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Sample records for coke-oven gas desulfurization

  1. Research on Method of Coke oven Gas Desulfurization Process%焦炉煤气脱硫效率分析及工艺选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛辉; 马强

    2012-01-01

    煤气中所含的硫会造成环境污染、催化剂中毒和设备腐蚀等不良影响。文章探讨了脱除焦炉煤气中硫化氢常用工艺方法的原理及利弊,总结出提高脱硫效率的方法,为选择合理、高效的脱硫工艺提供了帮助。%The sulfur contained in the gas will cause the adverse effects of environmental pollution,catalyst poisoning and equipment corrosion.The paper discussed the principle and the pros and cons of the removal of hydrogen sulfide in the coke oven gas commonly used process,summed up to improve the desulfurization efficiency for the selection of a reasonable,efficient desulfurization process has helped.

  2. Final environmental information volume for the coke oven gas cleaning project at the Bethlehem Steel Corporation Sparrows Point Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-04-24

    Bethelehem Steel Corporation (BSC) is planning to conduct a demonstration project involving an integrated system that can be retrofitted into coke oven gas handling systems to address a variety of environmental and operational factors in a more cost-effective manner. Successful application of this technology to existing US coke plants could: (1) reduce emissions of sulfur dioxide, cyanide, and volatile organic compounds (including benzene) (2) reduce the cost and handling of processing feed chemicals, (3) disposal costs of nuisance by-products and (4) increase reliability and reduce operation/maintenance requirements for coke oven gas desulfurization systems. The proposed system will remove sulfur from the coke oven gas in the form of hydrogen sulfide using the ammonia indigenous to the gas as the primary reactive chemical. Ammonia and hydrogen cyanide are also removed in this process. The hydrogen sulfide removed from the coke oven gas in routed to a modified Claus plant for conversion to a saleable sulfur by-product. Ammonia and hydrogen cyanide will be catalytically converted to hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. The tail gas from the sulfur recovery unit is recycled to the coke oven gas stream, upstream of the new gas cleaning system. The proposed demonstration project will be installed at the existing coke oven facilities at BSC's Sparrows Point Plant. This volume describes the proposed actions and the resulting environmental impacts. 21 refs., 19 figs., 9 tabs.

  3. ISS-J脱硫催化剂在焦炉煤气净化系统的应用%The Application of the ISS-J Catalyst for the Desulfurization of Coke-oven Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李成峰; 方前军

    2011-01-01

    针对焦炉煤气净化系统原采用PTV复合脱硫催化剂,存在催化剂和纯碱消耗高,脱硫净化度不稳定的问题,采用了ISS-J焦炉气专用催化剂,在不改变设备及流程的情况下,碱耗从2550kg/d降到400kg/d,脱硫净化度保持在约5mg/m3,废液排放量5m3/d,副反应生成率由25.47%降低到2.29%.%Previously, for the purification unit of the coke oven gas, the PTV compound desulfurization catalyst was used, which had the disadvantage of higher consumption of catalyst and soda ash, on top of that, the purification effect was not stable. After adopting the ISS-J catalyst which was special for coke oven gas for 3 months, and with all equipment remained unchanged, the catalyst consumption decreased by 70%, the soda ash consumption decreased from 2,550kg/d down to 400kg/d, and the sulfur removal rate was around 5mg/m3. The waste liquid discharge was only 5m3, and the side reaction rate decreased from 25.47% down to 2.29%.

  4. Technology of separation of hydrogen from coke oven gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budner, Z.; Morawiec, B.

    1989-01-01

    A process to beindustrialised at the Zdzieszowice coking plant and Kedzierzyn fertiliser works is described. Coke oven gas is scrubbed with methanol and subjected to pressure-swing adsorption. The hydrogen-rich fraction is converted with steam to reduce its CO content and then subjected again to pressure-swing adsorption. The methane-rich fraction from the first PSA stage is processed to 90% CH{sub 4} and a fraction containing 35% ethylene and 10% ethane.

  5. 以氨为碱源的焦炉煤气脱硫工艺%Coke oven gas desulfurization technology taking ammonia as alkali source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管福征; 陈夏; 朱建梅

    2014-01-01

    介绍了以煤气中氨为碱源,OMC-对苯二酚为催化剂的湿法脱硫工艺。生产实践表明,该工艺不但脱硫脱氰效率高,而且无废液产生,是一种清洁生产工艺。%This paper describes the wet desulfurization technology taking ammonia,which is contained in the gas,as alkali source and OMC-hydroquinone as catalyst.Production practice shows that this technology is very effective in desulfurization,and produces no wastewater.It is a clean production technology.

  6. Kinetic model on coke oven gas with steam reforming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jia-yuan; ZHOU Jie-min; YAN Hong-jie

    2008-01-01

    The effects of factors such as the molar ratio of H2O to CH4 (n(H2O)/n(CH4)), methane conversion temperature and time on methane conversion rate were investigated to build kinetic model for reforming of coke-oven gas with steam. The results of experiments show that the optimal conditions for methane conversion are that the molar ratio of H2O to CH4 varies from 1.1 to 1.3and the conversion temperature varies from 1 223 to 1 273 K. The methane conversion rate is more than 95% when the molar ratio ofH2O to CH4 is 1.2, the conversion temperature is above 1 223 K and the conversion time is longer than 0.75 s. Kinetic model of methane conversion was proposed. All results demonstrate that the calculated values by the kinetic model accord with the experimental data well, and the error is less than 1.5%.

  7. Coke Oven Gas Based Methanol Production Capacity Reached 1.2 Mt/a in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Coke oven gas is one of the main byproducts of coke chemicals industry.One ton of coke formed can generate 430 m3of coke oven gas.Adoption of appropriate chemical processing method can convert methane contained in the coke oven gas into CO that can be further converted into methanol.It is learned that currently China has constructed and commissioned ten projects for manufacture of methanol fromcoke oven gas with the total production capacity reaching 1.2 Mt/a methanol.More than twenty coke gas-to-methanol units are under construction or in the stage of project design with their overall production capacity reaching nearly 3.0 Mt/a methanol.Relevant experts have indicated that the enterprises provided with coke production lines are capable of constructing coke gas-to-methanol projects to realize coproduction of coke and methanol while utilizing their own coke gas resources.

  8. Model Predictive Control with Feedforward Strategy for Gas Collectors of Coke Ovens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kai Li; Dewei Li; Yugeng Xi; Debin Yin

    2014-01-01

    In coking process, the production quality, equipment life, energy consumption, and process safety are all influenced by the pressure in gas collector pipe of coke oven, which is frequently influenced by disturbances. The main control objectives for the gas collector pressure system are keeping the pressures in collector pipes at appropriate operating point. In this paper, model predictive control (MPC) strategy is introduced to control the collector pressure system due to its ability to handle constraint and good control performance. Based on a method proposed to simplify the system model, an extended state space model predictive control is designed, which combines the feedforward strategy to eliminate the disturbance. The simulation results in a system with two coke ovens show the feasibility and effectiveness of the control scheme.

  9. Carbon dioxide emission in hydrogen production technology from coke oven gas with life cycle approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burmistrz Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of Carbon Footprint (CF for technology of hydrogen production from cleaned coke oven gas was performed. On the basis of real data and simulation calculations of the production process of hydrogen from coke gas, emission indicators of carbon dioxide (CF were calculated. These indicators are associated with net production of electricity and thermal energy and direct emission of carbon dioxide throughout a whole product life cycle. Product life cycle includes: coal extraction and its transportation to a coking plant, the process of coking coal, purification and reforming of coke oven gas, carbon capture and storage. The values were related to 1 Mg of coking blend and to 1 Mg of the hydrogen produced. The calculation is based on the configuration of hydrogen production from coke oven gas for coking technology available on a commercial scale that uses a technology of coke dry quenching (CDQ. The calculations were made using ChemCAD v.6.0.2 simulator for a steady state of technological process. The analysis of carbon footprint was conducted in accordance with the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA.

  10. CO2 recycling by means of reforming of coke oven gas for methanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Bermúdez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The steelmaking industry is the largest energyconsuming manufacturing sector. As a consequence of this, the CO2 emissions from this sector account for about 5-7 % of the total anthropogenic CO2 emissions. For this reason, increasing efforts are being made to find solutions that might help diminish these emissions and increase energy efficiency. A better management of the coke oven gas (COG surplus is one of the proposed solutions...

  11. Refrigeration cycle for cryogenic separation of hydrogen from coke oven gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun CHANG; Qing LI; Qiang LI

    2008-01-01

    Ten billion cubic meters of hydrogen are dissip-ated to the environment along with the emission of coke-oven gas every year in China. A novel cryogenic separation of hydrogen from coke oven gas is proposed to separate the hydrogen and liquefy it simultaneously, and the cooling capacity is supplied by two refrigeration cycles. The perform-ance of the ideal vapor refrigeration cycle is analyzed with methane and nitrogen as refrigerant respectively. The results show that the coefficient of performance (COP) of methane refrigeration cycle is 2.7 times that of nitrogen refrigeration cycle, and the figure of merit (FOM) of methane refrigera-tion cycle is 1.6 times that of nitrogen refrigeration cycle. The performance of ideal gas refrigeration cycle is also analyzed with neon, hydrogen and helium as refrigerant respectively. The results show that both the coefficient of performance and figure of merit of neon refrigeration cycle is the highest. It is thermodynamically possible to arrange the refrigeration cycle with methane and neon as refrigerant, respectively.

  12. Performance and microbial community analysis of the anaerobic reactor with coke oven gas biomethanation and in situ biogas upgrading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wen; Xie, Li; Luo, Gang;

    2013-01-01

    (HFM). With pH control at 8.0, the added H2 and CO were fully consumed and no negative effects on the anaerobic degradation of sewage sludge were observed. The maximum CH4 content in the biogas was 99%. The addition of SCOG resulted in enrichment and dominance of homoacetogenetic genus Treponema......A new method for simultaneous coke oven gas (COG) biomethanation and in situ biogas upgrading in anaerobic reactor was developed in this study. The simulated coke oven gas (SCOG) (92% H2 and 8% CO) was injected directly into the anaerobic reactor treating sewage sludge through hollow fiber membrane...

  13. NUMERICAL SIMULATION FOR A PROCESS ANALYSIS OF A COKE OVEN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhancheng Guo; Huiqing Tang

    2005-01-01

    A computational fluid dynamic model is established for a coking process analysis of a coke oven using PHOENICS CFD package. The model simultaneously calculates the transient composition, temperatures of the gas and the solid phases, velocity of the gas phase and porosity and density of the semi-coke phase. Numerical simulation is illustrated in predicting the evolution of volatile gases, gas flow paths, profiles of density, porosity of the coke oven charge,profiles of temperatures of the coke oven gas and the semi-coke bed. On the basis of above modeling, the flow of coke oven gas (COG) blown from the bottom of the coke oven into the porous semi-coke bed is simulated to reveal whether or not and when the blown COG can uniformly flow through the porous semi-coke bed for the purpose of desulfurizing the semi-coke by recycling the COG. The simulation results show that the blown COG can uniformly flow through the semi-coke bed only after the temperature at the center of the semi-coke bed has risen to above 900 ℃.

  14. Ways to improve the removal of hydrogen sulfide from coke-oven gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, M.D.; Lyannaya; No. 1, Z.G.; Ignatova, E.P.; Zbykovskii, I.I.; Shukh, Ya.I.; Andreiko, I.M.; Garkushenko, I.Ya.

    1979-01-01

    Our calculations showed that, if the gas temperatures ahead of the scrubbers were reuced to 30/sup 0/C and 300 to 400 liters/h of concentrated ammonia water were added to the circuit, the degree of hydrogen sulfide absorption could be brought to 58 to 65%, i.e., the hydrogen sulfide content in the return gas would be less than 2.5 g/m/sup 3/. All the hydrogen sulfide removed from the gas would enter the concentrated ammonia water, which would be delivered to facilities for production of soda by the ammonia method. The ammonium sulfide formed in the liquor would be a desirable component, acting to inhibit corrosion. This would provide the simplest solution to the problem of utilizing the hydrogen sulfide removed from the gas. Our investigation thus showed that the hydrogen sulfide content of the coke-oven gas can be reduced to a permissible level in the department as it now exists, without substantial remodelling of the scrubber department. Implementation of the proposed measures (installation of an additional gas cooler beyond the blower and introduction of 300 to 400 liters/h of 20% ammonia liquor into the circuit) will make it possible to improve air-pollution conditions in the carbonization department and adjoining areas, reduce the corrosion of the gaslines, utilize that portion of the gas now discharged into the atmosphere, and eliminate the need for construction of an expensive special facility for removal of hydrogen sulfide. Addition of concentrated ammonia liquor into the scrubber-liquor circuit in the amounts indicated above raised the degree of hydrogen sulfide absorption from 31 to 43 to 47%.

  15. 硫磺回收装置的腐蚀及防护措施%Corrosion of Equipment in Sulfur Recovery of Coke Oven Gas Unit and Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯江华; 李慧敏; 张继明; 张方

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of coke oven gas desulfurization production process with vacuum carbonate method,corrosion and its mechanism in the form of important devices,morphology and characteristics of metal sulfide corrosion layers,and made against the different forms of corrosion problems of the improved process control,equipment,appropriate protection measures.%分析了焦炉煤气采用真空碳酸盐法脱硫的生产过程中,重要装置存在的腐蚀形式及其发生的机理,金属硫化腐蚀层的形态与特征,并针对不同形态的腐蚀问题提出了工艺控制、设备改进等相应的防护措施。

  16. 焦炉煤气脱硫吸收塔两相流场计算流体力学数值模拟%Two-phase flow CFD simulations of an absorption tower for coke-oven gas desulfurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝琳; 刘睿; 党乐平; 戴成武; 王英丽; 卫宏远

    2011-01-01

    Using a commercial code FLUENT, the computational fluid dynamics ( CFD) combined with the two-phase flow are used to predict the complex flowage condition of two-phase flow. The 3-D geometric model of the desulfurized tower is constructed to simulate the single-phase and two-phase flow. Based on the convergent result of single-phase flow without packing, Euler multi-phase model and porous medium model are added to simulate single-phase flow with packing bed and two-phase flow. The results show that the standard κ - ε turbulent model and Eulerian multi-phase model can apply to simulate the complex flow in desulfurizeding absorption tower,which present good symmetry and is qualitatively correct. So it's conformed that the tower structure and operational parameters all meet the design requirement. The porous medium can balance the velocity difference of two phases' countercurrent well, which qualitatively accords with the theoretic predictive results in packed tower. It also shows that this model performs well in simulaling random packing.%以商业化软件FLUENT为计算平台,将计算流体力学(CFD)与两相流流动结合起来预测复杂吸收塔内的两相流动情况.计算在三维体系中展开,在满足收敛以及质量守恒条件后,得到了稳态条件下的单相流场,并引入欧拉多相模型和多孔介质模型,对单相流含填料流场和两相流场进行了计算.计算结果表明,使用标准k-ε湍流模型和欧拉-欧拉多相流模型可以模拟出脱硫吸收塔内的复杂流场,呈现出极好的对称性并且流场的各项性质定性正确,可以确定塔结构及操作参数均已达到要求;多孔介质项对于塔内两相逆流的速度差起到了较好的平衡作用,与填料塔中的预期结果定性相符,同时说明该模型可以较好地完成对散装填料的模拟,在计算中表达出其应有的性质.

  17. Startup and initial operation of a DFGD and pulse jet fabric filter system on Cokenergy's Indiana Harbor coke oven off gas system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, W.J.; Gansley, R.R.; Schaddell, J.G.

    1999-07-01

    This paper describes the design, initial operation and performance testing of a Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization (DFGD) and Modular Pulse Jet Fabric Filter (MPJFF) system installed at Cokenergy's site in East Chicago, Indiana. The combined flue gas from the sixteen (16) waste heat recovery boilers is processed by the system to control emissions of sulfur dioxide and particulates. These boilers recover energy from coke oven off gas from Indiana Harbor Coke Company's coke batteries. The DFGD system consists of two 100% capacity absorbers. Each absorber vessel uses a single direct drive rotary atomizer to disperse the lime slurry for SO{sub 2} control. The MPJFF consists of thirty two (32) modules arranged in twin sixteen-compartment (16) units. The initial start up of the DFGD/MPJFF posed special operational issues due to the low initial gas flows through the system as the four coke oven batteries were cured and put in service for the first time. This occurred at approximately monthly intervals beginning in March 1998. A plan was implemented to perform a staged startup of the DFGD and MPJFF to coincide with the staged start up of the coke batteries and waste heat boilers. Operational issues that are currently being addressed include reliability of byproduct removal. Performance testing was conducted in August and September 1998 at the inlet of the system and the outlet stack. During these tests, particulate, SO{sub 2}, SO{sub 3}, and HCI emissions were measured simultaneously at the common DFGD inlet duct and the outlet stack. Measurements were also taken for average lime, water, and power consumption during the tests as well as system pressure losses. These results showed that all guarantee parameters were achieved during the test periods. The initial operation and performance testing are described in this paper.

  18. 首钢焦炉煤气系统的优化分析%Analysis of Shougang coke oven gas system optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈浩; 任红艳

    2012-01-01

    Based on the optimization of coke oven gas system, the surplus coke oven gas will be applied in boiler combustion to generate electricity and be converted to the mixed gas, the radiation of coke oven gas reduced effectively and the cost of electricity generation also reduced to a certain extent, the stability of converter gas system guaranteed and the recycling economy is realized.%通过对焦炉煤气系统的优化,将富余焦炉煤气应用于锅炉燃烧发电及合成混合煤气,可有效地降低焦炉煤气的放散,在一定程度上降低发电成本,同时保证转炉煤气系统的稳定,实现循环经济.

  19. Influences of hydrogen-enriched atmosphere under coke oven gas injection on reduction swelling behaviors of oxidized pellet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙红明; 王宏涛; 狄瞻霞; 春铁军; 柳政根

    2016-01-01

    It is of great importance to elucidate reduction swelling behaviors and reaction mechanism of oxidized pellet in hydrogen-enriched atmosphere under coke oven gas injection. In this work, the effects of hydrogen concentration in N2−CO−H2 atmosphere with unchanged CO content on reduction swelling behaviors of oxidized pellet at 1173 K were studied, to clarify the mechanism of hydrogen-enriched reduction and exclude the influences of CO. Then, the reduction swelling behaviors of oxidized pellet at 1173 K in actual atmosphere under coke oven gas (COG) injection, got from the simulation results of multi-fluid blast furnace model, were investigated. The results show that with the concentration of hydrogen increasing in N2−CO−H2 gas from 2% to 18%, the reduction swelling index of pellet decreases from 10.12% to 5.57% while the reduction ratio of pellet increases obviously from 39.85% to 69.58%. In addition, with COG injection rate increasing from 0 to 152.34 m3/t, the reduction swelling index of pellet decreases slightly from 10.71% to 9.54% while the reduction ratio of pellet is increased from 31.57% to 36.39%. The microstructures of pellet are transformed from the platy structure to the flocculent structure.

  20. Modeling the kinetics of methane conversion in steam reforming process of coke-oven gas based on experimental data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jia-yuan; ZHOU Jie-min

    2007-01-01

    Steam-reforming is an effective approach for upgrading methane and hydrocarbon of coke-oven gas into CO and H2, but the kinetic behavior needs more study. We investigated the conversion of methane in coke-oven gas by steam reforming process in an electric tubular flow at 14 kPa with temperature varying from 500℃ to 950℃, and developed a kenetic model for , ignoring the effects of adsorption and diffusion. The optimal dynamic conditions for methane conversion 14 kPa are as follows: the ratio of the amount of water to the amount of methane is from 1.1 to 1.3; the reaction temperature is from 1 223 K to 1 273 K. The methane conversion rate is larger than 95% when the ratio of the amount of water to the amount of methane is 1.2 at a temperature above 1 223 K with the residence time up to 0.75 s.

  1. Current status of patent technologies of coke oven gas to natural gas in China%国内焦炉气制天然气专利技术发展现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜雄伟

    2012-01-01

    Current status of patent technologies of coke oven gas to natural gas in China is described in this paper. Two main production processes of coke oven gas to natural gas are analyzed, named " coke oven gas methanation to natural gas" process and "coke oven gas purification and separation to natural gas" process. Patent applications of conversion technologies from coke oven gas to natural gas by organizations or individuals who have the technologies in China are introduced. It is pointed out that the project implementation of coke oven gas to natural gas has a very important significance for coking industry to develop energy-saving and emission-reduction circular economy.%综述了国内焦炉气制天然气专利技术发展现状,分析了国内焦炉气制天然气技术的2种主要工艺,“焦炉气甲烷化制备天然气”工艺和“焦炉气联合净化分离制备天然气”工艺.介绍了目前国内焦炉气制天然气技术拥有单位或个人专利申请情况,指出焦炉气制天然气项目的实施对焦化行业节能减排及发展循环经济等具有重要意义.

  2. Oxygen and coke oven gas (COG) consumption optimization at hot stove of Usiminas blast furnace 3; Otimizacao do consumo de oxigenio e GCO nos regeneradores do alto forno 3 da Usiminas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervino, Marco Antonio; Bastos, Moises Hofer [Usiminas, Ipatinga, MG (Brazil)

    2001-07-01

    This paper presents the model developed for determination of the correlation between oxygen and coke oven gas (COG) consumption in the hot stove at Usiminas blast furnace 3, the applicability and results obtained. (author)

  3. Exergoeconomic analysis of the power generation system using blast furnace and coke oven gas in a Brazilian steel mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Modesto; S.A. Nebra [Federal University of ABC, Santo Andre (Brazil). Center of Engineering

    2009-08-15

    The rational use of energy has become a priority for all industries in Brazil, mainly after the energy rationing in 2001. Methodologies to quantify and improve the performance of plants that consume and generate electricity and thermal energy are being used to reach this goal. Exergoeconomic analysis provides a complete diagnosis of a plant, both in exergetic and in monetary values. This study shows the methodology used to assess the power generation system of the Companhia Siderurgica Tubarao (CST). The current system is based on a regenerative Rankine cycle using two gases from steel production - blast furnace gas (BFG) and coke oven gas (COG) - to generate electric power and occasionally steam for the process. Use of the Theory of Exergetic Cost allowed determination of monetary and exergetic costs. Moreover, indicators such as cost variation, relative cost variation, and exergoeconomic factors were calculated to determine the influence of each component in the make-up of plant costs and to find the best way of decreasing generation costs of energy and process steam.

  4. Use of Coke Oven Gas during shutdown period of Direct Reduced Iron Plant for Steam Generation: Experimentation and Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harish C. Dalai

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Development of any country is largely based on its magnitude of industrial growth. Steel industries in India took a leading role in the world after mid-sixties. During the last five decades, the steel industries all over the world made considerable developments in new methods for reducing iron ore directly to metallic iron for use as commercial scrap substitute in the manufacture of steels. BSL has been producing steel and other products over last two decades and the above process is used in BSL for one decade. Direct reduction is a process, which extracts high metallic solid iron by removing oxygen from iron ore or any other iron oxides without passing through molten stage, i.e. solid state reduction. The product, so formed is known as directly reduced tron (DRI or Sponge Iron. Due to shortage of raw material or any other problem in DRI sections, the DRI section undergoes a temporary short down. During the shutdown period the equipments tend to be idle. To keep the equipment ready for operation as well as to maintain the plants economy an alternate methodology is used in this research. Various operations are: CO gas from Coke Oven, DRI, Steam Generation, and Power Generation.

  5. Conversion and reaction kinetics of coke oven gas over a commercial Fe-Mo/Al2O3 catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈一新; 徐贺明; 赵见峰; 王志彦; 王亚涛

    2016-01-01

    Producing methanol from coke oven gas (COG) is one of the important applications of COG. Removal of sulfur from COG is a key step of this process. Conversion and reaction kinetics over a commercial Fe−Mo/Al2O3 catalyst (T-202) were studied in a continuous flow fixed bed reactor under pressures of 1.6−2.8 MPa, space time of 1.32−3.55 s and temperatures of 240−360 °C. Though the COG contains about 0.6 mol/mol H2, hydrogenation of CO and CO2 is not significant on this catalyst. The conversions of unsaturated hydrocarbons depend on their molecular structures. Diolefins and alkynes can be completely hydrogenated even at relatively low temperature and pressure. Olefins, in contrast, can only be progressively hydrogenated with increasing temperature and pressure. The hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of CS2 on this catalyst is easy. Complete conversion of CS2 was observed in the whole range of the conditions used in this work. The original COS in the COG can also be easily converted to a low level. However, its complete HDS is difficult due to the relatively high concentration of CO in the COG and due to the limitation of thermodynamics. H2S can react with unsaturated hydrocarbons to form ethyl mercaptan and thiophene, which are then progressively hydrodesulfurized with increasing temperature and pressure. Based on the experimental observations, reaction kinetic models for the conversion of ethylene and sulfur-containing compounds were proposed; the values of the parameters in the models were obtained by regression of the experimental data.

  6. Discussions on denitration technology for exhaust gas of coke oven battery%焦炉烟气脱硝工艺技术探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李良华; 刘杰; 曹银平

    2015-01-01

    介绍了控制焦炉烟气氮氧化物生成的低氮燃烧技术和焦炉烟气脱硝技术,阐述了干法和湿法烟气脱硝技术的适用性和需解决的问题。%This paper introduces the low-nitrogen combustion technology to control NOx generation in exhaust gas of coke oven battery and the denitration technology for exhaust gas,and it also elaborates the applicability of dry denitration and wet denitration method and the problems to be solved.

  7. Study on purge gas generated in coke oven gas boilers mixing-firing process%焦炉气锅炉掺烧弛放气探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高翔

    2012-01-01

    It' s not an environmental friendly and economy way to discharged purge gas from methanol plant into the atmosphere. How to recycle methanol purge gas? The treatment of purge gas had been a general concern problem. The problem could be solved by incorpo- rating the decompression purge gas into boilers burning coke oven gas used as burning gas.%甲醇厂弛放气直接排人大气,既对环境产生污染,又无法实现经济价值。通过将弛放气减压掺入焦炉煤气中供锅炉燃烧使用的方法,可以解决弛放气的去向问题。

  8. 大型焦炉荒煤气导出和外逸状况的剖析%Analysis of raw gas transmission and leakage from large scale coke oven battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚俊库

    2014-01-01

    Based on the influencing factors of gas transmission , three devices to inhale gas from large scale coke oven battery are introduced in this paper .Gas leakage during coking and coal charging to large scale coke oven battery is analyzed .%根据荒煤气导出的影响因素,介绍了大型焦炉荒煤气导出使用的3种装置,同时分析了大型焦炉在结焦过程中和装煤操作时荒煤气的外逸状况。

  9. Analysis of waste heat recovery from coke oven waste gas flue%焦炉烟道气余热回收工艺分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘庆达; 丁震; 李昌胤; 刘云

    2014-01-01

    By comparison of old and new technologies in waste gas flue heat exchange,with descrip-tion of waste heat recovery unit and by analysis of economic benefit for the new technology,the waste heat recovery unit from coke oven waste gas flue is highlighted in this paper,which is characterized with lower investment,short payback period,lower operational & maintenance cost and a remarkable economic benefit.%对比了烟道废气换热新、旧工艺,介绍了废气余热回收装置。分析了新工艺的经济效益。焦炉烟道废气热回收装置投资省,见效快,运行、维护成本低,经济效益明显。

  10. 焦炉煤气制天然气工艺中甲烷化的仿真系统%Simulation of Methanation Reaction for Substitute Natural Gas Production by Coke Oven Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    来翊; 刘金刚; 刘振峰; 吴迪镛

    2011-01-01

    焦炉煤气制天然气对拓宽天然气的供应渠道和提高焦炉煤气的清洁利用效率具有重要意义,与焦炉煤气制甲醇等相比,有能源利用率高、耗水量低、无二氧化碳排放等优势.为了提高能源利用率,提出了焦炉煤气制天然气专利工艺,建立了首套焦炉煤气甲烷化合成天然气全流程工业试验装置.甲烷化催化剂及配套工艺是项目的核心部分,因此对甲烷化反应进行准确的仿真计算,对于指导项目设计和生产操作有着重要意义.通过建立甲烷化反应的数学模型,并运用化工动态流程仿真优化系统(Dynamic Simulation& Optimization System,DSO)平台对工业化装置和工业试验装置进行了全过程仿真.实验结果表明,整个过程能够很好地反映装置正常工况时的运行情况.%It is important that Coke oven gas to natural gas can widen the supply channels of natural gas and improve the clean efficiency of using Coke oven gas. It has higher energy efficiency, lower water consumption than coke oven gas - to - methanol, and without carbon dioxide emissions. We proposed a patented process of coke oven gas to natural gas, and completed the first set of industrial test equipments' 1000 - hour non - stop working, in which coke oven gas was methanated into natural gas. Because methanation catalyst and its supporting technology are the core of the project, accurate simulatione for the methanation reaction is significant to instruct both the project design and production operations. Through building the mathematic model of methanation reaction and using the Dynamic Simulation & Optimization System ( DSO), the industrial equipment and industrial test equipment were simulated. The result of application indicates that the whole simulation process can reflect the running of the equipment under normal conditions.

  11. A method for regulating the temperature of a coke oven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sibata, M.; Fukava, R.; Khiesi, M.; Omaye, Y.; Terasi, M.

    1983-08-25

    In the proposed method data from measurements of the temperature of the hearth of the heating partitions of the coke oven are received every two hours. The obtained factual data is fed by radio to a computer (EVM) for building the time and temperature curves (VTK) for rating the operational systems and coke oven loading modes. The time and temperature curves are output to displays. When there is a change in the time of the programmed loading modes, the W shaped time and temperature curves are shifted parallel until they aligned with the standard time and temperature curve, while the velocity of the stream of heating gas is regulated in such a way that the heating mode in the coke oven meets the specifications of the standard time and temperature curve.

  12. The Waste Heat Power Generation Project of 200 kt/a Coke Oven Gas Methanol Project%20万t/a焦炉煤气甲醇项目的余热发电技改工程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏作为

    2012-01-01

    To use waste heat power to generate electricity by analyzing the baIace of steam in methanol production by coke-oven gas and basing the actual situation of the chemical industrial park. After implementation of the project, not only banning all coke-oven gas heating furnaces and variety small low pressure boilers in the park and obtaining high- er economic benefits,but also reducing enviromental pollution.%分析了焦炉煤气制甲醇项目蒸汽平衡情况,结合所在化工园区实际,利用余热进行发电。不仅取缔了园区内所有焦炉气加热炉和各种小型低压锅炉,取得较高的经济效益,而且减少了环境污染。

  13. 燃气石灰竖窑烧焦炉煤气应采取的措施%Measures to be taken for gas fired lime shaft-kiln fired with coke oven gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程伟丰

    2011-01-01

    分析了现有燃气石灰竖窑的现状,提出了燃气石灰竖窑以焦炉煤气为燃料煅烧石灰应注意的问题及应采取的措施。%In this paper,present situation of existing gas fired lime shaft-kiln is analyzed,and issues needing attention are proposed and the measures should be taken when coke oven gas is used as fuel for gas fired lime shaft-kiln for calcining lime.

  14. The Introduction of ATR Instrumentation Design in the Methanol Plant Based on Coke-oven Gas%焦炉气制甲醇装置中ATR仪表设计浅谈

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余博

    2011-01-01

    焦炉气是炼焦过程的副产品,除部分返回炼焦炉用作加热燃料外,剩余的气体主要用作城市居民的燃料气,也有相当数量通过火炬燃烧放空.随着国家节能减排的深入,利用焦炉气制甲醇一方面减少对大气CO2的排放,另一方面还可以产生经济效益.开发了纯氧部分氧化制合成气的技术,在焦炉气制甲醇装置中采取ATR技术,其主要包括仪表选型、复杂控制及联锁逻辑三方面的内容.合理的设计实现对装置的工艺过程实时监控、设备的安全运行,提高工艺气转化率.%The coke oven gas is the by-product in coking process and is flammable.Partial coke oven gas returns to coke burner as heating fuel, the surplus gas is largely applied as urban fuel gas, and quite a lot is vented to flare stack.With the support from the state for energy-saving and pollution-reducing project, the methanol project based on coke oven gas is a favorble option: it can reduce CO2 emmission and also yield economic benefit.After years' exploration and research, a synthetic gas production technology by the partial oxidation of pure oxygen has been developed, therefore ATR technology will be widely applied in this process.Instrumentation design plays an important role in application of ATR technology.

  15. Chinese Standards on Refractories Fireclay Brick and Semi-silica Brick for Coke Oven

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jing

    2009-01-01

    @@ 1 Scope This standard specifies the technical requirements,test methods,quality appraisal procedure,packing,transportation,storage,and quality certificate of fireclay brick and semi-silica brick for coke oven. This standard is applicable to the fireclay brick and semi-silica brick for coke oven,and the bricks for inner linings of carbon furnace,gas generator and shaft furnace.

  16. Design trends of coke oven batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minasov, A.N.; Kononenko, V.S.; Fomenko, V.I. (Giprokoks (USSR))

    1991-01-01

    Analyzes design and operation of 168 coke oven batteries in the USSR with a capacity of 86,507 Mt coke per year. The mean service life of a coke oven battery is 20.9 years. Of 168 batteries 16.1% has a service life below 5 years, 10.7% from 5 to 10, 9.5% from 10 to 15, 9.5% from 15 to 20, 10.1% from 20 to 25. 16.1% from 25 to 30, 10.1% from 30 to 35, 15.5% from 35 to 40 and 2.4% has a service life exceeding 40 years. The following aspects are discussed: dimensions of a coke oven and their effects on coking, types of refractory bricks and elements used for coke oven construction, basic technological solutions and equipment used for reducing environmental pollution (smokeless charging, smokeless coke discharge, dry coke quenching, air pollution control methods), technical refitting of coke oven batteries in the USSR. 4 refs.

  17. Hydrogen Production by Catalytic Partial Oxidation of Coke Oven Gas in BaCo0.7Fe0.3-xZrxO3-δ Ceramic Membrane Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Weilin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The BaCo0.7Fe0.3-xZrxO3-δ (BCFZ, x = 0.04–0.12 mixed ionic–electronic conducting (MIEC membranes were synthesized with a sol–gel method and evaluated as potential membrane reactor materials for the partial oxidation of coke oven gas (COG. The effect of zirconium content on the phase structure, microstructure and performance of the BCFZ membrane under He or COG atmosphere were systemically investigated. The BaCo0.7Fe0.24Zr0.06O3-δ membrane exhibited the best oxygen permeability and good operation stability, which could be a potential candidate of the membrane materials for hydrogen production through the partial oxidation of COG.

  18. Reform Practice and Benefit Analysis on Flue Gas Waste Heat Recovery Project of Coke Oven%焦炉烟道废气余热回收项目改造实践及效益分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志强

    2015-01-01

    文章结合山西金桃园煤焦化集团有限公司的实际运行情况,分析焦炉烟道废气余热回收改造实践及效益,为众多焦化企业实现节能降耗提供参考。%In this paper, the author combin with the actual operation of Shanxi Jintaoyuan Coking Group Co., Ltd., It ana-lyzes coke oven flue gas waste heat recovery and the practice of rebuilding of benefit, provides the reference for the numer-ous coking enterprises to achieve energy saving.

  19. Improvement in operating conditions of coke oven batteries with long service life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obertenev, V.N.; Bondarchuk, P.N.; Krut' ko, I.G.; Sheptovitskii, M.S.; Kaftan, Yu.S.; Shul' ga, I.V.; Vol' fovskii, A.G. (Mariupol' skii Koksokhimicheskii Zavod (USSR))

    1991-01-01

    Discusses operation of the coke oven battery No 1 in the Mariupol' coking plant constructed in 1949. Twenty-five of 69 coke oven chambers had liners deformed due to wear. In 1988-1989 a number of failures occurred due to accumulation of pyrolysis products and tar on coke oven walls. Excessive liner wear negatively influenced coking conditions (e.g. reducing the bulk density of charged coal, increasing the buildup on coke oven walls, increasing the density and viscosity of coal tar and content of solid particles in the tar). Increased viscosity and content of solid particles in the tar increased failure rates of a tar transport system. Coal tar properties in the Mariupol' plant and 8 other plants in the USSR are comparatively evaluated. Specific properties of coal tar from the Mariupol' plant and their causes were determined. On the basis of the evaluations coal tar properties were controlled by changing coal mixture composition (content of gas coal was reduced to 32% of G and GZh types). Reducing content of gas coal in the mixtures reduced coke oven failure rate, increased coke compression strength by 0.6% and reduced coke abrasion by 0.25%. 5 refs.

  20. Purge gas producing LNG in coke oven gas to methanol%焦炉煤气制甲醇的弛放气生产液化天然气

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董永波

    2015-01-01

    通过对20万t/a焦炉煤气制取甲醇过程中产生的甲醇弛放气进行分析研究,提出了利用甲醇弛放气合成液化天然气的循环再利用途径,并且与利用甲醇弛放气合成氨、合成甲醇等循环再利用方法对比,得出了利用甲醇弛放气生产液化天然气是当前最有效、最经济的利用途径,项目实施后企业每年可以生产液化天然气1.34万t,收益2200万元。%The paper analyzes and investigates methanol purge gas producing in 200 000 t/a coke oven gas to methanol process, it proposes recycling method in producing LNG by methanol purge gas, it obtains that producing LNG by methanol purge gas is the most effective and most economical way after contracting recycling methods between synthesis ammonia and synthesis methanol by methanol purge gas. After the implementation of the project, the company can produce LNG 13 400 t/a, 22 million yuan profit.

  1. 焦炉煤气-甲醇产业链延伸技术方案的经济分析%Economic evaluation of industrial chain extension solutions for coke oven gas to methanol and chemicals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易群; 吴彦丽; 范洋; 胡长淳; 褚琦; 冯杰; 李文英

    2014-01-01

    与煤制甲醇和天然气制甲醇工艺相比,焦炉煤气制甲醇不仅可以有效利用焦炉煤气中的氢,而且具有低成本的优势。在焦炉煤气制甲醇工艺基础上,文中提出了3种具有发展潜力的焦炉煤气综合利用方案:①气化煤气-焦炉煤气制甲醇生产方案;②焦炉煤气-乙炔-甲醇下游产品方案;③气化煤气-焦炉煤气-乙炔-甲醇下游产品方案。以200×104 t焦炭的生产规模分析了3种方案经济性,其毛利润分别为24.21亿元,18.92亿元和28.74亿元;内部收益率分别为28.29%、24.34%和27.11%。气化煤气-焦炉煤气-乙炔-甲醇下游产品方案充分发挥了规模效应和产品高附加值的特点,具有明显的经济优势;系统灵活性高,抵御市场风险能力强。%Production cost of methanol from abundant and cheap coke oven gas (COG) is about 800-1000 CNY·t-1 lower than that from coal or natural gas. With expansion of international methanol production capacity and production scale, methanol market competition becomes more intense and cost advantage of coke oven gas to methanol is reduced evidently. It is significant to improve technology and extend industrial chains to use coke oven gas and obtain maximal benefits on the basis of coke oven gas to methanol production. One technical solution is combining coke oven gas with coal gasified gas (CGG) to produce methanol. CH4/CO2 reforming technology is used to convert CO2+CH4 into H2+CO, and adjust H2/CO ratio of syngas in this scheme. With this scheme, methanol production can increase by 30%. Another option is to extend methanol industrial chain to obtain high-value-added downstream products, such as vinyl acetate, polyvinyl alcohol, and 1,4-butanediol. In this design, CH4 is separated from COG to make acetylene, which is used to synthesize methanol downstream products by methane partial oxidation technology. However, 0.07 billion m3 H2 surplus and small scale of methanol production

  2. 甲醇弛放气掺入量的变化对焦炉加热的影响%The Impact of Variation in the Blending Ratio of Methanol Purge Gas on the Heating of the Coke Ovens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严加才; 于泳; 李建华

    2011-01-01

    结合开滦京唐港煤化工园区生产实际,根据甲醇弛放气波动造成煤气热值变化,来计算所需空气和产生废气量以及炉温的变化.结果表明,弛放气掺入量在0%-40%时,若未调节入炉空气量,弛放气每降低10%,理论燃烧温度会升高85℃左右,并提出弛放气波动情况下的调节意见,为焦炉加热调温提供参考.%The amount of air required, the amount of the exhaust gas and the oven temperature were calculated based on the actual production of the Kailuan Coal Chemical Industial Park, in particular, the change in the calorific value due to the fluctuation of the methanol purge gas. Results showed that when the amount of purge gas was between 0% and 40%, the theoretical combustion temperature would raise by approximately 85℃ with every 10% of decrease of the purge gas, on condition that the air feed into the oven was not regulated. The way to regulate the heating of the oven when the purge gas fluctuated was suggested. This can serve as a reference for heating and temperature regulation of the coke ovens.

  3. 淮钢套筒窑下烧嘴掺烧焦炉煤气改造%Modification of mixed combustion of coke oven gas for lower combustion chamber in the annular shaft kiln of Huaisteel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张全生

    2014-01-01

    分析了煤气热值下降对石灰煅烧造成的影响,提出下燃烧室掺烧焦炉煤气方案,并对该方案进行了可行性分析,根据方案要求设计了一种新型燃气烧嘴,最后对整个方案的经济性进行了分析,保证了该改造方案无论从技术上还是经济上都能够满足要求。%The influence of lime calcinations effected by decreasing value converter gas was analyzed . A new scheme mixing coke oven gas in lower combustion chamber was proposed .And the feasibility of the scheme was analyzed .According to the design requirements , a new type of gas burner was de-signed.Finally the economical efficiency of this scheme was analyzed , which could be make sure the modification scheme was feasible .

  4. 提高焦炉气甲醇生产中总碳利用率的措施%Measures of Improving Total Carbon Utilization Efficiency by Using Coke-Oven Gas for Methanol Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    台文玲

    2014-01-01

    在以焦炉气为原料生产甲醇过程中,新鲜合成气的总碳利用率达不到设计要求,为此采取了调整转化炉工艺操作条件的措施,即提高转化炉温度和压力、降低水碳比等以降低新鲜合成气中 CO2的含量。改进后,催化剂使用后期的精甲醇产量和新鲜合成气的总碳利用率分别提高了19 t/d和9.4%,CO2排放量减少了8623 t/a。%In the process of making methanol by using coke-oven gas as raw material , total carbon utilization efficiency of fresh synthesis gas is lower than design target , measures are taken thus adjusting working conditions of converter by raising its temperature and pressure , lowering water/carbon ratio to reduce CO 2 in fresh synthesis gas .It has been found the output of purified methanol and total carbon utilization efficiency have been improved by 19 t/d and 9.4% in later service period of catalyst , and CO 2 emission has been reduced about 8 623 t/a.

  5. Selection and Execution for Process Scheme of Synthetic Ammonia Made by Coke-Oven Gas%焦炉煤气制合成氨工艺方案的选取和实施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文德国; 苏庆贺; 陈世通

    2014-01-01

    介绍了山东临沂恒昌化工科技有限公司焦炉煤气制合成氨装置的立项背景;确定了装置的工艺方案和主要设备;简述了装置节能降耗的主要措施。结果表明:该装置一次试车成功,吨氨电耗约1000 kW· h,制造成本约1500元/t,经济效益明显。%Author has introduced the project approval background for plant of synthetic ammonia made by coke-oven gas in the Shandong Linyi Hengchang Chemical Engineering Science and Technology Company Ltd .; has determined the process scheme and main equipment; has described the main measures about energy saving and consume lowering.Result indicates that the trial run of plant was succesful in one time, the electricity power per ton of ammonia is saved by 1 000 kW· h, fabrication cost is saved by 1 500 Yuan RMB per ton, the economic benefit is obvious.

  6. Study and Application of Sealing Material for Coke Oven Chamber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAN Feifang; TAI Li

    2005-01-01

    A kind of dry refractory sealing material has been developed to repair the fine cracks in coke oven chamber. With silica sand as the main raw material, the sealing material is blown into coke oven chamber by compressed air while being applied, and bonded to brick surface or filled in fine cracks of chamber under right pressure. The physical properties of the material are similar to those of silica bricks during its application. So it can be adapted to conditions of coke oven and has good service life. The study and application results of the sealing material are described in this paper.

  7. Optimization of the coke-oven activated sludge plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raizer Neto, Ernesto [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Colin, Francois [Institut de Recherches Hydrologiques, 54 - Nancy (France); Prost, Christian [Laboratoire de Sciences de Genie Chimique, Nancy (France)

    1993-12-31

    In the coke-oven activated sludge plants one of the greatest problems of malfunction is due to inffluent variability. The composition and, or, concentration variations of the inffluent substrate, which can cause an unstable system, are function of the pollutant load. Nevertheless, the knowledge of the kinetic biodegradation of the coke-oven effluent represents the limiting factor to develop an effective biological treatment. This work describes a computational model of the biological treatment which was elaborated and validated from continuous pilot scale experiments and calibrated by comparing its predictions to the pilot experiment`s results. 12 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. 40 CFR 63.303 - Standards for nonrecovery coke oven batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... batteries. 63.303 Section 63.303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.303 Standards for nonrecovery coke oven batteries... existing nonrecovery coke oven battery that exceed any of the following emission limitations...

  9. 40 CFR 63.302 - Standards for by-product coke oven batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... batteries. 63.302 Section 63.302 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.302 Standards for by-product coke oven batteries... oven emissions from each affected existing by-product coke oven battery that exceed any of...

  10. 29 CFR 1910.1029 - Coke oven emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Data Exposure to coke oven emissions is a cause of lung cancer, and kidney cancer, in humans. Although... to which other Federal agencies exercise statutory authority to prescribe or enforce standards... status of the program. (7) Training in compliance procedures. The employer shall incorporate all...

  11. 基于信息化平台的焦炉集气管压力监控系统的开发%Development of Pressure Monitoring System for Gas-collecting Tube of Coke Oven Based on the Informatization Platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱里红; 杨明; 王洋

    2014-01-01

    The pressure system of gas-collecging tube in the coke oven is a typical nonlinear multi-variable coupled system,composed of coke oven,gas-collecting tube,primary cooler,blower and a number of regulating valves.Through control of the opening of the butterfly valve,the pressure of the gas-collecting tube is maintained at 100 ±20 Pa to facilitate improvement of coke and gas quality.That also produces positive effects on life span of furnace body,energy saving and environment protection.KingSCADA is characterized through integrated management,modular development,visual and intelligent diagnosis and control,easy and simple utilization and safe reliable operation.This paper presents development of the pressure monitoring system by means of KingSCADA on the basis of the operating characteristics of the gas-collecting tube of the coke oven.%焦炉集气管压力系统是典型的非线性多变量耦合系统,由焦炉、集气管、初冷器、鼓风机和多个调节阀组成,通过对蝶阀开度的控制使集气管压力保持在100 Pa ±20 Pa,有利于提高焦炭和煤气质量,同时还对炉体寿命、节能、环保等有积极的作用。King-SCADA具有集成化管理、模块式开发、可视化、智能化诊断及控制,使用简单方便,运行安全可靠等特点,介绍了在焦炉集气管工作特性的基础上利用KingSCADA实现压力监控系统的开发。

  12. Construction solutions applied at coke oven battery no. 7 in the aspect of international requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadeusz Maj; Mariola Honisz; Wladyslaw Latocha; Wiktor Humer; Ludwik Kosyrczyk [' Zdzieszowice' Coking Plant Ltd. (Poland)

    2004-07-01

    15 slides/overheads outline this presentation. In February 2003 a new coke oven battery was put into operation in Zdzieszowice. In view of Poland's joining the European Union a series of technical solutions were implemented to improve working conditions in addition to improving the technology of the coking process. The paper describes the actions taken over one and a half years of operation. These include maintaining the recommended low level of NOx emission (comparable to that of CO) by waste gas recirculation.

  13. Assessment of coke oven emissions exposure among coking workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, M.L.; Mao, I.F.; Wu, M.T.; Chen, J.R.; Ho, C.K.; Smith, T.J.; Wypij, D.; Christiani, D.C. [National Yang Ming University, Taipei (Taiwan). Dept. of Public Health

    1999-01-01

    Coking workers are regularly exposed to coke oven emissions, which consist primarily of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds. This study measured the workers` exposure to the benzene soluble fraction of total particulates (BSF). Personal breathing-zone samples of BSF and total particulates were taken from all study subjects for 3 consecutive days. The highest BSF concentrations were found among the topside oven workers. Among the samples at the topside oven 84% exceeded the Occupational Safety and Health Administration standard (150 {mu}g/m{sup 3} BSF). The percentage of BSF in total particulates varied across job classifications, ranging from 0.3% in wharf men to 24% in tar chasers. Area sampling indicated that the BSF concentration at the topside area was sixty fold higher than that at the administrative area, which was approximately 2 km from the coke oven plant.

  14. Feedback control strategy of longitudinal temperature and finished carbonization time for coke oven and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Huo; Zhi Wen; Dong Chen; Yueling Shen; Yongqin Zhang; Xiaoming Zhi

    2004-01-01

    Based on the detailed analysis of the third coke oven in BaoSteel, a feedback control strategy of longitudinal temperature and finished carbonization time of coke ovens was proposed and it was applied to the third coke oven in BaoSteel. As a result, the ratio of the instance that the absolute deviation of the longitudinal temperature is within ±7°C and the finished carbonization time within ± 10 rain is more than 80%, having acquired the patent saving effect of an energy consumption lowered by 2.92%. At the same time, it can provide an example for the same coke ovens inside and outside the nation.

  15. Development and Application of Zero Expansion Silica Brick for Hot Repairing of Coke Oven

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiuqin; ZHI Xiaoming; WANG Hongmei

    2003-01-01

    In order to meet the needs of hot repairing technology of coke oven, the zero expansion silica brick with super properties has been developed, and the problem of poor thermal stability of common silica brick has been overcomned. This product can be directly used after being rapidly heated after construction. At present, it has been applied in coke ovens in Italy and Baosteel.

  16. A method of, and apparatus for cooling and keeping clean the roof of a coke oven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoelter, H.; Igelbuescher, H.; Gresch, H.

    1990-01-04

    Coking emissions occurring in the region of a coke oven roof are trapped and controlled at the coke oven roof so that clean conditions are safeguarded. A roof super structure is disposed above a bank of coke ovens to define a chamber in which a partial vacuum prevails. Emissions are dispersed into a chimney in the region of the riser pipes, covering the bank of coke ovens. On the side of the chamber opposite the riser pipes and chimney fresh air is continuously drawn in and blown into the chamber with the aid of nozzles. Thus, air guidance directly at the coke oven roof is favourable, guaranteeing maintenance of admissible workplace temperatures and other environmental conditions.

  17. Application of SketchUp in Coke Oven Three-Dimensional Digital Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuguang Ouyang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Coke oven, which is a large industrial furnace, is complex in structure. A two-dimensional structure diagram can hardly help one observe the inner structure of a coke oven or master its working principle comprehensively. In order to solve this problem, a complete 3D digital model of a coke oven is generated by assembling the three-dimensional models of coke oven components created with SketchUp. It enables users to section the various components of the cove oven. The outer appearance and inner structure of the oven components also can be displayed visually from several different orientations. Moreover, it is convenient to storage and carry, operation easily and fast. It can be displayed on an ordinary computer and occupies no space at the laboratory. Meanwhile, a large sum of money that used for purchasing a physical coke oven model can be saved.

  18. Separation Processes and Economic Analysis of Associated Semi-coke Oven Gas Membrane Separation Enhanced Hydrogen%兰炭伴生焦炉煤气膜分离增强制氢分离工艺及经济性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张健青

    2013-01-01

    In order to utilize the hydrogen effectively in the coke oven gas, a by-product of low temperature pyrolysis, a process based on the hydrogen production by methane steam reforming and water gas shift reactions was proposed, and the membrane reactors coupling reaction and separation were used to enhance the hydrogen production. By selective membrane and metal hydride based thermal swing adsorption, hydrogen products with varied purity can be obtained.%为了有效回收煤低温热解过程中伴生的副产物-焦炉煤气中的氢气成分,本文提出了一种基于甲烷蒸汽重整和水煤气变换制氢的工艺路线,并通过耦合反应和分离过程的膜反应器提高了氢气的产率,通过膜渗透和基于金属氢化物的变温吸附分离可输出不同纯度的氢气产品。

  19. Trial Operation and Summarization for New Ammonia Synthesis Plant Taking Coke-Oven Gas and Methanol Releasing Gas As Raw Materials%以焦炉煤气和甲醇弛放气为原料的新型合成氨装置试运行总结

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈世通; 苏庆贺; 林广顺; 孙善楠

    2013-01-01

      The synthetic ammonia plant with a capacity of 100,000 t /a, in the Shandong Linyi Hengchang Chemical Engineering Science and Tech-nology Company Ltd., was a first large-sized plant producing synthetic ammonia, taking coke-oven gas and methanol releasing gas as the raw materials. Author has introduced the process flow, process feature, plant energy consume and the trial operation situation of this plant .Result indicates that,①This plantutilizes the waste coke-oven gas and methanol releasing gas as well as the nitrogen gas by-produced from and air separation system as the raw materi-als, reaching to purposes for energy saving and discharge reducing, comprehensive utilization;②New process producing synthesis ammonia by pure oxygen and pure nitrogen in China is firstly used, it can make the plant increasing production, reducing consume, stable operation;③Comprehensive energy con-sume ammonia of plant is 30.829 GJ /t, energy consume index reaches to an advanced level in China;④Daily average production of this plant can reach to 300 t, annual sale income can reach to 2.8 ×108 Yuan RMB, that can also obtain a better economic benefit.%  山东临沂恒昌化工科技有限公司10万 t/a 合成氨装置是国内首套以焦炉煤气和甲醇弛放气为原料生产合成氨的大型化装置。介绍了该装置的工艺流程、工艺特点、装置能耗及装置试运行情况。结果表明:①该装置利用富余的焦炉煤气和甲醇弛放气及空分系统的副产氮气为原料,达到了节能减排,综合利用的目的;②在国内首次采用纯氢纯氮制取合成氨新工艺,可使装置高产、低耗、平稳运行;③装置吨氨综合能耗为30.829 GJ,能耗指标达到国内先进水平;④该装置平均日产可达300 t,年销售收入可达2.8亿元,可以获得较好的经济效益。

  20. Specific long non-coding RNAs response to occupational PAHs exposure in coke oven workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Gao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To explore whether the alteration of lncRNA expression is correlated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs exposure and DNA damage, we examined PAHs external and internal exposure, DNA damage and lncRNAs (HOTAIR, MALAT1, TUG1 and GAS5 expression in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLCs of 150 male coke oven workers and 60 non-PAHs exposure workers. We found the expression of HOTAIR, MALAT1, and TUG1 were enhanced in PBLCs of coke oven workers and positively correlated with the levels of external PAHs exposure (adjusted Ptrend < 0.001 for HOTAIR and MALAT1, adjusted Ptrend = 0.006 for TUG1. However, only HOTAIR and MALAT1 were significantly associated with the level of internal PAHs exposure (urinary 1-hydroxypyrene with adjusted β = 0.298, P = 0.024 for HOTAIR and β = 0.090, P = 0.034 for MALAT1. In addition, the degree of DNA damage was positively associated with MALAT1 and HOTAIR expression in PBLCs of all subjects (adjusted β = 0.024, P = 0.002 for HOTAIR and β = 0.007, P = 0.003 for MALAT1. Moreover, we revealed that the global histone 3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3 modification was positively associated with the degree of genetic damage (β = 0.061, P < 0.001 and the increase of HOTAIR expression (β = 0.385, P = 0.018. Taken together, our findings suggest that altered HOTAIR and MALAT1 expression might be involved in response to PAHs-induced DNA damage.

  1. Development of a system for wireless stopping of coke oven machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mil' ko, M.S.; Yakushina, E.N.; Babanskii, M.I.; Lipskii, M.N. (SKBA NPO Chermetavtomatika (USSR))

    1991-02-01

    Discusses design and operation of a wireless system for control of quenching cars and machines for opening coke oven doors. The system was developed by Chermetavtomatika and tested in the Mariupol' coking plant. It is used on a coke oven battery with a coke oven volume of 41.6 m{sup 3}. The system controls motion of the quenching cars, stopped the cars, controlled door removal after the quenching car reached the proper position. Main system elements are characterized: signal transmitters and receivers, relay systems. The system, recommended for other coking plants, is characterized as accurate and reliable.

  2. Wet flue gas desulfurization processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayrunnisa Çavuşoğlu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The wet flue gas desulfurization process is widely used for the treatment of exhaust gases in power stations. Due to its high level of effectiveness over the already available processes, it has also been the mostly preferred method by industry. Its high SO2 removal efficiency, wide applicability of absorption chemicals and the ease of the chemical process handling which does not require comprehensive konowledge are among the main advantages of this process. In this article, various wet flue gas desulfurization processes such as lime/limestone have beendiscussed.

  3. 焦炉烟囱 NO x排放控制刍议%Comment on control of NOx emission from chimney of coke oven battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡承祐

    2013-01-01

    The new national standard“ Emission standard of pollutants for coking chemical industry”regulates the requirement for control of NO x emission from chimney of coke oven battery .The techni-cal measures on design of heating system of coke oven battery and treatment of oven flue gas after it is discharged from the battery for control of NO x emission are expounded in this paper .The author also makes brief description of technology on denitrification of flue gas by using SCR process and sug -gests that in order to meet the requirement of the national standard for control of NO x emission from chimney of coke oven battery located in the “special region”, flue gas discharged from the coke oven battery should be further treated by using SCR denitrification technology with learning experience of Tokyo Gas gained from test of pilot plant and engineering .%新的国家标准《炼焦化学工业污染物排放标准》提出了焦炉烟囱的NOx 排放控制要求。本文从焦炉加热系统的设计和对焦炉烟道废气的后处理2个层面论述了焦炉烟囱NOx 排放控制的技术措施,简要介绍了SCR烟气脱硝技术,提出了借鉴日本东京煤气公司的中试与工程经验,采用SCR脱硝技术对焦炉烟道废气进行后处理,以达到国家标准对“特别地区”焦炉烟囱的NOx排放控制要求。

  4. Sperm quality and DNA integrity of coke oven workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Hueiwang Anna; Pan, Chih-Hong; Chao, Mu-Rong; Chiu, Chien-Chih; Zhou, Guodong; Chou, Chon-Kit; Lin, Wen-Yi

    2016-11-18

    The objective of this study was to assess sperm quality and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) integrity of coke oven workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as compared to control subjects. The coke oven workers (N = 52) and administrative staff (N = 35) of a steel plant served as the exposed and control groups, respectively. Exposure to PAHs was assessed by measuring 1-hydroxypyren. Analysis of sperm quality (concentration, motility, vitality, and morphology) was performed simultaneously with sperm DNA integrity analysis, including DNA fragmentation, denaturation, bulky DNA adducts, and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dGuo). A questionnaire was conducted to collect demographic and potential confounding data. The coke oven workers had lower percentages of sperm motility, vitality and normal morphology than the control group, but the difference was not significant. For DNA integrity, the coke oven workers had significantly higher concentrations of bulky DNA adducts and 8-oxo-dGuo than the control subjects (p = 0.009 and p = 0.048, respectively). However, DNA fragmentation percentages did not significantly increase as compared to those in the subjects from the control group (p = 0.232). There was no correlation between sperm quality parameters and DNA integrity indicators. Occupational exposure of the coke oven workers to PAHs was associated with decreased sperm DNA integrity. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2016;29(6):915-926.

  5. Sperm quality and DNA integrity of coke oven workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hueiwang Anna Jeng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess sperm quality and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA integrity of coke oven workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs as compared to control subjects. Material and methods: The coke oven workers (N = 52 and administrative staff (N = 35 of a steel plant served as the exposed and control groups, respectively. Exposure to PAHs was assessed by measuring 1-hydroxypyren. Analysis of sperm quality (concentration, motility, vitality, and morphology was performed simultaneously with sperm DNA integrity analysis, including DNA fragmentation, denaturation, bulky DNA adducts, and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2’-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dGuo. A questionnaire was conducted to collect demographic and potential confounding data. Results: The coke oven workers had lower percentages of sperm motility, vitality and normal morphology than the control group, but the difference was not significant. For DNA integrity, the coke oven workers had significantly higher concentrations of bulky DNA adducts and 8-oxo-dGuo than the control subjects (p = 0.009 and p = 0.048, respectively. However, DNA fragmentation percentages did not significantly increase as compared to those in the subjects from the control group (p = 0.232. There was no correlation between sperm quality parameters and DNA integrity indicators. Conclusions: Occupational exposure of the coke oven workers to PAHs was associated with decreased sperm DNA integrity. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2016;29(6:915–926

  6. PROBLEMS WITH DETERMINATION OF FUGITIVE EMISSION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS FROM COKE OVEN BATTERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Bigda

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Coke oven battery is complex and multifaceted facility in terms of air pollutant emissions. As far as stack or quenching tower does not cause major difficulties of emission measurement, the fugitive emission measurement from sources such as battery top elements (charging holes, ascension pipes or oven doors is still complicated and not fully solved problem. This article presents the discussion concerning main problems and errors likely to be made in particular stages of procedure of fugitive emissions characterization from coke oven battery (selection of sampling points, sampling itself, measurement of air velocity over battery top and laboratory analyses. In addition, results of concentrations measurements of selected substances characteristic for the coking process (naphthalene, anthracene, 4 PAHs and TSP originating from fugitive sources of coke oven battery and subjected to reporting under the E-PRTR are presented. The measurements were carried out on coke oven battery top in points selected on the basis of the preceding detailed air convection velocity measurements over battery top. Results of the velocity measurements were compared with results of numerical modelling using CFD software. The presented material is an attempt to cross-sectional presentation of issues related to the quantitative evaluation of fugitive emission from coke oven battery, discussed on the example of PAHs emission as a group of substances characteristic for coking of coal.

  7. Pre-commissioning of 120 kt/a Unit for Hydrotreating Crude Coke Oven Benzene Implemented at Baoyuan Chemical Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The Baoyuan Chemical Company, Ltd. in Taiyuan has per-formed the precommissioning of a 120 kt/a unit for hydrotreating crude coke oven benzene. This unit is the phase II construction of the 300 kt/a crude benzene hydrotreating project, which adopts the process technology for hydrotreating crude coke oven benzene developed indepen-dently by our own efforts.

  8. 焦炉热工测试分析%Thermal test analysis of coke oven

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李强生; 王丽丽; 赵春竹; 丛伟; 谢国威

    2014-01-01

    通过对焦炉的热工测试分析,定量反应了焦炉炉况,并对焦炉各项指标进行了评定,为进一步采取措施提升焦炉热效率,实现低能高效生产具有指导意义。%The thermal test analysis reflected the energy characteristic of coke oven in quantify .It e-valuated the indicators of coke oven , had a guiding significance to increase thermal efficiency by tak-ing further measures and realize efficient production by low energy consumption .

  9. Lung cancer in an urban area in Northern Italy near a coke oven plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parodi, Stefano; Stagnaro, Emanuele; Casella, Claudia; Puppo, Antonella; Daminelli, Enrico; Fontana, Vincenzo; Valerio, Federico; Vercelli, Marina

    2005-02-01

    Coke ovens are well-known sources of potentially carcinogenic air pollutants, but studies on resident populations are still poor. This study investigates the incidence of lung cancer near a coke oven in Cornigliano, a district of the Genoa municipality in Northern Italy. Genoa proper and one district similar to Cornigliano as regards socio-economic deprivation were selected as referents. Incidence data were drawn from the Ligurian Cancer Registry for 1986-1997 calendar period. Concentrations of pollutants related to the industrial activity (namely benzene, benzo[a]pyrene, PM(10), CO, NO(2) and SO(2)) were collected in selected locations before and after the coke oven closing. Spatial trend around the plant was assessed by Stone's test, while the pattern of risk across Cornigliano was evaluated via disease mapping in a Bayesian model. A gradient of air pollutants was observed around the coke oven, which disappeared after its closing. In Cornigliano, 158 lung cancer cases were observed in males and 28 in females. Only a marginal excess risk was observed versus the two selected referents, while a gradient in the areas close to the plant emerged among females. Disease mapping revealed another cluster of risk for both sexes in the Eastern part of the district, where a foundry was operative until the early 1980s. The excess risk for females is consistent with pollution measurements and with other epidemiological evidence. The geographic pattern of incidence suggests a role of industrial air pollution as a risk factor for lung cancer.

  10. Development and Application of High Quality Silica Brick for Coke Ovens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGHongmei; XIAOChangyu

    1998-01-01

    As coke oven becoming larger,silica brick for coke oven is required to be of high uqality,Luoyang Refractories(Grop)Co.Ltd.(LRCO) has re-searched the mineralizer which contains Ca2+,R+,Al3+,F-,emphatically and proposed the principle of composite mineralizer basd on the properties of raw materials used .High performance silia brick which is characterized by low thermal expansion rate,good high temperature properties,residual quartz<0.5%,true density 2.31,and high bulk density silica brick for carbonization room with apparent porosity 13% ,bulk density l.96 g/cm3 have been developed and produced successfully by LR-CO.The quality of the bricks has reached the inter-national advenced level.

  11. The year-book of the Coke Oven Managers' Association 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The 88th volume of the Year Book outlines activities of the Coke Oven Managers' Association throughout 2007 and reproduces transactions presented to the industry through its various sections. It includes lists of Council and committee members and representation on committees and past presidents, and a full list of members. Reports of Council 2005-6 and of the annual general meeting 2005 are included. The Presidential address by R.G.W. Sargent looks at the situation faced by coke oven managers through the decades with some predictions for the future. Carbonisation and briquetting works in the United Kingdom, Koppers carbon materials and chemical works in the UK and Europe, European coking plants, their addresses and managers are listed. Nine transactions are abstracted separately on the Coal Abstracts database.

  12. The year-book of the Coke Oven Managers' Association 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    The 89th volume of the Year Book outlines activities of the Coke Oven Managers' Association throughout 2008 and reproduces transactions presented to the industry through its various sections. It includes lists of Council and Committee members and representation on committees and past presidents, and a full list of members. Reports of Council 2006-7 and of the annual general meeting 2007 are included. The Presidential address by A. Moore is about his experiences at Redcar Coke Ovens. Carbonisation and briquetting works in the United Kingdom, Koppers carbon materials and chemical works in the UK and Europe, European coking plants, their addresses and managers are listed. Six transactions are abstracted separately on the Coal Abstracts database.

  13. The dose-response decrease in heart rate variability: any association with the metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in coke oven workers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohai Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Air pollution has been associated with an increased risk of cardiopulmonary mortality and decreased heart rate variability (HRV. However, it is unclear whether coke oven emissions (COEs and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are associated with HRV. OBJECTIVES: Our goal in the present study was to investigate the association of exposure to COEs and the urinary metabolite profiles of PAHs with HRV of coke oven workers. METHODS: We measured benzene soluble matter, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, particulate matters, and PAHs at different workplaces of a coke oven plant. We determined 10 urinary PAH metabolites and HRV indices of 1333 workers using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and a 3-channel digital Holter monitor, respectively. RESULTS: Our results showed that there was a significant COEs-related dose-dependent decrease in HRV, and an inverse relationship between the quartiles of urinary 2-hydroxynaphthalene and five HRV indices (p(trend<0.01 for all. After adjustment for potential confounders, elevation per interquartile range (IQR (1.81 µg/mmol creatinine of urinary 2-hydroxynaphthalene was associated with a 5.46% (95% CI, 2.50-8.32 decrease in standard deviation of NN intervals (SDNN. As workers worked more years, SDNN gradually declined in the same quartiles of 2-hydroxynaphthalene levels (p(trend = 1.40×10(-4, especially in workers with the highest levels of 2-hydroxynaphthalene. CONCLUSIONS: Occupational exposure to COEs is associated with a dose-response decrease in HRV. In particular, increased exposure to 2-hydroxynaphthalene is associated with significantly decreased HRV. Increase of working years and exposure levels has resulted in a gradual decline of HRV.

  14. Selection, follow-up, and analysis in the Coke Oven Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockette, H E; Redmond, C K

    1985-05-01

    The current standard for exposure to coke oven emissions sets a permissible exposure of 150 micrograms benzene-soluble fraction of total particulate matter/m3. The major epidemiologic study that formed the basis for this standard including a review of the evidence of a dose-response relationship between exposure to coal tar pitch volatiles and lung cancer is reviewed. Particular attention was given to the selection of the cohort, follow-up procedures, and the evolution of the analysis.

  15. Purification of coke oven wastewater; Depuracion de aguas residuales de coqueria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rancano, A.; Gutierrez, A.; Diaz, J.M.

    1998-06-01

    Coke oven wastewater are one of the most problematic that are produced by the iron and steel industry. They must be purified to minimise their impact on the environment. In this work a general vision about the different treatments that the wastewater must subject before being poured is showed. The options and efficiencies of every step were studied, taking special attention to the organic removal, studying the different ways to carry out this removal, centring on the biological treatment, the most used in this kind of wastewaters. (Author) 35 refs.

  16. Air pollution from a large steel factory: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions from coke-oven batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberti, Lorenzo; Notarnicola, Michele; Primerano, Roberto; Zannetti, Paolo

    2006-03-01

    A systematic investigation of solid and gaseous atmospheric emissions from some coke-oven batteries of one of Europe's largest integrated steel factory (Taranto, Italy) has been carried out. In air monitoring samples, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were consistently detected at concentrations largely exceeding threshold limit values. By means of PAHs speciation profile and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) equivalent dispersion modeling from diffuse sources, the study indicated that serious health risks exist not only in working areas, but also in a densely populated residential district near the factory.

  17. [Cancer risk for coke-oven workers in the Taranto steel plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giua, Roberto; Spartera, Maria; Viviano, Giuseppe; Ziemacki, Giovanni; Carbotti, Giovanni

    2005-01-01

    Taranto coke oven batteries create a carcinogenic risk because of workers' exposure to PAHs, benzene and asbestos. Because of the vicinity to the city and the inadequacy of measures of pollution control, a risk also exists for the general population. Although the issue of environmental reclaim had been addressed by a specific law (DPR 23.04.1998), the solution to close the oldest batteries had been adopted through and enforced by the city administration and the Court. However, a recent agreement between ILVA and the Apulia Regional Administration has allowed to restart the use of some ovens, after simple revamping.

  18. System for reducing emissions during coke oven charging; System zur Emissionsverringerung beim Fuellen von Koksoefen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuecker, Franz-Josef [ThyssenKrupp Industrial Solutions AG, Dortmund (Germany). Head of Oven Machine Dept., Coke Plant Technologies

    2014-10-01

    This article describes a process which reduces emissions from coke production in coke plants. The focus is on the charging process, which can be partly responsible for the fact that statutory emissions limits, which were originally met, are exceeded as coke plants get older. This article presents a solution in the form of a newly developed system that allows the oven charging system - the charging car - to respond to age-related changes in the geometry of a coke oven and thereby reduce the level of emissions.

  19. Using the stable HSPA1A promoter-driven luciferase reporter HepG2 cells to assess the overall toxicity of coke oven emissions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    信丽丽

    2013-01-01

    Objective Using the stable HSPA1A(HSP70-1) promoter-driven luciferase reporter HepG2 cells(HepG2/HSPA1A cells) to assess the overall toxicity of coke oven emissions. Methods The stable HepG2/HSPA1A cells were treated with different concentrations of coke oven

  20. Urinary profiles to assess polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons exposure in coke-oven workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Laura; Rossella, Federica; Pavanello, Sofia; Mielzynska, Danuta; Siwinska, Ewa; Kapka, Lucyna; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Fustinoni, Silvia

    2010-01-15

    Aim of the study was the assessment of exposure of coke-oven workers to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by determination of urinary profiles of hydroxylated and unmetabolized PAHs. Fifty-five Polish coke-oven workers were investigated by measurement of 12 hydroxylated metabolites of PAHs (OHPAHs) (1-, 2-hydroxynaphthalene; 2-, 9-hydroxyfluorene; 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, 9-hydroxyphenanthrene; 1-hydroxyypyrene, 6-hydroxychrysene and 3-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene) and 13 unmetabolized PAHs (U-PAHs) (from naphthalene to benzo[a]pyrene), in spot urine samples collected at the end of the workshift. U-PAHs with four or less rings were detected in all samples. In particular, median levels for urinary naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene, chrysene and benz[a]anthracene were 0.806, 0.721, 0.020, 0.032 and 0.035 microg/L. OHPAHs up to 1-hydroxypyrene were found in all samples, while high molecular-weight OHPAHs were always below quantification limit. Median level of 1-hydroxyypyrene was 15.4 microg/L. In all subjects significant correlations between OHPAHs and U-PAHs were observed (0.27 < r < 0.70, p < 0.01). Our results suggest that both hydroxylated metabolites and unmetabolized PAHs in urine are useful biomarkers of exposure to PAHs. Moreover, the simultaneous determination of several biomarkers permits to obtain specific excretion profiles that might help in exposure characterization and in better defining the excretion patterns.

  1. Study on Culturing and Training Chromatium in CSTR by Coke Oven Gas and Desulfurization in coal%着色细菌在CSTR反应器中的培养及对煤脱硫作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王德强; 郑明东; 黄继萍

    2003-01-01

    着色细菌在CSTR反应器中进行驯化和富集培养,培养基为含H2S、CO2和氨态氮的煤气(其中H2S含量为2.0 g/m3).结果发现细菌生长良好,同时可以在体内积累硫磺,揭示了其利用无机硫的作用.同时在CSTR反应器中进行了煤脱硫研究,煤粉中加入适当水分,考察了其对硫化亚铁的分解作用及影响因素.

  2. Significant Positive Correlation of Plasma BPDE-Albumin Adducts to Urinary 1-Hydroxypyrene in Coke Oven Workers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG WANG; TANG-CHUN WU; XIAO-BO YANG; AI-LIN LIU; HONG-YAN ZHEN; LIANG GUO; HUA-SHAN LIANG; YONG-YI BI; YUN BAI; YONG-WEN CHEN

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate the application of BPDE-albumin adducts as monitoring biomarkers for coke oven workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs)and to explore possible relationship between BPDE-albumin adducts and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP)levels in them.Methods Thirty-seven coke oven workers from a coke plant and 47 controls without the occupational exposure to PAHs were recruited in this study.The levels of plasma BPDE-albumin adducts and urinary 1-OHP were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography.Results The median levels of BPDE-albumin adducts(42.10 fmol/mg albumin)and urinary 1-OHP(5.46 μmol/mol creatinine)were significantly higher in coke oven workers than in controls(14.16 fmol/mg albumin,2.96 μmol/mol creatinine,respectively;P<0.01).Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that coke oven workers were at higher risk of having BPDE-albumin adduct levels above 25.30 prnol/mg albumin(OR=1.79,P<0.01)and urinary 1-OHP levels above 4.13 μmol/mol creatinine(OR=2.45,P<0.05).There was a positive correlation between the levels of BPDE-albumin adducts and urinary 1-OHP in all subjects(rs=0.349,P<0.01).Conclusion BPDE-albumin adduct is a useful biomarker for monitoring long-term exposure to PAHs,and plasma BPDE-albumin adducts level is significantly correlated to urinary 1-OHP levels in coke oven workers.

  3. New Coke Oven Facilities at Linhuan Coal Chemical Company Adopt LyondellBasell's Aromatics Extraction Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The new 80 kt/a coal chemical unit at the Linhuan Coal Chemical Company in Anhui province will adopt the aro-matics extraction process licensed by LyondellBasell Company. This unit is expected to come on stream by 2009.This technology is suitable for manufacture of high-purity aromatics with broad adaptability and large scale produc-tion capability. In the previous year LyondellBasell was awarded six patents on aromatics extraction process. It is told that the achievements to be adopted by the Linhuan Coal Chemical Company are partly a series of aromatics extrac-tion processes for recovery of coke oven light oil performed by LyondellBasell.

  4. The association of XRCC1 haplotypes and chromosomal damage levels in peripheral blood lymphocyte among coke-oven workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuguang Leng; Juan Cheng; Linyuan Zhang; Yong Niu; Yufei Dai; Zufei Pan; Bin Li; Fengsheng He; Yuxin Zheng [Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing (China). National Institute of Occupational Health and Poison Control

    2005-05-15

    Theoretically, a haplotype has a higher level of heterozygosity than individual single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and the association study based on the haplotype may have an increased power for detecting disease associations compared with SNP-based analysis. In this study, we investigated the effects of four haplotype-tagging SNPs (htSNP) and the inferred haplotype pairs of the X-ray cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) gene on chromosome damage detected by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay. The study included 141 coke-oven workers with exposure to a high level of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and 66 nonexposed controls. The frequencies of total MN and MNed cells were borderline associated with the Arg{sup 194}Trp polymorphism (P = 0.053 and P = 0.050, respectively) but not associated with the Arg{sup 280}His, Arg{sup 399}Gln and Gln{sup 632}Gln polymorphisms among coke-oven workers. Five haplotypes, including CGGG, TGGG, CAGG, CGAG, and CGGA, were inferred based on the four htSNPs of XRCC1 gene. The haplotype CGGG was associated with the decreased frequencies of total MN and MNed cells, and the haplotypes TGGG and CGAG were associated with the increased frequencies of total MN and MNed cells with adjustment for covariates among coke-oven workers. This study showed that the haplotypes derived from htSNPs in the XRCC1 gene were more likely than single SNPs to correlate with the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-induced chromosome damage among coke-oven workers.

  5. ADVANCED SULFUR CONTROL CONCEPTS FOR HOT GAS DESULFURIZATION TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    1999-04-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a hot-gas desulfurization process scheme for control of H{sub 2}S in HTHP coal gas that can be more simply and economically integrated with known regenerable sorbents in DOE/METC-sponsored work than current leading hot-gas desulfurization technologies. In addition to being more economical, the process scheme to be developed must yield an elemental sulfur byproduct.

  6. ADVANCED SULFUR CONTROL CONCEPTS FOR HOT GAS DESULFURIZATION TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-12-31

    The objective of this project is to develop a hot-gas desulfurization process scheme for control of H{sub 2}S in HTHP coal gas that can be more simply and economically integrated with known regenerable sorbents in DOE/METC-sponsored work than current leading hot-gas desulfurization technologies. In addition to being more economical, the process scheme to be developed must yield an elemental sulfur byproduct.

  7. [Detection of sister chromatic exchange in workers exposed to coal tar pitch and to coke oven volatiles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X; Chen, C; Wu, Y; Xu, Y

    1998-07-01

    In order to know the changes of genetic toxicological effects on workers occupationally exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), sister chromatic exchange(SCE) was detected by the methods of peripheral lymphocyte culture in 23 workers exposed to coal tar pitch (CTP) and in 19 workers exposed to coke oven volatiles (COV) and 12 normal controls. The results suggested that the SCE in occupational workers was significantly higher than that in controls (11.31 vs 6.37, P 0.05). It is indicated that CTP and COV caused strong genetic toxicity and injury to chromosome.

  8. Flue gas desulfurization by rotating beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, N.; Keyvani, M.; Coskundeniz, A.

    1992-01-01

    The operating and mass transfer characteristics of rotating foam metal beds were studied to determine the potential for flue gas desulfurization. This is a final technical report on the work supported by DOE [number sign]FG22-87-PC79924. The report is divided into two sections, Part 1 deals primarily with the operating characteristics of rotating beds, and Part 2 covers the mass transfer characteristics of S0[sub 2] absorption in water-lime slurries. Rotating foam metal beds are in essence packed towers operated in high gravitational fields. The foam metal bed is in the form of a cylindrical donut, or torus, and is rotated to produced the high centrifugal forces. The liquid phase enters the bed at the inner surface of the torus and is pulled by the field through the bed. Gas flows countercurrent to the liquid. The bed packing can have a very large specific surface areas and not flood. Possible benefits include much smaller height of a transfer unit resulting in smaller equipment and supporting structures, reduced solvent inventory, faster response with improved process control, reduced pressure drop, and shorter startup and shut-down times. This work is concerned broadly with the operating characteristics of rotating beds, the objectives being to (1) determine the pressure drop through the rotating bed; (2) determine the power required to operate the beds, (3) investigate the residence time distribution of the liquid phase in the beds; and (4) determine the mass transfer coefficients of S0[sub 2] absorption. Three packings of differing specific surface areas were studied, with areas ranging from 656 to 2952 m[sub 2]/m[sub 3]. Liquid flow rates to 36 kg/s*m[sub 2], gas flow rate to 2.2 kg/s*m[sub 2], and gravitational fields to 300 g were covered in this study.

  9. Application of unroofing renovation in hot repair of coke oven battery%揭顶翻修技术在焦炉热维修中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牟彪

    2015-01-01

    针对焦炉炉体出现的墙面剥蚀、炉间框缝缺料、过顶砖裂缝、炉底砖龟裂和破损等问题,采用揭顶翻修技术对焦炉进行热维修,维修效果良好,焦炉生产正常,具有一定的借鉴意义。%Regarding to the problems of coke oven proper such as denudation of oven wall, gap between oven bricks,crack on the crossover bricks,chopping and damage of bottom bricks,unroofing renovation technique is adopted to repair coke oven battery under hot state.The result is good and the coke oven battery after repair is in normal operation.The application of this technique in Jiusteel has reference significance for other coking plants.

  10. 焦炉推焦粉尘治理工艺选择及设备配置%Technological Selection of Dust Treatment and Equipment Collocation While Coking in Coke Oven

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜乃斌; 邢显昌

    2012-01-01

      The article probes into the technological selection of dust treatment and equipment col ocation while coke choosing in coke oven; makes focus on and analyzes the three main topics of flue dust col ection, transportation and dust filter-ing of dust treatment in coke oven tapping.

  11. 对各种炼焦工艺及无回收焦炉的评述%Commentary on Various Cokemaking Process and No Recovery Coke Oven Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟英飞

    2001-01-01

    The present developing situation and direction of cokemaking processes in the counties all over the world is described and comment is made mainly on the advantages and disadvantages of no recovery coke oven batteries and on the limitation of no recovery coke oven battery developing in our country.%介绍了世界各国炼焦工艺的开发现状及发展方向,重点评述了无回收焦炉的优缺点,及在我国发展无回收焦炉的局限性。

  12. Optimisation of coal blend and bulk density for coke ovens by vibrocompacting technique non-recovery ovens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, P.P.; Vinoo, D.S.; Yadav, U.S.; Ghosh, S.; Lal, J.P.N. [J.S.W. Steel Ltd, Bellary (India)

    2007-09-15

    The quality of coke produced in a coke oven depends on the coal blend characteristics and carbonisation conditions. Scarcity of good quality coking coal made it necessary to look for techniques capable of producing superior coke from inferior coals. Precarbonisation techniques improve the bulk density of the coal charge and produce good quality coke from inferior coals. The stamp charging technique, the most effective among them requires finer crushing of coal and higher moisture as binder, both requiring additional energy. JSW Steel has adopted vibrocompaction along with non-recovery ovens for its 1.2 Mtpa coke production. This is a highly ecofriendly coke making process producing excellent quality coke from inferior coals. It increases the bulk density of cake, similar to stamp charging, using compaction in place of stamping. A cake density of 1.10 t m{sup -3} has been achieved using the vibrocompacting technique with optimum moisture and crushing fineness. Coal blend containing up to 35% soft coal and coking coal, having 32% volatile matter have been successfully used to produce a coke with coke strength after reaction >65%, coke reactivity index <25% and M10 <6%. The paper discusses the experience of operating vibrocompaction non-recovery coke ovens.

  13. Occupational coke oven emissions exposure and risk of abnormal liver function: modifications of body mass index and hepatitis virus infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. Hu; B. Chen; J. Qian; L. Jin; T. Jin; D. Lu [Fudan University, Shanghai (China). Department of Occupational and Environmental Health

    2010-03-15

    Occupational coke oven emissions (COEs) have been considered an important health issue. However, there are no conclusive data on human hepatic injury due to COE exposure. The association of COE exposure with liver function was explored and the effects of modification of potential non-occupational factors were assessed. 705 coke oven workers and 247 referents were investigated. Individual cumulative COE exposure was quantitatively estimated. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), {gamma}-glutamyl transferase, alkaline phosphatase, hepatitis B surface antigen and anti-hepatitis C antibody were measured. Among those with high COE exposure, the adjusted ORs of abnormal ALT and AST were 5.23 (95% CI 2.66 to 10.27) and 1.95 (95% CI 1.18 to 3.52), respectively. Overweight individuals (body mass index (BMI) {>=}25 kg/m{sup 2}) with high COE exposure had elevated risks of abnormal ALT (adjusted OR 23.93, 95% CI 8.73 to 65.62) and AST (adjusted OR 5.18, 95% CI 2.32 to 11.58). Risk of liver damage in hepatitis B virus- or hepatitis C virus-positive individuals with COE exposure was also elevated. Long-term exposure to COE increases the risk of liver dysfunction, which is more prominent among those with higher BMI and hepatitis virus infection. The risk assessment of liver damage associated with COE exposure should take BMI and hepatitis virus infection into consideration.

  14. Copper-based sorbents for hot coal gas desulfurization systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasian, J.; Slimane, R.B.; Zarnegar, M.K. [Inst. of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States)] [and others

    1997-07-01

    High-temperature coal gas desulfurization has been recognized as essential in the development of emerging power generation technologies such as the Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC), aiming to improve both the efficiency and environmental performance of power generation from coal. Hot gas desulfurization may be accomplished by using regenerable mixed metal oxides sorbents which can reduce the H{sub 2}S content of the coal gas to a few ppmv over many sulfidation/regeneration cycles. The focus of much of the current research on hot gas desulfurization has been on the use of zinc-based sorbents. Although these sorbents have been the subject of extensive pilot-scale and process development work, zinc-based sorbents have been shown to suffer from sulfate formation and zinc volatilization, leading to sorbent degradation over multicycle use, increasing sorbent replacement costs and the overall cost of hot gas desulfurization processes. A novel copper-chromite sorbent has been developed at IGT for hot coal gas desulfurization under the sponsorship of the Illinois Clean Coal Institute (ICCI). Results obtained so far indicate that this sorbent, in granular form (i.e., CuCr-29), has a much higher attrition resistance compared to the commercial granular zinc titanate sorbent, as well as excellent desulfurization efficiency. Furthermore, unlike most zinc titanate sorbents, the reactivity of IGT`s CuCr-29 sorbent gradually and consistently improved during the 20 cycles tested. The sorbent preparation techniques developed at IGT have been applied to produce highly reactive and attrition resistant sorbent pellets for moving-bed applications.

  15. Workshop on sulfur chemistry in flue gas desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, W.E. Jr.

    1980-05-01

    The Flue Gas Desulfurization Workshop was held at Morgantown, West Virginia, June 7-8, 1979. The presentations dealt with the chemistry of sulfur and calcium compounds in scrubbers. DOE and EPRI programs in this area are described. Ten papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  16. [Studies on the Ras p21 levels in workers exposed to coal tar pitch and coke oven volatiles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X; Wu, Y; Chen, C

    1998-09-30

    To study the effects of serum p21 levels on the health of coal tar pitch(CTP) and coke oven volatiles (COV) workers recognized as the high risk population of pulmonary carcinoma, serum p21 levels among 24 cases of CTP workers, 25 cases of COV workers and 12 cases of normal control were detected with the method of Western Blotting. The results showed that the mean serum p21 level in exposed group was significantly higher than that in the normal control (366.8 vs 1270.7, P < 0.001). In the COV workers, serum p21 level in coke furnace workers was remarkably higher than that in the workers with other types of work. There were no differences for p21 among workers with different work years and between workers with or without smoking history. It indicates that CTP and COV can cause the p21 protein level increase in the occupational population.

  17. Durable metal oxide-based sorbents for coal gas desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasian, J.; Slimane, R.B.; Wangerow, J.R.; Zarnegar, M.K. [Inst. of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Cicero, D.C. [Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States). Federal Energy Technology Center

    1998-12-31

    Development of high temperature desulfurization regenerable sorbents for the Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) process has been pursued over the last two decades, primarily using various combinations of transition metal oxides. The primary focus has been directed toward applications above 550 C, restricting the choice of metal oxides to those that possess favorable thermodynamic equilibria. These efforts led to the emergence of zinc-based sorbents, such as zinc titanate, as the leading candidates. Recent studies have indicated that desulfurization system components become prohibitively expensive with increasing operating temperature and that the overall process efficiency gains of conducting desulfurization above 550 C may not be sufficient to justify operation at such high temperatures. The optimum desulfurization temperature appears to be in the range of 350 to 550 C, where technical viability and process efficiency result in lower overall process cost. In addition, because of the more favorable thermodynamic equilibria in the lower temperature range, a large number of metal oxides can be considered for coal gas desulfurization, increasing the likelihood of developing suitable sorbents. This paper reports on the results obtained in an on-going study at the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), for the development of durable mixed-metal oxide sorbents for fluidized-bed desulfurization of coal-derived fuel gases in the temperature range of 350 to 550 C. The sorbent formulations prepared, their sulfidation performance and regenerability, and the physical and chemical properties of a select group of sorbents are presented and discussed. The results from multi-cycle evaluation tests of a few sorbents in a bench-scale high-pressure high-temperature fluidized-bed reactor are also presented.

  18. Development of high temperature coal gas desulfurization systems -- An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasian, J.; Slimane, R.B.; Lau, F.S.; Wangergow, J.R.; Zarnegar, M.K. [Inst. of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Integrated Gasification Combined-Cycle (IGCC) processes are among the leading contenders for generation of electricity from coal in the 21st century. Coal gas desulfurization to sufficiently low levels at temperatures above 350 C is now recognized as crucial to efficient and economical utilization of coal in advanced IGCC processes. The implementation of hot coal gas desulfurization heavily relies on the development of regenerable sorbent materials that can efficiently remove H{sub 2}S (from several thousand ppmv levels down to a few ppmv) over a very large number of sulfidation/regeneration cycles. Over the last two decades, development of high temperature desulfurization sorbents has been focused on using various combinations of transition metal oxides as regenerable sorbents. The selection of suitable metal oxides is generally based on a number of requirements imposed by the IGCC process, which include favorable thermodynamic equilibria during sulfidation and regeneration, relatively high sulfidation and regeneration reactivities, good mechanical strength and structural stability, and environmental friendliness, all at a reasonably low cost. The desulfurization reactor can have a fixed-bed, a moving-bed, a transport reactor, or a bubbling fluidized-bed reactor design. Depending on process conditions and the application intended, each of these reactor configurations offers advantages, but also has limitations. The parameters guiding the choice of a reactor system include reactivity of the sorbent, crush strength and/or attrition resistance of the sorbent, absorption capacity of the sorbent, temperature distribution inside the reactors, and SO{sub 2} concentration in the regeneration product gas. This paper provides an overview of high temperature fuel gas desulfurization within the context of IGCC processes. The paper focuses on the studies related to the development of regenerable sorbents and addresses thermodynamic considerations, sulfidation kinetics

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF SMOVEN PROCESS FOR HOT GAS DESULFURIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭万旺; 步学朋; 王乃计; 戢绪国; 谢可玉

    1997-01-01

    The Beijing Research Institute of Coal Chemistry (BRICC) is developing the SMOVEN process for hot gas desulfurization. The SMOVEN process features sulfidation in an entrained bed, regeneration in a low velocity fluid bed or a moving bed with oxygen and sorbent circulation controlled by gas stream. A series of tests on the bench scale unit and the continuous process development unit were carried out. The regenerable metal oxide sorbents were adopted for the sulfurrelated components removing from coal gas at the temperature of 550~650℃. A fluidized bed gasifier of 100mm (id) generated coal gas for tests. The principle of SMOVEN process has been positively verified.

  20. Mathematical Model of Natural Gas Desulfurization Based on Membrane Absorption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Shuli; Ma Jun; Wang Ganyu; Zhou Heng

    2014-01-01

    Models of mass transfer kinetics combined with mass transfer differential equation and mass transfer resistance equation were established on the basis of double-iflm theory. Mass transfer process of H2S absorption by means of polypro-pylene hydrophobic microporous hollow ifber membrane contactor was simulated using MDEA (N-methyldiethanolamine) as the absorption liquid and corresponding experiments of natural gas desulfurization were performed. The simulation re-sults indicated that the removal rate of hydrogen sulifde showed positive dependence on the absorption liquid concentration and gas pressure. However, the desulfurization rate showed negative dependence on gas lfow. The simulated values were in good agreement with the experimental results. The in-tube concentration of hydrogen sulifde at the same point increased with increase in the gas velocity. Axial concentration of hydrogen sulifde decreased rapidly at the beginning, and the de-crease saw a slowdown during the latter half period. Hydrogen sulifde concentration dropped quickly in the radial direction, and the reduction in the radial direction was weakened with the increase of axial length due to the gradual reduction of hy-drogen sulifde concentration along the tube. The desulfurization rate under given operating conditions can be predicted by this model, and the theoretical basis for membrane module design can also be provided.

  1. Development of advanced hot-gas desulfurization sorbents. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jothimurugesan, K.; Adeyiga, A.A.; Gangwal, S.K.

    1997-10-01

    The objective of this project was to develop hot-gas desulfurization sorbent formulations for relatively lower temperature application, with emphasis on the temperature range from 343--538 C. The candidate sorbents include highly dispersed mixed metal oxides of zinc, iron, copper, cobalt, nickel and molybdenum. The specific objective was to develop suitable sorbents, that would have high and stable surface area and are sufficiently reactive and regenerable at the relatively lower temperatures of interest in this work. Stability of surface area during regeneration was achieved by adding stabilizers. To prevent sulfation, catalyst additives that promote the light-off of the regeneration reaction at lower temperature was considered. Another objective of this study was to develop attrition-resistant advanced hot-gas desulfurization sorbents which show stable and high sulfidation reactivity at 343 to 538 C and regenerability at lower temperatures than leading first generation sorbents.

  2. Development of advanced sorbents for hot gas desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasian, J.; Slimane, R.B.; Wangerow, J.R. [Inst. of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Cicero, D.C. [Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States). Morgantown Energy Technology Center

    1996-12-31

    Integrated Gasification Combined-Cycle (IGCC) processes are among the leading contenders for the production of electricity from coal. Coal gas desulfurization to sufficiently low levels at elevated temperatures (T > 350 C) is now recognized as crucial to efficient and economic coal utilization in advanced IGCC processes. The implementation of hot coal gas desulfurization relies heavily on the development of regenerable sorbent materials which can efficiently reduce H{sub 2}S from several thousand ppmv levels down to a few ppmv over many cycles of sulfidation/regeneration. Zinc-based sorbents, such as zinc titanate, are currently the leading candidate sorbents, however, they have been shown to suffer from zinc volatilization at elevated temperatures leading to sorbent deterioration, increasing sorbent replacement costs, and the overall cost of hot gas cleanup. This paper discusses the results obtained in an ongoing investigation geared towards developing advanced mixed-metal oxide sorbents for desulfurization of coal-derived fuel gases in the temperature range of 350 to 550 C. The paper focuses on the study related to the development of durable sorbents and addresses thermodynamic considerations, sulfidation kinetics, regenerability, and long term durability of a number of novel sorbents.

  3. Methylation of CpG island of p14(ARK), p15(INK4b) and p16(INK4a) genes in coke oven workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H; Li, X; Ge, L; Yang, J; Sun, J; Niu, Q

    2015-02-01

    To detect the blood genomic DNA methylation in coke oven workers and find a possible early screening index for occupational lung cancer, 74 coke oven workers as the exposed group and 47 water pump workers as the controls were surveyed, and urine samples and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were collected. Airborne benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) levels in workplace and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OH-Py) levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. DNA damage of PBMCs and the p14(ARK), p15(INK4b) and p16(INK4a) gene CpG island methylation in the promoter region were detected by comet assay and methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction techniques, respectively. Results show that compared with the controls, concentration of airborne B[a]Ps was elevated in the coke plant, and urinary 1-OH-Py's level and DNA olive tail moment in comet assay were significantly increased in the coke oven workers, and p14(ARK), p15(INK4b) and p16(INK4a) gene methylation rates were also significantly increased. With the working years and urinary 1-OH-Py's level, the rates of p14(ARK) and p16(INK4a) gene methylation were significantly increased while that of p15(INK4b) gene methylation displayed no statistical change. We conclude that PBMCs' p14(ARK) and p16(INK4a) gene methylation may be used for screening and warning lung cancer in coke oven workers.

  4. Experimental and mechanism studies on seawater flue gas desulfurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Seawater flue gas desulfurization (Seawater FGD) process has a number of advantages, but the study on mechanism of seawater FGD is little. The effects of absorbing efficiency of SO2 by the constant component and part of trace transition elements in seawater are studied by the experiment. The results indicate that the effect factors of absorption of SO2 by seawater are alkaline, ion intensity, catalysis of Cl- and transition metal ions Fe, Mn. The degree of effect is alkaline > the catalysis of Cl-, Fe2+ and Mn > ion intensity. The mechanisms of catalysis oxidation for S(IV) by Cl, Feand Mnare discussed. According to the results, some measures can be used to improved the capability of desulfurization.

  5. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations in Chinese coke oven workers relative to job category, respirator usage, and cigarette smoking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bo Chen; Yunping Hu; Lixing Zheng; Qiangyi Wang; Yuanfen Zhou; Taiyi Jin [Fudan University, Shanghai (China). School of Public Health

    2007-09-15

    1-Hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) is a biomarker of recent exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We investigated whether urinary 1-OHP concentrations in Chinese coke oven workers (COWs) are modulated by job category, respirator usage, and cigarette smoking. The present cross-sectional study measured urinary 1-OHP concentrations in 197 COWs from Coking plant I and 250 COWs from Coking plant II, as well as 220 unexposed referents from Control plant I and 56 referents from Control plant II. Urinary 1-OHP concentrations (geometric mean, {mu}mol/mol creatinine) were 5.18 and 4.21 in workers from Coking plants I and II, respectively. The highest 1-OHP levels in urine were found among topside workers including lidmen, tar chasers, and whistlers. Benchmen had higher 1-OHP levels than other workers at the sideoven. Above 75% of the COWs exceeded the recommended occupational exposure limit of 2.3 {mu}mol/mol creatinine. Respirator usage and increased body mass index (BMI) slightly reduced 1-OHP levels in COWs. Cigarette smoking significantly increased urinary 1-OHP levels in unexposed referents but had no effect in COWs. Chinese COWs, especially topside workers and benchmen, are exposed to high levels of PAHs. Urinary 1-OHP concentrations appear to be modulated by respirator usage and BMI in COWs, as well as by smoking in unexposed referents.

  6. [Flue gas desulfurization by a novel biomass activated carbon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie-Ling; Tang, Zheng-Guang; Chen, Jie; Jiang, Wen-Ju; Jiang, Xia

    2013-04-01

    A novel biomass columnar activated carbon was prepared from walnut shell and pyrolusite was added as a catalyst. The activated carbon prepared was used for flue gas desulphurization in a fixed-bed reactor with 16 g of activated carbon. The impact of operating parameters such as SO2 inlet concentration, space velocity, bed temperature, moisture content and O2 concentration on the desulfurization efficiency of activated carbon was investigated. The results showed that both the breakthrough sulfur capacity and breakthrough time of activated carbon decreased with the increase of SO2 inlet concentration within the range of 0.1% -0.3%. The breakthrough sulfur capacity deceased with the increase of space velocity, with optimal space velocity of 600 h(-1). The optimal bed temperature was 80 degrees C, and the desulfurization efficiency can be reduced if the temperature continue to increase. The presence of moisture and oxygen greatly promoted the adsorption of SO2 onto the activated carbon. The best moisture content was 10%. When the oxygen concentrations were between 10% and 13%, the desulfurization performance of activated carbon was the highest. Under the optimal operating conditions, the sulfur capacity of activated carbon was 252 mg x g(-1), and the breakthrough time was up to 26 h when the SO2 inlet concentration was 0.2%.

  7. ADVANCED SULFUR CONTROL CONCEPTS FOR HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. LOPEZ ORTIZ; D.P. HARRISON; F.R. GROVES; J.D. WHITE; S. ZHANG; W.-N. HUANG; Y. ZENG

    1998-10-31

    This research project examined the feasibility of a second generation high-temperature coal gas desulfurization process in which elemental sulfur is produced directly during the sorbent regeneration phase. Two concepts were evaluated experimentally. In the first, FeS was regenerated in a H2O-O2 mixture. Large fractions of the sulfur were liberated in elemental form when the H2O-O2 ratio was large. However, the mole percent of elemental sulfur in the product was always quite small (<<1%) and a process based on this concept was judged to be impractical because of the low temperature and high energy requirements associated with condensing the sulfur. The second concept involved desulfurization using CeO2 and regeneration of the sulfided sorbent, Ce2O2S, using SO2 to produce elemental sulfur directly. No significant side reactions were observed and the reaction was found to be quite rapid over the temperature range of 500°C to 700°C. Elemental sulfur concentrations (as S2) as large as 20 mol% were produced. Limitations associated with the cerium sorbent process are concentrated in the desulfurization phase. High temperature and highly reducing coal gas such as produced in the Shell gasification process are required if high sulfur removal efficiencies are to be achieved. For example, the equilibrium H2S concentration at 800°C from a Shell gas in contact with CeO2 is about 300 ppmv, well above the allowable IGCC specification. In this case, a two-stage desulfurization process using CeO2 for bulk H2S removal following by a zinc sorbent polishing step would be required. Under appropriate conditions, however, CeO2 can be reduced to non-stoichiometric CeOn (n<2) which has significantly greater affinity for H2S. Pre-breakthrough H2S concentrations in the range of 1 ppmv to 5 ppmv were measured in sulfidation tests using CeOn at 700°C in highly reducing gases, as measured by equilibrium O2 concentration, comparable to the Shell gas. Good sorbent durability was indicated in

  8. Cytochrome P450 1B1 mRNA levels in peripheral blood cells and exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Chinese coke oven workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanaoka, Tomoyuki; Tsugane, Shoichiro [Epidemiology and Biostatistics Division, National Cancer Center Research Institute East, 6-5-1 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa-shi, 277-8577 Chiba (Japan); Yamano, Yuko; Kagawa, Jun [Tokyo Womens' Medical University, 8-1 Kawadacho, Shinjuku-ku, 162-8666 Tokyo (Japan); Pan, Guowei; Zhang, Shujuan [Liaoning Provincial Center for Disease Prevention and Control, 42-1 Jixian Street, 110005 Shenyang (China); Hara, Kunio [Institute for Science of Labour, 2-8-14 Miyamae-ku, 216-8501 Kawasaki (Japan); Ichiba, Masayoshi; Zhang, Jiusong [Saga Medical School, 5-1 Nabeshima, Saga-shi, 849-8501 Saga (Japan); Liu, Tiefu; Li, Landi [Angang Public Health and Anti-epidemic Station Lishan District, 23 Shengoushi Yutian Street, 114034 Anshan (China); Takahashi, Ken [University of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1-1 Iseigaoka, Yahatanishi-ku, 807-8555 Kitakyushu (Japan)

    2002-09-16

    Cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) is induced through the Ah receptor and is involved in the activation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). To determine the validity of a quantitative analysis of CYP1B1 mRNA in peripheral human blood cells for the estimation of PAH exposure, a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction method was used to measure the relative levels of CYP1B1 mRNA in 37 Chinese coke oven workers and 13 control workers. A large inter-individual difference in the levels was observed. The average level of the CYP1B1 mRNA in workers at the top work site, where the PAH exposure level from the coke ovens was highest, was significantly higher than in workers at the middle site (P<0.01) or the controls (P=0.02). A non-significant positive correlation was found between the CYP1B1 mRNA levels and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (R=0.22, P=0.13), and a significant correlation between these mRNA levels and urinary cotinine (R=0.33, P=0.02). It was interesting that a significant positive correlation between CYP1B1 mRNA and 1-hydroxypyrene was observed in subjects with the Leu/Leu type of CYP1B1 Leu432Val polymorphism (R=0.33, P=0.02, n=38) and a non-significant correlation in subjects with the Leu/Val and Val/Val types (R=-0.36, P=0.25, n=12), although the number of subjects in this strata analysis was small. Our preliminary study suggests that PAH exposure in coke ovens and smoking maybe associated with CYP1B1 mRNA levels in peripheral blood cells although mRNA is generally unstable and could be expressed following exposure to other agents.

  9. 6m 焦炉结石墨情况分析及控制措施%Graphite Cementation in 6 m Coke Oven and Control Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张超

    2015-01-01

    Graphite cementation in 3-4#coke oven of JISCO coking plant was a serious problem, analyses the reasons for formation of the graphite cementation was analyzed and some specific measures to prevent the large formation of graphite ce-mentation were puts forward.%针对酒钢焦化厂3#-4#焦炉结石墨比较严重的问题,分析了石墨生成的原因,并提出了防止石墨大量生成的具体措施。

  10. Investigating the temperature field on doors, frames and armor plate of large capacity coke ovens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shashov, D.V.; Shustorovich, V.M.; Komolov, V.G.; Zhazhin, S.N.

    1985-06-01

    Experimental studies were carried out at the Altaiskii and Avdeevskii coking plants to determine the temperature field on the frames, doors and armor plating of coking batteries with a capacity of 41.6 m/sup 3/. It was established that for normal operation the temperature on metal parts of the combustion chambers remained stable. However, when gas is burned, the metal is subjected to rapid heating to temperatures exceeding those under normal operation. After the flame is extinguished, cooling is characterized by an accelerated temperature drop along the ribs and the temperature on the door and frame at the upper cross beam is higher than at other levels of the combustion chamber. Several recommendations on eliminating these temperature effects are made, e.g. using material with stable mechanical properties for doors, frames and armor plate. 4 references.

  11. Separation of Mercury from Flue Gas Desulfurization Scrubber Produced Gypsum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hensman, Carl, E., P.h.D; Baker, Trevor

    2008-06-16

    Frontier Geosciences (Frontier; FGS) proposed for DOE Grant No. DE-FG02-07ER84669 that mercury control could be achieved in a wet scrubber by the addition of an amendment to the wet-FGD scrubber. To demonstrate this, a bench-scale scrubber and synthetic flue-gas supply was designed to simulate the limestone fed, wet-desulfurization units utilized by coal-fired power plants. Frontier maintains that the mercury released from these utilities can be controlled and reduced by modifying the existing equipment at installations where wet flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) systems are employed. A key element of the proposal was FGS-PWN, a liquid-based mercury chelating agent, which can be employed as the amendment for removal of all mercury species which enter the wet-FGD scrubber. However, the equipment design presented in the proposal was inadequate to demonstrate these functions and no significant progress was made to substantiate these claims. As a result, funding for a Phase II continuation of this work will not be pursued. The key to implementing the technology as described in the proposal and report appears to be a high liquid-to-gas ratio (L/G) between the flue-gas and the scrubber liquor, a requirement not currently implemented in existing wet-FGD designs. It may be that this constraint can be reduced through parametric studies, but that was not apparent in this work. Unfortunately, the bench-scale system constructed for this project did not function as intended and the funds and time requested were exhausted before the separation studies could occur.

  12. The protection effect of garlic on biological membrane and on cellular immunity in workers exposed to coke oven volatiles%大蒜对锅炉工生物膜和细胞免疫的保护作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@ The workers exposed to coke oven volatile are the risk population of occupational lung cancer than genera population. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs),a component of coke oven volatile (COE), are the species considered to be the responsible for this high risk of occupational lung cancer. One of most important mechanism of occupational lung cancer induced by PAHs is believed to be due to the accumulation of free radicals associated with COV and subsequent biological member injury caused by free radical reaction as well as decrease in cell immunity. Garlic is the consumed vegetable with a variety of medical functions.

  13. Emission Control on № 5 & 6 Coke Oven Batteries of Handan Iron & Steel Complex%邯钢5、6号焦炉的烟尘治理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡汉; 许波; 吴云强

    2001-01-01

    The process of emission control on № 5 & 6 coke oven batteries of Handan Iron & Steel Complex is introduced, and the control mode, software feature, problems occurred in production and improving method for automatic control system of coke oven emission control are described.%介绍了邯钢5、6号焦炉烟尘的治理工艺及其自动控制系统的控制方式、软件特点、生产中出现的问题及改进方法。

  14. [Environmental and biological monitoring of exposure to PAHs in Taranto coke-oven workers and in two groups of the general population from Apulia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, L; Vimercati, L; Carrus, A; Bisceglia, L; Pesatori, A C; Bertazzi, P A; Assennato, G; Fustinoni, S

    2012-01-01

    The exposure to PAHs was assessed by personal air sampling and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) in 100 coke-oven workers (CW) of the Taranto plant and in subjects from the general population living close (NC, 18) and far away (FC, 15) from the plant. Median airborne benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and 1-OHP levels were 152, 1.5, and 3.6 ng/m3 and 2.0, 0.5 and 0.6 microg/g creatinine in CW, NC, and FC, respectively. BaP exposure exceeded the German acceptable (70 ng/m3) and tolerable (700 ng/m3) limit risk based values in 82 and 11% of CW and the European target value for ambient air (1 ng/m3) in about 65% of NC and FC. 1-OHP levels exceed the proposed biological limit value for the coke-oven industry (4.4 microg/g crt) in 21% of CW and the Italian reference value (0.3 microg/g crt) in about 90% of NC and FC. The exposure resulted lower than in the past, but this study highlights that PAHs exposure from the coke plant still poses a health risk for workers and the general population.

  15. Ni supported on activated carbon as catalyst for flue gas desulfurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A series of Ni supported on activated carbon are prepared by excessive impregnation and the desulfurization activity is investigated. It has been shown that the activated carbon-supported Ni is an efficient solid catalyst for flue gas desulfurization. The activated carbon treated by HNO3 exhibits high desulfurization activity, and different amounts of loaded-Ni on activated carbon significantly influence the desulfurization activity. The catalysts are studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results of XRD and XPS indicate that the activated carbon treated by HNO3 can increase oxygen-containing functional groups. Ni on activated carbon after calcination at 800 °C shows major Ni phase and minor NiO phase, and with increasing Ni content on activated carbon, Ni phase increases and affects the desulfurization activity of the catalyst, which proves that Ni is the main active phase.

  16. Ternary System of Fe-based Ionic Liquid, Ethanol and Water for Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解美莹; 李沛沛; 郭惠锋; 高丽霞; 余江

    2012-01-01

    Fe-based ionic liquid (Fe-IL) was synthesized by mixing FeCl3·6H2O and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride [Bmim]C1 in this paper. The phase diagram of a ternary Fe-IL, ethanol and water system was investigated to construct a ternary desulfurization solution for wet flue gas desulfurization. The effects of flow rate and concentration of SO2, reaction temperature, pH and Fe-IL fraction in aqueous desulfurization solution on the desulfiariza- tion efficiency were investigated. The results shows that the best composition of ternary desulfurization solution of Fe-IL, ethanol and water is 1 : 1.5 : 3 by volume ratio, and pH should be controlled at 2.0. Under such conditions, a desulfurization rate greater than 90% could be obtained. The product of sulfuric acid had inhibition effect on the wet desulfurization process. With applying this new ternary desulfurization solution, not only the catalyst Fe-IL can be recycled and reused, but also the product sulfuric acid can be separated directly from the ternary desulfurization system.

  17. GRANULATION AND BRIQUETTING OF SOLID PRODUCTS FROM FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan J. Hycnar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Most flue gas desulfurization products can be characterized by significant solubility in water and dusting in dry state. These characteristics can cause a considerable pollution of air, water, and soil. Among many approaches to utilization of this waste, the process of agglomeration using granulation or briquetting has proved very effective. Using desulfurization products a new material of aggregate characteristics has been acquired, and this material is resistant to water and wind erosion as well as to the conditions of transportation and storage. The paper presents the results of industrial trials granulation and briquetting of calcium desulphurization products. The granulation of a mixture of phosphogypsum used with fly ash (in the share 1:5. The resulting granules characterized by a compressive strength of 41.6 MPa, the damping resistance of 70% and 14.2% abrasion. The granulate was used for the production of cement mix. The produced concrete mortar have a longer setting and hardening time, as compared to the traditional ash and gypsum mortar, and have a higher or comparable flexural and compressive strength during hardening. Briquetting trials made of a product called synthetic gypsum or rea-gypsum both in pure form and with the addition of 5% and 10% of the limestone dust. Briquettes have a high initial strength and resistance to abrasion. The values ​​of these parameters increased after 72 hours of seasoning. It was found that higher hardiness of briquettes with rea-gypsum was obtained with the impact of atmospheric conditions and higher resistance to elution of water-soluble components in comparison to ash briquettes.

  18. Applying ACF to Desulfurization Process from Flue Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘义; 张智刚; 唐强; 曹子栋

    2004-01-01

    Inasmuch as the status of environmental pollution caused by SO2 is more and more serious and the policy of environmental protection is executed more and more strictly, desulfurization from flue gas (FGD) is introduced to a wide-spread field of national economy. By a comparison with lime-limestone method, the application of adsorption method in FGD is more effective in desulfurization and more adapted to the situation of our country in respect of its more valuable byproduct. However, the technique of adsorption method is limited by the large amount of adsorbent used. In this paper, activated carbon fiber (ACF) is proposed as a new type of adsorbent to apply in FGD. A series of experiments have been made in order to compare the performances between ACF and granular activated carbon (GAC) which has been mostly used.Experiments show that under the same working conditions ACF's adsorption capacity is 16.6 times as high as that of GAC, mass loss rate is 1/12 of GAC's, desorption efficiency of ACF can reach 99.9%. The theory of micropore adsorption dynamics is adopted to analyze the characteristics of both adsorbents. It is indicated that adsorbability and perfectibility of desorption are tightly related to the distribution of pores and the surface micromechanism of adsorbent surface. The accessibility of pores for specified adsorptive and the effects of capillary condensation are crucial factors to influence the process of FGD. According to the research of different adsorbents, conclusion can be drawn that ACF is a kind of good material with a strong selectivity for SO2. Compared with the traditional methods of FGD, the use of ACF can greatly economize the consumption of adsorbent and obviously reduce the introduction of new adsorbent, and at the same time keep down the equipment investment and operating cost.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF ADVANCED HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION PROCESSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Jothimurugesan; Santosh K. Gangwal

    2000-12-01

    The techniques employed in this project have successfully demonstrated the feasibility of preparing sorbents that achieve greater than 99% H{sub 2}S removal at temperatures 480 C and that retain their activity over 50 cycles. Fundamental understanding of phenomena leading to chemical deactivation and high regeneration light-off temperature has enabled us to successfully prepare and scale up a FHR-32 sorbent that showed no loss in reactivity and capacity over 50 cycles. This sorbent removed H{sub 2}S below 80 ppmv and lighted-off nicely at 480 C during regeneration. Overall the test is a success with potential for an optimized FHR-32 to be a candidate for Sierra-Pacific. An advanced attrition resistant hot-gas desulfurization sorbent that can eliminate the problematic SO{sub 2} tail gas and yield elemental sulfur directly has been developed. Attrition resistant Zn-Fe sorbent (AHI-2) formulations have been prepared that can remove H{sub 2}S to below 20 ppmv from coal gas and can be regenerated using SO{sub 2} to produce elemental sulfur.

  20. Application of Air Gun in Coal Bunker of Coke Oven%空气炮在焦炉煤仓的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓琴; 曹春娟; 王昆鹏

    2011-01-01

    To solve the bad influence caused by the coal blockage in coal bunker of coke oven during coals' falling on coking process, the installation methods and application of air gun in coal bunker was put forward according to aerodynamics principle. It was proposed that air gun was added in the coal bunker of coke oven and made use of potential energy that compressed air (0. 4~0. 8 Mpa) released abruptly to produce the powerful shock-wave. As a result, the arching and the cohering coal materials were recovered gravity flow. These methods made the blockage disappear and achieved a continuous operation for coal loading. Air gun should be designed and installed as spirals in each coal bunker and the specific demand during the operation was introduced as well. The result shows that the application of air gun in coal bunker of coke oven can not only reduce labor intensity,protect equipment, improve coke quality, but also achieve a safe production.%针对焦炉煤仓在下煤时出现的易堵塞现象对焦炉生产造成的诸多不利影响,根据空气动力学原理,提出了在焦炉1煤仓增设空气炮,利用压缩空气(0.4~0.8 MPa)突然释放的势能,产生强烈冲击波,使起拱的或粘着的煤料再次恢复重力流动,使堵塞消除,实现装煤连续作业.介绍了每个煤仓应按螺旋上升布置空气炮的安装要求,以及空气炮在使用过程中的具体要求.结果表明:在焦炉煤仓使用空气炮不仅可以降低操作人员的劳动强度,保护设备,而且可以改善焦炭质量,并实现焦炉安全生产.

  1. ENGINEERING EVALUATION OF HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION WITH SULFUR RECOVERY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.W. ROBERTS; J.W. PORTZER; S.C. KOZUP; S.K. GANGWAL

    1998-05-31

    Engineering evaluations and economic comparisons of two hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) processes with elemental sulfur recovery, being developed by Research Triangle Institute, are presented. In the first process, known as the Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP), the SO{sub 2} tail gas from air regeneration of zinc-based HGD sorbent is catalytically reduced to elemental sulfur with high selectivity using a small slipstream of coal gas. DSRP is a highly efficient first-generation process, promising sulfur recoveries as high as 99% in a single reaction stage. In the second process, known as the Advanced Hot Gas Process (AHGP), the zinc-based HGD sorbent is modified with iron so that the iron portion of the sorbent can be regenerated using SO{sub 2} . This is followed by air regeneration to fully regenerate the sorbent and provide the required SO{sub 2} for iron regeneration. This second-generation process uses less coal gas than DSRP. Commercial embodiments of both processes were developed. Process simulations with mass and energy balances were conducted using ASPEN Plus. Results show that AHGP is a more complex process to operate and may require more labor cost than the DSRP. Also capital costs for the AHGP are higher than those for the DSRP. However, annual operating costs for the AHGP appear to be considerably less than those for the DSRP with a potential break-even point between the two processes after just 2 years of operation for an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant using 3 to 5 wt% sulfur coal. Thus, despite its complexity, the potential savings with the AHGP encourage further development and scaleup of this advanced process.

  2. KINETICS OF HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION SORBENTS FOR TRANSPORT REACTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.C. Kwon

    2003-02-01

    Hot-gas desulfurization for the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) process has been investigated by many researchers to remove effectively hydrogen sulfide with various metal oxide sorbents at elevated temperatures. Various metal oxide sorbents are formulated with metal oxides such as Fe, Co, Zn, and Ti. Initial reaction kinetics of formulated sorbents with hydrogen sulfide is studied in the presence of various amounts of moisture and hydrogen at various reaction temperatures. The objectives of this research are to study initial reaction kinetics for a sorbent-hydrogen sulfide heterogeneous reaction system, to investigate effects of concentrations of hydrogen sulfide, hydrogen, and moisture on dynamic absorption of H{sub 2}S into sorbents, and to evaluate effects of temperature and sorbent amounts on dynamic absorption of H{sub 2}S into sorbents. Experimental data on initial reaction kinetics of hydrogen sulfide with metal oxide sorbents were obtained with a 0.83-cm{sup 3} differential reactor. The reactivity of EX-SO3 was examined in this report. This sorbent was obtained from the Research Triangle Institute (RTI). The sorbent in the form of 110 {micro}m particles are reacted with 18000-ppm hydrogen sulfide at 350-550 C. The range of space time of reaction gas mixtures is 0.069-0.088 s. The range of reaction duration is 4-180 s.

  3. KINETICS OF HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION SORBENTS FOR TRANSPORT REACTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.C. Kwon

    2002-01-01

    Hot-gas desulfurization for the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) process has been investigated by many researchers to remove effectively hydrogen sulfide with various metal oxide sorbents at elevated temperatures. Various metal oxide sorbents are formulated with metal oxides such as Fe, Co, Zn, and Ti. Initial reaction kinetics of formulated sorbents with hydrogen sulfide is studied in the presence of various amounts of moisture and hydrogen at various reaction temperatures. The objectives of this research are to study initial reaction kinetics for a sorbent-hydrogen sulfide heterogeneous reaction system, to investigate effects of concentrations of hydrogen sulfide, hydrogen, and moisture on dynamic absorption of H{sub 2}S into sorbents, and to evaluate effects of temperature and sorbent amounts on dynamic absorption of H{sub 2}S into sorbents. Experimental data on initial reaction kinetics of hydrogen sulfide with metal oxide sorbents were obtained with a 0.83-cm{sup 3} differential reactor. The reactivity of MCRH-67 was examined in this report. This sorbent was obtained from the Research Triangle Institute (RTI). The sorbent in the form of 130 mm particles are reacted with 18000-ppm hydrogen sulfide at 350-525 C. The range of space time of reaction gas mixtures is 0.069-0.088 s. The range of reaction duration is 4-180 s.

  4. Spatial mapping of lead, arsenic, iron, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon soil contamination in Sydney, Nova Scotia: community impact from the coke ovens and steel plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Timothy W; Boehmer, Jennifer; Feltham, Jason; Guyn, Lindsay; Shahid, Rizwan

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents spatial maps of the arsenic, lead, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) soil contamination in Sydney, Nova Scotia, Canada. The spatial maps were designed to create exposure cohorts to help understand the observed increase in health effects. To assess whether contamination can be a proxy for exposures, the following hypothesis was tested: residential soils were impacted by the coke oven and steel plant industrial complex. The spatial map showed contaminants are centered on the industrial facility, significantly correlated, and exceed Canadian health risk-based soil quality guidelines. Core samples taken at 5-cm intervals suggest a consistent deposition over time. The concentrations in Sydney significantly exceed background Sydney soil concentrations, and are significantly elevated compared with North Sydney, an adjacent industrial community. The contaminant spatial maps will also be useful for developing cohorts of exposure and guiding risk management decisions.

  5. [Association between genetic polymorphisms in pre-miR-146a and pre-miR-196a2 and genetic damage levels among coke oven workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tian; Deng, Qi-fei; Zhang, Xiao; Li, Xiao-liang; Deng, Si-yun; Dai, Xia-yun; Huang, Su-li; Feng, Jing; Li, Jun; Wu, Tang-chun; Guo, Huan

    2013-08-01

    To investigate the association of rs2910164 G > C polymorphism and rs11614913 T > C polymorphism in pre-miR-146a and pre-miR-196a2 with genetic damage levels in coke oven workers. A total of 575 nonsmoking workers who have worked for more than one year in a coke-oven plant at Wuhan, Hubei Province were enrolled in this study in September to October, 2010. The general characteristics as well as blood and urine samples were collected. The genetic damage levels were detected by cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytom assay and represented as micronucleus (MN) frequencies of binucleate cells in peripheral blood lymphocytes. The rs2910164 G > C polymorphisms in pre-miR-146a and rs11614913 T > C polymorphisms in pre-miR-196a2 were genotyped by using TaqMan assay. The plasma concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene-diolepoxide (BPDE)-albumin adducts were determined by using ELISA. All data were analyzed, the frequency ratio (FR) and 95%CI were calculated. Totally, 575 workers were taken into consideration. The rs2910164 C allele was associated with increased MN frequencies in the coke oven workers (P trend = 0.025), and the MN frequencies were higher in rs2910164 CC genotype carriers (4.38 ± 3.46) than in wild-type rs2910164 GG genotype carriers (4.02 ± 3.09) (FR = 1.18, 95%CI:1.04-1.34). The further stratified analyses by working years, gender, alcohol consumption, and the levels of BPDE-albumin adducts showed that the effects of rs2910164 C allele in increasing MN frequencies were robust in subjects who were males (FR = 1.11, 95%CI:1.02-1.20), nondrinkers (FR = 1.07, 95%CI:1.00-1.14), working years less than 20 (FR = 1.12, 95%CI:1.03-1.22), and workers with lower BPDE-albumin adducts levels (FR = 1.11, 95%CI:1.02-1.21) (P trend = 0.011, 0.044, 0.006 and 0.020, respectively). In addition, the MN frequencies were higher in workers with rs11614913 TC genotype (4.27 ± 2.91) than workers with rs11614913 TT genotype (3.90 ± 3.32) (FR = 1.12, 95%CI:1.02-1.23).Workers carried both rs

  6. Sectionalizing Transformation of the Electricity Supply System for Friction Power Tracks of Coking Ovens%焦炉摩电道供电系统分段改造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜颖

    2015-01-01

    对焦炉的四大车即推焦车、装煤车、拦焦车、息焦车的摩电道进行改造,并对摩电道的供电电源进行改造,以提高焦炉四大车摩电道检修时的分段灵活性,从而消除安全隐患,提高焦炉的生产效率。%The friction power-delivery tracks for the four coking oven servicing ma-chines, namely the coke pusher car, charger car, guider car and quenching car, were trans-formed. At the same time the power supply source of the tracks was also upgraded. As a re-sult the maintenance of the friction power tracks was more flexibly sectionalized, which has e-liminated safety dangers and improved coking productivity.

  7. 清洁型热回收焦炉节能措施%Energy conservation measures of cleaning heat recovery coke oven

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    要长维; 薛恺; 李振文; 王慎国

    2011-01-01

    Based on the operation condition of SYR stamping and cleaning heat recovery coke oven, emphasize the main factors affecting energy consumption such as market factors, burn-off rate, water content of coal as fired. According to the (Access Conditions of Coking Industry) (2008 amendment) ,put forward reasonable suggestions to reduce energy consumption and improve benefit of enterprises.%结合SYR型捣固式清洁型热回收焦炉运行状况,着重分析影响其能耗的主要因素,包括市场因素、烧失率、入炉煤水分等,针对这些影响因素并根据《焦化行业准入条件》(2008年修订)相关要求,为进一步降低企业能耗,提高企业效益提出合理化建议.

  8. Lymphocyte Oxidative Stress/Genotoxic Effects Are Related to Serum IgG and IgA Levels in Coke Oven Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meili Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated oxidative stress/genotoxic effects levels, immunoglobulin levels, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs levels exposed in 126 coke oven workers and in 78 control subjects, and evaluated the association between oxidative stress/genotoxic effects levels and immunoglobulin levels. Significant differences were observed in biomarkers, including 1-hydroxypyrene levels, employment time, percentages of alcohol drinkers, MDA, 8-OHdG levels, CTL levels and CTM, MN, CA frequency, and IgG, IgA levels between the control and exposed groups. Slightly higher 1-OHP levels in smoking users were observed. For the dose-response relationship of IgG, IgA, IgM, and IgE by 1-OHP, each one percentage increase in urinary 1-OHP generates a 0.109%, 0.472%, 0.051%, and 0.067% decrease in control group and generates a 0.312%, 0.538%, 0.062%, and 0.071% decrease in exposed group, respectively. Except for age, alcohol and smoking status, IgM, and IgE, a significant correlation in urinary 1-OHP and other biomarkers in the total population was observed. Additionally, a significant negative correlation in genotoxic/oxidative damage biomarkers of MDA, 8-OH-dG, CTL levels, and immunoglobins of IgG and IgA levels, especially in coke oven workers, was found. These data suggest that oxidative stress/DNA damage induced by PAHs may play a role in toxic responses for PAHs in immunological functions.

  9. 降低焦炉机车电器运行重复故障率%Reduce the Repetition Rate of Electric Operation of the Coke Oven Locomotive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜玉怀

    2016-01-01

    the coking coal coking company of masteel outdated 1 # 4 # coke oven in order to real-ize the coal charging and coke pushing, blocking water coke dry quenching, quenching, screen coke and dust removal, etc. By the four major locomotive ( coke pusher, coal car, stop coke car, coke quenching car) , due to the special environment of the equipment operation ( mobile, high tempera-ture, dust, stop frequent restart, etc. ) , make the equipment in the process of running frequent fail-ure, not only increase the workload of maintenance, because maintenance delayed production at the same time, reduces the coke oven coke rate, thus the ascension of the whole economic benefit of mas-teel.%马钢煤焦化公司老区焦化1#-4#焦炉为了实现装煤、推焦、拦焦、干熄焦、水熄焦、筛焦、除尘等工艺。由四大机车(推焦车、装煤车、拦焦车、熄焦车)来实现,由于设备运行的特殊环境(移动、高温、多灰尘、停启动频繁等),使得设备在运行过程中故障频发,这不仅仅增加了维修工作量,同时因为检修耽误了生产,降低了焦炉的出焦率,从而影响了整个马钢的经济效益的提升。

  10. ENHANCED CONTROL OF MERCURY BY WET FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Blythe; B. Marsh; S. Miller; C. Richardson; M. Richardson

    2001-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and EPRI have co-funded this project to improve the control of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. The project investigated catalytic oxidation of vapor-phase elemental mercury to a form that is more effectively captured in wet FGD systems. If successfully developed, the process could be applicable to over 90,000 MW of utility generating capacity with existing FGD systems and to future FGD installations. Field tests have been conducted to determine whether candidate catalyst materials remain active towards mercury oxidation after extended flue gas exposure. Catalyst life will have a large impact on the cost effectiveness of this potential process. A mobile catalyst test unit has been used to test the activity of four different catalyst materials for a period of up to six months at each of three utility sites. Catalyst testing was completed at the first site, which fires Texas lignite, in December 1998 and at the second test site, which fires a Powder River Basin subbituminous coal in the fall of 1999. Testing at the third site, which fires a medium- to high-sulfur bituminous coal, began in June 2000 and was completed at the end of January 2001. This Topical Reports includes results from Site 3; results from Sites 1 and 2 were reported previously. At Site 3, catalysts were tested in two forms, including powders dispersed in sand bed reactors and in a commercially available form as a coated honeycomb structure. Field testing has been supported by laboratory tests to screen catalysts for activity at specific flue gas compositions, to investigate catalyst deactivation mechanisms and methods for regenerating spent catalysts. Laboratory results related to the Site 3 field effort are also included and discussed in this Topical Report.

  11. Flue gas desulfurization by rotating beds. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, N.; Keyvani, M.; Coskundeniz, A.

    1992-12-01

    The operating and mass transfer characteristics of rotating foam metal beds were studied to determine the potential for flue gas desulfurization. This is a final technical report on the work supported by DOE {number_sign}FG22-87-PC79924. The report is divided into two sections, Part 1 deals primarily with the operating characteristics of rotating beds, and Part 2 covers the mass transfer characteristics of S0{sub 2} absorption in water-lime slurries. Rotating foam metal beds are in essence packed towers operated in high gravitational fields. The foam metal bed is in the form of a cylindrical donut, or torus, and is rotated to produced the high centrifugal forces. The liquid phase enters the bed at the inner surface of the torus and is pulled by the field through the bed. Gas flows countercurrent to the liquid. The bed packing can have a very large specific surface areas and not flood. Possible benefits include much smaller height of a transfer unit resulting in smaller equipment and supporting structures, reduced solvent inventory, faster response with improved process control, reduced pressure drop, and shorter startup and shut-down times. This work is concerned broadly with the operating characteristics of rotating beds, the objectives being to (1) determine the pressure drop through the rotating bed; (2) determine the power required to operate the beds, (3) investigate the residence time distribution of the liquid phase in the beds; and (4) determine the mass transfer coefficients of S0{sub 2} absorption. Three packings of differing specific surface areas were studied, with areas ranging from 656 to 2952 m{sub 2}/m{sub 3}. Liquid flow rates to 36 kg/s*m{sub 2}, gas flow rate to 2.2 kg/s*m{sub 2}, and gravitational fields to 300 g were covered in this study.

  12. Hot coal gas desulfurization with manganese-based sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, D.; Hepworth, M.T.

    1993-09-01

    The focus of work being performed on Hot Coal Gas Desulfurization is primarily in the use of zinc ferrite and zinc titanate sorbents; however, prior studies at the US Steel Fundamental Research Laboratories in Monroeville, PA, by E.T. Turkdogan indicated that an alternate sorbent, manganese dioxide-containing ore in mixture with alumina (75 wt % ore + 25 wt % Al{sub 2}/O{sub 3}) may be a viable alternative to zinc-based sorbents. Manganese, for example, has a lower vapor pressure in the elemental state than zinc hence it is not as likely to undergo depletion from the sorbent surface upon loading and regeneration cycles. Also manganese oxide is less readily reduced to the elemental state than iron hence the range of reduction potentials for oxygen is somewhat greater than for zinc ferrite. In addition, thermodynamic analysis of the manganese-oxygen-sulfur system shows it to be less amenable to sulfation than zinc ferrite. Potential also exists for utilization of manganese higher temperatures than zinc ferrite or zinc titanate. This presentation gives the thermodynamic background for consideration of manganese-based sorbents as an alternative to zinc ferrite. To date the work which has been in progress for nine months is limited at this stage to thermogravimetric testing of four formulations of manganese-alumina sorbents to determine the optimum conditions of pelletization and induration to produce reactive pellets.

  13. Economic assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization processes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierman, G. R.; May, E. H.; Mirabelli, R. E.; Pow, C. N.; Scardino, C.; Wan, E. I.

    1981-09-01

    This report presents the results of a project sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The purpose of the study was to perform an economic and market assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes for application to coal-fired electric utility plants. The time period considered in the study is 1981 through 1990, and costs are reported in 1980 dollars. The task was divided into the following four subtasks: (1) determine the factors affecting FGD cost evaluations; (2) select FGD processes to be cost-analyzed; (3) define the future electric utility FGD system market; and (4) perform cost analyses for the selected FGD processes. The study was initiated in September 1979, and separate reports were prepared for the first two subtasks. The results of the latter two subtasks appear only in this final reprot, since the end-date of those subtasks coincided with the end-date of the overall task. The Subtask 1 report, Criteria and Methods for Performing FGD Cost Evaluations, was completed in October 1980. A slightly modified and condensed version of that report appears as appendix B to this report. The Subtask 2 report, FGD Candidate Process Selection, was completed in January 1981, and the principal outputs of that subtask appear in Appendices C and D to this report.

  14. Microbial communities associated with wet flue gas desulfurization systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan P. Brown

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Flue gas desulfurization (FGD systems are employed to remove SOx gasses that are produced by the combustion of coal for electric power generation, and consequently limit acid rain associated with these activities. Wet FGDs represent a physicochemically extreme environment due to the high operating temperatures and total dissolved solids of fluids in the interior of the FGD units. Despite the potential importance of microbial activities in the performance and operation of FGD systems, the microbial communities associated with them have not been evaluated. Microbial communities associated with distinct process points of FGD systems at several coal fired electricity generation facilities were evaluated using culture-dependent and –independent approaches. Due to the high solute concentrations and temperatures in the FGD absorber units, culturable halothermophilic/tolerant bacteria were more abundant in samples collected from within the absorber units than in samples collected from the makeup waters that are used to replenish fluids inside the absorber units. Evaluation of bacterial 16S rRNA genes recovered from scale deposits on the walls of absorber units revealed that the microbial communities associated with these deposits are primarily composed of thermophilic bacterial lineages. These findings suggest that unique microbial communities develop in FGD systems in response to physicochemical characteristics of the different process points within the systems. The activities of the thermophilic microbial communities that develop within scale deposits could play a role in the corrosion of steel structures in FGD systems.

  15. Development of advanced hot-gas desulfurization processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jothimurugesan, K.

    1999-10-14

    Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants nearing completion, such as Sierra-Pacific, employ a circulating fluidized-bed (transport) reactor hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) process that uses 70-180 {micro}m average particle size (aps) zinc-based mixed-metal oxide sorbent for removing H{sub 2}S from coal gas down to less than 20 ppmv. The sorbent undergoes cycles of absorption (sulfidation) and air regeneration. The key barrier issues associated with a fluidized-bed HGD process are chemical degradation, physical attrition, high regeneration light-off (initiation) temperature, and high cost of the sorbent. Another inherent complication in all air-regeneration-based HGD processes is the disposal of the problematic dilute SO{sub 2} containing regeneration tail-gas. Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP), a leading first generation technology, efficiently reduces this SO{sub 2} to desirable elemental sulfur, but requires the use of 1-3 % of the coal gas, thus resulting in an energy penalty to the plant. Advanced second-generation processes are under development that can reduce this energy penalty by modifying the sorbent so that it could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur. The objective of this research is to support the near and long term DOE efforts to commercialize the IGCC-HGD process technology. Specifically we aim to develop: optimized low-cost sorbent materials with 70-80 {micro}m average aps meeting all Sierra specs; attrition resistant sorbents with 170 {micro}m aps that allow greater flexibility in the choice of the type of fluidized-bed reactor e.g. they allow increased throughput in a bubbling-bed reactor; and modified fluidizable sorbent materials that can be regenerated to produce elemental sulfur directly with minimal or no use of coal gas The effort during the reporting period has been devoted to development of an advanced hot-gas process that can eliminate the problematic SO{sub 2} tail gas and yield elemental sulfur

  16. Development of advanced hot-gas desulfurization processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jothimurugesan, K.

    1999-04-26

    Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants nearing completion, such as Sierra-Pacific, employ a circulating fluidized-bed (transport) reactor hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) process that uses 70-180 {micro}m average particle size (aps) zinc-based mixed-metal oxide sorbent for removing H{sub 2}S from coal gas down to less than 20 ppmv. The sorbent undergoes cycles of absorption (sulfidation) and air regeneration. The key barrier issues associated with a fluidized-bed HGD process are chemical degradation, physical attrition, high regeneration light-off (initiation) temperature, and high cost of the sorbent. Another inherent complication in all air-regeneration-based HGD processes is the disposal of the problematic dilute SO{sub 2} containing regeneration tail-gas. Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP), a leading first generation technology, efficiently reduces this SO{sub 2} to desirable elemental sulfur, but requires the use of 1-3% of the coal gas, thus resulting in an energy penalty to the plant. Advanced second-generation processes are under development that can reduce this energy penalty by modifying the sorbent so that it could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur. The objective of this research is to support the near and long term DOE efforts to commercialize the IGCC-HGD process technology. Specifically we aim to develop: optimized low-cost sorbent materials with 70-80 {micro}m average aps meeting all Sierra specs; attrition resistant sorbents with 170 {micro}m aps that allow greater flexibility in the choice of the type of fluidized-bed reactor e.g. they allow increased throughput in a bubbling-bed reactor; and modified fluidizable sorbent materials that can be regenerated to produce elemental sulfur directly with minimal or no use of coal gas. The effort during the reporting period has been devoted to development of optimized low-cost zinc-oxide-based sorbents for Sierra-Pacific. The sorbent surface were modified to prevent

  17. Development of advanced hot-gas desulfurization processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jothimurugesan, K.

    2000-04-17

    Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants nearing completion, such as Sierra-Pacific, employ a circulating fluidized-bed (transport) reactor hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) process that uses 70-180 {micro}m average particle size (aps) zinc-based mixed-metal oxide sorbent for removing H{sub 2}S from coal gas down to less than 20 ppmv. The sorbent undergoes cycles of absorption (sulfidation) and air regeneration. The key barrier issues associated with a fluidized-bed HGD process are chemical degradation, physical attrition, high regeneration light-off (initiation) temperature, and high cost of the sorbent. Another inherent complication in all air-regeneration-based HGD processes is the disposal of the problematic dilute SO{sub 2} containing regeneration tail-gas. Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP), a leading first generation technology, efficiently reduces this SO{sub 2} to desirable elemental sulfur, but requires the use of 1-3 % of the coal gas, thus resulting in an energy penalty to the plant. Advanced second-generation processes are under development that can reduce this energy penalty by modifying the sorbent so that it could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur. The objective of this research is to support the near and long term DOE efforts to commercialize the IGCC-HGD process technology. Specifically we aim to develop: optimized low-cost sorbent materials with 70-80 {micro}m average aps meeting all Sierra specs; attrition resistant sorbents with 170 {micro}m aps that allow greater flexibility in the choice of the type of fluidized-bed reactor e.g. they allow increased throughput in a bubbling-bed reactor; and modified fluidizable sorbent materials that can be regenerated to produce elemental sulfur directly with minimal or no use of coal gas. The effort during the reporting period has been devoted to testing the FHR-32 sorbent. FHR-32 sorbent was tested for 50 cycles of sulfidation in a laboratory scale reactor.

  18. PRODUCTION OF CONSTRUCTION AGGREGATES FROM FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SLUDGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Through a cooperative agreement with DOE, the Research and Development Department of CONSOL Inc. (CONSOL R and D) is teaming with SynAggs, Inc. and Duquesne Light to design, construct, and operate a 500 lb/h continuous pilot plant to produce road construction aggregate from a mixture of wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) sludge, fly ash, and other components. The proposed project is divided into six tasks: (1) Project Management; (2) Mix Design Evaluation; (3) Process Design; (4) Construction; (5) Start-Up and Operation; and (6) Reporting. In this quarter, Tasks 1 and 2 were completed. A project management plan (Task 1) was issued to DOE on October 22, 1998 . The mix design evaluation (Task 2) with Duquesne Light Elrama Station FGD sludge and Allegheny Power Hatfields Ferry Station fly ash was completed. Eight semi-continuous bench-scale tests were conducted to examine the effects of mix formulation on aggregate properties. A suitable mix formulation was identified to produce aggregates that meet specifications of the American Association of State High Transport Officials (AASHTO) as Class A aggregate for use in highway construction. The mix formulation was used in designing the flow sheet of the pilot plant. The process design (Task 3) is approximately 80% completed. Equipment was evaluated to comply with design requirements. The design for the curing vessel was completed by an outside engineering firm. All major equipment items for the pilot plant, except the curing vessel, were ordered. Pilot plant construction (Task 4) was begun in October. The Hazardous Substance Plan was issued to DOE. The Allegheny County (PA) Heat Department determined that an air emission permit is not required for operation of the pilot plant.

  19. Chemical and physical properties of dry flue gas desulfurization products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kost, David A; Bigham, Jerry M; Stehouwer, Richard C; Beeghly, Joel H; Fowler, Randy; Traina, Samuel J; Wolfe, William E; Dick, Warren A

    2005-01-01

    Beneficial and environmentally safe recycling of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) products requires detailed knowledge of their chemical and physical properties. We analyzed 59 dry FGD samples collected from 13 locations representing four major FGD scrubbing technologies. The chemistry of all samples was dominated by Ca, S, Al, Fe, and Si and strong preferential partitioning into the acid insoluble residue (i.e., coal ash residue) was observed for Al, Ba, Be, Cr, Fe, Li, K, Pb, Si, and V. Sulfur, Ca, and Mg occurred primarily in water- or acid-soluble forms associated with the sorbents or scrubber reaction products. Deionized water leachates (American Society for Testing and Materials [ASTM] method) and dilute acetic acid leachates (toxicity characteristic leaching procedure [TCLP] method) had mean pH values of >11.2 and high mean concentrations of S primarily as SO(2-)4 and Ca. Concentrations of Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, and Se (except for ASTM Se in two samples) were below drinking water standards in both ASTM and TCLP leachates. Total toxicity equivalents (TEQ) of dioxins, for two FGD products used for mine reclamation, were 0.48 and 0.53 ng kg(-1). This was similar to the background level of the mine spoil (0.57 ng kg(-1)). The FGD materials were mostly uniform in particle size. Specific surface area (m2 g(-1)) was related to particle size and varied from 1.3 for bed ash to 9.5 for spray dryer material. Many of the chemical and physical properties of these FGD samples were associated with the quality of the coal rather than the combustion and SO2 scrubbing processes used.

  20. Use of Coke Oven Gas during shutdown period of Direct Reduced Iron Plant for Steam Generation: Experimentation and Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Harish C. Dalai; Dr. N.C.Nayak

    2015-01-01

    Development of any country is largely based on its magnitude of industrial growth. Steel industries in India took a leading role in the world after mid-sixties. During the last five decades, the steel industries all over the world made considerable developments in new methods for reducing iron ore directly to metallic iron for use as commercial scrap substitute in the manufacture of steels. BSL has been producing steel and other products over last two decades and the above process is used ...

  1. Results of testing various natural gas desulfurization adsorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israelson, Gordon

    2004-06-01

    This article presents the results of testing many commercially available and some experimental sulfur adsorbents. The desired result of our testing was to find an effective method to reduce the quantity of sulfur in natural gas to less than 100 ppb volume (0.1 ppm volume). An amount of 100 ppb sulfur is the maximum limit permitted for Siemens Westinghouse solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The tested adsorbents include some that rely only on physical adsorption such as activated carbon, some that rely on chemisorption such as heated zinc oxide, and some that may use both processes. The testing was performed on an engineering scale with beds larger than those used for typical laboratory tests. All tests were done at about 3.45 barg (50 psig). The natural gas used for testing was from the local pipeline in Pittsburgh and averaged 6 ppm volume total sulfur. The primary sulfur species were dimethyl sulfide (DMS), isopropyl mercaptan, tertiary butyl mercaptan, and tetrahydrothiophene. Some tests required several months to achieve a sulfur breakthrough of the bed. It was found that DMS always came through a desulfurizer bed first, independent of adsorption process. Since the breakthrough of DMS always exceeds the 100 ppb SOFC sulfur limit before other sulfurs were detected, an index was created to rate the adsorbents in units of ppm DMS × absorbent bed volume. This index is useful for calculating the expected adsorbent bed lifetime before sulfur breakthrough when the inlet natural gas DMS content is known. The adsorbents that are included in these reports were obtained from suppliers in the United States, the Netherlands, Japan, and England. Three activated carbons from different suppliers were found to have identical performance in removing DMS. One of these activated carbons was operated at four different space velocities and again showed the same performance. When using activated carbon as the basis of comparison for other adsorbents, three high-performance adsorbents

  2. Application of Pt/CdS for the Photocatalytic Flue Gas Desulfurization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiulan Song

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A photocatalytic flue gas desulfurization technology was designed to control emissions of SO2 from the combustion of fossil fuels. With the photocatalytic technology, we cannot only achieve the purpose of solving the problem of SO2 emissions but also realize the desire of hydrogen production from water. CdS loaded with Pt were selected as the model photocatalyst for the photocatalytic flue gas desulfurization. The factors influencing the rate of hydrogen production and ammonia sulfite solution oxidation were detected.

  3. Desulfurization of gas tailings in the petroleum industry; Dessulfuracao de efluentes gasosos na industria petrolifera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villegas, Edwin A.; Ribeiro, Eduardo D.L. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    A review of the main gas-stream desulfurization processes, as applied to the petroleum industry, is presented during this work. Technology in actual use for decontamination of natural gas and tail gas in oil refineries, in terms of H{sub 2} S removal, is also discussed. Main processes for oxidized-sulphur gases removal in gas tailings of this industry are described. (author). 6 figs., 2 tabs., 16 refs.

  4. 焦炉工人外周血淋巴细胞凋亡特征分析%Characteristics of Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes Apoptosis in Coke-oven Workers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡志鹏; 张红明; 李卫星; 张晶; 宋秋坤; 王保平; 李治玉; 郑金平

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究焦炉工人外周血淋巴细胞凋亡特征及其影响因素,为加强焦炉工的健康防护提供指导依据.[方法]收集343名焦炉工人班后尿,高效液相色谱法测定尿1-羟基芘(1-OHP)浓度,按尿1-OHP浓度将研究对象分为低、中、高暴露组.分光光度法测定血浆乳酸脱氢酶(LDH)活性和丙二醛(MDA焓量,流式细胞仪测定淋巴细胞凋亡率.[结果]以低暴露组淋巴细胞凋亡率95%上限值(7.90%)为界值判断淋巴细胞凋亡阳性,结果显示,低、中、高暴露组淋巴细胞凋亡阳性率随剂量升高而升高(趋势检验P<O.01).经多因素Logistic回归分析,中暴露组、高暴露组和夜班是淋巴细胞凋亡阳性的主要危险因素(OR分别为3.42、8.58和5.05,P值均小于0.05 o相关分析结果显示,淋巴细胞凋亡率与尿1-OHP含量呈正相关(r=0.113,P<0.05).[结论]焦炉逸散物暴露可导致部分焦炉工人淋巴细胞凋亡率升高,且与尿1-OHP水平有关.夜班是主要影响因素.%[Objective]To investigate the characteristics of lymphocytes apoptosis in peripheral blood of coke-oven workers and its influential factors.[Methods]In this study, a total of 343 coke-oven workers were included.1-Hydroxypyrene ( 1-OHP ) in worker's post-shift urine sample was determined by high performance liquid chromatography.Subjects were divided into low, medium or high exposure group according to the 1-OHP concentration.Lactic dehydrogenase ( LDH )activity and malondialehehyche( MDA )concentration in plasma were determined using speetrophotometry.Lymphocyte apoptosis in peripheral blood was determined using flow cytometry.[Results]The upper bound lymphocyte apoptosis rates of 95% subjects in the low exposure group ( 7.9% ) was defined as the threshold to determine positive lymphocyte apoptosis.The positive rate of lymphocyte apoptosis in the low, medium and high exposure groups were increased with the exposure levels( chi-square trend test, P< 0

  5. Cytochrome P450 (CYP and glutathione S-transferases (GST polymorphisms (CYP1A1, CYP1B1, GSTM1, GSTP1 and GSTT1 and urinary levels of 1-hydroxypyrene in Turkish coke oven workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Oguz Ada

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic polymorphisms of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes have been associated with cancer risk. We evaluated the influences of genetic polymorphisms of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH metabolizing enzymes on urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP excretion in Turkish coke oven workers. Urinary 1-OHP was analyzed by HPLC after enzymatic hydrolysis. Lymphocyte DNA was used for PCR-based genotyping of cytochrome P450 (CYP polymorphisms (CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 and glutathione S-transferases (GST polymorphisms (GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1. The mean urinary 1-OHP levels of coke oven workers were significantly higher than that of controls. No significant difference was detected in the mean urinary 1-OHP levels of smokers and non-smokers either for coke oven workers or controls. Genetic polymorphisms of the CYPs and GSTs studied had no significant influence on 1-OHP excretion in coke oven workers, but in the control group the urinary 1-OHP levels of individuals carrying the GSTT1- genotype were significantly higher than those of individuals carrying GSTT1+ genotype. The duration of occupational exposure and metabolic genotype for GSTT1 were the significant predictors of urinary 1-OHP levels. The control individuals carrying combined GSTM1-/GSTT1- genotypes also had significantly higher levels of urinary 1-OHP than those of individuals carrying GSTM1+/GSTTI+, GSTM1-/GSTT1+, and GSTM1+/GSTT1- genotypes. These results indicate that urinary 1-OHP is a sensitive indicator of recent human exposure to PAHs and that genetic polymorphism of GSTT1 may also to some extent reflect the interindividual variation in susceptibility to PAHs only at low PAH exposure.

  6. 浅谈6.25m捣固焦炉推焦车的电气控制%Introduction to Electric Control System of 6.25 m Stamp-charging Coke Oven Pusher

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武海虹

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the 6 .25 m stamping coke oven pusher ,including electrical structure ,speed control mode ,program structure diagram ,operation mode and automatic positioning system .%详细介绍了6.25 m捣固焦炉设备之推焦车的电气结构、调速方式、程序框图、操作方式及自动定位系统。

  7. A Reusable Calcium-Based Sorbent for Desulfurizing Hot Coal Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheelock, T.D.; Hasler, D.J.L.

    2002-09-19

    The overall objective of this project has been to develop a superior, regenerable, calcium-based sorbent for desulfurizing hot coal gas. The sorbent should be strong, durable, inexpensive to manufacture, and capable of being reused many times. To achieve these objectives the project has focused on the development of the very promising core-in-shell sorbent.

  8. COMPARISON OF WEST GERMAN AND U.S. FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION AND SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION COSTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report documents a comparison of the actual cost retrofitting flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on Federal Republic of German (FRG) boilers to cost estimating procedures used in the U.S. to estimate the retrofit of these controls on U.S. b...

  9. High Temperature Flue Gas Desulfurization In Moving Beds With Regenerable Copper Based Sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cengiz, P.A.; Ho, K.K.; Abbasian, J.; Lau, F.S.

    2002-09-20

    The objective of this study was to develop new and improved regenerable copper based sorbent for high temperature flue gas desulfurization in a moving bed application. The targeted areas of sorbent improvement included higher effective capacity, strength and long-term durability for improved process control and economic utilization of the sorbent.

  10. Decreasing phosphorus loss in tile-drained landscapes using flue gas desulfurization gypsum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elevated phosphorus (P) loading from agricultural non-point source pollution continues to impair inland waterbodies throughout the world. The application of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum to agricultural fields has been suggested to decrease P loading because of its high calcium content and P...

  11. Characteristics and reactivity of rapidly hydrated sorbent for semidry flue gas desulfurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; You, Changfu; Zhao, Suwei; Chen, Changhe; Qi, Haiying

    2008-03-01

    Semidry flue gas desulfurization with a rapidly hydrated sorbent was studied in a pilot-scale circulating fluidized bed (CFB) experimental facility. The desulfurization efficiency was measured for various operating parameters, including the sorbent recirculation rate and the water spray method. The experimental results show that the desulfurization efficiencies of the rapidly hydrated sorbent were 1.5-3.0 times higher than a commonly used industrial sorbent for calcium to sulfur molar ratios from 1.2 to 3.0, mainly due to the higher specific surface area and pore volume. The Ca(OH)2 content in the cyclone separator ash was about 2.9% for the rapidly hydrated sorbent and was about 0.1% for the commonly used industrial sorbent, due to the different adhesion between the fine Ca(OH)2 particles and the fly ash particles, and the low cyclone separation efficiency for the fine Ca(OH)2 particles that fell off the sorbent particles. Therefore the actual recirculation rates of the active sorbent with Ca(OH)2 particles were higher for the rapidly hydrated sorbent, which also contributed to the higher desulfurization efficiency. The high fly ash content in the rapidly hydrated sorbent resulted in good operating stability. The desulfurization efficiency with upstream water spray was 10-15% higher than that with downstream water spray.

  12. Adhesive carrier particles for rapidly hydrated sorbent for moderate-temperature dry flue gas desulfurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; You, Changfu; Song, Chenxing

    2010-06-15

    A rapidly hydrated sorbent for moderate-temperature dry flue gas desulfurization was prepared by rapidly hydrating adhesive carrier particles and lime. The circulation ash from a circulating fluidized bed boiler and chain boiler ash, both of which have rough surfaces with large specific surface areas and specific pore volumes, can improve the adhesion, abrasion resistance, and desulfurization characteristics of rapidly hydrated sorbent when used as the adhesive carrier particles. The adhesion ability of sorbent made from circulation ash is 67.4% higher than that of the existing rapidly hydrated sorbent made from fly ash, the abrasion ratio is 76.2% lower, and desulfurization ability is 14.1% higher. For sorbent made from chain boiler ash, the adhesion ability is increased by 74.7%, the desulfurization ability is increased by 30.3%, and abrasion ratio is decreased by 52.4%. The abrasion ratios of the sorbent made from circulation ash having various average diameters were all about 9%, and their desulfurization abilities were similar (approximately 150 mg/g).

  13. Determination of Salt Impurities in MDEA Solution Used in Desulfurization of Highly Sulphurous Natural Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yucheng; Zhang Bo; Chen Mingyan; Wu Danni; Zhou Zheng

    2015-01-01

    The foaming phenomenon of N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) solution used in desulfurization process occurs frequently in the natural-gas puriifcation plant. The foaming phenomenon has a strong impact on operation of the process unit. The salt impurities are the main reason for causing the foaming of MDEA solution, so the full analysis of salt impuri-ties is necessary. A method for comprehensive analysis of salt impurities in MDEA solution used in desulfurization process was established. Anions and non-metallic cations of MDEA solution were determined by different conditions of ion chro-matograph, respectively. Metallic cations of the solution were detected by atomic absorption spectrophotometer with the N2O-C2H2 lfame absorption. The analytical results of salt impurities in the desulfurization solution can provide a theoretical basis for an accurate analysis of the factors affecting the foaming of MDEA to unveil further control measures.

  14. 梅钢焦炉用后硅砖显微结构分析%Microstructure analysis of silica brick used in coke oven of Meisteel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪建国; 周宁生; 姚金甫; 高振昕

    2011-01-01

    Microstructure analysis shows quartz remains more or less silica brick used in coking chamber of coke oven,and quartz gradually becomes metastable cristobalite and then translates into tridymite in silica brick used in higher temperature combustion chamber. Phase change of silica brick only limits to transformation of quartz and metastable cristobalite. When finished,structure of silica brick trends to stable. Carbon sedimentates and graphitizes which helps to protect the silica brick and improve heat conductivity of silica brick used in coking chamber.%显微结构分析表明:焦炉炭化室用后硅砖中或多或少存在残余石英,而燃烧室由于温度较高,其硅砖中的石英逐渐经亚稳方石英转变为鳞石英.焦炉用后硅砖的相变过程只限于石英和亚稳方石英的转化,随着石英和亚稳方石英逐渐转变成鳞石英,硅砖结构趋于稳定.炭化室用后硅砖表面出现碳沉积并石墨化,对硅砖起到保护作用,并有利于提高炭化室的热导率.

  15. 7m焦炉煤塔授煤控制系统改造%Transformation of the Control System for the Coal Tower of Coking Oven

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙光辉

    2014-01-01

    The application performance of coal receiving control system of the coal tower at the 7m top charging coke oven in Tongling Xinyaxing Coking is introduced. The abnormal shutdowns and failures caused by defects of electrical components at the coal tower mouth were analyzed in detail. The original control system was modified by adopting PLC combining with industrial wireless Ethernet technology, which has greatly enhanced the operation safety of the coal tower equipment such as the charging cars and improved production efficiency.%介绍了7m顶装焦炉煤塔授煤控制系统在铜陵新亚星焦化厂的应用情况,对煤塔漏嘴电气元件缺陷造成异常停机和事故进行了详细的分析,采用PLC结合工业无线以太网技术对原控制系统进行改造,大大增强了煤塔及装煤车等设备在运行过程中的安全性能,提高了生产效率。

  16. 6m顶装焦炉改为捣固焦炉相关配套机械的改造%Relevant Mechanical Revamping for the 6m Top-charged Coke Oven after being Upgraded into a Stamp-charged Coke Oven

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙乃鑫

    2011-01-01

    介绍了6m顶装焦炉改为捣固焦炉炼焦后,对推焦车、拦焦车、装煤车进行的改造;并介绍了新增加的设备,包括捣固装煤车、30锤固定捣固机、摇动给料机.改为捣固焦炉后,增大了炼焦煤料的可选范围,降低了炼焦成本,焦炭产量由110万t/a提高到130万t/a.改造后配套的6m捣固焦炉设备具有技术水平先进,劳动生产率较高,综合生产成本低,环境污染小,且全部国产化等特点.%Introduced in this paper are the relevant mechanical revamping on the pushing car, coke guiding car and charging car, and also the additional equipment involved (e.g. Stamping/charging car, 30 hammer fixed stamping machine and the reciprocating feeders) after the 6m top-charged coke oven had been upgraded into a stamp-charged coke oven. After such a revamping, the selection of the feed coal range could be extended, and the coking cost could be reduced, as the weakly caking coal and less high-quality coking coal could be used. Meanwhile, the coke production capacity rose from 1 100 OOOt/a to 1 300 OOOt/a. The revamped battery is now advanced in technology, high in labor productivity, low in comprehensive production cost, less in adverse environmental impact, last but not least, the localization rate could be up to 100%.

  17. Experimental research on heat transfer performances of salty bath spiral coil waste heat recovery equipment in coke oven ascending pipe%盐浴螺旋盘管式焦炉上升管余热回收装置传热性能试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨哲君; 张素军; 李菊香

    2015-01-01

    对盐浴螺旋盘管式结构的焦炉上升管高温荒煤气余热回收装置进行了以烟气代替荒煤气的传热性能模拟试验,得到了上升管余热回收装置螺旋盘管环形套筒的外壁温度分布、上升管内烟气侧的传热系数、环形套筒内螺旋盘管外盐浴的自然对流传热系数等试验研究结果.结果表明,装置螺旋盘管环形套筒的外壁温度分布并非均匀,随上升管内烟气温度的升高而波动增大;烟气侧对流传热系数在Re数高于2900后随Re数的增大而明显上升;螺旋盘管外盐浴的自然对流传热系数随熔盐温度的升高几乎不变.根据试验结果拟合出环形套筒内螺旋盘管外盐浴的自然对流传热关联式,为实际的工程应用提供参考.%This paper tested the heat transfer performances of a salty bath spiral coil high temperature coke-oven gas waste heat recovery equipment in coke oven ascending pipe. Flue gas was instead of coke-oven gas as the heat transfer media. The experiment obtained temperature distribution of spiral coil sleeve on the outer wall of the waste heat recovery equipment,the heat transfer coefficients of flue gas in ascending pipe,the outer natural convection heat transfer coefficients of salty bath spiral coil in annular sleeve and other experiment results. The test results showed that the temperature distribution of spiral coil sleeve on the outer wall was not uniform,and fluctuated more as the flue gas temperature increased in the ascending pipe;the convection heat transfer coefficient of flue gas increased evidently with the increase ofRe number especially afterRe number was greater than 2900;the outer natural convection heat transfer coefficient of the salty bath spiral coil was almost a constant value with the increase of molten salt temperature. Based on the test results,this paper presented the outer natural convection heat transfer correlation of the salty bath spiral coil in annular sleeve

  18. Finned tubes in purified gas heat exchangers of flue gas desulfurization plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Donnell, J. Jr.; Meyer, T.H.

    1985-01-01

    The use of helical rolled, corrosion resistant finned tubes in the purified gas heat exchangers of flue gas desulfurization plant has considerable economic advantages over conventional heat exchangers with smooth tubes. As a result of a threefold larger external surface and hence improved heat transfer properties, heat exchangers with finned tubes can be made considerably smaller. The weight and space requirements are reduced and the pressure drop also falls owing to the smaller diameter. Thus piping, pumps, and fittings can all be made smaller. Moreover, deposition on the finned tubes is considerably lower. It is found that finned tubes can be recommended in all cases where the difference in heat transfer coefficients between the inside and the outside of the tube is considerable. (orig.).

  19. Low sulfur content hot reducing gas production using calcium oxide desulfurization with water recycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feinman, J.; Mcgreal, J.E.

    1982-03-23

    A process and apparatus are claimed for producing a low sulfur content, hot reducing gas by desulfurizing hot reducing gas. This is done in the following manner; by contacting the sulfur-bearing hot reducing gas with a bed of a particulate calcium oxide desulfurizing agent to thereby produce a product gas stream and a byproduct calcium sulfide compositions recovering sulfur from the calcium sulfide composition by contacting the calcium sulfide composition with hot liquid water at a temperature and corresponding pressure sufficient to maintain steam in the system and to thereby convert the sulfide to calcium hydroxide and hydrogen sulfide and to produce a liquid water stream containing sulfur; combining the sulfur containing water stream with a fresh water stream and recycling this water stream for contacting the calcium sulfide composition. Preferably water vapor produced in the contacting step is condensed and returned to the system in the final stage of contacting the calcium sulfide composition with hot liquid water.

  20. Fuel gas desulfurization at elevated temperatures with copper-based sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasian, J.; Hill, A.H.; Lau, F.S. [Inst. of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States); Honea, F.I. [Illinois Clean Coal Inst., Carbondale, IL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Zinc-based sorbents, the leading candidates for hot gas cleanup, have been shown to suffer from zinc volatilization at elevated temperatures, leading to sorbent deterioration, increasing sorbent replacement costs. Copper-based sorbents, because of the high melting point of the metal, do not suffer from this problem. However, bulk copper oxide is generally reduced to metallic copper in reducing fuel gas environments leading to thermodynamic limitations, resulting in insufficient level of desulfurization. The reduction stability and therefore the desulfurization performance of copper oxide sorbents can be significantly improved by combining copper oxide with other oxides in a supported form or as bulk mixed metal oxides. This paper addresses the results of a systematic study of several novel copper-based sorbents for hot gas cleanup application. The evaluation criteria included reduction stability, sulfidation reactivity and regenerability at elevated temperatures. The performance of the most promising sorbent in long duration cycle sulfidation-regeneration tests is also presented.

  1. Desulfurization at high temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panula-Nikkilae, E.; Kurkela, E.; Mojtahedi, W.

    1987-01-01

    Two high-temperature desulfurization methods, furnace injection and gasification-desulfurization are presented. In furnace injection, the efficiency of desulfurization is 50-60%, but this method is applied in energy production plants, where flue gas desulfurization cannot be used. Ca-based sorbents are used as desulfurization material. Factors affecting desulfurization and the effect of injection on the boiler and ash handling are discussed. In energy production based on gasification, very low sulfur emissions can be achieved by conventional low-temperature cleanup. However, high-temperature gas cleaning leads to higher efficiency and can be applied to smaller size classes. Ca-, Fe-, or Zn-based sorbents or mixed metals can be used for desulfurization. Most of the methods under development are based on the use of regenerative sorbents in a cleanup reactor located outside the gasifier. So far, only calcium compounds have been used for desulfurization inside the gasifier.

  2. Evaluation of DNA damage induction on human pulmonary cells exposed to PAHs from organic extract of PM10 collected in a coke-oven plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Delia; Ursini, Cinzia L; Pira, Enrico; Romano, Canzio; Maiello, Raffaele; Petyx, Marta; Iavicoli, Sergio

    2008-01-01

    Occupational exposure of coke oven workers, classified by IARC as human carcinogen, is characterized by the presence of PAHs emitted during pyrolysis of coal. We aimed to clarify the mechanism of action of complex mixtures of PAHs and to identify biomarkers of early biological effect, evaluating on lung epithelial cells (A549) genotoxic and oxidative damage of airborne particulate matter collected in a coke plant. Particulate matter was collected in the oven area on glass filter, extract and analysed by GC/MS. Direct/oxidative DNA damage induced by exposure to extract were evaluated by Fpg comet assay. The cells were exposed for 30 min, 2h and 4h to extract of half filter diluted at 0.004%, 0.008% and 0.02%. We evaluated comet percentage and analysed tail moment values of cells treated with Fpg enzyme (TMenz) and untreated (TM) that indicate respectively oxidative and direct DNA damage. Air sample contained 0.328 microg/m3 of pyrene, 0.33 microg/m3 of benzo(a)anthracene, 1.073 microg/m3 of benzo(b)fluoranthene, 0.22 microg/m3 of benzo(k)fluoranthene, 0.35 microg/m3 of benzo(a)pyrene, 0.079 microg/m3 of dibenzo(a,h)anthracene and 0.40 microg/m3 of benzo(g,h,i)perylene. The dose-dependent increase of TM and TMenz in exposed cells was not significant, indicating only a slight direct and oxidative DNA damage in exposed cells. A small dose-time dependent increase of comet percentage was found. The study shows the high sensitivity of comet assay to measure early DNA damage also at low doses suggesting its use on lung epithelial cells to evaluate the effects of complex mixtures of genotoxic substances on target organ.

  3. Development of regenerable copper-based sorbents for hot gas desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasian, J.; Slimane, R.B.; Hill, A.H. [Inst. of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Honea, F.I. [Illinois Clean Coal Inst., Carbondale, IL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The implementation of hot gas cleanup systems heavily depends on the development of regenerable sorbents for removal of sulfur-containing species (mainly H{sub 2}S) from the fuel gas stream at elevated temperatures (i.e., >350 C) from levels of several thousand ppm down to a few ppm, over many sulfidation/regeneration cycles. In addition, these sorbents must have high sulfur capacity, good sulfidation kinetics, good mechanical strength, and good chemical and structural stability over multicycle testing. Zinc-based sorbents, such as zinc titanates, are the leading contenders for hot gas desulfurization. However, these sorbents have been shown to suffer from zinc volatilization at elevated temperatures, resulting in sorbent deterioration and losses through attrition, loss of reactivity, leading to increasing sorbent replacement costs and overall cost of electricity. Copper-based sorbents do not suffer from volatilization problems due to the high melting point of the metal. However, bulk copper oxide is easily reduced to elemental copper in a reducing fuel gas environment, which in turn results in insufficient level of desulfurization. Fortunately, the sorbent desulfurization performance can be greatly enhanced by combining copper oxide with other oxides to minimize or prevent sorbent reduction during the sulfidation stage. This paper reports on research conducted to-date on the development of copper-based sorbents for hot coal gas desulfurization. The results of packed-bed experiments carried out for the determination of optimum operating conditions and for the evaluation of the long-term durability and regenerability of selected copper chromite sorbents are presented and discussed.

  4. {sup 29}Si-NMR study of the absorbent for flue gas desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattori, Hideshi; Kanuka, Nariyasu; Kanai, Ryu-ichi [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    The flue gas from a coal fired boiler contains a high concentration of SO{sub 2} which should be removed before emitted from a chimney for protection of environment from pollution. A wet desulfurization system is commonly adopted for flue gas desulfurization (FGD), and exhibits a high utilization efficiency of Ca component in the absorbent, but needs a large amount of water. As dry FDD systems, a duct injection and a slurry spraying are adopted. The efficiency, however, is not so high as compared to a wet FGD system. Recently, the SO{sub 2} absorbent which exhibits a high utilization efficiency of Ca component in a dry FGD process was prepared from a coal fly-ash, Ca(OH){sub 2}, and CaSO{sub 4} by hydrothermal reaction. In this project, we studied the structural changes of the absorbent during the hydrothermal reation and sulfur dioxide absorption by silicon 29-MASNMR.

  5. Association of polymorphisms in AhR, CYP1A1, GSTM1, and GSTT1 genes with levels of DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes among coke-oven workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yongwen Chen; Yun Bai; Jing Yuan; Weihong Chen; Jianya Sun; Hong Wang; Huashan Liang; Liang Guo; Xiaobo Yang; Hao Tan; Yougong Su; Qingyi Wei; Tangchun Wu [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). Institute of Occupational Medicine and Ministry of Education Key Lab of Environment and Health

    2006-09-15

    Accumulating evidence has shown that both DNA damage caused by the metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and genetic polymorphisms in PAH-metabolic genes contribute to individual susceptibility to PAH-induced carcinogenesis. However, the functional relevance of genetic polymorphisms in PAH-metabolic genes in exposed individuals is still unclear. In this study of 240 coke-oven workers (the exposed group) and 123 non-coke-oven workers (the control group), we genotyped for polymorphisms in the AhR, CYP1A1, GSTM1, and GSTT1 genes by PCR methods, and determined the levels of DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes using the alkaline comet assay. It was found that the ln-transformed Olive tail moment (Olive TM) values in the exposed group were significantly higher than those in the control group. Furthermore, in the exposed group, the Olive TM values in subjects with the AhR Lys{sup 554} variant genotype were higher than those with the AhR Arg{sup 554}/Arg{sup 554} genotype. Similarly, the Olive TM values in the non-coke-oven workers with the CYP1A1 MspI CC + CT genotype were lower than the values of those with the CYP1A1 MspI TT genotype. However, these differences were not evident for GSTM1 and GSTT1. These results suggested that the polymorphism of AhR might modulate the effects of PAHs in the exposed group; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms by which this polymorphism may have affected the levels of PAH-induced DNA damage warrant further investigation.

  6. Experimental Study on Demercurization Performance of Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAO, Jingjing; YANG, Linjun; YAN, Jinpei

    2009-01-01

    The demercurization performance of wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) system was investigated by measuring mercury concentrations at the inlet and outlet of WFGD system with a QM201H mercury analyzer. The selected desulfurizer included NH_3·H_2O, NaOH, Na_2CO_3, Ca(OH)_2 and CaCO_3. The influences of adding oxidant and coagulant such as KMnO_4, Fenton reagent, K_2S_2O_8/CuSO_4 and Na_2S into desulfurization solutions were also studied.The results show that elemental mercury is the main component of gaseous mercury in coal-fired flue gas, and the proportion of oxidized mercury is less than 36%. Oxidized mercury could be removed by WFGD system efficiently,and the removal efficiency could amount to 81.1%-92.6%. However, the concentration of elemental mercury slightly increased at the outlet of WFGD as a result of its insolubility and re-emission. Therefore, the removal efficiency of gaseous mercury is only 13.3%-18.3%. The mercury removal efficiency of WFGD system increased with increasing the liquid-gas ratio. In addition, adding KMnO_4, Fenton reagent, K_2S_2O_8/CuSO_4 and Na_2S into desulfurization solutions could increase the mercury removal efficiency obviously. Various additives have different effects, and Na_2S is demonstrated to be the most efficient, in which a mercury removal efficiency of 67.2% can be reached.

  7. Cytogenetic damage in Turkish coke oven workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Association with CYP1A1, CYP1B1, EPHX1, GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 gene polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ada, Ahmet Oguz; Demiroglu, Canan; Yilmazer, Meltem; Suzen, Halit Sinan; Demirbag, Ali Eba; Efe, Sibel; Alemdar, Yilmaz; Iscan, Mumtaz; Burgaz, Sema

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the frequencies of chromosomal aberrations (CA) and cytochalasin-blocked micronuclei (CBMN) in peripheral blood lymphocytes from Turkish coke oven workers and the influence of CYP1A1, CYP1B1, EPHX1, GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 gene polymorphisms on these biomarkers. Cytogenetic analysis showed that occupational exposure significantly increased the CA and CBMN frequencies. Gene polymorphisms, on the other hand, did not affect CA or CBMN in either exposed or control subjects. However, due to the limited sample size, our findings need to be verified in future studies with a larger sample.

  8. Effects of magnetic fields on improving mass transfer in flue gas desulfurization using a fluidized bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Gui, Keting; Wang, Xiaobo

    2016-02-01

    The effects of magnetic fields on improving the mass transfer in flue gas desulfurization using a fluidized bed are investigated in the paper. In this research, the magnetically fluidized bed (MFB) is used as the reactor in which ferromagnetic particles are fluidized with simulated flue gas under the influence of an external magnetic field. Lime slurry is continuously sprayed into the reactor. As a consequence, the desulfurization reaction and the slurry drying process take place simultaneously in the MFB. In this paper, the effects of ferromagnetic particles and external magnetic fields on the desulphurization efficiency are studied and compared with that of quartz particles as the fluidized particles. Experimental results show that the ferromagnetic particles not only act as a platform for lime slurry to precipitate on like quartz particles, but also take part in the desulfurization reaction. The results also show that the specific surface area of ferromagnetic particles after reaction is enlarged as the magnetic intensity increases, and the external magnetic field promotes the oxidation of S(IV), improving the mass transfer between sulphur and its sorbent. Hence, the efficiency of desulphurization under the effects of external magnetic fields is higher than that in general fluidized beds.

  9. A complementary and synergistic effect of Fe-Zn binary metal oxide in the process of high-temperature fuel gas desulfurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁斯灏; 吴幼青

    1996-01-01

    57Fe Mossbauer spectroscopy was used to investigate the evolution of Fe-Zn binary metal oxide sorbent in the process of high-temperature fuel gas desulfurization. The results of phase analyses show that Fe-Zn binary metal oxide sorbent is rapidly reduced in hot fuel gas and decomposed to new phases of highly dispersed microcrystalline elemental iron and zinc oxide, both of which become the active desulfurization constituents. A complementary and synergistic effect between active iron acting as a high sulfur capacity constituent and active zinc oxide acting as a deep refining desulfurization constituent exists in this type of sorbent for hot fuel gas desulfurization.

  10. The effects of heavy metals and their interactions with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on the oxidative stress among coke-oven workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Tian; Feng, Wei; Kuang, Dan; Deng, Qifei [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, State Key Laboratory of Environmental Health (Incubating), School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Zhang, Wangzhen [Institute of Industrial Health, Wuhan Iron & Steel (Group) Corporation, Wuhan 430070, China. (China); Wang, Suhan; He, Meian; Zhang, Xiaomin; Wu, Tangchun [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, State Key Laboratory of Environmental Health (Incubating), School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Guo, Huan, E-mail: ghuan5011@hust.edu.cn [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, State Key Laboratory of Environmental Health (Incubating), School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China)

    2015-07-15

    Heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are predominate toxic constituents of particulate air pollution that may be related to the increased risk of cardiopulmonary events. We aim to investigate the effects of the toxic heavy metals (arsenic, As; cadmium, Cd; chromium, Cr; nickel, Ni; and lead, Pb), and their interactions with PAHs on oxidative stress among coke-oven workers. A total of 1333 male workers were recruited in this study. We determined their urinary levels of As, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, twelve PAH metabolites, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and 8-iso-prostaglandin-F2α (8-iso-PGF2α). Multivariate linear regression models were used to analyze the effects of these metals and their interactions with PAHs on 8-OHdG and 8-iso-PGF2α levels. It was found that only urinary As and Ni showed marginal or significant positive linear dose-dependent effects on 8-OHdG in this study population, especially among smokers (β=0.103, P=0.073 and β=0.110, P=0.002, respectively). After stratifying all participants by the quartiles of ΣOH-PAH, all five metals showed linear association with 8-OHdG in the highest quartile subgroup (Q4) of ΣOH-PAHs. However, these five urinary metals showed significantly consistent linear associations with 8-iso-PGF2α in all subjects and each stratum. Urinary ΣOH-PAHs can significant modify the effects of heavy metals on oxidative stress, while co-exposure to both high levels of ΣOH-PAHs and heavy metals render the workers with highest 8-OHdG and 8-iso-PGF2α (all P{sub interaction}≤0.005). This study showed evidence on the interaction effects of heavy metals and PAHs on increasing the oxidative stress, and these results warrant further investigation in more longitudinal studies. - Highlights: • Heavy metals and PAHs are predominate toxic constituents of particulate matters. • Urinary As and Ni showed linear dose-dependent effects on 8-OHdG and 8-iso-PGF2α. • PAHs significant interact with toxic metal in increasing 8

  11. Modeling studies of biological gas desulfurization under haloalkaline conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klok, J.B.M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Biogas, synthesis and natural gas streams often require treatment because of the presence of gaseous hydrogen sulphide (H2S). About 25 years ago, a biotechnological gas treatment process was developed as an alternative to the conventionally applied technologies. This proces

  12. Modeling studies of biological gas desulfurization under haloalkaline conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klok, J.B.M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Biogas, synthesis and natural gas streams often require treatment because of the presence of gaseous hydrogen sulphide (H2S). About 25 years ago, a biotechnological gas treatment process was developed as an alternative to the conventionally applied technologies. This proces

  13. Changes of telomere and telomerase in peripheral blood of coke oven workers%焦炉作业工人外周血中端粒及端粒酶的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小龙; 王威; 李智涛; 祝寒松; 燕贞; 王丽霞; 赵勇; 李时恩; 吴拥军; 吴逸明

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the impact of coke oven emission on the changes of telomere length and telomerase activity in coke oven workers. Methods 215 coke oven workers were taken as exposed group. 125 employees who had no exposure history to coke oven emission were selected as the control group. Use the test kits to extract leukocyte genome DNA and telomerase from their peripheral venous blood. The SYBR Green I real time PCR were used to detect the relative telomere length and relative telomerase activity. Results Relative telomere DNA length of white blood cells in the exposure group was shorter than that of the control group and relative telomerase activity in the exposure group was stronger than that of the control group. All the differences were statistically significant ( P < 0. 05). The relations of relative telomere DNA length and relative telomerase activity in the exposure group were a significantly negative correlation ( r = 0. 506, P < 0.01). The relations of relative telomere DNA length in the workers working on oven top, oven bottom and oven side and the concentration of B(a)p at the oven top, oven bottom and oven side were significantly negative correlation(r= -0.472,P<0. 01), but the relations of relative telomerase activity showed positive correlation (r=0. 421, P<0.01). Conclusions Coke oven emission could shorten the telomere DNA, and elevate the activity of telomerase, causing the disruption of telomere homeostasis.%目的 探讨焦炉逸散物对焦炉工人端粒长度和端粒酶活力变化的影响.方法 以焦炉作业工人215名为接触组,非焦炉作业工人125名为对照组.采空腹外周静脉血,提取外周血中白细胞基因组DNA和端粒酶,应用实时荧光定量聚合酶链式反应(PCR)检测外周血中白细胞端粒DNA相对长度、端粒酶相对活力.结果 接触组外周血中白细胞端粒DNA相对长度小于对照组,端粒酶相对活力高于对照组,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).接触组端粒相

  14. Study on the reaction activity of CuO/y-Al2O3 for dry flue gas desulfurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yan; ZHANG Chao; ZHENG Ying; ZHENG Chu-guang

    2004-01-01

    The copper oxide bed regenerable adsorber process can efficiently remove sulfur dioxide (SO2) and sulfur trioxide (SO3) and reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) from flue gas with no solid or liquid byproducts. This paper investigates the dry flue gas desulfurization activities of the CuO/γ-Al2O3 under different operation conditions finding that the dispersion degree of copper oxide can achieve a threshold value, which is 0.47mg/m2 carriers. The conclusion confirms that the sulfur capacity of desulfurizer is associated with flue gas' space velocity, reaction temperature, copper content and the structure of sorbent pellet, etc. And with the condition of the desulfurization reaction temperature 673 K, the space velocity 11 200 h-1 and the S/Cu mole ratio under 1, the sulfur removal efficiency can go upwards to 95%.

  15. Experimental and mechanism studies on simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification from flue gas using a flue gas circulating fluidized bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yi; XU PeiYao; SUN XiaoJun; WANG LiDong

    2007-01-01

    The oxidizing highly reactive absorbent was prepared from fly ash, industry lime, and an oxidizing additive M. Experiments of simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification were carried out in a flue gas circulating fluidized bed (CFB). The effects of influencing factors and calcium availability were also investigated on the removal efficiencies of desulfurization and denitrification. Removal efficiencies of 95.5% for SO2 and 64.8% for NO were obtained respectively under the optimal experimental conditions. The component of the spent absorbent was analyzed with chemical analysis methods. The results indicated that more nitrogen species appeared in the spent absorbent except sulfur species. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an accessory X-ray energy spectrometer were used to observe micro-properties of the samples, including fly ash, oxidizing highly reactive absorbent and spent absorbent. The simultaneous removal mechanism of SO2 and NO based on this absorbent was proposed according to the experimental results.

  16. Desulfurization of hot coal gas in fluidized bed with regenerable zinc titanate sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mojtahedi, W.; Salo, K.; Abbasian, J. (Enviropower Inc., Espoo (Finland))

    1994-01-01

    Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power generation processes are considered to be among the most attractive technologies for the 21st century. In such processes, solid fuels such as coal are gasified at pressure and the fuel gas is cleaned and combusted in the gas turbine. The gas cleanup is necessary not only for the protection of the gas turbine hardware, but also to comply with environmental regulations. In the so-called 'simplified' IGCC process, the fuel gas is cleaned at high temperature and pressure to improve the overall cycle efficiency. The hot gas cleanup system includes a high-temperature, high-pressure desulfurization unit and particulate removal system. The former comprises two fluidized bed reactors utilizing regenerable zinc titanate sorbents capable of removing the sulfur gases (primarily H[sub 2]S) to below 50 ppmv. The latter employs rigid ceramic filter elements operating at up to 700[degree]C and 20 bar and is capable of reducing the 'fines' concentration to an acceptable level for a gas turbine. Novel regenerable zinc titanate sorbents suitable for fluidized-bed application have been tested. The sulfur capture and attrition characteristics of these sorbents have been evaluated in extensive testing in a bench-scale fluidized-bed reactor operating at high pressure and temperature conditions expected in IGCC operation. Two different gas mixtures representing air-blown gasifier exit gas with and without in-situ desulfurization with Ca-based sorbents have been used. H[sub 2]S removal efficiencies of higher than 99% at acceptable levels of sorbent conversion have been achieved in all these experiments with minimal sorbent deterioration. 4 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  17. BUILDING MATERIALS MADE FROM FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION BY-PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael W. Grutzeck; Maria DiCola; Paul Brenner

    2006-03-30

    Flue gas desulphurization (FGD) materials are produced in abundant quantities by coal burning utilities. Due to environmental restrains, flue gases must be ''cleaned'' prior to release to the atmosphere. They are two general methods to ''scrub'' flue gas: wet and dry. The choice of scrubbing material is often defined by the type of coal being burned, i.e. its composition. Scrubbing is traditionally carried out using a slurry of calcium containing material (slaked lime or calcium carbonate) that is made to contact exiting flue gas as either a spay injected into the gas or in a bubble tower. The calcium combined with the SO{sub 2} in the gas to form insoluble precipitates. Some plants have been using dry injection of these same materials or their own Class C fly ash to scrub. In either case the end product contains primarily hannebachite (CaSO{sub 3} {center_dot} 1/2H{sub 2}O) with smaller amounts of gypsum (CaSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O). These materials have little commercial use. Experiments were carried out that were meant to explore the feasibility of using blends of hannebachite and fly ash mixed with concentrated sodium hydroxide to make masonry products. The results suggest that some of these mixtures could be used in place of conventional Portland cement based products such as retaining wall bricks and pavers.

  18. Apparatus for hot-gas desulfurization of fuel gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissett, Larry A.

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus for removing sulfur values from a hot fuel gas stream in a fdized bed contactor containing particulate sorbent material by employing a riser tube regeneration arrangement. Sulfur-laden sorbent is continuously removed from the fluidized bed through a stand pipe to the riser tube and is rapidly regenerated in the riser tube during transport of the sorbent therethrough by employing an oxygen-containing sorbent regenerating gas stream. The riser tube extends from a location below the fluidized bed to an elevation above the fluidized bed where a gas-solid separating mechanism is utilized to separate the regenerated particulate sorbent from the regeneration gases and reaction gases so that the regenerated sorbent can be returned to the fluidized bed for reuse.

  19. Durable zinc oxide-containing sorbents for coal gas desulfurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.

    1996-01-01

    Durable zinc-oxide containing sorbent pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from a gas stream at an elevated temperature are made up to contain titania as a diluent, high-surface-area silica gel, and a binder. These materials are mixed, moistened, and formed into pellets, which are then dried and calcined. The resulting pellets undergo repeated cycles of sulfidation and regeneration without loss of reactivity and without mechanical degradation. Regeneration of the pellets is carried out by contacting the bed with an oxidizing gas mixture.

  20. Advanced fuel gas desulfurization (AFGD) demonstration project. Technical progress report No. 19, July 1, 1994--September 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The {open_quotes}Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) Demonstration Project{close_quotes} is a $150.5 million cooperative effort between the U.S. Department of Energy and Pure Air, a general partnership of Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries America, Inc. The AFGD process is one of several alternatives to conventional flue gas desulfurization (FGD) being demonstrated under the Department of Energy`s Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. The AFGD demonstration project is located at the Northern Indiana Public Service Company`s Bailly Generating Station, about 12 miles northeast of Gary, Indiana.

  1. Durable zinc ferrite sorbent pellets for hot coal gas desulfurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Mahesh C.; Blandon, Antonio E.; Hepworth, Malcolm T.

    1988-01-01

    Durable, porous sulfur sorbents useful in removing hydrogen sulfide from hot coal gas are prepared by water pelletizing a mixture of fine zinc oxide and fine iron oxide with inorganic and organic binders and small amounts of activators such as sodium carbonate and molybdenite; the pellets are dried and then indurated at a high temperature, e.g., 1800.degree. C., for a time sufficient to produce crush-resistant pellets.

  2. Flue gas desulfurization/denitrification using metal-chelate additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, John B. L.; Doctor, Richard D.; Wingender, Ronald J.

    1986-01-01

    A method of simultaneously removing SO.sub.2 and NO from oxygen-containing flue gases resulting from the combustion of carbonaceous material by contacting the flue gas with an aqueous scrubber solution containing an aqueous sulfur dioxide sorbent and an active metal chelating agent which promotes a reaction between dissolved SO.sub.2 and dissolved NO to form hydroxylamine N-sulfonates. The hydroxylamine sulfonates are then separated from the scrubber solution which is recycled.

  3. BENCH-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    The Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) is a one- or two-stage catalytic reduction process for efficiently converting to elemental sulfur up to 98 percent or more of the sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) contained in the regeneration offgas streams produced in advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power systems. The DSRP reacts the regeneration offgas with a small slipstream of coal gas to effect the desired reduction. In this project the DSRP was demonstrated with actual coal gas (as opposed to the simulated laboratory mixtures used in previous studies) in a 75-mm, 1-L size fixed-bed reactor. Integrated with this testing, a US Department of Energy/Research Triangle Institute (DOE/RTI) patented zinc titanate-based fluidizable sorbent formulation was tested in a 75-mm (3-in.) diameter fluidized-bed reactor, and the regeneration offgas from that test was treated with the bench-unit DSRP. The testing was conducted at the DOE Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC)-Morgantown in conjunction with test campaigns of the pilot-scale gasifier there. The test apparatus was housed in a mobile laboratory built in a specially equipped office trailer that facilitated moving the equipment from RTI in North Carolina to the West Virginia test site. A long duration test of the DSRP using actual coal gas and simulated regeneration offgas showed no degradation in efficiency of conversion to elemental sulfur after 160 h of catalyst exposure. An additional exposure (200 h) of that same catalyst charge at the General Electric pilot gasifier showed only a small decline in performance. That problem is believed to have been caused by tar and soot deposits on the catalyst, which were caused by the high tar content of the atypical fixed-bed gasifier gas. A six-fold larger, single-stage skid-mounted DSRP apparatus was fabricated for additional, larger-scale slipstream testing.

  4. Hot particulate removal and desulfurization results from the METC integrated gasification and hot gas cleanup facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rockey, J.M.

    1995-06-01

    The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) is conducting experimental testing using a 10-inch diameter fluid-bed gasifier (FBG) and modular hot gas cleanup rig (MGCR) to develop advanced methods for removing contaminants in hot coal gasifier gas streams for commercial development of integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power systems. The program focus is on hot gas particulate removal and desulfurization technologies that match the temperatures and pressures of the gasifier, cleanup system, and power generator. The purpose of this poster is to present the program objectives and results of the work conducted in cooperation with industrial users and vendors to meet the vision for IGCC of reducing the capital cost per kilowatt to $1050 and increasing the plant efficiency to 52% by the year 2010.

  5. Flue Gas Desulfurization by Mechanically and Thermally Activated Sodium Bicarbonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walawska Barbara

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of study on structural parameters (particle size, surface area, pore volume and the sorption ability of mechanically and thermally activated sodium bicarbonate. The sorption ability of the modified sorbent was evaluated by: partial and overall SO2 removal efficiency, conversion rate, normalized stoichiometric ratio (NSR. Sodium bicarbonate was mechanically activated by various grinding techniques, using three types of mills: fluid bed opposed jet mill, fine impact mill and electromagnetic mill, differing in grinding technology. Grounded sorbent was thermally activated, what caused a significant development of surface area. During the studies of SO2 sorption, a model gas with a temperature of 300°C, of composition: sulfur dioxide at a concentration of 6292 mg/mn3, oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitrogen as a carrier gas, was used. The best development of surface area and the highest SO2 removal efficiency was obtained for the sorbent treated by electromagnetic grinding, with simultaneous high conversion rate.

  6. Land application uses for dry flue gas desulfurization by-products: Phase 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dick, W.; Bigham, J.; Forster, R.; Hitzhusen, F.; Lal, R.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W.; Haefner, R.; Rowe, G.

    1999-01-31

    New flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbing technologies create a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction product that contains sulfate and sulfite, and coal fly ash. Generally, dry FGD by-products are treated as solid wastes and disposed in landfills. However, landfill sites are becoming scarce and tipping fees are constantly increasing. Provided the environmental impacts are socially and scientifically acceptable, beneficial uses via recycling can provide economic benefits to both the producer and the end user of the FGD. A study titled ''Land Application Uses for Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products'' was initiated in December, 1990 to develop and demonstrate large volume, beneficial uses of FGD by-products. Phase 1 and Phase 2 reports have been published by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA. Phase 3 objectives were to demonstrate, using field studies, the beneficial uses of FGD by-products (1) as an amendment material on agricultural lands and on abandoned surface coal mine land, (2) as an engineering material for soil stabilization and raid repair, and (3) to assess the environmental and economic impacts of such beneficial uses. Application of dry FGD by-product to three soils in place of agricultural limestone increased alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and corn (Zea may L.) yields. No detrimental effects on soil and plant quality were observed.

  7. Potential Agricultural Uses of Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum in the Northern Great Plains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSutter, T.M.; Cihacek, L.J. [North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND (United States). Department of Soil Science

    2009-07-15

    Flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) is a byproduct from the combustion of coal for electrical energy production. Currently, FGDG is being produced by 15 electrical generating stations in Alabama, Florida, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Ohio, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Wisconsin. Much of this byproduct is used in the manufacturing of wallboard. The National Network for Use of FGDG in Agriculture was initiated to explore alternative uses of this byproduct. In the northern Great Plains (North Dakota, South Dakota, and Montana), FGDG has the potential to be used as a Ca or S fertilizer, as an acid soil ameliorant, and for reclaiming or mitigating sodium-affected soils. Greater than 1.4 million Mg of FGDG could initially be used in these states for these purposes. Flue gas desulfurization gypsum can be an agriculturally important resource for helping to increase the usefulness of problem soils and to increase crop and rangeland production. Conducting beneficial use audits would increase the public awareness of this product and help identify to coal combustion electrical generating stations the agriculturally beneficial outlets for this byproduct.

  8. Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) Demonstration Project, A DOE Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2001-08-31

    The AFGD process as demonstrated by Pure Air at the Bailly Station offers a reliable and cost-effective means of achieving a high degree of SO{sub 2} emissions reduction when burning high-sulfur coals. Many innovative features have been successfully incorporated in this process, and it is ready for widespread commercial use. The system uses a single-loop cocurrent scrubbing process with in-situ oxidation to produce wallboard-grade gypsum instead of wet sludge. A novel wastewater evaporation system minimizes effluents. The advanced scrubbing process uses a common absorber to serve multiple boilers, thereby saving on capital through economies of scale. Major results of the project are: (1) SO{sub 2} removal of over 94 percent was achieved over the three-year demonstration period, with a system availability exceeding 99.5 percent; (2) a large, single absorber handled the combined flue gas of boilers generating 528 MWe of power, and no spares were required; (3) direct injection of pulverized limestone into the absorber was successful; (4) Wastewater evaporation eliminated the need for liquid waste disposal; and (5) the gypsum by-product was used directly for wallboard manufacture, eliminating the need to dispose of waste sludge.

  9. Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) Demonstration Project, A DOE Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2001-08-31

    The AFGD process as demonstrated by Pure Air at the Bailly Station offers a reliable and cost-effective means of achieving a high degree of SO{sub 2} emissions reduction when burning high-sulfur coals. Many innovative features have been successfully incorporated in this process, and it is ready for widespread commercial use. The system uses a single-loop cocurrent scrubbing process with in-situ oxidation to produce wallboard-grade gypsum instead of wet sludge. A novel wastewater evaporation system minimizes effluents. The advanced scrubbing process uses a common absorber to serve multiple boilers, thereby saving on capital through economies of scale. Major results of the project are: (1) SO{sub 2} removal of over 94 percent was achieved over the three-year demonstration period, with a system availability exceeding 99.5 percent; (2) a large, single absorber handled the combined flue gas of boilers generating 528 MWe of power, and no spares were required; (3) direct injection of pulverized limestone into the absorber was successful; (4) Wastewater evaporation eliminated the need for liquid waste disposal; and (5) the gypsum by-product was used directly for wallboard manufacture, eliminating the need to dispose of waste sludge.

  10. Mechanism of flue gas simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification using the highly reactive absorbent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yi; SUN Xiaojun; XU Peiyao; MA Shuangchen; WANG Lidong; LIU Feng

    2005-01-01

    Fly ash, industry-grade lime and a few oxidizing manganese compound additive were used to prepare the "Oxygen-riched" highly reactive absorbent for simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification. Experiments of simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification were carried out using the highly reactive absorbent in the flue gas circulating fluidized bed (CFB) system. Removal efficiencies of 94.5% for SO2 and 64.2% for NO were obtained respectively. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) and accessory X-ray energy spectrometer were used to observe micro-properties of the samples, including fly ash, common highly reactive absorbent, "Oxygen-riched" highly reactive absorbent and spent absorbent. The white flake layers were observed in the SEM images about surfaces of the common highly reactive absorbent and "Oxygen- riched" one, and the particle surfaces of the spent absorbent were porous. The content of calcium on surface was higher than that of the average in the highly reactive absorbent. The manganese compound additive dispersed uniformly on the surfaces of the "Oxygen- riched" highly reactive absorbent. There was a sulfur peak in the energy spectra pictures of the spent absorbent. The component of the spent absorbent was analyzed with chemical analysis methods, and the results indicated that more nitrogen species appeared in the absorbent except sulfur species, and SO2 and NO were removed by chemical absorption according to the experimental results of X-ray energy spectrometer and the chemical analysis. Sulfate being the main desulfurization products, nitrite was the main denitrification ones during the process, in which NO was oxidized rapidly to NO2 and absorbed by the chemical reaction.

  11. Industrial-scale experiments of desulfuration of coal flue gas using a pulsed corona discharge plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, J.; Wu, Y.; Wang, N.H.; Li, G.F.; Huang, Q.N. [Dalian University of Technology, Dalian (China). Inst. of Electrostatics

    2003-06-01

    The flow rate of flue gas in the industrial experiments was 3000 Nm{sup 3}/h. The flue gas from the boiler burning coal was used. The influences of operating parameters on the efficiency of desulfurization (DeSO{sub 2}) were studied, which include the retention period of flue gas in the reactor, the initial concentration of SO{sub 2} in flue gas, a mole ratio of NH{sub 3} to SO{sub 2} in the gas, the temperature of the gas, as well as the power consumption of pulsed corona discharges. The experimental results shown that the efficiency of DeSO{sub 2} was above 80%, when the initial concentration of SO{sub 2} was 1000 -2000 ppm, the gas temperature was 60 - 75 {degree}C, the retention period was more than 5.8 s, a mole ratio of NH{sub 3} to SO{sub 2} was 2:1, the water content in flue gas was above 6%, and the consumption was 2.5-3.5 Wh/Nm{sup 3}.

  12. Mercury emission and plant uptake of trace elements during early stage of soil amendment using flue gas desulfurization materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A pilot-scale field study was carried out to investigate the distribution of Hg and other selected elements in the three potential mitigation pathways, i.e., emission to ambient air, uptake by surface vegetation (i.e., grass), and rainfall infiltration, after flue gas desulfurization (FGD) material ...

  13. Three annual flue gas desulfurization gypsum applications on macronutrient and micronutrient losses in runoff from bermudagrass fertilized with poultry litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considerable amounts of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum are being produced as a by-product of generating electricity. As a result, beneficial reuse of this by-product is being sought to reduce landfilling and its associated cost. The use of this byproduct as a low-cost soil amendment for suppl...

  14. Mini-PROven. Reduced emissions from small and medium-size coke ovens thanks to single-chamber pressure control; Mini-PROven. Emissionsreduzierung an kleinen und mittleren Koksoefen mit einer Einzelkammerdruckregelung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huhn, Friedrich; Krebber, Frank; Kuehn-Gajdzik, Joanna; Ueberschaer, Kerstin [ThyssenKrupp Uhde GmbH, Dortmund (Germany). Coke Plant Technologies Div.

    2012-07-01

    For environment and occupational health reasons it is becoming increasingly important for coke plants to be operated with the lowest possible level of emissions. In the past, changing pressure conditions in each individual oven, with particularly high values at the beginning of the coking period, often resulted in considerable emissions at the oven closures. To prevent this happening on modern large-scale ovens, ThyssenKrupp Uhde developed the PROven trademark (Pressure Regulated Oven), a single-chamber pressure control system which regulates the pressure in the individual coke chambers down to a constantly low level. In the meantime, after many years of successful service, the system has been upgraded in both its design and process engineering. The result is Mini-PROven, which in future can also be retro-fitted to old small and medium-size coke oven batteries in the interest of better environmental protection. (orig.)

  15. 宝钢三期焦炉高开工率加热调节实践%Heating regulation practice for high pushing rate of Baosteel 3rd coke oven battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勇; 余国普

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the thermal regulation practice of Baosteel JNX60-2 type coke oven battery for 125%pushing rate, analyzes the difficulties for high pushing rate.High pushing rate can be achieved by regulating the temperature distribution in the chamber during production and heating schedule.%介绍了JNX60-2型焦炉125%高开工率生产的热工调节实践,分析了高开工率的生产难点,调整了生产条件下的焦炉温度分布,总结提出了高开工率的加热制度。

  16. Application of sealing socket joint of medium-temperature pitch in 6m coke oven battery%中温沥青密封承插口在6m 焦炉的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵仪先

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduced a new technology for socket joint of ascension pipe by sealing with medium-temperature pitch,which has successfully been used for four 6m coke oven batteries in terms of improving operating environment and a remarkable economic benefit by 330,000 RMB yuan all year around.%介绍了上升管承插口采用中温沥青密封处理的新方法,已成功应用于4座6m 焦炉,全年效益可达33万元,改善了作业环境,经济环保效益显著。

  17. Discussion about Dust Collector for Coke Pushing Car of Top Charging Coke Oven%顶装焦炉推焦车烟尘捕集装置的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊海莲

    2015-01-01

    针对顶装焦炉推焦车烟尘捕集装置存在的问题 ,提出了相应的解决措施 ,以提高环保效果为目标 ,使太重公司的产品成为具有市场竞争力的高可靠性、实用性的设备.%In this article ,to the problems in dust collector for coke pushing car of top charging coke oven ,a relevant solution is giv-en ,which aims at high environmental protection ,to makes our products have high reliability and practicality in market competitive-ness .

  18. Experimental approach and techniques for the evaluation of wet flue gas desulfurization scrubber fluid mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strock, T.W. [Babcock and Wilcox Co., Alliance, OH (United States). Research and Development Div.; Gohara, W.F. [Babcock and Wilcox Co., Barberton, OH (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The fluid mechanics within wet flue desulfurization (FGD) scrubbers involve several complex two-phase gas/liquid interactions. The fluid flow directly affects scrubber pressure drop, mist eliminator water removal, and the SO{sub 2} mass transfer/chemical reaction process. Current industrial efforts to develop cost-effective high-efficiency wet FGD scrubbers are focusing, in part, on optimizing the fluid mechanics. The development of an experimental approach and test facility for understanding and optimizing wet scrubber flow characteristics is discussed in this paper. Specifically, scaling procedures for downsizing a wet scrubber for the laboratory environment with field data comparisons are summarized. Furthermore, experimental techniques for the measurement of wet scrubber flow distribution, pressure drop, spray nozzle droplet size characteristics and wet scrubber liquid-to-gas ratio are discussed. Finally, the characteristics and capabilities of a new hydraulic test facility for wet FGD scrubbers are presented. (author)

  19. Transport—Reaction Process in the Reaction of Flue Gas Desulfurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YanYan; DuuJongLee; 等

    2000-01-01

    A theoreticasl investigation was conducted to study the transport-reaction process in the spray-drying flue gas desulfurization.A transport-reaction model of single particle was proposed,which considered the water evaporation from the surface of droplet and the reaction at the same time.BHased on this model,the reaction rate and t6he absorbent utilization can be calculated.The most appropriate particle radius and the initial absorbent concentration can be deduced through comparing the wet lifetime with the residence time,the result shows in the case that the partial pressure of vapor in the bulk flue gas is 2000Pa,the optimum initial radius and absorent concentration are 210-310μm and 23% respectively.The model can supply the optimum parameters for semi-dry FGD system designed.

  20. High-Temperature Desulfurization of Heavy Fuel-Derived Reformate Gas Streams for SOFC Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria; Surgenor, Angela D.

    2007-01-01

    Desulfurization of the hot reformate gas produced by catalytic partial oxidation or autothermal reforming of heavy fuels, such as JP-8 and jet fuels, is required prior to using the gas in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Development of suitable sorbent materials involves the identification of sorbents with favorable sulfidation equilibria, good kinetics, and high structural stability and regenerability at the SOFC operating temperatures (650 to 800 C). Over the last two decades, a major barrier to the development of regenerable desulfurization sorbents has been the gradual loss of sorbent performance in cyclic sulfidation and regeneration at such high temperatures. Mixed oxide compositions based on ceria were examined in this work as regenerable sorbents in simulated reformate gas mixtures and temperatures greater than 650 C. Regeneration was carried out with dilute oxygen streams. We have shown that under oxidative regeneration conditions, high regeneration space velocities (greater than 80,000 h(sup -1)) can be used to suppress sulfate formation and shorten the total time required for sorbent regeneration. A major finding of this work is that the surface of ceria and lanthanan sorbents can be sulfided and regenerated completely, independent of the underlying bulk sorbent. This is due to reversible adsorption of H2S on the surface of these sorbents even at temperatures as high as 800 C. La-rich cerium oxide formulations are excellent for application to regenerative H2S removal from reformate gas streams at 650 to 800 C. These results create new opportunities for compact sorber/regenerator reactor designs to meet the requirements of solid oxide fuel cell systems at any scale.

  1. Effects of foaming and antifoaming agents on the performance of a wet flue gas desulfurization pilot plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Siqiang; Hansen, Brian Brun; Kiil, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Foaming is a common phenomenon in industrial processes, including wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) plants. A systemic investigation of the influence of two foaming agents, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and egg white albumin (protein), and two commercial antifoams on a wet FGD pilot plant...... operation has been carried out. Foaming caused by 0.03 g SDS/(L slurry) reduced the desulfurization degree from 84 to 74% and the solids and limestone concentrations of the slurry from 58 to 48 g/(L slurry) and from 1.4 to 1.0 g/(L slurry), respectively. These effects were attributed to the foaming...... transferring small particles to the foam layer present on top of the slurry in the holding tank. The addition of 0.03 g antifoams/(L slurry) to SDS foam eliminated the foam, but the desulfurization degree remained low. Potential mechanisms for the observed behavior are analyzed. (c) 2014 American Institute...

  2. Characteristics of fly ash from the dry flue gas desulfurization system for iron ore sintering plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Guanghong; Huang, Peng; Mou, Yaqin; Zhou, Chenhui

    2012-01-01

    The characteristics of fly ash from the flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system are important for its reuse and are mainly depend on the desulfurization process. The physical and chemical properties of DSF ash, which refers to fly ash from the dry FGD system for the iron ore sintering process, were investigated. Its mineralogical contents were determined by X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetry analysis, and its micro-morphology was studied by scanning electric micrograph analysis. The results show that DSF ash has a higher CaO and SO3 content, and the main sulfur form is sulfite, with only a part of it oxidized to sulfate. The major minerals present in DSF ash are hannebachite, anhydrite, calcite and portlandite; a minor constituent is calcium chloride. The particles of DSF ash are irregular, fragmentary and small, and hannebachite grows on their surfaces. Particle size is affected by the FGD process, and the ash size from the maximized emission reduction of the sintering-FGD process is lower than that from the circulating fluidized bed-FGD process. The particle size distribution of DSF ash follows the Rosin--Rammler-Bennet equation.

  3. Coke Oven Gas Fuel System Design for Gas Turbine Plant%焦炉煤气燃机电厂燃料系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潜纪儒; 李硕平; 许平; 罗辇

    2010-01-01

    焦炉煤气会严重污染空气,增加温室气体排放,为经济有效地利用焦炉煤气,设计了燃气-蒸汽联合循环电厂焦炉煤气燃料系统.该系统对焦炉煤气进行提炼、净化后输人燃机循环发电甚至供热,不但改善了环境,还提高了能源综合利用率.

  4. Polymorphism of p53 gene in induced sputum cells among coke oven workers%焦炉工人痰细胞p53基因外显子突变检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张萍; 郑金平; 孙建娅

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨焦炉工人痰细胞p53基因突变与焦炉暴露关系.方法 选取某焦化厂125名焦炉作业工人(炉底38人,炉侧45人,炉顶42人)作为暴露组,同时选取同厂37名材料管理工人作为对照组;个体采样法对作业环境进行监测;高渗盐水超声雾化法诱导取痰,分离痰细胞;高效液相色谱法检测环境空气样本B[a]P和尿中1-羟基芘的水平;聚合酶链式反应-单链构象多态性方法(PCR-SSCP)检测痰细胞p53基因突变的情况.结果 暴露组中炉顶工人组痰细胞p53基因6、7外显子和p53基因5、6、7外显子总突变率分别为14.3%,21.4%,33.3%,明显高于对照组(0%,5.4%,5.4%),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),且总突变率有随外暴露水平升高而升高的趋势(x2=7.457,P<0.01);经多元Logistic回归分析,焦炉暴露、炉顶暴露、炉底暴露和年龄的调整OR值(95% CI)分别为25.278(3.461~184.625)、7.359(1.017 ~53.267)、22.228(3.146 ~ 157.082)、1.106(1.011 ~1.211),是焦炉工人痰细胞p53基因突变率升高的主要危险因素.结论 焦炉逸散物可诱发焦炉工人的痰细胞p53基因突变率升高,且与暴露水平有关.%Objective To explore the relationship between the mutation of p53 gene in induced sputum cells and the exposure to PAHs among coke oven workers. Methods Totally 125 coke oven workers in a steel factory were selected as exposed group and 37 workers from the warehouse of the same factory without occupational carcinogen exposure were selected as control group. The working environment was monitored with individual sampling method. Sputum was induced and collected with ultrasonic nebulization of hypertonic saline and the sputum cells were separated. Uurine samples were collected from the workers after the night shift. The concentrations of urinary l-hydroxypyrene( HpU) and benzo( a) pyrene in the air were measured using high performance liquid chromatography( HPLC) and the p53 gene mutation in

  5. Numerical Simulation of Desulfurization Behavior in Gas-Stirred Systems Based on Computation Fluid Dynamics-Simultaneous Reaction Model (CFD-SRM) Coupled Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Wentao; Zhu, Miaoyong

    2014-10-01

    A computation fluid dynamics-simultaneous reaction model (CFD-SRM) coupled model has been proposed to describe the desulfurization behavior in a gas-stirred ladle. For the desulfurization thermodynamics, different models were investigated to determine sulfide capacity and oxygen activity. For the desulfurization kinetic, the effect of bubbly plume flow, as well as oxygen absorption and oxidation reactions in slag eyes are considered. The thermodynamic and kinetic modification coefficients are proposed to fit the measured data, respectively. Finally, the effects of slag basicity and gas flow rate on the desulfurization efficiency are investigated. The results show that as the interfacial reactions (Al2O3)-(FeO)-(SiO2)-(MnO)-[S]-[O] simultaneous kinetic equilibrium is adopted to determine the oxygen activity, and the Young's model with the modification coefficient R th of 1.5 is adopted to determine slag sulfide capacity, the predicted sulfur distribution ratio LS agrees well with the measured data. With an increase of the gas blowing time, the predicted desulfurization rate gradually decreased, and when the modification parameter R k is 0.8, the predicted sulfur content changing with time in ladle agrees well with the measured data. If the oxygen absorption and oxidation reactions in slag eyes are not considered in this model, then the sulfur removal rate in the ladle would be overestimated, and this trend would become more obvious with an increase of the gas flow rate and decrease of the slag layer height. With the slag basicity increasing, the total desulfurization ratio increases; however, the total desulfurization ratio changes weakly as the slag basicity exceeds 7. With the increase of the gas flow rate, the desulfurization ratio first increases and then decreases. When the gas flow rate is 200 NL/min, the desulfurization ratio reaches a maximum value in an 80-ton gas-stirred ladle.

  6. Performance of a Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization Pilot Plant under Oxy-Fuel Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Brian Brun; Fogh, Folmer; Knudsen, Niels Ole

    2011-01-01

    vol % CO2, at a holding tank pH 5.4, reduced the limestone dissolution rate significantly and thereby increased the residual, particulate limestone concentration in the gypsum slurry from 3.2 to 5.0 g/L slurry relative to a base-case (air-firing) experiment with a flue gas CO2 concentration around 7......, but an additional increase in desulfurization degree, from 94 to 97%, was obtained. Using a holding tank pH 5.0 (no adipic acid) returned both parameters to the levels observed in the base-case experiment.......Oxy-fuel firing is a promising technology that should enable the capture and storage of anthropogenic CO2 emissions from large stationary sources such as power plants and heavy industry. However, this new technology has a high energy demand for air separation and CO2 compression and storage...

  7. Mechanistic and kinetic studies of high-temperature coal gas desulfurization sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lew, S.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Sarofim, A.F.

    1991-10-01

    The overall objective of this project was to investigate the properties of and evaluate mixed oxides of zinc and titanium for hot fuel gas desulfurization. Uncombined ZnO was also investigated as a base case. Detailed investigation of the reduction and sulfidation reactions of Zn-Ti-O sorbents was performed. The intrinsic kinetics and the product layer diffusion rates in reduction and sulfidation were determined. Kinetic experiments with sorbents containing various Zn/Ti atomic ratios were performed. Chemical phase and structural transformations were followed by various methods. The results were compared to similar experiments performed with ZnO. The purpose of these experiments was to determine how the presence of titanium dioxide affects the reduction and sulfidation of ZnO. This information would be used to identify and select the sorbent composition that gives the best combination of low reduction rate and acceptable sulfidation performance at temperatures exceeding 600{degree}C. (VC)

  8. Pure Air`s advanced flue gas desulfurization clean coal project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J.R. [Pure Air Bailly Station, Chesterton, IN (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Pure Air`s Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) Clean Coal Project successfully completed four and a half years of operation in December 1996 at Northern Indiana Public Service Company`s (NIPSCO) Bailly Generating Station. This project received a $60 million grant from the DOE Clean Coal II program. Included in this was a three year DOE demonstration period. The facility was designed, built and is owned and operated by Pure Air of Allentown, Pennsylvania, through its project company, Pure Air on the Lake, Limited Partnership. The project met or exceeded all performance criteria. It has averaged 95.3% SO{sub 2} removal, 99.9% availability and produced high quality commercial gypsum during this four and a half year period. It demonstrated many advanced technology features including a single, large absorber module serving two boilers, a wastewater evaporation system, an air rotary sparger for oxidation, and a new technology for agglomerating gypsum.

  9. Controllability analysis and decentralized control of a wet limestone flue gas desulfurization plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perales, A.L.V.; Ortiz, F.J.G.; Ollero, P.; Gil, F.M. [University of Seville, Seville (Spain)

    2008-12-15

    Presently, decentralized feedback control is the only control strategy used in wet limestone flue gas desulfurization (WLFGD) plants. Proper tuning of this control strategy is becoming an important issue in WLFGD plants because more stringent SO{sub 2} regulations have come into force recently. Controllability analysis is a highly valuable tool for proper design of control systems, but it has not been applied to WLFGD plants so far. In this paper a decentralized control strategy is designed and applied to a WLFGD pilot plant taking into account the conclusions of a controllability analysis. The results reveal that good SO{sub 2} control in WLFGD plants can be achieved mainly because the main disturbance of the process is well-aligned with the plant and interactions between control loops are beneficial to SO{sub 2} control.

  10. 90`s for the 90`s: High efficiency dry flue gas desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, T.E.; Buschmann, J.C. [ABB Environmental Systems, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The promulgation of the Clean Air Act Amendments with additional State regulation have pushed the requirements for SO{sub 2} reduction on coal fired boiler emissions to 90% and above. The development and application of spray dryer reactors in the 1990`s to meet these increasingly difficult requirements has continued. This paper describes two spray dryer absorption processes which are capable of high efficiency. A cost benefit comparison between the two is included. Specific design features at several plants are presented. Full scale application and operation of spray dryer reactors with fabric filters on coal fired boilers has demonstrated that the dry flue gas desulfurization (DFGD) process is a proven technology for high SO{sub 2} removal. Low capital cost coupled with high SO{sub 2} removal makes the DFGD process attractive, competitive and proven for meeting the performance requirements in the 1990`s.

  11. Pure Air`s Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization Clean Coal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J.R. [Pure Air Bailly Station, Chesterton, IN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Pure Air`s Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) Clean Coal Project successfully completed four and a half years of operation in December 1996 at Northern Indiana Public Service Company`s (NIPSCO) Bailly Generation Station. Included in this was a three year DOE demonstration period. The project was built by a joint venture company of Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries America, Inc., utilizing Mitsubishi`s wet limestone flue gas desulfurization technology. The project met or exceeded all performance criteria. It has averaged 95.3% SO{sub 2} removal, 99.9% availability and produced 936,000 metric tons of high quality commercial gypsum during this four and a half year period. It demonstrated many advanced technology features including a single, large absorber module serving two boilers, a wastewater evaporation system, an air rotary sparger for oxidation, and a new technology for agglomerating gypsum. The AFGD system was designed, built, owned and operated by Pure Air and will continue to serve NIPSCO`s Bailly Station for at least another 15{1/2} years under an Own and Operate contract. The project enabled NIPSCO to cost effectively achieve full system wide compliance with the Phase 2 emission requirements for SO{sub 2} of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 almost eight years before the target date. The project was the recipient of the Outstanding Engineering Achievement Award from the National Society of Professional Engineers in 1993 and the 1993 Powerplant Award from Power magazine. The data presented in this paper are based on performance during the first three years of operation.

  12. Simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification from flue gas by Ferrate(VI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yi; Han, Yinghui; Ma, Tianzhong; Guo, Tianxiang

    2011-05-01

    An innovative semidry process has been developed to simultaneously remove NO and SO₂ from flue gas. According to the conditions of the flue gas circulating fluidized bed (CFB) system, ferrate(VI) absorbent was prepared and added to humidified water, and the effects of the various influencing factors, such as ferrate(VI) concentration, humidified water pH, inlet flue gas temperature, residence time, molar ratio of Ca/(S+N), and concentrations of SO₂ and NO on removal efficiencies of SO₂ and NO were studied experimentally. Removal efficiencies of 96.1% for SO₂ and 67.2% for NO were obtained, respectively, under the optimal experimental conditions, in which the concentration of ferrate(VI) was 0.03 M, the humidified water pH was 9.32, the inlet flue gas temperature was 130 °C, the residence time was 2.2 s, and the molar ratio of Ca/(S+N) was 1.2. In addition, the reaction mechanism of simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification using ferrate(VI) was proposed.

  13. Experimental and mechanism studies on simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification from flue gas using a flue gas circulating fluidized bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The oxidizing highly reactive absorbent was prepared from fly ash,industry lime,and an oxidizing additive M.Experiments of simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification were carried out in a flue gas circulating fluidized bed(CFB).The effects of influencing factors and calcium availability were also investigated on the removal efficiencies of desulfurization and denitrification.Removal efficiencies of 95.5%for SO2 and 64.8%for NO were obtained respectively under the optimal experimental conditions. The component of the spent absorbent was analyzed with chemical analysis methods.The results in- dicated that more nitrogen species appeared in the spent absorbent except sulfur species.A scanning electron microscope(SEM)and an accessory X-ray energy spectrometer were used to observe micro-properties of the samples,including fly ash,oxidizing highly reactive absorbent and spent absorbent.The simultaneous removal mechanism of SO2 and NO based on this absorbent was pro- posed according to the experimental results.

  14. Prevalence and risk factors of metabolic syndrome in coke-oven workers%焦炉作业工人代谢综合征及其危险因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧芳; 张红明; 张萍; 田凤(契); 李卫星; 李克贤; 冯连生; 郑金平

    2011-01-01

    目的 分析焦炉作业工人代谢综合征(MS)患病情况及其危险因素,为其防治提供依据.方法 选取某焦化厂 267名男性焦炉作业工人为暴露组,同厂171名库工、材料工、机电工人为对照组,调查表收集个人基本信息,检测身高、体重、血压、空腹血糖、胆固醇、高密度脂蛋白、甘油三酯水平,按照中华医学会糖尿病分会建议的标准诊断MS.结果 暴露组MS和高血压患病率分别为10.5%和25.5%,其中炉顶、炉侧、炉底组MS和高血压患病率分别为11.2%、8.5%、11.5%和31.8%、20.7%、21.8%,均明显高于对照组(2.3%和10.5%),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).炉顶、炉侧、炉底3组之间差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);多因素Logistic回归分析显示,焦炉暴露和年龄为MS和高血压的危险因素,调整OR(95%CI)值分别为6.798(2.021~21.793)、1.184 1(0.087~1.290)和3.161(1.737~5.752)、1.085(1.026~1.147).结论 焦炉作业可增加焦炉工人MS和高血压患病危险性,年龄与MS升高有关联.%Objective To analyze the morbidity rate of metabolic syndrome ( MS ) and its risk factors in coke-oven workers for prevention of the disorder. Methods Totally 267 male coke-oven workers were chosen as exposed group and 171 male library workers, materials workers, mechanical and electrical workers were chosen as controls. Basic personal informarion were collected with a questionnaire. All subjects accepted physical examination including measurements of body height and weight, blood pressure, blood glucose, high density lipoprotein cholesterol ( HDL-C ), and triglyceride ( TG ). The diagnosis of MS was based on the criterion recommended by Chinese Diabetes Society. Results The morbidity rate of MS and hypertension in the workers were 10.5% and 25.5%. The morbidity rates of MS and hypertension for the worker working at the top,side,and bottom of coke-oven were 11.2% ,8. 5% ,and 11.5%and 31.8% ,20. 7% ,and 21.8

  15. 某焦化厂焦炉工职业紧张及其影响因素分析%Occupational Stress and Influencing Factors of Coke Oven Workers in a Coking Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李扬帆; 刘卫花; 智永芬; 吕懿; 张红明; 郑金平

    2016-01-01

    [目的]调查焦炉工职业紧张状况,分析其主要影响因素,为合理防控职业危害提供依据. [方法]采用整群抽样方法,选取山西某焦化厂焦炉工335人、非焦炉工246人为研究对象,调查表收集研究对象的一般情况,采用职业紧张量表(OSI-R)进行职业任务、个体紧张反应及个体应变反应三方面调查.采用高效液相色谱法测定工作场所空气中苯并[a]芘浓度,比较各作业区的暴露水平. [结果]工作场所空气中苯并[a]芘浓度变化趋势是非焦炉区<炉底<炉侧<炉顶(P=0.001).焦炉工职业任务平均得分[(182.87±27.28)分]和个体紧张反应得分[(102.97±18.74)分],均高于非焦炉工(均P<0.001);个体应变能力问卷得分[(124.47±22.27)分]低于非焦炉工得分[(126.54±23.07)分](P<0.05).根据OSI-R量表的3个问卷得分将职业紧张分级,焦炉工职业任务和个体紧张反应分级,处于高度紧张工人的比例为10.8%和11.6%,中度紧张的比例为31.0%和25.1%,高于非焦炉工(2.8%和1.2%,15.4%和22.8%,均P<0.05).logistic回归分析显示,任务过重、炉侧作业和工作环境差是引起个体紧张反应增强的危险因素,OR值分别为3.187,2.307和1.813;增加兴趣爱好、休闲娱乐、体育锻炼及充足的睡眠是职业紧张的保护性因素,OR值分别为0.240,0.451,0.566及0.480. [结论]焦炉作业可导致焦炉工职业紧张度升高,任务过重、炉顶炉侧作业和工作环境差可升高焦炉工职业紧张度;增加兴趣爱好、休闲娱乐机会和体育锻炼参与度以及充足的睡眠可缓解焦炉工职业紧张度.%[Objective] To assess occupational stress level of coke oven workers,analyze main influencing factors,and provide a basis for rational control of occupational injuries.[Methods] Coke oven workers (n=335) and control workers (n=246) from a coking plant in Shanxi Province were selected by cluster sampling method and interviewed on basic

  16. Experimental study on the reuse of spent rapidly hydrated sorbent for circulating fluidized bed flue gas desulfurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Zheng, Kai; You, Changfu

    2011-11-01

    Rapidly hydrated sorbent, prepared by rapidly hydrating adhesive carrier particles and lime, is a highly effective sorbent for moderate temperature circulating fluidized bed flue gas desulfurization (CFB-FGD) process. The residence time of fine calcium-containing particles in CFB reactors increases by adhering on the surface of larger adhesive carrier particles, which contributes to higher sorbent calcium conversion ratio. The circulation ash of CFB boilers (α-adhesive carrier particles) and the spent sorbent (β and γ-adhesive carrier particles) were used as adhesive carrier particles for producing the rapidly hydrated sorbent. Particle physical characteristic analysis, abrasion characteristics in fluidized bed and desulfurization characteristics in TGA and CFB-FGD systems were investigated for various types of rapidly hydrated sorbent (α, β, and γ-sorbent). The adhesion ability of γ-sorbent was 50.1% higher than that of α-sorbent. The abrasion ratio of β and γ-sorbent was 16.7% lower than that of α-sorbent. The desulfurization abilities of the three sorbent in TGA were almost same. The desulfurization efficiency in the CFB-FGD system was up to 95% at the bed temperature of 750 °C for the β-sorbent.

  17. Discussion on Detonation Phenomena after Heating and Reversing of Coke Oven Gas%焦炉煤气加热换向后爆鸣现象探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘华

    2007-01-01

    下喷式焦炉在使用焦炉煤气加热时,交换后经常发生爆鸣(俗称放炮)现象,它对于焦炉危害巨大,文章对爆鸣现象发生的机理以及它的危害进行了分析,介绍了一些减少或消除爆鸣现象的措施,特别对如何在操作维护中做好针对性的工作做了较详细的介绍.

  18. Coke Oven Gas Blower Impeller Fracture Analysis%焦炉煤气鼓风机叶轮断裂的原因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游小城

    2010-01-01

    针对焦炉葆气鼓风机在使用过程中出现叶轮断裂的问题,通过采用改进制造工艺、对断裂的叶片和铆钉进行物理化学分析、对破坏断口进行宏观及微观研究等措施,得到焦炉煤气鼓风机叶轮断裂原因.研究表明:制作工艺和应力腐蚀是焦炉煤气鼓风机断裂的主要原因.

  19. Thermodynamic analysis for a regenerative gas turbine cycle in coking process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelong Zhang, Lingen Chen, Yanlin Ge, Fengrui Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A regenerative gas turbine cycle driven by residual coke oven gas is proposed in this paper. The thermal efficiency and the work output (per ton of coke of the system are analyzed based on thermodynamics and the theory of gas turbine cycle. The influences of the gas release rate, the residual gas rate and the effectiveness of regenerator on the performance of the cycle are analyzed by using numerical examples. It is found that the work output increases with the increase of the residual gas rate while decreases with the increase of the gas release rate. The cycle with regenerator can reach higher thermal efficiency and bigger work output, which means that the coke oven gas is used more effectively. Moreover, there exist two optimal pressure ratios of compressor which lead the maximum thermal efficiency and the maximum specific work, respectively.

  20. Evaluation of Synthetic Gypsum Recovered via Wet Flue-Gas Desulfurization from Electric Power Plants for Use in Foundries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Biernacki

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates possible use of waste gypsum (synthetic, recovered via flue-gas desulfurization from coal-fired electric powerplants, in foundries. Energy sector, which in Eastern Europe is mostly composed from coal-fired electric power plants, is one of the largestproducers of sulfur dioxide (SO2.In order to protect the environment and reduce the amount of pollution flue-gas desulfurization (FGD is used to remove SO2 fromexhaust flue gases of fossil-fuel power plants. As a result of this process gypsum waste is produced that can be used in practicalapplications.Strength and permeability tests have been made and also in-depth analysis of energy consumption of production process to investigateways of preparing the synthetic gypsum for casting moulds application. This paper also assesses the chemical composition, strength andpermeability of moulds made with synthetic gypsum, in comparison with moulds made with traditional GoldStar XL gypsum and withceramic molds. Moreover examination of structure of synthetic gypsum, the investigations on derivatograph and calculations of energyconsumption during production process of synthetic gypsum in wet flue-gas desulfurization were made.After analysis of gathered data it’s possible to conclude that synthetic gypsum can be used as a material for casting mould. There is nosignificant decrease in key properties, and on the other hand there is many additional benefits including low energy consumption,decreased cost, and decreased environmental impact.

  1. State-of-the-art review of materials-related problems in flue gas desulfurization systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiya, P. S.

    1980-10-01

    This report characterizes the chemical and mechanical environments to which the structural components used in flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) are exposed. It summarizes the necessary background information pertinent to various FGD processes currently in use, with particular emphasis on lime/limestone scrubbing technology, so that the materials problems and processing variables encountered in FGD systems can be better defined and appreciated. The report also describes the materials currently used and their performance to date in existing wet scrubbers. There is little doubt that with more extensive use of coal and flue-gas scrubbers by utilities and other segments of private industry, a better understanding of the material failure mechanisms, performance limitations, and potential problem areas is required for the design of more reliable and cost-effective FGD systems. To meet the above objectives, a materials evaluation program is proposed. The important experimental variables and the number of tests required to evaluate a given material are discussed. 55 references, 9 figures, 6 tables.

  2. Iron blast furnace slag/hydrated lime sorbents for flue gas desulfurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chiung-Fang; Shih, Shin-Min

    2004-08-15

    Sorbents prepared from iron blast furnace slag (BFS) and hydrated lime (HL) through the hydration process have been studied with the aim to evaluate their reactivities toward SO2 under the conditions prevailing in dry or semidry flue gas desulfurization processes. The BFS/HL sorbents, having large surface areas and pore volumes due to the formation of products of hydration, were highly reactive toward SO2, as compared with hydrated lime alone (0.24 in Ca utilization). The sorbent reactivity increased as the slurrying temperature and time increased and as the particle size of BFS decreased; the effects of the liquid/solid ratio and the sorbent drying conditions were negligible. The structural properties and the reactivity of sorbent were markedly affected by the BFS/HL ratio; the sorbent with 30/70 ratio had the highest 1 h utilization of Ca, 0.70, and SO2 capture, 0.45 g SO2/g sorbent. The reactivity of a sorbent was related to its initial specific surface area (Sg0) and molar content of Ca (M(-1)); the 1 h utilization of Ca increased almost linearly with increasing Sg0/M. The results of this study are useful to the preparation of BFS/HL sorbents with high reactivity for use in the dry and semidry processes to remove SO2 from the flue gas.

  3. Simulation of the operation of an industrial wet flue gas desulfurization system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallinikos, L.E.; Farsari, E.I.; Spartinos, D.N.; Papayannakos, N.G.

    2010-12-15

    In this work the simulation of a wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) unit with spray tower of a power plant is presented, aiming at an efficient follow-up and the optimization of the FGD system operation. The dynamic model developed to simulate the performance of the system has been validated with operation data collected over a long period of time. All the partaking physical and chemical processes like the limestone dissolution, the crystallization of calcium sulfite and gypsum and the oxidation of sulfite ions have been taken into account for the development of the simulation model while the gas absorption by the liquid droplets was based on the two-film theory. The effect of the mean diameter of the slurry droplets on the performance of the system was examined, as it was used as an index factor of the normal operation of the system. The operation limits of the system were investigated on the basis of the model developed. It is concluded that the model is capable of simulating the system for significantly different SO{sub 2} loads and that the absorption rate of SO{sub 2} is strongly affected by the liquid dispersion in the tower. (author)

  4. Effectiveness Analysis of Flue Gas Desulfurization by Alumina Red Mud%氧化铝赤泥进行烟气脱硫有效性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾帅动; 董继业; 王博

    2013-01-01

    Based on desulfurization test platform, use Bayer-sintered joint red mud as raw material, and the mechanism and wet flue gas desulfurization desulfurization effect of red mud was analyzed, we got the idea that the flue gas desulfurization by red mud combined method was feasibility and superiority.%  在搭建的脱硫试验平台上采用拜耳-烧结联合法赤泥为原料,以电厂工业废气为脱硫对象,对赤泥进行湿法烟气脱硫的机理和脱硫的效果进行分析研究,认为使用联合法赤泥进行烟气脱硫具有可行性和优越性。

  5. Effect of Calcium Oxide Additive on the Performance of Iron Oxide Sorbent for High-Temperature Coal Gas Desulfurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huiling Fan; Kechang Xie; Ju Shangguan; Fang Shen; Chunhu Li

    2007-01-01

    The effect of calcium oxide additive in iron oxide sorbent for hot gas desulfurization was investigated by XRD and TPR techniques. XRD characterization showed that CaO was highly dispersed after the calcination of sorbents. Calcium sulfate formed in the desulfurization was decomposed and regenerated to CaO by reacting with CO before the next sulfidation process. Calcium participated in every sulfidation/regeneration cycle and contributed to the enhancement of sulfur capacity. The TPR results showed that the reduction temperature of the sorbent increased with the increase of the content of calcium. Calcium played a role of retarding reduction. Therefore, the addition of calcium oxide additive will benefit the utilization of iron oxide sorbent in strongly reducing atmospheres.

  6. Enhancement of gas desulfurization with hydrated lime at low temperature by the presence of NO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bausach, M.; Pera-Titus, M.; Fite, C.; Cunill, F.; Izquierdo, J.F.; Tejero, J.; Iborra, M. [University of Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2005-11-01

    The effect of NO{sub 2} on the desulfurization reaction of simulated flue gas by Ca(OH){sub 2} was investigated in a fixed-bed reactor at 333-353 K and at relative humidities (RHs) in the range of 30%-70%. NO{sub 2} was determined to be a promoter for SO{sub 2} uptake, because its retention can be increased up to 200%. The effect of NO{sub 2} and O{sub 2} concentration on the kinetics of the desulfurization reaction was surveyed and successfully simulated by means of a deactivation model implemented with an inverse shrinking-core model (DM-ISCM). Solid analyses were also performed to identify the reaction products and provide insight into the chemistry of the process.

  7. Copper-based sorbents for coal gas desulfurization at moderate temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slimane, R.B.; Abbasian, J.

    2000-05-01

    In a previous paper, the authors reported on the development of a regenerable copper chromite sorbent, designated as CuCr-29, that is capable of achieving less than 5 ppmv H{sub 2}S concentration in the cleaned fuel gas at about 600 C. This paper reports on recent research carried out to develop a new class of copper-based sorbents for hot fuel gas desulfurization applications in the moderate temperature range of 350--550 C that is currently of industrial interest. A reproducible sorbent preparation technique has been extended to the formulation of highly reactive and attrition-resistant sulfur sorbents based on reagent-grade oxides of copper, manganese, and alumina. The results of packed-bed experiments carried out for the evaluation of the performance of several copper-based sorbents at 350 and 450 C as well as the assessment of the long-term durability and regenerability of one selected formulation are presented and discussed. Three copper-based sorbents were shown to exhibit excellent sulfur removal efficiency and effective capacity, with one formulation (IGTSS-145) being particularly effective in the range of 450--600 C and two formulations (IGTSS-179 and IGTSS-326A) for the range of 350--450 C. The IGTSS-326A formulation maintained excellent sulfur removal efficiency (<1 ppmv H{sub 2}S in the cleaned fuel gas) as well as excellent effective sulfur capacity throughout extended durability testing. This sorbent was also shown to have significantly high attrition resistance, as determined in accordance with the ASTM D5757-95 procedure. These results strongly suggest the suitability of this formulation as a candidate sorbent for demonstration in the Sierra Pacific (Pinon Pine) Clean Coal Technology IGCC Demonstration Program.

  8. Hydrothermal synthesis of calcium sulfate whisker from flue gas desulfurization gypsum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengjun Liu; Qing Zhao; Yeguang Wang; Peiyang Shi; Maofa Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Plenty of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum generated from coal-fired power plants for sulfur dioxide se-questration caused many environmental issues. Preparing calcium sulfate whisker (CSW) from FGD gypsum by hydrothermal synthesis is considered to be a promising approach to solve this troublesome problem and uti-lize calcium sulfate in a high-value-added way. The effects of particle size of FGD gypsum, slurry concentration, and additives on CSW were investigated in this work. The results indicated that fine particle size of FGD gypsum and moderately high slurry concentration were beneficial for crystal nucleation and growth. Three additives of magnesium chloride, citric acid, and sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) were employed in this study. It was found that mean length and aspect ratio of CSW were both decreased by the usage of magnesium chloride, while a small quantity of citric acid or SDBS could improve the CSW morphology. When multi-additives of citric acid-SDBS were employed, the mean length and aspect ratio increased more than 20%. Moreover, surface morphology of CSW went better, and the particle size and crystal shape became more uniform.

  9. Sodic soil properties and sunflower growth as affected by byproducts of flue gas desulfurization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinman Wang

    Full Text Available The main component of the byproducts of flue gas desulfurization (BFGD is CaSO(4, which can be used to improve sodic soils. The effects of BFGD on sodic soil properties and sunflower growth were studied in a pot experiment. The experiment consisted of eight treatments, at four BFGD rates (0, 7.5, 15 and 22.5 t ha(-1 and two leaching levels (750 and 1200 m(3 ha(-1. The germination rate and yield of the sunflower increased, and the exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP, pH and total dissolved salts (TDS in the soils decreased after the byproducts were applied. Excessive BFGD also affected sunflower germination and growth, and leaching improved reclamation efficiency. The physical and chemical properties of the reclaimed soils were best when the byproducts were applied at 7.5 t ha(-1 and water was supplied at 1200 m(3·ha(-1. Under these conditions, the soil pH, ESP, and TDS decreased from 9.2, 63.5 and 0.65% to 7.8, 2.8 and 0.06%, and the germination rate and yield per sunflower reached 90% and 36.4 g, respectively. Salinity should be controlled by leaching when sodic soils are reclaimed with BFGD as sunflower growth is very sensitive to salinity during its seedling stage.

  10. Growth of forage legumes and grasses in acidic soil amended with flue gas desulfurization products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, R.B.; Baligar, V.C. [USDA ARS, Beltsville, MD (USA)

    2003-07-01

    Large amounts of flue gas desulfurization products (FGDs) are produced when SO{sub 2} emissions are trapped in the coal burning process for generation of electricity. FGDs are normally discarded instead of being reused, and reuse on soils could be important in overall management of these products. Glasshouse experiments were conducted to determine effects of various levels of three FGDs (a FGD gypsum, an oxidized FGD + Mg, and a stabilized FGD) and the control compounds CaCO{sub 3}, CaSO{sub 3}, and CaSO{sub 4} on growth of alfalfa (Medicago sativa), white clover (Trifolium repens), orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata), tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), and eastern gamagrass (Tripsacum dactyloides) in acidic (pH 4) soil (Typic Hapludult). The FGDs enhanced growth of each plant species, with alfalfa, white clover, and tall fescue receiving greater increases than the other species, especially when grown in soil amended with FGD + Mg. FGD gypsum did not often enhance growth unless high amounts were added. FGDs containing high B and low levels of CaSO{sub 3} were detrimental to growth. Overall, FGDs improved growth responses of these forage plants grown in an infertile low pH soil.

  11. Flue gas desulfurization by-products additions to acid soil: alfalfa productivity and environmental quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, L.; Dick, W.A.; Nelson, S.

    2001-07-01

    Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products are often alkaline and contain many plant nutrients. Land application of FGD by-products is encouraged but little information is available related to plant responses and environmental impacts concerning such use. Agricultural lime (ag-lime) and several new types of FGD by-products which contain either vermiculite or perlite were applied at 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 times the soil's lime requirement (LR) rate to an acidic soil (Wooster silt loam). The highest FGD by-products application rate was equivalent to 75.2 Mg ha{sup -1}. Growth of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) was significantly increased compared to the untreated control in the second year after treatment with yields for the 1 x LR rate of FGD approximately 7-8 times greater compared to the untreated control and 30% greater than for the commercial ag-lime. Concentrations of Mo in alfalfa were significantly increased by FGD by-products application, compared to the untreated control, while compared to the ag-lime treatment, concentrations of B increased and Ba decreased. No soil contamination problems were observed, even at the 2xLR rate, indicating these materials can be safely applied to agricultural soils.

  12. Kinetics of oxidation of total sulfite in the ammonia-based wet flue gas desulfurization process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Y.; Zhong, Q.; Fan, X.Y.; Wang, X.R. [Nanjing University of Science & Technology, Nanjing (China). School of Chemical Engineering

    2010-10-15

    Using bubbling apparatus, the kinetics of oxidation of total sulfite in ammonia-based wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process was investigated by varying concentrations of SO{sub 3}{sup 2-} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, pH, temperatures and air flow. The concentration range of sulfite is 0.0044-0.026 gmol L{sup -1} and that of sulfate is 0.5-2 gmol L{sup -1}. Experiments were conducted at pH level of 4.5-6.5 and air flow ranging from 50 to 200 L h{sup -1}. In the temperature range of 303.15-333.15K, the reaction was found to be -0.5 order with respect to sulfite. The experimental findings also showed that the bisulfite could be oxidized easier than sulfite. Thus, keeping the pH level of the solution low is conducive to the oxidation of total sulfite. The apparent activation energy for the overall oxidation was calculated to be 28.0 kJ mol{sup -1}. A kinetic model has been derived according to the experimental results. The developed kinetic model, including the operating parameters SO{sub 3}2- concentration, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} concentration, pH, temperature and air flow, can be applied to simulate the oxidation of total sulfite. This model would be useful for the design of the ammonia-based wet FGD system.

  13. LIFAC flue gas desulfurization process an alternative SO{sub 2} control strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, J.G. [Tampella Power Corp., Atlanta, GA (United States); Vilala, J. [Tampella Power Inc., Tampere (Finland)

    1995-12-01

    This paper discusses the results from two recently completed LIFAC flue gas desulfurization plants - 300 MW Shand lignite powered station owned by Saskatchewan Power Corporation and 60 MW Whitewater Valley high sulfur coal fired station owned by Richmond Powerand Light. LIFACis a dry FGD process in which limestone is injected into the upper regions of the boiler furnace and an activation reactor is used to humidify the unreacted limestone to achieve additional sulfur capture. The performance in both plants indicates that 70 to 80% sulfur is removed at a Ca/S ratio of 2. Cost performance data from these plants has shown that LI FAC both on construction cost and $/ton SO{sub 2} removed basis is very cost competitive compared to other SO{sub 2} control technologies. The Richmond plant has been realized under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Clean Coal Technology program. The Shand plant is the first commercial installation in North America. The paper also discusses highlights of operating and maintenance experience, availability and handling of the solid waste product.

  14. Regenerable copper-based sorbents for high temperature flue gas desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cengiz, P.; Abbasian, J.; Slimane, R.B.; Williams, B.E.; Khalili, N.R.; Ho, K.K.

    2000-07-01

    During conventional combustion process the sulfur in the coal is converted to sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}). This hazardous air pollutant combines with the moisture in the atmosphere and creates what is commonly known as acid rain. Thus the removal of this pollutant from flue gas prior to its discharge is very important. Government regulations have been introduced and have become progressively more stringent. In the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990, for example, legislation was introduced requiring electric utilities to adopt available technology for removal of pollutant gases and particulates from coal combustion flue gases so that the increased use of coal is done in an environmentally acceptable manner. A number of processes have been developed for flue gas desulfurization (FGD). The moving bed copper oxide process has been regarded as one of the most promising emerging technologies for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal from flue gases at elevated temperatures. This process is based on the utilization of a dry, regenerable sorbent, that consists of copper oxide (CuO) supported on gamma alumina ({gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), in a cross flow moving-bed reactor. This study has been directed toward evaluation of the commercially available alumina-supported copper-based (ALCOA) sorbent to establish the baseline for development of new and improved sorbents for the copper oxide process. Evaluation of the baseline sorbent included determination of effective sulfur capacity and sulfur removal efficiency of the sorbent, the effects of operating parameters on the performance of the sorbent, as well as long term durability of the sorbent. Physical and chemical properties of the baseline sorbent were also determined.

  15. Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) demonstration project: Volume 2, Project performance and economics. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-30

    The project objective is to demonstrate removal of 90--95% or more of the SO{sub 2} at approximately one-half the cost of conventional scrubbing technology; and to demonstrate significant reduction of space requirements. In this project, Pure Air has built a single SO{sub 2} absorber for a 528-MWe power plant. The absorber performs three functions in a single vessel: prequencher, absorber, and oxidation of sludge to gypsum. Additionally, the absorber is of a co- current design, in which the flue gas and scrubbing slurry move in the same direction and at a relatively high velocity compared to conventional scrubbers. These features all combine to yield a state- of-the-art SO{sub 2} absorber that is more compact and less expensive than conventional scrubbers. The project incorporated a number of technical features including the injection of pulverized limestone directly into the absorber, a device called an air rotary sparger located within the base of the absorber, and a novel wastewater evaporation system. The air rotary sparger combines the functions of agitation and air distribution into one piece of equipment to facilitate the oxidation of calcium sulfite to gypsum. Additionally, wastewater treatment is being demonstrated to minimize water disposal problems inherent in many high-chloride coals. Bituminous coals primarily from the Indiana, Illinois coal basin containing 2--4.5% sulfur were tested during the demonstration. The Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) process has demonstrated removal of 95% or more of the SO{sub 2} while providing a commercial gypsum by-product in lieu of solid waste. A portion of the commercial gypsum is being agglomerated into a product known as PowerChip{reg_sign} gypsum which exhibits improved physical properties, easier flowability and more user friendly handling characteristics to enhance its transportation and marketability to gypsum end-users.

  16. Application of recovered magnesium hydroxide from a flue gas desulfurization system for wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, P.L.; Wu, Q.; Keener, T.; Zhuang, L.A.; Gurusamy, R.; Pehkonen, S.

    1999-07-01

    Magnesium hydroxide, reclaimed from the flue gas desulfurization system (FGD) at the Zimmer Power Plant, Cincinnati, Ohio, is a weak base, in the form of either a slurry or powder. It has many potential applications for wastewater treatment. The objectives of this research are (1) to characterize the reclaimed magnesium hydroxide, e.g., purity, particle size distribution, dissolution kinetics; (2) to evaluate neutralization capacity and buffering intensity of the reclaimed magnesium hydroxide; (3) to study the efficacy of the reclaimed magnesium hydroxide for nutrient removal in wastewater treatment processes; (4) to investigate whether and how the magnesium hydroxide influences the characteristics of the activated sludge floc; (5) to determine whether magnesium hydroxide improves the anaerobic sludge digestion process and associated mechanisms; and (6) to conduct a cost-benefit analysis for the application of the reclaimed magnesium hydroxide in wastewater treatment and the possibility of marketing this product. Research results to date show that the purity of the reclaimed magnesium hydroxide depends largely on the recovery hydroxide slurry. This product proved to be very effective for wastewater neutralization, compared with other commonly used chemicals, both for its neutralization capacity and its buffering intensity. Due to its relatively low solubility in water and its particle size distribution characteristics, magnesium hydroxide behaves like a weak base, which will be very beneficial for process control. The authors also found that nitrogen and phosphorus could be removed from the wastewater using magnesium hydroxide due to their complexation and precipitation as magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite). Magnesium hydroxide also greatly enhanced the settleability of the activated sludge. Intensive research on the mechanisms associated with these phenomena reveals that sweep flocculation and magnesium ion bridging between exopolymeric substances (EPS) of

  17. Flue gas desulfurization products as sulfur sources for alfalfa and soybean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, L.M.; Dick, W.A.; Nelson, S. [Ohio State University, Wooster, OH (US). School of Natural Resources

    2005-02-01

    Sulfur deficiencies in soil are expected to increase due to growth of high-yielding crop varieties, use of S-free fertilizers, and removal of S from industrial emissions. Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) products, created when coal is burned and SO{sub 2} is removed from the flue gases, may serve as efficient S sources. However, there are few reports on their use for the enhancement of crop growth. Agricultural gypsum and two types of FGD products, that contain either vermiculite or perlite, were applied at 0, 16, and 67 kg S ha{sup -1} to an agricultural soil (Wooster silt loam, Typic Fragiudalf). Dry weight of a new planting of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) was increased up to 40% by the treatments of FGD products or gypsum compared with the untreated control. Gypsum and FGD products were also applied at 0, 8,16, and 24 kg S ha{sup -1} to five established alfalfa stands in different Ohio regions. Mean alfalfa yield was significantly (P {le} 0.05) increased by approximately 5.0% in 2001 and 6.0% in 2002 with the S treatments of FGD products or gypsum compared with the untreated control. Alfalfa yields for FGD products and gypsum treatments were similar. A slight positive yield response was observed for soybean (Glycine max L.) when soils were treated with S-containing materials. Soil and plant analyses were made to assess potential adverse environmental impacts and none were observed. Thus, these FGD products can be safely applied to agricultural soils as S sources and can improve alfalfa yields in S-deficient soils.

  18. Land application uses for dry flue gas desulfurization by-products. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dick, W.; Bigham, J.; Forster, R.; Hitzhusen, F.; Lal, R.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W.; Haefner, R.; Rowe, G.

    1999-01-31

    Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbing technologies create several types of by-products. This project focused primarily on by-product materials obtained from what are commonly called ''dry scrubbers'' which produce a dry, solid material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction product that contains sulfate and sulfite, and coal fly ash. Prior to this project, dry FGD by-products were generally treated as solid wastes and disposed in landfills. However, landfill sites are becoming scarce and tipping fees are constantly increasing; The major objective of this project was to develop beneficial uses, via recycling, capable of providing economic benefits to both the producer and the end user of the FGD by-product. It is equally important, however, that the environmental impacts be carefully assessed so that the new uses developed are not only technically feasible but socially acceptable. Specific objectives developed for this project were derived over an 18-month period during extensive discussions with personnel from industry, regulatory agencies and research institutions. These were stated as follows: Objective 1: To characterize the material generated by dry FGD processes. Objective 2: To demonstrate the utilization of dry FGD by-product as a soil amendment on agricultural lands and on abandoned and active surface coal mines in Ohio. Objective 3: To demonstrate the use of dry FGD by-product as an engineering material for soil stabilization. Objective 4: To determine the quantities of dry FGD by-product that can be utilized in each of these applications. Objective 5. To determine the environmental and economic impacts of utilizing the material. Objective 6. To calibrate environmental, engineering, and economic models that can be used to determine the applicability and costs of utilizing these processes at other sites.

  19. Kinetics of pozzolanic reaction for preparation of flue gas desulfurizer from fly ash and Ca(OH)2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jingang; HU Jinbang; WANG Daobin; DUAN Zhenya

    2007-01-01

    A kinetic model of the pozzolanic reaction for the preparation of flue gas desulfurizers from fly ash and Ca(OH)2 was deduced on the basis of solid phase reaction kinetic theory.Kinetic expressions and parameters were obtained and verified by experiment.A comparison of calculated results with experimental results showed that precision in kinetic expressions was good.The apparent reaction rate constants of the pozzolanic reaction could be raised by increasing the specific surface area of fly ash and the hydration temperature,and by using a suitable additive.

  20. Foaming in wet flue gas desulfurization plants: Laboratory‐scale investigation of long‐term performance of antifoaming agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Siqiang; Hansen, Brian Brun; Kiil, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous foaming can cause a range of operational problems in industrial processes such as wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD). This work investigates the performance of selected antifoaming agents (Nalco FM‐37, Foamtrol 2290, and rapeseed oil) on foams generated by egg white albumin (protein......), sodium dodecyl sulfate, and adipic acid at conditions of relevance for wet FGD plants. The addition of antifoaming agents breaks any existing foam and causes an induction period without foaming, after which the foam gradually will begin to reappear. Foaming by egg white albumin (2 g/L) at 0.014 m/s could...

  1. Pushing Forward Industrialization of Thermal Power Desulfuration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces present state of industrialization development in flue gas desulfuration, including technological selection, state of design and contracting capability, localization of equipment, etc. in China. It points out main problems currently existed and presents proposals on promotion of desulfuration technology with selfowned intellectual property right, perfection of demonstrative projects and pushing forward localization of desulfuration equipment.

  2. Bench-scale demonstration of hot-gas desulfurization technology. Quarterly report, January 1--March 31, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    At the start of the current project, the DSRP (Direct Sulfur Recovery Process) technology was at the bench-scale development stage with a skid-mounted system ready for field testing. The process had been extended to fluidized-bed operation in the Stage 1 reactor. A preliminary economic study for a 100 MW plant in which the two-stage DSRP was compared to conventional processes indicated the economic attractiveness of the DSRP. Through bench-scale development, both fluidized-bed zinc titanate and DSRP technologies have been shown to be technically and economically attractive. The demonstrations prior to the start of this project, however, had only been conducted using simulated (rather than real) coal gas and simulated regeneration off-gas. Thus, the effect of trace contaminants in real coal gases on the sorbent and DSRP catalyst was not known. Also, the zinc titanate desulfurization unit and DSRP had not been demonstrated in an integrated manner. The overall goal of this project is to continue further development of the zinc titanate desulfurization and DSRP technologies by scale-up and field testing (with actual coal gas) of the zinc titanate fluidized-bed reactor system, and the Direct Sulfur Recovery Process.

  3. A Novel Biomass Supported Na2CO3 System for Flue Gas Desulfurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The breakthrough and stoichiometric SO2 adsorption efficiencies of a biomass supported Na2CO3 system (80 wt %Na2CO3/straw) have reached 48.9 % and 80.6 % respectively at a desulfurization temperature of 80(C.

  4. The Clean Coal Technology Program 100 MWe demonstration of gas suspension absorption for flue gas desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, F.E.; Hedenhag, J.G. [AirPol Inc., Teterboro, NJ (United States); Marchant, S.K.; Pukanic, G.W. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center; Norwood, V.M.; Burnett, T.A. [Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga, TN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    AirPol Inc., with the cooperation of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) under a Cooperative Agreement with the United States Department of Energy, installed and tested a 10 MWe Gas Suspension Absorption (GSA) Demonstration system at TVA`s Shawnee Fossil Plant near Paducah, Kentucky. This low-cost retrofit project demonstrated that the GSA system can remove more than 90% of the sulfur dioxide from high-sulfur coal-fired flue gas, while achieving a relatively high utilization of reagent lime. This paper presents a detailed technical description of the Clean Coal Technology demonstration project. Test results and data analysis from the preliminary testing, factorial tests, air toxics texts, 28-day continuous demonstration run of GSA/electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and 14-day continuous demonstration run of GSA/pulse jet baghouse (PJBH) are also discussed within this paper.

  5. Recovery of SO2 and MgO from By-Products of MgO Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Liyun; Lu, Xiaofeng; Wang, Quanhai; Guo, Qiang

    2014-11-01

    An industrial demonstration unit using natural gas as a heat source was built to calcine the by-products of MgO wet flue gas desulfurization from power plants; influencing factors on the SO2 content in calciner gas were comprehensively analyzed; and an advantageous recycling condition of MgO and SO2 from by-products was summarized. Results showed that the SO2 content in the calciner gas was increased by more than 10 times under a lower excess air coefficient, a higher feed rate, a lower crystal water in by-products, and a higher feed port position. For the tests conducted under the excess air coefficient above and below one, the effect of the furnace temperature on the SO2 content in the calciner gas was reversed. Results of activity analysis indicate that particles of MgO generated under the calcination temperature of 900-1,000°C had a high activity. In contrast, due to the slight sintering, MgO generated under the calcination temperature of 1,100°C had a low activity. To recycle SO2 as well as MgO, a temperature range of 900-927°C for TE103 is proposed. These studies will prompt the desulfurization market diversification, reduce the sulfur's dependence on imports for making sulfuric acid, be meaningful to balance the usage of the natural resource in China, and be regarded as a reference for the development of this technology for other similar developing countries.

  6. 活性焦烟气脱硫技术及其应用前景%Desulfurization Technology for Flue Gas by Active Coke and Its Application Prospect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪家铭

    2012-01-01

    Desulfurization technology for flue gas by active coke was using its inherent functions of adsorption, catalysis and filtration,it was a dry purification treatment for the sulfur contained flue gas, in same one of reactor the three functions of desulfurization, de-nitride and de-dust were finished. Author hasintroduced the basic principle,process flow,technical feature,studying and developing situation taking coal as mainraw material to produce the active coke ; has compared the desulfurization hy active coke with the other some kinds of conventional desulfurization processes. Result indicates that the desulfurization technology of flue gas by active coke has an obvious superiority in the aspects of desulfurization rate,utilization of by-product,investment of plant and operating cost etc.%活性焦烟气脱硫技术利用活性焦特有的吸附、催化和过滤功能,对含硫烟气进行干法净化处理,在同1个反应器内完成脱硫、脱硝、除尘3种功能。介绍了以煤为主要原料生产活性焦的基本原理、工艺流程、技术特点和研发概况;将活性焦脱硫工艺与其他几种常用的脱硫工艺进行了对比,结果表明,活性焦烟气脱硫技术在脱硫率、副产品利用、装置投资及运行费用等方面均具有明显优势。

  7. Advanced sulfur control concepts in hot-gas desulfurization technology: Phase 2. Exploratory studies on the direct production of elemental sulfur during the regeneration of high temperature desulfurization sorbents. Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, A.; Huang, W.; White, J. [and others

    1997-07-01

    The topical report describes the results of Phase 2 research to determine the feasibility of the direct production of elemental sulfur during the regeneration of high temperature desulfurization sorbents. Many of the contaminants present in coal emerge from the gasification process in the product gas. Much effort has gone into the development of high temperature metal oxide sorbents for removal of H{sub 2}S from coal gas. The oxides of zinc, iron, manganese, and others have been studied. In order for high temperature desulfurization to be economical it is necessary that the sorbents be regenerated to permit multicycle operation. Current methods of sorbent regeneration involve oxidation of the metal sulfide to reform the metal oxide and free the sulfur as SO{sub 2}. An alternate regeneration process in which the sulfur is liberated in elemental form is desired. Elemental sulfur, which is the typical feed to sulfuric acid plants, may be easily separated, stored, and transported. Although research to convert SO{sub 2} produced during sorbent regeneration to elemental sulfur is on-going, additional processing steps are required and the overall process will be more complex. Clearly, the direct production of elemental sulfur is preferred. Desulfurization utilizing a cerium oxide based sorbent is discussed.

  8. Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) Demonstration Project. Technical progress report No. 15, July 1, 1993--September 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    The goal of this project is to demonstrate that, by combining state-of-the-art technology, highly efficient plant operation and maintenance capabilities and by-product gypsum sales, significant reductions of SO{sub 2} emissions can be achieved at approximately one-half the life cycle cost of a conventional Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) system. Further, this emission reduction is achieved without generating solid waste and while minimizing liquid wastewater effluent. Basically, this project entails the design, construction and operation of a nominal 600 MWe AFGD facility to remove SO{sub 2} from coal-fired power plant flue gas at the Northern Indiana Public Service Company`s Bailly Generating Station.

  9. Temperature Control of 5.5 m Tamping Coke Oven%浅谈5.5米捣固焦炉的温度控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵广磊

    2016-01-01

    The maturity condition of the coke near the machine side and the coke side is poor due to the temperature differ⁃ence between the machine side and the coke side. Throttle orifice plates were adopted in the horizontal tube grid to change the the gas flow distribution in the coke side, the temperatures in the machine side and the coke side were changed and the quality of the machine⁃side coke and the coke side coke were improved. Fire⁃fall management was combined with standard temperature to rectify standard temperature required for coke maturity.%由于捣固焦炉机焦侧温差较小,且焦侧高于机侧,导致机焦侧焦炭成熟情况不佳,通过在横排管中采用节流孔板的方法,改变机焦侧煤气流量分布,从而改变机焦侧温度,提高了机焦侧焦炭质量,并通过采用火落管理与标准温度相结合,修正焦炭成熟所需的标准温度。

  10. Research Progress in Flue Gas Desulfurization Technologies%烟气脱硫处理技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵鲁华; 黄冲; 潘一; 杨双春

    2013-01-01

      烟气脱硫是从废气中去除含硫物质如 SO2,SO3,H2S 的一种工艺,怎样脱除烟气中的含硫物质,减少含硫物质排放已逐步成为全球关注的热点。笔者主要介绍了国内外烟气脱硫处理技术研究现状及进展,包括醇胺类离子液体法、石灰石(石灰)/石膏法、双碱法、金属氧化物法、生物膜法、非生物膜法等,对各种方法进行了评价和比较,并对今后烟气脱硫处理技术的发展提出了建议。%The flue gas desulfurization is to remove sulfur substances from exhaust gas,such as SO2,SO3,H2S. It has gradually become the focus of global attention to remove sulfur containing materials in flue gas and reduce sulfur material discharge. In this paper,flue gas desulfurization treatment technologies at home and abroad were introduced, such as alcohol amine ion liquid method,lime method,dual alkali method,metal oxide method,biofilm process, non biofilm process,and so on. At last, above methods were compared and the future research suggestions were presented.

  11. Technical description of parameters influencing the pH value of suspension absorbent used in flue gas desulfurization systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Głomba, Michał

    2010-08-01

    As a result of the large limestone deposits available in Poland, the low cost of reagent acquisition for the largescale technological use and relatively well-documented processes of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technologies based on limestone sorbent slurry, wet scrubbing desulfurization is a method of choice in Poland for flue gas treatment in energy production facilities, including power plants and industrial systems. The efficiency of FGD using the above method depends on several technological and kinetic parameters, particularly on the pH value of the sorbent (i.e., ground limestone suspended in water). Consequently, many studies in Poland and abroad address the impact of various parameters on the pH value of the sorbent suspension, such as the average diameter of sorbent particles (related to the limestone pulverization degree), sorbent quality (in terms of pure calcium carbonate [CaCO3] content of the sorbent material), stoichiometric surfeit of CaCO3 in relation to sulfur dioxide (SO2) absorbed from flue gas circulating in the absorption node, time of absorption slurry retention in the absorber tank, chlorine ion concentration in sorbent slurry, and concentration of dissolved metal salts (Na, K, Mg, Fe, Al, and others). This study discusses the results of laboratory-scale tests conducted to establish the effect of the above parameters on the pH value of limestone slurry circulating in the SO2 absorption node. On the basis of the test results, a correlation equation was postulated to help maintain the desirable pH value at the design phase of the wet FGD process. The postulated equation displays good coincidence between calculated pH values and those obtained using laboratory measurements.

  12. Summary and assessment of METC zinc ferrite hot coal gas desulfurization test program, final report: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Underkoffler, V.S.

    1986-12-01

    The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) has conducted a test program to develop a zinc ferrite-based high temperature desulfurization process which could be applied to fuel gas entering downstream components such as molten carbonate fuel cells or gas turbines. As a result of prior METC work with iron oxide and zinc oxide sorbents, zinc ferrite evolved as a candidate with the potential for high capacity, low equilibrium levels of H/sub 2/S, and structural stability after multiple regenerations. The program consisted of laboratory-scale testing with a two-inch diameter reactor and simulated fixed-bed gasifier gas; bench-scale testing with a six-inch diameter reactor and actual gas from the METC 42-inch fixed bed gasifier; as well as laboratory-scale testing of zinc ferrite with simulated fluidized bed gasifier gas. Optimum operating parameters for zinc ferrite such as temperatures, gas compositions, and space velocities are discussed. From the test results, salient features of zinc ferrite were derived and discussed in regard to system implications, issues raised, and technical requirements. 47 refs., 53 figs., 41 tabs.

  13. Manufacture of ammonium sulfate fertilizer from gypsum-rich byproduct of flue gas desulfurization - A prefeasibility cost estimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, I.-Ming; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Lytle, J.M.; Achorn, F.P.

    1996-01-01

    Costs for constructing and operating a conceptual plant based on a proposed process that converts flue gas desulfurization (FGD)-gypsum to ammonium sulfate fertilizer has been calculated and used to estimate a market price for the product. The average market price of granular ammonium sulfate ($138/ton) exceeds the rough estimated cost of ammonium sulfate from the proposed process ($111/ ton), by 25 percent, if granular size ammonium sulfate crystals of 1.2 to 3.3 millimeters in diameters can be produced by the proposed process. However, there was at least ??30% margin in the cost estimate calculations. The additional costs for compaction, if needed to create granules of the required size, would make the process uneconomical unless considerable efficiency gains are achieved to balance the additional costs. This study suggests the need both to refine the crystallization process and to find potential markets for the calcium carbonate produced by the process.

  14. Mechanistic and kinetic studies of high-temperature coal gas desulfurization sorbents. Final report, July 1988--July 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lew, S.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Sarofim, A.F.

    1991-10-01

    The overall objective of this project was to investigate the properties of and evaluate mixed oxides of zinc and titanium for hot fuel gas desulfurization. Uncombined ZnO was also investigated as a base case. Detailed investigation of the reduction and sulfidation reactions of Zn-Ti-O sorbents was performed. The intrinsic kinetics and the product layer diffusion rates in reduction and sulfidation were determined. Kinetic experiments with sorbents containing various Zn/Ti atomic ratios were performed. Chemical phase and structural transformations were followed by various methods. The results were compared to similar experiments performed with ZnO. The purpose of these experiments was to determine how the presence of titanium dioxide affects the reduction and sulfidation of ZnO. This information would be used to identify and select the sorbent composition that gives the best combination of low reduction rate and acceptable sulfidation performance at temperatures exceeding 600{degree}C. (VC)

  15. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Annual report, October 1994--September 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chugh, Y.P.; Dutta, D.; Esling, S. [and others

    1995-10-01

    On September 30, 1993, the U.S. Department of Energy-Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE-METC) and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) entered into a cooperative research agreement entitled {open_quotes}Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines{close_quotes} (DE-FC21-93MC30252). Under the agreement Southern Illinois University at Carbondale will develop and demonstrate several technologies for the placement of coal combustion residues (CCBs) in abandoned coal mines, and will assess the environmental impact of such underground CCB placement. This report describes progress in the following areas: environmental characterization, mix development and geotechnical characterization, material handling and system economics, underground placement, and field demonstration.

  16. Experimental study on SO2 recovery using a sodium-zinc sorbent based flue gas desulfurization technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Zhang; Tao Wang; Hairui Yang; Hai Zhang; Xuyi Zhang

    2015-01-01

    A sodium–zinc sorbent based flue gas desulfurization technology (Na–Zn-FGD) was proposed based on the experiments and analyses of the thermal decomposition characteristics of CaSO3 and ZnSO3·2.5H2O, the waste products of calcium-based semi-dry and zinc-based flue gas desulfurization (Ca–SD-FGD and Zn–SD-FGD) tech-nologies, respectively. It was found that ZnSO3·2.5H2O first lost crystal H2O at 100 °C and then decomposed into SO2 and solid ZnO at 260 °C in the air, while CaSO3 is oxidized at 450 °C before it decomposed in the air. The ex-perimental results confirm that Zn–SD-FGD technology is good for SO2 removal and recycling, but with problem in clogging and high operational cost. The proposed Na–Zn-FGD is clogging proof, and more cost-effective. In the new process, Na2CO3 is used to generate Na2SO3 for SO2 absorption, and the intermediate product NaHSO3 reacts with ZnO powders, producing ZnSO3·2.5H2O precipitate and Na2SO3 solution. The Na2SO3 solution is clogging proof, which is re-used for SO2 absorption. By thermal decomposition of ZnSO3·2.5H2O, ZnO is re-generated and SO2 with high purity is co-produced as well. The cycle consumes some amount of raw material Na2CO3 and a small amount of ZnO only. The newly proposed FGD technology could be a substitute of the traditional semi-dry FGD technologies.

  17. Gas Production Strategy of Underground Coal Gasification Based on Multiple Gas Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan Tianhong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To lower stability requirement of gas production in UCG (underground coal gasification, create better space and opportunities of development for UCG, an emerging sunrise industry, in its initial stage, and reduce the emission of blast furnace gas, converter gas, and coke oven gas, this paper, for the first time, puts forward a new mode of utilization of multiple gas sources mainly including ground gasifier gas, UCG gas, blast furnace gas, converter gas, and coke oven gas and the new mode was demonstrated by field tests. According to the field tests, the existing power generation technology can fully adapt to situation of high hydrogen, low calorific value, and gas output fluctuation in the gas production in UCG in multiple-gas-sources power generation; there are large fluctuations and air can serve as a gasifying agent; the gas production of UCG in the mode of both power and methanol based on multiple gas sources has a strict requirement for stability. It was demonstrated by the field tests that the fluctuations in gas production in UCG can be well monitored through a quality control chart method.

  18. Gas production strategy of underground coal gasification based on multiple gas sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tianhong, Duan; Zuotang, Wang; Limin, Zhou; Dongdong, Li

    2014-01-01

    To lower stability requirement of gas production in UCG (underground coal gasification), create better space and opportunities of development for UCG, an emerging sunrise industry, in its initial stage, and reduce the emission of blast furnace gas, converter gas, and coke oven gas, this paper, for the first time, puts forward a new mode of utilization of multiple gas sources mainly including ground gasifier gas, UCG gas, blast furnace gas, converter gas, and coke oven gas and the new mode was demonstrated by field tests. According to the field tests, the existing power generation technology can fully adapt to situation of high hydrogen, low calorific value, and gas output fluctuation in the gas production in UCG in multiple-gas-sources power generation; there are large fluctuations and air can serve as a gasifying agent; the gas production of UCG in the mode of both power and methanol based on multiple gas sources has a strict requirement for stability. It was demonstrated by the field tests that the fluctuations in gas production in UCG can be well monitored through a quality control chart method.

  19. Gas Production Strategy of Underground Coal Gasification Based on Multiple Gas Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tianhong, Duan; Zuotang, Wang; Limin, Zhou; Dongdong, Li

    2014-01-01

    To lower stability requirement of gas production in UCG (underground coal gasification), create better space and opportunities of development for UCG, an emerging sunrise industry, in its initial stage, and reduce the emission of blast furnace gas, converter gas, and coke oven gas, this paper, for the first time, puts forward a new mode of utilization of multiple gas sources mainly including ground gasifier gas, UCG gas, blast furnace gas, converter gas, and coke oven gas and the new mode was demonstrated by field tests. According to the field tests, the existing power generation technology can fully adapt to situation of high hydrogen, low calorific value, and gas output fluctuation in the gas production in UCG in multiple-gas-sources power generation; there are large fluctuations and air can serve as a gasifying agent; the gas production of UCG in the mode of both power and methanol based on multiple gas sources has a strict requirement for stability. It was demonstrated by the field tests that the fluctuations in gas production in UCG can be well monitored through a quality control chart method. PMID:25114953

  20. Effect of pH Value on the Desulfurization Process in Flue Gas Desulfurization%烟气脱硫中pH值对脱硫过程的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王振华

    2014-01-01

    Wet Limestone - gypsum flue gas desulfurization system (FGD system) is currently dominant in the domestic coal-fired power plant FGD system. FGD is designed to chemically remove sulfur dioxide in the flue gas leaving the flue gas will be purified. pH value as a measure of gypsum slurry pH, is an important technical parameters of the desulfurization process, at the same time as an environmental indicators relate with chemical reaction. Utilization of limestone, desulfurization efficiency and quality of gypsum slurry are closely related with the control of pH value. We usually control the pH value by controlling the mixing amount of limestone (CaCO3). Increasing the pH value can increase the amount of limestone, and vice versa reduction. On operation, the stability of pH value must be maintained. Increasing the pH value will increase the alkalinity of system and desulfurization efficiency, but the utilization of limestone will be reduced, and accelerate the formation of scale, ultimately affect the quality of gypsum. Reducing the pH value will increase the acidity of the system, improve the utilization of limestone, accelerate precipitation of gypsum crystals, but it will also accelerate the corrosion of the system, make the system is unstable, and the desulfurization efficiency will be greatly reduced. Therefore, the control of slurry pH value should seek the best value to meet the requirements under the premise of the desulfurization rate and generally the pH is controlled in the best range of 5.0-5.8.%湿法石灰石-石膏烟气脱硫系统(即FGD系统)目前在国内外燃煤电站FGD系统中占绝对优势。FGD的目的是用化学方法除去烟气中的二氧化硫而使烟气得以净化。pH值作为石膏浆液酸碱度的度量,是脱硫工序中一项重要的技术参数,同时可作为一项与化学反应相关的环境指标。石灰石利用率、脱硫效率和石膏浆液品质等与pH值的控制密切相关。通常我们

  1. Flue gas desulfurization technology of thermal power plant%热电厂烟气脱硫技术浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李斌

    2013-01-01

    当今社会,环境污染问题越来越严重,特别是火电厂排放的二氧化硫,使人类的生存环境受到很大的危害,因此,国家重新修订了《火电厂大气污染物排放标准》,利用法律来对火电厂排放的烟气采取强制措施,要求必须安装烟气脱硫装置来净化排放的烟气。%In modern society,the increasingly serious problem of environmental pollution,particularly sulfur dioxide emissions from thermal power plants,have greatly harmed the survival environment of human beings,therefore,Thermal Power Plant Air Pollutant E-mission Standards was revised to require thermal power plants to install flue gas desulfurization device in law,by which flue gas of thermal power plant will be purified before emission into the atmosphere.

  2. Study on Desulfurization Efficiency and Products of Ce-Doped Nanosized ZnO Desulfurizer at Ambient Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Fen; Yan Bo; Zhang Jie; Jiang Anxi; Shao Chunhong; Kong Xiangji; Wang Xin

    2007-01-01

    Ce-doped nanosized ZnO desulfurizer was prepared by homogeneous precipitation, and its desulfurization efficiency at ambient temperature was investigated through dynamic experiments. The results showed that the desulfurization activity of nanosized Ce-ZnO had improved greatly, compared to nanosized ZnO desulfurizer. Nanosized Ce-ZnO desulfurizer was characterized by XRD, TPD-MS, XPS, and TEM. The research results indicated that doping Ce decreased the particle size of the nanosized ZnO desulfurizer and ZnS was the principal desulfurization product. There were adsorption complexes of HS and S on the surface of desulfurizer as well. Only a small amount of vapor appeared in the tail gas on the condition of meeting the precision of desulfurization.

  3. 半水煤气脱硫技改运行总结%Sum-Up of Operation of Updated Technology for Desulfurization of Semi-Water Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹学斌; 徐勤永

    2013-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the technological renovation of desulfurization of semi-water gas over the years and operation parameters,and an analysis is done of the existing problems.After the renovation the desulfurization efficiency reaches over 99.50%,after desulfurization the H2S mass concentration in the gas is essentially controlled at below 0.010 g/m3,the soda consumption per ton of ammonia decreases from 6.0 kg to about 2.5 kg,and the resistance in the system drops from 6.0 ~ 8.0 kPa to 1.8 ~ 2.1 kPa.%介绍了历年半水煤气脱硫技改的详细过程、运行参数,并对存在的问题进行了分析.改造后,脱硫效率达到99.50%以上,脱硫后气体中H2S质量浓度基本控制在0.010 g/m3以下,吨氨纯碱消耗由6.0 kg降至2.5 kg左右,系统阻力由6.0~8.0 kPa降至1.8~2.1kPa.

  4. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Topical report, April 1, 1996--April 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chugh, Y.P.; Brackebusch, F.; Carpenter, J. [and others

    1998-12-31

    This report represents the Final Technical Progress Report for Phase II of the overall program for a cooperative research agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy - MORGANTOWN Energy Technology Center (DOE-METC) and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC). Under the agreement, SIUC will develop and demonstrate technologies for the handling, transport, and placement in abandoned underground coal mines of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products, such as fly ash, scrubber sludge, fluidized bed combustion by-products, and will assess the environmental impact of such underground placement. The overall program is divided into three (3) phases. Phase II of the program is primarily concerned with developing and testing the hardware for the actual underground placement demonstrations. Two technologies have been identified and hardware procured for full-scale demonstrations: (1) hydraulic placement, where coal combustion by-products (CCBs) will be placed underground as a past-like mixture containing about 70 to 75 percent solids; and (2) pneumatic placement, where CCBs will be placed underground as a relatively dry material using compressed air. 42 refs., 36 figs., 36 tabs.

  5. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly report, October--December 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chugh, Y.; Dutta, D.; Esling, S.; Ghafoori, N.; Paul, B.; Sevim, H.; Thomasson, E.

    1995-01-01

    On September 30, 1993, the US Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) entered into a cooperative agreement entitled ``Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines`` (DE-FC21-93MC30252). Under the agreement, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale will develop and demonstrate several technologies for the placement of coal combustion residues in abandoned coal mines, and will assess the environmental impact of such underground residues placement. The major event during the quarter was the demonstration of the SEEC, Inc. technology for loading and transporting coal combustion residues in the SEEC developed Collapsible Intermodal Containers (CIC). The demonstration was held on November 17, 1994, at the Illinois Power Company Baldwin power plant, and was attended by about eighty (80) invited guest. Also during the quarter meetings were held with Peabody Coal Company officials to finalize the area in the Peabody No. 10 mine to be used for the placement of coal combustion residues. Work under the Materials Handling and Systems Economics area continued, particularly in refining the costs and systems configuration and in economic evaluation of various systems using equipment leasing rather than equipment purchases. Likewise, work progressed on residues characterization, with some preparations being made for long-term testing.

  6. Mineral concentrations of forage legumes and grasses grown in acidic soil amended with flue gas desulfurization products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, R.B.; Baligar, V.C. [USDA ARS, Beltsville, MD (USA). Beltsville Agricultural Research Center West

    2003-07-01

    Considerable quantities of flue gas desulfurization products (FGDs) are generated when coal is burned for production of electricity, and these products have the potential to be reused rather than discarded. Use of FGDs as soil amendments could be important in overall management of these products, especially on acidic soils. Glasshouse studies were conducted to determine shoot concentrations of calcium (Ca), sulfur (S), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), phosphorus (P), boron (B), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), aluminum (Al), sodium (Na), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), and lead (Pb) in alfalfa (Medicago sativa), white clover (Trifolium repens), orchardgrass (Dacrylis glomerata), tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), and eastern gamagrass (Tripsacum dactyloides) grown in acidic (pH 4) soil (Typic Hapludult) amended with various levels of three FGDs and the control compounds CaCO{sub 3}, CaSO{sub 3}, and CaSO{sub 4}. Shoot concentrations of Ca, S, Mg, and B generally increased as levels of soil applied FGD increased. Concentrations of Mn, Fe, Zn, Cu were lower in shoots, especially when soil pH was high ({gt}7). Shoot concentrations of the trace elements Mo, Ni, Cd, Cr, and Pb were not above those reported as normal for foliage. Overall concentrations of most minerals remained near normal for shoots when plants were grown in FGD amended acidic soil.

  7. Economic assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization processes. Final report. Volume 2. Appendices G, H, and I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierman, G. R.; May, E. H.; Mirabelli, R. E.; Pow, C. N.; Scardino, C.; Wan, E. I.

    1981-09-01

    This report presents the results of a project sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The purpose of the study was to perform an economic and market assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes for application to coal-fired electric utility plants. The time period considered in the study is 1981 through 1990, and costs are reported in 1980 dollars. The task was divided into the following four subtasks: (1) determine the factors affecting FGD cost evaluations; (2) select FGD processes to be cost-analyzed; (3) define the future electric utility FGD system market; and (4) perform cost analyses for the selected FGD processes. The study was initiated in September 1979, and separate reports were prepared for the first two subtasks. The results of the latter two subtasks appear only in this final report, since the end-date of those subtasks coincided with the end-date of the overall task. The Subtask 1 report, Criteria and Methods for Performing FGD Cost Evaluation, was completed in October 1980. A slightly modified and condensed version of that report appears as Appendix B to this report. The Subtask 2 report, FGD Candidate Process Selection, was completed in January 1981, and the principal outputs of that subtask appear in Appendices C and D to this report.

  8. Hot-gas desulfurization. II. Use of gasifier ash in a fluidized-bed process. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrodt, J.T.

    1981-02-01

    Three gasifier coal ashes were used as reactant/sorbents in batch fluidized-beds to remove hydrogen sulfide from hot, made-up fuel gases. It is predominantly the iron oxide in the ash that reacts with and removes the hydrogen sulfide; the sulfur reappears in ferrous sulfide. Sulfided ashes were regenerated by hot, fluidizing streams of oxygen in air; the sulfur is recovered as sulfur dioxide, exclusively. Ash sorption efficiency and sulfur capacity increase and stabilize after several cycles of use. These two parameters vary directly with the iron oxide content of the ash and process temperature, but are independent of particle size in the range 0.01 - 0.02 cm. A western Kentucky No. 9 ash containing 22 weight percent iron as iron oxide sorbed 4.3 weight percent sulfur at 1200/sup 0/F with an ash sorption efficiency of 0.83 at ten percent breakthrough. A global, fluidized-bed, reaction rate model was fitted to the data and it was concluded that chemical kinetics is the controlling mechanism with a predicted activation energy of 19,600 Btu/lb mol. Iron oxide reduction and the water-gas-shift reaction were two side reactions that occurred during desulfurization. The regeneration reaction occurred very rapidly in the fluid-bed regime, and it is suspected that mass transfer is the controlling phenomenon.

  9. Flue Gas Desulfurization at Navy Bases, Navy Energy Guidance Study. Phase IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    inconvenient 19 Reagent feed rate Weight belt mechanism Wear System becomes inoperable control if not repaired 20 Flue gas flow meter Annubar type flow Plugging...required: 3) Rotor NI System becomes S - Normal operation balance inoperable A - Rebalance fan Flue gas flow 4) Annubar Plugging with System function

  10. 串并联综合型双气头甲醇电力联产系统集成研究%Study on System Integration of Dual-Gas Based Polygeneration System for Methanol and Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林湖; 林汝谋; 金红光; 高林

    2011-01-01

    多产品联产和多能源互补,已成为能源动力系统可持续发展的主要趋势与特征。文章基于联产概念和双气头互补思路,提出PSA法预分离氢气与利用合成煤气高温显热作为重整热的低能耗焦炉煤气重整、和双气头混合手段实现低能耗调整CO/H2组分的机制与方法,并采取甲烷适度重整和甲醇合成适度循环的优化整合原则,构建了一类串并联综合型双气头整合的甲醇电力联产系统。研究表明,新型联产系统具有优良性能特性,相对节能率高达15%。借助炯分析揭示了双气头联产系统节能本质,焦炉煤气重整单元炯损失减少和取消合成煤气变换单元是系统节能的关键所在。研究成果为煤和焦炉煤气综合高效利用提供了新途径和方案。%Coproduction and multi-energy complementation have been as the main direction and character of energy system sustainable development. Based on polygeneration and dual-gas complementation, a new system is proposed, in which, hydrogen is pre-separated from coke oven gas by PSA, the high temperature coal gas supplies reforming thermal energy of the coke oven gas, and CO/H2 is adjusted with lower energy consumption by mixing coke oven gas after PSA with coal syngas. The system achieves better thermodynamic performance, which primary energy saving ratio can reach about 15%. By exergy analysis, the essence of energy saving was disclosed, which the decrement of exergy destruction of ,coke oven gas reform and deleting the shift process of coal syngas are the critical points for the system energy saving. The study results supplied the new method for efficient utilization of coke oven and coal gas.

  11. Analysis of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Processes for Potential Use on Army Coal-Fired Boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    Rubber Co. FMC ( Soda Ash Plant ) General Motors General Motors General Motors General Motors General Motors Georgia-Pacific Paper Co. Great...use of alkali, especially caustic (NaOH), also requires increased concern with safety procedures for operating personnel. Limestone flue gas...proven technology was available at the time for SOx removal from stack gas at coal burning heating plants . This meant that coal burning units either

  12. Changes of Th17 cytokine in human bronchial epithelial cells induced by coke oven emission%焦炉逸散物致支气管上皮细胞 Th17细胞因子改变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红丽; 解秋艳; 刘秀玲; 牛勇; 戴宇飞; 郑玉新; 姚林; 段化伟

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To find the infla mmation bio markers induced by coke oven e missions (COE),we investigated the changes of T helper 17 (Th17 )cytokines in hu man bronchial epithelial (16HBE)cells.METHODS 16HBE cells were exposed to organic extracts of COE collected fro m co-king plant at the concentrations of 5,10 and 20 mg·L -1 for 24 h or 5 d to establish short-term and long-term cell models,respectively.Cell viability was measured by MTT assay and infla mmatory da mage was assessed by lactate dehydrogenase assay (LDH).The cytokines in culture supernatant sa mples was detected by co mmercial hu man Th17 cytokine panel kit.RESULTS COE Can induce infla mmation in COE 20 mg·L -1 group and no expression on IL-17 F and IL-1 β.The concentration of IL-10 was 1 .25 ± 0.54,1 .39 ±0.13 and (1 .90 ±0.73)pg·mL -1 in COE 5,10 and 20 mg·L -1 group showing good con-centration-effect relationship (r=0.98,P <0.05 ).IL-23 expression was found only higher at 10 and 20 mg·L -1 and the concentrations were 3.38 ±3.90 and (1 .74 ±2.00 )pg·mL -1 ,respectively.In 16HBE cells treated by COE for 5 d,elevated expression of IL-17A was found in COE 5 and 10 mg·L -1 group,and there was statistically sigificant difference between COE 10 mg·L -1 and DMSO group (P<0.05).Elevated concentration of IL-17F of 10.2 ±1 1 .78 and (6.79 ±7.84)pg·mL -1 was found in COE 5 and 10 mg·L -1 group.The concentration of IL-10 was 1 .71 ±0.02,1 .49 ±0.25 and (2.82 ± 0.33)pg·mL -1 in COE 5,10 and 20 mg·L -1 group,respectively.We found increased IL-1 βexpression with concentration of 2.72 ±0.62,2.25 ±0.33 and (0.93 ±0.21 )pg·mL -1 in COE 5,10 and 20 mg·L -1 group with negative dose-response relationship.We also found more elevated TNF-αlevels in the 5 d than in the 24 h model with no COE specific relationship.CONCLUSION COE induces expression changes of Th17 cytokines profile in 16HBE cells,including IL-23 and IL-1 βfor early and long-term infla mmation,respectively.IL-10 may be a candidate

  13. A Discussion on Advanced Wastewater Treatment Process for Sintering Flue Gas Desulfurization Wastewater%烧结湿法烟气脱硫废水深度处理流程探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘莉; 陈亮; 董进

    2016-01-01

    钢铁企业烧结湿法烟气脱硫废水成分复杂,废水处理典型的工艺流程废水经处理后不能完全达标外排,也不能作为烟气脱硫系统的回用水,探讨烧结湿法烟气脱硫废水深度处理流程,势在必行.%As the composition of sintering wet flue gas desulfurization wastewater in steel enterprises is complicated, the treated wastewater by typical treatment processes cannot fully meet discharge standard, nor can it be used as reuse water in the flue gas desulfuriza-tion system. The necessity of advanced treatment process for sintering flue gas desulfurization wastewater is discussed.

  14. Effect of byproducts of flue gas desulfurization on the soluble salts composition and chemical properties of sodic soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinman; Bai, Zhongke; Yang, Peiling

    2013-01-01

    The byproducts of flue gas desulfurization (BFGD) are a useful external source of Ca(2+) for the reclamation of sodic soils because they are comparatively cheap, generally available and have high gypsum content. The ion solution composition of sodic soils also plays an important role in the reclamation process. The effect of BFGD on the soluble salts composition and chemical properties of sodic soils were studied in a soil column experiment. The experiment consisted of four treatments using two different sodic soils (sodic soil I and sodic soil II) and two BFGD rates. After the application of BFGD and leaching, the soil soluble salts were transformed from sodic salts containing Na2CO3 and NaHCO3 to neutral salts containing NaCl and Na2SO4. The sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), pH and electrical conductivity (EC) decreased at all soil depths, and more significantly in the top soil depth. At a depth of 0-40 cm in both sodic soil I and sodic soil II, the SAR, EC and pH were less than 13, 4 dS m(-1) and 8.5, respectively. The changes in the chemical properties of the sodic soils reflected the changes in the ion composition of soluble salts. Leaching played a key role in the reclamation process and the reclamation effect was positively associated with the amount of leaching. The soil salts did not accumulate in the top soil layer, but there was a slight increase in the middle and bottom soil depths. The results demonstrate that the reclamation of sodic soils using BFGD is promising.

  15. Flue gas desulfurization gypsum: implication for runoff and nutrient losses associated with broiler litter use on pastures on ultisols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endale, Dinku M; Schomberg, Harry H; Fisher, Dwight S; Franklin, Dorcas H; Jenkins, Michael B

    2014-01-01

    Gypsum has been shown to reduce runoff on soils prone to crust formation in the southeastern United States. Increased infiltration from gypsum applications could therefore help reduce runoff P and other nutrient losses from application of broiler litter (BL), a nutrient-rich fertilizer. In rainfall simulation experiments in June 2009 and May 2011, runoff and nutrient (N, P, Ca, Mg) losses in runoff were compared among treatments consisting of 0, 2.2, 4.5, and 9.0 Mg ha flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) combined with 13.5 Mg ha of BL and two control treatments of (0-0) and (9.0-0.0) Mg ha (FGDG-BL). A randomized block design with three replications was set up on a Cecil (Typic Kanhapludult) soil growing Coastal bermudagrass ( L.) for hay near Watkinsville, Georgia. Amendments were applied each April from 2009 to 2011. A reduction in runoff of 30% each year from the (9.0-13.5) compared with the (0-0) treatment was not statistically significant. Gypsum was effective in reducing concentration and load in one of the two study years: P and NH-N in 2009 (up to 83%) and NO-N in 2011 (up to 73%). A combination of factors related to weather extremes, timing of FGDG and BL applications, and their implication on soil and vegetation responses at different landscape positions might have caused the different responses between years. Additional studies focused on isolating the impacts of such factors would be helpful to ascertain the effectiveness of multiyear applications of FGDG as a best management practice to reduce P and other nutrient losses in soils of the southeastern United States. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  16. Effect of byproducts of flue gas desulfurization on the soluble salts composition and chemical properties of sodic soils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinman Wang

    Full Text Available The byproducts of flue gas desulfurization (BFGD are a useful external source of Ca(2+ for the reclamation of sodic soils because they are comparatively cheap, generally available and have high gypsum content. The ion solution composition of sodic soils also plays an important role in the reclamation process. The effect of BFGD on the soluble salts composition and chemical properties of sodic soils were studied in a soil column experiment. The experiment consisted of four treatments using two different sodic soils (sodic soil I and sodic soil II and two BFGD rates. After the application of BFGD and leaching, the soil soluble salts were transformed from sodic salts containing Na2CO3 and NaHCO3 to neutral salts containing NaCl and Na2SO4. The sodium adsorption ratio (SAR, pH and electrical conductivity (EC decreased at all soil depths, and more significantly in the top soil depth. At a depth of 0-40 cm in both sodic soil I and sodic soil II, the SAR, EC and pH were less than 13, 4 dS m(-1 and 8.5, respectively. The changes in the chemical properties of the sodic soils reflected the changes in the ion composition of soluble salts. Leaching played a key role in the reclamation process and the reclamation effect was positively associated with the amount of leaching. The soil salts did not accumulate in the top soil layer, but there was a slight increase in the middle and bottom soil depths. The results demonstrate that the reclamation of sodic soils using BFGD is promising.

  17. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1995--June 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chugh, Y.P.; Dutta, D.; Esling, S. [and others

    1995-07-01

    On September 30, 1993, the U.S. Department of Energy-Morgantown Energy Technology Center and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) entered into a cooperative research agreement entitled {open_quotes}Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines{close_quotes} (DE-FC21-93MC30252). Under the agreement Southern Illinois University at Carbondale will develop and demonstrate several technologies for the placement of coal combustion residues in abandoned coal mines, and will assess the environmental impact of such underground residues placement. Previous quarterly Technical Progress Reports have set forth the specific objectives of the program, and a discussion of these is not repeated here. Rather, this report discusses the technical progress made during the period April 1 - June 30, 1995. A final topical report on the SEEC, Inc. demonstration of its technology for the transporting of coal combustion residues was completed during the quarter, although final printing of the report was accomplished early in July, 1995. The SEEC technology involves the use of Collapsible Intermodal Containers (CIC`s) developed by SEEC, and the transportation of such containers - filled with fly ash or other coal combustion residues - on rail coal cars or other transportation means. Copies of the final topical report, entitled {open_quotes}The Development and Testing of Collapsible Intermodal Containers for the Handling and Transport of Coal Combustion Residues{close_quotes} were furnished to the Morgantown Energy Technology Center. The Rapid Aging Test colums were placed in operation during the quarter. This test is to determine the long-term reaction of both the pneumatic and hydraulic mixtures to brine as a leaching material, and simulates the conditions that will be encountered in the actual underground placement of the coal combustion residues mixtures. The tests will continue for about one year.

  18. Calcium Sulfate Hemihydrate Whiskers Obtained from Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum and Used for the Adsorption Removal of Lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoshu Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: As a recycled material, flue gas desulfurization gypsum has been used to prepare calcium sulfate hemihydrate whisker (CSHW through hydrothermal synthesis for several decades. However, the subsequent utilization of this resultant material has not yet received considerable attention. In the present research, CSHW was successfully synthesized at a certain region, and was used for the adsorption of lead ions from aqueous solutions, thereby broadening the research field for the practical application of CSHW. Its adsorption capacity was significantly influenced by various parameters, particularly, the pH level and initial lead concentration. The pH value highly affected the hydrolysis degree of lead ions and dominated the adsorption of lead. The equilibrium isotherms under two different temperatures were simulated using Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin models. Both Langmuir and Temkin models showed a good fit to the data. Combined with the well-fitted pseudo-second-order model, the adsorption mechanism was thought to be a chemisorption process that was enforced by the ion exchange reaction. In addition, the specific crystal structure of CSHW revealed that ion exchange reaction occurred on the (010 and (100 facets due to their preferential growth and negatively charged property. The residual solid phase after adsorption was collected and detected using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Results revealed that PbSO4 was formed on the surface of CSHW. The alkaline condition introduced the tribasic lead sulfate, and thus reduced the stability of the adsorption system.

  19. Biogeochemical oxidation of calcium sulfite hemihydrate to gypsum in flue gas desulfurization byproduct using sulfur-oxidizing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Duane; Smith, Jacques J; Chen, Linxi; Kreinberg, Allison; Wallace, Brianna; White, Robby

    2017-10-01

    Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) is a well-established air treatment technology for coal and oil combustion gases that commonly uses lime or pulverized limestone aqueous slurries to precipitate sulfur dioxide (SO2) as crystalline calcium salts. Under forced oxidation (excess oxygen) conditions, FGD byproduct contains almost entirely (>92%) gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O), a useful and marketable commodity. In contrast, FGD byproduct formed in oxygen deficient oxidation systems contains a high percentage of hannebachite (CaSO3·0.5H2O) to yield a material with no commercial value, poor dewatering characteristics, and that is typically disposed in landfills. Hannebachite in FGD byproduct can be chemically converted to gypsum; however, the conditions that support rapid formation of gypsum require large quantities of acids or oxidizers. This work describes a novel, patent pending application of microbial physiology where a natural consortium of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) was used to convert hannebachite-enriched FGD byproduct into a commercially valuable, gypsum-enriched product (US Patent Assignment 503373611). To optimize the conversion of hannebachite into gypsum, physiological studies on the SOB were performed to define their growth characteristics. The SOB were found to be aerobic, mesophilic, neutrophilic, and dependent on a ready supply of ammonia. They were capable of converting hannebachite to gypsum at a rate of approximately five percent per day when the culture was applied to a 20 percent FGD byproduct slurry and SOB growth medium. 16S rDNA sequencing revealed that the SOB consortium contained a variety of different bacterial genera including both SOB and sulfate-reducing bacteria. Halothiobacillus, Thiovirga and Thiomonas were the dominant sulfur-oxidizing genera. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Possible utilization of flue-gas desulfurization gypsum and fly ash for citrus production: Evaluation of crop growth response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alva, A.K. (Univ. of Florida, Lake Alfred, FL (United States). Citrus Research and Education Center)

    1994-01-01

    The application of industrial by-products to agricultural land has been a topic of considerable interest during recent years. For the industries, this is an attractive avenue to utilize the by-products rather than land filling. Agriculturists/horticulturists are faced with a new challenge to evaluate the potential advantages of this practice in terms of crop growth, production, and quality as well as effects of such practices on environmental quality. Fly ash and flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum are by-products produced from coal-fired electric power generation plants. There is a growing interest in evaluation of potential benefits of land application of coal combustion by products mixed with organic by-products. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of application of FGD gypsum, fly ash or chicken manure,, or application of the former two in combination with the latter, on soil properties as well as on growth and mineral nutrition of Cleopatra mandarin and Swingle citrumelo rootstock seedlings grown on a Myakka sand. The growth of seedlings of either rootstock improved significantly in soils amended with either FGD gypsum, fly ash, or chicken manure, individually or in combination of either by-product with chicken manure. However, the ranking of various amendments in relation to growth response differed between the two rootstocks. The combined application of all three amendments decreased the growth of both rootstock seedlings significantly as compared to that of seedlings in unamended soil. The application of either FGD gypsum, fly ash, or chicken manure each at 2 g/kg soil increased the concentration of Ca, Ca and K, and Ca and P in the leaves of seedlings, respectively.

  1. {sup 18}O{sub 2} label mechanism of sulfur generation and characterization in properties over mesoporous Sm-based sorbents for hot coal gas desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, B.S., E-mail: bingsiliu@tju.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, Tianjin University, and Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering (Tianjin), Tianjin 300072 (China); Wan, Z.Y.; Wang, F.; Zhan, Y.P. [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, Tianjin University, and Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering (Tianjin), Tianjin 300072 (China); Tian, M.; Cheung, A.S.C. [Department of Chemistry, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China)

    2014-02-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Formation of sulfur originated from catalytic action of samarium oxysulfide. • Mechanism of sulfur desorption was first confirmed via time of flight MS. • Utilization of mesoporous Sm-based sorbents was favorable for diffusion of H{sub 2}S. • Stability of Sm-based sorbent correlated with reasonable regeneration procedure. - Abstract: Using a sol–gel method, SmMeO{sub x}/MCM-41 or SBA-15 (Me = Fe, Co and Zn) and corresponding unsupported sorbents were prepared. The desulfurization performance of these sorbents was evaluated over a fixed-bed reactor and the effects of reaction temperature, feed and sorbent composition on desulfurization performance were studied. Samarium-based sorbents used to remove H{sub 2}S from hot coal gas were reported for the first time. The results of successive sulfidation/regeneration cycles revealed that SmFeO{sub 3}/SBA-15 sorbent was suitable for desulfurization of hot coal gas in the chemical industry. The formation of elemental sulfur during both sulfidation and regeneration processes depended strongly on the catalytic action of Sm{sub 2}O{sub 2}S species, which was confirmed for the first time via high sensitive time of flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS) using 6%vol{sup 18}O{sub 2}/Ar regeneration gas and can reduce markedly procedural complexity. The sorbents were characterized using N{sub 2}-adsorption, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), temperature-programmed reduction of H{sub 2} (H{sub 2}-TPR), thermogravimetry (TG) and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) techniques.

  2. [Intermediate experiment and mechanism analysis of flue gas desulfurization technology by circulating fluidized bed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xudong; Wu, Shaohua; Ma, Chunyuan; Qin, Yukun

    2002-03-01

    A new Circulating Fluidized Bed was designed for intermediate experiment of flue gas desulphurization, in which the flue gas flow rate was 3500 m3/h. By using it, the basic experiments were carried out to study the influence of Ca/S and supersaturated temperature on desulphurization efficiency and the effect of the recycling solid particle in the sulfur removal column on desulphurization performance. The results showed when Ca/S = 1.2, the desulphurization efficiency was increased by 15% through the recycle of solid particle; the gas velocity inside the bed could be designed higher. The mechanism analysis were also studied and the method to increase effective resident time was introduced.

  3. Comparative study on the corrosion behavior of the cold rolled and hot rolled low-alloy steels containing copper and antimony in flue gas desulfurization environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S. A.; Kim, J. G.; He, Y. S.; Shin, K. S.; Yoon, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    The correlation between the corrosion and microstructual characteristics of cold rolled and hot rolled low-alloy steels containing copper and antimony was established. The corrosion behavior of the specimens used in flue gas desulfurization systems was examined by electrochemical and weight loss measurements in an aggressive solution of 16.9 vol % H2SO4 + 0.35 vol % HCl at 60°C, pH 0.3. It has been shown that the corrosion rate of hot rolled steel is lower than that of cold rolled steel. The corrosion rate of cold rolled steel was increased by grain refinement, inclusion formation, and preferred grain orientation.

  4. A pilot-scale jet bubbling reactor for wet flue gas desulfurization with pyrolusite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Shi-jun; ZHU Xiao-fan; LIU Yong-jun; JIANG Wen-ju; JIN Yan

    2005-01-01

    MnO2 in pyrolusite can react with SO2 in flue gas and obtain by-product MnSO4· H2 O. A pilot scale jet bubbling reactor was applied in this work. Different factors affecting both SO2 absorption efficiency and Mn2+ extraction rate have been investigated, these factors include temperature of inlet gas flue, ration of liquid/solid mass flow rate(L/S), pyrolusite grade, and SO2 concentration in the inlet flue gas. In the meantime, the procedure of purification of absorption liquid was also discussed. Experiment results indicated that the increase of temperature from 30 to 70 K caused the increase of SO2 absorption efficiency from 81.4% to 91.2%. And when SO2 concentration in the inlet flue gas increased from 500 to 3000 ppm, SO2 absorption efficiency and Mn2+ extraction rate decreased from 98.1% to 82.2% and from 82.8% to 61.7%, respectively. The content of MnO2 in pyrolusite had a neglectable effect on SO2 absorption efficiency. Low L/S was good for both removal of SO2 and Mn2+ extraction. The absorption liquid was filtrated and purified to remove Si,standards.

  5. Theoretical approach for enhanced mass transfer effects in-duct flue gas desulfurization processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jozewicz, W. (Acurex Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). Environmental Systems Div.); Rochelle, G.T. (Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1992-01-29

    Removal of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) from the flue gas of coal- burning power plants can be achieved by duct spray drying using calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH){sub 2}) slurries. A primary objective of this research was to discover the aspects of mass transfer into Ca(OH){sub 2} slurries which limit SO{sub 2} absorption. A bench- scale stirred tank reactor with a flat gas/liquid interface was used to simulate SO{sub 2} absorption in a slurry droplet. The absorption rate of SO{sub 2} from gas concentrations of 500 to 5000 ppm was measured at 55{degrees}C in clear solutions and slurries of Ca(OH){sub 2} up to 1.0 M (7 wt percent). Results are reported in terms of the enhancement factor, {O}. This research will allow prediction of conditions where the absorption of SO{sub 2} in Ca(OH){sub 2} slurries can be enhanced by changes to liquid phase constituents (under which SO{sub 2} absorption is controlled by liquid film mass transfer). Experiments in the stirred tank have shown that SO{sub 2} absorption in a 1.0 M Ca(OH){sub 2} slurry was completely dominated by gas film mass transfer with a large excess of Ca(OH){sub 2} but becomes controlled by liquid film resistance at greater than 50 percent Ca(OH){sub 2} utilization. (VC)

  6. U-GAS coal gasification process with in-situ desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehmat, A.; Abbasian, J.; Lau, F.

    1990-01-01

    Calcium based sorbents such as limestone and dolomite have been used in conjunction with the U-GAS coal gasification process for in-situ capture of sulfur present in the coal. Under the reducing conditions of the gasifier, these sorbents react with sulfur compounds to form calcium sulfide. As a unique feature of the U-GAS process, the calcium sulfide could be further reacted with air in the ash discharge zone to form calcium sulfate, which is environmentally acceptable for disposal directly from the gasifier along with the agglomerated ash. The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) has conducted considerable testing in this area under different programs. The suitability of dolomite as in-situ sulfur capturing agent has been verified in U-GAS process using high-sulfur Pittsburgh coal. The gasification tests were conducted at 1850{degree}F in pressure ranges of 100 to 450 psig. The kinetics of the reaction between calcium based sorbents and hydrogen sulfide at these gasification conditions have been derived separately using a thermogravimetric technique. Effect of temperature, pressure, and particle size on the reaction rate were also included in these latter tests. Furthermore, the operating conditions and the type of sorbents suitable for achieving maximum calcium conversion to calcium sulfate during the oxidation step of the process have also been identified. 9 refs., 8 figs., 10 tabs.

  7. Operation of blast furnace gas (BFG) gas holder with ld gas (LDG); Operacao do gasometro de gas de alto forno com gas de aciaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampaio, William Genelhu; Valentino, Waldir Smith [Usinas Siderurgicas de Minas Gerais S/A (USIMINAS), Ipatinga, MG (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The Intendente Camara plant, one of USIMINAS steel works, located in Ipatinga - MG, operates its network of process gases with two Coke-Oven Gas (COG) oil-seal gas holders, one Blast Furnace Gas (BFG) oil-seal gas holder and a LD gas (LDG) telescope type gas holder. During the repair of LDG gas holder, this gas would be completely burned in the flares for a period of five months. Due to this loss, the cost of additional fuel and interventions in the production rhythm of the Hot Strip Mill, its biggest consumer, would be high. This paper presents the philosophy and pillars that mitigated these losses, highlighting how it was possible to operate the BFG gas holder with LDG, the achieved economy and lessons learned from the process. (author)

  8. Numerical Modeling of Reactive Multiphase Flow for FCC and Hot Gas Desulfurization Circulating Fluidized Beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Aubrey L. [WSU Research Corporation, Morgantown, WV (USA)

    2005-07-01

    This work was carried out to understand the behavior of the solid and gas phases in a CFB riser. Only the riser is modeled as a straight pipe. A model with linear algebraic approximation to solids viscosity of the form, {musubs} = 5.34{epsisubs}, ({espisubs} is the solids volume fraction) with an appropriate boundary condition at the wall obtained by approximate momentum balance solution at the wall to acount for the solids recirculation is tested against experimental results. The work done was to predict the flow patterns in the CFB risers from available experimental data, including data from a 7.5-cm-ID CFB riser at the Illinois Institute of Technology and data from a 20.0-cm-ID CFB riser at the Particulate Solid Research, Inc., facility. This research aims at modeling the removal of hydrogen sulfide from hot coal gas using zinc oxide as the sorbent in a circulating fluidized bed and in the process indentifying the parameters that affect the performance of the sulfidation reactor. Two different gas-solid reaction models, the unreacted shrinking core (USC) and the grain model were applied to take into account chemical reaction resistances. Also two different approaches were used to affect the hydrodynamics of the process streams. The first model takes into account the effect of micro-scale particle clustering by adjusting the gas-particle drag law and the second one assumes a turbulent core with pseudo-steady state boundary condition at the wall. A comparison is made with experimental results.

  9. 烟气同时脱硫脱硝工艺的研究进展%Research Process in Simultaneous Desulfurization and Denitrification of Flue Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立坤

    2014-01-01

    煤的燃烧会释放大量的 SO2和 NOx,它们是导致酸雨和光化学烟雾等污染现象的主要污染物。燃煤电厂是我国煤消耗的主要场所,因此,控制硫、氮的排放应从燃煤电厂烟气脱硫脱硝的研究开始。对目前存在的几种烟气同时脱硫脱硝工艺进行了简要概述,主要包括等离子体法、氧化法、吸收及吸附法三类,并为脱硫脱硝工艺未来的发展提出了几点建议,以期为相关研究提供参考。%SO2 and NOx , products of the coal combustion, are the main wastes which lead to acid rain and photo-chemical smog. Coal-fired power plants are the principal places of China's coal consumption, therefore, study on desulfurization and denitrification of coal-fired power plant flue gas is the key to control sulfur and nitrogen emission. In this paper, several simultaneous denitrification and desulfurization processes of flue gas were introduced, such as plasma method, oxidation method, and adsorption method. Finally, some suggestions on the future development of simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification process were put forward in order to provide reference for the related researches.

  10. Engineering Design of Flue Gas Desulfurization in Thermal Power Plant%火电厂烟气脱硫工程设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴锦宝

    2012-01-01

    在石灰石/石膏湿法脱硫工程实际应用中,影响脱硫效率的因素很多,主要问题包括结垢堵塞、设备和管道的腐蚀等正确处理这些问题是保证烟气脱硫(FGD)系统长期稳定可靠运行的关键。相应的技术措施需综合考虑技术上的可行性和经济上的合理性等诸多因素,设计、设备选型、营运等各个阶段各个因素之间互相影响。如何优化设方案,降低投资和运行检修费用,需要综合加以考虑。提出的方案是根据已运行项目的工程实际结果得出的结论,具有一定的实用和参考价值。%In practical application of limestone/gypsum wet flue gas desulfurization project, there are many influencing factors affecting desulfurization efficiency including scaling and clogging, equipment and pipeline corrosion and so on. properly treatments to these problems are key points to ensure years of stable and reliable run of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system. The appropriate technical measures should take technical feasibility and economic ration',dity into account. Design, equipment selection, operation stages and other factors are interactional, so it should take all factors into consideration to optimize design, reduce investment and operation and maintenance cost. The scheme proposed in this paper is based on the conclusion draw from running project, and it has certain practical and referential value.

  11. Experimental study on performance of flow & desulfurisation of a gas-liquid screen scrubber for wet flue gas desulfurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In the paper, the gas-liquid two-phase flow performance and desulfurisation performance of the gasliquid screen scrubber were experimentally studied when limestone wag used as absorbent. Experiments were carried out at varying the flue gas velocity and slurry flux in concurrent and countercurrent tower respectively. The experimental results showed that the flow resistance of absorber increased rapidly with an increase of the flue gas velocity whether in concurrent or in countercurrent tower, and the up trend of the flow resistance in the countercurrent tower was higher than those in the concurrent one. The influence of the flue gas velocity on the flow resistance of absorber was more than those of the slurry flux density. Whether in the concurrent tower or in the countercurrent one, increasing the flue gas velocity or the slurry flux density would enhance the desulphurization efficiency. The influence of the slurry flux density on the desulfurisation efficiency was greater than those of the flue gas velocity.

  12. Study on method and mechanism for simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification of flue gas based on the TiO2 photocatalysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Based on the TiO2 photocatalysis mechanism, a new method of simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification from flue gas was proposed. Preparation of TiO2 photocatalyst, design of photocatalysis reactor and influencing factors for simul- taneous removal of SO2 and NO, and removal mechanism of SO2 and NO were studied. After the optimal values of concentration of O2 in flue gas, the relative humidity of flue gas and the irradiation time in the photocatalysis reactor were used, the efficiencies of removal for SO2 and NO can be achieved above 98% and about 67%, respectively. According to the results of removal products analysis, the re- moval mechanism of SO2 and NO based on TiO2 photocatlysis can be put forward, namely, SO2 was oxidized to SO3 partly, the bulk of NO was oxidized to NO2, and both were removed by resorbing finally.

  13. KINETICS OF Mn-BASED SORBENTS FOR HOT COAL GAS DESULFURIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.J. BERNS; K.A. SADECKI; M.T. HEPWORTH

    1997-09-15

    Mixed manganese oxide sorbents have been investigated for high-temperature removal of hydrogen sulfide (the primary sulfur bearing compound) from hot coal gases. The sorbents were screened by thermodynamic equilibrium considerations for sulfidation. Preliminary experimental work using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) indicated titania to be a superior substrate than alumina. Four formulations showing superior reactivity in a TGA were then tested in an ambient pressure fixed-bed reactor to determine steady state H 2 S concentrations, breakthrough times and effectiveness of the sorbent when subjected to cyclic sulfidation and regeneration testing. Eight tests were conducted with each test consisting of five cycles of sulfidation and regeneration. Sulfidation occurred at 600 o C using a simulated coal gas at an empty-bed space velocity of approximately 12,000 per hour. Manganese-based sorbents with molar ratios > 1:1 Mn:Substrate were effective in reducing the H 2 S concentration in simulated coal gases to less than 100 ppmv over five cycles. Actual breakthrough time for formulation C6-2-1100 was as high as 73% of breakthrough time based on wt% Mn in sorbent at 600 o C. Regeneration tests determined that loaded pellets can be essentially completely regenerated in an air/steam mixture at 750 o C with minimal sulfate formation. The leading formulation (designated C6-2) from the fixed-bed tests was then further tested under varying sorbent induration temperature, sulfidation temperature and superficial gas velocity. Four tests were conducted with each test consisting of four cycles of sulfidation and regeneration. Results showed that the induration temperature of the sorbent and the reaction temperature greatly affected the H 2 S removal capacity of the sorbent while the superficial gas velocity between 1090 and 1635 cm/min had minimal affect on the sorbent's breakthrough capacity. Testing showed that the sorbent's strength was a strong function of the sorbent

  14. A high capacity manganese-based sorbent for regenerative high temperature desulfurization with direct sulfur production conceptual process application to coal gas cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakker, W.J.W.; Kapteijn, F.; Moulijn, J.A. [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)

    2003-12-15

    A high capacity, monolith or particle shaped, regenerable sorbent has been developed for the desulfurization of a dry type coal gas. It consists of crystalline MnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, a small amount of disperse MnO, and an amorphous Mn-Al-O phase. Elemental sulfur is the only observed regeneration product during regeneration with SO{sub 2}. The sorbent can be used in the temperature range between 673 and 1273 K but the optimum capacity is utilized between 1100 and 1200 K. For regeneration with SO{sub 2} the regeneration temperature should be > 873 K to avoid sulfate formation. The sulfur uptake capacity is high and amounts up to 20 wt.% S and the sorbent performance appears to be stable during at least 110 sulfiding and regeneration cycles at 1123 K. For temperatures above 1100 K thermodynamic calculations are in accordance with the observed (solid) phases after sulfiding and regeneration, indicating the predictive potential for high temperatures. The performance of the surface sites that play an important role during desulfurization can, however, not be predicted. The regenerative removal of H{sub 2}S, COS, HCl and HF can possibly take place simultaneously with the same sorbent. A new conceptual process configuration for high temperature coal gas cleaning and sorbent regeneration is proposed. Compared to other processes, less heat exchange equipment is required and no Claus unit is necessary to convert the regeneration product to sulfur.

  15. Effects of temperature conditions in a gas collector on operation of primary and secondary gas coolers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuishchev, V.M.; Selivanova, Z.G.; Vasyuta, V.I.

    1988-04-01

    Discusses composition of coal gas leaving coke ovens and temperature effects on its composition in a gas collector and cooling systems. Effects of coal gas temperature ranging from 78 to 90 C on operation of cooling systems are analyzed: cooling intensity, naphthalene buildup, etc. Analyses show that coal gas temperature fluctuations from 80 to 90 C do not influence gas collector operation, whereas operation of primary gas coolers is influenced by gas collector operation. When coal gas temperature is reduced from 88 to 80 C intensity of coal tar accumulation increases 2 times and that of naphthalene increases 5 to 6 times. Temperature of coal gas leaving the primary coolers ranges from 35 to 40 C. Types of primary coal gas coolers, their operation and performance are comparatively evaluated. Effects of gas cooler design on efficiency of coal tar separation from coal gas are discussed. 5 refs.

  16. Developments of advanced hot-gas desulfurization sorbents. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jothimurugesan, K.; Adeyiga, A.A.; Gangwal, S.K.

    1995-07-01

    The objectives of this project are to develop hot-gas cleanup sorbents for relatively lower temperature application, with emphasis on the temperature range from 343-538{degrees}C. The candidate sorbents include highly dispersed mixed metal oxides of zinc, iron, copper, cobalt and molybdenum. The specific objective in the successful preparation of H{sub 2}S absorbents will be to generate as high and as stable a surface area as possible, in order to develop suitable sorbent, that are sufficiently reactive and regenerable at the relatively lower temperatures of interest in this work. A number of formulations will be prepared and screened for testing in a 1/2-inch fixed bed reactor at high pressure (1 to 20 atm) and high temperatures using simulated coal-derived fuel-gases. Screening criteria will include, chemical reactivity, stability, and regenerability over the temperature range of 343{degrees}C (650{degrees}F) to 538{degrees}C (1000{degrees}F). Each formulation will be tested for up to 5 cycles of absorption and regeneration. To prevent sulfation, catalyst additives will be investigated, which would promote a lower ignition of the regeneration. Selected superior formulation will be tested for long term (up to least 30 cycles) durability and chemical reactivity in the reactor.

  17. Utilization of the gypsum from a wet limestone flue gas desulfurization process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, I.-Ming; Patel, V.; Lytle, J.M.; Chou, S.J.; Carty, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    The authors have been developing a process which converts FGD-gypsum to ammonium sulfate fertilizer with precipitated calcium carbonate as a by-product during the conversion. Preliminary cost estimates suggest that the process is economically feasible when ammonium sulfate crystals are produced in a granular size (1.2 to 3.3 mm), instead of a powder form. However, if additional revenue from the sale of the PCC for higher-value commercial application is applicable, this could further improve the economics of the process. Ammonium sulfate is known to be an excellent source of nitrogen and sulfur in fertilizer for corn and wheat production. It was not known what impurities might co-exist in ammonium sulfate derived from scrubber gypsum. Before the product could be recommended for use on farm land, the impurities and their impact on soil productivity had to be assessed. The objectives of this phase of the study were to evaluate the chemical properties of ammonium sulfate made from the FGD-gypsum, to estimate its effects on soil productivity, and to survey the marketability of the two products. The results of this phase of the study indicated that the impurities in the ammonium sulfate produced would not impose any practical limitations on its use at application levels used by farmers. The market survey showed that the sale price of solid ammonium sulfate fertilizer increased significantly from 1974 at $110/ton to 1998 at $187/ton. Utilities currently pay $16 to $20/ton for the calcium carbonate they use in their flue gas scrubber system. The industries making animal-feed grade calcium supplement pay $30/ton to $67/m-ton for their source of calcium carbonate. Paper, paint, and plastic industries pay as much as $200 to $300/ton for their calcium carbonate filers. The increased sale price of solid ammonium sulfate fertilizer and the possible additional revenue from the sale of the PCC by-product could further improve the economics of producing ammonium sulfate from FGD-gypsum.

  18. 包钢焦炉煤气加压站变频器干扰及对策%Inverter Interference and Its Countermeasures of Baotou Steel's Coke Oven Gas Compressor Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高铁军

    2014-01-01

    变频器在工业生产中的应用越来越广泛,尤其在燃气厂煤气加压系统中起着较为重要的作用,但是其干扰问题日益引起人们的重视,在变频器受到干扰时造成风机停运,影响生产.通过研究变频器在应用中干扰产生的来源及其传播的途径,提出了抗干扰的实际解决方法,有效的解决了8#、9#焦炉煤气加压站的变频器干扰问题,保证了生产稳定运行.

  19. 橄榄石对高温焦炉煤气中焦油组分的催化裂解%CATALYTIC CRACKING OF TAR COMPONENT IN HOT COKE OVEN GAS OVER NATURAL OLIVINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卜宪昵; 岳宝华; 戴智铭; 方建慧; 丁伟中

    2008-01-01

    以甲苯为高温焦炉煤气中焦油组分的模型化合物,在固定床反应器中对不同产地镁橄榄石的焦油催化裂解活性进行了评价,结果表明:在温度为800 C,水碳(S/C)比为1.5,空速(space velocity)为9 053 h-1的操作条件下,来自湖北宜昌的镁橄榄石(HY olivine)几乎能将甲苯完全转化为富氢气体,而来自陕西商南的镁橄榄石(SN olivine)和河南西峡的镁橄榄石(HX olivine)的催化裂解活性较差.ICP-AES,BET,SEM,XRD和TPR等分析表明,天然橄榄石催化剂表面上的活性组分Fe数量越多,其对甲苯的催化裂解活性越高;此外,采用HY olivine为催化剂,测试了空速对甲苯催化重整效果的影响,结果表明,随着空速增大,HY olivine对甲苯的转化率逐渐降低.

  20. The application of membrane separation technology in hydrogen recovery of coke- oven gas%膜分离技术在焦炉气H2回收中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐徜徉; 李同义; 赵勇; 蒋国良

    2004-01-01

    用膜分离技术开发了一个新的应用过程--从焦炉气中回收氢气.阐述了其工作原理及工艺流程特点,并与传统的焦炉气氢回收方法比较,以实例说明了膜法焦炉气氢回收的运行经济性和实用性.

  1. 水蒸汽对焦炉气火焰燃烧速度及NO生成特性影响研究%Effect of H2O on the Flame Speed and NO Formation Characteristics of Coke Oven Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘自涛

    2013-01-01

    以山西华鑫肥业有限公司富氧空气转化炉为研究对象,大型化学动力学软件CHEMKIN为计算平台,采用包含53种组分、325个基元反应的甲烷燃烧详细反应机理(GRI-Mech 3.0),研究了水蒸汽对富氧空气转化炉烧嘴火焰燃烧速度及NO生成特性的影响.计算结果表明:H2O对燃烧速度的影响主要是通过解离出的H自由基参与燃烧反应引起的;H2O含量的提高可以有效抑制NO生成速率.

  2. 直燃式焦炉煤气发电技术的研究与应用%Research and Application of Generating Electricity Technique by Burning Coke Oven Gas Directly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈克强

    2001-01-01

    为充分利用剩余煤气,兖州焦化厂研制开发了直燃式煤气发电技术,将放散煤气送入机组发电,既充分利用了能源、保护了环境,又创造了良好的经济和社会效益.

  3. Gas-liquid absorption reaction between (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 3} solution and SO{sub 2} for ammonia-based wet flue gas desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Xiang; Ding, Honglei; Du, Zhen; Fang, Mengxiang; Luo, Zhongyang; Cen, Kefa [State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Wu, Zuliang [Department of Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310035 (China)

    2010-08-15

    In order to investigate the characteristics of the reaction between ammonium sulfite, the main desulfurizing solution, and the flue-gas-contained sulfur dioxide during the process of ammonia-based WFGD (wet flue gas desulfurization) in a power plant, the gas-liquid absorption reaction between sulfur dioxide and an ammonium sulfite solution was studied in a stirred tank reactor. The experimental results indicate that the absorption of sulfur dioxide is controlled by both the gas- and liquid-films when the ammonium sulfite concentration is lower than 0.05 mol/L, and mainly by the gas-film at higher concentrations. In the latter case, the reaction rates are found to be zero-order with respect to the concentration of ammonium sulfite. The absorption rates of sulfur dioxide increase as the concentration of sulfur dioxide in inlet gas and the temperature increase. The reaction rate is of 0.6th-order with respect to the concentration of sulfur dioxide. (author)

  4. Advances in Research of Decarbonization and Desulfurization for Natural Gas%天然气脱硫脱碳方法的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈颖; 杨鹤; 梁宏宝; 张静伟

    2011-01-01

    综述了甲基二乙醇胺(MDEA)法、砜胺法、LO-CAT法及CT8-5法等天然气脱硫脱碳方法的应用状况,对脱硫脱碳方法的适用范围、溶剂的变质过程、脱除效果进行了比较和分析,并展望了天然气脱硫脱碳方法未来的发展方向.通过对比分析得出,当原料气压力较高且硫含量高时,适宜采用LO-CAT法处理;若原料气中硫含量低时,应采用砜胺Ⅲ法;当原料气压力较低时,采用MDEA法和CT8-5法均适宜,但使用CT8-5法时溶剂更稳定,不易变质.若需要从原料气中选择性脱除H2S和有机硫、可适当保留CO2的工况,应选用砜胺Ⅲ法.%Advances in research of desulfurization and decarbonisation of natural gas through methyldiethanolamine(MDEA) method, sulfone amine method, LO-CAT method and CT8-5 method are summarized. Effects of the feed gas and the solvent deterioration on the desulfurization and decarbonisation are analysed. The prospects of the natural gas purification techniques are discussed. When the feed gas pressure is relatively high, LO-CAT method is suitable for treating high sulfur gas, whereas sulfone amine ffl method is more suitable for treating low sulfur gas. When the feed gas is at lower pressure, both MDEA method and CT8-5 method are usable, but the solvent of CT8-5 method is non-perishable. When you need remove H2S and organic sulfur from natural gas selectively, sulfone amine HI method is the best choice.

  5. 湿法烟气脱硫系统 GGH 堵塞的原因分析及对策%Cause and Countermeasure of GGH Blockage in Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张磊

    2016-01-01

    The easily occurred problem of blockage of GGH ( rotary gas gas for heat exchanger) in wet flue gas desulfuriza-tion ( FGD) system during operation is introduced, and the reasons are analyzed and countermeasures are put forward to ef-fectively overcome the problems of the GGH blockage.The solution has some reference to similar power plant flue gas desul-furization system process.%介绍了湿法烟气脱硫( FGD)系统GGH(回转式气-气换热器)运行中易出现的堵塞等问题,并对其产生的原因进行了分析,提出了有效防止GGH堵塞的对策,对同类型电厂烟气脱硫系统工艺有一定的借鉴作用。

  6. Waste gas treatment technology at steelmaking plants. Seitetsu setsubi ni okeru hai gas shori gijutsu ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, M.; Shimizu, K.; Deshimaru, K.; Watari, S. (Nihon Univ., Narashino, Chiba (Japan). Coll. of Industrial Technology)

    1992-11-30

    A variety of furnaces are employed for steelmaking. The waste gases from these furnaces are used as fuel gases or flared to the atmosphere. For the enhancement of energy efficiency at these plants and the improvement of environment, it is essential to remove the impurities contained in the waste gases, such as soot, dust, NOx and SOx with high efficiency at the lowest possible cost. In coke oven and sintering furnace, soot and dust consisting of sulphuric element, cyanogenic element and fume of alkali metals as main constituents are the subject of treatment, because these elements were contained in the raw materials. And, in blast furnace and LD converter, soot and dust are the subject of treatment because the materials have already been treated under high-temperature and the waste gases contain little chemical impurities consequently. On the other hand, in various combustion furnaces, purified by-product gases, such as the above mentioned BFG (blast furnace gas), LDG (LD converter gas) and COG (coke oven gas), etc., are used frequently and NOx generated by the high-temperature combustion is often the subject of treatment. In this report, the waste gas treatment technology developed by Nippon Steel Corporation for these various furnaces was described. 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Review on desulfurization and denitration technologies for ship exhaust gas treatment%船舶尾气脱硫脱硝技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张欢; 钟鹭斌; 陈进生; 郑煜铭

    2016-01-01

    NOx and SOx,which account for high proportions in the exhaust gas of ocean ships burning low quality heavy oil,result in threats to the marine ecological environment and the health of residents in the coastal area. In this paper,various types of post-treatment technologies for purification of marine exhaust were introduced,and their main advantages and disadvantages were analyzed. The techniques of desulfurization,denitration,and desulfurization-denitration integrated technology for the control of ship exhaust gas pollutants emission,were reviewed. It is concluded that,in practice,the current post-treatment technologies which can only treat a single pollutant was not suitable for effective marine exhaust emission reduction,while the desulfurization-denitration integrated technology would be the main direction which can achieve the comprehensive treatment of ship exhaust gas currently. The future direction of marine exhaust post-treatment technology development is still being explored. There are two main bottlenecks of the desulfurization-denitration integrated technology. First,although low temperature plasma and photocatalysis which were developed in recent years show great potentials,thehigh cost and security concerns still hinder their applications in ships. On the other hand,sea water modification method which shows high treatment efficiency,small foot print and lower cost,may become one of the most promising methods in the effective treatment of ship exhaust gas in the future.%远洋船舶燃烧低品质重油所释放的尾气中,NOx与SOx等有害成分比例高,严重威胁海洋的生态环境和沿海居民健康。本文介绍了现有国内外船舶尾气后处理技术的分类、原理及优缺点,综述了船舶尾气脱硫、脱硝和脱硫脱硝一体化处理技术的研究进展,认为现有的大部分船舶尾气后处理技术去除污染物成分单一,不能高效地实现船舶尾气污染物的减排,研究脱

  8. A novel approach to realize SANI process in freshwater sewage treatment--Use of wet flue gas desulfurization waste streams as sulfur source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Feng; Zhang, Liang; Peng, Guo-Liang; Liang, Si-Yun; Qian, Jin; Wei, Li; Chen, Guang-Hao

    2013-10-01

    SANI (Sulfate reduction, Autotrophic denitrification and Nitrification Integrated) process has been approved to be a sludge-minimized sewage treatment process in warm and coastal cities with seawater supply. In order to apply this sulfur-based process in inland cold areas, wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) can be simplified and integrated with SANI process, to provide sulfite as electron carrier for sulfur cycle in sewage treatment. In this study, a lab-scale system of the proposed novel process was developed and run for over 200 days while temperature varied between 30 and 5 °C, fed with synthetic FGD wastewaters and sewage. The sulfite-reducing upflow anaerobic sludge bed (SrUASB) reactor, as the major bioreactor of the system, removed 86.9% of organics while the whole system removed 94% of organics even when water temperature decreased to around 10 °C. The bactericidal effect of sulfite was not observed in the SrUASB reactor, while thiosulfate was found accumulated under psychrophilic conditions. The sludge yield of the SrUASB reactor was determined to be 0.095 kg VSS/kg COD, higher than of sulfate reduction process but still much lower than of conventional activated sludge processes. The dominant microbes in the SrUASB reactor were determined as Lactococcus spp. rather than sulfate-reducing bacteria, but sulfite reduction still contributed 85.5% to the organic carbon mineralization in this reactor. Ammonia and nitrate were effectively removed in the aerobic and anoxic filters, respectively. This study confirms the proposed process was promising to achieve sludge-minimized sewage treatment integrating with flue gas desulfurization in inland and cold areas. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Surface coal mine land reclamation using a dry flue gas desulfurization product: Short-term and long-term water responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liming; Stehouwer, Richard; Tong, Xiaogang; Kost, Dave; Bigham, Jerry M; Dick, Warren A

    2015-09-01

    Abandoned coal-mined lands are a worldwide concern due to their potential negative environmental impacts, including erosion and development of acid mine drainage. A field study investigated the use of a dry flue gas desulfurization product for reclamation of abandoned coal mined land in USA. Treatments included flue gas desulfurization product at a rate of 280 Mg ha(-1) (FGD), FGD at the same rate plus 112 Mg ha(-1) yard waste compost (FGD/C), and conventional reclamation that included 20 cm of re-soil material plus 157 Mg ha(-1) of agricultural limestone (SOIL). A grass-legume sward was planted after treatment applications. Chemical properties of surface runoff and tile water (collected from a depth of 1.2m below the ground surface) were measured over both short-term (1-4 yr) and long-term (14-20 yr) periods following reclamation. The pH of surface runoff water was increased from approximately 3, and then sustained at 7 or higher by all treatments for up to 20 yr, and the pH of tile flow water was also increased and sustained above 5 for 20 yr. Compared with SOIL, concentrations of Ca, S and B in surface runoff and tile flow water were generally increased by the treatments with FGD product in both short- and long-term measurements and concentrations of the trace elements were generally not statistically increased in surface runoff and tile flow water over the 20-yr period. However, concentrations of As, Ba, Cr and Hg were occasionally elevated. These results suggest the use of FGD product for remediating acidic surface coal mined sites can provide effective, long-term reclamation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Enhanced Hg{sup 2+} removal and Hg{sup 0} re-emission control from wet fuel gas desulfurization liquors with additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tingmei Tang; Jiang Xu; Rongjie Lu; Jingjing Wo; Xinhua Xu [Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China). Department of Environmental Engineering

    2010-12-15

    Secondary atmospheric pollutions may result from wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems caused by the reduction of Hg{sup 2+} to Hg{sup 0}. The present study employed three agents: Na{sub 2}S, 2,4,6-trimercaptotiazine, trisodium salt nonahydrate (TMT) and sodium dithiocarbamate (DTCR) to precipitate aqueous Hg{sup 2+} in simulated desulfurization solutions. The effects of the precipitator's dosing quantity, the initial pH value, the reaction temperature, the concentrations of Cl{sup -} and other metal ions (e.g. Cu{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+}) on Hg{sup 2+} removal were studied. A linear relationship was observed between Hg{sup 2+} removal efficiency and the increasing precipitator's doses along with initial pH. The addition of chloride and metal ions impaired the Hg{sup 2+} removal from solutions due to the complexation of Cl{sup -} and Hg{sup 2+} as well as the chelating competition between Hg{sup 2+} and other metal ions. Based on a comprehensive comparison of the treatment effects, DTCR was found to be the most effective precipitating agent. Moreover, all the precipitating agents were potent enough to inhibit Hg{sup 2+} reduction as well as Hg{sup 0} re-emission from FGD liquors. More than 90% Hg{sup 2+} was captured by precipitating agents while Hg{sup 2+} reduction efficiency decreased from 54% to just less than 3%. The additives could efficiently control the secondary Hg{sup 0} pollution from FGD liquors. 21 refs., 6 figs.

  11. 焦化厂工人ERCC6基因多态性和外周血淋巴细胞DNA损伤的关联%Association of ERCC6 gene polymorphisms and DNA damage in lymphocytes among coke oven workers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何越峰; 王芳; 杨晓波; 白云; 杨艳; 王静

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between ERCC6 gene polymorphisms and peripheral blood lymphocyte DNA damage among the workers in coking plant.Methods By cluster sampling,379 coke oven workers having worked for 8 hours were included in the exposure group,398 coke oven workers having rested for more than 16 hours were included in the recovery group,and 398 workers having never been exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the same plant were included in the control group.Lymphocytes were separated from their peripheral venous blood,and single cell gel electrophoresis was used to evaluate DNA damage; TaqMan-MGB probes were used to analyze ERCC6 gene polymorphisms.PHASE 2.0.2 genetic analysis software was used to calculate the haplotypes.Results The Olive tail moment (OTM) of lymphocytes in the exposure group was significantly higher than those in the recovery group and control group (-0.86±0.70 vs-1.14±0.68 and-1.13±0.65,P<0.05).In the exposure group,for workers ≥37 years old,the OTM of lymphocytes in workers carrying CG+GG genotype at rs3793784 locus of ERCC6 gene was significantly lower than that in workers carrying CC genotype (P<0.05); the OTM oflymphocytes in workers <37 years old carrying CC genotype at rs3793784 locus of ERCC6 gene was significantly lower than that in workers ≥ 37 years old carrying CC genotype (P<0.05); the OTM of lymphocytes in workers <37 years old carrying CG+GG genotype at rs3793784 locus of ERCC6 gene was significantly higher than that in workers ≥37 years old carrying CG+GG genotype (P<0.05).For patients with internal exposure,in the 1-hydroxypyrene >4.36 μmol/L group,the OTM of lymphocytes in workers carrying AG+GG genotype was significantly higher than that in workers carrying AA genotype (P<0.05).Conclusion Different genotypes of ERCC6 gene rs3793784 in peripheral blood lymphocytes of coke oven workers exposed to PAHs have different functions at different ages,suggesting that genotype

  12. Research Progress of Simultaneous Desulfurization and Denitrification Technologies of Flue Gas%燃煤烟气联合脱硫脱硝技术的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高续春; 代宏哲; 马亚军

    2015-01-01

    燃煤尾气进行脱硫脱硝处理是一种有效地控制大气污染的方法。联合脱硫脱硝技术因其具有明显的经济性而成为当前环保领域的研究热点。主要综述了相关的联合脱硫脱硝技术的研究进展,着重介绍了固体吸附催化法、等离子体法和化学湿法,简要说明了各种技术的特点。并对联合脱硫脱硝技术的发展进行了展望。%Desulfurization and denitrification technology of flue gas is an effective method to control tmospheric pollution. Simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification technology has become a research hotspot in environmental protection area because of its economy. In this paper, research progress of simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification technologies was reviewed.And solid adsorption catalytic method, PPCP and chemical wet method were introduced emphatically. Characteristics of various technologies were discussed. At last, development trend of simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification technologies was prospected.

  13. Process for removing harmful material after wet quenching in coke oven quenching towers with simultaneous water treatment. Verfahren zur Schadstoffbeseitigung hinter der Nassloeschung in Kokerei-Loeschtuermen bei gleichzeitiger Wasseraufbereitung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoelter, H.; Igelbuescher, H.; Gresch, H.; Dewert, H.

    1987-05-27

    In the main patent application P 3538138.8, a process for removing emission from a coke quenching tower is described, where the quenching hood is situated behind the actual quenching tower and the quantities of gas are sprayed with liquids washing out the SO/sub 2/ via condensor arrangements with heat exchangers, where the amounts of gas are restricted to a minimum by condensation and the quantity of gas in clouds of gas is then taken to a dust extractor. In order to improve the process of the main application further, this invention proposes that a dry chemi-sorption technique should be applied after the quenching tower, which is equipped with masses absorbing chemicals and simultaneously absorbing humidity. The chemi-sorption masses taken to the chemi-sorption filter consist of a core material, which is reinforced with means of absorption binding acids to absorb gaseous harmful substances like SO/sub 2/ H/sub 2/S, CN and which also causes the conversion of substances loaded with NO/sub x/.

  14. Microbial reduction of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} as a means of by-product recovery/disposal from regenerable processes for the desulfurization of flue gas. Technical progress report, December 11, 1992--March 11, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sublette, K.L.

    1993-12-31

    This report describes the potential of sulfate reducing bacteria to fix sulfur derived from flue gas desulfurization. The first section reviews the problem, the second section reviews progress of this study to use desulfovibrio desulfuricans for this purpose. The final section related progress during the current reporting period. This latter section describes studies to immobilize the bacteria in co-culture with floc-forming anaerobes, use of sewage sludges in the culture media, and sulfate production from sulfur dioxide.

  15. Microbial reduction of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} as a means of by-product recovery/disposal from regenerable processes for the desulfurization of flue gas. Technical progress report, March 11, 1993--June 11, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sublette, K.L.

    1993-11-01

    There are two basic approaches to addressing the problem of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions: (1) desulfurize (and denitrogenate) the feedstock prior to or during combustion; or (2) scrub the resultant SO{sub 2} and oxides of nitrogen from the boiler flue gases. The flue gas processing alternative has been addressed in this project via microbial reduction of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} by sulfate-reducing bacteria

  16. Enriching blast furnace gas by removing carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chongmin; Sun, Zhimin; Chen, Shuwen; Wang, Baohai

    2013-12-01

    Blast furnace gas (BF gas) produced in the iron making process is an essential energy resource for a steel making work. As compared with coke oven gas, the caloric value of BF gas is too low to be used alone as fuel in hot stove because of its high concentrations of carbon dioxide and nitrogen. If the carbon dioxide in BF gas could be captured efficiently, it would meet the increasing need of high caloric BF gas, and develop methods to reusing and/or recycling the separated carbon dioxide further. Focused on this, investigations were done with simple evaluation on possible methods of removing carbon dioxide from BF gas and basic experiments on carbon dioxide capture by chemical absorption. The experimental results showed that in 100 minutes, the maximum absorbed doses of carbon dioxide reached 20 g/100 g with ionic liquid as absorbent.

  17. A biomass-supported Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} sorbent for flue gas desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shang, H.; Ouyang, T.; Yang, F.; Kou, Y. [Peking University, Beijing (China). College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering

    2003-06-01

    A novel sorbent for SO{sub 2} removal has been investigated. The sorbent is obtained by conventional incipient wetness impregnation of abandoned biomaterials (straw or dried leaves) with an aqueous solution of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. A material with the composition 80 wt% Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}/straw shows a desulfurization activity which is both higher and faster than that of the reference sample Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}/{gamma}-Al{sub 3}O{sub 3}. The breakthrough and stoichiometric SO{sub 2} adsorption efficiencies for 80 wt% Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}/straw reach 48.9% and 80.6%, respectively, at a temperature of 80{sup o}C. The adsorption efficiencies are almost constant in the temperature range 70 to 300{sup o}C. According to IR and XPS analysis the main products observed on the spent sorbent are sulfite below 150{sup o}C and sulfate at 300{sup o}C. The Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} in 80 wt% Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}/straw can potentially be recycled by the oxidation of the straw with concomitant reduction of the sulfite species to elemental sulfur, making the proposed process CO{sub 2} neutral. 22 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Reclamation of acid, toxic coal spoils using wet flue gas desulfurization by-product, fly ash and sewage sludge. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kost, D.A.; Vimmerstedt, J.P.; Stehouwer, R.C.

    1997-03-01

    Establishment of vegetation on acid abandoned minelands requires modification of soil physical and chemical conditions. Covering the acid minesoil with topsoil or borrow soil is a common practice but this method may be restricted by availability of borrow soil and cause damage to the borrow site. An alternative approach is to use waste materials as soil amendments. There is a long history of using sewage sludge and fly ash as amendments for acid minesoils. Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products are newer materials that are also promising amendments. Most flue gas sludges are mixtures of Calcium sulfate (CaSO{sub 4}), calcium sulfite (CaSO{sub 3}), calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}), calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH){sub 2}], and fly ash. Some scrubbing processes produce almost pure gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}2H{sub 2}O). The primary purpose of the project is to evaluate two wet FGD by-products for effects on vegetation establishment and surface and ground water quality on an acid minesoil. One by-product from the Conesville, OH power plant (American Electric Power Service Corporation) contains primarily calcium sulfite and fly ash. The other by-product (Mg-gypsum FGD) from an experimental scrubber at the Zimmer power plant (Cincinnati Gas and Electric Company) is primarily gypsum with 4% magnesium hydroxide. These materials were compared with borrow soil and sewage sludge as minesoil amendments. Combinations of each FGD sludge with sewage sludge were also tested. This report summarizes two years of measurements of chemical composition of runoff water, ground water at two depths in the subsoil, soil chemical properties, elemental composition and yield of herbaceous ground cover, and elemental composition, survival and height of trees planted on plots treated with the various amendments. The borrow soil is the control for comparison with the other treatments.

  19. A biological process for the reclamation of flue gas desulfurization gypsum using mixed sulfate-reducing bacteria with inexpensive carbon sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, E N; Little, M H; Selvaraj, P

    1997-01-01

    A combined chemical and biological process for the recycling of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum into calcium carbonate and elemental sulfur is demonstrated. In this process, a mixed culture of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) utilizes inexpensive carbon sources, such as sewage digest or synthesis gas, to reduce FGD gypsum to hydrogen sulfide. The sulfide is then oxidized to elemental sulfur via reaction with ferric sulfate, and accumulating calcium ions are precipitated as calcium carbonate using carbon dioxide. Employing anaerobically digested municipal sewage sludge (AD-MSS) medium as a carbon source, SRBs in serum bottles demonstrated an FGD gypsum reduction rate of 8 mg/L/h (10(9) cells)(-1). A chemostat with continuous addition of both AD-MSS media and gypsum exhibited sulfate reduction rates as high as 1.3 kg FGD gypsum/m(3)d. The increased biocatalyst density afforded by cell immobilization in a columnar reactor allowed a productivity of 152 mg SO(4) (-2)/Lh or 6.6 kg FGD gypsum/m(3)d. Both reactors demonstrated 100% conversion of sulfate, with 75-100% recovery of elemental sulfur and chemical oxygen demand utilization as high as 70%. Calcium carbonate was recovered from the reactor effluent on precipitation using carbon dioxide. It was demonstrated that SRBs may also use synthesis gas (CO, H(2), and CO(2) in the reduction of gypsum, further decreasing process costs. The formation of two marketable products-elemental sulfur and calcium carbonate-from FGD gypsum sludge, combined with the use of a low-cost carbon source and further improvements in reactor design, promises to offer an attractive alternative to the landfilling of FGD gypsum.

  20. Effects of Lead and Mercury on Sulfate-Reducing Bacterial Activity in a Biological Process for Flue Gas Desulfurization Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Lin, Xiaojuan; Wang, Jinting; Jiang, Feng; Wei, Li; Chen, Guanghao; Hao, Xiaodi

    2016-07-01

    Biological sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) may be effective in removing toxic lead and mercury ions (Pb(II) and Hg(II)) from wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastewater through anaerobic sulfite reduction. To confirm this hypothesis, a sulfite-reducing up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor was set up to treat FGD wastewater at metal loading rates of 9.2 g/m3-d Pb(II) and 2.6 g/m3-d Hg(II) for 50 days. The reactor removed 72.5 ± 7% of sulfite and greater than 99.5% of both Hg(II) and Pb(II). Most of the removed lead and mercury were deposited in the sludge as HgS and PbS. The contribution of cell adsorption and organic binding to Pb(II) and Hg(II) removal was 20.0 ± 0.1% and 1.8 ± 1.0%, respectively. The different bioavailable concentration levels of lead and mercury resulted in different levels of lethal toxicity. Cell viability analysis revealed that Hg(II) was less toxic than Pb(II) to the sludge microorganisms. In the batch tests, increasing the Hg(II) feeding concentration increased sulfite reduction rates. In conclusion, a sulfite-reducing reactor can efficiently remove sulfite, Pb(II) and Hg(II) from FGD wastewater.

  1. Effects of Magnesium and Ferric Ions on Crystallization of Calcium Sulfate Dihydrate Under the Simulated Conditions of Wet Flue-gas Desulfurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Xiang; HUO Wang; ZHONG Yi; LUO Zhong-yang; CEN Ke-fa; NI Ming-jiang; CHEN Le-ming

    2008-01-01

    The influences of magnesium and ferric ions in their different ratios on the rate of gypsum crystallization were studied under the conditions similar to those of wet flue-gas desulfurization(WFGD).The results show thataddition of both Mg2+ and Fe3+ increased induction time and decreased the growth efficiency up to 50% compared with the baseline(without impurities) depending on the concentration and the type of impurity.The effects of Mg2+ and Fe3+ on the surface energy and the rate of nucleation were estimated by employing the classical nucleation theory.The surface energy decreased by 8% and 14% with the addition of 0.02 mol/L magnesium or ferric ions,respectively,compared to the baseline.Mg2+ and Fe3+ made the growth rate of the (020),(021) and (040) faces of gypsum crystal a much greater reduction,which leads to the formation of needle crystals compared to the baseline which favors the formation of plate or flakes.Furthermore,an edge detection program was developed to quantify the effects of impurities on the filtration rate of gypsum product.The results show that the inhibition efficiency of the presence of 0.02 mol/L Mg2+ and Fe3+ on the filtration rate of gypsum crystal ranges from 22% to 39%.

  2. Effect of gas-liquid flow pattern and microbial diversity analysis of a pilot-scale biotrickling filter for anoxic biogas desulfurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almenglo, Fernando; Bezerra, Tercia; Lafuente, Javier; Gabriel, David; Ramírez, Martín; Cantero, Domingo

    2016-08-01

    Hydrogen sulfide removal from biogas was studied under anoxic conditions in a pilot-scale biotrickling filter operated under counter- and co-current gas-liquid flow patterns. The best performance was found under counter-current conditions (maximum elimination capacity of 140 gS m(-3) h(-1)). Nevertheless, switching conditions between co- and counter-current flow lead to a favorable redistribution of biomass and elemental sulfur along the bed height. Moreover, elemental sulfur was oxidized to sulfate when the feeding biogas was disconnected and the supply of nitrate (electron acceptor) was maintained. Removal of elemental sulfur was important to prevent clogging in the packed bed and, thereby, to increase the lifespan of the packed bed between maintenance episodes. The larger elemental sulfur removal rate during shutdowns was 59.1 gS m(-3) h(-1). Tag-encoded FLX amplicon pyrosequencing was used to study the diversity of bacteria under co-current flow pattern with liquid recirculation and counter-current mode with a single-pass flow of the liquid phase. The main desulfurizing bacteria were Sedimenticola while significant role of heterotrophic, opportunistic species was envisaged. Remarkable differences between communities were found when a single-pass flow of industrial water was fed to the biotrickling filter.

  3. Research on Circular Flue Application in Flue Gas Desulfurization System%圆形烟道在烟气脱硫装置中的应用探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石亚超; 朱桂明; 郝若锦; 王鲁斐

    2013-01-01

    The square flue' s strength of the flue gas desulfurization system in a power plant was calculated with ANSYS,including the analysis of both inner and outer pressure and the dead weight which influencing the flue's structural stress and the load-carrying capability of cross-section circular flue,as well as the specifications of lateral reinforcement ribs of the circular flue with large diameter.the research results can provide the reference for the later engineering design.%利用大型有限元分析软件ANSYS对某电厂发电机组烟气脱硫装置的方形烟道进行了强度计算,并针对烟道内压、外压及自重等因素对结构应力的影响进行了分析,并以此为基础,研究了等截面的圆形烟道的受力情况,延伸了大直径圆形烟道横向加固肋的规格型号,研究结果可作为日后工程优化设计的参考.

  4. Stack gas desulfurization using adsorbent materials based on copper oxide; Desulfuracion de gases de combustion usando materiales adsorbentes basados en oxido de cobre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores Velazquez, Roberto; Rodas Grapain, Arturo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    One of main fossil fuels used to date in Mexico for power generation is the fuel oil, with a total participation of 32%. The Mexican fuel oil is constituted in average by 84% in weight of carbon, 11% hydrogen, 0.4% nitrogen, 0.2% oxygen, 4% sulfur and the remaining is assumed to be metals such as vanadium, nickel, calcium, magnesium among others. The purpose of the present paper is to show a new route of preparation of materials impregnated through the application of ultrasonic energy and to evaluate its performance in the stack gas desulfurization. [Spanish] Uno de los principales combustibles fosiles empleados actualmente en Mexico para la generacion de energia electrica es el combustoleo, con una participacion total del 32%. El combustoleo mexicano esta constituido en promedio por 84% en peso de carbono, 11% de hidrogeno, 0.4% de nitrogeno, 0.2% de oxigeno, 4% de azufre y el resto se asume a metales como vanadio, niquel, calcio, magnesio entre otros. El proposito del presente trabajo es mostrar una nueva ruta de preparacion de materiales impregnados a traves de la aplicacion de energia ultrasonica y evaluar su desempeno en la desulfuracion de gases de combustion.

  5. Continuous desulfurization and bacterial community structure of an integrated bioreactor developed to treat SO2 from a gas stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jian; Li, Lin; Ding, Wenjie; Zhang, Jingying; Liu, Junxin

    2015-11-01

    Sulfide dioxide (SO2) is often released during the combustion processes of fossil fuels. An integrated bioreactor with two sections, namely, a suspended zone (SZ) and immobilized zone (IZ), was applied to treat SO2 for 6months. Sampling ports were set in both sections to investigate the performance and microbial characteristics of the integrated bioreactor. SO2 was effectively removed by the synergistic effect of the SZ and IZ, and more than 85% removal efficiency was achieved at steady state. The average elimination capacity of SO2 in the bioreactor was 2.80g/(m(3)·hr) for the SZ and 1.50g/(m(3)·hr) for the IZ. Most SO2 was eliminated in the SZ. The liquid level of the SZ and the water content ratio of the packing material in the IZ affected SO2 removal efficiency. The SZ served a key function not only in SO2 elimination, but also in moisture maintenance for the IZ. The desired water content in IZ could be feasibly maintained without any additional pre-humidification facilities. Clone libraries of 16S rDNA directly amplified from the DNA of each sample were constructed and sequenced to analyze the community composition and diversity in the individual zones. The desulfurization bacteria dominated both zones. Paenibacillus sp. was present in both zones, whereas Ralstonia sp. existed only in the SZ. The transfer of SO2 to the SZ involved dissolution in the nutrient solution and biodegradation by the sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. This work presents a potential biological treatment method for waste gases containing hydrophilic compounds.

  6. Flue Gas Desulfurization by a Novel Biomass Activated Carbon%新型生物质活性炭烟气脱硫研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洁岭; 汤争光; 陈杰; 蒋文举; 江霞

    2013-01-01

    以农业废弃物核桃壳为原料,天然软锰矿为添加剂共混制备得到的新型生物质柱状活性炭进行烟气脱硫的性能研究.采用固定床反应器进行脱硫实验,装填活性炭质量为16 g,考察了进口SO2含量、空速、床层温度、水蒸气和氧气含量等工艺参数对活性炭脱硫性能的影响.结果表明,进口SO2含量在0.1% ~0.3%(体积含量)范围内时,活性炭的穿透硫容和穿透时间随着进口SO2含量的升高而降低;空速越大,活性炭越容易穿透,较佳的空速为600 h-1;最适的床层温度为80℃,过高会降低脱硫效率;水蒸气和氧气的存在大大促进了活性炭对SO2的吸附性能,最佳水蒸气含量为10%,最佳氧气含量为10%~13%.在最佳工艺操作条件下,当进口SO2含量为0.2%时,活性炭穿透硫容为252 mg·g-1,穿透时间可达26 h.%A novel biomass columnar activated carbon was prepared from walnut shell and pyrolusite was added as a catalyst. The activated carbon prepared was used for flue gas desulphurization in a fixed-bed reactor with 16 g of activated carbon. The impact of operating parameters such as SO2 inlet concentration, space velocity, bed temperature, moisture content and O2 concentration on the desulfurization efficiency of activated carbon was investigated. The results showed that both the breakthrough sulfur capacity and breakthrough time of activated carbon decreased with the increase of SO2 inlet concentration within the range of 0.1%-0. 3% . The breakthrough sulfur capacity deceased with the increase of space velocity, with optimal space velocity of 600 h-1. The optimal bed temperature was 80 ℃ , and the desulfurization efficiency can be reduced if the temperature continue to increase. The presence of moisture and oxygen greatly promoted the adsorption of SO2 onto the activated carbon. The best moisture content was 10% . When the oxygen concentrations were between 10% and 13% , the desulfurization

  7. Impact property on fine particles from coal combustion in wet flue gas desulfurization process%湿法脱硫烟气中细颗粒物的变化特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜金培; 杨林军; 鲍静静

    2011-01-01

    Fine particles in flue gas before and after WFGD ( wet flue gas desulfurization) were sampled and measured by ELPI (electrical low pressure impactor). Fine particle concentrations and size distributions characteristics were obtained. And the microstructure and major element concentrations of particles were analyzed by SEM ( scanning electron microscopy) and EDS ( energy disperse spectroscopy), respectively. The results show that the removal efficiency of fine particles by WFGD is extremely low using NaOH and CaCO3 desulfurization, but particle number concentration has an obvious increase after ammonia desulfurization. Particles morphology structure and element contents have a great change after WFGD. The surfaces of fine particles from coal-fired may adsorb small particles to form roughness and aggregate structure. But it can be enwrapped by desulfurization reaction products to form a dense irregular block-like structure after CaCO3 desulfurization process. And fine particles are mostly of cube or prism crystal structure after ammonia desulfurization. The main elements of fine particles before WFGD are O, A1 and Si, however, the element content of S in particles is significantly increased after desulfurization, which increases from 1.33% to 10. 01%,19. 96% and 46. 64% after NaOH, CaCO3 and NH3 desulfurization respectively.%采用ELPI(电称低压冲击器)对WFGD(湿法烟气脱硫)前后烟气中的细颗粒进行采样分析,获得细颗粒浓度与粒径分布特性.对脱硫前后细颗粒形貌和主要元素进行SEM(扫描电镜)和EDS(能量色谱仪)分析.结果表明,NaOH和CaCO3脱硫后,WFGD系统对细颗粒脱除效率很低;氨法脱硫后WFGD出口颗粒数浓度明显增加;脱硫前后,细颗粒的形貌特征和元素组分会发生很大变化,洗涤前燃煤细颗粒表面容易吸附小颗粒而形成表面粗糙的团聚体结构;CaCO3脱硫后,细颗粒容易被脱硫反应产物连结或包裹而形成致密的不规则块状或

  8. 工业烟气的赤泥脱硫研究%Study on Industrial Flue Gas Desulfurization(FGD) by Alumina Red Mud

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李惠萍; 靳苏静; 李雪平; 庞皓; 杨金姬; 张军

    2013-01-01

    氧化铝赤泥因排放量大、碱性强,很难被大宗利用;而工业烟气因含大量SO2必须经脱硫达标排放,在分析测试中铝河南分公司联合法赤泥的矿物组成、化学组成、粒径等基础上,采用正交试验法和单因素法在自行设计的吸收塔1 700 mm×60 mm及配套装置中,考察了赤泥的液固比、烟气流量、液气比等因素对烟气中SO2吸收率的影响,对比了各影响因素的显著性,获得了最佳工艺条件:液固比7:1,烟气流量3.6 m3/h,液气比12 L/m3.在此条件下,赤泥吸收烟气中SO,的效率高达95%以上,同时,与热电厂现行的石灰石-石膏湿法脱硫工艺对比,相同条件下赤泥脱硫的效果更好.%Alumina red mud has not been utilized effectively due to its high emission and strong alkaline.Industrial flue gas which has high SO2 should be desulfurized to meet up to the standards.The mineral component,chemical composition,grain size and microstructure of alumina red mud from Henan Branch of China Aluminum Co.were determined in this article.The orthogonal experiments and single factor experiments have been done in the self-designed 1700 × 60 mm glass absorption device which accessories were installed in the laboratory.The influential factors such as liquid-solid ratio,flue gas flow,and liquid-gas ratio were examined through the orthogonal tests.The optimal conditions:liquid-solid ratio is 7:1 (kg/kg),flue gas flow is 3.6m3/h liquid-gas ratio and 12 L/m3.Under these conditions,the maximum efficiency of FGD is more than 95%.At the same time,compared with the current limestone-gypsum wet method,under the same conditions red mud has a better absorption effects.

  9. Application of alcohol-amine method dry gas desulfurization technology in catalytic cracking unit%醇胺法干气脱硫工艺在催化裂化装置上的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马俊

    2016-01-01

    The 1.0 Mt/a catalytic cracking unit of an oil refinery uses alcohol-amine method dry gas desulfurization technology. Test run result showed that this process is simple and stable in operation;because of the dry gas knockout drum installed in front of dry gas desulfurization tower,the problem of dry gas carrying liquid is eliminated;the problem of dry gas carrying ammonia liquid is avoided;the hydrogen sulfide content is decreased from 6 071mg/m3 to 16 mg/m3.%某炼油厂1.0 Mt/a重油催化裂化装置采用醇胺法干气脱硫工艺。标定结果表明,该工艺操作简单,运行平稳。由于干气脱硫塔前设有干气分液罐,消除了原稳定装置干气带液的问题;杜绝了干气携带胺液的问题;工艺脱硫效果显著,净化后的干气中硫化氢含量由原来的6071 mg/m3降低到16 mg/m3。

  10. Repair works at coke ovens lined with refractory mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckmann, R.; Friebe, G.

    1981-06-01

    The wear characteristics of the usual refractory mixtures are strongly dependent upon the prevailing operating conditions, the location of use within the oven and the temperature range to be expected. As exemplified by typical deteriorations, the suitability of refractory mixtures of aluminium sulphate, water glass, clay, aluminous cement and phosphate basis for various applications is discussed. Structure and bonding mechanisms of the repair mixtures are decisive for application, service time and temperature behaviour. Also pretreatment of the base and proper selection of the application method are important for the success of the repair. The application methods: dusting, spraying, pressure spraying, casting and ramming, are compared based on operating experience. Pressure spraying proved to be a simple and less expensive method for repairing large deteriorations. With sufficient care good success is ensured.

  11. Optimal control structure of combustion in coke oven battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Kostúr

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Big energetic aggregates require a complicated control system, which provide an effective running or production. Among these aggregates belongs the coke – oven battery. This article contains a proposal of the two – level control system. The basic control is realized by a direct digital control. The advanced control continuously optimalizes regulator parameters of the basic control. The present control system has been verified in real conditions of a coking plant.

  12. New Reductive Desulfurization Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The project for the research of the pulse plasma reductive desulfurization technology undertaken by Huazhong University of Science and Technology recently passed the research achievement appraisal in Wuhan, Hubei province.

  13. Désulfuration sélective du gaz soutiré d'un stockage souterrain Selective Desulfurization of Gas Withdrawn from an Underground Storage Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaubertou G.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available La présence d'H2S constatée dès les premiers soutirages de gaz au stockage souterrain en nappe aquifère de Chémery avait nécessité la mise en place d'unités de désulfuration. Le gaz injecté étant exempt de gaz carbonique, le procédé par voie liquide utilisant la monoéthanolamine avait été retenu. Depuis 1977, le gaz injecté contenant des quantités appréciables de gaz carbonique a rendu inutilisable ce procédé. Parallèlement à l'injection de ce composé acide, la production d'H2S a fortement augmenté. La mise en oeuvre d'une amine sélective (MDEA a permis d'éliminer les composés soufrés en laissant pratiquement inchangée la composition du gaz chargé en C02. Les installations existantes ont pu être conservées, la banalisation des circuits facilitant l'utilisation de cette nouvelle amine. La communication présente les études et essais réalisés ainsi que les résultats d'exploitation qui se sont révélés particulièrement intéressants tant au point de vue technique qu'économique The presence of H2S in the first gas withdrawn from the underground storage aquifer at Chémery, France, required the installation of desulfurization units. Since there was no carton dioxide in the injected gas, a liquid process using monoethanolamine was selected. This process has become unusable since 1977 because the injected gas contains appreciable amounts of carton dioxide. At the same time as the injection of this acid compound, the production of H2S has considerably increased. A selective amine (MDEA was used tg eliminate the sulfur-containing compounds while leaving the composition of the C02-containing gas almost unchanged. The existing installations have been maintained as the result of the standardizing of the circuits for this new amine. This article describes the research and tests performed as well as the operational results which have turned out to be particularly intersting from both the technical and economic stand

  14. [Performance of desulfurizing absorbent of roasted navajoite].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fang; Yang, Chun-ping; Gan, Hai-ming; Wu, Ting; Chen, Hai-lin; Chen, Hong; Xu, Ke-hui; Xie, Geng-xin

    2010-04-01

    An innovative flue gas desulfurization (FGD) coupling process was proposed in this study to overcome the problems in wet-type limestone/lime processes which include fouling, clogging, and difficulty of selling the by-products and the problems in traditional process for vanadium extraction from navajoite ore such as excessive consumption of sulfuric acid and emissions of pollutants. The performance of a jet bubbling reactor (JBR) at pilot-scale was evaluated using navajoite ore produced in the process of extracting vanadium pentoxide as desulfurization absorbent. Results showed that navajoite ore slurry achieved better desulfurization performance than limestone slurry. When the inlet flue gas pressure drop was 3.0 kPa, the gas flow was about 2350 m3 x h(-1) and the pH of the navajoite ore slurry was higher than 4.5, the desulfurization efficiency was stable about 90%. The SO2 removal efficiency appeared to increase along with the increasing of absorbent cycle-index. The efficiency of the second circulation was improved 3.5% compared to the first circulation. After an operating duration of 40 minutes, the leaching rate of vanadium pentoxide was about 20%, and reached 60% when the by-products were leached with 5% dilute sulfuric acid for 10 hours. The by-product from this process not only could be used to produce vanadium pentoxide which is a valuable industrial product, but also could significantly overcome the pollution problem existing in the traditional refining process of vanadium pentoxide when navajoite ore is used as the feed material. This FGD process using roasted navajoite slurry as absorbent is environmental sound and cost-effective, and shows the potential for application in the field of flue gas desulfurization as well as hydrometallurgy.

  15. Confined zone dispersion flue gas desulfurization demonstration. Quarterly report No. 8, August 17, 1992--November 16, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-27

    The CZD process involves injecting a finely atomized slurry of reactive lime into the flue gas duct work of a coal-fired utility boiler. The principle of the confined zone is to form a wet zone of slurry droplets in the middle of the duct confined in an envelope of hot gas between the wet zone and the duct walls. The lime slurry reacts with part of the SO{sub 2} in the gas, and the reaction products dry to form solid particles. A solids collector, typically an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) downstream from the point of injection, captures the reaction products along with the fly ash entrained in the flue gas. The goal of this demonstration is to prove the technical and economic feasibility of the CZD technology on a commercial scale. The process is expected to achieve 50% SO{sub 2} removal at lower capital and O&M costs than other systems. To achieve its objectives, the project is divided into the following three phases: Phase 1: Design and Permitting, Phase 2: Construction and Start-up, Phase 3: Operation and Disposition. Phase 1 activities were completed on January 31, 1991. Phase 2 activities were essentially concluded on July 31, 1991, and Phase 3a, Parametric Testing, was initiated on July 1, 1991. This Quarterly Technical Progress Report covers Phase 3b activities from August 17, 1992 through November 16, 1992.

  16. Performance study on primary gas coolers with horizontal tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkov, E.L.; Lekhter, V.I.; Gostev, Yu.A. [and others

    1992-12-31

    No. 1-bis coke-oven battery system at the Mariupol C&CW was equipped with primary gas coolers of horizontal-tube type. They consisted of three sections, with working surface areas in m{sup 2} of: I (bottom) 800 (middle) 800 and III (top) 600 respectively. The nominal water flow rate through each cooler was 600-720 m. The coolers were constantly irrigated with tar/water emulsions to remove scale deposits in the inter-tube space. The circulating water from the primary gas coolers is cooled in a e-section cooling tower (type 2VG) equipped with spray nozzles designed by the Dnepropetrovsk Chemical Technology Institute (nominal water throughput 3000 m{sup 3}/h). 1 tab.

  17. System evaluation and microbial analysis of a sulfur cycle-based wastewater treatment process for Co-treatment of simple wet flue gas desulfurization wastes with freshwater sewage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jin; Liu, Rulong; Wei, Li; Lu, Hui; Chen, Guang-Hao

    2015-09-01

    A sulfur cycle-based wastewater treatment process, namely the Sulfate reduction, Autotrophic denitrification and Nitrification Integrated process (SANI(®) process) has been recently developed for organics and nitrogen removal with 90% sludge minimization and 35% energy reduction in the biological treatment of saline sewage from seawater toilet flushing practice in Hong Kong. In this study, sulfate- and sulfite-rich wastes from simple wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) were considered as a potential low-cost sulfur source to achieve beneficial co-treatment with non-saline (freshwater) sewage in continental areas, through a Mixed Denitrification (MD)-SANI process trialed with synthetic mixture of simple WFGD wastes and freshwater sewage. The system showed 80% COD removal efficiency (specific COD removal rate of 0.26 kg COD/kg VSS/d) at an optimal pH of 7.5 and complete denitrification through MD (specific nitrogen removal rate of 0.33 kg N/kg VSS/d). Among the electron donors in MD, organics and thiosulfate could induce a much higher denitrifying activity than sulfide in terms of both NO3(-) reduction and NO2(-) reduction, suggesting a much higher nitrogen removal rate in organics-, thiosulfate- and sulfide-based MD in MD-SANI compared to sulfide alone-based autotrophic denitrification in conventional SANI(®). Diverse sulfate/sulfite-reducing bacteria (SRB) genera dominated in the bacterial community of sulfate/sulfite-reducing up-flow sludge bed (SRUSB) sludge without methane producing bacteria detected. Desulfomicrobium-like species possibly for sulfite reduction and Desulfobulbus-like species possibly for sulfate reduction are the two dominant groups with respective abundance of 24.03 and 14.91% in the SRB genera. Diverse denitrifying genera were identified in the bacterial community of anoxic up-flow sludge bed (AnUSB) sludge and the Thauera- and Thiobacillus-like species were the major taxa. These results well explained the successful operation of the lab

  18. Mercury transportation in soil via using gypsum from flue gas desulfurization unit in coal-fired power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kelin; Orndorff, William; Cao, Yan; Pan, Weiping

    2013-09-01

    The mercury flux in soils was investigated, which were amended by gypsums from flue gas desulphurization (FGD) units of coal-fired power plants. Studies have been carried out in confined greenhouses using FGD gypsum treated soils. Major research focus is uptakes of mercury by plants, and emission of mercury into the atmosphere under varying application rates of FGD gypsum, simulating rainfall irrigations, soils, and plants types. Higher FGD gypsum application rates generally led to higher mercury concentrations in the soils, the increased mercury emissions into the atmosphere, and the increased mercury contents in plants (especially in roots and leaves). Soil properties and plant species can play important roles in mercury transports. Some plants, such as tall fescue, were able to prevent mercury from atmospheric emission and infiltration in the soil. Mercury concentration in the stem of plants was found to be increased and then leveled off upon increasing FGD gypsum application. However, mercury in roots and leaves was generally increased upon increasing FGD gypsum application rates. Some mercury was likely absorbed by leaves of plants from emitted mercury in the atmosphere.

  19. Composition modification of zinc titanate sorbents for hot gas desulfurization. Technical report, March 1--May 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swisher, J.H.

    1995-12-31

    For new coal gasification systems, zinc titanate sorbents are being developed to remove sulfur from the hot product gas prior to its use in combined cycle turbines and high temperature fuel cells. Although most of the properties of these sorbents are very attractive, there are still concerns about durability over many sulfidation-regeneration cycles and zinc losses due to vaporization. Doping the zinc titanate with other metal ions could alleviate both concerns, which are the objectives of this project. After a screening study was completed, it was decided that Cr offered more promise as a dopant than Ni, Cu, Mg, and Al. Therefore six new sorbent formulations containing Cr were prepared, and they are now being evaluated with a series of bulk density, X-ray diffraction, crush strength and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) measurements. Results to date suggest that, while Zn vaporization losses can be reduced with Cr additions, a penalty in chemical reactivity occurs. A fixed bed test was also completed this quarter on a Cr-containing formulation. The H{sub 2}S breakthrough time was about 11 hours, and utilization of Zn in the sorbent was 60.5%.

  20. Mercury transportation in soil via using gypsum from flue gas desulfurization unit in coal-fired power plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kelin Wang; William Orndorff; Yan Cao; Weiping Pan

    2013-01-01

    The mercury flux in soils was investigated,which were amended by gypsums from flue gas desulphurization (FGD) units of coalfired power plants.Studies have been carried out in confined greenhouses using FGD gypsum treated soils.Major research focus is uptakes of mercury by plants,and emission of mercury into the atmosphere under varying application rates of FGD gypsum,simulating rainfall irrigations,soils,and plants types.Higher FGD gypsum application rates generally led to higher mercury concentrations in the soils,the increased mercury emissions into the atmosphere,and the increased mercury contents in plants (especially in roots and leaves).Soil properties and plant species can play important roles in mercury transports.Some plants,such as tall fescue,were able to prevent mercury from atmospheric emission and infiltration in the soil.Mercury concentration in the stem of plants was found to be increased and then leveled off upon increasing FGD gypsum application.However,mercury in roots and leaves was generally increased upon increasing FGD gypsum application rates.Some mercury was likely absorbed by leaves of plants from emitted mercury in the atmosphere.

  1. Fuel flexibility for advanced gas turbines with an output of up to 15 MW: requirements, design and experiences; Brenngasflexibilitt fortschrittlicher Gasturbinen im Leistungssegment bis 15 MW: Anforderungen - Designkonzept-Erfahrungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rainer Kurz; Chaur Wen; Luke H. Cowell; John C.Y. Lee [Solar Turbines Incorporated, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2007-10-15

    Industrial gas turbines can be operated with a number of different gas and liquid fuels and at the same time maintain low levels of pollutants. At present the use of LNG (liquefied natural gas) and gas turbine operation using fuel gas from various sources and in various compositions are much discussed. The influence of fuel composition on the production of pollutants and the reliable operation of the combustion system is discussed and measures for preventing problems ahead of projects are explained. Gaseous fuels only are considered including natural gases, liquefied petroleum gas, coke oven gas, landfill gas: coal mine methane; coal bed methane and air-blown and oxy-blown coal gas. 13 refs., 8 figs.

  2. Reform of amine solution and equipment optimization in a natural gas desulfurization system%天然气脱硫系统的胺液改造及设备优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李振龙; 范峥; 李稳宏; 贾浩民; 闫昭; 雷宝刚

    2012-01-01

    In a natural gas purification plant in northern Shanxi, due to the incorporation of the new gas transmission pipelines, the concentration of acid gases (CO2, H2S) in the feed gas increased remarkably, which resulted in the low desulfurization efficiency and the serious equipment corrosion for the desulfurization system. ChemCAD 6.0.1 professional software was \\ l"fl>p Aj utilized to simulate the whole process of the desulfurization system with the single MDEA solution (50% MDEA by mass) and the formulated solution (45% MDEA+5% DEA by mass), and the purification efficiency and energy consumption of the two different solutions were compared. FRI-Try Rating 1.0.7, HTRI Xchanger Suite 4.00 and Pipe Flow Expert 2010 softwares were used to check the key equipments of the desulfurization system under above conditions. The result showed that for the formulated amine solution, the acid gas loading per mole of amine increased 80.50%, and the circulation amount of amine and the consumption of steam decreased 45.45% and 24.56%, respectively. The formulated solution was far better than the single MDEA solution, and all equipments of desulfurization system in service could meet operational requirements for the formulated amine solution.%针对陕北某天然气净化厂由于新干线的并入,使得原料气中CO2、H2S等酸性组分含量大幅上升,导致脱硫系统生产效率低下、装置腐蚀严重等迫切需要解决的问题,基于ChemCAD 6.0.1流程模拟软件对单一胺液(w(MDEA)=50%)和复配胺液(w(MDEA)=45%,w(DEA)=5%)下的脱硫系统进行全流程模拟,并对其净化效果和能量消耗进行对比研究.分别利用FRI-TryRating 1.0.7、HTRI Xchanger Suite 4.00、Pipe Flow Expert 2010等专业软件在上述条件下对脱硫系统的关键设备进行校核.研究结果表明,使用复配胺液时,单位胺液负荷可增大80.50%,循环量和蒸汽消耗较单一胺液下降45.45%和24.56%,复配胺液方案远远优于单一胺液

  3. New solutions for by-products plants developed by Koksoprojekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Tomal; R. Zajdel; H. Zembala

    2002-07-01

    The paper focuses on recent and current activities of KOKSOPROJEKT Company oriented towards up-to-dating and optimization of its own developed processes and technical solutions. As a result of these activities the investment and operation cost have been decreased and European standards in environmental protection have not only been met, but even exceeded. From among many developments in this field this paper only presents three reliable and efficient processes for coke oven gas desulfurizing: ammonia process, potash-vacuum process and catalytic-soda (KAT-SOD) process. All of mentioned technologies have been implemented in Polish coking plants, and the desulfurization plants operate with good results. 1 tab.

  4. Feasibility Analysis of Alumina Red Mud Used in Flue Gas Desulfurization%氧化铝赤泥用于烟气脱硫的可行性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾帅动; 董继业; 王博; 付鸿娟

    2013-01-01

    For its strongly alkaline, alumina red mud had not been used effectively now and it was accumulation takes up lots of land. The chemical and mineral composition particle size distribution of red mud was analyzed in this paper. The principle of red mud for flue gas de-sulfurization, and thermodynamics analysis showed that the red mud desulfurization was feasible.%  现阶段,氧化铝赤泥由于其强碱性而没有得到有效利用,而赤泥堆积又会占用大量土地,带来赤泥堆积的难题。本文分析了氧化铝赤泥的粒度分布、化学成分和矿物组成,同时对赤泥用于烟气脱硫的原理进行了研究,结果表明,碱性氧化物在赤泥中占比重大,赤泥浆液的碱性大,在原理上其主要成分容易和SO2发生反应生成硫酸盐,符合脱硫反应的需要,可以作为脱硫吸收剂使用。

  5. ERCC2基因多态性与焦炉工DNA损伤及肺癌易感性的关联研究%Association of ERCC2 gene polymorphisms with DNA damage among coke oven workers and lung cancer susceptibility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳; 何越峰; 郭欢; 杨艳; 吴舟; 郑红艳

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between ERCC2 gene polymorphisms and DNA damage and lung cancer susceptibility. Methods 821 workers, 1 152 primary lung cancer and 1 152 controls were enrolled in the study. Workers were divided into three groups including the exposure, recovery and control according to the working status and places. Urine 1-hydroxypyrene was determined by reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Comet assay was used to evaluate DNA damage level and the level of DNA damage was measured by Olive Tail Moments (OTM). 5' nuclease allelic discrimination assay was used to genotype ERCC2 gene polymorphisms. Results The urine 1-hydroxypyrene level of workers in the exposure and recovery group (4. 41±1. 06 and 3. 79±1. 05) were significantly higher than that of the control (3. 33±1. 03), P<0.05. The OTM of workers in exposure group (-0. 86±0.70) was higher than that of the recovery and controls (-1. 18±0. 69 and -1. 14±0- 63, respectively), P<0.01. In the recovery group, the OTM of rs50871 GT carriers was significantly lower than that of the TT carriers (-1. 28 ± 0. 62 vs -1.11 ± 0. 71, P=0. 021). Similarly, carriers of rs50872 TC heterozygote had lower OTM than that of the CC homo-zygote (-1. 33±0. 69 vs -1.10±0. 67, P=0.003). No significant associations were found in other SNPs with DNA damage. No significance was found between rs50871 and rs50872 and lung cancer susceptibility. Conclusions The ERCC2 gene polymorphisms could modulate DNA damage of coke oven workers, but had no significant effects on lung cancer susceptibility.%目的 探讨ERCC2基因多态性与焦炉工DNA损伤及肺癌易感性的关联.方法 选取821例焦化工人、1 152例原发性肺癌患者为研究对象,1 152名健康体检者作为对照.焦化工人以工作状态和岗位分为暴露组、恢复组和对照组;使用反向高效液相色谱法测定尿1-羟基芘含量,采用彗星试验检测DNA损伤并以Olive尾矩(Olive Tail Moments

  6. 脱硫系统增压风机电机变频改造技术分析%Technique Analysis of Variable Frequency Reconstruction on Motor of Booster Fan in Gas Desulfurization System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿飞

    2012-01-01

    通过分析燃煤电厂脱硫系统增压风机的运行特性,找出静叶可调式风机的最佳运行工作点;通过分析三相异步电动机的转速与频率成正比关系,得出采用变频器进行无级调速,调速范围宽且转速变化曲线平滑。介绍了阜阳华润600MW超临界火电厂对脱硫系统增压风机电机实施变频改造的理论分析和技术改造经验,叙述了对增压风机电机进行变频改造后,脱硫系统明显地降低了能耗,提高了电机的调速性能,取得了显著的节能效果和经济效益,并提出了在变频调速保护设计方面和运行时需要注意的一些问题。%This paper finds out the optimum operation condition of the stator blade variable axial flow blower by analyzing the operation characteristics of the booster fan in Gas Desulfurization System of the Coal fired power plant.Via analyzing the direct proportion between rotate speed and power frequency of the 3-phase induction motor,gets the conclusion that the range of speed regulation will be wider and the rotate speed curve will be smooth if the motor's speed is stepless regulated by frequency converter.Makes a presentation of the theoretical analysis and the experience of the reconstruction of Motor of Booster Fan in Gas Desulfurization System of FYCRP 600MW Supercritical power plant,states that after the reconstruction,the energy consumption of the Gas Desulfurization System is reduced observably,the speed regulation performance of the motor is improved,observable energy conservation effect and economic benefit are gained.Some issues related to the protection design and operation of the frequency converter-fed speed regulating system is also stated in this paper.

  7. An advanced coal gasification desulfurization process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasian, J.; Rehmat, A. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (USA)); Leppin, D. (Gas Research Inst., Chicago, IL (USA)); Banerjee, D.D. (Center for Research on Sulfur in Coal, Carterville, IL (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) is in the process of developing an advanced coal gasification desulfurization process in which a calcium-based sorbent such as limestone or dolomite is injected into the fluidized-bed gasifier with coal to achieve in-bed desulfurization of coal as it is converted into clean fuel gas. The reactions involving calcium-based sorbents takes place in two steps. In the first step, the desulfurization reaction takes place between hydrogen sulfide and calcium oxide in the reducing zone of the reactor to produce calcium sulfide. The latter subsequently reacts with oxygen in the oxidizing zone of the reactor to produce calcium sulfate which can be safely disposed of along with the coal ash. This process will reduce the capital requirement for coal gasification plants and provide cost effective alternatives to scrubbers for industrial and utility use of high-sulfur coal. This paper addresses the basic research being conducted at IGT to confirm the viability of this process. 9 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Study on membrane contactor and operating technology for flue gas desulfurization by seawater%海水烟气脱硫膜吸收单元及工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈颖; 关毅鹏; 张召才; 郭春刚; 刘国昌; 李晓明

    2011-01-01

    以海水作为吸收剂,采用自行研制的中空纤维管式膜接触器作为吸收单元,进行膜吸收法海水烟气脱硫过程模拟试验研究.考察膜接触器结构、膜填充密度、膜吸收单元工艺方式、模拟烟气SO2浓度、温度、气液流量等因素对脱硫效率的影响.结果表明,提高烟气温度、海水流量、膜接触器内气液分布均匀程度、气液相有效接触面积、增加膜吸收级数,均有利于提高脱硫率;烟气流量及SO2浓度的增大不利于SO2的脱除;烟气流经管程的气液流程方式利于提高脱硫率,但是气阻大,进气压力高,工程化应用难以实现.提高膜材料传质特性和优化设计膜接触器结构是提高膜吸收法烟气脱硫效率的根本途径.%A comprehensive investigation of flue gas desulfurization was carried out by hydrophobic polypropylene hollow fiber membrane contactor with seawater as absorbent. The effects of various factors, such as membrane packing density, flow path of gas and fluid, concentration of SO2, gas temperature, configuration and connecting form of membrane contactors on desulfurization efficiency were studied. It is beneficial to absorption efficiency of SO2, with the increase in flue gas temperature, seawater flux, the contacting area between gas and seawater, stage numbers of membrane contactors, as well as the distribution degree of uniformity of gas and liquid in the membrane contactor. The absorption process could be enhanced when the flue gas was fed into the HF lumen side of the membrane, but the gas pressure was too high for the pracrtical utilization. The module configuration plays an important role in improving the mass transfer. The development of new module of membrane contactor and membrane structure/materials for improving mass transferring would be fundamental factor to increase the absorption efficiency.

  9. 干法烟气脱硫副产物中汞的形态分布%Mercury Speciation Distribution in Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization Byproduct

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凡; 王凡; 刘宇; 朱金伟; 王红梅; 王立刚; 徐雪

    2011-01-01

    通过分析干法烟气脱硫副产物中不同形态汞的含量,研究干法脱硫灰中汞的环境稳定性.利用逐级化学提取法,分析了锅炉底灰、锅炉飞灰、脱硫塔底灰和除尘器灰中水溶态、酸溶态、过氧化氢溶态及王水溶残渣态汞的含量,研究了不同形态汞含量的变化规律.结果表明,锅炉底灰、锅炉飞灰、脱硫塔底灰和除尘器灰中w(总汞)分别为0.23,0.36,0.46和1.22 mg/kg,且随着脱硫除尘时间的延长w(总汞)呈增加的趋势,其中,以氯化物、硝酸盐和硫酸盐存在的水溶态汞变化明显,除尘器灰中w(水溶态汞)高达0.72 mg/kg.分析认为,干法烟气脱硫灰吸附的大部分汞蒸气转化为可溶性的氯化物、硝酸盐和硫酸盐等,另外还有少量汞以单质状态存在.%Environmental stabilization of mercury in dry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) residue was studied by analyzing the contents of different species of mercury in dry FGD byproduct. The sequential extraction method was used to analyze the contents of mercury in different forms (water-soluble, acid extractable, H2O, soluble and residue) in boiler bottom ash, fly ash, FGD tower bottom ash and precipitator ash. The content variation characteristics of different forms of mercury were studied. Experimental results showed that the total mercury in boiler bottom ash, fly ash, FGD tower bottom ash and precipitator ash was 0. 23, 0. 36,0. 46 and 1.22 mg/kg, respectively. Total mercury concentration increased with the increase of adsorption time of the four solid samples. The results indicate that recovery of water soluble mercury compound in precipitator ash was observed as high as 0. 72 mg/kg, where the mercury compound with speciation of chloride, nitrate and sulfate were obtained. It was concluded that mercury vapor adsorbed by fly ash and lime were mainly formed into chloride, nitrate and sulfate, while the other was elemental mercury.

  10. Enzymatic desulfurization of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, Y.N.; Crooker, S.C.; Kitchell, J.P.; Nochur, S.V.

    1991-05-16

    The overall objective of this program was to investigate the feasibility of an enzymatic desulfurization process specifically intended for organic sulfur removal from coal. Toward that end, a series of specific objectives were defined: (1) establish the feasibility of (bio)oxidative pretreatment followed by biochemical sulfate cleavage for representative sulfur-containing model compounds and coals using commercially-available enzymes; (2) investigate the potential for the isolation and selective use of enzyme preparations from coal-utilizing microbial systems for desulfurization of sulfur-containing model compounds and coals; and (3) develop a conceptual design and economic analysis of a process for enzymatic removal of organic sulfur from coal. Within the scope of this program, it was proposed to carry out a portion of each of these efforts concurrently. (VC)

  11. Enzymatic desulfurization of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquis, J.K. (Boston Univ., MA (United States). School of Medicine); Kitchell, J.P. (Holometrix, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States))

    1988-12-15

    Our current efforts to develop clean coal technology emphasize the advantages of enzymatic desulfurization techniques and have specifically addressed the potential of using partially-purified extracellular microbial enzymes or commercially available enzymes. Our work is focused on the treatment of model'' organic sulfur compounds such as dibenzothiophene (DBT) and ethylphenylsulfide (EPS). Furthermore, we are designing experiments to facilitate the enzymatic process by means of a hydrated organic solvent matrix.

  12. Microbial desulfurization of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danzet, C.; Buonfiglio, V.; Polidoro, M.; Valenti, P. (Rome Univ. La Sapienza (Italy). Ist. di Microbiologia)

    This paper reviews the biochemical and economics aspects of coal desulfurization processes involving the use of thermophile microorganisms such as sulfolobus, currently believed to be the the only type of microorganism capable of degrading both inorganic (pyrite-containing) and organic sulfur compounds. Comments are also made on the feasibility of the development of an in-lab, microbial based method for the transformation of the lignin component, obtained in the processing, by anaerobic fermentation, of lignocellulosic biomass, into humic acid.

  13. 常压盐溶液脱硫石膏转化生成α-半水石膏%Transformation of Flue-Gas-Desulfurization Gypsum to α-Hemihydrated Gypsum in Salt Solution at Atmospheric Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓琴; 童仕唐; 官宝红; 吴忠标

    2011-01-01

    Direct phase transformation of flue gas desulfurization gypsum in hot salt solution at atmospheric pressure was investigated. The effects of temperature, salt species, salt concentration, solids content, pH and modifier were examined. The crystals obtained under different conditions and solubility of calcium sulfate in contact with solid gypsum were also determined. α-Calcium sulfate hemihydrate crystals of stubby columnar shape and regular pentahedral sides were obtained under the following conditions: salt concentration 20%-30%, operation temperature 95-100 ℃, solids mass content in the slurry 10%-30% and neutral pH. Thermodynamic analysis revealed that phase transformation of calcium sulfate dihydrate to α-calcium suffate hemihydrate occurs because of the difference in solubilities between the two solid gypsum phases in this system.

  14. Microbial reduction of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} as a means of by-product recovery/disposal from regenerable processes for the desulfurization of flue gas. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sublette, K.L.

    1994-03-01

    The main objective of this research was to investigate microorganisms capable of fossil fuel flue gas desulfurization and denitrification. The study used municipal sewage sludge as a carbon and energy source for SO{sub 2}-reducing cultures. The individual tasks developed a consortium of sulfate-reducing bacteria, investigated the design parameters for a continuous process, preformed a cost analysis, and screened sulfate-reducing bacteria. In the investigation of microbial reduction of NO{sub x} to nitrogen, tasks included screening denitrifying bacteria for NO and NO{sub 2} activity, developing optimum NO-reducing cultures, and investigating design parameters for a continuous system. This final report reviews the work previous to the current project, describes project objectives and the specific work plan, and reports results from the work completed during the previous reporting periods.

  15. 循环流化床烟气脱硫模拟中试试验研究%Experimental Research on a Pilot-Scale Circulating Fluidized Bed for Flue Gas Desulfurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯斌; 李大骥; 周志良; 吴颖海; 杨军

    2001-01-01

    在东南大学热能工程研究所建立的φ600mm,处理烟气量达2000m3/h(标准状态,下同)的循环流化床烟气脱硫中试试验台上,进行了循环流化床烟气脱硫的试验研究.分别讨论了Ca与S的摩尔比、烟气流量、入口SO2浓度、反应温度等因素对脱硫效率影响.试验结果表明,Ca与S的摩尔比和反应温度的影响最为显著,烟气量和SO2入口浓度也有一定的影响,但不十分明显,说明循环流化床烟气脱硫工艺对锅炉负荷和燃煤煤种的变化有较好的适应性.%At present, SO2 pollution control of coal combustion is an urgenttask in the field of air pollution control in China. An experimental research was carried on the simulated pilot-scale test facility of Circulating Fluidized Bed for Flue Gas Desulfurization (CFB-FGD) whose diameter is 600mm and nominal flow rate of the flue gas is 2 000 m3/h in Thermal Engineering Research Institute of Southeast University. The Ca/S molar ratio and the reaction temperature have great influence on the efficiency of desulfurization, but the influences of the flow rate and SO2 inlet concentration are not obvious. So the result indicates that CFB-FGD technology is applicable for the variation of the boiler’s load and the coal used.

  16. Study of“Back to the Blue”Phenomenon of Iodine Titration Sintering Flue Gas Desulfurization Ash%碘滴定烧结烟气脱硫灰“回蓝”现象研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹鹏; 杨新亚

    2013-01-01

    Calcium sulfate content in sintering flue gas desulfurization ash were determined by using iodometric titration method. It was found that the Fe3+gradually dissolved caused phenomenon of“back to the blue”and the use of phosphoric acid as acidifier could effective shield Fe3+to titration interference. By using phosphoric acid as acidulant and controlling the pH of solution from 1.5 to 2.5, the titration results of the relative standard deviation was only 0.15%, could measure the content of calcium sulfite in sintering flue gas desulfurization ash accurately.%对碘量法测定烧结烟气脱硫灰中亚硫酸钙含量进行了研究。通过在 I-溶液中调节试验变量,发现滴定结束后出现“回蓝”现象是脱硫灰在酸性条件下逐渐溶出的Fe3+造成的。使用磷酸作为酸化剂则能有效掩蔽Fe3+对滴定的干扰,从而减小实验误差。利用加酸量的改变调节滴定溶液的酸性,测出脱硫灰中亚硫酸钙的含量和加入的标准亚硫酸钙的回收率,得到用磷酸做酸化剂,控制 pH 在1.5~2.5范围内,滴定结果的相对标准偏差仅为0.15%,能够准确测定烧结烟气脱硫灰中亚硫酸钙的含量。

  17. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, M.C.; Berggren, M.H.

    1988-11-14

    AMAX Research Development Center (AMAX R D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such As size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

  18. Design for the 145MW blast furnance gas firing gas turbine combined cycle plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takano, H. (Kawasaki Steel Corp., Chiba (Japan). Technical Research Lab.); Kitauchi, Y.; Hiura, H. (Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Takasago, Hyogo (Japan). Takasago Works)

    1988-01-01

    A 145 MW blast furnance gas firing gas turbine combined cycle plant was designed and installed in a steel works of Japan as a repowering unit. A 124 MW large scale gas turbine with turbine inlet temperature 1150{sup {degrees}}C (1423 K) was adopted as a core engine for the combined cycle plant. The fuel of this gas turbine is blast furnace gas mixed with coke oven gas which are byproducts in steel works, and the calorific value of the mixed gas to be controlled is about 1000 kcal/Nm{sup 3} (4187 kJ/Nm{sup 3}). A specially designed multi-cannular type combustor was developed to burn such a low BTV fuel. The gas turbine, generator, steam turbine and fuel gas compressor are connected to make a single shaft configuration. As a result of this introducing the gas turbine combined cycle plant, the plant thermal efficiency was achieved above 45% (at NET) and the total electricity generation in the works is increased from 243 MW to 317 MW. This paper describes the design features of this combined cycle plant.

  19. Selenium speciation in flue desulfurization residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Liping; Cao, Yan; Li, Wenying; Xie, Kechang; Pan, Wei-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Flue gas from coal combustion contains significant amounts of volatile selenium (Se). The capture of Se in the flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber unit has resulted in a generation of metal-laden residues. It is important to determine Se speciation to understand the environmental impact of its disposal. A simple method has been developed for selective inorganic Se(IV), Se(VI) and organic Se determination in the liquid-phase FGD residues by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS). It has been determined that Se(IV), Se(VI) and organic Se can be accurately determined with detection limits (DL) of 0.05, 0.06 and 0.06 microg/L, respectively. The accuracy of the proposed method was evaluated by analyzing the certified reference material, NIST CRM 1632c, and also by analyzing spiked tap-water samples. Analysis indicates that the concentration of Se is high in FGD liquid residues and primarily exists in a reduced state as selenite (Se(IV)). The toxicity of Se(IV) is the strongest of all Se species. Flue gas desulfurization residues pose a serious environmental risk.

  20. Selenium speciation in flue desulfurization residues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liping Zhong; Yan Cao; Wenying Li; Kechang Xie; Wei-Ping Pan

    2011-01-01

    Flue gas from coal combustion contains significant amounts of volatile selenium (Se).The capture of Se in the flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber unit has resulted in a generation of metal-laden residues.It is important to determine Se speciation to understand the environmental impact of its disposal.A simple method has been developed for selective inorganic Se(Ⅳ), Se(Ⅵ) and organic Se determination in the liquid-phase FGD residues by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS).It has been determined that Se(Ⅳ), Se(Ⅵ) and organic Se can be accurately determined with detection limits (DL) of 0.05, 0.06 and 0.06 μg/L, respectively.The accuracy of the proposed method was evaluated by analyzing the certified reference material, NIST CRM 1632c, and also by analyzing spiked tap-water samples.Analysis indicates that the concentration of Se is nigh in FGD liquid residues and primarily exists in a reduced state as selenite (Se(Ⅳ)).The toxicity of Se(Ⅳ) is the strongest of all Se species.Flue gas desulfurization residues pose a serious environmental risk.

  1. NID dry desulfurization system -- An update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahman, S.; Bengtsson, S.

    1998-07-01

    The development of ABB's low cost flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system has been reported in various papers during 1997. The system combines low cost and simple operation with very good performance and is targeted especially for the emerging markets in Asia and East Europe. This method is capable of achieving 90+% SO{sub 2} removal, irrespective of sulphur content in the fuel. The system is further easy to retrofit at existing sites; it has a minimum space requirement. An important feature of the dry FGD technology, sometimes not highlighted enough, is the fact that particulate collection of fly ash is facilitated by the FGD system at no extra capital charge. The flue gas temperature after a DFGD system also often allows the flue gas to be passed on to an existing stack without reheat. ``NID'' is an acronym for ``Novel Integrated Desulfurization'', indicative of the innovative nature of this FGD technology enabled by the integration of several subfunctionalities into one unit. The first two commercial plants were installed by the Polish power company Elektrownia Laziska. These full scale units were commissioned during 1996. A third unit at a diesel power station in Finland is at the time of writing in the commissioning stage.

  2. Preparation of microbial desulfurization catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A Rhodococcus sp. 1awq, a bacterium isolated from the soil cleaving the C-S bond of dibenzothiophene (DBT) via specific pathway, was investigated for cell growth and for its role in desulfurization. Clearly, the end product, 2-hydroxybiphenyl, inhibited the growth of the strain, the synthesis of the desulfurization enzymes, and the activity of the enzymes. The effects of sulfate on the DBT degradation enzymes were examined in the Rhodococcus sp. 1awq growth system with DBT; the sulfate served, concurrently, as the sulfur source. The condition of the resting cells that were used in desulfurization, was also studied. The optimal concentration of the resting cells and the reaction conditions were determined. It was documented that there is no difference between desulfurization activity for resting cells cultured with sulfate as the sole sulfur source and that with the mixture of DBT and sulfate as the sulfur source.

  3. The Biocatalytic Desulfurization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Nunn; James Boltz; Philip M. DiGrazia; Larry Nace

    2006-03-03

    The material in this report summarizes the Diversa technical effort in development of a biocatalyst for the biodesulfurization of Petro Star diesel as well as an economic report of standalone and combined desulfurization options, prepared by Pelorus and Anvil, to support and inform the development of a commercially viable process. We will discuss goals of the projected as originally stated and their modification as guided by parallel efforts to evaluate commercialization economics and process parameters. We describe efforts to identify novel genes and hosts for the generation of an optimal biocatalyst, analysis of diesel fuels (untreated, chemically oxidized and hydrotreated) for organosulfur compound composition and directed evolution of enzymes central to the biodesulfurization pathway to optimize properties important for their use in a biocatalyst. Finally we will summarize the challenges and issues that are central to successful development of a viable biodesulfurization process.

  4. Utilisation des écumes de sucrerie pour la désulfuration des fumées Using Sugar Factory Carbonatation Lime for Flue-Gas Desulfurization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolignier J. C.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Des études ont été réalisées par l'Institut français du pétrole et Babcock Entreprise pour montrer que l'écume de sucrerie pouvait être utilisée comme agent de désulfuration dans la chaudière Aude, un nouvel équipement de combustion permettant l'emploi de combustibles à haute teneur en soufre. Les tests ont été effectués en laboratoire et sur une chaudière semi-industrielle de 10 MW. L'écume de sucrerie donne des rendements de désulfuration supérieurs à ceux obtenus avec des calcaires naturels finement broyés. De plus, l'azote contenu dans l'écume permet de réduire les émissions de NOx selon le mécanisme de la réduction sélective non catalytique. Les utilisateurs de combustibles à haute teneur en soufre, qui devront faire face à une législation de plus en plus sévère, pourraient réduire leur coût annuel d'absorbants en utilisant l'écume de sucrerie. Par ailleurs, les producteurs de sucre auraient l'opportunité de mettre en place une nouvelle filière de valorisation pour leurs écumes. La teneur en eau élevée de l'écume n'autorise pas un transport sur de longues distances et des calculs ont été effectués pour définir la distance à partir de laquelle l'écume devient moins rentable que le calcaire. Studies have been carried out by the Institut français du pétrole and Babcock Entreprise to demonstrate that sugar factory carbonatation lime can be used as a desulfurization agent in the Aude boiler, which is a new combustion apparatus designed to use high sulfur fuels. Tests have been conducted both in the laboratory and on a near-industrial-scale 10 MW boiler. Sugar factory carbonatation lime provides greater desulfurization efficiency than that obtained using finely crushed natural limestone. Furthermore, the nitrogen contained in the carbonatation lime reduces NOx, emissions through selective non-catalytic reduction. Those who use high sulfur content fuels, and who are faced with increasingly

  5. Desulfurization of coal and petroleum. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the desulfurization of coal, coal liquids, and crude oil. Flotation heap leaching, oxydesulfurization, metal oxide, microwave process, and chlorination are among the pre-combustion processes discussed. Coal liquefaction and gasification are only included if sulfur removal is stressed. Flue gas desulfurization and other post-combustion sulfur control processes are excluded. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  6. 大型 H 型钢高焦加压站系统的优化改造%Transformation of Gas Pressurization Station System for Large H Steel Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀华

    2015-01-01

    The gas pressurization station system for large H steel production is mainly to complete the supply of pressurized coke oven gas and blast furnace gas .The QUANTUM series PLC of Schneider is used in the automatic control system ,and the coke oven gas compression station and the blast furnace gas compression station use a set of PLC control system ,they are connected by the remote I/O mode ,the communication between the PLC and the server is realized through the Ethernet ,the server and the monitor computer use the same way to communicate .The server can be used as a monitor machine .The control way can realize sequence control and loop control ,automatic start/stop and electric interlock protection ,process data acquisition and processing ,etc .%大型H型钢高焦加压站系统主要是完成焦炉煤气和高炉煤气加压后外供给用户。该自控系统采用施耐德的QUANTUM系列PLC。高、焦炉煤气加压站共使用一台QUANTUM PLC控制,通过远程I/O方式连接两个机架,用Ethernet实现PLC与服务器之间的连接以及服务器与监控机之间的连接,服务器同时兼做监控机,完成全过程的顺序控制和回路控制,实现了生产工艺设备的自动启停及电气联锁保护、工艺生产过程的数据采集、数据处理等。

  7. Sulfur Flow Analysis for New Generation Steel Manufacturing Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Chang-qing; ZHANG Chun-xia; HAN Xiao-wei; YIN Rui-yu

    2008-01-01

    Sulfur flow for new generation steel manufacturing process is analyzed by the method of material flow analysis,and measures for SO2 emission reduction are put forward as assessment and target intervention of the results.The results of sulfur flow analysis indicate that 90% of sulfur comes from fuels.Sulfur finally discharges from the steel manufacturing route in various steps,and the main point is BF and BOF slag desulfurization.In sintering process,the sulfur is removed by gasification,and sintering process is the main source of SO2 emission.The sulfur content of coke oven gas (COG) is an important factor affecting SO2 emission.Therefore,SO2 emission reduction should be started from the optimization and integration of steel manufacturing route,sulfur burden should be reduced through energy saving and consumption reduction,and the sulfur content of fuel should be controlled.At the same time,BF and BOF slag desulfurization should be optimized further and coke oven gas and sintering exhausted gas desulfurization should be adopted for SO2 emission reduction and reuse of resource,to achieve harmonic coordination of economic,social,and environmental effects for sustainable development.

  8. Deep desulfurization of full range and low boiling diesel streams from Kuwait Lower Fars heavy crude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marafi, A.; Al-Hindi, A.; Stanislaus, A. [Petroleum and Refining Department, Petroleum Research and Studies Center, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (Kuwait)

    2007-09-15

    Information on feed quality and, in particular, various types of sulfur compounds present in the diesel (gas oil) fractions produced form different crudes and their HDS reactivities under different operating conditions are of a great value for the optimization and economics of the deep HDS process. This paper deals with deep desulfurization of gas oils obtained from a new heavy Kuwaiti crude, namely, Lower Fars (LF) which will be processed in the future at Kuwaiti refineries. Comparative studies were carried out to examine the extent of deep HDS, and the quality of diesel product using two gas oil feeds with different boiling ranges. The results revealed that the full range diesel feed stream produced from the LF crude was very difficult to desulfurize due to its low quality caused by high aromatics content (low feed saturation) together with the presence of high concentrations of organic nitrogen compounds and sterically hindered alkyl DBTs. The low-boiling range gas oil showed better desulfurization compared with the full range gas oil, however, deep desulfurization to 50 ppm sulfur was not achieved even at a temperature as high as 380 C for both feeds. The desulfurized diesel product from the low-boiling gas-oil feed was better in quality with respect to the S, N and PNA contents and cetane index than the full-range gas-oil feed. (author)

  9. THE BIOCATALYTIC DESULFURIZATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven E. Bonde; David Nunn

    2003-01-01

    During the first quarter of the Biological Desulfurization project several activities were pursued. A project kickoff meeting was held at the Diversa facility in San Diego, CA. Activities that were in process before the meeting and begun afterwards by Diversa Corporation and Petro Star Inc. include: Technology transfer in the form of information generated by Enchira to Diversa, the purchase and installation of equipment by Diversa, development of synthetic methods and preparation of organo-sulfur substrates for use in determining enzyme activities, production of extract via Petro Star's CED process, detailed analysis of Petro Star Inc. diesel and CED extract, and several activities in molecular biology. Diversa Corporation, in the area of molecular biology, engaged in several activities in support of the task list of the contract. These included: construction of a genomic library; development and utilization of a sequence-based gene discovery effort; a parallel discovery approach based on functional expression of enzymes with the ability to oxidize organosulfur compounds. Biodesulfurization genes have already been identified and are being sequenced and subcloned for expression in heterologous biological hosts. Diversa has evaluated and adapted assays developed by Enchira used to assess the activities of DBT and DBTO{sub 2} monooxygenases. Finally, Diversa personnel have developed two novel selection/screen strategies for the improvement of biocatalyst strains by directed evolution.

  10. 40 CFR 63.311 - Reporting and recordkeeping requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., that no coke oven gas was vented, except through the bypass/bleeder stack flare system of a by-product... venting of coke oven gas other than through a flare system. The owner or operator shall report any venting...: (1) Statement signed by the owner or operator, certifying that a bypass/bleeder stack flare system...

  11. The measurement of the H2S in the pre-desulfurization of natural gas in the Shengli oil field with the TDL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Xiao-wen; Zhang, Yu-jun; Yu, Dian-qiang; Zhang, Shuai; Cui, Yi-ben; Kan, Rui-feng; He, Ying; Geng, Hui; Dong, Jin-ting; Liu, Wen-qing

    2009-07-01

    Hydrogen Sulfide, with the character of erosion and strong toxicity, is a kind of associated gas of nature gas. How to measure and monitor the hydrogen sulfide concentration becomes an important issue to be solved in nature gas transfer-process. Online measurement for the hydrogen sulfide concentration before the desulphurization remains very difficult in Bonan gas gathering station of SINOPEC Shengli Oil Field (SOF).TDL(Tunable Diode Laser) can relative easily select the absorption line of the detecting gas without the interference from other gas thus make the rapid and accurate hydrogen sulfide measurement a possible. In this paper, a hydrogen sulfide measurement system is designed and then be carried out in Bonan gas gathering station of (SOF) .The implemented experiments showed the system effectively solved some problems such as overfall, temperature and pressure. After comparing the hydrogen sulfide online detection sensor of the TDLAS industry with the long hydrogen sulfide detection tube, the linear fitted relationship with the correlation coefficient of 99.96% between them was attained. In order to meet the requests of industrial field anti-explosion, the open-path optical coupling technology was performed in china for the first time. All the results demonstrate that the system will be put into use and enjoy a high application in the near future.

  12. The extent of the influence and flux estimation of volatile mercury from the aeration pool in a typical coal-fired power plant equipped with a seawater flue gas desulfurization system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lumin; Feng, Lifeng; Yuan, Dongxing; Lin, Shanshan; Huang, Shuyuan; Gao, Liangming; Zhu, Yong

    2013-02-01

    Before being discharged, the waste seawater from the flue gas desulfurization system of coal-fired power plants contains a large amount of mercury, and is treated in aeration pools. During this aeration process, part of the mercury enters the atmosphere, but only very limited impact studies concerning this have been carried out. Taking a typical Xiamen power plant as an example, the present study targeted the elemental mercury emitted from the aeration pool. Concentrations of dissolved gaseous mercury as high as 1.14 ± 0.17 ng·L(-1) were observed in the surface waste seawater in the aeration pool, and gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) as high as 10.94 ± 1.89 ng·m(-3) was found in the air above the pool. To investigate the area affected by this GEM through air transfer, the total mercury in the dust and topsoil samples around the aeration pool were analyzed. Much higher values were found compared to those at a reference site. Environmental factors other than solar radiation had limited influence on the concentrations of the mercury species in the pool. A simulation device was built in our laboratory to study the flux of mercury from the aeration pool into the air. The results showed that more than 0.59 kg of mercury was released from the aeration pool every year, occupying 0.3% of the total mercury in the waste seawater. The transfer of mercury from water to air during the aeration pool and its environmental influence should not be ignored.

  13. 离子色谱法测定烟气脱硫海水中的亚硫酸根离子%Determination of sulfite in flue gas desulfurization with seawater by ion chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹丽倩; 袁东星; 郭娟; 刘锡尧

    2009-01-01

    The technology for flue gas desulfurization (FGD) with seawater is widely adopted by coal-fired power plants in coastal areas. SO_2 in the flue gas is absorbed by alkaline seawater and transfered in aqueous phase as sulfite (SO~(2-)_3) , and most SO~(2-)_3 is transformed to sulfate (SO~(2-)_4) after an aeration process. The remaining SO~(2-)_3 in the seawater discharged to sea area may be harmful to marine organism because of its biological toxicity, thus it is necessary to determine the concentration of SO~(2-)_3 in the seawater for desulfurization. In this study, the method of determination of SO~(2-)_3 in the seawater by ion chromatography was investigated. The separation was achieved on an IonPac ASH A column with 14 mmol/L NaOH-12 mmol/L Na_2CO_3 solution as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.2 mL/min, and the detection was performed by a pulsed amperometric detector. Formaldehyde was added as a protective agent when sampling because the SO~(2-)_3 is easy to be oxidized. To avoid the formation of Mg(OH)_2 in the mobile phase with high pH value which might block the column, the Mg~(2+) in seawater was precipitated by NaOH solution (pH 12. 0) before sample determination. The method showed good linearity within the range of 0-100 mg/L with an average recovery of 116. 8%. The meth-od detection limit ( MDL) reached as low as 0. 05 mg/L. The relative standard deviations (RSD) for seawater matrix samples spiked at levels of 7. 5, 25. 0 and 75.0 mg/L were 2. 1%, 3. 1% and 4.0% (n =9) , respectively. The method has been applied for the determination of SO~(2-)_3 in flue gas desulfurization seawater with the advantages of being fast, sensitive and selective.%建立了燃煤电厂烟气脱硫海水中亚硫酸根(SO~(2-)_3)的离子色谱-脉冲安培检测方法.色谱柱为IonPac AS14A阴离子交换柱,流动相为14 mmol/L NaOH-12 mmol/L Na_2CO_3溶液(pH 11.7),流速1.2 mL/min,脉冲安培法检测.因SO~(2-)_3 易被氧化,故在采样时加入甲醛作为保护

  14. Study on method and mechanism for simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification of flue gas based on the TiO2 photocatalysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yi; ZHAO Li; HAN Jing; XU YongYi; WANG ShuQin

    2008-01-01

    Based on the TiO2 photocatalysis mechanism,a new method of simultaneous desuIfurizaUon and denitrification from flue gas was proposed. Preparation of TiO2 photocatalyst,design of photocatalysis reactor and influencing factors for simultaneous removal of SO2 and NO,and removal mechanism of SO2 and NO were studied. After the optimal values of concentration of O2 in flue gas,the relative humidity of flue gas and the irradiation time in the photocatalysis reactor were used,the efficiencies of removal for SO2 and NO can be achieved above 98% and about 67%,respectively. According to the results of removal products analysis,the removal mechanism of SO2 and NO based on TiO2 photocatlysis can be put forward,namely,SO2 was oxidized to SO2 partly,the bulk of NO was oxidized to NO2,and both were removed by resorbing finally.

  15. THE BIOCATALYTIC DESULFURIZATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Collins; David Nunn

    2003-10-01

    The analysis of Petro Star diesel sulfur species is complete and a report is attached. Further analytical efforts will concentrate on characterization of diesel fuel, hydrodesulfurized to varying degrees, in order to determine sulfur species that may be problematic to hydrogen treatment and represent potential target substrates for biodesulfurization in a combined HDS-BDS process. Quotes have been received and are being considered for the partial treatment of Petro Star Inc. marine diesel fuel. Direction of research is changing slightly; economic analysis of the hyphenated--BDSHDS, BDS-CED--has shown the highest probability of success to be with a BDS-HDS process where the biodesulfurization precedes hydrodesulfurization. Thus, the microorganisms will be tailored to focus on those compounds that tend to be recalcitrant to hydrodesulfurization and decrease the severity of the hydrodesulfurization step. A separate, detailed justification for this change is being prepared. Research activities have continued in the characterization of the desulfurization enzymes from multiple sources. Genes for all DszA, -B, -C and -D enzymes (and homologs) have been cloned and expressed. Activity determinations, on a variety of substituted benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene substrates, have been carried out and continue. In addition, chemical synthesis efforts have been carried out to generate additional substrates for analytical standards and activity determinations. The generation of a GSSM mutant library of the ''Rhodococcus IGTS8 dszA'' gene has been completed and development of protocols for a high throughput screen to expand substrate specificity are nearing completion. In an effort to obtain improved hosts as biocatalyst, one hundred-thirty ''Rhodococcus'' and related strains are being evaluated for growth characteristics and other criteria deemed important for an optimal biocatalyst strain. We have also begun an effort to generate

  16. Theoretical approach for enhanced mass transfer effects in-duct flue gas desulfurization processes. Volume 2, Duct spray drying: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jozewicz, W. [Acurex Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). Environmental Systems Div.; Rochelle, G.T. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1992-01-29

    Removal of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) from the flue gas of coal- burning power plants can be achieved by duct spray drying using calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH){sub 2}] slurries. A primary objective of this research was to discover the aspects of mass transfer into Ca(OH){sub 2} slurries which limit SO{sub 2} absorption. A bench- scale stirred tank reactor with a flat gas/liquid interface was used to simulate SO{sub 2} absorption in a slurry droplet. The absorption rate of SO{sub 2} from gas concentrations of 500 to 5000 ppm was measured at 55{degrees}C in clear solutions and slurries of Ca(OH){sub 2} up to 1.0 M (7 wt percent). Results are reported in terms of the enhancement factor, {O}. This research will allow prediction of conditions where the absorption of SO{sub 2} in Ca(OH){sub 2} slurries can be enhanced by changes to liquid phase constituents (under which SO{sub 2} absorption is controlled by liquid film mass transfer). Experiments in the stirred tank have shown that SO{sub 2} absorption in a 1.0 M Ca(OH){sub 2} slurry was completely dominated by gas film mass transfer with a large excess of Ca(OH){sub 2} but becomes controlled by liquid film resistance at greater than 50 percent Ca(OH){sub 2} utilization. (VC)

  17. Démonstration du procédé IFP de désulfuration des fumées de centrales Demonstration of the Ifp Stack-Gas Desulfurization Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busson C.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Les produits pétroliers et le charbon continueront à couvrir les besoins énergétiques pendant plusieurs décennies. La pollution par le SOZ, provenant de la combustion de ces combustibles fossiles, devient une préoccupation pour la population et les Pouvoirs publics. La désulfuration des fumées de combustion devrait, à plus ou moins longue échéance, se développer. L'Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP, mettant à profit ses travaux dans le domaine de la désulfuration, a développé un procédé de traitement des fumées. L'IFP, en collaboration avec Électricité de France (EDF, a effectué en 1976 une opération de démonstration à une échelle pilote (30 MW dans la Centrale de Champagne-sur-Oise. Le procédé consiste à éliminer le S02 des fumées par lavage avec une solution ammoniacale, à produire du soufre à partir de la liqueur obtenue et à recycler l'ammoniaque dans l'étape de lavage. Après quelques modifications d'ordre technologique, l'unité de démonstration a fonctionné d'une manière continue pendant une période de trois mois, correspondant à l'objectif fixé. Les résultats obtenus permettent, actuellement, d'envisager une application de cette technique à une échelle de 250 MW. Oil and coal productswill continue to fulfill energy needs for several more decades. Pollution by SO2 coming from the combustion of such fossil fuels is becoming a preoccupation for the population and the public authorities. The desulfurization of combustion fumes should continue ta develop in the more or less long run. Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP has taken advantage of its research in the fixed of desulfurization to develop a stock-gas treating process. In collaboration with Électricite de Fronce (EDF, IFP carried out a demonsiration operation in 1976 on a pilot-plant scale (30MW in a power plant at Champagne-sur-Oise. The process consists in removing S02 from stock gases by scrubbing them with an ammonia solution

  18. Characteristics of dibenzothiophene desulfurization by Rhodococcus erythropolis R1 and its Dsz-negative mutant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Etemadifar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Biodesulfurization is used as a selective method for lowering the sulfur content of petroleum products. Materials and methods: A sulfur-oxidation bacterial strain named Rhodococcus erythropolis R1 (NCBI GenBank Accession No. GU570564 was used in this study for desulfurization of dibenzothiophene (DBT. Results: The induced culture of strain R1 was able to produce 2-hydroxybiphenyl (2- HBP from DBT followed 4S pathway without further degrading carbon backbone. This process confirmed by gas chromatography (GC analysis. The specific activity of DBT desulfurization by R1 was 45 µM (g dry wt-1 h-1. The addition of Tween 80 as surfactant and glycerol as carbon source determines a 100% rate of DBT-desulfurization during 3 days. The heavy plasmid detected in R1 strain carries dsz genes responsible for biodesulfurization of DBT that was shown by PCR reaction. The mutant strains which had lost this plasmid also had lost desulfurization phenotype. Both mutant and wild strain were sensitive to high concentration of 2-HBP and some antibiotics. Discussion and conclusion: Strain R1 desulfurize DBT through the sulfur-specific degradation pathway or 4S pathway with the selective cleavage of carbon-sulfur (C-S bonds without reducing the energy content. Addition of surfactant enhanced the desulfurization of DBT by increasing its bioavailability and also could improve the growth and desulfurization rate. The location of desulfurization genes was on a heavy plasmid in strain R1. Based on the results of this study, R. erythropolis R1 could serve as a model system for efficient biodesulfurization of petroleum oil without reducing the energy value.

  19. Capsule report: Double alkali flue gas desulfurization system applied at the General Motors Parma, Ohio Facility. Report for August 1974-May 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1979-02-01

    In 1969 General Motors began pilot operations of its Double Alkali SO2 Control System to determine the applicability of stack gas scrubbing to its industrial powerhouses. Using data from its two-year pilot plant development program, General Motors designed and constructed a complete industrial-scale demonstration plant capable of handling the emissions from all four coal fired boilers at the Chevrolet-Parma plant near Cleveland, Ohio. This report describes the results of the test program at Parma.

  20. Cooperative research on the combustion characteristics of cofired desulfurized Illinois coal and char with natural gas. Technical report, December 1, 1991--February 29, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckius, R.O.; Wu, Cheng-Kang; Krier, H.; Peters, J.E.

    1992-08-01

    The objective of this project is to determine the contributions of coal type, sulfur type, temperature, and residence time on the coal combustion behavior (especially the effects on ash constituents) during cofiring with natural gas. The Drop Tube Furnace Facility at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign is the chief apparatus to be used in this investigation, with additional diagnostic tools including scanning electron microscopy and other chemical analyses. A complete review of literature related to the project was performed, and a detailed strategy outlined for carrying out the research. It was determined that the DTFF would be modified to extend the operating range to larger sample collection capabilities and higher temperatures (up to 2000K). The modification of the DTFF has been completed. The specific ash characterization experiments are reported in the quarterly TECHNICAL REPORT for the project entitled ``Combustion of Illinois coals and chars with Natural Gas``. Note that preliminary runs with IBC106 coal with and without methane cofiring in the furnace have produced consistent results with the sulfur analyzed by the LECO Sulfur Determinator. A series of tests will be performed to determine how the overall operating conditions affect sulfur transformation. The furnace will then be tested with the plasma heater to reach the designed gas temperature of 2000K.

  1. Adsorptive desulfurization of diesel with mesoporous aluminosilicates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Huang; LI Wang-Liang; LIU Qing-Fen; GUAN Li-Li; SONG Jia-Qing; XING dian-Min; LIU Hui-Zhou

    2009-01-01

    Mesoporous aluminosilicates (MAS) bearing microporous zeolite units and mesoporous structures were synthesized by the hydrothermal method. Adsorptive desulfurization ability of model oil and hy-drotreated diesel was studied. The effects of template concentration, crystalization time and calcination time were investigated. The desulfurization ability of adsorbents was improved by transitional metal ion-exchanging. The adsorptive desulfurization of diesel was carried out on a fixed-bed system. The results show that the adsorptive capacity is MASMCM-41NaY. The improvement of desulfurization ability of MAS by Cu+ is more significant than that of Ag+.

  2. Mathematical Model of Hot Metal Desulfurization by Powder Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Cepeda Rodríguez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although there have been a numerous number of studies on mathematical model of hot metal desulfurization by deep injection of calcium carbide, the research field as a whole is not well integrated. This paper presents a model that takes into account the kinetics, thermodynamics, and transport processes to predict the sulfur levels in the hot metal throughout a blow. The model could be utilized to assess the influence of the treatment temperature, rate of injection, gas flow rate, and initial concentration of sulfur on the desulfurization kinetics. In the second part of this paper an analysis of the industrial data for injection of calcium carbide using this model is described. From a mathematical model that describes the characteristics of a system, it is possible to predict the behavior of the variables involved in the process, resulting in savings of time and money. Discretization is realized through the finite difference method combined with interpolation in the border domain by Taylor series.

  3. Development of Desulfurization Process Technology in Combinative Methanol Process%联醇工艺中脱硫工艺技术的发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜鑫

    2012-01-01

    Author has discussed and compared the technical principle and process feature for tannin extract dcsulfurization method, ADA desulfuriza- tion process, PDS desulfurization process, Zinc oxide desulfurization process,iron-oxide desulfurization process, active carbon desulfurization process, Fe-Mo hydrogenation reformation method desulfurization process, organic sulfur hydrolysis desulfurization process, which were adopted during process of raw material gas desulfurization in combinative methanol process ; has presented that making the wet desulfurization process and dry desulfurization process was reasonably combined, and in combination with selecting idea for desulfurization process of organic sulfur hydrolysis unit; has summarized the important role in combinative methanol production process for desulfurization process of "desulfurization in 3 times and reformation in 2 times".%论述和对比了联醇工艺中原料气脱硫所采用的栲胶脱硫工艺、ADA脱硫工艺、PDS脱硫工艺、氧化锌脱硫工艺、氧化铁脱硫工艺、活性炭脱硫工艺、铁钼加氢转化法脱硫工艺、有机硫水解脱硫工艺的技术原理和工艺特点;提出了将湿法脱硫与干法脱硫工艺进行合理组合,并结合有机硫水解装置的脱硫工艺选择理念;总结了“3次脱硫2次转化”脱硫工艺在联醇生产中的重要作用。

  4. Microbial desulfurization of fuel oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Culture conditions of desulfurization microbes were investigated with a bioreactor controlled by computer.Factors such as pH, choice of carbon source, optimal concentrations of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur sources were determined. The addition of carbon in a culture with a constant pH greatly improved the growth of Rhodococcus. Cells and cell debris from microbes rested using a sulfur- specific pathway were used to desulfurize diesel oil treated by hydrodesulfurization (acquired from the Research Institute of Fushun Petroleum with total sulfur level at 205 μg/mL).Strains 1awq, IG, X7B, ZT, ZCR, and a mixture of No. 5 and No. 6, were used in the biodesulfurization process. The reduction of total sulfur was between 10.6% and 90.3%.

  5. SO sub 2 production for simultaneous washing of SO sub 2 and NO sub x in simultaneous washers downstream of flue gas desulfurization plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoelter, H.; Igelbuescher, H.; Gresch, H.; Dewert, H.

    1987-03-05

    It is well known that in slag tap fired boilers the ratio of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} is partially so unfavourable that a reasonable process for the separation of NO{sub x} cannot be ensured. For this reason disulphite must often be added to the scrubbing liquid. In order to avoid this it was often suggested to recycle the gypsum into the combustion chamber of the slag tap furnace. By this a decomposition for the separation of SO{sub 2} could only partially be achieved. In order to overcome this disadvantage it is suggested, according to the invention, to mix the gypsum obtained from the flue gas desulphuration plant with coal and to feed it in finest dispersion into the combustion chamber via the burner so that through a sufficient retention time the removal of SO{sub 2} from gypsum can be ensured.

  6. Study on Desulfurization Flue Gas Continuous Emission Monitoring System (CEMS) Renovation%脱硫烟气在线监测系统(CEMS)改造探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪朝阳; 姚瑛瑛

    2015-01-01

    The article introduces continuous emission monitoring system (CEMS) classification and all kinds of measurement systems’ characteristics. It also analyzes flue gas CEMS current situation and existing problems through advantages and disadvantages comparison of different type CEMS and puts forward renovation solution. Renovation improves CEMS equipment stable operation and achieves energy-saving and emission-reducing.%介绍了烟气在线监测系统(CEMS)的分类及各类测量系统的特点,对不同种类CEMS优缺点进行比较,分析了烟气在线监测系统(CEMS)的现状及存在的问题,并提出了改造提出方案,通过改造提高了CEMS设备运行的可靠性,实现了节能减排和环保双赢的目的。

  7. Desulfurization of dibenzothiophene (DBT) by a novel strain Lysinibacillus sphaericus DMT-7 isolated from diesel contaminated soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ashutosh Bahuguna; Madhuri K. Lily; Ashok Munjal; Ravindra N. Singh; Koushalya Dangwal

    2011-01-01

    A new bacterial strain DMT-7 capable of selectively desulfurizing dibenzothiophene (DBT) was isolated from diesel contaminated soil.The DMT-7 was characterized and identified as Lysinibacillus sphaericus DMT-7 (NCBI GenBank Accession No.GQ496620) using 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis.The desulfurized product of DBT, 2-hydroxybiphenyl (2HBP), was identified and confirmed by high performance liquid chromatography analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis respectively.The desulfurization kinetics revealed that DMT-7 started desulfurization of DBT into 2HBP after the lag phase of 24 hr, exponentially increasing the accumulation of 2HBP up to 15 days leading to approximately 60% desulfurization of the DBT.However, further growth resulted into DBT degradation.The induced culture of DMT-7 showed shorter lag phase of 6 hr and early onset of stationary phase within 10 days for desulfurization as compared to that of non-induced culture clearly indicating the inducibility of the desulfurization pathway of DMT-7.In addition, Lysinibacillus sphaericus DMT-7 also possess the ability to utilize broad range of substrates as sole source of sulfur such as benzothiophene, 3,4-benzo DBT, 4,6-dimethyl DBT, and 4,6-dibutyl DBT.Therefore, Lysinibacillus sphaericus DMT-7 could serve as model system for efficient biodesulfurization of diesel and petrol.

  8. Desulfurization of dibenzothiophene (DBT) by a novel strain Lysinibacillus sphaericus DMT-7 isolated from diesel contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahuguna, Ashutosh; Lily, Madhuri K; Munjal, Ashok; Singh, Ravindra N; Dangwal, Koushalya

    2011-01-01

    A new bacterial strain DMT-7 capable of selectively desulfurizing dibenzothiophene (DBT) was isolated from diesel contaminated soil. The DMT-7 was characterized and identified as Lysinibacillus sphaericus DMT-7 (NCBI GenBank Accession No. GQ496620) using 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. The desulfurized product of DBT, 2-hydroxybiphenyl (2HBP), was identified and confirmed by high performance liquid chromatography analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis respectively. The desulfurization kinetics revealed that DMT-7 started desulfurization of DBT into 2HBP after the lag phase of 24 hr, exponentially increasing the accumulation of 2HBP up to 15 days leading to approximately 60% desulfurization of the DBT. However, further growth resulted into DBT degradation. The induced culture of DMT-7 showed shorter lag phase of 6 hr and early onset of stationary phase within 10 days for desulfurization as compared to that of non-induced culture clearly indicating the inducibility of the desulfurization pathway of DMT-7. In addition, Lysinibacillus sphaericus DMT-7 also possess the ability to utilize broad range of substrates as sole source of sulfur such as benzothiophene, 3,4-benzo DBT, 4,6-dimethyl DBT, and 4,6-dibutyl DBT. Therefore, Lysinibacillus sphaericus DMT-7 could serve as model system for efficient biodesulfurization of diesel and petrol.

  9. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF THE WASTE FROM INSTALLATION OF SEMI-DRY FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION OF INDUSTRIAL CHP PLANT IN JANIKOWO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Plaskacz-Dziuba

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of the analysis of waste from semi-dry flue gas desulphurisation installation called Integrated Novel Desulphurisation (NID. A comprehensive analysis of the physicochemical properties was conducted, including analyzes of the content of ions SO32- and SO42- (relating to 2CaSO3·H2O i CaSO4·2H2O, moisture, SiO2 and R2O3 and SEM-EDX analysis. The original method for the determination of sulphates (IV using a potentiometric titrator was designed. Determined that the main component of both studied wastes was 2CaSO3·H2O, and its content is for NID 1 – 41,24±0,63%, for NID 2 – 45,53±0,33%. The content of CaSO4·2H2O, which was determined by gravimetric method amounted for the NID 1 – 8,92±0,12%, for the NID 2 – 8,27±0,08%. The moisture content for both tested materials was about 4%, the content of SiO2 was in the range of 8–10%, and R2O3 content was about 1%. It was also shown that the test material is not homogenous. Images from scanning electron microscope showed that in the waste occured irregularly agglomerates with a diameter between 30 and 100 microns. EDX analysis revealed that elements constituted NID wastes are oxygen, sulfur, calcium, chlorine, silicon, aluminum, copper and carbon.

  10. Desulfurization of fuels with calcium-based sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasian, J.; Rehmat, A.; Leppin, D.; Banerjee, D.D. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (USA))

    1990-04-01

    Calcium-based sorbents, such as limestone and dolomite, are viable candidates for sulphur-capturing agents in an in-situ coal gasification/desulfurization process. The effect of limestone addition on the hydrodynamics of a fluidized-bed gasifier, desulfurization of the product gas, and stabilization of the solid wastes have been studied. The hydrodynamic characteristics of coal char/limestone mixtures, such as mixing and fines retention, have been studied in a 0.2 m diameter fluidization column. Kinetic data pertaining to the reaction between calcium oxide (which is obtained by calcination of limestone and dolomite) and hydrogen sulfide have been obtained by a gravimetric technique in the temperature range of 650 to 1050{degree}C. Kinetic data relating to the reaction between calcium sulfide (which is obtained by sulfidation of calcium-based sorbents) and oxygen have been obtained in the temperature range of 800 to 1050{degree}C and in the pressure range of 2 to 3.1 MPa. The operating conditions for these reactions have been chosen to be within the application range of a commercial coal gasification process that is accompanied by in situ desulfurization. 14 refs., 8 figs., 7 tabs.

  11. Selection of Chelated Fe (III)/Fe (II) Catalytic Oxidation Agents for Desulfurization Based on Iron Complexation Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Ying; Liu Youzhi; Qi Guisheng; Guo Huidong; Zhu Zhengfeng

    2014-01-01

    Optimization of factors inlfuencing the experiments on reactions involving 8 different chelating agents and sol-uble Fe (III)/Fe (II) salts was carried out to yield chelated iron complexes. A combination of optimized inlfuencing factors has resulted in a Fe chelating capacity of the iron-based desulfurization solution to be equal to 6.83-13.56 g/L at a redox potential of 0.185-0.3. The desulfurization performance of Fe (III)/Fe (II) chelating agents was investigated on a simulated sulfur-containing industrial gas composed of H2S and N2 in a cross-lfow rotating packed bed. Test results have revealed that the proposed iron-based desulfurization solution showed a sulfur removal efifciency of over 99%along with a Fe chelating capacity exceeding 1.35 g/L. This desulfurization technology which has practical application prospect is currently in the phase of commercial scale-up study.

  12. CONVERSION EXTRACTION DESULFURIZATION (CED) PHASE III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Boltz

    2005-03-01

    This project was undertaken to refine the Conversion Extraction Desulfurization (CED) technology to efficiently and economically remove sulfur from diesel fuel to levels below 15-ppm. CED is considered a generic term covering all desulfurization processes that involve oxidation and extraction. The CED process first extracts a fraction of the sulfur from the diesel, then selectively oxidizes the remaining sulfur compounds, and finally extracts these oxidized materials. The Department of Energy (DOE) awarded Petro Star Inc. a contract to fund Phase III of the CED process development. Phase III consisted of testing a continuous-flow process, optimization of the process steps, design of a pilot plant, and completion of a market study for licensing the process. Petro Star and the Degussa Corporation in coordination with Koch Modular Process Systems (KMPS) tested six key process steps in a 7.6-centimeter (cm) (3.0-inch) inside diameter (ID) column at gas oil feed rates of 7.8 to 93.3 liters per hour (l/h) (2.1 to 24.6 gallons per hour). The team verified the technical feasibility with respect to hydraulics for each unit operation tested and successfully demonstrated pre-extraction and solvent recovery distillation. Test operations conducted at KMPS demonstrated that the oxidation reaction converted a maximum of 97% of the thiophenes. The CED Process Development Team demonstrated that CED technology is capable of reducing the sulfur content of light atmospheric gas oil from 5,000-ppm to less than 15-ppm within the laboratory scale. In continuous flow trials, the CED process consistently produced fuel with approximately 20-ppm of sulfur. The process economics study calculated an estimated process cost of $5.70 per product barrel. The Kline Company performed a marketing study to evaluate the possibility of licensing the CED technology. Kline concluded that only 13 refineries harbored opportunity for the CED process. The Kline study and the research team's discussions

  13. Confined zone dispersion flue gas desulfurization demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-15

    This is the sixth quarterly report for this project and it covers work performed on Phase 3a of the project from February 1, 1992 through April 30, 1992. Extension of the parametric test period through June 1992 provides an opportunity to regain most of the schedule slippage, but only if the modifications needed for continuous operation of the CZD system are installed concurrent with the extended test period. These modifications include automation of the lime preparation and transfer system, automatic injection control, and related instrumentation and controls as necessary to integrate the operation of the CZD system with Seward Station Boiler No. 15. Early installation of these modifications would permit testing, debugging and adjustment of the automatic control system during the parametric test period. Results of current testing indicate that considerable testing and adjustment will be required to optimize operation of the CZD system after it is automated for continuous operation. Therefore, we intend to incorporate in Phase 3a(parametric testing) the system modifications needed for continuous automatic operation that were originally included in Phase 3b. Phase 3b would then be limited only to the one-year continuous demonstration.

  14. Flue gas desulfurization gypsum and fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-01

    The Cumberland Fossil Plant (CUF) is located in Stewart County, Tennessee, and began commercial operation in 1972. This is the Tennessee Valley Authority`s newest fossil (coal-burning) steam electric generating plant. Under current operating conditions, the plant burns approximately seven million tons of coal annually. By-products from the combustion of coal are fly ash, approximately 428,000 tons annually, and bottom ash, approximately 115,000 tons annually. Based on historical load and projected ash production rates, a study was initially undertaken to identify feasible alternatives for marketing, utilization and disposal of ash by-products. The preferred alternative to ensure that facilities are planned for all by-products which will potentially be generated at CUF is to plan facilities to handle wet FGD gypsum and dry fly ash. A number of different sites were evaluated for their suitability for development as FGD gypsum and ash storage facilities. LAW Engineering was contracted to conduct onsite explorations of sites to develop information on the general mature of subsurface soil, rock and groundwater conditions in the site areas. Surveys were also conducted on each site to assess the presence of endangered and threatened species, wetlands and floodplains, archaeological and cultural resources, prime farmland and other site characteristics which must be considered from an environmental perspective.

  15. 氮负荷对烟气脱硫脱硝废水反硝化过程的影响%Effects of Nitrogen Load on Flue Gas Desulfurization and Denitrification of Wastewater Denitrification Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵樑; 倪伟敏; 贾秀英; 范慧婷

    2014-01-01

    Wastewater is simulated according to the main characteristics of flue gas desulfurization and denitrification of wastewater ,and the effects of different nitrate nitrogen loads on the change rules of C and N as well as the nitrogen removal effects in the process of wastewater denitrification .The results show that the nitrate removal rate is more than 95% after 12 h under the nitrate nitrogen load of 50~400 mg/L ,and there is 10% ~ 20% nitrate transformed into nitrite in the reaction .The consumption of TOC is increasing with the increase of nitrogen load ,however ,the degradation rate is decreasing ,it needs 5 .40 ,4 .03 ,3 .15 , 2.96 ,2 .88 ,2 .32 and 1 .9 mg TOC to degrade per mg nitrate nitrogen .TN removal includes the removals of nitrate ,nitrate and some organic nitrogen .TN removal and nitrate nitrogen removal happen almost simultaneously .At the end of the reaction ,the demand of △TOC/△TN is 1 .9~4 .0 under different nitrogen loads .The volume of denitrification rate increases from 2 .73 to 21.90 mg NO3-‐N/(L · h) when the nitrogen load increases from 50 to 400 mg/L .△TOC/△TN ,volume denitrification rate and nitrogen load have good linear relationship .%依据烟气脱硫脱硝废水的主要特征配制模拟废水,研究不同硝态氮负荷对该废水反硝化过程中C和N的变化规律及脱氮效果的影响.间歇式批次实验结果表明:氮负荷为50~400 mg/L时,经过12 h后硝态氮去除率达到95%以上,反应过程中有10%~20%硝态氮转化为亚硝态氮.随着氮负荷的增加,T OC的消耗量也在增加,但降解率逐渐减小,去除每毫克硝态氮所需TOC依次为5.40、4.03、3.15、2.96、2.88、2.32和1.9 mg . TN的去除包括硝态氮、亚硝态氮和部分有机氮的去除,亚硝态氮完全去除时TN也基本去除.反应结束时,不同氮负荷下所需的△TOC/△TN为1.9~4.0.氮负荷从50 mg/L增加至400 mg/L ,容积反硝化速率由2

  16. Study of fluidized-bed desulfurization with zinc ferrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grindley, T

    1991-01-01

    Previous work established the technical feasibility of desulfurizing the hot product gases of coal gasification with fixed beds of a regenerable zinc ferrite sorbent. This process, intended for integration with coal gasifiers and gas turbines, has been tested and studied in considerable detail in a process development unit. Though possessing the advantages of high-sulfur absorption at low-sulfur breakthrough and the lack of sorbent attrition characteristic of a stationary bed, fixed beds also have inherent disadvantages: susceptibility to plugging by particles and a large diluent requirement during regeneration to control the reaction zone temperature. Therefore, METC conducted a scoping laboratory test program to determine the desulfurizing capability of fluid beds of zinc ferrite. Results from this program are presented. The results generally demonstrated that fluid beds of zinc ferrite have the potential to lower the H{sub 2}S level in hot gas from 10,000 to 10 ppmv. To achieve this at a high-sorbent sulfur loading would require two fluid-bed stages. Sorbent attrition appears to be acceptably low. Planned future activities include tests at high pressure with both simulated gas and in a gasifier sidestream.

  17. Coal desulfurization through reverse micelle biocatalysis process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.; Yen, T.F.

    1988-01-01

    A novel bioprocess using micelle biocatalysis has been attempted to minimize several disadvantages of conventional microbial coal desulfurization scale-up processes. The reverse micelle biocatalysis process consists of a water-immiscible organic medium, a surfactant, an aqueous phase and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria or enzymes. This process has been successful for removing sulfur from bituminous coal (Illinois coal 5). The preliminary results showed that coal desulfurization through the use of cell-free enzyme extracts of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 19859 was better than that of bacteria itself. The use of enzymes has shown potential for commercial coal desulfurization process as well. This same process is being applied to the thermophillic bacteria Sulfolobus acidocaldarius ATCC 33909. The implications of these experimental results are discussed, including a hypothetical mechanism using reverse micelle biocatalytical process for coal desulfurization.

  18. Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales -- Sulfur control. Topical report for Subtask 3.1, In-bed sulfur capture tests; Subtask 3.2, Electrostatic desulfurization; Subtask 3.3, Microbial desulfurization and denitrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, M.J.; Abbasian, J.; Akin, C.; Lau, F.S.; Maka, A.; Mensinger, M.C.; Punwani, D.V.; Rue, D.M. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Gidaspow, D.; Gupta, R.; Wasan, D.T. [Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago, IL (United States); Pfister, R.M.: Krieger, E.J. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1992-05-01

    This topical report on ``Sulfur Control`` presents the results of work conducted by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), and the Ohio State University (OSU) to develop three novel approaches for desulfurization that have shown good potential with coal and could be cost-effective for oil shales. These are (1) In-Bed Sulfur Capture using different sorbents (IGT), (2) Electrostatic Desulfurization (IIT), and (3) Microbial Desulfurization and Denitrification (OSU and IGT). The objective of the task on In-Bed Sulfur Capture was to determine the effectiveness of different sorbents (that is, limestone, calcined limestone, dolomite, and siderite) for capturing sulfur (as H{sub 2}S) in the reactor during hydroretorting. The objective of the task on Electrostatic Desulfurization was to determine the operating conditions necessary to achieve a high degree of sulfur removal and kerogen recovery in IIT`s electrostatic separator. The objectives of the task on Microbial Desulfurization and Denitrification were to (1) isolate microbial cultures and evaluate their ability to desulfurize and denitrify shale, (2) conduct laboratory-scale batch and continuous tests to improve and enhance microbial removal of these components, and (3) determine the effects of processing parameters, such as shale slurry concentration, solids settling characteristics, agitation rate, and pH on the process.

  19. Firing blast furnace gas without support fuel in steel mill boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, S.S.; Chen, C.H.; Chang, C.Y.; Wu, C.W.; Ou, J.J.; Lin, T.H. [National Cheng Kung University, Tainan (Taiwan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2011-07-15

    In this study, the combustion characteristics of firing blast furnace gas (BFG) individually or in combination with coke oven gas (COG) were investigated theoretically and experimentally. The theoretical results showed that at the same heat release rate under the operating conditions of stoichiometry, firing BFG individually had a greater amount of fuel gas volume flow rate, a smaller amount of air volume flow rate, and a lower adiabatic flame temperature than firing BFG with support fuel without preheating. Meanwhile, the volume flow rate of flue gas for the former was greater than the latter. The experimental results obtained from a co-firing of BFG and COG fueled-boiler in a steel company showed that whether at a higher or lower boiler load, with gradually decreasing the amount of COG supply, flame instability (lift-off and blow-out) did not occur and the rate of CO emission was very low. In addition, a decrease in the amount of COG supply brought about a great benefit to the reductions of both CO{sub 2} and NOx emissions.

  20. Numerical Investigation of the Low-Caloric Gas Burning Process in a Bottom Burner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redko A.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of low-grade gases in the fuel and energy balance of enterprises makes it possible to increase the energy efficiency of technological processes. The volumes of low-grade gases (blast furnace and coke oven gases, synthesis gas of coal gasification processes, biogas, coal gas, etc. that are utilized more significant in technological processes but their calorific value are low. At the same time artificial gases contain ballast gaseous (СО2, H2O and mechanical impurities that are harmful gas impurities. Their use requires technological preparation. Thus coal methane is characterized of high humidity, coal dust and drip moisture, variable composition. Thus was effective burning of coal methane it is required the development of constructive and regime measures that ensure a stable and complete burning of gaseous fuels. In this article it is presented the results of computer simulation of a stationary turbulent diffusion flame in a restricted space in the process of burning natural gas and coal methane in a bottom burner. The calculation results contain the fields of gear, temperature, concentration of CH4‚ CO‚ H2O‚ CO2 and nitrogen oxides. The structural elements of the flame (recirculation zone, hot "dome", mixing layer and far trace are determined. It has been established that complete combustion of coal methane in a modified bottom burner is ensured and the numerical values of nitrogen oxide concentrations in the flame are consistent with the literature data.

  1. Oxidative desulfurization of tire pyrolysis oil

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Shahzad; Ahmad Muhammad Imran; Naeem Khawar; Humayun Muhammad; Sebt-E-Zaeem; Faheem Farrukh

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a low cost method for the purification of oils obtained from the pyrolysis of used tires. Oxidative desulfurization is a promising route for purification of tire pyrolysis oils as hydro-desulfurization may not be affordable for small scale industries. Different additives and acids have been employed for the enhancement of properties of pyrolytic oils. The experimental conditions were kept identical throughout, i.e. atmospheric pressure a...

  2. Desulfurizer desulphurization kinetics by the injection method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhijun Han; Yanbin Hu; Wei Wu

    2008-01-01

    To obtain a better desulphurization effect in hot metal, suitable desulfurizers should be selected first according to thermodynamics. However, the effect of desulphurization is also strongly affected by kinetics. The conditions of different desulfurizers (Mg, CaC2, and lime) penetrating into hot metal, the rising up velocity in iron melt, residence time, and dissolving time are theoretically calculated and analyzed. The results are helpful to select the desulphurization process and equipment and to improve the desulphurization effect.

  3. Oxidative desulfurization of tire pyrolysis oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Shahzad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a low cost method for the purification of oils obtained from the pyrolysis of used tires. Oxidative desulfurization is a promising route for purification of tire pyrolysis oils as hydro-desulfurization may not be affordable for small scale industries. Different additives and acids have been employed for the enhancement of properties of pyrolytic oils. The experimental conditions were kept identical throughout, i.e. atmospheric pressure and 50°C temperature for comparison of performance of various additives. The use of hydrogen peroxide-acetic acid mixture (10 wt.% was found more economical and effective in desulfurization and improvement of fuel properties of sample oils. The contribution of sulfuric acid in desulfurization and decreasing viscosity was also satisfactory but due to high price of concentrated sulfuric acid its use may not be economical. Calcium oxide and Fuller’s earth was not found to be effective in desulfurization. Results indicate that oxidative desulfurization could render tire pyrolysis oils suitable for blending as heating fuel.

  4. Evaluation of gasification and gas cleanup processes for use in molten carbonate fuel cell power plants. Final report. [Contains lists and evaluations of coal gasification and fuel gas desulfurization processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jablonski, G.; Hamm, J.R.; Alvin, M.A.; Wenglarz, R.A.; Patel, P.

    1982-01-01

    This report satisfies the requirements for DOE Contract AC21-81MC16220 to: List coal gasifiers and gas cleanup systems suitable for supplying fuel to molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) in industrial and utility power plants; extensively characterize those coal gas cleanup systems rejected by DOE's MCFC contractors for their power plant systems by virtue of the resources required for those systems to be commercially developed; develop an analytical model to predict MCFC tolerance for particulates on the anode (fuel gas) side of the MCFC; develop an analytical model to predict MCFC anode side tolerance for chemical species, including sulfides, halogens, and trace heavy metals; choose from the candidate gasifier/cleanup systems those most suitable for MCFC-based power plants; choose a reference wet cleanup system; provide parametric analyses of the coal gasifiers and gas cleanup systems when integrated into a power plant incorporating MCFC units with suitable gas expansion turbines, steam turbines, heat exchangers, and heat recovery steam generators, using the Westinghouse proprietary AHEAD computer model; provide efficiency, investment, cost of electricity, operability, and environmental effect rankings of the system; and provide a final report incorporating the results of all of the above tasks. Section 7 of this final report provides general conclusions.

  5. Chemicals from coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harold A. Wittcoff; Bryan G. Reuben; Jeffrey S. Plotkin

    2004-12-01

    This chapter contains sections titled: Chemicals from Coke Oven Distillate; The Fischer-Tropsch Reaction; Coal Hydrogenation; Substitute Natural Gas (SNG); Synthesis Gas Technology; Calcium Carbide; Coal and the Environment; and Notes and References

  6. Smelting Oxidation Desulfurization of Copper Slags

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Lei; HU Jian-hang; WANG Hua

    2012-01-01

    According to the mechanism of sulfur removal easily through oxidation, the process of smelting oxidation desulfurization of copper slags is studied, which supplies a new thinking for obtaining the molten iron of lower sulfur content by smelting reduction of copper slags. Special attention is given to the effects of the holding temperature, the holding time and CaF2, CaO addition amounts on the desulfurization rate of copper slags. The results indicate that the rate of copper slags smelting oxidation desulfurization depends on the matte mass transfer rate through the slag phase. After the oxidation treatment, sulfur of copper slags can be removed as SO2 efficiently. Amount of Ca2+ of copper slags affects the desulfurization rate greatly, and the slag desulfurization rate is reduced by adding a certain amount of CaF2 and CaO. Compared with CaF2, CaO is negative to slags sulfur removal with equal Ca2+ addition. Under the air flow of 0.3 U/min, the sulfur content of copper slags can be reduced to 0. 004 67% in the condition of the holding time of 3 min and the holding temperature of 1 500 ℃. The sulfur content of molten iron is reduced to 0. 000 8 % in the smelting reduction of treated slags, and the problem of high sulfur content of molten iron obtained by smelting reduction with copper slag has been successively solved.

  7. Desulfurization kinetics of coal combustion gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R. Bragança

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Desulfurization of the gases from coal combustion was studied, using limestone (marble as the sorbent in a fluidized-bed reactor. The kinetic parameter, k, was measured by analyzing the reduction in SO2 emissions in relation to time when a batch of limestone was introduced directly into the combustor chamber. The influence of sorbent composition and particle size was also studied. The CaO content in the limestone was more important than the MgO content. Sorbent particle size showed a strong influence on the reaction time and efficiency of desulfurization. The results of this work prove that marble type is very important in the choice of sorbent for a desulfurization process. A magnesian limestone showed a better performance than a dolomite. Therefore, the magnesian limestone is more efficient for a shorter particle residence time, which is characteristic of the bubbling fluidized bed.

  8. Desulfurization kinetics of coal combustion gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braganca, S.R.; Jablonski, A.; Castellan, J.L. [Universidade Federal Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2003-06-01

    Desulfurization of the gases from coal combustion was studied, using limestone (marble) as the sorbent in a fluidized-bed reactor. The kinetic parameter, k, was measured by analyzing the reduction in SO{sub 2} emissions in relation to time when a batch of limestone was introduced directly into the combustor chamber. The influence of sorbent composition and particle size was also studied. The CaO content in the limestone was more important than the MgO content. Sorbent particle size showed a strong influence on the reaction time and efficiency of desulfurization. The results of this work prove that marble type is very important in the choice of sorbent for a desulfurization process. A magnesian limestone showed a better performance than a dolomite. Therefore, the magnesian limestone is more efficient for a shorter particle residence time, which is characteristic of the bubbling fluidized bed.

  9. Highly attrition resistant sorbents for desulfurization of hot coal gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slimane, R.B.; Abbasian, J.; Zarnegar, M.K. [Institute of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States)] [and others

    1998-04-01

    One of the main obstacles in the commercialization of high-temperature desulfurization systems for Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power generation processes is the development of regenerable sulfur sorbents with suitable physical and chemical characteristics. The focus of much of the current research on sorbent development has been on the use of zinc-based sorbents. These sorbents have been the subject of extensive pilot-scale and process development work; however, they have been shown to suffer from sulfate formation and zinc volatilization, leading to sorbent degradation over multi-cycle use. Therefore, investigation of non-zinc based sorbents is a logical approach to develop an effective alternative. An effective alternative to zinc-based sorbents could be manganese-based sorbents which have recently been shown to withstand high temperature ({ge} 750{degrees}C) operation and also maintain structural and reactive integrity over many cycles. However, because of process equipment limitations and other process variables such as fuel gas alkali content, a number of investigators have recently argued that the benefit to be gained by lower temperature application may outweigh the slight loss of efficiency, resulting in lower overall cost of electricity. Desulfurization temperatures {le} 538{degrees}C have been recommended to provide the best compromise between process equipment limitations and higher temperature operation.

  10. Progress in catalytic membrane reactors for removing sulfur from natural gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Chang-yuan; LIU Zuo-hua; DU Jun; LIU Ren-long

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly high requirement driven by environmental concern leads to more rigorous standards for sulfur dosage in fuel. Natural gas desulfurization is an important unit for industrial natural gas process. Catalytic membrane reactor for sulfur compounds removal is a newly emerged and integrated membrane technology. We reviewed the current progress for desulfurization of natural gas with membrane process, and predicted that the process combined with catalytic membrane reactor and microwave irradiation for desulfurization of natural gas might be an integrated and promising unit for large scale desulfurization with high efficiency.

  11. Bench-Scale Testing of Zinc Ferrite Sorbent for Hot Gas Clean-up

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meisheng Liang; Hongyan Xu; Kechang Xie

    2007-01-01

    Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power generation systems require the development of high-temperature, regenerable desulfurization sorbents, which are capable of removing hydrogen sulfide from coal gasifier gas to very low levels. In this paper, zinc ferrites prepared by co-precipitation were identified as a novel coal gas desulfurization sorbent at high temperature. Preparation of zinc ferrite and effects of binders on pore volume, strength and desulfurization efficiency of zinc ferrite desulfurizer were studied. Moreover, the behavior of zinc ferrite sorbent during desulfurization and regeneration under the temperature range of 350-400 ℃ are investigated. Effects of binders on the pore volume, mechanical strength and desulfurization efficiency of zinc ferrite sorbents indicated that the addition of kaolinite to zinc ferrite desulfurizer seems to be superior to other binders under the experimental conditions.

  12. Desulfurization of chemical waste gases and flue gases with economic utilization of air pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asperger, K.; Wischnewski, W.

    1983-09-01

    The technological state of recovery of sulfur dioxide from waste and flue gases in the GDR is discussed. Two examples of plants are presented: a pyrosulfuric acid plant in Coswig, recovering sulfur dioxide from gases by absorption with sodium hydroxide, followed by catalytic oxidation to sulfur trioxide, and a plant for waste sulfuric acid recovery from paraffin refining, where the diluted waste acid is sprayed into a furnace and recovered by an ammonium-sulfite-bisulfite solution from the combustion gas (with 4 to 10% sulfur dioxide content). Investment and operation costs as well as profits of both plants are given. Methods employed for power plant flue gas desulfurization in major industrial countries are further assessed: about 90% of these methods uses wet flue gas scrubbing with lime. In the USA flue gas from 25,000 MW of power plant capacity is desulfurized. In the USSR, a 35,000 m/sup 3//h trial plant at Severo-Donetzk is operating using lime, alkali and magnesite. At the 150 MW Dorogobush power plant in the USSR a desulfurization plant using a cyclic ammonia process is under construction.

  13. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Quarterly technical progress report 8, July--September 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, M.C.; Berggren, M.H.

    1988-11-14

    AMAX Research & Development Center (AMAX R&D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such As size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

  14. Microbial desulfurization of coal by thermophilic archaea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, Gunnel

    1994-04-01

    The investigation was focused on the removal of pyrite as well as organic sulfur. One major objective was to identify and outline difficulties associated with microbial desulfurization of coal. The work has particularly been concentrated on the desulfurization environment of the microorganisms, the reprecipitation of dissolved sulfate as jarosite, the effect of microbial treatment on the properties of the coal and the comparison of different thermophilic archaea suggested for coal desulfurization. The investigated microorganisms were the thermophilic archaea Acidianus brierleyi, Sulfolobus acidocaldarius and Sulfolobus solfataricus and for comparison the mesophilic bacterium Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. The major part of the work has been done with Acidianus brierleyi. Compounds leached from coal may seriously affect the growth of microorganisms suggested for coal desulfurization. Degradation of pyritic sulfur with the used strains of S. solfataricus and S. acidocaldarius, was observed to be impossible. However, both the thermophilic archaeon Acidianus brierleyi and the mesophilic bacterium Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, were capable of degrading pure pyrite as well as pyrite from low-sulfur coals. Up to 85% removal of pyritic sulfur was obtained for coals when staring with a pyrite sulfur content of 0.5-0.7%. From kinetic studies, it was shown that A. brierleyi and T. ferrooxidans remove sulfur from coal at roughly the same rate, at least for the coals investigated in this study. However, the rate for microbial oxidation of pure pyrite was seen to be much higher for A. brierleyi than for T. ferroxidans. 62 refs, 16 figs, 5 tabs

  15. Low-temperature desulfurizing reaction with Cu-containing sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Kwang Bok; Choi, Eun Mi; Song, Yi Keun; Rhee, Young Woo [Department of Chemical Engineering, Chungnam National University, Taejeon (Korea)

    1999-10-01

    The sorbents containing Cu O as an active material were prepared and their effectiveness in desulfurization was investigated at low temperatures(350-550 degree C). M.I.5 and MnO{sub 2} were chosen as additives and SiO{sub 2} was chosen as support material. In the low temperature regeneration reaction, sulfate was formed, which could not be decomposed until regeneration temperature reached 650 degree C. Sulfidation reaction rate decreased as calcination temperature increased. Promoting effect of MoO{sub 3} was not observed throughout the sulfidation/regeneration reaction. When SiO{sub 2} content was below 25% of sorbents composition, sulfur loading of above 10% could be obtained. Mass transfer inhibition by sulfiding gas was observed for the sorbents containing no SiO{sub 2}. 9 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Comprehensive database of Manufactured Gas Plant tars. Part A. Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallacher, Christopher; Thomas, Russell; Lord, Richard; Kalin, Robert M; Taylor, Chris

    2017-08-15

    Coal tars are a mixture of organic and inorganic compounds that were by-products from the manufactured gas and coke making industries. Different manufacturing processes have resulted in the production of distinctly different tar compositions. This study presents a comprehensive database of compounds produced using two-dimensional gas chromatography combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC/TOFMS), analysing 16 tar samples produced by five distinct production processes. Samples of coal tar were extracted using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and derivatised post-extraction using N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) with 1% trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS). The derivatised samples were analysed using two-dimensional gas chromatography combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC/TOFMS). A total of 16 tar samples originating from five different production processes: Low Temperature Horizontal Retorts, Horizontal Retorts, Vertical Retorts, Carbureted Water Gas and Coke Ovens, were analysed. A total of 2369 unique compounds were detected with 948 aromatic compounds, 196 aliphatic compounds, 380 sulfur-containing compounds, 209 oxygen-containing compounds, 262 nitrogen-containing compounds and 15 mixed heterocycles. Derivatisation allowed the detection of 359 unique compounds, the majority in the form of hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, many of which would not have been detected without derivatisation. Of the 2369 unique compounds detected, 173 were found to be present within all samples. A unique comprehensive database of compounds detected within 16 tar samples from five different production processes was produced. The 173 compounds identified within every sample may be of particular importance from a regulatory standpoint. This initial study indicates that different production processes produce tars with different chemical signatures and it can be further expanded upon by in-depth analysis of the different compound

  17. GC-2000Ⅱ型气相色谱仪的故障分析与处理%Fault Analysis and Treatment of GC2000II Gas Chromatograph

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建军

    2015-01-01

    GC-2000Ⅱ gas chromatograph, which is high performance chromatographic instrument controlled by microcomputer, has widely used in coking industry, and can accurately detect the benzene content in rich and poor oil and coke oven gas. This paper introduces the various faults in the use process of GC-2000Ⅱ gas chromatograph, and puts forward some corresponding treatment measures.%GC-2000Ⅱ气相色谱仪是微机控制的高性能色谱仪器, 配置氢焰FID检测器的GC-2000Ⅱ气相色谱仪在焦化行业大量使用,它可以准确地检测出贫富油含苯和煤气含苯. 介绍了GC-2000Ⅱ气相色谱仪在使用过程中出现的各种故障现象,提出了相应的处理措施.

  18. 基于VB的烟气余热锅炉设计%Design of Flue Gas Waste Heat Boilers Based on VB

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程爱民

    2013-01-01

    根据焦炉烟气的流量、温度及组分,介绍了余热锅炉设计的热平衡计算及热管余热锅炉的热力计算,借助VB语言进行烟气、水及水蒸气的特征参数计算以及热管余热锅炉设计参数选取,对了解和掌握焦炉烟气热管余热锅炉设计有一定的参考价值.%According to the flue gas flow rate, temperature and component of coke even, the waste heat boiler design calculation of heat balance and heat pipe waste heat boiler thermodynamic calculation is introduced, and using VB language for the gas, water and water vapor characteristic parameter calculation and heat pipe waste heat boiler design parameter are selected, and to understand and master the coke oven flue gas heat pipe waste heat boiler.

  19. Study on Kinetics for Desulfurization of Model Diesel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian Jianhua; Zhou Yuenan; Liu Lin; Wang Yue; Xing Jinjuan; Lü Hong

    2009-01-01

    In this study, by means of the experiments for desulfurization of model diesel through oxi-dative extraction, the changes associated with the rate of desulfurization of diesel and the mechanism for oxidation of sulfides in diesel were explored. Through studying the mechanism for oxidation of sulfides and the principle of solvent extraction, the kinetic equation of desulfurization via oxidative extraction were determined. By means of the evaluation of model parameters and curve fitting, the reaction order between organic sulfide and sulfone, the intrinsic oxidation rate constant of organic sulfide and sulfone, and the equilibrium constant between suifone in model diesel and extractive sol-vent were determined. The experimental values of the desulfurization rate and the theoretical values of the corresponding model equation had closely demonstrated that the desulfurization reaction rate had high accuracy. And the reaction kinetics could provide an important basis for diesel desulfurization process in the future.

  20. Kinetic model of hot-metal desulfurization by deep injection of synthetic powder mixtures - Part II; Modelo cinetico da dessulfuracao do gusa na panela atraves de injecao de misturas sinteticas - parte II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sesshadri, V. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Metalurgia; Silva, C.A. da; Silva, I.A. da [Ouro Preto Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Metalurgia

    1995-12-31

    The model developed in Part I of this study was used to analyze a series of industrial trials of hot metal hot desulfurization by deep injection of Ca O base synthetic mixtures, using N{sub 2} as carrier gas. The model allows the simulation of the industrial practice and, under the examined conditions it was observed that the major contribution for the process desulfurization come from the top slag. However, since the values range covered by some other parameters were not extensive enough to affect the desulfurization, further experiments are required to fully assess the the influence of these variables 28 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

  1. FBC desulfurization process using coal with low sulfur content, high oxidizing conditions and metamorphic limestones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Bragança

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A metamorphic limestone and a dolomite were employed as SO2 sorbents in the desulfurization of gas from coal combustion. The tests were performed in a fluidized bed reactor on a bench and pilot scale. Several parameters such as bed temperature, sorbent type, and sorbent particle size at different Ca/S molar ratios were analyzed. These parameters were evaluated for the combustion of coal with low-sulfur/high-ash content, experimental conditions of high air excess and high O2 level in fluidization air. Under these conditions, typical of furnaces, few published data can be found. In this work, a medium level of desulfurization efficiency (~60% for Ca/S = 2 was obtained.

  2. FBC desulfurization process using coal with low sulfur content, high oxidizing conditions and metamorphic limestones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braganca, S.R.; Castellan, J.L. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2009-04-15

    A metamorphic limestone and a dolomite were employed as SO{sub 2} sorbents in the desulfurization of gas from coal combustion. The tests were performed in a fluidized bed reactor on a bench and pilot scale. Several parameters such as bed temperature, sorbent type, and sorbent particle size at different Ca/S molar ratios were analyzed. These parameters were evaluated for the combustion of coal with low-sulfur/high-ash content, experimental conditions of high air excess and high O{sub 2} level in fluidization air. Under these conditions, typical of furnaces, few published data can be found. In this work, a medium level of desulfurization efficiency (similar to 60%) for Ca/S = 2 was obtained.

  3. FBC desulfurization process using coal with low sulfur content, high oxidizing conditions and metamorphic limestones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.R. Braganca; J.L. Castellan [Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    A metamorphic limestone and a dolomite were employed as SO{sub 2} sorbents in the desulfurization of gas from coal combustion. The tests were performed in a fluidised bed reactor on a bench and pilot scale. Several parameters such as bed temperature, sorbent type, and sorbent particle size at different Ca/S molar ratios were analyzed. These parameters were evaluated for the combustion of coal with low-sulfur/high-ash content, experimental conditions of high air excess and high O{sub 2} level in fluidization air. Under these conditions, typical of furnaces, few published data can be found. In this work, a medium level of desulfurization efficiency (about 60%) for Ca/S = 2 was obtained. 25 refs., 5 figs.

  4. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berggren, M.H.; Jha, M.C.

    1989-10-01

    AMAX Research Development Center (AMAX R D) investigated methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbents. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For this program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such as size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation. Two base case sorbents, a spherical pellet and a cylindrical extrude used in related METC-sponsored projects, were used to provide a basis for the aimed enhancement in durability and reactivity. Sorbent performance was judged on the basis of physical properties, single particle kinetic studies based on thermogravimetric (TGA) techniques, and multicycle bench-scale testing of sorbents. A sorbent grading system was utilized to quantify the characteristics of the new sorbents prepared during the program. Significant enhancements in both reactivity and durability were achieved for the spherical pellet shape over the base case formulation. Overall improvements to reactivity and durability were also made to the cylindrical extrude shape. The primary variables which were investigated during the program included iron oxide type, zinc oxide:iron oxide ratio, inorganic binder concentration, organic binder concentration, and induration conditions. The effects of some variables were small or inconclusive. Based on TGA studies and bench-scale tests, induration conditions were found to be very significant.

  5. 煤气锅炉空气预热器腐蚀原因及对策%Reason and Treatment of Air Preheater Corrosion of Gas-Fired Boiler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王锐; 刘启学; 孙保顺

    2013-01-01

    结合对75t煤气锅炉低温段空气预热器的改造实例,阐述了煤气锅炉低温段空气预热器因锅炉负荷变化、掺烧焦炉煤气增大等因素而引起的低温段空气预热器低温腐蚀现象,分析了低温段空气预热器腐蚀损坏的原因并提出了相应的预防改进措施。%Combine a instance of the remould to the air preheater of the 75 t gas-fired boiler low temperature segment in Xingtai Iron& Steel Corp .Ltd., describe the actualities of air preheater corrosion of gas-fired boiler be-cause of the boiler load carries change and coke-oven gas flow enlarged etc ..Reasons of air preheater corrosion was an-alyzed, and the solution measures are proposed .

  6. AN ADVANCED COAL DESULFURIZATION PROCESS——SELECTIVE FLOCCULATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡璋; 刘红缨; 吴军; 陈彩茶

    1997-01-01

    Selective flocculation is an idea separation method to separate ultrafine pyrite from coal. A number of selective flocculation separation tests under different conditions have been done and the results are very encouraging. The results also show that desulfurization and deashing can be finished simultaneously in selective flocculation process. It is an advanced coal desulfurization process.

  7. Magnesite base desulfurizer of metallurgical physical chemistry research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D. Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This topic put carbon thermal vacuum method in combination with magnesium based desulfurization technology with magnesite reduction of magnesium vapor directly on hot metal desulphurization. This is a new type of desulfurization technology, the retrieval related literature at home and abroad was not reported in the recent ten years, according to the relationship between heat of desulfurizer preparation MgO style content can reach 50 %.It was found that the desulfurizer sample with 50 % MgO content was in accordance with the requirements, without adding flux, but its viscosity did not meet the requirements; adding 1 % flux (CaF2, the sample viscosity was significantly reduced, and about 1 400 °C sample viscosity suitable for hot metal pretreatment desulfurization.

  8. Microstructure and Properties of Desulfurized Crumb Rubber Modified Bitumen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The microstructures of general crumb rubber(CR), dynamic desulfurized crumb rubber(DDCR) and high speed agitation desulfurized crumb rubber(HSADCR) modified bitumens were investigated by a fluorescence microscope, and the physical properties of these three modified bitumens were studied.The results show that the dynamic desulfuration can improve the swelling capacity of crumb rubber in bitumen by destroying the sulfuratized bond of the crumb rubber,but the reunion of rubber particles during dynamic desulfuration also makes the swelling and the DDCR in bitumen difficult, so properties of the DDCR modified bitumen are not superior to the general crumb rubber modified bitumen.However,high speed agitation desulfuration can not only improve the swelling capacity of crumb rubber in bitumen,but also avoid the reunion of rubber particles,so some properties of bitumen can be improved by the modification of HSADCR.

  9. Preliminary evaluation of a process using plasma reactions to desulfurize heavy oils. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimes, P.W.; Miknis, F.P.

    1997-09-01

    Western Research Institute (WRI) has conducted exploratory experiments on the use of microwave-induced plasmas to desulfurize heavy oils. Batch mode experiments were conducted in a quartz reactor system using various reactive and nonreactive plasmas. In these experiments a high-sulfur asphalt was exposed to various plasmas, and the degree of conversion to distillate, gas, and solids was recorded. Products from selected experiments were analyzed to determine if the plasma exposure had resulted in a significant reduction in sulfur content. Exploratory experiments were conducted using reactive plasmas generated from hydrogen and methane and nonreactive plasmas generated from nitrogen. The effects of varying exposure duration, sample temperature, and location of the sample with respect to the plasma discharge were investigated. For comparative purposes two experiments were conducted in which the sample was heated under nitrogen with no plasma exposure. Distillates containing approximately 28% less sulfur than the feedstock represented the maximum desulfurization attained in the plasma experiments. It does not appear that plasma reactions using the simple configurations employed in this study represent a viable method for the desulfurization of heavy oils.

  10. Microbial reduction of SO[sub 2] and NO[sub x] as a means of by- product recovery/disposal from regenerable processes for the desulfurization of flue gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sublette, K.L.

    1992-01-01

    Based on the work described simultaneous SO[sub 2]/No[sub x] removal from flue gas based on direct contact of the gas with SRB and T. denitrificans co-cultures or cultures-in-series has been eliminated as a viable process concept at this time. The technical reasons are as follows: (1) NO inhibition of SO[sub 2] reduction by D. desulfuricans - Although the NO concentrations used in the experiments described above are somewhat higher than that found in a typical flue gas, it is quite possible that at lower NO concentrations (or partial pressures) the inhibiting effects will simply take longer to become apparent. (2) Nitrate suppression of NO removal - As noted previously, the cultivation of T. denitrificans in a microbial flue gas treatment system (either one or two stages) would require sulfide-limiting conditions. Therefore, the electron acceptor must be in excess, requiring nitrate in the T. denitrificans process culture. As shown in experiments described above, nitrate significantly suppresses the removal of NO from a feed gas making simultaneous SO[sub 2]/NO[sub x] removal impractical by microbial means. (3) O[sub 2] inhibition of SO[sub 2] and NO reduction - It has been demonstrated that D. desulfuricans working cultures are tolerant of up to 1.7% O[sub 2] in the feed gas. However, further increases in the O[sub 2] partial pressure in the feed gas resulted in O[sub 2] inhibition of SO[sub 2] reduction. These inhibiting levels of O[sub 2] are comparable to those concentrations found in flue gases (3). Therefore, in any process in which raw flue gas contacts a D. desulfuricans culture marginal stability at best can be expected.

  11. Microbial reduction of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} as a means of by- product recovery/disposal from regenerable processes for the desulfurization of flue gas. Technical progress report, June 11, 1992--September 11, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sublette, K.L.

    1992-12-31

    Based on the work described simultaneous SO{sub 2}/No{sub x} removal from flue gas based on direct contact of the gas with SRB and T. denitrificans co-cultures or cultures-in-series has been eliminated as a viable process concept at this time. The technical reasons are as follows: (1) NO inhibition of SO{sub 2} reduction by D. desulfuricans - Although the NO concentrations used in the experiments described above are somewhat higher than that found in a typical flue gas, it is quite possible that at lower NO concentrations (or partial pressures) the inhibiting effects will simply take longer to become apparent. (2) Nitrate suppression of NO removal - As noted previously, the cultivation of T. denitrificans in a microbial flue gas treatment system (either one or two stages) would require sulfide-limiting conditions. Therefore, the electron acceptor must be in excess, requiring nitrate in the T. denitrificans process culture. As shown in experiments described above, nitrate significantly suppresses the removal of NO from a feed gas making simultaneous SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal impractical by microbial means. (3) O{sub 2} inhibition of SO{sub 2} and NO reduction - It has been demonstrated that D. desulfuricans working cultures are tolerant of up to 1.7% O{sub 2} in the feed gas. However, further increases in the O{sub 2} partial pressure in the feed gas resulted in O{sub 2} inhibition of SO{sub 2} reduction. These inhibiting levels of O{sub 2} are comparable to those concentrations found in flue gases (3). Therefore, in any process in which raw flue gas contacts a D. desulfuricans culture marginal stability at best can be expected.

  12. Impact of impregnation pressure on desulfurization performance of Zn-based sorbents supported on semi-coke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianrong Zheng; Weiren Bao; Qingmai Jin; Ruiyuan He; Liping Chang; Kechang Xie

    2012-01-01

    High-pressure impregnation,a new preparation method for sorbents to remove H2S from hot coal gas,is introduced in this paper.Semi-coke (SC) and ZnO is selected as the support and active component of sorbent,respectively.The sorbent preparation process includes high-pressure impregnation,filtration,ovendry and calcination.The aim of this research is to primarily study the effects of the impregnation pressure on physical properties and desulfurization ability of the sorbent.The desulfurization experiment was carried out in a fixed-bed reactor at 500 ℃ and a simulated coal gas used in this work was composed of CO (33 vol%),H2 (39 vol%),H2S (300 ppm in volume),and N2 (balance).Experimental results show that the pore structure of the SC support can be improved effectively and ZnO active component can be uniformly dispersed on the support,with the small particle size of 10-500 nm.Sorbents prepared using high-pressure impregnation have better desulfurization capacity and their active components have higher utilization rate.P20-ZnSC sorbent,obtained by high-pressure impregnation at 20 atm,has the best desulfurization ability with a sulfur capacity of 7.54 g S/100g sorbent and a breakthrough time of 44 h.Its desulfurization precision and efficiency of removing H2S from the middle temperature gases can reach < 1 ppm and >99.7%,respectively,before sorbent breakthrough.

  13. Selection of Chelated Fe (III)/Fe (II) Catalytic Oxidation Agents for Desulfurization Based on Iron Complexation Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Ying; Liu Youzhi; Qi Guisheng; Guo Huidong; Zhu Zhengfeng

    2014-01-01

    Optimization of factors inlfuencing the experiments on reactions involving 8 different chelating agents and sol-uble Fe (III)/Fe (II) salts was carried out to yield chelated iron complexes. A combination of optimized inlfuencing factors has resulted in a Fe chelating capacity of the iron-based desulfurization solution to be equal to 6.83—13.56 g/L at a redox potential of 0.185—0.3. The desulfurization performance of Fe (III)/Fe (II) chelating agents was investigated on a simulated sulfur-containing industrial gas composed of H2S and N2 in a cross-lfow rotating packed bed. Test results have revealed that the proposed iron-based desulfurization solution showed a sulfur removal efifciency of over 99%along with a Fe chelating capacity exceeding 1.35 g/L. This desulfurization technology which has practical application prospect is currently in the phase of commercial scale-up study.

  14. Photocatalytic Oxidative Desulfurization of Gasoline by TiO2 in [BMIm]Cu2CI3 Ionic Liguid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Fatang; Liu Ruihong; Sun Zhimin

    2008-01-01

    Photocatalytic oxidative desulfurization of gasoline in [BMIm]Cu2C13 ionic liquid was studied.A 500-W high-pressure mercury lamp was used as the light source for irradiation,nano-TiO2 was used as the photocatalyst and air was introduced by a gas pump to supply 02 as the oxidant.Influence of the ratio of V(ionic liquid) to V(oil) and the TiO2 addition on the desulfurization rate of gasoline was investigated.An oxidative kinetics equation was founded.The results showed that the [BMIm]CuaCI3 ionic liquid was an effective extractant for the desulfurization of gasoline.The appropriate TiO2 addition was 0.05 g in 50 mL of reaction mixture.The yield of desulfurized gasoline could reach 98.2% after being subjected to reaction for 2 h under the conditions of adopting a ratio of V(ionic liquid): V(oil)=1:4,an air flow of 100 mL/min and a TiO2 addition dosage of 0.05 g.The kinetics reaction for photo-oxidation of gasoline was a first-order reaction with an apparent rate constant of 1.9664 h-1 and a half-time of 0.3525 h.

  15. Desulfurization characteristics of rapidly hydrated sorbents with various adhesive carrier particles for a semidry CFB-FGD system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Changfu; Li, Yuan

    2013-03-19

    Semidry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) experiments were conducted using rapidly hydrated sorbents with four different adhesive carrier particles: circulation ash from a circulating fluidized bed boiler (CFBB circulation ash), fly ash from the first electrical field of the electrostatic precipitator of a circulating fluidized bed boiler (CFBB ESP ash), fly ash from a chain boiler (chain boiler ash), and river sand smaller than 1 mm. The influences of various adhesive carrier particles and operating conditions on the desulfurization characteristics of the sorbents were investigated, including sprayed water, reaction temperature, and the ratio of calcium to sulfur (Ca/S). The experimental results indicated that the rapidly hydrated sorbents had better desulfurization characteristics by using adhesive carrier particles which possessed better pore, adhesion, and fluidization characteristics. The desulfurization efficiency of the system increased as the reaction temperature decreased, it improved from 35% to 90% as the mass flow rate of the sprayed water increased from 0 to 10 kg/h, and it increased from 65.6% to 82.7% as Ca/S increased from 1.0 to 2.0. Based on these findings, a new semidry circulating fluidized bed (CFB)-FGD system using rapidly hydrated sorbent was developed. Using the rapidly hydrated sorbent, this system uses a cyclone separator instead of an ESP or a bag filter to recycle the sorbent particles, thereby decreasing the system flow resistance, saving investment and operating costs of the solids collection equipment.

  16. 麻石水膜法在烟气脱硫除尘中的应用%The Application of Granite Water Method in Desulfurization and Dust Removal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖耀; 任芸芸

    2012-01-01

    烟气脱硫除尘的技术方法有许多种,每种技术的应用要充分考虑经济、技术、环境方面的因素,因地制宜。文章介绍了几种烟气脱硫技术,根据公司实际情况介绍了用于中小燃煤锅炉烟气脱硫的技术-麻石水膜法烟气脱硫,并成功的应用于公司的中小型燃煤改造。适合对有条件的老厂进行技术改造。%There are many technologies for desulfurization of flue gas dusting,factors on economy,technology and environment must be considered for the application of technology.The paper introduces several flue gas desulfurization technology,according to the practical situation is introduced in this small and medium-sized coal boiler flue gas desulfurization technology-the granite water film flue gas desulfurization,and successful application in the company of small and medium-sized coal-fired transformation.This technology is suitable for some old factory technical to reform.

  17. A NOVEL APPROACH TO CATALYTIC DESULFURIZATION OF COAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John G. Verkade

    1998-08-31

    The nonionic superbase P(MeNCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}){sub 3}N (A) efficiently desulfurizes trisulfides to disulfides and monosulfides, disulfides to monosulfides, and propylene sulfide to propene. S=P(MeNCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}){sub 3}N (B) was formed as the sulfur acceptor. P(NMe{sub 2}){sub 3} was a much poorer desulfurizing agent than A under the same reaction conditions. Thiocyanates and triphenylphosphine sulfide were also desulfurized with A, but N-(phenylthio)phthalimide formed [A-SP]{sup +} phthalimide in quantitative yield.

  18. Biocatalytic desulfurization (BDS) of petrodiesel fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohebali, Ghasemali; Ball, Andrew S

    2008-08-01

    Oil refineries are facing many challenges, including heavier crude oils, increased fuel quality standards, and a need to reduce air pollution emissions. Global society is stepping on the road to zero-sulfur fuel, with only differences in the starting point of sulfur level and rate reduction of sulfur content between different countries. Hydrodesulfurization (HDS) is the most common technology used by refineries to remove sulfur from intermediate streams. However, HDS has several disadvantages, in that it is energy intensive, costly to install and to operate, and does not work well on refractory organosulfur compounds. Recent research has therefore focused on improving HDS catalysts and processes and also on the development of alternative technologies. Among the new technologies one possible approach is biocatalytic desulfurization (BDS). The advantage of BDS is that it can be operated in conditions that require less energy and hydrogen. BDS operates at ambient temperature and pressure with high selectivity, resulting in decreased energy costs, low emission, and no generation of undesirable side products. Over the last two decades several research groups have attempted to isolate bacteria capable of efficient desulfurization of oil fractions. This review examines the developments in our knowledge of the application of bacteria in BDS processes, assesses the technical viability of this technology and examines its future challenges.

  19. Catalytic Desulfurization of Benzothiophene Using Keggin Type Polyoxometalates as Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldes Lesbani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance of catalytic desulfurization of benzothiophen (BT was studied using polyoxometalates as catalyst. Polyoxometalates H3[a-PW12O40] and H4[a-SiW12O40], have different heteroatom in Keggin structure and catalytic activities. Polyoxometalates H3[a-PW12O40] and H4[a-SiW12O40] have high crystallinity with homogeneous distribution particles. Desulfurization of BT using polyoxometalates H3[a-PW12O40] and H4[a-SiW12O40] resulted % conversion up to 99% for 3 h reaction time and at temperature 40 oC. Application of polyoxometalates H3[a-PW12O40] and H4[a-SiW12O40] for crude oil desulfurization showed % conversion of 4-88%. The main functional groups of polyoxometalates still retained after catalytic desulfurization indicated the stability of polyoxometalate compounds

  20. Desulfurization of petroleum induced by ionization radiation: benzothiophene behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Luana S.; Calvo, Wilson A.P.; Duarte, Celina L., E-mail: lsandrade@ipen.br, E-mail: wapcalvo@ipen.br, E-mail: clduarte@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Hydrodesulfurization (HDS) is currently the most common method used by refineries; this removes significantly sulfur compounds from petroleum fractions, however, is not highly effective for removing thiophene compounds such as benzothiophene, and generates high costs for the oil industry. Another factor, are the environmental laws, which over the years has become increasingly strict, especially regarding the sulfur content. This compound cause incalculable damage both to the industry and to the environment. Therefore new methods for petroleum desulfurization should be studied in order to minimize the impacts that these compounds cause. In the present study it was used ionizing radiation, a promising method of advanced oxidation in reducing sulfur compounds. The analysis were performed after purge and trap concentration of samples, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Then benzothiophene samples with the same concentration from 27 mg.L{sup -1} to 139 mg.L{sup -1} were irradiated with different absorbed doses of radiation ranging from 1 kGy to 20 kGy in gamma irradiator Cobalt-60, Gammacell. These samples were analyzed by the same procedure used for the calibration curve, and the removals of benzothiophene after ionizing radiation treatment were calculated. It was observed that at higher doses there was a greater degradation of this compound and the formation of fragments, such as 1,2-dimethylbenzene and toluene, which may be removed by simple processes. (author)

  1. Highly attrition resistant sorbents for desulfurization of hot coal gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slimane, R.B.; Abbasian, J.; Zarnegar, M.K.; Wangerow, J.R.; Carty, R.H.

    1998-07-01

    One of the main obstacles in the commercialization of high-temperature desulfurization systems for Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power generation processes is the development of regenerable sulfur sorbents with suitable physical and chemical characteristics. The focus of much of the current research on sorbent development has been on the use of zinc-based sorbents. These sorbents have been the subject of extensive pilot-scale and process development work; however, they have been shown to suffer from sulfate formation and zinc volatilization, leading to sorbent degradation over multi-cycle use. Therefore, investigation of non-zinc based sorbents is a logical approach to develop an effective alternative. An effective alternative to zinc-based sorbents could be manganese-based sorbents which have recently been shown to withstand high temperature ({gt} 750 C) operation and also maintain structural and reactive integrity over many cycles. However, because of process equipment limitations and other process variables such as fuel gas alkali content, a number of investigators have recently argued that the benefit to be gained by lower temperature application may outweigh the slight loss of efficiency, resulting in lower overall cost of electricity. Desulfurization temperatures {lt} 538 C have been recommended to provide the best compromise between process equipment limitations and higher temperature operation. This paper reports on an on-going research program to develop novel, highly reactive, attrition-resistant, and regenerable manganese-based sorbents for the removal of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal-derived fuel gases at temperatures of 316 to 538 C and pressures up to 300 psig. The primary focus of this study is placed on the preparation (method and composition), characterization, and evaluation of a number of sorbent formulations to identify the most suitable manganese-based sorbent. The manganese-based sorbent formulations prepared to

  2. Safety Lockout of Coke Oven Engine%焦炉机车安全联锁的实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘杰; 王豪

    2008-01-01

    为进一步提升焦炉安全运行水平,应用编码电缆定位技术和无线扩频通信技术,增加焦炉机车互传信息,纳入推焦和装煤作业安全联锁,建立了焦炉机车安全运行新模式.试运行证明了系统稳定,数据传输误码率低,传输速率高.

  3. Microbial reduction of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} as a means of by-product recovery/disposal from regenerable processes for the desulfurization of flue gas. Technical progress report, September 11, 1992--December 11, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sublette, K.L.

    1992-12-31

    With the continual increase in the utilization of high sulfur and high nitrogen containing fossil fuels, the release of airborne pollutants into the environment has become a critical problem. The fuel sulfur is converted to SO{sub 2} during combustion. Fuel nitrogen and a fraction of the nitrogen from the combustion air are converted to nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide, NO{sub x}. For the past five years Combustion Engineering (now Asea Brown Boveri or ABB) and, since 1986, the University of Tulsa (TU) have been investigating the oxidation of H{sub 2}S by the facultatively anaerobic and autotrophic bacterium Thiobacillus denitrificans and have developed a process, concept for the microbial removal of H{sub 2}S from a gas stream the simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2} and NO by D. desulfuricans and T. denitrificans co-cultures and cultures-in-series was demonstrated. These systems could not be sustained due to NO inhibition of D. desulfuricans. However, a preliminary economic analysis has shown that microbial reduction of SO{sub 2} to H{sub 2}S with subsequent conversion to elemental sulfur by the Claus process is both technically and economically feasible if a less expensive carbon and/or energy source can be found. It has also been demonstrated that T. denitrificans can be grown anaerobically on NO(g) as a terminal electron acceptor with reduction to elemental nitrogen. Microbial reduction of NO{sub x} is a viable process concept for the disposal of concentrated streams of NO{sub x} as may be produced by certain regenerable processes for the removal of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from flue gas.

  4. Fractal desulfurization kinetics of high-sulfur coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Longjun; Peng Tiefeng; Zhang Dingyue; Zhang Fukai

    2012-01-01

    The pore structure characteristics of high-sulfur coal from Wansheng in Chongqing have been studied by a nitrogen adsorption method (BET).The effects of grinding and pre-treating with nitric acid on the inorganic sulfur content of coal have been investigated.Organic sulfur in coal pretreated with nitric acid was desulfurized by using propylene-glycol-KOH (PG-KOH).Fractal kinetic properties of these two desulfurization procedures were investigated by using fractal geometric theory.The results show that both the specific surface area and pore volume increased with the decrease in particle diameter.The microspore surface of coal had fractal characteristics; the fractal dimension was 2.48.The sulfur content decreased with the decrease in particle diameter by grinding.After pretreatment with nitric acid,the desulfurization ratio (DFR) of inorganic sulfur increased to over 99% and the DFR of total sulfur to over 70%.The desulfurization procedure of inorganic sulfur had fractal kinetic characteristics; its reactive fractal dimension was 2.94.The organic sulfur desulfurization procedure by PG-KOH was also tallied with fractal kinetic properties; the reactive fractal dimension was 2.57.The effect of temperature on the desulfurization ratio of organic sulfur can be described with an Arrhenius empirical equation.The rate constant,pre-exponential factor and the activation energy of the reaction increased with the decrease in particle diameter.

  5. Experimental Study on Deep Desulfurizer in LF Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Long; PEI Fen; CHEN Yut; LI Shi-qi

    2012-01-01

    CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-CaF2-MgO was selected as the slag system for desulfurization in LF process.The reaction between steel and slag during desulfurization has been simulated by using Factsage software to study the influence of component on the sulfur distribution ratio.In order to research the influence of CaO content,aluminum powder content and its granularity on desulfurization,laboratory experiments have been carried out in a 200 kg inductive furnace.Results showed that the optimal composition of deep desulfurizer is wCaO=64% and aluminium powder 10% with a granularity of 30 μm.Industrial trials showed that the main composition range of final slag in LF process is wCaO=53.0%-57.0%,wAl2O3=23.4%-25.1%,wSiO2=8.1%-10.0%,and wCaF2=3.2%-4.7%.The sulfur mass percent in steel is lower than 0.0008% with a desulfurization rate above 89%.According to the result of industrial production,this desulfurizer could meet the production requirement for ultra-low sulfur steel,of which sulfur mass percent is under 0.0015%

  6. Developing clean fuels: Novel techniques for desulfurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehlsen, James P.

    The removal of sulfur compounds from petroleum is crucial to producing clean burning fuels. Sulfur compounds poison emission control catalysts and are the source of acid rain. New federal regulations require the removal of sulfur in both gasoline and diesel to very low levels, forcing existing technologies to be pushed into inefficient operating regimes. New technology is required to efficiently produce low sulfur fuels. Two processes for the removal of sulfur compounds from petroleum have been developed: the removal of alkanethiols by heterogeneous reaction with metal oxides; and oxidative desulfurization of sulfides and thiophene by reaction with sulfuric acid. Alkanethiols, common in hydrotreated gasoline, can be selectively removed and recovered from a hydrocarbon stream by heterogeneous reaction with oxides of Pb, Hg(II), and Ba. The choice of reactive metal oxides may be predicted from simple thermodynamic considerations. The reaction is found to be autocatalytic, first order in water, and zero order in thiol in the presence of excess oxide. The thiols are recovered by reactive extraction with dilute oxidizing acid. The potential for using polymer membrane hydrogenation reactors (PEMHRs) to perform hydrogenation reactions such as hydrodesulfurization is explored by hydrogenating ketones and olefins over Pt and Au group metals. The dependence of reaction rate on current density suggests that the first hydrogen addition to the olefin is the rate limiting step, rather than the adsorption of hydrogen, for all of the metals tested. PEMHRs proved unsuccessful in hydrogenating sulfur compounds to perform HDS. For the removal of sulfides, a two-phase reactor is used in which concentrated sulfuric acid oxidizes aromatic and aliphatic sulfides present in a hydrocarbon solvent, generating sulfoxides and other sulfonated species. The polar oxidized species are extracted into the acid phase, effectively desulfurizing the hydrocarbon. A reaction scheme is proposed for this

  7. Enhancing mercury removal across air pollution control devices for coal-fired power plants by desulfurization wastewater evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin, Hu; Yang, Yi; Cai, Liang; Linjun, Yang; Roszak, Szczepan

    2017-09-15

    Desulfurization wastewater evaporation technology is used to enhance the removal of gaseous mercury (Hg) in conventional air pollution control devices (APCDs) for coal-fired power plants. It had been studied that gaseous Hg is oxidized and removed by selective catalytic reduction (SCR), an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and a wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) in coal-fired thermal experiment platform with WFGD wastewater evaporation. Effects of desulfurization wastewater evaporation position, evaporation temperature, and chlorine ion concentration on Hg oxidation were studied as well. The Hg(0) oxidation efficiency improved significantly over SCR after improving the flue gas temperature and concentration of chlorine ion in the wastewater. The Hg(0) oxidation efficiency was increased ranging from 30% to 60%, and the gaseous Hg removal efficiency was 62.16% in APCDs when wastewater evaporated before SCR. However, the Hg(0) oxidation efficiency was 18.99% and the gaseous Hg removal efficiency was 40.19% in APCDs when wastewater evaporated before ESP. The results show that WFGD wastewater evaporation before SCR is beneficial to improve Hg oxidized and removed efficiency in APCDs. The function of WFGD wastewater evaporation on Hg oxidation is due to reasons: active chlorine species generated through the evaporation process and promoted the Hg oxidation. Because Hg(2+) can be easily removed in ACPDs and chlorine ion is enriched in WFGD wastewater in power plants, this method realizes WFGD wastewater zero discharge and simultaneously enhances Hg removal in APCDs.

  8. 高效填料塔中用柠檬酸/柠檬酸钠溶液 进行烟气脱硫的研究%Flue Gas Desulfurization by Citrate Solution in Packing Columns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    以柠檬酸/柠檬酸钠溶液为缓冲液在高效规整填料塔中进行烟气脱硫。模拟的烟气首先在吸收塔中用柠檬酸钠溶液脱硫,然后富液在解吸塔中释放出SO2,再生的缓冲液返回吸收塔循环使用。研究了影响吸收及解吸效率的各种重要参数,确定了最佳操作条件。对解决SO2污染问题提供了应用基础。%FGD process using citric acid / sodium citrate buffer solution has been carried out in structured packing columns.SO2 in analog flue gas was first absorbed in aqueous sodium citrate solution in an absorption column and then recovered from the loaded solution in a desorption column.The regenerative buffer solution circulated to absorption column again for use.Several important factors that may affect SO2 absorption and desorption efficiency were tested individually.The optimal operating conditions for sodium citrate FGD process in pilot packing columns were determined,which can be extended into largescale FGD design.

  9. 旋转喷雾干燥脱硫工艺在烧结机上的应用%Application of rotating spray drying desulfurization process in the sintering machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王爱国

    2012-01-01

    328m2烧结机脱硫系统处理烟气量为198万m3/h,采用旋转喷雾干燥脱硫工艺进行全烟气脱硫.系统运行后SO2排放≤100mg/m3,脱硫效率≥90%,粉尘排放≤30mg/m3,完全满足国家环保要求.%The 328m2 sintering machine, flue gas handling capacity of the system is 1980000 mVh , using rotating spray drying desulfurization process for full flue gas desulfurization. After the system running fully, the SO2 emission^100mg/m , desulfurization efficiency ^90% and dust emission^30mg/ m3 , meet the environmental requirements of the nation.

  10. Adsorptive desulfurization over hierarchical beta zeolite by alkaline treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fuping Tian; Xiaojian Yang; Yanchun Shi; Cuiying Jia; Yongying Chen

    2012-01-01

    Hierarchical beta zeolites with SiO2/Al2O3 molar ratios of 16 to 25 were obtained by alkaline treatment in NaOH solution.The effects of treatment temperature on crystallinity,textural properties and chemical composites were studied by XRD,N2 sorption,FT-IR and XRF techniques.The desulfurization performance of parent and alkaline-treated beta zeolites was investigated by static absorption in four model fuels,containing four sulfur compounds of different molecular sizes like thiophene (TP),3-methylthiophene (3-MT),benzothiophene (BT) and dibenzothiophene (DBT),respectively.The crystallinity was observed to be successfully maintained when the treatment temperature was below 50℃.Mesoporosity of beta zeolite was evidently developed with alkaline treatment.The formation of mesopore remarkably improved the desulfurization performance for TP,3-MT,BT and DBT,especially for DBT with larger molecular diameter.Though the addition of toluene in the model fuels resulted in a significant drop of the desulfurization performance of mesoporous beta zeolite,the introduction of cerium ions to some extent mitigated the effect of toluene,which means that both the adsorbents porous structure and the adsorption mode are responsible for the desulfurization performance.The adsorbent of cerium ion-exchanged mesoporous beta showed about 80% recovery of desulfurization after the first regeneration.

  11. Desulfurization and oxidation behavior of ultra-fine CaO particles prepared from brown coal; Kattan wo mochiite choseishita CaO chobiryushi no datsuryu tokusei to sanka tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benjamin, G.; Roman, M.; Yamazaki, Y.; Abe, H.; Harano, Y.; Takarada, Y. [Gunma University, Gunma (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    The effect of reaction temperature and oxygen concentration on the desulfurization and oxidation behavior of ion-exchanged brown coal by Ca as new desulfurizing agent was studied. In experiment, Yallourn coal was used for ion- exchange, and limestone produced in Tochigi prefecture was also used for comparative study. Ca-exchanged brown coal was prepared by agitating coal in Ca(OH)2 slurry for 24 hours. The desulfurization behavior of a desulfurizing agent was obtained by measuring H2S and sulfur compounds in outlet gas of a reactor, and the oxidation behavior by measuring SO2 emission in outlet gas after oxidation reaction. As the experimental result, CaO produced from Ca-exchanged brown coal offered the extremely high activity to desulfurization reaction in a temperature range of 850-950{degree}C as compared with limestone. Although the oxidation behavior was dependent on oxidation temperature and oxygen concentration, CaS obtained from Ca-exchanged brown coal was more rapidly converted to CaSO4 than limestone. 3 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Adsorptive desulfurization and denitrogenation using metal-organic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Imteaz; Jhung, Sung Hwa

    2016-01-15

    With the increasing worldwide demand for energy, utilization of fossil fuels is increasing proportionally. Additionally, new and unconventional energy sources are also being utilized at an increasing rate day-by-day. These sources, along with some industrial processes, result in the exposal of several sulfur- and nitrogen-containing compounds (SCCs and NCCs, respectively) to the environment, and the exposure is one of the greatest environmental threats in the recent years. Although, several methods were established for the removal of these pollutants during the last few decades, recent advancements in adsorptive desulfurization and denitrogenation (ADS and ADN, respectively) with metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) make this the most promising and remarkable method. Therefore, many research groups are currently involved with ADS and ADN with MOFs, and the results are improving gradually by modifying the MOF adsorbents according to several specific adsorption mechanisms. In this review, ADS and ADN studies are thoroughly discussed for both liquid-phase and gas-phase adsorption. The MOF modification procedures, which are important for improved adsorption, are also described. To improve the knowledge among the scientific community, it is very important to understand the detailed chemistry and mechanism involved in a chemical process, which also creates the possibility and pathway for further developments in research and applications. Therefore, the mechanisms related to the adsorption procedures are also discussed in detail. From this review, it can be expected that the scientific community will obtain an understanding of the current state of ADS and ADN, their importance, and some encouragement and insight to take the research knowledge base to a higher level.

  13. PRODUCTION OF CONSTRUCTION AGGREGATES FROM FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SLUDGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.M. Wu; D.C. McCoy; R.O. Scandrol; M.L. Fenger; J.A. Withum; R.M. Statnick

    2000-05-01

    The three main conclusions of this report are: (1) The pilot plant successfully demonstrated the continuous, fully-integrated, long-term process operation, including the mixing, pelletizing, and curing steps for aggregate production. The curing vessel, which was designed for the pilot plant test, was operated in a mass flow mode and performed well during pilot plant operation. (2) The pilot plant test demonstrated process flexibility. The same equipment was used to produce lightweight, medium-weight, and road aggregates. The only change was the mix formulation. Aggregates were produced from a variety of mix designs and from FGD sludge with solids concentrations between 45.0% and 56.7% and moisture contents between 55.0% and 43.3%. (3) The pilot plant provided operating data and experience to design and cost a commercial plant, which was not part of the cooperative agreement.

  14. The Stability of Lubricant Oil Acidity of Biogas Fuelled Engine due to Biogas Desulfurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gde Tirta Nindhia, Tjokorda; Wayan Surata, I.; Wardana, Ari

    2017-05-01

    This research is established for the purpose of the understanding the stability of the acidity of lubricant oil in biogas fuelled engine due to the absence of hydrogen sulfide (H2S). As was recognized that other than Methane (CH4), there are also other gas impurities in the biogas such as carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), moisture (H2O) and ammonia (NH3). Due to H2S contents in the biogas fuel, the engine was found failure. This is caused by corrosion in the combustion chamber due to increase of lubricant acidity. To overcome this problem in practical, the lubricant is increased the pH to basic level with the hope will be decrease to normal value after several time use. Other method is by installing pH measurement sensor in the engine lubricant so that when lubricant is known turn to be acid, then lubricant replacement should be done. In this research, the effect of biogas desulfurization down to zero level to the acidity of lubricant oil in the four stroke engine was carried out with the hope that neutral lubrication oil to be available during running the engine. The result indicates that by eliminating H2S due desulfurization process, effect on stability and neutrality of pH lubricant. By this method the engine safety can be obtained without often replacement the lubricant oil.

  15. Gas-phase naphthalene concentration data recovery in ambient air and its relevance as a tracer of sources of volatile organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uria-Tellaetxe, Iratxe; Navazo, Marino; de Blas, Maite; Durana, Nieves; Alonso, Lucio; Iza, Jon

    2016-04-01

    Despite the toxicity of naphthalene and the fact that it is a precursor of atmospheric photooxidants and secondary aerosol, studies on ambient gas-phase naphthalene are generally scarce. Moreover, as far as we are concerned, this is the first published one using long-term hourly ambient gas-phase naphthalene concentrations. In this work, it has been also demonstrated the usefulness of ambient gas-phase naphthalene to identify major sources of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in complex scenarios. Initially, in order to identify main benzene emission sources, hourly ambient measurements of 60 VOC were taken during a complete year together with meteorological data in an urban/industrial area. Later, due to the observed co-linearity of some of the emissions, a procedure was developed to recover naphthalene concentration data from recorded chromatograms to use it as a tracer of the combustion and distillation of petroleum products. The characteristic retention time of this compound was determined comparing previous GC-MS and GC-FID simultaneous analysis by means of relative retention times, and its concentration was calculated by using relative response factors. The obtained naphthalene concentrations correlated fairly well with ethene (r = 0.86) and benzene (r = 0.92). Besides, the analysis of daily time series showed that these compounds followed a similar pattern, very different from that of other VOC, with minimum concentrations at day-time. This, together with the results from the assessment of the meteorological dependence pointed out a coke oven as the major naphthalene and benzene emitting sources in the study area.

  16. Desulfurization of coal by an electrochemical-reduction flotation technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Wei; XU Wen-juan; ZHONG Shi-teng; ZONG Zhi-min

    2008-01-01

    The optimum conditions for sulfur removal from coal by electrochemical reduction flotation in an aqueous NaCI solution were determined from orthogonal experiments. The effect of electrolytic conditions on the desulfurization ratio was also studied.The electrochemical-reduction processed coal was examined by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and wet chemical analysis. The results show that electrochemical reduction converts hydrophobic pyrite in Nantong coal into hydrophilic FeS and S2 and leads to an increase in the concentration of hydroxyl groups and aliphatic moieties and a corresponding decrease in carboxyl and carbonyl groups, which enhances the flotation desulfurization of the coal.

  17. The Spray Drying Desulfurization Process of Precise Control of the Spray to the Influence of Output%喷雾干燥脱硫过程中喷雾的精确控制对产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙艳萍; 袁亚

    2013-01-01

    为研究脱硫塔内不同喷雾的精确对脱硫效率的影响,提出了基于反馈平衡方程的喷雾干燥脱硫方程和相应的数学模型,并采用仿真软件对脱硫塔内流场进行了数值模拟计算.选用精度反馈信息来调节喷雾的精度,根据统计分析法实现脱硫塔内的喷雾精度仿真,通过建立硫吸收模型,根据脱硫效果的实时信息完成喷雾调节.结果表明,数值模拟结果与实验台测量值基本相符,精确的喷雾控制有利于物料与烟气充分混合,提高脱硫效率.%For the research of desulfurization tower in different spray accurate to desulfurizing efficiency influence,proposed based on feedback balance equation of the spray drying desulfurization equation and the corresponding mathematical model,and the simulation software for desulfurization tower internalflow field is studied with the numerical simulation method.Choose precision feedback information to control the precision of the spray,according to statistics analysis method to realize desulfurization tower in the spray accuracy simulation,through the establishment of sulfur absorption model,according to the desulfurization effect of real-time information complete spray regulation.The results show that the numerical simulation results and experiment table measured value are consistent,precise spray control to material and flue gas fully mix,improve the desulfurization efficiency.

  18. Experimental Study of Stabilized Soil Utilizing Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion Desulfurization Ash with Carbide Slag and Desulfurization Gypsum

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the feasibility of preparing soil stabilizer which is circulating fluidized bed combustion ash-based, supplemented with carbide slag and desulfurization gypsum, composed entirely of complete industrial wastes. The results show that CFBC ash has better pozzolanic activity than fly ash. When stabilizer total content is 10% and the ratio of CFBC ash : carbide slag : desulfurization gypsum is 7.2 : 1.8 : 1, compressive strength of stabilized soil can reach the maximum of 2.12...

  19. Experimental study on operation optimization of the gas/pulverized coal blended combustion boiler%钢厂煤气混烧锅炉运行优化的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易正明; 肖慧; 杜炳旭

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was carried out of the adjustment of blast furnace gas (BFG) and coke oven gas (COG) for blended combustion in a gas/pulverized coal blended combustion boiler and analysis was made of the effect of BFG-COG blended combustion on exhaust gas temperature ,fly ash carbon content and superheated steam temperature of the boiler .On this basis ,the boiler operation was opti-mized .The results show that when BFG blending ratio is 30% and COG blending ratio is 40% ,the thermal efficiency of the boiler reaches 80 .9% .This not only guarantees a high thermal efficiency but also achieves a greater proportion blending combustion of BFG ,offering a solution to the problem of excessive BFG and proving to be more economic .%对某钢厂煤气混烧锅炉进行高炉煤气和焦炉煤气掺烧调整试验,分析掺烧对锅炉排烟温度、飞灰含碳量和过热蒸汽温度等的影响,并对锅炉运行进行了优化。结果表明,当高炉煤气掺烧热值比为30%且焦炉煤气掺烧热值比为40%时,锅炉热效率达到80.9%,这样既保证了锅炉较高的热效率,又实现了高炉煤气的较大比例掺烧,解决了其大量过剩问题,具有较好的经济性。

  20. The removal of hydrogen sulfide from gas streams using an aqueous metal sulfate absorbent : Part I. the absorption of hydrogen sulfide in metal sulfate solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Maat, H.; Hogendoorn, J. A.; Versteeg, G. F.

    2005-01-01

    The desulfurization of gas streams using aqueous iron(II)sulfate (Fe(II)SO4), zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) and copper sulfate (CuSO4) solutions as washing liquor is studied theoretically and experimentally. The desulfurization is accomplished by a precipitation reaction that occurs when sulfide ions and met

  1. The removal of hydrogen sulfide from gas streams using an aqueous metal sulfate absorbent : Part I. the absorption of hydrogen sulfide in metal sulfate solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Maat, H.; Hogendoorn, J. A.; Versteeg, G. F.

    2005-01-01

    The desulfurization of gas streams using aqueous iron(II)sulfate (Fe(II)SO4), zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) and copper sulfate (CuSO4) solutions as washing liquor is studied theoretically and experimentally. The desulfurization is accomplished by a precipitation reaction that occurs when sulfide ions and

  2. Desulfurization of model aromatic molecules by Pedomicrobium sp.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ercole, C.; Sulpizii, M.P.; Veglio, F.; Bartolini, S.; Toro, L.; Lepidi, A. [University of L`Alquila, L`Alquila (Italy). Dept. of Basic and Applied Biology

    1997-11-01

    A bacterial strain identified as Pedomicrobium sp., was isolated on the basis of the capability to remove volatile sulfur containing fragments including H{sub 2}S from carboxythiophene and the heterocyclic sulfurated molecules: benzothiolene, thianthrene, thiophene, thiophenecarboxyaldehyde and dibenzothiophene. The strain was selected for its desulfurizing capability on synthetic media in different culture conditions and atmosphere composition. 16 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Desulfurization ability of refining slag with medium basicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hui-xiang; Wang, Xin-hua; Wang, Mao; Wang, Wan-jun

    2014-12-01

    The desulfurization ability of refining slag with relative lower basicity ( B) and Al2O3 content ( B = 3.5-5.0; 20wt%-25wt% Al2O3) was studied. Firstly, the component activities and sulfide capacity ( C S) of the slag were calculated. Then slag-metal equilibrium experiments were carried out to measure the equilibrium sulfur distribution ( L S). Based on the laboratorial experiments, slag composition was optimized for a better desulfurization ability, which was verified by industrial trials in a steel plant. The obtained results indicated that an MgO-saturated CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-MgO system with the basicity of about 3.5-5.0 and the Al2O3 content in the range of 20wt%-25wt% has high activity of CaO ( a CaO), with no deterioration of C S compared with conventional desulfurization slag. The measured L S between high-strength low-alloyed (HSLA) steel and slag with a basicity of about 3.5 and an Al2O3 content of about 20wt% and between HSLA steel and slag with a basicity of about 5.0 and an Al2O3 content of about 25wt% is 350 and 275, respectively. The new slag with a basicity of about 3.5-5.0 and an Al2O3 content of about 20wt% has strong desulfurization ability. In particular, the key for high-efficiency desulfurization is to keep oxygen potential in the reaction system as low as possible, which was also verified by industrial trials.

  4. Desulfurization ability of refining slag with medium basicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-xiang Yu; Xin-hua Wang; Mao Wang; Wan-jun Wang

    2014-01-01

    The desulfurization ability of refining slag with relative lower basicity (B) and Al2O3 content (B=3.5−5.0;20wt%−25wt%Al2O3) was studied. Firstly, the component activities and sulfide capacity (CS) of the slag were calculated. Then slag−metal equilibrium experiments were carried out to measure the equilibrium sulfur distribution (LS). Based on the laboratorial experiments, slag composition was optimized for a better desulfurization ability, which was verified by industrial trials in a steel plant. The obtained results indicated that an MgO-saturated CaO−Al2O3−SiO2−MgO system with the basicity of about 3.5−5.0 and the Al2O3 content in the range of 20wt%−25wt%has high activity of CaO (aCaO), with no deterioration of CS compared with conventional desulfurization slag. The measured LS between high-strength low-alloyed (HSLA) steel and slag with a basicity of about 3.5 and an Al2O3 content of about 20wt%and between HSLA steel and slag with a basicity of about 5.0 and an Al2O3 content of about 25wt%is 350 and 275, respectively. The new slag with a basicity of about 3.5−5.0 and an Al2O3 content of about 20wt%has strong desulfurization ability. In particular, the key for high-efficiency desulfurization is to keep oxygen potential in the reaction system as low as possible, which was also verified by industrial trials.

  5. Progress of the technique of coal microwave desulfurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiuxiang Tao; Ning Xu; Maohua Xie; Longfei Tang

    2014-01-01

    With the advantages of its fast speed, effective and moderate controllable conditions, desulfurization of coal by microwave has become research focus in the field of clean coal technology. Coal is a homogeneous mixture which consists of various components with different dielectric properties, so their abilities to absorb microwaves are different, and the sulfur-containing components are better absorbers of microwave, which makes them can be selectively heated and reacted under microwave irradiation. There still remain controversies on the principle of microwave desulfurization at present, thermal effects or non-thermal effects. The point of thermal effects of microwave is mainly base on its characters of rapidly and selectly heating. While, in view of non-thermal effect, direct interactions between the microwave electromagnetic field and sulfur containing components are proposed. It is a fundamental problem to determine the dielectric properties of coal and the sulfur-containing components to reveal the interaction of microwave and sulfur-containing compounds. However, the test of dielectric property of coal is affected by many factors, which makes it difficult to measure dielectric properties accurately. In order to achieve better desulfurization effect, the researchers employ methods of adding chemical additives such as acid, alkali, oxidant, reductant, or changing the reaction atmosphere, or combining with other methods such as magnetic separation, ultrasonic and microorganism. Researchers in this field have also put forward several processes, and have obtained a number of patents. Obscurity of microwave desulfurization mechanism, uncertainties in qualitative and quantitative analysis of sulfur-containing functional groups in coal, and the lack of special microwave equipment have limited further development of microwave desulfurization technology.

  6. PET-modified red mud as catalysts for oxidative desulfurization reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Prado, Nayara T; Heitmann, Ana P; Mansur, Herman S; Mansur, Alexandra A; Oliveira, Luiz C A; de Castro, Cinthia S

    2017-07-01

    This work describes the synthesis of catalysts based on red mud/polyethylene terephthalate (PET) composites and their subsequent heat treatment under N2 atmosphere. The materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), temperature programmed reduction (TPR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric (TG) analysis and N2 adsorption/desorption. The catalysts were evaluated in the oxidative desulfurization reaction of dibenzothiophene (DBT) in a biphasic system. The results indicated that the PET impregnation on red mud increased the affinity of the catalyst with the nonpolar phase (fuel), in which the contaminant was dissolved, allowing a higher conversion (up to 80%) and selectivity to the corresponding dibenzothiophene sulfone. The sulfone compound is more polar than DBT and diffused into the polar solvent as indicated by the data obtained via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Application of Thiobacillus ferroxidans to the bacterial desulfurization of coal; Application du Thiobacillus ferroxidans a la desulfuration bacterienne du charbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fecko, P. [Ostrava Universite Technique (Czech Republic); Sedlackova, V. [MUS Republique Tcheque (Czech Republic)

    2001-03-01

    The applicability of bacterial lixiviation of coal is tested on a sample from the Merkur basin (Northern Bohemia, Czech republic). Clean cultures of Thiobacillus ferroxidans can totally remove the pyrite sulfur after one month of treatment. With this process, the desulfurization can reach 48%. Abstract only. (J.S.)

  8. 燃气锅炉掺烧甲醇弛放气的生产应用%Productive Application for Mix-firing Methanol Releasing Gas in Combustion Gas Boiler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁轶; 董越茂

    2012-01-01

    In case of using coke-oven gas as productive raw material in methanol plant with a capacity of 240 000 t/a in the Shanxi Coking Stock Com- pany Ltd. , there was also released gas 9 000 m3/h remained from 15 000 m3/h of methanol released gas totally produced, excluding for using as fuel of preheating furnace of reformation and air blowing gas boiler, therefore energy conservation technology reformation was executed for mix-firing the methanol releasing gas in the combustion gas boiler. Author has analyzed the feasibility for mix-firing the methanol releasing gas in the combustion gas boiler; has selected the outlet location, conveying mode and mix-firing proportion for the releasing gas. Executed effect indicates that mix-firing releasing gas can pro- duce 22 t/h of steam, 4 400 kW ~ h of electric power, as per operating hours being 8 000 h, economic benefit can reach to 3.6milion Yuan RMB per year.%山西焦化股份有限公司24万t/a甲醇装置采用焦炉煤气为原料生产时,产生的15 000 m3/甲醇弛放气除用于转化预热炉及吹风气锅炉的燃料外,还富余9 000 m3/h,为此实施了燃气锅炉掺烧甲醇弛放气的节能技术改造。分析了燃气锅炉掺烧甲醇弛放气的可行性;选择了弛放气的引出位置、输送方式和掺烧比例。实施效果表明:掺烧甲醇弛放气可产蒸汽22 t/h,发电4 400 kW.h,按年运行8 000 h计,经济效益可达360万元/a。

  9. Analysis on the Oversize Blast Furnace Desulfurization and a Sulfide Capacity Prediction Model Based on Congregated Electron Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhenyang, Wang; Jianliang, Zhang; Gang, An; Zhengjian, Liu; Zhengming, Cheng; Junjie, Huang; Jingwei, Zhang

    2016-02-01

    Through analyzed and regressed the actual productive desulfurization data from the oversize blast furnace (5500 m3) in north China, the relationship between the sulfur distribution parameters and the slag composition in actual production situation was investigated. As the slag and hot metal phases have their own balance sulfur content or sulfur partial pressure in gas phase, respectively, the non-equilibrium of sulfur among gas, slag, and metal phases leads to the transmission and distribution of sulfur. Combined with sulfur transmission reactions between gas, slag and metal phases, C/CO pairs equilibrium, and Wagner model, the measured sulfide capacity can be acquired using sulfur distribution ratio, sulfur activity coefficient, and oxygen activity in hot metal. Based on the theory of congregated electron phase, a new sulfide capacity prediction model (CEPM) has been developed, which has a good liner relationship with the measured sulfide capacity. Thus, using the burden structure for BF, the ironmaking slag composition can be obtained simply and can be used to reliably predict the ironmaking slag desulfurization ability a few hours later after charging under a certain temperature by CEPM.

  10. Quantification of carcinogenic 4- to 6-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in human urine by solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-isotope dilution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Laura; Fustinoni, Silvia; Bertazzi, Pieralberto

    2011-08-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are pollutants found in living and working environments. The aim of this study was to develop a solid-phase microextraction (SPME) gas chromatography (GC)-isotope dilution mass spectrometry method for the quantification of 10 four- to six-ring PAHs in urine samples. Seven of the selected PAHs have been classified as carcinogenic. Under the final conditions, analytes were sampled with a 100-μm polydimethylsiloxane SPME fibre for 60 min at 80 °C and desorbed in the injection port of the GC at 270 °C. Fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, dibenzo[a,h]anthracene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene and benzo[ghi]perylene were separated using a highly arylene-modified phase capillary column and quantified by MS using eight deuterated PAHs as surrogate internal standards. Limits of quantification (LOQ) were in the 0.5- to 2.2-ng/L range. Validation showed linear dynamic ranges up to 340 ng/L, inter- and intra-run precisions <20%, and accuracies within 20% of spiked concentrations. Matrix effect evaluation and the use of control charts to monitor process performances showed that the isotope dilution approach allowed for the control of bias sources. Urinary PAHs were above or equal to LOQ, depending on different compounds, in 58-100% (min-max), 40-100% and 5-39% of samples from coke oven workers (n = 12), asphalt workers (n = 10) and individuals not occupationally exposed to PAHs (n = 18), respectively. Chrysene was the most abundant PAH determined with median levels of 62.6, 6.9 and <0.6 ng/L, respectively. These results show that the method is suitable for quantifying carcinogenic PAHs in specimens from individuals with different levels of PAH exposure.

  11. Selection of adsorbents for in-situ coupling technology of adsorptive desulfurization and biodesulfurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In-situ coupling of adsorptive desulfurization and biodesulfurization is a new desulfurization technology for fossil oil. It has the merits of high-selectivity of biodesulfurization and high-rate of adsorptive desulfurization. It is carried out by assembling nano-adsorbents onto surfaces of microbial cells. In this work, In-situ coupling desulfurization technology of widely used desulfurization adsorbents of γ-Al2O3, Na-Y molecular sieves, and active carbon with Pseudomonas delafieldii R-8 were studied. Results show that Na-Y molecular sieves restrain the activity of R-8 cells and active carbon cannot desorb the substrate dibenzothiophene (DBT). Thus, they are not applicable to in-situ coupling desulfurization technology. Gamma-Al2O3 can adsorb DBT from oil phase quickly, and then desorb it and transfer it to R-8 cells for biodegradation, thus increasing desulfurization rate. It is also found that nano-sized γ-Al2O3 increases desulfurization rate more than regular-sized γ-Al2O3. Therefore, nano-γ-Al2O3 is regarded as the better adsorbent for this in-situ coupling desulfurization technology.

  12. Selection of adsorbents for in-situ coupling technology of adsorptive desulfurization and biodesulfurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In-situ coupling of adsorptive desulfurization and biodesulfurization is a new desulfurization technol- ogy for fossil oil. It has the merits of high-selectivity of biodesulfurization and high-rate of adsorptive desulfurization. It is carried out by assembling nano-adsorbents onto surfaces of microbial cells. In this work, In-situ coupling desulfurization technology of widely used desulfurization adsorbents of γ-Al2O3, Na-Y molecular sieves, and active carbon with Pseudomonas delafieldii R-8 were studied. Results show that Na-Y molecular sieves restrain the activity of R-8 cells and active carbon cannot desorb the sub- strate dibenzothiophene (DBT). Thus, they are not applicable to in-situ coupling desulfurization tech- nology. Gamma-Al2O3 can adsorb DBT from oil phase quickly, and then desorb it and transfer it to R-8 cells for biodegradation, thus increasing desulfurization rate. It is also found that nano-sized γ-Al2O3 increases desulfurization rate more than regular-sized γ-Al2O3. Therefore, nano- γ-Al2O3 is regarded as the better adsorbent for this in-situ coupling desulfurization technology.

  13. 焦化废气制合成氨综合技术改造措施%Comprehensive Technology Reformation Measure for Synthetic Ammonia Made by Waste Gas from Coking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈世通

    2015-01-01

    针对合成氨装置原始开车以来暴露的部分设备或工艺问题,山东恒昌聚材化工科技股份有限公司决定对焦炉煤气、甲醇弛放气制合成氨装置进行技术改造,改造结果表明,工艺流程更加合理,装置能长周期安全稳定运行,提高了装置的经济性,综合节能减排效果和经济效益十分显著,年可节约费用约120万元,达到了节能降耗的目的。%In allusion to problems of the partial equipment and process exposed from synthetic ammonia plant since putting into original start-up, it was decided that technical reformation was made for plant of synthetic ammonia made by coking-oven gas and releasing gas from methanol, reformation re-sult indicates that flow sheet is more national, the plant can run safely and stably with long term, economy of the plant is increased, comprehensive energy conservation and emission reduction effect and the economic benefit are very obvious, annually saving expense is about 1 200 000 Yuan,it reaches to the purpose of energy conservation and consume reduction.

  14. Comparison of deep desulfurization methods in alumina production process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘战伟; 李旺兴; 马文会; 尹中林; 武国宝

    2015-01-01

    Several methods of deep desulfurization in alumina production process were studied, and the costs of these methods were compared. It is found that most of the S2− in sodium aluminate solution can be removed by adding sodium nitrate or hydrogen peroxide in digestion process, and in this way the effect of S2− on alumina product quality is eliminated. However, the removal efficiency of2-23SOin sodium aluminate solution is very low by this method. Both S2− and2-23SO in sodium aluminate solution can be removed completely by wet oxidation method in digestion process. The cost of desulfurization by wet oxidation is lower than by adding sodium nitrate or hydrogen peroxide. The results of this research reveal that wet oxidation is an economical and feasible method for the removal of sulfur in alumina production process to improve alumina quality, and provide valuable guidelines for alumina production by high-sulfur bauxite.

  15. Microbial desulfurization of coal by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and thermophilic archaea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, G.; Pott, B.-M.; Larsson, L.; Holst, O.; Karlsson, H.T. (Univ. of Lund, Lund (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering II, Chemical Center)

    1994-11-01

    Several different microorganisms have been suggested for desulfurization. In the present investigation, the thermophilic archaea [ital Acidianus brierleyi] (DSM 1651), [ital Sulfolobus acidocaldarius] (DSM 639) and [ital Sulfolobus solfataricus] (DSM 1616) were compared with the mesophyilic bacterium [ital Thiobacillus ferrooxidans] (DSM 583) concerning their capability of removing sulfur from coal. The desulfurization rate as well as the amount of sulfur removed by the microorganisms was studied. Two of the investigated microorganisms [ital Thiobacillus ferrooxidans] and [ital Acidianus brierleyi], were capable of oxidizing pure pyrite as well as oxidizing sulfur in coal. A kinetic analysis was performed assuming first order reactions. The rate constant for oxidation of pure pyrite by [ital A. brierleyi] was observed to be higher than for [ital T. ferrooxidans]. The values of the rate constants for sulfur removal from coal were comparable for the two microorganisms, but were higher than for oxidation of pure pyrite. 18 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Unraveling heavy oil desulfurization chemistry: targeting clean fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Tushar V; Parrott, Stephen; Johnson, Byron

    2008-03-15

    The sulfur removal chemistry of heavy oils has been unraveled by systematically investigating several heavy oils with an extremely wide range of properties. The heavy oil feed and product properties have been characterized by advanced analytical methods, and these properties have been related to the sulfur conversion data observed in pilot hydrotreating units. These studies coupled with kinetic treatment of the data have revealed that the desulfurization chemistry of heavy oils is essentially controlled by the strongly inhibiting three and larger ring aromatic hydrocarbon content and surprisingly not by the content of the "hard-to-remove" sulfur compounds. Such enhanced understanding of the heavy oil sulfur removal is expected to open new avenues for catalyst/process optimization for heavy oil desulfurization and thereby assist the efficent production of clean transporation fuels.

  17. Biological desulfurization of coal by mesophilic and thermophilic microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, D.; Hsieh, M.; Francis, H.; Kermode, R.I.; Khalid, A.M.; Aleem, H.M.I. (University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (USA))

    1990-03-01

    The biological desulfurization of coals was studied with pure cultures of mesophilic ({ital Thiobacillus ferrooxidans} and {ital T. thiooxidans}) or thermophilic ({ital Sulfolobus brierleyi}) bacteria and acid mine water. These microorganisms were used with coals ranging in sulfur contents from 2 to 6%. The extent of removal of sulfur, ash and iron from coal was analyzed in terms of total sulfur, pyritic sulfur, organic sulfur, ash content, and liquid phase iron concentration. With {ital S. brierleyi}, CO{sub 2}-enriched air resulted in a substantial increase in initial desulfurization rate of pyrite. With acclimated {ital S. brierleyi}, 15 to 20% organic sulfur removal was observed. Low-temperature Moessbauer spectroscopy data on iron phases in biotreated coal established that superparamagnetic iron oxyhydroxide (FeOOH) and jarosite were reprecipitated from solution onto the coal particles. 12 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. Application of oxygenation in active carbon desulfurizer technology in methanol production%活性炭脱硫剂加氧技术在甲醇生产中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文胜; 马玉梅

    2012-01-01

    In producing methanol, through the use of active carbon desulfurizer and the research of desulfurization principle, by introducing air purified gas in the desulfurization tower was removaled sulfur, in order to make sulfur content after the desulfurization tower to meet the design requirments, eliminating the serious consequences of catalyst poisoning effecting methanol quality because of the sulfur content of methanol gas of raw materials is out of limits.%在甲醇生产过程中,通过对活性炭脱硫剂的使用及脱硫原理的研究,采用在脱硫塔中加入空气的方法来进行净煤气的脱硫,以达到脱硫塔后的硫含量达到设计要求,消除由于甲醇原料气中硫含量超标而导致催化剂中毒影响甲醇质量的严重后果.

  19. Mass Transfer Model of Desulfurization in the Electroslag Remelting Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Dong; Jiang, Zhou-Hua; Dong, Yan-Wu; Li, Yang; Gong, Wei; Liu, Fu-Bin

    2017-02-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies have been carried out to investigate the effects of the slag on desulfurization during the electroslag remelting (ESR) process with a focus of developing a mass transfer model to understand the mechanism of desulfurization. Stainless steel 1Cr21Ni5Ti was used as the electrode and remelted with two different kinds of slags using a 50-kg ESR furnace. The contents of sulfur along the axial direction of product ingots were analyzed. It was found that the sulfur content of 350 ppm in the electrode is reduced to 71 to 95 ppm in the ingot by remelting with the slag containing 5 wt pct of CaO, and lowered more to 47 to 59 ppm with another slag having 20 wt pct CaO. On the basis of the penetration and film theories, the theoretical model developed in this work well elucidates the kinetics of desulfurization revealing the mechanism of sulfur transfer during the ESR process. The calculation results obtained from the model agree well with the experimental results. The model indicates that when sulfur content in electrode is given, there is a corresponding minimum value of sulfur content in the ingot due to the kinetics limit. This lowest sulfur content cannot be further reduced even with increasing L S (sulfur distribution coefficient between metal and slag phases) or decreasing sulfur content in the slag. Constant addition of extra amount of CaO to the molten slag with the increase of sulfur content in the slag during the remelting process can improve the macrosegregation of sulfur distributed along the axial direction of ESR ingots. Since the rate-determining steps of the sulfur mass transfer lie in the metal phase, adding calcium as deoxidizer can change mass transfer of sulfur and thus promote desulfurization further during the ESR process.

  20. A Novel Desulfurizer-Catalyst Combination for Logistic Fuel Reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-27

    dictate more efficient use of fuel resources and the synthesis of alternative fuels. In the light of eventual energy shortages, the ever-increasing... synthesis processes are based on the gasification of fossil fuels, which produce a variety of undesirable “green- house” gases. So even in the...Desulfurizers The first step was to find a suitable support material to host the sorbent. Diatomaceous earth and clinoptilolite (zeolitic clay) were

  1. Molecular biological enhancement of coal desulfurization. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krawiec, S.

    1994-12-31

    During the period from 1986 through 1993 the prospect of bacterial desulfurization of fossil fuel was transformed from a theoretically appealing concept to a demonstrable laboratory phenomenon. Results from several laboratories confirmed that there was not one but, rather, several metabolic bases of selectively removing sulfur from the carbon frame of sulfur-containing organic compounds characteristic of fossil fuels. Results in this report relate solely to the so-called ``4S`` pathway (named for the four sulfur-containing compounds in the sequence: (l) dibenzothiophene [DBT] {yields} (2) dibenzothiophene sulfoxide [DBTO] {yields} (3) dibenzosulfone [DBTO{sup 2}] {yields} (4) dibenzosulfonate {yields} monohydroxybiphenyl [OH-BP] + SO{sub 4}{sup =}. [An additional desulfurized product, biphenyl, has been hypothesized and another, o,o{prime}-biphenyl, observed.]) The following subjects are discussed: isolating bacteria with a DbtS{sup +} phenotype; confirming the production of a desulfurized product; determining the identity of the isolates; determining the growth characteristics of the isolates in batch and continuous cultures; determining the kinetics and yields of product in batch and continuous cultures.

  2. Molecular biological enhancement of coal desulfurization. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krawiec, S.

    1994-12-31

    During the period from 1986 through 1993 the prospect of bacterial desulfurization of fossil fuel was transformed from a theoretically appealing concept to a demonstrable laboratory phenomenon. Results from several laboratories confirmed that there was not one but, rather, several metabolic bases of selectively removing sulfur from the carbon frame of sulfur-containing organic compounds characteristic of fossil fuels. Results in this report relate solely to the so-called ``4S`` pathway (named for the four sulfur-containing compounds in the sequence: (l) dibenzothiophene [DBT] {yields} (2) dibenzothiophene sulfoxide [DBTO] {yields} (3) dibenzosulfone [DBTO{sup 2}] {yields} (4) dibenzosulfonate {yields} monohydroxybiphenyl [OH-BP] + SO{sub 4}{sup =}. [An additional desulfurized product, biphenyl, has been hypothesized and another, o,o{prime}-biphenyl, observed.]) The following subjects are discussed: isolating bacteria with a DbtS{sup +} phenotype; confirming the production of a desulfurized product; determining the identity of the isolates; determining the growth characteristics of the isolates in batch and continuous cultures; determining the kinetics and yields of product in batch and continuous cultures.

  3. Experimental Study of Stabilized Soil Utilizing Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion Desulfurization Ash with Carbide Slag and Desulfurization Gypsum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dezhi Shao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the feasibility of preparing soil stabilizer which is circulating fluidized bed combustion ash-based, supplemented with carbide slag and desulfurization gypsum, composed entirely of complete industrial wastes. The results show that CFBC ash has better pozzolanic activity than fly ash. When stabilizer total content is 10% and the ratio of CFBC ash : carbide slag : desulfurization gypsum is 7.2 : 1.8 : 1, compressive strength of stabilized soil can reach the maximum of 2.12 MPa at the age of 28 d of curing. Stabilizer can meet the strength requirements of cement-soil mixing pile composite foundation and cement-soil mixing pile waterproof curtain.

  4. Desulfurization sorbent development activities at METC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siriwardane, R.V.

    1995-06-01

    Development of a suitable regenerable sorbent is a major barrier issue in the hot gas cleanup program for integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) systems. This has been a challenging problem during the last 20 years, since many of the sorbents developed in the program could not retain their reactivity and physical integrity during repeated cycles of sulfidation and regeneration reactions. A series of promising sorbents (METC 2-10), which were capable of sustaining their reactivity and physical integrity during repeated sulfidation/ regeneration cycles, have been developed at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). These sorbents were tested both in low-pressure (260 KPa/23 psig) and high-pressure (520 KPa/60.7 psig) fixed-bed reactors at 538{degrees}C (1000{degrees}F) with simulated coal gas. High-pressure testing was continued for 20 cycles with steam regeneration. A major research goal during the last year was to lower the cost of materials utilized during the sorbent preparation. The METC 9 sorbent was prepared by substituting low-cost materials for some of the materials in METC 6 sorbent. The sulfur capacity of the two sorbents were similar during the 20-cycle testing. METC 2 sorbent was exposed to coal gas in the Modular Gas Cleanup Rig and it was later tested in the high-pressure fixed-bed reactor. The reactivity of the METC 2 sorbent was unaffected by the exposure to the coal gas. Development of these sorbents will be continued for both fluid-bed and moving-bed applications.

  5. Optimal distribution model of mixing gas in iron and steel plant%钢铁企业煤气混合优化分配模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小雷; 张颜颜; 唐立新

    2011-01-01

    The byproduct of iron and steel plant including blast furnace gas, coke oven gas and converter gas can be extensively used as fuel in almost all operations of iron and steel production. In practice, the gases required by various operations differ greatly in heat value, using a single type of gas will cause the diffusion of other gases, or affect the production because of the short supply of gas. Therefore, the three types of gases must be mixed to supply the production, that is, select one mixing scenario and determine the amount according to the production demand for each operation. This paper formulates a 0-1 mixed integer programming model for gas mixing and optimal distribution by using the minimum gas diffusion cost and short supply cost as the objective. The balance of gas pipe pressure and flow, the technological requirement of gas mixing and distribution, are considered. Based on the practical data of a large scale iron and steel plant, the model is solved to optimality by using CPLEX software.%高炉煤气、焦炉煤气和转炉煤气是钢铁企业生产过程中的副产品,作为燃料广泛应用于钢铁生产的生产工序中.在实际生产中,不同工序所需煤气的热值差别很大,采用单一煤气供应极易造成煤气过量放散,或者煤气供应不足而影响生产,因此必须对这三种煤气混合使用.即针对不同工序,在备选的煤气混合方案中选择其一,并根据生产需要确定具体的混合量.以煤气放散成本和煤气不足损失成本之和最小化为目标,同时兼顾煤气管网压力与流量平衡,建立了煤气混合优化分配的0-1混合整数规划模型,并考虑了不同煤气混合及能源分配的工艺要求.以某大型钢铁企业的实际生产数据为例,利用CPLEX软件求得了问题的最优解.

  6. Commercial Test of Multi-functional Desulfurizing Agent TS-01 for Gasoline in FCC Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Zhi; Wu Yingjian; Yu Weisheng

    2003-01-01

    Experimental use of multi-functional desulfurizing agent TS-01 for FCC gasoline in the FCC unitof SINOPEC Jiujiang Company shows that the multi-functional desulfurizing agent can effectivelyremove various kinds of sulfur in FCC gasoline and diesel fuel and fulfill passivation on heavy metals.

  7. Ambient temperature desulfurizer of nano-ZnO modified with cerium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Fen; YAN Bo; ZHANG Jie; JIANG An-xi; SHAO Chun-hong; ZHANG Yan-ping

    2008-01-01

    The compound nano-ZnO modified with Ce was prepared by homogeneous precipitation. IR, XRD and dynamic experiments show that the crystal size of nano-ZnO desulfurizer is decreased after being modified with Ce and its desulfurization activities are improved greatly. When calcined at 270 ℃, Ce distributes evenly calcining temperature is 570℃, the crystal CeO2separates out and the amorphous structure of zinc oxide disap-pears, at the same time, the crystal is perfect and its size increases, but the desulfurization activities decrease. The desulfurization product of nano-ZnO modified with Ce was analyzed with XPS. The results show that the ad-sorption compound of HS, S and ZnS exists on the surface of the desulfurizer.

  8. The desulfurization behavior of mineral matter in ash during coal combustion at high temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Tian-hua; Li, Run-dong; Li, Yan-ji; Zhou, Jun-huz; Cen, Ke-fa [Shenyang Institute of Aeronautical Engineering, Shenyang (China)

    2007-02-15

    In allusion to the desulfurization characteristic of coal ash, the desulfurization of the ash and CaO, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} added to Changguang coal with different proportions at high temperature was studied. Sulphoaluminate as the main desulfurization product was analyzed by X-ray diffraction and SEM visualization. Experimental results indicate that higher proportion of ash added can improve the desulfurization efficiency. The sulphoaluminate content in residue increases with increasing the addition of ash. The desulfurization efficiency of the additive CaO and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is up to 24% at 1300{sup o}C, at the same time the sulphoaluminate is detected in the residue. 6 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Novel dry-desulfurization process using Ca(OH)2/fly ash sorbent in a circulating fluidized bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushima, Norihiko; Li, Yan; Nishioka, Masateru; Sadakata, Masayoshi; Qi, Haiying; Xu, Xuchang

    2004-12-15

    A dry-desulfurization process using Ca(OH)2/fly ash sorbent and a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) was developed. Its aim was to achieve high SO2 removal efficiency without humidification and production of CaSO4 as the main byproduct. The CaSO4 produced could be used to treat alkalized soil. An 83% SO2 removal rate was demonstrated, and a byproduct with a high CaSO4 content was produced through baghouse ash. These results indicated that this process could remove SO2 in flue gas with a high efficiency under dry conditions and simultaneously produce soil amendment. It was shown that NO and NO2 enhanced the SO2 removal rate markedly and that NO2 increased the amount of CaSO4 in the final product more than NO. These results confirmed that the significant effects of NO and NO2 on the SO2 removal rate were due to chain reactions that occurred under favorable conditions. The amount of baghouse ash produced increased as the reaction progressed, indicating that discharge of unreacted Ca(OH)2 from the reactor was suppressed. Hence, unreacted Ca(OH)2 had a long residence time in the CFB, resulting in a high SO2 removal rate. It was also found that 350 degrees C is the optimum reaction temperature for dry desulfurization in the range tested (320-380 degrees C).

  10. Study on long distance transmission technique of weak photocurrent signal in laser gas sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liming Wang; Yujun Zhang; Hongbin Li; Yi Zhou; Kun You; Ying He; Wenqing Liu

    2012-01-01

    The continuous monitoring of H2S gas concentration is a common problem in natural gas desulfurization process technology.Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) is a preferred technology for continuous monitoring of gas in industrial sites,because of its high selectivity,high sensitivity,and fast response.We discuss the technical solutions of on-line monitoring of H2S in natural gas desulfurization process technology based on TDLAS,and study the security design of monitoring system in inflammable and explosive areas.We also design a weak photocurrent signal converting circuit and perform experiments on transmission characteristics of different distances.The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of laser absorption spectrum does not decrease after the 1 500-m transmission.The detection limit is 300 ppb.The system can be operated stably and reliably,and satisfies the need for continuous monitoring of the H2S in natural gas desulfurization process.

  11. Effects of pore sizes and oxygen-containing functional groups on desulfurization activity of Fe/NAC prepared by ultrasonic-assisted impregnation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Song; Guo, Jia-Xiu; Liu, Xiao-Li; Wang, Xue-Jiao; Yin, Hua-Qiang; Luo, De-Ming

    2016-01-01

    A series of Fe-loaded activated carbons treated by HNO3 (Fe/NAC) were prepared by incipient impregnation method with or without ultrasonic assistance and characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy with energy disperse spectroscope (SEM-EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and N2 adsorption/desorption. The desulfurization activities were evaluated at a fixed bed reactor under a mixed gas simulated from flue gas. The results showed that desulfurization activity from excellent to poor is as follows: Fe/NAC-60 > Fe/NAC-80 > Fe/NAC-30 > Fe/NAC-15 > Fe/NAC-0 > Fe/NAC-100 > NAC. Fe/NAC-60 exhibits the best desulfurization activity and has breakthrough sulfur capacity of 319 mg/g and breakthrough time of 540 min. The introduction of ultrasonic oscillation does not change the form of Fe oxides on activated carbon but can change the dispersion and relative contents of Fe3O4. The types of oxygen-containing functional groups have no obvious change for all samples but the texture properties show some differences when they are oscillated for different times. The fresh Fe/NAC-60 has a surface area of 1045 m2/g and total pore volume of 0.961 cm3/g with micropore volume of 0.437 cm3/g and is larger than Fe/NAC-0 (823 m2/g, 0.733 and 0.342 cm3/g). After desulfurization, surface area and pore volume of all samples decrease significantly, and those of the exhausted Fe/NAC-60 decrease to 233 m2/g and 0.481 cm3/g, indicating that some byproducts deposit on surface to cover pores. Pore size distribution influences SO2 adsorption, and fresh Fe/NAC-60 has more pore widths centralized at about 0.7 nm and 1.0-2.0 nm and corresponds to an excellent desulfurization activity, showing that micropore is conducive to the removal of SO2.

  12. Molecular biological enhancement of coal desulfurization. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krawiec, S.

    1995-01-01

    Fresh isolates of bacteria presumptively identified as R. erythropolis unequivocally have a DbtS{sup +} phenotype. The production of OH-BP from either DBT or DBTO{sub 2} was confirmed by difference spectroscopy, HPLC, and mass spectrometry. The temperature, pH, and means of supplying the thiophenic or sulfonic sole source of sulfur were optimized. The maximal rate of growth of the organism, its affinity for sulfone, and the extent to which substrate was converted to product were determined by using batch, fed batch, and continuous cultures. For strain N1-36, the maximum specific growth rate was 0.235 hr{sup -1} which corresponds to a minimal generation time of 2.95 hr. The K{sub s} was estimated to be 0.39 {mu}M. With 100 {mu}M DBT as the sole sulfur source, approximately 40 {mu}M OH-BP are produced (after 40 hr of growth); with 100 {mu}M DBTO{sub 2} as the sole sulfur source, approximately 70 {mu}M OH-BP are produced (after 40 hr of growth). The desulfurization activity is repressed by SO{sub 4}{sup =} OH-BP does not serve as a carbon source. The DbtS{sup +} phenotype of the R. erythropolis isolates is stable and discrete. The isolates selectively remove sulfur from DBT, a compound which models a refractory form of organic sulfur in compounds characteristic of fossil fuels. The desulfurization occurs with no oxidation of carbon-carbon bonds. The stability and specificity (along with genetic regulation) indicate that microbial desulfurization in a real phenomenon in which a noxious element is removed without significantly affecting the calorific value of the substrate. Additional characterization (and optimization) would provide the basis of a very important form of fossil fuel beneficiation.

  13. Mercury mass flow in iron and steel production process and its implications for mercury emission control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengyang; Wang, Shuxiao; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Hai; Gao, Wei; Wu, Qingru; Hao, Jiming

    2016-05-01

    The iron and steel production process is one of the predominant anthropogenic sources of atmospheric mercury emissions worldwide. In this study, field tests were conducted to study mercury emission characteristics and mass flows at two iron and steel plants in China. It was found that low-sulfur flue gas from sintering machines could contribute up to 41% of the total atmospheric mercury emissions, and desulfurization devices could remarkably help reduce the emissions. Coal gas burning accounted for 17%-49% of the total mercury emissions, and therefore the mercury control of coal gas burning, specifically for the power plant burning coal gas to generate electricity, was significantly important. The emissions from limestone and dolomite production and electric furnaces can contribute 29.3% and 4.2% of the total mercury emissions from iron and steel production. More attention should be paid to mercury emissions from these two processes. Blast furnace dust accounted for 27%-36% of the total mercury output for the whole iron and steel production process. The recycling of blast furnace dust could greatly increase the atmospheric mercury emissions and should not be conducted. The mercury emission factors for the coke oven, sintering machine and blast furnace were 0.039-0.047gHg/ton steel, and for the electric furnace it was 0.021gHg/ton steel. The predominant emission species was oxidized mercury, accounting for 59%-73% of total mercury emissions to air.

  14. 40 CFR 63.307 - Standards for bypass/bleeder stacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... install a bypass/bleeder stack flare system that is capable of controlling 120 percent of the normal gas... emissions shall not be vented to the atmosphere through bypass/bleeder stacks, except through the flare... operator of a brownfield coke oven battery or a padup rebuild shall install such a flare system...

  15. Environment protection in the area of by-products facilities in coking plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan Tomal; Henryk Zembala; Krzysztof Kalinowski; Milan Fedorov; Ludovt Kosnac; Jan Hromiak [Biuro Projektow Koksoprojekt Sp. z o.o., Zabrze (Poland)

    2004-07-01

    20 slides/overheads outline the presentation on the subject of the environmental protection program implemented at the U.S. Steel Kosice Coking Plant. Actions taken include the control of emissions by a system of cooling coke oven gas. A hermetically sealed system uses nitrogen flow for tar management and hermetic loading of the liquid coal by-product Benzol.

  16. Research progress of SO2 removal from flue gas by functionalized ionic liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinle SHI

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Functionalized ionic liquids are receiving increasing attention in the field of flue gas desulfurization due to its unique physical and chemical properties. Research progress on the field of SO2 removal by ionic liquids (ILs including guanidinium-based, amines-based and ether-based ILs is summarized. Industrial application of polymerization ILs and loaded ILs to desulfurization is reviewed. Relevant suggestions on industrial application of ionic liquids based on fundamental research are put forward. The first thing is to develop functional ionic liquid for desulfurization,and thus investigate and propose its desulfurization mechanism and model; the second is to carry out the research work on immobilized ionic liquid, and explore its recycling properties, thus prolonging its service life.

  17. 载体对超临界水浸渍法制备的中温煤气脱硫剂性能的影响%Effects of Carbon-support in Sorbents Prepared by Supercritical Water Impregnation on Its Desulfurization in Hot Coal Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱彪; 王建成; 韩丽娜; 常丽萍; 鲍卫仁

    2011-01-01

    以不同活性炭(AC-1、AC-2)和炭化料(CC)为载体,利用超临界水漫溃法制备MnOx/AC系列脱硫剂,采用电感耦合等离子光谱发生仪( ICP-AES)、X射线衍射仪(XRD)和N2吸附仪等测试手段,对活性组分上载量\\脱硫剂的物相组成、比表面积和孔容进行了表征.在固定床上进行脱硫剂的活性评价,考察了制备条件对硫化性能的影响.研究结果表明,比表面积最大的活性炭AC-1脱硫性能最好,可将气体中的H2S脱除到0.1 ppm以下,金属利用率最高可以达到90.96%.以AC-2的炭化料为载体在制备负载型MnOx/AC脱硫剂的同时,还可以活化炭化料,有效提高其比表面积,提高脱硫剂的脱硫活性.在380℃,25 Mpa,前驱体溶液浓度为10%,停留时间为30 min的条件下制得的脱硫剂T380t30W1 0Mn/AC-1的脱硫活性最佳.%Sorbents were prepared by depositing manganese oxide particles onto different active carbon (AC-1, AC-2) and carbonization carbon (CC) using supercritical water impregnation. Morphology and structure, loading amounts of metal in sorbents, pore volume and surface area were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and nitrogen sorption measurements. The sulfidation tests were performed using a fixed-bed reactor. The effects of the preparation conditions on sulfidation properties of sorbents were investigated. The results showed that the sorbent prepared by support AC-1 with highest surface area had the highest desulfurization activity and its highest metal utilization is 90.96%. During sorbent preparation by supercritical water impregnation, the carbonization carbon support can be activated and the surface area is enhanced, which will cause the improving of desulfurization activity. The properties of sorbent can be improved by the changing support,time and concentration of precursor solution in the process of supercritical water impregnation. T380t30W10Mn

  18. Thermodynamic Analysis of Desulfurization of Fine Coal by Electrochemical Reduction Flotation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Wei; ZHU Hong; ZHANG Yu

    2003-01-01

    Problems in desulfurization of coal by electrochemical reduction is analyzed and calculated. The result shows that 1) the △rGm function of the reaction of pyrite into FeS and the modifying reaction decreasing the oxygenous functions on coal surface is smaller than zero in a spontaneous reaction, and greater than zero in a nonspontaneous reaction; 2) the △rGm value can be adjusted by pH and the dosage of electrolyte to make it be greater than zero , which is favorable for the modifying reaction and useful for desulfurization of coal. The research has provided a theoretical foundation for determining reasonable technical parameters of desulfurization

  19. Research on optimal domestication of thiobacillus ferooxidans and desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, G.; Tao, X.; Zhang, X.; ??? Luo, Z. [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China)

    2006-07-15

    In order to increase the efficiency of biodesulfurization and reduce the reaction time, based on the high selectivity adsorption and oxidation characteristic of thiobacillus ferooxidans (T.f.) for pyrite (FeS{sub 2}) in coal, the strain of T.f. was acclimatized by changing concentration of Fe{sup 2+}, H{sup +} and NH{sub 4}{sup +} and adding FeS{sub 2} and glucose in the 9 K medium. The optimal conditions of growth were investigated and used in the biodesulfurization experiments. The results show that the normal growth of T.f. was achieved after two turns of acclimatization. The desulfurization efficiency is the best under the conditions of 10% inoculation, 1.85 pH value and 27{sup o}C. The smaller the size of coal particle is, the effective the biodesulfurization is. The maximum sulphur removal from coal of 76.2% was obtained after reaction time of 7 days. The mechanisms of desulfurization with T.f. can be explained by the cooperation reaction of dissolved oxygen, bacteria and Fe{sup 3+}. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  20. Application of Microwave Technology for Desulfurization of Diesel Fuel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ping; Zhao Shanlin; Kong Lingzhao; Li Jiandong; Zhai Yuchun

    2004-01-01

    The microwave technology was introduced for the desulfurization of diesel fuel. The atmosphericsecond side-cut diesel fraction, which was supplied by Liaohe Petrochemical Company, was desulfurized by anoxidation process under microwave irradiation. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), can oxidize the sulfur compounds indiesel fuel selectively and convert them into sulfones. Based on the rule of dissolution by similar substances,these sulfones are removed from diesel fuel because they could be dissolved in solvent phase. So the sulfurcontent of diesel fuel is decreased. The influence of the concentration of oxidizing reagent, solvent phase to oilphase volume ratio (S/O), irradiation pressure, irradiation time, and the irradiation power have been investigated.The optimum conditions for the refining process was determined. The sulfur removal rate was 59.7% under theoptimum conditions of 8%H2O2, S/O=0.25, 0.05MPa, 6 min, and 375W, respectively. When no microwave irradia-tion was applied, the removal rate was 11.5% only.