Sample records for coke oven plant

  1. [Characteristics of particulate matter pollution in coke oven plant]. (United States)

    Deng, Hua-xin; Zhang, Wang-zhen; Huang, Kun; He, Yun-feng; Li, Xiao-hai; Kuang, Dan; Lin, Da-feng; Zhang, Xiao-min; Wu, Tang-chun


    To explore the characteristics of particulate matter pollution in coke oven plant, so as to provide scientific data for establishing occupational exposure limits for coke oven emissions. Concentrations of CO, SO₂, BSM, BTEX (concentrations of benzene, toluene and xylene were determined in this study), PM₁₀, PM₂.₅, 16 selected PAHs in PM₁₀ and PM₂.₅ were determined in the work environment of a coke oven plant in Wuhan. The work environment was divided into the adjunct area, the bottom of, the side of and the top of coke oven. The concentrations of CO, SO₂, BSM, BETX, PM₁₀, PM₂.₅, PAHs in PM₁₀ and PM₂.₅ were significantly related to working environmental categories, respectively, and were increasing as the adjunct area work environments were not significantly different in one-way ANOVA (P > 0.05). The distribution of aromatic rings and the concentrations of total benzo[a] pyrene equivalents in PM₁₀ and PM₂.₅ were not statistically different between work environments. The concentrations of particulate matter was related with other contents of coke oven emissions in coke work environment, and the contents and types of PAHs in PM₁₀ and PM₂.₅ were similar.

  2. Optimization of the coke-oven activated sludge plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raizer Neto, Ernesto [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Colin, Francois [Institut de Recherches Hydrologiques, 54 - Nancy (France); Prost, Christian [Laboratoire de Sciences de Genie Chimique, Nancy (France)


    In the coke-oven activated sludge plants one of the greatest problems of malfunction is due to inffluent variability. The composition and, or, concentration variations of the inffluent substrate, which can cause an unstable system, are function of the pollutant load. Nevertheless, the knowledge of the kinetic biodegradation of the coke-oven effluent represents the limiting factor to develop an effective biological treatment. This work describes a computational model of the biological treatment which was elaborated and validated from continuous pilot scale experiments and calibrated by comparing its predictions to the pilot experiment`s results. 12 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. 29 CFR 1910.1029 - Coke oven emissions. (United States)


    ...) Aspiration systems designed and operated to provide sufficient negative pressure and flow volume to... to determine the controls for the coke battery; (c) A report of the technology considered in meeting... harmful effects of exposure to coke oven emissions. (i) Hygiene facilities and practices—(1) Change rooms...

  4. Actual application of hot repairing technology to operating coke oven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtani, Susumu; Ito, Hidekuni; Numazawa, Makoto; Yamazaki, Takao; Narita, Yuji; Kondo, Toshio


    In Wakayama Steel Works, the coke ovens have been operating for 23 [approximately] 25 years, and many over-aged parts can be seen. However the investment for the construction of a new coke oven is so huge that the maximum prolongation of the existing coke ovens life becomes very important. In the Wakayama Steel Works, it is thought that the coking chamber repairing technology can be the key to that prolongation. While, repairing the coking chamber, the area near the wall head can be observed by the naked eye and repaired using conventional methods, such a welding repairment by metal oxidation heat, partial chamber wall brick re-laying in the hot stage. However, these repairing methods are limited to the area near the wall head, and successful repair methods for the central portion of chamber wall have not, heretofore, been found. In the Wakayama Steel Works, the development of a new welding repairing machine for the central portion of the chamber wall was started and the actual repairing machine has been completed with practical use tests on operating coke ovens. This repairing machine has the following characteristic; (1) Repair of the central portion of ovens under high temperature (over 1,000 C); (2) Capability to seal narrow cracks or open brick joints and to smooth out brick roughness into a flat surface; (3) High working efficiency (max. welding capacity [equals] 30K g/h); (4) Compact and fully automatic operation with a high level of man/machine control interface; and (5) No disturbance of coke oven operation and no cooling of the chamber wall. In this paper, the outline of the actual hot repairing machine and its application results in the Wakayama operating coke ovens are reported.

  5. 29 CFR 1926.1129 - Coke oven emissions. (United States)


    ... oven emissions. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are identical... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coke oven emissions. 1926.1129 Section 1926.1129 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  6. Carbon dioxide emission in hydrogen production technology from coke oven gas with life cycle approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burmistrz Piotr


    Full Text Available The analysis of Carbon Footprint (CF for technology of hydrogen production from cleaned coke oven gas was performed. On the basis of real data and simulation calculations of the production process of hydrogen from coke gas, emission indicators of carbon dioxide (CF were calculated. These indicators are associated with net production of electricity and thermal energy and direct emission of carbon dioxide throughout a whole product life cycle. Product life cycle includes: coal extraction and its transportation to a coking plant, the process of coking coal, purification and reforming of coke oven gas, carbon capture and storage. The values were related to 1 Mg of coking blend and to 1 Mg of the hydrogen produced. The calculation is based on the configuration of hydrogen production from coke oven gas for coking technology available on a commercial scale that uses a technology of coke dry quenching (CDQ. The calculations were made using ChemCAD v.6.0.2 simulator for a steady state of technological process. The analysis of carbon footprint was conducted in accordance with the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA.

  7. 40 CFR 63.302 - Standards for by-product coke oven batteries. (United States)


    ... batteries. 63.302 Section 63.302 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.302 Standards for by-product coke oven batteries... oven emissions from each affected existing by-product coke oven battery that exceed any of the...

  8. Sperm quality and DNA integrity of coke oven workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. (United States)

    Jeng, Hueiwang Anna; Pan, Chih-Hong; Chao, Mu-Rong; Chiu, Chien-Chih; Zhou, Guodong; Chou, Chon-Kit; Lin, Wen-Yi


    The objective of this study was to assess sperm quality and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) integrity of coke oven workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as compared to control subjects. The coke oven workers (N = 52) and administrative staff (N = 35) of a steel plant served as the exposed and control groups, respectively. Exposure to PAHs was assessed by measuring 1-hydroxypyren. Analysis of sperm quality (concentration, motility, vitality, and morphology) was performed simultaneously with sperm DNA integrity analysis, including DNA fragmentation, denaturation, bulky DNA adducts, and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dGuo). A questionnaire was conducted to collect demographic and potential confounding data. The coke oven workers had lower percentages of sperm motility, vitality and normal morphology than the control group, but the difference was not significant. For DNA integrity, the coke oven workers had significantly higher concentrations of bulky DNA adducts and 8-oxo-dGuo than the control subjects (p = 0.009 and p = 0.048, respectively). However, DNA fragmentation percentages did not significantly increase as compared to those in the subjects from the control group (p = 0.232). There was no correlation between sperm quality parameters and DNA integrity indicators. Occupational exposure of the coke oven workers to PAHs was associated with decreased sperm DNA integrity. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2016;29(6):915-926.

  9. 40 CFR 63.303 - Standards for nonrecovery coke oven batteries. (United States)


    ... coke oven battery shall meet the work practice standards in paragraphs (c)(1) and (2) of this section... or operator of a new nonrecovery coke oven battery shall meet the emission limitations and work... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for nonrecovery coke oven...

  10. Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications. Volume 1, Public design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This Public Design Report provides, in a single document, available nonproprietary design -information for the ``Innovative Coke Oven Gas Cleaning System for Retrofit Applications`` Demonstration Project at Bethlehem Steel Corporation`s Sparrows Point, Maryland coke oven by-product facilities. This project demonstrates, for the first time in the United States, the feasibility of integrating four commercially available technologies (processes) for cleaning coke oven gas. The four technologies are: Secondary Gas Cooling, Hydrogen Sulfide and Ammonia Removal, Hydrogen Sulfide and Ammonia Recovery, and Ammonia Destruction and Sulfur Recovery. In addition to the design aspects, the history of the project and the role of the US Department of,Energy are briefly discussed. Actual plant capital and projected operating costs are also presented. An overview of the integration (retrofit) of the processes into the existing plant is presented and is followed by detailed non-proprietary descriptions of the four technologies and their overall effect on reducing the emissions of ammonia, sulfur, and other pollutants from coke oven gas. Narrative process descriptions, simplified process flow diagrams, input/output stream data, operating conditions, catalyst and chemical requirements, and utility requirements are given for each unit. Plant startup provisions, environmental considerations and control monitoring, and safety considerations are also addressed for each process.

  11. Reduction of heat consumption in coke oven at Mizushima works

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akizuki, H. (and others)


    Measures taken by Kawasaki Steel are outlined: controlled use of waterproof coating in the coal stockyard, coupled with improved drainage; an increase in charge weight through coarser crushing; reductions in soaking time, final coke temperature and waste gas temperature and volume; and thermal insulation coating of oven doors. The resulting overall reduction in heat consumption is c. 70 kcal/kg, to 550-570 kcal/kg.

  12. Optimisation of coal blend and bulk density for coke ovens by vibrocompacting technique non-recovery ovens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, P.P.; Vinoo, D.S.; Yadav, U.S.; Ghosh, S.; Lal, J.P.N. [J.S.W. Steel Ltd, Bellary (India)


    The quality of coke produced in a coke oven depends on the coal blend characteristics and carbonisation conditions. Scarcity of good quality coking coal made it necessary to look for techniques capable of producing superior coke from inferior coals. Precarbonisation techniques improve the bulk density of the coal charge and produce good quality coke from inferior coals. The stamp charging technique, the most effective among them requires finer crushing of coal and higher moisture as binder, both requiring additional energy. JSW Steel has adopted vibrocompaction along with non-recovery ovens for its 1.2 Mtpa coke production. This is a highly ecofriendly coke making process producing excellent quality coke from inferior coals. It increases the bulk density of cake, similar to stamp charging, using compaction in place of stamping. A cake density of 1.10 t m{sup -3} has been achieved using the vibrocompacting technique with optimum moisture and crushing fineness. Coal blend containing up to 35% soft coal and coking coal, having 32% volatile matter have been successfully used to produce a coke with coke strength after reaction >65%, coke reactivity index <25% and M10 <6%. The paper discusses the experience of operating vibrocompaction non-recovery coke ovens.

  13. Using low porosity refractory materials in coke ovens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narita, Y.; Sudzuki, T.


    Refractory bricks with porosity (KP) of less than or equal to 17 percent, which contain less than 1 percent iron oxide and are resiliant at temperatures of more than 1,000/sup 0/C, are made through caking or electrosmelting of materials with a high aluminum content (chamotte, sillimanite, cordierite, pagodite) and silicon content (magnesial chromite, alumina, magnesite, calcite and zircon). In a refractory material with a seeming porosity of less than or equal to 17 percent the deposition of carbon in the pores is reduced which promotes a constant heat conductivity and strength of the refractory material in the operation of coke ovens. Normally the carbon is formed with the reduction of CO under the catalytic action of iron oxide.

  14. [Relationship between CYP1A1 gene polymorphisms and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene levels in coke oven workers]. (United States)

    Nie, Ji-sheng; Zhang, Hong-mei; Sun, Jian-ya; Zeng, Ping; Zhang, Ling; Niu, Qiao


    To study the associations of CYP1A1 gene polymorphisms with levels of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene among coke oven workers. 223 male workers from a coke plant (76, 82 and 65 workers in oven top group, oven-side group and oven-bottom group respectively) and 119 controls without occupational polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons exposure were selected. The MspI gene polymorphism in CYP1A1 3' flanking region and the genotypes at I462V site in exon 7 of CYP1A1 were detected by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and allele specific amplification (ASA). The urinary 1-hydroxypyrene of coke oven workers in oven-top, oven-side and oven-bottom (3.77+/-0.64, 3.57+/-0.49, 3.26+/-0.80 micromol/mol Cr) were significantly higher than controls (2.80+/-1.02 micromol/mol Cr) (P0.05). In oven-top group and oven-side group, the subjects with Val/Val genotype in exon 7 of CYP1A1 had significantly higher urinary 1-hydroxypyrene levels than those with Ile/Val or Ile/Ile genotype, and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene of Ile-Val genotype were also significantly higher than Ile/Ile genotype (Poven workers (OR in oven top group, oven-side group and oven-bottom group was 24.926, 4.226 and 6.729 respectively) and subjects with m2/m2 genotype in CYP1A1 3' flanking region (OR=4.031) or with Val/Val or Ile/Val genotype in exon 7 of CYP1A1 (OR were 5.524 and 3.811) had elevated urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (greater than 95 percentile of control group, 3.876 micromol/mol Cr). BAP concentration of work environment contributes to the elevated urinary 1-hydroxypyrene levels, and the exposed BAP levels were regulated by the CYP1A1 MspI and I462V genotypes. Genetic polymorphism of CYP1A1 gene could be a susceptible biomarker in coke oven workers which was involved in the individual susceptibility on metabolism of PAHs.

  15. Influence of Coking Pressure and Oven Age on Chamber Wall Displacement and Coke Pushing Force

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nakagawa, Tomoyuki; Kubota, Yukihiro; Arima, Takashi; Fukuda, Koichi; Kato, Kenji; Awa, Yasuhiko; Sugiura, Masato; Mitsugi, Kenji; Okanishi, Kazuya; Sugiyama, Isao


    .... The wall displacement increased in proportion to the internal gas pressure of plastic layer at oven center, and the displacement at superannuated oven per maximum gas pressure was larger than the one at sturdy oven. The pushing force...

  16. Assessment of genotoxic exposure in Swedish coke-oven work by different methods of biological monitoring. (United States)

    Reuterwall, C; Aringer, L; Elinder, C G; Rannug, A; Levin, J O; Juringe, L; Onfelt, A


    This study evaluated the results of several biological methods used simultaneously to monitor coke-oven work. Blood samples from 44 male coke-oven workers and 48 male referents, matched for age and smoking/snuff consumption, were examined for cytogenetic damage in lymphocytes. Urinary thioether excretion was determined for 62, and urine mutagenicity for 31, of the subjects, who followed a standardized diet during the urine sampling. Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons varied with work task, the ambient air levels of benzo[a]pyrene sometimes exceeding 5 micrograms/m3. Cytogenetic damage, urine mutagenicity, and thioether excretion did not differ between the groups. The smokers, however, had significantly higher sister chromatid exchange frequencies, urine mutagenicity, and thioether excretion than the nonsmokers. The absence of biological indications of genotoxic exposure was unexpected and indicates that the studied methods are not adequate to assess the carcinogenic risks of Swedish coke-oven workers.

  17. Performance and microbial community analysis of the anaerobic reactor with coke oven gas biomethanation and in situ biogas upgrading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wen; Xie, Li; Luo, Gang


    A new method for simultaneous coke oven gas (COG) biomethanation and in situ biogas upgrading in anaerobic reactor was developed in this study. The simulated coke oven gas (SCOG) (92% H2 and 8% CO) was injected directly into the anaerobic reactor treating sewage sludge through hollow fiber membra...

  18. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine levels among coke-oven workers for 2 consecutive days. (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi-To-Uyen; Kawanami, Shoko; Kawai, Kazuaki; Kasai, Hiroshi; Li, Yun-Shan; Inoue, Jinro; Ngoan, Le Tran; Horie, Seichi


    This study evaluated the levels of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their relationship with oxidative DNA damage among Vietnamese coke-oven workers. We collected urine from 36 coke-oven workers (exposed group) at the beginning and end of the shift on 2 consecutive days. We also collected urine from 78 medical staff (control group). Information was collected by questionnaire about smoking status, drinking habit, and working position. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) were measured using HPLC. All statistical analyses were performed with SPSS version 19. Urinary 1-OHP was significantly higher in the coke-oven workers than in the control group (poven workers had the highest levels of internal exposure to PAHs, followed by side-oven and then bottom-oven workers (5.41, 4.41 and 1.35 ng/mg creatinine, respectively, at the end of the shift on day 2). Urinary 8-OH-dG was significantly higher in top- and side-oven workers at the end of the shift on day 2 (4.63 and 5.88 ng/mg creatinine, respectively) than in the control group (3.85 ng/mg creatinine). Based on a multi-regression analysis, smoking status had a significant effect on urinary 8-OH-dG (p=0.049). Urinary 1-OHP tended to have a positive correlation with urinary 8-OH-dG (p=0.070). Vietnamese coke-oven workers were exposed to PAHs during their work shift. Urinary 1-OHP exceeded the recommended limit, and elevated oxidative DNA damage occurred in top- and side-oven workers on the second day of work. A tendency for positive correlation was found between urinary 1-OHP and urinary 8-OH-dG.

  19. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations in Chinese coke oven workers relative to job category, respirator usage, and cigarette smoking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bo Chen; Yunping Hu; Lixing Zheng; Qiangyi Wang; Yuanfen Zhou; Taiyi Jin [Fudan University, Shanghai (China). School of Public Health


    1-Hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) is a biomarker of recent exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We investigated whether urinary 1-OHP concentrations in Chinese coke oven workers (COWs) are modulated by job category, respirator usage, and cigarette smoking. The present cross-sectional study measured urinary 1-OHP concentrations in 197 COWs from Coking plant I and 250 COWs from Coking plant II, as well as 220 unexposed referents from Control plant I and 56 referents from Control plant II. Urinary 1-OHP concentrations (geometric mean, {mu}mol/mol creatinine) were 5.18 and 4.21 in workers from Coking plants I and II, respectively. The highest 1-OHP levels in urine were found among topside workers including lidmen, tar chasers, and whistlers. Benchmen had higher 1-OHP levels than other workers at the sideoven. Above 75% of the COWs exceeded the recommended occupational exposure limit of 2.3 {mu}mol/mol creatinine. Respirator usage and increased body mass index (BMI) slightly reduced 1-OHP levels in COWs. Cigarette smoking significantly increased urinary 1-OHP levels in unexposed referents but had no effect in COWs. Chinese COWs, especially topside workers and benchmen, are exposed to high levels of PAHs. Urinary 1-OHP concentrations appear to be modulated by respirator usage and BMI in COWs, as well as by smoking in unexposed referents.

  20. Environment protection in the area of by-products facilities in coking plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan Tomal; Henryk Zembala; Krzysztof Kalinowski; Milan Fedorov; Ludovt Kosnac; Jan Hromiak [Biuro Projektow Koksoprojekt Sp. z o.o., Zabrze (Poland)


    20 slides/overheads outline the presentation on the subject of the environmental protection program implemented at the U.S. Steel Kosice Coking Plant. Actions taken include the control of emissions by a system of cooling coke oven gas. A hermetically sealed system uses nitrogen flow for tar management and hermetic loading of the liquid coal by-product Benzol.

  1. Assessment of potential damage to DNA in urine of coke oven workers: an assay of unscheduled DNA synthesis.


    Roos, F; Renier, A; Ettlinger, J; Iwatsubo, Y; Letourneux, M; Haguenoer, J M; Jaurand, M C; Pairon, J C


    OBJECTIVES: A study was conducted in coke oven workers to evaluate the biological consequences of the exposure of these workers, particularly production of potential genotoxic factors. METHODS: 60 coke oven workers and 40 controls were recruited in the same iron and steel works. Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was assessed by job and measurement of 1-hydroxypyrene (1OHP) in urine samples. An unscheduled DNA synthesis assay was performed on rat pleural mesothelial cells use...

  2. Association of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons metabolites and risk of diabetes in coke oven workers. (United States)

    Yang, Liangle; Yan, Kai; Zeng, Dan; Lai, Xuefeng; Chen, Xuguang; Fang, Qin; Guo, Huan; Wu, Tangchun; Zhang, Xiaomin


    Elevated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) metabolites have recently been linked to increased risk of diabetes in the general population, but little is known about the risk of diabetes due to high pollution levels of PAHs exposure. We aimed to examine whether occupational exposure to PAHs would be one of the important risk factors for diabetes in the coke oven workers. A total of 1472 coke oven workers with complete data were qualified for the present study. We measured 12 urinary monohydroxy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Multiple logistic regression was used to evaluate the associations between urinary OH-PAHs and risk of diabetes, with adjustment for the potential confounders. We found that elevated urinary 4-hydroxyphenanthrene (4-OHPh) was significantly associated, in a dose-dependent manner, with increased risk of diabetes (Ptrend = 0.003). Compared with individuals with 4-OHPh in the lowest quartile, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) of diabetes among those in the highest quartile was 2.80 (95% CI = 1.37-5.71). In stratified analysis, the association was more prominent in those who were smokers, overweight (BMI ≥24 kg/m2), with longer working years (≥20 years) and worked at coke oven settings. In addition, high levels of 4-OHPh combined with longer working years or overweight had a joint effect on the risk of diabetes. Our data suggested that elevated 4-OHPh was dose-responsive associated with increased risk of diabetes in the coke oven workers. The risk assessment of diabetes related to occupational PAHs exposure should take working years and BMI into consideration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Emission of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins (PCDDs and Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans (PCDFs from Underfiring System of Coke Oven Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Bigda


    Full Text Available A coke oven battery is not considered as a significant source of PCDDs/PCDFs emissions; however, due to small amounts of chlorine in coal dioxins, dibenzofurans may be formed. The paper presents the attempts to determine the level of emission of PCDDs/PCDFs from the COB underfiring system and to confront the obtained results with the calculations based on the mass balance of chlorine in the coking process and reactions of both chlorophenols formation and PCDDs and PCDFs formation from mono- and polychlorophenols. There were PCDDs/PCDFs concentrations measured in flue gases from the underfiring system of two COBs at a Polish coking plant. The measurements included both an old and a new battery. The obtained concentrations of PCDDs/PCDFs were lower than reported in the literature (0.5-1.7 ng I-TEQ/tcoke, while the results for old COB were on average 3 times higher than for the new one. It was found that PCDD/F emission from COB underfiring system is insignificant and that PCDDs/PCDFs formation during coal coking should consider the mechanisms of their formation from mono- and polychlorophenols, as well as the influence of process parameters on the synthesis.

  4. Association between urinary 1-hydroxypyrene and genotoxic effects in coke oven workers. (United States)

    Siwińska, E; Mielzyńska, D; Kapka, L


    To investigate whether current occupational exposure of coke oven workers to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) results in genotoxic effects measured in peripheral blood lymphocytes and whether these biomarkers are associated with the biomarkers of exposure. Blood and urine samples were collected immediately after a shift at the end of a working week from 50 coke oven workers and 50 control workers not exposed to PAHs. Methods included: (1) biomarkers of exposure: urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (HpU), urinary mutagenicity by the plate Salmonella test with strains TA98 and YG1024 after metabolic activation, expressed as mutagenic rate (MR98 and MR1024, respectively), urinary cotinine; and (2) biomarkers of biological effects in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL): sister chromatid exchanges (SCE/cell), cells of high frequency of SCE (% HFC), micronuclei (MN/1000 cells), chromosomal aberrations (CA/100 cells), and DNA damage by the Comet assay. Occupational exposure to PAH resulted in significantly increased levels of HpU and mutagenic effect of urine. Median values of these biomarkers in coke oven workers were: 9.0 micromol/mol creatinine for HpU, 2.7 for MR98, and 8.2 for MR1024, compared to the controls: HpU = 0.6 micromol/mol creatinine, MR98 = 1.2, and MR1024 = 5.5. Occupational exposure caused significant induction of SCE, HFC, and MN in coke oven workers: median SCE = 5.9, HFC = 12.0%, MN = 6.0 compared to the controls: 3.9, 5.0%, and 3.0, respectively. No effect of occupational exposure was found in relation to CA and DNA damage measured with the Comet assay. HpU concentration was positively associated with SCE and HFC. The concentration of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene corresponding to a 5% probability of increased SCE was 1.0 micromol/mol creatinine. The occupational exposure to PAHs resulted in measurable biological effects (SCE, HFC, MN). In coke oven workers an increased level of SCE was not observed below the level of 1.0 micromol HpU/mol creatinine.

  5. Control of pollutants emissions and heat consumption of the CST coke ovens; Controle des emissions de polluants et de la consommation thermique a la cokerie de CST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemente, J.M.; Sampaio d' Andrea, C.H.; Da Silva, O.J.; Brandenberger Valente, O.; Lievana, M.; Rabelo de Faria, M. [Arcelor-CST, 92 - Puteaux (France)


    To precede the energy and environmental demands, a follow-up of the coke oven batteries was made, to identify the probable causes of pollutants generation and thermal losses. The results of the follow-up of the in/out gases of the coke ovens led to a change of the traditional operational practices, aiming at reducing the air emissions and the energy consumption of the coke ovens. (authors)

  6. Air pollution from a large steel factory: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions from coke-oven batteries. (United States)

    Liberti, Lorenzo; Notarnicola, Michele; Primerano, Roberto; Zannetti, Paolo


    A systematic investigation of solid and gaseous atmospheric emissions from some coke-oven batteries of one of Europe's largest integrated steel factory (Taranto, Italy) has been carried out. In air monitoring samples, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were consistently detected at concentrations largely exceeding threshold limit values. By means of PAHs speciation profile and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) equivalent dispersion modeling from diffuse sources, the study indicated that serious health risks exist not only in working areas, but also in a densely populated residential district near the factory.

  7. Specifications for coke fines as potential adsorbents for coking plant waste water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karcz, A.; Czepirska-Komorowska, E.; Burmistrz, P. (Akademia Gorniczo-Hutnicza, Cracow (Poland). Wydzial Energochemii Wegla i Fizykochemii Sorbentow)


    Proposes utilization of coke dust from coke dry quenching and from dedusting facilities for the purification of coking plant waste water. A process flowsheet is presented for waste water treatment at the Przyjazn coking plant, the only Polish coking plant employing coke dry quenching. The proposal for coke dust use is explained; properties of 4 types of coke dust available at the plant are compared to those of Carbopol Z-4 activated carbon. Adsorption isotherms were determined for the coke dust, as well as pore structures and pore size distribution. A high share of micropores was found in Carbopol Z-4, while coke dust had a higher amount of mesopores. Substantial differences were expected in adsorption performance of dusts compared to activated carbon, but this was not confirmed in laboratory purification of waste water. 19 refs.

  8. Membrane-integrated physico-chemical treatment of coke-oven wastewater: transport modelling and economic evaluation. (United States)

    Kumar, Ramesh; Chakrabortty, Sankha; Pal, Parimal


    A modelling and simulation study with economic evaluation was carried out for an advanced membrane-integrated hybrid treatment process that ensures reuse of water with recovery of ammoniacal nitrogen as struvite from coke-oven wastewater. Linearized transport model was developed based on extended Nernst-Plank and concentration polarization modulus equation. Effects of pH, transmembrane pressure and cross-flow rate of interest on membrane charge density, solute rejection and solvent flux were investigated. The membrane module was successful in yielding a pure water flux as high as 120 L m(-2) h(-1) removing more than 95 and 96% of the cyanide and phenol, respectively, while permeating more than 90% NH4 (+)-N at a transmembrane pressure of only 15 × 10(2) KPa and at a pH of 10 for a volumetric cross-flow rate of 800 L h(-1). The Fenton's reagents were used to degrade more than 99% of pollutants present in the concentrated stream. The developed model could successfully predict the plant performance as reflected in the very low relative error (0.01-0.12) and overall high correlation coefficient (R(2) > 0.96). Economic analysis indicated that such a membrane-integrated hybrid system could be quite promising in coke wastewater treatment at low cost i.e. $0.934/m(2) of wastewater.

  9. Respiratory impairment in coke oven workers: relationship to work exposure and bronchial inflammation detected by sputum cytology. (United States)

    Madison, R; Afifi, A A; Mittman, C


    Coke oven workers are at excess risk of developing lung cancer and may be at risk for chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD). We have studied 3799 male workers to assess the relationship between the two diseases. Repeated lung function and sputum cytology tests were obtained over a 3-year period. Sputum samples were assessed using standardized methods; in addition to metaplastic and neoplastic changes, we reproducibly assessed the presence and extent of acute and chronic inflammatory changes. Spirometric flow rates (FEV1) were significantly reduced in workers most exposed to coke oven emissions, particularly in those with excessive inflammatory cells and regular metaplasia in sputum. The presence of reactive bronchial epithelial cells and metaplasia were potent predictors of an abnormal FEV1/FVC. Studies like these may offer a means to investigate the relationship between COLD and lung cancer. Such changes in sputum may identify individuals at risk of developing both diseases.

  10. Smoking modify the effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons exposure on oxidative damage to DNA in coke oven workers. (United States)

    Yang, Jin; Zhang, Hongjie; Zhang, Huitao; Wang, Wubin; Liu, Yanli; Fan, Yanfeng


    Coke oven emissions containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are predominant toxic constituents of particulate air pollution that have been linked to increased risk of lung cancer. Numerous epidemiological studies have suggested that oxidative DNA damage may play a pivotal role in the carcinogenic mechanism of lung cancer. Little is known about the effect of interaction between PAHs exposure and lifestyle on DNA oxidative damage. The study population is composed by coke oven workers (365) and water treatment workers (144), and their urinary levels of four PAH metabolites and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) were determined. Airborne samples of exposed sites (4) and control sites (3) were collected, and eight carcinogenic PAHs were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography. The median values of the sum of eight carcinogenic PAHs and BaP in exposed sites were significantly higher than control sites (P PAH metabolites were significantly elevated in coke oven workers (P < 0.01). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the risk of high levels of urinary 8-OHdG will increase with increasing age, cigarette consumption, and levels of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene, and P for trend were all <0.05. Smoking can significantly modify the effects of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene on high concentrations urinary 8-OHdG, during co-exposure to both light or heavy smoking and high 1-hydroxypyrene levels (OR 4.28, 95% CI 1.32-13.86 and OR 5.05, 95% CI 1.63-15.67, respectively). Our findings quantitatively demonstrate that workers exposed to coke oven fumes and smoking will cause more serious DNA oxidative damage.

  11. Impact of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 on by-product coke oven production for blast furnaces and compliance paths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aloe, A.; Sundholm, J.L. [Shenango Inc. (USA)


    Describes the requirements of the 1990 Amendment to the US Clean Air Act as relates to coke batteries and the two alternative compliance routes, MACT and LAER, coke battery operators had to chose between. MACT stands for maximum achievable control technology and LAER lowest achievable emission rate. The daily inspections to ensure compliance, residual risk and extension of the Act to other coke operations are described. Impact on US coke production is discussed. It is concluded that the Act has made it more expensive to produce coke from by-product ovens. 7 refs., 2 tabs.

  12. Service and monitoring of the coke oven battery at HKM with an integrated process-management-system on IT basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian Kanty; Leo Nelles; Heinz-Bernd Beckmann; Willy Pesy [HKS Systemtechnik (Germany)


    The report describes a tool for monitoring a coke furnace battery. With the help of IT technology important operating parameters in relation to the coke furnace battery monitoring such as compressive force analysis, heating flow temperature, chamber wall temperature and refractory controls are collected and made available to the analysis. By use of modern visualization techniques and a constant actualization of the data the operating conditions are always represented in a current mode. Thus a safe and more efficient operation of the coke furnace battery is possible. The IT expert knowledge and coking plant expert knowledge lead to the development of a practice-oriented tool and reached thereby a high acceptance-in the work force. Expert knowledge is collected by a consistent application of the presented systems and can be made available to all users. Further application possibilities are in preparation. 27 figs.

  13. Occupational coke oven emissions exposure and risk of abnormal liver function: modifications of body mass index and hepatitis virus infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. Hu; B. Chen; J. Qian; L. Jin; T. Jin; D. Lu [Fudan University, Shanghai (China). Department of Occupational and Environmental Health


    Occupational coke oven emissions (COEs) have been considered an important health issue. However, there are no conclusive data on human hepatic injury due to COE exposure. The association of COE exposure with liver function was explored and the effects of modification of potential non-occupational factors were assessed. 705 coke oven workers and 247 referents were investigated. Individual cumulative COE exposure was quantitatively estimated. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), {gamma}-glutamyl transferase, alkaline phosphatase, hepatitis B surface antigen and anti-hepatitis C antibody were measured. Among those with high COE exposure, the adjusted ORs of abnormal ALT and AST were 5.23 (95% CI 2.66 to 10.27) and 1.95 (95% CI 1.18 to 3.52), respectively. Overweight individuals (body mass index (BMI) {>=}25 kg/m{sup 2}) with high COE exposure had elevated risks of abnormal ALT (adjusted OR 23.93, 95% CI 8.73 to 65.62) and AST (adjusted OR 5.18, 95% CI 2.32 to 11.58). Risk of liver damage in hepatitis B virus- or hepatitis C virus-positive individuals with COE exposure was also elevated. Long-term exposure to COE increases the risk of liver dysfunction, which is more prominent among those with higher BMI and hepatitis virus infection. The risk assessment of liver damage associated with COE exposure should take BMI and hepatitis virus infection into consideration.

  14. Association of aryl hydrocarbon receptor gene polymorphism with the neurobehavioral function and autonomic nervous system function changes induced by benzo[a]pyrene exposure in coke oven workers. (United States)

    Zhang, Hongmei; Nie, Jisheng; Li, Xin; Niu, Qiao


    To analyze the association of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) gene polymorphism and the neurotoxicity induced by benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) in coke oven workers. Subjects, 214 coke oven workers and 81 controls, were detected for neurobehavioral function and autonomic nervous system (ANS) function. Airborne B[a]P concentration, urinary 1-hydroxypyrene level, and AhR gene polymorphisms were determined and analyzed for their association with B[a]P neurotoxicity. Neurobehavioral function and ANS function were significantly decreased and dependent on B[a]P dose. The AhR GG, GA, and AA genotypes in G1661A fitted the Hardy-Weinberg equation, whereas C1549T and G1708A gene mutants were not detected. Indices indicating neurotoxicity showed no significant difference among individuals with AA, GG, or GA genotype except for the confusion-bewilderment (P > 0.05). The AhR gene polymorphism is not thought to correlate with B[a]P neurotoxicity among coke oven workers.

  15. Removal of phenol from coke-oven wastewater by cross-flow nanofiltration membranes. (United States)

    Kumar, Ramesh; Pal, Parimal


    This study investigated the phenol rejection characteristics of some nanofiltration membranes during treatment of coke wastewater. Four different types of composite polyamide commercial nanofiltration membranes (Sepro, USA) were tested under different operating conditions including transmembrane pressure, pH and recovery rate. When pressure was increased from 4 to 16 bars, the percentage of rejection of phenol in the permeate increased from 72.5% to 97.7% while yielding a high flux of 118 litres per square meter per hour(LMH) at a volumetric cross flow rate of 800 litres per hour at pH 10 (in recirculation mode) in case of NF1 membrane. The effect of recovery rate on the rejection coefficient of phenol and flux was also studied in concentrated mode and found that a recovery rate of up 55% nanofiltration was successfully operated without much decline of flux and rejection coefficient. Finally, nanofiltration had great efficiency in phenol removal from industrial wastewater and was considered suitable regarding its operation.

  16. Biological monitoring the exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons of coke oven workers in relation to smoking and genetic polymorphisms for GSTM1 and GSTT1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joost H.M. van Delft; Marie-Jose S.T. Steenwinkel; Jeff G. van Asten; Nico de Vogel; Truus C.D.M. Bruijntjes-Rozier; Ton Schouten; Patricia Cramers; Lou Maas; Marcel H. van Herwijnen; Frederik-Jan van Schooten; Piet M.J. Hopmans [TNO Nutrition and Food Research Institute (Netherlands). Toxicology Division


    Occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) increases the risk of developing lung cancer. Human exposure is often demonstrated by increased internal levels of PAH metabolites and of markers for early biological effects, like DNA adducts and cytogenetic aberrations. This study aimed to assess whether the current exposure to PAH of coke oven workers in a Dutch plant induced biological effects, and to determine if these effects are influenced by tobacco smoking and by genetic polymorphisms for the glutathione S-transferase genes GSTM1 and GSTT1. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHpyr) levels were used to monitor the internal dose, while the internal effective dose was assessed by monitoring PAH-DNA adducts, DNA strand breaks (Comet assay), sister-chromatid exchanges (SCE) and cells with a high frequency of SCE (HFC) in lymphocytes together with micronuclei (MN) in exfoliated urothelial cells. Occupational exposure to PAH resulted in statistically significant increased 1-OHpyr levels, but it did not cause a significant induction of SCE, HFC, MN, DNA strand breaks or DNA adducts. Smoking caused a significant increase of 1-OHpyr, SCE, HFC and DNA adducts, but not of MN or DNA strand breaks. Following correction for the smoking-related effects, no occupational induction of the effect biomarkers could be discerned. Multi-variate analysis did not show a significant influence of GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms on any biomarker. Also no significant interactions were observed between the various biomarkers.

  17. Determination of organic contaminants in soil from coking plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubica, K.; Czaplicka, M.; Kordas, T. [Institute of Chemical Processing of Coal, Zabrze (Poland)


    A method is presented which enables the assessment of the level of soil contamination by the compounds particularly noxious for the environment such as: benzol type hydrocarbons, phenols and their alkyl derivatives and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Feasibility of the analytical procedure was assessed using soil samples taken from around a coking plant.

  18. Development of the super coke oven for productivity and environment enhancement toward the 21st century (SCOPE 21); Sekitan kodo tenkan cokes seizo gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiyama, T. [Center for Coal Utilization, Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Nakashima, Y.; Nishioka, K.; Otsuka, J. [The Japan Iron and Steel Federation, Tokyo (Japan)


    Serious shortage is predicted on cokes for blast furnaces in the first half of the 21st century. In order to deal flexibly with the fluid world market in the future, it is necessary to have a technology developed, by which coals from coking coal to non-coking dust coal can be used. The Japan Iron and Steel Federation and the Center for Coal Utilization, Japan are working on research and development of a new process with enhanced environmentality and economy (SCOPE 21) as a coke manufacturing process to respond to the requirements arisen from the above situation. The process is assessed basing on basic technological seeds such as rapid coal heating and high-speed carbonization and reformation of middle to low temperature cokes. The organizations are moving forward an eight-year development program which has started in fiscal 1994. This paper reports the summary of the development, and results of investigations and researches performed during fiscals 1994 and 1995. Rapid heating tests, middle to low temperature coke reformation tests, and tests for plug transportation of high-temperature coal have been performed. It has been verified, for example, that rapid coal heating can improve coke strength. The development work is being promoted toward grain size distribution and upscaling problems. 5 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Using ultrafine particles from a coal washing plant in metallurgical coke production


    Gutierrez Bernal, Jesús Manuel; Mora Pulido, William Fernando; Rodríguez Varela, Luís Ignacio; Ramírez, Javier; Díaz Velásquez, José de Jesús


    Blending ultrafine particles from a coal washing plant was studied for coke production by briquetting using 6%w coal tar as binder. The ultrafine coal particles were characterised and a pilot coking test was made in a Koppers’ furnace. Coke quality was evaluated by proximate analysis, stability (micum 10 and micum 40), coke reactivity index (CRI) with CO2 and the coke’s mechanical strength after reaction with carbon dioxide (CSR index). Briquetting results showed that was possible to obtain c...


    The report evaluates the Kress Indirect Dry Cooling (KIDC) process, an innovative system for handling and cooling coke produced from a slot-type by-product coke oven battery. The report is based on the test work and demonstration of the system at Bethlehem Steel Corporation's Sp...

  1. Occupational exposure to carbon/coke fibers in plants that produce green or calcined petroleum coke and potential health effects: 2. Fiber concentrations. (United States)

    Maxim, L Daniel; Galvin, Jennifer B; Niebo, Ron; Segrave, Alan M; Kampa, Otto A; Utell, Mark J


    We monitored exposure to various fibers among workers in eight plants operated by ConocoPhillips that produce green or calcined petroleum coke. Carbon/coke and other fibers, including calcium silicate, cellulose, gypsum, and iron silicate, were found in occupational samples. Carbon/coke fibers were found in bulk samples of calcined petroleum coke, the probable source of these fibers in occupational samples. Time-weighted average (TWA) total fiber concentrations were approximately lognormally distributed; 90% were fiber concentrations varied with plant, job (tasks), and type of coke. This was expected given the substantial differences in plant configuration, technology, and workplace practices among refineries and carbon plants. Carbon/coke fibers (identified and measured using transmission electron microscopy [TEM]) were found at all plants producing all types of calcined coke and not detected at any plant producing only green coke. Approximately 98% of all carbon/coke TWAs were carbon/coke TLA is certainly < or = 0.05 f/ml and probably < 0.03 f/ml.

  2. Lymphocyte Oxidative Stress/Genotoxic Effects Are Related to Serum IgG and IgA Levels in Coke Oven Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meili Gao


    Full Text Available We investigated oxidative stress/genotoxic effects levels, immunoglobulin levels, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs levels exposed in 126 coke oven workers and in 78 control subjects, and evaluated the association between oxidative stress/genotoxic effects levels and immunoglobulin levels. Significant differences were observed in biomarkers, including 1-hydroxypyrene levels, employment time, percentages of alcohol drinkers, MDA, 8-OHdG levels, CTL levels and CTM, MN, CA frequency, and IgG, IgA levels between the control and exposed groups. Slightly higher 1-OHP levels in smoking users were observed. For the dose-response relationship of IgG, IgA, IgM, and IgE by 1-OHP, each one percentage increase in urinary 1-OHP generates a 0.109%, 0.472%, 0.051%, and 0.067% decrease in control group and generates a 0.312%, 0.538%, 0.062%, and 0.071% decrease in exposed group, respectively. Except for age, alcohol and smoking status, IgM, and IgE, a significant correlation in urinary 1-OHP and other biomarkers in the total population was observed. Additionally, a significant negative correlation in genotoxic/oxidative damage biomarkers of MDA, 8-OH-dG, CTL levels, and immunoglobins of IgG and IgA levels, especially in coke oven workers, was found. These data suggest that oxidative stress/DNA damage induced by PAHs may play a role in toxic responses for PAHs in immunological functions.

  3. Laboratory tests of purifying coking plant waste water using coke dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karcz, A.; Burmistrz, P.; Rozwadowski, A. (Akademia Gorniczo-Hutnicza, Cracow (Poland). Wydzial Energochemii Wegla i Fizykochemii Sorbentow)


    Studies suitability of coke dust from dry coke quenching for cleaning waste water. Sorptive properties were compared to those of powdered Carbopol Z-4 activated carbon. The following factors were evaluated: chemical oxygen demand, total content of organic carbon, content of phenols, cyanides, thiocyanates, ammonia, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and benzopyrene. Amount of dust used was optimized in a series of experiments. Coke sedimentation was also studied within the range of 1, 5, 10, 20 and 30 g/dm[sup 3] concentrations, showing that the dust separates well after absorption. Special attention was paid to removal of phenols. Coke dust was found to have 38 to 98% of the sorptive power of activated carbon. Both adsorption materials made waste water lose its color and odor. Findings are provided in 5 tables. 2 refs.

  4. The Value Proposition of 'Teck Coke Limited' Should Teck Enter the Coke Trade?


    Colin Wilfred Petryk


    This paper will review the business case for Teck to enter the metallurgical cokemarket for the steel industry. The trend impacting investment is the growing demand forsteel. There are two coke battery technologies to choose from; environmental concernsmake the heat recovery oven the preferred technology. Four countries were considered inwhich to build the coke plant; Teck’s relationship with Chile and Chile’s desire forforeign investment makes it the best choice. Market size was estimated us...

  5. Device to feed purging and degraphitization air into the rich gas pipes leading to the individual heating walls of coke ovens. Einrichtung zur Zufuehrung von Spuel- und Entgraphitierungsluft in die zu den einzelnen Heizwaenden von Verkokungsoefen fuehrenden Starkgasleitungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kueppenbender, R.


    A device to feed purging and degraphitization air into the rich gas pipes leading to the individual heating walls of coke ovens is described. Two inlet cross-sections, lockable with covers, are provided for the purging and degraphitization air. The two covers are connected by chains or a rod. The cover of the degraphitization air is opened with respect to the cover of the purging air after a time lag.

  6. Sun Coke Company responds to coke demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkdoll, M. [Sun Coke Company, Knoxville, TN (US)


    A set of 28 slides/overheads outline in words and photographs recent developments with which Sun Coke is involved. These include a update on the Jewell Coke Plant in Vansant, VA, USA and on the Indiana Habor Coke Company plant in East Chicago, IN, USA, news on the construction of a coking plant at Haverhill, OH, USA and of Sun Coke Tubarao in Vitoria, Brazil, and of proposed projects at Haverhill and at Port Talbot, Wales, UK. Technology updates by Sun Coke are described. These include flue gas sharing, automatic door latches, charging emission control, a high performance quench tower baffle system and a flat push hot car.


    The report evaluates the Kress Indirect Dry Cooling (KIDC) process, an innovative system for handling and cooling coke produced from a slot-type by-product coke oven battery. he report is based on the test work and demonstration of the system at Bethlehem Steel Corporation's Spar...

  8. Failure analysis of the impellers of coke plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souvik Das


    Full Text Available Premature failure of the impeller blade of coke plant has been investigated. The component functioned during the CGC gas intake cycle. The component rotates at 1480 rpm with a volumetric flow of 720 m3/min of flue gas with temperature about 200–300 °C. The failed component reveals exposed surface of a crack that extended slightly beyond the assembly weld. From macro-structural observation under-filled region in welding is observed which is detrimental because it acts as a stress concentration site. The microstructure from the weld zone showed severe intergranular corrosion degradation. Micro cracks and cracks have been observed at several locations, mostly originating from the weld zone. From the EDS analysis of the failed sample it is observed that there is a deposition of Cr along the grain boundary. From the mode of failure it indicates that probable reason for the premature failure is due to sensitization of the component. In this case, the precipitation of chromium carbides may be occurred during welding operation when the heat affected zone (HAZ experiences a particular temperature range (550–850 °C. From the microstructure it is observed that the welding operation was not proper and there is every chance that there is heat generation in around sensitization range leading to precipitation of chromium carbides consumed the alloying element – chromium from a narrow band along the grain boundary and this makes the zone anodic to the unaffected grains. The chromium depleted zone becomes the preferential path for corrosion attack or crack propagation if under tensile stress. Thus it leads to premature failure of the component during service.

  9. The effects of heavy metals and their interactions with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on the oxidative stress among coke-oven workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Tian; Feng, Wei; Kuang, Dan; Deng, Qifei [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, State Key Laboratory of Environmental Health (Incubating), School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Zhang, Wangzhen [Institute of Industrial Health, Wuhan Iron & Steel (Group) Corporation, Wuhan 430070, China. (China); Wang, Suhan; He, Meian; Zhang, Xiaomin; Wu, Tangchun [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, State Key Laboratory of Environmental Health (Incubating), School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Guo, Huan, E-mail: [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, State Key Laboratory of Environmental Health (Incubating), School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China)


    Heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are predominate toxic constituents of particulate air pollution that may be related to the increased risk of cardiopulmonary events. We aim to investigate the effects of the toxic heavy metals (arsenic, As; cadmium, Cd; chromium, Cr; nickel, Ni; and lead, Pb), and their interactions with PAHs on oxidative stress among coke-oven workers. A total of 1333 male workers were recruited in this study. We determined their urinary levels of As, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, twelve PAH metabolites, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and 8-iso-prostaglandin-F2α (8-iso-PGF2α). Multivariate linear regression models were used to analyze the effects of these metals and their interactions with PAHs on 8-OHdG and 8-iso-PGF2α levels. It was found that only urinary As and Ni showed marginal or significant positive linear dose-dependent effects on 8-OHdG in this study population, especially among smokers (β=0.103, P=0.073 and β=0.110, P=0.002, respectively). After stratifying all participants by the quartiles of ΣOH-PAH, all five metals showed linear association with 8-OHdG in the highest quartile subgroup (Q4) of ΣOH-PAHs. However, these five urinary metals showed significantly consistent linear associations with 8-iso-PGF2α in all subjects and each stratum. Urinary ΣOH-PAHs can significant modify the effects of heavy metals on oxidative stress, while co-exposure to both high levels of ΣOH-PAHs and heavy metals render the workers with highest 8-OHdG and 8-iso-PGF2α (all P{sub interaction}≤0.005). This study showed evidence on the interaction effects of heavy metals and PAHs on increasing the oxidative stress, and these results warrant further investigation in more longitudinal studies. - Highlights: • Heavy metals and PAHs are predominate toxic constituents of particulate matters. • Urinary As and Ni showed linear dose-dependent effects on 8-OHdG and 8-iso-PGF2α. • PAHs significant interact with toxic metal in increasing 8

  10. Coke manufacturing process. [5 claims

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deruelle, J.; Penet, O.


    Pulverulent coke and granular reactive coke are produced, respectively, from fines and grains of coal of grades which are not normally usable for coking, containing more than 15 percent of volatile matter and having a swelling index between 1 and 8, by carbonization between 600/sup 0/C and 1100/sup 0/C, wherein combustion air in excess of that which would be necessary to bring the coke to the desired coking temperature is introduced into a slightly inclined rotary tubular oven through which the coal passes during its conversion into coke, the air introduction being effected between the coke outlet and the zone in which the product reaches its maximum temperature and being controlled so that the temperature of the gases issuing from the oven is kept above 600/sup 0/C. At least 60 percent of the air is preferably introduced at the downstream end of the oven, and further air may be introduced at intermediate points along the oven length. An endothermic fluid such as water may also be injected at the downstream end of the oven. Preferably the lowest rate of temperature rise of the product (10/sup 0/ to 15/sup 0/C/min) is in the 300/sup 0/ to 450/sup 0/C temperature zone of the oven. 3 figures.

  11. Biomass fuels and coke plants are important sources of human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, benzene and toluene. (United States)

    Fan, Ruifang; Li, Junnan; Chen, Laiguo; Xu, Zhencheng; He, Dechun; Zhou, Yuanxiu; Zhu, Yuanyuan; Wei, Fusheng; Li, Jihua


    Large amounts of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), benzene and toluene (BT) might be emitted from incomplete combustion reactions in both coal tar factories and biomass fuels in rural China. The health effects arising from exposure to PAHs and BT are a concern for residents of rural areas close to coal tar plants. To assess the environmental risk and major exposure sources, 100 coke plant workers and 25 farmers in Qujing, China were recruited. The levels of 10 mono-hydroxylated PAHs (OH-PAHs), four BT metabolites and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in the urine collected from the subjects were measured. The 8-OHdG levels in the urine were determined to evaluate the oxidative DNA damage induced by the PAHs and BT. The results showed that the levels of the OH-PAHs, particularly those of 1-hydroxynathalene and 1-hydroxypyrene, in the farmers were 1-7 times higher than those in the workers. The concentrations of the BT metabolites were comparable between the workers and farmers. Although the exact work location within a coke oven plant might affect the levels of the OH-PAHs, one-way ANOVA revealed no significant differences for either the OH-PAHs levels or the BT concentrations among the three groups working at different work sites. The geometric mean concentration (9.17 µg/g creatinine) of 8-OHdG was significantly higher in the farmers than in the plant workers (6.27 µg/g creatinine). The levels of 8-OHdG did not correlate with the total concentrations of OH-PAHs and the total levels of BT metabolites. Incompletely combusted biomass fuels might be the major exposure source, contributing more PAHs and BT to the local residents of Qujing. The estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of naphthalene and fluorene for all of the workers and most of the farmers were below the reference doses (RfDs) recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), except for the pyrene levels in two farmers. However, the EDIs of benzene in the workers and local

  12. Hydrogen Production by Catalytic Partial Oxidation of Coke Oven Gas in BaCo0.7Fe0.3-xZrxO3-δ Ceramic Membrane Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Weilin


    Full Text Available The BaCo0.7Fe0.3-xZrxO3-δ (BCFZ, x = 0.04–0.12 mixed ionic–electronic conducting (MIEC membranes were synthesized with a sol–gel method and evaluated as potential membrane reactor materials for the partial oxidation of coke oven gas (COG. The effect of zirconium content on the phase structure, microstructure and performance of the BCFZ membrane under He or COG atmosphere were systemically investigated. The BaCo0.7Fe0.24Zr0.06O3-δ membrane exhibited the best oxygen permeability and good operation stability, which could be a potential candidate of the membrane materials for hydrogen production through the partial oxidation of COG.

  13. Raw materials inventory management for a Coke plant / by Christoffel van Dijk


    Van Dijk, Christoffel


    Analysis of inventory management and logistics for a metallurgical coke plant at Mittal Steel, Vanderbijlpark Works , Gauteng, South Africa. Inventory management and logistics is a concept, which has shown considerable development in the post-World War II era. The concept of applying inventory and logistics as a business function initially emerged during the price wars era and evolved during the quest for quality era. Thereafter, business inventory and logistics had a promotion/marketing focu...

  14. [Enhanced bioremediation of coking plant soils contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons]. (United States)

    Lu, Xiao-Xia; Li, Xiu-Li; Ma, Jie; Wu, Shu-Ke; Chen, Chao-Qi; Wu, Wei


    Soil samples contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were collected from Beijing Coking Plant. The purposes were to isolate PAHs degrading bacteria from the soils, determine their appropriate living condition, enrich them and apply them in the enhanced bioremediation of the contaminated soils. Using each of the 16 USEPA priority PAHs as the sole carbon source, PAHs degrading bacteria were isolated using the method of plate streaking and identified by genetic analysis. In total seven species of PAHs degrading bacteria were obtained. When mixed, these bacteria could degrade the 16 (2-6 cyclic) PAHs studied at appropriate concentrations. In the liquid medium, when the total concentration of the 16 PAHs (sigma PAH16) was 17 microg/mL, single bacteria could grow well and degrade the PAHs. However, when sigma PAH16 was 166 microg/mL, the growth and activity of either single PAHs degrading bacteria or a mixture of the seven PAHs degrading bacteria were inhibited. Aiming at the contaminated soils from Beijing coking plant, five treatments were performed, i.e., control (C), addition of nutrient (N), addition of nutrient and PAHs degrading bacteria (N + B), addition of nutrient and surfactant (N +S), addition of nutrient and PAHs degrading bacteria and surfactant (N + B + S). After five weeks of experiment, compared to the C treatment, the mean removal rate of the 16 PAHs in the N + B treatment was increased 32%, and the mean removal rate of the 16 PAHs in the N + B + S treatment was increased 46% (the mean removal rate of the 10 4-6 cyclic PAHs was increased 52%). The addition of PAHs degrading bacteria and surfactant could significantly enhance the degradation of PAHs in the soils. This study provides evidence for the enhanced bioremediation of PAHs contaminated soil for Beijing coking plant and other coking plants.

  15. Prospects for petroluem coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Delayed and fluid coking of residual fuels is a process that could have a market impact for US refiners, who have over 15.4 million tons or 85% of the free-world coking capacity. Expansion plans by US refiners will add another 2.7 million tons/year. Variations in feedstocks and processes can produce sponge cokes, honeycomb coke, needle coke, or fluid coke. Major users of delayed petroleum coke are the aluminum, iron, and steel industries. Large boilers and cement plants can burn a mixture of raw petroleum coke and pulverized coal. A comparison of world production, imports, exports, and consumption shows the potential for a growing market. 4 tables. (DCK)

  16. COD removal by flotation and nitrogen removal tests at Rautaruuki Steel's coking plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerssi, P.; Piirainen, I. [Rautaruukki Steeli, Raahe (Finland)


    The activated sludge process has been in operation since 1987 and no changes were made in 1992 when the production of coking plant was doubled. 97% ammonium and 85% COD removal efficiencies have been achieved. The flotation unit has been tested to purify the outflow of the wastewater treatment. By the flotation it is possible to increase a COD removal efficiency of the plant above 90% and decrease a discharge under 100g COD/ton coal. According to the pilot studies the nitrogen removal stage can be supplemented to the existing basins. The main changes were made in the pumping system. 1 ref., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Influence of low-density polyethylene addition on coking pressure


    Melendi, Sonia; Barriocanal, C.; Alvarez, R.; Diez, M.A.


    Different amounts of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) were added to a bituminous coal used to produce metallurgical coke. The effect of the plastic waste on the carbonization process and more exactly, on the coking pressure were investigated. A movable wall oven at semi-pilot scale was used for measuring coking pressure generated. It was found that coking pressure increases for low LDPE addition levels (1-3 wt.%); however higher amounts of LDPE reduce coking pressure. To explain this behavior ...

  18. Assessment of chars from black coal carbonization for adsorption treatment of waste water from coking plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolany, B.; Szkuta-Pochopien, T.; Malczyk, R.; Sekula, M.


    The Institute for Chemical Coal Processing investigated efficiency of carbon adsorption in treatment of waste water from a coking plant in Poland. Four types of adsorption media were used: a coarse-grained non-activated char, a fine-grained non-activated char, a coarse-grained activated char and Carbopol Z-4 activated carbon produced on a commercial scale. The chars were produced by carbonization of black coal from Poland in a rotary chamber using semicoke as heat carrier. Sorptive properties of 4 types of chars were compared. All the tested chars were characterized by sorptive properties in relation to chemical compounds from waste water. The coarse-grained activated char was superior to other chars. The working sorptive capacity of the coarse-grained activated char amounted to 86% of the capacity of Carbopol Z-4 activated carbon (when 2 chars were used for reducing chemical oxygen demand of waste water to about 35% of the initial level, treatment efficiency amounted to 65%). Use of the coarse-grained activated char for waste water treatment in coking plants on a commercial scale is recommended. 13 references.

  19. Dale Coke: Coke Farm


    Farmer, Ellen


    Dale Coke grew up on an apricot orchard in California’s Santa Clara Valley. In 1976 he bought ten acres of farmland near Watsonville in Santa Cruz County but continued to work repairing fuel injection systems rather than farming at his new home. In 1981, a struggle with cancer inspired him to rethink his life and become an organic farmer. His neighbor, who had grown strawberries using pesticides and chemical fertilizers, asserted that strawberries could not be grown organically. Coke set out ...

  20. Sun Coke heat recovery coke technology at Indiana Harbor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, D.N. [Sun Coke Company (USA). Operations


    Sun Coke heat recovery coke technology was fully established for the first time at Indiana Harbor Coke Company, East Chicago, Indiana (USA). The plant supplies continuous heat to waste heat boilers which provide steam for a 94 MW turbine generator whilst producing 1,350,00 NT per year of metallurgical coke. The paper briefly describes the development of the technology and discusses specific design aspects of the Indiana Harbor plant. 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Effect of plant extracts on physicochemical properties of chicken breast meat cooked using conventional electric oven or microwave. (United States)

    Rababah, T M; Ereifej, K I; Al-Mahasneh, M A; Al-Rababah, M A


    This study evaluated effects of vacuum-infused fresh chicken breast meats with grape seed extracts, green tea extracts, or tertiary butyl hydroquinone on pH, texture, color, and thiobarbituric reactive substances after cooking using a microwave or conventional electric oven for 12 d storage at 5 degrees C. Thiobarbituric reactive substances values of uncooked (raw) chicken breast meats for 0 to 12 d of storage ranged from 1.12 to 3.5 mg of malonaldehyde/100 g of chicken. During 0 to 12 d of storage, thiobarbituric reactive substances values ranged from 2.50 to 7.80 and from 2.4 to 7.35 mg of malonaldehyde/100 g of chicken breast meat cooked by microwave and conventional electric oven, respectively. Meats cooked by microwave had higher redness and lower lightness values than those cooked by conventional electric oven. Also, meats cooked by microwave had higher maximum shear force, working of shear, hardness, springiness, cohesiveness, and chewiness values than meats cooked by conventional electric oven. Tertiary butyl hydroquinone was the most effective in raw and cooked meats in reducing lipid oxidation, followed by grape seed and green tea extracts. Plant extracts are effective in preventing undesirable changes in chemical properties in chicken breast meat caused by microwave and conventional electric oven cooking.

  2. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the urine, benzo(a)pyrene diol epoxide-DNA adducts in lymphocyte DNA, and antibodies to the adducts in sera from coke oven workers exposed to measured amounts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the work atmosphere. (United States)

    Haugen, A; Becher, G; Benestad, C; Vahakangas, K; Trivers, G E; Newman, M J; Harris, C C


    Workers in coke oven plants have a higher incidence of lung cancer than the general population. They are exposed to a variety of chemicals, in particular the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), including benzo(a)pyrene. To evaluate the genotoxic effects of PAH exposure, air samples and urine samples were analyzed for PAH by capillary gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography, respectively. Since benzo(a)pyrene is activated to 7 beta,8 alpha-dihydroxy-(9 alpha,10 alpha)-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo(a)pyrene (BPDE) and binds to DNA, we have used ultrasensitive enzymatic radioimmunoassay and synchronous fluorescence spectrophotometry to measure BPDE-DNA adducts in lymphocyte DNA. The results show that workers were exposed to high concentrations of atmospheric PAH. However, the mean PAH exposure levels are reduced 60% when the workers wore masks during work. When compared to exposure levels, the urinary excretion of PAH was relatively low. Approximately one-third of the workers had detectable putative BPDE-DNA adducts in lymphocytes by ultrasensitive enzymatic radioimmunoassay, and 10% of the samples had emission peaks at 379 nm by synchronous fluorescence spectrophotometry. The four most positive samples were the same in both of the assays. Antibodies to an epitope(s) on BPDE-DNA were found in the sera of approximately one-third of the workers. Detection of DNA adducts and antibodies to these adducts are internal indicators of exposure to benzo(a)pyrene.

  3. 54 FR 38044: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants; Benzene Emissions From Maleic Anhydride Plants, Ethylbenzene/Styrene Plants, Benzene Storage Vessels, Benzene Equipment Leaks, and Coke By- Product Recovery Plants (United States)

    Final Rule on National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants; Benzene Emissions From Maleic Anhydride Plants, Ethylbenzene/Styrene Plants, Benzene Storage Vessels, Benzene Equipment Leaks, and Coke By-Product Recovery Plants.

  4. Some fundamental aspects of highly reactive iron coke production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomura, S.; Terashima, H.; Sato, E.; Naito, M. [Nippon Steel Corp. Ltd., Chiba (Japan)


    It is important to develop the production and utilization technology of highly reactive coke in order to improve the efficiency of blast furnace reactions. In this study, some fundamental aspects of highly reactive iron coke produced in a coke oven chamber were investigated. First, the effects of catalytic Fe powder addition to coal before carbonization on coke strength were investigated. The addition of Fe powder decreased the coal caking property and hence the resultant coke drum index. On the other hand it increased coke reactivity (JIS coke reactivity index and CRI) to a great extent. This means that the caking property of blended coals needs to be adjusted higher to produce iron coke with required strength and high reactivity. Secondly, it was shown that the iron ore reacts with silica brick at 1200{sup o}C in a condition similar to that in a coke oven chamber. The iron ore and silica reacted to produce fayalite and the brick was damaged. On the other hand, it was proven that the iron ore does not react with silica brick at 1100{sup o}C in the above condition. Based on this fundamental study, iron coke with proper strength and high reactivity was successfully produced in a coke oven chamber on a commercial scale by adjusting the coal blend composition and the coke oven temperature. Furthermore it was revealed that about 70 % of iron in iron ore powder added to coal was reduced to metallic iron during carbonization.

  5. Comparison of metallurgical coke and lignite coke for power generation in Thailand (United States)

    Ratanakuakangwan, Sudlop; Tangjitsitcharoen, Somkiat


    This paper presents and compares two alternatives of cokes in power generation which are the metallurgical coke with coke oven gas and the coke from lignite under the consideration of the energy and the environment. These alternatives not only consume less fuel due to their higher heat content than conventional coal but also has less SO2 emission. The metallurgical coke and its by-product which is coke oven gas can be obtained from the carbonization process of coking coal. According to high grade coking coal, the result in the energy attitude is not profitable but its sulfur content that directly affects the emission of SO2 is considered to be very low. On the other hand, the coke produced from lignite is known as it is the lowest grade from coal and it causes the high pollution. Regarding to energy profitability, the lignite coke is considered to be much more beneficial than the metallurgical coke in contrast to the environmental concerns. However, the metallurgical coke has the highest heating value. Therefore, a decision making between those choices must be referred to the surrounding circumstances based on energy and environment as well as economic consideration in the further research.

  6. Isolation and characterization of phenol degrading yeasts from wastewater in the coking plant of Zarand, Kerman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Karimi


    Full Text Available Abstract Phenol and phenolic compounds are environmental pollutants present in industrial wastewaters such as coal tar, oil refineries and petrochemical plants. Phenol removal from industrial effluents is extremely important for the protection of environment. Usually, phenol degradation is carried out by physicochemical methods that are costly and produce hazardous metabolites. Recently, phenol biodegradation has been considered. Yeasts are the most important phenol biodegraders. In this study, the phenol-degrading yeast from environmental samples (soil and wastewater was isolated from the coking plant of Zarand, Kerman. Then total heterotrophic yeasts were counted. The soil samples had higher rates of yeast degrader, in comparison to wastewater samples. After three passages, four yeasts (K1, K2, K7 and K11 that had the highest growth rate were selected for further study. Also, these yeasts were able to remove phenol measured by Gibbs reagent. The effect of four different concentrations of phenol (50, 125, 200 and 275 mg L−1 was measured and three degradation patterns in these yeasts were observed. The hydrophobicity and emulsification activity were measured in all eleven yeasts. Finally, strong yeasts in phenol degrading yeasts were identified by molecular method using amplification of 18S rRNA gene region. The sequencing results showed that these isolated yeasts belonged to Candida tropicalis strain K1, Pichia guilliermondii strain K2, Meyerozyma guilliermondii strain K7 and C. tropicalis strain K11.

  7. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene as a comprehensive carcinogenic biomarker of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: a cross-sectional study of coke oven workers in China. (United States)

    Yamano, Yuko; Hara, Kunio; Ichiba, Masayoshi; Hanaoka, Tomoyuki; Pan, Guowei; Nakadate, Toshio


    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are multiple compounds that include many carcinogens. We conducted a cross-sectional study in steel plant workers in Anshan, China, to identify biomarkers that reflect the carcinogenicity of PAHs. Subjects were 57 workers and 20 controls. Level of personal exposure to PAHs was measured using GC-MS. In accordance with the assessment methods defined by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), 15 PAHs were selected for the analysis. For the measurement of urinary metabolites, urine samples were treated with β-glucuronidase and analyzed using HPLC with a fluorescence detector. The mean range of personal exposure to 15 PAHs (total PAHs) was 178.85, 47.08-1,329.45 (geometric mean, 5th and 95th percentile) μg/m(3). Ten known urinary metabolites (1-hydroxynaphthalene, 2-hydroxynaphthalene, 2-hydroxyfluorene, 1-hydroxyphenanthrene, 3-hydroxyphenanthrene, 9-hydroxyphenanthrene, 1-hydroxypyrene, 3-hydroxybenz[a]anthracene, 6-hydroxychrysene, and 3-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene) and four unknown peaks were detected. The highest correlation was between total PAHs and urinary 2-hydroxynaphthalene (Spearman r = 0.716, P carcinogenic potency of PAHs" (sum of seven carcinogenic PAHs calculated from the levels of personal PAHs and relative potency factors), and with the greatest correlation found for 1-hydroxypyrene (Spearman r = 0.630, P carcinogenic potency, indicated that urinary 1-hydroxypyrene was the most comprehensive carcinogenic biomarker of exposure to PAHs.

  8. Bioaugmentation as a tool to enhance the removal of refractory compound in coke plant wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J.L.; Quan, X.C.; Wu, L.B.; Qian, Y.; Hegemann, W. [Tsing Hua University, Beijing (China)


    Pollution caused by coal conversion wastewater has been a severe problem for decades in China due to the use of coal as the main energy source. An aerobic-anoxic-oxic (A1-A2-O) system was developed for treating coke plant wastewater and good results were obtained. GC/MS analysis indicated that the main ingredients of the effluent were aromatic and heterocyclic compounds, alkanes and plithalic acid esters etc. Bioaugmentation with specialized microorganism could be a powerful tool to improve the wastewater treatment processes. In this study, quinoline, which was poorly removed by the A1-A2-O system, was chosen as a target pollutant, and a quinoline-degrading bacterium, identified as Burkholderia pickettii was used as bioaugmentation microorganism. The feasibility of bioaugmentation in combination with A1-A2-O system was investigated. The performance of the A1-A2-O system and the contribution of each stage to COD removal were investigated. The contribution of anaerobic, anoxic and oxic reactors to COD removal was 25, 16 and 59%, respectively. The results of bioaugmentation experiments showed that the oxic reactor, to which the aerobic microorganism was added, was the best location of bioaugmentation in the A1-A2-O system. Bioaugmentation could be used as an efficient and effective method of improving the removal efficiency of recalcitrant organic compounds from industrial wastewater.

  9. BACT Applicability for Coke Oven Batteries (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  10. Some fundamental aspects of highly reactive iron coke production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiji Nomura; Hidetoshi Terashima; Eiji Sato; Masaaki Naito [Nippon Steel Corporation, Chiba (Japan). Environment and Process Technology Center


    It is important to develop the production and utilization technology of highly reactive coke in order to improve the efficiency of blast furnace reactions. In this study, some fundamental aspects of highly reactive iron coke produced in a coke oven chamber were investigated. First, the effects of catalytic Fe powder addition to coal before carbonization on coke strength were investigated. The addition of Fe powder decreased the coal caking property and hence the resultant coke drum index (DI150 15). On the other hand it increased coke reactivity (JIS coke reactivity index and CRI) to a great extent. This means that the caking property of blended coals needs to be adjusted higher to produce iron coke with proper strength and high reactivity. Secondly, it was shown that the iron ore reacts with silica brick at 1200{sup o}C in a condition similar to that in a coke oven chamber. The iron ore and silica reacted to produce fayalite (2FeO{center_dot}SiO{sub 2}) and the brick was damaged. On the other hand, it was proven that the iron ore does not react with silica brick at 1100{sup o}C in the above condition. Based on this fundamental study, iron coke with proper strength and high reactivity was successfully produced in a coke oven chamber on a commercial scale by adjusting the coal blend composition and the coke oven temperature. Furthermore it was revealed that about 70% of iron in iron ore powder added to coal was reduced to metallic iron during carbonization in coke ovens.

  11. Some fundamental aspects of highly reactive iron coke production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomura, S.; Terashima, H.; Sato, E.; Naito, M. [Nippon Steel Corp. Ltd., Futtsu (Japan)


    The development of production and utilization technology of highly reactive coke is significant in order to improve blast furnace reaction efficiency. In this report, some fundamental aspects of highly reactive iron coke produced in a coke oven chamber were investigated. First, the effects of catalytic Fe powder addition to coal before carbonization on coke strength were investigated. The addition of Fe powder decreased coal caking property and hence resultant coke drum index (DI{sup 150}{sub 15}). On the other hand it increased coke reactivity (JIS coke reactivity index and CRI) to a great extent. This means that caking property of blended coals needs to be adjusted higher to produce the iron coke with proper strength and high reactivity. Secondly, it was shown that the iron ore reacts with silica brick at 1200{sup o}C in a condition similar to that in a coke oven chamber. The iron ore and silica reacted to produce fayalite (2FeO {center_dot}SiO{sub 2}) and the brick was damaged. On the other hand, it was proved that the iron ore does not react with silica brick at 1100{sup o}C in the above condition. Based on this fundamental study, the iron coke with proper strength and high reactivity was successfully produced in coke ovens on a commercial scale by adjusting the coal blend composition and the coke oven temperature. Furthermore it was revealed that about 70% of iron in iron ore powder added to coal was reduced to metallic iron during carbonization in coke ovens.

  12. Consistent coke quality from Sun Coke Company s heat recovery cokemaking technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkdoll, M. [Sun Coke Company, Knoxville, TN (USA)


    Presents the Sun Coke heat recovery coke making technology which has been developed over the last 41 years. Aspects covered include: development history; ongoing technological development; relationship between coal blend and coke quality; long-term production coke quality; environmental performance; plant economics; and labour requirements. 14 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. Dust emission from wet, low-emission coke quenching process (United States)

    Komosiński, Bogusław; Bobik, Bartłomiej; Konieczny, Tomasz; Cieślik, Ewelina


    Coke plants, which produce various types of coke (metallurgical, foundry or heating), at temperatures between 600 and 1200°C, with limited access to oxygen, are major emitters of particulates and gaseous pollutants to air, water and soils. Primarily, the process of wet quenching should be mentioned, as one of the most cumbersome. Atmospheric pollutants include particulates, tar substances, organic pollutants including B(a)P and many others. Pollutants are also formed from the decomposition of water used to quench coke (CO, phenol, HCN, H2S, NH3, cresol) and decomposition of hot coke in the first phase of quenching (CO, H2S, SO2) [1]. The development of the coke oven technology has resulted in the changes made to different types of technological installations, such as the use of baffles in quench towers, the removal of nitrogen oxides by selective NOx reduction, and the introduction of fabric filters for particulates removal. The BAT conclusions for coke plants [2] provide a methodology for the measurement of particulate emission from a wet, low-emission technology using Mohrhauer probes. The conclusions define the emission level for wet quenching process as 25 g/Mgcoke. The conducted research was aimed at verification of the presented method. For two of three quench towers (A and C) the requirements included in the BAT conclusions are not met and emissions amount to 87.34 and 61.35 g/Mgcoke respectively. The lowest particulates emission was recorded on the quench tower B and amounted to 22.5 g/Mgcoke, therefore not exceeding the requirements.

  14. Environmental impact of heavy metals on the soils and plants around a coke-making factory of Jiyuan city, China (United States)

    Lun Leung, Kwun


    The combustion of coal usually leads to many different kinds of pollution around coke-making factories. Among these pollutions, the heavy metal contamination in the soil and plants is one of the major concerns by people living around. Heavy metals are highly attracted to the biological tissue, and can stay in bodies of organisms for long period of time, causing a lot of hazardous diseases to human beings, animal and plants. In the developing regions of China, developing of industries has been based on the sacrifices of environments and human health. In order to evaluate the danger of heavy metal contamination from a coke factory to citizens of close inhabitants, a survey on soil and plants was conducted in the region around a coke-making factory in Jiyuan city, which is a major electricity supplying city for the Henan Province in China. In this study, 8 surface soil samples and 11 plant samples were collected from 8 different places around the coke-making factory in Jiyuan city. The collected samples are then treated in the laboratory, and 8 types of heavy metals, which include arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, nickel and zinc, are analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The concentration data of heavy metals that collected from the analysis are then used to evaluate their toxicity towards living organisms and ecology by applying several biological effect standards, such as effect-range low (ERL), effect-range median (ERM) and several maximum allowances standards of heavy metal concentrations in soils and plants that established by different countries. Moreover, the relationship between the distance from the factory and the concentration of heavy metals in soils and plants are also evaluated in order to find out the contamination ranges of those heavy metals from the source. The result shows that the concentration of these 8 types of heavy metals in the

  15. Sun Coke Company's heat recovery coke making technology. High coke quality and low environmental impact; Technologie ''Sun Coke''. Qualite du coke et impact environnemental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, D.N.; Barkdoll, M.P. [Sun Coke Company (United States)


    Sun Coke Company's heat recovery coke-making technology has been developed over the past 40 years, and is now poised to become the dominant technology to meet future global coke-making needs. An extensive data base regarding coal blends tested and resultant coke quality will be presented. On the environmental front, extensive air emission data has been collected and will be compared to by-product coke plant air emission data. (authors)

  16. Deciphering Cyanide-Degrading Potential of Bacterial Community Associated with the Coking Wastewater Treatment Plant with a Novel Draft Genome. (United States)

    Wang, Zhiping; Liu, Lili; Guo, Feng; Zhang, Tong


    Biotreatment processes fed with coking wastewater often encounter insufficient removal of pollutants, such as ammonia, phenols, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), especially for cyanides. However, only a limited number of bacterial species in pure cultures have been confirmed to metabolize cyanides, which hinders the improvement of these processes. In this study, a microbial community of activated sludge enriched in a coking wastewater treatment plant was analyzed using 454 pyrosequencing and Illumina sequencing to characterize the potential cyanide-degrading bacteria. According to the classification of these pyro-tags, targeting V3/V4 regions of 16S rRNA gene, half of them were assigned to the family Xanthomonadaceae, implying that Xanthomonadaceae bacteria are well-adapted to coking wastewater. A nearly complete draft genome of the dominant bacterium was reconstructed from metagenome of this community to explore cyanide metabolism based on analysis of the genome. The assembled 16S rRNA gene from this draft genome showed that this bacterium was a novel species of Thermomonas within Xanthomonadaceae, which was further verified by comparative genomics. The annotation using KEGG and Pfam identified genes related to cyanide metabolism, including genes responsible for the iron-harvesting system, cyanide-insensitive terminal oxidase, cyanide hydrolase/nitrilase, and thiosulfate:cyanide transferase. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these genes had homologs in previously identified genomes of bacteria within Xanthomonadaceae and even presented similar gene cassettes, thus implying an inherent cyanide-decomposing potential. The findings of this study expand our knowledge about the bacterial degradation of cyanide compounds and will be helpful in the remediation of cyanides contamination.

  17. The use of fractionated fly ash of thermal power plants as binder for production of briquettes of coke breeze and dust (United States)

    Temnikova, E. Yu; Bogomolov, A. R.; Lapin, A. A.


    In this paper, we propose to use the slag and ash material of thermal power plants (TPP) operating on pulverized coal fuel. The elemental and chemical composition of fly ash of five Kuzbass thermal power plants differs insignificantly from the composition of the mineral part of coking coal because coke production uses a charge, whose composition defines the main task: obtaining coke with the required parameters for production of iron and steel. These indicators are as follows: CRI reactivity and strength of the coke residue after reaction with CO2 – CSR. The chemical composition of fly ash of thermal power plants and microsilica with bulk density of 0.3-0.6 t/m3 generated at production of ferroalloys was compared. Fly ash and microsilica are the valuable raw material for production of mineral binder in manufacturing coke breeze briquettes (fraction of 2-10 mm) and dust (0-200 μm), generated in large quantities during coking (up to 40wt%). It is shown that this binder is necessary for production of smokeless briquettes with low reactivity, high strength and cost, demanded for production of cupola iron and melting the silicate materials, basaltic rocks in low-shaft furnaces. It is determined that microsilica contains up to 90% of silicon oxide, and fly ash contains up to 60% of silicon oxide and aluminum oxide of up to 20%. On average, the rest of fly ash composition consists of basic oxides. According to calculation by the VUKHIN formula, the basicity index of briquette changes significantly, when fly ash is introduced into briquette raw material component as a binder. The technology of coke briquette production on the basis of the non-magnetic fraction of TPP fly ash in the ratio from 3.5:1 to 4.5:1 (coke breeze : coke dust) with the addition of the binder component to 10% is proposed. The produced briquettes meet the requirements by CRI and require further study on CSR requirements.

  18. Assessment of thermal efficiency of heat recovery coke making (United States)

    Tiwari, H. P.; Saxena, V. K.; Haldar, S. K.; Sriramoju, S. K.


    The heat recovery stamp charge coke making process is quite complicated due to the evolved volatile matter during coking, is partially combusted in oven crown and sole flue in a controlled manner to provide heat for producing metallurgical coke. Therefore, the control and efficient utilization of heat in the oven crown, and sole flue is difficult, which directly affects the operational efficiency. Considering the complexity and importance of thermal efficiency, evolution of different gases, combustion of gasses in oven crown and sole flue, and heating process of coke oven has been studied. A nonlinear regression methodology was used to predict temperature profile of different depth of coal cake during the coking. It was observed that the predicted temperature profile is in good agreement with the actual temperature profile (R2 = 0.98) and is validated with the actual temperature profile of other ovens. A complete study is being done to calculate the material balance, heat balance, and heat losses. This gives an overall understanding of heat flow which affects the heat penetration into the coal cake. The study confirms that 60% heat was utilized during coking.

  19. Prediction of coking dynamics for wet coal charge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kardaś Dariusz


    Full Text Available A one-dimensional transient mathematical model describing thermal and flow phenomena during coal coking in an oven chamber was studied in the paper. It also accounts for heat conduction in the ceramic oven wall when assuming a constant temperature at the heating channel side. The model was solved numerically using partly implicit methods for gas flow and heat transfer problems. The histories of temperature, gas evolution and internal pressure were presented and analysed. The theoretical predictions of temperature change in the centre plane of the coke oven were compared with industrialscale measurements. Both, the experimental data and obtained numerical results show that moisture content determines the coking process dynamics, lagging the temperature increase above the water steam evaporation temperature and in consequence the total coking time. The phenomenon of internal pressure generation in the context of overlapping effects of simultaneously occurring coal transitions - devolatilisation and coal permeability decrease under plastic stage - was also discussed.

  20. 94th Coke Conference. Proceedings of the study reports (1994); Dai 94 kai cokes tokubetsukai. Kenkyu happyo yoshishu (1994)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The paper contains 11 reports made at the 94th Coke Conference held by the Coke Division of the Japan Institute of Energy. The main themes are as follows: `Effects of heating rate on coal carbonization` which aims at using low-grade coal and at making coke high-grade, `Co-carbonization behaviors of delayed coke breezes,` `Effect of the pore partition property on the drum strength of coke` which examines the amount of powder generated by fracture of the coke surface, `Development of control method of coke strength after CO2 reaction (CSR)` which discusses a CSR estimation equation, `Development of rapid moisture analyzer for coke` which measures the moisture content of coke by measuring the amount of spectral attenuation by infrared absorption, `The melting test on pigiron and steel using a small-sized cupola` for quality improvement of coke for casting, `Preventive measures for degradation of coking coal in stockyard` for improvement of coke quality. In addition, `Analysis of mechanism in the oxidation reaction of the low temperature tar` which aims at effectively using low temperature tar, and the three more were reported on improvement technology on operation of coke oven.

  1. Toxicity estimation of treated coke plant wastewater using the luminescent bacteria assay and the algal growth inhibition test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, S.; Siersdorfer, C.; Kaltwasser, H.; Geiger, M. [University of Saarland, Saarbruecken (Germany)


    Among several bioassays, the Scendesmus subspicatus chlorophyll fluorescence test and the Photobacterium phosphoreum bioluminescence assay were selected to examine their applicability for toxicity evaluation of changes in coke plant effluent quality. In addition to the ecotoxicological parameters, a chemical analysis of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), ammonia-N and nitrate-N was performed. It was demonstrated that the toxicity values obtained from the bioassays give a first indication on potential hazard and successful treatment. Decreasing toxicity values went along with decreasing DOC or ammonia-N values, but the sensitivity toward DOC reduction was higher. Sensitivity toward pure compounds was assessed by comparing the EC{sub 50} values of the luminescent bacteria assay with the corresponding EC{sub 50} values of the algal bioassay. The data showed a poor correlation between the two bioassays.

  2. Procedure for ash-poor cokes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This article was composed of four sections which dealt with de-ashing processes or uses of ash-poor coke. The general procedure for de-ashing started with 1 mm coal grains mixed with dilute HCl and then decanted from a concentrator. The thick paste was crushed finely and pasted with tar from the Low Temperature Carbonization (LTC). The paste was kneaded, washed, and then formed. The resulting briquettes were dried, crushed, and reformed. The LTC then took place at 550/sup 0/C followed by coking at 900/sup 0/C. The oven dimensions were given as 3.25 m tall, 0.65 wide, and 4 m deep for the LTC sections, and 3.25 m x 0.60 m x 4 m for the coking section. These dimensions were designed for 100 kg coke per hour. Methods were discussed for decreasing costs of coke production by substitution of a cheaper binding tar than that of the LTC recycle. CS/sub 2/ production was proposed using coke processed by the above de-ashing procedure. This process which substituted coke for the usual charcoal was shown to work, but was very sensitive to ash and solids content in the coke. Coke substitution for reducing charcoal in the production of light metals was tested. It was found that the iron content of the coke product has to be less than 0.05%, so that the coal used must have only slight traces of iron. Experiments were carried out to use de-ashed cokes as fuel to power automibiles, where a major difficulty was found in the tendency of the coke briquettes to flake and crumble. Different methods and binders were tried for briquetting, thus eliminating many difficulties. For the production of electrode cokes, flotation, separation, and lye treatment preceeded the de-ashing procedure outlined above. It was concluded that the properties of the cokes were greatly influenced by the quality of the briquette binder. It was intended to research and classify the types of binders.

  3. Petroleum coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The dossier summarizes the health, safety and environment data currently available on petroleum coke. This is one in a series of 11 product dossiers on the major groups of petroluem products, which are being prepared by CONCAWE to provide, for each major product group, comprehensive information covering: Product description, uses and typical properties; Toxicology, health aspects and fire, explosion and environmental hazards; Recommended exposure limits; Advice on handling, emergency treatment and disposal; Entries in the European Inventory of Existing Commercial Chemical Substances (EINECS) which cover these groups. (Copyright (c) CONCAWE, Brussels, October 1993.)

  4. Proceedings of the Joint Meeting of The Fuel Society of Japan (1991). 28th Coal Science Conference/91st Coke Meeting; (Sha) nenryo kyokai godo taikai happyo ronbunshu (1991). Dai 28 kai sekitan kagaku kaigi dai 91 kai cokes tokubetsukai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Relating to coke, studies are made on the rapid coke production method, oven investigation during carbonization, and operational management/control. As to coal science, studies are mainly on the brown coal two-stage liquefaction (BCL) method, and data on the pilot plant and PSU are reported. Concerning bituminous coal liquefaction, PSU data mostly including the NEDOL process, and characteristics of liquefaction residue and its effective utilization by thermal decomposition are reported. Regarding the liquefaction mechanism, an experimentally extensive study on catalyst, solvent and reaction conditions is made using model materials and coal itself on the bench scale and also in the pilot plant. Engineering subjects on residue, solvent deashing, scale attachment and coprocessing are also reported. Relations of decomposition process to coal chemical structure changes and reaction conditions are investigated. As to coal gasification, studies, which are not many, are conducted on material balance, heat balance, and image characteristics of char for gasification and factors controlling reactivity.

  5. Emission and profile characteristic of volatile organic compounds emitted from coke production, iron smelt, heating station and power plant in Liaoning Province, China. (United States)

    Shi, Jianwu; Deng, Hao; Bai, Zhipeng; Kong, Shaofei; Wang, Xiuyan; Hao, Jiming; Han, Xinyu; Ning, Ping


    107 kinds of C₂-C₁₂ volatile organic compound (VOC) mass concentrations and profiles for four types of coal-fired stationary sources in Liaoning Province were studied by a dilution sampling system and GC-MS analysis method, which are of significant importance with regard to VOC emissions in northeast of China. The results showed that there were some differences among these VOC source profiles. The total mass concentrations of analyzed 107 VOC species varied from 10,917 to 19,652 μg m(-3). Halogenated hydrocarbons exhibited higher mass percentages for the VOC source profiles of iron smelt (48.8%) and coke production plant (37.7%). Aromatic hydrocarbons were the most abundant in heating station plant (69.1%). Ketones, alcohols and acetates held 45.0% of total VOCs in thermal power plant. For non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), which are demanded for photochemical assessment in the USA, toluene and n-hexane were the most abundant species in the iron smelt, coke production and thermal power plant, with the mass percentages of 64.8%, 52.7% and 38.6%, respectively. Trimethylbenzene, n-propylbenzene and o,m-ethyltoluene approximately accounted for 70.0% in heating station plant. NMHCs emitted from coke production, iron smelt, heating station and power plant listed above presented different chemical reactivities. The average OH loss rate of NMHCs from heating station, was 4 to 5.6 times higher than that of NMHCs from iron smelt, coke production and power plant, which implies that VOCs emitted from heating station in northeast of China should be controlled firstly to avoid photochemical ozone pollution and protect human health. There are significant variations in the ratios of benzene/toluene and m, p-xylene/ethylbenzene of these coal-fired source profiles. The representativeness of the coal-fired sources studied and the VOC samples collected should be more closely examined. The accuracy of VOC source profiles related to coal-fired processes is highly dependent on

  6. The Release of Trace Elements in the Process of Coal Coking (United States)

    Konieczyński, Jan; Zajusz-Zubek, Elwira; Jabłońska, Magdalena


    In order to assess the penetration of individual trace elements into the air through their release in the coal coking process, it is necessary to determine the loss of these elements by comparing their contents in the charge coal and in coke obtained. The present research covered four coke oven batteries differing in age, technology, and technical equipment. By using mercury analyzer MA-2 and the method of ICP MS As, Be, Cd, Co, Hg, Mn, Ni, Se, Sr, Tl, V, and Zn were determined in samples of charge coal and yielded coke. Basing on the analyses results, the release coefficients of selected elements were determined. Their values ranged from 0.5 to 94%. High volatility of cadmium, mercury, and thallium was confirmed. The tests have shown that although the results refer to the selected case studies, it may be concluded that the air purity is affected by controlled emission occurring when coke oven batteries are fired by crude coke oven gas. Fugitive emission of the trace elements investigated, occurring due to coke oven leaks and openings, is small and, is not a real threat to the environment except mercury. PMID:22666104

  7. Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts (United States)

    ... That People Abuse » Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Listen Cocaine is a white ... Version Download "My life was built around getting cocaine and getting high." © Marjot Stacey is ...

  8. Preheating of coal. Its influence on the composition of coal, the quality of coke and on the phenomenon of pushing. Precalentado del carbon. Su influencia en la composicion del carbon, en la calidad del coque y en el fenomeno del empuje

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    A comparative study of the carbonization of a wide range of coals, wet and after preheating, was carried out. The 6 t coal capacity oven of the INCAR Experimental Coking Test Plant and the 2 t/h preheating pilot plant, Precarbon process, installed by ENSIDESA annexed to the INCAR plant were used. Influence of the preheating process on coal plastic properties was followed through Arnu dilatation, Gieseler fluidity and swelling index tests. Structural modifications of the coals were examined by FT-IR. Coal samples [lt]0.15 mm that do not need to be crushed for analysis and Arnu dilatation were chosen. A Koppers-INCAR test of all coals studied was carried out. Cokes obtained were characterized by optical microscopy, SEM and image analysis. Size analysis, coke strength (Micum e Irsid tests), reactivity and post-reaction strength, chemical changes and porosity were also determined. 21 refs., 36 figs., 9 tabs.

  9. New solutions for by-products plants developed by Koksoprojekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Tomal; R. Zajdel; H. Zembala


    The paper focuses on recent and current activities of KOKSOPROJEKT Company oriented towards up-to-dating and optimization of its own developed processes and technical solutions. As a result of these activities the investment and operation cost have been decreased and European standards in environmental protection have not only been met, but even exceeded. From among many developments in this field this paper only presents three reliable and efficient processes for coke oven gas desulfurizing: ammonia process, potash-vacuum process and catalytic-soda (KAT-SOD) process. All of mentioned technologies have been implemented in Polish coking plants, and the desulfurization plants operate with good results. 1 tab.

  10. The evolution of the coal handling plant operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, S. [British Steel, Scunthorpe (United Kingdom). Dawes Lane Coke Ovens


    The Dawes Lane Coal Handling Plant was built during the mid 1970s, to supply blended and crushed coal to the various coke ovens on Scunthorpe Works in Yorkshire, UK. The plant was equipped with a wagon unloading station, two stacker reclaimers, crushing facilities, appropriate silo capacity and associated stockyard and conveying systems. Currently the plant is processing around 2.5 million tonnes of coal per annum. The paper describes the evolution of the plant, details some of the changes made over the years to improve efficiency, and reports some of the more unusual events that have occurred. The paper was presented to the Midland Section of the Coke Oven Managers` Association in March 1996. 7 photos.

  11. Two years of heat recovery coke production at Sun Coke Company's Indiana Harbor facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westbrook, R.W.; Schuett, K.J. [Sun Coke Company, Knoxville, TN (United States)


    In March of 1998, the first battery of Sun Coke Company's newest facility, the Indiana Harbor Coke Company, was brought on line in East Chicago, Indiana. By June of 1998, the last of four batteries began pushing coke and producing power. The plant provides Ispat-Inland with coke for their No. 7 blast furnace and waste heat to Cokenergy for steam production, 94 megawatts of power generation, and flue gas cleaning. Annual production will be more than 1.2 million tons of high quality furnace coke. 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Polyphasic bacterial community analysis of an aerobic activated sludge removing phenols and thiocyanate from coke plant effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felfoldi, T.; Szekely, A.J.; Goral, R.; Barkacs, K.; Scheirich, G.; Andras, J.; Racz, A.; Marialigeti, K. [Eotvos Lorand University, Budapest (Hungary). Dept. of Microbiology


    Biological purification processes are effective tools in the treatment of hazardous wastes such as toxic compounds produced in coal coking. In this study, the microbial community of a lab-scale activated sludge system treating coking effluent was assessed by cultivation-based (strain isolation and identification, biodegradation tests) and culture-independent techniques (sequence-aided T-RFLP, taxon-specific PCR). The results of the applied polyphasic approach showed a simple microbial community dominated by easily culturable heterotrophic bacteria. Comamonas badia was identified as the key microbe of the system, since it was the predominant member of the bacterial community, and its phenol degradation capacity was also proved. Metabolism of phenol, even at elevated concentrations (up to 1500 mg/L), was also presented for many other dominant (Pseudomonas, Rhodanobacter, Oligella) and minor (Alcaligenes, Castellaniella, Microbacterium) groups, while some activated sludge bacteria (Sphingomonas, Rhodopseudomonas) did not tolerate it even in lower concentrations (250 mg/L). In some cases, closely related strains showed different tolerance and degradation properties. Members of the genus Thiobacillus were detected in the activated sludge, and were supposedly responsible for the intensive thiocyanate biodegradation observed in the system. Additionally, some identified bacteria (e.g. C. badia and the Ottowia-related strains) might also have had a significant impact on the structure of the activated sludge due to their floc-forming abilities.

  13. Increasing the strength of metallurgical coke by adding modified petroleum coke to the coking batch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.I. Stukov; V.S. Zagainov; Y.B. Kukolev; N.S. Andreichikov; P.V. Shtark; A.V. Vishnyakov; V.A. Antonova; S.N. Soboleva [Eastern Coal-Chemistry Institute, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation)


    Box-coking data show the possibility of increasing the yield and strength of metallurgical coke by introducing a coking additive in the batch. Specifically, this additive is a product of slow coking of heavy petroleum residues, characterized by excellent thermoplastic properties: clinkering properties and plastic temperature range. A Russian patent has been obtained for the coking additive.

  14. Microwave Oven Observations. (United States)

    Sumrall, William J.; Richardson, Denise; Yan, Yuan


    Explains a series of laboratory activities which employ a microwave oven to help students understand word problems that relate to states of matter, collect data, and calculate and compare electrical costs to heat energy costs. (DDR)

  15. Practical aspects of coking in Cundinamarca y Boyacá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segundo Manuel Romero-Balaguera


    Full Text Available Taking advantage of the excellent qualities of the studied coals from the coalfields in Cundinamarca and terms of the types of coking ovens, for excellent performance and quality that allows them to be very competitive.The international market is very demanding in terms of the quality of coke and CRI and CSR indexes, that is why coals laboratories were implemented and improved the system of sampling and analysis of laboratories for more agile and modern. Mixtures were made with the test methodology and empirical methods combining swelling index and rank cals were the theree main types: high, medium and low volatile. But with studies and techological change and enviromental control, process is managed, allowing the coke industry to serve as a development center for the promotion of industries in the central area of this country. In the study the whole process is presented beginning with the explotaitation of coking coals, the care that must be taken into account to mainttain good quality, transport and enviromental measures, the process of crushing and grinding to prepare the optimal mix and laboratory tests necessary to maintain quality control, the types of ovens in Boyacá Colombia, yields and advances in the se technologies, and finally, the system shutdown process. All of the above was addressed in order to add value to the product with the fulfillment of the international market standards.

  16. Leakage of Microwave Ovens (United States)

    Abdul-Razzaq, W.; Bushey, R.; Winn, G.


    Physics is essential for students who want to succeed in science and engineering. Excitement and interest in the content matter contribute to enhancing this success. We have developed a laboratory experiment that takes advantage of microwave ovens to demonstrate important physical concepts and increase interest in physics. This experiment…

  17. Full scale treatment of phenolic coke coking waste water under unsteady conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suschka, Jan [Institute for Ecology of Industrial Areas, Katowice (Poland); Morel, Jacek; Mierzwinski, Stanislaw; Januszek, Ryszard [Coke Plant Przyjazn, Dabrowa Gornicza (Poland)


    Phenolic waste water from the largest coke coking plant in Poland is treated at a full technical scale. From the very beginning it became evident that very high qualitative variations in short and long periods were to be expected. For this purpose, the biological treatment plant based on activated sludge is protected through preliminary physical-chemical treatment and the results are secured by a final chemical stage of treatment. Nevertheless, improvements in the performance of the treatment plant have been found necessary to introduce. In this work, the experience gained over the last five years is described and developed improvements were presented. 3 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Technique for treating coke surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yegorov, V.M.; Chuchminov, M.M.; Goncharov, V.F.; Kostochkin, A.R.; Kutovoy, P.M.; Samoylov, V.I.


    A technique is presented for treating surface of coke in order to increase durability and reducing losses of coke during transport and reloading of cargo. Surface of coke is treated with liquefied plastic and then it is cooled. For example, coke of 300/sup 0/C temp. is treated with a plastic mixture of 350/sup 0/C. The shell hardens in 5-10 min. by air cooling. After such treatment the coke improves durability during handling by 1.75% and in tests in a drum by 2.49% in comparison to untreated coke. In comparison to coke treated with latex, coke treated with a liquefied plastic increases durability to 8.5% and abradability by 0.5%.

  19. consideration of can drying ovens using ahp tecnique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Pehlivan


    Full Text Available In this study, the selection of drying ovens for can gaskets is made at a production plant of tin cans. Among the available three drying oven types, i.e. horizontal, vertical and induction, the optimum type is determined for purchase with the objective of the best suiting the needs of the can production plant. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP is employed, and the importance of the critical and dominant criteria is determined. In this way, the optimum type of the drying oven is identified. Results are discussed and summarized based on the current practices used in the tin can production industry.

  20. Coke quality requirements in POSCO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, J.; Yi, J.; Wang, H. [POSCO (Republic of Korea). Cokemaking Dept.


    The 26 overheads describes coke quality requirements in POSCO, Republic of Korea. It is concluded that it is necessary to develop new coal and to prompt technical development in order to produce high quality coke. To improve coke quality. Posco had applied DMAIC (define, measurement, analysis, improvement, control) technique which is part of Six-Sigma activity.

  1. Carbonization and liquid-crystal (mesophase) development. 21. Replacement of low-volatile caking coal by petroleum pitch in coal blends for metallurgical coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grint, A.; Marsh, H.


    Cokes were prepared in a 7 kg oven from blends of high-volatile and low-volatile caking coals, using ratios of 1:1 and 3:7 To the 1:1 blend was added 7.5% of either Ashland A240 or A170 petroleum pitch or SFBP petroleum pitch 1. Micum m$SUB$3$SUB$0 and m$SUB$1$SUB$0 indices were determined on cokes from the 7 kg oven, using the 1/5 micum drum. Optical textures were assessed using polarized light microscopy of polished surfaces of cokes. The effect of additive is to increase the strength of cokes. The pitch can be an effective replacement of low-volatile caking coal. The analysis by optical microscopy shows that with the stronger cokes from the 7 kg oven there has occurred an interaction between the coal and pitch at the interface of coal particles to produce a solution or fluid phase which carbonizes to a coke with an optical texture of fine-grained mozaics. This material could be responsible for the enhancement of coke strength, being associated with pore wall material rather than with a change in porosity. The results agree with previous work using cokes prepared in the laboratory on a small scale. (17 refs.)

  2. Aprovechamiento de partículas de ultrafinos de carbón de una planta lavadora en la producción de coque metalúrgico Using ultrafine particles from a coal washing plant in metallurgical coke production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz Velásquez José de Jesús


    Full Text Available

    Se estudió el aprovechamiento en mezclas de ultrafinos provenientes de una planta de lavado de carbón para la producción de coque por el proceso de briquetación, utilizando 6% en peso de alquitrán de carbón como aglomerante. Se caracterizaron las materias primas y se realizó una prueba piloto de coquización en un horno tipo Koppers. Se determinó la calidad del coque por pruebas de análisis próximo, estabilidad (Micum 10, M10 y Micum 40, M40, índice de reactividad del coque al CO2 (CRI y de resistencia después de la reacción con dióxido de carbono (CSR. Los resultados mostraron que la briquetación permite obtener un coque con un CRI de 19,0% y un CSR de 75,6%, características requeridas en los procesos metalúrgicos.

    Blending ultrafine particles from a coal washing plant was studied for coke production by briquetting using 6%w coal tar as binder. The ultrafine coal particles were characterised and a pilot coking test was made in a Koppers’ furnace. Coke quality was evaluated by proximate analysis, stability (micum 10 and micum 40, coke reactivity index (CRI with CO2 and the coke’s mechanical strength after reaction with carbon dioxide (CSR index. Briquetting results showed that was possible to obtain coke having 19.0 % CRI and 75.6% CSR, these being the characteristics required in metallurgical processes.

  3. Measurement of Vibrated Bulk Density of Coke Particle Blends Using Image Texture Analysis (United States)

    Azari, Kamran; Bogoya-Forero, Wilinthon; Duchesne, Carl; Tessier, Jayson


    A rapid and nondestructive machine vision sensor was developed for predicting the vibrated bulk density (VBD) of petroleum coke particles based on image texture analysis. It could be used for making corrective adjustments to a paste plant operation to reduce green anode variability (e.g., changes in binder demand). Wavelet texture analysis (WTA) and gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) algorithms were used jointly for extracting the surface textural features of coke aggregates from images. These were correlated with the VBD using partial least-squares (PLS) regression. Coke samples of several sizes and from different sources were used to test the sensor. Variations in the coke surface texture introduced by coke size and source allowed for making good predictions of the VBD of individual coke samples and mixtures of them (blends involving two sources and different sizes). Promising results were also obtained for coke blends collected from an industrial-baked carbon anode manufacturer.

  4. More Experiments with Microwave Ovens (United States)

    Vollmer, Michael; Mollmann, Klaus-Peter; Karstadt, Detlef


    Microwave ovens can be used to perform exciting demonstrations that illustrate a variety of physics topics. Experiments discussed here show superheating, visualize the inhomogeneous heating that takes place in a microwave and also show how to use a mobile phone to detect radiation leaking from the oven. Finally eggs can give some spectacular…

  5. Physics of the Microwave Oven (United States)

    Vollmer, Michael


    This is the first of two articles about the physics of microwave ovens. This article deals with the generation of microwaves in the oven and includes the operation of the magnetrons, waveguides and standing waves in resonant cavities. It then considers the absorption of microwaves by foods, discussing the dielectric relaxation of water,…

  6. Using your microwave oven. Lesson 6, Microwave oven management


    Woodard, Janice Emelie, 1929-


    Discusses cooking and reheating foods in microwave ovens, and adapting conventional recipes for the microwave. Revised Includes the publication: Adapting conventional recipes to microwave cooking : fact sheet 84 by Janice Woodard, Rebecca Lovingood, R.H. Trice.

  7. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Ovens (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 2.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Ovens that are effective as of...

  8. Ovenized microelectromechanical system (MEMS) resonator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, Roy H; Wojciechowski, Kenneth; Kim, Bongsang


    An ovenized micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) resonator including: a substantially thermally isolated mechanical resonator cavity; a mechanical oscillator coupled to the mechanical resonator cavity; and a heating element formed on the mechanical resonator cavity.

  9. Non-Ionizing Radiation Used in Microwave Ovens (United States)

    ... in Microwave Ovens Non-Ionizing Radiation Used in Microwave Ovens Explore the interactive, virtual community of RadTown USA ! ... learn more About Non-Ionizing Radiation Used in Microwave Ovens Microwave Oven. Microwave ovens use electromagnetic waves that ...

  10. 21 CFR 1030.10 - Microwave ovens. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Microwave ovens. 1030.10 Section 1030.10 Food and... ovens. (a) Applicability. The provisions of this standard are applicable to microwave ovens manufactured after October 6, 1971. (b) Definitions. (1) Microwave oven means a device designed to heat, cook, or dry...

  11. Optimizing blast conditions in the chamber of a dry quenching installation for coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ereskovskii, O.S.; Grishchenko, A.I.; Kukhar' , N.P.; Savka, M.D.; Kvasov, A.V.


    Method is presented for calculating optimum heat conditions in a dry quenching chamber. Equations are constructed for calculating the thermal efficiency of a dry quenching installation and an algorithm is developed for solving optimization problems. Cooling-gas consumption is a controlling factor which influences thermal efficiency and coke loss in the quenching chamber. A function, which includes cost of steam generated in cooling a ton of coke and the coke loss from oxidation, is presented for calculating optimum conditions. At the Avdeevskii coking plant the relationship between coke consumption and pressure drop along the vertical plane of a quenching chamber was established experimentally. The authors recommend placing monitoring devices in dry quenching chamber to regulate the oxygen content of the cooling gas, i.e. to reduce coke loss and pollution of the environment. 5 references.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Mihnovets


    Full Text Available Researches give grounds to believe in the possibility of receiving briquettes from coke waste mixed with peat dry coal and their use for smelting iron in the cupola or as a household fuel.

  13. Microwave Oven Repair. Teacher Edition. (United States)

    Smreker, Eugene

    This competency-based curriculum guide for teachers addresses the skills a technician will need to service microwave ovens and to provide customer relations to help retain the customer's confidence in the product and trust in the service company that performs the repair. The guide begins with a task analysis, listing 20 cognitive tasks and 5…

  14. Radiation leakage from electromagnetic oven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdurrahman Khalil


    Results & Discussions: The measurements have been done at some houses in Erbil city, according to the source of background radiation exist before measuring data. Our data compared with standard safe range of radiation data. Results showed that there is radiation leak form all type of electromagnetic oven and all at the order of safety compared with standard value.

  15. Rapid drying soils with microwave ovens. (United States)


    Soils are normally dried in either a convection oven or stove. Inspections of field and laboratory moisture content testing indicated that the typical drying durations for a convection oven and stove were, 24 hours and 60 minutes, respectively. The o...

  16. The interrelationship between environmental goals, productivity improvement, and increased energy efficiency in integrated paper and steel plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report presents the results of an investigation into the interrelationships between plant-level productivity, energy efficiency, and environmental improvements for integrated pulp and paper mills and integrated steel mills in the US. Integrated paper and steel plants are defined as those facilities that use some form of onsite raw material to produce final products (for example, paper and paperboard or finished steel). Fully integrated pulp and paper mills produce onsite the pulp used to manufacture paper from virgin wood fiber, secondary fiber, or nonwood fiber. Fully integrated steel mills process steel from coal, iron ore, and scrap inputs and have onsite coke oven facilities.

  17. Biological monitoring of exposure to low concentrations of benzene in workers at a metallurgical coke production plant: new insights into S-phenylmercapturic acid and urinary benzene. (United States)

    Lovreglio, Piero; De Palma, Giuseppe; Barbieri, Anna; Andreoli, Roberta; Drago, Ignazio; Greco, Luciano; Gallo, Elisabetta; Diomede, Laura; Scaramuzzo, Pietro; Ricossa, Maria Cristina; Fostinelli, Jacopo; Apostoli, Pietro; Soleo, Leonardo


    Urinary S-phenylmercapturic acid (SPMA) and benzene (U-Ben) are usually measured at the end of the work shift (ES), although their kinetic of elimination is not clearly known. To investigate SPMA and U-Ben elimination 16 h after the ES, in 93 coke production workers exposed to low benzene concentrations. Airborne benzene (A-Ben) was measured by passive samplings, while SPMA, U-Ben, methyl-tert-butyl ether (U-MTBE), cotinine (U-Cot) and creatinine were determined on urine samples collected at ES and before the beginning of the next work shift (next BS). Median A-Ben concentrations were 17.2 µg/m 3 in the personal and 34.7 µg/m 3 in the stationary samplings. SPMA was always detectable, whereas U-Ben was below the limit of quantification in 26.7% of the ES and 35.6% of the next BS samples, and U-MTBE in more than the 80.0% of the samples. At both the sampling times, SPMA and U-Ben showed a positive dependence on personal A-Ben, as well as on creatinine and U-Cot values. SPMA and U-Ben at the next BS were dependent on the exposure to low benzene concentrations suffered in the previous work shift, prompting a reconsideration of the urine sampling time recommended by the American Conference Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH).

  18. [Study on co-pyrolysis of coking-coal, plastic and dust]. (United States)

    Zhao, Rongfang; Ye, Shufeng; Xie, Yusheng; Chen, Yunfa


    The co-pyrolysis processes of different proportions of coking-coal, plastic, metallurgical dust (MD) were investigated using thermal analyzer (Setaram Labsys) under a neutral atmosphere of N2 at the sweep rate of 30 mL/min, the linear heating rate and the final pyrolysis temperature were 5 degrees C/min and 1000 degrees C respectively in this study. The experimental results indicated that both the pyrolysis process of coking-coal and that of plastic were radical mechanism. In other word, within the relatively lower temperature range, a large amount of radicals were generated during their pyrolysis processes and stabilized through the intra-radical rearrangement reactions or inter-radical combination reactions. This means that sulfur containing in coal and plastic tends to formed gaseous sulfides, such as H2S, COS, CS2, etc. When co-existing with MD, these sulfides will react with metal oxides containing in MD to form metal sulfide with high stability and the cleaner coke oven gas (COG) were obtained. Within higher temperature interval of 500 degrees C-1000 degrees C, some of the gaseous products after pyrolysis (e.g. H2, CO and C) reinforce the reduction atmosphere that the coking reaction system needs and accelerate the reduction of metal oxides in MD and gasification of metal, which were conductive to the effective removal of sulfur in coke. Therefore, it is definitely feasible to adding waste plastic and MD into coking-coal to remove the sulfur in COG and coke simultaneously.

  19. The effect of recycled plastics and cooking oil on coke quality. (United States)

    Lange, Liséte Celina; Ferreira, Alison Frederico Medeiros


    This study assessed the effects of adding plastics and waste vegetable oil on the quality of coke in the coking process, on a pilot scale. A typical composition of the main plastics found in municipal solid waste was prepared using 33% HDPE, 5% LDPE, 10% PP, 21% PET, 24.8% PS, 5.2% PVC, 1% cellulose and also a 0.5% waste vegetable oil was added. The wastes were added to the coal blends in the proportions of 1%, 2% and 3% for plastics and 0.5% for vegetable oil. Two types of experiments were performed. The first was carried out in a hearth heating furnace (HHF) at temperatures of up to 900°C for a 7 h period. The second was a box test, which consists of heating coal blends in 18L cans using a pilot coking oven, for approximately 20 h at temperatures between 1050 and 1100°C. The quality parameters used for the assessment were the CSR (coke strength after reaction), CRI (coke reactivity index), ash, volatile matter and sulfur in order to identify the effect of plastic and vegetable oil on coke quality. Results for CSR in the HHF averaged 52.3%, and 56.63% in box test trials. The CRI results ranged from 26.6% to 35.7%. Among the different percentages of plastics used, 3% plastic blends provided the most stable CSR results. The industrial furnaces work at temperatures between 1100 and 1350°C and time coking 21-24h, compared to the test conditions achieved in the HHF and pilot furnace with box test. It was concluded that the results of CSR and CRI are consistent with the tests confirming the feasibility of using plastic in the steelmaking process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Results of tuyere coke sampling with regard to application of appropriate coke strength after reaction (CSR) for a blast furnace


    Shiau J-S.; Ko Y-C.; Ho C-K.; Hung M-T.


    Raising pulverized coal injection (PCI) will decrease coke rate, but increase the residence time of coke and abrasion in the blast furnace (BF). Thus, insufficient coke strength will generate more coke fines in the lower BF and result in lower permeability and production of hot metal (HM). For understanding the behavior of coke at various HM productivities, a tuyere coke sampler was used to collect the coke samples for measuring the coke strength. Firstly, ...

  1. Effects of atamp-charging coke making on strength and high temperature thermal properties of coke. (United States)

    Zhang, Yaru; Bai, Jinfeng; Xu, Jun; Zhong, Xiangyun; Zhao, Zhenning; Liu, Hongchun


    The stamp-charging coke making process has some advantages of improving the operation environment, decreasing fugitive emission, higher gas collection efficiency as well as less environmental pollution. This article describes the different structure strength and high temperature thermal properties of 4 different types of coke manufactured using a conventional coking process and the stamp-charging coke making process. The 4 kinds of cokes were prepared from the mixture of five feed coals blended by the petrography blending method. The results showed that the structure strength indices of coke prepared using the stamp-charging coke method increase sharply. In contrast with conventional coking process, the stamp-charging process improved the coke strength after reaction but had little impact on the coke reactivity index. Copyright © 2013 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. 40 CFR 63.301 - Definitions. (United States)


    ... design capacity of the coke plant as of November 15, 1990 (including capacity qualifying under § 63.304(b... a coke oven between the bench and the top of the battery between two adjacent buckstays. Cold-idle coke oven battery means an existing coke oven battery that has been shut down, but is not dismantled...

  3. Bio-coke as an alternative to petroleum coke and metallurgical coke; Bio-cokes als alternatief voor petroleumcokes en metallurgische cokes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croezen, H.J.; Van Lieshout, M. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Sevenster, M.N. [Sevenster Environmental Consultancy, Australian Capital Territory ACT (Australia)


    In the framework of elaborating the Dutch Roadmap Chemistry 2030), CE Delft has conducted an exploratory study for the Association of the Dutch Chemical Industry (VNCI) on the options of replacing (petroleum) coke in the chemical sector by biocokes. Coke is used as a reducing agent and/or raw material in four companies in the Dutch chemical industry (Tronox, ESD-SIC, Thermphos, Aluchemie). Replacing coke at these four companies can potentially yield a direct CO2 reduction of expectedly several hundreds of kilotons per year. For a first exploration of the options of bio-coke, CE Delft first conducted a desk study to get information on the quality and production costs for bio-coke. Subsequently, CE Delft had contact with the four chemical companies and a made a number of company visits. Moreover, the technical, economic and organizational capabilities, constraints and requirements with regard to a possible (partial) switch to biocokes have been explored. Based on the information available so far it can be concluded that biocokes seems to be a technically and economically interesting innovation. For implementation to finally take place, it is necessary to gain better insight in the technical and economic potential [Dutch] In verband met de uitwerking van de Routekaart Chemie 2030 heeft CE Delft voor VNCI een verkenning uitgevoerd naar de mogelijkheden voor vervanging van (petroleum)cokes in de chemische sector door biocokes. Cokes wordt gebruikt als reductiemiddel en/of grondstof bij een viertal bedrijven in de Nederlandse chemie (Tronox, ESD-SIC, Thermphos, Aluchemie). Het vervangen van cokes bij deze vier bedrijven kan in potentie een directe CO2-reductie van naar verwachting enkele honderden kilotonnen/jaar opleveren. Voor een eerste verkenning van de mogelijkheden van bio-cokes heeft CE Delft eerst een bureaustudie uitgevoerd naar informatie over kwaliteit van en productiekosten voor bio-cokes. Vervolgens heeft CE Delft contact gehad met de vier chemische

  4. Geostatistical characterization of soil pollution at industrial sites Case of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at former coking plants; Caracterisation geostatistique de pollutions industrielles de sols cas des hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques sur d'anciens sites de cokeries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeannee, N.


    Estimating polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations in soil at former industrial sites poses several practical problems on account of the properties of the contaminants and the history of site: 1)collection and preparation of samples from highly heterogeneous material, 2) high short scale variability, particularly in presence of backfill, 3) highly contrasted grades making the vario-gram inference complicated. The sampling strategy generally adopted for contaminated sites is based on the historical information. Systematic sampling recommended for geostatistical estimation is often considered to be excessive and unnecessary. Two former coking plants are used as test cases for comparing several geostatistical methods for estimating (i) in situ concentrations and (ii) the probability that they are above a pollution threshold. Several practical and methodological questions are considered: 1) the properties of various estimators of the experimental vario-gram and the validity of the results; 2) the use of soft data, such as historical information, organoleptic observations and semi-quantitative methods, with a view to improve the precision of the estimates; 3) the comparison of standard sampling strategies, taking into account vertical repartition of grades and the history of the site. Multiple analyses of the same sample give an approximation of the sampling error. Short scale sampling shows the difficulty of selecting soils in the absence of a spatial structure. Sensitivity studies are carried out to assess how densely sampled soft data can improve estimates. By using mainly existing models, this work aims at giving practical recommendations for the characterization of soil pollution. (author)

  5. Radiofrequency radiation leakage from microwave ovens. (United States)

    Lahham, Adnan; Sharabati, Afifeh


    This work presents data on the amount of radiation leakage from 117 microwave ovens in domestic and restaurant use in the West Bank, Palestine. The study of leakage is based on the measurements of radiation emissions from the oven in real-life conditions by using a frequency selective field strength measuring system. The power density from individual ovens was measured at a distance of 1 m and at the height of centre of door screen. The tested ovens were of different types, models with operating powers between 1000 and 1600 W and ages ranging from 1 month to >20 y, including 16 ovens with unknown ages. The amount of radiation leakage at a distance of 1 m was found to vary from 0.43 to 16.4 μW cm(-2) with an average value equalling 3.64 μW cm(-2). Leakages from all tested microwave ovens except for seven ovens (∼6 % of the total) were below 10 μW cm(-2). The highest radiation leakage from any tested oven was ∼16.4 μW cm(-2), and found in two cases only. In no case did the leakage exceed the limit of 1 mW cm(-2) recommended by the ICNIRP for 2.45-GHz radiofrequency. This study confirms a linear correlation between the amount of leakage and both oven age and operating power, with a stronger dependence of leakage on age.

  6. "Zolotoi Oven" ishtshet svojego obladatelja / Valeri Kuznetsov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuznetsov, Valeri


    Parima filmi auhinnale "Zolotoi Oven" võistlevad Andrei Zvjagintsevi "Tagasitulek" ("Vozvrashtshenije"), Vadim Abdrashitovi "Magnettormid" ("Magnitnõje buri"), Gennadi Sidorovi "Vanaeided" ("Staruhhi") ja Pjotr Buslovi "Bumer"

  7. Effect of coal weathering on technological properties of cokes produced at different scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cimadevilla, J.L.G.; Alvarez, R.; Pis, J.J. [Instituto Nacional del Carbon (INCAR), CSIC, Apartado 73. 33080 Oviedo (Spain)


    The effect of weathering (natural oxidation) on the technological properties of cokes obtained at three different scales (laboratory, pilot plant and semi-industrial), from two medium volatile bituminous coals stored at INCAR open stockyard for several months, has been studied in this work. The results show that the procedure developed at laboratory scale is useful for studying the evolution of coke quality because the trends of the main quality indexes (mechanical strength and reactivity to CO{sub 2}) are in agreement with those of the cokes produced at larger scales. Furthermore, it was found that the total porosity and the micropores specific surface area of the cokes vary with the scale of carbonization, and that they increase as follows: semi-industrialplant<

  8. Salt for the earthen oven revisited

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jun 7, 2011 ... translated: 'you are the salt of the earthen oven', whilst Luke. 12:49 is ... The Palestinian Arabic word for kiln oven, ̛arsִa, confirms this understanding (De ..... 2000, A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other.

  9. Pemanfaatan Green Coke sebagai Bahan Bakar Padat


    Yulia, Indri; HS, Irdoni; Bahruddin, Bahruddin


    The need for alternative energy sources keep increasing, green coke is a byproduct from refenery unit that has a high heating value, so it is potential to be used as an alternative fuel. The purpose of this experiment was to study the green coke briquetting process, studied the effect of the pressing pressure against the produced briquettes, and determine the effect of operating conditions on the heating value and the resulting compressive strength. Green coke used in this experiment was test...

  10. Beyond the Coke Ovens: Women's Literacy in Whitney Pier, Nova Scotia. (United States)

    Kozar, Seana


    In partnership with a Nova Scotia community museum, local women used folklore and culture centered on crafts, food customs, and beliefs to engage in learning. Their efforts enriched local historical knowledge as well as their own self-confidence and literacy. (SK)

  11. Intelligent control model and its simulation of flue temperature in coke oven


    Li, Gongfa; Miao, Wei; Jiang, Guozhang; Fang, Yinfeng; Ju, Zhaojie; Liu, Honghai


    In this paper, one-variable linear regression mathematical model of top of regenerator temperature and flue temperature in machine side is built using the linear regress theory. The parameters of ARX model is determined by identification method of least square method and the mathematical model of flue temperature control is established. Applying the basis cascade control theory, system adopts flue temperature and coal flue gas flow as controlled parameters of host circuit and subsidiary circu...

  12. Briquetting of Coke-Brown Coal Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ïurove Juraj


    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the research of briquetting a coke-brown coal composite The operation consists of the feeding crushed coal and coke to moulds and pressing into briquettes which have been made in the Laboratories at the Mining Faculty of Technical University of Košice (Slovakia. In this research, all demands will be analyzed including the different aspects of the mechanical quality of briquettes, the proportion of fine pulverulent coal and coke in bricks, the requirements for briquetting the coke-brown coal materials.

  13. Combination microwave ovens: an innovative design strategy. (United States)

    Tinga, Wayne R; Eke, Ken


    Reducing the sensitivity of microwave oven heating and cooking performance to load volume, load placement and load properties has been a long-standing challenge for microwave and microwave-convection oven designers. Conventional design problem and solution methods are reviewed to provide greater insight into the challenge and optimum operation of a microwave oven after which a new strategy is introduced. In this methodology, a special load isolating and energy modulating device called a transducer-exciter is used containing an iris, a launch box, a phase, amplitude and frequency modulator and a coupling plate designed to provide spatially distributed coupling to the oven. This system, when applied to a combined microwave-convection oven, gives astounding performance improvements to all kinds of baked and roasted foods including sensitive items such as cakes and pastries, with the only compromise being a reasonable reduction in the maximum available microwave power. Large and small metal utensils can be used in the oven with minimal or no performance penalty on energy uniformity and cooking results. Cooking times are greatly reduced from those in conventional ovens while maintaining excellent cooking performance.

  14. The effect of calcination conditions on the graphitizability of novel synthetic and coal-derived cokes (United States)

    Bennett, Barbara Ellen

    The effects of calcination heating rate and ultimate calcination temperature upon calcined coke and subsequent graphitic material microstructures were studied for materials prepared from three different precursors. The pitch precursors used were Mitsubishi AR pitch (a synthetic, 100% mesophase pitch), the NMP-extracted portion of a raw coal, and the NMP-extracted fraction of a coal liquefaction residue obtained from an HTI pilot plant. These materials were all green-coked under identical conditions. Optical microscopy confirmed that the Mitsubishi coke was very anisotropic and the HTI coke was nearly as anisotropic. The coke produced from the direct coal extract was very isotropic. Crystalline development during calcination heating was verified by high-temperature x-ray diffraction. Experiments were performed to ascertain the effects of varying calcination heating rate and ultimate temperature. It was determined that calcined coke crystallite size increased with increasing temperature for all three materials but was found to be independent of heating rate. The graphene interplanar spacing decreased with increasing temperature for the isotropic NMP-extract material but increased with increasing temperature for the anisotropic materials---Mitsubishi and HTI cokes. Graphene interplanar spacing was also found to be independent of heating rate. Calcined coke real densities were, likewise, found to be independent of heating rate. The anisotropic cokes (Mitsubishi and HTI) exhibited increasing real density with increasing calcination temperature. The NMP-extract coke increased in density up to 1050°C and then suffered a dramatic reduction in real density when heated to 1250°C. This is indicative of puffing. Since there was no corresponding disruption in the crystalline structure, the puffing phenomena was determined to be intercrystalline rather than intracrystalline. After the calcined cokes were graphitized (under identical conditions), the microstructures were re

  15. Bread ovens in Northern Oretania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Huerta, Rosario


    Full Text Available This paper intends to bring to light an unusual type of domestic structure in the northern Oretania, namely the ovens used for the production of bread. The study of their distribution, as well as their dimensions and constructive features, indicates they are more complex structures, with collective or communal characters. At the same time, it gives us some knowledge of the internal organization of the main oritanian oppidas.

    Este artículo pretende dar a conocer un tipo de estructura doméstica poco habitual en la Oretania septentrional, como son los hornos destinados a la producción de pan. El análisis de su distribución, así como sus dimensiones y características constructivas, revela que se trata de estructuras más complejas, de carácter colectivo o comunal, lo que permite aproximarnos al conocimiento de la articulación interna de los principales oppida oretanos.

  16. Sterilization of instruments in solar ovens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jørgensen, A.F; Nøhr, K; Boisen, F; Nøhr, J


    ...: A solar oven was designed and manufactured using local materials and simple tools. It was tested by physical, chemical and microbiological methods and, after successful testing, installed in a rural clinic...

  17. Report on the first period of operation of the Arobin oven in Me 958

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagemann, W.; Herbert


    Experiences during the first seven months of industrial-scale operation are described. The chemical reactor used for producing the Arobin (aromatic gasoline) had a diameter of 500 mm and a capacity of 880 liters of activated aluminum silicate-molybdic acid catalyst in trays. The oven was fitted with 4 entry ports for cool-gas input for controlling the temperature because of the exothermic reaction (340 cal/kg starting material), and it was preceded by a gas preheater to raise the starting material to about 385/sup 0/C for entry into the oven. Throughput and oven temperature were adjusted to suit the supply of starting material and to maintain the amount of material converted in each pass through the oven at 50% (with the rest of the material being separated out by distillation and recycled into the oven again). Throughput varied from 550 liters/hr to 800 liters/hr, and the cool-gas input was used to regulate the oven temperature within a range of from 425/sup 0/C to 440/sup 0/C in order to maintain the conversion range at 50%. Most operational problems seemed to stem from the need to shut down the operation intermittently and quickly because of air attack. Those shutdowns led to premature coking-up and loss of activity of the catalyst. After that, the rate of conversion could no longer be maintained at 50%, even by more extreme variations of throughput and temperature, until the oven was shut down for a change of catalyst. Another problem which arose was a defect in the distillation column which allowed some low-boiling-point materials to recycle unnecessarily through the system, thus being over-processed and lowering the recovery of aromatic compounds somewhat. During the entire seven months of operation, the yield had averaged 73%, with 14% losses to hydrocarbon gases (some of which were recovered as fuel gas), 8% losses as residues of predistillation, and 5% losses through escape of gases. Properties of products were very similar to those predicted by

  18. Influence of oxidation and heating velocity of metallurgic cokes upon the plastic properties; Influencia da oxidacao e da velocidade de aquecimento de carvoes coqueificaveis sobre as propriedades plasticas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andretta, Cleidy Walery; Vilela, Antonio C.F. [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia Metalurgica e dos Materiais


    The determination of plastic properties of coal to coke production is a routine in brazilian coke plant laboratories. However, few specific and systematical studies on the plastic behaviour of coals been published. In the Laboratorio de Siderurgia of PPGEMM/UFRGS if was created a research line to characterize coals siderurgical and cokes with the support of the interested industrial sector. This work aim to study effects caused by induced oxidation and variations in heating rate on foreign coking coals, type high, medium and low volatile. (author) 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. The complete modernization of Taranto by-products plant: development and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Troiano; I. Di Maggio; R. Pensa


    Taranto By-Products Plant, realized in two phases in the 60 s and 70 s, has been completely modernized with an intensive activity of rehabilitation and heavy modification of the original lay-out and the processes to comply with the latest environmental regulations and the present and future production needs. This report highlights, in a synthetic way, the basic concepts, the project purposes which have turned the old by-products plant into a modern and strongly automatized treatment gas plant of high capacity (designed to treat 210.000 Nm{sub 3}/h of coke oven gas) through subsequent and complex realization phases. The presentation describes the main realizations, the applied technologies and the operational results. A high capacity gas desulphurisation plant is operative with the production of sulphuric acid and is totally integrated with the ammonium sulphate process. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  20. Behaviors of young children around microwave ovens. (United States)

    Robinson, Marla R; O'Connor, Annemarie; Wallace, Lindsay; Connell, Kristen; Tucker, Katherine; Strickland, Joseph; Taylor, Jennifer; Quinlan, Kyran P; Gottlieb, Lawrence J


    Scald burn injuries are the leading cause of burn-related emergency room visits and hospitalizations for young children. A portion of these injuries occur when children are removing items from microwave ovens. This study assessed the ability of typically developing children aged 15 months to 5 years to operate, open, and remove the contents from a microwave oven. The Denver Developmental Screening Test II was administered to confirm typical development of the 40 subjects recruited. All children recruited and enrolled in this study showed no developmental delays in any domain in the Denver Developmental Screening Test II. Children were observed for the ability to open both a push and pull microwave oven door, to start the microwave oven, and to remove a cup from the microwave oven. All children aged 4 years were able to open the microwaves, turn on the microwave, and remove the contents. Of the children aged 3 years, 87.5% were able to perform all study tasks. For children aged 2 years, 90% were able to open both microwaves, turn on the microwave, and remove the contents. In this study, children as young as 17 months could start a microwave oven, open the door, and remove the contents putting them at significant risk for scald burn injury. Prevention efforts to improve supervision and caregiver education have not lead to a significant reduction in scald injuries in young children. A redesign of microwave ovens might prevent young children from being able to open them thereby reducing risk of scald injury by this mechanism.

  1. Weak points of standards used in coke production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepanov, Yu.V.; Tkachenko, L.V.; Belyaeva, E.G.; Sapegin, A.N. (Nizhnetagil' skii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat (USSR))


    Discusses recommended modifications to national standards on coking, properties of coking products and procedure for structural and quantitative chemical analysis of coking products. The following modifications are discussed: GOST 13898-80 on blast furnace coke from coal from the Eastern regions (uses a new coefficient that characterizes fluctuations of coke quality considering moisture content and sulfur content, the M25 compression strength index and the M10 wear index); GOST 3213-71 on pitch coke (determining sodium oxide content in ash); ST SEhV 493-77 on ash determination in coke; ST SEhV 491-77 on moisture determination in coke; GOST 3929-82 and GOST 9951-73 on determination of volatile matter in coke and pitch coke.

  2. The coke drum thermal kinetic effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldescu, Maria M.; Romero, Sim; Larson, Mel [KBC Advanced Technologies plc, Surrey (United Kingdom)


    The coke drum thermal kinetic dynamics fundamentally affect the coker unit yields as well as the coke product properties and unit reliability. In the drum the thermal cracking and polymerization or condensation reactions take place in a semi-batch environment. Understanding the fundamentals of the foaming kinetics that occur in the coke drums is key to avoiding a foam-over that could result in a unit shutdown for several months. Although the most dynamic changes with time occur during drum filling, other dynamics of the coker process will be discussed as well. KBC has contributed towards uncovering and modelling the complexities of heavy oil thermal dynamics. (author)

  3. Blast furnace coke substitutes from Victorian brown coal


    Mollah, Mamun


    Iron is usually produced from its ores using coke in a blast furnace (BF). Coke, a hard and macroporous carbon material, is produced from special coals (coking coals) and acts as fuel, smelting agent, and the permeable support for the charge to the BF. No material can completely replace coke in a BF. Coking coals are becoming harder (and more expensive) to obtain. Victorian brown coal (VBC) is accessible, cheap, with low mineral concentrations, which is favourable for iron production in a BF....

  4. [Eye heating caused by microwave ovens]. (United States)

    Leitgeb, N; Tropper, K


    To clarify the question as to whether microwave ovens represent a risk for the eyes, a worst-case situation was investigated in which it was assumed that a child observes the internal heating process with its eyes as close to the door of a microwave oven as it is possible to get. As expected, heating of the eyes was observed, which, however, was caused mainly by the conventional heating process rather than by microwave radiation. Significant microwave heating was observed only when increased scattered radiation was simulated by inactivating the safety contacts and opening the door of the microwave oven. When the door is opened to a clearly visible gap width (2.3 cm), the contribution of the microwave component to the overall temperature increase of 5 degrees C after one hour of continuous exposure did not exceed 16%. Even at the maximum possible door gap width which just did not cause the oven to switch off automatically (2.6 cm), 15 minutes of continuous exposure contributed only 50% to the 2 degrees C temperature increase. On the basis of these results, damage to the eye through the use of microwave ovens can be excluded.

  5. Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Volk; Keith Wisecarver


    Delayed coking evolved steadily over the early to mid 1900s to enable refiners to convert high boiling, residual petroleum fractions to light products such as gasoline. Pound for pound, coking is the most energy intensive of any operation in a modern refinery. Large amounts of energy are required to heat the thick, poor-quality petroleum residuum to the 900 to 950 degrees F required to crack the heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter, more valuable products. One common misconception of delayed coking is that the product coke is a disadvantage. Although coke is a low valued (near zero economic value) byproduct, compared to transportation fuels, there is a significant worldwide trade and demand for coke as it is an economical fuel. Coke production has increased steadily over the last ten years, with further increases forecast for the foreseeable future. Current domestic production is near 111,000 tons per day. A major driving force behind this increase is the steady decline in crude quality available to refiners. Crude slates are expected to grow heavier with higher sulfur contents while environmental restrictions are expected to significantly reduce the demand for high-sulfur residual fuel oil. Light sweet crudes will continue to be available and in even greater demand than they are today. Refiners will be faced with the choice of purchasing light sweet crudes at a premium price, or adding bottom of the barrel upgrading capability, through additional new investments, to reduce the production of high-sulfur residual fuel oil and increase the production of low-sulfur distillate fuels. A second disadvantage is that liquid products from cokers frequently are unstable, i.e., they rapidly form gum and sediments. Because of intermediate investment and operating costs, delayed coking has increased in popularity among refiners worldwide. Based on the 2000 Worldwide Refining Survey published in the Oil and Gas, the delayed coking capacity for 101 refineries around the world

  6. Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Volk; Keith Wisecarver


    Delayed coking evolved steadily over the early to mid 1900s to enable refiners to convert high boiling, residual petroleum fractions to light products such as gasoline. Pound for pound, coking is the most energy intensive of any operation in a modern refinery. Large amounts of energy are required to heat the thick, poor-quality petroleum residuum to the 900 to 950 degrees F required to crack the heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter, more valuable products. One common misconception of delayed coking is that the product coke is a disadvantage. Although coke is a low valued (near zero economic value) byproduct, compared to transportation fuels, there is a significant worldwide trade and demand for coke as it is an economical fuel. Coke production has increased steadily over the last ten years, with further increases forecast for the foreseeable future. Current domestic production is near 111,000 tons per day. A major driving force behind this increase is the steady decline in crude quality available to refiners. Crude slates are expected to grow heavier with higher sulfur contents while environmental restrictions are expected to significantly reduce the demand for high-sulfur residual fuel oil. Light sweet crudes will continue to be available and in even greater demand than they are today. Refiners will be faced with the choice of purchasing light sweet crudes at a premium price, or adding bottom of the barrel upgrading capability, through additional new investments, to reduce the production of high-sulfur residual fuel oil and increase the production of low-sulfur distillate fuels. A second disadvantage is that liquid products from cokers frequently are unstable, i.e., they rapidly form gum and sediments. Because of intermediate investment and operating costs, delayed coking has increased in popularity among refiners worldwide. Based on the 2000 Worldwide Refining Survey published in the Oil and Gas, the delayed coking capacity for 101 refineries around the world

  7. Physical optics for oven-plate scattering prediction (United States)

    Baldauf, J.; Lambert, K.


    An oven assembly design is described, which will be used to determine the effects of temperature on the electrical properties of materials which are used as coatings for metal plates. Experimentally, these plates will be heated to a very high temperature in the oven assembly, and measured using a microwave reflectance measurement system developed for the NASA Lewis Research Center, Near-Field Facility. One unknown in this measurement is the effect that the oven assembly will have on the reflectance properties of the plate. Since the oven will be much larger than the plate, the effect could potentially be significant as the size of the plate becomes smaller. Therefore, it is necessary to predict the effect of the oven on the measurement of the plate. A method for predicting the oven effect is described, and the theoretical oven effect is compared to experimental results of the oven material. The computer code which is used to predict the oven effect is also described.

  8. A review of microwave oven safety. (United States)

    Osepchuk, J M


    The microwave leakage from current microwave ovens, which are manufactured to meet government emission standards, is reviewed. Typical leakage values imply exposure values well below the most conservative exposure standards in the world. A review of recent developments discloses increasingly stringent government regulation along with advances in techniques for suppression of microwave leakage. The nature of the leakage field is described and studies relating emission to exposure are reviewed. Field survey data are reviewed and it is found that the overwhelming majority of certified ovens in the field show leakage well below permissible limits with an increasing degree of certainty as time goes on. The conclusion is that microwave ovens are not only just as safe as they were in 1973 but they are being accepted as safe under essentially equivalent emission regulations in various countries including those in Eastern Europe.

  9. Investigation of bonding mechanism of coking on semi-coke from lignite with pitch and tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vedat Arslan [Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey). Engineering Faculty


    In coking, the bonding ability of inert macerals by reactive macerals is dependent on various parameters and also is related to the wettability of the inert macerals. In this study, the effect of carbonization temperature on the wettability of semi-cokes produced at various temperatures has been investigated. Soma and Yatagan semicokes represent inert macerals, and pitch was used as a reactive structure in the experiments. The briquetted pitch blocks were located on the semi-cokes and heated from the softening temperature of pitch (60{sup o}C) to 140{sup o}C to observe the wettability. In addition, liquid tar was also used to determine the wettability of semi-cokes. From the standpoint of wettability, the temperature of 900{sup o}C was determined to be the critical point for coke produced from sub-bituminous coals. 15 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Results of tuyere coke sampling with regard to application of appropriate coke strength after reaction (CSR for a blast furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiau J-S.


    Full Text Available Raising pulverized coal injection (PCI will decrease coke rate, but increase the residence time of coke and abrasion in the blast furnace (BF. Thus, insufficient coke strength will generate more coke fines in the lower BF and result in lower permeability and production of hot metal (HM. For understanding the behavior of coke at various HM productivities, a tuyere coke sampler was used to collect the coke samples for measuring the coke strength. Firstly, the difference of sampled coke under the conditions of various HM productivities was explored. Secondly, the BF operating conditions and causes of generating more coke fines was correlated by testing the coke reaction rate after reaction. Finally, according to the above analysis results, the relative regression equations had been obtained for sampling coke properties, BF operation conditions and BF permeability. Furthermore, the coke strength after reaction (CSR quantitative target and its online system at various blast conditions were set to provide some reference for coke and HM production.

  11. Pengeringan Lidah Buaya (AloVera Menggunakan Oven Gelombang Mikro (Microwave Oven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edy Hartulistiyoso


    Full Text Available Aloe vera (Aloe vera is known as a useful plant, both as food, cosmetics or pharmaceuticals. Due its high water content, Aloe vera should be processed immediately after harvest. This paper will discuss the drying of aloe vera using microwave oven. The drying process of 50 gr Aloe vera gel and rind using 80 Watts microwave power completed in 140 minutes to reach the final moisture content of 7% wet basis. The drying process in microwave drying shows similar process to that of conventional drying. Dipolar rotation mechanism of water molecules at microwave drying does not affect the drying stage. It shows however shorter process time. The water removal of the drying material occurred in the early minutes until the 50th minute. This because of the high free water surface on the material, while from minute 50 to minute 140 slowed the drying process. Highest temperature of the material during the process is achieved at 57.6 oC in drying of gel and 70.7 oC in drying of Aloe vera rind. It is expected that there is no damage of nutritional content during drying in the this temperature range. Quality analysis of flour and tea of Aloe vera after drying by microwave showed that Aloe vera powder produced within the range of the standard, both visually and microbiologically, but indicated as low quality when viewed from acid content levels. Whether microwave heating mechanism affects the acidity, this needs further study.

  12. Coke fouling monitoring by electrical resistivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bombardelli, Clovis; Mari, Livia Assis; Kalinowski, Hypolito Jose [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Eletrica e Informatica Industrial (CPGEI)


    An experimental method to simulate the growth of the coke fouling that occurs in the oil processing is proposed relating the thickness of the encrusted coke to its electrical resistivity. The authors suggest the use of the fouling electrical resistivity as a transducer element for determining its thickness. The sensor is basically two electrodes in an electrically isolated device where the inlay can happen in order to compose a purely resistive transducer. Such devices can be easily constructed in a simple and robust form with features capable to face the high temperatures and pressures found in relevant industrial processes. For validation, however, it is needed a relationship between the electrical resistivity and the fouling thickness, information not yet found in the literature. The present work experimentally simulates the growth of a layer of coke on an electrically insulating surface, equipped with electrodes at two extremities to measure the electrical resistivity during thermal cracking essays. The method is realized with a series of consecutive runs. The results correlate the mass of coke deposited and its electrical resistivity, and it can be used to validate the coke depositions monitoring employing the resistivity as a control parameter. (author)

  13. Study and modelling of deactivation by coke in catalytic reforming of hydrocarbons on Pt-Sn/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst; La microbalance inertielle: etude et modelisation cinetique de la desactivation par le coke en reformage catalytique des hydrocarbures sur catalyseur Pt-Sn/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathieu-Deghais, S.


    Catalytic reforming is the refining process that produces gasoline with a high octane number. During a reforming operation, undesired side reactions promote the formation of carbon deposits (coke) on the surface of the catalyst. As the reactions proceed, the coke accumulation leads to a progressive decrease of the catalyst activity and to a change in its selectivity. Getting this phenomenon under control is interesting to optimize the industrial plants. This work aims to improve the comprehension and the modeling of coke formation and its deactivating effect on reforming reactions, while working under conditions chosen within a range as close as possible to the industrial conditions of the regenerative process. The experimental study is carried out with a micro unit that is designed to observe simultaneously the coke formation and its influence on the catalyst activity. A vibrational microbalance reactor (TEOM - Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance) is used to provide continuous monitoring of coke. On-line gas chromatography is used to observe the catalyst activity and selectivity as a function of the coke content. The coking experiments are performed on a fresh Pt-Sn/alumina catalyst, with mixtures of hydrocarbon molecules of 7 carbon atoms as hydrocarbon feeds. The coking tests permitted to highlight the operating parameters that may affect the amount of coke, and to identify the hydrocarbon molecules that behave as coke intermediate. A kinetic model for coke formation could be developed through the compilation of these results. The catalytic activity analysis permitted to point out the coke effect on both of the active phases of the catalyst, to construct a simplified reforming kinetic model that simulates the catalyst activity under the reforming conditions, and to quantify deactivation via deactivation functions. (author)

  14. Gasification Reaction Characteristics of Ferro-Coke at Elevated Temperatures (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Zhang, Jian-liang; Gao, Bing


    In this paper, the effects of temperature and atmosphere on the gasification reaction of ferro-coke were investigated in consideration of the actual blast furnace conditions. Besides, the microstructure of the cokes was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). It is found that the weight loss of ferro-coke during the gasification reaction is significantly enhanced in the case of increasing either the reaction temperature or the CO2 concentration. Furthermore, compared with the normal type of metallurgical coke, ferro-coke exhibits a higher weight loss when they are gasified at the same temperature or under the same atmosphere. As to the microstructure, inside the reacted ferro-coke are a large amount of pores. Contrary to the normal coke, the proportions of the large-size pores and the through holes are greatly increased after gasification, giving rise to thinner pore walls and hence a degradation in coke strength after reaction (CSR).

  15. Modifications of coking coal and metallurgical coke properties induced by coal weathering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casal, M.D.; Gonzalez, A.I.; Canga, C.S.; Barriocanal, C.; Pis, J.J.; Alvarez, R.; Diez, M.A. [Instituto Nacional del Carbon (INCAR), CSIC, Apartado 73, Oviedo 33080 (Spain)


    Chemical changes in the structure of organic matter of coking coals during storage modify their thermoplastic properties and behaviour during carbonization. As a result, the anisotropic carbon structure of the metallurgical cokes produced and their physical properties are altered. In this work, the weathering behaviour of 10 bituminous coals of different geographic origin, rank and thermoplastic properties, used as components in the preparation of industrial coking blends for coke manufacture, was studied by means of Gieseler plastometry and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. These coking coals were stored in piles at the Instituto Nacional del Carbon (INCAR) open stockyard for a period of time of up to 7 months. Special attention was paid to the relationship between the relative amount and type of aliphatic hydrogen (semi-quantitatively evaluated by FTIR), and thermoplastic properties. Depending on the nature of the coking coal, a different response to natural weathering can be expected. Thus, the results showed that there is a direct link between a decrease in methylene groups and a loss of fluidity in the weathered coals, resulting in a decrease in anisotropic carbon of the resultant cokes with weathering time. In addition, the rate of anisotropic carbon loss induced by weathering could be associated with the rank parameters of the initial coals.

  16. Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volk Jr., Michael; Wisecarver, Keith D.; Sheppard, Charles M.


    The coking test facilities include three reactors (or cokers) and ten utilities. Experiments were conducted using the micro-coker, pilot-coker, and stirred-batch coker. Gas products were analyzed using an on-line gas chromatograph. Liquid properties were analyzed in-house using simulated distillation (HP 5880a), high temperature gas chromatography (6890a), detailed hydrocarbon analysis, and ASTM fractionation. Coke analyses as well as feedstock analyses and some additional liquid analyses (including elemental analyses) were done off-site.

  17. Comparison of spray, freeze and oven drying as a means of reducing bitter aftertaste of steviol glycosides (derived from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni plant)--Evaluation of the final products. (United States)

    Chranioti, Charikleia; Chanioti, Sofia; Tzia, Constantina


    The aim of this study was to encapsulate the steviol glycosides (SGs) by spray, freeze and vacuum oven drying in order to minimise the bitter aftertaste of the SGs, as well as to improve their properties. Different ratios of maltodextrin to inulin as agents were examined, 80:20, 75:25, 70:30, 65:35 and 60:40, while the concentration of SGs in total solids was maintained constant at 2.5%. The obtained SGs products were evaluated by microencapsulation efficiency (MEE%), hygroscopicity, solubility, moisture content, structure (SEM, XRD), FT-IR and sensory properties. Significant differences in MEE%, moisture content, structure and solubility values were observed depending on the applied drying method. The reduced hygroscopicity values (20.26-26.67 g H2O/100g dry weight) contribute to improved stability. The FT-IR technique confirmed that SGs maintained their chemical integrity during the applied drying processes. The spray dried SGs products presented the best physicochemical characteristics and the most appealing sensorial ones. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Test with Rhein brown coal in 1-liter oven and fourth report on neutralization of coal and precipitants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    A 1.5 liter sump oven, without stirrer, was used for preparation of Rhein coal with different grinding oils. Partial neutralization of the coal, by mixing sulfuric acid or sulfates with wet coal before drying, was sought. Oven precipitation was reduced by addition of street tar (high middle oil content) and Bruex tar (up to 350/sup 0/C) as well as by a mixture of Estonian slate tar oil and anthracitic tar oil in ratio of 80:20, but there was chalk-coke residue similar to caviar found when the oven was disassembled. Fifty percent neutralization of the coal by sulfuric acid as opposed to untreated coal gave some reduced vaporization and lower asphalt content. Iron sulfate catalyst also gave good results; magnesium sulfate, somewhat less. Though not unequivocally, H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and FeSO/sub 4/ both apparently reduced precipitants. A mixture of magnesium sulfate with iron sulfate gave less favorable results over all. Untreated coal with the previous catalysts produced the undesirable caviar-precipitants. The results of the tests were questionable since exactness in components, viscosity, and other problems hindered reproducing the tests consistently. 2 tables.

  19. Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Volk Jr; Keith Wisecarver


    Delayed coking evolved steadily over the early to mid 1900s to enable refiners to convert high boiling, residual petroleum fractions to light products such as gasoline. Pound for pound, coking is the most energy intensive of any operation in a modern refinery. Large amounts of energy are required to heat the thick, poor-quality petroleum residuum to the 900 to 950 degrees F required to crack the heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter, more valuable products. One common misconception of delayed coking is that the product coke is a disadvantage. Although coke is a low valued (near zero economic value) byproduct, compared to transportation fuels, there is a significant worldwide trade and demand for coke as it is an economical fuel. Coke production has increased steadily over the last ten years, with further increases forecast for the foreseeable future. Current domestic production is near 111,000 tons per day. A major driving force behind this increase is the steady decline in crude quality available to refiners. Crude slates are expected to grow heavier with higher sulfur contents while environmental restrictions are expected to significantly reduce the demand for high-sulfur residual fuel oil. Light sweet crudes will continue to be available and in even greater demand than they are today. Refiners will be faced with the choice of purchasing light sweet crudes at a premium price, or adding bottom of the barrel upgrading capability, through additional new investments, to reduce the production of high-sulfur residual fuel oil and increase the production of low-sulfur distillate fuels. A second disadvantage is that liquid products from cokers frequently are unstable, i.e., they rapidly form gum and sediments. Because of intermediate investment and operating costs, delayed coking has increased in popularity among refiners worldwide. Based on the 2000 Worldwide Refining Survey published in the Oil and Gas, the delayed coking capacity for 101 refineries around the world

  20. Experiments on thermogravimetric determination of coke residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopsch, H.; Rahner, S.


    Thermogravimetry gives almost the same values for coke residue as CCT DIN 51 551 with equally good reproducibility. The precision of the results can be increased, provided containers for larger samples are used. In case of small samples the inhomogeneity is observed particularly with distillation residues.

  1. Results of the simulation of gasification of the mexican petroleum coke from the refineries of Ciudad Madero and Cadereyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Urquiza–Beltrán


    Full Text Available This paper evaluates in terms of energy the gasification of the petroleum coke from the refineries of Cd Madero and Cadereyta in Mexico. The energy evaluation of the synthetic gas (syngas focuses mainly on the chemical composition of the clean syngas (gasl and its energy characteristics: heating value, the energy power, the cold gas efficiency and the thermal efficiency of gasification. The results of the simulation indicate that the gasification of the petroleum coke from Cadereyta called CRC, produces a gasl with better performance and energy characteristics than those obtained when gasifying the coke of petroleum from Cd. Madero, called CRM. When the CRC is gasified, the rate of production of gasl obtained is of 2.07 kggasl/kgcoque, while the rate of production of gasl for the CRM is 1.89 kggasl/kgcoque. The HHV of the gasl of the CRC is 12 729.56 kJ/kggasl while for the CRM is 11 639.13 kJ/kggasl. The energy power of the gasl of the CRC is greater, with a difference of 25.87 GJ/h, with regard to the energy power of the gasl of the CRM. Under the specified conditions of operation, energy is generated ata rate of 26.46 MJ/kgcoque coke in the gasification of the CRC coke of petroleum, while when gasifying the CRM coke of petroleum 22.09 MJ/kgcoque are generated. Currently, the petroleum coke produced in the refinery of Madero is consumed in the power plants of Tamuín, San Luis Potosí, Mexico, while the petroleum coke produced by the refinery of Cadereyta is used in the cement industry.

  2. Nitrogen Chemistry and Coke Transformation of FCC Coked Catalyst during the Regeneration Process (United States)

    Shi, Junjun; Guan, Jianyu; Guo, Dawei; Zhang, Jiushun; France, Liam John; Wang, Lefu; Li, Xuehui


    Regeneration of the coked catalyst is an important process of fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) in petroleum refining, however, this process will emit environmentally harmful gases such as nitrogen and carbon oxides. Transformation of N and C containing compounds in industrial FCC coke under thermal decomposition was investigated via TPD and TPO to examine the evolved gaseous species and TGA, NMR and XPS to analyse the residual coke fraction. Two distinct regions of gas evolution are observed during TPD for the first time, and they arise from decomposition of aliphatic carbons and aromatic carbons. Three types of N species, pyrrolic N, pyridinic N and quaternary N are identified in the FCC coke, the former one is unstable and tends to be decomposed into pyridinic and quaternary N. Mechanisms of NO, CO and CO2 evolution during TPD are proposed and lattice oxygen is suggested to be an important oxygen resource. Regeneration process indicates that coke-C tends to preferentially oxidise compared with coke-N. Hence, new technology for promoting nitrogen-containing compounds conversion will benefit the in-situ reduction of NO by CO during FCC regeneration.

  3. Petroleum Coke in the Urban Environment: A Review of Potential Health Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph A. Caruso


    Full Text Available Petroleum coke, or petcoke, is a granular coal-like industrial by-product that is separated during the refinement of heavy crude oil. Recently, the processing of material from Canadian oil sands in U.S. refineries has led to the appearance of large petcoke piles adjacent to urban communities in Detroit and Chicago. The purpose of this literature review is to assess what is known about the effects of petcoke exposure on human health. Toxicological studies in animals indicate that dermal or inhalation petcoke exposure does not lead to a significant risk for cancer development or reproductive and developmental effects. However, pulmonary inflammation was observed in long-term inhalation exposure studies. Epidemiological studies in coke oven workers have shown increased risk for cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, but these studies are confounded by multiple industrial exposures, most notably to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that are generated during petcoke production. The main threat to urban populations in the vicinity of petcoke piles is most likely fugitive dust emissions in the form of fine particulate matter. More research is required to determine whether petcoke fine particulate matter causes or exacerbates disease, either alone or in conjunction with other environmental contaminants.

  4. Petroleum coke in the urban environment: a review of potential health effects. (United States)

    Caruso, Joseph A; Zhang, Kezhong; Schroeck, Nicholas J; McCoy, Benjamin; McElmurry, Shawn P


    Petroleum coke, or petcoke, is a granular coal-like industrial by-product that is separated during the refinement of heavy crude oil. Recently, the processing of material from Canadian oil sands in U.S. refineries has led to the appearance of large petcoke piles adjacent to urban communities in Detroit and Chicago. The purpose of this literature review is to assess what is known about the effects of petcoke exposure on human health. Toxicological studies in animals indicate that dermal or inhalation petcoke exposure does not lead to a significant risk for cancer development or reproductive and developmental effects. However, pulmonary inflammation was observed in long-term inhalation exposure studies. Epidemiological studies in coke oven workers have shown increased risk for cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, but these studies are confounded by multiple industrial exposures, most notably to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that are generated during petcoke production. The main threat to urban populations in the vicinity of petcoke piles is most likely fugitive dust emissions in the form of fine particulate matter. More research is required to determine whether petcoke fine particulate matter causes or exacerbates disease, either alone or in conjunction with other environmental contaminants.

  5. Improvement in methods of discharging coke from dry quenching installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ereskovskii, O.S.; Grishchenko, A.I.; Savka, M.D.; Kukhar' , N.P.; Stovolosov, S.M.; Kvasov, A.V.; Bugai, L.Z.; Kolyanov, A.S.


    Ways are described of improving batch discharging of coke from dry quenching chambers, used extensively in Soviet coking plants, without causing extensive emission of toxic gases and dust. Dry quenching chambers are under constant pressure due to the drying gas pumped into them and require air-tight gate valves to prevent the escape of dust and cooling gas into the atmosphere. In these circumstances it is difficult to keep gate valves air-tight and so flat sectional cut-off devices were introduced into the discharge outlet. The tests which were carried out show that by changing the order of opening and closing gate valves and cut-off devices it is possible to reduce the amount of dust and drying gases escaping through the discharge outlet. The sequence of opening and closing the valves can be controlled by a simple switching circuit. The paper gives a detailed description of the system and discusses method of operation. Results are given of the analysis carried out before and after modification which show that emission of both dust and gas can be reduced by more than half.

  6. Upgrading oil sands bitumen with FLUID COKING and FLEXICOKING technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamienski, P.; Phillips, G. [ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Co., Fairfax, VA (United States); McKnight, C.; Rumball, B. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)


    This presentation described EMRE's Fluid Coking and Flexicoking technologies that are well suited for upgrading Alberta's heavy crudes and oil sands bitumen into pipelineable crudes or synthetic crudes, which can be further processed into transportation fuels. The Fluid Coking technology uses a fluidized bed reactor that thermally converts the heavy oils into light gases, liquids and coke. The metals and much of the sulphur are concentrated in the coke. Combustion of the coke provides process heat and the remaining coke is sold or stored on site for later recovery. Syncrude Canada currently operates 3 Fluid Coking units in northern Alberta. Flexicoking extends fluid coking by integrating air gasification to produce a carbon monoxide/hydrogen rich fuel gas that helps meet fuel and energy requirements of bitumen recovery and upgrading. The yields of light gas and liquids are similar to those of the Fluid Coking process. The partial combustion of coke provides the process heat for the thermal conversion and gasification steps. The remaining coke is gasified and desulphurized using Flexsorb technology. At present, there are 5 Flexicoking units in operation around the world. Interest in the technology is growing, particularly in locations with large demand for clean fuel or electricity. It is also suitable for steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) operations in Alberta. This presentation outlined the operating principles of the Flexicoking integrated gasification system and compared it with more expensive oxygen gasification processes. tabs., figs.

  7. Emission characteristics and size distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from coke production in China (United States)

    Mu, Ling; Peng, Lin; Liu, Xiaofeng; He, Qiusheng; Bai, Huiling; Yan, Yulong; Li, Yinghui


    Coking is regarded as a major source of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), but few researches have been conducted on the emission characteristics of PAHs from coke production. In this study, emissions of size-segregated particulate matter (PM) and particle-bound PAHs emitted from charging of coal (CC) and pushing of coke (PC) in four typical coke plants were determined. The emission factors on average, sums of CC and PC, were 4.65 mg/kg, 5.96 mg/kg, 19.18 μg/kg and 20.69 μg/kg of coal charged for PM2.1 (≤ 2.1 μm), PM, PAHs in PM2.1 and total-PAHs, respectively. PM and PAHs emission from plants using stamp charging were significantly more than those using top charging. The profile of PAHs in PM with size ≤ 1.4 μm (PM1.4) emitted from CC process were similar with that from PC, however, it revealed obviously different tendency for PAHs in PM with size > 1.4 μm, indicating the different formation mechanism for coarse particles emitted from CC and PC. Size distributions of PM and PAHs indicated that they were primarily connected with PM1.4, and the contributions of PM1.4 to PM and PAHs emitted from the plants using stamp charging were higher than those using top charging. Some improved technology in air-pollution control devices should be considered in coke production in future based on the considerable impacts of PM1.4 and PAHs on human health and ambient air quality.

  8. Comparison of two methods for determination of tomato paste solids: vacuum oven versus microwave oven. (United States)

    Jazaeri, Sahar; Kakuda, Yukio; Gismondi, Stephen; Wigle, Doug G


    Two analytical procedures used to determine total, soluble, and insoluble solids in tomato paste were evaluated. The microwave oven (MO) method was compared to the vacuum oven (VO) method. The VO method is tedious and measured the three solids fractions in the paste directly, while the MO method measured the total solids directly but used an equation to calculate the water-soluble and -insoluble solids. The MO method was faster and less labor-intensive, and yielded small but statistically significant higher values for total and insoluble solids and lower statistically significant values for soluble solids.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin C. Galbreath; Donald L. Toman; Christopher J. Zygarlicke


    Petroleum coke, a byproduct of the petroleum-refining process, is an attractive primary or supplemental fuel for power production primarily because of a progressive and predictable increase in the production volumes of petroleum coke (1, 2). Petroleum coke is most commonly blended with coal in proportions suitable to meet sulfur emission compliance. Petroleum coke is generally less reactive than coal; therefore, the cofiring of petroleum coke with coal typically improves ignition, flame stability, and carbon loss relative to the combustion of petroleum coke alone. Although petroleum coke is a desirable fuel for producing relatively inexpensive electrical power, concerns about the effects of petroleum coke blending on combustion and pollution control processes exist in the coal-fired utility industry (3). The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) completed a 2-year technical assessment of petroleum coke as a supplemental fuel. A survey questionnaire was sent to seven electric utility companies that are currently cofiring coal and petroleum coke in an effort to solicit specific suggestions on research needs and fuel selections. An example of the letter and survey questionnaire is presented in Appendix A. Interest was expressed by most utilities in evaluating the effects of petroleum coke blending on grindability, combustion reactivity, fouling, slagging, and fly ash emissions control. Unexpectedly, concern over corrosion was not expressed by the utilities contacted. Although all seven utilities responded to the question, only two utilities, Northern States Power Company (NSP) and Ameren, sent fuels to the EERC for evaluation. Both utilities sent subbituminous coals from the Power River Basin and petroleum shot coke samples. Petroleum shot coke is produced unintentionally during operational upsets in the petroleum refining process. This report evaluates the effects of petroleum shot coke blending on grindability, fuel reactivity, fouling/slagging, and

  10. Charcoal/LPG cooker, oven, and boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, B.F.


    An insulated hot plate cooker that conserves heat in the exhaust of burning charcoal or domestic gas (LPG) and redirects said heat to do additional cooking, or baking, barbecuing, food preservation by drying, toasting, etc., and then redirecting exhaust heat from this compartment to a boiler that produces boil water, coffee, tea, etc.; thus, an energy-saving multi-purpose cooker with oven and boiler that has 80% efficiency. Combustion chamber of cooker is well ventilated and needs no fan or blower. Boiler has good heat conducting exhaust pipes that are submerged in water, and heat in the exhaust is extracted by the pipe to heat the surrounding water. (author) figs.

  11. Laureatõ premii "Zolotoi Oven"

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Parima filmi auhinna "Zolotoi Oven" võitis Andrei Zvjagintsevi "Tagasitulek" ("Vozvrashtshenije"), Vadim Abdrashitovi "Magnettormid" ("Magnitnõje buri") sai parima režissööri ja parima stsenaristi auhinna (Aleksandr Mindadze), Pjotr Buslovi "Bumer" sai vaid muusikaauhinna (Sergei Shnurov). Parim meesnäitleja oli Viktor Suhhorukov ("Vaene, vaene Paul") ja naisnäitleja Maria Zvonarjeva A. Proshkini "Trios". A. Sokurovi "Isa ja poeg" sai vaid kunstnikuauhinna (Natalja Kotshergina). Inna Tshurikova sai kõrvalosa auhinna ("S: Govoruhhini "Blagoslovite zhenshtshinu")

  12. Mathematical modeling for temperature and concentration study inside a thermal drying oven (United States)

    Tanthadiloke, Surasit; Kittisupakorn, Paisan


    In order to investigate the dynamic behavior for further performance improvements of a thermal drying oven in a can production plant, mathematical models based on continuity equations are developed and validated with COMSOL simulation result. Profiles of temperature and the concentration of evaporated solvent (Ethylene glycol monobutyl ether; C6H14O2) in three different volumetric air flow rates such as 1.67, 1.00 and 0.33 m3/s are investigated and compared with the simulation results. The results demonstrated that the developed models for the thermal drying oven provide good prediction with a very small error from the validating data and the coefficient of determination (R2) of these models is 0.9926. Furthermore, these models can keep a good evaluation of both temperature and the concentration of evaporated solvent when changing the volumetric air flow rates. The simulation results from the developed models in all cases have the similar trends when compared with the COMSOL results. In addition, the results in this work guarantee that the developed models can provide the dynamic behavior inside the thermal drying oven and are applicable for the future improvements of the thermal drying oven performance.

  13. Accelerated staining technique using kitchen microwave oven. (United States)

    Mukunda, Archana; Narayan, T V; Shreedhar, Balasundhari; Shashidhara, R; Mohanty, Leeky; Shenoy, Sadhana


    Histopathological diagnosis of specimens is greatly dependent on good sample preparation and staining. Both of these processes is governed by diffusion of fluids and dyes in and out of the tissue, which is the key to staining. Diffusion of fluids can be accelerated by the application of heat that reduces the time of staining from hours to the minute. We modified an inexpensive model of kitchen microwave oven for staining. This study is an attempt to compare the reliability of this modified technique against the tested technique of routine staining so as to establish the kitchen microwave oven as a valuable diagnostic tool. Sixty different tissue blocks were used to prepare 20 pairs of slides for 4 different stains namely hematoxylin and eosin, Van Gieson's, 0.1% toluidine blue and periodic acid-Schiff. From each tissue block, two bits of tissues were mounted on two different slides. One slide was stained routinely, and the other stained inside a microwave. A pathologist evaluated the stained slides and the results so obtained were analyzed statistically. Microwave staining considerably cut down the staining time from hours to seconds. Microwave staining showed no loss of cellular and nuclear details, uniform-staining characteristics and was of excellent quality. The cellular details, nuclear details and staining characteristics of microwave stained tissues were better than or equal to the routine stained tissue. The overall quality of microwave-stained sections was found to be better than the routine stained tissue in majority of cases.

  14. 78 FR 7939 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Microwave Ovens (Active Mode) (United States)


    ... 430 Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Microwave Ovens (Active Mode); Proposed Rule #0... Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Microwave Ovens (Active Mode) AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and... mode energy use for microwave ovens, including both microwave-only ovens and convection microwave ovens...

  15. Characterisation of coking activity during supercritical hydrocarbon pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gascoin, Nicolas; Gillard, Philippe; Bernard, Stephane [Laboratoire Energetique, Explosion, Structure, UPRES-EA 1205, 63, avenue de Lattre de Tassigny, 18020 Bourges Cedex (France); Bouchez, Marc [MBDA France, 8, rue Le Brix, 18000 Bourges (France)


    The active cooling of the Supersonic Combustion Ramjet engine, for hypersonic flight purpose, is ensured thanks to fuel, n-dodecane for the present study. The endothermic fuel pyrolysis, starting above 800 K, could generate an unwanted coke formation. Experimental tests up to 1125 K and between 1 MPa and 6 MPa have been performed on the hydrocarbon fuel pyrolysis to evaluate the coking activity. 316L stainless steel, low carbon steel and titanium reactors have been considered. A witness of the coke formation, based on its thermal insulation and pressure loss effects, has been found. A correlation between methane production and coke deposit was found. The coke has been studied with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Energy Dispersion Spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffractometer and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The porosity, the density and the permeability of the coke have been estimated. (author)

  16. Modification of a Microwave Oven for Laboratory Use. (United States)

    Andrews, Judith; Atkinson, George F.


    Discusses use of a domestic microwave oven for drying analytical samples with time savings compared to conventional ovens, providing a solution to the problem of loss of load as samples dry. Presents a system for examining emitted gases from drying process and reports results of several test dryings. (JM)

  17. Investigation of an acute microwave-oven hand injury. (United States)

    Dickason, W L; Barutt, J P


    A case of an acute microwave-oven injury is presented, demonstrating a selective radial hand neuropathy and chronic moderate dysesthesia with discussion of the potential mechanism of disease. Microwave characteristics, their spectrum of effects on biological structures, microwave-oven safety design, and the international controversy concerning nonionizing radiation research are described.

  18. Evolution of coke properties while descending through a blast furnace


    Hilding, Tobias


    Due to increasing price and economic pressures, there is a need to minimise coke consumption. The lesser amount of coke used has indirectly set higher standards for coke quality and led to a wish for even more knowledge about its function in the blast furnace. Over the last 20 years, coke quality has been strongly dictated by the so- called CSR value because it was believed that a higher CSR leads to improvement in productivity and more stable operation. Due to lack of suitable coals, often c...

  19. Competitive reactions of organophosphorus radicals on coke surfaces. (United States)

    Catak, Saron; Hemelsoet, Karen; Hermosilla, Laura; Waroquier, Michel; Van Speybroeck, Veronique


    The efficacy of organophosphorus radicals as anticoking agents was subjected to a computational study in which a representative set of radicals derived from industrially relevant organophosphorus additives was used to explore competitive reaction pathways on the graphene-like coke surface formed during thermal cracking. The aim was to investigate the nature of the competing reactions of different organophosphorus radicals on coke surfaces, and elucidate their mode of attack and inhibiting effect on the forming coke layer by use of contemporary computational methods. Density functional calculations on benzene and a larger polyaromatic hydrocarbon, namely, ovalene, showed that organophosphorus radicals have a high propensity to add to the periphery of the coke surface, inhibiting methyl radical induced hydrogen abstraction, which is known to be a key step in coke growth. Low addition barriers reported for a phosphatidyl radical suggest competitive aptitude against coke formation. Moreover, organophosphorus additives bearing aromatic substituents, which were shown to interact with the coke surface through dispersive π-π stacking interactions, are suggested to play a nontrivial role in hindering further stacking among coke surfaces. This may be the underlying rationale behind experimental observation of softer coke in the presence of organophosphorus radicals. The ultimate goal is to provide information that will be useful in building single-event microkinetic models. This study presents pertinent information on potential reactions that could be taken up in these models. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Variations in toxicity of semi-coking wastewater treatment processes and their toxicity prediction. (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoyan; Wang, Xiaochang; Liu, Yongjun; Gao, Jian; Wang, Yongkun


    Chemical analyses and bioassays using Vibrio fischeri and Daphnia magna were conducted to evaluate comprehensively the variation of biotoxicity caused by contaminants in wastewater from a semi-coking wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Pretreatment units (including an oil-water separator, a phenols extraction tower, an ammonia stripping tower, and a regulation tank) followed by treatment units (including anaerobic-oxic treatment units, coagulation-sedimentation treatment units, and an active carbon adsorption column) were employed in the semi-coking WWTP. Five benzenes, 11 phenols, and five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated as the dominant contaminants in semi-coking wastewater. Because of residual extractant, the phenols extraction process increased acute toxicity to V. fischeri and immobilization and lethal toxicity to D. magna. The acute toxicity of pretreated wastewater to V. fischeri was still higher than that of raw semi-coking wastewater, even though 90.0% of benzenes, 94.8% of phenols, and 81.0% of PAHs were removed. After wastewater pretreatment, phenols and PAHs were mainly removed by anaerobic-oxic and coagulation-sedimentation treatment processes respectively, and a subsequent active carbon adsorption process further reduced the concentrations of all target chemicals to below detection limits. An effective biotoxicity reduction was found during the coagulation-sedimentation and active carbon adsorption treatment processes. The concentration addition model can be applied for toxicity prediction of wastewater from the semi-coking WWTP. The deviation between the measured and predicted toxicity results may result from the effects of compounds not detectable by instrumental analyses, the synergistic effect of detected contaminants, or possible transformation products. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. 76 FR 52350 - Coke Oven Emissions Standard; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) Approval... (United States)


    .... Facsimile: If your comments, including attachments, are not longer than 10 pages, you may fax them to the....g., copyrighted material) is not publicly available to read or download through the Web site. All...: 54,241. Estimated Cost (Operation and Maintenance): $839,680. IV. Public Participation--Submission of...

  2. Bonding PMMA microfluidics using commercial microwave ovens (United States)

    Toossi, A.; Moghadas, H.; Daneshmand, M.; Sameoto, D.


    In this paper, a novel low-cost, rapid substrate-bonding technique is successfully applied to polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) microfluidics bonding for the first time. This technique uses a thin intermediate metallic microwave susceptor layer at the interface of the bonding site (microchannels) which produces localized heating required for bonding during microwave irradiation. The metallic susceptor pattern is designed using a multiphysics simulation model developed in ANSYS Multiphysics software (high-frequency structural simulation (HFSS) coupled with ANSYS-Thermal). In our experiments, the required microwave energy for bonding is delivered using a relatively inexpensive, widely accessible commercial microwave oven. Using this technique, simple PMMA microfluidics prototypes are successfully bonded and sealed in less than 35 seconds with a minimum measured bond strength of 1.375 MPa.

  3. EPA Administrative Order on Consent (AOC) with ERP Compliant Coke, LLC (United States)

    This Administrative Order on Consent with ERP Compliant Coke was effective August 2016. The Walter Coke facility located in North Birmingham was purchased by ERP Compliant Coke, LLC in February 2016 out of bankruptcy proceedings.

  4. High temperature coke characteristics in the blast furnace:evaluation of coke properties in the raceway area


    Lundgren, Maria; Sundqvist Ökvist, Lena; Hyllander, Gunilla; Jansson, Björn; Björkman, Bo


    Core-drilling into the coke bed of raceway and hearth has been performed in the LKAB Experimental Blast Furnace (EBF®) during short stoppages aiming to characterize raceway conditions corresponding to different operational conditions. All coke operation, injection of pulverized coal and injection of a mixture of coal and blast furnace flue dust (BFD) were evaluated and compared. The samples have been studied regarding particle size and distribution, coke have been evaluated with chemical comp...

  5. Modelling of Coke Layer Collapse during Ore Charging in Ironmaking Blast Furnace by DEM


    Narita Yoichi; Mio Hiroshi; Orimoto Takashi; Nomura Seiji


    A technical issue in an ironmaking blast furnace operation is to realize the optimum layer thickness and the radial distribution of burden (ore and coke) to enhance its efficiency and productivity. When ore particles are charged onto the already-embedded coke layer, the coke layer-collapse phenomenon occurs. The coke layer-collapse phenomenon has a significant effect on the distribution of ore and coke layer thickness in the radial direction. In this paper, the mechanical properties of coke p...

  6. Carbon Tubular Morphologies in Blast Furnace Coke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav S. Gornostayev


    Full Text Available The paper reports on the first occurrence of microscale carbon tubular morphologies (CMTs in a blast furnace (BF coke. The CMTs were probably formed as a result of the conversion of solid disordered carbon via liquid phase metal particles involving a gas phase containing a substantial amount of N2 and O2. The presence of CMTs may lie behind the generation of the smallest fraction of fines in BF exhaust dust. If the amount of CMTs present in the BF exhausts gases at any particular metallurgical site proves to be substantial, it could become a subject of environmental concern.

  7. Information exchange about installation of a fifth oven for paste regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Schappert documented a discussion relating to a prior meeting about the aspects of adding a fifth oven to a series of ovens to take the burden off preheaters in the liquid phase. Saving energy was the uppermost consideration in adding the new equipment, which according to Schappert, would amortize itself in a short while. He reiterated that, by lowering temperatures, the preheaters would not be over-burdened, an equalization in temperature could be obtained, and no deterioration problems would occur. Also, he pointed out that, with the temperature drop, a new chamber could be charged correspondingly higher, providing the pumps sufficed and resistance permitted, if one gradually reduced the through-put with the increase of incrustation in the preheater. Thus, the fifth oven would pay for itself in diversified ways. Also, it was suggested that plants which so far did not use paste regeneration should introduce it if possible. Finally, it was suggested that plants having regeneration already should add an extra gas regenerator at the coolest position to give more heat there.

  8. Carbonization of coal blends: mesophase formation and coke properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grint, A.; Marsh, H.


    Laboratory investigations of strength of cokes from blends of coals incorporating pitch were supported by 7 kg trials. The stronger cokes showed a greater interaction between coal and pitch to produce an interface component of anisotropic mozaics which is relatively resistant to crack propagation. The process whereby coal is transformed into coke includes the formation of a fluid zone in which develop nematic liquid crystals and anisotropic carbon which is an essential component of metallurgical coke. Strength, thermal and oxidation resistance of coke can be discussed in terms of the size and shape of the anisotropic carbon which constitutes the optical texture of pore-wall material of coke. Coals of different rank form cokes with different optical textures. Blending procedures of non-caking, caking and coking coals involve the interactions of components of the blend to form mesophase and optical texture. Petroleum pitches used as additives are effective in modifying the carbonization process because of an ability to participate in hydrogen transfer reactions. (35 refs.)

  9. Study on the Inference Factors of Huangling Coking Coal Pyrolysis (United States)

    Du, Meili; Yang, Zongyi; Fan, Jinwen


    In order to reasonably and efficiently utilize Huangling coking coal resource, coal particle, heating rate, holding time, pyrolysis temperature and others factors were dicussed for the influence of those factor on Huangling coking coal pyrolysis products. Several kinds of coal blending for coking experiments were carried out with different kinds of coal such as Huangling coking coal, Xida coal with high ash low sufur, Xinghuo fat coal with hign sulfur, Zhongxingyi coking coal with high sulfur, Hucun lean coal, mixed meager and lean coal. The results shown that the optimal coal particle size distribution was 0.5~1.5mm, the optimal heating rate was 8°C/min, the optimal holding time was 15min, the optimal pyrolysis temperature was 800°C for Huangling coking coal pyrolysis, the tar yield increased from 4.7% to 11.2%. The maximum tar yield of coal blending for coking under the best single factor experiment condition was 10.65% when the proportio of Huangling coking coal was 52%.

  10. Combustion kinetics of the coke on deactivated dehydrogenation catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, Sha; He, Songbo; Li, XianRu; Li, Jingqiu; Bi, Wenjun; Sun, Chenglin


    The coke combustion kinetics on the deactivated catalysts for long chain paraffin dehydrogenation was studied by the thermogravimetry and differential thermogravimetry (TG–DTG) technique. The amount and H/C mole ratio of the coke were determined by the TG and elemental analysis. And the

  11. Reducibility mill scale industrial waste via coke breeze at 850-950ºC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaballah N.M.


    Full Text Available Mill scale is a very attractive industrial waste due to its elevated iron content (about = 69.33% Fe besides being suiTab. for direct recycling to the blast furnace via sintering plant. In this paper the characteristics of raw materials and the briquettes produced from this mill scale were studied by different methods of analyses. The produced briquettes were reduced with different amounts of coke breeze at varying temperatures, and the reduction kinetics was determined. The activation energy of this reaction ≈ 61.5 kJ/mole for reduction of mill scale with coke breeze in the form of briquettes with 2% molasses where the chemical reaction interface model is applicable.

  12. RESOLVE OVEN Field Demonstration Unit for Lunar Resource Extraction (United States)

    Paz, Aaron; Oryshchyn, Lara; Jensen, Scott; Sanders, Gerald B.; Lee, Kris; Reddington, Mike


    The Oxygen and Volatile Extraction Node (OVEN) is a subsystem within the Regolith & Environment Science and Oxygen & Lunar Volatile Extraction (RESOLVE) project. The purpose of the OVEN subsystem is to release volatiles from lunar regolith and extract oxygen by means of a hydrogen reduction reaction. The complete process includes receiving, weighing, sealing, heating, and disposing of core sample segments while transferring all gaseous contents to the Lunar Advanced Volatile Analysis (LAVA) subsystem. This document will discuss the design and performance of the OVEN Field Demonstration Unit (FDU), which participated in the 2012 RESOLVE field demonstration.

  13. A dedicated electric oven for characterization of thermoresistive polymer nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cen-Puc


    Full Text Available The construction, characterization and control of an electric oven dedicated to the study of thermoresistive polymer nanocomposites is presented. The oven is designed with a heating plate capable of reaching 300 °C with a resolution of 0.3 °C and an area of uniform temperature of 3.8 cm × 2.5 cm. The temperature is regulated by means of a discrete proportional–integral–derivative controller. A heat transfer model comprising three coupled non-linear differential equations is proposed to predict the thermal profiles of the oven during heating and cooling, which are experimentally verified. The oven is used for thermoresistive characterization of polymer nanocomposites manufactured from a polysulfone polymer and multiwall carbon nanotubes.

  14. No-Oven, No-Autoclave, Composite Processing Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cornerstone Research Group Inc. (CRG) proposes to continue the efforts from the 2010 NASA SBIR Phase I topic X5.03, "No-Oven, No-Autoclave (NONA) Composite...

  15. No-Oven, No-Autoclave, Composite Processing Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Large, single-piece composite structures for NASA launch vehicles are currently very expensive or impossible to fabricate partly because of the capital (ovens,...

  16. 5 Tips for Using Your Microwave Oven Safely (United States)

    ... produced by these ovens—are a type of electromagnetic radiation. These waves cause water molecules in food ... being emitted in this situation.” How to Report Problems In the FDA’s experience, most microwave ovens that ...

  17. [Histochemical staining using silver salts using a microwave oven]. (United States)

    Balaton, A


    Some metallic impregnations--Fontana-Masson, Warthin-Starry, Grocott's methenamine silver, Grimelius' and Dieterle's stains have been modified to use a microwave oven. Microwave bombardment markedly reduces the staining times and produces a cleaner background.

  18. Design of Solar Ovens for Use in the Developing World

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rachel Martin; Timothy Bond; John Erickson; Morgan Rog; Cyprienne Crowley; Robert Hutchins; Grayson Fahrner; Kay Lai; Avi Guter; Jack Steiner; Melissa Wrolstad


    The main objective of the Cornell Solar Oven Team is to help communities in the developing world design solar cookers appropriate for their specific cultural, social, economic, and environmental conditions...

  19. Controllable evaporation of cesium from a dispenser oven. (United States)

    Fantz, U; Friedl, R; Fröschle, M


    This instrument allows controlled evaporation of the alkali metal cesium over a wide range of evaporation rates. The oven has three unique features. The first is an alkali metal reservoir that uses a dispenser as a cesium source. The heating current of the dispenser controls the evaporation rate allowing generation of an adjustable and stable flow of pure cesium. The second is a blocking valve, which is fully metallic as is the body of the oven. This construction both reduces contamination of the dispenser and enables the oven to be operated up to 300 °C, with only small temperature variations (dispenser oven can be easily transferred to the other alkali-metals.

  20. Dry matter genotypes of Cynodon by microwave and conventional oven methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euclides Reuter de Oliveira


    Full Text Available The aimed of this work was to comparing the drying process in a microwave oven and forced air ventilation, as well as their effects on the chemical composition of different genotypes of the genus Cynodon (Tifton 85, Jiggs, Russell, Tifton 68 and Vaquero collected at different ages cutting (28, 48, 63 and 79 days. The experimental design was a randomized block in a split-plot design, with 4 replicates. There was no difference (P>0.05 between the methods analyzed on the chemical composition of the genotypes studied. Increasing age cutoff negatively influenced (P<0.05 the crude protein content of the different plant parts. A significant increase (P<0.05 of dry matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber and dry matter production was observed with increasing age cut. The use of the microwave oven is a quick and precise method obtain the dry matter content of the fodder showing efficiency similar to the method of drying in an oven with forced air circulation. The genotypes showed better chemical composition results when handled at age 28 days.

  1. Influence of activation time on characteristics of active coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, S.; Lu, J.; Liu, Q.; Yue, G.; Wang, Y. [Tsinghua University, Beijing (China). Thermal Engineering Department


    Activating time effects significantly the characteristics of active cokes prepared from coal-derived char by steam activation. The active cokes for different activating time were investigated using PXS and other methods. The experimental results show that the surface area and micropore area of the active coke increases with activating time and the ratio of micropore area to surface area increases too. At the earlier stages of activation, the micro-porous structure is mainly developed. With the activation time goes on, the microporous structure is developed in the form of forming the micro-pores and widening the already-formed pores; and the surface basicity of active coke also increases. The quantity of oxygen on the surface of active coke decreases and the activity of delocalized {pi}-electron in the grapheme layers of active coke become stronger. So the surface basicity of the active coke is mainly ascribed to the delocalized {pi}-electron in the grapheme layers. 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Effect of alkaline elements on the reactivity, strength and structural properties of blast furnace cokes


    A. Bhattacharyya; J. Schenk; G. Rantitsch; C. Thaler; H. Stocker


    The present study concerns itself on the adverse effects of alkaline elements like sodium and potassium on blast furnace cokes. To achieve a deeper insight on the effects of alkaline elements on coke reactivity and strength, industrial coke samples impregnated with different alkaline species in various amounts have been tested under standard conditions to find out their Coke Reactivity Index (CRI) and Coke Strength after Reaction (CSR) values. Scanning electron microscopy, petrographic and Ra...

  3. KCBX Petroleum Coke Storage Pile Sampling Logbook and Photos (United States)

    This documentation of KCBX's petcoke sampling locations and methods demonstrates adherence to the pet coke sampling plan previously submitted and approved by EPA, at both North Terminal and South Terminal stockpiles.

  4. Experimental research on quality features of metallurgical coke (United States)

    Andrei, V.; Constantin, N.


    From all the solid fuels, the metallurgical coke is the most used in obtaining iron in the blast furnace. Together with the iron ore, manganese ore and fluxes, it constitutes the basis of raw materials and materials for elaborating pig iron. This paper presents the results of laboratory investigations by the authors to determine the most important quality characteristics of some types of coke used in the blast furnace charge.

  5. A Wireless Portable High Temperature Data Monitor for Tunnel Ovens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Mayo Bayón


    Full Text Available Tunnel ovens are widely used in the food industry to produce biscuits and pastries. In order to obtain a high quality product, it is very important to control the heat transferred to each piece of dough during baking. This paper proposes an innovative, non-distorting, low cost wireless temperature measurement system, called “eBiscuit”, which, due to its size, format and location in the metal rack conveyor belt in the oven, is able to measure the temperature a real biscuit experience while baking. The temperature conditions inside the oven are over 200 °C for several minutes, which could damage the “eBiscuit” electronics. This paper compares several thermal insulating materials that can be used in order to avoid exceeding the maximum operational conditions (80 °C in the interior of the “eBiscuit. The data registered is then transmitted to a base station where information can be processed to obtain an oven model. The experimental results with real tunnel ovens confirm its good performance, which allows detecting production anomalies early on.

  6. Discrete transistor measuring and matching using a solid core oven. (United States)

    Inkinen, M; Mäkelä, K; Vuorela, T; Palovuori, K


    This paper presents transistor measurements done at a constant temperature. The aim in this research was to develop a reliable and repeatable method for measuring and searching transistor pairs with similar parameters, as in certain applications it is advantageous to use transistors from the same production batch due to the significant variability in batches from different manufacturers. Transistor manufacturing methods are well established, but due to the large variability in tolerance, not even transistors from the same manufacturing batch have identical properties. Transistors' electrical properties are also strongly temperature-dependent. Therefore, when measuring transistor properties, the temperature must be kept constant. For the measurement process, a solid-core oven providing stable temperature was implemented. In the oven, the base-to-emitter voltage (VBE) and DC-current gain (β) of 32 transistors could be measured simultaneously. The oven's temperature was controlled with a programmable thermostat, which allowed accurate constant temperature operation. The oven is formed by a large metal block with an individual chamber for each transistor to be measured. Isolation of individual transistors and the highly thermally conductive metal core structure prevent thermal coupling between transistors. The oven enables repeatable measurements, and thus measurements between different batches are comparable. In this research study, the properties of over 5000 transistors were measured and the variance of the aforementioned properties was analyzed.

  7. Characteristics of frozen colostrum thawed in a microwave oven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, L.R.; Taylor, A.W.; Hines, H.C.


    Use of a microwave oven to thaw frozen colostrum was evaluated. Colostrum was collected from nine cows, four of which were immunized to produce specific colostral antibodies. Colostrum from each cow was frozen, subsequently thawed, and pooled. One-liter aliquots of the pooled colostrum were frozen and assigned randomly to three thawing treatments. Colostrum was thawed using one of three regimens: 10 min in a microwave oven at full power (650 W), 17 min in a microwave oven at half power (325 W), and 25 min in 45 degrees C water. Colostrum thawed in the microwave oven was slightly coagulated and had lower volume and total protein content than colostrum thawed in water. Casein and pH were not different among treatments. Both concentration and total content of immunoglobulin A were higher in the control than in microwave treatments. Neither amount nor concentration of immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M were different among treatments. Immunological activity, measured by a hemolytic test, was lower for microwave treatments than the control but did not differ between microwave treatments. Frozen colostrum thawed in a microwave oven should provide a reasonable source of colostrum when fresh high quality colostrum is not available.

  8. Gasification Characteristics and Kinetics of Coke with Chlorine Addition (United States)

    Wang, Cui; Zhang, Jianliang; Jiao, Kexin; Liu, Zhengjian; Chou, Kuochih


    The gasification process of metallurgical coke with 0, 1.122, 3.190, and 7.132 wt pct chlorine was investigated through thermogravimetric method from ambient temperature to 1593 K (1320 °C) in purified CO2 atmosphere. The variations in the temperature parameters that T i decreases gradually with increasing chlorine, T f and T max first decrease and then increase, but both in a downward trend indicated that the coke gasification process was catalyzed by the chlorine addition. Then the kinetic model of the chlorine-containing coke gasification was obtained through the advanced determination of the average apparent activation energy, the optimal reaction model, and the pre-exponential factor. The average apparent activation energies were 182.962, 118.525, 139.632, and 111.953 kJ/mol, respectively, which were in the same decreasing trend with the temperature parameters analyzed by the thermogravimetric method. It was also demonstrated that the coke gasification process was catalyzed by chlorine. The optimal kinetic model to describe the gasification process of chlorine-containing coke was the Šesták Berggren model using Málek's method, and the pre-exponential factors were 6.688 × 105, 2.786 × 103, 1.782 × 104, and 1.324 × 103 min-1, respectively. The predictions of chlorine-containing coke gasification from the Šesták Berggren model were well fitted with the experimental data.

  9. Shortcomings of existing equipment for automatic coke requenching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shramenko, A.P. (UPO UVD, Donetsk (USSR))


    Discusses operation and reliability of equipment for reducing temperature of coke transported by belt conveyors. Operation of two systems, the ADK-3 and ADK developed on the basis of the APIR-S, is analyzed. The FR-13 photoconductor is a key element of the ADK-3. It detects sources of infrared radiation with wavelength from 1 to 3.2 mkm. The photoconductor is efficient for detecting coke with temperatures exceeding 300 C but its sensitivity is reduced when coke temparture ranges from 200 to 300 C. The ADK-3 continuously measures coke temperature 3 to 4 s long. In the case of hot coke zones more than 10 m long on a belt conveyor, the measuring intervals are too long and fire hazards occur as water sprays are closed before the end of a hot coke zone reaches the spraying system. Recommendations for design modifications of the ADK-3 system are discussed: optimum sensitivity, photoconductor cooling, dust control, use of amplifiers, optimum number of electroconductors and their arrangement. 8 refs.

  10. Improvement of the temperature control system for quenched coke in the unloading facility of the equipment for dry quenching of coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ereskovskii, O.S.; Grishchenko, A.I.


    An analysis of the existing methods of measuring the temperature of quenched coke is presented. A method for determining the weighted mean temperature of the coke in the intermediate bunker of the equipment for dry quenching of coke is proposed. Recommendations are given in respect to technical realization of the proposed method.

  11. Redbourn incident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hare, T. [Dawes Coke Ovens, Scunthorpe (United Kingdom). Corus


    On 1 February 2006 at Redbourn Stockyard, a twenty tonne forklift truck clipped a support stanchion of a vital conveyor causing the conveyor structure to collapse, bringing down essential site utilities for Dawes Lane Coke Ovens and affecting the whole of the works gas main system. The conveyor system stretches several kilometres, carrying coal to Appelby Frodingham Coke Ovens and premium coke to the blast furnaces. This report describes the incident and how Corus dealt with it to reinstate the plant in the fastest and safest time possible. The paper was presented to the Coke Oven Manufacturers Association (COMA) at Monkton Coke & Chemical Co. Ltd. on 18 May 2007. 1 fig., 6 photos.

  12. Fatigue behaviour of coke drum materials under thermal-mechanical cyclic loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Chen


    Full Text Available Coke drums are vertical pressure vessels used in the delayed coking process in petroleum refineries. Significant temperature variation during the delayed coking process causes damage in coke drums in the form of bulging and cracking. There were some studies on the fatigue life estimation for the coke drums, but most of them were based on strain-fatigue life curves at constant temperatures, which do not consider simultaneous cyclic temperature and mechanical loading conditions. In this study, a fatigue testing system is successfully developed to allow performing thermal-mechanical fatigue (TMF test similar to the coke drum loading condition. Two commonly used base and one clad materials of coke drums are then experimentally investigated. In addition, a comparative study between isothermal and TMF lives of these materials is conducted. The experimental findings lead to better understanding of the damage mechanisms occurring in coke drums and more accurate prediction of fatigue life of coke drum materials.

  13. A container for heat treating materials in microwave ovens (United States)

    Holcombe, C.E.; Dykes, N.L.; Kimrey, H.D. Jr.; Mills, J.E.


    The efficiency of a microwave oven of a conventional two-source configuration and energy level is increased by providing the oven with a container for housing a refractory material to be treated. The container is formed to top and bottom walls transparent to microwaves while the sidewalls, in a circular configuration, are formed of a nonmetallic material opaque to microwave radiation for reflecting the radiation penetrating the top and bottom walls radially inwardly into the center of the container wherein a casket of heat-insulating material is provided for housing the material to be heat treated. The reflection of the microwave radiation from the sidewalls increases the concentration of the microwaves upon the material being heat treated while the concentration of the microwaves upon the material being heat treated while the casket retains the heat to permit the heating of the material to a substantially higher temperature than achievable in the oven without the container.

  14. An Integrated Expert Controller for the Oven Temperature Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagabhushana KATTE


    Full Text Available Paper presents a methodology for design of integrated fuzzy logic based an expert controller and its implementation for a real time oven temperature control system. Integrated expert controller (IEC is composed by cascading fuzzy logic controller with improved PID controller. Wherein, fuzzy controller evaluates the supplemental control actions and PID evaluates the final control actions. Temperature measurement of the oven with a precision of 16-bits is achieved through Pt100, instrumentation amplifier, and A/D converter and fuzzy plus PID computed control actions are given to the actuator via D/A converter (16-bits and PWM generator. Paper experimentally demonstrated the performance of IEC for oven temperature control application. The performance indexes of the system are presented in a comparative fashion with the conventional PID and expert controllers. Control algorithms are developed using C language.

  15. Process to manufacture effervescent tablets: air forced oven melt granulation. (United States)

    Yanze, F M; Duru, C; Jacob, M


    In the present study we apply melt granulation in an air forced oven, called "are forced oven melt granulation" to the single-stage manufacture of effervescent granules consisting of anhydrous citric acid (43.2%) and sodium bicarbonate (56.8%) in order to make tablets. This study established that process parameters such as concentration of PEG 6000, residence time in the air forced oven, fineness of PEG 6000, fineness of the initial effervescent mix and efficiency of two lubricants markedly influenced several granule and tablet characteristics. The granules ready to be compressed into tablets were stable for 7 days at 60% RH/18 degrees C. It is a dry, simple, rapid, effective, economical, reproducible process particularly well suited to the manufacture of effervescent granules which are easily compressed into effervescent tablets. Of all the formulations tested, only formulations B2 and E2 melt granulated for 30 minutes gave tablets which had optimum compression characteristics without processing problems during compression.

  16. A microwave powered sensor assembly for microwave ovens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention relates to a microwave powered sensor assembly for micro- wave ovens. The microwave powered sensor assembly comprises a microwave antenna for generating an RF antenna signal in response to microwave radiation at a predetermined excitation frequency. A dc power supply circuit...... in a microwave oven chamber....... of the microwave powered sensor assembly is operatively coupled to the RF antenna signal for extracting energy from the RF antenna signal and produce a power supply voltage. A sensor is connected to the power supply voltage and configured to measure a physical or chemical property of a food item under heating...

  17. Testing of the Burns-Milwaukee`s Sun Oven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, T.A.


    A Burns-Milwaukee Sun Oven was tested at Sandia`s Solar Thermal Test Facility. It was instrumented with five type K thermocouples to determine warm-up rates when empty and when a pot containing two liters of water was placed inside. It reached inside air temperatures above 160{degrees}C (320{degrees}F). It heated two liters of water from room temperatures to 80{degrees}C, (175{degrees}F), in 75 minutes. Observations were also made on the cooling and reheating rates during a cloud passage. The adverse effects of wind on operation of the solar oven was also noted.

  18. Enhancing the removal of hazardous pollutants from coke making wastewater by dosing activated carbon to a pilot‐scale activated sludge process


    Raper, Eleanor; Soares, Ana; Chen, J.; Sutcliffe, A.; Aries, E.; Anderson, D.; Stephenson, Tom


    Powdered activated carbon (PAC) was investigated for its ability to remove 6 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (Σ6PAHs) (fluoranthene, benzo[b + J]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, benzo[g,h,i]perylene), trace metals and colour from coke making wastewater when dosed to a pilot-plant activated sludge process (ASP). The ASP had a volume of 0.68 m3 and was operated to simulate the full-scale ASP treating coke wastewater from a steel works. Operational con...

  19. Microwave Oven Experiments with Metals and Light Sources (United States)

    Vollmer, Michael; Mollmann, Klaus-Peter; Karstadt, Detlef


    "Don't put metal objects in the microwave" is common safety advice. But why? Here we describe demonstration experiments involving placing household metallic objects in a microwave oven. These allow a better understanding of the interaction of microwaves with materials. Light bulbs and discharge lamps can also be used in instructive demonstrations.

  20. Microwave oven-induced decalcification at varying temperatures: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of decalcifying fluid types on bone tissue architecture and its staining properties following decalcification at varying temperatures. A decalcification methodology using Golding and Stewards (GS) fluid, and Jenkings fluid (JK), and a modern household microwave oven to ...

  1. Oven Evaporates Isopropyl Alcohol Without Risk Of Explosion (United States)

    Morgan, Gene E.; Hoult, William S.


    Ordinary convection oven with capacity of 1 ft.(sup3) modified for use in drying objects washed in isopropyl alcohol. Nitrogen-purge equipment and safety interlocks added to prevent explosive ignition of flammable solvent evaporating from object to be dried.

  2. Effect of oven residence time on mechanical properties in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Simulation studies were conducted using ROTOSIM software to analyze thermal transitions and phase changes during the process. Degree of curing of the polymers was also assessed and correlated with mechanical properties. Experiments were further conducted to obtain favourable oven residence time to obtain highest ...

  3. Construction of an Inexpensive Copper Heat-Pipe Oven (United States)

    Grove, T. T.; Hockensmith, W. A.; Cheviron, N.; Grieser, W.; Dill, R.; Masters, M. F.


    We present a new, low-cost method of building an all copper heat-pipe oven that increases the practicality of this device in advanced undergraduate instructional labs. The construction parts are available at local hardware and plumbing supply stores, and the assembly techniques employed are simple and require no machining. (Contains 1 footnote, 3…

  4. Microwave Oven and its Associated Health Concerns: Views of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Up to 84.9% knew that exposure to microwave radiation was harmful to the health, but only 49.8%, 43.0% and 53.2% knew that the microwave oven worked by the emission of microwave radiation, could not cook foods evenly, and could interfere with a heart pace maker respectively. The overall knowledge was poor with a ...

  5. Effect of oven residence time on mechanical properties in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P L Ramkumar

    Abstract. In rotational moulding of plastics, improving the mechanical properties without sacrificing the processibility is a challenging task. In this paper, an attempt has been made to investigate the effect of oven residence time on the mechanical properties of the rotationally moulded products made using linear low density.

  6. Oxidizing Roasting Performances of Coke Fines Bearing Brazilian Specularite Pellets (United States)

    Chun, Tiejun; Zhu, Deqing


    Oxidized pellets, consisting of Brazilian specularite fines and coke fines, were prepared by disc pelletizer using bentonite as binder. The roasting process of pellets includes preheating stage and firing stage. The compressive strength of preheated pellets and fired pellets reached the peak value at 1.5% coke fines dosage. During the initial stage of preheating, some original Fe2O3 was reduced to Fe3O4 because of partial reduction atmosphere in pellet. During the later stage of preheating and firing stage, coke fines were burnt out, and the secondary Fe2O3 (new generation Fe2O3) was generated due to the re-oxidization of Fe3O4, which improved the recrystallization of Fe2O3. Compared with the fired pellets without adding coke fines, fired pellets with 1.5% coke fines exhibited the comparable RSI (reduction swelling index) and RDI+3.15 mm (reduction degradation index), and slightly lower RI (reducibility index).

  7. Risk of Burns from Eruptions of Hot Water Overheated in Microwave Ovens (United States)

    ... Burns from Eruptions of Hot Water Overheated in Microwave Ovens Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... after it had been over-heated in a microwave oven. Over-heating of water in a cup can ...

  8. Design and construction of a batch oven for investigation of industrial continuous baking processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenby Andresen, Mette; Risum, Jørgen; Adler-Nissen, Jens


    A new batch oven has been constructed to mimic industrial convection tunnel ovens for research and development of continuous baking processes. The process parameters (air flow, air temperature, air humidity, height of baking area and the baking band velocity) are therefore highly controllable and....... Experimental work in the new batch oven will increase knowledge of how the environment and baking conditions influence the quality of bakery products in continuous tunnel ovens. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc....

  9. Method for determining the coking of different types of pyrolysed hydrocarbon crude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirpichnikov, P.A.; Grigorovich, B.A.; Liakumovich, A.G.; Galeeva, E.I.; Trifonov, S.V.; Lobanova, E.E.


    An express method has been developed for determining coking and the nature of burnout of coke deposits during pyrolysis of hydrocarbon crude. A new, hitherto unknown effect of non-uniform burnout of the carbon deposits (coke) formed during pyrolysis of hydrocarbons has been established. Although the air pulse selected is sufficient to burn out the entire quantity of coke, it is not burnt out uniformly from pulse to pulse, but spasmodically, creating an individual characteristic of the burnout capacity of coke formed during pyrolysis of individual hydrocarbon fractions. The opportunities provided by the method in studying additives that inhibit coke deposition, the rate of formation and burnout of coke in different temperature zones of the pyrolysis coil, and also the nature of burnout of coke formed during pyrolysis of individual hydrocarbons and their mixtures can be broadened significantly, 7 references, 2 figures.

  10. Textural changes in metallurgical coke prepared with polyethylene (United States)

    Gornostayev, Stanislav S.; Heino, Jyrki J.; Kokkonen, Tommi M. T.; Makkonen, Hannu T.; Huttunen, Satu M. M.; Fabritius, Timo M. J.


    The effect of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) on the textural features of experimental coke was investigated using polarized-light optical microscopy and wavelet-based image analysis. Metallurgical coke samples were prepared in a laboratory-scale furnace with 2.5%, 5.0%, 7.5%, 10.0%, and 12.5% HDPE by mass, and one sample was prepared by 100% coal. The amounts and distribution of textures (isotropic, mosaic and banded) and pores were obtained. The calculations reveal that the addition of HDPE results in a decrease of mosaic texture and an increase of isotropic texture. Ethylene formed from the decomposition of HDPE is considered as a probable reason for the texture modifications. The approach used in this study can be applied to indirect evaluation for the reactivity and strength of coke.

  11. Microporous Cokes Formed in Zeolite Catalysts Enable Efficient Solar Evaporation

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jianjian


    Cokes are inevitably generated during zeolite-catalyzed reactions as deleterious side products that deactivate the catalyst. In this study, we in-situ converted cokes into carbons within the confined microporous zeolite structures and evaluated their performances as absorbing materials for solar-driven water evaporation. With a properly chosen zeolite, the cokederived carbons possessed ordered interconnected pores and tunable compositions. We found that the porous structure and the oxygen content in as-prepared carbons had important influences on their energy conversion efficiencies. Among various investigated carbon materials, the carbon derived from the methanol-to-olefins reaction over zeolite Beta gave the highest conversion efficiency of 72% under simulated sunlight with equivalent solar intensity of 2 suns. This study not only demonstrates the great potential of traditionally useless cokes for solar thermal applications but also provides new insights into the design of carbon-based absorbing materials for efficient solar evaporation.

  12. 77 FR 28805 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Microwave Ovens (United States)


    ... Parts 429 and 430 RIN 1904-AB78 Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Microwave Ovens AGENCY... supplemental notice of proposed rulemaking (SNOPR) to amend the test procedures for microwave ovens. That SNOPR... for measuring the standby mode and off mode energy use of products that combine a microwave oven with...

  13. 78 FR 4015 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Microwave Ovens (United States)


    ... RIN 1904-AB78 Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Microwave Ovens AGENCY: Office of...) to amend the test procedures for microwave ovens. That SNOPR proposed amendments to the DOE test... measuring the standby mode and off mode energy use of products that combine a microwave oven with other...

  14. 75 FR 42612 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedure for Microwave Ovens (United States)


    ... does as well, that can work as a microwave only, work as a convection oven, or in combination and... Ovens AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION...) issued a notice of proposed rulemaking (NOPR) in which DOE proposed test procedures for microwave ovens...

  15. Coke reactivity under blast furnace condition and in the CSR/CRI test


    Lundgren, Maria; Björkman, Bo; Sundqvist Ökvist, Lena


    The present work aims to study the high-temperature strength of coke. Mechanisms of disintegration were evaluated using basket samples charged into LKAB's experimental blast furnace prior to quenching and dissection. Coke charged into basket samples were analysed with CSR/CRI tests and compared with treated coke from the blast furnace. Results from tumbling tests, chemical analyses of coarse and fine material, as well as light optical microscopy studies of original and treated coke have been ...

  16. Coke industry and steel metallurgy as the source of soil contamination by technogenic magnetic particles, heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. (United States)

    Rachwał, Marzena; Magiera, Tadeusz; Wawer, Małgorzata


    Application of integrated magnetic, geochemical and mineralogical methods for qualitative and quantitative assessment of forest topsoils exposed to the industrial emissions was the objective of this manuscript. Volume magnetic susceptibility (κ) in three areas of southern Poland close to the coke and metallurgical plants was measured directly in the field. Representative topsoil samples were collected for further chemical and mineralogical analyses. Topsoil magnetic susceptibility in the studied areas depended mainly on the content of technogenic magnetic particles (TMPs) and decreased downwind at increasing distance from the emitters. In the vicinity of coking plants a high amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was observed, especially the most carcinogenic ones with four- and five-member rings. No significant concentration of TMPs (estimated on the base of κ values) and heavy metals (HM) was observed in area where the coke plant was the only pollution source. In areas with both coke and metallurgical industry, higher amounts of TMPs, PAHs and HM were detected. Morphological and mineralogical analyses of TMPs separated from contaminated soil samples revealed their high heterogeneity in respect of morphology, grain size, mineral and chemical constitution. Pollution load index and toxicity equivalent concentration of PAHs used for soil quality assessment indicated its high level of pollution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A new two-stage approach for predicting the soil water characteristic from saturation to oven-dryness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karup Jensen, Dan; Tuller, Markus; de Jonge, Lis Wollesen


    The soil water characteristic (SWC) is one of the most important properties required for understanding plant-soil relationships and is crucial for modeling gas and water flow in soils. Measuring the SWC is laborious, and until now the dry-region soil water retention has commonly been excluded due...... with clay and organic carbon contents ranging from 0.01 to 0.52 kg kg-1 and 0 to 0.07 kg kg-1, respectively, were used for the model development. Measuring the SWC from saturation to oven-dryness was accomplished with Tempe cells and a water vapor sorption analyzer. The model was subsequently tested...... to slow and inaccurate measurements. Hence, models applied to predict the SWC consequently exclude the dry region and are often only applicable for specific soil textural classifications. The present study proposes a new two-step approach to prediction of the continuous SWC from saturation to oven dryness...

  18. The influence of calcination on the physical and chemical properties of petroleum and mixed cokes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, K.; Syrek, H.


    Freshly prepared petroleum and coal-petroleum cokes, before utilization for the production of various materials, are subjected to calcining--thermal treatment in a neutral or reducing atmosphere without the admission of air at less than or equal to 1400/sup 0/. During calcining, stabilization of the physical and chemical properties of the cokes takes place. The properties of the obtained coke depend chiefly on the calcining time and temperature. During calcining, volatile substances are removed almost completely from the coke; the coke density is increased, and its structure is put in order; the electrical conductivity is improved; the mechanical strength is increased; and the reactivity of the coke is decreased. Laboratory studies were conducted on calcining mixed coal-petroleum cokes of two grades at 1200, 1250, and 1300/sup 0/ for 2-6 h. In the calcining products the content of volatile substances, the ash content, S content, and density were determined. It was ascertained that calcining of mixed coal-petroleum cokes goes analogously to calcining of pure petroleum cokes. Raising the temperature and increasing the time of calcining has a substantial effect on improvement of coke physical and chemical properties. For high-quality coke, calcining is to be carried out at greater than or equal to 1300/sup 0/ for 4-6 h, for ordinary coke at > 1200/sup 0/ and greater than or equal to 4 h. The results are regarded as starting data for an industrial study of the calcining process.

  19. Measuring the temperature of coke quenched in a dry quenching unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ereskovskii, O.S.; Grishchenko, A.I.; Skichko, T.Yu.


    An apparatus used to measure the temperature of coke while in a loading hopper is described. The device consists of a tube through which water is passed. The coke in the hopper surrounds the tube and heats the water. The temperature difference between the entering and exiting water is measured and the temperature of the coke calculated. Some heat transfer assumptions are made.

  20. 40 CFR 51.301 - Definitions. (United States)


    ... remaining useful life of the source, and the degree of improvement in visibility which may reasonably be... plants, Phosphate rock processing plants, Coke oven batteries, Sulfur recovery plants, Carbon black...

  1. Carbonization of Coals Mixed Iron Ore Fines and Gasification of Resulting Iron Coke with CO2: Transformation of Iron Minerals and Coke Properties (United States)

    Zhang, Shengfu; Liu, Wei; Qiu, Shuxing; Yang, Mingrui; Li, Manjie

    It is important to produce and utilize highly reactive coke in order to reduce the energy consumption and CO2 emissions through improving shaft efficiency in blast furnace. The present study aimed to investigate the transformation of iron minerals and properties of iron coke (the coke mixed iron ore fines). Along with the increase of iron ore fines, cold strength displayed a slight downtrend and the pore structure wasn't inferred to be a major factor affected the properties of iron coke. During carbonization, the majority of mixed iron oxides were reduced to metallic iron by CO and H2 and the degree of metallization achieved to approximately 75%. Nevertheless, produced metallic iron was oxidized by pure CO2 during gasification. Iron coke reactivity index (ICRI) was obviously enhanced and the iron coke strength after reaction (ICSR) drastically decreases, which were also significantly influenced by crystal structure of carbon.

  2. Thermodynamics of Water Superheated in the Microwave Oven (United States)

    Erné, B. H.


    A simple visual demonstration is proposed that provokes thinking about the elementary thermodynamics of heating and boiling. Water is conveniently heated above its normal boiling point in a microwave oven in a glass microwave oven teapot. Water stops boiling soon after heating is interrupted, but subsequently added rough particles can still act as nucleation centers for a brief, spectacular burst of steam bubbles. The heat to make those steam bubbles obviously comes from the water itself, so that one can conclude that the boiling water was superheated, which is confirmed with a thermometer. Besides illustrating chemical thermodynamics, the demonstration also shows why safety precautions are usually taken in the laboratory to prevent superheating. Details of the observations are discussed by giving background on the nucleation of steam bubbles.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana Kariada Tri Martuti


    Full Text Available Fish is a perishable food product, so as to be able to maintain the required quality processing. Processing of roasting fish traditionally done by the fishermen and their families in the region Tambakrejo Village Tanjung Mas Semarang. Roasting fish done by grilled over coconut shell charcoal produces less hygienic products. In addition, the resulting smoke spread into the surrounding environment so that the impact on the health of the toaster and the surrounding community. Traditional way of production capacity of 1.5 Kg of fish once baked, so if grilling fish in large numbers takes a long time. Roasting fish with oven roasted made from galvanized plate is advantageous alternative fish processing and environmentally friendly. Oven roast made in the multilevel system (3 level where each level can accommodate fish from 2 to 2.5 kg of fish slices.

  4. Design and Construction of a Batch Oven for Investigation of Industrial Continuous

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenby, Mette; Nielsen, Brian; Risum, Jørgen


    A new batch oven has been designed and build to model baking processes as seen in large scale tunnel ovens. In order to simulate the conditions found in tunnel ovens a number of critical parameters are controllable: The temperature, the humidity and the air velocity. The band movement is simulate...... adjustments are still needed in the batch oven setup, it is clear that the batch oven, with its continuous data collection and high degree of process control will be a very valuable tool in the future work with modelling of baking process and products.......A new batch oven has been designed and build to model baking processes as seen in large scale tunnel ovens. In order to simulate the conditions found in tunnel ovens a number of critical parameters are controllable: The temperature, the humidity and the air velocity. The band movement is simulated...... aspects is a unique feature of this batch oven. Initial experiments of reproducing tunnel oven baking in the batch oven have shown good results, based on comparisons of weight loss, dry matter content and surface colour. The measured quality parameters did not differ significantly. Even though a few...

  5. Influence of natural weathering of two medium-volatile bituminous coals of similar rank on coke quality; Influencia de la alteracion meteorica de dos carbones coquizables con contenido medio de materia volatil en la calidad del coque producido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casal, M.D.; Diez, M.A.; Alvarez, R.; Barriocanal, C.; Canga, C.S.; Pis, J.J. [Instituto Nacional del Carbon. Oviedo (Spain)


    The study of the weathering of the two bituminous coals stored at the INCAR stockyard and its influence on coke quality is presented. These coals of similar rank are present in industrial blends used by the Corporation Siderurgica Integral (CSI) for the production of blast-furnace coke. Of all the techniques used to determine the degree of weathering, via thermoplastic properties. Gieseler plastometry was found to be the most sensitive. Coking tests were carried out in the semi-industrial coking plant at INCAR. The effect of weathering on each coal series is completely different. Weathering produces a loss of maximum fluidity accompanied by a decrease in aliphatic hydrogen in both coals. However, the los rate is different in each case. Coke quality clearly decreases in one, while in the other improves at first but then gradually deteriorates. An improvement in coke quality due to weathering not only affects some high-volatile coals as it is well known but also medium-volatile coals. (Author) 16 refs.

  6. Effect of alkaline elements on the reactivity, strength and structural properties of blast furnace cokes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bhattacharyya


    Full Text Available The present study concerns itself on the adverse effects of alkaline elements like sodium and potassium on blast furnace cokes. To achieve a deeper insight on the effects of alkaline elements on coke reactivity and strength, industrial coke samples impregnated with different alkaline species in various amounts have been tested under standard conditions to find out their Coke Reactivity Index (CRI and Coke Strength after Reaction (CSR values. Scanning electron microscopy, petrographic and Raman Spectrometric investigations demonstrate the change of structural properties. The mechanism of catalysis has been postulated.

  7. Process for converting coal into liquid fuel and metallurgical coke (United States)

    Wolfe, Richard A.; Im, Chang J.; Wright, Robert E.


    A method of recovering coal liquids and producing metallurgical coke utilizes low ash, low sulfur coal as a parent for a coal char formed by pyrolysis with a volatile content of less than 8%. The char is briquetted and heated in an inert gas over a prescribed heat history to yield a high strength briquette with less than 2% volatile content.

  8. Experiments to analyse some coke residues using thermogravimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopsch, H.; Rahner, S.


    Thermogravimetry gives almost the same values for coke residue as CCT DIN 51 551 with equally good reproducibility. The precision of the results can be increased, provided containers for larger samples are used. In case of small samples inhomogeneity is observed particularly with distillation residues. 6 refs.

  9. A conventional microwave oven for denture cleaning: a critical review. (United States)

    Brondani, Mario Augusto; Samim, Firoozeh; Feng, Hong


    Denture cleaning should be quick and easy to perform, especially in long-term care facilities. The lack of proper oral hygiene can put older adults at higher risk from opportunistic oral infections, particularly fungal. As an alternative to regular brushing, the use of a microwave oven has been suggested for cleaning and disinfecting dentures. To synthesise and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the use of a conventional microwave oven for cleaning and disinfecting complete dentures. A brief literature search focused on papers dealing with microwave therapy for denture cleaning through PubMed Central, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Google Scholar, Ovid MEDLINE(R) In-Process, and Scifinder Scholar. One hundred and sixty-seven manuscripts published in English with full text were found, and 28 were accepted and discussed in the light of the advantages and disadvantages of the use of conventional microwave oven for cleaning and disinfecting complete dentures. There was no standardisation for microwave use for denture cleaning. Manual cleaning still seemed to be the optimal method for controlling fungal infection and denture stomatitis. However, such a daily routine appeared to be underused, particularly in long-term care facilities. © 2010 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. 77 FR 20788 - Foundry Coke Products From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Expedited Second... (United States)


    ... International Trade Administration Foundry Coke Products From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of... coke products (``foundry coke'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') pursuant to section 751... Than Fair Value and Antidumping Duty Order: Foundry Coke Products from The People's Republic of China...

  11. Processing of converter sludges on the basis of thermal-oxidative coking with coals (United States)

    Kuznetsov, S. N.; Shkoller, M. B.; Protopopov, E. V.; Kazimirov, S. A.; Temlyantsev, M. V.


    The paper deals with the solution of an important problem related to the recycling of converter sludge. High moisture and fine fractional composition of waste causes the application of their deep dehydration and lumping. To reduce environmental emissions the non-thermal method of dehydration is considered - adsorption-contact drying. As a sorbent, the pyrolysis product of coals from the Kansko-Achinsky basin - brown coal semi-coke (BSC) obtained by the technology “Thermokoks”. Experimental data on the dehydration of high-moisture wastes with the help of BSC showed high efficiency of the selected material. The lumping of the dried converter dust was carried out by thermo-chemical coking with coals of grades GZh (gas fat coal) and Zh (fat coal). As a result, an iron-containing product was obtained - ferrocoke, which is characterized by almost complete reduction of iron oxides, as well as zinc transition into a vapor state, and is removed with gaseous process products. Based on the results of the experimental data a process basic diagram of the utilization of converter sludge to produce ferrocoke was, which can be effectively used in various metallurgical aggregates, for example, blast furnaces, converters and electric arc furnaces. In the basic technological scheme heat generated by ferrocoke cooling and the energy of the combustion products after the separation of zinc in the gas turbine plant will be used.

  12. Coke properties in simulated blast furnace conditions:investigation on hot strength, chemical reactivity and reaction mechanism


    Haapakangas, J. (Juho)


    Abstract The blast furnace – basic oxygen furnace route remains the most utilised process route in the production of steel worldwide. Coke is the main fuel of the blast furnace process, however, coke producers and blast furnace operators are facing significant challenges due to increased demands on coke quality and decrease of prime coking coals. The estimation of coke performance in the industrial process through accurate laboratory analyses is of increasing importance. In this doctor...

  13. Modelling of Coke Layer Collapse during Ore Charging in Ironmaking Blast Furnace by DEM (United States)

    Narita, Yoichi; Mio, Hiroshi; Orimoto, Takashi; Nomura, Seiji


    A technical issue in an ironmaking blast furnace operation is to realize the optimum layer thickness and the radial distribution of burden (ore and coke) to enhance its efficiency and productivity. When ore particles are charged onto the already-embedded coke layer, the coke layer-collapse phenomenon occurs. The coke layer-collapse phenomenon has a significant effect on the distribution of ore and coke layer thickness in the radial direction. In this paper, the mechanical properties of coke packed bed under ore charging were investigated by the impact-loading test and the large-scale direct shear test. Experimental results show that the coke particle is broken by the impact force of ore charging, and the particle breakage leads to weaken of coke-layer strength. The expression of contact force for coke in Discrete Element Method (DEM) was modified based on the measured data, and it followed by the 1/3-scaled experiment on coke's collapse phenomena. Comparing a simulation by modified model to the 1/3-scaled experiment, they agreed well in the burden distribution.

  14. Rapid in situ hybridization using digoxigenin probe and microwave oven. (United States)

    Besançon, R; Bencsik, A; Voutsinos, B; Belin, M F; Févre-Montange, M


    In situ hybridization has been developed with probes labelled with a non-radioactive nucleotide, especially digoxigenin-coupled nucleotides. These non-radioactive probes significantly reduce safety problems and experimentation time. In this paper, we have studied by in situ hybridization the messenger RNA (mRNA) of the neuropeptide pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), in the rat pituitary gland using digoxigenin labelled oligonucleotide and a microwave oven. Our protocol permitted us to visualize POMC mRNA in all cells of the intermediate lobe and a few corticotroph cells in the anterior lobe, as it has been already demonstrated and to complete the experiment in less than 24 hrs.

  15. Surveys of Microwave Ovens in U.S. Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Alison [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yang, Hung-Chia Dominique [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Beraki, Bereket [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Desroches, Louis-Benoit [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Young, ScottJ. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ni, Chun Chun [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Willem, Henry [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Whitehead, Camilla Dunham [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Donovan, Sally M. [Consultant, Melbourne (Australia)


    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting test procedure and energy conservation standard rulemakings for microwave ovens. These units generally offer a “convection,” “bake,” or “combo” cooking mode on the user interface. DOE divides products under analysis into classes by the type of energy used, capacity, or other performance-related features that affect consumer utility and efficiency. Installation types are grouped as (1) countertop and (2) built-in and over-the-range. The following sub-sections summarize the existing data as well as the specific data LBNL obtained with surveys.

  16. Testing of the Sunstove Organization`s Sunstove Solar Oven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, T.A.


    A Sunstove Organization`s Sunstove was tested at Sandia`s Solar Thermal Test Facility. It was instrumented with five type K thermocouples to determine warm-up rates when empty and when a pot containing two liters of water was placed inside. It reached inside air temperatures above 115{degrees}C (240{degrees}F). It heated two liters of water from room temperature to 80{degrees}C (175{degrees}F) in about two hours. Observations were made on the cooling and reheating rates during a cloud passage. The adverse effects of wind on the operation of the solar oven were also noted.

  17. Nitrobacter agilis immobilized in PVA for nitrogen and COD removal in coking wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen-Ying Li; Jie Feng; Ke-Chang Xie; Du Jun [Ministry of Education and Shanxi Province, Taiyuan (China). Key Laboratory of Coal Science and Technology (Taiyuan University of Technology)


    Six bacteria were isolated from the activated sludge sample of a coking wastewater treatment workshop in Taiyuan Coal Gasification Plant, Shanxi province of China, by enrichment culture technique. They were identified and classified as 2 nitrobacter winogradskyi, 3 Nitrosolobus multiformis and 1 Nitrosomonas europaea. Nitrobacter agilis cells have been immobilized in PVA and the resulting preparation was used as a biocatalyst for the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate ions. The influence of pH, PVA concentration and cells concentration was determined. The results are compared with those obtained for immobilized Nitrosolobus multiformis and Nitrosomonas europaea. When PVA concentration was 12%, the gel property was the best; the pH value was in the range of 6-7.6, the activity of immobilized cells is higher than that of activated sludge; and the nitrification rate of immobilized Nitrosolobus multiformis cells was higher than that of immobilized Nitrosomonas europaea cells. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Finite element modelling and simulation of free convection heat transfer in solar oven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobamowo, M.G.; Ogunmola, B.Y.; Ayerin A.M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Lagos, Akoka, Lagos (Nigeria)


    The use of solar energy for baking, heating or drying represents a sustainable way of solar energy applications with negligible negative effects. Solar oven is an alternative to conventional oven that rely heavily on coal and wood or Electric oven that uses the power from the National grid of which the end users have little or no control. Since the Solar oven uses no fuel and it costs nothing to run, it uses are widely promoted especially in situations where minimum fuel consumption or fire risks are considered highly important. As useful as the Solar Oven proved, it major setback in the area of applications has been its future sustainability. For the use of Solar Oven/Cookers to be sustained in the future, the design and development of solar oven must rely on sound analytical tools. Therefore, this work focused on the design and development of the solar oven. To test the performance of the Small Solar Oven a 5000cm3 beaker of water was put into the Oven and the temperature of the water was found to reach 810C after about 3hrs under an average ambient temperature of 300C. On no load test, the oven reached a maximum temperature of 112oC in 6hrs. In order to carry out the parametric studies and improve the performance of the Solar Oven, Mathematical models were developed and solved by using Characteristics-Based Split (CBS) Finite Element Method. The Model results were compared with the Experimental results and a good agreement was found between the two results.

  19. Coking of JP-4 fuels in electrically heated metal tubes (United States)

    Smith, Arthur L; Cook, William P; Hlavin, Vincent F


    A limited exploratory investigation of the rate of coking of four JP-4 fuels in electrically heated metal tubes was conducted in order to provide design information for fuel prevaporizers for turbojet-engine combustors. The fuels tested included two production and two minimum-quality JP-4 type fuels. The heating tube was operated at fuel pressures of approximately 500, 400, and 50 pounds per square inch. The operating fuel temperature was varied between approximately 600 degrees and 1200 degrees F.

  20. 40 CFR 52.28 - Protection of visibility from sources in nonattainment areas. (United States)


    ... life of the source. (h) Monitoring. The Administrator may require monitoring of visibility in any...) Phosphate rock processing plants; (M) Coke oven batteries; (N) Sulfur recovery plants; (O) Carbon black...

  1. Wet oxidation of real coke wastewater containing high thiocyanate concentration. (United States)

    Oulego, Paula; Collado, Sergio; Garrido, Laura; Laca, Adriana; Rendueles, Manuel; Díaz, Mario


    Coke wastewaters, in particular those with high thiocyanate concentrations, represent an important environmental problem because of their very low biodegradability. In this work, the treatment by wet oxidation of real coke wastewaters containing concentrations of thiocyanate above 17 mM has been studied in a 1-L semi-batch reactor at temperatures between 453 and 493 K, with total oxygen pressures in the range of 2.0-8.0 MPa. A positive effect of the matrix of real coke wastewater was observed, resulting in faster thiocyanate degradation than was obtained with synthetic wastewaters. Besides, the effect of oxygen concentration and temperature on thiocyanate wet oxidation was more noticeable in real effluents than in synthetic wastewaters containing only thiocyanate. It was also observed that the degree of mineralization of the matrix organic compounds was higher when the initial thiocyanate concentration increased. Taking into account the experimental data, kinetic models were obtained, and a mechanism implying free radicals was proposed for thiocyanate oxidation in the matrix considered. In all cases, sulphate, carbonates and ammonium were identified as the main reaction products of thiocyanate wet oxidation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Identification of causes of oil sands coke leachate toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puttaswamy, N.; Liber, K. [Saskatchewan Univ., Regina, SK (Canada)


    The potential causes of oil sands coke leachate toxicity were investigated. Chronic 7-day toxicity tests were conducted to demonstrate that oil sands coke leachates (CL) are acutely toxic to Ceriodaphnia dubia (C. dubia). CLs were generated in a laboratory to perform toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) tests in order to investigate the causes of the CL toxicity. The coke was subjected to a 15-day batch leaching process at 5.5 and 9.5 pH values. The leachates were then filtered and used for chemical and toxicological characterization. The 7-day estimates for the C. dubia survival were 6.3 for a pH of 5.5 and 28.7 per cent for the 9.5 CLs. The addition of EDTA significantly improved survival and reproduction in a pH of 5.5 CL, but not in a pH of 9.5 CL. The toxicity of the pH 5.5 CL was removed with a cationic resin treatment. The toxicity of the 9.5 pH LC was removed using an anion resin treatment. Toxicity re-appeared when nickel (Ni) and vanadium (V) were added back to the resin-treated CLs. Results of the study suggested that Ni and V were acting as primary toxicants in the pH 5.5 CL, while V was the primary cause of toxicity in the pH 9.5 CL.

  3. Anti-corrosion paint and varnish coatings employing wastes from coke and coal chemicals production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.B. Pavlovich; N.M. Alekseeva; V.P. Dolgopolov; A.A. Popov [West Siberian Metallurgical Combine, Siberia (Russian Federation)


    The various shops of the West Siberian Metallurgical Combine operate 392 gas-cleaning units, and the combine annually spends 1.5 million rubles a year on major repairs to this equipment. The need to increase the service life of the air ducts is obvious. At the same time, the production of phthalic anhydride (PA) from commercial grades of naphthalene made at coke and coal chemicals plants also yields large quantities of waste products formed in oxidation reactions - still residues from the distillation of PA. These residues are currently used in coking charges. It is important that a way be found to recycle wastes from the production of phthalic anhydride, which is the main raw material used to make corrosion-resistant paints and lacquers. The goal of the research was to use PA production wastes to help develop promising new environmentally clean materials to protect metal from corrosion. The Combine has developed and mastered the production of two types of powdered polymer-based paint: quick-drying epoxide paint PEFAN-501; decorative epoxide-polyester paint NOVOLAN-1605. A section to make these paints has been set up and equipped with three units that apply the paints in an electrostatic field. The Combine has also developed a technology for using PA still residues to obtain an alkyl-epoxide primer for protecting gas pipes from corrosion. Experimental batches of the primer have been successfully tested on a section of gas pipe connected to the car dumper in the crushing-sorting plant operated by the sinter-lime department.

  4. Investigating the operating temperature of chambers for the dry quenching of coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grishchenko, A.I.; Ereskovskii, O.S.; Kukhar' , N.P.


    Temperature field in the quenching chamber is calculated for various cooling conditions. Curves describing the coke temperature distribution and distribution of the gas cooling agent temperature on the vertical axis of the chamber are drawn. Graphs are presented showing the relationship between the temperature of the finished coke after quenching and quenching time for various rates of the cooling gas. By using the curves the required gas consumption for even cooling and the required temperature of the coke and gas at the end of the quenching process can be determined for a given coke yield. By using this method the temperature field can be evaluated along the vertical axis when the quantity of gas fed into the chamber, coke output, initial and final temperature of the coke, and temperature of the gas at the input are known. 4 references.

  5. Use of computational fluid dynamics in domestic oven design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Fahey


    Full Text Available There is an increasing demand, both from customers and regulatory sources, for safer and more energy efficient products. Manufacturers are having to look to their design and development processes to service these demands. Traditional approaches have been to use prototype testing and only delve more deeply into specific aspects of the performance when issues arise. In this work the complex flow within the cooling circuit of the door of a pyrolytic oven is studied. A combination of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD and experimental techniques is used. It will be shown that CFD can help with the achievement of an optimal solution, with the understanding of the flow behaviour and that there is a synergy between the numerical and experimental techniques. Using only one of these techniques would limit the understanding of the flow behaviour and could lead to a less than optimal solution to the design problem. This work aims to explore this particular complex industrial fluid flow situation to: understand the flow around the oven door’s cooling circuit  demonstrate the synergy of CFD and experimental work within development of a complex product explore the role of CFD within the product development process.

  6. Microwave oven injuries in patients with complex partial seizures. (United States)

    DeToledo, John C; Lowe, Merredith R


    Microwave ovens are often recommended as a safe cooking alternative for persons with epilepsy. We report four patients who suffered serious burns to their hands while handling microwave-heated liquids during a complex partial seizure (CPS). Injuries were due to the contact of the skin with a very hot container. The fact that all patients held on to the hot containers despite being burned and that they did not remember experiencing any pain at the time of the accident indicates that neither high temperatures nor pain will prevent patients who are having a CPS from suffering this type of injury. Unfortunately, there is no foolproof way to prevent the individual from opening the oven and removing its contents during a CPS. The only solution for this problem is "prevention"-individuals with poorly controlled CPS should be cautioned about these risks. The use of microwave settings that permit the heating but not boiling of liquids and the use of gloves while heating food and liquids to scalding temperatures may minimize the risk of this type of injury.

  7. Assessment of metal releases and leachate toxicity of oil sands coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puttaswamy, N.; Liber, K. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Toxicology Centre


    Large volumes of coke are produced as a by-product of thermal upgrading of oil sands bitumen in Alberta. This paper examined the feasibility of integrating this stored by-product at wetland reclamation sites. Coke leachate water toxicity was evaluated in this study since coke is known to releases trace amounts of metals when it comes in contact with water. The objective was to determine the cause of toxicity by performing toxicity identification evaluations (TIEs) on the leachate. The leachability of metals from coke was examined over a 45 day period in 2-L glass jars using reconstituted water with a hardness of 300 mg/L as calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) at pH levels 5.5 and 9.5. Coke porewater samples and overlying water samples collected periodically were analyzed for trace metals using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The toxicity of coke leachate was evaluated at the end of the 45 day period using a Ceriodaphnia dubia standard three-brood chronic test with survival and reproduction as endpoints. Coke leachate water from both pH treatments had a negative effect on survival and reproduction of C. dubia. The coke leachate had high concentrations of vanadium, according to metal analysis of leachate water from both pH treatments. In order to identify the cause of toxicity, the coke leachate water will be subjected to several TIE processes.

  8. Ecotoxicological assessment of using oil sands coke in aquatic reclamation strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Squires, A.J.; Liber, K. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Toxicology Centre


    Syncrude Canada Ltd. and Suncor Energy Inc. are two of the companies presently mining the Athabasca oil sands. Each company produces more than 2,000 tons of coke waste product daily as part of the oil upgrading process. Since coke has a high organic carbon content, it has been proposed as an amendment agent in wetland reclamation strategies. However, coke also contains metals and organic compounds which can leach out once submerged in water. The coke from both companies has been used in several leaching/weathering experiments to determine their potential to leach out contaminants while exposed to freeze thaw cycles, high and low dissolved oxygen content, and pH levels of 5, 7.5 and 10. Samples of the coke and interstitial waters were taken for chemical analysis throughout each experiment. This was followed by exposing Chironomus tentans larvae to both coke types along with leachates to differentiate between effects of solid coke and leachate. None of the leachates showed an important impact on the survival or growth of the larvae. However, some effects were noted following exposure to weathered coke. The experiments will be instrumental in determining if either coke may adversely affect aquatic organisms if used as an uncovered capping option during an aquatic reclamation program in the Athabasca oil sands area.

  9. Re-examining the pitch/coke wetting and penetration test (United States)

    Cao, Jinan; Buckley, Alan N.; Tomsett, Alan


    To produce structurally soundcarbon anodes for use in aluminum smelting, a strong bond between filler and binder coke is necessary. Bond strength results from mechanical interlocking and adhesion of the binder coke to the filler coke. Critical for creating such bonds is the ability of the pitch to wet the coke surface and penetrate the coke porosity during mixing and forming. Wettability is normally assessed from the pitch behavior during the initial stages of a penetration test. In the test, the observed contact angle between a pitch droplet and a bed of fine coke particles is recorded as the temperature is increased. The temperature at which this contact angle becomes 90° is referred to as the wetting temperature of the pitch. The penetration test may be useful to identify pitch and coke combinations that are unlikely to produce baked anodes of acceptable quality with standard paste preparation conditions. It does not, however, provide a measure of the true wettability of a coke by a pitch. The isothermal penetration experiments reported here demonstrate that the observed contact angle of a pitch against a coke bed changes continuously from >90° to <90°, even to 0‡, at a temperature much lower than the wetting temperature derived from the penetration test. The requirements for the measurement of a true contact angle and the difference between the concepts of adhesion and wetting are discussed.

  10. Modelling of Coke Layer Collapse during Ore Charging in Ironmaking Blast Furnace by DEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narita Yoichi


    Full Text Available A technical issue in an ironmaking blast furnace operation is to realize the optimum layer thickness and the radial distribution of burden (ore and coke to enhance its efficiency and productivity. When ore particles are charged onto the already-embedded coke layer, the coke layer-collapse phenomenon occurs. The coke layer-collapse phenomenon has a significant effect on the distribution of ore and coke layer thickness in the radial direction. In this paper, the mechanical properties of coke packed bed under ore charging were investigated by the impact-loading test and the large-scale direct shear test. Experimental results show that the coke particle is broken by the impact force of ore charging, and the particle breakage leads to weaken of coke-layer strength. The expression of contact force for coke in Discrete Element Method (DEM was modified based on the measured data, and it followed by the 1/3-scaled experiment on coke’s collapse phenomena. Comparing a simulation by modified model to the 1/3-scaled experiment, they agreed well in the burden distribution.

  11. Effect of microwave irradiation on reactivity of metallurgical coke in CO2 atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Tian


    Full Text Available Influence of microwave irradiation on gasification behavior and crystallite parameters of coke samples was studied in this research. The results indicated that microwave irradiation have significant influence on the carbon structure and the reactivity of coke in CO2 atmosphere. The thermogravimetric results showed that the temperature of coke at different conversion rates of 10 %, 20 % and 30 % were reduced by 20 °C, 30 °C and 50 °C respectively. Simultaneously, microwave irradiation may lead to variation in lateral size and stacking height of crystallite and subsequently reduce the gasification reaction rate of coke in CO2 atmosphere.

  12. The influence of mineral material upon the coking characteristics of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rado, T.; Mianowski, A. [Silesian Technical University, Gliwice (Poland). Dept. of Chemical Technology of Coal and Petroleum


    The aim of the work presented is to evaluate the effect that the mineral matter has upon the coking characteristics of coal. Modelling coal pyrolysis using conventional kinetic methods demonstrates that at temperatures below 1073 K the conversion of coal into coke can be treated as two competitive processes which take place in two apparent areas of the kinetic and diffusion range. The relative arrangement of these areas reflects the coking ability of individual coals. It has been shown that the effect of the ash content upon the coking characteristics of the coals investigated can be evaluated using this kinetic-diffusion model. 4 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Biological monitoring the exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons of coke oven workers in relation to smoking and genetic polymorphisms for GSTM1 GSTT1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delft, J.H.M. van; Steenwinkel, M.-J.S.T.; Asten, J.G. van; Vogel, N. de; Bruijntjes-Rozier, T.C.D.M.; Schouten, T.; Cramers, P.; Maas, L.; Herwijnen, M.H. van; Schooten, F.-J. van; Hopmans, P.M.J.


    Occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) increases the risk of developing lung cancer. Human exposure is often demonstrated by increased internal levels of PAH metabolites and of markers for early biological effects, like DNA adducts and cytogenetic aberrations. Objective:

  14. 76 FR 72332 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedure for Microwave Ovens (United States)


    ... the November 2007 ANOPR) concerning energy conservation standards for commercial clothes washers and... conservation standards rulemaking. AHAM commented that it opposes the inclusion of thermal elements designed... including microwave ovens with thermal elements in the definition of microwave ovens, that same unworkable...

  15. Heat transfer and heating rate of food stuffs in commercial shop ovens

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The CFD analysis of flow and temperature distribution in heating ovens used in bakery shop, to keep the foodstuffs warm, is attempted using finite element technique. The oven is modelled as a two-dimensional steady state natural convection heat transfer problem. Effects of heater location and total heat input on ...

  16. 76 FR 12825 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedure for Microwave Ovens (United States)


    .... Department of Energy, Building Technologies Program, 6th Floor, 950 L'Enfant Plaza, SW., Washington, DC 20024... with or without thermal elements designed for surface browning of food and combination ovens. DOE..., including microwave ovens with or without thermal elements designed for surface browning of food. DOE stated...

  17. Coke Formation During Hydrocarbons Pyrolysis. Part One: Steam Cracking Formation de coke pendant la pyrolise des hydrocarbures. Première partie : vapocraquage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weill J.


    Full Text Available Thermal cracking is always accompanied by coke formation, which becomes deposited on the wall and limits heat transfers in the reactor while increasing pressure drops and possibly even plugging up the reactor. This review article covers undesirable coking operations in steam craking reactors. These coking reactions may take place in the gas phase and/or on the surface of the reactor, with coke being produced during pyrolysis by a complex mechanism that breaks down into a catalytic sequence and a noncatalytic sequence. After a brief description of different experimental set-ups used to measure the coke deposition, on the basis of research described in the literature, the different factors and their importance for coke formation are listed. In particular, we describe the effects of surface properties of stainless-steel and quartz reactors as well as the influence of the cracked feedstock, of temperature, of dilution, of residence time and of the conversion on coke deposition. Some findings about the morphology of coke are described and linked to formation mechanisms. To illustrate this review, some particularly interesting research is referred to concerning models developed to assess coke formation during propane steam cracking. Le craquage thermique est toujours accompagné de la formation de coke qui, en se déposant à la paroi, limite les transferts de chaleur au réacteur, augmente les pertes de charges et même peut boucher celui-ci. Cet article fait le point sur les réactions indésirables de cokage dans les réacteurs de vapocraquage. Ces réactions de cokage peuvent avoir lieu en phase gazeuse et/ou sur la surface du réacteur, le coke étant produit pendant la pyrolyse par un mécanisme complexe qui se décompose en une séquence catalytique et une séquence non catalytique. Après une brève présentation des différents montages expérimentaux utilisés pour mesurer le dépôt de coke, il est mentionné, à partir de travaux de la

  18. Fuzzy Logic Applied to an Oven Temperature Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagabhushana KATTE


    Full Text Available The paper describes the methodology of design and development of fuzzy logic based oven temperature control system. As simple fuzzy logic controller (FLC structure with an efficient realization and a small rule base that can be easily implemented in existing underwater control systems is proposed. The FLC has been designed using bell-shaped membership function for fuzzification, 49 control rules in its rule base and centre of gravity technique for defuzzification. Analog interface card with 16-bits resolution is designed to achieve higher precision in temperature measurement and control. The experimental results of PID and FLC implemented system are drawn for a step input and presented in a comparative fashion. FLC exhibits fast response and it has got sharp rise time and smooth control over conventional PID controller. The paper scrupulously discusses the hardware and software (developed using ‘C’ language features of the system.

  19. Microwave oven: how to use it as a crystalloid fluid warmer. (United States)

    Chittawatanarat, Kaweesak; Akanitthaphichat, Siriwasan


    Hypothermia is a common complication in the hypovolemic patient. Warm intravenous fluids have proven valuable at preventing this complication during volume replacement. The microwave oven is considered an applicable alternative method for warming fluids but no protocol has been established. To evaluate the efficacy and affected variables of the microwave oven in warming crystalloid fluids and to determine the appropriate formula for calculating the warming duration. The important variables influencing the operation of the microwave oven include the difference between the crystalloid fluid and room temperature, the microwave oven's capability, variations in microwave irradiation, and fluid shaking. The appropriate formula for calculating warming duration is: Duration (sec) = Volume (cc) x 4.2j.g(-1).K(-1) x Raised temperature DeltaT (K) x 1.1 (Adjusted power) / Mivcwrowave power (W). The microwave oven is a safe and practical method for warming crystalloid fluids.

  20. Effect of Oven Types on the Characteristics of Biscuits Made from Refrigerated and Frozen Doughs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Sait Dogan


    Full Text Available Characteristics of sugar snap and chocolate chip cookies, and hazelnut biscuits made from refrigerated and frozen dough were studied. Doughs were stored at 4 °C for 6 weeks and at –18 °C for 6 months, respectively. Physical characteristics of the biscuit samples such as spread, baking loss, surface colour and density were determined. Dough colour was not affected by storage time and temperatures. Biscuit characteristics did not change significantly during storage. Spread ratio was significantly lower for the biscuits baked in the gas oven than for the biscuits baked in the electric oven. Biscuit dough can be refrigerated for 6 weeks, and frozen for 6 months. Results also suggest that unique quality differences exist between the two ovens. For sugar snap cookies and hazelnut biscuits the electric oven without air circulation was better, while for chocolate chip cookies gas oven with air circulation was more suitable.

  1. Effects of Two-stage Heat Treatment on Delayed Coke and Study of Their Surface Texture Characteristics (United States)

    Im, Ui-Su; Kim, Jiyoung; Lee, Seon Ho; Lee, Byung-Rok; Peck, Dong-Hyun; Jung, Doo-Hwan


    In the present study, surface texture features and chemical properties of two types of cokes, made from coal tar by either 1-stage heat treatment or 2-stage heat treatment, were researched. The relationship between surface texture characteristics and the chemical properties was identified through molecular weight distribution, insolubility of coal tar, weight loss with temperature increase, coking yield, and polarized light microscope analysis. Rapidly cleared anisotropy texture in cokes was observed in accordance with the coking temperature rise. Quinoline insolubility and toluene insolubility of coal tar increased with a corresponding increases in coking temperature. In particular, the cokes produced by the 2-stage heat treatment (2S-C) showed surface structure of needle cokes at a temperature approximately 50°C lower than the 1-stage heat treatment (1S-C). Additionally, the coking yield of 2S-C increased by approximately 14% in comparison with 1S-C.

  2. Strength in metallurgical coke. Correlations of Micro-Strength indices, industrial Drum Test indices and ultrasonic velocity measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragan, S.; Grint, A.; Marsh, H.


    No close correlation between drum and Micro-strength indices of strength of metallurgical coke was found. Neither was a close correlation found between ultrasonic velocities of coke of drum indices. (5 refs.)

  3. Thermoplastic behaviour and structural evolution of coke and char particles in a single particle reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vladimir Strezov; Jianglong Yu; Guisu Liu; John A. Lucas [University of Newcastle, Mayfield, NSW (Australia). Newbolds Applied Research


    Although coking and thermal coals have quite disparate properties and applications, both coal types undergo devolatilisation in their respective utilisation processes. The resultant carbonised materials, coke and char, show significant variations in the resulting physical structure. In both cases, particles ranging from highly porous cenospheres to very dense particles are produced. Previous studies have concluded that the physical structure affects highly significant process variables such as burnout efficiency of char, ash formation during combustion and the strength of lump coke in the blast furnace. It is therefore necessary to understand the evolution of physical structure during carbonisation of coals. In the present work a direct observation of particle swelling behaviour and bubbling phenomena during pyrolysis of coking and thermal coal particles was conducted using a single particle reactor. Coking and thermal coals were thermally treated under conditions pertinent to their thermoplastic development, e.g. coking coals were subjected to low heating rates while the thermal coals under high heating rates. Bubble growth and ruptures during the plastic stage were captured using a CCD video camera equipped with a long distance microscopic lens. There were similarities in bubble formation between both thermal and coking coals such as multi-bubble and single bubble development and rupture and consequent particle shrinkage. Comparative and quantitative analysis of the thermoplastic behaviour of the coking and thermal coals are here outlined in detail. 13 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Nature of nitrogen specie in coke and their role in NOx formation during FCC catalyst regeneration.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babych, Igor V.; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Lefferts, Leonardus


    NOx emission during the regeneration of coked fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalysts is an environmental problem. In order to follow the route to NOx formation and try to find ways to suppress it, a coked industrial FCC catalyst has been prepared using model N-containing compounds, e.g., pyridine,

  5. Delayed coking studies on Athabasca bitumen and Cold Lake heavy oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Govindhakannan, J.; Khulbe, C. [National Centre for Upgrading Technology, Devon, AB (Canada); Natural Resources Canada, Devon, AB (Canada). CanmetENERGY


    This poster highlighted the results of a study that quantified the delayed coking product yields of Athabasca bitumen and Cold Lake heavy oil. It also investigated the effect of operating pressure and feed rates on product yield and quality. The effect of pressure on conversion of sulphur and nitrogen was also examined. Experimental results revealed that the yield of liquid products decreases and the yields of coke and gases increase as the operating pressure increases. Sulphur and nitrogen conversions increase with increasing pressure. In this study, the yield and quality of delayed coking products were not influenced by the variation in feed rates. It was concluded that feed rate changes do not significantly affect the yield and quality of delayed coking products because the residual liquid and coke trapped in the coker drum reside there for a duration that approaches infinity, compared to much smaller average residence time for vapor-phase compounds. tabs., figs.

  6. Microwave-assisted grinding of metallurgical coke; Molienda asistida con microondas de un coque metalurgico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruisanchez, E.; Juarez-Perez, E. J.; Arenillas, A.; Bermudez, J. M.; Menendez, J. A.


    Metallurgical cokes are composed of graphitic carbon (s2p2) and different inorganic compounds with very different capacities to absorb microwave radiation. Moreover, due to the electric conductivity shown by the metallurgical cokes, microwave radiation produces electric arcs or microplasmas, which gives rise to hot spots. Therefore, when these cokes are irradiated with microwaves some parts of the particle experiment a rapid heating, while some others do not heat at all. As a result of the different expansion and stress caused by thermal the shock, small cracks and micro-fissures are produced in the particle. The weakening of the coke particles, and therefore an improvement of its grind ability, is produced. This paper studies the microwave-assisted grinding of metallurgical coke and evaluates the grinding improvement and energy saving. (Author)

  7. Treatment of coking wastewater by using manganese and magnesium ores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Tianhu; Huang Xiaoming; Pan Min [School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei City 230009 (China); Jin Song, E-mail: [MWH Americas, 3665 JFK Parkway, Suite 206, Fort Collins, CO 80525 (United States); Department Civil and Architectural Engineering, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Peng Suchuan [School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei City 230009 (China); Fallgren, Paul H. [Western Research Institute, 365 North 9th Street, Laramie, WY 82072 (United States)


    This study investigated a wastewater treatment technique based on natural minerals. A two-step process using manganese (Mn) and magnesium (Mg) containing ores were tested to remove typical contaminants from coking wastewater. Under acidic conditions, a reactor packed with Mn ore demonstrated strong oxidizing capability and destroyed volatile phenols, chemical oxygen demand (COD){sub ,} and sulfide from the coking wastewater. The effluent was further treated by using Mg ore to remove ammonium-nitrogen and phosphate in the form of magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite) precipitates. When pH of the wastewater was adjusted to 1.2, the removal efficiencies for COD, volatile phenol and sulfide reached 70%, 99% and 100%, respectively. During the second step of precipitation, up to 94% of ammonium was removed from the aqueous phase, and precipitated in the form of struvite with phosphorus. The struvite crystals showed a needle-like structure. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the crystallized products.

  8. Building a Low Cost Solar Oven: An Opportunity to Teach Thermodynamics (United States)

    Nogueira, Ana


    We suggested building a solar oven using cardboard boxes, glass wool and metal plate as part of a school project permeated by the discussion of physical concepts. The main topics addressed are from the heat and thermodynamics areas, and for these themes we followed the standard books used in high school. We can work in a practical manner with the thermometer, along with the concept of temperature, measuring the temperature of the oven when cooking. To discuss how the oven works, we introduce the concept of heat as an energy flow of a body with a higher temperature to one with lower temperature. Threads as heat capacity and specific heat of a substance are introduced, also discussing the use of glass wool, which function is to prevent heat exchange from the oven's interior with the environment. It is possible to demonstrate the three forms of heat transfer using the solar oven, and how the greenhouse effect is harnessed. One can discuss topics such as electromagnetic radiation, black-body radiation and the Stefan-Boltzmann law. We surveyed the response curve of our oven and an estimate of its total solar energy absorption efficiency. The development of this project allows a good understanding of the operation principles of a solar oven. UNIMONTES.

  9. Oro-facial thermal injury caused by food heated in a microwave oven. (United States)

    Wakefield, Yasha; Pemberton, Michael N


    Burns to the oral mucosa usually result from the accidental ingestion of hot food or beverages. The burns are usually of short duration and little consequence. The widespread use of microwave ovens, however, has added a new dimension to the problem. Microwave ovens heat food much quicker than a conventional oven, but they produce uneven heating within the food and extremely high temperatures can be reached. We describe two cases of patients who suffered inadvertent injury to the oral mucosa from the ingestion of microwave-heated food.

  10. Characterization of sponge cake baking in an instrumented pilot oven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Sommier


    Full Text Available The quality of baked products is the complex, multidimensional result of a recipe, and a controlled heating process to produce the desired final properties such as taste, colour, shape, structure and density. The process of baking a sponge cake in a convective oven at different air temperatures (160-180-220 °C leading to the same loss of mass was considered in this study. A special mould was used which allowed unidirectional heat transfer in the batter. Instrumentation was developed specifically for online measurement of weight loss, height variation and transient temperature profile and pressure in the product. This method was based on measuring heat fluxes (commercial sensors to account for differences in product expansion and colour. In addition, measurement of height with a camera was coupled to the product mass to calculate changes in density over time. Finally, combining this information with more traditional measurements gave a better understanding of heat and mass transfer phenomena occurring during baking.

  11. [Antigen retrieval by microwave oven with buffer of citric acid]. (United States)

    Pellicer, E M; Sundblad, A


    Microwave oven (mwo) is used to stimulate tissue fixation and to retrieve antigens damaged by fixation. Heavy metal salt solutions, water, and citric acid buffer (cab) have been suggested for this purpose. A serie of tumors treated with cab and phosphate-buffered saline (pbs) with mwo were studied immunohistochemically with 24 antibodies. Controls were treated in the same way, except for microwaving. The antibodies were directed against antigens of the following tumors: breast and prostate carcinoma, carcinoid, lymphoma and melanoma. The results showed that cab enhanced the immunoreactivity of the following antigens: estrogen receptors (AMAC), progesterone receptors (Novocastra), HMB45, vimentin, leukocyte common antigen, PCNA, p53, MIB-1 (Ki-67) and prostatic specific antigen. The antigens that did not improve their immunoreactivity, when compared with the control series were: factor VIII, keratin, Leu 22, L26, neuron-specific enolase, CEA, chromogranin, HBME-1, smooth muscle actin and EMA. Microwaving equally improved protein S100 and desmin either with cab or pbs. The only antigen that improved with pbs was actin. The results with B72.3 and NKI/C3 were poor and not reliable. In conclusion microwaving with cab enhances the immunoreactivity of the antibodies mentioned above leading to an increase in sensibility without loosing specificity.

  12. Effect on orange juice of batch pasteurization in an improved pilot-scale microwave oven. (United States)

    Cinquanta, L; Albanese, D; Cuccurullo, G; Di Matteo, M


    The effects on orange juice batch pasteurization in an improved pilot-scale microwave (MW) oven was evaluated by monitoring pectin methyl-esterase (PME) activity, color, carotenoid compounds and vitamin C content. Trials were performed on stirred orange juice heated at different temperatures (60, 70, 75, and 85 degrees C) during batch process. MW pilot plant allowed real-time temperature control of samples using proportional integrative derivative (PID) techniques based on the infrared thermography temperature read-out. The inactivation of heat sensitive fraction of PME, that verifies orange juice pasteurization, showed a z-value of 22.1 degrees C. Carotenoid content, responsible for sensorial and nutritional quality in fresh juices, decreased by about 13% after MW pasteurization at 70 degrees C for 1 min. Total of 7 carotenoid compounds were quantified during MW heating: zeaxanthin and beta-carotene content decreased by about 26%, while no differences (P < 0.05) were found for beta-cryptoxanthin in the same trial. A slight decrease in vitamin C content was monitored after MW heating. Results showed that MW heating with a fine temperature control could result in promising stabilization treatments.

  13. Metal leaching from oil sands coke and associated characterization of leachate toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puttaswamy, N.; Liber, K. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Toxicology Centre


    This presentation discussed the feasibility of using the large volumes of coke that are produced as a by-product of bitumen thermal upgrading as a material for reclamation landscapes. Under different environment conditions, the trace elements in the coke could be released into the surrounding landscapes. This study examined the leachability of metals from coke over a 15 day period in a batch leaching process under 2 different pH conditions, notably 5.5 and 9.5. Samples of leachate were analyzed for dissolved trace elements. A Ceriodaphnia dubia standard three-brood chronic test was used to evaluate the toxicity of the coke leachate at the end of the 15 day leaching period. Manganese and nickel releases were significantly higher under pH 5.5 leaching condition as compared to pH 9.5 conditions. The opposite was true for aluminum and vanadium. Toxicity results of coke leachate revealed that LC50 values were 6 per cent and 28 per cent for pH 5.5 and 9.5 treatments, respectively. The concentrations of vanadium and nickel in 100 per cent coke leachate from both pH treatments were well above the 7-d LC50 values of 550 {mu}g per litre and 3.8 {mu}g per litre, respectively. Nickel and/or vanadium may be the likely causes of leachate toxicity. The cause of coke leachate toxicity was determined by toxicity identification evaluations.

  14. Parametric Study of Gasification of the Mexican Petroleum Coke: Effect Feed Petroleum Coke on Energetic Characteristic of the Synthetic Gas (syngas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longoria-Ramírez R.


    Full Text Available In this work, a parametric study the gasification of the Mexican petroleum coke from the refineries of Cd Madero (CRM and Cadereyta, Nuevo León (CRC is performed. It is evaluates the energy behavior of the gasification process with objective to research which feedstock of petroleum coke has a be?? er yield of energy. Effect feed petroleum coke on energy characteristics of the clear synthetic gas (gasl: molar composition of CO and H2, High Heating Value (HHVgasl, energy power (Ogasl, Cold Gas Efficiency (CGEgasl and thermal efficiency of gasification (?tg is realized. The parametric study has been realized for 0.64 = oxygen/coke = 1.11 ratio with the fl ow of oxygen (6036.388 kg/h and steam/oxygen of 23% both constant. It is observed that in oxygen/coke 0.77 and 0.94 ratio it is present the best energy characteristics of the gasl from CRM and CRC, respectively. The best energy characteristics relationship of the gasl fined are: molar composition CO (65.6, 68.5, H2 (32.29, 29.13, HHVgasl (14054.6 kJ/kggasl, 13438.76 kJ/kggasl, Ogasl (204.86 GJ/h, 178.02 GJ/h, CGEgasl (74.43%, 71.14%, ?tg (86.2%, 83.22%. The gasification of petroleum coke CRM produced energy with 26.20 MJ/kgcoque rates whereas that gasification of the petroleum coke CRC produced 27.74 MJ/kgcoque rates.

  15. Analysis and numerical simulation research of the heating process in the oven (United States)

    Chen, Yawei; Lei, Dingyou


    How to use the oven to bake delicious food is the most concerned problem of the designers and users of the oven. For this intent, this paper analyzed the heat distribution in the oven based on the basic operation principles and proceeded the data simulation of the temperature distribution on the rack section. Constructing the differential equation model of the temperature distribution changes in the pan when the oven works based on the heat radiation and heat transmission, based on the idea of utilizing cellular automation to simulate heat transfer process, used ANSYS software to proceed the numerical simulation analysis to the rectangular, round-cornered rectangular, elliptical and circular pans and giving out the instantaneous temperature distribution of the corresponding shapes of the pans. The temperature distribution of the rectangular and circular pans proves that the product gets overcooked easily at the corners and edges of rectangular pans but not of a round pan.

  16. Oil content and fatty acid composition of eggs cooked in drying oven, microwave and pan. (United States)

    Juhaimi, Fahad Al; Uslu, Nurhan; Özcan, Mehmet Musa


    In this study, the effect of heating on the oil yield and fatty acid composition of eggs cooked in drying oven, microwave oven, pan and boiled were determined, and compared. The highest oil content (15.22%) was observed for egg cooked in drying oven, while the lowest oil (5.195%) in egg cooked in pan. The cooking in microwave oven caused a decrease in oleic acid content (46.201%) and an increase in the amount of palmitic acid content (26.862%). In addition, the maximum oleic acid (65.837%) and minimum palmitic acid (14.015%) contents were observed in egg oil cooked in pan. Results showed that fatty acids were significantly affected by cooking method. This study confirms that the cooking processing influences the fatty acid composition of egg oils.

  17. Analysis of standard reference materials following digestion using a modified appliance grade microwave oven (United States)

    Schaumloffel, John C.; Siems, William F.


    Microwave digestion provides a rapid means of sample preparation in the analytical laboratory. The major disadvantage of this method is the high cost of commercial microwave digestion systems. Modifications to the magnetron timing circuits of an appliance grade oven to make it suitable for sealed vessel microwave digestion are reported. The oven was modified without alteration to the irradiation cavity, and all initial safety features remain intact. Following digestion with the modified oven, NIST Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy. The analytical data are similar to the certified concentrations in the SRMs, indicating that the modified oven provides a durable, rapid, cost-effective means of sample preparation.

  18. Development of reduced crude processing technology in delayed coking units; Desenvolvimento da tecnologia de processamento de residuo atmosferico em unidade de coqueamento retardado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Gloria Maria Gomes; Bartros, Francisco Carlos da Costa; Goncalves, Natalie Jorge; Pala, Danielle Marins; Nadolni, Aline Voigt [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    Delayed Coking Technology can be described as thermal cracking of low value refinery residual streams into high-value products. This process has been applied in petroleum refining schemes in order to upgrade heavy and ultra-heavy crude oils. The typical feedstock is vacuum residue (VR). When we have an increasing medium distillates demand and refining schemes which have gas oil and VR excess, the simultaneous conversion of these streams becomes economically attractive, due mainly to the increase of diesel production. Thus, the processing of atmospheric residue (AR) in Delayed Coking Units (DCU) has fueled great interest for PETROBRAS. This work presents the results of industrial and pilot plant tests with AR and VR showing the increasing of diesel yields and decreasing of coke yields processing AR as feedstock. When we process all the AR in the DCU with high recycle rate we observe an increasing of 25% on refinery diesel production related to conventional schemes. The refining scheme of the new PETROBRAS refinery at Northeast of Brazil is based on this technology. This refinery will process heavy oils maximizing diesel production with minimum investment. (author)

  19. Color and volatile analysis of peanuts roasted using oven and microwave technologies. (United States)

    Smith, Alicia L; Barringer, Sheryl A


    Roasted peanut color and volatiles were evaluated for different time and temperature combinations of roasting. Raw peanuts were oven roasted at 135 to 204 °C, microwave roasted for 1 to 3 min, or combination roasted by microwave and oven roasting for various times and temperatures. Volatiles were measured using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry. L* values were used to categorize peanuts as under-roasted, ideally roasted, and over-roasted. The total roasting time in order to achieve ideal color was not shortened by most of the combination treatments compared to their oven roasted equivalents. Oven before microwave roasting compared to the reverse was found to significantly increase the L* value. Peanuts with the same color had different volatile levels. Hexanal concentrations decreased then increased with roasting. Pyrazine levels increased as roasting time increased, although oven at 177 °C treatments had the highest and microwave treatments had the lowest levels. Volatile levels generally increased as roasting time or temperature increased. Oven 177 °C for 15 min generally had the highest level of volatiles among the roasting treatments tested. Soft independent modeling of class analogies based on volatile levels showed that raw peanuts were the most different, commercial samples were the most similar to each other, and oven, microwave, and combination roasting were all similar in volatile profile. Peanuts can be roasted to equivalent colors and have similar volatile levels by different roasting methods. Oven and microwave roasting technologies produced the same roasted peanut color and had similar volatile trends as roasting time increased. Combination roasting also produced ideal color and similar volatile levels indicating that microwave technology could be further explored as a peanut roasting technique. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Assessment of heating rate and non-uniform heating in domestic microwave ovens. (United States)

    Pitchai, Krishnamoorthy; Birla, Sohan L; Jones, David; Subbiah, Jeyamkondan


    Due to the inherent nature of standing wave patterns of microwaves inside a domestic microwave oven cavity and varying dielectric properties of different food components, microwave heating produces non-uniform distribution of energy inside the food. Non-uniform heating is a major food safety concern in not-ready-to-eat (NRTE) microwaveable foods. In this study, we present a method for assessing heating rate and non-uniform heating in domestic microwave ovens. In this study a custom designed container was used to assess heating rate and non-uniform heating of a range of microwave ovens using a hedgehog of 30 T-type thermocouples. The mean and standard deviation of heating rate along the radial distance and sector of the container were measured and analyzed. The effect of the location of rings and sectors was analyzed using ANOVA to identify the best location for placing food on the turntable. The study suggested that the best location to place food in a microwave oven is not at the center but near the edge of the turntable assuming uniform heating is desired. The effect of rated power and cavity size on heating rate and non-uniform heating was also studied for a range of microwave ovens. As the rated power and cavity size increases, heating rate increases while non-uniform heating decreases. Sectors in the container also influenced heating rate (p microwave ovens were inconsistent in producing the same heating patterns between the two replications that were performed 4 h apart.

  1. No-Oven, No-Autoclave Composite Processing (United States)

    Rauscher, Michael D.


    Very large composite structures, such as those used in NASA's Space Launch System, push the boundaries imposed by current autoclaves. New technology is needed to maintain composite performance and free manufacturing engineers from the restraints of curing equipment size limitations. Recent efforts on a Phase II project by Cornerstone Research Group, Inc. (CRG), have advanced the technology and manufacturing readiness levels of a unique two-part epoxy resin system. Designed for room-temperature infusion of a dry carbon preform, the system includes a no-heat-added cure that delivers 350 F composite performance in a matter of hours. This no-oven, no-autoclave (NONA) composite processing eliminates part-size constraints imposed by infrastructure and lowers costs by increasing throughput and reducing capital-specific, process-flow bottlenecks. As a result of the Phase II activity, NONA materials and processes were used to make high-temperature composite tooling suitable for further production of carbon-epoxy laminates and honeycomb/ sandwich-structure composites with an aluminum core. The technology platform involves tooling design, resin infusion processing, composite part design, and resin chemistry. The various technology elements are combined to achieve a fully cured part. The individual elements are not unusual, but they are combined in such a way that enables proper management of the heat generated by the epoxy resin during cure. The result is a self-cured carbon/ epoxy composite part that is mechanically and chemically stable at temperatures up to 350 F. As a result of the successful SBIR effort, CRG has launched NONA Composites as a spinoff subsidiary. The company sells resin to end users, fabricates finished goods for customers, and sells composite tooling made with NONA materials and processes to composite manufacturers.

  2. Comparison study on biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using fresh and hot air oven dried IMPERATA CYLINDRICA leaf (United States)

    Najmi Bonnia, Noor; Fairuzi, Afiza Ahmad; Akhir, Rabiatuladawiyah Md.; Yahya, Sabrina M.; Rani, Mohd Azri Ab; Ratim, Suzana; Rahman, Norafifah A.; Akil, Hazizan Md


    The perennial rhizomatous grass; Imperata cylindrica (I. cylindrica) has been reported rich in various phytochemicals. In present study, silver nanoparticles were synthesized from aqueous leaf extract of I. cylindrica at two different leaf conditions; fresh leaves and hot-air oven dried leaves. Biosynthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Maximum absorption was recorded between 400 nm to 500 nm. FESEM analysis revealed that the silver nanoparticles predominantly form spherical shapes. The particles sizes were ranging from 22-37 nm. The elemental composition of the synthesized silver nanoparticles was confirmed by using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the reducing and stabilizing actions came from biomolecules associated with I. cylindrica leaf extract. Thus in this investigation, an environmentally safe method to synthesized silver nanoparticles using local plant extract was successfully established.

  3. Heat Transfer Characteristics of Calcined Petroleum Coke in Waste Heat Recovery Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zheng


    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of heat transfer characteristics of calcined petroleum coke in waste heat recovery process. The model of heat exchanger was set up. The model has been used to investigate the effects of porosity (0.58 to 0.79, equivalent heat conductivity coefficient (0.9 to 1.1, and equivalent specific heat (0.9 to 1.1. The calculated values of calcined petroleum coke temperature showed good agreement with the corresponding available experimental data. The temperature distribution of calcined petroleum coke, the calcined petroleum coke temperature at heat exchanger outlet, the average heat transfer coefficient, and the heat recovery efficiency were studied. It can also be used in deriving much needed data for heat exchanger designs when employed in industry.

  4. Pyrolysis kinetics of coking coal mixed with biomass under non-isothermal and isothermal conditions. (United States)

    Jeong, Ha Myung; Seo, Myung Won; Jeong, Sang Mun; Na, Byung Ki; Yoon, Sang Jun; Lee, Jae Goo; Lee, Woon Jae


    To investigate the kinetic characteristics of coking coal mixed with biomass during pyrolysis, thermogravimetric (TG) and thermo-balance reactor (TBR) analyses were conducted under non-isothermal and isothermal condition. Yellow poplar as a biomass (B) was mixed with weak coking coal (WC) and hard coking coal (HC), respectively. The calculated activation energies of WC/B blends were higher than those of HC/B blends under non-isothermal and isothermal conditions. The coal/biomass blends show increased reactivity and decreased activation energy with increasing biomass blend ratio, regardless of the coking properties of the coal. The different char structures of the WC/B and HC/B blends were analyzed by BET and SEM. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The New Method of XRD Measurement of the Degree of Disorder for Anode Coke Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo Zhang


    Full Text Available Quantitative analysis by X-ray powder diffraction of two cokes (pitch coke and petroleum coke shows that their crystal structure changed with increasing temperature. The crystal data processing of the crystallization degree of disorder is used with further improvement of the proposed microcrystalline-stacking fault calculation method. With this improvement it is now possible to obtain the degree of stacking disorder of two cokes applied as anode materials at different graphitization temperatures. Raman spectroscopy verified the accuracy of this method, which is more reliable than the crystal structure refinement using the d002 method. This paper provides the theoretical analysis and interpretation of the relationship between the microstructure model of the material and quantitative data, discharge capacity, and the first charge-discharge efficiency.

  6. Selective Coke Combustion by Oxygen Pulsing During Mo/ZSM‐5‐Catalyzed Methane Dehydroaromatization (United States)

    Coumans, Ferdy J. A. G.; Uslamin, Evgeny; Kapteijn, Freek


    Abstract Non‐oxidative methane dehydroaromatization is a promising reaction to directly convert natural gas into aromatic hydrocarbons and hydrogen. Commercialization of this technology is hampered by rapid catalyst deactivation because of coking. A novel approach is presented involving selective oxidation of coke during methane dehydroaromatization at 700 °C. Periodic pulsing of oxygen into the methane feed results in substantially higher cumulative product yield with synthesis gas; a H2/CO ratio close to two is the main side‐product of coke combustion. Using 13C isotope labeling of methane it is demonstrated that oxygen predominantly reacts with molybdenum carbide species. The resulting molybdenum oxides catalyze coke oxidation. Less than one‐fifth of the available oxygen reacts with gaseous methane. Combined with periodic regeneration at 550 °C, this strategy is a significant step forward, towards a process for converting methane into liquid hydrocarbons. PMID:27791321

  7. Safety during handling of coal, coal dust, coke and coke dust. Sicherheit beim Umgang mit Kohlen und Kohlenstaeuben sowie mit Koksen und Koksstaeuben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohlschmidt, J.; Hoeppner, K.; May, M.; Schmieder, L.


    This paper reviews fire and explosion prevention measures for transport, storage and combustion of brown coal and black coal. The fire and explosion hazard of coal and coke dust is characterized; various examples of hazardous situations in handling coal and coke are presented. Safety requirements for the design of coal and coke handling equipment according to GDR standard TGL 30634/02 are further noted. Safe storage of bulk coal in open-air facilities as well as safe transportation and bunker storage of fuel dust are described. Safety requirements for manually operated coal combustion equipment and for pneumatic fuel-feeding systems of steam generators are also outlined. Fire fighting methods to be employed in case of fires or suspected smoldering fires are listed briefly. (11 refs.)

  8. Zeolite deactivation during hydrocarbon reactions: characterisation of coke precursors and acidity, product distribution


    Wang, B.


    The catalytic conversion of hydrocarbons over zeolites has been applied in large scale petroleum-refining processes. However, there is always formation and retention of heavy by-products, called coke, which causes catalyst deactivation. This deactivation is due to the poisoning of the acid sites and/or pore blockage. The formation of coke on hydrocarbon processing catalysts is of considerable technological and economic importance and a great deal of work has been carried out to this study. Th...

  9. Blast furnace coke properties and the influence on off-gas dust


    Lundgren, Maria


    In blast furnace ironmaking, efforts are made to decrease the coke consumption mainly by increasing the pulverized coal injection rate. This will cause changes in in-furnace reduction conditions, burden distribution and demands on raw material strength, etc. In order to maintain stable operation and minimize material losses through the off-gas, it is important to understand fines generation and behaviour in the blast furnace.  The strength and reactivity of coke at high temperature, measured ...

  10. Development of coke properties during the descent in the blast furnace


    Lundgren, Maria


    The efficiency in use of reducing agents in blast furnace (BF) ironmaking has been significantly improved over the years. At most blast furnaces, auxiliary fuels are injected to replace some of the coke. To further reduce carbon consumption, prevention of losses and modification of raw materials or process conditions are required. In this study coke properties, their development during the descent in the BF under different process conditions, contribution to off-gas dust as well as modificati...

  11. Volatiles production from the coking of coal; Sekitan no netsubunkai ni okeru kihatsubun seisei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, Y.; Saito, H.; Inaba, A. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)


    In order to simplify the coke manufacturing process, a coke production mechanism in coal pyrolysis was discussed. Australian bituminous coal which can produce good coke was used for the discussion. At a temperature raising rate of 50{degree}C per minute, coal weight loss increases monotonously. However, in the case of 3{degree}C, the weight loss reaches a peak at a maximum ultimate temperature of about 550{degree}C. The reaction mechanism varies with the temperature raising rates, and in the case of 50{degree}C per minute, volatiles other than CO2 and propane increased. Weight loss of coal at 3{degree}C per minute was caused mainly by methane production at 550{degree}C or lower. When the temperature is raised to 600{degree}C, tar and CO2 increased, and so did the weight loss. Anisotropy was discerned in almost of all coke particles at 450{degree}C, and the anisotropy became remarkable with increase in the maximum ultimate temperature. Coke and volatiles were produced continuously at a temperature raising rate of 50{degree}C per minute, and at 3{degree}C per minute, the production of the coke and volatiles progressed stepwise as the temperature has risen. 7 refs., 6 figs.

  12. Discrete Element Method Modeling of the Rheological Properties of Coke/Pitch Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Majidi


    Full Text Available Rheological properties of pitch and pitch/coke mixtures at temperatures around 150 °C are of great interest for the carbon anode manufacturing process in the aluminum industry. In the present work, a cohesive viscoelastic contact model based on Burger’s model is developed using the discrete element method (DEM on the YADE, the open-source DEM software. A dynamic shear rheometer (DSR is used to measure the viscoelastic properties of pitch at 150 °C. The experimental data obtained is then used to estimate the Burger’s model parameters and calibrate the DEM model. The DSR tests were then simulated by a three-dimensional model. Very good agreement was observed between the experimental data and simulation results. Coke aggregates were modeled by overlapping spheres in the DEM model. Coke/pitch mixtures were numerically created by adding 5, 10, 20, and 30 percent of coke aggregates of the size range of 0.297–0.595 mm (−30 + 50 mesh to pitch. Adding up to 30% of coke aggregates to pitch can increase its complex shear modulus at 60 Hz from 273 Pa to 1557 Pa. Results also showed that adding coke particles increases both storage and loss moduli, while it does not have a meaningful effect on the phase angle of pitch.

  13. Catalytic conversion of lignin pyrolysis model compound- guaiacol and its kinetic model including coke formation (United States)

    Zhang, Huiyan; Wang, Yun; Shao, Shanshan; Xiao, Rui


    Lignin is the most difficult to be converted and most easy coking component in biomass catalytic pyrolysis to high-value liquid fuels and chemicals. Catalytic conversion of guaiacol as a lignin model compound was conducted in a fixed-bed reactor over ZSM-5 to investigate its conversion and coking behaviors. The effects of temperature, weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) and partial pressure on product distribution were studied. The results show the maximum aromatic carbon yield of 28.55% was obtained at temperature of 650 °C, WHSV of 8 h-1 and partial pressure of 2.38 kPa, while the coke carbon yield was 19.55%. The reaction pathway was speculated to be removing methoxy group to form phenols with further aromatization to form aromatics. The amount of coke increased with increasing reaction time. The surface area and acidity of catalysts declined as coke formed on the acid sites and blocked the pore channels, which led to the decrease of aromatic yields. Finally, a kinetic model of guaiacol catalytic conversion considering coke deposition was built based on the above reaction pathway to properly predict product distribution. The experimental and model predicting data agreed well. The correlation coefficient of all equations were all higher than 0.90.

  14. Design of a new PID controller using predictive functional control optimization for chamber pressure in a coke furnace. (United States)

    Zhang, Jianming


    An improved proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller based on predictive functional control (PFC) is proposed and tested on the chamber pressure in an industrial coke furnace. The proposed design is motivated by the fact that PID controllers for industrial processes with time delay may not achieve the desired control performance because of the unavoidable model/plant mismatches, while model predictive control (MPC) is suitable for such situations. In this paper, PID control and PFC algorithm are combined to form a new PID controller that has the basic characteristic of PFC algorithm and at the same time, the simple structure of traditional PID controller. The proposed controller was tested in terms of set-point tracking and disturbance rejection, where the obtained results showed that the proposed controller had the better ensemble performance compared with traditional PID controllers. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Emissions of PCDD/Fs and WHO-12 PCBs from stack flue gases of sinter plants in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aries, E.; Anderson, D.R.; Fisher, R.; Wilson, D.T. [Corus R, D and T, Swinden Technology Centre, Rotherham (United Kingdom); Hemfrey, D. [Corus Strip Products UK, Port Talbot (United Kingdom); Fray, T.A.T. [Corus Contruction and Industrial, Scunthorpe (United Kingdom)


    Introduction Steel made in the UK and most European countries is mainly produced at integrated works using a series of closely-linked processes: coke ovens, sintering, blast furnace, basic oxygen steel making (BOS), casting and rolling. Amongst steel-making processes, previous studies showed that the sintering of iron ore is a significant source of dioxins (PCDD/Fs). Investigations carried out in the period 1994-1999 at the five sinter plants operated by Corus in the UK showed that the overall PCDD/F stack emission concentration was 1.21 ng I-TEQ / Nm{sup 3}, yielding an estimated mass release between 37 and 40 g TEQ / year. Since 1998, a group of 12 PCBs, exhibiting a 'dioxinlike' behaviour, has been identified by the World Health Organisation (WHO) and the individual members of the group have been assigned toxic equivalent factors (TEFs) relative to that of 2,3,7,8- tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. These so-called WHO-12 PCBs are included as part of the overall dioxin concentration and should now be systematically investigated in industrial emissions. Therefore, Corus group has recently modified its PCDD/F analytical procedure in order to allow quantitative determination of WHO-12 PCBs by isotope dilution using a method derived from US EPA method 1668A. As a very limited amount of data is available with regard to PCBs in emissions of the iron ore sintering process, sampling trials were carried out in 2002 and 2003 at the three sinter plants operated by Corus in the UK. This study summarises the PCDD/F and PCB results obtained during those investigations. The congener profiles of PCDD/Fs and WHO-12 PCBs in the stack flue gases of these three sinter plants are presented and compared. The annual emission quantities of PCDD/Fs and WHO-12 PCBs estimated from the emission factors of each sinter plant were also determined.

  16. Considering adaptation of electrical ovens with unit-type releasing to peculiarities of thermal energization of mineral raw materials (United States)

    Zvezdin, A. V.; Bryanskikh, T. B.


    The paper gives a short overview of technologies of mineral raw material thermal treatment where application of electrical ovens with unit-type releasing is possible. Efficiency of such ovens for vermiculite concentrate and conglomerate roasting is proved by more than 13-years experience of their industrial operation. The paper furthermore considers alternative connections of energotechnological blocks of an oven in order to determine its efficient design for specific technology related to one or another mineral raw material.

  17. Feasibility study analysis for multi-function dual energy oven (case study: tapioca crackers small medium enterprise) (United States)

    Soraya, N. W.; El Hadi, R. M.; Chumaidiyah, E.; Tripiawan, W.


    Conventional drying process is constrained by weather (cloudy / rainy), and requires wide drying area, and provides low-quality product. Multi-function dual energy oven is the appropriate technology to solve these problems. The oven uses solar thermal or gas heat for drying various type of products, including tapioca crackers. Investment analysis in technical, operational, and financial aspects show that the multi-function dual energy oven is feasible to be implemented for small medium enterprise (SME) processing tapioca crackers.

  18. Frequency Distribution in Domestic Microwave Ovens and Its Influence on Heating Pattern. (United States)

    Luan, Donglei; Wang, Yifen; Tang, Juming; Jain, Deepali


    In this study, snapshots of operating frequency profiles of domestic microwave ovens were collected to reveal the extent of microwave frequency variations under different operation conditions. A computer simulation model was developed based on the finite difference time domain method to analyze the influence of the shifting frequency on heating patterns of foods in a microwave oven. The results showed that the operating frequencies of empty and loaded domestic microwave ovens varied widely even among ovens of the same model purchased on the same date. Each microwave oven had its unique characteristic operating frequencies, which were also affected by the location and shape of the load. The simulated heating patterns of a gellan gel model food when heated on a rotary plate agreed well with the experimental results, which supported the reliability of the developed simulation model. Simulation indicated that the heating patterns of a stationary model food load changed with the varying operating frequency. However, the heating pattern of a rotary model food load was not sensitive to microwave frequencies due to the severe edge heating overshadowing the effects of the frequency variations. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  19. Current and predicted supply of coking coal in Poland; Aktualna i prognozowana podaz wegla koksowego w Polsce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokrzycki, E.; Gawlik, L.; Blaschke, S.; Kapinos, J.; Ozga, U. [Centrum Podstawowych Problemow Gospodarki Surowcami Mineralnymi i Energia PAN, Krakow (Poland)


    Presented here is the magnitude of coking coal production in Poland in the years 1992-1994 and also predicted values for supply of this raw material for 1995 and 2000.Detailed data is given the production figures for various types of coking coal and also its quality. With the aim of determining trends in quality variations, each type of coking coal produced is divided into grades with differing intervals or sulphur, ash and moisture content. (author). 5 figs., 7 tabs.

  20. 76 FR 9409 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Primary Lead Smelting (United States)


    ... Vessels, Benzene Equipment Leaks, and Coke By-Product Recovery Plants (Benzene NESHAP) (54 FR 38044... Benzene NESHAP that ``consideration of maximum individual risk * * * must take into account the strengths... residual risk proposal for coke oven batteries (69 FR 48338, August 9, 2004). The Agency is considering all...

  1. Degradation behaviour of a high CSR coke in an experimental blast furnace:effect of carbon structure and alkali reactions


    Hilding, Tobias; Gupta, Sushil; Sahajwalla, Veena; Björkman, Bo; Wikström, Jan-Olov


      A high CSR coke was tested in the LKAB's Experimental Blast Furnace (EBF) at Luleå. The evolution of physical and chemical properties of the centre-line coke samples were analysed by Light Optical Microscopy (LOM), BET N2 absorption and SEM/XRF/XRD. Alkali distribution in the EBF cokes was examined by XRF/SEM and EDS. Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) was used to measure isothermal and non-isothermal CO2 reactivity of the cokes. The crystalline order of carbon and the concentration of al...

  2. Effect of temperature on coke properties and CO2 reactivity under laboratory conditions and in an experimental blast furnace


    Hilding, Tobias; Kazuberns, Kelli; Gupta, Sushil; Sahajwalla, Veena; Sakurovs, Richard; Björkman, Bo; Wikström, Jan-Olov


    Physical and chemical properties of coke samples excavated from LKAB's Experimental Blast Furnace (EBF) at MEFOS in Lulea, Sweden were characterized. A thermal annealing study the raw coke used in the EBF was also conducted in a horizontal furnace in a neutral environment at a range of temperatures up to 1650DGC. Carbon crystallite height of the EBF coke and of the cokes treated in the laboratory furnace were measured by XRD while mineral phases were characterized by using SEM/EDS. The CO2 re...

  3. Estimation of radiofrequency power leakage from microwave ovens for dosimetric assessment at nonionizing radiation exposure levels. (United States)

    Lopez-Iturri, Peio; de Miguel-Bilbao, Silvia; Aguirre, Erik; Azpilicueta, Leire; Falcone, Francisco; Ramos, Victoria


    The electromagnetic field leakage levels of nonionizing radiation from a microwave oven have been estimated within a complex indoor scenario. By employing a hybrid simulation technique, based on coupling full wave simulation with an in-house developed deterministic 3D ray launching code, estimations of the observed electric field values can be obtained for the complete indoor scenario. The microwave oven can be modeled as a time- and frequency-dependent radiating source, in which leakage, basically from the microwave oven door, is propagated along the complete indoor scenario interacting with all of the elements present in it. This method can be of aid in order to assess the impact of such devices on expected exposure levels, allowing adequate minimization strategies such as optimal location to be applied.

  4. Estimation of Radiofrequency Power Leakage from Microwave Ovens for Dosimetric Assessment at Nonionizing Radiation Exposure Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peio Lopez-Iturri


    Full Text Available The electromagnetic field leakage levels of nonionizing radiation from a microwave oven have been estimated within a complex indoor scenario. By employing a hybrid simulation technique, based on coupling full wave simulation with an in-house developed deterministic 3D ray launching code, estimations of the observed electric field values can be obtained for the complete indoor scenario. The microwave oven can be modeled as a time- and frequency-dependent radiating source, in which leakage, basically from the microwave oven door, is propagated along the complete indoor scenario interacting with all of the elements present in it. This method can be of aid in order to assess the impact of such devices on expected exposure levels, allowing adequate minimization strategies such as optimal location to be applied.

  5. Effect of different flours on quality of legume cakes to be baked in microwave-infrared combination oven and conventional oven. (United States)

    Ozkahraman, Betul Canan; Sumnu, Gulum; Sahin, Serpil


    The objective of this study was to compare the quality of legume cakes baked in microwave-infrared combination (MW-IR) oven with conventional oven. Legume cake formulations were developed by replacing 10 % wheat flour by lentil, chickpea and pea flour. As a control, wheat flour containing cakes were used. Weight loss, specific volume, texture, color, gelatinization degree, macro and micro-structure of cakes were investigated. MW-IR baked cakes had higher specific volume, weight loss and crust color change and lower hardness values than conventionally baked cakes. Larger pores were observed in MW-IR baked cakes according to scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. Pea flour giving the hardest structure, lowest specific volume and gelatinization degree was determined to be the least acceptable legume flour. On the other hand, lentil and chickpea flour containing cakes had the softest structure and highest specific volume showing that lentil and chickpea flour can be used to produce functional cakes.

  6. Evaluation of microwave oven heating for prediction of drug-excipient compatibilities and accelerated stability studies. (United States)

    Schou-Pedersen, Anne Marie V; Østergaard, Jesper; Cornett, Claus; Hansen, Steen Honoré


    Microwave ovens have been used extensively in organic synthesis in order to accelerate reaction rates. Here, a set up comprising a microwave oven combined with silicon carbide (SiC) plates for the controlled microwave heating of model formulations has been applied in order to investigate, if a microwave oven is applicable for accelerated drug stability testing. Chemical interactions were investigated in three selected model formulations of drug and excipients regarding the formation of ester and amide reaction products. In the accelerated stability studies, a design of experiments (DoE) approach was applied in order to be able to rank excipients regarding reactivity: Study A: cetirizine with PEG 400, sorbitol, glycerol and propylene glycol. Study B: 6-aminocaproic acid with citrate, acetate, tartrate and gluconate. Study C: atenolol with citric, tartaric, malic, glutaric, and sorbic acid. The model formulations were representative for oral solutions (co-solvents), parenteral solutions (buffer species) and solid dosage forms (organic acids applicable for solubility enhancement). The DoE studies showed overall that the same impurities were generated by microwave oven heating leading to temperatures between 150°C and 180°C as compared to accelerated stability studies performed at 40°C and 80°C using a conventional oven. Ranking of the reactivity of the excipients could be made in the DoE studies performed at 150-180°C, which was representative for the ranking obtained after storage at 40°C and 80°C. It was possible to reduce the time needed for drug-excipient compatibility testing of the three model formulations from weeks to less than an hour in the three case studies. The microwave oven is therefore considered to be an interesting alternative to conventional thermal techniques for the investigation of drug-excipient interactions during preformulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of porcelain surface and flexural strength obtained by microwave and conventional oven glazing. (United States)

    Prasad, Soni; Monaco, Edward A; Kim, Hyeongil; Davis, Elaine L; Brewer, Jane D


    Although the superior qualities of microwave technology are common knowledge in the industry, effects of microwave glazing of dental ceramics have not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the surface roughness and flexural strength achieved by glazing porcelain specimens in a conventional and microwave oven. Thirty specimens of each type of porcelain (Omega 900 and IPS d.Sign) were fabricated and sintered in a conventional oven. The specimens were further divided into 3 groups (n=10): hand polished (using diamond rotary ceramic polishers), microwave glazed, and conventional oven glazed. Each specimen was evaluated for surface roughness using a profilometer. The flexural strength of each specimen was measured using a universal testing machine. A 2-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD post hoc analysis were used to determine significant intergroup differences in surface roughness (alpha=.05). Flexural strength results were also analyzed using 2-way ANOVA, and the Weibull modulus was determined for each of the 6 groups. The surfaces of the specimens were subjectively evaluated for cracks and porosities using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). A significant difference in surface roughness was found among the surface treatments (P=.02). Follow-up tests showed a significant difference in surface roughness between oven-glazed and microwave-glazed treatments (P=.02). There was a significant difference in flexural strength between the 2 porcelains (Pmicrowave-glazed group was the highest (1.9) as compared to the other groups. The surface character of microwave-glazed porcelain was superior to oven-glazed porcelain. Omega 900 had an overall higher flexural strength than IPS d.Sign. Weibull distributions of flexural strengths for Omega 900 oven-glazed and microwave-glazed specimens were similar. SEM analysis demonstrated a greater number of surface voids and imperfections in IPS d. Sign as compared to Omega 900.

  8. Thermal oxidation of rice bran oil during oven test and microwave heating. (United States)

    Mishra, Richa; Sharma, Harish K; Sarkar, Bhavesh C; Singh, Charanjiv


    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the oxidative stability of physically refined rice bran oil (RBO) under oven heating at 63 °C and microwave heating conditions by absorptivity. Oil samples with tertiary-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) (100 ppm and 200 ppm), citric acid (CA), butylhydroxyanisole/butylhydroxytoluene (BHA/BHT) and in other combination, BHA/BHT+CA were submitted to oven test for 6 days, and the linear coefficient of correlation between peroxide value and absorptivity at 232 nm was determined. The gradual increase in peroxide value and absorptivity at 232 nm was observed in all the RBO samples, control and antioxidant added. RBO samples added with tertiary-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) had shown the least peroxide value and absorptivity as 6.10 and 5.8 respectively, when added at a concentration of 200 ppm whereas; the control RBO samples had shown the maximum values. The peroxide values obtained from the correlations during the oven test were found closely correlated with the peroxide values obtained during the microwave oven heating experimentally. The effect of microwave heating on the oryzanol content and p-anisidine value was also observed and the correlation to the oven test was established. The oryzanol content and p-anisidine values obtained after oven heating when correlated to the microwave heating data showed the oryzanol content 13,371, 13,267 and 13,188 ppm after 1 day, 4 days and 5 days respectively which were closely correlated with the experimental value.

  9. Microwave oven-related injuries treated in hospital EDs in the United States, 1990 to 2010. (United States)

    Thambiraj, Dana F; Chounthirath, Thiphalak; Smith, Gary A


    The widespread availability of microwave ovens has sparked interest in injuries resulting from their use. Using a retrospective cohort design, the objective of this study is to investigate the epidemiology of microwave oven-related injuries treated in United States emergency departments (EDs) from 1990 through 2010 by analyzing data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System. An estimated 155959 (95% confidence interval [CI], 133515-178402) individuals with microwave oven-related injuries were treated in US hospital EDs from 1990 through 2010, which equals an average of 21 individuals per day; 60.7% were female; 63.3% were adults (≥18 years); 98.1% of injury events occurred at home; and 3.9% of patients were hospitalized. During the 21-year study period, the number and rate of microwave oven-related injuries increased significantly by 93.3% and 50.0%, respectively. The most common mechanism of injury was a spill (31.3%), and the most common body region injured was the hand and fingers (32.4%). Patients younger than 18 years were more likely to sustain an injury to their head and neck (relative risk: 1.65; 95% CI, 1.39-1.96) than adults. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate microwave oven-related injuries on a national scale. Microwave ovens are an important source of injury in the home in the United States. The large increases in the number and rate of these injuries underscore the need for increased prevention efforts, especially among young children. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Survival of Listeria spp. on raw whole chickens cooked in microwave ovens. (United States)

    Farber, J M; D'Aoust, J Y; Diotte, M; Sewell, A; Daley, E


    The prevalence of microwave ovens in North American homes has increased dramatically within the last decade. Although microwave ovens are primarily used for reheating of foods, they are now more commonly being applied to the cooking of raw foods. Although cooking of raw foods, according to manufacturers' instructions targets an organoleptically acceptable end product, the process does not address the microbiological safety of the cooked food. Seventeen microwave ovens from various commercial suppliers were used to cook naturally contaminated whole raw broilers ( 1.8 kg) according to manufacturers' instructions. Temperature probes (six per chicken) were used to measure the temperature of chickens immediately after cooking and during the holding period. Of 81 Listeria-positive raw broilers and 93 raw roasters, 1 (1.2%) and 9 (9.7%), respectively, yielded viable Listeria spp. after microwave cooking. Of these, two were undercooked (visual inspection), one was over the maximum weight stipulated by the oven manufacturer and another one was over the maximum weight and undercooked. A significantly greater proportion of contaminated cooked birds was observed with roasters than with broilers, where for one of these contaminated roasters, the temperature at all six measured sites was > or = 87 degrees C. Most of the postcook Listeria-positive birds were associated with 2 of the 17 microwave ovens. Factors such as wattage, cavity size, and the presence or absence of a turntable seemingly did not play a significant role in the survival of Listeria spp. in microwave-cooked chicken. However, the general inability of microwave ovens to uniformly heat chicken carcasses was noted. In order to promote greater safety of microwave-cooked foods, general recommendations for consumers are provided.

  11. Microwave sintering of sol-gel composite films using a domestic microwave oven (United States)

    Kobayashi, Makiko; Matsumoto, Makoto


    Feasibility study of sol-gel composite microwave sintering using a domestic microwave oven was carried out. Two kinds of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) powders were mixed with PZT sol-gel solution and the mixture was sprayed onto 3-mm-thick titanium substrate. The films were sintered by 700 W domestic oven for 10 min. Ultrasonic measurement was carried out in pulse-echo mode and clear multiple echoes were confirmed. It would be suitable method to fabricate high frequency broadband focused ultrasonic transducers. Further research is required to improve sintering degree.

  12. Science at Home: Measuring a Thermophysical Property of Water with a Microwave Oven (United States)

    Levine, Zachary H.


    An attempt to calibrate a conventional oven led to making a measurement of a thermophysical property of water using items found in the author's home. Specifically, the ratio of the energy required to heat water from the melting point to boiling to the energy required to completely boil away the water is found to be 5.7. This may be compared to the standard value of 5.5. The close agreement is not representative of the actual uncertainties in this simple experiment (Fig. 1). Heating water in a microwave oven can let a student apply the techniques of quantitative science based on questions generated by his or her scientific curiosity.

  13. Plant Tissue Culture in a Bag. (United States)

    Beck, Mike


    Describes the use of an oven bag as a sterile chamber for culture initiation and tissue transfer. Plant tissue culture is an ideal tool for introducing students to plants, cloning, and experimental design. Includes materials, methods, discussion, and conclusion sections. (SAH)

  14. Highly coke-resistant ni nanoparticle catalysts with minimal sintering in dry reforming of methane. (United States)

    Han, Joung Woo; Kim, Chanyeon; Park, Jun Seong; Lee, Hyunjoo


    Nickel catalysts are typically used for hydrogen production by reforming reactions. Reforming methane with carbon dioxide, called dry reforming of methane (DRM), is a good way to produce hydrogen or syngas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide) from two notable greenhouse gases. However, Ni catalysts used for DRM suffer from severe coke deposition. It has been known that small Ni nanoparticles are advantageous to reduce coke formation, but the high reaction temperature of DRM (800 °C) inevitably induces aggregation of the nanoparticles, leading to severe coke formation and degraded activity. Here, we develop highly coke-resistant Ni catalysts by immobilizing premade Ni nanoparticles of 5.2 nm in size onto functionalized silica supports, and then coating the Ni/SiO2 catalyst with silica overlayers. The silica overlayers enable the transfer of reactants and products while preventing aggregation of the Ni nanoparticles. The silica-coated Ni catalysts operate stably for 170 h without any degradation in activity. No carbon deposition was observed by temperature programmed oxidation (TPO), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Raman spectroscopy. The Ni catalysts without silica coating show severe sintering after DRM reaction, and the formation of filamentous carbon was observed. The coke-resistant Ni catalyst is potentially useful in various hydrocarbon transformations. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. An empirical study on the preparation of the modified coke and its catalytic oxidation properties (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Jiang, Wenqiang


    T As a methyl acrylic ester fungicide, pyraclostrobin has the advantages of high activity, wide sterilization spectrum and high safety level comparing with the traditional fungicide. Due to less toxicity and side effects on human and environment, the use of pyraclostrobin and its mixture in agriculture is increasing. The heavy use of pyraclostrobin will inevitably cause pollution to the biological and abiotic environment. Therefore, it is of great significance to do the research on the degradation of pyraclostrobin. In this study, coke, as matrix, was modified by chemical modification. The modified coke was used as the catalyst and the pyraclostrobin was used as the degradation object. The degradation experiment of pyraclostrobin was carried out by using catalytic oxidation. The catalytic oxidation performance of modified coke was studied. The result showed that in the catalytic oxidation system of using modified coke as catalyst and H2O2 as oxidant, the best reaction condition is as following: The modified coke which is modified by using 70% concentration nitric acid is used as catalyst; The dosage of the catalyst is10g; The dosage of H2O2 is 0.6ml; The reaction time is 6 hours.

  16. Colour change of soft denture liners after storage in coffee and coke. (United States)

    Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; Zuccolotti, Bruna Carolina Rossatti; Moreno, Amália; dos Santos, Daniela Micheline; Pesqueira, Aldiéris Alves; Dekon, Stefan Fiuza de Carvalho


    This study was to evaluate the colour change of soft denture liners after thermocycling and storage in coffee and coke. Four liners, two silicone-based (Sofreliner S and Reline GS) and two acrylic resin-based (Soft Confort and Dentuflex), were evaluated in this study. Ten samples were obtained for each group. After 2000 cycles of thermocycling with baths of 5°C and 55°C, five samples were stored in coffee and the remaining samples in coke. The colour alteration was evaluated in a reflection spectrophotometer before and after thermocycling, and after 1, 3, 24, 48 and 96h of storage in coffee and coke. Data were submitted to anova and Tukey's HSD test (α=0.05). Thermocycling and storage period represented a higher statistically significant influence for the resin liners than for the silicone materials. Coke did not influence the colour stability of the materials during storage. However, the coffee solution generated statistically significant colour alteration in the material Soft Confort. In the comparison between the coffee and coke solutions, there was no statistically significant difference for colour alteration only for the material Dentuflex. The silicone liners presented better colour stability following thermocycling and storage independent of the solution. The coffee solution was a statistically significant factor for colour alteration of the material Soft Confort. © 2010 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Influence of Coke Ratio on the Sintering Behavior of High-Chromium Vanadium-Titanium Magnetite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songtao Yang


    Full Text Available High-chromium vanadium and titanium magnetite (HCVTM sinter has poor properties. The coke ratio has an important effect on the behavior of HCVTM sintering as it affects the mineral phases in the high-chromium vanadium and titanium sinter (HCVTS via changing the sintering temperature and atmosphere. In this work, the sintering behavior of HCVTM mixed with varying coke ratios was investigated through sintering pot tests, X-ray diffraction (XRD, gas chromatographic analysis, and mineral phase analysis. The results show that, with the increase of the coke ratio from 4.0% to 6.0%, leading to the increase of the combustion ratio of the flue gas, the vertical sintering rate and sinter productivity decrease. Meanwhile, with the change of the coke ratio, the content of magnetite, silicate, and perovskite increase, while the hematite and calcium ferrite decrease. In addition, the tumble strength and reduction ability of HCVTS decrease, and its degradation strength increase. It was found that the appropriate coke ratio for the sintering process was 5.0 wt %.

  18. Effective adsorption of phenolic compound from aqueous solutions on activated semi coke (United States)

    Gao, Xiaoming; Dai, Yuan; Zhang, Yu; Fu, Feng


    Activated Semi coke was prepared by KOH activation and employed as adsorbent to study adsorption function of phenolic compound from aqueous solutions. The adsorption result showed that the adsorption capacity of the activated semi coke for phenolic compound increased with contact time and adsorbent dosage, and slightly affected by temperature. The surface structure property of the activated semi coke was characterized by N2 adsorption, indicating that the activated semi coke was essentially macroporous, and the BET surface area was 347.39 m2 g-1. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that the surface of the activated semi coke had a high developed pore. The adsorption kinetics were investigated according to pseudofirst order, pseudosecond order and intraparticle diffusion, and the kinetics data were fitted by pseudosecond order model, and intraparticle diffusion was not the only rate-controlling step. Adsorption isotherm was studied by Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, Redlich-Peterson, Sips and Toth models. The result indicated that adsorption isotherm data could fit well with Langmuir, Redlich-Peterson, Sips and Toth models.

  19. Post oxygen treatment characteristics of coke as an anode material for Li-ion batteries. (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Hun; Park, Min-Sik; Jo, Yong Nam; Yu, Ji-Sang; Jeong, Goojin; Kim, Young-Jun


    The effect of a oxygen treatment on the electrochemical characteristics of a soft carbon anode material for Li-ion batteries was investigated. After a coke carbonization process at 1000 degrees C in an argon atmosphere, the samples were treated under a flow of oxygen gas to obtain a mild oxidation effect. After this oxygen treatment, the coke samples exhibited an improved initial coulombic efficiency and cycle performance as compared to the carbonized sample. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed that the carbonized cokes consisted of disordered and nanosized graphene layers and the surface of the modified carbon was significantly changed after the treatment. The chemical state of the cokes was analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The enhanced electrochemical properties of the surface modified cokes could be attributed to the mild oxidation effect induced by the oxygen treatment. The mild oxidation process could have led to the elimination of surface imperfections and the reinforcement of a solid electrolyte interphase film, which resulted in the improved electrochemical characteristics.

  20. Reference method for total water in lint cotton by automated oven drying combined with volumetric Karl Fischer titration (United States)

    In a preliminary study to measure total water in lint cotton we demonstrated that volumetric Karl Fischer Titration of moisture transported by a carrier gas from an attached small oven is more accurate than standard oven drying in air. The objective of the present study was to assess the measuremen...

  1. Understanding the bias between moisture content by oven drying and water content by Karl Fischer titration at moisture equilibrium (United States)

    Multiple causes of the difference between equilibrium moisture and water content have been found. The errors or biases were traced to the oven drying procedure to determine moisture content. The present paper explains the nature of the biases in oven drying and how it is possible to suppress one ...

  2. The chemistry of coke deposits formed on a Pt-Sn catalyst during hydrogenation of n-alkanes to mono-olefins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afonso, J.C.; Schmal, M.; Frety, R. (Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil))


    This work presents a detailed study of coke deposition on a Pt-Sn catalyst under industrial conditions. The spent catalyst was submitted to Soxhlet extraction and the soluble coke was characterized by means of IR, UV and GC-MS. The catalyst before and after coke extraction was characterized by means of IR, carbon content and temperature-programmed oxidation (TPO). Coke formation on the catalyst involves several processes: (1) successive dehydrogenation/cyclization of alkyl chains (polyene route); (2) N-alkane oligomerization; (3) Diels-Alder-type reactions. The structure of insoluble coke is quite different from that of soluble coke: the elimination of the latter one causes disappearance of the low-temperature oxidation zone (TPO). Soluble coke contains dominant proportion of aliphatic groups whereas polyaromatic structures predominate in insoluble coke. 39 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Design of Controlled Release Non-erodible Polymeric Matrix Tablet Using Microwave Oven-assisted Sintering Technique. (United States)

    Patel, Dm; Patel, Bk; Patel, Ha; Patel, Cn


    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of sintering condition on matrix formation and subsequent drug release from polymer matrix tablet for controlled release. The present study highlights the use of a microwave oven for the sintering process in order to achieve more uniform heat distribution with reduction in time required for sintering. We could achieve effective sintering within 8 min which is very less compared to conventional hot air oven sintering. The tablets containing the drug (propranolol hydrochloride) and sintering polymer (eudragit S-100) were prepared and kept in a microwave oven at 540 watt, 720 watt and 900 watt power for different time periods for sintering. The sintered tablets were evaluated for various tablet characteristics including dissolution study. Tablets sintered at 900 watt power for 8 min gave better dissolution profile compared to others. We conclude that microwave oven sintering is better than conventional hot air oven sintering process in preparation of controlled release tablets.

  4. Health status among urban residents living in proximity to petroleum coke storage: a first examination. (United States)

    Hendryx, Michael; Entwhistle, Jennifer; Kenny, Emily; Illyn, Peter


    We conducted an in-person survey in neighborhoods in south Chicago to examine whether residence near outdoor petroleum coke storage piles was associated with poorer health status and illness symptoms. A total of 223 adults (≥18) completed the surveys in English or Spanish, including 136 from a neighborhood exposed to the petroleum coke and 87 from a nearby comparison neighborhood. Exposure was defined based on prevailing winds and distance. We conducted a propensity score regression analysis, and found that residents in the exposed neighborhood were significantly more likely to report poor self-rated health, more unhealthy physical and mental health days, more illness symptoms including in particular respiratory and neurological symptoms, and worse perceived environmental conditions. The survey is limited by the small sample and the self-report nature of the data, but provides initial quantitative evidence that residence near outdoor petroleum coke storage piles may pose a public health risk.

  5. 75 FR 42611 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedure for Microwave Ovens (United States)


    ..., Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, EE-2J, 1000 Independence Avenue... Procedure for Microwave Ovens AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy... of Energy, Forrestal Building, Room 8E-089, 1000 Independence Avenue, SW., Washington, DC 20585-0121...

  6. Tensile strength of type IV dental stones dried in a microwave oven. (United States)

    Hersek, Nur; Canay, Senay; Akça, Kivanç; Ciftçi, Yalçin


    It is known that drying dental stones in a microwave oven can save time, but the strength of the material may be affected by different drying methods. This study evaluated the diametral tensile strength (DTS) of 5 type IV gypsum products at different time intervals using microwave and air-drying methods. . A total of 300 cylinder specimens were prepared from 5 type IV dental stones (Moldano, Amberok, Herastone, Shera-Sockel, and Fujirock; n = 60 per stone) in accordance with the manufacturers' recommendations. Half of the specimens of each stone (n = 30) were dried in open air within a temperature range of 20 +/- 2 degrees C; the other half (n = 30) underwent initial setting in a silicone rubber mold in open air for 10 minutes and then were dried in a microwave oven for 10 minutes. Within these groups, 10 specimens were tested under diametral compression at each of the following time periods: 30, 60, and 120 minutes after drying. Three-way analysis of variance and Scheffe's post hoc test were performed for statistical comparisons at a significance level of Pmicrowave oven (mean 2.99 MPa) were significantly higher (Pmicrowave oven drying had a positive effect on the diametral tensile strength of 5 type IV dental stones.

  7. Computer-Presented Video Prompting for Teaching Microwave Oven Use to Three Adults with Developmental Disabilities (United States)

    Sigafoos, Jeff; O'Reilly, Mark; Cannella, Helen; Upadhyaya, Megha; Edrisinha, Chaturi; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Hundley, Anna; Andrews, Alonzo; Garver, Carolyn; Young, David


    We evaluated the use of a video prompting procedure for teaching three adults with developmental disabilities to make popcorn using a microwave oven. Training, using a 10-step task analysis, was conducted in the kitchen of the participant's vocational training program. During baseline, participants were instructed to make popcorn, but were given…

  8. Science at Home: Measuring a Thermophysical Property of Water with a Microwave Oven (United States)

    Levine, Zachary H.


    An attempt to calibrate a conventional oven led to making a measurement of a thermophysical property of water using items found in the author's home. Specifically, the ratio of the energy required to heat water from the melting point to boiling to the energy required to completely boil away the water is found to be 5.7. This may be compared to the…

  9. A solar oven in the aim of reducing wood consumption in the Sahel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ba, A.; Hamadou, A. [Centre National d' Energie Solaire, Niamey (Nigeria); Saley, H.A. [UDUS, Sokoto (Niger)


    01 Traditional ovens working with large amount of wood are used by butchers to roast mutton in Niger. As we know, this country is mostly occupied by Sahara desert. It is quite important to preserve its forest and all initiative to reduce wood consumption is welcome. That is one of the reasons that a solar oven is conceived. It is a hot box type solar cooker that has parallelepiped form with 1200 mm length, 975 mm width, and 755 mm height, the all with four rollers feet. The absorber is half cylinder, constituted with a black-painted sheet and with 1100 mm length and 965 mm diameter. The oven has a double glass cover and two reflectors permitting the increase of solar radiation in the box. The external wall is constituted of wood board on which a layer of varnish has been putted. Between the board and the absorber there is a glass wool insulation of 25 mm thickness. Tests have been run to characterise the oven: -temperature profile in the box (from the bottom to the glass cover) -efficiency of the cooker calculated - economic aspects examined. (orig.)

  10. Strength of Geopolymer Cement Curing at Ambient Temperature by Non-Oven Curing Approaches: An Overview (United States)

    Wattanachai, Pitiwat; Suwan, Teewara


    At the present day, a concept of environmentally friendly construction materials has been intensively studying to reduce the amount of releasing greenhouse gases. Geopolymer is one of the cementitious binders which can be produced by utilising pozzolanic wastes (e.g. fly ash or furnace slag) and also receiving much more attention as a low-CO2 emission material. However, to achieve excellent mechanical properties, heat curing process is needed to apply to geopolymer cement in a range of temperature around 40 to 90°C. To consume less oven-curing energy and be more convenience in practical work, the study on geopolymer curing at ambient temperature (around 20 to 25°C) is therefore widely investigated. In this paper, a core review of factors and approaches for non-oven curing geopolymer has been summarised. The performance, in term of strength, of each non-oven curing method, is also presented and analysed. The main aim of this review paper is to gather the latest study of ambient temperature curing geopolymer and to enlarge a feasibility of non-oven curing geopolymer development. Also, to extend the directions of research work, some approaches or techniques can be combined or applied to the specific properties for in-field applications and embankment stabilization by using soil-cement column.

  11. Use of a Microwave Oven. Youth Training Scheme. Core Exemplar Work Based Project. (United States)

    Further Education Staff Coll., Blagdon (England).

    This trainer's guide is intended to assist supervisors of work-based career training projects in helping students understand the benefits, advantages, and disadvantages of a microwave oven and its use. The guide is one in a series of core curriculum modules that is intended for use in combination on- and off-the-job programs to familiarize youth…

  12. Heat transfer and heating rate of food stuffs in commercial shop ovens

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Heat transfer and heating rate of food stuffs in commercial shop ovens. P NAVANEETHAKRISHNAN. ∗. , P S S SRINIVASAN and. S DHANDAPANI. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kongu Engineering College,. Perundurai 638 052 e-mail:, MS received 24 May 2006; ...

  13. Studies on Some Major and Trace Metals in Smoked and Oven ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mineral (Li, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn and Pb) composition of each of five species of fish, including Sarotherodon galilaues, Cyprinus carpio, Clarias gariepinus, Sardinella spp. and Labeo spp. Was determined in samples previously dried, either by traditional smoking method, or in laboratory oven, to gain ...

  14. 40 CFR 60.105a - Monitoring of emissions and operations for fluid catalytic cracking units (FCCU) and fluid coking... (United States)


    ... for fluid catalytic cracking units (FCCU) and fluid coking units (FCU). 60.105a Section 60.105a... and operations for fluid catalytic cracking units (FCCU) and fluid coking units (FCU). (a) FCCU and... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Petroleum Refineries: Catalytic Cracking Units...

  15. 77 FR 34012 - Foundry Coke Products From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order (United States)


    ... International Trade Administration Foundry Coke Products From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of... antidumping duty order on foundry coke products from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') would likely... Products from China Determination, 77 FR 32998 (June 4, 2012), and USITC Publication 4326 (May 29, 2012...

  16. Reaction Mechanism for the Formation of Nitrogen Oxides (NO x ) During Coke Oxidation in Fluidized Catalytic Cracking Units

    KAUST Repository

    Chaparala, Sree Vidya


    Fluidized catalytic cracking (FCC) units in refineries process heavy feedstock obtained from crude oil distillation. While cracking feed, catalysts get deactivated due to coke deposition. During catalyst regeneration by burning coke in air, nitrogen oxides (NOx) are formed. The increase in nitrogen content in feed over time has resulted in increased NOx emissions. To predict NOx concentration in flue gas, a reliable model for FCC regenerators is needed that requires comprehensive understanding and accurate kinetics for NOx formation. Based on the nitrogen-containing functional groups on coke, model molecules are selected to study reactions between coke-bound nitrogen and O2 to form NO and NO2 using density functional theory. The reaction kinetics for the proposed pathways are evaluated using transition state theory. It is observed that the addition of O2 on coke is favored only when the free radical is present on the carbon atom instead of nitrogen atom. Thus, NOx formation during coke oxidation does not result from the direct attack by O2 on N atoms of coke, but from the transfer of an O atom to N from a neighboring site. The low activation energies required for NO formation indicate that it is more likely to form than NO2 during coke oxidation. The favorable pathways for NOx formation that can be used in FCC models are identified. Copyright © 2015 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  17. 41 CFR 101-26.4904-416 - DD Form 416: Purchase Request for Coal, Coke, or Briquettes. (United States)


    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true DD Form 416: Purchase Request for Coal, Coke, or Briquettes. 101-26.4904-416 Section 101-26.4904-416 Public Contracts and... DD Form 416: Purchase Request for Coal, Coke, or Briquettes. Note: The form illustrated in § 101-26...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handoko Sugiharto


    Full Text Available The conventional method of water content measurement of aggregate and fresh concrete need along time to perform. As an alternative the use of microwave oven is explored in this research. The microwave oven used has 900 watt power and equiped with a turn table. Nine (9 type of aggregate consist of five (5 type of fine aggregate and four (4 type of coarse aggregate with varions water absorbsion value, are unvestigated. The rater contents measured is then compared with the once obtained using conventional oven. Four (4 type of mix using aggegate with varions water absorbsion values. Water content used for the fresh concrete mix is 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7. The test results show that this method can beused to measure water content of fine and coarse aggregate regardless of the water absorbsion values of the aggregates. For fine aggregate nine (9 minutes drying time is needed to get 100% accuracy while for coarse aggregate 11 minutes with 96% accuracy. For fresh concrete using aggregate with less than 5% absorbsion value 18 minutes is neede to get 98% accuracy, while for aggregate with 40% absorbsion value 35 minutes is needed to get 80% accuracy. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Pengukuran kadar air pada agregat dan beton segar dengan metode konvensional memerlukan waktu yang cukup lama, maka dilakukan penelitian penggunaan microwave oven sebagai metode alternatifnya. Microwave oven yang digunakan mempunyai daya 900 watt dan dilengkapi dengan piring putar. Dilakukan penelitian terhadap 9 tipe agregat (5 jenis agregat halus dan 4 jenis agregat kasar dengan berbagai nilai absorpsi. Sedangkan untuk beton segar dibuat 4 macam campuran dengan berbagai nilai absorpsi agregat. Faktor air-semen yang digunakan adalah 0.3, 0.5 dan 0.7. Hasil pengukuran kadar airnya dengan microwave oven dibandingkan terhadap oven standard. Hasil tes yang diperoleh menunjukkan bahwa metode ini dapat digunakan untuk mengukur kadar air agregat halus dan kasar dengan tidak tergantung pada

  19. Preparation of briquettes on the basis of desintegrated phyto-materials and the admixture of fine-grained coal and coke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakabský Štefan


    Full Text Available The contribution deals with the preparation of small-diameter briquettes on the basis of desintegrated phyto-materials and the admixture of coal and coke. The phyto-materials are classified as a dry biomass that can be, on the one hand, the wastes from wood-working industry,(sawdust, chips, bark, etc. or dried mass from the plant production and, on the other hand, the mass of quick-growing plants cultivated on special plantations. In present time this renewable energy resource attracts attention by its heating value ranging from 10 to 16 (EkoWATT, 2001, a low ash content of 0.5 – 6.5 % and by a low sulphur content in a water free sample of 0.05 –0.12 %.As a phyto-material the spruce sawdusts having a grain size of –2 mm were used. The admixture of brown coal, hard coal and coke with a grain size of 0.040 mm was added to the sawdust and in such way prepared mixtures were subjected to briquetting with the aim to obtain small-diameter briquettes. The influence of admixtures amount on the density, and the suitable briquetting press have been studied. A saleability of briquettes on the basis of phyto-materials is conditioned by their density that must be higher than 1,000 kg.m-3. Thus, an adding of denser material with a relatively high calorific value would enable to attain the required density as well as to retain and/or to improve the main utility properties, i.e. calorific value and ash content.The adding evinces itself in an enhancement of briquetting press, but also density of obtained briquettes is often much higher that required by the market. It was showed that in the case of clear spruce sawdust the density of 1,059 kg.m-3 under the briquetting press of 250 MPa can be attained. According to other results, an admixture of brown coal is not very favourable because briquetting press exceeds the value of 300 MPa. As to hard coal adding, the presses under 250 MPa were achieved at the content of 25 – 30 %. The density of these

  20. Drying behaviour, effective diffusivity and energy of activation of olive leaves dried by microwave, vacuum and oven drying methods (United States)

    Elhussein, Elaf Abdelillah Ali; Şahin, Selin


    Drying is the crucial food processing for bioactive components from plant materials before strating extraction in addition to preservation of raw plant materials during storage period. Olive leaves were dried by various methods such as microwave drying (MD), oven drying (OD) and vacuum drying (VD) at several temperature values in the present study. Mathematical models allow to develop, design and control the processes. 14 emprical equations were used to estimate the drying behaviour and the time required for drying. Convenience of the models were evaluated according to the correlation coefficient (R 2 ), varience (S 2 ) and root mean square deviation (D RMS ). On the other hand, the effective diffusion coefficient and energy for activation were also calculated. Effects of the drying methods on the total phenolic (TPC), flavonoid (TFC) and oleuropein contents and free radical scavenging activity (FRSA) of the olive leaves were also investigated to take into considiration the quality of the dried product. MD has proved to be the fastest drying method having the highest effective diffusivity and the lowest activation energy with a more qualitive product.

  1. Set-up and first operation of a plasma oven for treatment of low level radioactive wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nachtrodt Frederik


    Full Text Available An experimental device for plasma treatment of low and intermediate level radioactive waste was built and tested in several design variations. The laboratory device is designed with the intention to study the general effects and difficulties in a plasma incineration set-up for the further future development of a larger scale pilot plant. The key part of the device consists of a novel microwave plasma torch driven by 200 W electric power, and operating at atmospheric pressure. It is a specific design characteristic of the torch that a high peak temperature can be reached with a low power input compared to other plasma torches. Experiments have been carried out to analyze the effect of the plasma on materials typical for operational low-level wastes. In some preliminary cold tests the behavior of stable volatile species e. g., caesium was investigated by TXRF measurements of material collected from the oven walls and the filtered off-gas. The results help in improving and scaling up the existing design and in understanding the effects for a pilot plant, especially for the off-gas collection and treatment.

  2. Coke fouling process on the oil refining; Processo de incrustacao por coque no refino do petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bombardelli, Clovis; Fiorentin, Leila D.; Negrao, Cezar O.R.; Franco, Admilson T. [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica do Parana (CEFET-PR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica e de Materiais (PPGEM)


    The heavy crude fraction processing is performed under very high vacuum to minimize thermal cracking which cause coke deposition and damage the equipment. The current tendency is to process heavier oil leading to higher process temperatures and consequently to greater fouling. This situation demands better knowledge fouling process by carbonization. This problem is pronounced in the residual gasoil region of a vacuum distillation unit because it obstructs the recirculation circuits and the spray system with serious environmental and economics implications. This paper review the main correlated published work related to coke generation and fouling and presents a discussion about the works. (author)

  3. Effect of Contact Resistance on Bulk Resistivity of Dry Coke Beds (United States)

    Eidem, P. A.; Runde, M.; Tangstad, M.; Bakken, J. A.; Zhou, Z. Y.; Yu, A. B.


    Measurements show that bulk resistivity of dry coke beds decreases with increasing particle size. A further development of a coke bed model is proposed to explain this correlation. By image analysis, it has been determined that the total porosity increases with increasing particle size. An increased total porosity of the particles decreases the mechanical strength of the particles. In the modeling work, the strength of the coke particles is introduced through Young’s modulus. By the use of discrete element method (DEM) modeling of a dry coke bed, the particle-to-particle contact area variation with varying particle size and particle strength has been introduced into a model of the dry coke bed. This was done by the introduction of the concept of the Holm’s radius, known from metal contact theory for describing how the contact resistance is affected by the material resistivity and the contact area. By assuming a decrease in the particle strength due to increased porosity of the coke particles with increasing particle size, the calculated bulk resistivity for 7.3-mm particles with a Young’s modulus of 1.0 GPa is 5.24·10-3 Ωm and 3.44·10-3 Ωm for the 20-mm particles with a Young’s modulus of 0.1 GPa. By comparison, the measured bulk resistivity of the Corus coke is 4.67 ± 0.30·10-3 Ωm for the 5- to 10-mm fraction and 3.71 ± 0.45·10-3 Ωm for the 15- to 20-mm fraction. The measured contact resistance of Swedish Steel AB (SSAB) coke decreases with increasing contact area size from a contact diameter of 5 mm to a contact diameter of 30 mm. This is probably due to an increasing number of electrical contact spots. When two spheres are in contact, the measured contact resistance is lower compared to the 5-mm-diameter contact, which indicates that the increased contact pressure has lowered the contact resistance. This supports the modeling results.

  4. Advanced FCC catalyst matrix technology for reduced coke and slurry yields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maglio, A.; Keweshan, C.F.; Madon, R.J. (Engelhard Corp., Iselin, NJ (United States)); McLean, J.B. (Engelhard Corp., Houston, TX (United States))


    Engelhard's new Reduxion line of FCC catalysts have been developed to offer 10 to 20% lower coke versus current catalysts, while maintaining high bottoms upgrading selectivity. Aspects of Engelhard's PyroChem zeolite technology featured in the Precision Catalyst line have been combined with a controlled matrix acidity distribution which maintains sites selective for bottoms cracking while reducing the strong sites which lead to coke and gas formation. Results from pilot unit testing are presented and projections for commercial operations are provided.

  5. "In situ" extraction of essential oils by use of Dean-Stark glassware and a Vigreux column inside a microwave oven: a procedure for teaching green analytical chemistry. (United States)

    Chemat, Farid; Perino-Issartier, Sandrine; Petitcolas, Emmanuel; Fernandez, Xavier


    One of the principal objectives of sustainable and green processing development remains the dissemination and teaching of green chemistry in colleges, high schools, and academic laboratories. This paper describes simple glassware that illustrates the phenomenon of extraction in a conventional microwave oven as energy source and a process for green analytical chemistry. Simple glassware comprising a Dean-Stark apparatus (for extraction of aromatic plant material and recovery of essential oils and distilled water) and a Vigreux column (as an air-cooled condenser inside the microwave oven) was designed as an in-situ extraction vessel inside a microwave oven. The efficiency of this experiment was validated for extraction of essential oils from 30 g fresh orange peel, a by-product in the production of orange juice. Every laboratory throughout the world can use this equipment. The microwave power is 100 W and the irradiation time 15 min. The method is performed at atmospheric pressure without added solvent or water and furnishes essential oils similar to those obtained by conventional hydro or steam distillation. By use of GC-MS, 22 compounds in orange peel were separated and identified; the main compounds were limonene (72.1%), β-pinene (8.4%), and γ-terpinene (6.9%). This procedure is appropriate for the teaching laboratory, does not require any special microwave equipment, and enables the students to learn the skills of extraction, and chromatographic and spectroscopic analysis. They are also exposed to a dramatic visual example of rapid, sustainable, and green extraction of an essential oil, and are introduced to successful sustainable and green analytical chemistry.

  6. Evaluation of Some Local Egyptian Plants as a Source of Chlorophyll Pigments


    Hammouda, F. M. [فايزة محمود حمودة; Ismail, S. I.; Hussiney, H. A.; Hussein, A. A.


    Four plant materials viz. Spinacia oleracae Linn, (spinach), Beta vulgaris Limm (chard), Medicago sativa Linn, (alfalfa) and Petroselinum sativum Hoff. (parsely) were studied as local sources for the preparation of chlorophyll pigments as natural green colour additives. Processing of the plant materials were carried out under different conditions viz. blanching, non-blanching followed by drying in air or electrical oven or in solar dehydrating oven. The qualitative and quantitative evaluation...

  7. Environmental Benefit Assessment for the Carbonation Process of Petroleum Coke Fly Ash in a Rotating Packed Bed. (United States)

    Pei, Si-Lu; Pan, Shu-Yuan; Li, Ye-Mei; Chiang, Pen-Chi


    A high-gravity carbonation process was deployed at a petrochemical plant using petroleum coke fly ash and blowdown wastewater to simultaneously mineralized CO2 and remove nitrogen oxides and particulate matters from the flue gas. With a high-gravity carbonation process, the CO2 removal efficiency was found to be 95.6%, corresponding to a capture capacity of 600 kg CO2 per day, at a gas flow rate of 1.47 m3/min under ambient temperature and pressure. Moreover, the removal efficiency of nitrogen oxides and particulate matters was 99.1% and 83.2%, respectively. After carbonation, the reacted fly ash was further utilized as supplementary cementitious materials in the blended cement mortar. The results indicated that cement with carbonated fly ash exhibited superior compressive strength (38.1 ± 2.5 MPa at 28 days in 5% substitution ratio) compared to the cement with fresh fly ash. Furthermore, the environmental benefits for the high-gravity carbonation process using fly ash were critically assessed. The energy consumption of the entire high-gravity carbonation ranged from 80 to 169 kWh/t-CO2 (0.29-0.61 GJ/t-CO2). Compared with the scenarios of business-as-usual and conventional carbon capture and storage plant, the economic benefit from the high-gravity carbonation process was approximately 90 and 74 USD per ton of CO2 fixation, respectively.

  8. Electrical Resistivity Measurement of Petroleum Coke Powder by Means of Four-Probe Method (United States)

    Rouget, G.; Majidi, B.; Picard, D.; Gauvin, G.; Ziegler, D.; Mashreghi, J.; Alamdari, H.


    Carbon anodes used in Hall-Héroult electrolysis cells are involved in both electrical and chemical processes of the cell. Electrical resistivity of anodes depends on electrical properties of its constituents, of which carbon coke aggregates are the most prevalent. Electrical resistivity of coke aggregates is usually characterized according to the ISO 10143 standardized test method, which consists of measuring the voltage drop in the bed of particles between two electrically conducing plungers through which the current is also applied. Estimation of the electrical resistivity of coke particles from the resistivity of particle bed is a challenging task and needs consideration of the contribution of the interparticle void fraction and the particle/particle contact resistances. In this work, the bed resistivity was normalized by subtracting the interparticle void fraction. Then, the contact size was obtained from discrete element method simulation and the contact resistance was calculated using Holm's theory. Finally, the resistivity of the coke particles was obtained from the bed resistivity.

  9. Reduction in toxicity of coking wastewater to aquatic organisms by vertical tubular biological reactor. (United States)

    Zhou, Siyun; Watanabe, Haruna; Wei, Chang; Wang, Dongzhou; Zhou, Jiti; Tatarazako, Norihisa; Masunaga, Shigeki; Zhang, Ying


    We conducted a battery of toxicity tests using photo bacterium, algae, crustacean and fish to evaluate acute toxicity profile of coking wastewater, and to evaluate the performance of a novel wastewater treatment process, vertical tubular biological reactor (VTBR), in the removal of toxicity and certain chemical pollutants. A laboratory scale VTBR system was set up to treat industrial coking wastewater, and investigated both chemicals removal efficiency and acute bio-toxicity to aquatic organisms. The results showed that chemical oxygen demand (COD) and phenol reductions by VTBR were approximately 93% and 100%, respectively. VTBR also reduced the acute toxicity of coking wastewater significantly: Toxicity Unit (TU) decreased from 21.2 to 0.4 for Photobacterium phosphoreum, from 9.5 to 0.6 for Isochrysis galbana, from 31.9 to 1.3 for Daphnia magna, and from 30.0 to nearly 0 for Danio rerio. VTBR is an efficient treatment method for the removal of chemical pollutants and acute bio-toxicity from coking wastewater. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Coke drums inspection and evaluation using stress and strain analysis techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haraguchi, Marcio Issamu [Tricom Tecnologia e Servicos de Manutencao Industrial Ltda., Piquete, SP (Brazil); Samman, Mahmod [Houston Engineering Solutions, Houston, TX (United States); Tinoco, Ediberto Bastos; Marangone, Fabio de Castro; Silva, Hezio Rosa da; Barcelos, Gustavo de Carvalho [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    Coke drums deform due to a complex combination of mechanical and thermal cyclic stresses. Bulges have progressive behavior and represent the main maintenance problem related to these drums. Bulge failure typically result in through-wall cracks, leaks, and sometimes fires. Such failures generally do not represent a great risk to personnel. Repairs needed to maintain reliability of these vessels might require extensive interruption to operation which in turn considerably impacts the profitability of the unit. Therefore the condition, progression and severity of these bulges should be closely monitored. Coke drums can be inspected during turnaround with 3D Laser Scanning and Remote Visual Inspection (RVI) tools, resulting in a detailed dimensional and visual evaluation of the internal surface. A typical project has some goals: inspect the equipment to generate maintenance or inspection recommendations, comparison with previous results and baseline data. Until recently, coke drum structural analysis has been traditionally performed analyzing Stress Concentration Factors (SCF) thought Finite Element Analysis methods; however this technique has some serious technical and practical limitations. To avoid these shortcomings, the new strain analysis technique PSI (Plastic Strain Index) was developed. This method which is based on API 579/ ASME FFS standard failure limit represents the state of the art of coke drum bulging severity assessment has an excellent correlation with failure history. (author)

  11. The US merchant blast furnace coke market: current state of play

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aloe, A. [Shenango Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (US)


    A five page text is accompanied by a set of 11 slides/overheads. The talk discussed the reasons why the presenter believes that coke prices will stay above their historical levels for the foreseeable future. 3 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  12. Strength and deformation properties of polymer composites with finely dispersed coke (United States)

    Kozyrev, Yu. P.; Kovalenko, N. A.


    When the adhesive strength at a polymer/filler interface is changed from minimum values (FK materials) to maximum values (EK materials), the threshold concentration of finely dispersed coke, i.e., the lowest concentration for quasibrittle failure, of the composites, is more than doubled, increasing from 25% to 55% by volume.

  13. Utilizing the phenol byproducts of coke production: 3. Phenols as coinhibitors of thermopolymerization during styrene production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    I.I. Batura; A.F. Gogotov; V.I. Cherepanov; O.I. Baranov; A.A. Levchuk; M.V. Parilova [Irkutsk State Technical University, Irkutsk (Russian Federation)


    A new oligomerization procedure for phenol byproducts from coke production is experimentally studied. This method, oxidative combination, is intended to produce an effective coinhibitor of styrene thermopolymerization. When combined with a Mannich base, the new oligomer exhibits excellent inhibiting properties in the heat treatment of styrene and matches the effectiveness of imported inhibitors based on nitroxyl radicals. 15 refs., 1 tab.



    Zhang, Lu; Qi, Shi-Chao; Norinaga, Koyo


    Coking coal from Xinyu of Shanxi Province is extracted under elevated temperature and pressure via Accelerated Solvent and Soxhlet Extraction. Analyzing their GC/MS results, we explore the two extraction methods’ impact on the dissolution behavior of small molecules in coal and investigate the mechanism of the extraction.

  15. Selective Coke Combustion by Oxygen Pulsing During Mo/ZSM-5-Catalyzed Methane Dehydroaromatization. (United States)

    Kosinov, Nikolay; Coumans, Ferdy J A G; Uslamin, Evgeny; Kapteijn, Freek; Hensen, Emiel J M


    Non-oxidative methane dehydroaromatization is a promising reaction to directly convert natural gas into aromatic hydrocarbons and hydrogen. Commercialization of this technology is hampered by rapid catalyst deactivation because of coking. A novel approach is presented involving selective oxidation of coke during methane dehydroaromatization at 700 °C. Periodic pulsing of oxygen into the methane feed results in substantially higher cumulative product yield with synthesis gas; a H2 /CO ratio close to two is the main side-product of coke combustion. Using 13 C isotope labeling of methane it is demonstrated that oxygen predominantly reacts with molybdenum carbide species. The resulting molybdenum oxides catalyze coke oxidation. Less than one-fifth of the available oxygen reacts with gaseous methane. Combined with periodic regeneration at 550 °C, this strategy is a significant step forward, towards a process for converting methane into liquid hydrocarbons. © 2016 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  16. Modelling and Simulation of Coking in the Riser of an Industrial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Under normal Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) conditions, coke is the most important factor that affects catalyst activity. A pseudo homogeneous two - dimensional (2D) model of an industrial FCC riser is here presented. The FCC riser models of previous researchers were mostly based on the assumption of negligible mass ...

  17. Recycling waste plastics in EAF steelmaking. Carbon/slag interactions of HDPE-coke blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahajwalla, Veena; Rahman, Muhammad; Khanna, Rita; Saha-Chaudhury, Narendra [Centre for Sustainable Materials Research and Technology, The Univ. of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia); O' Kane, Paul; Skidmore, Catherine; Knights, David [OneSteel, Rooty Hill, Sydney, NSW (Australia)


    Due to the inherent limitations of current methods of plastic waste disposal, there have been concerted efforts worldwide towards developing alternative, environment friendly and economic recycling processes. With an aim to recycle waste plastics in EAF steelmaking, carbon/slag interactions for a number of blends made of metallurgical coke and HDPE (high density polyethylene) and an EAF slag (34.8 mass-% Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) have been investigated at 1550 C using a sessile drop arrangement. The rate of gas generation showed an increase with increasing HDPE concentration, reaching a maximum for blend 3 (with appr. 30% HDPE) and decreasing thereafter. Among all the blends investigated, blend 3 showed significantly higher levels of slag foaming as compared to metallurgical coke. HDPE-coke blends also showed better wetting compared to metallurgical coke with contact angles in some cases improving from 140 to 70 after 10 minutes of contact. These results have been discussed in terms of ash and sulphur contents of carbonaceous residues and dynamic changes in slag composition. Industrial trials on blend 3 showed a good agreement with laboratory results. This work opens novel avenues for the utilisation of plastics wastes as a valuable carbon resource in EAF steelmaking. (orig.)

  18. Coke, char and organic waste behaviour in the blast furnace with high injection rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudenau, H. W.


    Full Text Available Blast furnace operation with low coke rate, high amount of auxiliary hydrocarbons and use of nut coke causes a change in coke quality requirements. In particular, not burned in the raceway residues of injected substances (char and ash can influence the coke behaviour. Therefore combustion efficiency of various organic wastes with and without pulverized coal injection (PCI and coal char has been investigated under the raceway simulation conditions. Mixing of various substances improves their combustion efficiency. Study on coke gasification by carbon dioxide in the presence of char showed that with the increase of char concentration, coke strength reduction becomes smaller. The reactivity of char with CO2 is higher than that of coke. Therefore char is consumed preferentially. In presence of injected char, total pore volume in coke and its wear resistance were increased. Coke reactivity and microstructure in the presence of various kinds of ash has been studied. Many ash spheres were observed on the surface of coke matrix and its size was dependent on ash properties.

    La operación del horno alto con una tasa baja de coque, una cantidad elevada de hidrocarburos auxiliares y el empleo de coque calibrado, origina un cambio en las necesidades de calidad del coque. En particular, pueden influir en el comportamiento del coque los residuos inquemados en el raceway (cavidad enfrente a las toberas del horno de las sustancias que se inyectan (char y cenizas. El char es el residuo de carbón que se origina después que el carbón libera sus sustancias volátiles. Por tanto, se ha investigado la eficiencia de la combustión de varios residuos orgánicos con y sin inyección de carbón pulverizado (ICP y char, bajo las condiciones de simulación del raceway. La mezcla de varias sustancias mejora la eficiencia a la combustión. El estudio de la gasificación del coque por el dióxido de carbono en la

  19. Optimization of experimental conditions for recovery of coking coal fines by oil agglomeration technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.H.V.C. Chary; M.G. Dastidar [Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi (India). Centre for Energy Studies


    The significance of coking coal in the metallurgical sector as well as the meager coking coal reserves across the globe increase the necessity to recover coking coal fines from the fine coking coal slurries generated from coal preparation and utilization activities. Oil agglomeration studies were carried out by varying the experimental conditions for maximum recovery of coking coal fines i.e., yield of the agglomerates. The various operational parameters studied were oil dosage, agitation speed, agglomeration time and pulp density. By using Taguchi experimental design, oil dosage (20%), agitation speed (1100 rpm), agglomeration time (3 min) and pulp density (4.5%) were identified as the optimized conditions. A confirmation experiment has also been carried out at the optimized conditions. The percentage contribution of each parameter on agglomerate yield was analyzed by adopting analysis of variance (ANOVA) statistical method as well as multiple linear regression analysis. The order of influence of the parameters on the agglomerate yield is of the following order: pulp density {lt} oil dosage {lt} agitation speed {gt} agglomeration time. A mathematical model was developed to fit the set of experimental condition with the yield obtained at each test run and also at the optimized conditions. The experimentally obtained yield was compared with the predicted yield of the model and the results indicate a maximum error of 5% between the two. A maximum yield of 90.42% predicted at the optimized conditions appeared to be in close agreement with the experimental yield thus indicating the accuracy of the model in predicting the results. 12 refs., 4 figs., 11 tabs.

  20. Characterization of coke, or carbonaceous matter, formed on CoMo catalysts used in hydrodesulfurization unit in oil refinery (United States)

    Kimura, Nobuharu; Iwanami, Yoshimu; Koide, Ryutaro; Kudo, Reiko


    When a mixture of light gas oil (LGO) and light cycle oil is fed into an oil refinery’s hydrodesulfurization (HDS) unit to produce diesel fuel, the catalyst in the HDS unit is rapidly deactivated. By contrast, when the feed is LGO mixed with residue desulfurization gas oil, the catalyst is deactivated slowly. Hoping to understand why, the authors focused on the coke formed on the catalysts during the HDS reaction. The result of a comprehensive analysis of the coke suggested that the ways coke formed and grew on the catalysts may differ depending on the feeds used, which in turn could affect the deactivation behaviors of the catalysts.

  1. Improving heating uniformity of pathological tissue specimens inside a domestic microwave oven. (United States)

    Hassan, Osama A; Kandil, Ahmed H; El Bialy, Ahmed M; Hassaballa, Iman A


    A 3D coupled electromagnetic thermal model was developed using COMSOL 4.0 to predict the electromagnetic field distribution and temperature profile in pathological tissue samples immersed in a reagent inside the oven cavity. The effect of the volume of reagent on the mean heating rate and heating uniformity within the tissue sample was investigated. Also, the effect of using a water load, as a method of temperature control, is emphasized. A well insulated K type thermocouple connected to a PC is used for model validation. Good agreement is found between experimental and simulated temperature profiles. Results show that as the volume of reagent increases, the mean heating rate decreases and temperature homogeneity increases. Also, it is possible to minimize overshooting temperature values inside the tissue sample and enhance tissue uniformity by about 27% using 100 ml of water load and 42.26% using 150 ml. Domestic microwave oven is a low cost economical tool that can speed up tissue processing steps. Achieving uniform heating inside the microwave oven is the key factor for improving workflow inside pathological labs and maintaining tissue quality and integrity.

  2. Exposure assessment of microwave ovens and impact on total exposure in WLANs. (United States)

    Plets, David; Verloock, Leen; Van Den Bossche, Matthias; Tanghe, Emmeric; Joseph, Wout; Martens, Luc


    In situ exposure of electric fields of 11 microwave ovens is assessed in an occupational environment and in an office. Measurements as a function of distance without load and with a load of 275 ml of tap water were performed at distances of oven (without load), which is 2.5 and 1.1 times below the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection reference level for occupational exposure and general public exposure, respectively. For exposure at distances of >1 m, a model of the electric field in a realistic environment is proposed. In an office scenario, switching on a microwave oven increases the median field strength from 91 to 145 mV m(-1) (+91 %) in a traditional Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) deployment and from 44 to 92 mV m(-1) (+109 %) in an exposure-optimised WLAN deployment. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  3. Proposal to eliminate caviar-residue in ovens by analogous occurrences in other equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The idea was that, since the water vapor in the ovens under normal conditions was kept fluid at 700 atmospheres/450/sup 0/C, the inorganic salts would dissolve. This proposal was based on information published in a couple of technical journals and observations of silicification of turbine blades in steam turbine operations and quartz veins in geological formations. The articles dealt with solubility of salts such as BaCl/sub 2/, KCl, Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, and NaOH. Unfortunately, measurements stopped in the area of critical pressure. Results purported, however, that inorganic salts, rather concentrated, were soluble by highly superheated steam, and solubility improved as pressure increased. It was anticipated that this process could be applied to hydrogenation ovens since there was water present in the operation. Proposed was researching a method of getting the salts to form a mud instead of crystallizing and precipitating into the oven. The writer said that research should be conducted since high pressure techniques were available as well as required apparatus.

  4. Digestion of Plastic Materials for the Determination of Toxic Metals with a Microwave Oven for Household Use

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    SAKURAI, Hiroki; NORO, Junji; KAWASE, Akira; FUJINAMI, Masanori; OGUMA, Koichi


    A rapid sample-digestion method for the determination of toxic metals, cadmium, chromium, and lead, in polyethylene and polyvinyl chloride has been developed by using a microwave oven for household use...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuel S. Tam


    The goal of this series of design and estimating efforts was to start from the as-built design and actual operating data from the DOE sponsored Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project and to develop optimized designs for several coal and petroleum coke IGCC power and coproduction projects. First, the team developed a design for a grass-roots plant equivalent to the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project to provide a starting point and a detailed mid-year 2000 cost estimate based on the actual as-built plant design and subsequent modifications (Subtask 1.1). This unoptimized plant has a thermal efficiency of 38.3% (HHV) and a mid-year 2000 EPC cost of 1,681 $/kW. This design was enlarged and modified to become a Petroleum Coke IGCC Coproduction Plant (Subtask 1.2) that produces hydrogen, industrial grade steam, and fuel gas for an adjacent Gulf Coast petroleum refinery in addition to export power. A structured Value Improving Practices (VIP) approach was applied to reduce costs and improve performance. The base case (Subtask 1.3) Optimized Petroleum Coke IGCC Coproduction Plant increased the power output by 16% and reduced the plant cost by 23%. The study looked at several options for gasifier sparing to enhance availability. Subtask 1.9 produced a detailed report on this availability analyses study. The Subtask 1.3 Next Plant, which retains the preferred spare gasification train approach, only reduced the cost by about 21%, but it has the highest availability (94.6%) and produces power at 30 $/MW-hr (at a 12% ROI). Thus, such a coke-fueled IGCC coproduction plant could fill a near term niche market. In all cases, the emissions performance of these plants is superior to the Wabash River project. Subtasks 1.5A and B developed designs for single-train coal and coke-fueled power plants. This side-by-side comparison of these plants, which contain the Subtask 1.3 VIP enhancements, showed their similarity both in design and cost (1,318 $/kW for the

  6. Coke Formation During Hydrocarbons Pyrolysis. Part Two: Methane Thermal Cracking Formation de coke pendant la pyrolyse des hydrocarbures. Deuxième partie : pyrolyse du méthane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billaud F.


    Full Text Available Part one of this article dealt with coking in a steam cracking furnace. In this process, coke deposition is a very complex phenomenon due to the number of parameters involved. Nevertheless, for this process, coke deposition is a secondary reaction which does not affect steam cracking yields. It is completely different for methane thermal cracking. Coke is one of the main products of this reaction. Part two of this article deals with coke deposition on the walls of the reactors used for methane thermal cracking. After a brief description of the different set-ups used to study coke deposition, the main parameters involved are listed. The importance of temperature, conversion, type of diluent, and hydrocarbon partial pressure will be enhanced. To conclude, two approaches to the mechanism are proposed to explain coke formation during methane thermal cracking. La première partie de cet article faisait le point sur les réactions indésirables de cokage dans les réacteurs de vapocraquage : dans le cadre de ce procédé, la formation de coke est un phénomène complexe du fait du nombre important de paramètres mis en jeu. Toutefois, pour ce procédé, la réaction de formation du coke à la paroi des réacteurs est une réaction secondaire qui n'affecte pas les rendements de vapocraquage. Ceci est complètement différent dans le cas de la pyrolyse thermique du méthane, procédé pour lequel le coke est un produit principal et indésirable de la réaction. La seconde partie de cet article est consacrée plus particulièrement à la formation du coke, lors de la pyrolyse du méthane et présente les principaux résultats expérimentaux décrits dans la littérature. Parmi les différents montages expérimentaux utilisés pour mesurer le dépôt de coke, il est mentionné, à partir des travaux de la littérature, les 2 techniques suivantes : - la technique de la paroi chaude, - la technique du fil chaud. Pour la première technique, les montages exp

  7. 40 CFR 71.2 - Definitions. (United States)


    ... waste incineration, under section 129 of the Act; (9) Any standard or other requirement for consumer and...; (iv) Primary zinc smelters; (v) Iron and steel mills; (vi) Primary aluminum ore reduction plants; (vii... plants; (xii) Phosphate rock processing plants; (xiii) Coke oven batteries; (xiv) Sulfur recovery plants...

  8. Torrefaction reduction of coke formation on catalysts used in esterification and cracking of biofuels from pyrolysed lignocellulosic feedstocks (United States)

    Kastner, James R; Mani, Sudhagar; Hilten, Roger; Das, Keshav C


    A bio-oil production process involving torrefaction pretreatment, catalytic esterification, pyrolysis, and secondary catalytic processing significantly reduces yields of reactor char, catalyst coke, and catalyst tar relative to the best-case conditions using non-torrefied feedstock. The reduction in coke as a result of torrefaction was 28.5% relative to the respective control for slow pyrolysis bio-oil upgrading. In fast pyrolysis bio-oil processing, the greatest reduction in coke was 34.9%. Torrefaction at C. reduced levels of acid products including acetic acid and formic acid in the bio-oil, which reduced catalyst coking and increased catalyst effectiveness and aromatic hydrocarbon yields in the upgraded oils. The process of bio-oil generation further comprises a catalytic esterification of acids and aldehydes to generate such as ethyl levulinate from lignified biomass feedstock.

  9. Nutritional profiles of tiger Nut ( Cyperus esculentus ) plant organs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to determine major nutrient profiles changes of tiger nut plant during its growth period. The plant leaves, roots, tuber moisture, starch, fat and protein were analyzed by oven drying, enzymatic hydrolysis, glucose assay, soxhlet extraction and kjeldahl methods. The results show the moisture content ...

  10. Production of oil and coke from sludges containing organic pollutants; Gewinnung von Oel und Koks aus organisch belasteten Schlaemmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steger, M. [Martin Steger GmbH, Eggenfelden (Germany); Meissner, W.; Herold, R. [Max Aicher Umwelttechnik GmbH, Freilassing (Germany)


    Since the mid-eighties, Messrs. Max Aicher Umwelttechnik GmbH at Hammerau, Germany have been investigating sewage sludge pyrolysis. Laboratory experiments and semi-industrial investigations led to the construction of a combined sludge drying and conversion plant (``Aicher sludge recycling process``), in which the organic sludge fraction is converted into recyclable or combustible oils. Carbon is obtained as a by-product in solid form as conversion coke which can be utilized. Apart from sewage sludge, also industrial sludges with high organic fractions can be processed, e.g. sludges and sewage sludges from petroleum processing. (orig.) [Deutsch] In der Bundesrepublik Deutschland beschaeftigt sich die Max Aicher Umwelttechnik GmbH in Hammerau seit Mitte der Achtzigerjahre mit der Niedertemperaturkonvertierung (Pyrolyse) von Klaerschlamm. Versuche im Labor- und im halbtechnischen Massstab fuehrten zur Realisierung einer betriebstechnischen Anlage mit den Komponenten Schlammtrocknung und Konvertierung. Ziel des Aicher-Schlamm-Recycling-Verfahrens ist die Umwandlung der organischen Schlammfraktion in stofflich und energetisch verwertbare Oele. Bei der Umwandlung entsteht fixer Kohlenstoff, der im festen Rueckstand (Konversionskoks) angereichert wird. Neben dem gewonnenen Oel ist auch der produzierte Koks verwertbar. Einsatzstoffe fuer das Verfahren sind neben Klaerschlamm aus der kommunalen Abwasserreinigung vor allem industrielle Schlaemme mit hohen organischen Anteilen z.B. Schlaemme und Klaerschlaemme aus der Erdoelverarbeitung. (orig.)

  11. Novel carbon-rich additives preparation by degradative solvent extraction of biomass wastes for coke-making. (United States)

    Zhu, Xianqing; Li, Xian; Xiao, Li; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Tong, Shan; Wu, Chao; Ashida, Ryuichi; Liu, Wenqiang; Miura, Kouichi; Yao, Hong


    In this work, two extracts (Soluble and Deposit) were produced by degradative solvent extraction of biomass wastes from 250 to 350°C. The feasibilities of using Soluble and Deposit as additives for coke-making were investigated for the first time. The Soluble and Deposit, having significantly higher carbon content, lower oxygen content and extremely lower ash content than raw biomasses. All Solubles and most of Deposits can melt completely at the temperature ranged from 80 to 120°C and 140 to 180°C, respectively. The additions of Soluble or Deposit into the coke-making coal significantly improved their thermoplastic properties with as high as 9°C increase of the plastic range. Furthermore, the addition of Deposit or Soluble also markedly enhanced the coke quality through increasing coke strength after reaction (CSR) and reducing coke reactivity index (CRI). Therefore, the Soluble and Deposit were proved to be good additives for coke-making. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Recycling of rubber tires in electric arc furnace steelmaking: simultaneous combustion of metallurgical coke and rubber tyres blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magdalena Zaharia; Veena Sahajwalla; Byong-Chul Kim; Rita Khanna; N. Saha-Chaudhury; Paul O' Kane; Jonathan Dicker; Catherine Skidmore; David Knights [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). School of Materials Science and Engineering


    The present study investigates the effect of addition of waste rubber tires on the combustion behavior of its blends with coke for carbon injection in electric arc furnace steelmaking. Waste rubber tires were mixed in different proportions with metallurgical coke (MC) (10:90, 20:80, 30:70) for combustion and pyrolysis at 1473 K in a drop tube furnace (DTF) and thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), respectively. Under experimental conditions most of the rubber blends indicated higher combustion efficiencies compared to those of the constituent coke. In the early stage of combustion the weight loss rate of the blends is much faster compared to that of the raw coke due to the higher volatile yield of rubber. The presence of rubber in the blends may have had an impact upon the structure during the release and combustion of their high volatile matter (VM) and hence increased char burnout. Measurements of micropore surface area and bulk density of the chars collected after combustion support the higher combustion efficiency of the blends in comparison to coke alone. The surface morphology of the 30% rubber blend revealed pores in the residual char that might be attributed to volatile evolution during high temperature reaction in oxygen atmosphere. Physical properties and VM appear to have a major effect upon the measured combustion efficiency of rubber blends. The study demonstrates that waste rubber tires can be successfully co-injected with metallurgical coke in electric arc furnace steelmaking process to provide additional energy from combustion. 44 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Purification of highly polluted tip seepage water using brown coal coke. Reinigung hochbelasteter Deponiesickerwaesser mit Braunkohlenkoks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felgener, G. (Rheinbraun AG, Koeln (Germany)); Janitza, J.; Koscielski, S. (Inst. fuer Textil- und Verfahrenstechnik, Denkendorf (Germany))


    The purpose of tests conducted over a long period of time on actual seepage water from five different household refuse tips was to ascertain whether brown coal coke, which is available as a mass product and therefore cheap, is suitable for use as an adsorptive purification agent on highly polluted tip seepage water. The present paper discusses the concept, treatment costs and the findings obtained from the tests. On the strength of the purification results it is shown that the treatment of tip seepage water can be effected successfully with brown coal coke and that the values obtained are even much lower than those stipulated in Appendix 31 of the general administrative regulations. (orig.).

  14. Influence of Coke Breeze Combustion Conditions on the Emission of NOx in Sintering Process (United States)

    Su, Bo; Wu, Sheng-li; Zhang, Guo-liang; Que, Zhi-gang; Hou, Chao-gang

    NOx released during fuel combustion is one of the major air pollutants, such as acid rain and photochemical smog. At present, still not have an economical and effective method of inhibiting NOx emission for sintering flue gas. Therefore, controlling conditions of fuel combustions to enhance the reduction of NOx is important for decreased the emission. In this study, micro-sintering furnace has been performed to investigate the effects of NOx emission from char-N during coke breeze combustion. The results show that the emission concentration of NOx decreased with increasing temperature when it is sinter bed temperature higher than 1000°C. The lower emission concentration of NOx was obtained when the concentration of oxygen was decreased. And the maximum concentration of NOx will be reduced with the enhanced of heating rate. If heating preservation time was prolonged, it would promote to NOx reduction with reduction substances resulted in lower NOx emissions in the combustion of coke breezes.

  15. Study on CO2 gasification reactivity and physical characteristics of biomass, petroleum coke and coal chars. (United States)

    Huo, Wei; Zhou, Zhijie; Chen, Xueli; Dai, Zhenghua; Yu, Guangsuo


    Gasification reactivities of six different carbonaceous material chars with CO2 were determined by a Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA). Gasification reactivities of biomass chars are higher than those of coke and coal chars. In addition, physical structures and chemical components of these chars were systematically tested. It is found that the crystalline structure is an important factor to evaluate gasification reactivities of different chars and the crystalline structures of biomass chars are less order than those of coke and coal chars. Moreover, initial gasification rates of these chars were measured at high temperatures and with relatively large particle sizes. The method of calculating the effectiveness factor η was used to quantify the effect of pore diffusion on gasification. The results show that differences in pore diffusion effects among gasification with various chars are prominent and can be attributed to different intrinsic gasification reactivities and physical characteristics of different chars. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Automatic monitoring of moisture of circulating gases used for dry coke quenching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grishchenko, A.I.; Ereskovskii, O.S.; Savka, M.D.; Papochkin, A.I.; Sirotkin, I.A.; Stovolosov, S.M.; Kvasov, A.V.


    Evaluates effects of increased moisture in flue gases used for dry coke quenching and methods for moisture measurement. Increased moisture leads to an increase in hydrogen and carbon monoxide content, which increases explosion hazards as well as coke burnout degree. From among the measuring methods used in the USSR, the sorptive-electrolytic method is characterized by high accuracy and uncomplicated design of measuring instruments. The DV-1K moisture sensor indirectly determines gas moisture by measuring electric conductivity of the unsaturated water solutions of electrolyte (lithium chloride). Fluctuations of gas moisture cause temperature fluctuations of a moisture-sensitive element. A moisture measuring system consists of a number of DV-1K sensors, a power source and a recording system. Operation of the system is evaluated.

  17. Microwave Ovens (United States)

    ... Manufacture Label on Radiation-Emitting Consumer Electronics Information Requirements For Cookbooks, and User and Service Manuals (PDF - 233KB) Guidance for Industry and FDA Staff - Addition of URLs to Electronic Product Labeling Other Resources FDA Consumer Update: 5 Tips for ...

  18. Drying Characteristics and Product Quality of Lemon Slices Dried with Hot Air Circulation Oven and Hybrid Heatpump Dryers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Hong Lee


    Full Text Available In this research, drying characteristics and product quality of Coulomb-force-assisted heatpump and oven dried lemon slices were studied. Lemon slices with 3 mm thickness each, were dried using oven and Coulomb-force-assisted-heatpump dryer with and without auxiliary heater at different drying conditions. It was found that the drying rate of the lemon slices dried by all drying methods showed only falling rate states, which indicates the drying kinetics were controlled by internal moisture diffusion. Oven drying of lemon slices at 60°C showed the highest drying rate among all, followed by oven dried slices at 50°C, Coulomb-force-heater-assisted-heatpump (CF-HT-HP dried slices at 31°C, Coulomb-force-assisted-heatpump (CF-HP dried slices at 22°C, oven dried slices at 40°C and heatpump dried slices at 22°C. The average effective moisture diffusivity value for the slices dried with these drying methods was found in the range of 16.2 to 63.8´10-4 mm2min-1. In terms of quality assessment, CF-HP dried lemon slices retained the highest amount of Vitamin C as compared to the lemon slices dried by other drying methods. However, it retained relatively lower amount of total phenolic content (TPC as compared to oven dried products. Among of all, CF-HP drying method produced dried lemon slices with the highest Vitamin C (6.74 mg AA / g dry weight whereas oven dried lemon slices at 50°C preserved most of the TPC in the dried slices, which recorded as 13.76 mg GA / g dry weight.

  19. Biological removal of antiandrogenic activity in gray wastewater and coking wastewater by membrane reactor process. (United States)

    Ma, Dehua; Chen, Lujun; Liu, Cong; Bao, Chenjun; Liu, Rui


    A recombinant human androgen receptor yeast assay was applied to investigate the occurrence of antiandrogens as well as the mechanism for their removal during gray wastewater and coking wastewater treatment. The membrane reactor (MBR) system for gray wastewater treatment could remove 88.0% of antiandrogenic activity exerted by weakly polar extracts and 97.3% of that by moderately strong polar extracts, but only 32.5% of that contributed by strong polar extracts. Biodegradation by microorganisms in the MBR contributed to 95.9% of the total removal. After the treatment, the concentration of antiandrogenic activity in the effluent was still 1.05 μg flutamide equivalence (FEQ)/L, 36.2% of which was due to strong polar extracts. In the anaerobic reactor, anoxic reactor, and membrane reactor system for coking wastewater treatment, the antiandrogenic activity of raw coking wastewater was 78.6 mg FEQ/L, and the effluent of the treatment system had only 0.34 mg FEQ/L. The antiandrogenic activity mainly existed in the medium strong polar and strong polar extracts. Biodegradation by microorganisms contributed to at least 89.2% of the total antiandrogenic activity removal in the system. Biodegradation was the main removal mechanism of antiandrogenic activity in both the wastewater treatment systems. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Effect of petroleum coke expanding by perchloric acid on the performance of the resulted activated carbon (United States)

    Deng, Mei-Gen; Wang, Ren-Qing


    Petroleum coke (PC) was expanded by using KMnO4 as oxidant and HClO4 as intercalator so as to decrease the amount of KOH needed for the successive activation. Activated carbon (AC) was prepared by activation of the expanded PC (EPC) at KOH/coke mass ratio of 3:1 (denoted as EAC-3). As a comparison, AC was also made by activation of PC at KOH/coke mass ratio of 3:1, 4:1 and 5:1 (denoted as AC-3, AC-4 and AC-5). Influence of expanding modification on the structure and performance of PC and AC was investigated. The results revealed that the expanding treatment increased the interplanar distance of PC microcrystalline from 0.344 to 0.362 nm and decreased the microcrystalline thickness from 2.34 to 1.57 nm. The specific surface area of EAC-3 and AC-5 was 3461 and 3291 m2ṡg-1, respectively. The average pore size of EAC-3 was 2.19 nm, which is 0.11 nm larger than that of AC-5. At a scan rate of 0.5 mVṡs-1, EAC-3 and AC-5 achieved a specific gravimetric capacitance of 486 and 429 Fṡg-1, respectively. Supercapacitor based on EAC-3 possessed lower resistance and better power performance.

  1. Oxygen-containing coke species in zeolite-catalyzed conversion of methanol to hydrocarbons

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Zhaohui


    Zeolites are the most commonly used catalysts for methanol-to-hydrocarbon (MTH) conversion. Here, we identified two oxygen-containing compounds as coke species in zeolite catalysts after MTH reactions. We investigated the possible influences of the oxygen-containing compounds on coke formation, catalyst deactivation, product selectivity, and the induction period of the MTH reaction through a series of controlled experiments in which one of the identified compounds (2,3-dimethyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one) was co-fed with methanol over a zeolite H-ZSM-5 catalyst. Our results allow us to infer that once produced, the oxygen-containing compounds block the Brønsted acid sites by strong chemisorption and their rapid conversion to aromatics expedites the formation of coke and thus the deactivation of the catalyst. A minor effect of the production of such compounds during the MTH reaction is that the aromatic-based catalytic cycle can be slightly promoted to give higher selectivity to ethylene.

  2. Delayed coking unit preheat train optimization; Otimizacao do preaquecimento das Unidades de Coque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marins, Edson R.; Geraldelli, Washington O.; Barros, Francisco C. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)


    The oil industry has been investing in research and development of new techniques and process improvements with the objective to increase the residual fraction profitability and to fulfill the market demands. The adequacy of the refining scheme has led to the development of bottom of the barrel processes that has the objective to convert heavy fractions into products of higher aggregate value. In this context, the process of Delayed Coking presents a great importance in the production of distillates in the diesel range as well as the processing of heavy residues, mostly in the markets where the fuel oil consumption is being reduced. With the approach to help PETROBRAS decide which route to follow during new designs of Delayed Coking units, this work presents a comparative study of the preheat train performance among the energy recovery to preheat the feed, in contrast with preheating the feed and generating steam, simultaneously. In this study the Pinch Technology methodology was used as a procedure for heat integration with the objective of getting the maximum energy recovery from the process, finding the best trade-off between operational cost and investment cost. The alternative of steam generation aims to provide an appropriate flexibility in Delayed Coking units design and operation. (author)

  3. Microbial rehabilitation of soils in the vicinity of former coking plants; Mikrobielle Sanierung von Kokereiboeden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knackmuss, H.J. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Grenzflaechen- und Bioverfahrenstechnik, Stuttgart (Germany); Bryniok, D. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Grenzflaechen- und Bioverfahrenstechnik, Stuttgart (Germany)


    Two airlift reactors with a nominal volume of 15 liters were provided with a closed aeration circuit. This mode of operation for the first time permitted to determine the carbon balance of PAH degradation. A mineralisation rate of approx. 35% was found by this method, whereas in experiments performed in shaking bottles mineralisation was always over 60% in the case of PAH mixtures. Use of PAH mixtures leads to competitive effects. These effects were studied by means of bacterial pure cultures. Further fundamental studies were performed to find suitable solvents for PAH degradation in a culture system with two liquid phases and examine liquid-liquid extraction of PAH from soil washing water. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Zwei Airliftreaktoren mit einem Nennvolumen von 15 Litern wurden mit einem geschlossenen Belueftungskreislauf versehen. Diese Betriebsweise erlaubte erstmals die Bestimmung einer Kohlenstoffbilanz des PAK-Abbaus. Diese ergab eine Mineralisation von ca. 35%, waehrend die Mineralisationsrate bei Versuchen im Schuettelkolben selbst im Falle von PAK-Gemischen immer ueber 60% lag. Bei der Verwertung von PAK-Gemischen treten Kompetitionseffekte auf. Diese wurden mit bakteriellen Reinkulturen untersucht. Weitere grundlegende Arbeiten betrafen die Auswahl geeigneter Loesungsmittel fuer den PAK-Abbau in einem Kultursystem mit zwei Fluessigphasen und die Fluessig/Fluessig-Extraktion von PAK aus Bodenwaschwasser. (orig./SR)

  4. Technology for processing ammonium rhodanide of coking plants into high-purity ammonium thiocyanate and thiourea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urakaev, F.K. [Institute of Geology & Mineral SB RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)


    The regularities of the reversible reaction of isomerization of ammonium thiocyanate (NH{sub 4}NCS) into thiourea (NH{sub 2}){sub 2}CS, and the reverse reaction, were analyzed. An ecologically clean and highly efficient method for the extraction, purification, separation, and production of isomers from the coal byproduct ammonium thiocyanate was developed based on the measured volatilities of NH{sub 4}NCS and (NH{sub 2}){sub 2}CS.

  5. New approach for the removal of metal ions from water: adsorption onto aquatic plants and microwave reaction for the fabrication of nanometals. (United States)

    Chefetz, B; Sominski, L; Pinchas, M; Ginsburg, T; Elmachliy, S; Tel-Or, E; Gedanken, A


    We adsorb heavy metal ions such as Ag(+), Pb(2+), and Ru(3+) onto an aquatic plant and convert the adsorbed ions to the corresponding nanometallic particles by the polyol reaction carried out in a microwave oven.

  6. Microwave oven heating for inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes on frankfurters before consumption. (United States)

    Rodríguez-Marval, Mawill; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Kendall, Patricia A; Scanga, John A; Belk, Keith E; Sofos, John N


    Microwave oven heating was evaluated for inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes on inoculated and stored frankfurters. Frankfurters formulated without/with 1.5% potassium lactate and 0.1% sodium diacetate were inoculated with L. monocytogenes (1.9 +/- 0.2 log CFU/cm(2)), vacuum-packaged, and stored (4 degrees C) to simulate conditions prior to purchase by consumers. At storage days 18, 36, and 54, packages were opened and placed at 7 degrees C, simulating aerobic storage in a household refrigerator. At 0, 3, and 7 d of aerobic storage, 2 frankfurters were placed in a bowl with water (250 mL) and treated in a household microwave oven at high (1100 W) power for 30, 45, 60, or 75 s, or medium (550 W) power for 60 or 75 s. Frankfurters and the heating water were analyzed for total microbial counts and L. monocytogenes populations. Exposure to high power for 75 s reduced pathogen levels (0.7 +/- 0.0 to 1.0 +/- 0.1 log CFU/cm(2)) to below the detection limit ( 1.5 and 5.9 log CFU/cm(2) from control levels of 1.5 +/- 0.1 to 7.2 +/- 0.5 log CFU/cm(2). Depending on treatment and storage time, the water used to reheat the frankfurters had viable L. monocytogenes counts of microwave oven at high power for 75 s to inactivate up to 3.7 log CFU/cm(2) of L. monocytogenes contamination.

  7. Fracture toughness of yttria-stabilized zirconia sintered in conventional and microwave ovens. (United States)

    Marinis, Aristotelis; Aquilino, Steven A; Lund, Peter S; Gratton, David G; Stanford, Clark M; Diaz-Arnold, Ana M; Qian, Fang


    The fabrication of zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) dental prosthetic substructures requires an extended sintering process (8 to 10 hours) in a conventional oven. Microwave sintering is a shorter process (2 hours) than conventional sintering. The purpose of this study was to compare the fracture toughness of 3 mol % Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2 sintered in a conventional or microwave oven. Partially sintered ZrO2 specimens from 3 manufacturers, KaVo, Lava 3M, and Crystal HS were milled (KaVo Everest engine) and randomly divided into 2 groups: conventional sintering and microwave sintering (n=16 per group). The specimens were sintered according to the manufacturers' recommendations and stored in artificial saliva for 10 days. Fracture toughness was determined by using a 4-point bend test, and load to fracture was recorded. Mean fracture toughness for each material was calculated. A 2-way ANOVA followed by the Tukey HDS post hoc test was used to assess the significance of sintering and material effects on fracture toughness, including an interaction between the 2 factors (α=.05). The 2-way ANOVA suggested a significant main effect for ZrO2 manufacturer (P.05). The main effect of the sintering process (Conventional [5.30 MPa·m(1/2) ±1.00] or Microwave [5.36 MPa·m(1/2) ±0.92]) was not significant (P=.76), and there was no interaction between sintering and ZrO2 manufacturer (P=.91). Based on the results of this study, no statistically significant difference was observed in the fracture toughness of ZrO2 sintered in microwave or conventional ovens. Copyright © 2013 The Editorial Council of the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Halim


    Full Text Available Drying phenomena of oil palm frond waste as agriculture waste was observed using simple batch oven dryer. The operation temperatures were 50, 80 and 120 °C. The sample of oil palm frond was weighed periodically every 30 minutes. Moisture content, shrinkage phenomena and drying kinetic model were investigated to the difference operation temperature. Experimental result exhibited that temperature influent significantly to the drying rate. The water transport controlled by diffuse mechanism. Shrinkage occurred in radial direction and decreased the size to almost 65% from initial size. In longitudinal direction almost is not change of size.

  9. Microwave chemistry: Effect of ions on dielectric heating in microwave ovens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamil Anwar


    Full Text Available To understand the interactions of microwaves with dielectric materials and their conversion to thermal energy in aqueous systems, the effect of ionic concentration has been studied. Aqueous solutions of inorganic ions were exposed to microwaves (2.45 GHz in a modified oven under identical conditions. Difference in solution temperatures with reference to pure (deionized water was monitored in each case. A significant decrease in the temperature was observed with an increase in the quantity of ions. Experiments were repeated with several inorganic ions varying in size and charge. The information can be helpful in understanding the role of ions during dielectric heating.

  10. Death in the "microwave oven": A form of execution by carbonization. (United States)

    Durão, Carlos; Machado, Marcos P; Daruge Júnior, Eduardo


    Death in the "microwave oven" has nothing to do with microwaves energy. It is the jargon name given to a criminal form of execution by carbonization that has been adopted by drug dealers in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). The goal is to torture and intimidate victims, in an attempt of corpse occultation and to make identification harder or impossible. This paper brings to attention of the forensic international community an unusual and very cruel form of execution as a way to document these situations. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  11. Simulation of electrical and thermal fields in a multimode microwave oven using software written in C++ (United States)

    Abrudean, C.


    Due to multiple reflexions on walls, the electromagnetic field in a multimode microwave oven is difficult to estimate analytically. This paper presents a C++ program that calculates the electromagnetic field in a resonating cavity with an absorbing payload, uses the result to calculate heating in the payload taking its properties into account and then repeats. This results in a simulation of microwave heating, including phenomena like thermal runaway. The program is multithreaded to make use of today’s common multiprocessor/multicore computers.

  12. Robust Design of Terminal ILC with H∞ Mixed Sensitivity Approach for a Thermoforming Oven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Gauthier


    Full Text Available This paper presents a robust design approach for terminal iterative learning control (TILC. This robust design uses the H∞ mixed-sensitivity technique. An industrial application is described where TILC is used to control the reheat phase of plastic sheets in a thermoforming oven. The TILC adjusts the heater temperature setpoints such that, at the end of the reheat cycle, the surface temperature map of the plastic sheet will converge to the desired one. Simulation results are included to show the effectiveness of the control law.

  13. Evaluation of microwave oven heating for prediction of drug-excipient compatibilities and accelerated stability studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou-Pedersen, Anne Marie V; Østergaard, Jesper; Cornett, Claus


    a design of experiments (DoE) approach in order to be able to rank excipients regarding reactivity: Study A: cetirizine with PEG 400, sorbitol, glycerol and propylene glycol. Study B: 6-aminocaproic acid with citrate, acetate, tartrate and gluconate. Study C: atenolol with citric, tartaric, malic, glutaric......, and sorbic acid. The model formulations were representative for oral solutions (co-solvents), parenteral solutions (buffer species) and solid dosage forms (organic acids applicable for solubility enhancement). The DoE studies showed overall that the same impurities were generated by microwave oven heating...

  14. Mechanical strength of extrusion briquettes (BREX) for blast-furnace and ferroalloy production: II. Effect of the method of grinding coke breeze on the strength of extrusion briquettes (United States)

    Bizhanov, A. M.; Kurunov, I. F.; Dashevskii, V. Ya.


    The influence of the method of grinding coke breeze on the strength and the behavior of extrusion briquette (BREX) during static loading is studied. It is found that the size, the shape, and the surface relief of coke breeze particles affect the character of BREX fracture. The application of a shearing extruder for preliminary refinement of coke breeze can result in viscoelastic fracture of BREX due to an increase in its impact toughness.

  15. Aquecimento em forno de microondas / desenvolvimento de alguns conceitos fundamentais Heating in microwave ovens/ developing of basic concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia R. N. Barboza


    Full Text Available The microwave oven became a common domestic equipment, due mainly to the short time spent to heat foods. One of the most interesting characteristics of the microwave oven is the selective heating. Different from the conventional oven, where the heating is not selective, the heating by microwave depends on the chemical nature of the matter. Many Students of Chemistry have no knowledge of the principles involved in this selective heating, in spite of the daily microwave oven use. The heating by microwave is feasible for chemistry courses. In discussions about the microwave absorption by the matter it is possible to explore chemical properties like: heat capacity, chemical bound, molecular structure, dipole moments, polarization and dielectric constant. This paper presents the basic principles involved in the microwave heating. It is proposed a simple and inexpensive experiment that could be developed in general chemistry courses, to illustrate the relationship between heating and the chemical properties of some solvents. Experiments to check the power of the microwave oven are also proposed.

  16. A novel approach to mitigating sulphur dioxide emissions and producing a mercury sorbent material using oil-sands fluid coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, E.; Jia, C.Q. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry; Tong, S. [Wuhan Univ. of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering


    Pyrometallurgical smelting operations are a major source of sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) which is a precursor to acid rain and increased levels of UV-B penetration in boreal lakes. Mercury is also released in copper smelter off-gas, which can bioaccumulate and cause neurological disorders and death in humans. Fluid coke is produced in massive quantities as a by-product of bitumen upgrading at Syncrude Canada's facility in Fort McMurray, Alberta. Oilsands fluid coke can be used to reduce SO{sub 2} and produce elemental sulphur as a co-product. This process was dubbed SOactive. The reaction physically activates the fluid coke to produce a sulphur-impregnated activated carbon (SIAC) which is known as ECOcarbon. Some studies have indicated that SIAC is well suited for the removal of vapour phase mercury, mainly due to the formation of stable mercuric sulphide species. This paper discussed the findings made to date in relation to the SOactive process and the characterization of ECOcarbons. The paper discussed the use of fluid coke for reducing SO{sub 2} emissions while producing elemental sulphur as well as coke-SO{sub 2}-oxygen (O{sub 2}) and coke-SO{sub 2}-water (H{sub 2}O) systems. The paper also examined the production of SIAC products for use in capturing vapour phase mercury. The paper presented the materials and methodology, including an illustration of the apparatus used in reduction of SO{sub 2} and activation of fluid coke. It was concluded that more work is still needed to analyse the effect of O{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} reduction and SIAC properties under smelter flue gas conditions. 10 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.

  17. Effect of Extracted Compositions of Liquefaction Residue on the Structure and Properties of the Formed-coke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Yong-hui


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of extracted compositions of the de-ash liquefaction residue (D-DCLR on pyrolysis products yields, compressive strength and composition of the formed-coke, which was prepared by co-pyrolysis of the low metamorphic pulverized coal and D-DCLR. The scanning electron microscope (SEM and the Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR were used to characterize the morphology and functional group of the formed-coke, respectively. The results showed that the extracted compositions of D-DCLR were heavy oil (HS, asphaltene (A, pre-asphaltene (PA and tetrahydrofuran isolusion (THFIS, whose contents were 5.10%, 40.90%, 14.4%, 39.60%, respectively. During the pyrolysis process, HS was the main source of tar, and HS, A as well as PA were conducive to improve gas yields. The THFIS helped to improve the yield of the formed-coke up to 89.5%, corresponding to the compressive strength was only 147.7N/ball for the coke. A and PA were the key factors affecting the compressive strength and surface structure of the formed-coke. The compressive strength of coke could be up to 728.0N/ball with adding D-DCLR, which reduced by 50% after the removal of A and PA. The FT-IR analysis showed that the types of surface functional groups of the formed-coke were remained the same after co-pyrolysis, but the absorption peak intensity of each functional group was changed.

  18. 76 FR 52604 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Kansas Regional Haze State... (United States)


    ...; and (4) the remaining useful life of any potentially affected sources. States must demonstrate in... pollution control technology in use at the source, (4) the remaining useful life of the source, and (5) the... rock processing plants, (14) Coke oven batteries, (15) Sulfur recovery plants, (16) Carbon black plants...

  19. 3D modelling of coupled mass and heat transfer of a convection-oven roasting process. (United States)

    Feyissa, Aberham Hailu; Gernaey, Krist V; Adler-Nissen, Jens


    A 3D mathematical model of coupled heat and mass transfer describing oven roasting of meat has been developed from first principles. The proposed mechanism for the mass transfer of water is modified and based on a critical literature review of the effect of heat on meat. The model equations are based on a conservation of mass and energy, coupled through Darcy's equations of porous media - the water flow is mainly pressure-driven. The developed model together with theoretical and experimental assessments were used to explain the heat and water transport and the effect of the change in microstructure (permeability, water binding capacity and elastic modulus) that occur during the meat roasting process. The developed coupled partial differential equations were solved by using COMSOL Multiphysics®3.5 and state variables are predicted as functions of both position and time. The proposed mechanism was partially validated by experiments in a convection oven where temperatures were measured online. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cost-effective single-step carbon nanotube synthesis using microwave oven (United States)

    Algadri, Natheer A.; Ibrahim, K.; Hassan, Z.; Bououdina, M.


    This paper reports the characterization of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) synthesised using a conventional microwave oven method, offering several advantages including fast, simple, low cost, and solvent free growth process. The procedure involves flattening of graphite/ferrocene mixture catalyst inside the microwave oven under ambient conditions for a very short duration of 5 s, which inhibits the loss factor of graphite and ferrocene. The effect of graphite/ferrocene mixture ratio for the synthesis of CNTs is investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and UV-NIR-Vis measurements. The samples produced using the different ratios contain nanotubes with an average diameter in the range 44-79 nm. The highest yield of CNTs is attained with graphite/ferrocene mixture ratio of 70:30. The lowest I D/I G ratio intensity as identified by Raman spectroscopy for 70:30 ratio indicates the improved crystallinity of CNTs. Due to the capillary effect of CNTs, Fe nanoparticles are found to be encapsulated inside the tubes at different positions along the tube length. The obtained results showed that the smaller the diameter of graphite and ferrocene favors the synthesis of graphene oxide upon microwave radiation.

  1. Drying kinetics of apricot halves in a microwave-hot air hybrid oven (United States)

    Horuz, Erhan; Bozkurt, Hüseyin; Karataş, Haluk; Maskan, Medeni


    Drying behavior and kinetics of apricot halves were investigated in a microwave-hot air domestic hybrid oven at 120, 150 and 180 W microwave power and 50, 60 and 70 °C air temperature. Drying operation was finished when the moisture content reached to 25% (wet basis) from 77% (w.b). Increase in microwave power and air temperature increased drying rates and reduced drying time. Only falling rate period was observed in drying of apricot halves in hybrid oven. Eleven mathematical models were used for describing the drying kinetics of apricots. Modified logistic model gave the best fitting to the experimental data. The model has never been used to explain drying behavior of any kind of food materials up to now. Fick's second law was used for determination of both effective moisture diffusivity and thermal diffusivity values. Activation energy values of dried apricots were calculated from Arrhenius equation. Those that obtained from effective moisture diffusivity, thermal diffusivity and drying rate constant values ranged from 31.10 to 39.4 kJ/mol, 29.56 to 35.19 kJ/mol, and 26.02 to 32.36 kJ/mol, respectively.

  2. Survivability of Salmonella cells in popcorn after microwave oven and conventional cooking. (United States)

    Anaya, I; Aguirrezabal, A; Ventura, M; Comellas, L; Agut, M


    The survivability of Salmonella cells in popcorn preparation was determined for two distinct cooking methods. The first method used a standard microwave oven. The second method used conventional cooking in a pan. Prior to thermal processing in independent experiments, 12 suspensions in a range between 1x10(3) and 8x10(6) colony-forming units (CFU) per gram of Salmonella cells were inoculated in both raw microwave popcorn and conventional corn kernels. The influence of the initial concentration of Salmonella cells in the raw products and the lethal effects on Salmonella by thermal treatments for cooking were studied. Survival of Salmonella cells was determined in the thermally processed material by pre-enrichment and enrichment in selective medium, in accordance with the legislation for expanded cereals and cereals in flakes. Viable experimental contaminants were recovered from the conventionally cooked popcorn with initial inoculation concentrations of 9x10(4)cells/g or greater. Salmonella cell viability was significantly reduced after microwave oven treatment, with recoveries only from initial concentrations of 2x10(6)cells/g or superior.

  3. Multiple tube structure for heating uniformity and efficiency optimization of microwave ovens (United States)

    Zhou, Rong; Yang, Xiaoqing; Sun, Di; Jia, Guozhu


    Microwave heating is widely applied to microwave assisted chemical reactions in modified domestic microwave ovens, however, the potential issues (non-uniformity and low heating efficiency) still exist during the heating process. In this paper, a new heating model of multiple tube structure is proposed and the relevant simulations and experiments of heating water were performed based on the computational platform COMSOL Multi-physics software in order to achieve the better temperature uniformity and heating efficiency. Besides, the influence of the instability of microwave ovens on the heating performances of the optimal heating models was analyzed. The simulation results show that the heating uniformity and efficiency of water in optimal six tube structure increased by 7.1% and 68.5% (30 mL), 9.2% and 61% (60 mL) respectively compared with the optimal single tube structure. Moreover, the heating performances of the optimal heating models do not change obviously, while the working frequency and power change slightly. The simulation results are in good agreement with the experiment data.

  4. Comparison of childhood burns associated with use of microwave ovens and conventional stoves. (United States)

    Powell, E C; Tanz, R R


    To identify the incidence, type, and severity of burns associated with microwave oven (MW) use and to compare MW-associated burns with those associated with use of conventional stoves, we conducted a review of a national data base. Data were obtained from the US Consumer Product Safety Commission Injury Information Clearinghouse for 1986 through 1990 concerning burn injuries to children (0 to 19 years). There were an estimated 5160 burns associated with MW use. The mean age was 7.6 years (median, 6 years); 25% of burns were to children younger than 36 months old. Fifty-eight percent involved females. Most MW burns were scalds (95%); 16% of these scalds were from exploding eggs or other food. No MW burn involved a body surface area greater than 25% and no patient required hospital admission. Microwave oven burns were compared with stove burns. There were an estimated 41198 stove-associated burns to children. The mean age was 5.8 years; the median was 3 years. Forty-five percent of burns were to children younger than 36 months old; 55% were to males. Most stove burns (74%) were thermal; 7% involved a body surface area greater than 25%. Five percent of children with stove burns required hospital admission. We conclude that (1) burns to children associated with MW use are less frequent and less severe than stove burns; (2) MW burns predominantly affect females; and (3) burn prevention efforts should emphasize the hazards of stoves, which vastly exceed those of MWs.

  5. Study on compressive strength of self compacting mortar cubes under normal & electric oven curing methods (United States)

    Prasanna Venkatesh, G. J.; Vivek, S. S.; Dhinakaran, G.


    In the majority of civil engineering applications, the basic building blocks were the masonry units. Those masonry units were developed as a monolithic structure by plastering process with the help of binding agents namely mud, lime, cement and their combinations. In recent advancements, the mortar study plays an important role in crack repairs, structural rehabilitation, retrofitting, pointing and plastering operations. The rheology of mortar includes flowable, passing and filling properties which were analogous with the behaviour of self compacting concrete. In self compacting (SC) mortar cubes, the cement was replaced by mineral admixtures namely silica fume (SF) from 5% to 20% (with an increment of 5%), metakaolin (MK) from 10% to 30% (with an increment of 10%) and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) from 25% to 75% (with an increment of 25%). The ratio between cement and fine aggregate was kept constant as 1: 2 for all normal and self compacting mortar mixes. The accelerated curing namely electric oven curing with the differential temperature of 128°C for the period of 4 hours was adopted. It was found that the compressive strength obtained from the normal and electric oven method of curing was higher for self compacting mortar cubes than normal mortar cube. The cement replacement by 15% SF, 20% MK and 25%GGBS obtained higher strength under both curing conditions.

  6. Impact of operating wood-burning fireplace ovens on indoor air quality. (United States)

    Salthammer, Tunga; Schripp, Tobias; Wientzek, Sebastian; Wensing, Michael


    The use of combustion heat sources like wood-burning fireplaces has regained popularity in the past years due to increasing energy costs. While the outdoor emissions from wood ovens are strictly regulated in Germany, the indoor release of combustion products is rarely considered. Seven wood burning fireplaces were tested in private homes between November 2012 and March 2013. The indoor air quality was monitored before, during and after operation. The following parameters were measured: ultra-fine particles (5.6-560 nm), fine particles (0.3-20 μm), PM2.5, NOx, CO, CO2, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). Most ovens were significant sources of particulate matter. In some cases, an increase of benzene and BaP concentrations was observed in the indoor air. The results illustrate that wood-burning fireplaces are potential sources of indoor air contaminants, especially ultra-fine particles. Under the aspect of lowering indoor air exchange rates and increasing the use of fuels with a net zero-carbon footprint, indoor combustion sources are an important topic for the future. With regards to consumer safety, product development and inspection should consider indoor air quality in addition to the present fire protection requirements. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Changes in dental enamel oven heated or irradiated with Er,Cr:YSGG laser. Analysis by FTIR (United States)

    Rabelo, J. S.; Ana, P. A.; Benetti, C.; Valério, M. E. G.; Zezell, D. M.


    This study evaluated the change that occurs in dental enamel under action of oven heating or Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation aiming to obtain a structure more resistant to demineralization. Enamel powder was obtained from bovine teeth. Samples were subjected to oven heating at temperatures of 200, 400, 600, 800, and 1000°C or during laser irradiation with energy densities of 7.53, 10.95, and 13.74 J/cm2. The infrared thermography was used to measure the surface temperature generated in the solid samples of enamel during lasers irradiation. The samples were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), which shows changes on enamel oven heated or laser irradiated, due to treatments, related to carbonates, adsorbed water and hydroxyl content. These compositional effects were more evident in lased samples. These changes may alter the material properties such as its solubility, and decrese of demineralization that is important for caries prevention.

  8. Sensory quality and energy use for scrambled eggs and beef patties heated in institutional microwave and convection ovens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremer, M.L.


    Scrambled eggs (96 portions) and beef patties (96 portions) were heated in institutional microwave and convection ovens to determine energy use in heating and sensory quality of food. For both products, significantly (P < 0.01) more energy (BTU) was used for heating in the convection than in the microwave oven and respective amounts (BTU) were 28658.7 and 9385.7 for eggs; 31313.3 and 9365.0 for beef patties. All scores for sensory quality were significantly (P < 0.01) higher for eggs heated in the microwave than in the convection, but for beef patties, scores were higher for all characteristics and significantly (P < 0.01) higher for appearance, flavor, and general acceptability after heating in the convection rather than the microwave oven.

  9. Influence of electrolytes (TEABF4 and TEMABF4) on electrochemical performance of graphite oxide derived from needle coke. (United States)

    Yang, Sunhye; Kim, Ick-Jun; Choi, In-Sik; Bae, Mi-Kyeong; Kim, Hyun-Soo


    The structure of needle coke was changed to graphite oxide structure after oxidation treatment with 70 wt.% of nitric acid and sodium chlorate (NaClO3), and the inter-layer distance of the oxidized needle coke was expanded to 6.9 angstroms. The first charge profile of the oxidized needle coke-cell with 1.2 M TEMABF4/acetonitrile solution displayed that the intercalation of electrolyte ions into the inter-layer occurred at 1.0 V, which value is lower than 1.3 V of the oxidized needle coke-cell with 1.2 M TEABF4/acetonitrile solution. After first charge/discharge, the cell using TEMABF4 electrolyte exhibited smaller electrode resistance of 0.05 omega, and larger specific volume capacitance of 25.5 F/ml at the two-electrode system in the potential range 0-2.5 V than those of the cell using TEABF4 electrolyte. Compared to the TEABF4 electrolyte, better electrochemical performance of the TEMABF4 electrolyte in the oxidized needle coke may be caused by the smaller cation (TEMA+) size and better ion mobility in the nanopores between inter-layers.

  10. Cosmos Caudatus as a Potential Source of Polyphenolic Compounds: Optimisation of Oven Drying Conditions and Characterisation of Its Functional Properties


    Chin Ping Tan; Alfi Khatib; Faridah Abas; Ahmed Mediani


    The aim of the study was to analyze the influence of oven thermal processing of Cosmos caudatus on the total polyphenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant capacity (DPPH) of two different solvent extracts (80% methanol, and 80% ethanol). Sonication was used to extract bioactive compounds from this herb. The results showed that the optimised conditions for the oven drying method for 80% methanol and 80% ethanol were 44.5 °C for 4 h with an IC50 of 0.045 mg/mL and 43.12 °C for 4.05 h with an IC50 ...

  11. Waste management concept for charged activated coke from the after-cleaning of flue gas with reference to the sintering of fly ash. Entsorgungskonzepte fuer beladenen Aktivkoks aus der Rauchgasnachreinigung unter Einbeziehung der Verschlackung von Flugasche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goerner, K. (Babcock Feuerungssysteme GmbH (BFS), Oberhausen (Germany))


    The new limits prescribed by the 17th BImSchV (regulation) are causing particular difficulties, especially for waste incineration plant. Furnace bottom ash and fly ash from waste incineration plants will be capable of being improved on account of their high heavy metal content in the future only by a thermal after-treatment in the elution process on account of this constituent material. It has been possible in waste incineration plants to utilise the resulting charged activate coke as an auxiliary fuel necessary for this and a sensible waste management route can be constructed for both problem materials, both from the point of view of utilization of material and from the point of view of energy production. (orig.)

  12. Electrochemical Oxidation Using BDD Anodes Combined with Biological Aerated Filter for Biotreated Coking Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Wang


    Full Text Available Coking wastewater is characterized by poor biodegradability and high microorganism toxicity. Thus, it is difficult to meet Grade I of Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard of China by biological treatment technology; specifically, COD cannot meet above standard due to containing refractory organics. A novel coupling reactor, electrochemical oxidation using BDD anodes and biological aerated filter (BAF, has been developed for carbon and nitrogen removal from biotreated coking wastewater, focusing on COD, BOD5, NH4+-N, and NO3--N removal on operation over 90 days with average effluent value of 91.3, 9.73, 0.62, and 13.34 mgL−1, respectively. Average value of BOD5/COD and BOD5/NO3--N was enhanced from 0.05 to 0.27 and from 0.45 to 1.21 by electrochemical oxidation, respectively, with average energy consumption of 67.9 kWh kg−1 COD. In addition, the refractory organics also were evidently mineralized in the unit based on the data of the three-dimensional fluorescence spectra. Meanwhile, its effluent provided excellent substrate for biological denitrification in BAF. At hydraulic retention time (HRT of 13.08 h, about 12 mgL−1  NO3--N was depleted through denitrification, and it mainly occurred at top of 0.25 m height of BAF. Therefore, it is feasible to apply the coupling reactor for biotreated coking wastewater treatment and achieve desirable effluent quality.

  13. Determination of the coke bed voidage in the blast furnace hearth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havelange, O.; Danloy, G.; Venturini, M.J. [and others] [CRM, Liege (Belgium)


    The objectives of the research were to develop and apply techniques and model tools allowing an online evaluation of the blast furnace hearth conditions and its permeability, in order to guarantee a stable furnace operation and to control the refractory wear through early corrective actions. CRM determined the coke bed voidage in the hearth of BFB of Cockerill-Sambre by two techniques: one based on pressure measurement inside the taphole and the other based on electromotive force measurement. A mathematicalmodel was developed taking into account the movements of the deadman. ln order to continuously determine the hot metal flow rate, BFI measured the filling level in the runner at BF 2 of TKS. A statistical wear model evaluated the cross-sectional runner geometry. The data have been fed into a model to calculate the coke bed voidage on multiple taphole blast furnaces. To control the wear caused by preferential liquid flow, Corus IJmuiden developed a monitoring of temperature and heat flux information from purpose-installed duplex thermocouples. This information has been correlated over time to identify any persistent trends and used to evaluate control measures such as blocked tuyeres and process shutdowns. Industrial trials at Fos BF1 enabled IRSID to propose a picture to describe the effects of the central coke charging practice. IRSID used the Fluent code to describe the liquid flow in the hearth with regard to the deadman conditions and to simulate tracer experiments. From studies of the behaviour of the hearth skull, Corus UK proposed a method for its monitoring. The iron flow rate was measured by using strain gauges attached to the torpedo ladles, and the slag flow rate was estimated from the slag pelletiser current. Data from tuyere core drilling samples were examined to estimate the voidage in the hearth. 38 refs., 127 figs.

  14. Identifying the causes of oil sands coke leachate toxicity to aquatic invertebrates. (United States)

    Puttaswamy, Naveen; Liber, Karsten


    A previous study found that coke leachates (CL) collected from oil sands field sites were acutely toxic to Ceriodaphnia dubia; however, the cause of toxicity was not known. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to generate CL in the laboratory to evaluate the toxicity response of C. dubia and perform chronic toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) tests to identify the causes of CL toxicity. Coke was subjected to a 15-d batch leaching process at pH 5.5 and 9.5. Leachates were filtered on day 15 and used for chemical and toxicological characterization. The 7-d median lethal concentration (LC50) was 6.3 and 28.7% (v/v) for pH 5.5 and 9.5 CLs, respectively. Trace element characterization of the CLs showed Ni and V levels to be well above their respective 7-d LC50s for C. dubia. Addition of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid significantly (p ≤ 0.05) improved survival and reproduction in pH 5.5 CL, but not in pH 9.5 CL. Cationic and anionic resins removed toxicity of pH 5.5 CL only. Conversely, the toxicity of pH 9.5 CL was completely removed with an anion resin alone, suggesting that the pH 9.5 CL contained metals that formed oxyanions. Toxicity reappeared when Ni and V were added back to anion resin-treated CLs. The TIE results combined with the trace element chemistry suggest that both Ni and V are the cause of toxicity in pH 5.5 CL, whereas V appears to be the primary cause of toxicity in pH 9.5 CL. Environmental monitoring and risk assessments should therefore focus on the fate and toxicity of metals, especially Ni and V, in coke-amended oil sands reclamation landscapes. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  15. Is A/A/O process effective in toxicity removal? Case study with coking wastewater. (United States)

    Shi, Liu; Wang, Dong; Cao, Di; Na, Chunhong; Quan, Xie; Zhang, Ying


    The anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (A/A/O) process is the commonly used biological wastewater treatment process, especially for the coking wastewater. However, limit is known about its ability in bio-toxicity removal from wastewater. In this study, we evaluated the performance of A/A/O process in bio-toxicity removal from the coking wastewater, using two test species (i.e. crustacean (Daphnia magna) and zebra fish (Danio rerio)) in respect of acute toxicity, oxidative damage and genotoxicity. Our results showed that the acute toxicity of raw influent was reduced gradually along with A/A/O process and the effluent presented no acute toxicity to Daphnia magna (D. magna) and zebra fish. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in D. magna and zebra fish was promoted by the effluent from each tank of A/A/O process, showing that coking wastewater induced oxidative damage. Herein, the oxidative damage to D. magna was mitigated in the oxic tank, while the toxicity to zebra fish was reduced in the anoxic tank. The comet assays showed that genotoxicity to zebra fish was removed stepwise by A/A/O process, although the final effluent still presented genotoxicity to zebra fish. Our results indicated that the A/A/O process was efficient in acute toxicity removal, but not so effective in the removal of other toxicity (e.g. oxidative damage and genotoxicity). Considering the potential risks of wastewater discharge, further advanced toxicity mitigation technology should be applied in the conventional biological treatment process, and the toxicity index should be introduced in the regulation system of wastewater discharge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Surface treatment of dental porcelain: CO2 laser as an alternative to oven glaze. (United States)

    Sgura, Ricardo; Reis, Mariana Cavalcante; Hernandes, Antonio Carlos; de Abreu Fantini, Márcia Carvalho; Andreeta, Marcello Rubens Barsi; Medeiros, Igor Studart


    This work tested continuous CO2 laser as a surface treatment to dental porcelain and compared it to oven glaze (auto-glaze) by means of roughness and color parameters. Three commercial veneering porcelains with different crystalline content were tested: VM7, VM9, and VM13. Porcelain discs (3.5 × 2.0 mm, diameter × height) were sintered and had one side ground by a diamond bur (45 μm) simulating a chairside adjustment in a clinical office. Specimens (n = 7) were divided into the following groups: C--control (no treatment), G--auto-glaze (oven), and L--surface continuous irradiation with CO2 laser (Gem Laser, Coherent; λ = 10.6 μm). Laser was tested in three exposure times (3, 4, or 5 min) and two irradiances (45 and 50 W/cm(2)). Roughness parameters (Ra, Rz, and Rpm/Rz) were measured using a rugosimeter (Surftest 301, Mitutoyo). Color differences (ΔE) between the G and L groups were calculated (VITA Easyshade); ΔE values up to 3.3 were considered as not perceivable. A surface analysis was conducted by stereomicroscopy (Olympus SZ61) and SEM (Stereoscan 440, LEO). Crystalline content of specimens from groups C and L (50 W/cm(2), 5 min) was assessed by X-ray diffraction and then compared. Surface roughness (Ra and Rz) observed for laser-irradiated groups was similar to G for all studied porcelains. Rpm/Rz ratios were near 1.0 for all groups that indicated a sharp ridge profile for all specimens. Only one laser condition studied (50 W/cm(2), 3 min) from VM7 porcelain resulted in color difference (ΔE = 3.5) to G. Specimens irradiated with 50 W/cm(2) for 5 min presented the smoother surface observed by SEM, comparable to G. X-ray diffraction data revealed an increase in leucite crystallite size for VM9 and VM13 porcelains after laser treatment. Regarding roughness, continuous CO2 laser applied on porcelain surface was as effective as conventional oven auto-glaze.

  17. Control of explosion hazards of circulating gas in a dry coke quenching system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trishkina, I.V.; Savka, M.D.; Grishchenko, A.I.; Ereskovskii, O.S. (Dnepropetrovskii Metallurgicheskii Institut (USSR))


    Discusses design and operation of an automatic system for control of explosion hazards in dry quenching systems. The circulating gas consists not only of nitrogen and carbon dioxide but also of carbon monoxide, oxygen, hydrogen, water vapor and methane. Explosion hazards are associated with increased content of combustible components. Composition of the circulating gas is determined. Its molecular mass is calculated. Changing molecular mass supplies information on explosion hazards. Increasing explosion hazards are controlled by coke burnout degree (during oxidation and combustion content of combustible components declines). The system detects explosion hazards and determines optimum burnout degree. 3 refs.

  18. Method for Detecting the Inside of Coke Drum Using Acoustic Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Guo


    Full Text Available A distance and acoustic intensity reverberation (DAIR physical model is developed that can be successfully applied to the signal processing of the hydraulic decoking process online monitoring. In this model, the transmission characteristics of acoustic signals generated by a moving sound source in a dynamic confined space are first analyzed using data recursion and correction according to the coordinate continuity in adjacent area and adjacent time. The results show that the nondetection zone of acoustic signals generated directly by the impact of water is eliminated, and the surface distribution of coke in the drum can be mapped in real time.

  19. Coking of Ni-based catalysts at the process of methane conversion with carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudnitsky, L.A.; Soboleva, T.N.; Korotkova, G.; Alexseev, A.M. [Institute for Nitrogen Industry, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    The process of methane conversion with carbon dioxide over Ni-based supported catalyst (NiSC) is followed by the reversible reaction of carbon formation on the NiSC at certain conditions. This reaction is of interest as a model for investigation of coking reaction (CR) and it`s reverse one - gasification (GR) on different types of NiSC. The study of dynamics of CR and GR was carried out with thermomicrobalance at the atmospheric pressure in methane - carbon dioxide mixture flow over previously reduced NiSC at linear temperature programming in heating and cooling regimes.

  20. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 85-441-1765, New Boston Coke Corporation, New Boston, Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Malley, M.A.


    In response to a request from the Industrial Commission of Ohio, worker complaints of skin disease at the New Boston Coke Corporation, New Boston, Ohio were investigated. The request was based on seven reports of dermatitis thought to be associated with steam exposure during coke quenching. Quench water had a pH of 8.85 and contained phenol, ammonia, calcium-oxide, and suspended particulates (82% organic compounds); no irritant threshold levels were found for these compounds. Skin tests in rabbits showed a minimal irritant capacity for quench water. Medical records did not reveal the origin of dermatitis. Active skin lesions were characterized as nummular eczema or atopic dermatitis, which were not thought to be of occupational origin. The author concludes that coke-quenching steam does not pose a skin hazard, but certain work activities may aggravate existing skin conditions. Recommendations include elimination of abrasive cleansing agents, use of skin moisturizers after washing, and prompt medical evaluation of skin complaints.

  1. The effect of high and low dissolved oxygen on the toxicity of oil sands coke and its leachate to Chironomus tentans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Squires, A.J.; Liber, K. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada)


    A study was conducted to assess the effect of low dissolved oxygen on the long-term leaching potential of the toxic constituents found in coke. Coke is one of the waste products produced during the oil sand upgrading process used at Syncrude Canada Ltd. and Suncor Energy Inc. Coke is contaminated by metals and organic compounds which can leach into the environment. In this study, coke from both companies was exposed to reconstituted water and high dissolved oxygen for a period of 30 days, during which time the overlying water containing the leachate and the coke pore-water was chemically analyzed. The benthic macroinvertebrate, Chironomus tentans, was exposed to the aged coke and the overlying leachate after the 30 day period. The study did not reveal any major difference in the survival or growth between the dissolved oxygen treatments or any of the leachate treatments. The macroinvertebrate in the aged Syncrude grew significantly while the Suncor coke strongly inhibited both survival and growth of the macroinvertebrate. The study demonstrates that coke has the potential to negatively affect benthic organisms if it is used uncovered in an aquatic reclamation effort.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheldon Kramer


    This project developed optimized designs and cost estimates for several coal and petroleum coke IGCC coproduction projects that produced hydrogen, industrial grade steam, and hydrocarbon liquid fuel precursors in addition to power. The as-built design and actual operating data from the DOE sponsored Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project was the starting point for this study that was performed by Bechtel, Global Energy and Nexant under Department of Energy contract DE-AC26-99FT40342. First, the team developed a design for a grass-roots plant equivalent to the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project to provide a starting point and a detailed mid-year 2000 cost estimate based on the actual as-built plant design and subsequent modifications (Subtask 1.1). This non-optimized plant has a thermal efficiency to power of 38.3% (HHV) and a mid-year 2000 EPC cost of 1,681 $/kW.1 This design was enlarged and modified to become a Petroleum Coke IGCC Coproduction Plant (Subtask 1.2) that produces hydrogen, industrial grade steam, and fuel gas for an adjacent Gulf Coast petroleum refinery in addition to export power. A structured Value Improving Practices (VIP) approach was applied to reduce costs and improve performance. The base case (Subtask 1.3) Optimized Petroleum Coke IGCC Coproduction Plant increased the power output by 16% and reduced the plant cost by 23%. The study looked at several options for gasifier sparing to enhance availability. Subtask 1.9 produced a detailed report on this availability analyses study. The Subtask 1.3 Next Plant, which retains the preferred spare gasification train approach, only reduced the cost by about 21%, but it has the highest availability (94.6%) and produces power at 30 $/MW-hr (at a 12% ROI). Thus, such a coke-fueled IGCC coproduction plant could fill a near term niche market. In all cases, the emissions performance of these plants is superior to the Wabash River project. Subtasks 1.5A and B developed designs for

  3. Use of microwave oven improves morphology and staining of cryostat sections. (United States)

    Kennedy, A; Foulis, A K


    The quality of microscopic image of cryostat sections that had been subjected to microwave assisted fixation was compared with that resulting from conventional air drying of the sections. The role of microwaves in producing rapid special stains on cryostat sections was also assessed. Methods used permitted stains such as periodic acid Schiff, alcian blue, Gordon and Sweets's reticulin, Masson Fontana, Elastica, Prussian blue and Van Gieson to be performed within three minutes of cutting a cryostat section. The cytological detail of nuclei was much clearer using the microwave technique, allowing more accurate determination of cell type. The microwave oven seems to have major potential in improving the diagnostic accuracy of surgical frozen sections. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 PMID:2466053


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.I. ANWAR


    Full Text Available In jaggery making furnaces, sugarcane bagasse is used as fuel. Moisture content of bagasse affects its calorific value. So burning of bagasse at suitable level of moisture is essential from the viewpoint of furnace performance. Moisture content can also be used for indirect calculation of fibre content in sugarcane. Normally gravimetric method is used for moisture content determination, which is time consuming. Therefore, an attempt has been made to use microwave oven for drying of bagasse. It took about 20 to 25 minutes for the determination as compared to 8-10 hours in conventional hot air drying method and the results were comparable to the values obtained from hot air drying method.

  5. Comparison of Mathematical Equation and Neural Network Modeling for Drying Kinetic of Mendong in Microwave Oven (United States)

    Maulidah, Rifa'atul; Purqon, Acep


    Mendong (Fimbristylis globulosa) has a potentially industrial application. We investigate a predictive model for heat and mass transfer in drying kinetics during drying a Mendong. We experimentally dry the Mendong by using a microwave oven. In this study, we analyze three mathematical equations and feed forward neural network (FNN) with back propagation to describe the drying behavior of Mendong. Our results show that the experimental data and the artificial neural network model has a good agreement and better than a mathematical equation approach. The best FNN for the prediction is 3-20-1-1 structure with Levenberg- Marquardt training function. This drying kinetics modeling is potentially applied to determine the optimal parameters during mendong drying and to estimate and control of drying process.

  6. Microwave-induced plasma reactor based on a domestic microwave oven for bulk solid state chemistry (United States)

    Brooks, David J.; Douthwaite, Richard E.


    A microwave-induced plasma (MIP) reactor has been constructed from a domestic microwave oven (DMO) and applied to the bulk synthesis of solid state compounds. Low pressure MIP can be initiated and maintained using a range of gases including Ar, N2, NH3, O2, Cl2, and H2S. In order to obtain reproducible synthesis conditions the apparatus is designed to allow control of gas flow rate, gas composition, and pressure. The use of the reactor is demonstrated by the synthesis of three binary metal nitrides formed in a NH3 MIP. The reactions are rapid and the products show good crystallinity and phase purity as judged by powder x-ray diffraction.

  7. Hybrid solar-electric oven construction prototype; Construccion de prototipo de horno hibrido solar-electrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez Roman, M. A; Pineda Pinon, J; Arcos Pichardo, A [CICATA, Santiago de Queretaro, Queretaro (Mexico)


    The oven construction consists of a solar collector system of cylindrical parabolic type, a heating through electrical resistance and a curing chamber. The warm fluid is air, which is injected into the chamber through forced draft. The temperature required in the system is within a range of 150 to 300 degrees Celsius. [Spanish] La construccion del horno consta de un sistema de captacion solar del tipo cilindrico parabolico, un sistema de calentamiento a traves de resistencias electricas y una camara de curado. El fluido a calentar es aire, el cual es inyectado dentro de la camara a traves de tiro forzado. La temperatura solicitada en el sistema es dentro de un rango de 150 a 300 grados centigrados.

  8. Simulation of blast furnace operation during the substitution of coke and pulverized coal with granulated waste plastic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Tihomir M.


    Full Text Available The possibility of using the waste plastic as reducing agent in blast furnace for obtaining pig iron is in focus for the past couple year. The simulation of blast furnace process in BFC software has been performed in order to analyze the coke and coals saving, CO2 emission and determining the economic benefits. Three different batches were made for comparative analysis, depending on the batch composition and input of batch components into the blast furnace: case 1 (C1, case 2 (C2 and case 3 (C3. The base case, C1 contains sinter (bulk material which is needed for obtaining 1 tone of pig iron, quartz which provides slag alkalinity and coke as reducing and energy agent. C2 has the same components as C1, but contains pulverized coal instead one part of coke and C3 contains granulated waste plastic instead coke in an approximately the same amount as pulverized coal. The substitution of coke with pulverized coal and waste plastic is 18.6 % and 25.2 %, respectively. The economic, productivity and ecologic aspects have been analyzed. The consumption of each tone of waste plastic in blast furnace saves 360 $, which is 18 times more than its price, bearing in mind that the market price of coke is 380 $/t % and waste plastic 20 $/t. Regarding the specific productivity, it decreases from 2.13 for C1 to 1.87 for C3. From an environmental aspect there are two main benefits: reduction of CO2 emission and impossibility of dioxin formation. The CO2 emission was 20.18, 19.46 and 17.21 for C1, C2 and C3, respectively.

  9. Glass bead sterilizer comprehensively defeats hot air oven in orthodontic clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Vasudev Jakati


    Full Text Available Background: It is necessary to ′try in′ several bands before the correct one is selected. A possible concern with re-using such bands is the lack of cross-infection control. Aim and Objectives: To determine whether such bands could be successfully decontaminated with Glass bead sterilization so that they could be re-used without a cross-infection risk. Materials: Custom made molar bands were taken and buccal tubes,lingual sheath and lingual cleat were welded under strict aseptic conditions. Methods: Samples were divided into 2 groups i.e. A and B, based on mode for sterilization. Sterilized attachments were placed in each of 2 conical flask. The bacteria spores were inoculated into both flask under strict aseptic conditions. Bacteria Bacillus subtillis and Staphylococcus albus species were allowed to multiply in individual flasks filled with BHI broth for 24 hours. Bands from 1st group were placed in a glass bead sterilizer. For the 2 nd group i.e. hot air oven group, all bands were placed together. After sterilization bands were removed and placed in freshly sterilized 500ml conical flask containing BHI broth for 24 hours in the incubator. The following day randomly 4 attachments were selected from each group and streaked on blood agar culture plates. Results: After sterilization and on further incubation in BHI broth for 24 and 48 hrs. Respectively no growth was seen. Conclusion: 1 hr. of Hot Air Oven sterilization (excluding pre sterilization heat up time and post sterilization cooling time at 190°C is as effective as 3 min of Chair side Glass Bead sterilization.

  10. Effect of Extracted Compositions of Liquefaction Residue on the Structure and Properties of the Formed-coke


    Song Yong-hui; Ma Qiao-na; He Wen-jin


    The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of extracted compositions of the de-ash liquefaction residue (D-DCLR) on pyrolysis products yields, compressive strength and composition of the formed-coke, which was prepared by co-pyrolysis of the low metamorphic pulverized coal and D-DCLR. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) were used to characterize the morphology and functional group of the formed-coke, respectively. The results showed that the...

  11. Variable effect of steam injection level on beef muscles: semitendinosus and biceps femoris cooked in convection-steam oven. (United States)

    Zając, Marzena; Kącik, Sławomir; Palka, Krystyna; Widurek, Paweł


    Combi ovens are used very often in restaurants to heat up food. According to the producers the equipment allows to cook meat portions which are more tender and flavoursome comparing to conventional cooking techniques. Beef steaks from muscles semitendinosus and biceps femoris were cooked in convection-steam oven at three humidity levels: 10, 60 and 100%. Chemical composition, including total and insoluble collagen content and cook losses were analysed along with the texture and colour parameters. M. biceps femoris was the hardest and the most chewy at 100% steam saturation level and hardness measured for m. semitendinosus was the lowest at 10% of vapour injection. Changing the steam conditions in the oven chamber did not affect the detectable colour differences of m. biceps femoris, but it was significant for m. semitendinosus. Applying 100% steam saturation caused higher cook losses and the increase of insoluble collagen fractions in both analysed muscles. The results are beneficial for caterers using steam-convection ovens in terms of providing evidence that the heating conditions should be applied individually depending on the muscle used. The tenderness of m. semitendinosus muscle cooked at 10% steam saturation level was comparable to the tenderness obtained for the same muscle aged for 10 days and cooked with 100% steam saturation. Steaks from m. biceps femoris muscle should be cooked with maximum 60% saturation level to obtain higher tenderness.

  12. 40 CFR 63.1183 - How do I comply with the formaldehyde standards for existing, new, and reconstructed curing ovens? (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I comply with the formaldehyde... with the formaldehyde standards for existing, new, and reconstructed curing ovens? To comply with the formaldehyde standards, you must meet all of the following: (a) Install, calibrate, maintain, and operate a...

  13. Effects of insulation parameters on the energy consumption in domestic ovens and the most efficient insulation design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onbasioglu S.U.


    Full Text Available Studying on insulation and its parameters has some difficulties comparing to the other factors which affect energy consumption. On the other hand, not only computational studies, but also experimental studies are important in understanding the heat and fluid flow in domestic ovens. By having knowledge onhow insulation parameters effect on the energy consumption, getting efficient designs will come through easily. This study focuses on deciding optimum insulation design, by decreasing thermal bridges over itself. Firstly, experiments are performed for determining excessive heat region on a reference oven's insulation. Also these experiments are completed with two different thermocouple layouts in various temperatures and isotherm maps are generated for innerand outer chassis surfaces. Reference oven's insulation is also scanned by thermal camera. The results of overheated areas and thermal camera images are compared with each other. Different insulation designs are devised on the comparison of the conclusions. Standard energy consumption experiments are performed for each insulation designs under the working mode, which the dominant one in heat transfer, is forced convection. The most efficient insulation was scanned again by thermal camera and these thermal images showed that it decreased overheated areas on outer chassis surface. The experimental studies showed that energy consumption of the domestic oven decreased 4.5% with the new insulation design.

  14. Treasure Na-ion anode from trash coke by adept electrolyte selection (United States)

    Cabello, Marta; Chyrka, Taras; Klee, Rafael; Aragón, María J.; Bai, Xue; Lavela, Pedro; Vasylchenko, Gennadiy M.; Alcántara, Ricardo; Tirado, José L.; Ortiz, Gregorio F.


    Converting 'trash' waste residua to active functional materials 'treasure' with high added value is being regarded as a promising way to achieve the sustainable energy demands. Carbonaceous materials cannot insert sodium except when graphite co-intercalates solvents such as diglyme. Here, we show that petroleum coke and shale coke annealed at different temperatures can also insert sodium by reversible intercalation phenomena in a diglyme-based electrolyte. The structural and morphological studies will reveal significant differences justifying their distinct electrochemical behavior. Galvanostatic tests exhibit a flat plateau at about 0.7 V ascribable to the reversible reaction. At the end of the discharge, a Stage-I ternary intercalation compound is detected. Two diglyme molecules are co-intercalated per alkali ion, as evidenced by 1-D Patterson diagrams, FTIR and TGA analyses. The full sodium-ion cell made with P-2500/NaPF6(diglyme)/Na3V2(PO4)3 delivered an initial reversible capacity of 75 mA h g-1 at C rate and an average potential of 2.7 V. Thus, the full cell provides an energy density of 202 W h kg-1. This sodium-ion system can be considered a promising power source that encourages the potential use of low-cost energy storage systems.

  15. Anode performance of boron-doped graphites prepared from shot and sponge cokes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Tao; Luo, Ruiying [School of Science, Beihang University, Beijing 100083 (China); Yoon, Seong-Ho; Mochida, Isao [Institute for Materials Chemistry and Engineering, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan)


    The structures and anode performances of graphitized pristine and boron-doped shot and sponge cokes have been comparatively studied by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and galvanostatic measurement. The results show that high degree of graphitization can be obtained by the substituted boron atom in the carbon lattice, and boron in the resultant boron-doped graphites mainly exist in the form of boron carbide and boron substituted in the carbon lattice. Both of boron-doped graphites from shot and sponge cokes obtain discharge capacity of 350 mAh g{sup -1} and coulombic efficiency above 90%. Apart from commonly observed discharge plateau for graphite, boron-doped samples in this study also show a small plateau at ca. 0.06 V. This phenomenon can be explained that Li ion stores in the site to be void-like spaces that are produced by ''molecular bridging'' between the edge sites of graphene layer stack with a release of boron atoms substituted at the edge of graphene layer. The effect of the amount of boron dopant and graphitization temperature on the anode performance of boron-doped graphite are also investigated in this paper. (author)

  16. Research of Environmental and Economic Interactions of Coke And By-Product Process (United States)

    Mikhailov, Vladimir; Kiseleva, Tamara; Bugrova, Svetlana; Muromtseva, Alina; Mikhailova, Yana


    The issues of showing relations between environmental and economic indicators (further - environmental and economic interactions) of coke and by-product process are considered in the article. The purpose of the study is to reveal the regularities of the functioning of the local environmental and economic system on the basis of revealed spectrum of environmental and economic interactions. A simplified scheme of the environmental and economic system "coke and by-product process - the environment" was developed. The forms of the investigated environmental-economic interactions were visualized and the selective interpretation of the tightness of the established connection was made. The main result of the work is modeling system of environmental and economic interactions that allows increasing the efficiency of local ecological and economic system management and optimizing the "interests" of an industrial enterprise - the source of negative impact on the environment. The results of the survey can be recommended to government authorities and industrial enterprises with a wide range of negative impact forms to support the adoption of effective management decisions aimed at sustainable environmental and economic development of the region or individual municipalities.

  17. Anode performance of boron-doped graphites prepared from shot and sponge cokes (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Luo, Ruiying; Yoon, Seong-Ho; Mochida, Isao

    The structures and anode performances of graphitized pristine and boron-doped shot and sponge cokes have been comparatively studied by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and galvanostatic measurement. The results show that high degree of graphitization can be obtained by the substituted boron atom in the carbon lattice, and boron in the resultant boron-doped graphites mainly exist in the form of boron carbide and boron substituted in the carbon lattice. Both of boron-doped graphites from shot and sponge cokes obtain discharge capacity of 350 mAh g -1 and coulombic efficiency above 90%. Apart from commonly observed discharge plateau for graphite, boron-doped samples in this study also show a small plateau at ca. 0.06 V. This phenomenon can be explained that Li ion stores in the site to be void-like spaces that are produced by "molecular bridging" between the edge sites of graphene layer stack with a release of boron atoms substituted at the edge of graphene layer. The effect of the amount of boron dopant and graphitization temperature on the anode performance of boron-doped graphite are also investigated in this paper.

  18. Fly ashes from coal and petroleum coke combustion: current and innovative potential applications. (United States)

    González, Aixa; Navia, Rodrigo; Moreno, Natalia


    Coal fly ashes (CFA) are generated in large amounts worldwide. Current combustion technologies allow the burning of fuels with high sulfur content such as petroleum coke, generating non-CFA, such as petroleum coke fly ash (PCFA), mainly from fluidized bed combustion processes. The disposal of CFA and PCFA fly ashes can have severe impacts in the environment such as a potential groundwater contamination by the leaching of heavy metals and/or particulate matter emissions; making it necessary to treat or reuse them. At present CFA are utilized in several applications fields such as cement and concrete production, agriculture and soil stabilization. However, their reuse is restricted by the quality parameters of the end-product or requirements defined by the production process. Therefore, secondary material markets can use a limited amount of CFA, which implies the necessity of new markets for the unused CFA. Some potential future utilization options reviewed herein are zeolite synthesis and valuable metals extraction. In comparison to CFA, PCFA are characterized by a high Ca content, suggesting a possible use as neutralizers of acid wastewaters from mining operations, opening a new potential application area for PCFA that could solve contamination problems in emergent and mining countries such as Chile. However, this potential application may be limited by PCFA heavy metals leaching, mainly V and Ni, which are present in PCFA in high concentrations.

  19. 40 CFR 63.7320 - By what date must I conduct performance tests or other initial compliance demonstrations? (United States)


    ... coke oven battery stack by the compliance date that is specified in § 63.7283. (c) For each work... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Coke Ovens: Pushing, Quenching, and Battery Stacks Initial Compliance...

  20. Refinaria do Nordeste: petroleum coke handling system; Refinaria do Nordeste: desafios do sistema de movimentacao de coque verde de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, Luiz G. de; Cabral, Jose Mauro B. [PETROBRAS S.A., Ipojuca, PE (Brazil). Refinaria do Nordeste (RNEST); Lucredi, Hedewandro A. [PETROBRAS S.A., Paulinia, SP (Brazil). Refinaria de Paulinia (REPLAN); Barros, Francisco Carlos da C. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)


    The Delayed Coking Units - DCU - are adequate to the scheme for processing heavy oils where the market of fuel oil or asphalt is low or not profitable. The DCU's are conversion units that produce, in addition to the gas and liquid distilled products, the petcoke. The petcoke, depending on the characteristics, is used in various applications like as in the aluminum, iron, thermoelectric and cement industries. The petcoke is solid and its logistics is quite different from most of the products handled by PETROBRAS; therefore, this product has been a constant challenge in relation to the market requirements. Due to the importance of the DCU at Refinaria do Nordeste, and the petcoke production capacity, the coke handling system was projected in order to ensure the refinery operational continuity. The project permits the expedition and loading of 10,000 tons of petcoke within a period of 12 hours of work for cargo vessel. In the development of the processing project of Refinaria do Nordeste efforts were made to optimize the Delayed Coking Unit for the production of distilled products and the quality of the coke. The DCU operating conditions were projected so as to produce petcoke with quality adequate to the iron and aluminum industry. (author)

  1. Combined XRD and Raman studies of coke types found in SAPO-34 after methanol and propene conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wragg, David S.; Grønvold, Arne; Voronov, Alexey


    We have used a combination of high resolution powder X-ray diffraction (HRPD), Raman spectroscopy, in situ powder diffraction and nitrogen adsorption measurements to study the effect on and nature of coke in the zeotype catalyst SAPO-34 during the methanol to olefin (MTO) and propene oligomerisat...

  2. Study on the NO removal efficiency of the lignite pyrolysis coke catalyst by selective catalytic oxidation method (United States)

    Wen, Xin; Ma, Zhenhua; Zhang, Lei; Sha, Xiangling; He, Huibin; Zeng, Tianyou; Wang, Yusu; Chen, Jihao


    Selective catalytic oxidation (SCO) method is commonly used in wet denitration technology; NO after the catalytic oxidation can be removed with SO2 together by wet method. Among the SCO denitration catalysts, pyrolysis coke is favored by the advantages of low cost and high catalytic activity. In this paper, SCO method combined with pyrolysis coke catalyst was used to remove NO from flue gas. The effects of different SCO operating conditions and different pyrolysis coke catalyst made under different process conditions were studied. Besides, the specific surface area of the catalyst and functional groups were analyzed with surface area analyzer and Beohm titration. The results are: (1) The optimum operating conditions of SCO is as follows: the reaction temperature is 150°C and the oxygen content is 6%. (2) The optimum pyrolysis coke catalyst preparation processes are as follows: the pyrolysis final temperature is 750°C, and the heating rate is 44°C / min. (3) The characterization analysis can be obtained: In the denitration reaction, the basic functional groups and the phenolic hydroxyl groups of the catalyst play a major role while the specific surface area not. PMID:28793346

  3. Optimizing anti-coking abilities of zeolites by ethylene diamine tetraacetie acid modification on catalytic fast pyrolysis of corn stalk (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Zhong, Zhaoping; Song, Zuwei; Ding, Kuan; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger


    In order to minimize coke yield during biomass catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP) process, ethylene diamine tetraacetie acid (EDTA) chemical modification method is carried out to selectively remove the external framework aluminum of HZSM-5 catalyst. X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen (N2)-adsorption and ammonia-temperature programmed desorption (NH3-TPD) techniques are employed to investigate the porosity and acidity characteristics of original and modified HZSM-5 samples. Py-GC/MS and thermo-gravimetric analyzer (TGA) experiments are further conducted to explore the catalytic effect of modified HZSM-5 samples on biomass CFP and to verify the positive effect on coke reduction. Results show that EDTA treatment does not damage the crystal structure of HZSM-5 zeolites, but leads to a slight increase of pore volume and pore size. Meanwhile, the elimination of the strong acid peak indicates the dealumination of outer surface of HZSM-5 zeolites. Treatment time of 2 h (labeled EDTA-2H) is optimal for acid removal and hydrocarbon formation. Among all modified catalysts, EDTA-2H performs the best for deacidification and can obviously increase the yields of positive chemical compositions in pyrolysis products. Besides, EDTA modification can improve the anti-coking properties of HZSM-5 zeolites, and EDTA-2H gives rise to the lowest coke yield.

  4. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Calibrations Performed on Oven-Dried Green Forages for the Prediction of Chemical Composition and Nutritive Value of Preserved Forage for Ruminants. (United States)

    Andueza, Donato; Picard, Fabienne; Martin-Rosset, William; Aufrère, Jocelyne


    Predicting forage feed value is a vital part of estimating ruminant performances. Most near-infrared (NIR) reflectance calibration models have been developed on oven-dried green forages, but preserved forages such as hays or silages are a significant part of real-world farm practice. Fresh and preserved forages give largely similar fodder, but drying or ensiling processes could modify preserved forage spectra which would make the oven-dried green forage model unsuitable to use on preserved forage samples. The aim of this study was to monitor the performance of oven-dried green forage calibration models on a set of hay and silage to predict their nutritive value. Local and global approaches were tested and 1025 green permanent grassland forages, 46 types of hay, and 27 types of silage were used. The samples were scanned by NIR spectroscopy and analyzed for nitrogen, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and pepsin-cellulase dry matter digestibility (PCDMD). Local and global calibrations were developed on 975 oven-dried green forage spectra and tested on 50 samples of oven-dried green forages, 46 samples of hay, and 27 samples of silage. For oven-dried green forage and hay validation sets, Mahalanobis distance (H) between these samples and the calibration population center was lower than 3. No significant standard error of prediction differences was obtained when calibration models were applied to oven-dried green forage and hay validation sets. For silage, the H-distance was higher than 3, meaning that calibration models built from oven-dried green forages cannot be applied to silage samples. We conclude that local calibration outperforms global strategy on predicting the PCDMD of oven-dried green forages and hay. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Evaluation results and use of software tools for a cogeneration plant comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenzel, W.C.; Sopocy, D.M.; Roche, R.V.


    Today's concerns for the environment and the necessity to address the extremely competitive business situation demand that existing and new industrial plants are analyzed to optimize the supply of electricity, process steam and other forms of energy. This paper presents a review of four plant designs for steam and electricity supply. The plants are: 1. Rankine cycle--natural gas fired boiler, 2. Rankine cycle--petroleum coke fired circulating fluidized bed boiler (CFB) 3. Cogeneration cycle--natural gas fired combustion turbine, and 4. Combined cycle--natural gas fired combustion turbine. Petroleum coke, refereed to as pet coke or coke, is a refining waste product which can be used as a boiler fuel. It is usually high in carbon and sulfur content and typically indexed to and priced below coal. Plant operating performance and financial results are compared. Note these four designs are based on one set of project site, project and economic parameters and the results could vary significantly for another project with different parameters. The intent of this comparison is to illustrate calculation methodology and the use of cogeneration cycles, not to suggest a preference for fuels or technology.

  6. Plant planting (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes planting activities on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge (formerly Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge) between 1995 and 2009.

  7. Quantification of the Existence Ratio of Non-Adhesion Grain Boundaries and Factors Governing the Strength of Coke Containing Low-Quality Coal (United States)

    Kanai, Tetsuya; Yamazaki, Yoshiaki; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Uchida, Ataru; Saito, Yasuhiro; Shoji, Masakazu; Aoki, Hideyuki; Nomura, Seiji; Kubota, Yukihiro; Hayashizaki, Hideyuki; Miyashita, Shigeto

    “Non-adhesion grain boundaries” are formed when low-quality coal grains do not adhere to other grains in the carbonization process because of the low dilation of coke. To better understand the effects of non-adhesion grain boundaries on coke strength, the relationship between the existence ratio of non-adhesion grain boundaries and coke strength was investigated quantitatively. The existence ratio of non-adhesion grain boundaries were measured quantitatively by observing the fracture cross-section of coke using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Coke strength was measured with a diametral-compression test and an I-shape drum index test. As a result, non-adhesion grain boundaries increased with an increase in the blending ratio of low-quality coal. In particular, non-adhesion grain boundaries increased rapidly when the blending ratio of low-quality coal was over 50%. When the ratio was less than 50%, low-quality coals adhered to other caking coal. However, not many low-quality coals adhered to other caking coals when the ratio was over 50%. The tensile strength of coke was not affected by the porosity of coke. However, the tensile strength and the drum index were affected by the existence ratio of non-adhesion grain boundaries. Tensile strength decreased rapidly even for a few non-adhesion grain boundaries because significant defects caused a fracture in the diametral-compression test. However, the I-shape drum index decreased linearly with the existence ratio of the non-adhesion grain boundaries because many fractures occurred during 600 rotations in the drum. The strength of coke containing low-quality coal is governed by the existence ratio of non-adhesion grain boundaries rather than mean values such as the porosity of coke.

  8. Graphitization, intercalation, and exfoliation of cokes and anthracites. A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magasinski, A. [Institute of Physical, Organic, and Coal Chemistry, University of Donetsk, Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, 340114 Donetsk (Ukraine); Furdin, G.; Mareche, J.F.; Medjahdi, G. [Laboratoire de Chimie du Solide Mineral, UMR 7555, CNRS, Universite H. Poincare, Nancy I, BP 239-54505 Vandoeuvre les Cedex Nancy (France); Albiniak, A.; Broniek, E.; Jasienko-Halat, M. [Laboratory for Lignites and Carbon Adsorbents, Institute of Chemistry and Technology of Petroleum and Coal, Wroclaw University of Technology, 50-344 Wroclaw (Poland)


    In this work, we will compare the ability to graphitize of two petroleum cokes, isotropic and anisotropic, and of two varieties of anthracites, in order to understand their subsequent ability to give exfoliated carbons. Both series of derived materials obtained by heat treatment (1500-2600 C) of these four precursors are compared after the action of an excess of mixture containing water, perchloric acid, and nitric acid, which were used to obtain exfoliated graphite from very small particles. The intermediate products are shock heated to induce the thermal decomposition of the perchloric acid present either in the microtexture or in the graphitic structure. This ultimate treatment gave exfoliated materials, the specific surface of which strongly depends on the nature of the raw material, its ability to graphitize.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Deves Flores


    Full Text Available Self-reducing tests were carried out under isothermal and non-isothermal condition in a muffle furnace, aiming to assess the reduction and melting of a self-reducing blend of mill scale and petroleum coke (85-15% in weight. The products obtained were analyzed by mass loss and wet analysis. Further investigations for the products from the non-isothermal condition were done by X-ray diffraction, nude eye inspection and carbon analyzer. It was observed that mass loss fraction and metallization degree are directly related and both increase with time and temperature. In the non-isothermal maximum mass loss was achieved in 8 minutes, reaching metallization degrees above 90%. It was observed that the reduction of iron oxide occurs mainly in solid state and the smelting of the samples is directly related to the iron carburization process. Thus, the use of self-reducing mixtures shows a possible way to recycle mill scale.

  10. Toxicity of coke wastewater treated with advanced oxidation by Fenton process supported by ultrasonic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwarciak-Kozłowska Anna


    Full Text Available The aim of the presented study was to determine the toxicity of wastewater from the production of coke. The wastewater was treated with advanced oxidation involving ultrasonic field with Fenton’s reagent (the amplitude was 61.5 μm and sonication time 8 min. Two doses of iron and four doses of hydrogen peroxide were used. The amount of hydrogen peroxide was proportional to the value of the chemical oxygen demand of raw wastewater, ranging from COD/H2O2 ratio of 1:2.5 to 1:20. Two tests were used to determine the toxicity (algae growth inhibition test and Lepidium test. It was found that more toxic to algae was wastewater treated by Fenton’s reagent containing a higher dose of iron. A similar inhibitory effect was observed on the germination of cress seeds.

  11. Multiple mechanisms for the loss of coking properties caused by mild air oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, J.W.; Lee, D.; Schmidt, T.; Grint, A.


    Evidence is presented for the existence of at least three different mechanisms by which low temperature oxidation (weathering) destroys coal's coking properties. Lithium aluminium hydride reduction of Bruceton coal oxidized for 28 days restores the FSI to its initial value of 8 from a value of 3. After 220 days oxidation, reduction raises the FSI from 0.5 to 2. Clearly, two different processes are responsible for the FSI decrease. The pyridine solvent swelling change during this time is quite small, much smaller than observed by Liotta. Thus the oxidative increase in cross-link density observed by Liotta is a third mechanism of thermoplasticity loss. The initial FSI decrease, that reversible by reduction, is tentatively ascribed to oxidative loss of readily donatable hydrogen from the coal. The second mechanism remains uncharacterized. 14 references.

  12. Evaluation of pitches and cokes from solvent-extracted coal materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHenry, E.R.


    Three initial coal-extracted (C-E) samples were received from the West Virginia University (WVU) Chemical Engineering Department. Two samples had been hydrogenated to obtain pitches that satisfy Theological requirements. One of the hydrogenated (HC-E) samples had been extracted by toluene to remove ash and higher molecular weight aromatic compounds. We were unable to measure the softening point and viscosity of the non-hydro treated solid extract sample, Positive characteristics in the HC-E materials were softening points of 113-119{degrees}C, low sulfur and ash. The oxygen and nitrogen content of the HC-E samples may limit future usage in premium carbon and graphite products. Coking values were similar to petroleum pitches. Laboratory anode testing indicates that in combination with standard coal-tar pitch, the HC-E material can be used as a binder pitch.

  13. Oil Coking Prevention Using Electric Water Pump for Turbo-Charge Spark-Ignition Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Ching Lin


    Full Text Available Turbocharger has been widely implemented for internal combustion engine to increase an engine's power output and reduce fuel consumption. However, its operating temperature would rise to 340°C when engine stalls. This higher temperature may results in bearing wear, run-out, and stick, due to oil coking and insufficient lubrication. In order to overcome these problems, this paper employs Electric Water Pump (EWP to supply cool liquid to turbocharger actively when the engine stalls. The system layout, operating timing, and duration of EWP are investigated for obtaining optimal performance. The primarily experimental results show that the proposed layout and control strategy have a lower temperature of 100°C than the conventional temperature 225°C.

  14. 40 CFR 63.310 - Requirements for startups, shutdowns, and malfunctions. (United States)


    ... occurred. (j) The owner or operator of a nonrecovery coke oven battery subject to the work practice... CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.310 Requirements for startups, shutdowns... or operator shall operate and maintain the coke oven battery and its pollution control equipment...

  15. 40 CFR 63.309 - Performance tests and procedures. (United States)


    ... alternative standards for coke oven doors under § 63.305; work practice emission control plan requirements in... Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.309 Performance tests and procedures. (a) Except as otherwise... coke oven battery, the results of which shall be used in accordance with procedures specified in this...

  16. 40 CFR 63.7327 - How do I demonstrate initial compliance with the work practice standards that apply to me? (United States)


    ... me? (a) For each by-product coke oven battery with vertical flues subject to the work practice...-product coke oven battery with horizontal flues subject to the work practice standards for fugitive... each non-recovery coke oven battery subject to the work practice standards for fugitive pushing...

  17. 40 CFR 63.7334 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the work practice standards that apply to me? (United States)


    ... to me? (a) For each by-product coke oven battery with vertical flues subject to the work practice... repairs. (c) For each non-recovery coke oven battery subject to the work practice standards in § 63.7293(a.... (d) For each by-product coke oven battery subject to the work practice standard for soaking in § 63...

  18. Development and Testing of the Advanced CHP System Utilizing the Off-Gas from the Innovative Green Coke Calcining Process in Fluidized Bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chudnovsky, Yaroslav; Kozlov, Aleksandr


    Green petroleum coke (GPC) is an oil refining byproduct that can be used directly as a solid fuel or as a feedstock for the production of calcined petroleum coke. GPC contains a high amount of volatiles and sulfur. During the calcination process, the GPC is heated to remove the volatiles and sulfur to produce purified calcined coke, which is used in the production of graphite, electrodes, metal carburizers, and other carbon products. Currently, more than 80% of calcined coke is produced in rotary kilns or rotary hearth furnaces. These technologies provide partial heat utilization of the calcined coke to increase efficiency of the calcination process, but they also share some operating disadvantages. However, coke calcination in an electrothermal fluidized bed (EFB) opens up a number of potential benefits for the production enhancement, while reducing the capital and operating costs. The increased usage of heavy crude oil in recent years has resulted in higher sulfur content in green coke produced by oil refinery process, which requires a significant increase in the calcinations temperature and in residence time. The calorific value of the process off-gas is quite substantial and can be effectively utilized as an “opportunity fuel” for combined heat and power (CHP) production to complement the energy demand. Heat recovered from the product cooling can also contribute to the overall economics of the calcination process. Preliminary estimates indicated the decrease in energy consumption by 35-50% as well as a proportional decrease in greenhouse gas emissions. As such, the efficiency improvement of the coke calcinations systems is attracting close attention of the researchers and engineers throughout the world. The developed technology is intended to accomplish the following objectives: - Reduce the energy and carbon intensity of the calcined coke production process. - Increase utilization of opportunity fuels such as industrial waste off-gas from the novel

  19. Ammonium nitrogen removal from coking wastewater by chemical precipitation recycle technology. (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Ding, Lili; Ren, Hongqiang; Xiong, Xiang


    Ammonium nitrogen removal from wastewater has been of considerable concern for several decades. In the present research, we examined chemical precipitation recycle technology (CPRT) for ammonium nitrogen removal from coking wastewater. The pyrolysate resulting from magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP) pyrogenation in sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution was recycled for ammonium nitrogen removal from coking wastewater. The objective of this study was to investigate the conditions for MAP pyrogenation and to characterize of MAP pyrolysate for its feasibility in recycling. Furthermore, MAP pyrolysate was characterized by scanning electron microscope (FESEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) as well as X-ray diffraction (XRD). The MAP pyrolysate could be produced at the optimal condition of a hydroxyl (OH(-)) to ammonium molar ratio of 2:1, a heating temperature of 110 degrees C, and a heating time of 3h. Surface characterization analysis indicated that the main component of the pyrolysate was amorphous magnesium sodium phosphate (MgNaPO(4)). The pyrolysate could be recycled as a magnesium and phosphate source at an optimum pH of 9.5. When the recycle times were increased, the ammonium nitrogen removal ratio gradually decreased if the pyrolysate was used without supplementation. When the recycle times were increased, the ammonium nitrogen removal efficiency was not decreased if the added pyrolysate was supplemented with MgCl(2).6H(2)O plus Na(2)HPO(4).12H(2)O during treatment. A high ammonium nitrogen removal ratio was obtained by using pre-formed MAP as seeding material.

  20. Petroleum coke adsorption as a water management option for oil sands process-affected water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubot, Warren [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Research and Development, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6N 1H4 (Canada); MacKinnon, Michael D. [OSPM Solutions Ltd., Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8H 6X2 (Canada); Chelme-Ayala, Pamela; Smith, Daniel W. [University of Alberta, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2W2 (Canada); Gamal El-Din, Mohamed, E-mail: [University of Alberta, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2W2 (Canada)


    Water is integral to both operational and environmental aspects of the oil sands industry. A water treatment option based on the use of petroleum coke (PC), a by-product of bitumen upgrading, was examined as an opportunity to reduce site oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) inventories and net raw water demand. Changes in OSPW quality when treated with PC included increments in pH levels and concentrations of vanadium, molybdenum, and sulphate. Constituents that decreased in concentration after PC adsorption included total acid-extractable organics (TAO), bicarbonate, calcium, barium, magnesium, and strontium. Changes in naphthenic acids (NAs) speciation were observed after PC adsorption. A battery of bioassays was used to measure the OSPW toxicity. The results indicated that untreated OSPW was toxic towards Vibrio fischeri and rainbow trout. However, OSPW treated with PC at appropriate dosages was not acutely toxic towards these test organisms. Removal of TAO was found to be an adsorption process, fitting the Langmuir and Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm models. For TAO concentrations of 60 mg/L, adsorption capacities ranged between 0.1 and 0.46 mg/g. This study demonstrates that freshly produced PC from fluid cokers provides an effective treatment of OSPW in terms of key constituents' removal and toxicity reduction. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Treatment of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) using petroleum coke (PC) adsorption was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PC was effective at adsorbing naphthenic acids with higher cyclicity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer OSPW treated with PC at appropriate dosages was not toxic towards Vibrio fisheri and rainbow trout. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The adsorption of organic acids fitted the Langmuir and Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm models. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PC has the potential to be an effective adsorbent to treat OSPW either directly or as a pretreatment step.

  1. Performance Evaluation of a Double-Glazed Box-Type Solar Oven with Reflector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Folaranmi


    Full Text Available This research paper describes the performance evaluation of a double-glazed box-type solar oven with reflector fabricated using locally available materials, compressed sawdust with binder; size of the box is 700 mm ×  700 mm × 400 mm and 10 mm thickness. The experimental solar cooker consists of an aluminium absorber plate (1 mm painted matt black and a double-glazed lid. The bottom and sides are lagged with fibreglass wool insulator, thickness = 50 mm,  W/m°C. The reflector consists of a wooden-framed commercially available specular plane mirror which is sized to form a cover for the box when not being in use. Its thermal performance was tested according to the ASAE International Test procedure and Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS for testing the thermal performance of box-type solar cooker. Thermal performance experiments were conducted in order to determine the first figure of merit (F1, the second figure of merit (F2 and standard cooking power (Ps. The obtained test results were employed to calculate the two figures of merit (F1, and F2 and the standard cooking power (P50 to be 0.11 Km2w−1, 0.31, and 23.95 W, respectively. Finally, the results illustrated that the cooker has a good reliability for cooking food and boiling water.

  2. Optimization of pretreatments and process parameters for sorghum popping in microwave oven using response surface methodology. (United States)

    Mishra, Gayatri; Joshi, Dinesh C; Mohapatra, Debabandya


    Sorghum is a popular healthy snack food. Popped sorghum was prepared in a domestic microwave oven. A 3 factor 3 level Box and Behneken design was used to optimize the pretreatment conditions. Grains were preconditioned to 12-20 % moisture content by the addition of 0-2 % salt solutions. Oil was applied (0-10 % w/w) to the preconditioned grains. Optimization of the pretreatments was based on popping yield, volume expansion ratio, and sensory score. The optimized condition was found at 16.62 % (wb), 0.55 % salt and 10 % oil with popping yield of 82.228 %, volume expansion ratio of 14.564 and overall acceptability of 8.495. Further, the microwave process parameters were optimized using a 2 factor 3 level design having microwave power density ranging from 9 to 18 W/g and residence time ranging from 100 to 180 s. For the production of superior quality pop sorghum, the optimized microwave process parameters were microwave power density of 18 Wg(-1) and residence time of 140 s.

  3. Heat transfer and temperature distribution in a catalyst oven of 250mm diameter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kling, G.


    The catalyst oven tested was a tube, which was surrounded by a steam-heated jacket, had air passing upward through it, and was filled with cylindrical pills of catalysts. Measurement of heat flow, temperature, and pressure drop was taken at various places in the tube and at various flow rates of air. Higher flow rates of air produced a quicker reaching of a steady-state temperature distribution in the catalyst tube, but even then there was strong temperature gradient from the heated walls of the tube down to the middle of the tube. The report gave formulas for calculating the heat-conductivity coefficient for the catalyst from temperatures at various positions, specific heat of the air, amount of air, and dimensions of catalyst space. Also it gave a formula for calculating the Reynolds number from the specific gravity of the air, velocity of the air in an empty tube, viscosity of the air, and the dimensions of the catalyst pills. Among other graphs with the report was a graph plotting the heat-conductivity coefficient against the Reynolds number. The report also contained some discussion about how the functions would change if different gases were used, if temperature conditions were changed, or if the gas were heated before entry into the tube. The report also gave formulas for calculating pressure drops, heat transfer coefficients, Nusselt numbers, and Peclet numbers. 1 figure, 1 table, 8 graphs.

  4. Hybrid Modeling of Flotation Height in Air Flotation Oven Based on Selective Bagging Ensemble Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Hou


    Full Text Available The accurate prediction of the flotation height is very necessary for the precise control of the air flotation oven process, therefore, avoiding the scratch and improving production quality. In this paper, a hybrid flotation height prediction model is developed. Firstly, a simplified mechanism model is introduced for capturing the main dynamic behavior of the process. Thereafter, for compensation of the modeling errors existing between actual system and mechanism model, an error compensation model which is established based on the proposed selective bagging ensemble method is proposed for boosting prediction accuracy. In the framework of the selective bagging ensemble method, negative correlation learning and genetic algorithm are imposed on bagging ensemble method for promoting cooperation property between based learners. As a result, a subset of base learners can be selected from the original bagging ensemble for composing a selective bagging ensemble which can outperform the original one in prediction accuracy with a compact ensemble size. Simulation results indicate that the proposed hybrid model has a better prediction performance in flotation height than other algorithms’ performance.

  5. Digestion of plastic materials for the determination of toxic metals with a microwave oven for household use. (United States)

    Sakurai, Hiroki; Noro, Junji; Kawase, Akira; Fujinami, Masanori; Oguma, Koichi


    A rapid sample-digestion method for the determination of toxic metals, cadmium, chromium, and lead, in polyethylene and polyvinyl chloride has been developed by using a microwave oven for household use. An appropriate amount of the sample taken in a PTFE decomposition vessel was mixed with nitric acid or nitric and sulfuric acids. The vessel was heated in a microwave oven by a predetermined operating program. The digested sample was diluted to a definite volume with water after evaporating most of the nitric acid. The precipitate, if formed, was filtered off by a membrane filter. The metals were determined by ICP-AES. The sample digestion required 5 min (for 20-mg sample) to 25 min (for 60-mg sample). The analytical results obtained for cadmium, chromium, and lead in a polyethylene certified reference material, BCR-680, digested with nitric acid, were in good agreement with the certified values.

  6. Evaluation of co-cokes from bituminous coal with vacuum resid or decant oil, and evaluation of anthracites, as precursors to graphite (United States)

    Nyathi, Mhlwazi S.


    Graphite is utilized as a neutron moderator and structural component in some nuclear reactor designs. During the reactor operaction the structure of graphite is damaged by collision with fast neutrons. Graphite's resistance to this damage determines its lifetime in the reactor. On neutron irradiation, isotropic or near-isotropic graphite experiences less structural damage than anisotropic graphite. The degree of anisotropy in a graphite artifact is dependent on the structure of its precursor coke. Currently, there exist concerns over a short supply of traditional precursor coke, primarily due to a steadily increasing price of petroleum. The main goal of this study was to study the anisotropic and isotropic properties of graphitized co-cokes and anthracites as a way of investigating the possibility of synthesizing isotropic or near-isotropic graphite from co-cokes and anthracites. Demonstrating the ability to form isotropic or near-isotropic graphite would mean that co-cokes and anthracites have a potential use as filler material in the synthesis of nuclear graphite. The approach used to control the co-coke structure was to vary the reaction conditions. Co-cokes were produced by coking 4:1 blends of vacuum resid/coal and decant oil/coal at temperatures of 465 and 500 °C for reaction times of 12 and 18 hours under autogenous pressure. Co-cokes obtained were calcined at 1420 °C and graphitized at 3000 °C for 24 hours. Optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, temperature-programmed oxidation and Raman spectroscopy were used to characterize the products. It was found that higher reaction temperature (500 °C) or shorter reaction time (12 hours) leads to an increase in co-coke structural disorder and an increase in the amount of mosaic carbon at the expense of textural components that are necessary for the formation of anisotropic structure, namely, domains and flow domains. Characterization of graphitized co-cokes showed that the quality, as expressed by the degree of

  7. Zinc (Zn) Analysis in Milk by Microwave Oven Digestion and Differential Pulse Anodic Stripping Voltametry (DPASV) Technique


    Mohineesh; Raina A.; Raj J.; Dogra T. D.


    Milk is very important component of human diet. The presence of over limit of heavy metal in milk may create significant health problems. In the present study, the direct determination of Zinc (Zn) heavy metal in milk samples of different brands was carried out by differential pulse anodic stripping Voltammetric technique at Hanging Mercury Drop Electrode (HMDE). Milk samples were processed by microwave oven digestion using HP/VHP Vessels and TFM Liners and nitric acid (HNO3).Determination of...

  8. Effect of freeze-drying and oven-drying on volatiles and phenolics composition of grape skin. (United States)

    de Torres, C; Díaz-Maroto, M C; Hermosín-Gutiérrez, I; Pérez-Coello, M S


    Grape skins are the part of the fruit with the highest amount of volatile and polyphenolic compounds. Volatile compounds give the fruit and other grape derivatives their flavour. Polyphenolic compounds are responsible for the colour of the fruit, juice and wine, and also act as very important natural antioxidant compounds. Dehydration is a method used to prevent the damage of these compounds over time. Nevertheless, in the case of volatile compounds, removing water can cause compound degradation or the evaporation of such compounds. This work studied two drying methods, freeze-drying and oven-drying, at 60 degrees C, as skin preservation methods. The skins from two grape varieties, Carménère and Cabernet Sauvignon, were dried. Many volatile compounds, which are of interest in the aroma profile, were identified in both varieties as terpenes (linalool, etc.), sesquiterpenes (farnesol), norisoprenoids (vitispirane, etc.), C(6) alcohols (1-hexanol, etc.), etc., and their amount decreased significantly with the oven-drying method, in contrast to the freeze-drying method. Both phenolic compounds, anthocyanins and flavonols, were identified in fresh and dehydrated samples, thus resulting in the freeze-drying method being less aggressive than oven-drying methods. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Bags with oven-dried moss for the active monitoring of airborne trace elements in urban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giordano, S., E-mail: simonetta.giordano@unina.i [Dipartimento di Biologia Strutturale e Funzionale, Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Complesso Universitario Monte S. Angelo, Via Cintia 4, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Adamo, P. [Dipartimento di Scienze del Suolo, della Pianta, dell' Ambiente e delle Produzioni Animali (DISSPAPA), Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Via Universita 100, I-80055 Portici (Namibia) (Italy); Monaci, F. [Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Universita degli Studi di Siena, Via P.A. Mattioli 4, I-53100 Siena (Italy); Pittao, E.; Tretiach, M. [Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita degli Studi di Trieste, Via L. Giorgieri, 10, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Bargagli, R. [Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Universita degli Studi di Siena, Via P.A. Mattioli 4, I-53100 Siena (Italy)


    To define a harmonized methodology for the use of moss and lichen bags as active monitoring devices of airborne trace elements in urban areas, we evaluated the element accumulation in bags exposed in Naples in different spring weather conditions for 6- and 12-weeks. Three different pre-exposure treatments were applied to moss and lichen materials: water-washing, acid-washing and oven-drying. During the different exposure periods in the Naples urban environment the moss accumulated always higher amounts of elements (except Hg) than lichens and the element accumulation increased during wetter weather and higher PM{sub 10} conditions. The oven pre-treatment did not substantially modify the morphology and element composition of moss and the exposure in bags of this material for 6-weeks was sufficient to detect the pattern of airborne trace elements. - A 6-week exposure with oven-dried moss bags resulted a suitable approach to evaluate airborne trace elements in a Mediterranean urban environment.

  10. Development of natural gas prototypes ovens aided for virtual reality; Desenvolvimento de fornos prototipos a gas natural auxiliado pela realidade virtual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirapalheta, F.; Silva, D.R.; Castro, I.R. [Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail:;;


    The Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte has been developing prototype ovens, which work with natural gas. All the project of the prototypes, which will be applied to ceramic, bread bake industry and incineration of the hospital garbage, needs to be studied, developed and tested carefully until its conclusion. Then VRML language (Virtual Reality Modelling Language) is used as a tool in the study of the engineering projects and simulation of some tests, as for example the simulation of the trajectory and changes of the load in the oven of ceramic sector. The main benefits of the use of this tool are: finding and solving problems in the project of the prototypes faster; optimization in the project since the three-dimensional visualization facilitates the study; simulation of aspects of functioning of the ovens before its construction; and to make possible the remote training for the use of these ovens, because VRML was made for the internet. (author)

  11. New Generation Energy Efficient Refractory Application in Soaking Pits of Bhilai Steel Plant, Sail (United States)

    Roy, Indranil; Chintaiah, Perumetla; Bhattacharya, Ajoy Kr.; Garai, Swapan Kr.; Ray Choudhury, Pankaj Kr.; Tiwari, Laksman

    In Bhilai Steel Plant (BSP), soaking pits are used for heating ingots for successive rolling into blooms. Pits are operated at a temperature of around 1350°C. Mixed gas (Mixture of Blast Furnace gas & Coke Oven gas) of calorific value around 2040 kcal/Nm3 is used as fuel. The walls of soaking pits were lined with traditional 38% Al2O3 firebricks and top 500mm was cast with 70% Al2O3 low cement castable (LCC). This type of lining results in frequent damages due to hitting by ingots while being lifted from pit by overhead cranes thus affecting the availability of pit. Life of pits was 2 to 2.5 years in BSP with 3-4 cold repairs and 3-4 hot repairs. Energy loss through the wall is also quite high in this type of lining. To triumph over the limitations of the conventional lining, a lining design was developed for the walls which consist of special 70% Al2O3 LCC having high hot strength (HMOR) in combination with specially design flexible SS-304 anchors. Ceramic fiber blanket and insulation bricks were provided between castable and the metallic shell of the pit to minimize the heat loss. A heating schedule was developed and introduced based on available infrastructure at BSP for proper curing of modified LCC based lining. After introduction of modified lining, pit no. 14/2 is running for more than 2.5 years without any repair. To capitalize the success, two more pits i.e. 12/1 and 9/2 were converted to modified lining. These pits are also running satisfactorily for more than 1.5 years. The modification has resulted in higher availability with substantial increase in production. Shell temperature of the modified pits reduced to 90° - 140°C from 120° - 200°C of conventional pits. This shows reduction in heat loss through walls, resulting less fuel consumption and energy saving of about 18%.

  12. In vitro starch digestibility and expected glycemic index of pound cakes baked in two-cycle microwave-toaster and conventional oven. (United States)

    García-zaragoza, Francisco J; Sánchez-Pardo, María E; Ortiz-Moreno, Alicia; Bello-Pérez, Luis A


    Bread baking technology has an important effect on starch digestibility measured as its predicted glycemic index tested in vitro. The aim of this work was to evaluate the changes in predicted glycemic index of pound cake baked in a two-cycle microwave toaster and a conventional oven. The glycemic index was calculated from hydrolysis index values by the Granfeldt method. Non-significant differences (P > 0.05) were found in hydrolysis index (60.67 ± 3.96 for the product baked in microwave oven and 65.94 ± 4.09 for the product baked in conventional oven) and predicted glycemic index content (60.5 for product baked in microwave oven and 65 for the product baked in conventional oven) in freshly-baked samples. Results clearly demonstrate that the baking pound cake conventional process could be replicated using a two-cycle multifunction microwave oven, reducing the traditional baking time. Further research is required in order to achieve pound cake crumb uniformity.

  13. The effects of radiation leakage of microwave oven on body weight, cortisol, thyroid hormones and lipid profile in immature mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelodar Ph.D. Gh


    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: High-frequency electromagnetic field (EMF is generated by different sources such as radar installations, radio and television transmitters, medical microwave diathermy device and domestic use of microwave ovens. Radiation leakage of microwave oven may be harmful for users. Kids who are residing near their mothers may expose to electromagnetic field. This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of radiation leakage of microwave oven on body weight, cortisol, thyroid hormones and plasma lipid profile."n"nMethods: Radiation leakage of microwave oven was measured by RF measuring instrument. For this study 20 immature (7±3 days old and 5±1 g weight mice were selected and randomly divided in two groups, control and test group. Test groups were exposed to 2450 MHZ microwaves produced by microwave oven three times a day, 30 minute each time. After 60 days, body weights of both groups were determined and the blood samples were collected by heart puncture. Serum cortisol and thyroid hormones levels were evaluated using RIA method."n"nResults: Radiation leakage from oven showed variations from 6.5 to 57.5 mW/cm2. Mean body weight in test group was 29.5% lower than control group. Serum cortisol, T3 and T4 level

  14. Study of the influence of the operation of the unloading facility on the hydraulic conditions in the installation for dry quenching of coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grishchenko, A.I.; Ereskovskii, O.S.; Lavrishchev, V.I.


    Theoretical studies are presented elucidating the occurrence of a dislocation of the normal pressure distribution along the circuit of the installation for dry quenching of coke in dependence on the conditions of operation of the unloading facility. An electrical model is proposed for the hydraulic conditions in the installation for dry quenching of coke, allowing a study of the aerodynamic conditions of operation of the installation to be performed on an analog computer with sufficient accuracy.

  15. 40 CFR 63.7352 - What definitions apply to this subpart? (United States)


    ... oven, and flues are shared between adjacent ovens. Work practice standard means any design, equipment... (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Coke Ovens: Pushing, Quenching, and... that is used for less than 5 percent of the quenches from any single coke oven battery in the 12-month...

  16. Semi-coke briquettes: towards reducing emissions of primary PM2.5, particulate carbon, and carbon monoxide from household coal combustion in China (United States)

    Li, Qing; Li, Xinghua; Jiang, Jingkun; Duan, Lei; Ge, Su; Zhang, Qi; Deng, Jianguo; Wang, Shuxiao; Hao, Jiming


    Direct household use of unprocessed raw coals for cooking and heating without any air pollution control device has caused serious indoor and outdoor environment problems by emitting particulate matter (PM) and gaseous pollutants. This study examined household emission reduction by switching from unprocessed bituminous and anthracite coals to processed semi-coke briquettes. Two typical stoves were used to test emission characteristics when burning 20 raw coal samples commonly used in residential heating activities and 15 semi-coke briquette samples which were made from bituminous coals by industrial carbonization treatment. The carbonization treatment removes volatile compounds from raw coals which are the major precursors for PM formation and carbon emission. The average emission factors of primary PM2.5, elemental carbon, organic carbon, and carbon monoxide for the tested semi-coke briquettes are much lower than those of the tested raw coals. Based on the current coal consumption data in China, switching to semi-coke briquettes can reduce average emission factors of these species by about 92%, 98%, 91%, and 34%, respectively. Additionally, semi-coke briquette has relatively lower price and higher burnout ratio. The replacement of raw coals with semi-coke briquettes is a feasible path to reduce pollution emissions from household activities. PMID:26782059

  17. 40 CFR 60.424 - Test methods and procedures. (United States)


    ... following equations shall be used: (i) For synthetic and coke oven by-product ammonium sulfate plants: P... to conduct the run, liter/min. B=acid density (a function of acid strength and temperature), g/cc. C=acid strength, decimal fraction. K1/4=conversion factor, 0.0808 (Mg-min-cc)/(g-hr-liter) . (ii) For...

  18. Kentucky Department for Natural Resources and Environmental Protection permit application for air contaminant source: SRC-I Demonstruation Plant, Newman, Kentucky. Appendix B. Best available control technology (BACT) proposals. [Demonstration plant at Newman, KY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The best available control technology (BACT) proposals for the following areas of the SRC-I demonstration plant are described: coal preparation and handling, SRC process and deashing, coke and liquid fuels (control of particles and hydrocarbon vapors), cryogenic systems and fuel gas purification (including sulfur recovery system and venting of gaseous wastes). (LTN)

  19. Synergetic effects leading to coke-resistant NiCo bimetallic catalysts for dry reforming of methane

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Lidong


    A new dry reforming of methane catalyst comprised of NiCo bimetallic nanoparticles and a Mgx(Al)O support that exhibits high coke resistance and long-term on-stream stability is reported. The structural characterization by XRD, TEM, temperature-programmed reduction, and BET analysis demonstrates that the excellent performance of this catalyst is ascribed to the synergy of various parameters, including metal-nanoparticle size, metal-support interaction, catalyst structure, ensemble size, and alloy effects.

  20. Electrochemical Degradation Characteristics of Refractory Organic Pollutants in Coking Wastewater on Multiwall Carbon Nanotube-Modified Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang


    Full Text Available The multiwall carbon nanotube-mollified electrode (MWCNT-ME was fabricated and its electrocatalytic activity of refractory organic pollutants of coking wastewater was investigated. The surface morphology, absorption properties, and the electrochemical behavior of phenol and aniline at the MWCNT-ME were analyzed. Using ultraviolet-visible adsorption spectroscopy (UV-vis, Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS, and chemical oxygen demand (COD test, the electrochemical oxidation properties of refractory organic pollutants of coking wastewater using the MWCNT-ME and the IrSnSb/Ti electrode were analyzed. Compared with the powder adsorption media, the MWCNT-ME was proved to have weaker adsorption activity, which means electrochemical degradation is the decisive factor of the removal of organic pollutants. The MWCNT-ME shows high electrochemical reactivity with oxidation peaks of 0.18 A and 0.12 A for phenol and aniline, respectively. Under the same working conditions, the MWCNT-ME COD removal rate 51% is higher than IrSnSb/Ti electrode’s rate 35%. The MWCNT-ME has application potential of electrochemical oxidation of refractory organic pollutants of coking wastewater.