed WO3 and TiO2 electrodes for photoelectrochemical water and methanol oxidation in renewable energy applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haisch, Christoph; Schneider, Jenny; Fleisch, Manuel; Gutzmann, Henning; Klassen, Thomas; Bahnemann, Detlef W

    2017-10-03

    Films prepared by cold spray have potential applications as photoanodes in electrochemical water splitting and waste water purification. In the present study cold sprayed photoelectrodes produced with WO 3 (active under visible light illumination) and TiO 2 (active under UV illumination) on titanium metal substrates were investigated as photoanodes for the oxidation of water and methanol, respectively. Methanol was chosen as organic model pollutant in acidic electrolytes. Main advantages of the cold sprayed photoelectrodes are the improved metal-semiconductor junctions and the superior mechanical stability. Additionally, the cold spray method can be utilized as a large-scale electrode fabrication technique for photoelectrochemical applications. Incident photon to current efficiencies reveal that cold sprayed TiO 2 /WO 3 photoanodes exhibit the best photoelectrochemical properties with regard to the water and methanol oxidation reactions in comparison with the benchmark photocatalyst Aeroxide TiO 2 P25 due to more efficient harvesting of the total solar light irradiation related to their smaller band gap energies.

  19. Towards sustainability in cold chains : development of a quality, energy and environmental assessment tool (QEEAT)

    OpenAIRE

    Gwanpua , S.G.; Verboven , P.; Brown , T.; Leducq , D.; Verlinden , B.E.; Evans , J.; Van Der Sluis , S.; Wissink , E.B.; Taoukis , P.; Gogou , E.; Stahl , V.; El Jabri , M.; Thuault , D.; Claussen , I.; Indergard , E.

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Quantification of the impact of refrigeration technologies in terms of the quality of refrigerated food, energy usage, and environmental impact is essential to assess cold chain sustainability. In this paper, we present a software tool QEEAT (Quality, Energy and Environmental Assessment Tool) for evaluating refrigeration technologies. As a starting point, a reference product was chosen for the different main food categories in the European cold chain. Software code to ...

  20. Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents, May 2009 (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-05-01

    Enabling Documents, delivered by the U.S. Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) to provide materials that clarify the authority for federal agencies to enter into utility energy services contracts (UESCs).

  1. Reducing Operating Costs and Energy Consumption at Water Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to their unique combination of high energy usage and potential for significant savings, utilities are turning to energy-efficient technologies to help save money. Learn about cost and energy saving technologies from this brochure.

  2. Effect of intermittent cold exposure on brown fat activation, obesity, and energy homeostasis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann Ravussin

    Full Text Available Homeotherms have specific mechanisms to maintain a constant core body temperature despite changes in thermal environment, food supply, and metabolic demand. Brown adipose tissue, the principal thermogenic organ, quickly and efficiently increases heat production by dissipating the mitochondrial proton motive force. It has been suggested that activation of brown fat, via either environmental (i.e. cold exposure or pharmacologic means, could be used to increase metabolic rate and thus reduce body weight. Here we assess the effects of intermittent cold exposure (4°C for one to eight hours three times a week on C57BL/6J mice fed a high fat diet. Cold exposure increased metabolic rate approximately two-fold during the challenge and activated brown fat. In response, food intake increased to compensate fully for the increased energy expenditure; thus, the mice showed no reduction in body weight or adiposity. Despite the unchanged adiposity, the cold-treated mice showed transient improvements in glucose homeostasis. Administration of the cannabinoid receptor-1 inverse agonist AM251 caused weight loss and improvements in glucose homeostasis, but showed no further improvements when combined with cold exposure. These data suggest that intermittent cold exposure causes transient, meaningful improvements in glucose homeostasis, but without synergy when combined with AM251. Since energy expenditure is significantly increased during cold exposure, a drug that dissociates food intake from metabolic demand during cold exposure may achieve weight loss and further metabolic improvements.

  3. European Utility Requirements: European nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komsi, M.; Patrakka, E.

    1997-01-01

    The work procedure and the content of the European Utility Requirements (EUR) concerning the future LWRs is described in the article. European Utility Requirements, produced by utilities in a number of European countries, is a document specifying the details relating to engineered safety, operating performance, reliability and economics of the reactors to be built by manufacturers for the European market

  4. Impact of alternative energy forms on public utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, F. W., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The investigation of alternative energy sources by the electric utility industry is discussed. Research projects are reviewed in each of the following areas; solar energy, wind energy conversion, photosynthesis of biomass, ocean thermal energy conversion, geothermal energy, fusion, and the environmental impact of alternative energy sources.

  5. Utilizing scalar electromagnetics to tap vacuum energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweet, F.; Bearden, T.E.

    1991-01-01

    Based on E.T. Whittaker's previously unnoticed 1903-1904 papers which established a hidden bidirectional EM wave structure in a standing forcefield free scalar potential, a method of directly engineering the ambient potential of the vacuum has been developed and realized experimentally. Adding Whittaker's engineerable hidden variable theory to classical electromagnetic, quantum mechanics, and general relativity produces supersets of each discipline. These supersets are joined by the common Whittaker subset, producing a unified field theory that is engineerable and tested. By treating the nucleus of the atom as a pumped phase conjugate mirror, several working model energy units have been produced which excite and organize the local vacuum, increase the local virtual photon flux between local vacuum and nucleus, establish coherent self-oscillations between the local excited vacuum and the affected nuclei, utilized the self-oscillating standing wave for self-pumping of the nuclei/mirrors, introduce a very tiny signal wave to the mirrors, and output into an external load circuit a powerful, amplified, time-reversed phase conjugate replica wave at 60 Hertz frequency and nominal 120 volt sine wave power. Several models have been built, ranging from 6 watts early on to one of 5 kilowatts. Both closed battery-less systems with damped positive feedback and open loop systems with battery-powered input have been successfully built. Open loop power gains of from 5 x 10 4 to 1.5 x 10 6 have been achieved. Antigravity experiments have also been successfully conducted where the weight of the unit was reduced by 90% in controlled experiments, with a signal wave input of 175 microwatts and an output of 1 kilowatt. The basic theory of the device is briefly explained and experimental results presented

  6. Deep inelastic collisions at near-barrier energies and search for cold donor-fragment production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, M.B.

    1992-01-01

    Deep inelastic collisions in the near barrier energies of the mass asymmetric systems are of importance since controversial results on energy partition are being reported. Energy dissipation and the partition of dissipated energy among the reaction partners are of interest. Search for cold donor-fragment production at near barrier energies were carried out on a mass asymmetric system like Ni+Pb. (author). 13 refs., 8 figs

  7. Electric utilities strategies in final energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, A.

    2000-01-01

    In rapidly changing markets, electric utilities pay growing attention to customers and service. They are aware that competition needs strategies capable of transforming and strengthening the privileged position resulting from the knowledge of the market. Moreover, this aspect is the link between different value chains to describe new multi utility approaches [it

  8. Economic and financial aspects of geothermal energy utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazo, F.M.; Datuin, R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the historical development of geothermal energy in the Philippines, its present status and future possibilities. It also illustrates the average power generation and utilization from primary energy sources (hydro, oil, coal, and geothermal energy) in the country from 1981 to 1988. A comparison is made between electricity generating costs and results of operations from these power sources, showing that geothermal energy utilization is very competitive. Moreover, it also discusses the economic viability of geothermal energy utilization as a result of separate studies conducted by World Bank and an Italian energy consulting firm

  9. Validating Savings Claims of Cold Climate Zero Energy Ready Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, J. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States); Puttagunta, S. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2015-06-05

    This study was intended to validate actual performance of three ZERHs in the Northeast to energy models created in REM/Rate v14.5 (one of the certified software programs used to generate a HERS Index) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s Building Energy Optimization (BEopt™) v2.3 E+ (a more sophisticated hourly energy simulation software). This report details the validation methods used to analyze energy consumption at each home.

  10. Conception for economical energy utilization and supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, H; Canzler, B

    1977-10-01

    This study was performed to study the factors which determine energy consumption within buildings and how to optimize such energy use. The parameters of the principal energy consumers, i.e., HVAC and lighting systems, were analyzed. Possibilities for obtaining economical energy supplies and for reducing energy consumption were studied with emphasis on adapting the building mechanical equipment and the building design and construction to each other. It was concluded that planning for energy conservation in buildings will decrease the cost of constructing and operating buildings if the architect, building contractor and building operator work together from the initial planning stages.

  11. Analysis on energy-saving path of rural buildings in hot summer and cold winter zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mingqiang; Li, Jinheng

    2018-02-01

    Since the reform and opening policy, the construction of rural area in China has become more and more important. The idea of establishing green villages needs to be accepted and recognized by the public. The hot summer and cold winter zone combines two contradictory weather conditions that is cold winter and hot summer. So the living conditions are limited. In response to this climate, residents extensively use electric heaters or air conditioning to adjust the indoor temperature, resulting in energy waste and environmental pollution. In order to improve the living conditions of residents, rural area energy conservation has been put on the agenda. Based on the present situation and energy consumption analysis of the rural buildings in the hot summer and cold winter zone, this article puts forward several energy saving paths from government, construction technology and so on

  12. Villa Design and Solar Energy Utilization

    OpenAIRE

    Olofsson, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This paper goes through solar energy and what uses it has. It is also a guide in the choice of solar collectors for the real estate that I have drawn for the thesis work. Solar energy is a renewable source of energy from the Sun's light. Energy can be used to produce both heat and electricity through solar collectors and solar cells. Some of the benefits of solar energy is that it is completely free to extract, environmentally friendly and virtually maintenance-free. Disadvantages are that th...

  13. Towards sustainability in cold chains: Development of a quality, energy and environmental assessment tool (QEEAT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gwanpua, S.G.; Verboven, P.; Brown, T.; Leducq, D.; Verlinden, B.E.; Evans, J.; Van Der Sluis, S.; Wissink, E.B.; Taoukis, P.; Gogou, E.; Stahl, V.; El Jabri, M.; Thuault, D.; Claussen, I.; Indergård, E.; M. Nicolai, B.; Alvarez, G.; Geeraerd, A.H.

    2014-01-01

    Quantification of the impact of refrigeration technologies in terms of the quality of refrigerated food, energy usage, and environmental impact is essential to assess cold chain sustainability. In this paper, we present a software tool QEEAT (Quality, Energy and Environmental Assessment Tool) for

  14. Energy and generating mechanism of a subsurface, cold core eddy in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Babu, M.T.; Rao, D.P.

    Computation of available potential energy (APE) of a recently observed cold core, subsurface eddy (centered at 17 degrees 40'N and 85 degrees 19'E) in the Bay of Bengal revealed that the energy maxima associated with the eddy was of the order of 1...

  15. Regenesys utility scale energy storage. Project summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This report summarises the work to date, the current situation and the future direction of a project carried out by Regenesys Technology Ltd. (RGN) to investigate the benefits of electrochemical energy storage for power generators using renewable energy sources focussing on wind energy. The background to the study is traced covering the progress of the Regenesys energy storage technology, and the milestones achieved and lessons learnt. Details are given of the planned renewable-store-market interface to allow renewable generators optimise revenue under the New Electricity Trading Arrangements (NETA) and help in the connection of the renewable energy to the electric grid system. The four integrated work programmes of the project are described and involve a system study examining market penetration of renewable generators, a technical study into connection of renewable generators and energy storage, a small scale demonstration, and a pilot scale energy storage plant at Little Barton in Cambridgeshire. Problems leading to the closure of the project are discussed.

  16. Regenesys utility scale energy storage. Project summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This report summarises the work to date, the current situation and the future direction of a project carried out by Regenesys Technology Ltd. (RGN) to investigate the benefits of electrochemical energy storage for power generators using renewable energy sources focussing on wind energy. The background to the study is traced covering the progress of the Regenesys energy storage technology, and the milestones achieved and lessons learnt. Details are given of the planned renewable-store-market interface to allow renewable generators optimise revenue under the New Electricity Trading Arrangements (NETA) and help in the connection of the renewable energy to the electric grid system. The four integrated work programmes of the project are described and involve a system study examining market penetration of renewable generators, a technical study into connection of renewable generators and energy storage, a small scale demonstration, and a pilot scale energy storage plant at Little Barton in Cambridgeshire. Problems leading to the closure of the project are discussed

  17. Basic survey on the residence using hybrid energy in snowy cold regions; Sekisetsu kanreichi ni okeru hybrid energy katsuyogata jutaku nado ni kansuru kiso chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The conceptual model and feasibility of the hybrid energy system for residences and public facilities in snowy cold regions were studied. Based on the existing data, the existing and available amounts of natural energy and unused energy in the target area, Sapporo were estimated. Based on the predicted energy demands of 4 kinds of building models, the energy systems for such models were studied. The use of the following energies was considered: photovoltaic power generation and solar heat for all the models, household sewage energy for the multiple-dwelling house model, and wind power generation for the public facility model. The annual energy balance was calculated to evaluate it. The use of additional commercial electricity was necessary, while surplus solar heat energy was found in summer which can push up the self-sufficiency rates of the residence and public facility models to 70% and 44%, respectively. The multiple- dwelling house model which can use a large amount of household sewage energy could utilize 80% of new energy, while the other 3 models utilized only 60-70% of that. 81 figs., 42 tabs.

  18. Cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhil, A. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swaminathan, S.; Sen, R.K. [R.K. Sen & Associates, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy, Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage System Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) conducted a cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications. The scope of the study included the analysis of costs for existing and planned battery, SMES, and flywheel energy storage systems. The analysis also identified the potential for cost reduction of key components.

  19. Federal Energy Efficiency through Utility Partnerships: Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) Program Overview Fact Sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beattie, D.; Wolfson, M.

    2001-01-01

    This Utility Program Overview describes how the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) utility program assists Federal energy managers. The document identifies both a utility financing mechanism and FEMP technical assistance available to support agencies' implementation of energy and water efficiency methods and renewable energy projects

  20. Utilization of wind energy in greater Hanover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahling, U.

    1993-01-01

    Since the beginning of the Eighties, the association of communities of Greater Hanover has dealt intensively with energy and ecopolitical questions in the scope of regional planning. Renewable energy sources play a dominant role in this context. This brochure is the third contribution to the subject ''Energy policy and environmental protection''. Experts as well as possibly interested parties are addressed especially. For all 8 contributions contained, separate entries have been recorded in this database. (BWI) [de

  1. Utility and risk of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnert, H.; Borsch, P.; Feldmann, A.; Merz, E.; Muench, E.; Oesterwind, D.; Voss, A.; Wolters, J.

    1979-09-01

    The present report contains lectures of a seminar that was arranged by the programme group nuclear power and environment of the Kernforschungsanlage Juelich . The items were: 1) Do we need nuclear energy. An attempt at a system analytic answer. 2) Energy production by means of nuclear fission. 3) The nuclear power plants. 4) Nuclear energy and radiation hazard. 5) Safety of nuclear power plants. (RW) [de

  2. Predictive tool of energy performance of cold storage in agrifood industries: The Portuguese case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, José; Neves, Diogo; Gaspar, Pedro D.; Silva, Pedro D.; Andrade, Luís P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A predictive tool for assessment of the energy performance in agrifood industries that use cold storage is developed. • The correlations used by the predictive tool result from the greatest number of data sets collected to date in Portugal. • Strong relationships between raw material, energy consumption and volume of cold stores were established. • Case studies were analyzed that demonstrate the applicability of the tool. • The tool results are useful in the decision-making process of practice measures for the improvement of energy efficiency. - Abstract: Food processing and conservation represent decisive factors for the sustainability of the planet given the significant growth of the world population in the last decades. Therefore, the cooling process during the manufacture and/or storage of food products has been subject of study and improvement in order to ensure the food supply with good quality and safety. A predictive tool for assessment of the energy performance in agrifood industries that use cold storage is developed in order to contribute to the improvement of the energy efficiency of this industry. The predictive tool is based on a set of characteristic correlated parameters: amount of raw material annually processed, annual energy consumption and volume of cold rooms. Case studies of application of the predictive tool consider industries in the meat sector, specifically slaughterhouses. The results obtained help on the decision-making of practice measures for improvement of the energy efficiency in this industry

  3. Optimization of Domestic-Size Renewable Energy System Designs Suitable for Cold Climate Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpan, Itoro Etim; Sasaki, Masafumi; Endoh, Noboru

    Five different kinds of domestic-size renewable energy system configurations for very cold climate regions were investigated. From detailed numerical modeling and system simulations, it was found that the consumption of fuel oil for the auxiliary boiler in residential-type households can almost be eliminated with a renewable energy system that incorporates photovoltaic panel arrays for electricity generation and two storage tanks: a well-insulated electric water storage tank that services the hot water loads, and a compact boiler/geothermal heat pump tank for room heating during very cold seasons. A reduction of Greenhouse Gas Emissions (GHG) of about 28% was achieved for this system compared to an equivalent conventional system. The near elimination of the use of fuel oil in this system makes it very promising for very cold climate regions in terms of energy savings because the running cost is not so dependent on the unstable nature of global oil prices.

  4. Thermodynamic performance analysis of a combined power cycle using low grade heat source and LNG cold energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyoung Hoon; Kim, Kyung Chun

    2014-01-01

    Thermodynamic analysis of a combined cycle using a low grade heat source and LNG cold energy was carried out. The combined cycle consisted of an ammonia–water Rankine cycle with and without regeneration and a LNG Rankine cycle. A parametric study was conducted to examine the effects of the key parameters, such as ammonia mass fraction, turbine inlet pressure, condensation temperature. The effects of the ammonia mass fraction on the temperature distributions of the hot and cold streams in heat exchangers were also investigated. The characteristic diagram of the exergy efficiency and heat transfer capability was proposed to consider the system performance and expenditure of the heat exchangers simultaneously. The simulation showed that the system performance is influenced significantly by the parameters with the ammonia mass fraction having largest effect. The net work output of the ammonia–water cycle may have a peak value or increase monotonically with increasing ammonia mass fraction, which depends on turbine inlet pressure or condensation temperature. The exergy efficiency may decrease or increase or have a peak value with turbine inlet pressure depending on the ammonia mass fraction. - Highlights: • Thermodynamic analysis was performed for a combined cycle utilizing LNG cold energy. • Ammonia–water Rankine cycle and LNG Rankine cycle was combined. • A parametric study was conducted to examine the effects of the key parameters. • Characteristics of the exergy efficiency and heat transfer capability were proposed. • The system performance was influenced significantly by the ammonia mass fraction

  5. Public utility service in energy field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abenante, R.

    2000-01-01

    Under the current legislation, the idea of public utility service is thoroughly expressed and settled within that of public service. Lacking a new definition, not all businesses in the electricity and gas industries are subjected to the authoritative and regulatory opinions of the Authority established by act 481/95 which can only be expressed in matters strictly concerning public services [it

  6. Energy-saving strategies with personalized ventilation in cold climates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shiavon, Stefano; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2009-01-01

    In this study the influence of the personalized supply air temperature control strategy on energy consumption and the energy-saving potentials of a personalized ventilation system have been investigated by means of simulations with IDA-ICE software. GenOpt software was used to determine the optimal...

  7. Coupling model of energy consumption with changes in environmental utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Hongming; Jim, C.Y.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the relationships between metropolis energy consumption and environmental utility changes by a proposed Environmental Utility of Energy Consumption (EUEC) model. Based on the dynamic equilibrium of input–output economics theory, it considers three simulation scenarios: fixed-technology, technological-innovation, and green-building effect. It is applied to analyse Hong Kong in 1980–2007. Continual increase in energy consumption with rapid economic growth degraded environmental utility. First, energy consumption at fixed-technology was determined by economic outcome. In 1990, it reached a critical balanced state when energy consumption was 22×10 9 kWh. Before 1990 (x 1 9 kWh), rise in energy consumption improved both economic development and environmental utility. After 1990 (x 1 >22×10 9 kWh), expansion of energy consumption facilitated socio-economic development but suppressed environmental benefits. Second, technological-innovation strongly influenced energy demand and improved environmental benefits. The balanced state remained in 1999 when energy consumption reached 32.33×10 9 kWh. Technological-innovation dampened energy consumption by 12.99%, exceeding the fixed-technology condition. Finally, green buildings reduced energy consumption by an average of 17.5% in 1990–2007. They contributed significantly to energy saving, and buffered temperature fluctuations between external and internal environment. The case investigations verified the efficiency of the EUEC model, which can effectively evaluate the interplay of energy consumption and environmental quality. - Highlights: ► We explore relationships between metropolis energy consumption and environmental utility. ► An Environmental Utility of Energy Consumption (EUEC) model is proposed. ► Technological innovation mitigates energy consumption impacts on environmental quality. ► Technological innovation decreases demand of energy consumption more than fixed technology scenario

  8. A Study on promotion of utilizing waste energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Jae Ho [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1999-01-01

    The utilization of waste energy occupying over 80% of alternative energy has been an important issue with the trend of large-sized waste incinerator. The object of this study is to seek the methods for the active application of waste energy, which is produced at the process of waste generation and disposal. It is expected to help energy saving, foreign currency saving and prevent environmental pollution by utilizing alternative energy actively. It should have basic information, related information for examining technical feasibility, and feasibility examination of the surroundings for developing the demand place. Moreover, it should enhance the energy saving by recommending use of waste energy with introducing recommendation system of installing waste energy collection system. It should also consider the support of the introduction of waste energy system as well as the aspect of regional energy policy. In addition, the development and distribution of applied technology for waste energy are needed. (author). 36 refs., 4 figs., 77 tabs.

  9. The strategy of European energy utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blakey, S.; Kramer, M.; Sauquet, P.; Sire, D.; Venet, D.; Lenoir, J.

    2007-01-01

    After a relatively quiet period, the concentration movement in the energy sector is growing up again. What will be the limit of this dynamics? What will be tomorrow's European energy actors? Will it be a mix of big groups, medium-size and small companies with a specialized activity like today, or only big groups with multi-energy supply and production activities which will directly supply the end-users? What is the provisions foreseen by such groups to ensure the security of supplies? What are the synergies in terms of size and/or multi-energy offers? Five participants and a journalist have debated these questions at this round table. (J.S.)

  10. Development of technologies for utilizing geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    In verifying the effectiveness of the deep geothermal resource exploration technology, development is being carried out on a fracture-type reservoir exploration method. The seismic exploration method investigates detailed structures of underground fracture systems by using seismic waves generated on the ground surface. Verification experiments for fiscal 1994 were carried out by selecting the Kakkonda area in which small fracture networks form reservoir beds. Geothermal resources in deep sections (deeper than 2000 m with temperatures higher than 350{degree}C) are promising in terms of amount of the resources, but anticipated with difficulty in exploration and impediments in drilling. To avoid these risks, studies are being progressed on the availability of resources in deep sections, their utilization possibility, and technologies of effective exploration and drilling. This paper summarizes the results of deep resource investigations during fiscal 1994. It also describes such technological development as hot water utilizing power generation. Development is performed on a binary cycle power generation plant which pumps and utilizes hot water of 150 to 200{degree}C by using a downhole pump. The paper also reports development on element technologies for hot rock power generation systems. It also dwells on development of safe and effective drilling and production technologies for deep geothermal resources.

  11. Utilization of Titanium Particle Impact Location to Validate a 3D Multicomponent Model for Cold Spray Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faizan-Ur-Rab, M.; Zahiri, S. H.; King, P. C.; Busch, C.; Masood, S. H.; Jahedi, M.; Nagarajah, R.; Gulizia, S.

    2017-12-01

    Cold spray is a solid-state rapid deposition technology in which metal powder is accelerated to supersonic speeds within a de Laval nozzle and then impacts onto the surface of a substrate. It is possible for cold spray to build thick structures, thus providing an opportunity for melt-less additive manufacturing. Image analysis of particle impact location and focused ion beam dissection of individual particles were utilized to validate a 3D multicomponent model of cold spray. Impact locations obtained using the 3D model were found to be in close agreement with the empirical data. Moreover, the 3D model revealed the particles' velocity and temperature just before impact—parameters which are paramount for developing a full understanding of the deposition process. Further, it was found that the temperature and velocity variations in large-size particles before impact were far less than for the small-size particles. Therefore, an optimal particle temperature and velocity were identified, which gave the highest deformation after impact. The trajectory of the particles from the injection point to the moment of deposition in relation to propellant gas is visualized. This detailed information is expected to assist with the optimization of the deposition process, contributing to improved mechanical properties for additively manufactured cold spray titanium parts.

  12. Seasonal shifting of surplus renewable energy in a power system located in a cold region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Morel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Fukushima nuclear disaster in 2011 changed Japan's strategy for reducing CO2 emissions. The government is now placing more emphasis on the development of nonCO2-emitting distributed generation systems such as wind, solar, and tidal power to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and guarantee electricity supply in the case of a natural disaster. This paper proposes a strategy for the exploitation of wind, solar, and tidal resources in a cold region in Japan by utilizing surplus energy from the summer and spring during winter. It also aims to determine the most favorable energy mix of these renewable sources and storage system types. The study is performed by calculating hourly demand and renewable energy supply for the city in one year, which is based on actual data of demand, solar irradiation, wind speeds, and tidal current speeds. The costs of the components of the renewable power plants and storage systems are considered, and different proportions of generation outputs are evaluated with different types of storage systems. According to results, the configuration containing the hydrogen storage system using organic chemical hydride methylcyclohexane (OCHM is the most economical but is still more expensive than one using a conventional generation system. Moreover, we confirm that the cost of CO2 emissions is the key element for leveling the playing field between conventional and renewable generation from an economic perspective. The cost of CO2 emissions to public health as well as those costs related to the interruption of services during a catastrophe must be carefully calculated with other issues from conventional power projects to perform a precise comparative evaluation between both types of generation systems.

  13. Utilization of superconductivity in energy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, J.T.; Mikkonen, R.; Lahtinen, M.; Paasi, J. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Laboratory of Electricity and Magnetism

    1998-12-31

    The technical potential of high temperature superconductors has been demonstrated in energy power applications. The magnetisation coils of the constructed 1.5 kW synchronous motor are made of bismuth-based material, the efficiency of the motor being 82 %. The same material is utilised in a 5 kJ magnetic energy storage in order to compensate for a short-term loss of power. Fast activation time and high efficiency are the benefits compared to traditional UPS systems. The operation temperature of 20-30 K enables the usage of mechanical cooling which is one major advantage compared to conventional liquid helium cooled systems. (orig.)

  14. Three-dimensional imaging utilizing energy discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunter, D.L.; Hoffman, K.R.; Beck, R.N.

    1990-01-01

    An algorithm is proposed for three-dimensional image reconstruction in nuclear medicine which uses scattered radiation rather than multiple projected images to determine the source depth within the body. Images taken from numerous energy windows are combined to construct the source distribution in the body. The gamma-ray camera is not moved during the imaging process. Experiments with both Tc-99m and Ga-67 demonstrate that two channels of depth information can be extracted from the low energy images produced by scattered radiation. By combining this technique with standard SPECT reconstruction using multiple projections the authors anticipate much improved spatial resolution in the overall three-dimensional reconstruction

  15. Validating Savings Claims of Cold Climate Zero Energy Ready Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, J. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States); Puttagunta, S. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2015-06-01

    This report details the validation methods used to analyze consumption at each of these homes. It includes a detailed end-use examination of consumptions from the following categories: 1) Heating, 2) Cooling, 3) Lights, Appliances, and Miscellaneous Electric Loads (LAMELS) along with Domestic Hot Water Use, 4) Ventilation, and 5) PV generation. A utility bill disaggregation method, which allows a crude estimation of space conditioning loads based on outdoor air temperature, was also performed and the results compared to the actual measured data.

  16. Technology assessment of solar energy utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, F.

    1985-11-01

    The general objectives and methods of Technology Assessment (TA) are outlined. Typical analysis steps of a TA for solar energy are reviewed: description of the technology and its further development; identification of impact areas; analysis of boundary conditions and definition of scenarios; market penetration of solar technologies; projection of consequences in areas of impact; and assessment of impacts and identification of options for action.

  17. Utilization of solar energy in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Whillier, A

    1953-04-01

    Full Text Available Design curves based on measurements of solar irradiation in South Africa are presented for two geographic areas, the highveld and the Cape Peninsula, giving data on the amount of thermal energy that can be collected from the sun by use of flat...

  18. Utilization of secondary energy resources of metallurgical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... with a heat output of 4200 kW, a working agent R 600, a source of low-potential heat-circulating water: a 460 kW gas engine. The proposed scheme showed high efficiency of power supply of the town in comparison with the gas boiler. Keywords: heat pump; internal combustion engine metallurgical plant; energy efficiency ...

  19. Energy savings solutions: passive solar design in Iranian cold climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nassehzadeh Tabriz, Shahram [Department of Architecture, Miyaneh Branch, Islamic Azad University (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], email: sh_nassehzadeh@m-iau.ac.ir; Mahdavi Tabatabaei Fard, Fariborz [SABAT TARH CO. (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], email: sabat_arc@yahoo.com; Aliyev, Fagan [International Eco-energy Academy (Azerbaijan)], email: ie_academy@yahoo.com

    2011-07-01

    In recent years, there has been a significant increase in the cost of fuel gas, fuel oil and electricity and much thought has been given to the use of solar energy. Living in a solar heated house gives peace of mind and body and it makes good sense in mountainous regions. Severe winters in such regions make more energy for standard living activities in buildings necessary. This paper discusses passive solar building design as an energy saving solution. In this type of design, windows, walls and floors act as storage and distribution devices for solar energy in winter and deflect solar heat in summer. Passive solar design techniques influence the choice of building site, design and materials within the general framework of enriching the quality of life of the inhabitants. As a result, natural resources are saved and the environment is conserved for future generations. In conclusion, it is seen that passive design keeps a home cool and comfortable in summer and warm and cozy in winter with minimal heating and cooling requirements.

  20. Superconducting magnetic energy storage for electric utilities and fusion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J.D.; Boenig, H.J.; Hassenzahl, W.V.

    1978-01-01

    Superconducting inductors provide a compact and efficient means of storing electrical energy without an intermediate conversion process. Energy storage inductors are under development for load leveling and transmission line stabilization in electric utility systems and for driving magnetic confinement and plasma heating coils in fusion energy systems. Fluctuating electric power demands force the electric utility industry to have more installed generating capacity than the average load requires. Energy storage can increase the utilization of base-load fossil and nuclear power plants for electric utilities. The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory and the University of Wisconsin are developing superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) systems, which will store and deliver electrical energy for load leveling, peak shaving, and the stabilization of electric utility networks. In the fusion area, inductive energy transfer and storage is being developed. Both 1-ms fast-discharge theta-pinch systems and 1-to-2-s slow energy transfer tokamak systems have been demonstrated. The major components and the method of operation of a SMES unit are described, and potential applications of different size SMES systems in electric power grids are presented. Results are given of a reference design for a 10-GWh unit for load leveling, of a 30-MJ coil proposed for system stabilization, and of tests with a small-scale, 100-kJ magnetic energy storage system. The results of the fusion energy storage and transfer tests are presented. The common technology base for the various storage systems is discussed

  1. On the possibility of generation of cold and additional electric energy at thermal power stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimenko, A. V.; Agababov, V. S.; Borisova, P. N.

    2017-06-01

    A layout of a cogeneration plant for centralized supply of the users with electricity and cold (ECCG plant) is presented. The basic components of the plant are an expander-generator unit (EGU) and a vapor-compression thermotransformer (VCTT). At the natural-gas-pressure-reducing stations, viz., gas-distribution stations and gas-control units, the plant is connected in parallel to a throttler and replaces the latter completely or partially. The plant operates using only the energy of the natural gas flow without burning the gas; therefore, it can be classified as a fuelless installation. The authors compare the thermodynamic efficiencies of a centralized cold supply system based on the proposed plant integrated into the thermal power station scheme and a decentralized cold supply system in which the cold is generated by electrically driven vapor-compression thermotransformers installed on the user's premises. To perform comparative analysis, the exergy efficiency was taken as the criterion since in one of the systems under investigation the electricity and the cold are generated, which are energies of different kinds. It is shown that the thermodynamic efficiency of the power supply using the proposed plant proves to be higher within the entire range of the parameters under consideration. The article presents the results of investigating the impact of the gas heating temperature upstream from the expander on the electric power of the plant, its total cooling capacity, and the cooling capacities of the heat exchangers installed downstream from the EGU and the evaporator of the VCTT. The results of calculations are discussed that show that the cold generated at the gas-control unit of a powerful thermal power station can be used for the centralized supply of the cold to the ventilation and conditioning systems of both the buildings of the power station and the neighboring dwelling houses, schools, and public facilities during the summer season.

  2. Long term plan of atomic energy development and utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The atomic energy utilization and development in Japan have progressed remarkably, and already nuclear power generation has borne an important part in electric power supply, while radiation has been utilized in the fields of industry, agriculture, medicine and so on. Now, atomic energy is indispensable for national life and industrial activity. The former long term plan was decided in September, 1978, and the new long term plan should be established since the situation has changed largely. The energy substituting for petroleum has been demanded, and the expectation to nuclear power generation has heightened because it enables stable and economical power supply. The independently developed technology related to atomic energy must be put in practical use. The peaceful utilization of atomic energy must be promoted, while contributing to the nuclear non-proliferation policy. The Atomic Energy Commission of Japan decided the new long term plan to clearly show the outline of the important measures related to atomic energy development and utilization in 10 years hereafter, and the method of its promotion. The basic concept of atomic energy development and utilization, the long term prospect and the concept on the promotion, the method of promoting the development and utilization, and the problems of funds, engineers and location are described. (kako, I.)

  3. Arguments against the utilization of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-05-01

    The attempt is made to treat the subject 'nuclear energy' on a large scale. In this brochure, all important problems can only be discussed quite briefly; a great number of footnotes indicating further literature shall guide the reader to thorough study. The text is supposed to serve as a systematic introduction to the problems as well as for looking up individual partial aspects. A lot of space has been given to the presentation of those aspects that concern the risk of nuclear facilities, and the threat to man and environment by their operation. Moreover, fundamental political, scientific-sociological, economic and other social problems are discussed. The objective of this was to give the reader an idea of the social background before which the controversy about the nuclear energy is taking place today and what factors decide its development. (orig./HP) [de

  4. Energy utilization: municipal waste incineration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaBeck, M.F.

    1981-03-27

    An assessment is made of the technical and economical feasibility of converting municipal waste into useful and useable energy. The concept presented involves retrofitting an existing municipal incinerator with the systems and equipment necessary to produce process steam and electric power. The concept is economically attractive since the cost of necessary waste heat recovery equipment is usually a comparatively small percentage of the cost of the original incinerator installation. Technical data obtained from presently operating incinerators designed specifically for generating energy, documents the technical feasibility and stipulates certain design constraints. The investigation includes a cost summary; description of process and facilities; conceptual design; economic analysis; derivation of costs; itemized estimated costs; design and construction schedule; and some drawings.

  5. Body mass, Thermogenesis and energy metabolism in Tupaia belangeri during cold acclimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-long Zhu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the relationship between energy strategies and environmental temperature, basal metabolic rate (BMR, nonshivering thermogenesis (NST, the total protein contents, mitochondrial protein contents, state and state respiratory ability, cytochrome C oxidase activity Ⅲ Ⅳ of liver, heart, diaphragm, gastrocnemius and brown adipose tissue (BAT, serum leptin level and serum thyroid hormone levels were measured in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri during cold exposure (5±1oC for 1 day, 7 days,14days,21 days. The results showed that body mass increased, BMR and NST increased, the change of liver mitochondrial protein content was more acutely than total protein. The mitochondrial protein content of heart and BAT were significantly increased during cold-exposed, however the skeletal muscle more moderate reaction. The state Ⅲ and state Ⅳ mitochondrial respiration of these tissues were enhanced significantly than the control. The cytochrome C oxidase activity with cold acclimation also significantly increased except the gastrocnemius. Liver, muscle, BAT, heart and other organs were concerned with thermoregulation during the thermal regulation process above cold-exposed. There is a negative correlation between leptin level and body mass. These results suggested that T. belangeri enhanced thermogenic capacity during cold acclimation, and leptin participated in the regulation of energy balance and body weight in T. belangeri.

  6. Study of cold and hot sources in a research reactor. (Physics, specifications, operation, utilization)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safieh, J.

    1982-10-01

    A brief description of the reactor, sources and experimental channels (ORPHEE being taken as example) is first given. The first part deals with the hot neutron source, mainly made of a graphite block to be carried at a temperature of 1500 0 K by nuclear heating. The present study focused on the determination, with the code MERCURE IV, of heat sources generated in the graphite block. From these results the spatial distribution of temperatures have been calculated with two different methods. Mechanical and thermal stresses have been calculated for the hot points. Then, the outlet neutron spectra is determined by means of the code APOLLO. Finally, the operation of the device is presented and the risks and the safety measures are given. The second part deals with cold neutron sources comprising mainly a cold moderator (liquid hydrogen 20.4 0 K). The helium coolant circuit liquefies the hydrogen by means of heat exchange in a condenser. Cold neutron yields calculations are developed by means of the code THERMOS in the plane and cyclindrical geometries. Heat sources generated by nuclear radiations are calculated. A detailed description of the device and its coolant circuit is given, and a risk analysis is finally presented. The third part deals with the part of thermal cold and hot neutrons in the study of matter and its dynamics. Technical means needed to obtain a monochromatic beam, for diffraction experiments, are recalled emphasizing on the interest of these neutrons with regard to X radiation. Then, one deals with cold neutron guides. Finally, the efficiency of two neutron guides is calculated. 78 refs [fr

  7. Electromagnetic projectile acceleration utilizing distributed energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, J.V.

    1982-01-01

    Circuit equations are derived for an electromagnetic projectile accelerator (railgun) powered by a large number of capacitive discharge circuits distributed along its length. The circuit equations are put into dimensionless form and the parameters governing the solutions derived. After specializing the equations to constant spacing between circuits, the case of lossless rails and negligible drag is analyzed to show that the electrical to kinetic energy transfer efficiency is equal to sigma/2, where sigma = 2mS/Lq 2 0 and m is the projectile mass, S the distance between discharge circuit, Lthe rail inductance per unit length, and q 0 the charge on the first stage capacitor. For sigma = 2 complete transfer of electrical to kinetic energy is predicted while for sigma>2 the projective-discharge circuit system is unstable. Numerical solutions are presented for both lossless rails and for finite rail resistance. When rail resistance is included, >70% transfer is calculated for accelerators of arbitrary length. The problem of projectile startup is considered and a simple modification of the first two stages is described which provides proper startup. Finally, the results of the numerical solutions are applied to a practical railgun design. A research railgun designed for repeated operation at 50 km/sec is described. It would have an overall length of 77 m, an electrical efficiency of 81%, a stored energy per stage of 105 kJ, and a charge transfer of <50 C per stage. A railgun of this design appears to be practicable with current pulsed power technology

  8. Energy and exergy utilizations of the Jordanian SMEs industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ghandoor, A.; Al Salaymeh, M.; Al-Abdallat, Y.; Al-Rawashdeh, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We analyze the energy and exergy utilizations of the Jordanian SMEs industries. ► We developed an energy balance for the Jordanian SMEs industries. ► The low efficiencies values suggest that many opportunities for better industrial energy utilizations still exist. - Abstract: This study presents detailed analysis of the energy and exergy utilizations of the Jordanian Small-Medium Enterprises (SMEs) by considering the flows of energy and exergy through the main end uses in the Jordanian industrial sector. To achieve this purpose, a survey covering 180 facilities was conducted and energy consumption data was gathered to establish detailed end-use balance for the Jordanian industrial sector. The energy end-use balance provides a starting point to estimate the site and embodied energy and exergy efficiencies. The average site energy and exergy efficiencies of the Jordanian SMEs industries sector are estimated as 78.3% and 37.9% respectively, while the embodied energy and exergy efficiencies are estimated as 58.9% and 21.2% respectively. The low efficiencies values suggest that many opportunities for better industrial energy utilizations still exist.

  9. Is increased energy utilization linked to greater cultural complexity? Energy utilization by Australian Aboriginals and traditional swidden agriculturalists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reijnders, L. [Expertisecentrum Duurzame Ontwikkeling en Instituut voor Biodiversiteit en Ecosysteem Dynamica ECDO/IBED, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2006-09-15

    Theories have been proposed that link increases in energy utilization to increases in cultural complexity. Indeed, available estimates of per capita non-food energy utilization by hunter - gatherers and by people practising swidden agriculture in wooded areas, focusing on fuel wood use, are roughly 1 - 2 orders of magnitude lower than for industrial societies. The latter are in the range of 0.8 - 3.4 x 10{sup 5} MJ year{sup -1}. However, apart from the use of fuel wood, the former estimates have not included work performed by burning vegetation. Here quantitative estimates are given of recent energy utilization linked to burning biomass by Australian Aboriginals and people practising traditional swidden agriculture. Per capita energy utilization linked to biomass burning by Australian Aboriginals is estimated at 1.6 x 10{sup 6} to 4.0 x 10{sup 7} MJ year{sup -1}. Estimated per capita energy utilization associated with burning biomass in traditional swidden agriculture in the tropical rainforests of Kalimantan and Venezuela, the dry forest of north-eastern Brazil and the miombo woodland of Zambia is in the range of 1.0 x 10{sup 5} to 6.3 x 10{sup 5} MJ year{sup -1}. The values for non-food energy utilization reported here are at variance with theories that link increases in energy utilization to increases in cultural complexity.

  10. Energy Economics of Farm Biogas in Cold Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pillay, Pragasen; Grimberg, Stefan; Powers, Susan E

    2012-10-24

    Anaerobic digestion of farm and dairy waste has been shown to be capital intensive. One way to improve digester economics is to co-digest high-energy substrates together with the dairy manure. Cheese whey for example represents a high-energy substrate that is generated during cheese manufacture. There are currently no quantitative tools available that predict performance of co-digestion farm systems. The goal of this project was to develop a mathematical tool that would (1) predict the impact of co-digestion and (2) determine the best use of the generated biogas for a cheese manufacturing plant. Two models were developed that separately could be used to meet both goals of the project. Given current pricing structures of the most economical use of the generated biogas at the cheese manufacturing plant was as a replacement of fuel oil to generate heat. The developed digester model accurately predicted the performance of 26 farm digesters operating in the North Eastern U.S.

  11. Utilization of solar and nuclear energy for hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, M.

    1987-01-01

    Although the world-wide energy supply situation appears to have eased at present, non-fossil primary energy sources and hydrogen as a secondary energy carrier will have to take over a long-term and increasing portion of the energy supply system. The only non-fossil energy sources which are available in relevant quantities, are nuclear energy, solar energy and hydropower. The potential of H 2 for the extensive utilization of solar energy is of particular importance. Status, progress and development potential of the electrolytic H 2 production with photovoltaic generators, solar-thermal power plants and nuclear power plants are studied and discussed. The joint German-Saudi Arabian Research, Development and Demonstration Program HYSOLAR for the solar hydrogen production and utilization is summarized. (orig.)

  12. Direct utilization of geothermal energy: a technical handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, D.N; Lund, J.W. (eds.)

    1979-01-01

    This technical handbook includes comprehensive discussions on nature and occurrence of the geothermal resource, its development, utilization, economics, financing, and regulation. Information on pricing parameters for the direct use of geothermal energy is included as an appendix. (MRH)

  13. Solar thermal energy utilization: A bibliography with abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Bibliographic series, which is periodically updated, cites documents published since 1957 relating to practical thermal utilization of solar energy. Bibliography is indexed by author, corporate source, title, and keywords.

  14. Energy conservation indicators cold and heat storage. Revision factsheet cold and heat storage 2009; Besparingskentallen koude- en warmteopslag. Herziening factsheet koude- en warmteopslag 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosselaar, L. [SenterNovem, Utrecht (Netherlands); Koenders, M.J.B.; Van Helden, M.J.C.; Kleinlugtenbelt, J.H. [IF Technology, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    2009-08-15

    The aim of the title revision is to update the existing indicators for cold and heat storage as given in the Protocol Monitoring Sustainable Energy [Dutch] Het doel van het onderzoek is om de bestaande set van kentallen voor koude- en warmteopslag uit het Protocol Monitoring Duurzame Energie te actualiseren.

  15. Analysis of energy and utility service demands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-10-01

    The collection, analysis, and review of existing data on a community's service requirements are documented. The research focused on the analysis of energy-using activities including both micro activities such as space heating, cooking, lighting, and transportation; and macro activities such as providing shelter, health care, education, etc. The technical report describes the analytical framework developed for community description; describes an indexing system by which a catalog of services can be accessed; illustrates the application of the data to an existing community; and provides ancillary information on data availability. A catalog of data is presented which includes several sets of indices which facilitate access of data using various keys. Abstracts of 48 data sources are analyzed. Each abstract includes a description and evaluation of the data, a sampling of that data, an assessment as to how that data may be applied to other analyses, and a reference where the user can secure additional data. (MCW)

  16. Importance of Peaceful Utilization of Nuclear Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Frydryšková

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the massive destruction of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in the end of Second World War, the atom was generally taken to be the primary symbol of the new era, the so-called ‘atomic age’, a prototypical modern conjuncture forever oscillating between the agonies of mass death and standardized terror, and the euphoria of tremendous economic transformation through the permanent resolution of the ever increasing need for electrical energy at little or no cost. After Hiroshima the symbolic meaning and presence of the atom crossed and recrossed the lines between popular culture, lived experience, political protest, strategic discourse, modern design, industry, medicine, and agriculture, that it truly became ‘atomic age’ whether one was in the US, France, China or anywhere else. 

  17. Thermal energy storage and utilization system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The power output from a nuclear power plant or fossil fuel power plant operating under constant reactor (or furnace) and boiler conditions is varied by regulating the rate of turbine extraction steam and primary high pressure steam used to heat boiler feed water (BFW). During periods of low power demand, excess extraction steam is drawn off to heat excess quantities of boiler feed water. Such boiler feed water can be heated to the maximum extent possible and used to reheat interstage steam before being sent at slightly reduced temperature to the boilers. In this way, maximum use can be made of the thermal energy stored in the low vapor pressure organic material. Alternatively, or simultaneously, the stored hot LVP organic material can be used to raise intermediate pressure steam and this steam can be injected into the steam turbines between appropriate stages or into auxiliary turbines used solely for this purpose

  18. Energy absorption in cold inhomogeneous plasmas - The Herlofson paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, F. W.; Harker, K. J.

    1972-01-01

    Confirmation of Barston's (1964) conclusions regarding the underlying mechanism of the Herlofson paradox by examining in detail several analytically tractable cases of delta-function and sinusoidal excitation. The effects of collisions and nonzero electron temperature in determining the steady state fields and dissipation are considered. Energy absorption without dissipation in plasmas is shown to be analogous to that occurring after application of a signal to a network of lossless resonant circuits. This analogy is pursued and is extended to cover Landau damping in a warm homogeneous plasma in which the resonating elements are the electron streams making up the velocity distribution. Some of the practical consequences of resonant absorption are discussed, together with a number of paradoxical plasma phenomena which can also be elucidated by considering a superposition of normal modes rather than a single Fourier component.

  19. Measurement of Quark Energy Loss in Cold Nuclear Matter at Fermilab E906/SeaQuest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Po-Ju [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Parton energy loss is a process within QCD that draws considerable interest. The measurement of parton energy loss can provide valuable information for other hard-scattering processes in nuclei, and also serves as an important tool for exploring the properties of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP). Quantifying the energy loss in cold nuclear matter will help to set a baseline relative to energy loss in the QGP. With the Drell-Yan process, the energy loss of incoming quarks in cold nuclear matter can be ideally investigated since the final state interaction is expected to be minimal. E906/SeaQuest is a fixed-target experiment using the 120 GeV proton beam from the Fermilab Main Injector and has been collecting data from p+p, p+d, p+C, p+Fe, and p+W collisions. Within the E906 kinematic coverage of Drell-Yan production via the dimuon channel, the quark energy loss can be measured in a regime where other nuclear effects are expected to be small. In this thesis, the study of quark ener gy loss from different cold nuclear targets is presented.

  20. Cold-fusion as safe and hazardless energy-source of the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, R.C.; Gupta, Sushant

    2012-01-01

    Out of the two processes for nuclear-energy; nuclear-fission is plagued with problem of nuclear-radiation hazard, whereas though nuclear-fusion is safe but almost impossible to be done on earth specially at room- temperature. In 1989, two scientists Fleischmann and Pons in USA proposed a table-top, room temperature electrolysis-experiment of heavy-water with palladium-electrode; this is commonly called cold-fusion wherein nuclear-fusion is said to be taking place. This created a big storm and controversy in the scientific community. Initially the cold-fusion was heavily criticized and several objections (such as: non-reproducibility, non-observation of telltale signature of nuclear-reaction) were raised. The research-work of McKubre and others have clarified the objections and have established that for cold-fusion to take place certain threshold conditions (such as purity of electrode, current-density, deuterium to palladium loading ratio) needs to be satisfied. In due course of time, the Truth prevailed and the cold-fusion got more and more support by many scientists in several countries including India (BARC historic role has been appreciated worldwide). Biggest objection, however, was lack of a proper theory for how Coulomb-repulsion is overcome in cold-fusion. A possible explanation for how the Coulomb-repulsion is overcome, is given in this paper; which is based on a new-found Gupta-Dinu effect, which is a natural outcome of special-relativity via modification in Lorentz force formula. The recent nuclear-accidents have raised international-opinion against nuclear-fission, whereas sin-like hot-fusion on earth is not possible. Now it seems that ultimately it is the cold-fusion which will provide hazardless neat and cheap energy for the 21 st century and India could play a leading role in this direction. (author)

  1. The development and utilization of biomass energy resources in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Lin [Energy Research Institute of the State Planning Commission, Beijing (China)

    1995-12-01

    Biomass energy resources are abundant in China and have reached 730 million tonnes of coal equivalent, representing about 70% of the energy consumed by households. China has attached great importance to the development and utilization of its biomass energy resources and has implemented programmes for biogas unit manufacture, more efficient stoves, fuelwood development and thermal gasification to meet new demands for energy as the economy grows. The conclusion is that the increased use of low-carbon and non-carbon energy sources instead of fossil fuels is an important option for energy and environment strategy and has bright prospects in China. (author) 4 refs, 2 figs, 4 tabs

  2. The development and utilization of biomass energy resources in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Dai

    1995-01-01

    Biomass energy resources are abundant in China and have reached 730 million tonnes of coal equivalent, representing about 70% of the energy consumed by households. China has attached great importance to the development and utilization of its biomass energy resources and has implemented programmes for biogas unit manufacture, more efficient stoves, fuelwood development and thermal gasification to meet new demands for energy as the economy grows. The conclusion is that the increased use of low-carbon and non-carbon energy sources instead of fossil fuels is an important option for energy and environment strategy and has bright prospects in China. (author)

  3. A nano-graphite cold cathode for an energy-efficient cathodoluminescent light source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander N. Obraztsov

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of new types of light sources is necessary in order to meet the growing demands of consumers and to ensure an efficient use of energy. The cathodoluminescence process is still under-exploited for light generation because of the lack of cathodes suitable for the energy-efficient production of electron beams and appropriate phosphor materials. In this paper we propose a nano-graphite film material as a highly efficient cold cathode, which is able to produce high intensity electron beams without energy consumption. The nano-graphite film material was produced by using chemical vapor deposition techniques. Prototypes of cathodoluminescent lamp devices with a construction optimized for the usage of nano-graphite cold cathodes were developed, manufactured and tested. The results indicate prospective advantages of this type of lamp and the possibility to provide advanced power efficiency as well as enhanced spectral and other characteristics.

  4. Evaluation of Losses Of Cold Energy of Cryogen Products in The Transport Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uglanov, Dmitry; Sarmin, Dmitry; Tsapkova, Alexandra; Burdina, Yana

    2017-12-01

    At present, there are problems of energy saving in various areas of human life and in power complexes of industrial plants. One possible solution to the problem of increasing energy efficiency is the use of liquefied natural gas and its cold energy. Pipelines for fuel or gas supply in cryogen supply systems have different length depending on the mutual position of storage and cryogen consumption devices relatively to a start construction. Cryogen supply and transport systems include a lot of fittings of different assortment. Reservoirs can be installed on different elevation points. To reduce heat inleak and decrease cold energy of cryogen product different kinds of thermal insulation are used. Cryogen pipelines provide required operation conditions of storage and gasifying systems. The aim of the thermal calculation of cryogen transport and supply systems is to define the value of cryogen heat. In this paper it is shown values of cryogen temperature rise due to heat inleaks at cryogen’s transfer along transport systems for ethane, methane, oxygen and nitrogen were calculated. Heat inleaks also due to hydraulic losses were calculated. Specific losses of cold energy of cryogen product for laminar and turbulent flow were calculated. Correspondences of temperature rise, critical pipeline’s length and Reynolds number were defined for nitrogen, argon, methane and oxygen.

  5. Energy Resource Planning. Optimal utilization of energy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miclescu, T.; Domschke, W.; Bazacliu, G.; Dumbrava, V.

    1996-01-01

    For a thermal power plants system, the primary energy resources cost constitutes a significant percentage of the total system operational cost. Therefore a small percentage saving in primary energy resource allocation cost for a long term, often turns out to be a significant monetary value. In recent years, with a rapidly changing fuel supply situation, including the impact of energy policies changing, this area has become extremely sensitive. Natural gas availability has been restricted in many areas, coal production and transportation cost have risen while productivity has decreased, oil imports have increased and refinery capacity failed to meet demand. The paper presents a mathematical model and a practical procedure to solve the primary energy resource allocation. The objectives is to minimise the total energy cost over the planning period subject to constraints with regards to primary energy resource, transportation and energy consumption. Various aspects of the proposed approach are discussed, and its application to a power system is illustrated.(author) 2 figs., 1 tab., 3 refs

  6. Iceland's Central Highlands: Nature conservation, ecotourism, and energy resource utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorn Gunnarsson; Maria-Victoria Gunnarsson

    2002-01-01

    Iceland’s natural resources include an abundance of geothermal energy and hydropower, of which only 10 to 15 percent is currently being utilized. These are clean, renewable sources of energy. The cost to convert these resources to electricity is relatively low, making them attractive and highly marketable for industrial development, particularly for heavy industry....

  7. Energy and exergy utilizations of the Chinese urban residential sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yanfeng; Li, Yang; Wang, Dengjia; Liu, Jiaping

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The energy and exergy use in China’s urban residential sector between 2002 and 2011 are analyzed. • The primary locations and causes of energy and exergy losses in the CURS are identified. • The large gap between the energy and exergy efficiencies implies great potential for energy saving. • The exergy utilization can be improved by using appropriate technology, management and policy. - Abstract: In this paper, the energy and exergy utilizations in the Chinese urban residential sector (CURS) are analyzed by considering the energy and exergy flows for the years between 2002 and 2011. The energy and exergy efficiencies of this sector are calculated to examine the potential for advancing the ‘true’ energy efficiency and determine the real energy losses. The results demonstrate large differences between the overall energy efficiencies (62.8–70.2%) and the exergy efficiencies (11.0–12.2%) for the years analyzed. The sizable gap between the energy and exergy efficiencies implies a high potential for energy savings in the CURS. Future energy saving strategies should pay more attention to the improvement in exergy efficiencies. Moreover, it is found that direct fuel use constituted the primary exergy losses of the CURS; coal-fired boiler heating systems cause approximately 35% of the total exergy losses. Gas stoves, cogeneration systems, coal stoves and gas water heaters constitute 15.3%, 15%, 5.5% and 4.9% of the total exergy losses, respectively

  8. Wind energy in Denmark and within the Elsam utility area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friis, P.; Grauballe, J.

    1995-01-01

    At the turn of 1994, 3,700 wind turbines, with a total installed capacity of 540 MW were connected to the Danish utility grid. In 1994 these turbines fed 1,118 GWh wind energy into the grid, corresponding to approximately 3.3% of the total electricity consumption. The ELSAM utility area supplies the electric energy consumed by half the Danish population. The area has a large wind energy potential and approx. 75% of the installed wind energy capacity in Denmark is situated here accounting for 400 MW. In 1994 the ELSAM utilities supplied a total of 18,450 GWh with wind power contributing 850 GWh, i.e. 4.6% of the ELSAM sales to the consumers. (Author)

  9. Development and utilization of new energy in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu Shiyuan (Academia Sinica, Beijing (CN). Energy Research Inst.)

    1990-01-01

    Since the foundation of the People's Republic of China, the Chinese Government has paid great attention to the development and utilization of new energy resources. Besides the development of biomass gas to provide energy for daily life in rural areas, China has also done much research and development in solar, wind, geothermal and marine energy to substitute alternative energy supplies, especially in the remote regions. Although China has abundant conventional energy resources the average energy resource per capita is low due to the large population. In recent years, the gap between energy consumption and supply has become larger and China will have to develop actively new energy industries at the same time as developing conventional energy. (author).

  10. Extraction of items identifying hiesho (cold disorder) and their utility in young males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Shunji; Kuge, Hiroshi; Mori, Hidetoshi; Miyazaki, Junji; Tanaka, Tim Hideaki; Hanyu, Kazuyo; Takeda, Taro; Sasaki, Kazuro

    2016-01-01

    Hie (cold sensation) is one of the most common health complaints in Japan. Those who suffer from severe hie are considered as having hiesho (cold disorder). However, exact hiesho symptoms have not been defined clearly and the decision as to whether a person suffers from hiesho is subjective and based on self-awareness. The study was conducted in attempt to develop a standardized hiesho diagnostic scale. Subjects comprised 1 146 students. From the self-awareness of hiesho symptoms, males and females were divided into hiesho and non-hiesho groups. Physical, behavioral and adaptive characteristics were compared using the 24-item questionnaire (four-grade survey) and indicators for hiesho symptoms were extracted. Based on the scores, a receiver operating characteristic curve was drawn for the total ordinal scale score of the extracted items in relation to the presence and absence of hiesho symptoms, and an optimal cutoff value was determined. The self-awareness of having hiesho was found in 23.2% males and in 55.6% females. The sensitivity was 84.5% for males and 83.3% for females in the hiesho groups, and the specificity was 86.0% for males and 85.2% for females in the non-hiesho groups. A questionnaire consisting of the extracted items may be useful to identify hiesho in young males and females with a high level of accuracy.

  11. Utilization of mathematical models to manage risk of holding cold food without temperature control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffner, Donald W

    2013-06-01

    This document describes the development of a tool to manage the risk of the transportation of cold food without temperature control. The tool uses predictions from ComBase predictor and builds on the 2009 U.S. Food and Drug Administration Model Food Code and supporting scientific data in the Food Code annex. I selected Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes as the organisms for risk management. Salmonella spp. were selected because they are associated with a wide variety of foods and grow rapidly at temperatures >17°C. L. monocytogenes was selected because it is frequently present in the food processing environment, it was used in the original analysis contained in the Food Code Annex, and it grows relatively rapidly at temperatures supplier collected as part of this project. The resulting model-based tool will be a useful aid to risk managers and customers of wholesale cash and carry food service suppliers, as well as to anyone interested in assessing and managing the risks posed by holding cold foods out of temperature control in supermarkets, delis, restaurants, cafeterias, and homes.

  12. Measures for carbon dioxide problem and utilization of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Toshinori

    1992-01-01

    As global environment problems, there are water, expansion of deserts, weather, tropical forests, wild animals, ocean pollution, nuclear waste contamination, acid rain, ozone layer and so on, and population, foods, energy, and resources are the problems surrounding them. It is clear that these origins are attributed to the development and consumption largely dependent on the intention of developed countries and the population problem of developing countries. In this report, the discharge of carbon dioxide that causes greenhouse effect and its relation with energy are discussed. The increase of carbon dioxide concentration, its release from fossil fuel, the destruction of forests, the balance of carbon on the earth, the development of new energy such as solar energy, the transport of new energy, secondary energy system and the role of carbon dioxide, the transfer to low carbon fuel and the carbon reduction treatment of fuel, the utilization of unused energy and energy price, the efficiency of energy utilization, the heightening of efficiency of energy conversion, energy conservation and the breakaway from energy wasteful use culture, and the recovery, preservation and use of discharged carbon dioxide are described. (K.I.)

  13. The Existing Regulatory Conditions for 'Energy Smart Water Utilities'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse, Ellen Margrethe

    2014-01-01

    This chapter is focused on the legal conditions that exist for the energy–smart water utilities in the European Union (EU). In section 2 the interdependencies of water and energy services and the growing interest in solving these problems that may arise from this interdependence by regulatory ini...... legal design and the problems that it causes for the water utilities that want to be resource–efficient and have a low–carbon footprint.......This chapter is focused on the legal conditions that exist for the energy–smart water utilities in the European Union (EU). In section 2 the interdependencies of water and energy services and the growing interest in solving these problems that may arise from this interdependence by regulatory...... initiatives are shortly described. One of the solutions needed is a reduction of energy use in the water utilities by their utilisation of renewable sources – acting as energy–smart water utilities. Such utilities are described in section 3. The policy and law regulating the water utilities are important...

  14. A multivariate-utility approach for selection of energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, S; Husseiny, A.A.

    1978-01-01

    A deterministic approach is devised to compare the safety features of various energy sources. The approach is based on multiattribute utility theory. The method is used in evaluating the safety aspects of alternative energy sources used for the production of electrical energy. Four alternative energy sources are chosen which could be considered for the production of electricity to meet the national energy demand. These are nuclear, coal, solar, and geothermal energy. For simplicity, a total electrical system is considered in each case. A computer code is developed to evaluate the overall utility function for each alternative from the utility patterns corresponding to 23 energy attributes, mostly related to safety. The model can accommodate other attributes assuming that these are independent. The technique is kept flexible so that virtually any decision problem with various attributes can be attacked and optimal decisions can be reached. The selected data resulted in preference of geothermal and nuclear energy over other sources, and the method is found viable in making decisions on energy uses based on quantified and subjective attributes. (author)

  15. Performance analysis of different ORC configurations for thermal energy and LNG cold energy hybrid power generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhixin; Wang, Feng; Wang, Shujia; Xu, Fuquan; Lin, Kui

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a thermal energy and Liquefied natural gas (LNG) cold energy hybrid power generation system. Performances of four different Organic Rankine cycle (ORC) configurations (the basic, the regenerative, the reheat and the regenerative-reheat ORCs) are studied based on the first and the second law of thermodynamics. Dry organic fluid R245fa is selected as the typical working fluid. Parameter analysis is also conducted in this paper. The results show that regeneration could not increase the thermal efficiency of the thermal and cold energy hybrid power generation system. ORC with the reheat process could produce more specific net power output but it may also reduce the system thermal efficiency. The basic and the regenerative ORCs produce higher thermal efficiency while the regenerative-reheat ORC performs best in the exergy efficiency. A preheater is necessary for the thermal and cold energy hybrid power generation system. And due to the presence of the preheater, there will be a step change of the system performance as the turbine inlet pressure rises.

  16. Deep influence of passive low energy consumption multi-storey residential building in cold region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuai, Zhang; Lihua, Zhao; Rong, Jin; Dong, Junyan

    2018-02-01

    The example of passive architecture demonstration building in Jilin Province, China, based on the practical experience of this project, the control index of passive and low energy consumption residential buildings in cold and passive buildings is referenced by reference to the German construction standard and the Chinese residence construction document, “passive ultra-low energy consumption green Building Technology Guide (Trial)”. The requirement of passive low energy residential buildings on the ground heat transfer coefficient limits is determined, and the performance requirements of passive residential buildings are discussed. This paper analyzes the requirement of the passive low energy residential building on the ground heat transfer coefficient limit, and probes into the influence factors of the ground thermal insulation of the passive low energy consumption residential building. The construction method of passive low energy consumption residential building is proposed.

  17. Lignocellulosic Composites Prepared Utilizing Aqueous Alkaline/Urea Solutions with Cold Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent Tisserat

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic composites (LCs were fabricated by partially dissolving cotton to create a matrix that was reinforced with osage orange wood (OOW particles and/or blue agave fibers (AF. LCs were composed of 15–35% cotton matrix and 65–85% OWW/AF reinforcement. The matrix was produced by soaking cotton wool in a cold aqueous alkaline/urea solvent and was stirred for 15 minutes at 350 rpm to create a viscous gel. The gel was then reinforced with lignocellulosic components, mixed, and then pressed into a panel mold. LC panels were soaked in water to remove the aqueous solvent and then oven dried to obtain the final LC product. Several factors involved in the preparation of these LCs were examined including reaction temperatures (−5 to −15°C, matrix concentration (15–35% cotton, aqueous solvent volume (45–105 ml/panel, and the effectiveness of employing various aqueous solvent formulations. The mechanical properties of LCs were determined and reported. Conversion of the cotton into a suitable viscous gel was critical in order to obtain LCs that exhibited high mechanical properties. LCs with the highest mechanical properties were obtained when the cotton wools were subjected to a 4.6% LiOH/15% urea solvent at −12.5°C using an aqueous solvent volume of 60 ml/panel. Cotton wool subjected to excessive cold alkaline solvents volumes resulted in irreversible cellulose breakdown and a resultant LC that exhibited poor mechanical properties.

  18. Efficient utilization of energy in office buildings. Planning manual; Effiziente Energienutzung in Buerogebaeuden. Planungsleitfaden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-15

    Regarding to the energy efficiency of office buildings, a high standard is set to architects: Office buildings need more energy for the cooling in the summer than for the heating in the winter. Additionally, there is an energy consumption for lighting, ventilation and operation of office equipment. Under this aspect, in the planning manual under consideration ten demands for an efficient energy utilization at office buildings are described: (a) Integral concept for the minimization of the entire power demand; (b) Compact building method and very good structural thermal protection; (c) Adapted glass areas and quality of vitrifications; (d) Integrals ventilation planning; (e) Efficient ventilation systems; (f) Efficient room climate concept and minimization of internal and outside heat loads; (g) Utilization of daylight with adapted architectural draft; (h) Efficient artificial lighting; (i) Supply of warmth and coldness with minimum characteristic values for primary energy; (j) Energy monitoring and optimization of operation. This manual also is valid for other buildings such as schools, administration buildings or swimming pools.

  19. Business model innovation for sustainable energy: German utilities and renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, Mario

    2013-01-01

    The electric power sector stands at the beginning of a fundamental transformation process towards a more sustainable production based on renewable energies. Consequently, electric utilities as incumbent actors face a massive challenge to find new ways of creating, delivering, and capturing value from renewable energy technologies. This study investigates utilities' business models for renewable energies by analyzing two generic business models based on a series of in-depth interviews with German utility managers. It is found that utilities have developed viable business models for large-scale utility-side renewable energy generation. At the same time, utilities lack adequate business models to commercialize small-scale customer-side renewable energy technologies. By combining the business model concept with innovation and organization theory practical recommendations for utility mangers and policy makers are derived. - Highlights: • The energy transition creates a fundamental business model challenge for utilities. • German utilities succeed in large-scale and fail in small-scale renewable generation. • Experiences from other industries are available to inform utility managers. • Business model innovation capabilities will be crucial to master the energy transition

  20. A snapshot of geothermal energy potential and utilization in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdogdu, Erkan

    2009-01-01

    Turkey is one of the countries with significant potential in geothermal energy. It is estimated that if Turkey utilizes all of her geothermal potential, she can meet 14% of her total energy need (heat and electricity) from geothermal sources. Therefore, today geothermal energy is an attractive option in Turkey to replace fossil fuels. Besides, increase in negative effects of fossil fuels on the environment has forced many countries, including Turkey, to use renewable energy sources. Also, Turkey is an energy importing country; more than two-thirds of her energy requirement is supplied by imports. In this context, geothermal energy appears to be one of the most efficient and effective solutions for sustainable energy development and environmental pollution prevention in Turkey. Since geothermal energy will be used more and more in the future, its current potential, usage, and assessment in Turkey is the focus of the present study. The paper not only presents a review of the potential and utilization of the geothermal energy in Turkey but also provides some guidelines for policy makers. (author)

  1. Energy and exergy utilization in transportation sector of Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dincer, I.; Hussain, M.M.; Al-Zaharnah, I.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we present an analysis of energy and exergy utilization in the transportation sector of Saudi Arabia by considering the sectoral energy and exergy flows for the years of 1990-2001. Energy and exergy analyses are conducted for its three subsectors, namely road, air and marine, and hence the energy and exergy efficiencies are obtained for comparison. Road subsector appears to be the most efficient one compared to air and marine subsectors. It is found that the energy efficiencies in air and marine subsectors are found to be equal to the corresponding exergy efficiencies due to the values of exergy grade function. A comparison of the overall energy and exergy efficiencies of Saudi Arabian transportation sector with the Turkish transportation sector is also presented for the year 1993 based on the data available. Although the sectoral coverage is not same for both countries, it is still useful to illustrate the situation on how subsectoral energy and exergy efficiencies vary over the years. Turkish transportation sector appears to be a bit more efficient for that particular year. It is believed that the present technique is practical and useful for analyzing sectoral energy and exergy utilization to determine how efficient energy and exergy are used in transportation sector. It is also be helpful to establish standards, based on exergy, to facilitate applications in industry and in other planning processes such as energy planning

  2. Geothermal Energy Utilization in the United States - 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, John W.; Boyd, Tonya L (Geo-Heat Center, Oregon Institute of Technology, Klamath Falls, OR); Sifford, Alex (Sifford Energy Services, Neskowin, OR); Bloomquist, R. Gordon (Washington State University Energy Program, Olympia, WA)

    2000-01-01

    Geothermal energy is used for electric power generation and direct utilization in the United States. The present installed capacity for electric power generation is 3,064 MWe with only 2,212 MWe in operation due to reduction at The Geysers geothermal field in California; producing approximately16,000 GWh per year. Geothermal electric power plants are located in California, Nevada, Utah and Hawaii. The two largest concentrations of plants are at The Geysers in northern California and the Imperial Valley in southern California. The direct utilization of geothermal energy includes the heating of pools and spas, greenhouses and aquaculture facilities, space heating and district heating, snow melting, agricultural drying, industrial applications and ground-source heat pumps. The installed capacity is 4,000 MWt and the annual energy use is 20,600 billion Btu (21,700 TJ - 6040 GWh). The largest applications is groundsource (geothermal) heat pumps (59% of the energy use), and the largest direct-use is in aquaculture. Direct utilization is increasing at about six percent per year; whereas, electric power plant development is almost static. Geothermal energy is a relatively benign energy source, displaying fossil fuels and thus, reducing greenhouse gas emissions. A recent initiative by the U.S. Department of Energy, “Geo-Powering the West,” should stimulate future geothermal development. The proposal is especially oriented to small-scale power plants with cascaded uses of the geothermal fluid for direct applications.

  3. Geothermal energy utilization in the United States - 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, John W.; Boyd, Tonya L.; Sifford, Alex; Bloomquist, R. Gordon

    2000-01-01

    Geothermal energy is used for electric power generation and direct utilization in the United States. The present installed capacity for electric power generation is 3,064 MWe with only 2,212 MWe in operation due to reduction at The Geysers geothermal field in California; producing approximately16,000 GWh per year. Geothermal electric power plants are located in California, Nevada, Utah and Hawaii. The two largest concentrations of plants are at The Geysers in northern California and the Imperial Valley in southern California. The direct utilization of geothermal energy includes the heating of pools and spas, greenhouses and aquaculture facilities, space heating and district heating, snow melting, agricultural drying, industrial applications and ground-source heat pumps. The installed capacity is 4,000 MWt and the annual energy use is 20,600 billion Btu (21,700 TJ - 6040 GWh). The largest applications is groundsource (geothermal) heat pumps (59% of the energy use), and the largest direct-use is in aquaculture. Direct utilization is increasing at about six percent per year; whereas, electric power plant development is almost static. Geothermal energy is a relatively benign energy source, displaying fossil fuels and thus, reducing greenhouse gas emissions. A recent initiative by the U.S. Department of Energy, “Geo-Powering the West,” should stimulate future geothermal development. The proposal is especially oriented to small-scale power plants with cascaded uses of the geothermal fluid for direct applications.

  4. Community energy systems and the law of public utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Nebraska governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitiled ''Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities--Volume One: An Overview.'' This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  5. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Cold Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Building Industry Research Alliance (BIRA); Building Science Consortium (BSC); Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB); Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC); IBACOS; National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

    2006-08-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in Cold Climates on a cost-neutral basis.

  6. Simulation of a Novel Single-column Cryogenic Air Separation Process Using LNG Cold Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jieyu, Zheng; Yanzhong, Li; Guangpeng, Li; Biao, Si

    In this paper, a novel single-column air separation process is proposed with the implementation of heat pump technique and introduction of LNG coldenergy. The proposed process is verifiedand optimized through simulation on the Aspen Hysys® platform. Simulation results reveal that thepower consumption per unit mass of liquid productis around 0.218 kWh/kg, and the total exergy efficiency of the systemis 0.575. According to the latest literatures, an energy saving of 39.1% is achieved compared with those using conventional double-column air separation units.The introduction of LNG cold energy is an effective way to increase the system efficiency.

  7. Utilizing waste heat. Energy recovery options for trade and industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krieg, W

    1988-08-01

    The article shows options for efficient and low-cost thermal energy recovery. Heat recovery involves a number of problems, e.g. the type of waste heat, the uses of the energy recovered, and the best way of utilizing it. There is no generally applicable way of solving these problems. Some practical examples are presented. Economically efficient solutions require detailed technical knowledge as well as a good portion of creativity and imagination. (BR).

  8. Energy conservation through utilization of mechanical energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhaure, D. B.; Bliamptis, T. E.; Downer, J. R.; Heinemann, P. C.

    Potential benefits regarding fuel savings, necessary technology, and evaluation criteria for the development of flywheel-hybrid vehicles are examined. A case study is quoted in which adoption of flywheel-hybrid vehicles in a taxi fleet would result in an increase of 10 mpg average to 32 mpg. Two proposed systems are described, one involving direct engine power to the flywheel and the second regenerating the flywheel from braking energy through a continuously variable transmission. Fuel consumption characteristics are considered the ultimate determinant in the choice of configuration, while material properties and housing shape determine the flywheel speed range. Vehicle losses are characterized and it is expected that a flywheel at 12,000 rpm will experience less than one hp average parasitic power loss. Flywheel storage is suitable for smaller engines because larger engines dominate the power train mass. Areas considered important for further investigation include reliability of an engine run near maximum torque, noise and vibration associated with flywheel operation, start up delays, compatibility of driver controls, integration of normal with regenerative braking systems, and, most importantly, the continuously variable transmission.

  9. Renewable energy utilization in 3 european cities. Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    Energy production based on fossil fuels produces CO2, SO2 and NOx, which are harmful to the environment. It is agreed, both nationally and internationally, that it is necessary to considerably reduce the energy consumption. The difference between different European countries politically, financially, culturally, and socially needs to be acknowledged when energy initiatives are considered for implementation on a local as well as an international scale. This was the basis for the initiation of the project `Renewable Energy Utilization in 3 European Cities`. Three very different cities with different problems and thus different interests got together and joined efforts to develop action plans to increase renewable energy use to reduce the burden on the environment from energy consumption in the urban and regional areas. The work has been undertaken by the working group presented in appendix 3. (EG) ALTENER. 25 refs.

  10. Recent estimates of energy utilization by young dairy calves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recent estimates of energy utilization by young dairy calves. P.T.C. Johnson. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's ...

  11. View of atomic energy utilization in 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Shunsuke

    1998-01-01

    In five years from 1991 to 1996, the energy consumption in the world increased by the yearly rate of 1.5%, and in 1996, it reached about 8.4 billion t in terms of petroleum. The proportion that nuclear energy takes in it was 7.4%, following 39% of petroleum, 27% of coal and 24% of natural gas. In electric power generation field, nuclear power took 17% in the whole world, and 30% in Japan in 1995. As of the end of 1996, the nuclear power generation facilities in the world were 434 plants of 365 GWe output, and 51 plants of 43 GWe output were in operation in Japan. As the technologies of utilizing nuclear energy, there are the utilization of nuclear fission reaction, nuclear fusion reaction and radio-isotopes. In this report, the utilization of nuclear fission reaction is taken up. Pressurized water reactor, boiling water reactor, heavy water (CANDU) reactor and gas-cooled reactor, and nuclear fuel cycle are briefly explained. As for the performance of nuclear power generation, safety, reliability and economical efficiency are reported. The factors which exert effects to the development of nuclear energy utilization are the acceptance by public, economical efficiency and environmental problems. The range of possible installation capacity and the subjects for hereafter are described. (K.I.)

  12. Array of titanium dioxide nanostructures for solar energy utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xiaofeng; Parans Paranthaman, Mariappan; Chi, Miaofang; Ivanov, Ilia N; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2014-12-30

    An array of titanium dioxide nanostructures for solar energy utilization includes a plurality of nanotubes, each nanotube including an outer layer coaxial with an inner layer, where the inner layer comprises p-type titanium dioxide and the outer layer comprises n-type titanium dioxide. An interface between the inner layer and the outer layer defines a p-n junction.

  13. Fusion--fission energy systems, some utility perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huse, R.A.; Burger, J.M.; Lotker, M.

    1974-01-01

    Some of the issues that are important in assessing fusion-- fission energy systems from a utility perspective are discussed. A number of qualitative systems-oriented observations are given along with some economic quantification of the benefits from fusion--fission hybrids and their allowed capital cost. (U.S.)

  14. 1989 basic plan for atomic energy development and utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    A Basic Plan for Atomic Energy Development and Utilization has been established each year based on the guidelines set up by the Atomic Energy Commission of Japan, with the aim of promoting the development and utilization of atomic energy schematically and efficiently. The Basic Plan shows specific projects to achieve the objectives specified in the Long-Range Plan for Atomic Energy Development and Utilization. The Basic Plan specifies efforts to be made for overall strengthening of safety measures (safety policies, safety research, disaster prevention, etc.), promotion of nuclear power generation, establishment of the nuclear fuel cycle (securing of uranium, technology for uranium enrichment, reprocessing, etc.), development of new types of power reactors (fast breeder reactor, new types of converter reactors, plutonium fuel processing technology), promotion of leading projects (nuclear fusion, utilization of radiations, atomic powered ships, high-temperature engineering tests), promotion of basic technology development (basic research, training of scientists and engineers), voluntary and active international activities (international cooperation), and acquisition of understanding and cooperation of the general public. (N,K.)

  15. Can we improve the identification of cold homes for targeted home energy-efficiency improvements?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, Emma J.; Wilkinson, Paul; Hong, Sung H.; Oreszczyn, Tadj

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the extent to which homes with low indoor-temperatures can be identified from dwelling and household characteristics. Design: Analysis of data from a national survey of dwellings, occupied by low-income households, scheduled for home energy-efficiency improvements. Setting: Five urban areas of England: Birmingham, Liverpool, Manchester, Newcastle and Southampton. Methods: Half-hourly living-room temperatures were recorded for two to four weeks in dwellings over the winter periods November to April 2001-2002 and 2002-2003. Regression of indoor on outdoor temperatures was used to identify cold-homes in which standardized daytime living-room and/or nighttime bedroom-temperatures were o C (when the outdoor temperature was 5 o C). Tabulation and logistic regression were used to examine the extent to which these cold-homes can be identified from dwelling and household characteristics. Results: Overall, 21.0% of dwellings had standardized daytime living-room temperatures o C, and 46.4% had standardized nighttime bedroom-temperatures below the same temperature. Standardized indoor-temperatures were influenced by a wide range of household and dwelling characteristics, but most strongly by the energy efficiency (SAP) rating and by standardized heating costs. However, even using these variables, along with other dwelling and household characteristics in a multi-variable prediction model, it would be necessary to target more than half of all dwellings in our sample to ensure at least 80% sensitivity for identifying dwellings with cold living-room temperatures. An even higher proportion would have to be targeted to ensure 80% sensitivity for identifying dwellings with cold-bedroom temperatures. Conclusion: Property and household characteristics provide only limited potential for identifying dwellings where winter indoor temperatures are likely to be low, presumably because of the multiple influences on home heating, including personal choice and

  16. Materials selection guidelines for geothermal energy utilization systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, P.F. II; Conover, M.F.

    1981-01-01

    This manual includes geothermal fluid chemistry, corrosion test data, and materials operating experience. Systems using geothermal energy in El Salvador, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, and the United States are described. The manual provides materials selection guidelines for surface equipment of future geothermal energy systems. The key chemical species that are significant in determining corrosiveness of geothermal fluids are identified. The utilization modes of geothermal energy are defined as well as the various physical fluid parameters that affect corrosiveness. Both detailed and summarized results of materials performance tests and applicable operating experiences from forty sites throughout the world are presented. The application of various non-metal materials in geothermal environments are discussed. Included in appendices are: corrosion behavior of specific alloy classes in geothermal fluids, corrosion in seawater desalination plants, worldwide geothermal power production, DOE-sponsored utilization projects, plant availability, relative costs of alloys, and composition of alloys. (MHR)

  17. Quality of renewable energy utilization in transport in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampinen, Ari

    2015-04-01

    Renewable energy utilization in transportation (RES-T) is a long way behind its utilization in power (RES-E) and heat (RES-H) sectors. International and national environmental policies have recently given a lot of emphasis on this problem. For that reason information is sought on how to implement solutions both politically and technologically. As Sweden is a global leader in this area, it can provide valuable examples. In 2012 Sweden became the first country to reach the binding requirement of the European Union for at least 10 % share for renewable energy in transport energy consumption. But qualitative development has been even stronger than quantitative. Among the success stories behind qualitative progress, most noteworthy are those created by innovative municipal policies. By 2030 Sweden aims to achieve fossil fuel independent road transport system and by 2050 completely carbon neutral transport system in all modes of transport.

  18. Engine cold start analysis using naturalistic driving data: City level impacts on local pollutants emissions and energy consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Marta V; Varella, Roberto A; Duarte, Gonçalo O; Farias, Tiago L; Baptista, Patrícia C

    2018-07-15

    The analysis of vehicle cold start emissions has become an issue of utmost importance since the cold phase occurs mainly in urban context, where most of the population lives. In this sense, this research work analyzes and quantifies the impacts of cold start in urban context using naturalistic driving data. Furthermore, an assessment of the influence of ambient temperature on the percentage of time spent on cold start was also performed. Regarding the impacts of ambient temperature on cold start duration, a higher percentage of time spent on cold start was found for lower ambient temperatures (80% of the time for 0°C and ~50% for 29°C). Results showed that, during cold start, energy consumption is >110% higher than during hot conditions while emissions are up to 910% higher. Moreover, a higher increase on both energy consumption and emissions was found for gasoline vehicles than for diesel vehicles. When assessing the impacts on a city perspective, results revealed that the impacts of cold start increase for more local streets. The main finding of this study is to provide evidence that a higher increase on emissions occurs on more local streets, where most of the population lives. This kind of knowledge is of particular relevance to urban planners in order to perform an informed definition of public policies and regulations to be implemented in the future, to achieve a cleaner and healthier urban environment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Lenr and "cold Fusion" Excess Heat:. Their Relation to Other Anomalous Microphysical Energy Experiments and Emerging New Energy Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallove, Eugene F.

    2005-12-01

    During the past 15 years, indisputable experimental evidence has built up for substantial excess heat (far beyond ordinary chemical energy) and low-energy nuclear reaction phenomena in specialized heavy hydrogen and ordinary hydrogen-containing systems.1 The primary theorists in the field that is properly designated Cold Fusion/LENR have generally assumed that the excess heat phenomena is commensurate with nuclear ash (such as helium), whether already identified or presumed to be present but not yet found. That was an excellent initial hypothesis. However, the commensurate nuclear ash hypothesis has not been proved, and appears to be approximately correct in only a few experiments. During this same period, compelling evidence although not as broadly verified as data from cold fusion/LENR has also emerged for other microphysical sources of energy that were previously unexpected by accepted physics. The exemplar of this has been the "hydrino" physics work of Dr. Randall Mills and his colleagues at Black-Light Power Corporation, which was a radical outgrowth from the cold fusion field that emerged publicly in May 1991.2 Even more far-reaching is the work in vacuum energy extraction pioneered by Dr. Paulo and Alexandra Correa, which first became public in 1996.3 This vacuum energy experimentation began in the early 1980s and has been reduced to prototype technological devices, such as the patented PAGDTM (pulsed abnormal glow discharge) electric power generator, as well as many published experiments that can be performed in table-top fashion to verify the Correa Aetherometry (non-luminiferous or non-electromagnetic aether measurement science).4 In an era when mainstream science and its media is all agog about dark matter and dark energy composing the vast bulk of the universe, there is a great need to reconcile, if possible, the significant bodies of evidence from these three major experimental and theoretical streams: cold fusion/LENR, hydrino physics, and

  20. Energy minimization strategies and renewable energy utilization for desalination: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramani, Arun; Badruzzaman, Mohammad; Oppenheimer, Joan; Jacangelo, Joseph G

    2011-02-01

    Energy is a significant cost in the economics of desalinating waters, but water scarcity is driving the rapid expansion in global installed capacity of desalination facilities. Conventional fossil fuels have been utilized as their main energy source, but recent concerns over greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have promoted global development and implementation of energy minimization strategies and cleaner energy supplies. In this paper, a comprehensive review of energy minimization strategies for membrane-based desalination processes and utilization of lower GHG emission renewable energy resources is presented. The review covers the utilization of energy efficient design, high efficiency pumping, energy recovery devices, advanced membrane materials (nanocomposite, nanotube, and biomimetic), innovative technologies (forward osmosis, ion concentration polarization, and capacitive deionization), and renewable energy resources (solar, wind, and geothermal). Utilization of energy efficient design combined with high efficiency pumping and energy recovery devices have proven effective in full-scale applications. Integration of advanced membrane materials and innovative technologies for desalination show promise but lack long-term operational data. Implementation of renewable energy resources depends upon geography-specific abundance, a feasible means of handling renewable energy power intermittency, and solving technological and economic scale-up and permitting issues. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Environmental performance assessment of utility boiler energy conversion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Changchun; Gillum, Craig; Toupin, Kevin; Park, Young Ho; Donaldson, Burl

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Sustainability analyses of utility boilers are performed. • Natural gas fired boilers have the least CO_2 emissions in fossil fueled boilers. • Solar boilers rank last with an emergy yield ratio of 1.2. • Biomass boilers have the best emergy sustainability index. - Abstract: A significant amount of global electric power generation is produced from the combustion of fossil fuels. Steam boilers are one of the most important components for steam and electricity production. The objective of this paper is to establish a theoretical framework for the sustainability analysis of a utility boiler. These analyses can be used by decision-makers to diagnose and optimize the sustainability of a utility boiler. Seven utility boiler systems are analyzed using energy and embodied solar energy (emergy) principles in order to evaluate their environmental efficiencies. They include a subcritical coal fired boiler, a supercritical coal fired boiler, an oil fired boiler, a natural gas fired boiler, a concentrating solar power boiler utilizing a tower configuration, a biomass boiler, and a refuse derived fuel boiler. Their relative environmental impacts were compared. The results show that the natural gas boiler has significantly lower CO_2 emission than an equivalent coal or oil fired boiler. The refuse derived fuel boiler has about the same CO_2 emissions as the natural gas boiler. The emergy sustainability index of a utility boiler system is determined as the measure of its sustainability from an environmental perspective. Our analyses results indicate that the natural gas boiler has a relatively high emergy sustainability index compared to other fossil fuel boilers. Converting existing coal boilers to natural gas boilers is a feasible option to achieve better sustainability. The results also show that the biomass boiler has the best emergy sustainability index and it will remain a means to utilize the renewable energy within the Rankine steam cycle. Before

  2. Microalgal cultivation and utilization in sustainable energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakaniemi, A.-M.

    2012-07-01

    Microalgae are a promising feedstock for biofuel and bioenergy production due to their high photosynthetic efficiencies, high growth rates and no need for external organic carbon supply. However, microalgal biomass cultivation for energy production purposes is still rare in commercial scale. Further research and development is needed to make microalgal derived energy sustainable and economically competitive. This work investigated cultivation of fresh water microalga Chlorella vulgaris and marine microalga Dunaliella tertiolecta and their utilization in production of hydrogen, methane, electricity, butanol and bio-oil after bulk harvesting the biomass. Growth of the two microalgae was studied in five different photobioreactor (PBR) configurations especially concentrating on the quantification and characterization of heterotrophic bacteria in non-axenic microalgal cultivations and microalgal utilization of different nitrogen sources. Anaerobic cultures used for the energy conversion processes were enriched from a mesophilic municipal sewage digester separately for production of H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and electricity from the two microalgal species. After culture enrichment, energy conversion yields of microalgal biomass to the different energy carriers were compared. In summary, this study demonstrated that both C. vulgaris and D. tertiolecta can be used for production of Hv(2), CHv(4), electricity, butanol and lipids. Based on this study C. vulgaris is more suitable for bioenergy production than D. tertiolecta. Depending on cellular lipid content, lipid utilization for bio-oil production and anaerobic digestion were the most potent means of converting C. vulgaris biomass to energy. The study also revealed diverse microbial communities in non-axenic microalgal photobioreactor cultures and in anaerobic consortia converting microalgal biomass to energy carriers

  3. Porphyrin-Based Symmetric Redox-Flow Batteries towards Cold-Climate Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ting; Pan, Zeng; Miao, Licheng; Chen, Chengcheng; Han, Mo; Shang, Zhenfeng; Chen, Jun

    2018-03-12

    Electrochemical energy storage with redox-flow batteries (RFBs) under subzero temperature is of great significance for the use of renewable energy in cold regions. However, RFBs are generally used above 10 °C. Herein we present non-aqueous organic RFBs based on 5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphyrin (H 2 TPP) as a bipolar redox-active material (anode: [H 2 TPP] 2- /H 2 TPP, cathode: H 2 TPP/[H 2 TPP] 2+ ) and a Y-zeolite-poly(vinylidene fluoride) (Y-PVDF) ion-selective membrane with high ionic conductivity as a separator. The constructed RFBs exhibit a high volumetric capacity of 8.72 Ah L -1 with a high voltage of 2.83 V and excellent cycling stability (capacity retention exceeding 99.98 % per cycle) in the temperature range between 20 and -40 °C. Our study highlights principles for the design of RFBs that operate at low temperatures, thus offering a promising approach to electrochemical energy storage under cold-climate conditions. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Modeling and simulation of the energy use in an occupied residential building in cold climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olofsson, Thomas; Mahlia, T.M.I.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► An overview of the energy-characteristics based on illustrations in graphical figures. ► Figures to support identification and validation energy refurbishment measures. ► Emphasizing energy efficiency measures in early stage of building design. -- Abstract: In order to reduce the energy use in the building sector there is a demand for tools that can identify significant building energy performance parameters. In the work introduced in this paper presents a methodology, based on a simulation module and graphical figures, for interactive investigations of the building energy performance. The building energy use simulation program is called TEKLA and is using EN832 with an improved procedure in calculating the heat loss through the floor and the solar heat gain. The graphical figures are simple and are illustrating the savings based on retrofit measures and climate conditions. The accuracy of the TEKLA simulation was investigated on a typical single-family building in Sweden for a period of time in a space heating demand of relatively cold and mild climate. The model was found applicable for relative investigations. Further, the methodology was applied on a typical single family reference building. The climate data from three locations in Sweden were collected and a set of relevant measures were studied. The investigated examples illustrate how decisions in the early stages of the building design process can have decisive importance on the final building energy performance.

  5. Strategy Guideline: Energy Retrofits for Low-Rise Multifamily Buildings in Cold Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brozyna, K. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Badger, L. [Vermont Energy Investment Corporation, Burlington, VT (United States)

    2013-04-01

    This Strategy Guideline explains the benefits of evaluating and identifying energy efficiency retrofit measures that could be made during renovation and maintenance of multifamily buildings. It focuses on low-rise multifamily structures (three or fewer stories) in a cold climate. These benefits lie primarily in reduced energy use, lower operating and maintenance costs, improved durability of the structure, and increased occupant comfort. This guideline focuses on retrofit measures for roof repair or replacement, exterior wall repair or gut rehab, and eating system maintenance. All buildings are assumed to have a flat ceiling and a trussed roof, wood- or steel-framed exterior walls, and one or more single or staged boilers. Estimated energy savings realized from the retrofits will vary, depending on the size and condition of the building, the extent of efficiency improvements, the efficiency of the heating equipment, the cost and type of fuel, and the climate location.

  6. Third International Conference on Batteries for Utility Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-03-18

    This is a collection of essays presented at the above-named conference held at Kobe, Japan, from March 18 through 22, 1991. At the utility energy storage session, a power research program plan, operational and economic benefits of BESP (battery energy storage plant), the Moonlight Project, etc., were presented, respectively, by EPRI (Electric Power Research Institute) of the U.S., BEWAG Corporation of Germany, and NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization) of Japan, etc. At the improved lead-acid batteries session, the characteristics of improved lead-acid batteries, load levelling and life cycle, problems in BESP, comparisons and tests, etc., were presented by Japan, Italy, the U.S., etc. At the advanced batteries session, presentations were made about the sodium-sulfur battery, zinc-bromine battery, redox battery, etc. Furthermore, there were sessions on consumer energy systems, control and power conditioning technology, and commercialization and economic studies. A total 53 presentations were made. (NEDO)

  7. Measures to remove impediments to better utilization. Renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diekmann, J.; Eichelbroenner, M.; Langniss, O.

    1997-01-01

    The utilization of renewable energy sources meets with a number of obstacles created in particular by economic framework conditions, regulatory provisions, lengthy administrative procedures, insufficient information, and to some part also to the reluctance of bankers and utilities. This is why an action programme was put underway by the Forum fuer Zukunftsenergien, together with the Berlin-based DIW (German economic research institute) and the Stuttgart-based DLR (German aerospace research institute), financed from public funds of the Federal Ministry of Economics. Under this programme, almost 900 operators of systems for electricity generation from wind power, hydropower, biomass, ambient heat, solar thermal energy and by photovoltaic conversion have been interviewed. Based on the information obtained, the article reveals the existing impediments and proposed action for overcoming the obstacles. (orig.) [de

  8. On Hybrid Energy Utilization in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Tala’t

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In a wireless sensor network (WSN, many applications have limited energy resources for data transmission. In order to accomplish a better green communication for WSN, a hybrid energy scheme can supply a more reliable energy source. In this article, hybrid energy utilization—which consists of constant energy source and solar harvested energy—is considered for WSN. To minimize constant energy usage from the hybrid source, a Markov decision process (MDP is designed to find the optimal transmission policy. With a finite packet buffer and a finite battery size, an MDP model is presented to define the states, actions, state transition probabilities, and the cost function including the cost values for all actions. A weighted sum of constant energy source consumption and a packet dropping probability (PDP are adopted as the cost value, enabling us to find the optimal solution for balancing the minimization of the constant energy source utilization and the PDP using a value iteration algorithm. As shown in the simulation results, the performance of optimal solution using MDP achieves a significant improvement compared to solution without its use.

  9. Recent Developments of Wave Energy Utilization in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Frigaard, Peter; Kramer, Morten

    2006-01-01

    by a more thorough description of three ongoing projects. These are Wave Dragon, Wave Star and Seawave Slot-cone Generator. Common for these projects are that they are being, or will soon be, tested in real sea and have benefited from the Danish Wave Energy Program. The work by the department......This paper aims at giving an overview of the developments researchers at the Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University, Denmark (DCE), have been involved in within the field of wave energy utilization in Denmark over the past decade. At first a general introduction is given followed...... on these projects involves substantial laboratory testing, numerical simulations and real sea prototype testing....

  10. Activities of electric utilities in alternative energy projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, D.B. da; Reis Neto, J.L. dos

    1990-01-01

    Since oil crisis, in 1973 and 1979, some electrical utilities in Brazil begun investments in alternative projects for example production of electrolytic hydrogen, peats with energetics goals, steam from electric boiler, and methanol from wood gasification. With oil substitution goals, these projects have not success actually, after attenuated the crisis. However, the results acquired is experience for the development of the brazilian energy patterns. (author)

  11. A combined cycle utilizing LNG and low-temperature solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Wen-Ji; Zhao, Liang-Ju; Liu, Chao; Zhang, Mo-Geng

    2013-01-01

    This paper has proposed a combined cycle, in which low-temperature solar energy and cold energy of liquefied natural gas (LNG) can be effectively utilized together. Comparative analysis based on a same net work output between the proposed combined cycle and separated solar ORC and LNG vapor system has been done. The results show that, for the combined cycle, a decrease of nearly 82.2% on the area of solar collector is obtained and the area of heat exchanger decreases by 31.7%. Moreover, exergy efficiency is higher than both two separated systems. This work has also dealt with the thermodynamic analyses for the proposed cycle. The results show that R143a followed by propane and propene emerges as most suitable fluid. Moreover, with a regenerator added in the cycle, performance improvement is obtained for the reduction on area of solar collector and increase on system efficiency and exergy efficiency. -- Highlights: • A combined cycle utilizing low-temperature solar energy and LNG together is proposed. • Five objection functions are used to decide the best working fluids. • Cycle with a regenerator has good performance

  12. Flexible Grouping for Enhanced Energy Utilization Efficiency in Battery Energy Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiping Diao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As a critical subsystem in electric vehicles and smart grids, a battery energy storage system plays an essential role in enhancement of reliable operation and system performance. In such applications, a battery energy storage system is required to provide high energy utilization efficiency, as well as reliability. However, capacity inconsistency of batteries affects energy utilization efficiency dramatically; and the situation becomes more severe after hundreds of cycles because battery capacities change randomly due to non-uniform aging. Capacity mismatch can be solved by decomposing a cluster of batteries in series into several low voltage battery packs. This paper introduces a new analysis method to optimize energy utilization efficiency by finding the best number of batteries in a pack, based on capacity distribution, order statistics, central limit theorem, and converter efficiency. Considering both battery energy utilization and power electronics efficiency, it establishes that there is a maximum energy utilization efficiency under a given capacity distribution among a certain number of batteries, which provides a basic analysis for system-level optimization of a battery system throughout its life cycle. Quantitative analysis results based on aging data are illustrated, and a prototype of flexible energy storage systems is built to verify this analysis.

  13. Efficient energy utilization and environmental issues applied to power planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, Hector; Montero, Gisela; Perez, Carlos; Lambert, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    This document shows the importance of policies for electric energy savings and efficient energy utilization in power planning. The contributions of economic, social, and environmental items were evaluated according to their financial effects in the delay of investments, reduction of production costs and decrement of environmental emissions. The case study is Baja California, Mexico; this system has a unique primary source: geothermal energy. Whether analyzing the planning as usual or planning from the supply side, the forecast for 2005-2025 indicates that 4500 MW additional installed capacity will be required (3-times current capacity), representing an investment that will emit 12.7 Mton per year of CO 2 to the atmosphere and will cost US$2.8 billion. Systemic planning that incorporates polices of energy savings and efficiency allows the reduction of investments and pollutant emissions. For example, a reduction of 20% in the growth trend of the electricity consumption in the industrial customers would save US$10.4 billion over the next 20 years, with a potential reduction of 1.6 Mton/year of CO 2 . The increase in geothermal power generation is also attractive, and it can be combined with the reduction of use and energy losses of utilities, which would save US$13.5 billion and prevent the discharge of 8.5 Mton/year of CO 2 . - Highlights: → We contrast power planning methods for supply electricity for economy development. → Importance of policies for electricity savings and efficient use in power planning. → Systemic planning facilitates decision-making process for electricity optimization. → Supply-side planning will cause climb in prices and loss of energy self-sufficiency. → Power planning should be immersed in an environment of appropriate energy policies.

  14. Cost-optimal energy performance renovation measures of educational buildings in cold climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemelä, Tuomo; Kosonen, Risto; Jokisalo, Juha

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The proposed national nZEB target can be cost-effectively achieved in renovations. • Energy saving potential of HVAC systems is significant compared to the building envelope. • Modern renewable energy production technologies are cost-efficient and recommendable. • Improving the indoor climate conditions in deep renovations is recommendable. • Simulation-based optimization method is efficient in building performance analyzes. - Abstract: The paper discusses cost-efficient energy performance renovation measures for typical educational buildings built in the 1960s and 1970s in cold climate regions. The study analyzes the impact of different energy renovation measures on the energy efficiency and economic viability in a Finnish case study educational building located in Lappeenranta University of Technology (LUT) campus area. The main objective of the study was to determine the cost-optimal energy performance renovation measures to meet the proposed national nearly zero-energy building (nZEB) requirements, which are defined according to the primary energy consumption of buildings. The main research method of the study was simulation-based optimization (SBO) analysis, which was used to determine the cost-optimal renovation solutions. The results of the study indicate that the minimum national energy performance requirement of new educational buildings (E_p_r_i_m_a_r_y ⩽ 170 kWh/(m"2,a)) can be cost-effectively achieved in deep renovations of educational buildings. In addition, the proposed national nZEB-targets are also well achievable, while improving the indoor climate (thermal comfort and indoor air quality) conditions significantly at the same time. Cost-effective solutions included renovation of the original ventilation system, a ground source heat pump system with relatively small dimensioning power output, new energy efficient windows and a relatively large area of PV-panels for solar-based electricity production. The results and

  15. Energy security in the post-Cold War era: Identifying future courses for crises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freund, M.T.; Wise, J.A.; Ulibarri, C.A.; Shaw, B.R.; Seely, H.E.; Roop, J.M.

    1994-11-01

    This paper addresses US energy security in the post-Cold War era for a conference on energy security jointly sponsored by the Department of Energy and the National Defense University. It examines the evolving nature of energy security based on analysis of past crisis-inducing events and-discusses potentially important geopolitical, environmental, regulatory, and economic developments during the next twenty-five years. The paper steps beyond the traditional economic focus of energy security issues to examine the interplay between fundamental economic and technical drivers on the one hand, and political, environmental, and perceptual phenomena, on the other hand, that can combine to create crises where none were expected. The paper expands on the premise that the recent demise of the Soviet Union and other changing world conditions have created a new set of energy dynamics, and that it is imperative that the United States revise its energy security perspective accordingly. It proceeds by reviewing key factors that comprise the concepts of ``energy security`` and ``energy crisis`` and how they may fit into the new world energy security equation. The study also presents a series of crisis scenarios that could develop during the next twenty-five years, paying particular attention to mechanisms and linked crisis causes and responses. It concludes with a discussion of factors that may serve to warn analysts and decision makers of impending future crises conditions. The crisis scenarios contained in this report should be viewed only as a representative sample of the types of situations that could occur. They serve to illustrate the variety of factors that can coalesce to produce a ``crisis.``

  16. Impact of gas on utilities - competitive energy options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coolican, M.

    1997-01-01

    The initiatives taken by Nova Scotia Power to have natural gas as a generating fuel was discussed. Nova Scotia Power customers have indicated to the Utility that along with reduced energy costs, they want choices, better services and innovative products. It was noted that coal is currently Nova Scotia Power's principal fuel, but the utility is working with the Cape Breton Development Corporation, their supplier, to bring the cost of coal down. The utility is also exploring the potential of coal bed methane in Pictou and Cumberland counties of Nova Scotia. However, the most promising competitive energy option for their customers is Sable Offshore natural gas. To bring natural gas as the generating fuel for electricity, the Utility is taking steps to convert its Tufts Cove Thermal Generating Station to natural gas and to pipe natural gas to the Trenton Generating Station by November 1999. Bringing natural gas to these two stations would establish a critical base level of demand for natural gas in the Halifax and New Glasgow-Trenton area. One of the important ingredients of this plan is the cost of piping the gas to market. It was suggested that the 'postage stamp' tolling system (i.e. one price for the gas delivered anywhere along the pipeline) favored by some, would not give Nova Scotians the economic advantages that they deserve. For this reason, Nova Scotia Power favours the 'point to point' tolling system, a system that is considered fair and efficient, and the one that has a better chance of producing competitive energy prices

  17. A model for utilizing industrial off-gas to support microalgae cultivation for biodiesel in cold climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laamanen, Corey A.; Shang, Helen; Ross, Gregory M.; Scott, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Development of a model to assess process-coupled algae production in cold climates. • Algae growth temperatures in open tanks can be maintained with industrial off-gas. • Indirect and direct heat application from industrial off-gasses are assessed. • CO 2 -rich off-gas can be bubbled into algae tanks to provide a carbon source. • A nickel smelter’s off-gas is used to demonstrate how waste heat can be repurposed. - Abstract: Lipids produced by microalgae are a promising biofuel feedstock. However, as most commercial mass production of microalgae is in open raceway ponds it is generally considered only a practical option in regions where year-round ambient temperatures remain above 15 °C. To address this issue it has been proposed to couple microalgae production with industries that produce large amounts of waste heat and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). The CO 2 would provide a carbon source for the microalgae and the waste heat would allow year-round cultivation to be extended to regions that experience seasonal ambient temperatures well below 15 °C. To demonstrate this concept, a dynamic model has been constructed that predicts the impact on algal pond temperature from both bubbled-in off-gas and heat indirectly recovered from off-gas. Simulations were carried out for a variety of global locations using the quantity off-gas and waste energy from a smelter’s operations to determine the volume of microalgae that could be maintained above 15 °C. The results demonstrate the feasibility of year-round microalgae production in climates with relatively cold winter seasons

  18. Hybrid energy storage systems utilizing redox active organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Xu, Wu; Li, Liyu; Yang, Zhenguo

    2015-09-08

    Redox flow batteries (RFB) have attracted considerable interest due to their ability to store large amounts of power and energy. Non-aqueous energy storage systems that utilize at least some aspects of RFB systems are attractive because they can offer an expansion of the operating potential window, which can improve on the system energy and power densities. One example of such systems has a separator separating first and second electrodes. The first electrode includes a first current collector and volume containing a first active material. The second electrode includes a second current collector and volume containing a second active material. During operation, the first source provides a flow of first active material to the first volume. The first active material includes a redox active organic compound dissolved in a non-aqueous, liquid electrolyte and the second active material includes a redox active metal.

  19. Peaceful utilization of nuclear energy in the FRG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The present paper gives a summary of the initiatives taken by the Deutscher Bundestag (Federal Assembly) for peaceful utilization of nuclear energy consideration of relevant secondary aspects like area planning, assessment of technology consequences, the introduction of the Verbandsklage (write of associations to enter in public proceedings) etc. It is an extended table of contents of the 7th and 8th election period. Fixed days was the 1rst of Jan, 1980. Apart from this temporary limitation, only the Enquete-Commission's report Future Nuclear Energy Policy was taken into consideration because in this report the discussion about energy policy of the last two election periods is brought to an end. (orig.) [de

  20. Paracellular transport and energy utilization in the renal tubule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Alan S L

    2017-09-01

    Paracellular transport across the tight junction is a general mechanism for transepithelial transport of solutes in epithelia, including the renal tubule. However, why paracellular transport evolved, given the existence of a highly versatile system for transcellular transport, is unknown. Recent studies have identified the paracellular channel, claudin-2, that is responsible for paracellular reabsorption of sodium in the proximal renal tubule. Knockout of claudin-2 in mice impairs proximal sodium and fluid reabsorption but is compensated by upregulation of sodium reabsorption in the loop of Henle. This occurs at the expense of increased renal oxygen consumption, hypoxia of the outer medulla and increased susceptibility to ischemic kidney injury. Paracellular transport can be viewed as a mechanism to exploit the potential energy in existing electrochemical gradients to drive passive transepithelial transport without consuming additional energy. In this way, it enhances the efficiency of energy utilization by transporting epithelia.

  1. National need for utilizing nuclear energy for process heat generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambill, W.R.; Kasten, P.R.

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear reactors are potential sources for generating process heat, and their applications for such use economically competitive. They help satisfy national needs by helping conserve and extend oil and natural gas resources, thus reducing energy imports and easing future international energy concerns. Several reactor types can be utilized for generating nuclear process heat; those considered here are light water reactors (LWRs), heavy water reactors (HWRs), gas-cooled reactors (GCRs), and liquid metal reactors (LMRs). LWRs and HWRs can generate process heat up to 280 0 C, LMRs up to 540 0 C, and GCRs up to 950 0 C. Based on the studies considered here, the estimated process heat markets and the associated energy markets which would be supplied by the various reactor types are summarized

  2. Exposure of embryos to cyclically cold incubation temperatures durably affects energy metabolism and antioxidant pathways in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyau, T; Collin, A; Yenisey, C; Crochet, S; Siegel, P B; Akşit, M; Yalçin, S

    2014-08-01

    Cyclically cold incubation temperatures have been suggested as a means to improve resistance of broiler chickens to ascites; however, the underlying mechanisms are not known. Nine hundred eggs obtained from 48 wk Ross broiler breeders were randomly assigned to 2 incubation treatments: control I eggs were incubated at 37.6°C throughout, whereas for cold I eggs the incubation temperature was reduced by 1°C for 6 h daily from 10 to 18 d of incubation. Thereafter, chickens were reared at standard temperatures or under cold exposure that was associated or not with a postnatal cold acclimation at d 5 posthatch. At hatch, hepatic catalase activity and malondialdehyde content were measured. Serum thyroid hormone and triglyceride concentrations, and muscle expression of several genes involved in the regulation of energy metabolism and oxidative stress were also measured at hatch and 5 and 25 d posthatch. Cold incubation induced modifications in antioxidant pathways with higher catalase activity, but lower expression of avian uncoupling protein 3 at hatch. However, long-term enhancement in the expression of avian uncoupling protein 3 was observed, probably caused by an increase in the expression of the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α. These effects were not systematically associated with an increase in serum triiodothyronine concentrations that were observed only in chickens exposed to both cold incubation and later acclimation at 5 d with cold rearing. Our results suggest that these conditions of cyclically cold incubation resulted in the long-term in changes in antioxidant pathways and energy metabolism, which could enhance the health of chickens reared under cold conditions. © Poultry Science Association Inc.

  3. Environmental impacts of utility-scale solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, R.R.; Easter, S.B.; Murphy-Mariscal, M. L.; Maestre, F.T.; Tavassoli, M.; Allen, E.B.; Barrows, C.W.; Belnap, J.; Ochoa-Hueso, R.; Ravi, S.; Allen, M.F.

    2014-01-01

    Renewable energy is a promising alternative to fossil fuel-based energy, but its development can require a complex set of environmental tradeoffs. A recent increase in solar energy systems, especially large, centralized installations, underscores the urgency of understanding their environmental interactions. Synthesizing literature across numerous disciplines, we review direct and indirect environmental impacts – both beneficial and adverse – of utility-scale solar energy (USSE) development, including impacts on biodiversity, land-use and land-cover change, soils, water resources, and human health. Additionally, we review feedbacks between USSE infrastructure and land-atmosphere interactions and the potential for USSE systems to mitigate climate change. Several characteristics and development strategies of USSE systems have low environmental impacts relative to other energy systems, including other renewables. We show opportunities to increase USSE environmental co-benefits, the permitting and regulatory constraints and opportunities of USSE, and highlight future research directions to better understand the nexus between USSE and the environment. Increasing the environmental compatibility of USSE systems will maximize the efficacy of this key renewable energy source in mitigating climatic and global environmental change.

  4. Solar and wind energy utilization at Sarawak Southern national parks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Rahman, N.; Kolot, A.

    2006-01-01

    The intentions of renewable energy utilization in Sarawak national parks were to reduce the environmental impacts to the protected surrounding and to overcome fuel transportation problem, as most national parks in Sarawak are not viable for the state electricity grid connection. The study was conducted at three national parks in southern Sarawak; viz. Samusan, Tanjung Datu and Pulau Talang-Talang Besar National Park. The study focused on the effectiveness of the system implementation, energy load and associated problems. Both Samusan and Tanjung Datu National systems are hybrids, which consist of solar photovoltaic panels, wind turbine and diesel generators, whereas, Pulau Talang-Talang Besar National Park is a stand alone system of solar photovoltaic panels only. In addition, the inefficient energy usage was observed at Samusan National Park. The study have identified that lack of local expertise, spare parts availability, transportation and inefficient energy management as the major problems associated to the solar and wind energy system in all national parks studied. Albeit the problems mentioned, the study discovered that the systems were acceptably reliable and satisfactorily supply fraction of the energy requirements to the national parks communities

  5. Sustainability of utility-scale solar energy: Critical environmental concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, R. R.; Moore-O'Leary, K. A.; Johnston, D. S.; Abella, S.; Tanner, K.; Swanson, A.; Kreitler, J.; Lovich, J.

    2017-12-01

    Renewable energy development is an arena where ecological, political, and socioeconomic values collide. Advances in renewable energy will incur steep environmental costs to landscapes in which facilities are constructed and operated. Scientists - including those from academia, industry, and government agencies - have only recently begun to quantify trade-off in this arena, often using ground-mounted, utility-scale solar energy facilities (USSE, ≥ 1 megawatt) as a model. Here, we discuss five critical ecological concepts applicable to the development of more sustainable USSE with benefits over fossil-fuel-generated energy: (1) more sustainable USSE development requires careful evaluation of trade-offs between land, energy, and ecology; (2) species responses to habitat modification by USSE vary; (3) cumulative and large-scale ecological impacts are complex and challenging to mitigate; (4) USSE development affects different types of ecosystems and requires customized design and management strategies; and (5) long-term ecological consequences associated with USSE sites must be carefully considered. These critical concepts provide a framework for reducing adverse environmental impacts, informing policy to establish and address conservation priorities, and improving energy production sustainability.

  6. Integrating net-zero energy and high-performance green building technologies into contemporary housing in a cold climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin Yoklic; Mark Knaebe; Karen Martinson

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this research project are (1) to show how the sustainable resources of forest biomass, solar energy, harvested rainwater, and small-diameter logs can be integrated to a system that provides most or all of the energy and water needs of a typical cold climate residential household, and (2) to effectively interpret the results and convey the sustainable...

  7. Utility opinions on energy supply. Praise and reprimand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the opinions expressed by several electricity utilities on the cost-covering remuneration of electricity produced using renewable resources. Positive and negative aspects of the system - in the opinion of the utilities - are listed. Positive issues discussed include the improved economic viability of installations using renewable energy sources, preservation of know-how, increased use of renewables and the minimisation of economic risk for the builders of such installations. Negative issues noted include the general financial burden placed on all electricity consumers, the limits placed by parliament on the remuneration scheme, various hindrances still active in the implementation of such installations and possible competition with other schemes that further the use of electricity from renewable resources.

  8. Impacts of energy utilization in a tropical environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleemann, M.; Penner, K.; Seele, U.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the approach and the interim results of the Indonesian-German scientific co-operation on environmental impacts of future energy utilization in Indonesia. The aim of the planning study is to provide decision support for Indonesian authorities in order to develop environmentally compatible energy supply strategies. The environmental problems will focus on the island of Java with a population density of more than 800 inhabitants/km 2 which might reach 1200 within the next 25 years. Due to the further economic growth and the population increase the energy consumption of the industry, the traffic, and the household sector will increase significantly. In particular the polluting coal utilization will grow overproportionally because of declining oil reserves. Additionally, the industrial development is concentrated on the island of Java which covers only 8% of the land area of the country. A serious pollution of the sensitive tropical ecosystems in the future would be the consequence of this unbalanced developments if no efforts are made to reduce the pollutant emissions. Even today the air quality has already reached critical levels in many parts of Java. 3 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Alberta Energy and Utilities Board, regulatory highlights for 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This new publication informs readers about what the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB) did in the past year, including important regulatory issues, trends and initiatives. The EUB is an agency of the provincial government, established to regulate Alberta's energy resource and utility sectors. It is part of the Alberta Ministry of Energy. The four main functions of the Board are regulatory initiatives, license applications, enforcement and information. This publication summarized the EUB's position regarding flaring (both solution gas flaring and well test flaring), and Board activities in the areas of animal health concerns, the gas over bitumen controversy, the deregulation of the electric industry and what it means to the EUB, improvements in data quality as a result of improved industry compliance in reporting, and a variety of issues related to the oil sands and the negotiated settlement process. Also, the Board has been proactive in the area of oilfield waste management guidelines, proliferation policies for gas processing facilities, sulphur recovery guidelines, and the expansion of the orphan well program to include facilities and pipelines. As a measure of the success of the EUB, a recent survey of 19 randomly selected focus groups praised EUB for its impartiality, fair and equitable enforcement and independence. It was also praised for its technically competent and experienced staff, its access to quality information and the clarity of its mandate, regulatory requirements and processes. The Board's efforts in the area of timely stakeholder consultation was highlighted. tabs., figs

  10. Alberta Energy and Utilities Board, regulatory highlights for 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-01

    This new publication informs readers about what the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB) did in the past year, including important regulatory issues, trends and initiatives. The EUB is an agency of the provincial government, established to regulate Alberta`s energy resource and utility sectors. It is part of the Alberta Ministry of Energy. The four main functions of the Board are regulatory initiatives, license applications, enforcement and information. This publication summarized the EUB`s position regarding flaring (both solution gas flaring and well test flaring), and Board activities in the areas of animal health concerns, the gas over bitumen controversy, the deregulation of the electric industry and what it means to the EUB, improvements in data quality as a result of improved industry compliance in reporting, and a variety of issues related to the oil sands and the negotiated settlement process. Also, the Board has been proactive in the area of oilfield waste management guidelines, proliferation policies for gas processing facilities, sulphur recovery guidelines, and the expansion of the orphan well program to include facilities and pipelines. As a measure of the success of the EUB, a recent survey of 19 randomly selected focus groups praised EUB for its impartiality, fair and equitable enforcement and independence. It was also praised for its technically competent and experienced staff, its access to quality information and the clarity of its mandate, regulatory requirements and processes. The Board`s efforts in the area of timely stakeholder consultation was highlighted. tabs., figs.

  11. Cold Climate Foundation Retrofit Energy Savings: The Simulated Energy and Experimental Hygrothermal Performance of Cold Climate Foundation Wall Insulation Retrofit Measures -- Phase I, Energy Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, L. F.; Steigauf, B.

    2013-04-01

    A split simulation whole building energy/3-dimensional earth contact model (termed the BUFETS/EnergyPlus Model or BEM) capable of modeling the full range of foundation systems found in the target retrofit housing stock has been extensively tested. These foundation systems that include abovegrade foundation walls, diabatic floors or slabs as well as lookout or walkout walls, currently cannot be modeled within BEopt.

  12. Cold Climate Foundation Retrofit Energy Savings. The Simulated Energy and Experimental Hygrothermal Performance of Cold Climate Foundation Wall Insulation Retrofit Measures -- Phase I, Energy Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, Louise F. [NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Steigauf, Brianna [NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2013-04-01

    A split simulation whole building energy / 3-dimensional earth contact model (termed the BUFETS/EnergyPlus Model or BEM) capable of modeling the full range of foundation systems found in the target retrofit housing stock has been extensively tested. These foundation systems that include abovegrade foundation walls, diabatic floors or slabs as well as lookout or walkout walls, currently cannot be modeled within BEopt.

  13. Application of cold thermal energy storage (CTES) for building demand management in hot climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comodi, Gabriele; Carducci, Francesco; Nagarajan, Balamurugan; Romagnoli, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new index, Savings per energy unit, is defined to assess the effectiveness of CTES. • CTES systems were used to perform demand management strategies, removing partial load operations and shaving peak loads. • CTES was used to perform price arbitrage, exploiting the difference between peak and off peak electricity rates in Singapore. • Results showed that it is possible to enhance the efficiency of the whole system, achieving both energy and economic savings. • Depending on the sizing scenario, the pay back periods ranged from a minimum of 8.9 years to a maximum of 16 years. - Abstract: This paper investigates the feasibility of Cold Thermal Energy Storage (CTES) for building demand management applications in hot climate characterized by a cooling season lasting all year long. An existing office building, located in Singapore, serves as case study. The CTES is coupled to the existing cooling systems in order to address the opportunity of improving overall energy efficiency and to perform price arbitrage, exploiting the spread between peak and off-peak energy tariffs. Six different sizes for the CTES are analyzed, addressing different percentage of the daily cooling energy demand. A new index, Savings per energy unit, is defined to assess the effectiveness of CTES. Results indicate that it is possible to enhance the efficiency of the whole cooling system, achieving both energy and economic savings. The payback periods of the different solutions range from a minimum of 8.9 years to a maximum of 16 years. All these aspects make CTES applications a viable option. However, a large amount of space in direct proximity to the building is necessary and, especially in largely urban environment, this is not always available.

  14. Gasification: An alternative solution for energy recovery and utilization of vegetable market waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narnaware, Sunil L; Srivastava, Nsl; Vahora, Samir

    2017-03-01

    Vegetables waste is generally utilized through a bioconversion process or disposed of at municipal landfills, dumping sites or dumped on open land, emitting a foul odor and causing health hazards. The presents study deals with an alternative way to utilize solid vegetable waste through a thermochemical route such as briquetting and gasification for its energy recovery and subsequent power generation. Briquettes of 50 mm diameter were produced from four different types of vegetable waste. The bulk density of briquettes produced was increased 10 to 15 times higher than the density of the dried vegetable waste in loose form. The lower heating value (LHV) of the briquettes ranged from 10.26 MJ kg -1 to 16.60 MJ kg -1 depending on the type of vegetable waste. The gasification of the briquettes was carried out in an open core downdraft gasifier, which resulted in syngas with a calorific value of 4.71 MJ Nm -3 at the gasification temperature between 889°C and 1011°C. A spark ignition, internal combustion engine was run on syngas and could generate a maximum load up to 10 kW e . The cold gas efficiency and the hot gas efficiency of the gasifier were measured at 74.11% and 79.87%, respectively. Energy recovery from the organic vegetable waste was possible through a thermochemical conversion route such as briquetting and subsequent gasification and recovery of the fuel for small-scale power generation.

  15. Enhanced understanding of energy ratepayers: Factors influencing perceptions of government energy efficiency subsidies and utility alternative energy use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, Christopher A.; Allen, Myria W.

    2014-01-01

    This study explores factors related to energy consumers' perceptions of government subsidies for utility provided energy efficiency (EE) programs and for utility providers' use of more clean/alternative energy sources. Demographic factors, attitudes, planned purchases, and perceptions of utility provider motives in relation to governmental and utility provider EE initiatives (i.e. providing discounts and coupons for CFL bulbs), plus the influence of gain- and loss-framed messages are investigated. Over 2000 respondents completed a 16 item phone survey. Hierarchical regression explained 38% of the variance in reactions regarding government subsidies of the cost of utility provided EE programs and 43% of the variance in perceptions involving whether utility companies should use of more clean or alternative forms of energy. Gender and party differences emerged. Loss-framed messages were more important when the issue was government subsidies. Both gain- and loss-framed messages were important when clean/alternative energy was the issue. - Highlights: • Over 2000 ratepayers were surveyed on their attitudes, planned behaviors and perceptions towards energy efficiency programs. • Almost 40% of how ratepayers feel about government subsidies and utility use of clean/alternative energy was explained. • Loss-framed messages were more effective when the dependent variable was ratepayer perception of government subsidies

  16. The energy-efficiency business - Energy utility strategies; Geschaeftsfeld Energieeffizienz. Strategien von Energieversorgern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loebbe, S.

    2009-07-01

    This article takes a look at the energy-efficiency business and the advantages it offers. The author quotes that energy-efficiency can contribute to making savings in primary energy, minimise the economic impact of global warming, improve reliability of supply and protect the gross national product. The advantages of new products for the efficient use of energy are reviewed and the resulting advantages for power customers are noted. Also, possibilities for the positioning of electricity suppliers in the environmental niche is noted. The partial markets involved and estimates concerning the impact of energy-efficiency measures are reviewed. Climate protection, co-operation with energy agencies, consulting services and public relations aspects are also discussed. The prerequisites for successful marketing by the utilities are examined and new business models are discussed along with the clear strategies needed. The development from an electricity utility to a system-competence partner is reviewed.

  17. Utilization of Solar Energy for Air Conditioning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutikno Juwari Purwo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this research are to do a system simulation of air conditioning utilizing solar energy with single effect absorption refrigeration method, analyze the coefficient of performance (COP for each absorbent-refrigerant variable and compare the effectivity of every absorbent-refrigerant variable used. COP is a constant that denotes the effeciency of a refrigeration system, that is ratio of work or useful output to the amount of work or energy input. The higher the number of COP, the more efficient the system is. Absorbent-refrigerant (working fluids variables used in this research depend on its chemical and thermodynamics properties. Steps in this research are including data collection and tabulation from literature and do a simulation of air conditioning system both commercial air conditioning system (using electrical energy and solar energy air conditioning system with Aspen Plus software. Next, run the simulation for each working fluid variables used and calculate the COP for each variable. Subsequently, analyze and compare the effectivity of all variables used from COP value and economical point of view with commercial air conditioning system. From the result of the simulation, can be concluded that solar air conditioning can achieve 98,85 % of energy savings than commercial air conditioning. Furthermore, from the calculation of COP, the highest COP value is achieved by solar conditioning system with LiNO3-NH3 as working fluid where 55% of the composition is the refrigerant and 45% of absorbent.

  18. Making It Count: Understanding the Value of Energy Efficiency Financing Programs Funded by Utility Customers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, Chris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fadrhonc, Emily Martin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goldman, Charles [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schiller, Steve [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schwartz, Lisa [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Utility customer-supported financing programs are receiving increased attention as a strategy for achieving energy saving goals. Rationales for using utility customer funds to support financing initiatives

  19. Peak load shifting control using different cold thermal energy storage facilities in commercial buildings: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Yongjun; Wang, Shengwei; Xiao, Fu; Gao, Diance

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Little study reviews the load shifting control using different facilities. • This study reviews load shifting control using building thermal mass. • This study reviews load shifting control using thermal energy storage systems. • This study reviews load shifting control using phase change material. • Efforts for developing more applicable load shifting control are addressed. - Abstract: For decades, load shifting control, one of most effective peak demand management methods, has attracted increasing attentions from both researchers and engineers. Different load shifting control strategies have been developed when diverse cold thermal energy storage facilities are used in commercial buildings. The facilities include building thermal mass (BTM), thermal energy storage system (TES) and phase change material (PCM). Little study has systematically reviewed these load shifting control strategies and therefore this study presents a comprehensive review of peak load shifting control strategies using these thermal energy storage facilities in commercial buildings. The research and applications of the load shifting control strategies are presented and discussed. The further efforts needed for developing more applicable load shifting control strategies using the facilities are also addressed

  20. Cold homes, fuel poverty and energy efficiency improvements: A longitudinal focus group approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grey, Charlotte N B; Schmieder-Gaite, Tina; Jiang, Shiyu; Nascimento, Christina; Poortinga, Wouter

    2017-08-01

    Cold homes and fuel poverty have been identified as factors in health and social inequalities that could be alleviated through energy efficiency interventions. Research on fuel poverty and the health impacts of affordable warmth initiatives have to date primarily been conducted using quantitative and statistical methods, limiting the way how fuel poverty is understood. This study took a longitudinal focus group approach that allowed exploration of lived experiences of fuel poverty before and after an energy efficiency intervention. Focus group discussions were held with residents from three low-income communities before (n = 28) and after (n = 22) they received energy efficiency measures funded through a government-led scheme. The results show that improving the energy efficiency of homes at risk of fuel poverty has a profound impact on wellbeing and quality of life, financial stress, thermal comfort, social interactions and indoor space use. However, the process of receiving the intervention was experienced by some as stressful. There is a need for better community engagement and communication to improve the benefits delivered by fuel poverty programmes, as well as further qualitative exploration to better understand the wider impacts of fuel poverty and policy-led intervention schemes.

  1. Utilization of bio-resources by low energy electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, Tamikazu

    2003-01-01

    Utilization of bio-resources by radiation has been investigated for recycling the natural resources and reducing the environmental pollution. Polysaccharides such as chitosan and sodium alginate were easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities, i.g. anti-microbial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of heavy metal stress, phytoalexins induction. Radiation degraded chitosan was effective to enhance the growth of plants in tissue culture. It was demonstrated that the liquid sample irradiation system using low energy EB was effective for the preparation of degraded polysaccharides. Methylcellulose (MC) can be crosslinked under certain radiation condition as same as carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and produced the biodegradable hydrogel for medical and agricultural use. Treatment of soybean seeds by low energy EB enhanced the growth and the number of rhizobia on the root. (author)

  2. Supercooling and cold energy storage characteristics of nano-media in ball-packed porous structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Qunzhi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The presented experiments aimed to study the supercooling and cold-energy storage characteristics of nanofluids and water-based nano-media in ball-packed porous structures (BPS. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs measuring 20nm and 80nm were used as additives and sodium dodecyl benzene sulphonate (SDBS was used as anionic surfactant. The experiments used different concentrations of nanofluid, distilled with BPS of different spherical diameter and different concentrations of nano-media, and were conducted 20 times. Experimental results of supercooling were analysed by statistical methods. Results show that the average and peak supercooling degrees of nanofluids and nano-media in BPS are lower than those of distilled water. For the distilled water in BPS, the supercooling degree decreases on the whole with the decrease of the ball diameter. With the same spherical diameter (8mm of BPS, the supercooling degree of TiO2 NPs measuring 20nm is lower than the supercooling degree of distilled water in BPS. Step-cooling experiments of different concentrations of nanofluids and nano-media in BPS were also conducted. Results showed that phase transition time is reduced because of the presence of TiO2 NPs. The BPS substrate and the NPs enhance the heat transfer. Distilled water with a porous solid base and nanoparticles means the amount of cold-energy storage increases and the supercooling degree and the total time are greatly reduced. The phase transition time of distilled water is about 3.5 times that of nano-media in BPS.

  3. Decision modelling tools for utilities in the deregulated energy market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makkonen, S. [Process Vision Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    2005-07-01

    This thesis examines the impact of the deregulation of the energy market on decision making and optimisation in utilities and demonstrates how decision support applications can solve specific encountered tasks in this context. The themes of the thesis are presented in different frameworks in order to clarify the complex decision making and optimisation environment where new sources of uncertainties arise due to the convergence of energy markets, globalisation of energy business and increasing competition. This thesis reflects the changes in the decision making and planning environment of European energy companies during the period from 1995 to 2004. It also follows the development of computational performance and evolution of energy information systems during the same period. Specifically, this thesis consists of studies at several levels of the decision making hierarchy ranging from top-level strategic decision problems to specific optimisation algorithms. On the other hand, the studies also follow the progress of the liberalised energy market from the monopolistic era to the fully competitive market with new trading instruments and issues like emissions trading. This thesis suggests that there is an increasing need for optimisation and multiple criteria decision making methods, and that new approaches based on the use of operations research are welcome as the deregulation proceeds and uncertainties increase. Technically, the optimisation applications presented are based on Lagrangian relaxation techniques and the dedicated Power Simplex algorithm supplemented with stochastic scenario analysis for decision support, a heuristic method to allocate common benefits and potential losses of coalitions of power companies, and an advanced Branch- and-Bound algorithm to solve efficiently nonconvex optimisation problems. The optimisation problems are part of the operational and tactical decision making process that has become very complex in the recent years. Similarly

  4. Survey of renewable energy utilization and development potential in Oceania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This paper reports fiscal 2000 survey of renewable energy utilization and development potential in Oceania. In Australia and New Zealand, renewable energy has already fairly been used. In Australia, it is promoted on the government policy level, with cost reduction and improved reliability in progress. The growth of 2% is set as a target in the year 2010. Promising are biomass and wind, while contributory in the long run are photovoltaic energies. New installations of hydraulic power generation are few, but potential is high for mini hydraulic power generation. Social interest is also comparatively high in renewable energies and greenhouse effect gas. However, further technological development is necessary for a full-scale contribution to global environmental problems. The situation in other south Pacific nations depends on their policy, economic condition and level of industrialization; each country heavily imports diesel oil for power generation, is under-developed industry-wise, and is a low income nation. The countries are desperately in need of foreign investment for the purpose of solving these problems. (NEDO)

  5. Advanced ceramics for nuclear heat utilization and energy harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, Deep; Purohit, R.D.; Sinha, P.K.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years concerns related to global warming and green house gas emissions have focused the attention towards lowering the carbon foot print of energy generation. In this scenario, nuclear energy is considered as one of the strongest options to take on the challenges. Further, the nuclear heat, originated from the fission of nuclear fuels may be utilized not only by conversion to electricity using conventional techniques, but also may be used for production of hydrogen by splitting water. In the endeavor of realizing sustainable energy generation technologies, ceramic materials find key role as critical components. This paper covers an overview of various ceramic materials which are potential candidates for energy and hydrogen generation devices. These include solid oxide fuel cells, thermoelectric oxides and sodium conducting beta-alumina for alkali metal thermoelectric converters (AMTEC). The materials, which are generally complex oxides often need to be synthesized using chemical methods for purity and compositional control. Further, ceramic materials offer advantages in terms of doping different cations to engineer defects and maneuver properties. Nonetheless, shaping of ceramics to complex components is a challenging task, due to which various techniques such as isopressing, tape-casting, extrusion, slurry coating, spray deposition etc. are employed. The paper also provides a highlight of fabrication techniques and demonstration of miniature devices which are at various stages of development. (author)

  6. Worldwide satellite communications for the energy utility industry. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skelton, R.L.

    1998-07-01

    Recent and future generations of low earth orbiting (LEO) satellites are promising new possibilities for using space communications to achieve operational improvements and business expansion in energy supply and delivery industries. The ability to reach remote locations with relatively inexpensive devices and infrastructure is a unique property of satellites. Applications include remote monitoring and control of distributed resources and emergency and personal communication. Satellite systems are emerging as a significant opportunity for investment minded utilities. Over a dozen groups are planning to launch a total of 1200 LEOs in the period from 1996 to 2006, at a probable cost of over $20 Billion. This large number of systems can provide a worldwide mix of narrow band and wideband services including data, voice, video and Internet access. This paper examines the two primary factors which have limited applications in the energy industry: cost and propagation delay. The former has so far limited the technology to fixed communications with a few important sites such as remote substations. The latter has rendered the technology unsuitable for applications where critical protection mechanisms are involved. These constraints are effectively countered by the emerging LEO systems. Big LEOs will be used for voice service, little LEOs will be the systems of choice for most utility data applications. The author concludes that there are good technical and business reasons to reconsider future satellite communications as an option for meeting certain strategic business objectives in power system management and customer oriented information services

  7. Assessment of Global Wind Energy Resource Utilization Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, M.; He, B.; Guan, Y.; Zhang, H.; Song, S.

    2017-09-01

    Development of wind energy resource (WER) is a key to deal with climate change and energy structure adjustment. A crucial issue is to obtain the distribution and variability of WER, and mine the suitable location to exploit it. In this paper, a multicriteria evaluation (MCE) model is constructed by integrating resource richness and stability, utilization value and trend of resource, natural environment with weights. The global resource richness is assessed through wind power density (WPD) and multi-level wind speed. The utilizable value of resource is assessed by the frequency of effective wind. The resource stability is assessed by the coefficient of variation of WPD and the frequency of prevailing wind direction. Regression slope of long time series WPD is used to assess the trend of WER. All of the resource evaluation indicators are derived from the atmospheric reanalysis data ERA-Interim with spatial resolution 0.125°. The natural environment factors mainly refer to slope and land-use suitability, which are derived from multi-resolution terrain elevation data 2010 (GMTED 2010) and GlobalCover2009. Besides, the global WER utilization potential map is produced, which shows most high potential regions are located in north of Africa. Additionally, by verifying that 22.22 % and 48.8 9% operational wind farms fall on medium-high and high potential regions respectively, the result can provide a basis for the macroscopic siting of wind farm.

  8. Environmental impacts of biomass energy resource production and utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easterly, J.L.; Dunn, S.M.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a broad overview of the environmental impacts associated with the production, conversion and utilization of biomass energy resources and compare them with the impacts of conventional fuels. The use of sustainable biomass resources can play an important role in helping developing nations meet their rapidly growing energy needs, while providing significant environmental advantages over the use of fossil fuels. Two of the most important environmental benefits biomass energy offers are reduced net emissions of greenhouse gases, particularly CO 2 , and reduced emissions of SO 2 , the primary contributor to acid rain. The paper also addresses the environmental impacts of supplying a range of specific biomass resources, including forest-based resources, numerous types of biomass residues and energy crops. Some of the benefits offered by the various biomass supplies include support for improved forest management, improved waste management, reduced air emissions (by eliminating the need for open-field burning of residues) and reduced soil erosion (for example, where perennial energy crops are planted on degraded or deforested land). The environmental impacts of a range of biomass conversion technologies are also addressed, including those from the thermochemical processing of biomass (including direct combustion in residential wood stoves and industrial-scale boilers, gasification and pyrolysis); biochemical processing (anaerobic digestion and fermentation); and chemical processing (extraction of organic oils). In addition to reducing CO 2 and SO 2 , other environmental benefits of biomass conversion technologies include the distinctly lower toxicity of the ash compared to coal ash, reduced odours and pathogens from manure, reduced vehicle emissions of CO 2 , with the use of ethanol fuel blends, and reduced particulate and hydrocarbon emissions where biodiesel is used as a substitute for diesel fuel. In general, the key elements for

  9. Surplus thermal energy model of greenhouses and coefficient analysis for effective utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, S.H.; Son, J.E.; Lee, S.D.; Cho, S.I.; Ashtiani-Araghi, A.; Rhee, J.Y.

    2016-11-01

    If a greenhouse in the temperate and subtropical regions is maintained in a closed condition, the indoor temperature commonly exceeds that required for optimal plant growth, even in the cold season. This study considered this excess energy as surplus thermal energy (STE), which can be recovered, stored and used when heating is necessary. To use the STE economically and effectively, the amount of STE must be estimated before designing a utilization system. Therefore, this study proposed an STE model using energy balance equations for the three steps of the STE generation process. The coefficients in the model were determined by the results of previous research and experiments using the test greenhouse. The proposed STE model produced monthly errors of 17.9%, 10.4% and 7.4% for December, January and February, respectively. Furthermore, the effects of the coefficients on the model accuracy were revealed by the estimation error assessment and linear regression analysis through fixing dynamic coefficients. A sensitivity analysis of the model coefficients indicated that the coefficients have to be determined carefully. This study also provides effective ways to increase the amount of STE. (Author)

  10. Surplus thermal energy model of greenhouses and coefficient analysis for effective utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Hwan Yang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available If a greenhouse in the temperate and subtropical regions is maintained in a closed condition, the indoor temperature commonly exceeds that required for optimal plant growth, even in the cold season. This study considered this excess energy as surplus thermal energy (STE, which can be recovered, stored and used when heating is necessary. To use the STE economically and effectively, the amount of STE must be estimated before designing a utilization system. Therefore, this study proposed an STE model using energy balance equations for the three steps of the STE generation process. The coefficients in the model were determined by the results of previous research and experiments using the test greenhouse. The proposed STE model produced monthly errors of 17.9%, 10.4% and 7.4% for December, January and February, respectively. Furthermore, the effects of the coefficients on the model accuracy were revealed by the estimation error assessment and linear regression analysis through fixing dynamic coefficients. A sensitivity analysis of the model coefficients indicated that the coefficients have to be determined carefully. This study also provides effective ways to increase the amount of STE.

  11. Building America Best Practices Series Volume 12: Builders Challenge Guide to 40% Whole-House Energy Savings in the Cold and Very Cold Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baechler, Michael C.; Gilbride, Theresa L.; Hefty, Marye G.; Cole, Pamala C.; Love, Pat M.

    2011-02-01

    This best practices guide is the twelfth in a series of guides for builders produced by PNNL for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America program. This guide book is a resource to help builders design and construct homes that are among the most energy-efficient available, while addressing issues such as building durability, indoor air quality, and occupant health, safety, and comfort. With the measures described in this guide, builders in the cold and very cold climates can build homes that have whole-house energy savings of 40% over the Building America benchmark with no added overall costs for consumers. The best practices described in this document are based on the results of research and demonstration projects conducted by Building America’s research teams. Building America brings together the nation’s leading building scientists with over 300 production builders to develop, test, and apply innovative, energy-efficient construction practices. Building America builders have found they can build homes that meet these aggressive energy-efficiency goals at no net increased costs to the homeowners. Currently, Building America homes achieve energy savings of 40% greater than the Building America benchmark home (a home built to mid-1990s building practices roughly equivalent to the 1993 Model Energy Code). The recommendations in this document meet or exceed the requirements of the 2009 IECC and 2009 IRC and thos erequirements are highlighted in the text. This document will be distributed via the DOE Building America website: www.buildingamerica.gov.

  12. Superconducting magnetic energy storage for electric utility load leveling: A study of cost vs. stored energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luongo, C.A.; Loyd, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) is a promising technology for electric utility load leveling. This paper presents the results of a study to establish the capital cost of SMES as a function of stored energy. Energy-related coil cost and total installed plant cost are given for construction in nominal soil and in competent rock. Economic comparisons are made between SMES and other storage technologies and peaking gas turbines. SMES is projected to be competitive at stored energies as low as 1000 MWh

  13. Policy alternatives in reforming energy utilities in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriele, Alberto

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the policy alternatives faced by developing countries in their endeavor to preserve and develop their electricity and gas systems, two service-oriented industries which--along with oil--provide the bulk of energy supply both in developed and in developing countries. Even in very poor countries, industrially generated energy is indispensable for carrying out most economic activities. Therefore, governments traditionally recognize that the supply of gas and electricity entails a fundamental public service dimension. The Introduction presents the case for reforming of energy utilities, discusses in general terms the pros and cons of privatization, and attempts to locate the reforms in a broader historical framework in which developing countries' governments faced characterized by increasing financial hardship. Section 2 constitutes the core of the paper. It reviews the main features of gas and power sector reforms in the developing world and analyzes specifically the cases of five semi-industrialized countries in Latin America and Asia. Section 3 (Concluding remarks) briefly evaluates the country experiences reviewed above and indicates a few policy lessons which can be learnt from them. The main conclusion is that, in a long-run development perspective, full-scale privatization of gas and power sectors in developing countries entails significant risks, and therefore a flexible policy approach is preferable to a rigid commitment to extensive liberalization

  14. FY1995 research report on the survey of cryogenic energy utilization systems for environmentally friendly energy community project. Case studies of LNG cryogenic energy cascade-wise utilization; 1995 nendo kankyo chowagata energycommunity jigyo ni kakawaru reinetsu riyo system kento chosa hokokusho. LNG reinetsu no cascade teki riyo case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Japan's import of LNG (liquefied natural gas) has increased in these 15 years from 13-million tons to 43-million tons at a high rate of 2-million tons a year. At present LNG is used only in power generation and town gas business, and its cryogenic feature which may be useful in various fields is not being utilized. In this survey, factors impeding the wider application of the cryogenic energy are investigated, methods for using the energy more widely and mechanisms required therefor are studied, and discussion is made about the feasibility of the utilization of the energy in a cascade-wise form under the environmentally friendly energy community project. Researches are conducted and the results are evaluated in a study carried out on the comprehensive utilization of LNG cryogenic energy. These researches involve the actualities and trends of LNG cryogenic energy utilization in Japan; current status and prospect of the involvement of LNG bases with their neighboring industries and communities; technological measures for cryogenic energy utilization; technological measures related to low-temperature media and cold heat transportation systems; technological measures for the cascade-wise multidirectional utilization of cryogenic energy; and case studies on assumed local models. (NEDO)

  15. FY1995 research report on the survey of cryogenic energy utilization systems for environmentally friendly energy community project. Case studies of LNG cryogenic energy cascade-wise utilization; 1995 nendo kankyo chowagata energycommunity jigyo ni kakawaru reinetsu riyo system kento chosa hokokusho. LNG reinetsu no cascade teki riyo case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Japan's import of LNG (liquefied natural gas) has increased in these 15 years from 13-million tons to 43-million tons at a high rate of 2-million tons a year. At present LNG is used only in power generation and town gas business, and its cryogenic feature which may be useful in various fields is not being utilized. In this survey, factors impeding the wider application of the cryogenic energy are investigated, methods for using the energy more widely and mechanisms required therefor are studied, and discussion is made about the feasibility of the utilization of the energy in a cascade-wise form under the environmentally friendly energy community project. Researches are conducted and the results are evaluated in a study carried out on the comprehensive utilization of LNG cryogenic energy. These researches involve the actualities and trends of LNG cryogenic energy utilization in Japan; current status and prospect of the involvement of LNG bases with their neighboring industries and communities; technological measures for cryogenic energy utilization; technological measures related to low-temperature media and cold heat transportation systems; technological measures for the cascade-wise multidirectional utilization of cryogenic energy; and case studies on assumed local models. (NEDO)

  16. Climatological background for the utilization of energy from the sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alterio, S.; Barabaro, S.; Coppolino, S.

    1983-01-01

    Information on the main climatological factors characterizing a given place or area is fundamental for the utilization of energy from the Sun and for other applications. This paper collects and analyses the daily, monthly and yearly average climatic data (insolation, sunshine, state of the sky, air temperature and relative humidity) provided by sixty thermopluviometric stations variously distributed in the territory of Sicily. The analysis is here performed both with a purely applicative view and in order to point out the connection between climate and physical environment. It leads to a better knowledge of solar climate and constitutes the basis for equally interesting further developments in the various fields of applied climatology: geomorfology, agriculture, biology, ecology, bioclimatology, etc

  17. Geothermal energy utilized in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the geothermal resources and reserves that have been estimated for selected aquifers in the Northwest German Basin, the Upper Rhine Graben and the South German Molasse Basin. The highest reserves (31 · 10 18 J) are located in the Malm aquifer in the Molasse Basin. Geothermal energy is utilized in 15 localities using low enthalpy water. The total installed capacity is about 8 MW t . Two small new installations (Waldsee, Weiden) have been realized in the last years. In another project (Bruchsal) the doublet, which is necessary because of the high saline water, is now in a working order. A prefeasibility study for a Hot Dry Rock system has been performed by a German-French group. The HDR test site is located in the Upper Rhine Graben

  18. Energy and resource utilization of deinking sludge pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou, Rui; Wu, Shubin; Lv, Gaojin; Yang, Qing

    2012-01-01

    The thermochemical conversion technique was applied in deinking sludge from the pulp and papermaking industrial to indagate the utilization of sludge biomass to energy, and the pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolytic products of deinking sludge were studied with thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and pyrolysis coupled with gas chromatograph–mass spectrometer (Py-GC/MS). The static tubular furnace as an applied industrial research was used to study deinking sludge pyrolysis. The solid, gas and liquid of products was characterized by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), gas chromatograph (GC) and gas chromatograph–mass (GC/MS), respectively. The results revealed that the weight-loss process of deinking sludge was a non-isothermal reaction and composed of four stages, i.e. dewater stage, volatile releasing stage, carbon burnout stage and some calcium carbonate decomposition. Pyrolytic products from deinking sludge in the static tubular furnace were comprised of the gaseous (29.78%), condensed liquid (bio-oil, 24.41%) and solid residues (45.81%). The volatiles from deinking sludge pyrolyzing were almost aromatic hydrocarbons, i.e. styrene, toluene and benzene and few acids and the solid was calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) that can be reused as paper filler. Deinking sludge was converted into high-grade fuel and chemicals by means of thermochemical conversion techniques, hence, pyrolysis of paper deinking sludge had a promising development on the comprehensive utilization.

  19. Thermodynamic analysis of direct expansion configurations for electricity production by LNG cold energy recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco, Alessandro; Casarosa, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper, after a brief review of the perspectives of the various schemes proposed for electricity generation from the regasification of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), a detailed analysis of two particular direct expansion solutions is proposed. The purpose is to identify the upper level of the energy that can be recovered with the aim of electricity production, using configurations with direct expansion. The analysis developed resorting to a simplified thermodynamic model, shows that using a direct expansion configurations with multistage turbine, values of power production typical of optimized ORC plant configurations (120 kJ for each kg of natural gas that flows through the plant) can be obtained. The development of a direct expansion plant with multistage turbine and internal heat recovery systems could permit to approach the production of more than 160 kJ for each kg of flowing liquefied natural gas. Considering values of the mass flow rate typical of LNG gas stations (e.g. 70 kg/s); this corresponds to an output power ranging between 8.3 MW and 11.4 MW. - Highlights: • Recovery of the cold energy contained in Liquefied Natural Gas. • Thermodynamic analysis of systems for electricity generation in regasification. • Direct expansion solutions with multistage expansion. • Comparison of direct expansion solutions with conventional ORC systems. • Power output in conditions typical of existing LNG regasification terminals

  20. Energy intake and growth of weanling horses in a cold loose housing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. AUTIO

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The demand for information relating to the nutrition of horses in a cold environment is increasing with the popularity of loose housing of horses. This study examined the energy intake and growth of 10 weanling horses from November to March (22 weeks in a loose housing system (paddock and insulated sleeping hall with deep-litter bed. The horses were measured weekly for body condition and body weight, and the feeding was adjusted according to a horse’s body condition. Metabolizable energy (ME intake was compared to Finnish (MTT 2006 and Swedish (SLU 2004 nutrient requirements for 6–12-month-old horses. ME intake (75.5 ± 11.8 MJ d-1, mean ± SD was on average 24.6% above the requirements. The intake varied in a non-linear fashion in the course of the winter: y = 0.086x2 – 0.902x + 71.5, where x is weeks from November to March (p

  1. Environmental impacts of biomass energy resource production and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Easterly, J L; Dunn, S M [DynCorp, Alexandria, VA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a broad overview of the environmental impacts associated with the production, conversion and utilization of biomass energy resources and compare them with the impacts of conventional fuels. The use of sustainable biomass resources can play an important role in helping developing nations meet their rapidly growing energy needs, while providing significant environmental advantages over the use of fossil fuels. Two of the most important environmental benefits biomass energy offers are reduced net emissions of greenhouse gases, particularly CO{sub 2}, and reduced emissions of SO{sub 2}, the primary contributor to acid rain. The paper also addresses the environmental impacts of supplying a range of specific biomass resources, including forest-based resources, numerous types of biomass residues and energy crops. Some of the benefits offered by the various biomass supplies include support for improved forest management, improved waste management, reduced air emissions (by eliminating the need for open-field burning of residues) and reduced soil erosion (for example, where perennial energy crops are planted on degraded or deforested land). The environmental impacts of a range of biomass conversion technologies are also addressed, including those from the thermochemical processing of biomass (including direct combustion in residential wood stoves and industrial-scale boilers, gasification and pyrolysis); biochemical processing (anaerobic digestion and fermentation); and chemical processing (extraction of organic oils). In addition to reducing CO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2}, other environmental benefits of biomass conversion technologies include the distinctly lower toxicity of the ash compared to coal ash, reduced odours and pathogens from manure, reduced vehicle emissions of CO{sub 2}, with the use of ethanol fuel blends, and reduced particulate and hydrocarbon emissions where biodiesel is used as a substitute for diesel fuel. In general

  2. Research and utilization of renewable energy resources in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, M.S.; Aditya, S.K.; Mazumder, R.K.

    2005-01-01

    Bangladesh is an energy deficit and low-economy country with high population density. Per-capita energy consumption is one of the lowest in the world. The only dependable indigenous gas, which is the major primary energy source in the country, is used mainly for the production of electricity and fertilizer. If it is burnt at an annual 10% growth rate of consumption, may not last more than 15-20 years. Around 30% of the people of the country have connections to the national grid line. In the villages, where 80% of the population live, the situation is worse. Even if it is possible to take the electric grid line to all villages of the country, which will be an extremely difficult and expensive work to do, the majority of the village houses will not be able to have electric connections due to poverty. No nuclear power station exists in the country and the possibility of setting up any in the near future is limited due to non-availability of funds. Hydroelectric resources are also low because of the flat terrain of the country. The fuel import bill also occupies a significant portion of the total amount of export earnings. Conventional resources in Bangladesh are utterly inadequate for supplying the energy needs to bring in a significant improvement in our economy. On the other hand when our gas reserves will be exhausted it will be difficult for us even to maintain the energy supply for the development of our country unless we find alternate sources of energy. Solar energy availability in Bangladesh is high around 5KWH/day per meter square or 2.6 10/sup 11/ MWH/year on the total surface area of the country. This is equivalent to the output of about 30GW capacity utility plant for 100 years assuming 10% efficiency of the solar devices. Large-scale production of electricity from new, renewable energy sources is a great challenge. Wind power is difficult to exploit economically in regions with wind speeds bellow 5 m/s yearly average. Solar thermal power plants come

  3. Tree planting in deserts and utilization of atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Sadao; Minato, Akio; Hashizume, Kenichi; Handa, Norihiko.

    1991-01-01

    Global environment problems are discussed actively, concretely, those are the warming of the earth, the advance of desertification, the damage due to acid rain, the decrease of tropical forests, the pollution of sea, the depletion of ozone layer and so on. Most of these phenomena advance gradually. However, the advance of desertification is different from other phenomena in that the people in the areas concerned are deprived of their living space and even their lives are threatened at this moment. Desertification is advancing on global scale, and its rate is estimated to be 60,000 km 2 yearly. Especially the area where the advance is remarkable is the southern edge of Sahara Desert, which advances southward at 10-30 km in one year. Recently also in Japan, the interest in the prevention of desertification has become high, and the experiment on tree planting in a desert using a huge desert dome of the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, 'Desert Aquanet concept' of Shimizu Construction Co., Ltd., 'Sahara green belt project' of the Ministry of International Trade and Industry and so on were published. Water and energy for tree planting in deserts, utilization of atomic energy for seawater desalination and the technical fields to which Japan can contribute are reported. (K.I.)

  4. Tree planting in deserts and utilization of atomic energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattori, Sadao; Minato, Akio [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Hashizume, Kenichi; Handa, Norihiko

    1991-06-01

    Global environment problems are discussed actively, concretely, those are the warming of the earth, the advance of desertification, the damage due to acid rain, the decrease of tropical forests, the pollution of sea, the depletion of ozone layer and so on. Most of these phenomena advance gradually. However, the advance of desertification is different from other phenomena in that the people in the areas concerned are deprived of their living space and even their lives are threatened at this moment. Desertification is advancing on global scale, and its rate is estimated to be 60,000 km{sup 2} yearly. Especially the area where the advance is remarkable is the southern edge of Sahara Desert, which advances southward at 10-30 km in one year. Recently also in Japan, the interest in the prevention of desertification has become high, and the experiment on tree planting in a desert using a huge desert dome of the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, 'Desert Aquanet concept' of Shimizu Construction Co., Ltd., 'Sahara green belt project' of the Ministry of International Trade and Industry and so on were published. Water and energy for tree planting in deserts, utilization of atomic energy for seawater desalination and the technical fields to which Japan can contribute are reported. (K.I.).

  5. The transfer of technologies for biomass energy utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneiders, H H [German Agency for Technical Cooperation (GTZ), Eschborn (Germany)

    1995-12-01

    The first part of the paper presents the common perception of technology transfer as a trade relationship rather than a systematic approach to establish a complex technological capacity in a given field. It aims to correct this misperception by introducing some other ideas: (a) the need to support the people, adjust the relevant organizations and establish the capacities to provide the products and services; (b) the typical life cycles of technologies from the initial concept to the final stages of transfer and sustainable dissemination; (c) the needs and expectations of the groups targeted by the technologies for biomass energy utilization. The second part of the paper discusses one example of successful technology transfer: the use of large biomass-burning stoves for food preparation in public institutions and private restaurants in East Africa. The third part of the paper highlights two non-technological barriers to the transfer of biomass energy technologies: (a) weak market forces and business interests and a large number of State activities and projects and (b) conflicting interests of end-users, craftsmen, private and public project partners, which can threaten the success of the attempted technology transfer, even after local adaptation. Finally, suggestions are made for overcoming some of these problems. (author)

  6. The transfer of technologies for biomass energy utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneiders, H.H.

    1995-01-01

    The first part of the paper presents the common perception of technology transfer as a trade relationship rather than a systematic approach to establish a complex technological capacity in a given field. It aims to correct this misperception by introducing some other ideas: (a) the need to support the people, adjust the relevant organizations and establish the capacities to provide the products and services; (b) the typical life cycles of technologies from the initial concept to the final stages of transfer and sustainable dissemination; (c) the needs and expectations of the groups targeted by the technologies for biomass energy utilization. The second part of the paper discusses one example of successful technology transfer: the use of large biomass-burning stoves for food preparation in public institutions and private restaurants in East Africa. The third part of the paper highlights two non-technological barriers to the transfer of biomass energy technologies: (a) weak market forces and business interests and a large number of State activities and projects and (b) conflicting interests of end-users, craftsmen, private and public project partners, which can threaten the success of the attempted technology transfer, even after local adaptation. Finally, suggestions are made for overcoming some of these problems. (author)

  7. Second International Conference on Batteries for Utility Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-07-24

    This is a collection of essays presented at the above-named conference held at New Port Beach, U.S., from July 24 through 28, 1989. At the utility energy storage session, it is found that the 100kW-capable Na-S battery system of the Kansai Electric Power Company, Inc., works effectively in levelling peakloads at storage efficiency of 70%. A Chino lead-acid battery system is also described. A lead-acid battery system of the BEWAG Corporation of Germany equipped with tubular electrodes is described. For application by the consuming party, system behavior relative to duty cycle control, sudden request for energy storage, power factor, and load adjustment is discussed. Use of a valve-controlled lead-acid battery is introduced, which is to be used as a stand-by system (such as an uninterruptible power supply) or for certain types of cyclic duties. At the 4th session, economic and technical models are exhibited. Computer-aided peakload prediction, battery storage system technology, economic parameters, profitability, etc., are explained for use by the consuming party in a peakload shaving battery system. The Zn/Br battery, redox-flow battery, and other advanced technologies are also presented. (NEDO)

  8. Cold collisions of SH- with He: Potential energy surface and rate coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bop, C. T.; Trabelsi, T.; Hammami, K.; Mogren Al Mogren, M.; Lique, F.; Hochlaf, M.

    2017-09-01

    Collisional energy transfer under cold conditions is of great importance from the fundamental and applicative point of view. Here, we investigate low temperature collisions of the SH- anion with He. We have generated a three-dimensional potential energy surface (PES) for the SH-(X1Σ+)-He(1S) van der Waals complex. The ab initio multi-dimensional interaction PES was computed using the explicitly correlated coupled cluster approach with simple, double, and perturbative triple excitation in conjunction with the augmented-correlation consistent-polarized valence triple zeta Gaussian basis set. The PES presents two minima located at linear geometries. Then, the PES was averaged over the ground vibrational wave function of the SH- molecule and the resulting two-dimensional PES was incorporated into exact quantum mechanical close coupling calculations to study the collisional excitation of SH- by He. We have computed inelastic cross sections among the 11 first rotational levels of SH- for energies up to 2500 cm-1. (De-)excitation rate coefficients were deduced for temperatures ranging from 1 to 300 K by thermally averaging the cross sections. We also performed calculations using the new PES for a fixed internuclear SH- distance. Both sets of results were found to be in reasonable agreement despite differences existing at low temperatures confirming that accurate predictions require the consideration of all internal degrees of freedom in the case of molecular hydrides. The rate coefficients presented here may be useful in interpreting future experimental work on the SH- negative ion colliding with He as those recently done for the OH--He collisional system as well as for possible astrophysical applications in case SH- would be detected in the interstellar medium.

  9. ECUT (Energy Conversion and Utilization Technologies) program: Biocatalysis project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baresi, Larry

    1989-03-01

    The Annual Report presents the fiscal year (FY) 1988 research activities and accomplishments, for the Biocatalysis Project of the U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Conversion and Utilization Technologies (ECUT) Division. The ECUT Biocatalysis Project is managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology. The Biocatalysis Project is a mission-oriented, applied research and exploratory development activity directed toward resolution of the major generic technical barriers that impede the development of biologically catalyzed commercial chemical production. The approach toward achieving project objectives involves an integrated participation of universities, industrial companies and government research laboratories. The Project's technical activities were organized into three work elements: (1) The Molecular Modeling and Applied Genetics work element includes research on modeling of biological systems, developing rigorous methods for the prediction of three-dimensional (tertiary) protein structure from the amino acid sequence (primary structure) for designing new biocatalysis, defining kinetic models of biocatalyst reactivity, and developing genetically engineered solutions to the generic technical barriers that preclude widespread application of biocatalysis. (2) The Bioprocess Engineering work element supports efforts in novel bioreactor concepts that are likely to lead to substantially higher levels of reactor productivity, product yields and lower separation energetics. Results of work within this work element will be used to establish the technical feasibility of critical bioprocess monitoring and control subsystems. (3) The Bioprocess Design and Assessment work element attempts to develop procedures (via user-friendly computer software) for assessing the energy-economics of biocatalyzed chemical production processes, and initiation of technology transfer for advanced bioprocesses.

  10. Combining total energy and energy industrial center concepts to increase utilization efficiency of geothermal energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, B. P.

    1974-01-01

    Integrating energy production and energy consumption to produce a total energy system within an energy industrial center which would result in more power production from a given energy source and less pollution of the environment is discussed. Strong governmental support would be required for the crash drilling program necessary to implement these concepts. Cooperation among the federal agencies, power producers, and private industry would be essential in avoiding redundant and fruitless projects, and in exploiting most efficiently our geothermal resources.

  11. Local sharing of cogeneration energy through individually prioritized controls for increased on-site energy utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirvonen, Janne; Kayo, Genku; Hasan, Ala; Sirén, Kai

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Sharing of surplus heat and electricity produced by CHP plants in different types of buildings. • Individually prioritized control of CHP plants with direct local sharing and minimal storage capacity. • Energy sharing reduced primary energy consumption by 1–9% with biogas. • Excess energy minimized by thermal tracking. - Abstract: All over the world, including Japan, there are targets to decrease building energy consumption and increase renewable energy utilization. Combined heat and power (CHP) plants increase energy efficiency and are becoming popular in Japan. CHP plants produce both heat and power simultaneously, but there is not always a need for both. A cluster of several different buildings can increase total efficiency and reduce primary energy (PE) consumption by sharing excess heat and electricity between neighboring buildings. If the generated energy comes from renewable sources, energy sharing makes it easier to reach the net zero energy balance. By adjusting CHP sizes and operation patterns, the wasted heat and primary energy consumption can be minimized. Energy sharing has been explored in situations with identical buildings and centrally administered energy systems before, but not with different building types with separate systems. In this study, a cluster of Japanese office and residential buildings were combined to allow heat and electricity sharing based on cogeneration, using individually prioritized control (IPC) systems. TRNSYS simulation was used to match energy generation with pregenerated demand profiles. Absorption cooling was utilized to increase the benefits of local heat generation. Different CHP operation modes and plant sizes were tested. The benefit of surplus energy sharing depends on the CHP capacities and the fuel type. When using biogas, larger CHP plants provided lower total primary energy consumption, in the most extreme case lowering it by 71%, compared to the conventional case. Using natural gas

  12. Experimental characterization of a prototype secondary spectrometer for vertically scattering multiple energy analysis at cold-neutron triple axis spectrometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft-Petersen, Rasmus; Groitl, Felix; Kure, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    A thorough experimental characterization of a multiplexing backend with multiple energy analysis on a cold-neutron triple axis spectrometer (cTAS) is presented. The prototype employs two angular segments (2 theta-segments) each containing five vertically scattering analyzers (energy channels...... to the energy resolution of a standard cTAS. The dispersion relation of the antiferromagnetic excitations in MnF2 has been mapped out by performing constant energy transfer maps. These results show that the tested setup is virtually spurion free. In addition, focusing effects due to (mis...

  13. Increase energy efficiency in the cold production; Steigerung der Energieeffizienz in der Kaelteerzeugung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paatzsch, Rene [Institut fuer Luft- und Kaeltetechnik gGmbH, Dresden (Germany). Hauptbereich Kaelte- und Waermepumpentechnik; Berg, Hans-Peter [Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH und Co. KG, Ingelheim (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    According to a study by ILK Dresden the cold production in the field of pharmaceutical manufacturing at Boehringer has been adjusted. By installing a turbo chiller and the sliding control of the cooling water temperature depending on the wet bulb temperature the COP of the cold production was improved of 3.1 to 4.5 currently. (orig.)

  14. The role of nuclear energy in reducing the environmental impact of China's energy utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Zongxin; Sun, Yuliang

    1998-01-01

    It is presented in this paper the current status of China's energy market and the projections of its future development. China's energy market, currently and in the next decades, is mainly characterized by rapidly increasing demand and dominant role of coal which is directly related to serious environmental pollution. The role of nuclear energy utilization in improving the primary energy infrastructure is addressed. Status and development of nuclear power generation are described. Potential of introducing nuclear energy into heat market is discussed. An overview of the research and development work of water cooled low temperature heating reactors and gas-cooled high temperature gas cooled reactors in China is given and the technical and safety features of these two reactor types are briefly described. (author)

  15. The big experimental manual of Free Energy. Cold Fusion - Tesla-Waves - Space-Quantum-Energy - a.o.; Das grosse Freie Energie Experimentier-Handbuch. Kalte Fusion - Tesla-Wellen - Raum-Quanten-Energie - u.v.m.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lay, P.; Chmela, H.; Wiedergut, W.

    2004-07-01

    The main topics of the lectures are: Experiments on cold fusion; Information on space-quantum energy; phenomena of rotating magnets; advanced electrostatic motors; generation of scalar waves; complex rotating fields and levitation from an advanced view; free energy converters. (GL)

  16. Microbiological Aspects of Geothermal Energy: Influence of Microbial Activity on Scaling and Clogging in a Cold Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerm, Stephanie; Alawi, Mashal; Miethling-Graff, Rona; Vieth, Andrea; Seibt, Andrea; Wolfgramm, Markus; Würdemann, Hilke

    2010-05-01

    The development of strategies to substantially reduce emission of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere is one of the major challenges of the next decades. Therefore, the utilization of subsurface stored energy arouses increasing interest. Corrosion and scaling are major problems in geothermal operation which create significant maintenance and cleaning costs. In the scope of the research project AquiScreen the operational reliability of geothermal used aquifer systems was investigated under microbial, geochemical, mineralogical, and petrologic aspects (see also Alawi et al.; General Assembly EGU 2010). This presentation focuses on the investigation of a cold storage in Berlin (Reichstag building, depth 30-50 m). In order to evaluate the impact of microbial processes in the low saline aquifer (see also Vetter et al.; General Assembly EGU 2010), the microbial communities of fluid and filter samples were investigated by Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and DNA fingerprinting techniques based on PCR amplified partial 16S rRNA genes. Analyses of fluid samples revealed a bacterial community dominated by iron and sulfur oxidizing bacteria closely related to Siderooxidans lithoautotrophicus, Gallionella sp. and Thiotrix unzii. Scanning electron microscope analysis revealed iron hydroxide formation and precipitation in the filter of the top side facility and the well, corresponding to the abundance of iron oxidizing bacteria. Besides oxidizing bacteria sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) were detected as well, indicating the formation of micro-habitats with divergent redox zones. After several years of operation and routine maintenance procedures the injectivity of the injection wells and the endurance of the top side facility filters were reduced drastically due to clogging. Mechanical cleaning and a disinfection treatment with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were successful to re-establish the injectivity of the wells. The results of the microbiological investigations prove

  17. Nuclear energy development and utilization in the republic of Korea and desirable policy directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Youngku; Chang, Soon Heung

    1994-01-01

    There have been important worldwide changes in recent years that will have great influence on out future. The collapse of the former Soviet Union and East Europe and the final agreements of the Uruguay Round (UR) indicate that the world's future focus lies on economics and technology rather than ideology. Each nation is trying to strengthen its international competitiveness, and thereby maximize their national interests in this age of limitless competition. The worldwide energy consumption, especially in developing countries, is expected to increase continuously in the next century. Considering the limited resources of fossil fuels, securing a stable energy supply will be a factor of paramount importance from the viewpoint of national security. Another important problem of mankind in the 21th century is to preserve the environment of the earth, while maintaining economic growth. Recognition of the importance of the earth environment is spreading very rapidly, especially in advanced countries. Concrete approaches to preserve the earth environment are expected to be formulated in the upcoming Green Round (GR) negotiations which follow the UR. Probably the GR will demand an overall reorganization of the industrial structure. With respect to nuclear energy, the threat of nuclear weapons of the former Soviet union has significantly lessened owing to the termination of the Cold War. However, international regulations for nuclear non-proliferation are being strengthened as the countermeasure for the deterioration of management and surveillance capability of the former Soviet Union for nuclear weapons and for the increase in the possibility of nuclear weapons development in Iraq, North Korea, etc. Domestically, the Declaration of Denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula, the possibility of North Korea's disregard of the NPT, and the opposition of local people to construction of nuclear facilities have caused significant difficulties in efficient development and utilization

  18. Nuclear energy development and utilization in the republic of Korea and desirable policy directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Youngku; Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-04-15

    There have been important worldwide changes in recent years that will have great influence on out future. The collapse of the former Soviet Union and East Europe and the final agreements of the Uruguay Round (UR) indicate that the world's future focus lies on economics and technology rather than ideology. Each nation is trying to strengthen its international competitiveness, and thereby maximize their national interests in this age of limitless competition. The worldwide energy consumption, especially in developing countries, is expected to increase continuously in the next century. Considering the limited resources of fossil fuels, securing a stable energy supply will be a factor of paramount importance from the viewpoint of national security. Another important problem of mankind in the 21th century is to preserve the environment of the earth, while maintaining economic growth. Recognition of the importance of the earth environment is spreading very rapidly, especially in advanced countries. Concrete approaches to preserve the earth environment are expected to be formulated in the upcoming Green Round (GR) negotiations which follow the UR. Probably the GR will demand an overall reorganization of the industrial structure. With respect to nuclear energy, the threat of nuclear weapons of the former Soviet union has significantly lessened owing to the termination of the Cold War. However, international regulations for nuclear non-proliferation are being strengthened as the countermeasure for the deterioration of management and surveillance capability of the former Soviet Union for nuclear weapons and for the increase in the possibility of nuclear weapons development in Iraq, North Korea, etc. Domestically, the Declaration of Denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula, the possibility of North Korea's disregard of the NPT, and the opposition of local people to construction of nuclear facilities have caused significant difficulties in efficient development and utilization

  19. Sub-horizon evolution of cold dark matter perturbations through dark matter-dark energy equivalence epoch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piattella, O.F.; Martins, D.L.A.; Casarini, L.

    2014-01-01

    We consider a cosmological model of the late universe constituted by standard cold dark matter plus a dark energy component with constant equation of state w and constant effective speed of sound. By neglecting fluctuations in the dark energy component, we obtain an equation describing the evolution of sub-horizon cold dark matter perturbations through the epoch of dark matter-dark energy equality. We explore its analytic solutions and calculate an exact w-dependent correction for the dark matter growth function, logarithmic growth function and growth index parameter through the epoch considered. We test our analytic approximation with the numerical solution and find that the discrepancy is less than 1% for 0k = during the cosmic evolution up to a = 100

  20. Energy Performance of a Light Wood-Timber Structured House in the Severely Cold Region of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Zhen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to determine the energy performance of a timber structured house built in Harbin, a severely cold region of China. The research team conducted a field test on the house that lasted three months (15 January–15 April 2008. The test included the winter heating energy consumption, average indoor temperature and relative humidity, building heat storage capacity, heat transfer coefficient of the wall, total air volume of air-conditioning system, etc. The test results showed that the total heating was calculated to be 73,240.59 MJ in winter. Thermal imaging tests were carried out on the house and found no obvious thermal defects such as thermal bridges. In conclusion, the timber structured house has a good level of building energy conservation and would provide a good exemplary for green building design and construction in similar severely cold regions in the world.

  1. [Thermal energy utilization analysis and energy conservation measures of fluidized bed dryer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Liming; Zhao, Zhengsheng

    2012-07-01

    To propose measures for enhancing thermal energy utilization by analyzing drying process and operation principle of fluidized bed dryers,in order to guide optimization and upgrade of fluidized bed drying equipment. Through a systematic analysis on drying process and operation principle of fluidized beds,the energy conservation law was adopted to calculate thermal energy of dryers. The thermal energy of fluidized bed dryers is mainly used to make up for thermal consumption of water evaporation (Qw), hot air from outlet equipment (Qe), thermal consumption for heating and drying wet materials (Qm) and heat dissipation to surroundings through hot air pipelines and cyclone separators. Effective measures and major approaches to enhance thermal energy utilization of fluidized bed dryers were to reduce exhaust gas out by the loss of heat Qe, recycle dryer export air quantity of heat, preserve heat for dry towers, hot air pipes and cyclone separators, dehumidify clean air in inlets and reasonably control drying time and air temperature. Such technical parameters such air supply rate, air inlet temperature and humidity, material temperature and outlet temperature and humidity are set and controlled to effectively save energy during the drying process and reduce the production cost.

  2. Utilization of net energy analysis as a method of evaluating energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gi Won; Cho, Joo Hyun; Hah, Yung Joon

    1994-01-01

    It can be said that the upturn of Korean nuclear power program started in early 70's while future plants for the construction of new nuclear power plants virtually came to a halt in United States since the late 70's. It is projected that power plant systems from combination of nuclear and coal fired types might shift to all coal fired type in U.S., considering the current U.S. trend of construction on the new plants. However, with the depletion of natural resources, it may be desirable to understand the utilization of two competitive utility technologies in terms of invested energy. Presented in this paper is a method of comparing two energy systems in terms of energy investment and a brief result from energy economic analysis of nuclear power plant and coal fired steam power plant to illustrate the methodology. The method of comparison is Net Energy Analysis (NEA). In doing so, Input-Output Analysis (lOA) among industries and commodities is done. Using these information, net energy ratios are calculated and compared. Although NEA does not offer conclusive solution, it can be used as a screening process in decision making

  3. Building America Case Study: Retrofitting a 1960s Split-Level, Cold-Climate Home, Westport, Connecticut; Whole-House Solutions for Existing Homes, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-01

    ??National programs such as Home Performance with ENERGY STAR(R) and numerous other utility air sealing programs have brought awareness to homeowners of the benefits of energy efficiency retrofits. Yet, these programs tend to focus on the low-hanging fruit: air-sealing the thermal envelope and ductwork where accessible, switch to efficient lighting, and low-flow fixtures. At the other end of the spectrum, deep-energy retrofit programs are also being encouraged by various utilities across the country. While deep energy retrofits typically seek 50% energy savings, they are often quite costly and most applicable to gut-rehab projects. A significant potential for lowering energy usage in existing homes lies between the low hanging fruit and deep energy retrofit approaches - retrofits that save approximately 30% in energy over the existing conditions. A key is to be non-intrusive with the efficiency measures so the retrofit projects can be accomplished in occupied homes. This cold climate retrofit project involved the design and optimization of a home in Connecticut that sought to improve energy savings by at least 30% (excluding solar PV) over the existing home's performance. This report documents the successful implementation of a cost-effective solution package that achieved performance greater than 30% over the pre-retrofit - what worked, what did not, and what improvements could be made. Confirmation of successfully achieving 30% source energy savings over the pre-existing conditions was confirmed through energy modeling and comparison of the utility bills pre- and post- retrofit.

  4. High efficiency thermal energy storage system for utility applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrable, D.L.; Quade, R.N.

    1979-01-01

    A concept of coupling a high efficiency base loaded coal or nuclear power plant with a thermal energy storage scheme for efficient and low-cost intermediate and peaking power is presented. A portion of the power plant's thermal output is used directly to generate superheated steam for continuous operation of a conventional turbine-generator to product base-load power. The remaining thermal output is used on a continuous basis to heat a conventional heat transfer salt (such as the eutectic composition of KaNO 3 /NaNO 3 /NaNO 2 ), which is stored in a high-temperature reservoir [538 0 C (1000 0 F)]. During peak demand periods, the salt is circulated from the high-temperature reservoir to a low-temperature reservoir through steam generators in order to provide peaking power from a conventional steam cycle plant. The period of operation can vary, but may typically be the equivalent of about 4 to 8 full-power hours each day. The system can be tailored to meet the utilities' load demand by varying the base-load level and the period of operation of the peak-load system

  5. Report of the workshop Energy Utility and Solar Water Heater 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The title workshop was organized to increase the interest of energy utilities for the Solar Water Heater campaign by providing representatives of the utilities with information about the technical and marketing aspects of solar boilers, and to stimulate knowledge transfer between the energy utilities about the method, the possibilities and bottlenecks of solar water heater projects

  6. 24 CFR 990.185 - Utilities expense level: Incentives for energy conservation/rate reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (of the type affected by the energy conservation measure) after implementation of the energy...) Utility benchmarking. HUD will pursue benchmarking utility consumption at the project level as part of the... convene a meeting with representation of appropriate stakeholders to review utility benchmarking options...

  7. Observations and simulations of the seasonal evolution of snowpack cold content and its relation to snowmelt and the snowpack energy budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Keith S.; Kittel, Timothy G. F.; Molotch, Noah P.

    2018-05-01

    Cold content is a measure of a snowpack's energy deficit and is a linear function of snowpack mass and temperature. Positive energy fluxes into a snowpack must first satisfy the remaining energy deficit before snowmelt runoff begins, making cold content a key component of the snowpack energy budget. Nevertheless, uncertainty surrounds cold content development and its relationship to snowmelt, likely because of a lack of direct observations. This work clarifies the controls exerted by air temperature, precipitation, and negative energy fluxes on cold content development and quantifies the relationship between cold content and snowmelt timing and rate at daily to seasonal timescales. The analysis presented herein leverages a unique long-term snow pit record along with validated output from the SNOWPACK model forced with 23 water years (1991-2013) of quality controlled, infilled hourly meteorological data from an alpine and subalpine site in the Colorado Rocky Mountains. The results indicated that precipitation exerted the primary control on cold content development at our two sites with snowfall responsible for 84.4 and 73.0 % of simulated daily gains in the alpine and subalpine, respectively. A negative surface energy balance - primarily driven by sublimation and longwave radiation emission from the snowpack - during days without snowfall provided a secondary pathway for cold content development, and was responsible for the remaining 15.6 and 27.0 % of cold content additions. Non-zero cold content values were associated with reduced snowmelt rates and delayed snowmelt onset at daily to sub-seasonal timescales, while peak cold content magnitude had no significant relationship to seasonal snowmelt timing. These results suggest that the information provided by cold content observations and/or simulations is most relevant to snowmelt processes at shorter timescales, and may help water resource managers to better predict melt onset and rate.

  8. Optimal Energy Management for a Smart Grid using Resource-Aware Utility Maximization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abegaz, Brook W.; Mahajan, Satish M.; Negeri, Ebisa O.

    2016-06-01

    Heterogeneous energy prosumers are aggregated to form a smart grid based energy community managed by a central controller which could maximize their collective energy resource utilization. Using the central controller and distributed energy management systems, various mechanisms that harness the power profile of the energy community are developed for optimal, multi-objective energy management. The proposed mechanisms include resource-aware, multi-variable energy utility maximization objectives, namely: (1) maximizing the net green energy utilization, (2) maximizing the prosumers' level of comfortable, high quality power usage, and (3) maximizing the economic dispatch of energy storage units that minimize the net energy cost of the energy community. Moreover, an optimal energy management solution that combines the three objectives has been implemented by developing novel techniques of optimally flexible (un)certainty projection and appliance based pricing decomposition in an IBM ILOG CPLEX studio. A real-world, per-minute data from an energy community consisting of forty prosumers in Amsterdam, Netherlands is used. Results show that each of the proposed mechanisms yields significant increases in the aggregate energy resource utilization and welfare of prosumers as compared to traditional peak-power reduction methods. Furthermore, the multi-objective, resource-aware utility maximization approach leads to an optimal energy equilibrium and provides a sustainable energy management solution as verified by the Lagrangian method. The proposed resource-aware mechanisms could directly benefit emerging energy communities in the world to attain their energy resource utilization targets.

  9. Improved processes of light hydrocarbon separation from LNG with its cryogenic energy utilized

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Ting; Lin Wensheng; Gu Anzhong

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We propose two new light hydrocarbon separation processes utilizing LNG cold energy. → Both processes produce liquefied ethane and LPG with high ethane recovery rate. → CH 4 -riched gas from the high pressure process is compressed to final pressure. → Re-liquefied CH 4 -riched gas from the low pressure one is pumped to final pressure. → Both processes have good performance; the low pressure one is economically better. -- Abstract: Liquefied natural gas (LNG) often consists of some kinds of light hydrocarbons other than methane, such as ethane, propane and butane, which are of high additional value. By efficiently utilization of LNG cryogenic energy, these light hydrocarbons (C 2 + ) can be separated from LNG with low power consumption and LNG is gasified meanwhile. Two novel light hydrocarbon separation processes are proposed in this paper. The first process uses a demethanizer working at higher pressure (about 4.5 MPa). The methane-riched natural gas from the demethanizer can be compressed to pipeline pressure with low power consumption. The other one uses a demethanizer working at lower pressure (about 2.4 MPa). By cascade utilization of LNG cryogenic energy, the methane-riched natural gas from the demethanizer is entirely re-liquefied. Then the liquid product is pressurized to pipeline pressure by pumps instead of compressors, reducing the power consumption greatly. By both of the two processes, liquefied ethane and LPG (liquefied petroleum gas, i.e. C 3 + ) at atmosphere pressure can be obtained directly, and high ethane recovery rate can be gained. On the basis of one typical feed gas composition, the effects of the ethane content and the ethane price to the economics of the light hydrocarbon separation plants are studied, and the economics are compared for these two processes. The results show that recovering light hydrocarbons from LNG can gain great profits by both of the two processes, and from the view of economics, the

  10. Basic Research Needs for Solar Energy Utilization. Report of the Basic Energy Sciences Workshop on Solar Energy Utilization, April 18-21, 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, N. S.; Crabtree, G.; Nozik, A. J.; Wasielewski, M. R.; Alivisatos, P.; Kung, H.; Tsao, J.; Chandler, E.; Walukiewicz, W.; Spitler, M.; Ellingson, R.; Overend, R.; Mazer, J.; Gress, M.; Horwitz, J.; Ashton, C.; Herndon, B.; Shapard, L.; Nault, R. M.

    2005-04-21

    World demand for energy is projected to more than double by 2050 and to more than triple by the end of the century. Incremental improvements in existing energy networks will not be adequate to supply this demand in a sustainable way. Finding sufficient supplies of clean energy for the future is one of society?s most daunting challenges. Sunlight provides by far the largest of all carbon-neutral energy sources. More energy from sunlight strikes the Earth in one hour (4.3 ? 1020 J) than all the energy consumed on the planet in a year (4.1 ? 1020 J). We currently exploit this solar resource through solar electricity ? a $7.5 billion industry growing at a rate of 35?40% per annum ? and solar-derived fuel from biomass, which provides the primary energy source for over a billion people. Yet, in 2001, solar electricity provided less than 0.1% of the world's electricity, and solar fuel from modern (sustainable) biomass provided less than 1.5% of the world's energy. The huge gap between our present use of solar energy and its enormous undeveloped potential defines a grand challenge in energy research. Sunlight is a compelling solution to our need for clean, abundant sources of energy in the future. It is readily available, secure from geopolitical tension, and poses no threat to our environment through pollution or to our climate through greenhouse gases. This report of the Basic Energy Sciences Workshop on Solar Energy Utilization identifies the key scientific challenges and research directions that will enable efficient and economic use of the solar resource to provide a significant fraction of global primary energy by the mid 21st century. The report reflects the collective output of the workshop attendees, which included 200 scientists representing academia, national laboratories, and industry in the United States and abroad, and the U.S. Department of Energy?s Office of Basic Energy Sciences and Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

  11. Multi utility - a successful conception for energy supply companies?; Multi-Utility - Erfolgskonzept fuer Energieversorger? Zusammenwachsen der Maerkte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, C. [LBD-Beratungsgesellschaft mbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2003-06-02

    Multi-utility is seen as the most promising marketing strategy for energy companies. In the future, experts say, only the combined supply of electricity, natural gas, water, waste management and services will allow companies to grow. But are today's multi-utility-products answering the needs of the customers? The author goes further into this question and finds the answer: Multi-utility needs to be further developed. Only products from growth and competition markets can generate additional margins. (orig.) [German] Multi-Utility gilt als die Marketingstrategie fuer Energieversorger. Nur wer zukuenftig Strom, Gas, Wasser, Entsorgung und Service aus einer Hand anbietet, heisst es in der Branche, kann im Markt wachsen. Doch inwieweit entspricht das heutige Multi-Utility-Angebot wirklich dem Kundenbeduerfnis? Die Verfasserin geht dieser Frage nach und kommt zu dem Schluss: Die Multi-Utility-Palette muss weiterentwickelt werden. Nur mit Produkten aus Wachstums- und Wettbewerbsmaerkten kann zusaetzliche Marge generiert werden. (orig.)

  12. Impact Analysis of Window-Wall Ratio on Heating and Cooling Energy Consumption of Residential Buildings in Hot Summer and Cold Winter Zone in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaoxia Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the optimal window-wall ratio and the proper glazing type in different air conditioning system operation modes of residential buildings for each orientation in three typical cities in hot summer and cold winter zone: Chongqing, Shanghai, and Wuhan simulation models were built and analyzed using Designer’s Simulation Toolkit (DeST. The study analyzed the variation of annual heating energy demand, annual cooling energy demand, and the annual total energy consumption in different conditions, including different orientations, patterns of utilization of air conditioning system, window-wall ratio, and types of windows. The results show that the total energy consumption increased when the window-wall ratio is also increased. It appears more obvious when the window orientation is east or west. Furthermore, in terms of energy efficiency, low-emissivity (Low-E glass performs better than hollow glass. From this study, it can be concluded that the influence and sensitivity of window-wall ratio on the total energy consumption are related to the operation mode of air conditioning system, the orientation of outside window, and the glazing types of window. The influence of the factors can be regarded as reference mode for the window-wall ratio when designing residential buildings.

  13. The Cold War legacy of regulatory risk analysis: The Atomic Energy Commission and radiation safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Joseph B.

    From its inception in 1946 the Atomic Energy Commission pioneered the use of risk analysis as a mode of regulatory rationality and political rhetoric, yet historical treatments of risk analysis nearly always overlook the important role it played in the administration of atomic energy during the early Cold War. How this absence from history has been achieved and why it characterizes most historical accounts are the subjects of Chapter II. From there, this study goes on to develop the thesis that the advent of the atomic bomb was a world-shattering event that forced the Truman administration to choose between two novel alternatives: (1) movement towards global governance based initially on cooperative control of atomic energy or (2) unsparing pursuit of nuclear superiority. I refer to these as nuclear internationalism and nuclear nationalism, respectively. Each defined a social risk hierarchy. With the triumph of nuclear nationalism, nuclear annihilation was designated the greatest risk and a strong nuclear defense the primary means of prevention. The AEC's mission in the 1950s consisted of the rapid development of a nuclear arsenal, continual improvements in weapons technologies, and the promotion of nuclear power. The agency developed a risk-based regulatory framework through its dominant position within the National Committee on Radiation Protection. It embraced a technocratic model of risk analysis whose articulation and application it controlled, largely in secret. It used this to undergird a public rhetoric of reassurance and risk minimization. In practice, safety officials adjusted exposure levels within often wide parameters and with considerable fluidity in order to prevent safety concerns from interfering with operations. Secrecy, the political climate of the time, and a lack of accountability enabled the agency to meld technical assessments with social value judgments in a manner reflective of nuclear nationalism's risk hierarchy. In the late fifties

  14. Nano crystalline high energy milled 5083 Al powder deposited using cold spray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rokni, M.R., E-mail: mohammadreza.rokni@mines.sdsmt.edu [Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, Advanced Materials Processing Center, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology (SDSM and T), SD (United States); Widener, C.A. [Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, Advanced Materials Processing Center, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology (SDSM and T), SD (United States); Nardi, A.T. [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Champagne, V.K. [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Electron microscopy and nanoindentation are used to investigate the relationship between microstructure and nanohardness of a non-cryomilled, nanocrystalline 5083 Al alloy powder before and after being deposited by cold spray. Microstructural investigations observed the presence of nano grains in the powder microstructure, ranging from 20 to 80 nm and with a typical grain size of 40–50 nm. It was also revealed that the nanocrystalline structure of the powder is retained after cold spraying. As a result, almost no change in nanohardness was indicated between the powder and the particles interior in the cold sprayed layer. However, hardness was substantially higher in some regions in the cold sprayed layer, which was attributed to the particle–particle interfaces or other areas with very small nano grain size. The presence of some un-joined particle remnant lines was also found in the deposition and explained through Critical Velocity Ratio (CVR) of powder particles. Although cold spray is a high deformation process, there is little evidence of dislocations within the nanograins of the cold sprayed layer. The latter observation is rationalized through intragranular dislocation slip and recovery mechanisms.

  15. Energy utilization of light and heavy weaned piglets subjected to different dietary energy levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Machado Leal Ribeiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary metabolisable energy (ME: 3.25, 3.40, 3.55, or 3.70 Mcal kg−1 and weaning weight (WW: light 4.0±0.7 kg, and heavy: 6.3±0.6 kg on productive response and energy utilization of weaned piglets. Sixty-four male piglets were housed in 32 metabolic cages (two animals per cage during the first 14 d postweaning. At day 15, only one animal per cage was kept until day 28. Body composition, energy, and nutrient deposition rates and energy utilization efficiency were measured through a comparative slaughter procedure. Piglets with light WW had a poorer feed conversion ratio and lower weight gain and feed intake when expressed per live weight. Increased ME led to greater daily fat deposition in the empty bodies (defined as weighted mean of the carcass + organs + blood, no intestinal content, while light WW piglets had a reduced protein deposition. Light WW piglets increased heat production with increased ME, but no effect was seen for the heavy WW piglets. By contrast, heavy WW piglets increased empty body gross energy as ME increased, while no influence was observed on light WW piglets. Increasing dietary energy levels did not contribute to the subsequent growth performance of piglets that were lighter at weaning. The lack of interaction between weaning weight and dietary ME content on growth performance does not support the hypothesis that light piglets at weaning do not exhibit compensatory growth because of limitations in energy intake.

  16. Performance Analysis of Cold Energy Recovery from CO2 Injection in Ship-Based Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwalong You

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbon capture and storage (CCS technology is one of the practical solutions for mitigating the effects of global warming. When captured CO2 is injected into storage sites, the CO2 is subjected to a heating process. In a conventional CO2 injection system, CO2 cold energy is wasted during this heating process. This study proposes a new CO2 injection system that takes advantage of the cold energy using the Rankine cycle. The study compared the conventional system with the new CO2 injection system in terms of specific net power consumption, exergy efficiency, and life-cycle cost (LCC to estimate the economic effects. The results showed that the new system reduced specific net power consumption and yielded higher exergy efficiency. The LCC of the new system was more economical. Several cases were examined corresponding to different conditions, specifically, discharge pressure and seawater temperature. This information may affect decision-making when CCS projects are implemented.

  17. Utilization of microwave energy for decontamination of oil polluted soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iordache, Daniela; Niculae, Dumitru; Francisc, Ioan Hathazi

    2010-01-01

    Soil oil (petroleum) product pollution represents a great environmental threat as it may contaminate the neighboring soils and surface and underground water. Liquid fuel contamination may occur anywhere during oil (petroleum) product transportation, storing, handling and utilization. The polluted soil recovery represents a complex process due to the wide range of physical, chemical and biological properties of soils which should be analyzed in connection with the study of the contaminated soil behavior under the microwave field action. The soil, like any other non-metallic material, can be heated through microwave energy absorption due to the dielectric losses, expressed by its dielectric complex constant. Oil polluted soil behaves differently in a microwave field depending on the nature, structure and amount of the polluting fuel. Decontamination is performed through volatilization and retrieval of organic contaminant volatile components. After decontamination only a soil fixed residue remains, which cannot penetrate the underground anymore. In carrying out the soil recovery process by means of this technology we should also consider the soil characteristics such as: the soil type, temperature, moisture.The first part of the paper presents the theoretical aspects relating to the behavior of the polluted soil samples in the microwave field, as well as their relating experimental data. The experimental data resulting from the analysis of soils with a different level of pollution point out that the degree of pollutant recovery is high, contributing to changing the initial classification of soils from the point of view of pollution. The paper graphically presents the levels of microwave generated and absorbed power in soil samples, soil temperature during experimentations, specific processing parameters in a microwave field. It also presents the constructive solution of the microwave equipment designed for the contaminated soil in situ treatment.

  18. Long-term atomic energy research, development and utilization program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This is the revised version of the last long-range program (June, 1972), and covers the measures and plans for promoting the research, development and utilization of nuclear power in some in some ten years ahead. The basic policy lines include the assurance of peaceful use of atomic energy, safety assurence and public support, independence and international cooperation and the planned implementation of nuclear research and development projects. The target scale of nuclear power development is estimated at 33 million kilowatts by fiscal 1985 and 60 million kilowatts by fiscal 1990, respectively. The improvement and standardization of light water reactors are to be further carried on till fiscal 1980 and after. Sodium-cooled reactors, which use the oxide fuel based on the mixture of plutonium and uranium, will be developed. A prototype reactor of about 300,000 kilowatt electric capacity will reach criticality in the second half of 1980's. The research and development of the advanced thermal reactors, for which plutonium and depleted uranium are used, will be encouraged. Multipurpose high-temperature gas-cooled reactors are also to be developed. The measures for establishing the nuclear fuel cycle including the procurement of natural and enriched uranium, the reprocessing of spent fuel, the use of plutonium and the treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes are described. Nuclear fusion, nuclear ships, the use of radiation, safety studies, fundamental studies and the training of scientists and technicians are stipulated, respectively. The promotion of nuclear research and development projects is explained in detail. (Okada, K.)

  19. U.S. utilities' experiences with the implementation of energy efficiency programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Courtney

    In the U.S., many electric utility companies are offering demand-side management (DSM) programs to their customers as ways to save money and energy. However, it is challenging to compare these programs between utility companies throughout the U.S. because of the variability of state energy policies. For example, some states in the U.S. have deregulated electricity markets and others do not. In addition, utility companies within a state differ depending on ownership and size. This study examines 12 utilities' experiences with DSM programs and compares the programs' annual energy savings results that the selected utilities reported to the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The 2009 EIA data suggests that DSM program effectiveness is not significantly affected by electricity market deregulation or utility ownership. However, DSM programs seem to generally be more effective when administered by utilities located in states with energy savings requirements and DSM program mandates.

  20. Can energy utilities play a role in local political energy savings programs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirckinck-Holmfeld, Kasper

    2012-01-01

    Danish municipalities are putting climate change high on the agenda with action plans and targets to cut greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. To reach these targets the municipalities need to engage citizens and the local business sector. In order to find new routes on how to engage and motivate local...... businesses to achieve GHG reductions, seven Danish municipalities (Copenhagen, Albertslund, Allerød, Ballerup, Herning, Kolding and Næstved) have joined forces in an EU LIFE project “Carbon 20”. A key element in the Carbon 20 project is to offer an energy screening free of charge for the participating...... the screening to small companies since the savings are rather limited in absolute terms. This article will focus on the appropriateness of using energy utilities (or consultants working on their behalf) in a local political context of engaging the local business sector in achieving energy savings and GHG...

  1. Effect of cold exposure on energy budget and thermogenesis during lactation in Swiss mice raising large litters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Jun Zhao

    2012-02-01

    In Swiss mice sustained energy intake (SusEI during peak lactation has been previously suggested to be constrained by the capacity of the mammary glands to produce milk, supporting the “peripheral limitation” hypothesis. Here we experimentally examined if SusEI in these mice was not only limited peripherally but also constrained by the ability to dissipate heat. Female Swiss mice were provided with additional offspring above their natural litter sizes and were maintained during lactation either in warm (23°C or cold (5°C conditions. Food intake, thermogenesis, litter size and mass, and the weight of the mammary glands were measured. No differences were observed in asymptotic food intake at peak lactation, litter mass and thermogenesis between females raising litters of different size. Cold-exposed females increased food intake and thermogenic capacity, but weaned significantly smaller and lighter litters with smaller pup sizes compared with females in warm conditions. The weight of the mammary glands did not differ between warm and cold-exposed females, but within temperatures was positively related to litter mass. These data suggested that cold exposure increased food intake, but had no effect on the capacity of the mammary glands to secret milk because they were already working maximally in the females raising larger litters. The factors causing this limit in the mammary capacity remain elusive.

  2. Dealing with the paradox of energy efficiency promotion by electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, José Luís; Martins, António Gomes; Jorge, Humberto

    2013-01-01

    Utility-based Demand-Side Management (DSM) programmes started after the oil crises of the 70's and were adopted by utilities as a standard practice. However, deregulation of the electricity industry threatened DSM. More recent concerns regarding energy dependence and environmental impact of energy use caused renewed attention on the utilities role in energy efficiency fostering. EE is presently a cross-cutting issue, influencing energy policy definition and regulatory activity worldwide. Some instruments for influencing the behaviour of electric utilities in the market are used by regulators, corresponding to both impositions and stimuli, such as defining savings targets or decoupling profits from energy sales. The paper addresses categories of regulatory instruments and refers to examples of countries and regions using these identified categories of instruments. Although some cases show voluntary involvement of utilities in EE promotion on the grounds of customer retention strategies, there is a clear prevalence of regulatory constrained markets where utilities rationally engage in energy efficiency promotion

  3. The FRISBEE tool, a software for optimising the trade-off between food quality, energy use, and global warming impact of cold chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gwanpua, S.G.; Verboven, P.; Leducq, D.; Brown, T.; Verlinden, B.E.; Bekele, E.; Aregawi, W. Evans, J.; Foster, A.; Duret, S.; Hoang, H.M.; Sluis, S. van der; Wissink, E.; Hendriksen, L.J.A.M.; Taoukis, P.; Gogou, E.; Stahl, V.; El Jabri, M.; Le Page, J.F.; Claussen, I.; Indergård, E.; Nicolai, B.M.; Alvarez, G.; Geeraerd, A.H.

    2015-01-01

    Food quality (including safety) along the cold chain, energy use and global warming impact of refrigeration systems are three key aspects in assessing cold chain sustainability. In this paper, we present the framework of a dedicated software, the FRISBEE tool, for optimising quality of refrigerated

  4. Exergoeconomic analysis of glycol cold thermal energy storage systems for building applications. Paper no. IGEC-1-155

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakan, K.; Dincer, I.; Rosen, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    An exergoeconomic analysis is reported of glycol cold thermal energy storage (CTES) systems. Exergoeconomics combines thermodynamic analysis (using both the first and second laws of thermodynamics) with principles of economics, mostly cost accounting. Exergy analysis provides more meaningful and useful information than energy analysis about the efficiency and performance of glycol CTES. The main reason is that traditional analyses are based on mass and energy balances and only external losses can be detected, while exergy analysis measures the quality of energy and includes irreversibility's that occur during any process. According to simulation results, the exergy efficiency of the glycol CTES is roughly 75% less than the energy efficiency due to irreversibility's, and the system efficiency is less than the tank efficiency. Irreversibility's for the overall system are higher than for the tank. Also, the reference ambient temperature has an effect on exergy destruction and efficiency. A 5 o C change in ambient temperature causes a 25% change in exergy efficiency. This result implies that cold energy is more efficient at higher ambient temperatures. Heat losses from the tank depend on the ambient temperature; a 5 o C increase in ambient temperature causes a heat loss increase of 6%. (author)

  5. Experimental study on comprehensive utilization of solar energy and energy balance in an integrated solar house

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Huawei; Liu, Yuting; Shen, Jinqiu; Xiang, Can; He, Sinian; Wan, Zhongmin; Jiang, Meng; Duan, Chen; Shu, Shuiming

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Active and passive solar house technology is integrated in the solar house. • Solar thermal system and solar photoelectric system are measured and analyzed. • Energy balance and energy consumption are analyzed with valuable experimental data. • “Zero energy consumption” is truly achieved with the solar supply rate of 1.19 in winter. - Abstract: An integrated solar house with numerous advanced envelops is designed and constructed to investigate the comprehensive utilization of solar energy, energy efficiency and energy balance, which combines active solar house technology with passive solar house technology including solar photovoltaic system, solar water heating system, direct-gain door and windows. Solar radiation intensity, performance of the photovoltaic system, water temperature, and indoor and outdoor temperature are measured, results of the experiments indicate that solar glass window on the south wall can maintain the average indoor temperature at 21.4 °C in the case of average outdoor temperature at 11.2 °C without any external heat supply. The output current of the solar photovoltaic system shows the same trend as solar radiation intensity. When the intensity is 619.7 W/m"2, the instantaneous generation power could reach a value of 781.9 W, cumulative capacity throughout the day achieves 4.56 kW h and photovoltaic conversion efficiency 9.8%. When the average intensity throughout a day is 358 W/m"2, the solar water heating system could help to raise the temperature of 450 L water by 30 °C with its heat collecting efficiency being 37.4%. Through the analysis of the overall energy system in the solar house, it can be derived that this solar house could achieve “zero energy consumption” in winter with the solar supply rate at 1.19.

  6. Cold chemistry with ionic partners: quantum features of HeH+(1Σ) with H(1S) at ultralow energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovino, S; Tacconi, M; Gianturco, F A

    2011-07-28

    Quantum reactive calculations are presented for an ion-atom reaction involving the HeH(+)cation and its destruction via a barrierless interaction with H atoms. The range of collision energies considered is that of a cold trap regime (around and below millikelvin) where the ionic partner could be spatially confined. Specific resonant features caused by the interplay of the strong ionic interaction with the very slow partners' dynamics are found and analyzed. Indications are also given on the consequences of the abstraction mechanism that acts for this reaction at low energies. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  7. Cold temperature blocks thyroid hormone-induced changes in lipid and energy metabolism in the liver of Lithobates catesbeianus tadpoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shunsuke; Awai, Koichiro; Ishihara, Akinori; Yamauchi, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Exposure of the American bullfrog Lithobates catesbeianus tadpoles to low temperature affects many biological processes including lipid metabolism and the thyroid hormone (TH) signaling pathway, resulting in arrest of TH-induced metamorphosis. To clarify what molecular events occur in this phenomenon, we investigated the glycerophospholipid and fatty acid (FA) compositions, the activities of mitochondrial enzymes and the transcript levels of related genes in the liver of control (26 °C) and cold-treated (4 °C) tadpoles with or without 5 nM 3,3',5-triiodothyronine (T3). Exposure to T3 decreased the tail height and polyunsaturation of FAs in the glycerophospholipids, and increased plasma glucose levels and transcript levels of primary TH-response genes including TH receptor, and some energy metabolic (cox4, srebp1 and fas) and FA chain elongase genes (elovl3 and elovl5). However, these T3-induced responses were abolished at 4 °C. Exposure to cold temperature enhanced plasma glucose, triglyceride and free FA levels, monounsaturation of FAs, mitochondrial enzymes activities (cytochrome c oxidase and carnitine palmitoyltransferase; U/g liver), with the upregulation of the genes involved in glycogenolysis (pygl), gluconeogenesis (pck1 and g6pc2), FA β-oxidation (acadl), and cholesterol uptake and synthesis (hmgcr, srebp2 and ldlr1), glycerophospholipids synthesis (pcyt1, pcyt2, pemt, and pparg), and FA monounsaturation (scd1) and chain elongation (elovl1 and elovl2). T3 had little effect on the cold-induced changes. Our study demonstrated that exposures to T3 and cold temperature exert different effects on lipid metabolism, resulting in changes in the FA composition in glycerophospholipids, and suggests that a cold-induced signal may block TH-signaling pathway around primary TH-response genes.

  8. Atomic energy policy of Japan, especially plutonium utilization policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriguchi, Y.

    1993-01-01

    The necessity of plutonium use in Japan is discussed. Basic policy regarding plutonium use and future plutonium utilization programme is described including such an aspect as management of plutonium from dismantled nuclear weapons

  9. Effects of atmospheric variability on energy utilization and conservation. [Space heating energy demand modeling; Program HEATLOAD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiter, E.R.; Johnson, G.R.; Somervell, W.L. Jr.; Sparling, E.W.; Dreiseitly, E.; Macdonald, B.C.; McGuirk, J.P.; Starr, A.M.

    1976-11-01

    Research conducted between 1 July 1975 and 31 October 1976 is reported. A ''physical-adaptive'' model of the space-conditioning demand for energy and its response to changes in weather regimes was developed. This model includes parameters pertaining to engineering factors of building construction, to weather-related factors, and to socio-economic factors. Preliminary testing of several components of the model on the city of Greeley, Colorado, yielded most encouraging results. Other components, especially those pertaining to socio-economic factors, are still under development. Expansion of model applications to different types of structures and larger regions is presently underway. A CRT-display model for energy demand within the conterminous United States also has passed preliminary tests. A major effort was expended to obtain disaggregated data on energy use from utility companies throughout the United States. The study of atmospheric variability revealed that the 22- to 26-day vacillation in the potential and kinetic energy modes of the Northern Hemisphere is related to the behavior of the planetary long-waves, and that the midwinter dip in zonal available potential energy is reflected in the development of blocking highs. Attempts to classify weather patterns over the eastern and central United States have proceeded satisfactorily to the point where testing of our method for longer time periods appears desirable.

  10. A Wind Power Plant with Thermal Energy Storage for Improving the Utilization of Wind Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of the wind energy industry is seriously restricted by grid connection issues and wind energy generation rejections introduced by the intermittent nature of wind energy sources. As a solution of these problems, a wind power system integrating with a thermal energy storage (TES system for district heating (DH is designed to make best use of the wind power in the present work. The operation and control of the system are described in detail. A one-dimensional system model of the system is developed based on a generic model library using the object-oriented language Modelica for system modeling. Validations of the main components of the TES module are conducted against experimental results and indicate that the models can be used to simulate the operation of the system. The daily performance of the integrated system is analyzed based on a seven-day operation. And the influences of system configurations on the performance of the integrated system are analyzed. The numerical results show that the integrated system can effectively improve the utilization of total wind energy under great wind power rejection.

  11. The state of energy storage in electric utility systems and its effect on renewable energy resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rau, N S

    1994-08-01

    This report describes the state of the art of electric energy storage technologies and discusses how adding intermittent renewable energy technologies (IRETs) to a utility network affects the benefits from storage dispatch. Load leveling was the mode of storage dispatch examined in the study. However, the report recommended that other modes be examined in the future for kilowatt and kilowatt-hour optimization of storage. The motivation to install storage with IRET generation can arise from two considerations: reliability and enhancement of the value of energy. Because adding storage increases cost, reliability-related storage is attractive only if the accruing benefits exceed the cost of storage installation. The study revealed that the operation of storage should not be guided by the output of the IRET but rather by system marginal costs. Consequently, in planning studies to quantify benefits, storage should not be considered as an entity belonging to the system and not as a component of IRETS. The study also indicted that because the infusion of IRET energy tends to reduce system marginal cost, the benefits from load leveling (value of energy) would be reduced. However, if a system has storage, particularly if the storage is underutilized, its dispatch can be reoriented to enhance the benefits of IRET integration.

  12. Plasma generator utilizing dielectric member for carrying microwave energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aklufi, M.E.; Brock, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a system in which electromagnetic energy is used to generate a plasma from a gas. It comprises a reaction chamber which is evacuated to less than ambient pressure and into which the gas is introduced; and a nonconductive member for carrying the electromagnetic energy and for emitting the electromagnetic energy so that a plasma is formed from the gas

  13. Theoretical potential and utilization of renewable energy in Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gul Ahmad Ludin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, renewable energy is gaining more attention than other resources for electricity generation in the world. For Afghanistan that has limited domestic production of electric power and is more dependent on the unstable imported power from neighboring countries which pave the way to raise the cost of energy and increased different technical and economic problems. The employment of renewable energy would not only contribute to the independence of energy supply but also can achieve the socio-economic benefits for the country which is trying to rebuild its energy sector with a focus on sustainable energy for its population. From a theoretical point of view, there is a considerable potential of renewable energies such as solar energy, wind power, hydropower, biomass and geothermal energy available in the country. However, despite the presence of widespread non-agricultural and non-residential lands, these resources have not been deployed efficiently. This paper assesses the theoretical potential of the aforementioned types of renewable energies in the country. The study indicates that deployment of renewable energies can not only supplement the power demand but also will create other opportunities and will enable a sustainable energy base in Afghanistan.

  14. Technology utilization and energy efficiency: Lessons learned and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, N.

    1992-01-01

    The concept of energy efficiency within the context of economic and environmental policy making is quite complex. Relatively poor economic performance ratings can weaken the validity of some energy supply systems which tend to reduce energy inputs for specific volumes of output, but don't minimize total cost per unit product; and industry is often slow to adopt new technologies, even those proven to reduce total costs. In this paper, the problems connected with growth in energy requirements in relation to product are first examined within the context of world economic performance history. Three key elements are shown to explain the differences in energy intensity and consumption typology among various countries, i.e., availability of energy sources, prices and government policies. Reference is made to the the role of recent energy prices and policies in the United States whose industrialization has been directly connected with the vast availability of some energy sources. In delineating possible future energy scenarios, the paper cites the strong influence of long term capital investment on the timing of the introduction of energy efficient technologies into industrial process schemes. It illustrates the necessity for flexibility in new energy strategies which are to take advantage the opportunities offered by a wide range of alternative energy sources now being made available through technological innovation

  15. A liquefied energy chain for transport and utilization of natural gas for power production with CO2 capture and storage - Part 2: The offshore and the onshore processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspelund, Audun; Gundersen, Truls

    2009-01-01

    A novel energy and cost effective transport chain for stranded natural gas utilized for power production with CO 2 capture and storage is developed. It includes an offshore section, a combined gas carrier, and an integrated receiving terminal. In the offshore process, natural gas (NG) is liquefied to LNG by liquid carbon dioxide (LCO 2 ) and liquid inert nitrogen (LIN), which are used as cold carriers. The offshore process is self-supported with power, hot and cold utilities and can operate with little rotating equipment and without flammable refrigerants. In the onshore process, the cryogenic exergy in LNG is used to cool and liquefy the cold carriers, which reduces the power requirement to 319 kWh/tonne LNG. Pinch and exergy analyses are used to determine thermodynamically optimized offshore and onshore processes with exergy efficiencies of 87% and 71%, respectively. There are very low emissions from the processes. The estimated specific costs for the offshore and onshore process are 8.0 and 14.6 EUR per tonne LNG, respectively, excluding energy costs. With an electricity price of 100 EUR per MWh, the specific cost of energy in the onshore process is 31.9 EUR per tonne LNG

  16. Energy and Environment Guide to Action - Chapter 7.0: Electric Utility Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focuses on the authorites that state legislatures have granted to PUCs to regulate electricity and reliability, as these authorities directly affect utilities' and customers' investments in energy efficiency, renewable energy, and CHP.

  17. Energy and Environment Guide to Action - Chapter 7: Electric Utility Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focuses on the authorites that state legislatures have granted to PUCs to regulate electricity and reliability, as these authorities directly affect utilities' and customers' investments in energy efficiency, renewable energy, and CHP.

  18. Electric utility application of wind energy conversion systems on the island of Oahu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindley, C.A.; Melton, W.C.

    1979-02-23

    This wind energy application study was performed by The Aerospace Corporation for the Wind Systems Branch of the Department of Energy. The objective was to identify integration problems for a Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS) placed into an existing conventional utility system. The integration problems included environmental, institutional and technical aspects as well as economic matters, but the emphasis was on the economics of wind energy. The Hawaiian Electric Company utility system on the island of Oahu was selected for the study because of the very real potential for wind energy on that island, and because of the simplicity afforded in analyzing that isolated utility.

  19. The status of 'cold fusion'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagel, David J.

    1998-01-01

    The questions raised by reports of nuclear reactions at low energies, so called 'cold fusion', are not yet answered to the satisfaction of many scientists. Further experimental investigations of these and related questions seems desirable, at least for scientific if not practical reasons. Properly conducted, such investigations would be indistinguishable from normal research. They would yield information germane to accepted areas of scientific inquiry and technological utility

  20. Legal-institutional arrangements facilitating offshore wind energy conversion systems (WECS) utilization. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayo, L.H.

    1977-09-01

    Concern for the continuing sufficiency of energy supplies in the U.S. has tended to direct increasing attention to unconventional sources of supply, including wind energy. Some of the more striking proposals for the utilization of wind energy relate to offshore configurations. The legal-institutional arrangements for facilitating the utilization of offshore wind energy conversion systems (WECS) are examined by positioning three program alternatives and analyzing the institutional support required for the implementation of each.

  1. Warfighter Physiological Status Monitoring (WPSM): Energy Balance and Thermal Status During a 10-Day Cold Weather U.S. Marine Corps Infantry Officer Course Field Exercise

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoyt, Reed

    2001-01-01

    ...) during a 10-day field exercise (FEX) at Quantico, VA. Question: Does intense physical activity, limited sleep, and restricted rations, combined with cold/damp weather, result in excessively negative energy balance and hypothermia? Methods...

  2. Fiscal 2000 report on result of development project of marine resources utilization system for energy conservation. Development of marine resources utilization system for energy conservation (Model demonstrative research and basic study); 2000 nendo energy shiyo gorika kaiyo shigen katsuyo system kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Energy shiyo gorika kaiyo shigen katsuyo system kaihatsu (model jissho kenkyu oyobi kiban kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-05-01

    This paper explains the development of marine resources utilization system for energy conservation. The conceptual system is designed to take a large amount of deep sea water of 100 thousand to 1 million tons a day, to utilize it from the viewpoint of energy conservation using its coldness and purity characteristics, to then discharge it to the area of the sea in minimizing the environmental effect as well as obtaining effect such as absorption of carbon dioxide gas through cultivation of phyto-plankton. In pump-up technology, a piping system attaching on sea bed or floating with one or multiple constraints is applicable at present to all sites of geographical and oceanographic conditions. In utilization technology, use of deep-sea water as cooling water at a steam power plant, for example, improves generation efficiency by one point or more. In discharge and environment-related technologies, the research revealed that the deep-sea water from 300 m below releases carbon dioxide gas at surface, while photosynthesis can absorb the gas in the process of using nutrition contained in the deep-sea water; therefore, comprehensive examination is necessary taking energy utilization effect into account. Candidate sites were selected in areas of 200 m depth and within 5 km off-shore, with the optimum system examined at each site. (NEDO)

  3. Energy economics: impacts on electric utilities' future decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, S.H.

    1983-01-01

    Despite financial and regulatory pressures that have led electric utilities to slow construction and minimize capital expenditures, Carolina Power and Light Company is proceeding with two new nuclear and two new coal facilities because it believes the commitment to expand must be made in the 1980s. The economic slowdown has given utilities a breathing period, but not enough to allow a complete stop in expansion if the utilities are to be ready for the expected economic growth of the 1990s. Financing this expansion is a slower process for regulated industries and leads to strained relations between customers and suppliers. The two can work together to promote conservation and load management, but higher rates must finance new construction to avoid a shortfall later. The costs of environmentally sound coal combustion and nuclear plant construction must both be reduced to help keep the recovery from being inflationary

  4. Implementing Workload Postponing In Cloudsim to Maximize Renewable Energy Utilization

    OpenAIRE

    Enida Sheme; Neki Frashëri

    2016-01-01

    Green datacenters has become a major research area among researchers in academy and industry. One of the recent approaches getting higher attention is supplying datacenters with renewable sources of energy, leading to cleaner and more sustainable datacenters. However, this path poses new challenges. The main problem with existing renewable energy technologies is high variability, which means high fluctuation of available energy during different time periods on a day, month or year...

  5. Environmental impacts of of energy exploitation and utilization in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adewoye, R. O.

    1999-01-01

    This is the lead paper of the conference and presented by the Permanent Secretary, Federal Ministry of the Environment. It highlights the significant role of energy in the affairs of mankind, present available energy resources and their contributions to global energy supply. The particular case of Nigeria with its high dependence on fossil fuel, whose development and usage has proved to have significant environmental consequences necessitating the development of adequate strategies for mitigating environmental impacts

  6. Heavier tax burden on energy utilities in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oostenrijk, A.J.; Van Peer, A.J.M.; Thomas, B.A.J.

    1997-01-01

    In order for the energy market to develop into a market with business economical starting points, competition and free access the Dutch Electric Power Law is revised. Part of the Energy Distribution Law (WED, abbreviated in Dutch) came into effect February 1, 1997. The WED also has far-going fiscal consequences for the energy market and people working in that market. The companies have to pay corporation taxes, are not allowed to activate goodwill and to deduct environmental investments anymore. 2 figs

  7. Cold or hot wash: Technological choices, cultural change, and their impact on clothes-washing energy use in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Jiang; Iyer, Maithili

    2007-01-01

    Usage pattern of clothes washing (and clothes washers) are strongly related to local cultural practices. Such practices have led to the development of distinctive clothes-washing technologies in the US, Europe, and Japan. In emerging markets such as China, several types of technologies often co-exist. Some use less energy but more water (the impeller type), and some use more energy but less water (the horizontal axis type). The competition between different technologies is thought to lead to better consumer choices. However, it could also lead to changes in clothes-washing habits-from cold to hot wash, and therefore to much higher energy use. This paper examines the standard development process in China to illustrate that adoption of foreign technologies and technical standards, if not carefully calibrated to the local cultural practices, could have unintended consequences for energy use and environment

  8. Thermal energy storage in the form of heat or cold with using of the PCM-based accumulation panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skovajsa Jan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the usage of thermal energy storage in the form of heat and cold with an adaptation of the special device which is composed of the thermal panels. These panels are based on the phase change materials (PCM for normal inner environment temperature in buildings. The energy for the thermal energy storage is possible to get from built-in electric heating foil or from the tube heat exchanger, which is build in the thermal panels. This technology is able to use renewable energy sources, for example, solar thermal collectors and air-to-water heat pump as a source of heat for heating of the hot water tank. In the cooling mode, there is able to use the heat pump or photovoltaics panels in combination with thermoelectric coolers for cooling.

  9. Control Methods Utilizing Energy Optimizing Schemes in Refrigeration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L.S; Thybo, C.; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2003-01-01

    The potential energy savings in refrigeration systems using energy optimal control has been proved to be substantial. This however requires an intelligent control that drives the refrigeration systems towards the energy optimal state. This paper proposes an approach for a control, which drives th...... the condenser pressure towards an optimal state. The objective of this is to present a feasible method that can be used for energy optimizing control. A simulation model of a simple refrigeration system will be used as basis for testing the control method....

  10. Environmental task for energy utilities. Reporting and supervision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    According to the Dutch Energy Distribution Law one of the tasks of energy distribution companies is to stimulate the efficient and environment-friendly use of energy. In order to be able to carry out this legal environmental task energy distribution companies can make use of a specific percentage of the energy tariff. The conditions are formulated in the so-called Environmental Action Plan (MAP, abbreviated in Dutch). The General Auditor in the Netherlands carried out an investigation into the public reporting activities of energy distribution companies with respect to the fore-mentioned legal task and supervision of the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs in 1997. It is concluded that the supervision of the Ministry shows several inadequacies and that other interested parties would benefit from an improved reporting by the energy distribution companies. The first recommendation (to improve the supervision) is adopted by the Ministry. There is disagreement between the General Auditor and the Association of Energy Distribution Companies (EnergieNed) on the second recommendation. 9 refs

  11. Cold Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH COLD STRESS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Workers who ... cold environments may be at risk of cold stress. Extreme cold weather is a dangerous situation that ...

  12. Renewable Energy Price-Stability Benefits in Utility Green Power Programs. 36 pp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cory, Karlynn S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Swezey, Blair G. [Applied Materials, Santa Clara, CA (United States)

    2008-08-01

    This paper examines utility experiences when offering the fixed-price benefits of renewable energy in green pricing programs, including the methods utilized and the impact on program participation. It focuses primarily on utility green pricing programs in states that have not undergone electric industry restructuring.

  13. Renewable Energy Price-Stability Benefits in Utility Green Power Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L. A.; Cory, K. S.; Swezey, B. G.

    2008-08-01

    This paper examines utility experiences when offering the fixed-price benefits of renewable energy in green pricing programs, including the methods utilized and the impact on program participation. It focuses primarily on utility green pricing programs in states that have not undergone electric industry restructuring.

  14. Profiles in Renewable Energy: Case Studies of Successful Utility-Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    increasingly interested in acquiring hands-on experience with renewable energy technologies in order to plan establish contracts to purchase QFs' power output at "avoided cost," or the cost that the utility state utility regulations. Utility power purchase contracts, which many projects received under the

  15. Development of a compound energy system for cold region houses using small-scale natural gas cogeneration and a gas hydrate battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obara, Shin'ya; Kikuchi, Yoshinobu; Ishikawa, Kyosuke; Kawai, Masahito; Yoshiaki, Kashiwaya

    2015-01-01

    In this study, an independent energy system for houses in cold regions was developed using a small-scale natural gas CGS (cogeneration), air-source heat pump, heat storage tank, and GHB (gas hydrate battery). Heat sources for the GHB were the ambient air and geothermal resources of the cold region. The heat cycle of CO 2 hydrate as a source of energy was also experimentally investigated. To increase the formation speed of CO 2 hydrates, a ferrous oxide–graphite system catalyst was used. The ambient air of cold regions was used as a heat source for the formation process (electric charge) of the GHB, and the heat supplied by a geothermal heat exchanger was used for the dissociation process (electric discharge). Using a geothermal heat source, fuel consumption was halved because of an increased capacity for hydrate formation in the GHB, a shortening of the charging and discharging cycle, and a decrease in the freeze rate of hydrate formation space. Furthermore, when the GHB was introduced into a cold region house, the application rate of renewable energy was 47–71% in winter. The spread of the GHB can greatly reduce fossil fuel consumption and the associated greenhouse gases released from houses in cold regions. - Highlights: • Compound energy system for cold region houses by a gas hydrate battery was proposed. • Heat sources of a gas hydrate battery are exhaust heat of the CGS and geothermal. • Drastic reduction of the fossil fuel consumption in a cold region is realized

  16. The Legal Conditions for Water Utilities Eco-Innovation as Energy Smart Water Utilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse, Ellen Margrethe

    2013-01-01

    Welfare and green growth rest havely on an appropriate supply of safe water, the provision of adequate sewage, and on energy services. These services are interdependent, as water is an integral part of electric-power generation. Energy is also an integrated part of water services, as satisfying w...

  17. Effects of the regulating energy levy and energy tariffs on the cost effectiveness of energy efficient production of heat and cold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    With respect to the title subject collective and stand-alone systems for house and office buildings were analyzed. For houses a high-efficiency boiler as reference system, and individual micro-cogeneration unit, an individual electric heat pump with a collective aquifer as heat source, an individual gas heat pump with outside air as a heat source, a collective cogeneration system, and a collective energy plant with cogeneration and an electric heat pump. For office buildings a high-efficiency boiler and a cooling machine as a reference system, an individual electric heat pump with an individual aquifer as a heat source, cold storage, collective cogeneration, and a collective energy plant with cogeneration and an electric heat pump. Also an overview is given of the changes that are taking place in the tariffs for natural gas, e.g. the use of so-called Commodity Services. Finally, the impact on prices of natural gas and electricity of the fact that the tax-free threshold of the regulating energy levy (REB, abbreviated in Dutch) will disappear is investigated. 5 refs

  18. Industrial energy utilization patterns in a developing country: a case study of selected industries in Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolde-Ghiorgis, W. (Addis Ababa Univ. (Ethiopia))

    1991-01-01

    Energy utilization patterns in three factories involved in cement production, textile manufacturing, and food processing in Ethiopia are discussed. The study uses data of energy consumption and products to obtain specific energy consumption figures for two of the factories. Results show areas of apparent energy losses and corresponding conservation possibilities. (author).

  19. The Program Administrator Cost of Saved Energy for Utility Customer-Funded Energy Efficiency Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billingsley, Megan A.; Hoffman, Ian M.; Stuart, Elizabeth; Schiller, Steven R.; Goldman, Charles A.; LaCommare, Kristina

    2014-03-19

    End-use energy efficiency is increasingly being relied upon as a resource for meeting electricity and natural gas utility system needs within the United States. There is a direct connection between the maturation of energy efficiency as a resource and the need for consistent, high-quality data and reporting of efficiency program costs and impacts. To support this effort, LBNL initiated the Cost of Saved Energy Project (CSE Project) and created a Demand-Side Management (DSM) Program Impacts Database to provide a resource for policy makers, regulators, and the efficiency industry as a whole. This study is the first technical report of the LBNL CSE Project and provides an overview of the project scope, approach, and initial findings, including: • Providing a proof of concept that the program-level cost and savings data can be collected, organized, and analyzed in a systematic fashion; • Presenting initial program, sector, and portfolio level results for the program administrator CSE for a recent time period (2009-2011); and • Encouraging state and regional entities to establish common reporting definitions and formats that would make the collection and comparison of CSE data more reliable. The LBNL DSM Program Impacts Database includes the program results reported to state regulators by more than 100 program administrators in 31 states, primarily for the years 2009–2011. In total, we have compiled cost and energy savings data on more than 1,700 programs over one or more program-years for a total of more than 4,000 program-years’ worth of data, providing a rich dataset for analyses. We use the information to report costs-per-unit of electricity and natural gas savings for utility customer-funded, end-use energy efficiency programs. The program administrator CSE values are presented at national, state, and regional levels by market sector (e.g., commercial, industrial, residential) and by program type (e.g., residential whole home programs, commercial new

  20. Optimal benefits of utilizing renewable energy technologies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With rapid population growth and increase in industrial activities, more energy is consumed, resulting in environmental pollution and economic difficulties, ttherefore, the need for utilising renewable energy resources has emerged globally and it is possible that China, India, Brazil and South Africa (CIBS) would develop ...

  1. The energy issue. Demand and potentials, utilization, risks, costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinloth, K.

    1997-01-01

    Will the demand for energy be growing or decreasing in future? How are prosperity and energy consumption linked up? How can the CO 2 reduction target announced at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro be achieved? What is the price for ''''benign'''' energy as compared to ''''malignant'''' energy? What is the future contribution to energy supplies that can be expected from renewable energy sources? What are the good and the evil aspects of nuclear energy? These are questions that will sooner or later concern us all, and in any case when it comes to paying the bill for our present squandering. The author Klaus Heinloth, a renown expert in this field, presents with this book a scientifically well-founded and unbiased analysis and source of information that may serve politicians as a basis for objective debates about the future energy policy. Provided with a generous grant by the Heraeus foundation, the author was free to pursue his studies and inquiries independent of industry and relevant associations, and collect, evaluate and analyse the required information. (orig./CB) [de

  2. Utilization of Wastes as an Alternative Energy Source for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To meet the rising demand for energy and to address environmental concerns, a conversion from conventional energy systems to renewable resources is essential. For the sustainability of human civilization, an environmentally techno – economically feasible waste treatment method is very important to treat waste. Several ...

  3. Valuable technical advice in sale of energy utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roggen, M.

    2005-01-01

    The buying and merging of energy companies is a dynamic market. Merging companies is a complex process. The expertise of the Dutch research institute for the electric power industry KEMA can be used to support potential buyers of energy companies [nl

  4. Fusion utilization projections in the United States energy economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.R.; Fillo, J.A.

    1979-11-01

    The following topics are discussed in some detail in this report: (1) applications of fusion energy, (2) fusion implementation in the US energy system, (3) reactor performance requirements, (4) technology for electric applications, and (5) technology for synthetic fuel/chemical applications

  5. assessment of household energy utilized for cooking in ikeja, lagos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EYERE

    ... of employment affects the choice of fuel used for cooking and the type preferred. ... In India, use of biomass. Nigerian Journal of ... of poverty in Nigeria which has favoured the choice of firewood energy ... The analytical tools employed for the study were descriptive ... cooking energy and the value of men or women's time.

  6. Biotechnological storage and utilization of entrapped solar energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Sumana; Schiavone, Marc; Nayak, Amiya; Bhattacharya, Sanjoy K

    2005-03-01

    Our laboratory has recently developed a device employing immobilized F0F1 adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) that allows synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from adenosine 5'-diphosphate and inorganic phosphate using solar energy. We present estimates of total solar energy received by Earth's land area and demonstrate that its efficient capture may allow conversion of solar energy and storage into bonds of biochemicals using devices harboring either immobilized ATPase or NADH dehydrogenase. Capture and storage of solar energy into biochemicals may also enable fixation of CO2 emanating from polluting units. The cofactors ATP and NADH synthesized using solar energy could be used for regeneration of acceptor D-ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate from 3-phosphoglycerate formed during CO2 fixation.

  7. Potential utilization of renewable energy sources and the related problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, I.; Selg, V.

    1996-01-01

    Estonia's most promising resource of renewable energy is the natural biomass. In 1994 the use of wood and waste wood formed about 4.9% of the primary energy supply, the available resource will provide for a much higher share of biomass in the future primary energy supply, reaching 9-14%. Along with the biomass, wind energy can be considered the largest resource. On the western and northern coast of Estonia, in particular, on the islands, over several years, the average wind speed has been 5 m/s. Based on the assumption that the wind speed exceeds 6 m/s in the area that forms ca 1.5% of the Estonian territory (the total area of Estonia is about 45,000 km 2 ) and is 5 - 6 m/s on about 15% of the total area, using 0.5 MW/km 2 for the installation density, very approximate estimates permit to state that the maximum hypothetical installed capacity could be 3750 MW. It might be useful to make use of the current maximum 50 MW, which could enable the generation of approximately 70 - 100 GW h of energy per year. Although the solar energy currently has no practical use in Estonia and the resource of hydro power is also insignificant (only ca 1% of the electricity consumption), these two resources of renewable energy hold future promise in view of the use of local resources and that of environmental protection. It is not reasonable to regard renewable energy sources as a substitute for the traditional oil shale-based power engineering in Estonia. But, to some extent, local energy demand can be covered by renewable energy sources. Thus, they can contribute to the reduction of the greenhouse gases emissions in Estonia

  8. Utilization of secondary energy - major uses in the fermentation and beverage industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, H J

    1986-01-01

    With 18,5% the fermentation and beverage industry (not including liquors, wine and champagne) has the highest share of energy consumption within the food industry. At the same time, these two branches dispose of high secondary energy potentials which remain to be exploited yet. Secondary energy utilization primarily consists in the economic cooling of wort providing for the utilization of process water (80-82/sup 0/C), utilization of air-containing or air-void water vapors from wort boiling processes for technological heating processes, utilization of refrigerator super-heat enthalpies, the use of energy, conserving high-short heaters for larger units, in particular, and utilization of flue gas enthalpies with gaseous energy sources as the most efficient ones.

  9. Assessment of the Turkish utility sector through energy and exergy analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utlu, Zafer; Hepbasli, Arif

    2007-01-01

    The present study deals with evaluating the utility sector in terms of energetic and exergetic aspects. In this regard, energy and exergy utilization efficiencies in the Turkish utility sector over a wide range of period from 1990 to 2004 are assessed in this study. Energy and exergy analyses are performed for eight power plant modes, while they are based on the actual data over the period studied. Sectoral energy and exergy analyses are conducted to study the variations of energy and exergy efficiencies for each power plants throughout the years, and overall energy and exergy efficiencies are compared for these power plants. The energy utilization efficiencies for the overall Turkish utility sector range from 32.64% to 45.69%, while the exergy utilization efficiencies vary from 32.20% to 46.81% in the analyzed years. Exergetic improvement potential for this sector are also determined to be 332 PJ in 2004. It may be concluded that the methodology used in this study is practical and useful for analyzing sectoral and subsectoral energy and exergy utilization to determine how efficient energy and exergy are used in the sector studied. It is also expected that the results of this study will be helpful in developing highly applicable and productive planning for energy policies

  10. An overview of biomass energy utilization in Vojvodina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodic, Sinisa N. [Department of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Faculty of Technology, University of Novi Sad, Bul. cara Lazara 1, 21000 Novi Sad, Vojvodina (RS); Faculty of Entrepreneurial Management, Modene 2, 21000 Novi Sad, Vojvodina (RS); Popov, Stevan D.; Dodic, Jelena M.; Rankovic, Jovana A.; Zavargo, Zoltan Z. [Department of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Faculty of Technology, University of Novi Sad, Bul. cara Lazara 1, 21000 Novi Sad, Vojvodina (RS); Golusin, Mirjana T. [Faculty of Entrepreneurial Management, Modene 2, 21000 Novi Sad, Vojvodina (RS)

    2010-01-15

    The Autonomous Province of Vojvodina is an autonomous province in Serbia. It is located in the northern part of the country, in the Pannonia plain. Vojvodina is an energy-deficient province. Energy plays a pivotal role in socio-economic development by raising the standard of living. Biomass has been used by mankind as an energy source for thousands of years. Traditional fuels like firewood, dung and crop residues currently contribute a major share in meeting the everyday energy requirements of rural and low-income urban households in Vojvodina. Contribution of the renewable energy sources in the total consumption of energy in Vojvidina is less than 1%, i.e. it amounts to 280 KWh/year. Production of biodiesel in the year 2008 was 0.07 million tons, what is for 133% higher with respect to the production in the year 2007 (0.03 million tons). In Vojvodina, as the raw materials for bioethanol production are seen primarily sugar beet, corn, wheat surpluses, potato surpluses and waste potato, as well as the raw materials intended for these purposes grown on the uncultivated soils, such as hybrid broomcorn, Jerusalem artichoke and triticale. With introduction of new technologies for cultivation and collecting of biomass production of the electrical energy could be raised to 6.4 GWh/m{sup 2} year, what, with retention of the contemporary consumption, would represent the significant 9% of the total consumption in the province. According to programme of realisation of energy strategy of Vojvodina/Serbia in the field of the renewable energy sources for to period till the year 2010 and its completion, till the year 2015, in Vojvodina could be created conditions for the employment of about 24,000 workers, i.e. 4000 employed for maintenance of the newly constructed plants, 17,000 employed on designing and manufacturing of plants and 3000 employed in auxiliary activities. (author)

  11. Information-to-free-energy conversion: Utilizing thermal fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyabe, Shoichi; Muneyuki, Eiro

    2013-01-01

    Maxwell's demon is a hypothetical creature that can convert information to free energy. A debate that has lasted for more than 100 years has revealed that the demon's operation does not contradict the laws of thermodynamics; hence, the demon can be realized physically. We briefly review the first experimental demonstration of Maxwell's demon of Szilard's engine type that converts information to free energy. We pump heat from an isothermal environment by using the information about the thermal fluctuations of a Brownian particle and increase the particle's free energy.

  12. Energy utilization in surface mining project : with case study illustration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, D.K.; De, Amitosh

    1992-01-01

    The importance of reducing energy consumption per tonne of output in the mining projects needs an innovative approach and style to change the behaviour and postures of the technical characteristics. The need for suitable energy policy can not be overlooked with the addition of new large size surface mining projects having a lot of technological development. But the immediate prescription to the problem is to pinpoint specific high energy consuming areas prefixed by thorough diagnosis and followed by deep scientific thought into it. To that extent this paper makes a primary attempt to characterise the various problems. (author). 7 tabs

  13. Cold reservoir integrated into a brine circuit of energy roofing, coupled to a heat pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, M.

    1983-12-01

    Model studies are presented in which the economic effects of a cold reservoir integrated in a heat pump system were established. Cold reservoirs have the following advantages: 1. The absolute annual savings increase with the storage volume. Storage volumes of 1 to 10 m/sup 3/ are economical, depending on the mode of operation. 2. If the storage volume is sufficiently large, the heat pump (operated in a bivalent, parallel system) can supply a considerable amount of the required even below the design temperature. 3. With a sufficiently large storage volume, the heat pump may be operated in more or less monovalent mode even if the heat pump has not been designed for a minimum ambient temperature.

  14. Utilization of Wastes as an Alternative Energy Source for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBI

    2013-04-19

    Apr 19, 2013 ... converting solid waste to energy source, ranging from very simple systems of ... defined by modern systems of waste management, notably: -. Municipal Waste; Household Waste,. Commercial Waste and Demolition Waste.

  15. Energy efficient scheme for cognitive radios utilizing soft sensing

    KAUST Repository

    Alabbasi, Abdulrahman

    2014-04-06

    In this paper we propose an energy efficient cognitive radio system. Our design considers an underlaying resource allocation combined with soft sensing information to achieve a sub-optimum energy efficient system. The sub-optimality is achieved by optimizing over a channel inversion power policy instead of considering a water-filling power policy. We consider an Energy per Goodbit (EPG) metric to express the energy efficient objective function of the system and as an evaluation metric to our system performance. Since our optimization problem is not a known convex problem, we prove its convexity to guarantee its feasibility. We evaluate the proposed scheme comparing to a benchmark system through both analytical and numerical results.

  16. Utilization of geothermal energy for drying fish products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arason, S.; Arnason, H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper is about industrial uses of geothermal energy for drying of fish products. Drying is an ancient method for preservation of foods, the main purpose of which is to increase the preservation time. For drying, an external source of energy is needed to extract water. In this paper an emphasis is placed on drying fish and associated processes, and how geothermal energy can be used to substitute oil or electricity. The Icelandic Fisheries Laboratories have been experimenting with different methods of drying, and several drying stations have been designed for indoor drying of fish products. Today there are more than a dozen companies in this country which are drying fish indoors using for that purpose electricity and/or geothermal energy. Further possibilities are available when fish processing plants are located in geothermal areas

  17. Energy efficient scheme for cognitive radios utilizing soft sensing

    KAUST Repository

    Alabbasi, AbdulRahman; Rezki, Zouheir; Shihada, Basem

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we propose an energy efficient cognitive radio system. Our design considers an underlaying resource allocation combined with soft sensing information to achieve a sub-optimum energy efficient system. The sub-optimality is achieved by optimizing over a channel inversion power policy instead of considering a water-filling power policy. We consider an Energy per Goodbit (EPG) metric to express the energy efficient objective function of the system and as an evaluation metric to our system performance. Since our optimization problem is not a known convex problem, we prove its convexity to guarantee its feasibility. We evaluate the proposed scheme comparing to a benchmark system through both analytical and numerical results.

  18. Environmental accounting and reporting of energy utility companies. Research notes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiskanen, E.; Heininen, M.; Heurlin, E.; Lovio, R.; Paenkaelaeinen, M.

    1997-09-01

    The research note consists of articles written by a number of authors. The aim of the articles is to describe general development trends of environmental accounting and reporting from the point of view of the energy sector

  19. Utilization of HTGR on active carbon recycling energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Yukitaka, E-mail: yukitaka@nr.titech.ac.jp

    2014-05-01

    A new energy transformation concept based on carbon recycling, called as active carbon recycling energy system, ACRES, was proposed for a zero carbon dioxide emission process. The ACRES is driven availably by carbon dioxide free primary energy. High temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) is a candidate of the energy sources for ACRES. A smart ironmaking system with ACRES (iACRES) is one of application examples. The contribution of HTGR on iACRES was discussed thermodynamically in this study. A carbon material is re-used cyclically as energy carrier media in ACRES. Carbon monoxide (CO) had higher energy densities than hydrogen and was compatible with conventional process. Thus, CO was suitable recycling media for ACRES. Efficient regeneration of CO was a key technology for ACRES. A combined system of hydrogen production by water electrolysis and CO{sub 2} hydrogen reduction was candidate. CO{sub 2} direct electrolysis was also one of the candidates. HTGR was appropriate heat source for both water and CO{sub 2} electrolysises, and CO{sub 2} hydrogen reduction. Thermodynamic energy balances were calculated for both systems with HTGR for an ironmaking system. The direct system showed relatively advantage to the combined system in the stand point of enthalpy efficiency and simplicity of the process. One or two plants of HTGR are corresponding with ACRES system for one unit of conventional blast furnace. The proposed ACRES system with HTGR was expected to form the basis of a new energy industrial process that had low CO{sub 2} emission.

  20. Inverter for interfacing advanced energy sources to a utility grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steigerwald, Robert L.

    1984-01-01

    A transistor is operated in the PWM mode such that a hlaf sine wave of current is delivered first to one-half of a distribution transformer and then the other as determined by steering thyristors operated at the fundamental sinusoidal frequency. Power to the transistor is supplied by a dc source such as a solar array and the power is converted such that a sinusoidal current is injected into a utility at near unity power factor.

  1. Methods of determining incremental energy costs for economic dispatch and inter-utility interchange in Canadian utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Hawary, M.E.; El-Hawary, F.; Mbamalu, G.A.N.

    1991-01-01

    A questionnaire was mailed to ten Canadian utilities to determine the methods the utilities use in determining the incremental cost of delivering energy at any time. The questionnaire was divided into three parts: generation, transmission and general. The generation section dealt with heat rates, fuel, operation and maintenance, startup and shutdown, and method of prioritizing and economic evaluation of interchange transactions. Transmission dealt with inclusion of transmission system incremental maintenance costs, and transmission losses determination. The general section dealt with incremental costs aspects, and various other economic considerations. A summary is presented of responses to the questionnaire

  2. Optimal urban water conservation strategies considering embedded energy: coupling end-use and utility water-energy models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escriva-Bou, A.; Lund, J. R.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Spang, E. S.; Loge, F. J.

    2014-12-01

    Although most freshwater resources are used in agriculture, a greater amount of energy is consumed per unit of water supply for urban areas. Therefore, efforts to reduce the carbon footprint of water in cities, including the energy embedded within household uses, can be an order of magnitude larger than for other water uses. This characteristic of urban water systems creates a promising opportunity to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions, particularly given rapidly growing urbanization worldwide. Based on a previous Water-Energy-CO2 emissions model for household water end uses, this research introduces a probabilistic two-stage optimization model considering technical and behavioral decision variables to obtain the most economical strategies to minimize household water and water-related energy bills given both water and energy price shocks. Results show that adoption rates to reduce energy intensive appliances increase significantly, resulting in an overall 20% growth in indoor water conservation if household dwellers include the energy cost of their water use. To analyze the consequences on a utility-scale, we develop an hourly water-energy model based on data from East Bay Municipal Utility District in California, including the residential consumption, obtaining that water end uses accounts for roughly 90% of total water-related energy, but the 10% that is managed by the utility is worth over 12 million annually. Once the entire end-use + utility model is completed, several demand-side management conservation strategies were simulated for the city of San Ramon. In this smaller water district, roughly 5% of total EBMUD water use, we found that the optimal household strategies can reduce total GHG emissions by 4% and utility's energy cost over 70,000/yr. Especially interesting from the utility perspective could be the "smoothing" of water use peaks by avoiding daytime irrigation that among other benefits might reduce utility energy costs by 0.5% according to our

  3. Financial Analysis of Incentive Mechanisms to Promote Energy Efficiency: Case Study of a Prototypical Southwest Utility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappers, Peter; Goldman, Charles; Chait, Michele; Edgar, George; Schlegel, Jeff; Shirley, Wayne

    2009-03-04

    Many state regulatory commissions and policymakers want utilities to aggressively pursue energy efficiency as a strategy to mitigate demand and energy growth, diversify the resource mix, and provide an alternative to building new, costly generation. However, as the National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency (NAPEE 2007) points out, many utilities continue to shy away from aggressively expanding their energy efficiency efforts when their shareholder's fundamental financial interests are placed at risk by doing so. Thus, there is increased interest in developing effective ratemaking and policy approaches that address utility disincentives to pursue energy efficiency or lack of incentives for more aggressive energy efficiency efforts. New regulatory initiatives to promote increased utility energy efficiency efforts also affect the interests of consumers. Ratepayers and their advocates are concerned with issues of fairness, impacts on rates, and total consumer costs. From the perspective of energy efficiency advocates, the quid pro quo for utility shareholder incentives is the obligation to acquire all, or nearly all, achievable cost-effective energy efficiency. A key issue for state regulators and policymakers is how to maximize the cost-effective energy efficiency savings attained while achieving an equitable sharing of benefits, costs and risks among the various stakeholders. In this study, we modeled a prototypical vertically-integrated electric investor-owned utility in the southwestern US that is considering implementing several energy efficiency portfolios. We analyze the impact of these energy efficiency portfolios on utility shareholders and ratepayers as well as the incremental effect on each party when lost fixed cost recovery and/or utility shareholder incentive mechanisms are implemented. A primary goal of our quantitative modeling is to provide regulators and policymakers with an analytic framework and tools that assess the financial impacts of

  4. Trends and prospects for the energy industry and electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bupp, I.C. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Dr. Bupp notes that income redistribution is the major issue in the energy problem, with energy producers the current winners and consumers the big losers as money in the US flows from the northeast to the south and southwest. Also, the relative political success of allocating gas and oil income is offset by disappointment in the synthetic-fuels, nuclear, and fossil-fuels industries. He feels that some compromise is needed between the free-market advocates and the regulators so that cooperation between the private and public sectors can replace the current stalemate that is creating unacceptable financial burdens. Finally, he observes that serious thought and planning is particularly called for to overcome the inertia in nuclear power policy and to reorder energy budget priorities

  5. Choice of Locations for Wind Energy Utilization With GIS Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štefan Kuzevič

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Using of renewable energy sources, among which we can classify, wind energy, meet the requirements of environmental acceptable. The renewable energy sources have significant role in meeting the targets of Kyoto Protocol and they have very important role in the field of local and regional development and employment. Potential builder of wind plant have to take to consideration many different factors. Power of wind is one of these factors. Wind power can be estimate from measured data at the climatologically stations and airports. Choice of potential locality is by influenced many others factor, such as quantity and parameters obstacles, elevation, accessibility location for building machines, distance from connection of high voltage, etc. For examination locality we can use the GIS tools.

  6. Future nuclear energy utilization in view of the Swiss economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuendig, M.

    1990-01-01

    The tried and proven system of dividing duties between government and business should be continued. A double 'no', preserving the legal basis for the future use of nuclear energy, should therefore be the answer to the two bills aimed against it in Switzerland. Conservation, research and substitution efforts of private industry can be rewarded by providing the necessary framework. The creation of indirect incentives should further support these efforts, without federal intervention. For this reason and with the same resoluteness, the 'energy article' has to be rejected. (author)

  7. FLYWHEEL ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEMS WITH SUPERCONDUCTING BEARINGS FOR UTILITY APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Michael Strasik; Mr. Arthur Day; Mr. Philip Johnson; Dr. John Hull

    2007-10-26

    This project’s mission was to achieve significant advances in the practical application of bulk high-temperature superconductor (HTS) materials to energy-storage systems. The ultimate product was planned as an operational prototype of a flywheel system on an HTS suspension. While the final prototype flywheel did not complete the final offsite demonstration phase of the program, invaluable lessons learned were captured on the laboratory demonstration units that will lead to the successful deployment of a future HTS-stabilized, composite-flywheel energy-storage system (FESS).

  8. FLYWHEEL ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEMS WITH SUPERCONDUCTING BEARINGS FOR UTILITY APPLICATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dr. Michael Strasik; Mr. Arthur Day; Mr. Philip Johnson; Dr. John Hull

    2007-01-01

    This project's mission was to achieve significant advances in the practical application of bulk high-temperature superconductor (HTS) materials to energy-storage systems. The ultimate product was planned as an operational prototype of a flywheel system on an HTS suspension. While the final prototype flywheel did not complete the final offsite demonstration phase of the program, invaluable lessons learned were captured on the laboratory demonstration units that will lead to the successful deployment of a future HTS-stabilized, composite-flywheel energy-storage system (FESS)

  9. How energy derivatives can add value for municipal electrical utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamplen, B.

    1998-01-01

    The challenges that municipal electric utilities (MEUs) face in the new deregulated power market in North America were discussed. This presentation also highlighted the factors that affected the risk that companies in the U.S. Mid-West were exposed to in June 1998. During that time, MEUs had to deal with financial fallouts and price spikes as a result of very high temperatures, generation outages, and transmission line relief. The focus is on price risk and credit risk and how a strong risk management team can be instrumental in avoiding price spikes like those that occurred in June 1998

  10. Utilization of efficiency potentials with coldness from industrial wast heat; Mit Kaelte aus industrieller Abwaerme Effizienz-Potenziale nutzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2013-04-15

    Increasing energy efficiency is one of the main challenges in the plastics processing industry. However, the structure and the parameters of the cooling sections of extrusion lines have been optimized only in a few cases with respect to maximum efficiency and minimal operating costs. Thus, an innovative cascaded cooling section enables not only an energy-efficient cooling, but also an improvement of the properties of the finished plastic products.

  11. Solar energy utilization by solar cells and superblack absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnet, D; Selders, M

    1975-10-31

    A review is presented of the physical principles responsible for the characteristics of solar cells, with particular reference to Si homojunction and CdS--Cu/sub 2/S thin film devices. Electric power generation from solar cells still appears uncompetitive economically except in special circumstances, but heating from solar energy using selective absorbers with low reemission is more promising.

  12. Utilization of low-energy electron accelerators in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Cheol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-02-01

    There are more than 20 electron accelerators in Korea. Most of those are installed in factories for heat-resistant cables, heat-shrinkable cables, radial tires, foams, tube/ films, curing, etc. Four low-energy electron accelerators are in operation for research purposes such as polymer modification, purification of flue gas, waste water treatment, modification of semiconductor characteristics, etc. (author)

  13. Utilization of low-energy electron accelerators in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung Cheol

    2003-01-01

    There are more than 20 electron accelerators in Korea. Most of those are installed in factories for heat-resistant cables, heat-shrinkable cables, radial tires, foams, tube/ films, curing, etc. Four low-energy electron accelerators are in operation for research purposes such as polymer modification, purification of flue gas, waste water treatment, modification of semiconductor characteristics, etc. (author)

  14. Efficient energy management measures in steel industry for economic utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurinderbir Singh Grewal

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The application of energy efficient Induction Machines (IM is explained in reference to power consumption savings. In energy efficient IM, losses for various Horse Power (HP ratings are summarized for bringing effective changes in design. Emphasis is laid on how load factor, speed & power quality affect machine’s efficiency. Replacement of conventional IM of higher power rating is done with required energy efficient Doubly Fed Induction Machine (DFIM to enhance the performance at variable speeds near rated power outputs. Results of the proposed approach will give substantial savings in energy & loss reduction. The field data of Jindal Steel Rolling Mill (JSRM at Hisar, Haryana (India is taken into consideration. This paper proposes a non-intrusive air gap torque method for efficiency estimation of in-service IMs. This approach gives results considering stray-load and friction-windage loss according to IEC standard and IEEE112-B standard. The proposed method is validated experimentally whose effectiveness is witnessed using MATLAB/SIMULINK.

  15. Geothermal Energy: Resource and Utilization. A Teaching Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Van Thanh

    The search for new energy resources as alternatives to fossil fuels have generated new interest in the heat of the earth itself. New geothermal areas with a variety of characteristics are being explored, as are new ways of extracting work from naturally heated steam and hot water. Some of this effort is discussed in this three-part module. Five…

  16. Rational energy use and the gas utility. An economic analysis of energy efficiency strategies on the space heating market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helle, C.

    1994-01-01

    Apart from the political authorities, also the supply utilities may contribute to a more widespread rational energy use. This investigtion focuses on the gas utilities, which have a wide range of options for higher energy efficiency, especially on the space heating market. These options are analyzed in the framework of the process of company straategy planning. Particular interest is taken in the product-political strategy of forward integration. (orig.) [de

  17. Making the Connection: Beneficial Collaboration Between Army Installations and Energy Utility Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    the Army should be considered. Reduced Adverse Impacts on the Environment Reduce harmful emissions and discharges from energy and fuel use. Conduct...NOTE: “Facilities” consist of cogenerators , other industrial generators, and qualifying facilities that are selling energy to industrial or...acceptable mission and environmental impacts ,6 favorable utility rates, and favor- able renewable energy credits and incentives. Fort Carson partnered

  18. Needs versus bottlenecks in utilization of wind energy in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Semery, M.M.

    1991-01-01

    The company AOI Engine Factory in Cairo, Egypt, is involved in the production of renewable energy systems. It is shown, that with respect to wind, Egypt has a good potential. However, along the river Nile wind speed is moderate (<4,4 m/s). The three main wind energy developments in Egypt are discussed. Four 100 kW machines for grid connection have been imported from Denmark. These machines have been adapted for local production and operation circumstances. After a testing period the first batch of 100 turbines is now being manufactured. For water pumping in isolated areas, a 15 kW wind generator with two submergible electric pumps have been tested. For small wind generators a considerable market exists, but a design, suitable for local production and adapted to the local wind regime, is not available yet

  19. Energy Saving Potential by Utilizing Natural Ventilation under Warm Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oropeza-Perez, Ivan; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this article is to show the potential of natural ventilation as a passive cooling method within the residential sector of countries which are located in warm conditions using Mexico as a case study. The method is proposed as performing, with a simplified ventilation model, thermal......–airflow simulations of 27 common cases of dwellings (considered as one thermal zone) based on the combination of specific features of the building design, occupancy and climate conditions. The energy saving potential is assessed then by the use of a new assessment method suitable for large-scale scenarios using...... the actual number of air-conditioned dwellings distributed among the 27 cases. Thereby, the energy saving is presented as the difference in the cooling demand of the dwelling during one year without and with natural ventilation, respectively. Results indicate that for hot-dry conditions, buildings with high...

  20. Trends in energy 2005. Utility value chain optimisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fens, T.; IJsbrandy, C.; Van Druten, A.; De Rooij, S.; Van de Rhee, R.; Rookmaaker, J.; Spaans, P.; Pulles, L.

    2005-01-01

    Trends in Energy 2005 has been written around a number of events that were observed in research that was carried out in 2004: the full market opening mid 2004, the likely unbundling of distribution networks in some form, security of supply issues, fuel mix in the generation portfolio and the associated investment strategies, the rise of intelligent metering, certificates of origin for electricity, the most likely movement towards the suppliers model ('leveranciersmodel') and finally emissions management emerging from Kyoto that is coming into force. These events have been interpreted from the perspective of the units in the energy value chain: production, trade, transmission, distribution, metering and sales, the latter is the mostly the direct contact for the end customer

  1. The Utilization of Solar Energy by Way of Hydrogen Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, E.

    1977-01-01

    It is suggested to produce hydrogen gas by photolytic splitting of water, and to feed it into a hydrogen economy. One approach to obtain good yields in photolysis consist in the application of asymmetric membranes that release the different, reactive, primary products of the photochemical reaction on opposite sides of the membranes so that a back reaction is prevented. Through this solar-chemical option a very large part of the energy needs of mankind could be covered in the long run. (author)

  2. Utilization of solar energy through photosynthesis and artificial water photolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, E.

    1976-01-01

    The plants build up organic matter with a carbon content of the order of 1011 t/year by means of photochemistry. Energy farming for the production of liquid or gaseous fuel is discussed. Yet the abiotic photolysis of water with production of hydrogen is preferable. By means of synthetic, asymmetric, photochemically active, membranes the primary products of water photolysis could be spatially separated so that their recombination is prevented.(author)

  3. Nanotechnology and clean energy: sustainable utilization and supply of critical materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fromer, Neil A., E-mail: nafromer@caltech.edu [California Institute of Technology, Resnick Sustainability Institute (United States); Diallo, Mamadou S., E-mail: diallo@wag.caltech.edu [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Graduate School of Energy, Environment, Water and Sustainability (EEWS) (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    Advances in nanoscale science and engineering suggest that many of the current problems involving the sustainable utilization and supply of critical materials in clean and renewable energy technologies could be addressed using (i) nanostructured materials with enhanced electronic, optical, magnetic and catalytic properties and (ii) nanotechnology-based separation materials and systems that can recover critical materials from non-traditional sources including mine tailings, industrial wastewater and electronic wastes with minimum environmental impact. This article discusses the utilization of nanotechnology to improve or achieve materials sustainability for energy generation, conversion and storage. We highlight recent advances and discuss opportunities of utilizing nanotechnology to address materials sustainability for clean and renewable energy technologies.

  4. Nanotechnology and clean energy: sustainable utilization and supply of critical materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fromer, Neil A.; Diallo, Mamadou S.

    2013-01-01

    Advances in nanoscale science and engineering suggest that many of the current problems involving the sustainable utilization and supply of critical materials in clean and renewable energy technologies could be addressed using (i) nanostructured materials with enhanced electronic, optical, magnetic and catalytic properties and (ii) nanotechnology-based separation materials and systems that can recover critical materials from non-traditional sources including mine tailings, industrial wastewater and electronic wastes with minimum environmental impact. This article discusses the utilization of nanotechnology to improve or achieve materials sustainability for energy generation, conversion and storage. We highlight recent advances and discuss opportunities of utilizing nanotechnology to address materials sustainability for clean and renewable energy technologies

  5. Nanotechnology and clean energy: sustainable utilization and supply of critical materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromer, Neil A.; Diallo, Mamadou S.

    2013-11-01

    Advances in nanoscale science and engineering suggest that many of the current problems involving the sustainable utilization and supply of critical materials in clean and renewable energy technologies could be addressed using (i) nanostructured materials with enhanced electronic, optical, magnetic and catalytic properties and (ii) nanotechnology-based separation materials and systems that can recover critical materials from non-traditional sources including mine tailings, industrial wastewater and electronic wastes with minimum environmental impact. This article discusses the utilization of nanotechnology to improve or achieve materials sustainability for energy generation, conversion and storage. We highlight recent advances and discuss opportunities of utilizing nanotechnology to address materials sustainability for clean and renewable energy technologies.

  6. Basis for an innovative partnership. City utilities and Swisscom sign an agreement on energy services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aeberli, O.

    1999-01-01

    The seven big Swiss city utilities (IGSS) prepare themselves jointly to the liberalised energy market. Recently, they signed with a delegation of 'Swisscom Immobilien AG' (the building management subsidiary of the largest telecommunication company in Switzerland) an agreement on energy services. This is a win-win opportunity in the long term. Swisscom interest is to find one single competent and efficient partner for the seven cities. Today the company has to make business with 600 different electric utilities for the power supply to its 2000 buildings in Switzerland. The city utilities are interested in offering new energy services [de

  7. Effects of Home Energy Management Systems on Distribution Utilities and Feeders Under Various Market Structure; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, M.; Pratt, A.; Lunacek, M.; Mittal, S.; Wu, H.; Jones, W.

    2015-06-15

    The combination of distributed energy resources (DER) and retail tariff structures to provide benefits to both utility consumers and the utilities is not well understood. To improve understanding, an Integrated Energy System Model (IESM) is being developed to simulate the physical and economic aspects of DER technologies, the buildings where they reside, and feeders servicing them. The IESM was used to simulate 20 houses with home energy management systems on a single feeder under a time-of-use (TOU) tariff to estimate economic and physical impacts on both the households and the distribution utilities. Home energy management systems (HEMS) reduce consumers’ electric bills by precooling houses in the hours before peak electricity pricing. Utilization of HEMS reduce peak loads during high price hours but shifts it to hours with off-peak and shoulder prices, resulting in a higher peak load. used to simulate 20 houses with home energy management systems on a single feeder under a time-of-use (TOU) tariff to estimate economic and physical impacts on both the households and the distribution utilities. Home energy management systems (HEMS) reduce consumers’ electric bills by precooling houses in the hours before peak electricity pricing. Utilization of HEMS reduce peak loads during high price hours but shifts it to hours with off-peak and shoulder prices, resulting in a higher peak load.

  8. The Integration of Renewable Energy Sources into Electric Power Distribution Systems, Vol. II Utility Case Assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaininger, H.W.

    1994-01-01

    Electric utility distribution system impacts associated with the integration of renewable energy sources such as photovoltaics (PV) and wind turbines (WT) are considered in this project. The impacts are expected to vary from site to site according to the following characteristics: the local solar insolation and/or wind characteristics, renewable energy source penetration level, whether battery or other energy storage systems are applied, and local utility distribution design standards and planning practices. Small, distributed renewable energy sources are connected to the utility distribution system like other, similar kW- and MW-scale equipment and loads. Residential applications are expected to be connected to single-phase 120/240-V secondaries. Larger kW-scale applications may be connected to three+phase secondaries, and larger hundred-kW and y-scale applications, such as MW-scale windfarms, or PV plants, may be connected to electric utility primary systems via customer-owned primary and secondary collection systems. In any case, the installation of small, distributed renewable energy sources is expected to have a significant impact on local utility distribution primary and secondary system economics. Small, distributed renewable energy sources installed on utility distribution systems will also produce nonsite-specific utility generation system benefits such as energy and capacity displacement benefits, in addition to the local site-specific distribution system benefits. Although generation system benefits are not site-specific, they are utility-specific, and they vary significantly among utilities in different regions. In addition, transmission system benefits, environmental benefits and other benefits may apply. These benefits also vary significantly among utilities and regions. Seven utility case studies considering PV, WT, and battery storage were conducted to identify a range of potential renewable energy source distribution system applications. The

  9. Reliability and cost/worth evaluation of generating systems utilizing wind and solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagen

    The utilization of renewable energy resources such as wind and solar energy for electric power supply has received considerable attention in recent years due to adverse environmental impacts and fuel cost escalation associated with conventional generation. At the present time, wind and/or solar energy sources are utilized to generate electric power in many applications. Wind and solar energy will become important sources for power generation in the future because of their environmental, social and economic benefits, together with public support and government incentives. The wind and sunlight are, however, unstable and variable energy sources, and behave far differently than conventional sources. Energy storage systems are, therefore, often required to smooth the fluctuating nature of the energy conversion system especially in small isolated applications. The research work presented in this thesis is focused on the development and application of reliability and economic benefits assessment associated with incorporating wind energy, solar energy and energy storage in power generating systems. A probabilistic approach using sequential Monte Carlo simulation was employed in this research and a number of analyses were conducted with regards to the adequacy and economic assessment of generation systems containing wind energy, solar energy and energy storage. The evaluation models and techniques incorporate risk index distributions and different operating strategies associated with diesel generation in small isolated systems. Deterministic and probabilistic techniques are combined in this thesis using a system well-being approach to provide useful adequacy indices for small isolated systems that include renewable energy and energy storage. The concepts presented and examples illustrated in this thesis will help power system planners and utility managers to assess the reliability and economic benefits of utilizing wind energy conversion systems, solar energy conversion

  10. Operation Strategy for a Power Grid Supplied by 100% Renewable Energy at a Cold Region in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Morel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an operation strategy for a power system supplied from 100% renewable energy generation in Kitami City, a cold region in Japan. The main goal of this work is the complete elimination of the CO2 emissions of the city while keeping the power frequency within prescribed limits. Currently, the main energy related issue in Japan is the reduction of CO2 emissions without depending on nuclear generation. Also, there is a need for the adoption of distributed generation architecture in order to permit local autonomous operation of the system by the local generation of power. As a solution, this paper proposes a strategy to eliminate CO2 emissions that considers digital simulations using past hourly meteorological data and demand for one year. Results shows that Kitami City can be supplied entirely by renewable generation, reducing its CO2 emission to zero while keeping the quality of its power grid frequency within permitted limits.

  11. Economic evaluations of fusion-based energy storage systems in an electric utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, W.G.

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility of introducing a fusion energy storage system, which consists of a fusion-fission reactor and a water-splitting process, in an electric utility was investigated. The fusion energy storage system was assumed to be run during off-peak periods in order to make use of unused, low fuel cost capacity of an electric utility. The fusion energy storage system produces both fissile fuel and hydrogen. The produced hydrogen was assumed to be transmitted through and stored in existing natural gas trunklines for later use during peak-load hours. The peaking units in the utility were assumed to burn the hydrogen. Reserve power is usually cheap on systems with heavy nuclear fission reactor installation. The system studied utilizes this cheap energy for producing expensive fuel. The thermochemical water-splitting process was employed to recover thermal energy from the fusion-fission reactor system. The cost of fusion energy storage systems as well as the value of produced fuel were calculated. In order to simulate the operations of the fusion energy storage system for a multi-year planning period, a computer program, FESUT (Fusion Energy Simulation at the University of Texas), was developed for the present study. Two year utility simulations with the fusion energy storage system were performed

  12. Generation and energy utilization of methane form industrial wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebek, M.

    2009-01-01

    At the production site of a natural ingredients manufacturer for the food industry was necessary the adjustment of the WWTP to the enlargement of the production and its complement with a pre-treatment. The core of the treatment plan tis an UASB (Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket) reactor where the wastewater is removed under anaerobic conditions. The main advantages of this treatment ar the operation stability and the high methane production. The biogas generated is cleaned before it is used during the production process as an energy resource. (Author)

  13. Progress in developing repetitive pulse systems utilizing inductive energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honig, E.M.

    1983-01-01

    High-power, fast-recovery vacuum switches were used in a new repetitive counterpulse and transfer circuit to deliver a 5-kHz pulse train with a peak power of 75 MW (at 8.6 kA) to a 1-..cap omega.. load, resulting in the first demonstration of fully controlled, high-power, high-repetition-rate operation of an inductive energy-storage and transfer system with nondestructive switches. New circuits, analytical and experimental results, and feasibility of 100-kV repetitive pulse generation are discussed. A new switching concept for railgun loads is presented.

  14. Life-cycle energy production and emissions mitigation by comprehensive biogas-digestate utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shaoqing; Chen, Bin; Song, Dan

    2012-06-01

    In the context of global energy shortages and climate change, developing biogas plants with links to agricultural system has become an important strategy for cleaner rural energy and renewable agriculture. In this study, a life-cycle energy and environmental assessment was performed for a biogas-digestate utilization system in China. The results suggest that biogas utilization (heating, illumination, and fuel) and comprehensive digestate reuse are of equal importance in the total energy production of the system, and they also play an important role in systemic greenhouse gas mitigation. Improvement can be achieved in both energy production and emissions mitigation when the ratio of the current three biogas utilization pathways is adjusted. Regarding digestate reuse, a tradeoff between energy and environmental performance can be obtained by focusing on the substitution for top-dressing, base fertilizers, and the application to seed soaking. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Public utilities with renewable energy sources. Proceedings; Stadtwerke mit Erneuerbaren Energien. Konferenzbeitraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Within the Second EUROSOLAR Conference of EUROSOLAR, the European Association for Renewable Energy (Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany) between 15th and 16th May, 2008, at the Waterworks Braunschweig (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) The municipal public utility: The paradigm shift from power distribution companies to municipal infrastructure provider (C. Jaenig); (2) Public utilities and their concepts (Z. Meszaros); (3) The BS Energy Group (U.Lehmann-Grube); (4) New ways with energy (T. Westerheide); (5) Public utilities and their concepts (R. Edzards); (6) Public utilities with renewable energy (P. Asmuth); (7) Total concept of the public utility Wolfhagen (M. Ruehl); (8) Municipal energy concepts for the expansion of the combined heat and power generation and renewable energies (J. van Bergen); (9) Storage of renewable energy (T. Blank); (10) Public utility as a confident partner of a renewable regional economy (R. Hemmers); (11) The regenerative combined cycle power plant (M. Meyr); (12) The solar power system of systaic (O. Achilles); (13) The concession contract as an instrument for restructuring (J. Schwarz); (14) EEG 2009, GasNZV and EEWaermeG: The changed legal framework as a chance for a restructured power generation (M. Altrock).

  16. Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools: Cold and Humid Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-06-01

    School districts around the country are finding that the smart energy choices can help them save money and provide healthier, more effective learning environments. By incorporating energy improvements into their construction or renovation plans,

  17. A Comparative Case Study of Electric Utility Companies’ Use of Energy Democracy in Strategic Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meaghan McKasy

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A substantial increase in distributed renewable energy resources is changing the face of the energy environment, leading to strategic communication efforts by key stakeholders. The energy democracy movement supports this transformation from fossil fuels to distributed renewable energy and aims for equitable involvement of publics in energy decision making. These tenets challenge utility company earnings as they are directly related to energy sales and infrastructure returns on investment. Proposals by electric utility companies to restructure net-metering policies as a solution to financial issues have been criticized as prohibitive to the success of renewable energy advancement. To address these disagreements, the Edison Electric Institute and a communication firm, Maslansky & Partners, created The Future of Energy: A Working Communication Guide for Discussion. This handbook provides utility companies with strategic communication guidelines to portray themselves as supportive of renewables within a dynamic energy industry. We posit that aspects of the energy democracy movement have been employed by electric utility companies, as shown through the use of the handbook, as a strategy for communicating with customers in discussions around net metering. We examine two case studies in states with recent controversial net-metering policy changes by analyzing utility company websites and press releases for the use of the communication handbook terminology. We found that, in both cases, the suggested language was used to position their companies as pro-renewable energy and their utility-scale projects as more equitable for their customers. In addition, we found differences between each company’s use of key terms from the handbook. We posit that this is due to the temporal context of each net-metering debate at the time of the handbook release. Conclusions and future directions for research in the growing area of energy democracy are discussed.

  18. Cold atoms close to surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Peter; Wildermuth, Stephan; Hofferberth, Sebastian

    2005-01-01

    Microscopic atom optical devices integrated on atom chips allow to precisely control and manipulate ultra-cold (T atoms and Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) close to surfaces. The relevant energy scale of a BEC is extremely small (down to ... be utilized as a sensor for variations of the potential energy of the atoms close to the surface. Here we describe how to use trapped atoms as a measurement device and analyze the performance and flexibility of the field sensor. We demonstrate microscopic magnetic imaging with simultaneous high spatial...

  19. Utilization of rotor kinetic energy storage for hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, John S [Oak Ridge, TN

    2011-05-03

    A power system for a motor vehicle having an internal combustion engine, the power system comprises an electric machine (12) further comprising a first excitation source (47), a permanent magnet rotor (28) and a magnetic coupling rotor (26) spaced from the permanent magnet rotor and at least one second excitation source (43), the magnetic coupling rotor (26) also including a flywheel having an inertial mass to store kinetic energy during an initial acceleration to an operating speed; and wherein the first excitation source is electrically connected to the second excitation source for power cycling such that the flywheel rotor (26) exerts torque on the permanent magnet rotor (28) to assist braking and acceleration of the permanent magnet rotor (28) and consequently, the vehicle. An axial gap machine and a radial gap machine are disclosed and methods of the invention are also disclosed.

  20. Innovative utilization of renewable energy sources to combat climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harju-Jeantly, T.; Nuortio, K.; Hotta, A.; Coda-Zabetta, E.; Palonen, J.; Kokki, S. (Foster Wheeler Energia Oy, Varkaus (Finland)), Email: kalle.nuortimo@fwfin.com, Email: arto.hotta@fwfin.com, Email: juha.palonen@fwfin.com, Email: sami.kokki@fwfin.com

    2009-07-01

    Global warming has become a difficult challenge for both legislators and technologists. The need to reduce atmospheric CO{sub 2} has resulted in several new global and local agreements (the Kyoto protocol, Bali agreement etc., EU-emission trading directive) all driving tightening environmental legislation. /1/ Foster Wheeler as a global supplier of power equipment, has taken the challenge to respond to these environmental, social and political challenges. Products such as state-of-the-art boilers and gasifiers for heat and electricity generation from biomass are offered and further developed. Generally, biomass is considered to be a clean renewable energy source. Emissions are lower when firing biomass instead of fossil fuel, and the amount of SO{sub 2} released to the atmosphere is minimal due to the low sulfur content of the fuel. Life-cycle CO{sub 2} emissions are zero. /2/ Even though biomass can locally have a fairly large contribution in energy production, it will not be a global solution alone to mitigate the climate problem. Biomass currently accounts for about 10 % of world primary energy use, two thirds of which is used for small scale cooking and heating in developing countries. Biomass production is subject to a range of sustainability constraints, such deforestation etc. Coal will remain an important source for energy also in the future. Therefore it is important to develop clean coal solutions. The first, already existing solutions is to burn coal in high efficiency large Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) boilers and cofire biomass. This way the biomass can be burned with much better efficiency than in small biomass fired plants. The co-firing of biomass in CCS (Carbon Capture and Storage) power plant will even enable a carbon negative solution for coal firing. The future solution will be CCS. A possible future solution to combat global warming and ensure sustainable power production can be large power plants fuelled by algae combined with CCS. Algae

  1. Prediction of energy balance and utilization for solar electric cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, K.; Guo, L. M.; Wang, Y. K.; Zafar, M. T.

    2017-11-01

    Solar irradiation and ambient temperature are characterized by region, season and time-domain, which directly affects the performance of solar energy based car system. In this paper, the model of solar electric cars used was based in Xi’an. Firstly, the meteorological data are modelled to simulate the change of solar irradiation and ambient temperature, and then the temperature change of solar cell is calculated using the thermal equilibrium relation. The above work is based on the driving resistance and solar cell power generation model, which is simulated under the varying radiation conditions in a day. The daily power generation and solar electric car cruise mileage can be predicted by calculating solar cell efficiency and power. The above theoretical approach and research results can be used in the future for solar electric car program design and optimization for the future developments.

  2. Utilizing HPC Network Technologies in High Energy Physics Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2088631; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Because of their performance characteristics high-performance fabrics like Infiniband or OmniPath are interesting technologies for many local area network applications, including data acquisition systems for high-energy physics experiments like the ATLAS experiment at CERN. This paper analyzes existing APIs for high-performance fabrics and evaluates their suitability for data acquisition systems in terms of performance and domain applicability. The study finds that existing software APIs for high-performance interconnects are focused on applications in high-performance computing with specific workloads and are not compatible with the requirements of data acquisition systems. To evaluate the use of high-performance interconnects in data acquisition systems a custom library, NetIO, is presented and compared against existing technologies. NetIO has a message queue-like interface which matches the ATLAS use case better than traditional HPC APIs like MPI. The architecture of NetIO is based on a interchangeable bac...

  3. History of, and recent progress in, wind-energy utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soerensen, B.

    1995-01-01

    This review presents the current status of wind turbine technology and recent advances in understanding the long history of wind energy. Reasons for the convergence of technologies solutions towards a horizontal axis concept with two or three blades are discussed, and the advances in materials science are identified as determinants of the change toward increasing optimum turbine size. The modest environmental impacts of wind turbines are illustrated by recent life-cycle analyses, and the economic incentive structure and power buy-back rates in different countries are invoked to explain the variation in wind technology penetration in countries with similar resource potentials. Finally, the possible future role of wind technology is discussed, based on resource estimates, competing land demands, government commitments and technological trends, including the recent offshore wind farm developments. 83 refs., 15 figs., 6 tabs

  4. Energy utilization under different dietary regime in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasr, M.A.H.

    1982-01-01

    The present system of ruminant nutrition in egypt depends upon the agroindustrial by - products, crop residues and limited quantities of green fodders. Any future development will come through introducing non-traditional materials in ruminant rations and through benefiting from the recent scientific developments occurred in our understanding to the ruminal and post-ruminal digestion. Four rations, were tested throughout the present investigation, these diets consisted of molasses as low-cost, readily fermentable source of energy and as a good carrier for urea, and rice straw . On this diet the supply of amino acids may not be sufficient for moderate production levels by the animals.Hence, amino acids shortage and imbalance, in such animals has had to be expected

  5. The Characteristic of Molten Heat Salt Storage System Utilizing Solar Energy Combined with Valley Electric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI .Jiu-ru

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available With the environmental pollution and energy consumption clue to the large difference between peak and valley of power grid,the molten salt heat storage system(MSHSS utilizing solar Energy combined with valley electric is presented for good energy saving and low emissions. The costs of MSHSS utilizing solar Energy combined with valley electric are greatly reduced. The law of heat transfer in molten salt heat storage technology is studied with the method of grey correlation analysis. The results show the effect of elbow sizes on surface convective heat transfer coefficient with different flow velocities.

  6. Utilization of geothermal energy in the mining and processing of tungsten ore. Quarterly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, C.K.; Erickson, M.V.; Lowe, G.D.

    1980-02-01

    The status of the engineering and economic feasibility study of utilizing geothermal energy for the mining and processing of tungsten ore at the Union Carbide-Metals Division Pine Creek tungsten complex near Bishop, Calfironia is reviewed. Results of geophysical data analysis including determination of assumed resource parameters are presented. The energy utilization evaluation identifies potential locations for substituting geothermal energy for fossil fuel energy using current technology. Preliminary analyses for local environmental and institutional barriers to development of a geothermal system are also provided.

  7. Case-study application of venture analysis: the integrated energy utility. Volume 3. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fein, E; Gordon, T J; King, R; Kropp, F G; Shuchman, H L; Stover, J; Hausz, W; Meyer, C

    1978-11-01

    The appendices for a case-study application of venture analysis for an integrated energy utility for commercialization are presented. The following are included and discussed: utility interviews; net social benefits - quantitative calculations; the financial analysis model; market penetration decision model; international district heating systems; political and regulatory environment; institutional impacts.

  8. Pumped hydroelectric storage utilization assessment: Forerunner of renewable energy integration or Trojan horse?

    OpenAIRE

    KOUGIAS IOANNIS; SZABO SANDOR

    2017-01-01

    Pumped hydroelectric storage (PHS) is the main utility-scale storage technology. Although PHS systems generally constitute a fraction of generation, they receive increasing attention due to their potential balancing role towards higher penetration of variable renewable energy sources (RES). In the European context it is widely believed that PHS are key elements of the ongoing energy transition. The present analysis examines if this assumption is valid and PHS utilization grows parallel to RES...

  9. Energy utilization associated with regular activity breaks and continuous physical activity: A randomized crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenemor, S P; Homer, A R; Perry, T L; Skeaff, C M; Peddie, M C; Rehrer, N J

    2018-06-01

    To quantify and compare energy utilization associated with prolonged sitting alone, or interrupted with regular activity breaks and/or an additional bout of continuous physical activity. Thirty six adults (11 males, BMI 24.1 ± 4.6) completed four interventions: (1) prolonged sitting (SIT), (2) sitting with 2-min of walking every 30 min (RAB), (3) prolonged sitting with 30-min of continuous walking at the end of the day (SIT + PA), (4) a combination of the activities in (2) and (3) above (RAB + PA). All walking was at a speed and incline corresponding to 60% V̇O 2max . Energy utilization over 7 h for each intervention was estimated using indirect calorimetry. Compared to SIT, SIT + PA increased total energy utilization by 709 kJ (95% CI 485-933 kJ), RAB by 863 kJ (95% CI 638-1088 kJ), and RAB + PA by 1752 kJ (95% CI 1527-1927 kJ) (all p energy utilization between SIT + PA and RAB, however, post-physical activity energy utilization in RAB was 632 kJ greater than SIT + PA (95% CI 561-704 kJ; p energy utilization compared to a single bout of continuous activity; however the total energy utilization is similar. Combining activity breaks with a longer continuous bout of activity will further enhance energy utilization, and in the longer term, may positively affect weight management of a greater magnitude than either activity pattern performed alone. ANZCTR12614000624684. Copyright © 2018 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The Utilization of Classifications in High-Energy Astrophysics Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Bill

    2012-03-01

    The history of high-energy gamma observations stretches back several decades. But it was with the launch of the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) in 1991 onboard the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) [1], that the field entered a new era of discovery. At the high-energy end of the electromagnetic spectrum, incoming particles of light, photons, interact with matter mainly by producing electron-positron pairs and this process dominates above an energy of 10-30MeV depending on the material. To a high degree the directionality of the incoming gamma ray is reflected in the e+ and e-, and hence the detection of the trajectories of the e+e- pair can be used to infer the direction of the originating photon. Measuring these high-energy charged particles is the domain of high-energy particle physics and so it should be of little surprise that particle physicists played a significant role in the design and construction of EGRET, as well as the design and implementation of analysis methods for the resulting data. Prior to EGRET, only a handful of sources in the sky were known as high-energy gamma-ray emitters. During EGRET's 9-years mission the final catalog included over 270 sources including new types such as Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs). This set the stage for the next-generation mission, the Gamma ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) [2]. Very early in the EGRET mission, the realization that the high-energy gamma-ray sky was extremely interesting led to a competition to develop the next-generation instruments. The technology used in EGRET was frozen in the late 1970s and by 1992, enormous advances had been made in experimental particle physics. In particular the effort to develop solid state detectors, targeted for use at the Super Conducting Super Collider (SSC), had made the technology of silicon strip detectors (SSDs) commercially viable for use in large area arrays. Given the limitations imposed by the space environment (e.g., operate in a vacuum, scarce

  11. Improved Windows for Cold Climates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    considerably by reducing the frame width, which results in a larger transparent area causing a larger solar gain but still main-taining a low thermal transmittance. Using three layers of glass with large gaps, using very slim frame profiles, and omitting the edge constructions that normally causes thermal...... windows with improved energy performance. Traditionally evaluation of the energy performance of windows has focused on the thermal transmittance, but as windows differ from the rest of the building envelope by allowing solar energy to enter the building, the total solar energy transmittance is equally...... important. In the heating season in cold climates the solar gain through windows can be utilized for space heating which results in a corresponding reduction in the energy production that is often based on fossil fuels. A suitable quantity for evaluating the energy performance of windows in a simple...

  12. Guide for biogas energy utilization in Hokkaido; Hokkaido bio gas energy riyo guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of smoothly introducing biogas plants to Hokkaido in the future, the following were conducted: collection of the data on samples of development/introduction of biogas plants, survey of the organizations concerned, etc., study of economical efficiency, etc. Those were arranged as a guide for biogas energy utilization in Hokkaido. In the biogas plant, organic matters such as animal faces, garbage, etc. are anaerobicly fermented at medium temperatures between 35 and 38 degrees C or at about 55 degrees C to obtain biogas including methane gas of approximately 60%. From this gas, heat is obtained by gas boiler, and also electricity and heat are obtained by gas cogeneration or fuel cells. In the case of introducing the biogas plant using animal faces as raw material in Hokkaido, it is important to cover all the electricity and heat used to maintain the plant with the biogas obtained, from a viewpoint of economical efficiency. In the present situation, it is the most economical for each farmer to introduce an individual plant to be installed and to obtain the power generated and heat. (NEDO)

  13. Geothermal energy resources of the USSR and their utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groebner, W

    1961-01-01

    In the Soviet Union, the areas with the highest geothermal gradient are found in the region of Kamchatka, in the Kuriles, and in western Turkmenia. Test drilling in Kamchatka has produced hot water at a temperature of 200/sup 0/C from a depth of 100-300 m. If a pressure of 300-400 kPa is maintained, the wells can bring the fluids to the surface as a two-phase mixture of steam and hot water. In 1961, plans were being made for the construction of a 12 MW power plant and several greenhouses. Other heat sources were being developed to heat the city of Petropavlovsk. In the northern Cauacasus, hot water is encountered only at depths greater than about 2.5 km, but the quantity available is sufficient to provide the heating needs of several major cities. In the Republic of Daghestan, test drilling has revealed hot water sources which are pressurized to 1.6 MPa, and which produce at a rate of 100 m/sup 3//h. Enormous geothermal energy resources are located in artesian reservoirs beneath western Siberia, over an extent of 3 million km/sup 2/.

  14. Studies on functional polymer films utilizing low energy electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Masayuki

    1992-01-01

    Also in adhesives and tackifiers, with the expansion of the fields of application, the required characteristics have become high grade and complex. As one of them, the instantaneous hardening of adhesives can be taken up. In the field of lamination works, the low energy type electron beam accelerators having the linear filament of accelerating voltage below 300 kV were developed in 1970s, and the interest in the development of electron beam-handened adhesives has heightend. The authors have carried out research aiming at heightening the functions of the polymer films obtained by electron beam hardening reaction, and developed the adhesives. In this report, the features of electron beam hardening reaction, the structure and properties of electron beam-hardened polymer films and the molecular design of electron beam-hardened monomer oligomers are described. The feature of electron beam hardening reaction is the cross-linking of high degree as the structure of oligomers is maintained. By controlling the structure at the time of electron beam hardening, the heightening of the functions of electron beam-hardened polymer films is feasible. (K.I.)

  15. Preparation and thermal performance of polystyrene/n-tetradecane composite nanoencapsulated cold energy storage phase change materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Yutang; Yu, Huimin; Wan, Weijun; Gao, Xuenong; Zhang, Zhengguo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Average particle size of Tet/PS nanocapsules is smaller than the same type composite. • Latent heat of Tet/PS nanocapsules is as high as the same type composite. • Freeze–thaw cycle test and centrifugal sedimentation method are employed. • Tet/PS nanocapsules can be a candidate for cold thermal energy storage. - Abstract: In this paper, a novel polystyrene/n-tetradecane composite nanoencapsulated phase change material as latent functionally thermal fluid (LFTF) for cold thermal energy storage was synthesized by ultrasonic-assistant miniemulsion in situ polymerization. The morphology, chemical structure and thermal performances of the nanoencapsulated phase change material (NEPCM) were measured by particle size analyzer, transmission electron microscope (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TG), respectively. The thermo-physical properties of the cool storage media were tested as well. The results showed that, a uniform spherical NEPCM with average diameter of 132 nm was prepared. The melting and freezing points and the latent heats of the NEPCMs was measured as 4.04 °C and −3.43 °C, 98.71 J g −1 and 91.27 J g −1 , respectively. The specific heat of its latex were determined as the maximum value of 4.822 J g −1 K −1 . The freeze–thaw cycle test indicated that the NEPCMs have good mechanical stability, and most capsules were still complete except some broken individuals from TEM images. Due to its good thermal properties and mechanical stability, the polystyrene/n-tetradecane NEPCM displays a good potential for cool energy storage

  16. Evaluation of energy efficiency of various biogas production and utilization pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poeschl, Martina; Ward, Shane; Owende, Philip

    2010-01-01

    The energy efficiency of different biogas systems, including single and co-digestion of multiple feedstock, different biogas utilization pathways, and waste-stream management strategies was evaluated. The input data were derived from assessment of existing biogas systems, present knowledge on anaerobic digestion process management and technologies for biogas system operating conditions in Germany. The energy balance was evaluated as Primary Energy Input to Output (PEIO) ratio, to assess the process energy efficiency, hence, the potential sustainability. Results indicate that the PEIO correspond to 10.5-64.0% and 34.1-55.0% for single feedstock digestion and feedstock co-digestion, respectively. Energy balance was assessed to be negative for feedstock transportation distances in excess of 22 km and 425 km for cattle manure and for Municipal Solid Waste, respectively, which defines the operational limits for respective feedstock transportation. Energy input was highly influenced by the characteristics of feedstock used. For example, agricultural waste, in most part, did not require pre-treatment. Energy crop feedstock required the respect cultivation energy inputs, and processing of industrial waste streams included energy-demanding pre-treatment processes to meet stipulated hygiene standards. Energy balance depended on biogas yield, the utilization efficiency, and energy value of intended fossil fuel substitution. For example, obtained results suggests that, whereas the upgrading of biogas to biomethane for injection into natural gas network potentially increased the primary energy input for biogas utilization by up to 100%; the energy efficiency of the biogas system improved by up to 65% when natural gas was substituted instead of electricity. It was also found that, system energy efficiency could be further enhanced by 5.1-6.1% through recovery of residual biogas from enclosed digestate storage units. Overall, this study provides bases for more detailed assessment

  17. Energy and exergy analysis at the utility and commercial sectors of Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saidur, R.; Sattar, M.A.; Masjuki, H.H.; Abdessalam, H.; Shahruan, B.S.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, sectoral energy and exergy analysis model is applied to the utility and commercial sectors of Malaysia by considering the energy and exergy flows from 1990 to 2003. The energy and exergy efficiencies are determined for the sub-sectors and devices used in these two sectors. It has been found the hydroelectric power plant sub-sector is more energy and exergy efficient compared to the thermal power plant sub-sector. The energy and exergy efficiencies of utility and commercial sectors of Malaysia are compared with a few other countries around the world as well. The utility and commercial sectors of Malaysia are found to be more efficient than that of Thailand, Brunei, China, and Vietnam in 1999

  18. Community energy systems and the law of public utilities. Volume 20. Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Louisiana governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities--Volume One: An overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One--An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enchance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  19. Balancing Cost and Risk: The Treatment of Renewable Energy in Western Utility Resource Plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2005-08-10

    Markets for renewable energy have historically been motivated primarily by policy efforts, but a less widely recognized driver is poised to also play a major role in the coming years: utility integrated resource planning (IRP). Resource planning has re-emerged in recent years as an important tool for utilities and regulators, particularly in regions where retail competition has failed to take root. In the western United States, the most recent resource plans contemplate a significant amount of renewable energy additions. These planned additions--primarily coming from wind power--are motivated by the improved economics of wind power, a growing acceptance of wind by electric utilities, and an increasing recognition of the inherent risks (e.g., natural gas price risk, environmental compliance risk) in fossil-based generation portfolios. This report examines how twelve western utilities treat renewable energy in their recent resource plans. In aggregate, these utilities supply approximately half of all electricity demand in the western United States. Our purpose is twofold: (1) to highlight the growing importance of utility IRP as a current and future driver of renewable energy, and (2) to identify methodological/modeling issues, and suggest possible improvements to methods used to evaluate renewable energy as a resource option. Here we summarize the key findings of the report, beginning with a discussion of the planned renewable energy additions called for by the twelve utilities, an overview of how these plans incorporated renewables into candidate portfolios, and a review of the specific technology cost and performance assumptions they made, primarily for wind power. We then turn to the utilities' analysis of natural gas price and environmental compliance risks, and examine how the utilities traded off portfolio cost and risk in selecting a preferred portfolio.

  20. A novel transition radiation detector utilizing superconducting microspheres for measuring the energy of relativistic high-energy charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Luke C.L.; Chen, C.P.; Huang, C.Y.; Lee, S.C.; Waysand, G.; Perrier, P.; Limagne, D.; Jeudy, V.; Girard, T.

    2000-01-01

    A novel transition radiation detector (TRD) utilizing superheated superconducting microspheres of tin of 22-26, 27-32 and 32-38 μm in diameter, respectively, has been constructed which is capable of measuring accurately the energy of relativistic high-energy charged particles. The test has been conducted in a high-energy electron beam facility at the CERN PS in the energy range of 1-10 GeV showing an energy dependence of the TR X-ray photon produced and hence the value γ=E/mc 2 of the charged particle

  1. [Energy related studies utilizing K-feldspar thermochronology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    In our second year of current funding cycle, we have investigated the Ar diffusion properties and microstructures of K-feldspars and the application of domain theory to natural K-feldspars. We completed a combined TEM and argon diffusion study of the effect of laboratory heat treatment on the microstructure and kinetic properties of K-feldspar. We conclude in companion papers that, with one minor exception, no observable change in the diffusion behavior occurs during laboratory extraction procedures until significant fusion occurs at about 1100 degrees C. The effect that is observed involves a correlation between the homogenization of cryptoperthite lamelle and the apparent increase in retentivity of about 5% of the argon in the K-feldspar under study. We can explain this effect of both as an artifact of the experiment or the loss of a diffusion boundary. Experiments are being considered to resolve this question. Refinements have been made to our experimental protocol that appears that greatly enhance the retrieval of multi-activation energies from K-feldspars. We have applied the multi-domain model to a variety of natural environments (Valles Caldera, Red River fault, Appalachian basin) with some surprising results. Detailed 40 Ar/ 39 Ar coverage of the Red River shear zone, thought to be responsible for the accommodation of a significant fraction of the Indo-Asian convergence, strongly suggests that our technique can precisely date both the termination of ductile strike-slip motion and the initiation of normal faulting. Work has continued on improving our numerical codes for calculating thermal histories and the development of computer based graphing tools has significantly increased our productivity

  2. Energy expenditure and substrate utilization during whole body vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravena Santos Raulino

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: the aim of this study was to investigate whether the addition of vibration during interval training would raise oxygen consumption VO2 to the extent necessary for weight management and to evaluate the influence of the intensity of the vibratory stimulus for prescribing the exercise program in question. METHODS: VO2, measured breath by breath, was evaluated at rest and during the four experimental conditions to determine energy expenditure, metabolic equivalent MET, respiratory exchange ratio RER, % Kcal from fat, and rate of fat oxidation. Eight young sedentary females age 22±1 years, height 163.88± 7.62 cm, body mass 58.35±10.96 kg, and VO2 max 32.75±3.55 mLO2.Kg-1.min-1 performed interval training duration = 13.3 min to the upper and lower limbs both with vibration 35 Hz and 2 mm, 40 Hz and 2 mm, 45 Hz and 2 mm and without vibration. The experimental conditions were randomized and balanced at an interval of 48 hours. RESULTS: the addition of vibration to exercise at 45 Hz and 2 mm resulted in an additional increase of 17.77±12.38% of VO2 compared with exercise without vibration. However, this increase did not change the fat oxidation rate p=0.42 because intensity of exercise 29.1±3.3 %VO2max, 2.7 MET was classified as mild to young subjects. CONCLUSION: despite the influence of vibration on VO2 during exercise, the increase was insufficient to reduce body weight and did not reach the minimum recommendation of exercise prescription for weight management for the studied population.

  3. Utilize Cementitious High Carbon Fly Ash (CHCFA) to Stabilize Cold In-Place Recycled (CIR) Asphalt Pavement as Base Coarse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Haifang; Li, Xiaojun; Edil, Tuncer; O' Donnell, Jonathan; Danda, Swapna

    2011-02-05

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of cementitious high carbon fly ash (CHCFA) stabilized recycled asphalt pavement as a base course material in a real world setting. Three test road cells were built at MnROAD facility in Minnesota. These cells have the same asphalt surface layers, subbases, and subgrades, but three different base courses: conventional crushed aggregates, untreated recycled pavement materials (RPM), and CHCFA stabilized RPM materials. During and after the construction of the three cells, laboratory and field tests were carried out to characterize the material properties. The test results were used in the mechanistic-empirical pavement design guide (MEPDG) to predict the pavement performance. Based on the performance prediction, the life cycle analyses of cost, energy consumption, and greenhouse gasses were performed. The leaching impacts of these three types of base materials were compared. The laboratory and field tests showed that fly ash stabilized RPM had higher modulus than crushed aggregate and RPM did. Based on the MEPDG performance prediction, the service life of the Cell 79 containing fly ash stabilized RPM, is 23.5 years, which is about twice the service life (11 years) of the Cell 77 with RPM base, and about three times the service life (7.5 years) of the Cell 78 with crushed aggregate base. The life cycle analysis indicated that the usage of the fly ash stabilized RPM as the base of the flexible pavement can significantly reduce the life cycle cost, the energy consumption, the greenhouse gases emission. Concentrations of many trace elements, particularly those with relatively low water quality standards, diminish over time as water flows through the pavement profile. For many elements, concentrations below US water drinking water quality standards are attained at the bottom of the pavement profile within 2-4 pore volumes of flow.

  4. Basic plan of the development and utilization of atomic energy in 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The Nuclear Safety Commission reported to the prime minister on March 28, 1980, on the basic plan of the development and utilization of atomic energy in 1980 that it was decided as the original draft of the plan. This draft of the basic plan in 1980 was referred to the Nuclear Safety Commission on March 27, 1980. Japan relies the most of primary energy upon imported petroleum, therefore it is important to save oil consumption and to promote the development and utilization of substitute energy to petroleum. The development and utilization of atomic energy must be promoted as the most important subject in energy policy, because it is the most promising substitute energy. The scale of the total nuclear power generation in Japan is 35 plants with about 28 million kW capacity, including those under construction and in preparation. But owing to the difficulty in the location of new plants, the attainment of 1985 target is behind schedule. The development and utilization of atomic energy are in progress in Japan, but more efforts to promote them are necessary. Japan contributes positively to the formation of the new order based on the results of INFCE. As for the basic policy in 1980, the strengthening of the measures to secure safety, the establishment of nuclear fuel cycle, the development of new power reactors, the research and development of nuclear fusion, the promotion of the utilization of radiation and others are discussed. (Kako, I.)

  5. Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools: Cold and Humid Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-06-01

    School districts around the country are finding that the smart energy choices can help them save money and provide healthier, more effective learning environments. By incorporating energy improvements into their construction or renovation plans, schools can significantly reduce energy consumption and costs. These savings can be redirected to educational needs such as additional teachers, instructional materials, or new computers. These design guidelines outline high performance principles for the new or retrofit design of your K-12 school. By incorporating these principles, you can create and exemplary building that is both energy and resource efficient.

  6. Working fluid selection for an Organic Rankine Cycle utilizing high and low temperature energy of an LNG engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Sinian; Chang, Huawei; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Shu, Shuiming; Duan, Chen

    2015-01-01

    This study proposed a combined Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) system utilizing exhaust waste as its heat source and liquid natural gas (LNG) as its heat sink to provide alternative power for an LNG-fired vehicle. This system, consisting of a regenerator and a dual heat source composite heat exchanger, was designed to efficiently recover the engine waste heat (EWH) and to guarantee vaporizing LNG steadily. Five potential applicable organic working fluids are analyzed: C4F10, CF3I, R236EA, R236FA and RC318. Each fluid was analyzed at various evaporation temperatures and condensation temperatures using a thermodynamic model, and a self-made MATLAB program based on the physical properties on REFPROP data was applied to run the simulation. Analytical results showed that fluid R236FA has the highest thermal efficiency η_t_h of 21.6%, and that of the others are also around 21%. Based on a twelve-cylinder four stroke stationary natural gas engine, the simulated calculations show that the selected five working fluids can improve the fuel economy by more than 14.7% compared to that without ORC. - Highlights: • We design an ORC utilizing LNG cold energy and engine waste heat. • Five working fluids are examined at various working conditions. • The maximum thermal efficient of our proposed cycle can reach 20.3%–21.6%. • This system can decrease the brake specific fuel consumption by more than 14.7%.

  7. Electric vehicles from the point of view of an energy utility; Elektrofahrzeuge aus Sicht eines Energieversorgers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corpataux, M.

    2008-07-01

    This presentation made at the Swiss 2008 research conference on traffic by Marcel Corpataux from the Elektra Baselland utility (EBL) takes a look at the utility's activities in the renewable energies sector and the need for balancing energy supply and demand. Various methods on the demand side are briefly looked at and the use of 'vehicle-to-grid' concepts that use hybrid vehicles as storage facilities for electrical power are commented on. The chances offered to electricity utilities by using hybrid vehicles as buffer storage for electrical power are discussed.

  8. Effect of cold deformation on latent energy value and high-temperature mechanical properties of 12Cr18Ni10Ti steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maksimkin, O.P.; Shiganakov, Sh.B.; Gusev, M.N.

    1997-01-01

    Energetic and magnetic characteristics and also the high-temperature mechanical properties depending on the preliminary cold deformation of 12Cr18Ni10Ti steel are presented. It is shown that the value of storage energy in the steel has being grown with increase of the deformation. The rate of its growth has been increased after beginning of martensitic γ→α'- transformation when value of comparative storage energy at first decreased and then has been stay practically constant. Level of mechanical properties of the steel at 1073 K has been determined not only by value of cold deformation but and structural reconstruction corresponding to deformations 35-45% and accompanying with α'-phase martensite formation and change of energy accumulating rate. Preliminary cold deformation (40-60 %) does not improve high- temperature plasticity of steel samples implanted by helium. refs. 7, figs. 2

  9. Analysis of energy economic renovation for historic wooden apartment buildings in cold climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arumägi, Endrik; Kalamees, Targo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy saving potential in historic wooden apartment buildings is up to 63%. • In historic wooden apartment buildings an economically viable energy saving level is 50%. • The largest energy saving potential lies in heat source and building service systems. • Of the building structures, insulation of the external wall has the highest potential. • New heating and ventilation systems must be installed to fulfill regulations limits. - Abstract: Buildings represent the largest sector of primary energy consumption and play a major role in saving energy and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Our analysis of energy consumption and potential energy savings is based on field measurements, computer simulations and economic calculations. The average primary energy consumption (PE) of wooden apartment buildings was 331 kW h/(m 2 a) 83% higher than the limit 180 kW h/(m 2 a) set in national regulations for apartment buildings subject to major renovation. The studied buildings represent a high potential for energy savings. The renovation packages were compiled using different insulation measures, HVAC solutions and energy sources to achieve a 20–65% reduction of primary energy. For historic buildings, the renovation solutions that concentrate on the building envelope can be problematic due to the need to preserve cultural and architectural values. Our calculation results indicate that the cost optimal PE level is around 250 kW h/(m 2 a) and the point at which renovation packages recover expenses is around a PE level of 170 kW h/(m 2 a). In terms of the architectural appearance the point at which renovation packages recover expenses is around a PE level of 210 kW h/(m 2 a). We propose to set a different PE limit for historic wooden apartment buildings with an architectural appearance worth preserving

  10. Utility and performance relative to consumer product energy efficiency standards. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coggins, J.L.

    1979-12-14

    An investigation of the relative utility and performance of nine major household consumer products covered by the Energy Policy and Conservation Act is summarized. The objective was to define the terms utility and performance, to recommend methods for quantifying these two concepts, and to recommend an approach for dealing with utility and performance issues in the energy efficiency standards program. The definitions developed are: performance of a consumer product is the objective measure of how well, with the expected level of consumer input (following the manufacturer's instructions for installation and operation), the product does its intended job; and utility of a consumer product is a subjective measure, based on the consumer's perception, of the capability of the product to satisfy human needs. Quantification is based on test procedures and consumer survey methods which are largely already in use by industry. Utility and performance issues are important in product classification for prescribing energy efficiency standards. The recommended approach to utility and performance issues and classification is: prior to setting standards, evaluate utility and performance issues in the most quantitative way allowed by resources and schedules in order to develop classification guidelines. This approach requires no changes in existing Department of Energy test procedures.

  11. Interactions between Energy Efficiency Programs funded under the Recovery Act and Utility Customer-Funded Energy Efficiency Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, Charles A.; Stuart, Elizabeth; Hoffman, Ian; Fuller, Merrian C.; Billingsley, Megan A.

    2011-02-25

    Since the spring of 2009, billions of federal dollars have been allocated to state and local governments as grants for energy efficiency and renewable energy projects and programs. The scale of this American Reinvestment and Recovery Act (ARRA) funding, focused on 'shovel-ready' projects to create and retain jobs, is unprecedented. Thousands of newly funded players - cities, counties, states, and tribes - and thousands of programs and projects are entering the existing landscape of energy efficiency programs for the first time or expanding their reach. The nation's experience base with energy efficiency is growing enormously, fed by federal dollars and driven by broader objectives than saving energy alone. State and local officials made countless choices in developing portfolios of ARRA-funded energy efficiency programs and deciding how their programs would relate to existing efficiency programs funded by utility customers. Those choices are worth examining as bellwethers of a future world where there may be multiple program administrators and funding sources in many states. What are the opportunities and challenges of this new environment? What short- and long-term impacts will this large, infusion of funds have on utility customer-funded programs; for example, on infrastructure for delivering energy efficiency services or on customer willingness to invest in energy efficiency? To what extent has the attribution of energy savings been a critical issue, especially where administrators of utility customer-funded energy efficiency programs have performance or shareholder incentives? Do the new ARRA-funded energy efficiency programs provide insights on roles or activities that are particularly well-suited to state and local program administrators vs. administrators or implementers of utility customer-funded programs? The answers could have important implications for the future of U.S. energy efficiency. This report focuses on a selected set of ARRA

  12. Coal and energy: a southern perspective. Regional characterization report for the National Coal Utilization Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boercker, F. D.; Davis, R. M.; Goff, F. G.; Olson, J. S.; Parzyck, D. C.

    1977-08-01

    This publication is the first of several reports to be produced for the National Coal Utilization Assessment, a program sponsored by the Assistant Administrator for Environment and Safety through the Division of Technology Overview of ERDA. The purpose of the report is to present the state and regional perspective on energy-related issues, especially those concerning coal production and utilization for 12 southern states. This report compiles information on the present status of: (1) state government infrastructure that deals with energy problems; (2) the balance between energy consumption and energy production; (3) the distribution of proved reserves of various mineral energy resources; (4) the major characteristics of the population; (5) the important features of the environment; and (6) the major constraints to increased coal production and utilization as perceived by the states and regional agencies. Many energy-related characteristics described vary significantly from state to state within the region. Regional and national generalizations obscure these important local variations. The report provides the state and regional perspective on energy issues so that these issues may be considered objectively and incorporated into the National Coal Utilization Assessment. This Assessment is designed to provide useful outputs for national, regional, and local energy planners.

  13. High-Voltage DC-DC Converter Topology for PV Energy Utilization - Investigation and Implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanjeevikumar, Padmanaban; Blaabjerg, Frede; Wheeler, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    This paper exploited the utilization of photovoltaic (PV) energy system with high-voltage (HV) output DC-DC converter. Classical boost converters are used for both renewable energy integration and HV applications, but limited by reducing output/efficiency in performance. Moreover, as parasitic...... elements suppress the power transfer ratio, converter needs to maximize the PV energy utilization. This investigation study focused to include additional parasitic elements (voltage-lift technique) to a standard DC-DC buck converter and to overcome all the above drawbacks to maximize the PV power...

  14. Analysis of energy and materials utilization for packaging liquid basic and luxury foodstuffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebersbach, K F

    1981-01-01

    By the help of the product 'packaging' the quantities of the energy and materials used are demonstrated analytically within the single stages of the production and utilization of these goods. Alternatives for a better utilization of energy and materials are to be demonstrated. - A methodology for setting up analyses and alternatives is to be introduced which a) is generally accepted in investigations of this kind and b) permits controlled measures for improving the energy and materials balances. Several considerations made the authors select the packagings for beer and soft drinks as the subjects of the project. The usual packagings for these beverages are dealt with.

  15. Indirect Measurement of Energy Density of Soft PZT Ceramic Utilizing Mechanical Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unruan, Muangjai; Unruan, Sujitra; Inkong, Yutthapong; Yimnirun, Rattikorn

    2017-11-01

    This paper reports on an indirect measurement of energy density of soft PZT ceramic utilizing mechanical stress. The method works analogous to the Olsen cycle and allows for a large amount of electro-mechanical energy conversion. A maximum energy density of 350 kJ/m3/cycle was found under 0-312 MPa and 1-20 kV/cm of applied mechanical stress and electric field, respectively. The obtained result is substantially higher than the results reported in previous studies of PZT materials utilizing a direct piezoelectric effect.

  16. Energy bill of the municipal utilities at Heerlen: part of the customers' information system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poell, W A.G.

    1980-11-01

    A new invoice form now being sent to customers of the combined municipal utilities in Heerlen, Netherlands, provides customers with information that will encourage them to conserve energy. Changes in the invoice involve the utilities' internal operating procedure as well as the annual energy bill and the monthly installment invoice. To make the customer energy-conscious and aware of the effect of conservation measures, the bill states for purposes of comparison the annual consumption of the preceding period. The gas-consumption-related figures appearing on the bill have been modified to account for the calorific value and the ambient temperature in the corresponding period.

  17. Influence of snowpack and melt energy heterogeneity on snow cover depletion and snowmelt runoff simulation in a cold mountain environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBeer, Chris M.; Pomeroy, John W.

    2017-10-01

    The spatial heterogeneity of mountain snow cover and ablation is important in controlling patterns of snow cover depletion (SCD), meltwater production, and runoff, yet is not well-represented in most large-scale hydrological models and land surface schemes. Analyses were conducted in this study to examine the influence of various representations of snow cover and melt energy heterogeneity on both simulated SCD and stream discharge from a small alpine basin in the Canadian Rocky Mountains. Simulations were performed using the Cold Regions Hydrological Model (CRHM), where point-scale snowmelt computations were made using a snowpack energy balance formulation and applied to spatial frequency distributions of snow water equivalent (SWE) on individual slope-, aspect-, and landcover-based hydrological response units (HRUs) in the basin. Hydrological routines were added to represent the vertical and lateral transfers of water through the basin and channel system. From previous studies it is understood that the heterogeneity of late winter SWE is a primary control on patterns of SCD. The analyses here showed that spatial variation in applied melt energy, mainly due to differences in net radiation, has an important influence on SCD at multiple scales and basin discharge, and cannot be neglected without serious error in the prediction of these variables. A single basin SWE distribution using the basin-wide mean SWE (SWE ‾) and coefficient of variation (CV; standard deviation/mean) was found to represent the fine-scale spatial heterogeneity of SWE sufficiently well. Simulations that accounted for differences in (SWE ‾) among HRUs but neglected the sub-HRU heterogeneity of SWE were found to yield similar discharge results as simulations that included this heterogeneity, while SCD was poorly represented, even at the basin level. Finally, applying point-scale snowmelt computations based on a single SWE depth for each HRU (thereby neglecting spatial differences in internal

  18. Rational energy utilization and utilization of solar energy in the open-air swimming pool and in the multiple purpose hall at Wiehl. Final report. Pt. E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouillon, H; Jensch, K; Pentenrieder, J; Biasin, K; Dreisbach, K; Fruehauf, H J

    1982-12-01

    The test operation in Wiehl has shown that the waste heat utilization of an ice-sport ground especially in connection with the heat supply of an open-air swimming pool can be technically and functionally performed. Unter the given operating conditions annual cost savings of approx. 45.000 DM are yielded as against conventional systems. In addition to this advantage regarding works-economy the heat pump system also offers the advantage of considerable primary energy conservation. Apart from these very important findings also essential knowledge of details with regard to design, control, energy consumption and behaviour of the individual systems of this complex system have been obtained.

  19. Energy Efficiency and Sustainability Evaluation of Space and Water Heating in Urban Residential Buildings of the Hot Summer and Cold Winter Zone in China

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao Chen; Yongquan Wen; Nanyang Li

    2016-01-01

    With the urbanization process of the hot summer and cold winter (HSCW) zone in China, the energy consumption of space and water heating in urban residential buildings of the HSCW zone has increased rapidly. This study presents the energy efficiency and sustainability evaluation of various ways of space and water heating taking 10 typical cities in the HSCW zone as research cases. Two indicators, primary energy efficiency (PEE) and sustainability index based on exergy efficiency, are adopted t...

  20. Impact of large-scale energy efficiency programs on utility finances and consumer tariffs in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abhyankar, Nikit; Phadke, Amol

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyze the effect on utility finances and consumer tariffs of implementing utility-funded demand-side energy efficiency (EE) programs in India. We use the state of Delhi as a case study. We estimate that by 2015, the electric utilities in Delhi can potentially save nearly 14% of total sales. We examine the impacts on utility finances and consumer tariffs by developing scenarios that account for variations in the following factors: (a) incentive mechanisms for mitigating the financial risk of utilities, (b) whether utilities fund the EE programs only partially, (c) whether utilities sell the conserved electricity into spot markets and (d) the level of power shortages utilities are facing. We find that average consumer tariff would increase by 2.2% although consumers participating in EE programs benefit from reduction in their electricity consumption. While utility incentive mechanisms can mitigate utilities’ risk of losing long-run returns, they cannot address the risk of consistently negative cash flow. In case of power shortages, the cash flow risk is amplified (reaching up to 57% of utilities annual returns) and is very sensitive to marginal tariffs of consumers facing power shortages. We conclude by proposing solutions to mitigate utility risks. - Highlights: ► We model implementation of energy efficiency (EE) programs in Delhi, India. ► We examine the impact on utility finances and consumer tariffs from 2012 to 2015. ► We find that average consumer tariffs increase but participating consumers benefit. ► Existing regulatory mechanisms cannot address utilities’ risk of negative cash flow. ► Frequent true-ups or ex-ante revenue adjustment is required to address such risk.

  1. Possibilities and Barriers for Energy Conservation in a Liberalised Electricity Market: Danish Utility Experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I

    1999-01-01

    Liberalisation of energy markets in Europe is in progress. The expressed goal is to promote efficiency through commercial competition, with lower energy prices for consumers as a consequence. This priority raises some complex questions in relation to the desire of creating a sustainable energy...... a sustainable energy development in efficiency and energy conservation. The electric utilities play an important role in this relation, but their priority is of commercial nature rather than concern for the environment. This dilemma is analyzed in more detail in the paper....

  2. Experimental studies on the hybrid system of heat and cold production from solar energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Stanislaw

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years more and more energy is consumed in the European Union countries for summer air conditioning in buildings. This consumption will probably increase even more due to the predicted climate warming and the desire to improve the quality of life. At present final energy as heat and electricity is sourced mainly from fossil fuels. However, recently alternative renewable energy sources are increasingly taken into account as a result of efforts toward environmental protection and fuels savings. This paper presents results of the analysis of a hybrid solar-assisted heating and cooling system for buildings in the temperate climate of west and central Europe. Solar energy potential was estimated. The investigation was performed using a large scale laboratory installation, which contains an evacuated solar collector, a single-stage NH3-H2O absorption chiller and a hot water tank. The impact of the main system parameters on its performance was analyzed on the basis of energy balances.

  3. Cold fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-11-01

    I am pleased to forward to you the Final Report of the Cold Fusion Panel. This report reviews the current status of cold fusion and includes major chapters on Calorimetry and Excess Heat, Fusion Products and Materials Characterization. In addition, the report makes a number of conclusions and recommendations, as requested by the Secretary of Energy

  4. Outline of cold nuclear fusion reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachikawa, Enzo

    1991-01-01

    In 2010, as the total supply capacity of primary energy, 666 million liter is anticipated under the measures of thorough energy conservation. The development of energy sources along the energy policy based on environment preservation, safety, the quantity of resources and economy is strongly demanded. The nuclear power generation utilizing nuclear fission has been successfully carried out. As the third means of energy production, the basic research and technical development have been actively advanced on the energy production utilizing nuclear fusion reaction. The main object of the nuclear fusion research being advanced now is D-D reaction and D-T reaction. In order to realize low temperature nuclear fusion reaction, muon nuclear fusion has been studied so far. The cold nuclear fusion reaction by the electrolysis of heavy water has been reported in 1989, and its outline is ixplained in this report. The trend of the research on cold nuclear fusion is described. But the possibility of cold nuclear fusion as an energy source is almost denied. (K.I.)

  5. Analysis of energy cascade utilization in a chemically recuperated scramjet with indirect combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Jiang; Cheng, Kunlin; Zhang, Silong; Zhang, Duo; Bao, Wen; Han, Jiecai

    2016-01-01

    The working process of scramjet with regenerative cooling, which was actually the chemical recuperation process, was analyzed in view of energy cascade utilization. The indirect combustion was realized through pyrolysis reaction of fuel. The relative yields of thermal exergy obtained by indirect combustion have been predicted both assuming an ideal pyrolysis reaction and using the experimental results of thermal pyrolysis of n-decane. The results showed that the influence mechanism of regenerative cooling improved the scramjet engine performance by the energy cascade utilization, and the combustion process was supposed to be designed with the cooling process together to utilize the chemical energy of fuel in a more effective way. A maximum value of 11% of the relative yield was obtained with the ideal pyrolysis reaction while a value less than 3% existed in the thermal pyrolysis experiments because of the domination of chemical kinetics rather than chemical thermodynamics in the real experiments. In spite of the difference between the ideal and the present experimental results, the indirect combustion was prospective to achieve a better energy cascade utilization in a chemically recuperated scramjet if the pyrolysis reaction was further optimized. The results in this paper were beneficial for the performance optimization of a regenerative cooling scramjet. - Highlights: • A new method of energy cascade utilization in a chemically recuperated scramjet. • 11% exergy loss is reduced by ideal pyrolysis reaction with indirect combustion. • Regenerative cooling with chemical recuperation can improve engine performance.

  6. Europe warms to US energy overtures as relations with Russia turn cold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepherd, John [nuclear24, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-15

    What a difference a year makes.. Political instability in Ukraine that led to Russia's annexation of the Crimean peninsula has changed more than the political geography of the region. In March 2013, European Union and Russian leaders signed a 'roadmap' for energy cooperation until 2050. Russia has long been the largest oil, gas, uranium and coal exporter to the EU - and the EU has been by far Russia's largest trading partner. The 5{sup th} US-EU Energy Council meeting, held in Brussels in March, really had only one item on the agenda: How to deal with the 'fallout' of Russia-Ukraine tensions and the potential implications for energy supplies across Europe. (orig.)

  7. Taking the Challenge at Singer Village. A Cold Climate Zero Energy Ready Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puttagunta, S. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States); Faakye, O. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2014-10-01

    After progressively incorporating ENERGY STAR® for Homes Versions 1, 2, and 3 into its standard practices over the years, this builder, Brookside Development, was seeking to build an even more sustainable product that would further increase energy efficiency, while also addressing indoor air quality, water conservation, renewable-ready, and resiliency. These objectives align with the framework of the DOE Challenge Home program, which "builds upon the comprehensive building science requirements of ENERGY STAR for Homes Version 3, along with proven Building America innovations and best practices. Other special attribute programs are incorporated to help builders reach unparalleled levels of performance with homes designed to last hundreds of years." Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) partnered with Brookside Development on the design optimization and construction of the first home in a small development of seven planned new homes being built on the old Singer Estate in Derby, CT.

  8. Taking the Challenge at Singer Village--A Cold Climate Zero Energy Ready Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puttagunta, S.; Gaakye, O.

    2014-10-01

    After progressively incorporating ENERGY STAR(R) for Homes Versions 1, 2, and 3 into its standard practices over the years, this builder, Brookside Development, was seeking to build an even more sustainable product that would further increase energy efficiency, while also addressing indoor air quality, water conservation, renewable-ready, and resiliency. These objectives align with the framework of the DOE Challenge Home program, which 'builds upon the comprehensive building science requirements of ENERGY STAR for Homes Version 3, along with proven Building America innovations and best practices. Other special attribute programs are incorporated to help builders reach unparalleled levels of performance with homes designed to last hundreds of years.' CARB partnered with Brookside Development on the design optimization and construction of the first home in a small development of seven planned new homes being built on the old Singer Estate in Derby, CT.

  9. Targeting utility customers to improve energy savings from conservation and efficiency programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Nicholas W.; Jones, Pierce H.; Kipp, M. Jennison

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Improving DSM program impacts by targeting high energy users. • DSM energy savings potential hinges on pre-participation performance. • Targeting can benefit different utilities and energy efficiency programs. • Overall performance can be improved by up to 250% via targeting strategies. - Abstract: Electric utilities, government agencies, and private interests in the US have committed and continue to invest substantial resources – including billions of dollars of financial capital – in the pursuit of energy efficiency and conservation through demand-side management (DSM) programs. While most of these programs are deemed to be cost effective, and therefore in the public interest, opportunities exist to improve cost effectiveness by targeting programs to those customers with the greatest potential for energy savings. This article details an analysis of three DSM programs offered by three Florida municipal electric utilities to explore such opportunities. First, we estimate programs’ energy savings impacts; second, we measure and compare energy savings across subgroups of program participants as determined by their pre-intervention energy performance, and third, we explore potential changes in program impacts that might be realized by targeting specific customers for participation in the DSM programs. All three programs resulted in statistically significant average (per-participant) energy savings, yet average savings varied widely, with the customers who performed best (i.e., most efficient) before the intervention saving the least energy and those who performed worst (i.e., least efficient) before the intervention saving the most. Assessment of alternative program participation scenarios with varying levels of customer targeting suggests that program impacts could be increased by as much as 80% for a professional energy audit program, just over 100% for a high-efficiency heat pump upgrade program, and nearly 250% for an attic insulation

  10. Paroc passive house. Cold climate energy solution; Paroc-passiivitalo. Kylmaen ilmaston energiaratkaisu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouhia, I.; Nieminen, J.; Holopainen, R.

    2013-01-15

    The energy requirements for a passive house are quite strict. These requirements need to be adopted already in early phase of project planning. Collaboration between different design domains is a necessity. System design requires accurate information on the performance parameters of equipment. This information has to be available for the designers. Paroc passive house shows that HVAC system settings and trimming are a condition of the required performance. System adjustments and trimming were carried out almost for one year after the building was finished. The need for adjustments comes from poor documentation of the performance parameters of the equipment. Accurate monitoring results are available for less than one year; however, the results show that the building meets the requirements set on the delivered energy and primary energy. The primary energy use in the two apartments is 96 and 130 kWh/m{sup 2}. The airtightness of the building envelope were n{sub 50} = 0.37 1/h and n{sub 50} = 0.25 1/h correspondingly. The primary energy use in the passive house Paroc Lupaus is 130 kWh/m{sup 2} and the airtightness of the building envelope n{sub 50} = 0.5 1/h. The energy used for space heating 30 kWh/m{sup 2} exceeds the set requirement of 25 kWh/m{sup 2}. The indoor temperature has been higher than assumed in the design. The monitoring shows that the technical systems do not perform as expected. There is still need for adjustments and trimming both for the ventilation system and heat pump. In general, the performance parameters of the HVAC systems are not accurate enough for passive house design. (orig.)

  11. Cold fusion, Alchemist's dream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, E.D.

    1989-09-01

    In this report the following topics relating to cold fusion are discussed: muon catalysed cold fusion; piezonuclear fusion; sundry explanations pertaining to cold fusion; cosmic ray muon catalysed cold fusion; vibrational mechanisms in excited states of D 2 molecules; barrier penetration probabilities within the hydrogenated metal lattice/piezonuclear fusion; branching ratios of D 2 fusion at low energies; fusion of deuterons into 4 He; secondary D+T fusion within the hydrogenated metal lattice; 3 He to 4 He ratio within the metal lattice; shock induced fusion; and anomalously high isotopic ratios of 3 He/ 4 He

  12. Balancing Cost and Risk: The Treatment of Renewable Energy inWestern Utility Resource Plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2005-09-01

    Markets for renewable electricity have grown significantly in recent years, motivated in part by federal tax incentives and in part by state renewables portfolio standards and renewable energy funds. State renewables portfolio standards, for example, motivated approximately 45% of the 4,300 MW of wind power installed in the U.S. from 2001 through 2004, while renewable energy funds supported an additional 15% of these installations. Despite the importance of these state policies, a less widely recognized driver for renewable energy market growth is poised to also play an important role in the coming years: utility integrated resource planning (IRP). Formal resource planning processes have re-emerged in recent years as an important tool for utilities and regulators, particularly in regions where retail competition has failed to take root. In the western United States, recent resource plans contemplate a significant amount of renewable energy additions. These planned additions - primarily coming from wind power - are motivated by the improved economics of wind power, a growing acceptance of wind by electric utilities, and an increasing recognition of the inherent risks (e.g., natural gas price risk, environmental compliance risk) in fossil-based generation portfolios. The treatment of renewable energy in utility resource plans is not uniform, however. Assumptions about the direct and indirect costs of renewable resources, as well as resource availability, differ, as do approaches to incorporating such resources into the candidate portfolios that are analyzed in utility IRPs. The treatment of natural gas price risk, as well as the risk of future environmental regulations, also varies substantially. How utilities balance expected portfolio cost versus risk in selecting a preferred portfolio also differs. Each of these variables may have a substantial effect on the degree to which renewable energy contributes to the preferred portfolio of each utility IRP. This article

  13. Energy utilities and environment-related energy services in the year 2008. Scenario study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-05-01

    Insight is given into of the developments in the sector energy distribution companies and the consequences for the demand for energy services. Next, an overview is given of which energy services should be developed to meet the changed needs of the market. Three scenarios have been set up and are discussed in this brochure: (1) a Steady State scenario (unchanged policy of energy distribution companies); (2) Alliance scenario (strategic cooperation between energy distribution companies and retailers and installation businesses); and (3) Autonomous Development scenario (energy distribution companies develop and offer new services)

  14. A potential of utilizing renewable energy sources and the state support in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Bodonská

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The renewable energy sources are domestic sources of energy that help to enhance the safety of energy supplies and the diversification of energy sources. The utilization of such sources complies with the environmental acceptability requirement and leads to a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. The renewable energy is proved to be commercially viable for a growing list of consumers and uses. The renewable energy technologies provide many benefits that go well beyond the energy alone. More and more, the renewable energies contribute to the three pillars of the sustainable development in the economy, environment and the society.Several renewable energy technologies are established in world markets, building global industries and infrastructures. Other renewables become competitive in growing markets, and some are widely recognised as the lowest cost option for stand-alone and offgrid applications. An increased utilization of renewable energy sources in the heat and electricity generation is one of priority tasks of the Slovak Republic to boost the use of domestic energy potential and thus to decrease the Slovakia’s dependence on imported fossil fuels.

  15. Business model innovation for Local Energy Management: a perspective from Swiss utilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Facchinetti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The successful deployment of the energy transition relies on a deep reorganization of the energy market. Business model innovation is recognized as a key driver of this process. This work contributes to this topic by providing to potential Local Energy Management stakeholders and policy makers a conceptual framework guiding the Local Energy Management business model innovation. The main determinants characterizing Local Energy Management concepts and impacting its business model innovation are identified through literature reviews on distributed generation typologies and customer/investor preferences related to new business opportunities emerging with the energy transition. Afterwards, the relation between the identified determinants and the Local Energy Management business model solution space is analyzed based on semi-structured interviews with managers of Swiss utilities companies. The collected managers’ preferences serve as explorative indicators supporting the business model innovation process and provide insights to policy makers on challenges and opportunities related to Local Energy Management.

  16. Cultivation of energy crops. Environmental impacts, competitive utilization and potentials; Anbau von Energiepflanzen. Umweltauswirkungen, Nutzungskonkurrenzen und Potenziale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muehlenhoff, Joerg

    2013-04-15

    This background paper under consideration reports on the utilization of energy crops with regard to energy supply and climate change. Energy crops are renewable plants which are grown only for energy utilization. The harvested biomass is prepared for the power supply, heat supply and fuel supply by means of different usage paths.

  17. IMPACT OF THE COLD END OPERATING CONDITIONS ON ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF THE STEAM POWER PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Laković

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The conventional steam power plant working under the Rankine Cycle and the steam condenser as a heat sink and the steam boiler as a heat source have the same importance for the power plant operating process. Energy efficiency of the coal fired power plant strongly depends on its turbine-condenser system operation mode. For the given thermal power plant configuration, cooling water temperature or/and flow rate change generate alterations in the condenser pressure. Those changes have great influence on the energy efficiency of the plant. This paper focuses on the influence of the cooling water temperature and flow rate on the condenser performance, and thus on the specific heat rate of the coal fired plant and its energy efficiency. Reference plant is working under turbine-follow mode with an open cycle cooling system. Analysis is done using thermodynamic theory, in order to define heat load dependence on the cooling water temperature and flow rate. Having these correlations, for given cooling water temperature it is possible to determine optimal flow rate of the cooling water in order to achieve an optimal condensing pressure, and thus, optimal energy efficiency of the plant. Obtained results could be used as useful guidelines in improving existing power plants performances and also in design of the new power plants.

  18. Identifying Cost-Effective Residential Energy Efficiency Opportunities for the Kauai Island Utility Cooperative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busche, S.; Hockett, S.

    2010-06-01

    This analysis is an update to the 2005 Energy Efficiency Potential Study completed by KEMA for the Kauai Island Utility Cooperative (KIUC) and identifies potential energy efficiency opportunities in the residential sector on Kauai (KEMA 2005). The Total Resource Cost (TRC) test is used to determine which of the energy efficiency measures analyzed in the KEMA report are cost effective for KIUC to include in a residential energy efficiency program. This report finds that there remains potential energy efficiency savings that could be cost-effectively incentivized through a utility residential demand-side management program on Kauai if implemented in such a way that the program costs per measure are consistent with the current residential program costs.

  19. Biomass energy and the environmental impacts associated with its production and utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, Tasneem; Abbasi, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    Biomass is the first-ever fuel used by humankind and is also the fuel which was the mainstay of the global fuel economy till the middle of the 18th century. Then fossil fuels took over because fossil fuels were not only more abundant and denser in their energy content, but also generated less pollution when burnt, in comparison to biomass. In recent years there is a resurgence of interest in biomass energy because biomass is perceived as a carbon-neutral source of energy unlike net carbon-emitting fossil fuels of which copious use has led to global warming and ocean acidification. The paper takes stock of the various sources of biomass and the possible ways in which it can be utilized for generating energy. It then examines the environmental impacts, including impact vis a vis greenhouse gas emissions, of different biomass energy generation-utilization options. (author)

  20. Active pipe-embedded structures in buildings for utilizing low-grade energy sources: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Xinhua; Wang, Jinbo; Wang, Shengwei; Xiao, Fu

    2010-01-01

    Low-grade energy sources such as geothermal energy, favorable ambient air and industrial waste heat etc. exist widely. Sufficient utilization of these low-grade energy sources may reduce our daily dependence on high-grade energy sources such as electricity resulting in reduced emission of green house gas for environmental conservation. Active pipe-embedded structure as floor/ceiling usually with water as the medium to carry heat or coolth may utilize these low-grade energy sources for providing space air-conditioning. Compact arrangement of pipes in the structure may significantly enlarge heat transfer surface between the slab mass and water in the pipe allowing substantial heat flows even for relatively small temperature differences. Application of the heat or coolth storage capacity of this structure for preheating or pre-cooling is also one among the advantages of this structure for shifting load and exploiting the nighttime cheap electricity tariff in some regions. This paper presents the technology of the active pipe-embedded structure for utilizing widely existing low-grade energy sources following by a comprehensive review on the heat transfer calculation models of this structure and its practical applications in real building systems for space air-conditioning. This review shows that more works on the active structure, especially simple and transient models for dynamic and accurate performance prediction and easy integration with existing building energy simulation packages, are worthwhile for further promoting the practical application wherever the low-grade energy sources are favorable. (author)

  1. Present status of nuclear energy development and utilization in Japan 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    Today, world energy demands continue to increase, and over the middle and long-term, access to petroleum supplies may become difficult. At the same time, such serious environmental problems as global warming and acid rain, which are caused by the burning of fossil fuels, have drawn great public attention, and the international community has urged that solutions to them should be found. Because nuclear power offers an economically efficient, stable supply of energy whose production has little adverse effect on the environment, the world has recognized the necessity of continuing to develop and use it. The changing international political situation, however, has complicated nuclear energy matters. In Japan, particularly the collapse of the former Soviet Union and North Korea's announcement of its intention to withdraw from the Nuclear Weapons Non-Proliferation Treaty have been cause for concern. Under these circumstances, it has become increasingly important for Japan to secure stable sources of energy, since Japan is dependent on imports for its energy supply. To that end, Japan has steadily promoted the development and utilization of nuclear energy. In fiscal 1992, nuclear power accounted for 28.2 % of the total power generated by Japanese electric utilities. Japan has also worked steadily to develop a nuclear fuel cycle, which is important to the long-term stability of the energy supply. This publication describes the present status of nuclear energy development and utilization in Japan. (J.P.N.)

  2. 10th World Energy Conference. Division 2. Conservation in energy utilization. [30 papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-07-01

    A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 30 papers and a position paper. All of the abstracts will appear both in Energy Research Abstracts (ERA) and Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA). (MCW)

  3. Enhancing the utilization of photovoltaic power generation by superconductive magnetic energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tam, K.S.; Kumar, P.; Foreman, M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that a superconductive magnetic energy storage (SMES) system can enhance large scale utilization of PV generation. With SMES support, power generated from PV arrays van be fully utilized under different weather conditions and PV penetrations can be increased to significant levels without causing adverse effects to the power system. Coupled with PV generation, a SMES system is even more effective in performing diurnal load leveling. A coordinated PV/SMES operation scheme is proposed and demonstrated under different weather conditions

  4. Basic plans of nuclear energy development and utilization for fiscal 1982 (report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    A report by the Nuclear Safety Commission to the Prime Minister, concerning the basic plans of nuclear energy development and utilization for fiscal 1982, was presented; the NSC has decided on the plans drawn up by the Prime Minister. Nuclear power generation as the nucleus of petroleum substitutes must be developed steadily. For the purpose, nuclear fuel cycle should be established, including the securing of uranium resources, uranium enrichment, fuel reprocessing, and waste management. The contents are as follows: the strengthening of nuclear safety measures, the promotion of nuclear power generation, the establishment of nuclear fuel cycle, the development of advanced types of reactors, the research on nuclear fusion, the research and development of nuclear powered ships, the promotion of radiation utilization, the strengthening of basis for nuclear energy development and utilization, the promotion of international cooperation, the strengthening of safeguard and nuclear material protection measures, fiscal 1982 budgets related to nuclear energy. (Mori, K.)

  5. Analyses of Public Utility Building - Students Designs, Aimed at their Energy Efficiency Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wołoszyn, Marek Adam

    2017-10-01

    Public utility buildings are formally, structurally and functionally complex entities. Frequently, the process of their design involves the retroactive reconsideration of energy engineering issues, once a building concept has already been completed. At that stage, minor formal corrections are made along with the design of the external layer of the building in order to satisfy applicable standards. Architecture students do the same when designing assigned public utility buildings. In order to demonstrate energy-related defects of building designs developed by students, the conduct of analyses was proposed. The completed designs of public utility buildings were examined with regard to energy efficiency of the solutions they feature through the application of the following programs: Ecotect, Vasari, and in case of simpler analyses ArchiCad program extensions were sufficient.

  6. Analyzing variables for district heating collaborations between energy utilities and industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thollander, P.; Svensson, I.L.; Trygg, L.

    2010-01-01

    One vital means of raising energy efficiency is to introduce district heating in industry. The aim of this paper is to study factors which promote and inhibit district heating collaborations between industries and utilities. The human factors involved showed to affect district heating collaborations more than anything else does. Particularly risk, imperfect and asymmetric information, credibility and trust, inertia and values are adequate variables when explaining the establishment or failure of industry-energy utility collaborations, while heterogeneity, access to capital and hidden costs appear to be of lower importance. A key conclusion from this study is that in an industry-energy utility collaboration, it is essential to nurture the business relationship. In summary, successful collaboration depends more on the individuals and organizations involved in the relationship between the two parties than on the technology used in the collaboration.

  7. Experimental and numerical investigation of form-stable dodecane/hydrophobic fumed silica composite phase change materials for cold energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jiajie; Ling, Ziye; Fang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Zhengguo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Form-stable dodecane/fumed silica composite for cold storage is prepared. • A suggesting hypothesis that explains infiltration mechanism is proposed. • The performance of the composite phase change material is investigated. • Numerical simulation of system is carried out and results fit well. - Abstract: A kind of form-stable composite phase change materials used for cold thermal energy storage is prepared by absorbing dodecane into the hydrophobic fumed silica. With relatively suitable pore diameter and hydrophobic groups, hydrophobic fumed silica is beneficial to the penetration and infiltration of dodecane and the leakage problem solving. Scanned by electron micrographs and Fourier transformation infrared, the composite phase change material is characterized to be just physical penetration. Besides, the differential scanning calorimeter and thermo gravimetric analysis reveals the high enthalpy, good thermal stability and cycling performance of this composite phase change material. What’s more, Hot-Disk thermal constants analyzer demonstrates that the composite phase change material has low thermal conductivity which is desired in cold storage application. In the experiment, a cold energy storage system is set up and the results from the experiment show that the system has excellent performance of cold storage by incorporating composite phase change material. Apart from that, the experimental data is found to have a great agreement with the numerical simulation which is carried out by using the commercial computational fluid dynamics software FLUENT.

  8. Life cycle assessment of woody biomass energy utilization: Case study in Gifu Prefecture, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabata, Tomohiro; Okuda, Takaaki

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the effectiveness of a woody biomass utilization system that would result in increased net energy production through wood pellet production, along with energy recovery processes as they relate to household energy demand. The direct environmental load of the system, including wood pellet production and utilization processes, was evaluated. Furthermore, the indirect load, including the economic impact of converting the existing fossil-fuel-based energy system into a woody biomass-based system, on the entire society was also evaluated. Gifu Prefecture in Japan was selected for a case study, which included a comparative evaluation of the environmental load and costs both with and without coordination with the wood pellet production process and the waste-to-energy of municipal solid waste process, using the life cycle assessment methodology. If the release of greenhouse gases from the combustion of wood pellets is included in calculations, then burning wood pellets results in unfavorable environmental consequences. However, when the reduced indirect environmental load due to the utilization of wood pellets versus petroleum is included in calculations, then favorable environmental consequences result, with a net reduction of greenhouse gases emissions by 14,060 ton-CO 2eq . -- Highlights: ► We evaluate economic and environmental impact of woody biomass utilization in household. ► Wood pellet utilization for house heating is advantageous to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. ► Reduction effect of greenhouse gas will be canceled out if carbon neutrality were considered. ► Net greenhouse gas emissions considering conversion of an ordinal energy system will be minus. ► Wood pellet utilization is advantageous not only in global warming but also for resource conservation.

  9. A composite efficiency metrics for evaluation of resource and energy utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Siyu; Yang, Qingchun; Qian, Yu

    2013-01-01

    Polygeneration systems are commonly found in chemical and energy industry. These systems often involve chemical conversions and energy conversions. Studies of these systems are interdisciplinary, mainly involving fields of chemical engineering, energy engineering, environmental science, and economics. Each of these fields has developed an isolated index system different from the others. Analyses of polygeneration systems are therefore very likely to provide bias results with only the indexes from one field. This paper is motivated from this problem to develop a new composite efficiency metrics for polygeneration systems. This new metrics is based on the second law of thermodynamics, exergy theory. We introduce exergy cost for waste treatment as the energy penalty into conventional exergy efficiency. Using this new metrics could avoid the situation of spending too much energy for increasing production or paying production capacity for saving energy consumption. The composite metrics is studied on a simplified co-production process, syngas to methanol and electricity. The advantage of the new efficiency metrics is manifested by comparison with carbon element efficiency, energy efficiency, and exergy efficiency. Results show that the new metrics could give more rational analysis than the other indexes. - Highlights: • The composite efficiency metric gives the balanced evaluation of resource utilization and energy utilization. • This efficiency uses the exergy for waste treatment as the energy penalty. • This efficiency is applied on a simplified co-production process. • Results show that the composite metrics is better than energy efficiencies and resource efficiencies

  10. Influence of Adaptive Comfort Models on Energy Improvement for Housing in Cold Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Pérez-Fargallo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of construction standards using adaptive thermal comfort models has a great impact on energy consumption. The analysis of a user’s climate adaptation must be one of the first steps in the search for nearly/net Zero Energy Buildings (nZEB. The goal of this work is to analyze the standards recommended by the Chile’s Construction with Sustainability Criteria for the building of housing, applying the ASHRAE 55-2017 and EN 15251:2007 adaptive comfort models in social housing. The study produces concrete recommendations associated with construction strategies, to increase the number of hours the user finds themselves with acceptable thermal comfort levels, without repercussions for energy consumption. Sixteen parametric series were evaluated with a dynamic simulation of the most common prototype of social housing in the Bio-Bio Region. The study shows that thermal comfort conditions can be increased through a combination of improvement measures compared to the ECCS standard (Construction Standards with Sustainability Criteria: 27.52% in the case of applying EN 15251:2007 and 24.04% in the case of ASHRAE 55-2017.

  11. Design and testing of a separate-type lighting system using solar energy and cold-cathode fluorescent lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, J.-P.; Hsiao, H.-C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a solar-powered lighting system, using cold-cathode fluorescent-lamps (CCFLs), with its battery-charging circuit and lamp-ignition circuit being separated so that its solar panels can be installed at any distance deemed necessary away from the lighting site in order to receive the maximum solar energy available. This system adopts the maximum-power point tracking (MPPT) method to control the power output of the solar panels and uses the zero-voltage switching (ZVS) DC-DC converter, as the charging circuit, to increase the panels' power generation efficiency and the charging circuit's conversion efficiency. The electronic ballast circuit for the CCFL is constructed with a half-bridge inverter, a resonant inductor, and a Rosen-type piezoelectric transformer, which forms a piezoelectric resonant-type inverter: to simplify the circuitry and to improve the power conversion efficiency, the ballast circuit is designed to directly step up the battery voltage in igniting the lamp. We also establish the transmission-parameter model for the piezoelectric resonant-type inverter to provide the base for the electric-power circuit design. Our experimental results indicate that the proposed system possesses some advantages, such as greater energy efficiency, circuitry simplicity, and so on, and is suitable for night lighting in house yards, parks and advertising panels

  12. Design and testing of a separate-type lighting system using solar energy and cold-cathode fluorescent lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, J.-P. [Department of Electrical Engineering, China Institute of Technology, Taipei, Taiwan 115, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: april4120@tp.edu.tw; Hsiao, H.-C. [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei, Taiwan 106, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: hsiao@mouse.ee.ntust.edu.tw

    2007-01-15

    This paper presents a solar-powered lighting system, using cold-cathode fluorescent-lamps (CCFLs), with its battery-charging circuit and lamp-ignition circuit being separated so that its solar panels can be installed at any distance deemed necessary away from the lighting site in order to receive the maximum solar energy available. This system adopts the maximum-power point tracking (MPPT) method to control the power output of the solar panels and uses the zero-voltage switching (ZVS) DC-DC converter, as the charging circuit, to increase the panels' power generation efficiency and the charging circuit's conversion efficiency. The electronic ballast circuit for the CCFL is constructed with a half-bridge inverter, a resonant inductor, and a Rosen-type piezoelectric transformer, which forms a piezoelectric resonant-type inverter: to simplify the circuitry and to improve the power conversion efficiency, the ballast circuit is designed to directly step up the battery voltage in igniting the lamp. We also establish the transmission-parameter model for the piezoelectric resonant-type inverter to provide the base for the electric-power circuit design. Our experimental results indicate that the proposed system possesses some advantages, such as greater energy efficiency, circuitry simplicity, and so on, and is suitable for night lighting in house yards, parks and advertising panels.

  13. Electric utility load management: rational use of energy program pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-08-01

    In recognition of the role that load management can play in ensuring that the growing demand for electricity is met in a cost- and energy-efficient manner, in mid-1974, the NATO Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society sponsored all three meetings to provide a forum for representatives of U.S. and European utilities to exchange views and experiences on the various aspects of load management. It was the consensus of representatives at the meetings that three overall approaches offer significant opportunities for achieving improved load management: development of marginal-cost rate structures; power pooling and energy storage by utilities; and efforts by consumers. Industrial consumers can assist electric utilities in their efforts to level system loads through three important methods: interruptible power and deferred load control; peak self-generation; and shifts in operating schedules. Residential/commercial consumers also have an important role to play by managing both their electric heating load (through the interruption of direct-resistance heating and the storage of heat) and their air conditioning load. In response to the interest expressed by the participants in the CCMS conferences, the U.S. and several European governments, national electric utility industry organizations, state public utility commissions, and many individual utilities have undertaken R and D projects to investigate and test various aspects of these three approaches to load management. This report describes the projects that were presented by the utility representatives.

  14. National strategic planing for the utilization and development of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, B. C.; Lee, Y. J.; Lee, T. H.; Oh, K. B.; Kim, S. H.; Lee, J. W.

    2011-12-01

    It is followed that results and contents of National strategic planning for the utilization and development of nuclear energy. Our team makes an effort to carry out pre-research on establishment of the fourth Comprehensive Nuclear Energy Promotion Plan(CNEPP). To establish CNEPP, we analyzed domestic and global environment and trends of nuclear energy including the result of patent analysis, and find ways to link and coordinate other national plans concerned with nuclear energy. Upon the analysis we produce the final draft absorbing comments from the above-mentioned public discussions

  15. Approaches to Electric Utility Energy Efficiency for Low Income Customers in a Changing Regulatory Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brockway, N.

    2001-05-21

    As the electric industry goes through a transformation to a more market-driven model, traditional grounds for utility energy efficiency have come under fire, undermining the existing mechanisms to fund and deliver such services. The challenge, then, is to understand why the electric industry should sustain investments in helping low-income Americans use electricity efficiently, how such investments should be made, and how these policies can become part of the new electric industry structure. This report analyzes the opportunities and barriers to leveraging electric utility energy efficiency assistance to low-income customers during the transition of the electric industry to greater competition.

  16. Wind energy utilization: A bibliography with abstracts - Cumulative volume 1944/1974

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Bibliography, up to 1974 inclusive, of articles and books on utilization of wind power in energy generation. Worldwide literature is surveyed, and short abstracts are provided in many cases. The citations are grouped by subject: (1) general; (2) utilization; (3) wind power plants; (4) wind power generators (rural, synchronous, remote station); (5) wind machines (motors, pumps, turbines, windmills, home-built); (6) wind data and properties; (7) energy storage; and (8) related topics (control and regulation devices, wind measuring devices, blade design and rotors, wind tunnel simulation, aerodynamics). Gross-referencing is aided by indexes of authors, corporate sources, titles, and keywords.

  17. Solar thermal energy utilization. German studies on technology and application. Vol. 1. General investigations on energy availability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, M. (Deutsche Forschungs- und Versuchsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DFVLR), Koeln (Germany, F.R.). Hauptabteilung Energietechnik) (ed.)

    1987-01-01

    The first volume of a three-volume series titled 'Solar thermal energy utilization' comprises three papers dealing with general investigations into energy availability. Their titles are: Yearly yield of solar CRS-process heat and temperature of reaction; - literature survey in the field of primary and secondary concentrating solar energy systems concerning the choice and manufacturing process of suitable materials; - considerations and proposals for future research and development of high temperature solar processes. Each of the three chapters was abstracted for entry into the database. (HWJ).

  18. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Eight. Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Colorado governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  19. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Seventeen. Iowa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Iowa governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  20. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Thirty-two. New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of New Jersey governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  1. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Nineteen. Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Kentucky governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  2. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Forty-eight. Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Virginia governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  3. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Eleven. Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Florida governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  4. Estimating the energy and exergy utilization efficiencies for the residential-commercial sector: an application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utlu, Zafer; Hepbasli, Arif

    2006-01-01

    The main objectives in carrying out the present study are twofold, namely to estimate the energy and exergy utilization efficiencies for the residential-commercial sector and to compare those of various countries with each other. In this regard, Turkey is given as an illustrative example with its latest figures in 2002 since the data related to the following years are still being processed. Total energy and exergy inputs in this year are calculated to be 3257.20 and 3212.42 PJ, respectively. Annual fuel consumptions in space heating, water heating and cooking activities as well as electrical energy uses by appliances are also determined. The energy and exergy utilization efficiency values for the Turkish residential-commercial sector are obtained to be 55.58% and 9.33%, respectively. Besides this, Turkey's overall energy and exergy utilization efficiencies are found to be 46.02% and 24.99%, respectively. The present study clearly indicates the necessity of the planned studies toward increasing exergy utilization efficiencies in the sector studied

  5. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Eighteen. Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Kansas governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  6. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Thirteen. Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Hawaii governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  7. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Twenty-one. Maine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Maine governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  8. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Forty-five. Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Texas governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  9. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Forty-two. South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of South Carolina governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  10. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Fifty-two. Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Wyoming governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  11. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Forty-nine. Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Washington governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  12. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Forty-three. South Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of South Dakota governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  13. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Fifty-one. Wisconsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Wisconsin governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  14. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Forty-one. Rhode Island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Rhode Island governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  15. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Thirty-one. New Hampshire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of New Hampshire governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One. An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  16. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Twenty-three. Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Massachusetts governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  17. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Nine. Connecticut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description of the laws and programs of the State of Connecticut governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  18. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Six. Arkansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Arkansas governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  19. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Five. Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Arizona governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  20. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Three. Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Alabama governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.