Sample records for coke oven door

  1. Reduction of heat consumption in coke oven at Mizushima works

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akizuki, H. (and others)


    Measures taken by Kawasaki Steel are outlined: controlled use of waterproof coating in the coal stockyard, coupled with improved drainage; an increase in charge weight through coarser crushing; reductions in soaking time, final coke temperature and waste gas temperature and volume; and thermal insulation coating of oven doors. The resulting overall reduction in heat consumption is c. 70 kcal/kg, to 550-570 kcal/kg.

  2. 29 CFR 1910.1029 - Coke oven emissions. (United States)


    ...) Aspiration systems designed and operated to provide sufficient negative pressure and flow volume to... to determine the controls for the coke battery; (c) A report of the technology considered in meeting... harmful effects of exposure to coke oven emissions. (i) Hygiene facilities and practices—(1) Change rooms...

  3. Actual application of hot repairing technology to operating coke oven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtani, Susumu; Ito, Hidekuni; Numazawa, Makoto; Yamazaki, Takao; Narita, Yuji; Kondo, Toshio


    In Wakayama Steel Works, the coke ovens have been operating for 23 [approximately] 25 years, and many over-aged parts can be seen. However the investment for the construction of a new coke oven is so huge that the maximum prolongation of the existing coke ovens life becomes very important. In the Wakayama Steel Works, it is thought that the coking chamber repairing technology can be the key to that prolongation. While, repairing the coking chamber, the area near the wall head can be observed by the naked eye and repaired using conventional methods, such a welding repairment by metal oxidation heat, partial chamber wall brick re-laying in the hot stage. However, these repairing methods are limited to the area near the wall head, and successful repair methods for the central portion of chamber wall have not, heretofore, been found. In the Wakayama Steel Works, the development of a new welding repairing machine for the central portion of the chamber wall was started and the actual repairing machine has been completed with practical use tests on operating coke ovens. This repairing machine has the following characteristic; (1) Repair of the central portion of ovens under high temperature (over 1,000 C); (2) Capability to seal narrow cracks or open brick joints and to smooth out brick roughness into a flat surface; (3) High working efficiency (max. welding capacity [equals] 30K g/h); (4) Compact and fully automatic operation with a high level of man/machine control interface; and (5) No disturbance of coke oven operation and no cooling of the chamber wall. In this paper, the outline of the actual hot repairing machine and its application results in the Wakayama operating coke ovens are reported.

  4. 29 CFR 1926.1129 - Coke oven emissions. (United States)


    ... oven emissions. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are identical... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coke oven emissions. 1926.1129 Section 1926.1129 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  5. [Characteristics of particulate matter pollution in coke oven plant]. (United States)

    Deng, Hua-xin; Zhang, Wang-zhen; Huang, Kun; He, Yun-feng; Li, Xiao-hai; Kuang, Dan; Lin, Da-feng; Zhang, Xiao-min; Wu, Tang-chun


    To explore the characteristics of particulate matter pollution in coke oven plant, so as to provide scientific data for establishing occupational exposure limits for coke oven emissions. Concentrations of CO, SO₂, BSM, BTEX (concentrations of benzene, toluene and xylene were determined in this study), PM₁₀, PM₂.₅, 16 selected PAHs in PM₁₀ and PM₂.₅ were determined in the work environment of a coke oven plant in Wuhan. The work environment was divided into the adjunct area, the bottom of, the side of and the top of coke oven. The concentrations of CO, SO₂, BSM, BETX, PM₁₀, PM₂.₅, PAHs in PM₁₀ and PM₂.₅ were significantly related to working environmental categories, respectively, and were increasing as the adjunct area work environments were not significantly different in one-way ANOVA (P > 0.05). The distribution of aromatic rings and the concentrations of total benzo[a] pyrene equivalents in PM₁₀ and PM₂.₅ were not statistically different between work environments. The concentrations of particulate matter was related with other contents of coke oven emissions in coke work environment, and the contents and types of PAHs in PM₁₀ and PM₂.₅ were similar.

  6. 40 CFR 63.302 - Standards for by-product coke oven batteries. (United States)


    ... batteries. 63.302 Section 63.302 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.302 Standards for by-product coke oven batteries... oven emissions from each affected existing by-product coke oven battery that exceed any of the...

  7. Optimization of the coke-oven activated sludge plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raizer Neto, Ernesto [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Colin, Francois [Institut de Recherches Hydrologiques, 54 - Nancy (France); Prost, Christian [Laboratoire de Sciences de Genie Chimique, Nancy (France)


    In the coke-oven activated sludge plants one of the greatest problems of malfunction is due to inffluent variability. The composition and, or, concentration variations of the inffluent substrate, which can cause an unstable system, are function of the pollutant load. Nevertheless, the knowledge of the kinetic biodegradation of the coke-oven effluent represents the limiting factor to develop an effective biological treatment. This work describes a computational model of the biological treatment which was elaborated and validated from continuous pilot scale experiments and calibrated by comparing its predictions to the pilot experiment`s results. 12 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. 40 CFR 63.303 - Standards for nonrecovery coke oven batteries. (United States)


    ... coke oven battery shall meet the work practice standards in paragraphs (c)(1) and (2) of this section... or operator of a new nonrecovery coke oven battery shall meet the emission limitations and work... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for nonrecovery coke oven...

  9. Optimisation of coal blend and bulk density for coke ovens by vibrocompacting technique non-recovery ovens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, P.P.; Vinoo, D.S.; Yadav, U.S.; Ghosh, S.; Lal, J.P.N. [J.S.W. Steel Ltd, Bellary (India)


    The quality of coke produced in a coke oven depends on the coal blend characteristics and carbonisation conditions. Scarcity of good quality coking coal made it necessary to look for techniques capable of producing superior coke from inferior coals. Precarbonisation techniques improve the bulk density of the coal charge and produce good quality coke from inferior coals. The stamp charging technique, the most effective among them requires finer crushing of coal and higher moisture as binder, both requiring additional energy. JSW Steel has adopted vibrocompaction along with non-recovery ovens for its 1.2 Mtpa coke production. This is a highly ecofriendly coke making process producing excellent quality coke from inferior coals. It increases the bulk density of cake, similar to stamp charging, using compaction in place of stamping. A cake density of 1.10 t m{sup -3} has been achieved using the vibrocompacting technique with optimum moisture and crushing fineness. Coal blend containing up to 35% soft coal and coking coal, having 32% volatile matter have been successfully used to produce a coke with coke strength after reaction >65%, coke reactivity index <25% and M10 <6%. The paper discusses the experience of operating vibrocompaction non-recovery coke ovens.

  10. Using low porosity refractory materials in coke ovens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narita, Y.; Sudzuki, T.


    Refractory bricks with porosity (KP) of less than or equal to 17 percent, which contain less than 1 percent iron oxide and are resiliant at temperatures of more than 1,000/sup 0/C, are made through caking or electrosmelting of materials with a high aluminum content (chamotte, sillimanite, cordierite, pagodite) and silicon content (magnesial chromite, alumina, magnesite, calcite and zircon). In a refractory material with a seeming porosity of less than or equal to 17 percent the deposition of carbon in the pores is reduced which promotes a constant heat conductivity and strength of the refractory material in the operation of coke ovens. Normally the carbon is formed with the reduction of CO under the catalytic action of iron oxide.

  11. Carbon dioxide emission in hydrogen production technology from coke oven gas with life cycle approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burmistrz Piotr


    Full Text Available The analysis of Carbon Footprint (CF for technology of hydrogen production from cleaned coke oven gas was performed. On the basis of real data and simulation calculations of the production process of hydrogen from coke gas, emission indicators of carbon dioxide (CF were calculated. These indicators are associated with net production of electricity and thermal energy and direct emission of carbon dioxide throughout a whole product life cycle. Product life cycle includes: coal extraction and its transportation to a coking plant, the process of coking coal, purification and reforming of coke oven gas, carbon capture and storage. The values were related to 1 Mg of coking blend and to 1 Mg of the hydrogen produced. The calculation is based on the configuration of hydrogen production from coke oven gas for coking technology available on a commercial scale that uses a technology of coke dry quenching (CDQ. The calculations were made using ChemCAD v.6.0.2 simulator for a steady state of technological process. The analysis of carbon footprint was conducted in accordance with the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA.

  12. Sperm quality and DNA integrity of coke oven workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. (United States)

    Jeng, Hueiwang Anna; Pan, Chih-Hong; Chao, Mu-Rong; Chiu, Chien-Chih; Zhou, Guodong; Chou, Chon-Kit; Lin, Wen-Yi


    The objective of this study was to assess sperm quality and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) integrity of coke oven workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as compared to control subjects. The coke oven workers (N = 52) and administrative staff (N = 35) of a steel plant served as the exposed and control groups, respectively. Exposure to PAHs was assessed by measuring 1-hydroxypyren. Analysis of sperm quality (concentration, motility, vitality, and morphology) was performed simultaneously with sperm DNA integrity analysis, including DNA fragmentation, denaturation, bulky DNA adducts, and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dGuo). A questionnaire was conducted to collect demographic and potential confounding data. The coke oven workers had lower percentages of sperm motility, vitality and normal morphology than the control group, but the difference was not significant. For DNA integrity, the coke oven workers had significantly higher concentrations of bulky DNA adducts and 8-oxo-dGuo than the control subjects (p = 0.009 and p = 0.048, respectively). However, DNA fragmentation percentages did not significantly increase as compared to those in the subjects from the control group (p = 0.232). There was no correlation between sperm quality parameters and DNA integrity indicators. Occupational exposure of the coke oven workers to PAHs was associated with decreased sperm DNA integrity. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2016;29(6):915-926.

  13. Influence of Coking Pressure and Oven Age on Chamber Wall Displacement and Coke Pushing Force

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nakagawa, Tomoyuki; Kubota, Yukihiro; Arima, Takashi; Fukuda, Koichi; Kato, Kenji; Awa, Yasuhiko; Sugiura, Masato; Mitsugi, Kenji; Okanishi, Kazuya; Sugiyama, Isao


    .... The wall displacement increased in proportion to the internal gas pressure of plastic layer at oven center, and the displacement at superannuated oven per maximum gas pressure was larger than the one at sturdy oven. The pushing force...

  14. Assessment of genotoxic exposure in Swedish coke-oven work by different methods of biological monitoring. (United States)

    Reuterwall, C; Aringer, L; Elinder, C G; Rannug, A; Levin, J O; Juringe, L; Onfelt, A


    This study evaluated the results of several biological methods used simultaneously to monitor coke-oven work. Blood samples from 44 male coke-oven workers and 48 male referents, matched for age and smoking/snuff consumption, were examined for cytogenetic damage in lymphocytes. Urinary thioether excretion was determined for 62, and urine mutagenicity for 31, of the subjects, who followed a standardized diet during the urine sampling. Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons varied with work task, the ambient air levels of benzo[a]pyrene sometimes exceeding 5 micrograms/m3. Cytogenetic damage, urine mutagenicity, and thioether excretion did not differ between the groups. The smokers, however, had significantly higher sister chromatid exchange frequencies, urine mutagenicity, and thioether excretion than the nonsmokers. The absence of biological indications of genotoxic exposure was unexpected and indicates that the studied methods are not adequate to assess the carcinogenic risks of Swedish coke-oven workers.

  15. Performance and microbial community analysis of the anaerobic reactor with coke oven gas biomethanation and in situ biogas upgrading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wen; Xie, Li; Luo, Gang


    A new method for simultaneous coke oven gas (COG) biomethanation and in situ biogas upgrading in anaerobic reactor was developed in this study. The simulated coke oven gas (SCOG) (92% H2 and 8% CO) was injected directly into the anaerobic reactor treating sewage sludge through hollow fiber membra...

  16. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine levels among coke-oven workers for 2 consecutive days. (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi-To-Uyen; Kawanami, Shoko; Kawai, Kazuaki; Kasai, Hiroshi; Li, Yun-Shan; Inoue, Jinro; Ngoan, Le Tran; Horie, Seichi


    This study evaluated the levels of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their relationship with oxidative DNA damage among Vietnamese coke-oven workers. We collected urine from 36 coke-oven workers (exposed group) at the beginning and end of the shift on 2 consecutive days. We also collected urine from 78 medical staff (control group). Information was collected by questionnaire about smoking status, drinking habit, and working position. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) were measured using HPLC. All statistical analyses were performed with SPSS version 19. Urinary 1-OHP was significantly higher in the coke-oven workers than in the control group (poven workers had the highest levels of internal exposure to PAHs, followed by side-oven and then bottom-oven workers (5.41, 4.41 and 1.35 ng/mg creatinine, respectively, at the end of the shift on day 2). Urinary 8-OH-dG was significantly higher in top- and side-oven workers at the end of the shift on day 2 (4.63 and 5.88 ng/mg creatinine, respectively) than in the control group (3.85 ng/mg creatinine). Based on a multi-regression analysis, smoking status had a significant effect on urinary 8-OH-dG (p=0.049). Urinary 1-OHP tended to have a positive correlation with urinary 8-OH-dG (p=0.070). Vietnamese coke-oven workers were exposed to PAHs during their work shift. Urinary 1-OHP exceeded the recommended limit, and elevated oxidative DNA damage occurred in top- and side-oven workers on the second day of work. A tendency for positive correlation was found between urinary 1-OHP and urinary 8-OH-dG.

  17. Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications. Volume 1, Public design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This Public Design Report provides, in a single document, available nonproprietary design -information for the ``Innovative Coke Oven Gas Cleaning System for Retrofit Applications`` Demonstration Project at Bethlehem Steel Corporation`s Sparrows Point, Maryland coke oven by-product facilities. This project demonstrates, for the first time in the United States, the feasibility of integrating four commercially available technologies (processes) for cleaning coke oven gas. The four technologies are: Secondary Gas Cooling, Hydrogen Sulfide and Ammonia Removal, Hydrogen Sulfide and Ammonia Recovery, and Ammonia Destruction and Sulfur Recovery. In addition to the design aspects, the history of the project and the role of the US Department of,Energy are briefly discussed. Actual plant capital and projected operating costs are also presented. An overview of the integration (retrofit) of the processes into the existing plant is presented and is followed by detailed non-proprietary descriptions of the four technologies and their overall effect on reducing the emissions of ammonia, sulfur, and other pollutants from coke oven gas. Narrative process descriptions, simplified process flow diagrams, input/output stream data, operating conditions, catalyst and chemical requirements, and utility requirements are given for each unit. Plant startup provisions, environmental considerations and control monitoring, and safety considerations are also addressed for each process.

  18. Assessment of potential damage to DNA in urine of coke oven workers: an assay of unscheduled DNA synthesis.


    Roos, F; Renier, A; Ettlinger, J; Iwatsubo, Y; Letourneux, M; Haguenoer, J M; Jaurand, M C; Pairon, J C


    OBJECTIVES: A study was conducted in coke oven workers to evaluate the biological consequences of the exposure of these workers, particularly production of potential genotoxic factors. METHODS: 60 coke oven workers and 40 controls were recruited in the same iron and steel works. Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was assessed by job and measurement of 1-hydroxypyrene (1OHP) in urine samples. An unscheduled DNA synthesis assay was performed on rat pleural mesothelial cells use...

  19. Association of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons metabolites and risk of diabetes in coke oven workers. (United States)

    Yang, Liangle; Yan, Kai; Zeng, Dan; Lai, Xuefeng; Chen, Xuguang; Fang, Qin; Guo, Huan; Wu, Tangchun; Zhang, Xiaomin


    Elevated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) metabolites have recently been linked to increased risk of diabetes in the general population, but little is known about the risk of diabetes due to high pollution levels of PAHs exposure. We aimed to examine whether occupational exposure to PAHs would be one of the important risk factors for diabetes in the coke oven workers. A total of 1472 coke oven workers with complete data were qualified for the present study. We measured 12 urinary monohydroxy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Multiple logistic regression was used to evaluate the associations between urinary OH-PAHs and risk of diabetes, with adjustment for the potential confounders. We found that elevated urinary 4-hydroxyphenanthrene (4-OHPh) was significantly associated, in a dose-dependent manner, with increased risk of diabetes (Ptrend = 0.003). Compared with individuals with 4-OHPh in the lowest quartile, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) of diabetes among those in the highest quartile was 2.80 (95% CI = 1.37-5.71). In stratified analysis, the association was more prominent in those who were smokers, overweight (BMI ≥24 kg/m2), with longer working years (≥20 years) and worked at coke oven settings. In addition, high levels of 4-OHPh combined with longer working years or overweight had a joint effect on the risk of diabetes. Our data suggested that elevated 4-OHPh was dose-responsive associated with increased risk of diabetes in the coke oven workers. The risk assessment of diabetes related to occupational PAHs exposure should take working years and BMI into consideration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Association between urinary 1-hydroxypyrene and genotoxic effects in coke oven workers. (United States)

    Siwińska, E; Mielzyńska, D; Kapka, L


    To investigate whether current occupational exposure of coke oven workers to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) results in genotoxic effects measured in peripheral blood lymphocytes and whether these biomarkers are associated with the biomarkers of exposure. Blood and urine samples were collected immediately after a shift at the end of a working week from 50 coke oven workers and 50 control workers not exposed to PAHs. Methods included: (1) biomarkers of exposure: urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (HpU), urinary mutagenicity by the plate Salmonella test with strains TA98 and YG1024 after metabolic activation, expressed as mutagenic rate (MR98 and MR1024, respectively), urinary cotinine; and (2) biomarkers of biological effects in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL): sister chromatid exchanges (SCE/cell), cells of high frequency of SCE (% HFC), micronuclei (MN/1000 cells), chromosomal aberrations (CA/100 cells), and DNA damage by the Comet assay. Occupational exposure to PAH resulted in significantly increased levels of HpU and mutagenic effect of urine. Median values of these biomarkers in coke oven workers were: 9.0 micromol/mol creatinine for HpU, 2.7 for MR98, and 8.2 for MR1024, compared to the controls: HpU = 0.6 micromol/mol creatinine, MR98 = 1.2, and MR1024 = 5.5. Occupational exposure caused significant induction of SCE, HFC, and MN in coke oven workers: median SCE = 5.9, HFC = 12.0%, MN = 6.0 compared to the controls: 3.9, 5.0%, and 3.0, respectively. No effect of occupational exposure was found in relation to CA and DNA damage measured with the Comet assay. HpU concentration was positively associated with SCE and HFC. The concentration of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene corresponding to a 5% probability of increased SCE was 1.0 micromol/mol creatinine. The occupational exposure to PAHs resulted in measurable biological effects (SCE, HFC, MN). In coke oven workers an increased level of SCE was not observed below the level of 1.0 micromol HpU/mol creatinine.

  1. Control of pollutants emissions and heat consumption of the CST coke ovens; Controle des emissions de polluants et de la consommation thermique a la cokerie de CST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemente, J.M.; Sampaio d' Andrea, C.H.; Da Silva, O.J.; Brandenberger Valente, O.; Lievana, M.; Rabelo de Faria, M. [Arcelor-CST, 92 - Puteaux (France)


    To precede the energy and environmental demands, a follow-up of the coke oven batteries was made, to identify the probable causes of pollutants generation and thermal losses. The results of the follow-up of the in/out gases of the coke ovens led to a change of the traditional operational practices, aiming at reducing the air emissions and the energy consumption of the coke ovens. (authors)

  2. Air pollution from a large steel factory: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions from coke-oven batteries. (United States)

    Liberti, Lorenzo; Notarnicola, Michele; Primerano, Roberto; Zannetti, Paolo


    A systematic investigation of solid and gaseous atmospheric emissions from some coke-oven batteries of one of Europe's largest integrated steel factory (Taranto, Italy) has been carried out. In air monitoring samples, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were consistently detected at concentrations largely exceeding threshold limit values. By means of PAHs speciation profile and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) equivalent dispersion modeling from diffuse sources, the study indicated that serious health risks exist not only in working areas, but also in a densely populated residential district near the factory.

  3. [Relationship between CYP1A1 gene polymorphisms and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene levels in coke oven workers]. (United States)

    Nie, Ji-sheng; Zhang, Hong-mei; Sun, Jian-ya; Zeng, Ping; Zhang, Ling; Niu, Qiao


    To study the associations of CYP1A1 gene polymorphisms with levels of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene among coke oven workers. 223 male workers from a coke plant (76, 82 and 65 workers in oven top group, oven-side group and oven-bottom group respectively) and 119 controls without occupational polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons exposure were selected. The MspI gene polymorphism in CYP1A1 3' flanking region and the genotypes at I462V site in exon 7 of CYP1A1 were detected by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and allele specific amplification (ASA). The urinary 1-hydroxypyrene of coke oven workers in oven-top, oven-side and oven-bottom (3.77+/-0.64, 3.57+/-0.49, 3.26+/-0.80 micromol/mol Cr) were significantly higher than controls (2.80+/-1.02 micromol/mol Cr) (P0.05). In oven-top group and oven-side group, the subjects with Val/Val genotype in exon 7 of CYP1A1 had significantly higher urinary 1-hydroxypyrene levels than those with Ile/Val or Ile/Ile genotype, and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene of Ile-Val genotype were also significantly higher than Ile/Ile genotype (Poven workers (OR in oven top group, oven-side group and oven-bottom group was 24.926, 4.226 and 6.729 respectively) and subjects with m2/m2 genotype in CYP1A1 3' flanking region (OR=4.031) or with Val/Val or Ile/Val genotype in exon 7 of CYP1A1 (OR were 5.524 and 3.811) had elevated urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (greater than 95 percentile of control group, 3.876 micromol/mol Cr). BAP concentration of work environment contributes to the elevated urinary 1-hydroxypyrene levels, and the exposed BAP levels were regulated by the CYP1A1 MspI and I462V genotypes. Genetic polymorphism of CYP1A1 gene could be a susceptible biomarker in coke oven workers which was involved in the individual susceptibility on metabolism of PAHs.

  4. Respiratory impairment in coke oven workers: relationship to work exposure and bronchial inflammation detected by sputum cytology. (United States)

    Madison, R; Afifi, A A; Mittman, C


    Coke oven workers are at excess risk of developing lung cancer and may be at risk for chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD). We have studied 3799 male workers to assess the relationship between the two diseases. Repeated lung function and sputum cytology tests were obtained over a 3-year period. Sputum samples were assessed using standardized methods; in addition to metaplastic and neoplastic changes, we reproducibly assessed the presence and extent of acute and chronic inflammatory changes. Spirometric flow rates (FEV1) were significantly reduced in workers most exposed to coke oven emissions, particularly in those with excessive inflammatory cells and regular metaplasia in sputum. The presence of reactive bronchial epithelial cells and metaplasia were potent predictors of an abnormal FEV1/FVC. Studies like these may offer a means to investigate the relationship between COLD and lung cancer. Such changes in sputum may identify individuals at risk of developing both diseases.

  5. Smoking modify the effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons exposure on oxidative damage to DNA in coke oven workers. (United States)

    Yang, Jin; Zhang, Hongjie; Zhang, Huitao; Wang, Wubin; Liu, Yanli; Fan, Yanfeng


    Coke oven emissions containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are predominant toxic constituents of particulate air pollution that have been linked to increased risk of lung cancer. Numerous epidemiological studies have suggested that oxidative DNA damage may play a pivotal role in the carcinogenic mechanism of lung cancer. Little is known about the effect of interaction between PAHs exposure and lifestyle on DNA oxidative damage. The study population is composed by coke oven workers (365) and water treatment workers (144), and their urinary levels of four PAH metabolites and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) were determined. Airborne samples of exposed sites (4) and control sites (3) were collected, and eight carcinogenic PAHs were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography. The median values of the sum of eight carcinogenic PAHs and BaP in exposed sites were significantly higher than control sites (P PAH metabolites were significantly elevated in coke oven workers (P < 0.01). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the risk of high levels of urinary 8-OHdG will increase with increasing age, cigarette consumption, and levels of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene, and P for trend were all <0.05. Smoking can significantly modify the effects of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene on high concentrations urinary 8-OHdG, during co-exposure to both light or heavy smoking and high 1-hydroxypyrene levels (OR 4.28, 95% CI 1.32-13.86 and OR 5.05, 95% CI 1.63-15.67, respectively). Our findings quantitatively demonstrate that workers exposed to coke oven fumes and smoking will cause more serious DNA oxidative damage.

  6. Impact of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 on by-product coke oven production for blast furnaces and compliance paths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aloe, A.; Sundholm, J.L. [Shenango Inc. (USA)


    Describes the requirements of the 1990 Amendment to the US Clean Air Act as relates to coke batteries and the two alternative compliance routes, MACT and LAER, coke battery operators had to chose between. MACT stands for maximum achievable control technology and LAER lowest achievable emission rate. The daily inspections to ensure compliance, residual risk and extension of the Act to other coke operations are described. Impact on US coke production is discussed. It is concluded that the Act has made it more expensive to produce coke from by-product ovens. 7 refs., 2 tabs.

  7. Emission of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins (PCDDs and Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans (PCDFs from Underfiring System of Coke Oven Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Bigda


    Full Text Available A coke oven battery is not considered as a significant source of PCDDs/PCDFs emissions; however, due to small amounts of chlorine in coal dioxins, dibenzofurans may be formed. The paper presents the attempts to determine the level of emission of PCDDs/PCDFs from the COB underfiring system and to confront the obtained results with the calculations based on the mass balance of chlorine in the coking process and reactions of both chlorophenols formation and PCDDs and PCDFs formation from mono- and polychlorophenols. There were PCDDs/PCDFs concentrations measured in flue gases from the underfiring system of two COBs at a Polish coking plant. The measurements included both an old and a new battery. The obtained concentrations of PCDDs/PCDFs were lower than reported in the literature (0.5-1.7 ng I-TEQ/tcoke, while the results for old COB were on average 3 times higher than for the new one. It was found that PCDD/F emission from COB underfiring system is insignificant and that PCDDs/PCDFs formation during coal coking should consider the mechanisms of their formation from mono- and polychlorophenols, as well as the influence of process parameters on the synthesis.

  8. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations in Chinese coke oven workers relative to job category, respirator usage, and cigarette smoking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bo Chen; Yunping Hu; Lixing Zheng; Qiangyi Wang; Yuanfen Zhou; Taiyi Jin [Fudan University, Shanghai (China). School of Public Health


    1-Hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) is a biomarker of recent exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We investigated whether urinary 1-OHP concentrations in Chinese coke oven workers (COWs) are modulated by job category, respirator usage, and cigarette smoking. The present cross-sectional study measured urinary 1-OHP concentrations in 197 COWs from Coking plant I and 250 COWs from Coking plant II, as well as 220 unexposed referents from Control plant I and 56 referents from Control plant II. Urinary 1-OHP concentrations (geometric mean, {mu}mol/mol creatinine) were 5.18 and 4.21 in workers from Coking plants I and II, respectively. The highest 1-OHP levels in urine were found among topside workers including lidmen, tar chasers, and whistlers. Benchmen had higher 1-OHP levels than other workers at the sideoven. Above 75% of the COWs exceeded the recommended occupational exposure limit of 2.3 {mu}mol/mol creatinine. Respirator usage and increased body mass index (BMI) slightly reduced 1-OHP levels in COWs. Cigarette smoking significantly increased urinary 1-OHP levels in unexposed referents but had no effect in COWs. Chinese COWs, especially topside workers and benchmen, are exposed to high levels of PAHs. Urinary 1-OHP concentrations appear to be modulated by respirator usage and BMI in COWs, as well as by smoking in unexposed referents.

  9. Occupational coke oven emissions exposure and risk of abnormal liver function: modifications of body mass index and hepatitis virus infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. Hu; B. Chen; J. Qian; L. Jin; T. Jin; D. Lu [Fudan University, Shanghai (China). Department of Occupational and Environmental Health


    Occupational coke oven emissions (COEs) have been considered an important health issue. However, there are no conclusive data on human hepatic injury due to COE exposure. The association of COE exposure with liver function was explored and the effects of modification of potential non-occupational factors were assessed. 705 coke oven workers and 247 referents were investigated. Individual cumulative COE exposure was quantitatively estimated. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), {gamma}-glutamyl transferase, alkaline phosphatase, hepatitis B surface antigen and anti-hepatitis C antibody were measured. Among those with high COE exposure, the adjusted ORs of abnormal ALT and AST were 5.23 (95% CI 2.66 to 10.27) and 1.95 (95% CI 1.18 to 3.52), respectively. Overweight individuals (body mass index (BMI) {>=}25 kg/m{sup 2}) with high COE exposure had elevated risks of abnormal ALT (adjusted OR 23.93, 95% CI 8.73 to 65.62) and AST (adjusted OR 5.18, 95% CI 2.32 to 11.58). Risk of liver damage in hepatitis B virus- or hepatitis C virus-positive individuals with COE exposure was also elevated. Long-term exposure to COE increases the risk of liver dysfunction, which is more prominent among those with higher BMI and hepatitis virus infection. The risk assessment of liver damage associated with COE exposure should take BMI and hepatitis virus infection into consideration.

  10. Membrane-integrated physico-chemical treatment of coke-oven wastewater: transport modelling and economic evaluation. (United States)

    Kumar, Ramesh; Chakrabortty, Sankha; Pal, Parimal


    A modelling and simulation study with economic evaluation was carried out for an advanced membrane-integrated hybrid treatment process that ensures reuse of water with recovery of ammoniacal nitrogen as struvite from coke-oven wastewater. Linearized transport model was developed based on extended Nernst-Plank and concentration polarization modulus equation. Effects of pH, transmembrane pressure and cross-flow rate of interest on membrane charge density, solute rejection and solvent flux were investigated. The membrane module was successful in yielding a pure water flux as high as 120 L m(-2) h(-1) removing more than 95 and 96% of the cyanide and phenol, respectively, while permeating more than 90% NH4 (+)-N at a transmembrane pressure of only 15 × 10(2) KPa and at a pH of 10 for a volumetric cross-flow rate of 800 L h(-1). The Fenton's reagents were used to degrade more than 99% of pollutants present in the concentrated stream. The developed model could successfully predict the plant performance as reflected in the very low relative error (0.01-0.12) and overall high correlation coefficient (R(2) > 0.96). Economic analysis indicated that such a membrane-integrated hybrid system could be quite promising in coke wastewater treatment at low cost i.e. $0.934/m(2) of wastewater.

  11. Association of aryl hydrocarbon receptor gene polymorphism with the neurobehavioral function and autonomic nervous system function changes induced by benzo[a]pyrene exposure in coke oven workers. (United States)

    Zhang, Hongmei; Nie, Jisheng; Li, Xin; Niu, Qiao


    To analyze the association of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) gene polymorphism and the neurotoxicity induced by benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) in coke oven workers. Subjects, 214 coke oven workers and 81 controls, were detected for neurobehavioral function and autonomic nervous system (ANS) function. Airborne B[a]P concentration, urinary 1-hydroxypyrene level, and AhR gene polymorphisms were determined and analyzed for their association with B[a]P neurotoxicity. Neurobehavioral function and ANS function were significantly decreased and dependent on B[a]P dose. The AhR GG, GA, and AA genotypes in G1661A fitted the Hardy-Weinberg equation, whereas C1549T and G1708A gene mutants were not detected. Indices indicating neurotoxicity showed no significant difference among individuals with AA, GG, or GA genotype except for the confusion-bewilderment (P > 0.05). The AhR gene polymorphism is not thought to correlate with B[a]P neurotoxicity among coke oven workers.

  12. Removal of phenol from coke-oven wastewater by cross-flow nanofiltration membranes. (United States)

    Kumar, Ramesh; Pal, Parimal


    This study investigated the phenol rejection characteristics of some nanofiltration membranes during treatment of coke wastewater. Four different types of composite polyamide commercial nanofiltration membranes (Sepro, USA) were tested under different operating conditions including transmembrane pressure, pH and recovery rate. When pressure was increased from 4 to 16 bars, the percentage of rejection of phenol in the permeate increased from 72.5% to 97.7% while yielding a high flux of 118 litres per square meter per hour(LMH) at a volumetric cross flow rate of 800 litres per hour at pH 10 (in recirculation mode) in case of NF1 membrane. The effect of recovery rate on the rejection coefficient of phenol and flux was also studied in concentrated mode and found that a recovery rate of up 55% nanofiltration was successfully operated without much decline of flux and rejection coefficient. Finally, nanofiltration had great efficiency in phenol removal from industrial wastewater and was considered suitable regarding its operation.

  13. Development of the super coke oven for productivity and environment enhancement toward the 21st century (SCOPE 21); Sekitan kodo tenkan cokes seizo gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiyama, T. [Center for Coal Utilization, Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Nakashima, Y.; Nishioka, K.; Otsuka, J. [The Japan Iron and Steel Federation, Tokyo (Japan)


    Serious shortage is predicted on cokes for blast furnaces in the first half of the 21st century. In order to deal flexibly with the fluid world market in the future, it is necessary to have a technology developed, by which coals from coking coal to non-coking dust coal can be used. The Japan Iron and Steel Federation and the Center for Coal Utilization, Japan are working on research and development of a new process with enhanced environmentality and economy (SCOPE 21) as a coke manufacturing process to respond to the requirements arisen from the above situation. The process is assessed basing on basic technological seeds such as rapid coal heating and high-speed carbonization and reformation of middle to low temperature cokes. The organizations are moving forward an eight-year development program which has started in fiscal 1994. This paper reports the summary of the development, and results of investigations and researches performed during fiscals 1994 and 1995. Rapid heating tests, middle to low temperature coke reformation tests, and tests for plug transportation of high-temperature coal have been performed. It has been verified, for example, that rapid coal heating can improve coke strength. The development work is being promoted toward grain size distribution and upscaling problems. 5 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Service and monitoring of the coke oven battery at HKM with an integrated process-management-system on IT basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian Kanty; Leo Nelles; Heinz-Bernd Beckmann; Willy Pesy [HKS Systemtechnik (Germany)


    The report describes a tool for monitoring a coke furnace battery. With the help of IT technology important operating parameters in relation to the coke furnace battery monitoring such as compressive force analysis, heating flow temperature, chamber wall temperature and refractory controls are collected and made available to the analysis. By use of modern visualization techniques and a constant actualization of the data the operating conditions are always represented in a current mode. Thus a safe and more efficient operation of the coke furnace battery is possible. The IT expert knowledge and coking plant expert knowledge lead to the development of a practice-oriented tool and reached thereby a high acceptance-in the work force. Expert knowledge is collected by a consistent application of the presented systems and can be made available to all users. Further application possibilities are in preparation. 27 figs.

  15. Lymphocyte Oxidative Stress/Genotoxic Effects Are Related to Serum IgG and IgA Levels in Coke Oven Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meili Gao


    Full Text Available We investigated oxidative stress/genotoxic effects levels, immunoglobulin levels, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs levels exposed in 126 coke oven workers and in 78 control subjects, and evaluated the association between oxidative stress/genotoxic effects levels and immunoglobulin levels. Significant differences were observed in biomarkers, including 1-hydroxypyrene levels, employment time, percentages of alcohol drinkers, MDA, 8-OHdG levels, CTL levels and CTM, MN, CA frequency, and IgG, IgA levels between the control and exposed groups. Slightly higher 1-OHP levels in smoking users were observed. For the dose-response relationship of IgG, IgA, IgM, and IgE by 1-OHP, each one percentage increase in urinary 1-OHP generates a 0.109%, 0.472%, 0.051%, and 0.067% decrease in control group and generates a 0.312%, 0.538%, 0.062%, and 0.071% decrease in exposed group, respectively. Except for age, alcohol and smoking status, IgM, and IgE, a significant correlation in urinary 1-OHP and other biomarkers in the total population was observed. Additionally, a significant negative correlation in genotoxic/oxidative damage biomarkers of MDA, 8-OH-dG, CTL levels, and immunoglobins of IgG and IgA levels, especially in coke oven workers, was found. These data suggest that oxidative stress/DNA damage induced by PAHs may play a role in toxic responses for PAHs in immunological functions.

  16. Sun Coke Company responds to coke demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkdoll, M. [Sun Coke Company, Knoxville, TN (US)


    A set of 28 slides/overheads outline in words and photographs recent developments with which Sun Coke is involved. These include a update on the Jewell Coke Plant in Vansant, VA, USA and on the Indiana Habor Coke Company plant in East Chicago, IN, USA, news on the construction of a coking plant at Haverhill, OH, USA and of Sun Coke Tubarao in Vitoria, Brazil, and of proposed projects at Haverhill and at Port Talbot, Wales, UK. Technology updates by Sun Coke are described. These include flue gas sharing, automatic door latches, charging emission control, a high performance quench tower baffle system and a flat push hot car.

  17. Device to feed purging and degraphitization air into the rich gas pipes leading to the individual heating walls of coke ovens. Einrichtung zur Zufuehrung von Spuel- und Entgraphitierungsluft in die zu den einzelnen Heizwaenden von Verkokungsoefen fuehrenden Starkgasleitungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kueppenbender, R.


    A device to feed purging and degraphitization air into the rich gas pipes leading to the individual heating walls of coke ovens is described. Two inlet cross-sections, lockable with covers, are provided for the purging and degraphitization air. The two covers are connected by chains or a rod. The cover of the degraphitization air is opened with respect to the cover of the purging air after a time lag.

  18. Biological monitoring the exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons of coke oven workers in relation to smoking and genetic polymorphisms for GSTM1 and GSTT1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joost H.M. van Delft; Marie-Jose S.T. Steenwinkel; Jeff G. van Asten; Nico de Vogel; Truus C.D.M. Bruijntjes-Rozier; Ton Schouten; Patricia Cramers; Lou Maas; Marcel H. van Herwijnen; Frederik-Jan van Schooten; Piet M.J. Hopmans [TNO Nutrition and Food Research Institute (Netherlands). Toxicology Division


    Occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) increases the risk of developing lung cancer. Human exposure is often demonstrated by increased internal levels of PAH metabolites and of markers for early biological effects, like DNA adducts and cytogenetic aberrations. This study aimed to assess whether the current exposure to PAH of coke oven workers in a Dutch plant induced biological effects, and to determine if these effects are influenced by tobacco smoking and by genetic polymorphisms for the glutathione S-transferase genes GSTM1 and GSTT1. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHpyr) levels were used to monitor the internal dose, while the internal effective dose was assessed by monitoring PAH-DNA adducts, DNA strand breaks (Comet assay), sister-chromatid exchanges (SCE) and cells with a high frequency of SCE (HFC) in lymphocytes together with micronuclei (MN) in exfoliated urothelial cells. Occupational exposure to PAH resulted in statistically significant increased 1-OHpyr levels, but it did not cause a significant induction of SCE, HFC, MN, DNA strand breaks or DNA adducts. Smoking caused a significant increase of 1-OHpyr, SCE, HFC and DNA adducts, but not of MN or DNA strand breaks. Following correction for the smoking-related effects, no occupational induction of the effect biomarkers could be discerned. Multi-variate analysis did not show a significant influence of GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms on any biomarker. Also no significant interactions were observed between the various biomarkers.

  19. The effects of heavy metals and their interactions with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on the oxidative stress among coke-oven workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Tian; Feng, Wei; Kuang, Dan; Deng, Qifei [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, State Key Laboratory of Environmental Health (Incubating), School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Zhang, Wangzhen [Institute of Industrial Health, Wuhan Iron & Steel (Group) Corporation, Wuhan 430070, China. (China); Wang, Suhan; He, Meian; Zhang, Xiaomin; Wu, Tangchun [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, State Key Laboratory of Environmental Health (Incubating), School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Guo, Huan, E-mail: [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, State Key Laboratory of Environmental Health (Incubating), School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China)


    Heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are predominate toxic constituents of particulate air pollution that may be related to the increased risk of cardiopulmonary events. We aim to investigate the effects of the toxic heavy metals (arsenic, As; cadmium, Cd; chromium, Cr; nickel, Ni; and lead, Pb), and their interactions with PAHs on oxidative stress among coke-oven workers. A total of 1333 male workers were recruited in this study. We determined their urinary levels of As, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, twelve PAH metabolites, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and 8-iso-prostaglandin-F2α (8-iso-PGF2α). Multivariate linear regression models were used to analyze the effects of these metals and their interactions with PAHs on 8-OHdG and 8-iso-PGF2α levels. It was found that only urinary As and Ni showed marginal or significant positive linear dose-dependent effects on 8-OHdG in this study population, especially among smokers (β=0.103, P=0.073 and β=0.110, P=0.002, respectively). After stratifying all participants by the quartiles of ΣOH-PAH, all five metals showed linear association with 8-OHdG in the highest quartile subgroup (Q4) of ΣOH-PAHs. However, these five urinary metals showed significantly consistent linear associations with 8-iso-PGF2α in all subjects and each stratum. Urinary ΣOH-PAHs can significant modify the effects of heavy metals on oxidative stress, while co-exposure to both high levels of ΣOH-PAHs and heavy metals render the workers with highest 8-OHdG and 8-iso-PGF2α (all P{sub interaction}≤0.005). This study showed evidence on the interaction effects of heavy metals and PAHs on increasing the oxidative stress, and these results warrant further investigation in more longitudinal studies. - Highlights: • Heavy metals and PAHs are predominate toxic constituents of particulate matters. • Urinary As and Ni showed linear dose-dependent effects on 8-OHdG and 8-iso-PGF2α. • PAHs significant interact with toxic metal in increasing 8

  20. Coke manufacturing process. [5 claims

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deruelle, J.; Penet, O.


    Pulverulent coke and granular reactive coke are produced, respectively, from fines and grains of coal of grades which are not normally usable for coking, containing more than 15 percent of volatile matter and having a swelling index between 1 and 8, by carbonization between 600/sup 0/C and 1100/sup 0/C, wherein combustion air in excess of that which would be necessary to bring the coke to the desired coking temperature is introduced into a slightly inclined rotary tubular oven through which the coal passes during its conversion into coke, the air introduction being effected between the coke outlet and the zone in which the product reaches its maximum temperature and being controlled so that the temperature of the gases issuing from the oven is kept above 600/sup 0/C. At least 60 percent of the air is preferably introduced at the downstream end of the oven, and further air may be introduced at intermediate points along the oven length. An endothermic fluid such as water may also be injected at the downstream end of the oven. Preferably the lowest rate of temperature rise of the product (10/sup 0/ to 15/sup 0/C/min) is in the 300/sup 0/ to 450/sup 0/C temperature zone of the oven. 3 figures.

  1. Hydrogen Production by Catalytic Partial Oxidation of Coke Oven Gas in BaCo0.7Fe0.3-xZrxO3-δ Ceramic Membrane Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Weilin


    Full Text Available The BaCo0.7Fe0.3-xZrxO3-δ (BCFZ, x = 0.04–0.12 mixed ionic–electronic conducting (MIEC membranes were synthesized with a sol–gel method and evaluated as potential membrane reactor materials for the partial oxidation of coke oven gas (COG. The effect of zirconium content on the phase structure, microstructure and performance of the BCFZ membrane under He or COG atmosphere were systemically investigated. The BaCo0.7Fe0.24Zr0.06O3-δ membrane exhibited the best oxygen permeability and good operation stability, which could be a potential candidate of the membrane materials for hydrogen production through the partial oxidation of COG.

  2. Influence of low-density polyethylene addition on coking pressure


    Melendi, Sonia; Barriocanal, C.; Alvarez, R.; Diez, M.A.


    Different amounts of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) were added to a bituminous coal used to produce metallurgical coke. The effect of the plastic waste on the carbonization process and more exactly, on the coking pressure were investigated. A movable wall oven at semi-pilot scale was used for measuring coking pressure generated. It was found that coking pressure increases for low LDPE addition levels (1-3 wt.%); however higher amounts of LDPE reduce coking pressure. To explain this behavior ...

  3. Dale Coke: Coke Farm


    Farmer, Ellen


    Dale Coke grew up on an apricot orchard in California’s Santa Clara Valley. In 1976 he bought ten acres of farmland near Watsonville in Santa Cruz County but continued to work repairing fuel injection systems rather than farming at his new home. In 1981, a struggle with cancer inspired him to rethink his life and become an organic farmer. His neighbor, who had grown strawberries using pesticides and chemical fertilizers, asserted that strawberries could not be grown organically. Coke set out ...

  4. Some fundamental aspects of highly reactive iron coke production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomura, S.; Terashima, H.; Sato, E.; Naito, M. [Nippon Steel Corp. Ltd., Chiba (Japan)


    It is important to develop the production and utilization technology of highly reactive coke in order to improve the efficiency of blast furnace reactions. In this study, some fundamental aspects of highly reactive iron coke produced in a coke oven chamber were investigated. First, the effects of catalytic Fe powder addition to coal before carbonization on coke strength were investigated. The addition of Fe powder decreased the coal caking property and hence the resultant coke drum index. On the other hand it increased coke reactivity (JIS coke reactivity index and CRI) to a great extent. This means that the caking property of blended coals needs to be adjusted higher to produce iron coke with required strength and high reactivity. Secondly, it was shown that the iron ore reacts with silica brick at 1200{sup o}C in a condition similar to that in a coke oven chamber. The iron ore and silica reacted to produce fayalite and the brick was damaged. On the other hand, it was proven that the iron ore does not react with silica brick at 1100{sup o}C in the above condition. Based on this fundamental study, iron coke with proper strength and high reactivity was successfully produced in a coke oven chamber on a commercial scale by adjusting the coal blend composition and the coke oven temperature. Furthermore it was revealed that about 70 % of iron in iron ore powder added to coal was reduced to metallic iron during carbonization.

  5. Comparison of metallurgical coke and lignite coke for power generation in Thailand (United States)

    Ratanakuakangwan, Sudlop; Tangjitsitcharoen, Somkiat


    This paper presents and compares two alternatives of cokes in power generation which are the metallurgical coke with coke oven gas and the coke from lignite under the consideration of the energy and the environment. These alternatives not only consume less fuel due to their higher heat content than conventional coal but also has less SO2 emission. The metallurgical coke and its by-product which is coke oven gas can be obtained from the carbonization process of coking coal. According to high grade coking coal, the result in the energy attitude is not profitable but its sulfur content that directly affects the emission of SO2 is considered to be very low. On the other hand, the coke produced from lignite is known as it is the lowest grade from coal and it causes the high pollution. Regarding to energy profitability, the lignite coke is considered to be much more beneficial than the metallurgical coke in contrast to the environmental concerns. However, the metallurgical coke has the highest heating value. Therefore, a decision making between those choices must be referred to the surrounding circumstances based on energy and environment as well as economic consideration in the further research.

  6. BACT Applicability for Coke Oven Batteries (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  7. Some fundamental aspects of highly reactive iron coke production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiji Nomura; Hidetoshi Terashima; Eiji Sato; Masaaki Naito [Nippon Steel Corporation, Chiba (Japan). Environment and Process Technology Center


    It is important to develop the production and utilization technology of highly reactive coke in order to improve the efficiency of blast furnace reactions. In this study, some fundamental aspects of highly reactive iron coke produced in a coke oven chamber were investigated. First, the effects of catalytic Fe powder addition to coal before carbonization on coke strength were investigated. The addition of Fe powder decreased the coal caking property and hence the resultant coke drum index (DI150 15). On the other hand it increased coke reactivity (JIS coke reactivity index and CRI) to a great extent. This means that the caking property of blended coals needs to be adjusted higher to produce iron coke with proper strength and high reactivity. Secondly, it was shown that the iron ore reacts with silica brick at 1200{sup o}C in a condition similar to that in a coke oven chamber. The iron ore and silica reacted to produce fayalite (2FeO{center_dot}SiO{sub 2}) and the brick was damaged. On the other hand, it was proven that the iron ore does not react with silica brick at 1100{sup o}C in the above condition. Based on this fundamental study, iron coke with proper strength and high reactivity was successfully produced in a coke oven chamber on a commercial scale by adjusting the coal blend composition and the coke oven temperature. Furthermore it was revealed that about 70% of iron in iron ore powder added to coal was reduced to metallic iron during carbonization in coke ovens.

  8. Some fundamental aspects of highly reactive iron coke production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomura, S.; Terashima, H.; Sato, E.; Naito, M. [Nippon Steel Corp. Ltd., Futtsu (Japan)


    The development of production and utilization technology of highly reactive coke is significant in order to improve blast furnace reaction efficiency. In this report, some fundamental aspects of highly reactive iron coke produced in a coke oven chamber were investigated. First, the effects of catalytic Fe powder addition to coal before carbonization on coke strength were investigated. The addition of Fe powder decreased coal caking property and hence resultant coke drum index (DI{sup 150}{sub 15}). On the other hand it increased coke reactivity (JIS coke reactivity index and CRI) to a great extent. This means that caking property of blended coals needs to be adjusted higher to produce the iron coke with proper strength and high reactivity. Secondly, it was shown that the iron ore reacts with silica brick at 1200{sup o}C in a condition similar to that in a coke oven chamber. The iron ore and silica reacted to produce fayalite (2FeO {center_dot}SiO{sub 2}) and the brick was damaged. On the other hand, it was proved that the iron ore does not react with silica brick at 1100{sup o}C in the above condition. Based on this fundamental study, the iron coke with proper strength and high reactivity was successfully produced in coke ovens on a commercial scale by adjusting the coal blend composition and the coke oven temperature. Furthermore it was revealed that about 70% of iron in iron ore powder added to coal was reduced to metallic iron during carbonization in coke ovens.

  9. The Value Proposition of 'Teck Coke Limited' Should Teck Enter the Coke Trade?


    Colin Wilfred Petryk


    This paper will review the business case for Teck to enter the metallurgical cokemarket for the steel industry. The trend impacting investment is the growing demand forsteel. There are two coke battery technologies to choose from; environmental concernsmake the heat recovery oven the preferred technology. Four countries were considered inwhich to build the coke plant; Teck’s relationship with Chile and Chile’s desire forforeign investment makes it the best choice. Market size was estimated us...

  10. Assessment of thermal efficiency of heat recovery coke making (United States)

    Tiwari, H. P.; Saxena, V. K.; Haldar, S. K.; Sriramoju, S. K.


    The heat recovery stamp charge coke making process is quite complicated due to the evolved volatile matter during coking, is partially combusted in oven crown and sole flue in a controlled manner to provide heat for producing metallurgical coke. Therefore, the control and efficient utilization of heat in the oven crown, and sole flue is difficult, which directly affects the operational efficiency. Considering the complexity and importance of thermal efficiency, evolution of different gases, combustion of gasses in oven crown and sole flue, and heating process of coke oven has been studied. A nonlinear regression methodology was used to predict temperature profile of different depth of coal cake during the coking. It was observed that the predicted temperature profile is in good agreement with the actual temperature profile (R2 = 0.98) and is validated with the actual temperature profile of other ovens. A complete study is being done to calculate the material balance, heat balance, and heat losses. This gives an overall understanding of heat flow which affects the heat penetration into the coal cake. The study confirms that 60% heat was utilized during coking.

  11. Prediction of coking dynamics for wet coal charge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kardaś Dariusz


    Full Text Available A one-dimensional transient mathematical model describing thermal and flow phenomena during coal coking in an oven chamber was studied in the paper. It also accounts for heat conduction in the ceramic oven wall when assuming a constant temperature at the heating channel side. The model was solved numerically using partly implicit methods for gas flow and heat transfer problems. The histories of temperature, gas evolution and internal pressure were presented and analysed. The theoretical predictions of temperature change in the centre plane of the coke oven were compared with industrialscale measurements. Both, the experimental data and obtained numerical results show that moisture content determines the coking process dynamics, lagging the temperature increase above the water steam evaporation temperature and in consequence the total coking time. The phenomenon of internal pressure generation in the context of overlapping effects of simultaneously occurring coal transitions - devolatilisation and coal permeability decrease under plastic stage - was also discussed.

  12. 94th Coke Conference. Proceedings of the study reports (1994); Dai 94 kai cokes tokubetsukai. Kenkyu happyo yoshishu (1994)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The paper contains 11 reports made at the 94th Coke Conference held by the Coke Division of the Japan Institute of Energy. The main themes are as follows: `Effects of heating rate on coal carbonization` which aims at using low-grade coal and at making coke high-grade, `Co-carbonization behaviors of delayed coke breezes,` `Effect of the pore partition property on the drum strength of coke` which examines the amount of powder generated by fracture of the coke surface, `Development of control method of coke strength after CO2 reaction (CSR)` which discusses a CSR estimation equation, `Development of rapid moisture analyzer for coke` which measures the moisture content of coke by measuring the amount of spectral attenuation by infrared absorption, `The melting test on pigiron and steel using a small-sized cupola` for quality improvement of coke for casting, `Preventive measures for degradation of coking coal in stockyard` for improvement of coke quality. In addition, `Analysis of mechanism in the oxidation reaction of the low temperature tar` which aims at effectively using low temperature tar, and the three more were reported on improvement technology on operation of coke oven.

  13. [Eye heating caused by microwave ovens]. (United States)

    Leitgeb, N; Tropper, K


    To clarify the question as to whether microwave ovens represent a risk for the eyes, a worst-case situation was investigated in which it was assumed that a child observes the internal heating process with its eyes as close to the door of a microwave oven as it is possible to get. As expected, heating of the eyes was observed, which, however, was caused mainly by the conventional heating process rather than by microwave radiation. Significant microwave heating was observed only when increased scattered radiation was simulated by inactivating the safety contacts and opening the door of the microwave oven. When the door is opened to a clearly visible gap width (2.3 cm), the contribution of the microwave component to the overall temperature increase of 5 degrees C after one hour of continuous exposure did not exceed 16%. Even at the maximum possible door gap width which just did not cause the oven to switch off automatically (2.6 cm), 15 minutes of continuous exposure contributed only 50% to the 2 degrees C temperature increase. On the basis of these results, damage to the eye through the use of microwave ovens can be excluded.

  14. Radiofrequency radiation leakage from microwave ovens. (United States)

    Lahham, Adnan; Sharabati, Afifeh


    This work presents data on the amount of radiation leakage from 117 microwave ovens in domestic and restaurant use in the West Bank, Palestine. The study of leakage is based on the measurements of radiation emissions from the oven in real-life conditions by using a frequency selective field strength measuring system. The power density from individual ovens was measured at a distance of 1 m and at the height of centre of door screen. The tested ovens were of different types, models with operating powers between 1000 and 1600 W and ages ranging from 1 month to >20 y, including 16 ovens with unknown ages. The amount of radiation leakage at a distance of 1 m was found to vary from 0.43 to 16.4 μW cm(-2) with an average value equalling 3.64 μW cm(-2). Leakages from all tested microwave ovens except for seven ovens (∼6 % of the total) were below 10 μW cm(-2). The highest radiation leakage from any tested oven was ∼16.4 μW cm(-2), and found in two cases only. In no case did the leakage exceed the limit of 1 mW cm(-2) recommended by the ICNIRP for 2.45-GHz radiofrequency. This study confirms a linear correlation between the amount of leakage and both oven age and operating power, with a stronger dependence of leakage on age.

  15. Procedure for ash-poor cokes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This article was composed of four sections which dealt with de-ashing processes or uses of ash-poor coke. The general procedure for de-ashing started with 1 mm coal grains mixed with dilute HCl and then decanted from a concentrator. The thick paste was crushed finely and pasted with tar from the Low Temperature Carbonization (LTC). The paste was kneaded, washed, and then formed. The resulting briquettes were dried, crushed, and reformed. The LTC then took place at 550/sup 0/C followed by coking at 900/sup 0/C. The oven dimensions were given as 3.25 m tall, 0.65 wide, and 4 m deep for the LTC sections, and 3.25 m x 0.60 m x 4 m for the coking section. These dimensions were designed for 100 kg coke per hour. Methods were discussed for decreasing costs of coke production by substitution of a cheaper binding tar than that of the LTC recycle. CS/sub 2/ production was proposed using coke processed by the above de-ashing procedure. This process which substituted coke for the usual charcoal was shown to work, but was very sensitive to ash and solids content in the coke. Coke substitution for reducing charcoal in the production of light metals was tested. It was found that the iron content of the coke product has to be less than 0.05%, so that the coal used must have only slight traces of iron. Experiments were carried out to use de-ashed cokes as fuel to power automibiles, where a major difficulty was found in the tendency of the coke briquettes to flake and crumble. Different methods and binders were tried for briquetting, thus eliminating many difficulties. For the production of electrode cokes, flotation, separation, and lye treatment preceeded the de-ashing procedure outlined above. It was concluded that the properties of the cokes were greatly influenced by the quality of the briquette binder. It was intended to research and classify the types of binders.

  16. Petroleum coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The dossier summarizes the health, safety and environment data currently available on petroleum coke. This is one in a series of 11 product dossiers on the major groups of petroluem products, which are being prepared by CONCAWE to provide, for each major product group, comprehensive information covering: Product description, uses and typical properties; Toxicology, health aspects and fire, explosion and environmental hazards; Recommended exposure limits; Advice on handling, emergency treatment and disposal; Entries in the European Inventory of Existing Commercial Chemical Substances (EINECS) which cover these groups. (Copyright (c) CONCAWE, Brussels, October 1993.)

  17. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the urine, benzo(a)pyrene diol epoxide-DNA adducts in lymphocyte DNA, and antibodies to the adducts in sera from coke oven workers exposed to measured amounts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the work atmosphere. (United States)

    Haugen, A; Becher, G; Benestad, C; Vahakangas, K; Trivers, G E; Newman, M J; Harris, C C


    Workers in coke oven plants have a higher incidence of lung cancer than the general population. They are exposed to a variety of chemicals, in particular the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), including benzo(a)pyrene. To evaluate the genotoxic effects of PAH exposure, air samples and urine samples were analyzed for PAH by capillary gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography, respectively. Since benzo(a)pyrene is activated to 7 beta,8 alpha-dihydroxy-(9 alpha,10 alpha)-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo(a)pyrene (BPDE) and binds to DNA, we have used ultrasensitive enzymatic radioimmunoassay and synchronous fluorescence spectrophotometry to measure BPDE-DNA adducts in lymphocyte DNA. The results show that workers were exposed to high concentrations of atmospheric PAH. However, the mean PAH exposure levels are reduced 60% when the workers wore masks during work. When compared to exposure levels, the urinary excretion of PAH was relatively low. Approximately one-third of the workers had detectable putative BPDE-DNA adducts in lymphocytes by ultrasensitive enzymatic radioimmunoassay, and 10% of the samples had emission peaks at 379 nm by synchronous fluorescence spectrophotometry. The four most positive samples were the same in both of the assays. Antibodies to an epitope(s) on BPDE-DNA were found in the sera of approximately one-third of the workers. Detection of DNA adducts and antibodies to these adducts are internal indicators of exposure to benzo(a)pyrene.

  18. Bio-coke as an alternative to petroleum coke and metallurgical coke; Bio-cokes als alternatief voor petroleumcokes en metallurgische cokes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croezen, H.J.; Van Lieshout, M. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Sevenster, M.N. [Sevenster Environmental Consultancy, Australian Capital Territory ACT (Australia)


    In the framework of elaborating the Dutch Roadmap Chemistry 2030), CE Delft has conducted an exploratory study for the Association of the Dutch Chemical Industry (VNCI) on the options of replacing (petroleum) coke in the chemical sector by biocokes. Coke is used as a reducing agent and/or raw material in four companies in the Dutch chemical industry (Tronox, ESD-SIC, Thermphos, Aluchemie). Replacing coke at these four companies can potentially yield a direct CO2 reduction of expectedly several hundreds of kilotons per year. For a first exploration of the options of bio-coke, CE Delft first conducted a desk study to get information on the quality and production costs for bio-coke. Subsequently, CE Delft had contact with the four chemical companies and a made a number of company visits. Moreover, the technical, economic and organizational capabilities, constraints and requirements with regard to a possible (partial) switch to biocokes have been explored. Based on the information available so far it can be concluded that biocokes seems to be a technically and economically interesting innovation. For implementation to finally take place, it is necessary to gain better insight in the technical and economic potential [Dutch] In verband met de uitwerking van de Routekaart Chemie 2030 heeft CE Delft voor VNCI een verkenning uitgevoerd naar de mogelijkheden voor vervanging van (petroleum)cokes in de chemische sector door biocokes. Cokes wordt gebruikt als reductiemiddel en/of grondstof bij een viertal bedrijven in de Nederlandse chemie (Tronox, ESD-SIC, Thermphos, Aluchemie). Het vervangen van cokes bij deze vier bedrijven kan in potentie een directe CO2-reductie van naar verwachting enkele honderden kilotonnen/jaar opleveren. Voor een eerste verkenning van de mogelijkheden van bio-cokes heeft CE Delft eerst een bureaustudie uitgevoerd naar informatie over kwaliteit van en productiekosten voor bio-cokes. Vervolgens heeft CE Delft contact gehad met de vier chemische

  19. Environment protection in the area of by-products facilities in coking plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan Tomal; Henryk Zembala; Krzysztof Kalinowski; Milan Fedorov; Ludovt Kosnac; Jan Hromiak [Biuro Projektow Koksoprojekt Sp. z o.o., Zabrze (Poland)


    20 slides/overheads outline the presentation on the subject of the environmental protection program implemented at the U.S. Steel Kosice Coking Plant. Actions taken include the control of emissions by a system of cooling coke oven gas. A hermetically sealed system uses nitrogen flow for tar management and hermetic loading of the liquid coal by-product Benzol.

  20. Behaviors of young children around microwave ovens. (United States)

    Robinson, Marla R; O'Connor, Annemarie; Wallace, Lindsay; Connell, Kristen; Tucker, Katherine; Strickland, Joseph; Taylor, Jennifer; Quinlan, Kyran P; Gottlieb, Lawrence J


    Scald burn injuries are the leading cause of burn-related emergency room visits and hospitalizations for young children. A portion of these injuries occur when children are removing items from microwave ovens. This study assessed the ability of typically developing children aged 15 months to 5 years to operate, open, and remove the contents from a microwave oven. The Denver Developmental Screening Test II was administered to confirm typical development of the 40 subjects recruited. All children recruited and enrolled in this study showed no developmental delays in any domain in the Denver Developmental Screening Test II. Children were observed for the ability to open both a push and pull microwave oven door, to start the microwave oven, and to remove a cup from the microwave oven. All children aged 4 years were able to open the microwaves, turn on the microwave, and remove the contents. Of the children aged 3 years, 87.5% were able to perform all study tasks. For children aged 2 years, 90% were able to open both microwaves, turn on the microwave, and remove the contents. In this study, children as young as 17 months could start a microwave oven, open the door, and remove the contents putting them at significant risk for scald burn injury. Prevention efforts to improve supervision and caregiver education have not lead to a significant reduction in scald injuries in young children. A redesign of microwave ovens might prevent young children from being able to open them thereby reducing risk of scald injury by this mechanism.

  1. The Release of Trace Elements in the Process of Coal Coking (United States)

    Konieczyński, Jan; Zajusz-Zubek, Elwira; Jabłońska, Magdalena


    In order to assess the penetration of individual trace elements into the air through their release in the coal coking process, it is necessary to determine the loss of these elements by comparing their contents in the charge coal and in coke obtained. The present research covered four coke oven batteries differing in age, technology, and technical equipment. By using mercury analyzer MA-2 and the method of ICP MS As, Be, Cd, Co, Hg, Mn, Ni, Se, Sr, Tl, V, and Zn were determined in samples of charge coal and yielded coke. Basing on the analyses results, the release coefficients of selected elements were determined. Their values ranged from 0.5 to 94%. High volatility of cadmium, mercury, and thallium was confirmed. The tests have shown that although the results refer to the selected case studies, it may be concluded that the air purity is affected by controlled emission occurring when coke oven batteries are fired by crude coke oven gas. Fugitive emission of the trace elements investigated, occurring due to coke oven leaks and openings, is small and, is not a real threat to the environment except mercury. PMID:22666104

  2. Prospects for petroluem coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Delayed and fluid coking of residual fuels is a process that could have a market impact for US refiners, who have over 15.4 million tons or 85% of the free-world coking capacity. Expansion plans by US refiners will add another 2.7 million tons/year. Variations in feedstocks and processes can produce sponge cokes, honeycomb coke, needle coke, or fluid coke. Major users of delayed petroleum coke are the aluminum, iron, and steel industries. Large boilers and cement plants can burn a mixture of raw petroleum coke and pulverized coal. A comparison of world production, imports, exports, and consumption shows the potential for a growing market. 4 tables. (DCK)

  3. Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts (United States)

    ... That People Abuse » Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Listen Cocaine is a white ... Version Download "My life was built around getting cocaine and getting high." © Marjot Stacey is ...


    The report evaluates the Kress Indirect Dry Cooling (KIDC) process, an innovative system for handling and cooling coke produced from a slot-type by-product coke oven battery. The report is based on the test work and demonstration of the system at Bethlehem Steel Corporation's Sp...

  5. Increasing the strength of metallurgical coke by adding modified petroleum coke to the coking batch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.I. Stukov; V.S. Zagainov; Y.B. Kukolev; N.S. Andreichikov; P.V. Shtark; A.V. Vishnyakov; V.A. Antonova; S.N. Soboleva [Eastern Coal-Chemistry Institute, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation)


    Box-coking data show the possibility of increasing the yield and strength of metallurgical coke by introducing a coking additive in the batch. Specifically, this additive is a product of slow coking of heavy petroleum residues, characterized by excellent thermoplastic properties: clinkering properties and plastic temperature range. A Russian patent has been obtained for the coking additive.

  6. Microwave Oven Observations. (United States)

    Sumrall, William J.; Richardson, Denise; Yan, Yuan


    Explains a series of laboratory activities which employ a microwave oven to help students understand word problems that relate to states of matter, collect data, and calculate and compare electrical costs to heat energy costs. (DDR)


    The report evaluates the Kress Indirect Dry Cooling (KIDC) process, an innovative system for handling and cooling coke produced from a slot-type by-product coke oven battery. he report is based on the test work and demonstration of the system at Bethlehem Steel Corporation's Spar...

  8. Practical aspects of coking in Cundinamarca y Boyacá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segundo Manuel Romero-Balaguera


    Full Text Available Taking advantage of the excellent qualities of the studied coals from the coalfields in Cundinamarca and terms of the types of coking ovens, for excellent performance and quality that allows them to be very competitive.The international market is very demanding in terms of the quality of coke and CRI and CSR indexes, that is why coals laboratories were implemented and improved the system of sampling and analysis of laboratories for more agile and modern. Mixtures were made with the test methodology and empirical methods combining swelling index and rank cals were the theree main types: high, medium and low volatile. But with studies and techological change and enviromental control, process is managed, allowing the coke industry to serve as a development center for the promotion of industries in the central area of this country. In the study the whole process is presented beginning with the explotaitation of coking coals, the care that must be taken into account to mainttain good quality, transport and enviromental measures, the process of crushing and grinding to prepare the optimal mix and laboratory tests necessary to maintain quality control, the types of ovens in Boyacá Colombia, yields and advances in the se technologies, and finally, the system shutdown process. All of the above was addressed in order to add value to the product with the fulfillment of the international market standards.

  9. Leakage of Microwave Ovens (United States)

    Abdul-Razzaq, W.; Bushey, R.; Winn, G.


    Physics is essential for students who want to succeed in science and engineering. Excitement and interest in the content matter contribute to enhancing this success. We have developed a laboratory experiment that takes advantage of microwave ovens to demonstrate important physical concepts and increase interest in physics. This experiment…

  10. Sun Coke heat recovery coke technology at Indiana Harbor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, D.N. [Sun Coke Company (USA). Operations


    Sun Coke heat recovery coke technology was fully established for the first time at Indiana Harbor Coke Company, East Chicago, Indiana (USA). The plant supplies continuous heat to waste heat boilers which provide steam for a 94 MW turbine generator whilst producing 1,350,00 NT per year of metallurgical coke. The paper briefly describes the development of the technology and discusses specific design aspects of the Indiana Harbor plant. 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Technique for treating coke surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yegorov, V.M.; Chuchminov, M.M.; Goncharov, V.F.; Kostochkin, A.R.; Kutovoy, P.M.; Samoylov, V.I.


    A technique is presented for treating surface of coke in order to increase durability and reducing losses of coke during transport and reloading of cargo. Surface of coke is treated with liquefied plastic and then it is cooled. For example, coke of 300/sup 0/C temp. is treated with a plastic mixture of 350/sup 0/C. The shell hardens in 5-10 min. by air cooling. After such treatment the coke improves durability during handling by 1.75% and in tests in a drum by 2.49% in comparison to untreated coke. In comparison to coke treated with latex, coke treated with a liquefied plastic increases durability to 8.5% and abradability by 0.5%.

  12. Coke quality requirements in POSCO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, J.; Yi, J.; Wang, H. [POSCO (Republic of Korea). Cokemaking Dept.


    The 26 overheads describes coke quality requirements in POSCO, Republic of Korea. It is concluded that it is necessary to develop new coal and to prompt technical development in order to produce high quality coke. To improve coke quality. Posco had applied DMAIC (define, measurement, analysis, improvement, control) technique which is part of Six-Sigma activity.

  13. Carbonization and liquid-crystal (mesophase) development. 21. Replacement of low-volatile caking coal by petroleum pitch in coal blends for metallurgical coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grint, A.; Marsh, H.


    Cokes were prepared in a 7 kg oven from blends of high-volatile and low-volatile caking coals, using ratios of 1:1 and 3:7 To the 1:1 blend was added 7.5% of either Ashland A240 or A170 petroleum pitch or SFBP petroleum pitch 1. Micum m$SUB$3$SUB$0 and m$SUB$1$SUB$0 indices were determined on cokes from the 7 kg oven, using the 1/5 micum drum. Optical textures were assessed using polarized light microscopy of polished surfaces of cokes. The effect of additive is to increase the strength of cokes. The pitch can be an effective replacement of low-volatile caking coal. The analysis by optical microscopy shows that with the stronger cokes from the 7 kg oven there has occurred an interaction between the coal and pitch at the interface of coal particles to produce a solution or fluid phase which carbonizes to a coke with an optical texture of fine-grained mozaics. This material could be responsible for the enhancement of coke strength, being associated with pore wall material rather than with a change in porosity. The results agree with previous work using cokes prepared in the laboratory on a small scale. (17 refs.)

  14. Dust emission from wet, low-emission coke quenching process (United States)

    Komosiński, Bogusław; Bobik, Bartłomiej; Konieczny, Tomasz; Cieślik, Ewelina


    Coke plants, which produce various types of coke (metallurgical, foundry or heating), at temperatures between 600 and 1200°C, with limited access to oxygen, are major emitters of particulates and gaseous pollutants to air, water and soils. Primarily, the process of wet quenching should be mentioned, as one of the most cumbersome. Atmospheric pollutants include particulates, tar substances, organic pollutants including B(a)P and many others. Pollutants are also formed from the decomposition of water used to quench coke (CO, phenol, HCN, H2S, NH3, cresol) and decomposition of hot coke in the first phase of quenching (CO, H2S, SO2) [1]. The development of the coke oven technology has resulted in the changes made to different types of technological installations, such as the use of baffles in quench towers, the removal of nitrogen oxides by selective NOx reduction, and the introduction of fabric filters for particulates removal. The BAT conclusions for coke plants [2] provide a methodology for the measurement of particulate emission from a wet, low-emission technology using Mohrhauer probes. The conclusions define the emission level for wet quenching process as 25 g/Mgcoke. The conducted research was aimed at verification of the presented method. For two of three quench towers (A and C) the requirements included in the BAT conclusions are not met and emissions amount to 87.34 and 61.35 g/Mgcoke respectively. The lowest particulates emission was recorded on the quench tower B and amounted to 22.5 g/Mgcoke, therefore not exceeding the requirements.

  15. More Experiments with Microwave Ovens (United States)

    Vollmer, Michael; Mollmann, Klaus-Peter; Karstadt, Detlef


    Microwave ovens can be used to perform exciting demonstrations that illustrate a variety of physics topics. Experiments discussed here show superheating, visualize the inhomogeneous heating that takes place in a microwave and also show how to use a mobile phone to detect radiation leaking from the oven. Finally eggs can give some spectacular…

  16. Physics of the Microwave Oven (United States)

    Vollmer, Michael


    This is the first of two articles about the physics of microwave ovens. This article deals with the generation of microwaves in the oven and includes the operation of the magnetrons, waveguides and standing waves in resonant cavities. It then considers the absorption of microwaves by foods, discussing the dielectric relaxation of water,…

  17. Using your microwave oven. Lesson 6, Microwave oven management


    Woodard, Janice Emelie, 1929-


    Discusses cooking and reheating foods in microwave ovens, and adapting conventional recipes for the microwave. Revised Includes the publication: Adapting conventional recipes to microwave cooking : fact sheet 84 by Janice Woodard, Rebecca Lovingood, R.H. Trice.

  18. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Ovens (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 2.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Ovens that are effective as of...

  19. Ovenized microelectromechanical system (MEMS) resonator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, Roy H; Wojciechowski, Kenneth; Kim, Bongsang


    An ovenized micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) resonator including: a substantially thermally isolated mechanical resonator cavity; a mechanical oscillator coupled to the mechanical resonator cavity; and a heating element formed on the mechanical resonator cavity.

  20. Non-Ionizing Radiation Used in Microwave Ovens (United States)

    ... in Microwave Ovens Non-Ionizing Radiation Used in Microwave Ovens Explore the interactive, virtual community of RadTown USA ! ... learn more About Non-Ionizing Radiation Used in Microwave Ovens Microwave Oven. Microwave ovens use electromagnetic waves that ...

  1. 21 CFR 1030.10 - Microwave ovens. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Microwave ovens. 1030.10 Section 1030.10 Food and... ovens. (a) Applicability. The provisions of this standard are applicable to microwave ovens manufactured after October 6, 1971. (b) Definitions. (1) Microwave oven means a device designed to heat, cook, or dry...

  2. 40 CFR 63.309 - Performance tests and procedures. (United States)


    ... alternative standards for coke oven doors under § 63.305; work practice emission control plan requirements in... Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.309 Performance tests and procedures. (a) Except as otherwise... coke oven battery, the results of which shall be used in accordance with procedures specified in this...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Mihnovets


    Full Text Available Researches give grounds to believe in the possibility of receiving briquettes from coke waste mixed with peat dry coal and their use for smelting iron in the cupola or as a household fuel.

  4. Microwave Oven Repair. Teacher Edition. (United States)

    Smreker, Eugene

    This competency-based curriculum guide for teachers addresses the skills a technician will need to service microwave ovens and to provide customer relations to help retain the customer's confidence in the product and trust in the service company that performs the repair. The guide begins with a task analysis, listing 20 cognitive tasks and 5…

  5. Radiation leakage from electromagnetic oven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdurrahman Khalil


    Results & Discussions: The measurements have been done at some houses in Erbil city, according to the source of background radiation exist before measuring data. Our data compared with standard safe range of radiation data. Results showed that there is radiation leak form all type of electromagnetic oven and all at the order of safety compared with standard value.

  6. Rapid drying soils with microwave ovens. (United States)


    Soils are normally dried in either a convection oven or stove. Inspections of field and laboratory moisture content testing indicated that the typical drying durations for a convection oven and stove were, 24 hours and 60 minutes, respectively. The o...

  7. [Study on co-pyrolysis of coking-coal, plastic and dust]. (United States)

    Zhao, Rongfang; Ye, Shufeng; Xie, Yusheng; Chen, Yunfa


    The co-pyrolysis processes of different proportions of coking-coal, plastic, metallurgical dust (MD) were investigated using thermal analyzer (Setaram Labsys) under a neutral atmosphere of N2 at the sweep rate of 30 mL/min, the linear heating rate and the final pyrolysis temperature were 5 degrees C/min and 1000 degrees C respectively in this study. The experimental results indicated that both the pyrolysis process of coking-coal and that of plastic were radical mechanism. In other word, within the relatively lower temperature range, a large amount of radicals were generated during their pyrolysis processes and stabilized through the intra-radical rearrangement reactions or inter-radical combination reactions. This means that sulfur containing in coal and plastic tends to formed gaseous sulfides, such as H2S, COS, CS2, etc. When co-existing with MD, these sulfides will react with metal oxides containing in MD to form metal sulfide with high stability and the cleaner coke oven gas (COG) were obtained. Within higher temperature interval of 500 degrees C-1000 degrees C, some of the gaseous products after pyrolysis (e.g. H2, CO and C) reinforce the reduction atmosphere that the coking reaction system needs and accelerate the reduction of metal oxides in MD and gasification of metal, which were conductive to the effective removal of sulfur in coke. Therefore, it is definitely feasible to adding waste plastic and MD into coking-coal to remove the sulfur in COG and coke simultaneously.

  8. The effect of recycled plastics and cooking oil on coke quality. (United States)

    Lange, Liséte Celina; Ferreira, Alison Frederico Medeiros


    This study assessed the effects of adding plastics and waste vegetable oil on the quality of coke in the coking process, on a pilot scale. A typical composition of the main plastics found in municipal solid waste was prepared using 33% HDPE, 5% LDPE, 10% PP, 21% PET, 24.8% PS, 5.2% PVC, 1% cellulose and also a 0.5% waste vegetable oil was added. The wastes were added to the coal blends in the proportions of 1%, 2% and 3% for plastics and 0.5% for vegetable oil. Two types of experiments were performed. The first was carried out in a hearth heating furnace (HHF) at temperatures of up to 900°C for a 7 h period. The second was a box test, which consists of heating coal blends in 18L cans using a pilot coking oven, for approximately 20 h at temperatures between 1050 and 1100°C. The quality parameters used for the assessment were the CSR (coke strength after reaction), CRI (coke reactivity index), ash, volatile matter and sulfur in order to identify the effect of plastic and vegetable oil on coke quality. Results for CSR in the HHF averaged 52.3%, and 56.63% in box test trials. The CRI results ranged from 26.6% to 35.7%. Among the different percentages of plastics used, 3% plastic blends provided the most stable CSR results. The industrial furnaces work at temperatures between 1100 and 1350°C and time coking 21-24h, compared to the test conditions achieved in the HHF and pilot furnace with box test. It was concluded that the results of CSR and CRI are consistent with the tests confirming the feasibility of using plastic in the steelmaking process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Consistent coke quality from Sun Coke Company s heat recovery cokemaking technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkdoll, M. [Sun Coke Company, Knoxville, TN (USA)


    Presents the Sun Coke heat recovery coke making technology which has been developed over the last 41 years. Aspects covered include: development history; ongoing technological development; relationship between coal blend and coke quality; long-term production coke quality; environmental performance; plant economics; and labour requirements. 14 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs.

  10. Results of tuyere coke sampling with regard to application of appropriate coke strength after reaction (CSR) for a blast furnace


    Shiau J-S.; Ko Y-C.; Ho C-K.; Hung M-T.


    Raising pulverized coal injection (PCI) will decrease coke rate, but increase the residence time of coke and abrasion in the blast furnace (BF). Thus, insufficient coke strength will generate more coke fines in the lower BF and result in lower permeability and production of hot metal (HM). For understanding the behavior of coke at various HM productivities, a tuyere coke sampler was used to collect the coke samples for measuring the coke strength. Firstly, ...

  11. Effects of atamp-charging coke making on strength and high temperature thermal properties of coke. (United States)

    Zhang, Yaru; Bai, Jinfeng; Xu, Jun; Zhong, Xiangyun; Zhao, Zhenning; Liu, Hongchun


    The stamp-charging coke making process has some advantages of improving the operation environment, decreasing fugitive emission, higher gas collection efficiency as well as less environmental pollution. This article describes the different structure strength and high temperature thermal properties of 4 different types of coke manufactured using a conventional coking process and the stamp-charging coke making process. The 4 kinds of cokes were prepared from the mixture of five feed coals blended by the petrography blending method. The results showed that the structure strength indices of coke prepared using the stamp-charging coke method increase sharply. In contrast with conventional coking process, the stamp-charging process improved the coke strength after reaction but had little impact on the coke reactivity index. Copyright © 2013 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Specifications for coke fines as potential adsorbents for coking plant waste water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karcz, A.; Czepirska-Komorowska, E.; Burmistrz, P. (Akademia Gorniczo-Hutnicza, Cracow (Poland). Wydzial Energochemii Wegla i Fizykochemii Sorbentow)


    Proposes utilization of coke dust from coke dry quenching and from dedusting facilities for the purification of coking plant waste water. A process flowsheet is presented for waste water treatment at the Przyjazn coking plant, the only Polish coking plant employing coke dry quenching. The proposal for coke dust use is explained; properties of 4 types of coke dust available at the plant are compared to those of Carbopol Z-4 activated carbon. Adsorption isotherms were determined for the coke dust, as well as pore structures and pore size distribution. A high share of micropores was found in Carbopol Z-4, while coke dust had a higher amount of mesopores. Substantial differences were expected in adsorption performance of dusts compared to activated carbon, but this was not confirmed in laboratory purification of waste water. 19 refs.

  13. Estimation of radiofrequency power leakage from microwave ovens for dosimetric assessment at nonionizing radiation exposure levels. (United States)

    Lopez-Iturri, Peio; de Miguel-Bilbao, Silvia; Aguirre, Erik; Azpilicueta, Leire; Falcone, Francisco; Ramos, Victoria


    The electromagnetic field leakage levels of nonionizing radiation from a microwave oven have been estimated within a complex indoor scenario. By employing a hybrid simulation technique, based on coupling full wave simulation with an in-house developed deterministic 3D ray launching code, estimations of the observed electric field values can be obtained for the complete indoor scenario. The microwave oven can be modeled as a time- and frequency-dependent radiating source, in which leakage, basically from the microwave oven door, is propagated along the complete indoor scenario interacting with all of the elements present in it. This method can be of aid in order to assess the impact of such devices on expected exposure levels, allowing adequate minimization strategies such as optimal location to be applied.

  14. Estimation of Radiofrequency Power Leakage from Microwave Ovens for Dosimetric Assessment at Nonionizing Radiation Exposure Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peio Lopez-Iturri


    Full Text Available The electromagnetic field leakage levels of nonionizing radiation from a microwave oven have been estimated within a complex indoor scenario. By employing a hybrid simulation technique, based on coupling full wave simulation with an in-house developed deterministic 3D ray launching code, estimations of the observed electric field values can be obtained for the complete indoor scenario. The microwave oven can be modeled as a time- and frequency-dependent radiating source, in which leakage, basically from the microwave oven door, is propagated along the complete indoor scenario interacting with all of the elements present in it. This method can be of aid in order to assess the impact of such devices on expected exposure levels, allowing adequate minimization strategies such as optimal location to be applied.

  15. Sun Coke Company's heat recovery coke making technology. High coke quality and low environmental impact; Technologie ''Sun Coke''. Qualite du coke et impact environnemental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, D.N.; Barkdoll, M.P. [Sun Coke Company (United States)


    Sun Coke Company's heat recovery coke-making technology has been developed over the past 40 years, and is now poised to become the dominant technology to meet future global coke-making needs. An extensive data base regarding coal blends tested and resultant coke quality will be presented. On the environmental front, extensive air emission data has been collected and will be compared to by-product coke plant air emission data. (authors)

  16. "Zolotoi Oven" ishtshet svojego obladatelja / Valeri Kuznetsov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuznetsov, Valeri


    Parima filmi auhinnale "Zolotoi Oven" võistlevad Andrei Zvjagintsevi "Tagasitulek" ("Vozvrashtshenije"), Vadim Abdrashitovi "Magnettormid" ("Magnitnõje buri"), Gennadi Sidorovi "Vanaeided" ("Staruhhi") ja Pjotr Buslovi "Bumer"

  17. Use of computational fluid dynamics in domestic oven design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Fahey


    Full Text Available There is an increasing demand, both from customers and regulatory sources, for safer and more energy efficient products. Manufacturers are having to look to their design and development processes to service these demands. Traditional approaches have been to use prototype testing and only delve more deeply into specific aspects of the performance when issues arise. In this work the complex flow within the cooling circuit of the door of a pyrolytic oven is studied. A combination of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD and experimental techniques is used. It will be shown that CFD can help with the achievement of an optimal solution, with the understanding of the flow behaviour and that there is a synergy between the numerical and experimental techniques. Using only one of these techniques would limit the understanding of the flow behaviour and could lead to a less than optimal solution to the design problem. This work aims to explore this particular complex industrial fluid flow situation to: understand the flow around the oven door’s cooling circuit  demonstrate the synergy of CFD and experimental work within development of a complex product explore the role of CFD within the product development process.

  18. Salt for the earthen oven revisited

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jun 7, 2011 ... translated: 'you are the salt of the earthen oven', whilst Luke. 12:49 is ... The Palestinian Arabic word for kiln oven, ̛arsִa, confirms this understanding (De ..... 2000, A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other.

  19. Pemanfaatan Green Coke sebagai Bahan Bakar Padat


    Yulia, Indri; HS, Irdoni; Bahruddin, Bahruddin


    The need for alternative energy sources keep increasing, green coke is a byproduct from refenery unit that has a high heating value, so it is potential to be used as an alternative fuel. The purpose of this experiment was to study the green coke briquetting process, studied the effect of the pressing pressure against the produced briquettes, and determine the effect of operating conditions on the heating value and the resulting compressive strength. Green coke used in this experiment was test...

  20. Beyond the Coke Ovens: Women's Literacy in Whitney Pier, Nova Scotia. (United States)

    Kozar, Seana


    In partnership with a Nova Scotia community museum, local women used folklore and culture centered on crafts, food customs, and beliefs to engage in learning. Their efforts enriched local historical knowledge as well as their own self-confidence and literacy. (SK)

  1. Intelligent control model and its simulation of flue temperature in coke oven


    Li, Gongfa; Miao, Wei; Jiang, Guozhang; Fang, Yinfeng; Ju, Zhaojie; Liu, Honghai


    In this paper, one-variable linear regression mathematical model of top of regenerator temperature and flue temperature in machine side is built using the linear regress theory. The parameters of ARX model is determined by identification method of least square method and the mathematical model of flue temperature control is established. Applying the basis cascade control theory, system adopts flue temperature and coal flue gas flow as controlled parameters of host circuit and subsidiary circu...

  2. Briquetting of Coke-Brown Coal Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ïurove Juraj


    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the research of briquetting a coke-brown coal composite The operation consists of the feeding crushed coal and coke to moulds and pressing into briquettes which have been made in the Laboratories at the Mining Faculty of Technical University of Košice (Slovakia. In this research, all demands will be analyzed including the different aspects of the mechanical quality of briquettes, the proportion of fine pulverulent coal and coke in bricks, the requirements for briquetting the coke-brown coal materials.

  3. Combination microwave ovens: an innovative design strategy. (United States)

    Tinga, Wayne R; Eke, Ken


    Reducing the sensitivity of microwave oven heating and cooking performance to load volume, load placement and load properties has been a long-standing challenge for microwave and microwave-convection oven designers. Conventional design problem and solution methods are reviewed to provide greater insight into the challenge and optimum operation of a microwave oven after which a new strategy is introduced. In this methodology, a special load isolating and energy modulating device called a transducer-exciter is used containing an iris, a launch box, a phase, amplitude and frequency modulator and a coupling plate designed to provide spatially distributed coupling to the oven. This system, when applied to a combined microwave-convection oven, gives astounding performance improvements to all kinds of baked and roasted foods including sensitive items such as cakes and pastries, with the only compromise being a reasonable reduction in the maximum available microwave power. Large and small metal utensils can be used in the oven with minimal or no performance penalty on energy uniformity and cooking results. Cooking times are greatly reduced from those in conventional ovens while maintaining excellent cooking performance.

  4. Bread ovens in Northern Oretania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Huerta, Rosario


    Full Text Available This paper intends to bring to light an unusual type of domestic structure in the northern Oretania, namely the ovens used for the production of bread. The study of their distribution, as well as their dimensions and constructive features, indicates they are more complex structures, with collective or communal characters. At the same time, it gives us some knowledge of the internal organization of the main oritanian oppidas.

    Este artículo pretende dar a conocer un tipo de estructura doméstica poco habitual en la Oretania septentrional, como son los hornos destinados a la producción de pan. El análisis de su distribución, así como sus dimensiones y características constructivas, revela que se trata de estructuras más complejas, de carácter colectivo o comunal, lo que permite aproximarnos al conocimiento de la articulación interna de los principales oppida oretanos.

  5. Sterilization of instruments in solar ovens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jørgensen, A.F; Nøhr, K; Boisen, F; Nøhr, J


    ...: A solar oven was designed and manufactured using local materials and simple tools. It was tested by physical, chemical and microbiological methods and, after successful testing, installed in a rural clinic...

  6. Report on the first period of operation of the Arobin oven in Me 958

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagemann, W.; Herbert


    Experiences during the first seven months of industrial-scale operation are described. The chemical reactor used for producing the Arobin (aromatic gasoline) had a diameter of 500 mm and a capacity of 880 liters of activated aluminum silicate-molybdic acid catalyst in trays. The oven was fitted with 4 entry ports for cool-gas input for controlling the temperature because of the exothermic reaction (340 cal/kg starting material), and it was preceded by a gas preheater to raise the starting material to about 385/sup 0/C for entry into the oven. Throughput and oven temperature were adjusted to suit the supply of starting material and to maintain the amount of material converted in each pass through the oven at 50% (with the rest of the material being separated out by distillation and recycled into the oven again). Throughput varied from 550 liters/hr to 800 liters/hr, and the cool-gas input was used to regulate the oven temperature within a range of from 425/sup 0/C to 440/sup 0/C in order to maintain the conversion range at 50%. Most operational problems seemed to stem from the need to shut down the operation intermittently and quickly because of air attack. Those shutdowns led to premature coking-up and loss of activity of the catalyst. After that, the rate of conversion could no longer be maintained at 50%, even by more extreme variations of throughput and temperature, until the oven was shut down for a change of catalyst. Another problem which arose was a defect in the distillation column which allowed some low-boiling-point materials to recycle unnecessarily through the system, thus being over-processed and lowering the recovery of aromatic compounds somewhat. During the entire seven months of operation, the yield had averaged 73%, with 14% losses to hydrocarbon gases (some of which were recovered as fuel gas), 8% losses as residues of predistillation, and 5% losses through escape of gases. Properties of products were very similar to those predicted by

  7. Weak points of standards used in coke production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepanov, Yu.V.; Tkachenko, L.V.; Belyaeva, E.G.; Sapegin, A.N. (Nizhnetagil' skii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat (USSR))


    Discusses recommended modifications to national standards on coking, properties of coking products and procedure for structural and quantitative chemical analysis of coking products. The following modifications are discussed: GOST 13898-80 on blast furnace coke from coal from the Eastern regions (uses a new coefficient that characterizes fluctuations of coke quality considering moisture content and sulfur content, the M25 compression strength index and the M10 wear index); GOST 3213-71 on pitch coke (determining sodium oxide content in ash); ST SEhV 493-77 on ash determination in coke; ST SEhV 491-77 on moisture determination in coke; GOST 3929-82 and GOST 9951-73 on determination of volatile matter in coke and pitch coke.

  8. The coke drum thermal kinetic effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldescu, Maria M.; Romero, Sim; Larson, Mel [KBC Advanced Technologies plc, Surrey (United Kingdom)


    The coke drum thermal kinetic dynamics fundamentally affect the coker unit yields as well as the coke product properties and unit reliability. In the drum the thermal cracking and polymerization or condensation reactions take place in a semi-batch environment. Understanding the fundamentals of the foaming kinetics that occur in the coke drums is key to avoiding a foam-over that could result in a unit shutdown for several months. Although the most dynamic changes with time occur during drum filling, other dynamics of the coker process will be discussed as well. KBC has contributed towards uncovering and modelling the complexities of heavy oil thermal dynamics. (author)

  9. Blast furnace coke substitutes from Victorian brown coal


    Mollah, Mamun


    Iron is usually produced from its ores using coke in a blast furnace (BF). Coke, a hard and macroporous carbon material, is produced from special coals (coking coals) and acts as fuel, smelting agent, and the permeable support for the charge to the BF. No material can completely replace coke in a BF. Coking coals are becoming harder (and more expensive) to obtain. Victorian brown coal (VBC) is accessible, cheap, with low mineral concentrations, which is favourable for iron production in a BF....

  10. Proceedings of the Joint Meeting of The Fuel Society of Japan (1991). 28th Coal Science Conference/91st Coke Meeting; (Sha) nenryo kyokai godo taikai happyo ronbunshu (1991). Dai 28 kai sekitan kagaku kaigi dai 91 kai cokes tokubetsukai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Relating to coke, studies are made on the rapid coke production method, oven investigation during carbonization, and operational management/control. As to coal science, studies are mainly on the brown coal two-stage liquefaction (BCL) method, and data on the pilot plant and PSU are reported. Concerning bituminous coal liquefaction, PSU data mostly including the NEDOL process, and characteristics of liquefaction residue and its effective utilization by thermal decomposition are reported. Regarding the liquefaction mechanism, an experimentally extensive study on catalyst, solvent and reaction conditions is made using model materials and coal itself on the bench scale and also in the pilot plant. Engineering subjects on residue, solvent deashing, scale attachment and coprocessing are also reported. Relations of decomposition process to coal chemical structure changes and reaction conditions are investigated. As to coal gasification, studies, which are not many, are conducted on material balance, heat balance, and image characteristics of char for gasification and factors controlling reactivity.

  11. Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Volk; Keith Wisecarver


    Delayed coking evolved steadily over the early to mid 1900s to enable refiners to convert high boiling, residual petroleum fractions to light products such as gasoline. Pound for pound, coking is the most energy intensive of any operation in a modern refinery. Large amounts of energy are required to heat the thick, poor-quality petroleum residuum to the 900 to 950 degrees F required to crack the heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter, more valuable products. One common misconception of delayed coking is that the product coke is a disadvantage. Although coke is a low valued (near zero economic value) byproduct, compared to transportation fuels, there is a significant worldwide trade and demand for coke as it is an economical fuel. Coke production has increased steadily over the last ten years, with further increases forecast for the foreseeable future. Current domestic production is near 111,000 tons per day. A major driving force behind this increase is the steady decline in crude quality available to refiners. Crude slates are expected to grow heavier with higher sulfur contents while environmental restrictions are expected to significantly reduce the demand for high-sulfur residual fuel oil. Light sweet crudes will continue to be available and in even greater demand than they are today. Refiners will be faced with the choice of purchasing light sweet crudes at a premium price, or adding bottom of the barrel upgrading capability, through additional new investments, to reduce the production of high-sulfur residual fuel oil and increase the production of low-sulfur distillate fuels. A second disadvantage is that liquid products from cokers frequently are unstable, i.e., they rapidly form gum and sediments. Because of intermediate investment and operating costs, delayed coking has increased in popularity among refiners worldwide. Based on the 2000 Worldwide Refining Survey published in the Oil and Gas, the delayed coking capacity for 101 refineries around the world

  12. Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Volk; Keith Wisecarver


    Delayed coking evolved steadily over the early to mid 1900s to enable refiners to convert high boiling, residual petroleum fractions to light products such as gasoline. Pound for pound, coking is the most energy intensive of any operation in a modern refinery. Large amounts of energy are required to heat the thick, poor-quality petroleum residuum to the 900 to 950 degrees F required to crack the heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter, more valuable products. One common misconception of delayed coking is that the product coke is a disadvantage. Although coke is a low valued (near zero economic value) byproduct, compared to transportation fuels, there is a significant worldwide trade and demand for coke as it is an economical fuel. Coke production has increased steadily over the last ten years, with further increases forecast for the foreseeable future. Current domestic production is near 111,000 tons per day. A major driving force behind this increase is the steady decline in crude quality available to refiners. Crude slates are expected to grow heavier with higher sulfur contents while environmental restrictions are expected to significantly reduce the demand for high-sulfur residual fuel oil. Light sweet crudes will continue to be available and in even greater demand than they are today. Refiners will be faced with the choice of purchasing light sweet crudes at a premium price, or adding bottom of the barrel upgrading capability, through additional new investments, to reduce the production of high-sulfur residual fuel oil and increase the production of low-sulfur distillate fuels. A second disadvantage is that liquid products from cokers frequently are unstable, i.e., they rapidly form gum and sediments. Because of intermediate investment and operating costs, delayed coking has increased in popularity among refiners worldwide. Based on the 2000 Worldwide Refining Survey published in the Oil and Gas, the delayed coking capacity for 101 refineries around the world

  13. Physical optics for oven-plate scattering prediction (United States)

    Baldauf, J.; Lambert, K.


    An oven assembly design is described, which will be used to determine the effects of temperature on the electrical properties of materials which are used as coatings for metal plates. Experimentally, these plates will be heated to a very high temperature in the oven assembly, and measured using a microwave reflectance measurement system developed for the NASA Lewis Research Center, Near-Field Facility. One unknown in this measurement is the effect that the oven assembly will have on the reflectance properties of the plate. Since the oven will be much larger than the plate, the effect could potentially be significant as the size of the plate becomes smaller. Therefore, it is necessary to predict the effect of the oven on the measurement of the plate. A method for predicting the oven effect is described, and the theoretical oven effect is compared to experimental results of the oven material. The computer code which is used to predict the oven effect is also described.

  14. Deriving new business models for door-to-door mobility


    BONNEVILLE, Jean-Baptiste


    Today, it is a widely shared objective to provide seamless door-to-door multimodal mobility for passengers. This is a key priority for SNCF, France?s historical national rail group. Despite many technological improvements, continuity of service is not guaranteed and travelers still endure high transaction costs through having to deal with multiple providers. In this paper we investigated what could be a business model for a door-to-door mobility operator who would take care of the traveler?s ...

  15. A review of microwave oven safety. (United States)

    Osepchuk, J M


    The microwave leakage from current microwave ovens, which are manufactured to meet government emission standards, is reviewed. Typical leakage values imply exposure values well below the most conservative exposure standards in the world. A review of recent developments discloses increasingly stringent government regulation along with advances in techniques for suppression of microwave leakage. The nature of the leakage field is described and studies relating emission to exposure are reviewed. Field survey data are reviewed and it is found that the overwhelming majority of certified ovens in the field show leakage well below permissible limits with an increasing degree of certainty as time goes on. The conclusion is that microwave ovens are not only just as safe as they were in 1973 but they are being accepted as safe under essentially equivalent emission regulations in various countries including those in Eastern Europe.

  16. A Door-to-Door Combined Transport Planner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aastrup, Jesper; Jespersen, Per Homann; Pedersen, Michael B.


    Establishing a web-based portal functioning as a one-stop-shop for transport buyers is a radical idea of a consumer oriented intermodal freight system. This utopian vision will be materialized in a system description and a prototype of a Door-to-Door Combined Trans-port Planner (COTRAP), developed...

  17. Investigation of bonding mechanism of coking on semi-coke from lignite with pitch and tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vedat Arslan [Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey). Engineering Faculty


    In coking, the bonding ability of inert macerals by reactive macerals is dependent on various parameters and also is related to the wettability of the inert macerals. In this study, the effect of carbonization temperature on the wettability of semi-cokes produced at various temperatures has been investigated. Soma and Yatagan semicokes represent inert macerals, and pitch was used as a reactive structure in the experiments. The briquetted pitch blocks were located on the semi-cokes and heated from the softening temperature of pitch (60{sup o}C) to 140{sup o}C to observe the wettability. In addition, liquid tar was also used to determine the wettability of semi-cokes. From the standpoint of wettability, the temperature of 900{sup o}C was determined to be the critical point for coke produced from sub-bituminous coals. 15 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Results of tuyere coke sampling with regard to application of appropriate coke strength after reaction (CSR for a blast furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiau J-S.


    Full Text Available Raising pulverized coal injection (PCI will decrease coke rate, but increase the residence time of coke and abrasion in the blast furnace (BF. Thus, insufficient coke strength will generate more coke fines in the lower BF and result in lower permeability and production of hot metal (HM. For understanding the behavior of coke at various HM productivities, a tuyere coke sampler was used to collect the coke samples for measuring the coke strength. Firstly, the difference of sampled coke under the conditions of various HM productivities was explored. Secondly, the BF operating conditions and causes of generating more coke fines was correlated by testing the coke reaction rate after reaction. Finally, according to the above analysis results, the relative regression equations had been obtained for sampling coke properties, BF operation conditions and BF permeability. Furthermore, the coke strength after reaction (CSR quantitative target and its online system at various blast conditions were set to provide some reference for coke and HM production.

  19. Coke fouling monitoring by electrical resistivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bombardelli, Clovis; Mari, Livia Assis; Kalinowski, Hypolito Jose [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Eletrica e Informatica Industrial (CPGEI)


    An experimental method to simulate the growth of the coke fouling that occurs in the oil processing is proposed relating the thickness of the encrusted coke to its electrical resistivity. The authors suggest the use of the fouling electrical resistivity as a transducer element for determining its thickness. The sensor is basically two electrodes in an electrically isolated device where the inlay can happen in order to compose a purely resistive transducer. Such devices can be easily constructed in a simple and robust form with features capable to face the high temperatures and pressures found in relevant industrial processes. For validation, however, it is needed a relationship between the electrical resistivity and the fouling thickness, information not yet found in the literature. The present work experimentally simulates the growth of a layer of coke on an electrically insulating surface, equipped with electrodes at two extremities to measure the electrical resistivity during thermal cracking essays. The method is realized with a series of consecutive runs. The results correlate the mass of coke deposited and its electrical resistivity, and it can be used to validate the coke depositions monitoring employing the resistivity as a control parameter. (author)

  20. Robotic Arm Camera Image of the South Side of the Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer (Door TA4 (United States)


    The Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer (TEGA) instrument aboard NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander is shown with one set of oven doors open and dirt from a sample delivery. After the 'seventh shake' of TEGA, a portion of the dirt sample entered the oven via a screen for analysis. This image was taken by the Robotic Arm Camera on Sol 18 (June 13, 2008), or 18th Martian day of the mission. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  1. Gasification Reaction Characteristics of Ferro-Coke at Elevated Temperatures (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Zhang, Jian-liang; Gao, Bing


    In this paper, the effects of temperature and atmosphere on the gasification reaction of ferro-coke were investigated in consideration of the actual blast furnace conditions. Besides, the microstructure of the cokes was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). It is found that the weight loss of ferro-coke during the gasification reaction is significantly enhanced in the case of increasing either the reaction temperature or the CO2 concentration. Furthermore, compared with the normal type of metallurgical coke, ferro-coke exhibits a higher weight loss when they are gasified at the same temperature or under the same atmosphere. As to the microstructure, inside the reacted ferro-coke are a large amount of pores. Contrary to the normal coke, the proportions of the large-size pores and the through holes are greatly increased after gasification, giving rise to thinner pore walls and hence a degradation in coke strength after reaction (CSR).

  2. Modifications of coking coal and metallurgical coke properties induced by coal weathering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casal, M.D.; Gonzalez, A.I.; Canga, C.S.; Barriocanal, C.; Pis, J.J.; Alvarez, R.; Diez, M.A. [Instituto Nacional del Carbon (INCAR), CSIC, Apartado 73, Oviedo 33080 (Spain)


    Chemical changes in the structure of organic matter of coking coals during storage modify their thermoplastic properties and behaviour during carbonization. As a result, the anisotropic carbon structure of the metallurgical cokes produced and their physical properties are altered. In this work, the weathering behaviour of 10 bituminous coals of different geographic origin, rank and thermoplastic properties, used as components in the preparation of industrial coking blends for coke manufacture, was studied by means of Gieseler plastometry and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. These coking coals were stored in piles at the Instituto Nacional del Carbon (INCAR) open stockyard for a period of time of up to 7 months. Special attention was paid to the relationship between the relative amount and type of aliphatic hydrogen (semi-quantitatively evaluated by FTIR), and thermoplastic properties. Depending on the nature of the coking coal, a different response to natural weathering can be expected. Thus, the results showed that there is a direct link between a decrease in methylene groups and a loss of fluidity in the weathered coals, resulting in a decrease in anisotropic carbon of the resultant cokes with weathering time. In addition, the rate of anisotropic carbon loss induced by weathering could be associated with the rank parameters of the initial coals.

  3. Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volk Jr., Michael; Wisecarver, Keith D.; Sheppard, Charles M.


    The coking test facilities include three reactors (or cokers) and ten utilities. Experiments were conducted using the micro-coker, pilot-coker, and stirred-batch coker. Gas products were analyzed using an on-line gas chromatograph. Liquid properties were analyzed in-house using simulated distillation (HP 5880a), high temperature gas chromatography (6890a), detailed hydrocarbon analysis, and ASTM fractionation. Coke analyses as well as feedstock analyses and some additional liquid analyses (including elemental analyses) were done off-site.

  4. Test with Rhein brown coal in 1-liter oven and fourth report on neutralization of coal and precipitants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    A 1.5 liter sump oven, without stirrer, was used for preparation of Rhein coal with different grinding oils. Partial neutralization of the coal, by mixing sulfuric acid or sulfates with wet coal before drying, was sought. Oven precipitation was reduced by addition of street tar (high middle oil content) and Bruex tar (up to 350/sup 0/C) as well as by a mixture of Estonian slate tar oil and anthracitic tar oil in ratio of 80:20, but there was chalk-coke residue similar to caviar found when the oven was disassembled. Fifty percent neutralization of the coal by sulfuric acid as opposed to untreated coal gave some reduced vaporization and lower asphalt content. Iron sulfate catalyst also gave good results; magnesium sulfate, somewhat less. Though not unequivocally, H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and FeSO/sub 4/ both apparently reduced precipitants. A mixture of magnesium sulfate with iron sulfate gave less favorable results over all. Untreated coal with the previous catalysts produced the undesirable caviar-precipitants. The results of the tests were questionable since exactness in components, viscosity, and other problems hindered reproducing the tests consistently. 2 tables.

  5. Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Volk Jr; Keith Wisecarver


    Delayed coking evolved steadily over the early to mid 1900s to enable refiners to convert high boiling, residual petroleum fractions to light products such as gasoline. Pound for pound, coking is the most energy intensive of any operation in a modern refinery. Large amounts of energy are required to heat the thick, poor-quality petroleum residuum to the 900 to 950 degrees F required to crack the heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter, more valuable products. One common misconception of delayed coking is that the product coke is a disadvantage. Although coke is a low valued (near zero economic value) byproduct, compared to transportation fuels, there is a significant worldwide trade and demand for coke as it is an economical fuel. Coke production has increased steadily over the last ten years, with further increases forecast for the foreseeable future. Current domestic production is near 111,000 tons per day. A major driving force behind this increase is the steady decline in crude quality available to refiners. Crude slates are expected to grow heavier with higher sulfur contents while environmental restrictions are expected to significantly reduce the demand for high-sulfur residual fuel oil. Light sweet crudes will continue to be available and in even greater demand than they are today. Refiners will be faced with the choice of purchasing light sweet crudes at a premium price, or adding bottom of the barrel upgrading capability, through additional new investments, to reduce the production of high-sulfur residual fuel oil and increase the production of low-sulfur distillate fuels. A second disadvantage is that liquid products from cokers frequently are unstable, i.e., they rapidly form gum and sediments. Because of intermediate investment and operating costs, delayed coking has increased in popularity among refiners worldwide. Based on the 2000 Worldwide Refining Survey published in the Oil and Gas, the delayed coking capacity for 101 refineries around the world

  6. Laboratory tests of purifying coking plant waste water using coke dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karcz, A.; Burmistrz, P.; Rozwadowski, A. (Akademia Gorniczo-Hutnicza, Cracow (Poland). Wydzial Energochemii Wegla i Fizykochemii Sorbentow)


    Studies suitability of coke dust from dry coke quenching for cleaning waste water. Sorptive properties were compared to those of powdered Carbopol Z-4 activated carbon. The following factors were evaluated: chemical oxygen demand, total content of organic carbon, content of phenols, cyanides, thiocyanates, ammonia, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and benzopyrene. Amount of dust used was optimized in a series of experiments. Coke sedimentation was also studied within the range of 1, 5, 10, 20 and 30 g/dm[sup 3] concentrations, showing that the dust separates well after absorption. Special attention was paid to removal of phenols. Coke dust was found to have 38 to 98% of the sorptive power of activated carbon. Both adsorption materials made waste water lose its color and odor. Findings are provided in 5 tables. 2 refs.

  7. Sweet Spots and Door Stops (United States)

    Thompson, Michael; Tsui, Stella; Leung, Chi Fan


    A sweet spot is referred to in sport as the perfect place to strike a ball with a racquet or bat. It is the point of contact between bat and ball where maximum results can be produced with minimal effort from the hand of the player. Similar physics can be applied to the less inspiring examples of door stops; the perfect position of a door stop is…

  8. Experiments on thermogravimetric determination of coke residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopsch, H.; Rahner, S.


    Thermogravimetry gives almost the same values for coke residue as CCT DIN 51 551 with equally good reproducibility. The precision of the results can be increased, provided containers for larger samples are used. In case of small samples the inhomogeneity is observed particularly with distillation residues.

  9. Nitrogen Chemistry and Coke Transformation of FCC Coked Catalyst during the Regeneration Process (United States)

    Shi, Junjun; Guan, Jianyu; Guo, Dawei; Zhang, Jiushun; France, Liam John; Wang, Lefu; Li, Xuehui


    Regeneration of the coked catalyst is an important process of fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) in petroleum refining, however, this process will emit environmentally harmful gases such as nitrogen and carbon oxides. Transformation of N and C containing compounds in industrial FCC coke under thermal decomposition was investigated via TPD and TPO to examine the evolved gaseous species and TGA, NMR and XPS to analyse the residual coke fraction. Two distinct regions of gas evolution are observed during TPD for the first time, and they arise from decomposition of aliphatic carbons and aromatic carbons. Three types of N species, pyrrolic N, pyridinic N and quaternary N are identified in the FCC coke, the former one is unstable and tends to be decomposed into pyridinic and quaternary N. Mechanisms of NO, CO and CO2 evolution during TPD are proposed and lattice oxygen is suggested to be an important oxygen resource. Regeneration process indicates that coke-C tends to preferentially oxidise compared with coke-N. Hence, new technology for promoting nitrogen-containing compounds conversion will benefit the in-situ reduction of NO by CO during FCC regeneration.

  10. Heat and Pressure Seal for Doors (United States)

    Gillespie, C. A.


    Proposed tubular gasket for doors performs dual function: seals in pressure, and seals out heat. Composed of quartz fabric filled with alumina matting, gasket is bonded with room-temperature-vulcanizing material to periphery of door. When door is closed, gasket is compressed like O-ring: fills gap between door and frame; and prevents leakage of air and heat.

  11. 49 CFR 238.439 - Doors. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Doors. 238.439 Section 238.439 Transportation....439 Doors. (a) Each passenger car shall have a minimum of two exterior side doors, each door providing... required by § 239.107(a) of this chapter. [64 FR 25660, May 12, 1999, as amended at 67 FR 19993, Apr. 23...

  12. Petroleum Coke in the Urban Environment: A Review of Potential Health Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph A. Caruso


    Full Text Available Petroleum coke, or petcoke, is a granular coal-like industrial by-product that is separated during the refinement of heavy crude oil. Recently, the processing of material from Canadian oil sands in U.S. refineries has led to the appearance of large petcoke piles adjacent to urban communities in Detroit and Chicago. The purpose of this literature review is to assess what is known about the effects of petcoke exposure on human health. Toxicological studies in animals indicate that dermal or inhalation petcoke exposure does not lead to a significant risk for cancer development or reproductive and developmental effects. However, pulmonary inflammation was observed in long-term inhalation exposure studies. Epidemiological studies in coke oven workers have shown increased risk for cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, but these studies are confounded by multiple industrial exposures, most notably to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that are generated during petcoke production. The main threat to urban populations in the vicinity of petcoke piles is most likely fugitive dust emissions in the form of fine particulate matter. More research is required to determine whether petcoke fine particulate matter causes or exacerbates disease, either alone or in conjunction with other environmental contaminants.

  13. Petroleum coke in the urban environment: a review of potential health effects. (United States)

    Caruso, Joseph A; Zhang, Kezhong; Schroeck, Nicholas J; McCoy, Benjamin; McElmurry, Shawn P


    Petroleum coke, or petcoke, is a granular coal-like industrial by-product that is separated during the refinement of heavy crude oil. Recently, the processing of material from Canadian oil sands in U.S. refineries has led to the appearance of large petcoke piles adjacent to urban communities in Detroit and Chicago. The purpose of this literature review is to assess what is known about the effects of petcoke exposure on human health. Toxicological studies in animals indicate that dermal or inhalation petcoke exposure does not lead to a significant risk for cancer development or reproductive and developmental effects. However, pulmonary inflammation was observed in long-term inhalation exposure studies. Epidemiological studies in coke oven workers have shown increased risk for cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, but these studies are confounded by multiple industrial exposures, most notably to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that are generated during petcoke production. The main threat to urban populations in the vicinity of petcoke piles is most likely fugitive dust emissions in the form of fine particulate matter. More research is required to determine whether petcoke fine particulate matter causes or exacerbates disease, either alone or in conjunction with other environmental contaminants.

  14. Upgrading oil sands bitumen with FLUID COKING and FLEXICOKING technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamienski, P.; Phillips, G. [ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Co., Fairfax, VA (United States); McKnight, C.; Rumball, B. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)


    This presentation described EMRE's Fluid Coking and Flexicoking technologies that are well suited for upgrading Alberta's heavy crudes and oil sands bitumen into pipelineable crudes or synthetic crudes, which can be further processed into transportation fuels. The Fluid Coking technology uses a fluidized bed reactor that thermally converts the heavy oils into light gases, liquids and coke. The metals and much of the sulphur are concentrated in the coke. Combustion of the coke provides process heat and the remaining coke is sold or stored on site for later recovery. Syncrude Canada currently operates 3 Fluid Coking units in northern Alberta. Flexicoking extends fluid coking by integrating air gasification to produce a carbon monoxide/hydrogen rich fuel gas that helps meet fuel and energy requirements of bitumen recovery and upgrading. The yields of light gas and liquids are similar to those of the Fluid Coking process. The partial combustion of coke provides the process heat for the thermal conversion and gasification steps. The remaining coke is gasified and desulphurized using Flexsorb technology. At present, there are 5 Flexicoking units in operation around the world. Interest in the technology is growing, particularly in locations with large demand for clean fuel or electricity. It is also suitable for steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) operations in Alberta. This presentation outlined the operating principles of the Flexicoking integrated gasification system and compared it with more expensive oxygen gasification processes. tabs., figs.

  15. Comparison of two methods for determination of tomato paste solids: vacuum oven versus microwave oven. (United States)

    Jazaeri, Sahar; Kakuda, Yukio; Gismondi, Stephen; Wigle, Doug G


    Two analytical procedures used to determine total, soluble, and insoluble solids in tomato paste were evaluated. The microwave oven (MO) method was compared to the vacuum oven (VO) method. The VO method is tedious and measured the three solids fractions in the paste directly, while the MO method measured the total solids directly but used an equation to calculate the water-soluble and -insoluble solids. The MO method was faster and less labor-intensive, and yielded small but statistically significant higher values for total and insoluble solids and lower statistically significant values for soluble solids.

  16. Two years of heat recovery coke production at Sun Coke Company's Indiana Harbor facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westbrook, R.W.; Schuett, K.J. [Sun Coke Company, Knoxville, TN (United States)


    In March of 1998, the first battery of Sun Coke Company's newest facility, the Indiana Harbor Coke Company, was brought on line in East Chicago, Indiana. By June of 1998, the last of four batteries began pushing coke and producing power. The plant provides Ispat-Inland with coke for their No. 7 blast furnace and waste heat to Cokenergy for steam production, 94 megawatts of power generation, and flue gas cleaning. Annual production will be more than 1.2 million tons of high quality furnace coke. 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin C. Galbreath; Donald L. Toman; Christopher J. Zygarlicke


    Petroleum coke, a byproduct of the petroleum-refining process, is an attractive primary or supplemental fuel for power production primarily because of a progressive and predictable increase in the production volumes of petroleum coke (1, 2). Petroleum coke is most commonly blended with coal in proportions suitable to meet sulfur emission compliance. Petroleum coke is generally less reactive than coal; therefore, the cofiring of petroleum coke with coal typically improves ignition, flame stability, and carbon loss relative to the combustion of petroleum coke alone. Although petroleum coke is a desirable fuel for producing relatively inexpensive electrical power, concerns about the effects of petroleum coke blending on combustion and pollution control processes exist in the coal-fired utility industry (3). The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) completed a 2-year technical assessment of petroleum coke as a supplemental fuel. A survey questionnaire was sent to seven electric utility companies that are currently cofiring coal and petroleum coke in an effort to solicit specific suggestions on research needs and fuel selections. An example of the letter and survey questionnaire is presented in Appendix A. Interest was expressed by most utilities in evaluating the effects of petroleum coke blending on grindability, combustion reactivity, fouling, slagging, and fly ash emissions control. Unexpectedly, concern over corrosion was not expressed by the utilities contacted. Although all seven utilities responded to the question, only two utilities, Northern States Power Company (NSP) and Ameren, sent fuels to the EERC for evaluation. Both utilities sent subbituminous coals from the Power River Basin and petroleum shot coke samples. Petroleum shot coke is produced unintentionally during operational upsets in the petroleum refining process. This report evaluates the effects of petroleum shot coke blending on grindability, fuel reactivity, fouling/slagging, and

  18. Glass/Epoxy Door Panel for Automobiles (United States)

    Bauer, J. L. JR.


    Lightweight panel cost-effective. Integrally-molded intrusion strap key feature of composite outer door panel. Strap replaces bulky and heavy steel instrusion beam of conventional door. Standard steel inner panel used for demonstration purposes. Door redesigned to exploit advantages of composite outer panel thinner. Outer panel for automobilie door, made of glass/epoxy composite material, lighter than conventional steel door panel, meets same strength requirements, and less expensive.

  19. Charcoal/LPG cooker, oven, and boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, B.F.


    An insulated hot plate cooker that conserves heat in the exhaust of burning charcoal or domestic gas (LPG) and redirects said heat to do additional cooking, or baking, barbecuing, food preservation by drying, toasting, etc., and then redirecting exhaust heat from this compartment to a boiler that produces boil water, coffee, tea, etc.; thus, an energy-saving multi-purpose cooker with oven and boiler that has 80% efficiency. Combustion chamber of cooker is well ventilated and needs no fan or blower. Boiler has good heat conducting exhaust pipes that are submerged in water, and heat in the exhaust is extracted by the pipe to heat the surrounding water. (author) figs.

  20. Laureatõ premii "Zolotoi Oven"

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Parima filmi auhinna "Zolotoi Oven" võitis Andrei Zvjagintsevi "Tagasitulek" ("Vozvrashtshenije"), Vadim Abdrashitovi "Magnettormid" ("Magnitnõje buri") sai parima režissööri ja parima stsenaristi auhinna (Aleksandr Mindadze), Pjotr Buslovi "Bumer" sai vaid muusikaauhinna (Sergei Shnurov). Parim meesnäitleja oli Viktor Suhhorukov ("Vaene, vaene Paul") ja naisnäitleja Maria Zvonarjeva A. Proshkini "Trios". A. Sokurovi "Isa ja poeg" sai vaid kunstnikuauhinna (Natalja Kotshergina). Inna Tshurikova sai kõrvalosa auhinna ("S: Govoruhhini "Blagoslovite zhenshtshinu")

  1. A Door-to-Door Combined Transport Planner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aastrup, Jesper; Jespersen, Per Homann; Pedersen, Michael B.


    Establishing a web-based portal functioning as a one-stop-shop for transport buyers is a radical idea of a consumer oriented intermodal freight system. This utopian vision will be materialized in a system description and a prototype of a Door-to-Door Combined Trans-port Planner (COTRAP), develope......- and inter-organizational barriers to the establishment of a competitive and effective combined transport system with rail freight operators as the intermodal integrator. In this paper we describes the ideas and methodology behind the project, as well as some preliminary results....

  2. Accelerated staining technique using kitchen microwave oven. (United States)

    Mukunda, Archana; Narayan, T V; Shreedhar, Balasundhari; Shashidhara, R; Mohanty, Leeky; Shenoy, Sadhana


    Histopathological diagnosis of specimens is greatly dependent on good sample preparation and staining. Both of these processes is governed by diffusion of fluids and dyes in and out of the tissue, which is the key to staining. Diffusion of fluids can be accelerated by the application of heat that reduces the time of staining from hours to the minute. We modified an inexpensive model of kitchen microwave oven for staining. This study is an attempt to compare the reliability of this modified technique against the tested technique of routine staining so as to establish the kitchen microwave oven as a valuable diagnostic tool. Sixty different tissue blocks were used to prepare 20 pairs of slides for 4 different stains namely hematoxylin and eosin, Van Gieson's, 0.1% toluidine blue and periodic acid-Schiff. From each tissue block, two bits of tissues were mounted on two different slides. One slide was stained routinely, and the other stained inside a microwave. A pathologist evaluated the stained slides and the results so obtained were analyzed statistically. Microwave staining considerably cut down the staining time from hours to seconds. Microwave staining showed no loss of cellular and nuclear details, uniform-staining characteristics and was of excellent quality. The cellular details, nuclear details and staining characteristics of microwave stained tissues were better than or equal to the routine stained tissue. The overall quality of microwave-stained sections was found to be better than the routine stained tissue in majority of cases.

  3. 78 FR 7939 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Microwave Ovens (Active Mode) (United States)


    ... 430 Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Microwave Ovens (Active Mode); Proposed Rule #0... Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Microwave Ovens (Active Mode) AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and... mode energy use for microwave ovens, including both microwave-only ovens and convection microwave ovens...

  4. Characterisation of coking activity during supercritical hydrocarbon pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gascoin, Nicolas; Gillard, Philippe; Bernard, Stephane [Laboratoire Energetique, Explosion, Structure, UPRES-EA 1205, 63, avenue de Lattre de Tassigny, 18020 Bourges Cedex (France); Bouchez, Marc [MBDA France, 8, rue Le Brix, 18000 Bourges (France)


    The active cooling of the Supersonic Combustion Ramjet engine, for hypersonic flight purpose, is ensured thanks to fuel, n-dodecane for the present study. The endothermic fuel pyrolysis, starting above 800 K, could generate an unwanted coke formation. Experimental tests up to 1125 K and between 1 MPa and 6 MPa have been performed on the hydrocarbon fuel pyrolysis to evaluate the coking activity. 316L stainless steel, low carbon steel and titanium reactors have been considered. A witness of the coke formation, based on its thermal insulation and pressure loss effects, has been found. A correlation between methane production and coke deposit was found. The coke has been studied with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Energy Dispersion Spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffractometer and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The porosity, the density and the permeability of the coke have been estimated. (author)


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BEAR AT THE BACK DOOR. Deur generaal sir Walter Walker KCB, CBE,. D80. 8andton. Uitgegee deur Valiant Publis- hers. Verskyningsdatum Julie 1978. Prys R10.) Hierdie boek is 'n uitstekende aktuele geskrif ook. Suidelike Afrika se politieke en militere aspekte wat deur 'n a/gehele buitestaander nl 'n Britse. Generaal ...

  6. Full scale treatment of phenolic coke coking waste water under unsteady conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suschka, Jan [Institute for Ecology of Industrial Areas, Katowice (Poland); Morel, Jacek; Mierzwinski, Stanislaw; Januszek, Ryszard [Coke Plant Przyjazn, Dabrowa Gornicza (Poland)


    Phenolic waste water from the largest coke coking plant in Poland is treated at a full technical scale. From the very beginning it became evident that very high qualitative variations in short and long periods were to be expected. For this purpose, the biological treatment plant based on activated sludge is protected through preliminary physical-chemical treatment and the results are secured by a final chemical stage of treatment. Nevertheless, improvements in the performance of the treatment plant have been found necessary to introduce. In this work, the experience gained over the last five years is described and developed improvements were presented. 3 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Modification of a Microwave Oven for Laboratory Use. (United States)

    Andrews, Judith; Atkinson, George F.


    Discusses use of a domestic microwave oven for drying analytical samples with time savings compared to conventional ovens, providing a solution to the problem of loss of load as samples dry. Presents a system for examining emitted gases from drying process and reports results of several test dryings. (JM)

  8. Investigation of an acute microwave-oven hand injury. (United States)

    Dickason, W L; Barutt, J P


    A case of an acute microwave-oven injury is presented, demonstrating a selective radial hand neuropathy and chronic moderate dysesthesia with discussion of the potential mechanism of disease. Microwave characteristics, their spectrum of effects on biological structures, microwave-oven safety design, and the international controversy concerning nonionizing radiation research are described.

  9. Evolution of coke properties while descending through a blast furnace


    Hilding, Tobias


    Due to increasing price and economic pressures, there is a need to minimise coke consumption. The lesser amount of coke used has indirectly set higher standards for coke quality and led to a wish for even more knowledge about its function in the blast furnace. Over the last 20 years, coke quality has been strongly dictated by the so- called CSR value because it was believed that a higher CSR leads to improvement in productivity and more stable operation. Due to lack of suitable coals, often c...

  10. Competitive reactions of organophosphorus radicals on coke surfaces. (United States)

    Catak, Saron; Hemelsoet, Karen; Hermosilla, Laura; Waroquier, Michel; Van Speybroeck, Veronique


    The efficacy of organophosphorus radicals as anticoking agents was subjected to a computational study in which a representative set of radicals derived from industrially relevant organophosphorus additives was used to explore competitive reaction pathways on the graphene-like coke surface formed during thermal cracking. The aim was to investigate the nature of the competing reactions of different organophosphorus radicals on coke surfaces, and elucidate their mode of attack and inhibiting effect on the forming coke layer by use of contemporary computational methods. Density functional calculations on benzene and a larger polyaromatic hydrocarbon, namely, ovalene, showed that organophosphorus radicals have a high propensity to add to the periphery of the coke surface, inhibiting methyl radical induced hydrogen abstraction, which is known to be a key step in coke growth. Low addition barriers reported for a phosphatidyl radical suggest competitive aptitude against coke formation. Moreover, organophosphorus additives bearing aromatic substituents, which were shown to interact with the coke surface through dispersive π-π stacking interactions, are suggested to play a nontrivial role in hindering further stacking among coke surfaces. This may be the underlying rationale behind experimental observation of softer coke in the presence of organophosphorus radicals. The ultimate goal is to provide information that will be useful in building single-event microkinetic models. This study presents pertinent information on potential reactions that could be taken up in these models. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. 76 FR 52350 - Coke Oven Emissions Standard; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) Approval... (United States)


    .... Facsimile: If your comments, including attachments, are not longer than 10 pages, you may fax them to the....g., copyrighted material) is not publicly available to read or download through the Web site. All...: 54,241. Estimated Cost (Operation and Maintenance): $839,680. IV. Public Participation--Submission of...

  12. Bonding PMMA microfluidics using commercial microwave ovens (United States)

    Toossi, A.; Moghadas, H.; Daneshmand, M.; Sameoto, D.


    In this paper, a novel low-cost, rapid substrate-bonding technique is successfully applied to polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) microfluidics bonding for the first time. This technique uses a thin intermediate metallic microwave susceptor layer at the interface of the bonding site (microchannels) which produces localized heating required for bonding during microwave irradiation. The metallic susceptor pattern is designed using a multiphysics simulation model developed in ANSYS Multiphysics software (high-frequency structural simulation (HFSS) coupled with ANSYS-Thermal). In our experiments, the required microwave energy for bonding is delivered using a relatively inexpensive, widely accessible commercial microwave oven. Using this technique, simple PMMA microfluidics prototypes are successfully bonded and sealed in less than 35 seconds with a minimum measured bond strength of 1.375 MPa.

  13. EPA Administrative Order on Consent (AOC) with ERP Compliant Coke, LLC (United States)

    This Administrative Order on Consent with ERP Compliant Coke was effective August 2016. The Walter Coke facility located in North Birmingham was purchased by ERP Compliant Coke, LLC in February 2016 out of bankruptcy proceedings.

  14. High temperature coke characteristics in the blast furnace:evaluation of coke properties in the raceway area


    Lundgren, Maria; Sundqvist Ökvist, Lena; Hyllander, Gunilla; Jansson, Björn; Björkman, Bo


    Core-drilling into the coke bed of raceway and hearth has been performed in the LKAB Experimental Blast Furnace (EBF®) during short stoppages aiming to characterize raceway conditions corresponding to different operational conditions. All coke operation, injection of pulverized coal and injection of a mixture of coal and blast furnace flue dust (BFD) were evaluated and compared. The samples have been studied regarding particle size and distribution, coke have been evaluated with chemical comp...

  15. Modelling of Coke Layer Collapse during Ore Charging in Ironmaking Blast Furnace by DEM


    Narita Yoichi; Mio Hiroshi; Orimoto Takashi; Nomura Seiji


    A technical issue in an ironmaking blast furnace operation is to realize the optimum layer thickness and the radial distribution of burden (ore and coke) to enhance its efficiency and productivity. When ore particles are charged onto the already-embedded coke layer, the coke layer-collapse phenomenon occurs. The coke layer-collapse phenomenon has a significant effect on the distribution of ore and coke layer thickness in the radial direction. In this paper, the mechanical properties of coke p...

  16. 46 CFR 108.157 - Locked doors. (United States)


    ... may be designed to lock except— (a) A crash door or a door that has a locking device that can be... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT... has control of the key to the door's lock. ...

  17. Carbon Tubular Morphologies in Blast Furnace Coke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav S. Gornostayev


    Full Text Available The paper reports on the first occurrence of microscale carbon tubular morphologies (CMTs in a blast furnace (BF coke. The CMTs were probably formed as a result of the conversion of solid disordered carbon via liquid phase metal particles involving a gas phase containing a substantial amount of N2 and O2. The presence of CMTs may lie behind the generation of the smallest fraction of fines in BF exhaust dust. If the amount of CMTs present in the BF exhausts gases at any particular metallurgical site proves to be substantial, it could become a subject of environmental concern.

  18. Carbonization of coal blends: mesophase formation and coke properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grint, A.; Marsh, H.


    Laboratory investigations of strength of cokes from blends of coals incorporating pitch were supported by 7 kg trials. The stronger cokes showed a greater interaction between coal and pitch to produce an interface component of anisotropic mozaics which is relatively resistant to crack propagation. The process whereby coal is transformed into coke includes the formation of a fluid zone in which develop nematic liquid crystals and anisotropic carbon which is an essential component of metallurgical coke. Strength, thermal and oxidation resistance of coke can be discussed in terms of the size and shape of the anisotropic carbon which constitutes the optical texture of pore-wall material of coke. Coals of different rank form cokes with different optical textures. Blending procedures of non-caking, caking and coking coals involve the interactions of components of the blend to form mesophase and optical texture. Petroleum pitches used as additives are effective in modifying the carbonization process because of an ability to participate in hydrogen transfer reactions. (35 refs.)

  19. Study on the Inference Factors of Huangling Coking Coal Pyrolysis (United States)

    Du, Meili; Yang, Zongyi; Fan, Jinwen


    In order to reasonably and efficiently utilize Huangling coking coal resource, coal particle, heating rate, holding time, pyrolysis temperature and others factors were dicussed for the influence of those factor on Huangling coking coal pyrolysis products. Several kinds of coal blending for coking experiments were carried out with different kinds of coal such as Huangling coking coal, Xida coal with high ash low sufur, Xinghuo fat coal with hign sulfur, Zhongxingyi coking coal with high sulfur, Hucun lean coal, mixed meager and lean coal. The results shown that the optimal coal particle size distribution was 0.5~1.5mm, the optimal heating rate was 8°C/min, the optimal holding time was 15min, the optimal pyrolysis temperature was 800°C for Huangling coking coal pyrolysis, the tar yield increased from 4.7% to 11.2%. The maximum tar yield of coal blending for coking under the best single factor experiment condition was 10.65% when the proportio of Huangling coking coal was 52%.

  20. Combustion kinetics of the coke on deactivated dehydrogenation catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, Sha; He, Songbo; Li, XianRu; Li, Jingqiu; Bi, Wenjun; Sun, Chenglin


    The coke combustion kinetics on the deactivated catalysts for long chain paraffin dehydrogenation was studied by the thermogravimetry and differential thermogravimetry (TG–DTG) technique. The amount and H/C mole ratio of the coke were determined by the TG and elemental analysis. And the

  1. RESOLVE OVEN Field Demonstration Unit for Lunar Resource Extraction (United States)

    Paz, Aaron; Oryshchyn, Lara; Jensen, Scott; Sanders, Gerald B.; Lee, Kris; Reddington, Mike


    The Oxygen and Volatile Extraction Node (OVEN) is a subsystem within the Regolith & Environment Science and Oxygen & Lunar Volatile Extraction (RESOLVE) project. The purpose of the OVEN subsystem is to release volatiles from lunar regolith and extract oxygen by means of a hydrogen reduction reaction. The complete process includes receiving, weighing, sealing, heating, and disposing of core sample segments while transferring all gaseous contents to the Lunar Advanced Volatile Analysis (LAVA) subsystem. This document will discuss the design and performance of the OVEN Field Demonstration Unit (FDU), which participated in the 2012 RESOLVE field demonstration.

  2. consideration of can drying ovens using ahp tecnique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Pehlivan


    Full Text Available In this study, the selection of drying ovens for can gaskets is made at a production plant of tin cans. Among the available three drying oven types, i.e. horizontal, vertical and induction, the optimum type is determined for purchase with the objective of the best suiting the needs of the can production plant. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP is employed, and the importance of the critical and dominant criteria is determined. In this way, the optimum type of the drying oven is identified. Results are discussed and summarized based on the current practices used in the tin can production industry.

  3. [When doors slam, fingers jam!]. (United States)

    Claudet, I; Toubal, K; Carnet, C; Rekhroukh, H; Zelmat, B; Debuisson, C; Cahuzac, J-P


    Epidemiological analysis in a universitary paediatric emergency unit of children admitted after accidental injuries resulting from fingers crushed in a door. Prospective, descriptive cohort study from September 6th, 2004 to July 1st, 2005 included all children admitted for finger injuries crushed in a non-automatic door. included accidents due to automatic doors, toy's or refrigerator doors, families who refused to participate to the study or families who had left the waiting area before medical examination. Collected data were patient and family characteristics, accident characteristics and its management. Three hundred and forty children affected by 427 digital lesions were included. The mean age was 5.5+/-3.8 years (range 4 months - 15.5 years). Male/female ratio was equal to 1.2: 1. Fifty-eight percent of patients belonged to families composed of 3 or more siblings. Ninety-three per cent of families came to hospital within the first 2 hours after the accident (mean delay 99+/-162 min, median range 54 minutes). Location of the accident was: domestic (62%, at home (64%)), at school (17%). Locations within the home were: the bedroom (33%), bathroom and toilets (21%). An adult was present in 75% of cases and responsible for the trauma in 25% of accidents, another child in 44%. The finger or fingers were trapped on the hinge side in 57% of patients. No specific safeguard devices were used by 94% of families. Among victims, 20% had several crushed digits; left and right hand were injured with an equal frequency. The commonest involved digits were: the middle finger (29%), the ring finger (23%). The nail plate was damaged in 60% of digital lesions, associated with a wound (50%), a distal phalanx fracture (P3) (12%). Six children had a partial or complete amputation of P3, 2 children a lesion of the extensor tendon, 1 child had a rupture of the external lateral ligament. Three percent of children required an admission to the paediatric orthopaedic surgery unit. Post

  4. A dedicated electric oven for characterization of thermoresistive polymer nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cen-Puc


    Full Text Available The construction, characterization and control of an electric oven dedicated to the study of thermoresistive polymer nanocomposites is presented. The oven is designed with a heating plate capable of reaching 300 °C with a resolution of 0.3 °C and an area of uniform temperature of 3.8 cm × 2.5 cm. The temperature is regulated by means of a discrete proportional–integral–derivative controller. A heat transfer model comprising three coupled non-linear differential equations is proposed to predict the thermal profiles of the oven during heating and cooling, which are experimentally verified. The oven is used for thermoresistive characterization of polymer nanocomposites manufactured from a polysulfone polymer and multiwall carbon nanotubes.

  5. No-Oven, No-Autoclave, Composite Processing Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cornerstone Research Group Inc. (CRG) proposes to continue the efforts from the 2010 NASA SBIR Phase I topic X5.03, "No-Oven, No-Autoclave (NONA) Composite...

  6. No-Oven, No-Autoclave, Composite Processing Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Large, single-piece composite structures for NASA launch vehicles are currently very expensive or impossible to fabricate partly because of the capital (ovens,...

  7. 5 Tips for Using Your Microwave Oven Safely (United States)

    ... produced by these ovens—are a type of electromagnetic radiation. These waves cause water molecules in food ... being emitted in this situation.” How to Report Problems In the FDA’s experience, most microwave ovens that ...

  8. [Histochemical staining using silver salts using a microwave oven]. (United States)

    Balaton, A


    Some metallic impregnations--Fontana-Masson, Warthin-Starry, Grocott's methenamine silver, Grimelius' and Dieterle's stains have been modified to use a microwave oven. Microwave bombardment markedly reduces the staining times and produces a cleaner background.

  9. Design of Solar Ovens for Use in the Developing World

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rachel Martin; Timothy Bond; John Erickson; Morgan Rog; Cyprienne Crowley; Robert Hutchins; Grayson Fahrner; Kay Lai; Avi Guter; Jack Steiner; Melissa Wrolstad


    The main objective of the Cornell Solar Oven Team is to help communities in the developing world design solar cookers appropriate for their specific cultural, social, economic, and environmental conditions...

  10. Controllable evaporation of cesium from a dispenser oven. (United States)

    Fantz, U; Friedl, R; Fröschle, M


    This instrument allows controlled evaporation of the alkali metal cesium over a wide range of evaporation rates. The oven has three unique features. The first is an alkali metal reservoir that uses a dispenser as a cesium source. The heating current of the dispenser controls the evaporation rate allowing generation of an adjustable and stable flow of pure cesium. The second is a blocking valve, which is fully metallic as is the body of the oven. This construction both reduces contamination of the dispenser and enables the oven to be operated up to 300 °C, with only small temperature variations (dispenser oven can be easily transferred to the other alkali-metals.

  11. Influence of activation time on characteristics of active coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, S.; Lu, J.; Liu, Q.; Yue, G.; Wang, Y. [Tsinghua University, Beijing (China). Thermal Engineering Department


    Activating time effects significantly the characteristics of active cokes prepared from coal-derived char by steam activation. The active cokes for different activating time were investigated using PXS and other methods. The experimental results show that the surface area and micropore area of the active coke increases with activating time and the ratio of micropore area to surface area increases too. At the earlier stages of activation, the micro-porous structure is mainly developed. With the activation time goes on, the microporous structure is developed in the form of forming the micro-pores and widening the already-formed pores; and the surface basicity of active coke also increases. The quantity of oxygen on the surface of active coke decreases and the activity of delocalized {pi}-electron in the grapheme layers of active coke become stronger. So the surface basicity of the active coke is mainly ascribed to the delocalized {pi}-electron in the grapheme layers. 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Scott Brothers Windows and Doors Information Sheet (United States)

    Scott Brothers Windows and Doors (the Company) is located in Bridgeville, Pennsylvania. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at property constructed prior to 1978, located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

  13. Preheating of coal. Its influence on the composition of coal, the quality of coke and on the phenomenon of pushing. Precalentado del carbon. Su influencia en la composicion del carbon, en la calidad del coque y en el fenomeno del empuje

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    A comparative study of the carbonization of a wide range of coals, wet and after preheating, was carried out. The 6 t coal capacity oven of the INCAR Experimental Coking Test Plant and the 2 t/h preheating pilot plant, Precarbon process, installed by ENSIDESA annexed to the INCAR plant were used. Influence of the preheating process on coal plastic properties was followed through Arnu dilatation, Gieseler fluidity and swelling index tests. Structural modifications of the coals were examined by FT-IR. Coal samples [lt]0.15 mm that do not need to be crushed for analysis and Arnu dilatation were chosen. A Koppers-INCAR test of all coals studied was carried out. Cokes obtained were characterized by optical microscopy, SEM and image analysis. Size analysis, coke strength (Micum e Irsid tests), reactivity and post-reaction strength, chemical changes and porosity were also determined. 21 refs., 36 figs., 9 tabs.

  14. Effect of alkaline elements on the reactivity, strength and structural properties of blast furnace cokes


    A. Bhattacharyya; J. Schenk; G. Rantitsch; C. Thaler; H. Stocker


    The present study concerns itself on the adverse effects of alkaline elements like sodium and potassium on blast furnace cokes. To achieve a deeper insight on the effects of alkaline elements on coke reactivity and strength, industrial coke samples impregnated with different alkaline species in various amounts have been tested under standard conditions to find out their Coke Reactivity Index (CRI) and Coke Strength after Reaction (CSR) values. Scanning electron microscopy, petrographic and Ra...

  15. KCBX Petroleum Coke Storage Pile Sampling Logbook and Photos (United States)

    This documentation of KCBX's petcoke sampling locations and methods demonstrates adherence to the pet coke sampling plan previously submitted and approved by EPA, at both North Terminal and South Terminal stockpiles.

  16. Experimental research on quality features of metallurgical coke (United States)

    Andrei, V.; Constantin, N.


    From all the solid fuels, the metallurgical coke is the most used in obtaining iron in the blast furnace. Together with the iron ore, manganese ore and fluxes, it constitutes the basis of raw materials and materials for elaborating pig iron. This paper presents the results of laboratory investigations by the authors to determine the most important quality characteristics of some types of coke used in the blast furnace charge.

  17. Science/Engineering: Open Doors (United States)

    White, Susan; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)


    Trends in American society are changing the role of women in science and engineering, but all the elements in our society change at different rates. Women, like men, must choose during their teenage years to continue their training in math or science, or they close the door that can lead them to futures in the interesting and satisfying fields of science and engineering. The key is to keep girls involved in the hard sciences through the adolescent crisis. Many mentoring and outreach programs exist to help young women cross this threshold. These programs include hands-on science experiences, mentoring or putting young women in contact with women scientists and engineers, and internships, Viewpoints and histories of contemporary women engineers are discussed.

  18. A Wireless Portable High Temperature Data Monitor for Tunnel Ovens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Mayo Bayón


    Full Text Available Tunnel ovens are widely used in the food industry to produce biscuits and pastries. In order to obtain a high quality product, it is very important to control the heat transferred to each piece of dough during baking. This paper proposes an innovative, non-distorting, low cost wireless temperature measurement system, called “eBiscuit”, which, due to its size, format and location in the metal rack conveyor belt in the oven, is able to measure the temperature a real biscuit experience while baking. The temperature conditions inside the oven are over 200 °C for several minutes, which could damage the “eBiscuit” electronics. This paper compares several thermal insulating materials that can be used in order to avoid exceeding the maximum operational conditions (80 °C in the interior of the “eBiscuit. The data registered is then transmitted to a base station where information can be processed to obtain an oven model. The experimental results with real tunnel ovens confirm its good performance, which allows detecting production anomalies early on.

  19. Discrete transistor measuring and matching using a solid core oven. (United States)

    Inkinen, M; Mäkelä, K; Vuorela, T; Palovuori, K


    This paper presents transistor measurements done at a constant temperature. The aim in this research was to develop a reliable and repeatable method for measuring and searching transistor pairs with similar parameters, as in certain applications it is advantageous to use transistors from the same production batch due to the significant variability in batches from different manufacturers. Transistor manufacturing methods are well established, but due to the large variability in tolerance, not even transistors from the same manufacturing batch have identical properties. Transistors' electrical properties are also strongly temperature-dependent. Therefore, when measuring transistor properties, the temperature must be kept constant. For the measurement process, a solid-core oven providing stable temperature was implemented. In the oven, the base-to-emitter voltage (VBE) and DC-current gain (β) of 32 transistors could be measured simultaneously. The oven's temperature was controlled with a programmable thermostat, which allowed accurate constant temperature operation. The oven is formed by a large metal block with an individual chamber for each transistor to be measured. Isolation of individual transistors and the highly thermally conductive metal core structure prevent thermal coupling between transistors. The oven enables repeatable measurements, and thus measurements between different batches are comparable. In this research study, the properties of over 5000 transistors were measured and the variance of the aforementioned properties was analyzed.

  20. Characteristics of frozen colostrum thawed in a microwave oven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, L.R.; Taylor, A.W.; Hines, H.C.


    Use of a microwave oven to thaw frozen colostrum was evaluated. Colostrum was collected from nine cows, four of which were immunized to produce specific colostral antibodies. Colostrum from each cow was frozen, subsequently thawed, and pooled. One-liter aliquots of the pooled colostrum were frozen and assigned randomly to three thawing treatments. Colostrum was thawed using one of three regimens: 10 min in a microwave oven at full power (650 W), 17 min in a microwave oven at half power (325 W), and 25 min in 45 degrees C water. Colostrum thawed in the microwave oven was slightly coagulated and had lower volume and total protein content than colostrum thawed in water. Casein and pH were not different among treatments. Both concentration and total content of immunoglobulin A were higher in the control than in microwave treatments. Neither amount nor concentration of immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M were different among treatments. Immunological activity, measured by a hemolytic test, was lower for microwave treatments than the control but did not differ between microwave treatments. Frozen colostrum thawed in a microwave oven should provide a reasonable source of colostrum when fresh high quality colostrum is not available.

  1. The Ins and Outs of Modern Doors. (United States)

    College Planning & Management, 1999


    Discusses the qualities and trends in modern metal doors for educational facilities that include fire protection and sound-control attributes. Important differences in door manufacturing methods and materials are addressed and sound-transmission class values, ratings, and rating descriptions are listed. (GR)

  2. Outsourcing van het ICT door overheidsinstellingen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, L.; Theeuwes, J.J.M.; Janssens, L.


    Het IWI heeft onlangs gewezen op de risico’s van outsourcing van ICT door het UWV. Ook het uitbesteden van ICT door gemeenten is niet zonder risico. Om outsourcingsbeslissingen van gemeenten en UWV te kunnen beoordelen wil het ministerie meer inzicht in de effecten van outsourcing. De directie

  3. Gasification Characteristics and Kinetics of Coke with Chlorine Addition (United States)

    Wang, Cui; Zhang, Jianliang; Jiao, Kexin; Liu, Zhengjian; Chou, Kuochih


    The gasification process of metallurgical coke with 0, 1.122, 3.190, and 7.132 wt pct chlorine was investigated through thermogravimetric method from ambient temperature to 1593 K (1320 °C) in purified CO2 atmosphere. The variations in the temperature parameters that T i decreases gradually with increasing chlorine, T f and T max first decrease and then increase, but both in a downward trend indicated that the coke gasification process was catalyzed by the chlorine addition. Then the kinetic model of the chlorine-containing coke gasification was obtained through the advanced determination of the average apparent activation energy, the optimal reaction model, and the pre-exponential factor. The average apparent activation energies were 182.962, 118.525, 139.632, and 111.953 kJ/mol, respectively, which were in the same decreasing trend with the temperature parameters analyzed by the thermogravimetric method. It was also demonstrated that the coke gasification process was catalyzed by chlorine. The optimal kinetic model to describe the gasification process of chlorine-containing coke was the Šesták Berggren model using Málek's method, and the pre-exponential factors were 6.688 × 105, 2.786 × 103, 1.782 × 104, and 1.324 × 103 min-1, respectively. The predictions of chlorine-containing coke gasification from the Šesták Berggren model were well fitted with the experimental data.

  4. Shortcomings of existing equipment for automatic coke requenching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shramenko, A.P. (UPO UVD, Donetsk (USSR))


    Discusses operation and reliability of equipment for reducing temperature of coke transported by belt conveyors. Operation of two systems, the ADK-3 and ADK developed on the basis of the APIR-S, is analyzed. The FR-13 photoconductor is a key element of the ADK-3. It detects sources of infrared radiation with wavelength from 1 to 3.2 mkm. The photoconductor is efficient for detecting coke with temperatures exceeding 300 C but its sensitivity is reduced when coke temparture ranges from 200 to 300 C. The ADK-3 continuously measures coke temperature 3 to 4 s long. In the case of hot coke zones more than 10 m long on a belt conveyor, the measuring intervals are too long and fire hazards occur as water sprays are closed before the end of a hot coke zone reaches the spraying system. Recommendations for design modifications of the ADK-3 system are discussed: optimum sensitivity, photoconductor cooling, dust control, use of amplifiers, optimum number of electroconductors and their arrangement. 8 refs.

  5. Improvement of the temperature control system for quenched coke in the unloading facility of the equipment for dry quenching of coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ereskovskii, O.S.; Grishchenko, A.I.


    An analysis of the existing methods of measuring the temperature of quenched coke is presented. A method for determining the weighted mean temperature of the coke in the intermediate bunker of the equipment for dry quenching of coke is proposed. Recommendations are given in respect to technical realization of the proposed method.

  6. Fatigue behaviour of coke drum materials under thermal-mechanical cyclic loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Chen


    Full Text Available Coke drums are vertical pressure vessels used in the delayed coking process in petroleum refineries. Significant temperature variation during the delayed coking process causes damage in coke drums in the form of bulging and cracking. There were some studies on the fatigue life estimation for the coke drums, but most of them were based on strain-fatigue life curves at constant temperatures, which do not consider simultaneous cyclic temperature and mechanical loading conditions. In this study, a fatigue testing system is successfully developed to allow performing thermal-mechanical fatigue (TMF test similar to the coke drum loading condition. Two commonly used base and one clad materials of coke drums are then experimentally investigated. In addition, a comparative study between isothermal and TMF lives of these materials is conducted. The experimental findings lead to better understanding of the damage mechanisms occurring in coke drums and more accurate prediction of fatigue life of coke drum materials.

  7. A container for heat treating materials in microwave ovens (United States)

    Holcombe, C.E.; Dykes, N.L.; Kimrey, H.D. Jr.; Mills, J.E.


    The efficiency of a microwave oven of a conventional two-source configuration and energy level is increased by providing the oven with a container for housing a refractory material to be treated. The container is formed to top and bottom walls transparent to microwaves while the sidewalls, in a circular configuration, are formed of a nonmetallic material opaque to microwave radiation for reflecting the radiation penetrating the top and bottom walls radially inwardly into the center of the container wherein a casket of heat-insulating material is provided for housing the material to be heat treated. The reflection of the microwave radiation from the sidewalls increases the concentration of the microwaves upon the material being heat treated while the concentration of the microwaves upon the material being heat treated while the casket retains the heat to permit the heating of the material to a substantially higher temperature than achievable in the oven without the container.

  8. An Integrated Expert Controller for the Oven Temperature Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagabhushana KATTE


    Full Text Available Paper presents a methodology for design of integrated fuzzy logic based an expert controller and its implementation for a real time oven temperature control system. Integrated expert controller (IEC is composed by cascading fuzzy logic controller with improved PID controller. Wherein, fuzzy controller evaluates the supplemental control actions and PID evaluates the final control actions. Temperature measurement of the oven with a precision of 16-bits is achieved through Pt100, instrumentation amplifier, and A/D converter and fuzzy plus PID computed control actions are given to the actuator via D/A converter (16-bits and PWM generator. Paper experimentally demonstrated the performance of IEC for oven temperature control application. The performance indexes of the system are presented in a comparative fashion with the conventional PID and expert controllers. Control algorithms are developed using C language.

  9. Process to manufacture effervescent tablets: air forced oven melt granulation. (United States)

    Yanze, F M; Duru, C; Jacob, M


    In the present study we apply melt granulation in an air forced oven, called "are forced oven melt granulation" to the single-stage manufacture of effervescent granules consisting of anhydrous citric acid (43.2%) and sodium bicarbonate (56.8%) in order to make tablets. This study established that process parameters such as concentration of PEG 6000, residence time in the air forced oven, fineness of PEG 6000, fineness of the initial effervescent mix and efficiency of two lubricants markedly influenced several granule and tablet characteristics. The granules ready to be compressed into tablets were stable for 7 days at 60% RH/18 degrees C. It is a dry, simple, rapid, effective, economical, reproducible process particularly well suited to the manufacture of effervescent granules which are easily compressed into effervescent tablets. Of all the formulations tested, only formulations B2 and E2 melt granulated for 30 minutes gave tablets which had optimum compression characteristics without processing problems during compression.

  10. A microwave powered sensor assembly for microwave ovens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention relates to a microwave powered sensor assembly for micro- wave ovens. The microwave powered sensor assembly comprises a microwave antenna for generating an RF antenna signal in response to microwave radiation at a predetermined excitation frequency. A dc power supply circuit...... in a microwave oven chamber....... of the microwave powered sensor assembly is operatively coupled to the RF antenna signal for extracting energy from the RF antenna signal and produce a power supply voltage. A sensor is connected to the power supply voltage and configured to measure a physical or chemical property of a food item under heating...

  11. Testing of the Burns-Milwaukee`s Sun Oven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, T.A.


    A Burns-Milwaukee Sun Oven was tested at Sandia`s Solar Thermal Test Facility. It was instrumented with five type K thermocouples to determine warm-up rates when empty and when a pot containing two liters of water was placed inside. It reached inside air temperatures above 160{degrees}C (320{degrees}F). It heated two liters of water from room temperatures to 80{degrees}C, (175{degrees}F), in 75 minutes. Observations were also made on the cooling and reheating rates during a cloud passage. The adverse effects of wind on operation of the solar oven was also noted.

  12. Etiquette and effort: holding doors for others. (United States)

    Santamaria, Joseph P; Rosenbaum, David A


    Etiquette, the customary code of polite behavior among members of a group, provides a means of conveying respect for others, but what is the basis for etiquette's unwritten rules? Here we show that one form of etiquette, holding a door open for another person, reflects the door holder's expectation that the person for whom he or she holds the door shares the belief that the total effort expended by the two of them will be less than the summed efforts of the two individuals acting on their own. Our observations extend recent work on effort reduction in motor control to the management of social interactions.

  13. The Globe reopens its doors

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin


    After a year of work, the newly renovated Globe of Science and Innovation will open its doors again at 10 a.m. on Tuesday, 19 April. The “Universe of Particles” exhibition has been updated and will be open to the public, free of charge, from 10 a.m. to 5 p.m., Monday to Saturday (except during official CERN closures). The Globe’s programme of lectures and events for the general public will restart at the end of April. What’s on at the Globe in April and May: - 28 April at 6.30 p.m.: Theatre – “Curie_Meitner_Lamarr_indivisible”, a play that pays tribute to the lives of three exceptional women in the field of science and technology (in English). Reservations: - 10 May at 8.30 p.m.: Lecture – “Le modèle du CERN et les grands défis mondiaux” (“The CERN model and the key global challenges”) by Michel Spiro (in French with simultaneous ...

  14. September 2013: the doors open

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso


    Three special days and one public open day: at the end of September our Laboratory will open its doors to visitors from CERN, the local region and all over the world. With over 150,000 visitors expected in total, the organisation of the OpenDays is a challenge that a core team of eleven people have taken up with enthusiasm.   They come from several departments but share one goal: making the last four days of September an unforgettable experience for all the visitors who will come to discover the Laboratory and its scientists. The core team in charge of the organisation of the events is co-ordinated by Hermann Schmickler. “The events are an opportunity for us to celebrate  the discoveries, the excellent performance of the technical installations and the vital contribution of all the CERN personnel, the thousands of users and those working under support contracts,” says Hermann Schmickler. The four-day programme will start on Friday 27 September with an “...

  15. Pengeringan Lidah Buaya (AloVera Menggunakan Oven Gelombang Mikro (Microwave Oven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edy Hartulistiyoso


    Full Text Available Aloe vera (Aloe vera is known as a useful plant, both as food, cosmetics or pharmaceuticals. Due its high water content, Aloe vera should be processed immediately after harvest. This paper will discuss the drying of aloe vera using microwave oven. The drying process of 50 gr Aloe vera gel and rind using 80 Watts microwave power completed in 140 minutes to reach the final moisture content of 7% wet basis. The drying process in microwave drying shows similar process to that of conventional drying. Dipolar rotation mechanism of water molecules at microwave drying does not affect the drying stage. It shows however shorter process time. The water removal of the drying material occurred in the early minutes until the 50th minute. This because of the high free water surface on the material, while from minute 50 to minute 140 slowed the drying process. Highest temperature of the material during the process is achieved at 57.6 oC in drying of gel and 70.7 oC in drying of Aloe vera rind. It is expected that there is no damage of nutritional content during drying in the this temperature range. Quality analysis of flour and tea of Aloe vera after drying by microwave showed that Aloe vera powder produced within the range of the standard, both visually and microbiologically, but indicated as low quality when viewed from acid content levels. Whether microwave heating mechanism affects the acidity, this needs further study.

  16. Microwave Oven Experiments with Metals and Light Sources (United States)

    Vollmer, Michael; Mollmann, Klaus-Peter; Karstadt, Detlef


    "Don't put metal objects in the microwave" is common safety advice. But why? Here we describe demonstration experiments involving placing household metallic objects in a microwave oven. These allow a better understanding of the interaction of microwaves with materials. Light bulbs and discharge lamps can also be used in instructive demonstrations.

  17. Microwave oven-induced decalcification at varying temperatures: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of decalcifying fluid types on bone tissue architecture and its staining properties following decalcification at varying temperatures. A decalcification methodology using Golding and Stewards (GS) fluid, and Jenkings fluid (JK), and a modern household microwave oven to ...

  18. Oven Evaporates Isopropyl Alcohol Without Risk Of Explosion (United States)

    Morgan, Gene E.; Hoult, William S.


    Ordinary convection oven with capacity of 1 ft.(sup3) modified for use in drying objects washed in isopropyl alcohol. Nitrogen-purge equipment and safety interlocks added to prevent explosive ignition of flammable solvent evaporating from object to be dried.

  19. Effect of oven residence time on mechanical properties in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Simulation studies were conducted using ROTOSIM software to analyze thermal transitions and phase changes during the process. Degree of curing of the polymers was also assessed and correlated with mechanical properties. Experiments were further conducted to obtain favourable oven residence time to obtain highest ...

  20. Construction of an Inexpensive Copper Heat-Pipe Oven (United States)

    Grove, T. T.; Hockensmith, W. A.; Cheviron, N.; Grieser, W.; Dill, R.; Masters, M. F.


    We present a new, low-cost method of building an all copper heat-pipe oven that increases the practicality of this device in advanced undergraduate instructional labs. The construction parts are available at local hardware and plumbing supply stores, and the assembly techniques employed are simple and require no machining. (Contains 1 footnote, 3…

  1. Microwave Oven and its Associated Health Concerns: Views of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Up to 84.9% knew that exposure to microwave radiation was harmful to the health, but only 49.8%, 43.0% and 53.2% knew that the microwave oven worked by the emission of microwave radiation, could not cook foods evenly, and could interfere with a heart pace maker respectively. The overall knowledge was poor with a ...

  2. Effect of oven residence time on mechanical properties in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P L Ramkumar

    Abstract. In rotational moulding of plastics, improving the mechanical properties without sacrificing the processibility is a challenging task. In this paper, an attempt has been made to investigate the effect of oven residence time on the mechanical properties of the rotationally moulded products made using linear low density.

  3. Oxidizing Roasting Performances of Coke Fines Bearing Brazilian Specularite Pellets (United States)

    Chun, Tiejun; Zhu, Deqing


    Oxidized pellets, consisting of Brazilian specularite fines and coke fines, were prepared by disc pelletizer using bentonite as binder. The roasting process of pellets includes preheating stage and firing stage. The compressive strength of preheated pellets and fired pellets reached the peak value at 1.5% coke fines dosage. During the initial stage of preheating, some original Fe2O3 was reduced to Fe3O4 because of partial reduction atmosphere in pellet. During the later stage of preheating and firing stage, coke fines were burnt out, and the secondary Fe2O3 (new generation Fe2O3) was generated due to the re-oxidization of Fe3O4, which improved the recrystallization of Fe2O3. Compared with the fired pellets without adding coke fines, fired pellets with 1.5% coke fines exhibited the comparable RSI (reduction swelling index) and RDI+3.15 mm (reduction degradation index), and slightly lower RI (reducibility index).

  4. Risk of Burns from Eruptions of Hot Water Overheated in Microwave Ovens (United States)

    ... Burns from Eruptions of Hot Water Overheated in Microwave Ovens Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... after it had been over-heated in a microwave oven. Over-heating of water in a cup can ...

  5. Alle dagen Internet - beheersen door beheren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pras, Aiko


    Rede uitgesproken bij de aanvaarding 
van het ambt van hoogleraar Network Operations
 and Management aan de faculteit Elektrotechniek, Wiskunde
 en Informatica van de Universiteit Twente
 op donderdag 13 november 2014 door Prof. Dr. Ir. Aiko pras

  6. Design and construction of a batch oven for investigation of industrial continuous baking processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenby Andresen, Mette; Risum, Jørgen; Adler-Nissen, Jens


    A new batch oven has been constructed to mimic industrial convection tunnel ovens for research and development of continuous baking processes. The process parameters (air flow, air temperature, air humidity, height of baking area and the baking band velocity) are therefore highly controllable and....... Experimental work in the new batch oven will increase knowledge of how the environment and baking conditions influence the quality of bakery products in continuous tunnel ovens. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc....

  7. Method for determining the coking of different types of pyrolysed hydrocarbon crude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirpichnikov, P.A.; Grigorovich, B.A.; Liakumovich, A.G.; Galeeva, E.I.; Trifonov, S.V.; Lobanova, E.E.


    An express method has been developed for determining coking and the nature of burnout of coke deposits during pyrolysis of hydrocarbon crude. A new, hitherto unknown effect of non-uniform burnout of the carbon deposits (coke) formed during pyrolysis of hydrocarbons has been established. Although the air pulse selected is sufficient to burn out the entire quantity of coke, it is not burnt out uniformly from pulse to pulse, but spasmodically, creating an individual characteristic of the burnout capacity of coke formed during pyrolysis of individual hydrocarbon fractions. The opportunities provided by the method in studying additives that inhibit coke deposition, the rate of formation and burnout of coke in different temperature zones of the pyrolysis coil, and also the nature of burnout of coke formed during pyrolysis of individual hydrocarbons and their mixtures can be broadened significantly, 7 references, 2 figures.

  8. Textural changes in metallurgical coke prepared with polyethylene (United States)

    Gornostayev, Stanislav S.; Heino, Jyrki J.; Kokkonen, Tommi M. T.; Makkonen, Hannu T.; Huttunen, Satu M. M.; Fabritius, Timo M. J.


    The effect of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) on the textural features of experimental coke was investigated using polarized-light optical microscopy and wavelet-based image analysis. Metallurgical coke samples were prepared in a laboratory-scale furnace with 2.5%, 5.0%, 7.5%, 10.0%, and 12.5% HDPE by mass, and one sample was prepared by 100% coal. The amounts and distribution of textures (isotropic, mosaic and banded) and pores were obtained. The calculations reveal that the addition of HDPE results in a decrease of mosaic texture and an increase of isotropic texture. Ethylene formed from the decomposition of HDPE is considered as a probable reason for the texture modifications. The approach used in this study can be applied to indirect evaluation for the reactivity and strength of coke.

  9. Microporous Cokes Formed in Zeolite Catalysts Enable Efficient Solar Evaporation

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jianjian


    Cokes are inevitably generated during zeolite-catalyzed reactions as deleterious side products that deactivate the catalyst. In this study, we in-situ converted cokes into carbons within the confined microporous zeolite structures and evaluated their performances as absorbing materials for solar-driven water evaporation. With a properly chosen zeolite, the cokederived carbons possessed ordered interconnected pores and tunable compositions. We found that the porous structure and the oxygen content in as-prepared carbons had important influences on their energy conversion efficiencies. Among various investigated carbon materials, the carbon derived from the methanol-to-olefins reaction over zeolite Beta gave the highest conversion efficiency of 72% under simulated sunlight with equivalent solar intensity of 2 suns. This study not only demonstrates the great potential of traditionally useless cokes for solar thermal applications but also provides new insights into the design of carbon-based absorbing materials for efficient solar evaporation.

  10. 77 FR 28805 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Microwave Ovens (United States)


    ... Parts 429 and 430 RIN 1904-AB78 Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Microwave Ovens AGENCY... supplemental notice of proposed rulemaking (SNOPR) to amend the test procedures for microwave ovens. That SNOPR... for measuring the standby mode and off mode energy use of products that combine a microwave oven with...

  11. 78 FR 4015 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Microwave Ovens (United States)


    ... RIN 1904-AB78 Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Microwave Ovens AGENCY: Office of...) to amend the test procedures for microwave ovens. That SNOPR proposed amendments to the DOE test... measuring the standby mode and off mode energy use of products that combine a microwave oven with other...

  12. 75 FR 42612 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedure for Microwave Ovens (United States)


    ... does as well, that can work as a microwave only, work as a convection oven, or in combination and... Ovens AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION...) issued a notice of proposed rulemaking (NOPR) in which DOE proposed test procedures for microwave ovens...

  13. Coke reactivity under blast furnace condition and in the CSR/CRI test


    Lundgren, Maria; Björkman, Bo; Sundqvist Ökvist, Lena


    The present work aims to study the high-temperature strength of coke. Mechanisms of disintegration were evaluated using basket samples charged into LKAB's experimental blast furnace prior to quenching and dissection. Coke charged into basket samples were analysed with CSR/CRI tests and compared with treated coke from the blast furnace. Results from tumbling tests, chemical analyses of coarse and fine material, as well as light optical microscopy studies of original and treated coke have been ...

  14. Using ultrafine particles from a coal washing plant in metallurgical coke production


    Gutierrez Bernal, Jesús Manuel; Mora Pulido, William Fernando; Rodríguez Varela, Luís Ignacio; Ramírez, Javier; Díaz Velásquez, José de Jesús


    Blending ultrafine particles from a coal washing plant was studied for coke production by briquetting using 6%w coal tar as binder. The ultrafine coal particles were characterised and a pilot coking test was made in a Koppers’ furnace. Coke quality was evaluated by proximate analysis, stability (micum 10 and micum 40), coke reactivity index (CRI) with CO2 and the coke’s mechanical strength after reaction with carbon dioxide (CSR index). Briquetting results showed that was possible to obtain c...

  15. Occupational exposure to carbon/coke fibers in plants that produce green or calcined petroleum coke and potential health effects: 2. Fiber concentrations. (United States)

    Maxim, L Daniel; Galvin, Jennifer B; Niebo, Ron; Segrave, Alan M; Kampa, Otto A; Utell, Mark J


    We monitored exposure to various fibers among workers in eight plants operated by ConocoPhillips that produce green or calcined petroleum coke. Carbon/coke and other fibers, including calcium silicate, cellulose, gypsum, and iron silicate, were found in occupational samples. Carbon/coke fibers were found in bulk samples of calcined petroleum coke, the probable source of these fibers in occupational samples. Time-weighted average (TWA) total fiber concentrations were approximately lognormally distributed; 90% were fiber concentrations varied with plant, job (tasks), and type of coke. This was expected given the substantial differences in plant configuration, technology, and workplace practices among refineries and carbon plants. Carbon/coke fibers (identified and measured using transmission electron microscopy [TEM]) were found at all plants producing all types of calcined coke and not detected at any plant producing only green coke. Approximately 98% of all carbon/coke TWAs were carbon/coke TLA is certainly < or = 0.05 f/ml and probably < 0.03 f/ml.

  16. The influence of calcination on the physical and chemical properties of petroleum and mixed cokes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, K.; Syrek, H.


    Freshly prepared petroleum and coal-petroleum cokes, before utilization for the production of various materials, are subjected to calcining--thermal treatment in a neutral or reducing atmosphere without the admission of air at less than or equal to 1400/sup 0/. During calcining, stabilization of the physical and chemical properties of the cokes takes place. The properties of the obtained coke depend chiefly on the calcining time and temperature. During calcining, volatile substances are removed almost completely from the coke; the coke density is increased, and its structure is put in order; the electrical conductivity is improved; the mechanical strength is increased; and the reactivity of the coke is decreased. Laboratory studies were conducted on calcining mixed coal-petroleum cokes of two grades at 1200, 1250, and 1300/sup 0/ for 2-6 h. In the calcining products the content of volatile substances, the ash content, S content, and density were determined. It was ascertained that calcining of mixed coal-petroleum cokes goes analogously to calcining of pure petroleum cokes. Raising the temperature and increasing the time of calcining has a substantial effect on improvement of coke physical and chemical properties. For high-quality coke, calcining is to be carried out at greater than or equal to 1300/sup 0/ for 4-6 h, for ordinary coke at > 1200/sup 0/ and greater than or equal to 4 h. The results are regarded as starting data for an industrial study of the calcining process.

  17. Measuring the temperature of coke quenched in a dry quenching unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ereskovskii, O.S.; Grishchenko, A.I.; Skichko, T.Yu.


    An apparatus used to measure the temperature of coke while in a loading hopper is described. The device consists of a tube through which water is passed. The coke in the hopper surrounds the tube and heats the water. The temperature difference between the entering and exiting water is measured and the temperature of the coke calculated. Some heat transfer assumptions are made.

  18. 49 CFR 571.206 - Standard No. 206; Door locks and door retention components. (United States)


    ... striker cut-out configuration similar to the environment in which the door latch will be mounted on normal... of 30 g for a period of at least 30 ms, while keeping the recorded acceleration within the pulse...) Determine the forward and aft edge of the sliding door, or its adjoining vehicle structure, that contains a...

  19. Electric two wheelers, zero emission solution for urban door to door transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fasil, Muhammed; Jensen, Bogi Bech

    The noise and exhaust pollution coupled with increasing congestion faced by urban centres demands new personal mobility solution for faster door to door connectivity. The advancement in electric power train and lowering cost of Li-ion battery is made it possible to develop light weight fully...

  20. Emergency Door Capacity : Influence of Door Width, Population Composition and Stress Level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daamen, W.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.


    For the new version of the Dutch design guidelines for buildings, a threshold value for the capacity of emergency doors needs to be set. Innovative largescale laboratory experiments have been performed to investigate the capacity of emergency doors during evacuation conditions. This paper focuses in

  1. Carbonization of Coals Mixed Iron Ore Fines and Gasification of Resulting Iron Coke with CO2: Transformation of Iron Minerals and Coke Properties (United States)

    Zhang, Shengfu; Liu, Wei; Qiu, Shuxing; Yang, Mingrui; Li, Manjie

    It is important to produce and utilize highly reactive coke in order to reduce the energy consumption and CO2 emissions through improving shaft efficiency in blast furnace. The present study aimed to investigate the transformation of iron minerals and properties of iron coke (the coke mixed iron ore fines). Along with the increase of iron ore fines, cold strength displayed a slight downtrend and the pore structure wasn't inferred to be a major factor affected the properties of iron coke. During carbonization, the majority of mixed iron oxides were reduced to metallic iron by CO and H2 and the degree of metallization achieved to approximately 75%. Nevertheless, produced metallic iron was oxidized by pure CO2 during gasification. Iron coke reactivity index (ICRI) was obviously enhanced and the iron coke strength after reaction (ICSR) drastically decreases, which were also significantly influenced by crystal structure of carbon.

  2. Thermodynamics of Water Superheated in the Microwave Oven (United States)

    Erné, B. H.


    A simple visual demonstration is proposed that provokes thinking about the elementary thermodynamics of heating and boiling. Water is conveniently heated above its normal boiling point in a microwave oven in a glass microwave oven teapot. Water stops boiling soon after heating is interrupted, but subsequently added rough particles can still act as nucleation centers for a brief, spectacular burst of steam bubbles. The heat to make those steam bubbles obviously comes from the water itself, so that one can conclude that the boiling water was superheated, which is confirmed with a thermometer. Besides illustrating chemical thermodynamics, the demonstration also shows why safety precautions are usually taken in the laboratory to prevent superheating. Details of the observations are discussed by giving background on the nucleation of steam bubbles.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana Kariada Tri Martuti


    Full Text Available Fish is a perishable food product, so as to be able to maintain the required quality processing. Processing of roasting fish traditionally done by the fishermen and their families in the region Tambakrejo Village Tanjung Mas Semarang. Roasting fish done by grilled over coconut shell charcoal produces less hygienic products. In addition, the resulting smoke spread into the surrounding environment so that the impact on the health of the toaster and the surrounding community. Traditional way of production capacity of 1.5 Kg of fish once baked, so if grilling fish in large numbers takes a long time. Roasting fish with oven roasted made from galvanized plate is advantageous alternative fish processing and environmentally friendly. Oven roast made in the multilevel system (3 level where each level can accommodate fish from 2 to 2.5 kg of fish slices.

  4. Design and Construction of a Batch Oven for Investigation of Industrial Continuous

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenby, Mette; Nielsen, Brian; Risum, Jørgen


    A new batch oven has been designed and build to model baking processes as seen in large scale tunnel ovens. In order to simulate the conditions found in tunnel ovens a number of critical parameters are controllable: The temperature, the humidity and the air velocity. The band movement is simulate...... adjustments are still needed in the batch oven setup, it is clear that the batch oven, with its continuous data collection and high degree of process control will be a very valuable tool in the future work with modelling of baking process and products.......A new batch oven has been designed and build to model baking processes as seen in large scale tunnel ovens. In order to simulate the conditions found in tunnel ovens a number of critical parameters are controllable: The temperature, the humidity and the air velocity. The band movement is simulated...... aspects is a unique feature of this batch oven. Initial experiments of reproducing tunnel oven baking in the batch oven have shown good results, based on comparisons of weight loss, dry matter content and surface colour. The measured quality parameters did not differ significantly. Even though a few...

  5. Effect of alkaline elements on the reactivity, strength and structural properties of blast furnace cokes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bhattacharyya


    Full Text Available The present study concerns itself on the adverse effects of alkaline elements like sodium and potassium on blast furnace cokes. To achieve a deeper insight on the effects of alkaline elements on coke reactivity and strength, industrial coke samples impregnated with different alkaline species in various amounts have been tested under standard conditions to find out their Coke Reactivity Index (CRI and Coke Strength after Reaction (CSR values. Scanning electron microscopy, petrographic and Raman Spectrometric investigations demonstrate the change of structural properties. The mechanism of catalysis has been postulated.

  6. Process for converting coal into liquid fuel and metallurgical coke (United States)

    Wolfe, Richard A.; Im, Chang J.; Wright, Robert E.


    A method of recovering coal liquids and producing metallurgical coke utilizes low ash, low sulfur coal as a parent for a coal char formed by pyrolysis with a volatile content of less than 8%. The char is briquetted and heated in an inert gas over a prescribed heat history to yield a high strength briquette with less than 2% volatile content.

  7. Experiments to analyse some coke residues using thermogravimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopsch, H.; Rahner, S.


    Thermogravimetry gives almost the same values for coke residue as CCT DIN 51 551 with equally good reproducibility. The precision of the results can be increased, provided containers for larger samples are used. In case of small samples inhomogeneity is observed particularly with distillation residues. 6 refs.

  8. Determination of organic contaminants in soil from coking plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubica, K.; Czaplicka, M.; Kordas, T. [Institute of Chemical Processing of Coal, Zabrze (Poland)


    A method is presented which enables the assessment of the level of soil contamination by the compounds particularly noxious for the environment such as: benzol type hydrocarbons, phenols and their alkyl derivatives and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Feasibility of the analytical procedure was assessed using soil samples taken from around a coking plant.

  9. A conventional microwave oven for denture cleaning: a critical review. (United States)

    Brondani, Mario Augusto; Samim, Firoozeh; Feng, Hong


    Denture cleaning should be quick and easy to perform, especially in long-term care facilities. The lack of proper oral hygiene can put older adults at higher risk from opportunistic oral infections, particularly fungal. As an alternative to regular brushing, the use of a microwave oven has been suggested for cleaning and disinfecting dentures. To synthesise and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the use of a conventional microwave oven for cleaning and disinfecting complete dentures. A brief literature search focused on papers dealing with microwave therapy for denture cleaning through PubMed Central, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Google Scholar, Ovid MEDLINE(R) In-Process, and Scifinder Scholar. One hundred and sixty-seven manuscripts published in English with full text were found, and 28 were accepted and discussed in the light of the advantages and disadvantages of the use of conventional microwave oven for cleaning and disinfecting complete dentures. There was no standardisation for microwave use for denture cleaning. Manual cleaning still seemed to be the optimal method for controlling fungal infection and denture stomatitis. However, such a daily routine appeared to be underused, particularly in long-term care facilities. © 2010 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. 77 FR 20788 - Foundry Coke Products From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Expedited Second... (United States)


    ... International Trade Administration Foundry Coke Products From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of... coke products (``foundry coke'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') pursuant to section 751... Than Fair Value and Antidumping Duty Order: Foundry Coke Products from The People's Republic of China...

  11. Ballistic Missile Silo Door Monitoring Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This paper compares the cost and effectiveness of several potential options that may be used to monitor silo-based ballistic missiles. Silo door monitoring can be used to verify that warheads removed to deactivate or download silo-based ballistic missiles have not been replaced. A precedent for monitoring warhead replacement using reentry vehicle on site inspections (RV-OSIs) and using satellites has been established by START-I and START-II. However, other monitoring options have the potential to be less expensive and more effective. Three options are the most promising if high verification confidence is desired: random monitoring using door sensors; random monitoring using manned or unmanned aircraft; and continuous remote monitoring using unattended door sensors.

  12. Measurement of Vibrated Bulk Density of Coke Particle Blends Using Image Texture Analysis (United States)

    Azari, Kamran; Bogoya-Forero, Wilinthon; Duchesne, Carl; Tessier, Jayson


    A rapid and nondestructive machine vision sensor was developed for predicting the vibrated bulk density (VBD) of petroleum coke particles based on image texture analysis. It could be used for making corrective adjustments to a paste plant operation to reduce green anode variability (e.g., changes in binder demand). Wavelet texture analysis (WTA) and gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) algorithms were used jointly for extracting the surface textural features of coke aggregates from images. These were correlated with the VBD using partial least-squares (PLS) regression. Coke samples of several sizes and from different sources were used to test the sensor. Variations in the coke surface texture introduced by coke size and source allowed for making good predictions of the VBD of individual coke samples and mixtures of them (blends involving two sources and different sizes). Promising results were also obtained for coke blends collected from an industrial-baked carbon anode manufacturer.

  13. Coke properties in simulated blast furnace conditions:investigation on hot strength, chemical reactivity and reaction mechanism


    Haapakangas, J. (Juho)


    Abstract The blast furnace – basic oxygen furnace route remains the most utilised process route in the production of steel worldwide. Coke is the main fuel of the blast furnace process, however, coke producers and blast furnace operators are facing significant challenges due to increased demands on coke quality and decrease of prime coking coals. The estimation of coke performance in the industrial process through accurate laboratory analyses is of increasing importance. In this doctor...

  14. Huidklachten door cosmetische producten : eindrapportage CESES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salverda-Nijhof JGW; Kooi MW; de Wit-Bos L; Bourgeois FC; van Gorcum TF; Colijn JJ; van Engelen JGM; Donker GA; SIR; vgc


    Huidklachten door cosmetische producten
    Meer aandacht is nodig voor allergische reacties op (co)polymeren en isothiazolinonen in cosmetica. Isothiazolinonen worden veel als conserveringsmiddel gebruikt in cosmetica. (Co)polymeren komen er ook vaak in voor. Dit blijkt uit de eindrapportage

  15. DOOR: a database for prokaryotic operons. (United States)

    Mao, Fenglou; Dam, Phuongan; Chou, Jacky; Olman, Victor; Xu, Ying


    We present a database DOOR (Database for prOkaryotic OpeRons) containing computationally predicted operons of all the sequenced prokaryotic genomes. All the operons in DOOR are predicted using our own prediction program, which was ranked to be the best among 14 operon prediction programs by a recent independent review. Currently, the DOOR database contains operons for 675 prokaryotic genomes, and supports a number of search capabilities to facilitate easy access and utilization of the information stored in it. (1) Querying the database: the database provides a search capability for a user to find desired operons and associated information through multiple querying methods. (2) Searching for similar operons: the database provides a search capability for a user to find operons that have similar composition and structure to a query operon. (3) Prediction of cis-regulatory motifs: the database provides a capability for motif identification in the promoter regions of a user-specified group of possibly coregulated operons, using motif-finding tools. (4) Operons for RNA genes: the database includes operons for RNA genes. (5) OperonWiki: the database provides a wiki page (OperonWiki) to facilitate interactions between users and the developer of the database. We believe that DOOR provides a useful resource to many biologists working on bacteria and archaea, which can be accessed at

  16. 14 CFR 25.783 - Fuselage doors. (United States)


    ... sources of power that could initiate unlocking or unlatching of any door must be automatically isolated... portions of the flight. This determination must include the consideration of inadvertent and intentional... landing as a result of interaction with other systems or structures. ...

  17. Schade door overstroming : Ervaringen uit New Orleans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, M.; Theunissen, R.; Jonkman, S.N.; Vrijling, J.K.


    Korte samenvatting van de overstromingen door hurricane Katrina in augustus 2005 in New Orleans en omgeving. Beschrijving van de effecten op het gebied en de bewoners, kwantitatieve inschatting van de gevolgend, en wat we hieruit voor Nederland kunnen leren. Uitgave met ondersteuning van het

  18. Doors for memory: A searchable database. (United States)

    Baddeley, Alan D; Hitch, Graham J; Quinlan, Philip T; Bowes, Lindsey; Stone, Rob


    The study of human long-term memory has for over 50 years been dominated by research on words. This is partly due to lack of suitable nonverbal materials. Experience in developing a clinical test suggested that door scenes can provide an ecologically relevant and sensitive alternative to the faces and geometrical figures traditionally used to study visual memory. In pursuing this line of research, we have accumulated over 2000 door scenes providing a database that is categorized on a range of variables including building type, colour, age, condition, glazing, and a range of other physical characteristics. We describe an illustrative study of recognition memory for 100 doors tested by yes/no, two-alternative, or four-alternative forced-choice paradigms. These stimuli, together with the full categorized database, are available through a dedicated website. We suggest that door scenes provide an ecologically relevant and participant-friendly source of material for studying the comparatively neglected field of visual long-term memory.

  19. Maillard-reactie door model beheersbaar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roost, van M.


    Gewenste en ongewenste bruinkleuring van levensmiddelen door een Maillard-reactie is vaak lastig te beheersen. Wageningse onderzoekers ontwikkelden een simulatiemodel, waarmee producentenmeer inzicht krijgen in de Maillard-reactie, en zo ook de kleur van het eindproduct beter kunnen beheersen

  20. Emissiebeperking door spuittechnieken in de fruitteelt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balkhoven, M.; Wenneker, M.


    De laatste jaren is er door de LaMi-studiegroepen ‘zwartvruchtrot’ en ‘milieubewust telen van eerste klas peren’ gewerkt aan de ontwikkeling van een bestrijdingsstrategie op peer om het gebruik van het milieubelastende TMTD te beperken zonder dat dit gevolgen heeft voor het bestrijdingsresultaat en

  1. Modelling of Coke Layer Collapse during Ore Charging in Ironmaking Blast Furnace by DEM (United States)

    Narita, Yoichi; Mio, Hiroshi; Orimoto, Takashi; Nomura, Seiji


    A technical issue in an ironmaking blast furnace operation is to realize the optimum layer thickness and the radial distribution of burden (ore and coke) to enhance its efficiency and productivity. When ore particles are charged onto the already-embedded coke layer, the coke layer-collapse phenomenon occurs. The coke layer-collapse phenomenon has a significant effect on the distribution of ore and coke layer thickness in the radial direction. In this paper, the mechanical properties of coke packed bed under ore charging were investigated by the impact-loading test and the large-scale direct shear test. Experimental results show that the coke particle is broken by the impact force of ore charging, and the particle breakage leads to weaken of coke-layer strength. The expression of contact force for coke in Discrete Element Method (DEM) was modified based on the measured data, and it followed by the 1/3-scaled experiment on coke's collapse phenomena. Comparing a simulation by modified model to the 1/3-scaled experiment, they agreed well in the burden distribution.

  2. Perceptions of door-to-door HIV counselling and testing in Botswana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to-door HIV testing, including convenience, confidentiality, capacity to increase the number of people tested, and opportunities to increase knowledge of HIV transmission, prevention and care through provision of correct information to ...

  3. Development of a tornado safe room door from wood Products: door design and impact testing (United States)

    Robert H. Falk; James J. Bridwell


    In this study, a tornado safe room door built from wood products and steel sheeting was developed and impact-tested according to tornado safe room standards. Results indicate that an door constructed from as few as two sheets of 23/32-in. (18.26-mm) construction-grade plywood and overlaid with 18-gauge (0.05-in.- (1.27- mm-) thick) steel can pass the required impact...

  4. Rapid in situ hybridization using digoxigenin probe and microwave oven. (United States)

    Besançon, R; Bencsik, A; Voutsinos, B; Belin, M F; Févre-Montange, M


    In situ hybridization has been developed with probes labelled with a non-radioactive nucleotide, especially digoxigenin-coupled nucleotides. These non-radioactive probes significantly reduce safety problems and experimentation time. In this paper, we have studied by in situ hybridization the messenger RNA (mRNA) of the neuropeptide pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), in the rat pituitary gland using digoxigenin labelled oligonucleotide and a microwave oven. Our protocol permitted us to visualize POMC mRNA in all cells of the intermediate lobe and a few corticotroph cells in the anterior lobe, as it has been already demonstrated and to complete the experiment in less than 24 hrs.

  5. Surveys of Microwave Ovens in U.S. Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Alison [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yang, Hung-Chia Dominique [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Beraki, Bereket [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Desroches, Louis-Benoit [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Young, ScottJ. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ni, Chun Chun [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Willem, Henry [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Whitehead, Camilla Dunham [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Donovan, Sally M. [Consultant, Melbourne (Australia)


    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting test procedure and energy conservation standard rulemakings for microwave ovens. These units generally offer a “convection,” “bake,” or “combo” cooking mode on the user interface. DOE divides products under analysis into classes by the type of energy used, capacity, or other performance-related features that affect consumer utility and efficiency. Installation types are grouped as (1) countertop and (2) built-in and over-the-range. The following sub-sections summarize the existing data as well as the specific data LBNL obtained with surveys.

  6. Testing of the Sunstove Organization`s Sunstove Solar Oven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, T.A.


    A Sunstove Organization`s Sunstove was tested at Sandia`s Solar Thermal Test Facility. It was instrumented with five type K thermocouples to determine warm-up rates when empty and when a pot containing two liters of water was placed inside. It reached inside air temperatures above 115{degrees}C (240{degrees}F). It heated two liters of water from room temperature to 80{degrees}C (175{degrees}F) in about two hours. Observations were made on the cooling and reheating rates during a cloud passage. The adverse effects of wind on the operation of the solar oven were also noted.

  7. Finite element modelling and simulation of free convection heat transfer in solar oven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobamowo, M.G.; Ogunmola, B.Y.; Ayerin A.M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Lagos, Akoka, Lagos (Nigeria)


    The use of solar energy for baking, heating or drying represents a sustainable way of solar energy applications with negligible negative effects. Solar oven is an alternative to conventional oven that rely heavily on coal and wood or Electric oven that uses the power from the National grid of which the end users have little or no control. Since the Solar oven uses no fuel and it costs nothing to run, it uses are widely promoted especially in situations where minimum fuel consumption or fire risks are considered highly important. As useful as the Solar Oven proved, it major setback in the area of applications has been its future sustainability. For the use of Solar Oven/Cookers to be sustained in the future, the design and development of solar oven must rely on sound analytical tools. Therefore, this work focused on the design and development of the solar oven. To test the performance of the Small Solar Oven a 5000cm3 beaker of water was put into the Oven and the temperature of the water was found to reach 810C after about 3hrs under an average ambient temperature of 300C. On no load test, the oven reached a maximum temperature of 112oC in 6hrs. In order to carry out the parametric studies and improve the performance of the Solar Oven, Mathematical models were developed and solved by using Characteristics-Based Split (CBS) Finite Element Method. The Model results were compared with the Experimental results and a good agreement was found between the two results.

  8. Coking of JP-4 fuels in electrically heated metal tubes (United States)

    Smith, Arthur L; Cook, William P; Hlavin, Vincent F


    A limited exploratory investigation of the rate of coking of four JP-4 fuels in electrically heated metal tubes was conducted in order to provide design information for fuel prevaporizers for turbojet-engine combustors. The fuels tested included two production and two minimum-quality JP-4 type fuels. The heating tube was operated at fuel pressures of approximately 500, 400, and 50 pounds per square inch. The operating fuel temperature was varied between approximately 600 degrees and 1200 degrees F.

  9. Wet oxidation of real coke wastewater containing high thiocyanate concentration. (United States)

    Oulego, Paula; Collado, Sergio; Garrido, Laura; Laca, Adriana; Rendueles, Manuel; Díaz, Mario


    Coke wastewaters, in particular those with high thiocyanate concentrations, represent an important environmental problem because of their very low biodegradability. In this work, the treatment by wet oxidation of real coke wastewaters containing concentrations of thiocyanate above 17 mM has been studied in a 1-L semi-batch reactor at temperatures between 453 and 493 K, with total oxygen pressures in the range of 2.0-8.0 MPa. A positive effect of the matrix of real coke wastewater was observed, resulting in faster thiocyanate degradation than was obtained with synthetic wastewaters. Besides, the effect of oxygen concentration and temperature on thiocyanate wet oxidation was more noticeable in real effluents than in synthetic wastewaters containing only thiocyanate. It was also observed that the degree of mineralization of the matrix organic compounds was higher when the initial thiocyanate concentration increased. Taking into account the experimental data, kinetic models were obtained, and a mechanism implying free radicals was proposed for thiocyanate oxidation in the matrix considered. In all cases, sulphate, carbonates and ammonium were identified as the main reaction products of thiocyanate wet oxidation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Identification of causes of oil sands coke leachate toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puttaswamy, N.; Liber, K. [Saskatchewan Univ., Regina, SK (Canada)


    The potential causes of oil sands coke leachate toxicity were investigated. Chronic 7-day toxicity tests were conducted to demonstrate that oil sands coke leachates (CL) are acutely toxic to Ceriodaphnia dubia (C. dubia). CLs were generated in a laboratory to perform toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) tests in order to investigate the causes of the CL toxicity. The coke was subjected to a 15-day batch leaching process at 5.5 and 9.5 pH values. The leachates were then filtered and used for chemical and toxicological characterization. The 7-day estimates for the C. dubia survival were 6.3 for a pH of 5.5 and 28.7 per cent for the 9.5 CLs. The addition of EDTA significantly improved survival and reproduction in a pH of 5.5 CL, but not in a pH of 9.5 CL. The toxicity of the pH 5.5 CL was removed with a cationic resin treatment. The toxicity of the 9.5 pH LC was removed using an anion resin treatment. Toxicity re-appeared when nickel (Ni) and vanadium (V) were added back to the resin-treated CLs. Results of the study suggested that Ni and V were acting as primary toxicants in the pH 5.5 CL, while V was the primary cause of toxicity in the pH 9.5 CL.

  11. Optimizing blast conditions in the chamber of a dry quenching installation for coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ereskovskii, O.S.; Grishchenko, A.I.; Kukhar' , N.P.; Savka, M.D.; Kvasov, A.V.


    Method is presented for calculating optimum heat conditions in a dry quenching chamber. Equations are constructed for calculating the thermal efficiency of a dry quenching installation and an algorithm is developed for solving optimization problems. Cooling-gas consumption is a controlling factor which influences thermal efficiency and coke loss in the quenching chamber. A function, which includes cost of steam generated in cooling a ton of coke and the coke loss from oxidation, is presented for calculating optimum conditions. At the Avdeevskii coking plant the relationship between coke consumption and pressure drop along the vertical plane of a quenching chamber was established experimentally. The authors recommend placing monitoring devices in dry quenching chamber to regulate the oxygen content of the cooling gas, i.e. to reduce coke loss and pollution of the environment. 5 references.

  12. Investigating the operating temperature of chambers for the dry quenching of coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grishchenko, A.I.; Ereskovskii, O.S.; Kukhar' , N.P.


    Temperature field in the quenching chamber is calculated for various cooling conditions. Curves describing the coke temperature distribution and distribution of the gas cooling agent temperature on the vertical axis of the chamber are drawn. Graphs are presented showing the relationship between the temperature of the finished coke after quenching and quenching time for various rates of the cooling gas. By using the curves the required gas consumption for even cooling and the required temperature of the coke and gas at the end of the quenching process can be determined for a given coke yield. By using this method the temperature field can be evaluated along the vertical axis when the quantity of gas fed into the chamber, coke output, initial and final temperature of the coke, and temperature of the gas at the input are known. 4 references.

  13. Microwave oven injuries in patients with complex partial seizures. (United States)

    DeToledo, John C; Lowe, Merredith R


    Microwave ovens are often recommended as a safe cooking alternative for persons with epilepsy. We report four patients who suffered serious burns to their hands while handling microwave-heated liquids during a complex partial seizure (CPS). Injuries were due to the contact of the skin with a very hot container. The fact that all patients held on to the hot containers despite being burned and that they did not remember experiencing any pain at the time of the accident indicates that neither high temperatures nor pain will prevent patients who are having a CPS from suffering this type of injury. Unfortunately, there is no foolproof way to prevent the individual from opening the oven and removing its contents during a CPS. The only solution for this problem is "prevention"-individuals with poorly controlled CPS should be cautioned about these risks. The use of microwave settings that permit the heating but not boiling of liquids and the use of gloves while heating food and liquids to scalding temperatures may minimize the risk of this type of injury.

  14. Nuclear Storage Overpack Door Actuator and Alignment Apparatus (United States)

    Andreyko, Gregory M.


    The invention is a door actuator and alignment apparatus for opening and closing the 15,000-pound horizontally sliding door of a storage overpack. The door actuator includes a ball screw mounted horizontally on a rigid frame including a pair of door panel support rails. An electrically powered ball nut moves along the ball screw. The ball nut rotating device is attached to a carriage. The carriage attachment to the sliding door is horizontally pivoting. Additional alignment features include precision cam followers attached to the rails and rail guides attached to the carriage.

  15. Failure case of a garage door opener


    Habib, K.; Al-Hazzaa, A.


    A failure analysis of a garage door opener was conducted for determination of the cause of the failure. The analysis included visual inspections of broken parts as well as electron microscopy examinations of the fracture surface. The visual inspections showed that a bolt connected to the inner trolley of the garage opener assembly was initially fractured. Also, the results of electron microscopy examinations revealed that the broken bolt failed by fatigue damage phenomenon, due to alternating...

  16. Assessment of metal releases and leachate toxicity of oil sands coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puttaswamy, N.; Liber, K. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Toxicology Centre


    Large volumes of coke are produced as a by-product of thermal upgrading of oil sands bitumen in Alberta. This paper examined the feasibility of integrating this stored by-product at wetland reclamation sites. Coke leachate water toxicity was evaluated in this study since coke is known to releases trace amounts of metals when it comes in contact with water. The objective was to determine the cause of toxicity by performing toxicity identification evaluations (TIEs) on the leachate. The leachability of metals from coke was examined over a 45 day period in 2-L glass jars using reconstituted water with a hardness of 300 mg/L as calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) at pH levels 5.5 and 9.5. Coke porewater samples and overlying water samples collected periodically were analyzed for trace metals using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The toxicity of coke leachate was evaluated at the end of the 45 day period using a Ceriodaphnia dubia standard three-brood chronic test with survival and reproduction as endpoints. Coke leachate water from both pH treatments had a negative effect on survival and reproduction of C. dubia. The coke leachate had high concentrations of vanadium, according to metal analysis of leachate water from both pH treatments. In order to identify the cause of toxicity, the coke leachate water will be subjected to several TIE processes.

  17. Ecotoxicological assessment of using oil sands coke in aquatic reclamation strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Squires, A.J.; Liber, K. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Toxicology Centre


    Syncrude Canada Ltd. and Suncor Energy Inc. are two of the companies presently mining the Athabasca oil sands. Each company produces more than 2,000 tons of coke waste product daily as part of the oil upgrading process. Since coke has a high organic carbon content, it has been proposed as an amendment agent in wetland reclamation strategies. However, coke also contains metals and organic compounds which can leach out once submerged in water. The coke from both companies has been used in several leaching/weathering experiments to determine their potential to leach out contaminants while exposed to freeze thaw cycles, high and low dissolved oxygen content, and pH levels of 5, 7.5 and 10. Samples of the coke and interstitial waters were taken for chemical analysis throughout each experiment. This was followed by exposing Chironomus tentans larvae to both coke types along with leachates to differentiate between effects of solid coke and leachate. None of the leachates showed an important impact on the survival or growth of the larvae. However, some effects were noted following exposure to weathered coke. The experiments will be instrumental in determining if either coke may adversely affect aquatic organisms if used as an uncovered capping option during an aquatic reclamation program in the Athabasca oil sands area.

  18. Re-examining the pitch/coke wetting and penetration test (United States)

    Cao, Jinan; Buckley, Alan N.; Tomsett, Alan


    To produce structurally soundcarbon anodes for use in aluminum smelting, a strong bond between filler and binder coke is necessary. Bond strength results from mechanical interlocking and adhesion of the binder coke to the filler coke. Critical for creating such bonds is the ability of the pitch to wet the coke surface and penetrate the coke porosity during mixing and forming. Wettability is normally assessed from the pitch behavior during the initial stages of a penetration test. In the test, the observed contact angle between a pitch droplet and a bed of fine coke particles is recorded as the temperature is increased. The temperature at which this contact angle becomes 90° is referred to as the wetting temperature of the pitch. The penetration test may be useful to identify pitch and coke combinations that are unlikely to produce baked anodes of acceptable quality with standard paste preparation conditions. It does not, however, provide a measure of the true wettability of a coke by a pitch. The isothermal penetration experiments reported here demonstrate that the observed contact angle of a pitch against a coke bed changes continuously from >90° to <90°, even to 0‡, at a temperature much lower than the wetting temperature derived from the penetration test. The requirements for the measurement of a true contact angle and the difference between the concepts of adhesion and wetting are discussed.

  19. Modelling of Coke Layer Collapse during Ore Charging in Ironmaking Blast Furnace by DEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narita Yoichi


    Full Text Available A technical issue in an ironmaking blast furnace operation is to realize the optimum layer thickness and the radial distribution of burden (ore and coke to enhance its efficiency and productivity. When ore particles are charged onto the already-embedded coke layer, the coke layer-collapse phenomenon occurs. The coke layer-collapse phenomenon has a significant effect on the distribution of ore and coke layer thickness in the radial direction. In this paper, the mechanical properties of coke packed bed under ore charging were investigated by the impact-loading test and the large-scale direct shear test. Experimental results show that the coke particle is broken by the impact force of ore charging, and the particle breakage leads to weaken of coke-layer strength. The expression of contact force for coke in Discrete Element Method (DEM was modified based on the measured data, and it followed by the 1/3-scaled experiment on coke’s collapse phenomena. Comparing a simulation by modified model to the 1/3-scaled experiment, they agreed well in the burden distribution.

  20. Effect of microwave irradiation on reactivity of metallurgical coke in CO2 atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Tian


    Full Text Available Influence of microwave irradiation on gasification behavior and crystallite parameters of coke samples was studied in this research. The results indicated that microwave irradiation have significant influence on the carbon structure and the reactivity of coke in CO2 atmosphere. The thermogravimetric results showed that the temperature of coke at different conversion rates of 10 %, 20 % and 30 % were reduced by 20 °C, 30 °C and 50 °C respectively. Simultaneously, microwave irradiation may lead to variation in lateral size and stacking height of crystallite and subsequently reduce the gasification reaction rate of coke in CO2 atmosphere.

  1. The influence of mineral material upon the coking characteristics of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rado, T.; Mianowski, A. [Silesian Technical University, Gliwice (Poland). Dept. of Chemical Technology of Coal and Petroleum


    The aim of the work presented is to evaluate the effect that the mineral matter has upon the coking characteristics of coal. Modelling coal pyrolysis using conventional kinetic methods demonstrates that at temperatures below 1073 K the conversion of coal into coke can be treated as two competitive processes which take place in two apparent areas of the kinetic and diffusion range. The relative arrangement of these areas reflects the coking ability of individual coals. It has been shown that the effect of the ash content upon the coking characteristics of the coals investigated can be evaluated using this kinetic-diffusion model. 4 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Biological monitoring the exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons of coke oven workers in relation to smoking and genetic polymorphisms for GSTM1 GSTT1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delft, J.H.M. van; Steenwinkel, M.-J.S.T.; Asten, J.G. van; Vogel, N. de; Bruijntjes-Rozier, T.C.D.M.; Schouten, T.; Cramers, P.; Maas, L.; Herwijnen, M.H. van; Schooten, F.-J. van; Hopmans, P.M.J.


    Occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) increases the risk of developing lung cancer. Human exposure is often demonstrated by increased internal levels of PAH metabolites and of markers for early biological effects, like DNA adducts and cytogenetic aberrations. Objective:

  3. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene as a comprehensive carcinogenic biomarker of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: a cross-sectional study of coke oven workers in China. (United States)

    Yamano, Yuko; Hara, Kunio; Ichiba, Masayoshi; Hanaoka, Tomoyuki; Pan, Guowei; Nakadate, Toshio


    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are multiple compounds that include many carcinogens. We conducted a cross-sectional study in steel plant workers in Anshan, China, to identify biomarkers that reflect the carcinogenicity of PAHs. Subjects were 57 workers and 20 controls. Level of personal exposure to PAHs was measured using GC-MS. In accordance with the assessment methods defined by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), 15 PAHs were selected for the analysis. For the measurement of urinary metabolites, urine samples were treated with β-glucuronidase and analyzed using HPLC with a fluorescence detector. The mean range of personal exposure to 15 PAHs (total PAHs) was 178.85, 47.08-1,329.45 (geometric mean, 5th and 95th percentile) μg/m(3). Ten known urinary metabolites (1-hydroxynaphthalene, 2-hydroxynaphthalene, 2-hydroxyfluorene, 1-hydroxyphenanthrene, 3-hydroxyphenanthrene, 9-hydroxyphenanthrene, 1-hydroxypyrene, 3-hydroxybenz[a]anthracene, 6-hydroxychrysene, and 3-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene) and four unknown peaks were detected. The highest correlation was between total PAHs and urinary 2-hydroxynaphthalene (Spearman r = 0.716, P carcinogenic potency of PAHs" (sum of seven carcinogenic PAHs calculated from the levels of personal PAHs and relative potency factors), and with the greatest correlation found for 1-hydroxypyrene (Spearman r = 0.630, P carcinogenic potency, indicated that urinary 1-hydroxypyrene was the most comprehensive carcinogenic biomarker of exposure to PAHs.

  4. 76 FR 72332 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedure for Microwave Ovens (United States)


    ... the November 2007 ANOPR) concerning energy conservation standards for commercial clothes washers and... conservation standards rulemaking. AHAM commented that it opposes the inclusion of thermal elements designed... including microwave ovens with thermal elements in the definition of microwave ovens, that same unworkable...

  5. Heat transfer and heating rate of food stuffs in commercial shop ovens

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The CFD analysis of flow and temperature distribution in heating ovens used in bakery shop, to keep the foodstuffs warm, is attempted using finite element technique. The oven is modelled as a two-dimensional steady state natural convection heat transfer problem. Effects of heater location and total heat input on ...

  6. 76 FR 12825 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedure for Microwave Ovens (United States)


    .... Department of Energy, Building Technologies Program, 6th Floor, 950 L'Enfant Plaza, SW., Washington, DC 20024... with or without thermal elements designed for surface browning of food and combination ovens. DOE..., including microwave ovens with or without thermal elements designed for surface browning of food. DOE stated...

  7. Coke Formation During Hydrocarbons Pyrolysis. Part One: Steam Cracking Formation de coke pendant la pyrolise des hydrocarbures. Première partie : vapocraquage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weill J.


    Full Text Available Thermal cracking is always accompanied by coke formation, which becomes deposited on the wall and limits heat transfers in the reactor while increasing pressure drops and possibly even plugging up the reactor. This review article covers undesirable coking operations in steam craking reactors. These coking reactions may take place in the gas phase and/or on the surface of the reactor, with coke being produced during pyrolysis by a complex mechanism that breaks down into a catalytic sequence and a noncatalytic sequence. After a brief description of different experimental set-ups used to measure the coke deposition, on the basis of research described in the literature, the different factors and their importance for coke formation are listed. In particular, we describe the effects of surface properties of stainless-steel and quartz reactors as well as the influence of the cracked feedstock, of temperature, of dilution, of residence time and of the conversion on coke deposition. Some findings about the morphology of coke are described and linked to formation mechanisms. To illustrate this review, some particularly interesting research is referred to concerning models developed to assess coke formation during propane steam cracking. Le craquage thermique est toujours accompagné de la formation de coke qui, en se déposant à la paroi, limite les transferts de chaleur au réacteur, augmente les pertes de charges et même peut boucher celui-ci. Cet article fait le point sur les réactions indésirables de cokage dans les réacteurs de vapocraquage. Ces réactions de cokage peuvent avoir lieu en phase gazeuse et/ou sur la surface du réacteur, le coke étant produit pendant la pyrolyse par un mécanisme complexe qui se décompose en une séquence catalytique et une séquence non catalytique. Après une brève présentation des différents montages expérimentaux utilisés pour mesurer le dépôt de coke, il est mentionné, à partir de travaux de la

  8. Fuzzy Logic Applied to an Oven Temperature Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagabhushana KATTE


    Full Text Available The paper describes the methodology of design and development of fuzzy logic based oven temperature control system. As simple fuzzy logic controller (FLC structure with an efficient realization and a small rule base that can be easily implemented in existing underwater control systems is proposed. The FLC has been designed using bell-shaped membership function for fuzzification, 49 control rules in its rule base and centre of gravity technique for defuzzification. Analog interface card with 16-bits resolution is designed to achieve higher precision in temperature measurement and control. The experimental results of PID and FLC implemented system are drawn for a step input and presented in a comparative fashion. FLC exhibits fast response and it has got sharp rise time and smooth control over conventional PID controller. The paper scrupulously discusses the hardware and software (developed using ‘C’ language features of the system.

  9. Microwave oven: how to use it as a crystalloid fluid warmer. (United States)

    Chittawatanarat, Kaweesak; Akanitthaphichat, Siriwasan


    Hypothermia is a common complication in the hypovolemic patient. Warm intravenous fluids have proven valuable at preventing this complication during volume replacement. The microwave oven is considered an applicable alternative method for warming fluids but no protocol has been established. To evaluate the efficacy and affected variables of the microwave oven in warming crystalloid fluids and to determine the appropriate formula for calculating the warming duration. The important variables influencing the operation of the microwave oven include the difference between the crystalloid fluid and room temperature, the microwave oven's capability, variations in microwave irradiation, and fluid shaking. The appropriate formula for calculating warming duration is: Duration (sec) = Volume (cc) x 4.2j.g(-1).K(-1) x Raised temperature DeltaT (K) x 1.1 (Adjusted power) / Mivcwrowave power (W). The microwave oven is a safe and practical method for warming crystalloid fluids.

  10. Effect of Oven Types on the Characteristics of Biscuits Made from Refrigerated and Frozen Doughs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Sait Dogan


    Full Text Available Characteristics of sugar snap and chocolate chip cookies, and hazelnut biscuits made from refrigerated and frozen dough were studied. Doughs were stored at 4 °C for 6 weeks and at –18 °C for 6 months, respectively. Physical characteristics of the biscuit samples such as spread, baking loss, surface colour and density were determined. Dough colour was not affected by storage time and temperatures. Biscuit characteristics did not change significantly during storage. Spread ratio was significantly lower for the biscuits baked in the gas oven than for the biscuits baked in the electric oven. Biscuit dough can be refrigerated for 6 weeks, and frozen for 6 months. Results also suggest that unique quality differences exist between the two ovens. For sugar snap cookies and hazelnut biscuits the electric oven without air circulation was better, while for chocolate chip cookies gas oven with air circulation was more suitable.

  11. Effects of Two-stage Heat Treatment on Delayed Coke and Study of Their Surface Texture Characteristics (United States)

    Im, Ui-Su; Kim, Jiyoung; Lee, Seon Ho; Lee, Byung-Rok; Peck, Dong-Hyun; Jung, Doo-Hwan


    In the present study, surface texture features and chemical properties of two types of cokes, made from coal tar by either 1-stage heat treatment or 2-stage heat treatment, were researched. The relationship between surface texture characteristics and the chemical properties was identified through molecular weight distribution, insolubility of coal tar, weight loss with temperature increase, coking yield, and polarized light microscope analysis. Rapidly cleared anisotropy texture in cokes was observed in accordance with the coking temperature rise. Quinoline insolubility and toluene insolubility of coal tar increased with a corresponding increases in coking temperature. In particular, the cokes produced by the 2-stage heat treatment (2S-C) showed surface structure of needle cokes at a temperature approximately 50°C lower than the 1-stage heat treatment (1S-C). Additionally, the coking yield of 2S-C increased by approximately 14% in comparison with 1S-C.

  12. Strength in metallurgical coke. Correlations of Micro-Strength indices, industrial Drum Test indices and ultrasonic velocity measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragan, S.; Grint, A.; Marsh, H.


    No close correlation between drum and Micro-strength indices of strength of metallurgical coke was found. Neither was a close correlation found between ultrasonic velocities of coke of drum indices. (5 refs.)

  13. Biomass fuels and coke plants are important sources of human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, benzene and toluene. (United States)

    Fan, Ruifang; Li, Junnan; Chen, Laiguo; Xu, Zhencheng; He, Dechun; Zhou, Yuanxiu; Zhu, Yuanyuan; Wei, Fusheng; Li, Jihua


    Large amounts of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), benzene and toluene (BT) might be emitted from incomplete combustion reactions in both coal tar factories and biomass fuels in rural China. The health effects arising from exposure to PAHs and BT are a concern for residents of rural areas close to coal tar plants. To assess the environmental risk and major exposure sources, 100 coke plant workers and 25 farmers in Qujing, China were recruited. The levels of 10 mono-hydroxylated PAHs (OH-PAHs), four BT metabolites and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in the urine collected from the subjects were measured. The 8-OHdG levels in the urine were determined to evaluate the oxidative DNA damage induced by the PAHs and BT. The results showed that the levels of the OH-PAHs, particularly those of 1-hydroxynathalene and 1-hydroxypyrene, in the farmers were 1-7 times higher than those in the workers. The concentrations of the BT metabolites were comparable between the workers and farmers. Although the exact work location within a coke oven plant might affect the levels of the OH-PAHs, one-way ANOVA revealed no significant differences for either the OH-PAHs levels or the BT concentrations among the three groups working at different work sites. The geometric mean concentration (9.17 µg/g creatinine) of 8-OHdG was significantly higher in the farmers than in the plant workers (6.27 µg/g creatinine). The levels of 8-OHdG did not correlate with the total concentrations of OH-PAHs and the total levels of BT metabolites. Incompletely combusted biomass fuels might be the major exposure source, contributing more PAHs and BT to the local residents of Qujing. The estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of naphthalene and fluorene for all of the workers and most of the farmers were below the reference doses (RfDs) recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), except for the pyrene levels in two farmers. However, the EDIs of benzene in the workers and local

  14. Thermoplastic behaviour and structural evolution of coke and char particles in a single particle reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vladimir Strezov; Jianglong Yu; Guisu Liu; John A. Lucas [University of Newcastle, Mayfield, NSW (Australia). Newbolds Applied Research


    Although coking and thermal coals have quite disparate properties and applications, both coal types undergo devolatilisation in their respective utilisation processes. The resultant carbonised materials, coke and char, show significant variations in the resulting physical structure. In both cases, particles ranging from highly porous cenospheres to very dense particles are produced. Previous studies have concluded that the physical structure affects highly significant process variables such as burnout efficiency of char, ash formation during combustion and the strength of lump coke in the blast furnace. It is therefore necessary to understand the evolution of physical structure during carbonisation of coals. In the present work a direct observation of particle swelling behaviour and bubbling phenomena during pyrolysis of coking and thermal coal particles was conducted using a single particle reactor. Coking and thermal coals were thermally treated under conditions pertinent to their thermoplastic development, e.g. coking coals were subjected to low heating rates while the thermal coals under high heating rates. Bubble growth and ruptures during the plastic stage were captured using a CCD video camera equipped with a long distance microscopic lens. There were similarities in bubble formation between both thermal and coking coals such as multi-bubble and single bubble development and rupture and consequent particle shrinkage. Comparative and quantitative analysis of the thermoplastic behaviour of the coking and thermal coals are here outlined in detail. 13 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Nature of nitrogen specie in coke and their role in NOx formation during FCC catalyst regeneration.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babych, Igor V.; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Lefferts, Leonardus


    NOx emission during the regeneration of coked fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalysts is an environmental problem. In order to follow the route to NOx formation and try to find ways to suppress it, a coked industrial FCC catalyst has been prepared using model N-containing compounds, e.g., pyridine,

  16. Opening the doors: building brand awareness. (United States)

    John, Judith; McCartney, Rob


    In search of a credible and cost-effective way to promote Mount Sinai Hospital (Mount Sinai) and educate a broad public, Mount Sinai opened its doors wide to The Globe and Mail (The Globe). The result was a three-part national feature series that told Mount Sinai's compelling story, provided third-party credibility and confirmed the value of proactive media relations. The series engaged our staff, energized our volunteers and reached both stakeholders and the general public on an emotional level. It also generated the more than dollars 6 million worth of equivalent advertising space it would have required for Mount Sinai to reach this national audience.

  17. Design Report for ACP Hot Cell Rear Door

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ku, J. H.; Kwon, K. C.; Choung, W. M.; Cho, I. J.; Kook, D. H.; Lee, W. K.; You, G. S.; Lee, E. P.; Park, S. W


    A hot-cell facility was constructed at the IMEF building for the demonstrate ACP process. ACP hot-cell consists of process cell and maintenance cell, and each cell has rear door. Since this facility was constructed at basement floor, all process materials, equipment and radioactive materials are take in and out through the rear door. Also, this door can be an access route of workers for the maintenance works. Therefore ACP hot-cell rear doors must maintain the radiation shielding, sealing, mechanical and structural safety. This report presents design criteria, design contents of each part and driving part. It was confirmed that the rear doors sufficiently maintain the safety through the structural analysis and shielding analysis. Also, it was confirmed that the rear doors were constructed as designed by the gamma scanning test after the installation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golubev Stanislav Sergeevich


    Full Text Available Results of thermal tests of balcony doors are presented in the article. In the course of the research project, two types of doors were tested. The first type represents a PVC frame door (width 82 mm; it has a triple glazing (4K-16Ar-4-16Ar-K4; its blank part represents a polystyrene sandwich panel (width 40 mm. The second type represents a PVC frame door (width 82 mm, that has a triple glazing (4K-16Ar-4-16Ar-K4 and composite PVC panels. The testing procedure and processing results are described in the article. The test has demonstrated that the thermal resistance value of the balcony door of the first type exceeds the thermal resistance value of the balcony door of the second type.

  19. Delayed coking studies on Athabasca bitumen and Cold Lake heavy oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Govindhakannan, J.; Khulbe, C. [National Centre for Upgrading Technology, Devon, AB (Canada); Natural Resources Canada, Devon, AB (Canada). CanmetENERGY


    This poster highlighted the results of a study that quantified the delayed coking product yields of Athabasca bitumen and Cold Lake heavy oil. It also investigated the effect of operating pressure and feed rates on product yield and quality. The effect of pressure on conversion of sulphur and nitrogen was also examined. Experimental results revealed that the yield of liquid products decreases and the yields of coke and gases increase as the operating pressure increases. Sulphur and nitrogen conversions increase with increasing pressure. In this study, the yield and quality of delayed coking products were not influenced by the variation in feed rates. It was concluded that feed rate changes do not significantly affect the yield and quality of delayed coking products because the residual liquid and coke trapped in the coker drum reside there for a duration that approaches infinity, compared to much smaller average residence time for vapor-phase compounds. tabs., figs.

  20. Microwave-assisted grinding of metallurgical coke; Molienda asistida con microondas de un coque metalurgico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruisanchez, E.; Juarez-Perez, E. J.; Arenillas, A.; Bermudez, J. M.; Menendez, J. A.


    Metallurgical cokes are composed of graphitic carbon (s2p2) and different inorganic compounds with very different capacities to absorb microwave radiation. Moreover, due to the electric conductivity shown by the metallurgical cokes, microwave radiation produces electric arcs or microplasmas, which gives rise to hot spots. Therefore, when these cokes are irradiated with microwaves some parts of the particle experiment a rapid heating, while some others do not heat at all. As a result of the different expansion and stress caused by thermal the shock, small cracks and micro-fissures are produced in the particle. The weakening of the coke particles, and therefore an improvement of its grind ability, is produced. This paper studies the microwave-assisted grinding of metallurgical coke and evaluates the grinding improvement and energy saving. (Author)

  1. Telefoongebruik door fietsers en voetgangers. [Voorheen: Gebruik van media-apparatuur door fietsers en voetgangers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    Telefoongebruik als bellen, berichten schrijven, internetten of muziek luisteren1 door fietsers en voetgangers brengt een verhoogd risico met zich mee. Het bedienen van een touchscreen tijdens het fietsen is daarvan het gevaarlijkst. Op dit moment is er geen verbod op het handheld gebruik van de

  2. Patterns of post-cabinet careers: When one door closes another door opens?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dörrenbächer, N.


    This article tackles the question to what extent former cabinet members go through the so-called revolving door by starting a second career in the private sector, and what factors make them likely to do so. After a cabinet position, career advancement in the political and public sector is difficult.

  3. WhatsApp in Brazil: mobilising voters through door-to-door and personal messages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Moura


    Full Text Available Multiple randomised field experiments confirm that door-to-door canvassing and live telephone calls are effective methods of moving voters to the polls, but they require significant investments of time and resources and are difficult to bring to scale. In contrast, methods such as email, text messaging, or messages posted on social media networks are less resource-intensive and are easily expanded to large numbers of target voters. In this paper, we test the effectiveness of short candidate videos sent to eligible voters using the popular smartphone application WhatsApp. Using a set of randomised field experiments conducted during the 2014 elections in Brazil, we make two contributions to the literature. First, we find that short videos delivered via WhatsApp are a powerful method of increasing turnout among teen voters, confirming our hypothesis about how today’s teens think about the networked publics in which they participate. Second, we add Brazil to the list of countries in which the traditional method of door-to-door canvassing has been proven a powerful method of mobilising voters.

  4. Improvement in methods of discharging coke from dry quenching installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ereskovskii, O.S.; Grishchenko, A.I.; Savka, M.D.; Kukhar' , N.P.; Stovolosov, S.M.; Kvasov, A.V.; Bugai, L.Z.; Kolyanov, A.S.


    Ways are described of improving batch discharging of coke from dry quenching chambers, used extensively in Soviet coking plants, without causing extensive emission of toxic gases and dust. Dry quenching chambers are under constant pressure due to the drying gas pumped into them and require air-tight gate valves to prevent the escape of dust and cooling gas into the atmosphere. In these circumstances it is difficult to keep gate valves air-tight and so flat sectional cut-off devices were introduced into the discharge outlet. The tests which were carried out show that by changing the order of opening and closing gate valves and cut-off devices it is possible to reduce the amount of dust and drying gases escaping through the discharge outlet. The sequence of opening and closing the valves can be controlled by a simple switching circuit. The paper gives a detailed description of the system and discusses method of operation. Results are given of the analysis carried out before and after modification which show that emission of both dust and gas can be reduced by more than half.

  5. Treatment of coking wastewater by using manganese and magnesium ores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Tianhu; Huang Xiaoming; Pan Min [School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei City 230009 (China); Jin Song, E-mail: [MWH Americas, 3665 JFK Parkway, Suite 206, Fort Collins, CO 80525 (United States); Department Civil and Architectural Engineering, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Peng Suchuan [School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei City 230009 (China); Fallgren, Paul H. [Western Research Institute, 365 North 9th Street, Laramie, WY 82072 (United States)


    This study investigated a wastewater treatment technique based on natural minerals. A two-step process using manganese (Mn) and magnesium (Mg) containing ores were tested to remove typical contaminants from coking wastewater. Under acidic conditions, a reactor packed with Mn ore demonstrated strong oxidizing capability and destroyed volatile phenols, chemical oxygen demand (COD){sub ,} and sulfide from the coking wastewater. The effluent was further treated by using Mg ore to remove ammonium-nitrogen and phosphate in the form of magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite) precipitates. When pH of the wastewater was adjusted to 1.2, the removal efficiencies for COD, volatile phenol and sulfide reached 70%, 99% and 100%, respectively. During the second step of precipitation, up to 94% of ammonium was removed from the aqueous phase, and precipitated in the form of struvite with phosphorus. The struvite crystals showed a needle-like structure. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the crystallized products.

  6. Building a Low Cost Solar Oven: An Opportunity to Teach Thermodynamics (United States)

    Nogueira, Ana


    We suggested building a solar oven using cardboard boxes, glass wool and metal plate as part of a school project permeated by the discussion of physical concepts. The main topics addressed are from the heat and thermodynamics areas, and for these themes we followed the standard books used in high school. We can work in a practical manner with the thermometer, along with the concept of temperature, measuring the temperature of the oven when cooking. To discuss how the oven works, we introduce the concept of heat as an energy flow of a body with a higher temperature to one with lower temperature. Threads as heat capacity and specific heat of a substance are introduced, also discussing the use of glass wool, which function is to prevent heat exchange from the oven's interior with the environment. It is possible to demonstrate the three forms of heat transfer using the solar oven, and how the greenhouse effect is harnessed. One can discuss topics such as electromagnetic radiation, black-body radiation and the Stefan-Boltzmann law. We surveyed the response curve of our oven and an estimate of its total solar energy absorption efficiency. The development of this project allows a good understanding of the operation principles of a solar oven. UNIMONTES.

  7. Ombuds’ corner: Open door and confidentiality

    CERN Multimedia

    Vincent Vuillemin


    For the Open Days, CERN will be transparent for all visitors. It's also the occasion to remember that the Ombuds' door is fully open every day of the year for all persons working for or on behalf of CERN.   The door is open, but as soon as it's closed for a discussion, the office becomes a place where total confidentiality is preserved. This may appear as a contradiction, no? The Ombuds is available to help everyone in all circumstances, but his clause of confidentiality prevents him from acting without the consent of his “visitors”. How can he possibly resolve the in-house conflicts in groups, or units, if all the parties do not voluntarily participate in its resolution? The answer is clear: the job of the Ombuds is to help the parties resolve their conflict by themselves. He will provide a few rules of communication, a process of mutual respect, suggest some possibilities that the parties may want to follow, and mediate the dispute so that people...

  8. Golden Jubilee Photos: Doors wide open

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01 The reception area and visits desk (formerly PIO - Public Information Office) in 1972. Régine Chareyron (on the right), who has worked for the Visits Service for 35 years, is pictured here with Chantal Montuel and Cora Roth. CERN inaugurated its permanent visitor centre "Microcosm" in 1989. This brand new outreach facility added a crowning touch to CERN's tradition of openness in conducting its research activities. In keeping with Article II of the Convention, which stipulates that "the results of its (...) work shall be published or otherwise made available," CERN was already organising visits for the general public in the late 1950s, with members of the personnel doubling up as voluntary tour guides. By 1959, the Laboratory was opening its doors to almost 2 500 visitors a year. Ten years down the line, that number had risen to 12 700, and today CERN welcomes some 30 000 visitors through its doors every year. In addition, the Visits Service has developed teaching packs for sc...

  9. Oro-facial thermal injury caused by food heated in a microwave oven. (United States)

    Wakefield, Yasha; Pemberton, Michael N


    Burns to the oral mucosa usually result from the accidental ingestion of hot food or beverages. The burns are usually of short duration and little consequence. The widespread use of microwave ovens, however, has added a new dimension to the problem. Microwave ovens heat food much quicker than a conventional oven, but they produce uneven heating within the food and extremely high temperatures can be reached. We describe two cases of patients who suffered inadvertent injury to the oral mucosa from the ingestion of microwave-heated food.

  10. Characterization of sponge cake baking in an instrumented pilot oven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Sommier


    Full Text Available The quality of baked products is the complex, multidimensional result of a recipe, and a controlled heating process to produce the desired final properties such as taste, colour, shape, structure and density. The process of baking a sponge cake in a convective oven at different air temperatures (160-180-220 °C leading to the same loss of mass was considered in this study. A special mould was used which allowed unidirectional heat transfer in the batter. Instrumentation was developed specifically for online measurement of weight loss, height variation and transient temperature profile and pressure in the product. This method was based on measuring heat fluxes (commercial sensors to account for differences in product expansion and colour. In addition, measurement of height with a camera was coupled to the product mass to calculate changes in density over time. Finally, combining this information with more traditional measurements gave a better understanding of heat and mass transfer phenomena occurring during baking.

  11. [Antigen retrieval by microwave oven with buffer of citric acid]. (United States)

    Pellicer, E M; Sundblad, A


    Microwave oven (mwo) is used to stimulate tissue fixation and to retrieve antigens damaged by fixation. Heavy metal salt solutions, water, and citric acid buffer (cab) have been suggested for this purpose. A serie of tumors treated with cab and phosphate-buffered saline (pbs) with mwo were studied immunohistochemically with 24 antibodies. Controls were treated in the same way, except for microwaving. The antibodies were directed against antigens of the following tumors: breast and prostate carcinoma, carcinoid, lymphoma and melanoma. The results showed that cab enhanced the immunoreactivity of the following antigens: estrogen receptors (AMAC), progesterone receptors (Novocastra), HMB45, vimentin, leukocyte common antigen, PCNA, p53, MIB-1 (Ki-67) and prostatic specific antigen. The antigens that did not improve their immunoreactivity, when compared with the control series were: factor VIII, keratin, Leu 22, L26, neuron-specific enolase, CEA, chromogranin, HBME-1, smooth muscle actin and EMA. Microwaving equally improved protein S100 and desmin either with cab or pbs. The only antigen that improved with pbs was actin. The results with B72.3 and NKI/C3 were poor and not reliable. In conclusion microwaving with cab enhances the immunoreactivity of the antibodies mentioned above leading to an increase in sensibility without loosing specificity.

  12. Metal leaching from oil sands coke and associated characterization of leachate toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puttaswamy, N.; Liber, K. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Toxicology Centre


    This presentation discussed the feasibility of using the large volumes of coke that are produced as a by-product of bitumen thermal upgrading as a material for reclamation landscapes. Under different environment conditions, the trace elements in the coke could be released into the surrounding landscapes. This study examined the leachability of metals from coke over a 15 day period in a batch leaching process under 2 different pH conditions, notably 5.5 and 9.5. Samples of leachate were analyzed for dissolved trace elements. A Ceriodaphnia dubia standard three-brood chronic test was used to evaluate the toxicity of the coke leachate at the end of the 15 day leaching period. Manganese and nickel releases were significantly higher under pH 5.5 leaching condition as compared to pH 9.5 conditions. The opposite was true for aluminum and vanadium. Toxicity results of coke leachate revealed that LC50 values were 6 per cent and 28 per cent for pH 5.5 and 9.5 treatments, respectively. The concentrations of vanadium and nickel in 100 per cent coke leachate from both pH treatments were well above the 7-d LC50 values of 550 {mu}g per litre and 3.8 {mu}g per litre, respectively. Nickel and/or vanadium may be the likely causes of leachate toxicity. The cause of coke leachate toxicity was determined by toxicity identification evaluations.

  13. Parametric Study of Gasification of the Mexican Petroleum Coke: Effect Feed Petroleum Coke on Energetic Characteristic of the Synthetic Gas (syngas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longoria-Ramírez R.


    Full Text Available In this work, a parametric study the gasification of the Mexican petroleum coke from the refineries of Cd Madero (CRM and Cadereyta, Nuevo León (CRC is performed. It is evaluates the energy behavior of the gasification process with objective to research which feedstock of petroleum coke has a be?? er yield of energy. Effect feed petroleum coke on energy characteristics of the clear synthetic gas (gasl: molar composition of CO and H2, High Heating Value (HHVgasl, energy power (Ogasl, Cold Gas Efficiency (CGEgasl and thermal efficiency of gasification (?tg is realized. The parametric study has been realized for 0.64 = oxygen/coke = 1.11 ratio with the fl ow of oxygen (6036.388 kg/h and steam/oxygen of 23% both constant. It is observed that in oxygen/coke 0.77 and 0.94 ratio it is present the best energy characteristics of the gasl from CRM and CRC, respectively. The best energy characteristics relationship of the gasl fined are: molar composition CO (65.6, 68.5, H2 (32.29, 29.13, HHVgasl (14054.6 kJ/kggasl, 13438.76 kJ/kggasl, Ogasl (204.86 GJ/h, 178.02 GJ/h, CGEgasl (74.43%, 71.14%, ?tg (86.2%, 83.22%. The gasification of petroleum coke CRM produced energy with 26.20 MJ/kgcoque rates whereas that gasification of the petroleum coke CRC produced 27.74 MJ/kgcoque rates.

  14. Hazard Management with DOORS: Rail Infrastructure Projects (United States)

    Hughes, Dave; Saeed, Amer

    LOI is a major rail infrastructure project that will contribute to a modernised transport system in time for the 2012 Olympic Games. A review of the procedures and tool infrastructure was conducted in early 2006, coinciding with a planned move to main works. A hazard log support tool was needed to provide: an automatic audit trial, version control and support collaborative working. A DOORS based Hazard Log (DHL) was selected as the Tool Strategy. A systematic approach was followed for the development of DHL, after a series of tests and acceptance gateways, DHL was handed over to the project in autumn 2006. The first few months were used for operational trials and he Hazard Management rocedure was modified to be a hybrid approach that used the strengths of DHL and Excel. The user experience in the deployment of DHL is summarised and directions for future improvement identified.

  15. Design and development of a password- based door lock security ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work is a design and development of a micro-controller based, password enabled door lock for home security. The work involved building a working model of a security door lock that is password protected with an AT89C52 microcontroller which operates by sending control signals to a H-bridge that controls the ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorica VELIȘCU


    Full Text Available The paper presents the main types of the mechanisms used for opening and closing of windows on the car doors. It is identified the three types of the mechanisms used as “crane” for the door windows: the mechanism with bars and gears, the mechanism with cable and the mechanism with elastic rack.

  17. 49 CFR 38.25 - Doors, steps and thresholds. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Doors, steps and thresholds. 38.25 Section 38.25 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Buses, Vans and Systems § 38.25 Doors, steps and thresholds. (a) Slip...

  18. 49 CFR 38.153 - Doors, steps and thresholds. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Doors, steps and thresholds. 38.153 Section 38.153 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Over-the-Road Buses and Systems § 38.153 Doors, steps and thresholds...

  19. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Door-to-needle time for administration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. Door-to-needle time for administration of fibrinolytics in acute myocardial infarction in Cape Town. Roshen C Maharaj, Heike Geduld, Lee A Wallis. Objectives. To determine the current door-to-needle time for the administration of fibrinolytics for acute myocardial infarction. (AMI) in emergency centres ...

  20. Analysis and numerical simulation research of the heating process in the oven (United States)

    Chen, Yawei; Lei, Dingyou


    How to use the oven to bake delicious food is the most concerned problem of the designers and users of the oven. For this intent, this paper analyzed the heat distribution in the oven based on the basic operation principles and proceeded the data simulation of the temperature distribution on the rack section. Constructing the differential equation model of the temperature distribution changes in the pan when the oven works based on the heat radiation and heat transmission, based on the idea of utilizing cellular automation to simulate heat transfer process, used ANSYS software to proceed the numerical simulation analysis to the rectangular, round-cornered rectangular, elliptical and circular pans and giving out the instantaneous temperature distribution of the corresponding shapes of the pans. The temperature distribution of the rectangular and circular pans proves that the product gets overcooked easily at the corners and edges of rectangular pans but not of a round pan.

  1. Oil content and fatty acid composition of eggs cooked in drying oven, microwave and pan. (United States)

    Juhaimi, Fahad Al; Uslu, Nurhan; Özcan, Mehmet Musa


    In this study, the effect of heating on the oil yield and fatty acid composition of eggs cooked in drying oven, microwave oven, pan and boiled were determined, and compared. The highest oil content (15.22%) was observed for egg cooked in drying oven, while the lowest oil (5.195%) in egg cooked in pan. The cooking in microwave oven caused a decrease in oleic acid content (46.201%) and an increase in the amount of palmitic acid content (26.862%). In addition, the maximum oleic acid (65.837%) and minimum palmitic acid (14.015%) contents were observed in egg oil cooked in pan. Results showed that fatty acids were significantly affected by cooking method. This study confirms that the cooking processing influences the fatty acid composition of egg oils.

  2. Analysis of standard reference materials following digestion using a modified appliance grade microwave oven (United States)

    Schaumloffel, John C.; Siems, William F.


    Microwave digestion provides a rapid means of sample preparation in the analytical laboratory. The major disadvantage of this method is the high cost of commercial microwave digestion systems. Modifications to the magnetron timing circuits of an appliance grade oven to make it suitable for sealed vessel microwave digestion are reported. The oven was modified without alteration to the irradiation cavity, and all initial safety features remain intact. Following digestion with the modified oven, NIST Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy. The analytical data are similar to the certified concentrations in the SRMs, indicating that the modified oven provides a durable, rapid, cost-effective means of sample preparation.

  3. Investigations of Shuttle Main Landing Gear Door Environmental Seals (United States)

    Finkbeiner, Joshua; Dunlap, Pat; Steinetz, Bruce; DeMango, Jeff; Newswander, Daniel


    The environmental seals for the main landing gear doors of the Shuttle Orbiters were raised by the Columbia Accident Investigation Board as a potential safety concern. Inspections of seals installed on the Shuttle Discovery revealed that they were permanently deformed and no longer met certified seal compression requirements. Replacement of the seals led to the inability to fully close the main landing gear doors. Johnson Space Center requested that Glenn Research Center conduct tests on the main landing gear door environmental seals to assist in installing the seals in a manner to allow the main landing gear doors to fully close. Further testing was conducted to fill out the seal performance database. Results from the testing indicated that the method of bonding the seals was important in reducing seal loads on the main landing gear doors. Also, the replacement seals installed in Shuttle Discovery were found to have leakage performance sufficient to meet the certification requirements.

  4. Development and validation of the Family Law DOORS. (United States)

    McIntosh, Jennifer E; Wells, Yvonne; Lee, Jamie


    When former spouses experience distress and dispute following separation, risks to well-being and to safety are heightened for all family members. Reliable family-wide risk screening is essential. The Family Law DOORS (Detection of Overall Risk Screen) is a 3-part screening framework to assist identification, evaluation, and response to safety and well-being risks in separated families. Uniquely, the Family Law DOORS screens for victimization and perpetration risks and appraises infant and child developmental risk. The Family Law DOORS self-report screening tool is the subject of this report. Internal scale reliability and concurrent and external criterion validity for the Family Law DOORS were estimated with a community sample of 660 separated parents, including 181 mother-father pairs. Overall psychometric properties are strong and demonstrate good potential for the Family Law DOORS to support early risk detection for separating families. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. The effect of calcination conditions on the graphitizability of novel synthetic and coal-derived cokes (United States)

    Bennett, Barbara Ellen

    The effects of calcination heating rate and ultimate calcination temperature upon calcined coke and subsequent graphitic material microstructures were studied for materials prepared from three different precursors. The pitch precursors used were Mitsubishi AR pitch (a synthetic, 100% mesophase pitch), the NMP-extracted portion of a raw coal, and the NMP-extracted fraction of a coal liquefaction residue obtained from an HTI pilot plant. These materials were all green-coked under identical conditions. Optical microscopy confirmed that the Mitsubishi coke was very anisotropic and the HTI coke was nearly as anisotropic. The coke produced from the direct coal extract was very isotropic. Crystalline development during calcination heating was verified by high-temperature x-ray diffraction. Experiments were performed to ascertain the effects of varying calcination heating rate and ultimate temperature. It was determined that calcined coke crystallite size increased with increasing temperature for all three materials but was found to be independent of heating rate. The graphene interplanar spacing decreased with increasing temperature for the isotropic NMP-extract material but increased with increasing temperature for the anisotropic materials---Mitsubishi and HTI cokes. Graphene interplanar spacing was also found to be independent of heating rate. Calcined coke real densities were, likewise, found to be independent of heating rate. The anisotropic cokes (Mitsubishi and HTI) exhibited increasing real density with increasing calcination temperature. The NMP-extract coke increased in density up to 1050°C and then suffered a dramatic reduction in real density when heated to 1250°C. This is indicative of puffing. Since there was no corresponding disruption in the crystalline structure, the puffing phenomena was determined to be intercrystalline rather than intracrystalline. After the calcined cokes were graphitized (under identical conditions), the microstructures were re

  6. Color and volatile analysis of peanuts roasted using oven and microwave technologies. (United States)

    Smith, Alicia L; Barringer, Sheryl A


    Roasted peanut color and volatiles were evaluated for different time and temperature combinations of roasting. Raw peanuts were oven roasted at 135 to 204 °C, microwave roasted for 1 to 3 min, or combination roasted by microwave and oven roasting for various times and temperatures. Volatiles were measured using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry. L* values were used to categorize peanuts as under-roasted, ideally roasted, and over-roasted. The total roasting time in order to achieve ideal color was not shortened by most of the combination treatments compared to their oven roasted equivalents. Oven before microwave roasting compared to the reverse was found to significantly increase the L* value. Peanuts with the same color had different volatile levels. Hexanal concentrations decreased then increased with roasting. Pyrazine levels increased as roasting time increased, although oven at 177 °C treatments had the highest and microwave treatments had the lowest levels. Volatile levels generally increased as roasting time or temperature increased. Oven 177 °C for 15 min generally had the highest level of volatiles among the roasting treatments tested. Soft independent modeling of class analogies based on volatile levels showed that raw peanuts were the most different, commercial samples were the most similar to each other, and oven, microwave, and combination roasting were all similar in volatile profile. Peanuts can be roasted to equivalent colors and have similar volatile levels by different roasting methods. Oven and microwave roasting technologies produced the same roasted peanut color and had similar volatile trends as roasting time increased. Combination roasting also produced ideal color and similar volatile levels indicating that microwave technology could be further explored as a peanut roasting technique. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. Assessment of heating rate and non-uniform heating in domestic microwave ovens. (United States)

    Pitchai, Krishnamoorthy; Birla, Sohan L; Jones, David; Subbiah, Jeyamkondan


    Due to the inherent nature of standing wave patterns of microwaves inside a domestic microwave oven cavity and varying dielectric properties of different food components, microwave heating produces non-uniform distribution of energy inside the food. Non-uniform heating is a major food safety concern in not-ready-to-eat (NRTE) microwaveable foods. In this study, we present a method for assessing heating rate and non-uniform heating in domestic microwave ovens. In this study a custom designed container was used to assess heating rate and non-uniform heating of a range of microwave ovens using a hedgehog of 30 T-type thermocouples. The mean and standard deviation of heating rate along the radial distance and sector of the container were measured and analyzed. The effect of the location of rings and sectors was analyzed using ANOVA to identify the best location for placing food on the turntable. The study suggested that the best location to place food in a microwave oven is not at the center but near the edge of the turntable assuming uniform heating is desired. The effect of rated power and cavity size on heating rate and non-uniform heating was also studied for a range of microwave ovens. As the rated power and cavity size increases, heating rate increases while non-uniform heating decreases. Sectors in the container also influenced heating rate (p microwave ovens were inconsistent in producing the same heating patterns between the two replications that were performed 4 h apart.

  8. Getting Children to Do More Academic Work: Foot-in-the-Door versus Door-in-the-Face (United States)

    Chan, Annie Cheuk-ying; Au, Terry Kit-fong


    In this study we explored whether compliance-without-pressure techniques, known to encourage adults to behave more altruistically, can be used to encourage children to do more academic work. Using three different approaches--Foot-in-the-Door, Door-in-the-Face, and Single-Request--we asked 60 6- to 8-year-old Hong Kong Chinese children to complete…

  9. No-Oven, No-Autoclave Composite Processing (United States)

    Rauscher, Michael D.


    Very large composite structures, such as those used in NASA's Space Launch System, push the boundaries imposed by current autoclaves. New technology is needed to maintain composite performance and free manufacturing engineers from the restraints of curing equipment size limitations. Recent efforts on a Phase II project by Cornerstone Research Group, Inc. (CRG), have advanced the technology and manufacturing readiness levels of a unique two-part epoxy resin system. Designed for room-temperature infusion of a dry carbon preform, the system includes a no-heat-added cure that delivers 350 F composite performance in a matter of hours. This no-oven, no-autoclave (NONA) composite processing eliminates part-size constraints imposed by infrastructure and lowers costs by increasing throughput and reducing capital-specific, process-flow bottlenecks. As a result of the Phase II activity, NONA materials and processes were used to make high-temperature composite tooling suitable for further production of carbon-epoxy laminates and honeycomb/ sandwich-structure composites with an aluminum core. The technology platform involves tooling design, resin infusion processing, composite part design, and resin chemistry. The various technology elements are combined to achieve a fully cured part. The individual elements are not unusual, but they are combined in such a way that enables proper management of the heat generated by the epoxy resin during cure. The result is a self-cured carbon/ epoxy composite part that is mechanically and chemically stable at temperatures up to 350 F. As a result of the successful SBIR effort, CRG has launched NONA Composites as a spinoff subsidiary. The company sells resin to end users, fabricates finished goods for customers, and sells composite tooling made with NONA materials and processes to composite manufacturers.

  10. Heat Transfer Characteristics of Calcined Petroleum Coke in Waste Heat Recovery Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zheng


    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of heat transfer characteristics of calcined petroleum coke in waste heat recovery process. The model of heat exchanger was set up. The model has been used to investigate the effects of porosity (0.58 to 0.79, equivalent heat conductivity coefficient (0.9 to 1.1, and equivalent specific heat (0.9 to 1.1. The calculated values of calcined petroleum coke temperature showed good agreement with the corresponding available experimental data. The temperature distribution of calcined petroleum coke, the calcined petroleum coke temperature at heat exchanger outlet, the average heat transfer coefficient, and the heat recovery efficiency were studied. It can also be used in deriving much needed data for heat exchanger designs when employed in industry.

  11. Effect of coal weathering on technological properties of cokes produced at different scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cimadevilla, J.L.G.; Alvarez, R.; Pis, J.J. [Instituto Nacional del Carbon (INCAR), CSIC, Apartado 73. 33080 Oviedo (Spain)


    The effect of weathering (natural oxidation) on the technological properties of cokes obtained at three different scales (laboratory, pilot plant and semi-industrial), from two medium volatile bituminous coals stored at INCAR open stockyard for several months, has been studied in this work. The results show that the procedure developed at laboratory scale is useful for studying the evolution of coke quality because the trends of the main quality indexes (mechanical strength and reactivity to CO{sub 2}) are in agreement with those of the cokes produced at larger scales. Furthermore, it was found that the total porosity and the micropores specific surface area of the cokes vary with the scale of carbonization, and that they increase as follows: semi-industrial

  12. Pyrolysis kinetics of coking coal mixed with biomass under non-isothermal and isothermal conditions. (United States)

    Jeong, Ha Myung; Seo, Myung Won; Jeong, Sang Mun; Na, Byung Ki; Yoon, Sang Jun; Lee, Jae Goo; Lee, Woon Jae


    To investigate the kinetic characteristics of coking coal mixed with biomass during pyrolysis, thermogravimetric (TG) and thermo-balance reactor (TBR) analyses were conducted under non-isothermal and isothermal condition. Yellow poplar as a biomass (B) was mixed with weak coking coal (WC) and hard coking coal (HC), respectively. The calculated activation energies of WC/B blends were higher than those of HC/B blends under non-isothermal and isothermal conditions. The coal/biomass blends show increased reactivity and decreased activation energy with increasing biomass blend ratio, regardless of the coking properties of the coal. The different char structures of the WC/B and HC/B blends were analyzed by BET and SEM. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The New Method of XRD Measurement of the Degree of Disorder for Anode Coke Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo Zhang


    Full Text Available Quantitative analysis by X-ray powder diffraction of two cokes (pitch coke and petroleum coke shows that their crystal structure changed with increasing temperature. The crystal data processing of the crystallization degree of disorder is used with further improvement of the proposed microcrystalline-stacking fault calculation method. With this improvement it is now possible to obtain the degree of stacking disorder of two cokes applied as anode materials at different graphitization temperatures. Raman spectroscopy verified the accuracy of this method, which is more reliable than the crystal structure refinement using the d002 method. This paper provides the theoretical analysis and interpretation of the relationship between the microstructure model of the material and quantitative data, discharge capacity, and the first charge-discharge efficiency.

  14. Selective Coke Combustion by Oxygen Pulsing During Mo/ZSM‐5‐Catalyzed Methane Dehydroaromatization (United States)

    Coumans, Ferdy J. A. G.; Uslamin, Evgeny; Kapteijn, Freek


    Abstract Non‐oxidative methane dehydroaromatization is a promising reaction to directly convert natural gas into aromatic hydrocarbons and hydrogen. Commercialization of this technology is hampered by rapid catalyst deactivation because of coking. A novel approach is presented involving selective oxidation of coke during methane dehydroaromatization at 700 °C. Periodic pulsing of oxygen into the methane feed results in substantially higher cumulative product yield with synthesis gas; a H2/CO ratio close to two is the main side‐product of coke combustion. Using 13C isotope labeling of methane it is demonstrated that oxygen predominantly reacts with molybdenum carbide species. The resulting molybdenum oxides catalyze coke oxidation. Less than one‐fifth of the available oxygen reacts with gaseous methane. Combined with periodic regeneration at 550 °C, this strategy is a significant step forward, towards a process for converting methane into liquid hydrocarbons. PMID:27791321

  15. Safety during handling of coal, coal dust, coke and coke dust. Sicherheit beim Umgang mit Kohlen und Kohlenstaeuben sowie mit Koksen und Koksstaeuben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohlschmidt, J.; Hoeppner, K.; May, M.; Schmieder, L.


    This paper reviews fire and explosion prevention measures for transport, storage and combustion of brown coal and black coal. The fire and explosion hazard of coal and coke dust is characterized; various examples of hazardous situations in handling coal and coke are presented. Safety requirements for the design of coal and coke handling equipment according to GDR standard TGL 30634/02 are further noted. Safe storage of bulk coal in open-air facilities as well as safe transportation and bunker storage of fuel dust are described. Safety requirements for manually operated coal combustion equipment and for pneumatic fuel-feeding systems of steam generators are also outlined. Fire fighting methods to be employed in case of fires or suspected smoldering fires are listed briefly. (11 refs.)

  16. Magnetocardiography System in Open-door Magnetically-shielded Room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. M.; Lee, Y. H.; Kwon, H.; Yu, K. K.; Kim, K.; Park, Y. K. [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Sasada, I. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)


    We have installed a 61-channel magnetocardiography (MCG) system inside a magnetically shielded room (MSR) with a size of 24 m x 24 m x 24 m. The MCG system consists of 1st-order axial gradiometers containing double relaxation oscillation SQUIDs (DROSs) with pick-up coils of a base line of 70 mm. The MSR holds a shielding factor of 50 at 0.1 Hz and 10000 at 100 Hz, when its door in the middle on a front wall is closed. On opening the MSR door, we have obtained the characteristics of the MCG system with a 2.9 Hz noise generated from an air conditioning unit at 13 m distance off the MSR. In an open-door MSR (140 degrees opening), a noise at the center channel increases up to 700 fT/Hz{sup 1/2} at 2.9 Hz and 1.7fT/Hz{sup 1/2} at 60 Hz. MCG signals for a healthy human do not show distortion until the door opens to 45 degrees, but show the effect of noise when the door opens further at 90 degrees and 140 degrees. With the door opens to 45 degrees, MCG measurement can be performed with ease of door operation and without creating claustrophobia for the patient.

  17. Zeolite deactivation during hydrocarbon reactions: characterisation of coke precursors and acidity, product distribution


    Wang, B.


    The catalytic conversion of hydrocarbons over zeolites has been applied in large scale petroleum-refining processes. However, there is always formation and retention of heavy by-products, called coke, which causes catalyst deactivation. This deactivation is due to the poisoning of the acid sites and/or pore blockage. The formation of coke on hydrocarbon processing catalysts is of considerable technological and economic importance and a great deal of work has been carried out to this study. Th...

  18. Blast furnace coke properties and the influence on off-gas dust


    Lundgren, Maria


    In blast furnace ironmaking, efforts are made to decrease the coke consumption mainly by increasing the pulverized coal injection rate. This will cause changes in in-furnace reduction conditions, burden distribution and demands on raw material strength, etc. In order to maintain stable operation and minimize material losses through the off-gas, it is important to understand fines generation and behaviour in the blast furnace.  The strength and reactivity of coke at high temperature, measured ...

  19. Development of coke properties during the descent in the blast furnace


    Lundgren, Maria


    The efficiency in use of reducing agents in blast furnace (BF) ironmaking has been significantly improved over the years. At most blast furnaces, auxiliary fuels are injected to replace some of the coke. To further reduce carbon consumption, prevention of losses and modification of raw materials or process conditions are required. In this study coke properties, their development during the descent in the BF under different process conditions, contribution to off-gas dust as well as modificati...

  20. Volatiles production from the coking of coal; Sekitan no netsubunkai ni okeru kihatsubun seisei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, Y.; Saito, H.; Inaba, A. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)


    In order to simplify the coke manufacturing process, a coke production mechanism in coal pyrolysis was discussed. Australian bituminous coal which can produce good coke was used for the discussion. At a temperature raising rate of 50{degree}C per minute, coal weight loss increases monotonously. However, in the case of 3{degree}C, the weight loss reaches a peak at a maximum ultimate temperature of about 550{degree}C. The reaction mechanism varies with the temperature raising rates, and in the case of 50{degree}C per minute, volatiles other than CO2 and propane increased. Weight loss of coal at 3{degree}C per minute was caused mainly by methane production at 550{degree}C or lower. When the temperature is raised to 600{degree}C, tar and CO2 increased, and so did the weight loss. Anisotropy was discerned in almost of all coke particles at 450{degree}C, and the anisotropy became remarkable with increase in the maximum ultimate temperature. Coke and volatiles were produced continuously at a temperature raising rate of 50{degree}C per minute, and at 3{degree}C per minute, the production of the coke and volatiles progressed stepwise as the temperature has risen. 7 refs., 6 figs.

  1. Discrete Element Method Modeling of the Rheological Properties of Coke/Pitch Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Majidi


    Full Text Available Rheological properties of pitch and pitch/coke mixtures at temperatures around 150 °C are of great interest for the carbon anode manufacturing process in the aluminum industry. In the present work, a cohesive viscoelastic contact model based on Burger’s model is developed using the discrete element method (DEM on the YADE, the open-source DEM software. A dynamic shear rheometer (DSR is used to measure the viscoelastic properties of pitch at 150 °C. The experimental data obtained is then used to estimate the Burger’s model parameters and calibrate the DEM model. The DSR tests were then simulated by a three-dimensional model. Very good agreement was observed between the experimental data and simulation results. Coke aggregates were modeled by overlapping spheres in the DEM model. Coke/pitch mixtures were numerically created by adding 5, 10, 20, and 30 percent of coke aggregates of the size range of 0.297–0.595 mm (−30 + 50 mesh to pitch. Adding up to 30% of coke aggregates to pitch can increase its complex shear modulus at 60 Hz from 273 Pa to 1557 Pa. Results also showed that adding coke particles increases both storage and loss moduli, while it does not have a meaningful effect on the phase angle of pitch.

  2. Catalytic conversion of lignin pyrolysis model compound- guaiacol and its kinetic model including coke formation (United States)

    Zhang, Huiyan; Wang, Yun; Shao, Shanshan; Xiao, Rui


    Lignin is the most difficult to be converted and most easy coking component in biomass catalytic pyrolysis to high-value liquid fuels and chemicals. Catalytic conversion of guaiacol as a lignin model compound was conducted in a fixed-bed reactor over ZSM-5 to investigate its conversion and coking behaviors. The effects of temperature, weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) and partial pressure on product distribution were studied. The results show the maximum aromatic carbon yield of 28.55% was obtained at temperature of 650 °C, WHSV of 8 h-1 and partial pressure of 2.38 kPa, while the coke carbon yield was 19.55%. The reaction pathway was speculated to be removing methoxy group to form phenols with further aromatization to form aromatics. The amount of coke increased with increasing reaction time. The surface area and acidity of catalysts declined as coke formed on the acid sites and blocked the pore channels, which led to the decrease of aromatic yields. Finally, a kinetic model of guaiacol catalytic conversion considering coke deposition was built based on the above reaction pathway to properly predict product distribution. The experimental and model predicting data agreed well. The correlation coefficient of all equations were all higher than 0.90.

  3. Considering adaptation of electrical ovens with unit-type releasing to peculiarities of thermal energization of mineral raw materials (United States)

    Zvezdin, A. V.; Bryanskikh, T. B.


    The paper gives a short overview of technologies of mineral raw material thermal treatment where application of electrical ovens with unit-type releasing is possible. Efficiency of such ovens for vermiculite concentrate and conglomerate roasting is proved by more than 13-years experience of their industrial operation. The paper furthermore considers alternative connections of energotechnological blocks of an oven in order to determine its efficient design for specific technology related to one or another mineral raw material.

  4. Feasibility study analysis for multi-function dual energy oven (case study: tapioca crackers small medium enterprise) (United States)

    Soraya, N. W.; El Hadi, R. M.; Chumaidiyah, E.; Tripiawan, W.


    Conventional drying process is constrained by weather (cloudy / rainy), and requires wide drying area, and provides low-quality product. Multi-function dual energy oven is the appropriate technology to solve these problems. The oven uses solar thermal or gas heat for drying various type of products, including tapioca crackers. Investment analysis in technical, operational, and financial aspects show that the multi-function dual energy oven is feasible to be implemented for small medium enterprise (SME) processing tapioca crackers.

  5. Het toenemend belang van infectieziekten die worden overgebracht door vectoren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, E.J.; Reusken, C.B.E.M.; Takken, W.; Jongejan, F.; Giessen, van der J.W.B.


    Dit artikel gaat over de voor Nederland belangrijkste arthropodenvectoren (geleedpotigen, in dit artikel voornamelijk muggen en teken) en de door hen overgebrachte infectieziekten. Daarnaast wordt de rol van landschappelijke aanpassingen, klimaatverandering, intensiever internationaal reizigers- en

  6. Rotational and frictional dynamics of the slamming of a door (United States)

    Klein, Pascal; Müller, Andreas; Gröber, Sebastian; Molz, Alexander; Kuhn, Jochen


    A theoretical and experimental investigation of the rotational dynamics, including friction, of a slamming door is presented. Based on existing work regarding different damping models for rotational and oscillatory motions, we examine different forms for the (angular) velocity dependence (ωn, n = 0, 1, 2) of the frictional force. An analytic solution is given when all three friction terms are present and several solutions for specific cases known from the literature are reproduced. The motion of a door is investigated experimentally using a smartphone, and the data are compared with the theoretical results. A laboratory experiment under more controlled conditions is conducted to gain a deeper understanding of the movement of a slammed door. Our findings provide quantitative evidence that damping models involving quadratic air drag are most appropriate for the slamming of a door. Examining this everyday example of a physical phenomenon increases student motivation, because they can relate it to their own personal experience.

  7. Frequency Distribution in Domestic Microwave Ovens and Its Influence on Heating Pattern. (United States)

    Luan, Donglei; Wang, Yifen; Tang, Juming; Jain, Deepali


    In this study, snapshots of operating frequency profiles of domestic microwave ovens were collected to reveal the extent of microwave frequency variations under different operation conditions. A computer simulation model was developed based on the finite difference time domain method to analyze the influence of the shifting frequency on heating patterns of foods in a microwave oven. The results showed that the operating frequencies of empty and loaded domestic microwave ovens varied widely even among ovens of the same model purchased on the same date. Each microwave oven had its unique characteristic operating frequencies, which were also affected by the location and shape of the load. The simulated heating patterns of a gellan gel model food when heated on a rotary plate agreed well with the experimental results, which supported the reliability of the developed simulation model. Simulation indicated that the heating patterns of a stationary model food load changed with the varying operating frequency. However, the heating pattern of a rotary model food load was not sensitive to microwave frequencies due to the severe edge heating overshadowing the effects of the frequency variations. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  8. The Door's Perinatal Program for Pregnant and Parenting Teens


    Dewart, Tracey; Zaengle, Donna


    The perinatal program for urban youth at The Door, located in New York City, provides accessible, comprehensive, high-quality prenatal services to pregnant teens. Through a holistic, family-centered, youth-development approach, the program seeks to counteract the adverse medical risks and psychosocial consequences of early childbirth and child rearing in order to improve the immediate and long-term futures of the mother and her new family. The Door's services are presented, along with a descr...

  9. Landing Gear Door Liners for Airframe Noise Reduction (United States)

    Jones, Michael G. (Inventor); Howerton, Brian M. (Inventor); Van De Ven, Thomas (Inventor)


    A landing gear door for retractable landing gear of aircraft includes an acoustic liner. The acoustic liner includes one or more internal cavities or chambers having one or more openings that inhibit the generation of sound at the surface and/or absorb sound generated during operation of the aircraft. The landing gear door may include a plurality of internal chambers having different geometries to thereby absorb broadband noise.

  10. Current and predicted supply of coking coal in Poland; Aktualna i prognozowana podaz wegla koksowego w Polsce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokrzycki, E.; Gawlik, L.; Blaschke, S.; Kapinos, J.; Ozga, U. [Centrum Podstawowych Problemow Gospodarki Surowcami Mineralnymi i Energia PAN, Krakow (Poland)


    Presented here is the magnitude of coking coal production in Poland in the years 1992-1994 and also predicted values for supply of this raw material for 1995 and 2000.Detailed data is given the production figures for various types of coking coal and also its quality. With the aim of determining trends in quality variations, each type of coking coal produced is divided into grades with differing intervals or sulphur, ash and moisture content. (author). 5 figs., 7 tabs.

  11. Failure case of a garage door opener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib, K.


    Full Text Available A failure analysis of a garage door opener was conducted for determination of the cause of the failure. The analysis included visual inspections of broken parts as well as electron microscopy examinations of the fracture surface. The visual inspections showed that a bolt connected to the inner trolley of the garage opener assembly was initially fractured. Also, the results of electron microscopy examinations revealed that the broken bolt failed by fatigue damage phenomenon, due to alternating torsional stresses throughout 25 years of an operational life of the garage opener. In addition, a mathematical model corresponding to the failure mechanism was derived along the failure analysis. The model comprises of both design philosophy and fracture mechanics approaches.

    Se analizó el fallo del mecanismo de apertura de una puerta de garaje con el fin de determinar sus causas. El análisis incluyó una inspección visual de las piezas rotas así como un examen mediante microscopía de la superficie de fractura. La inspección visual reveló que primero se fracturó un perno conectado al carro interior del mecanismo de apertura. Los resultados del análisis por microscopía electrónica también mostraron que el perno roto falló debido a fenómenos de daño por fatiga, debido a los esfuerzos torsionales alternos a la largo de 25 años de vida en servicio del mecanismo de apertura. Por otra parte, se construyó un modelo matemático correspondiente al mecanismo de rotura durante el análisis del mismo. Este modelo comprende enfoques, tanto de la filosofía de diseño como de la mecánica de fractura.

  12. A door-to-door prevalence study of feline immunodeficiency virus in an Australian suburb. (United States)

    Chang-Fung-Martel, Janine; Gummow, Bruce; Burgess, Graham; Fenton, Eloise; Squires, Richard


    A door-to-door survey was conducted within the limits of the suburb of Douglas in northern Queensland, Australia, to determine the prevalence of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection in the overall population of domestic cats. Previous FIV prevalence studies have relied on convenience sampling strategies, leaving out an important group of pet cats that do not receive regular veterinary attention. Saliva was selected for testing because collection was non-invasive and was likely to achieve a high rate of participation. Ninety-six cats were surveyed and tested for salivary antibodies against FIV and with real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PCR was considered to be the gold standard and a cat was considered to be FIV-positive if sequencing results on a PCR product of appropriate size matched previously published FIV genome sequences available in GenBank. Results showed 10/96 cats to be infected with FIV subtype A, indicating a prevalence of 10.4% (95% confidence interval: 4.4-16.4) in the area studied. High risk associations were established with the roaming lifestyle of the cat (P cats living in an affluent suburb and presenting saliva as a potential non-invasive sample for large-scale epidemiological surveys on FIV.

  13. Epilepsy prevalence in Al-Manial Island, Egypt. A door-to-door survey. (United States)

    Hashem, Saher; Al-Kattan, Manal; Ibrahim, Sahar Y; Shalaby, Nevin M; Shamloul, Reham M; Farrag, Mohammad


    Epidemiologic studies of epilepsy are lacking from the majority of the Arab countries; although there are significant needs for such studies. This study was conducted on a sample of Al-Manial Island, Cairo city, one of the highest cities in population density in the world. A community-based, door to door, cross-sectional study using multistage random sample including 512 families (1751 individuals). The study extended from March 2009 to September 2012 and involved three main stages; the preparatory stage, the field work stage and the stage of establishing epilepsy diagnosis and classifying confirmed epileptic patients. The lifetime point prevalence of epilepsy among inhabitants of Al-Manial island was 6.9/1000 inhabitants while the prevalence of active epilepsy was 5.1/1000 inhabitants. The age distribution showed bimodal peaks in adolescents and in elderly with equal sex ratio (6/855 vs 6/896). Focal seizures were the commonest type (58.3%) and the treatment gap was 66.7%. The prevalence of epilepsy among inhabitants of Al-Manial Island go in agreement with most global studies. High treatment gap detected in our study indicates that proper management of epilepsy requires a multi-factorial approach. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A door-to-door survey to estimate the prevalence of Parkinsonism in Pakistan (United States)

    Khan, Suliman; Nabi, Ghulam; Naeem, Muhammad; Ali, Liaqat; Silburn, Peter A; Mellick, George D


    Introduction Parkinson’s disease (PD) occurs in all races and cultures, and population-related differences in frequency may provide etiological clues. The present study was designed to explore the prevalence of PD and Parkinsonism in Pakistan, the world’s sixth most populous country, for which no published prevalence data are available. Methods We conducted a three-phase door-to-door survey in two districts of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan, to assess the prevalence of PD and Parkinsonism in a sample of 4,000 individuals aged 50 years and above. Results We identified 14 cases of Parkinsonism, eleven with a diagnosis of idiopathic PD. The overall prevalence estimates were 1.7/100 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.9–2.46) for Parkinsonism and 1.28/100 (95% CI: 0.6–1.94) for PD in persons aged 65 years and above. The age-standardized prevalence of PD (aged 65 years and above), normalized to the USA population in 2000, was 1.33/100, which is similar to that observed in other human populations. Of the total 14 cases, five were newly diagnosed and four had a family history of PD. Conclusion The estimated prevalence rates in Pakistan are similar to those observed in other human populations. The frequency of familial Parkinsonism is also equivalent to previous estimates. PMID:27382292

  15. Blower-door techniques for measuring interzonal leakage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hult, Erin L.; Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain


    Abstract The standard blower door test methods, such as ASTM E779, describe how to use a single blower door to determine the total leakage of a single-zone structure such as a detached single-family home. There are no standard test methods for measuring interzonal leakage in a two-zone or multi-zone building envelope such as might be encountered in with an attached garage or in a multifamily building. Some practitioners have been using techniques that involve making multiple measurements with a single blower door as well as combined measurements using multiple blower doors. Even for just two zones there are dozens of combinations of one-door and two-door test protocols that could conceivably be used to determine the interzonal air tightness. We examined many of these two-zone configurations using both simulation and measured data to estimate the accuracy and precision of each technique for realistic measurement scenarios. We also considered the impact of taking measurements at a single pressure versus over multiple pressures. We compared the various techniques and evaluated them for specific uses. Some techniques work better in one leakage regime; some are more sensitive to wind and other noise; some are more suited to determining only a subset of the leakage values. This paper makes recommendations on which techniques to use or not use for various cases and provides data that could be used to develop future test methods.

  16. Air curtain development: an energy harvesting solution for hinged doors (United States)

    Dayal, Vineed; Lee, Soobum


    The paper proposes a fully mechanical air curtain system that will be powered solely by harvested energy from common hinged doors. The average person uses this type of door several times a day with an almost unconscious amount of applied force and effort. This leads to a high potential of energy to be harvested in doorways that see high traffic and frequent operation7 . Frequently opened door entry ways have always been regarded as a major element that causes significant energy loss and contaminated air conditions in buildings6 . Private companies, particularly those with warehouses, have introduced commercial electrical air curtains to block the open entrances from invading cold air11. This project intends to introduce an original design of air curtain which operates fans only when the door opens and closes, by directly converting door motion to fan rotation without any electronic motor or power cable. The air stream created by this device will prevent the transfer of outside air and contaminants. Research will be conducted to determine the most efficient method of harvesting energy from door use, and the prototyping process will be conducted to meet the required performance of current air curtain models.

  17. Degradation behaviour of a high CSR coke in an experimental blast furnace:effect of carbon structure and alkali reactions


    Hilding, Tobias; Gupta, Sushil; Sahajwalla, Veena; Björkman, Bo; Wikström, Jan-Olov


      A high CSR coke was tested in the LKAB's Experimental Blast Furnace (EBF) at Luleå. The evolution of physical and chemical properties of the centre-line coke samples were analysed by Light Optical Microscopy (LOM), BET N2 absorption and SEM/XRF/XRD. Alkali distribution in the EBF cokes was examined by XRF/SEM and EDS. Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) was used to measure isothermal and non-isothermal CO2 reactivity of the cokes. The crystalline order of carbon and the concentration of al...

  18. Effect of temperature on coke properties and CO2 reactivity under laboratory conditions and in an experimental blast furnace


    Hilding, Tobias; Kazuberns, Kelli; Gupta, Sushil; Sahajwalla, Veena; Sakurovs, Richard; Björkman, Bo; Wikström, Jan-Olov


    Physical and chemical properties of coke samples excavated from LKAB's Experimental Blast Furnace (EBF) at MEFOS in Lulea, Sweden were characterized. A thermal annealing study the raw coke used in the EBF was also conducted in a horizontal furnace in a neutral environment at a range of temperatures up to 1650DGC. Carbon crystallite height of the EBF coke and of the cokes treated in the laboratory furnace were measured by XRD while mineral phases were characterized by using SEM/EDS. The CO2 re...

  19. Effect of different flours on quality of legume cakes to be baked in microwave-infrared combination oven and conventional oven. (United States)

    Ozkahraman, Betul Canan; Sumnu, Gulum; Sahin, Serpil


    The objective of this study was to compare the quality of legume cakes baked in microwave-infrared combination (MW-IR) oven with conventional oven. Legume cake formulations were developed by replacing 10 % wheat flour by lentil, chickpea and pea flour. As a control, wheat flour containing cakes were used. Weight loss, specific volume, texture, color, gelatinization degree, macro and micro-structure of cakes were investigated. MW-IR baked cakes had higher specific volume, weight loss and crust color change and lower hardness values than conventionally baked cakes. Larger pores were observed in MW-IR baked cakes according to scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. Pea flour giving the hardest structure, lowest specific volume and gelatinization degree was determined to be the least acceptable legume flour. On the other hand, lentil and chickpea flour containing cakes had the softest structure and highest specific volume showing that lentil and chickpea flour can be used to produce functional cakes.

  20. Evaluation of microwave oven heating for prediction of drug-excipient compatibilities and accelerated stability studies. (United States)

    Schou-Pedersen, Anne Marie V; Østergaard, Jesper; Cornett, Claus; Hansen, Steen Honoré


    Microwave ovens have been used extensively in organic synthesis in order to accelerate reaction rates. Here, a set up comprising a microwave oven combined with silicon carbide (SiC) plates for the controlled microwave heating of model formulations has been applied in order to investigate, if a microwave oven is applicable for accelerated drug stability testing. Chemical interactions were investigated in three selected model formulations of drug and excipients regarding the formation of ester and amide reaction products. In the accelerated stability studies, a design of experiments (DoE) approach was applied in order to be able to rank excipients regarding reactivity: Study A: cetirizine with PEG 400, sorbitol, glycerol and propylene glycol. Study B: 6-aminocaproic acid with citrate, acetate, tartrate and gluconate. Study C: atenolol with citric, tartaric, malic, glutaric, and sorbic acid. The model formulations were representative for oral solutions (co-solvents), parenteral solutions (buffer species) and solid dosage forms (organic acids applicable for solubility enhancement). The DoE studies showed overall that the same impurities were generated by microwave oven heating leading to temperatures between 150°C and 180°C as compared to accelerated stability studies performed at 40°C and 80°C using a conventional oven. Ranking of the reactivity of the excipients could be made in the DoE studies performed at 150-180°C, which was representative for the ranking obtained after storage at 40°C and 80°C. It was possible to reduce the time needed for drug-excipient compatibility testing of the three model formulations from weeks to less than an hour in the three case studies. The microwave oven is therefore considered to be an interesting alternative to conventional thermal techniques for the investigation of drug-excipient interactions during preformulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of porcelain surface and flexural strength obtained by microwave and conventional oven glazing. (United States)

    Prasad, Soni; Monaco, Edward A; Kim, Hyeongil; Davis, Elaine L; Brewer, Jane D


    Although the superior qualities of microwave technology are common knowledge in the industry, effects of microwave glazing of dental ceramics have not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the surface roughness and flexural strength achieved by glazing porcelain specimens in a conventional and microwave oven. Thirty specimens of each type of porcelain (Omega 900 and IPS d.Sign) were fabricated and sintered in a conventional oven. The specimens were further divided into 3 groups (n=10): hand polished (using diamond rotary ceramic polishers), microwave glazed, and conventional oven glazed. Each specimen was evaluated for surface roughness using a profilometer. The flexural strength of each specimen was measured using a universal testing machine. A 2-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD post hoc analysis were used to determine significant intergroup differences in surface roughness (alpha=.05). Flexural strength results were also analyzed using 2-way ANOVA, and the Weibull modulus was determined for each of the 6 groups. The surfaces of the specimens were subjectively evaluated for cracks and porosities using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). A significant difference in surface roughness was found among the surface treatments (P=.02). Follow-up tests showed a significant difference in surface roughness between oven-glazed and microwave-glazed treatments (P=.02). There was a significant difference in flexural strength between the 2 porcelains (Pmicrowave-glazed group was the highest (1.9) as compared to the other groups. The surface character of microwave-glazed porcelain was superior to oven-glazed porcelain. Omega 900 had an overall higher flexural strength than IPS d.Sign. Weibull distributions of flexural strengths for Omega 900 oven-glazed and microwave-glazed specimens were similar. SEM analysis demonstrated a greater number of surface voids and imperfections in IPS d. Sign as compared to Omega 900.

  2. Thermal oxidation of rice bran oil during oven test and microwave heating. (United States)

    Mishra, Richa; Sharma, Harish K; Sarkar, Bhavesh C; Singh, Charanjiv


    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the oxidative stability of physically refined rice bran oil (RBO) under oven heating at 63 °C and microwave heating conditions by absorptivity. Oil samples with tertiary-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) (100 ppm and 200 ppm), citric acid (CA), butylhydroxyanisole/butylhydroxytoluene (BHA/BHT) and in other combination, BHA/BHT+CA were submitted to oven test for 6 days, and the linear coefficient of correlation between peroxide value and absorptivity at 232 nm was determined. The gradual increase in peroxide value and absorptivity at 232 nm was observed in all the RBO samples, control and antioxidant added. RBO samples added with tertiary-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) had shown the least peroxide value and absorptivity as 6.10 and 5.8 respectively, when added at a concentration of 200 ppm whereas; the control RBO samples had shown the maximum values. The peroxide values obtained from the correlations during the oven test were found closely correlated with the peroxide values obtained during the microwave oven heating experimentally. The effect of microwave heating on the oryzanol content and p-anisidine value was also observed and the correlation to the oven test was established. The oryzanol content and p-anisidine values obtained after oven heating when correlated to the microwave heating data showed the oryzanol content 13,371, 13,267 and 13,188 ppm after 1 day, 4 days and 5 days respectively which were closely correlated with the experimental value.

  3. Microwave oven-related injuries treated in hospital EDs in the United States, 1990 to 2010. (United States)

    Thambiraj, Dana F; Chounthirath, Thiphalak; Smith, Gary A


    The widespread availability of microwave ovens has sparked interest in injuries resulting from their use. Using a retrospective cohort design, the objective of this study is to investigate the epidemiology of microwave oven-related injuries treated in United States emergency departments (EDs) from 1990 through 2010 by analyzing data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System. An estimated 155959 (95% confidence interval [CI], 133515-178402) individuals with microwave oven-related injuries were treated in US hospital EDs from 1990 through 2010, which equals an average of 21 individuals per day; 60.7% were female; 63.3% were adults (≥18 years); 98.1% of injury events occurred at home; and 3.9% of patients were hospitalized. During the 21-year study period, the number and rate of microwave oven-related injuries increased significantly by 93.3% and 50.0%, respectively. The most common mechanism of injury was a spill (31.3%), and the most common body region injured was the hand and fingers (32.4%). Patients younger than 18 years were more likely to sustain an injury to their head and neck (relative risk: 1.65; 95% CI, 1.39-1.96) than adults. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate microwave oven-related injuries on a national scale. Microwave ovens are an important source of injury in the home in the United States. The large increases in the number and rate of these injuries underscore the need for increased prevention efforts, especially among young children. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Survival of Listeria spp. on raw whole chickens cooked in microwave ovens. (United States)

    Farber, J M; D'Aoust, J Y; Diotte, M; Sewell, A; Daley, E


    The prevalence of microwave ovens in North American homes has increased dramatically within the last decade. Although microwave ovens are primarily used for reheating of foods, they are now more commonly being applied to the cooking of raw foods. Although cooking of raw foods, according to manufacturers' instructions targets an organoleptically acceptable end product, the process does not address the microbiological safety of the cooked food. Seventeen microwave ovens from various commercial suppliers were used to cook naturally contaminated whole raw broilers ( 1.8 kg) according to manufacturers' instructions. Temperature probes (six per chicken) were used to measure the temperature of chickens immediately after cooking and during the holding period. Of 81 Listeria-positive raw broilers and 93 raw roasters, 1 (1.2%) and 9 (9.7%), respectively, yielded viable Listeria spp. after microwave cooking. Of these, two were undercooked (visual inspection), one was over the maximum weight stipulated by the oven manufacturer and another one was over the maximum weight and undercooked. A significantly greater proportion of contaminated cooked birds was observed with roasters than with broilers, where for one of these contaminated roasters, the temperature at all six measured sites was > or = 87 degrees C. Most of the postcook Listeria-positive birds were associated with 2 of the 17 microwave ovens. Factors such as wattage, cavity size, and the presence or absence of a turntable seemingly did not play a significant role in the survival of Listeria spp. in microwave-cooked chicken. However, the general inability of microwave ovens to uniformly heat chicken carcasses was noted. In order to promote greater safety of microwave-cooked foods, general recommendations for consumers are provided.

  5. Microwave sintering of sol-gel composite films using a domestic microwave oven (United States)

    Kobayashi, Makiko; Matsumoto, Makoto


    Feasibility study of sol-gel composite microwave sintering using a domestic microwave oven was carried out. Two kinds of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) powders were mixed with PZT sol-gel solution and the mixture was sprayed onto 3-mm-thick titanium substrate. The films were sintered by 700 W domestic oven for 10 min. Ultrasonic measurement was carried out in pulse-echo mode and clear multiple echoes were confirmed. It would be suitable method to fabricate high frequency broadband focused ultrasonic transducers. Further research is required to improve sintering degree.

  6. Science at Home: Measuring a Thermophysical Property of Water with a Microwave Oven (United States)

    Levine, Zachary H.


    An attempt to calibrate a conventional oven led to making a measurement of a thermophysical property of water using items found in the author's home. Specifically, the ratio of the energy required to heat water from the melting point to boiling to the energy required to completely boil away the water is found to be 5.7. This may be compared to the standard value of 5.5. The close agreement is not representative of the actual uncertainties in this simple experiment (Fig. 1). Heating water in a microwave oven can let a student apply the techniques of quantitative science based on questions generated by his or her scientific curiosity.

  7. Highly coke-resistant ni nanoparticle catalysts with minimal sintering in dry reforming of methane. (United States)

    Han, Joung Woo; Kim, Chanyeon; Park, Jun Seong; Lee, Hyunjoo


    Nickel catalysts are typically used for hydrogen production by reforming reactions. Reforming methane with carbon dioxide, called dry reforming of methane (DRM), is a good way to produce hydrogen or syngas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide) from two notable greenhouse gases. However, Ni catalysts used for DRM suffer from severe coke deposition. It has been known that small Ni nanoparticles are advantageous to reduce coke formation, but the high reaction temperature of DRM (800 °C) inevitably induces aggregation of the nanoparticles, leading to severe coke formation and degraded activity. Here, we develop highly coke-resistant Ni catalysts by immobilizing premade Ni nanoparticles of 5.2 nm in size onto functionalized silica supports, and then coating the Ni/SiO2 catalyst with silica overlayers. The silica overlayers enable the transfer of reactants and products while preventing aggregation of the Ni nanoparticles. The silica-coated Ni catalysts operate stably for 170 h without any degradation in activity. No carbon deposition was observed by temperature programmed oxidation (TPO), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Raman spectroscopy. The Ni catalysts without silica coating show severe sintering after DRM reaction, and the formation of filamentous carbon was observed. The coke-resistant Ni catalyst is potentially useful in various hydrocarbon transformations. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. An empirical study on the preparation of the modified coke and its catalytic oxidation properties (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Jiang, Wenqiang


    T As a methyl acrylic ester fungicide, pyraclostrobin has the advantages of high activity, wide sterilization spectrum and high safety level comparing with the traditional fungicide. Due to less toxicity and side effects on human and environment, the use of pyraclostrobin and its mixture in agriculture is increasing. The heavy use of pyraclostrobin will inevitably cause pollution to the biological and abiotic environment. Therefore, it is of great significance to do the research on the degradation of pyraclostrobin. In this study, coke, as matrix, was modified by chemical modification. The modified coke was used as the catalyst and the pyraclostrobin was used as the degradation object. The degradation experiment of pyraclostrobin was carried out by using catalytic oxidation. The catalytic oxidation performance of modified coke was studied. The result showed that in the catalytic oxidation system of using modified coke as catalyst and H2O2 as oxidant, the best reaction condition is as following: The modified coke which is modified by using 70% concentration nitric acid is used as catalyst; The dosage of the catalyst is10g; The dosage of H2O2 is 0.6ml; The reaction time is 6 hours.

  9. Colour change of soft denture liners after storage in coffee and coke. (United States)

    Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; Zuccolotti, Bruna Carolina Rossatti; Moreno, Amália; dos Santos, Daniela Micheline; Pesqueira, Aldiéris Alves; Dekon, Stefan Fiuza de Carvalho


    This study was to evaluate the colour change of soft denture liners after thermocycling and storage in coffee and coke. Four liners, two silicone-based (Sofreliner S and Reline GS) and two acrylic resin-based (Soft Confort and Dentuflex), were evaluated in this study. Ten samples were obtained for each group. After 2000 cycles of thermocycling with baths of 5°C and 55°C, five samples were stored in coffee and the remaining samples in coke. The colour alteration was evaluated in a reflection spectrophotometer before and after thermocycling, and after 1, 3, 24, 48 and 96h of storage in coffee and coke. Data were submitted to anova and Tukey's HSD test (α=0.05). Thermocycling and storage period represented a higher statistically significant influence for the resin liners than for the silicone materials. Coke did not influence the colour stability of the materials during storage. However, the coffee solution generated statistically significant colour alteration in the material Soft Confort. In the comparison between the coffee and coke solutions, there was no statistically significant difference for colour alteration only for the material Dentuflex. The silicone liners presented better colour stability following thermocycling and storage independent of the solution. The coffee solution was a statistically significant factor for colour alteration of the material Soft Confort. © 2010 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Influence of Coke Ratio on the Sintering Behavior of High-Chromium Vanadium-Titanium Magnetite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songtao Yang


    Full Text Available High-chromium vanadium and titanium magnetite (HCVTM sinter has poor properties. The coke ratio has an important effect on the behavior of HCVTM sintering as it affects the mineral phases in the high-chromium vanadium and titanium sinter (HCVTS via changing the sintering temperature and atmosphere. In this work, the sintering behavior of HCVTM mixed with varying coke ratios was investigated through sintering pot tests, X-ray diffraction (XRD, gas chromatographic analysis, and mineral phase analysis. The results show that, with the increase of the coke ratio from 4.0% to 6.0%, leading to the increase of the combustion ratio of the flue gas, the vertical sintering rate and sinter productivity decrease. Meanwhile, with the change of the coke ratio, the content of magnetite, silicate, and perovskite increase, while the hematite and calcium ferrite decrease. In addition, the tumble strength and reduction ability of HCVTS decrease, and its degradation strength increase. It was found that the appropriate coke ratio for the sintering process was 5.0 wt %.

  11. Effective adsorption of phenolic compound from aqueous solutions on activated semi coke (United States)

    Gao, Xiaoming; Dai, Yuan; Zhang, Yu; Fu, Feng


    Activated Semi coke was prepared by KOH activation and employed as adsorbent to study adsorption function of phenolic compound from aqueous solutions. The adsorption result showed that the adsorption capacity of the activated semi coke for phenolic compound increased with contact time and adsorbent dosage, and slightly affected by temperature. The surface structure property of the activated semi coke was characterized by N2 adsorption, indicating that the activated semi coke was essentially macroporous, and the BET surface area was 347.39 m2 g-1. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that the surface of the activated semi coke had a high developed pore. The adsorption kinetics were investigated according to pseudofirst order, pseudosecond order and intraparticle diffusion, and the kinetics data were fitted by pseudosecond order model, and intraparticle diffusion was not the only rate-controlling step. Adsorption isotherm was studied by Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, Redlich-Peterson, Sips and Toth models. The result indicated that adsorption isotherm data could fit well with Langmuir, Redlich-Peterson, Sips and Toth models.

  12. Post oxygen treatment characteristics of coke as an anode material for Li-ion batteries. (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Hun; Park, Min-Sik; Jo, Yong Nam; Yu, Ji-Sang; Jeong, Goojin; Kim, Young-Jun


    The effect of a oxygen treatment on the electrochemical characteristics of a soft carbon anode material for Li-ion batteries was investigated. After a coke carbonization process at 1000 degrees C in an argon atmosphere, the samples were treated under a flow of oxygen gas to obtain a mild oxidation effect. After this oxygen treatment, the coke samples exhibited an improved initial coulombic efficiency and cycle performance as compared to the carbonized sample. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed that the carbonized cokes consisted of disordered and nanosized graphene layers and the surface of the modified carbon was significantly changed after the treatment. The chemical state of the cokes was analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The enhanced electrochemical properties of the surface modified cokes could be attributed to the mild oxidation effect induced by the oxygen treatment. The mild oxidation process could have led to the elimination of surface imperfections and the reinforcement of a solid electrolyte interphase film, which resulted in the improved electrochemical characteristics.

  13. Failure analysis of the impellers of coke plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souvik Das


    Full Text Available Premature failure of the impeller blade of coke plant has been investigated. The component functioned during the CGC gas intake cycle. The component rotates at 1480 rpm with a volumetric flow of 720 m3/min of flue gas with temperature about 200–300 °C. The failed component reveals exposed surface of a crack that extended slightly beyond the assembly weld. From macro-structural observation under-filled region in welding is observed which is detrimental because it acts as a stress concentration site. The microstructure from the weld zone showed severe intergranular corrosion degradation. Micro cracks and cracks have been observed at several locations, mostly originating from the weld zone. From the EDS analysis of the failed sample it is observed that there is a deposition of Cr along the grain boundary. From the mode of failure it indicates that probable reason for the premature failure is due to sensitization of the component. In this case, the precipitation of chromium carbides may be occurred during welding operation when the heat affected zone (HAZ experiences a particular temperature range (550–850 °C. From the microstructure it is observed that the welding operation was not proper and there is every chance that there is heat generation in around sensitization range leading to precipitation of chromium carbides consumed the alloying element – chromium from a narrow band along the grain boundary and this makes the zone anodic to the unaffected grains. The chromium depleted zone becomes the preferential path for corrosion attack or crack propagation if under tensile stress. Thus it leads to premature failure of the component during service.

  14. Reference method for total water in lint cotton by automated oven drying combined with volumetric Karl Fischer titration (United States)

    In a preliminary study to measure total water in lint cotton we demonstrated that volumetric Karl Fischer Titration of moisture transported by a carrier gas from an attached small oven is more accurate than standard oven drying in air. The objective of the present study was to assess the measuremen...

  15. Understanding the bias between moisture content by oven drying and water content by Karl Fischer titration at moisture equilibrium (United States)

    Multiple causes of the difference between equilibrium moisture and water content have been found. The errors or biases were traced to the oven drying procedure to determine moisture content. The present paper explains the nature of the biases in oven drying and how it is possible to suppress one ...

  16. The chemistry of coke deposits formed on a Pt-Sn catalyst during hydrogenation of n-alkanes to mono-olefins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afonso, J.C.; Schmal, M.; Frety, R. (Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil))


    This work presents a detailed study of coke deposition on a Pt-Sn catalyst under industrial conditions. The spent catalyst was submitted to Soxhlet extraction and the soluble coke was characterized by means of IR, UV and GC-MS. The catalyst before and after coke extraction was characterized by means of IR, carbon content and temperature-programmed oxidation (TPO). Coke formation on the catalyst involves several processes: (1) successive dehydrogenation/cyclization of alkyl chains (polyene route); (2) N-alkane oligomerization; (3) Diels-Alder-type reactions. The structure of insoluble coke is quite different from that of soluble coke: the elimination of the latter one causes disappearance of the low-temperature oxidation zone (TPO). Soluble coke contains dominant proportion of aliphatic groups whereas polyaromatic structures predominate in insoluble coke. 39 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.


    CERN Multimedia


    Be careful! What happened?   Unsignaled reinforced glass.   Signaled safety glass.   A visitor recently hurt his leg when he walked into a glass door which shattered from the impact. This door was made of reinforced glass, a material which is inappropriate for this kind of use as it is too fragile. Indeed, it shatters into sharp splinters which can cause serious injury. Furthermore, the door was not easily visible (badly lit, no warning signs, ...). Corrective measures Just after the accident: glass doors were signed to make them more visible; replacement of dangerous glass panes planned for 2003. What preventive measures can be taken against this kind of accident? If you are in charge of projects and works: In the call for tender, specify the acceptable shock resistance level of the glass pane; Before the door is mounted, insist on receiving technical documentation and/or certificate of conformity from the supplier; If in doubt, ask advice from the TIS/GS sa...

  18. Modeling and Simulation of Two Wheelchair Accessories for Pushing Doors. (United States)

    Abdullah, Soran Jalal; Shaikh Mohammed, Javeed


    Independent mobility is vital to individuals of all ages, and wheelchairs have proven to be great personal mobility devices. The tasks of opening and navigating through a door are trivial for healthy people, while the same tasks could be difficult for some wheelchair users. A wide range of intelligent wheelchair controllers and systems, robotic arms, or manipulator attachments integrated with wheelchairs have been developed for various applications, including manipulating door knobs. Unfortunately, the intelligent wheelchairs and robotic attachments are not widely available as commercial products. Therefore, the current manuscript presents the modeling and simulation of a novel but simple technology in the form of a passive wheelchair accessory (straight, arm-like with a single wheel, and arc-shaped with multiple wheels) for pushing doors open from a wheelchair. From the simulations using different wheel shapes and sizes, it was found that the arc-shaped accessory could push open the doors faster and with almost half the required force as compared to the arm-like accessory. Also, smaller spherical wheels were found to be best in terms of reaction forces on the wheels. Prototypes based on the arc-shaped accessory design will be manufactured and evaluated for pushing doors open and dodging or gliding other obstacles.

  19. Design of Controlled Release Non-erodible Polymeric Matrix Tablet Using Microwave Oven-assisted Sintering Technique. (United States)

    Patel, Dm; Patel, Bk; Patel, Ha; Patel, Cn


    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of sintering condition on matrix formation and subsequent drug release from polymer matrix tablet for controlled release. The present study highlights the use of a microwave oven for the sintering process in order to achieve more uniform heat distribution with reduction in time required for sintering. We could achieve effective sintering within 8 min which is very less compared to conventional hot air oven sintering. The tablets containing the drug (propranolol hydrochloride) and sintering polymer (eudragit S-100) were prepared and kept in a microwave oven at 540 watt, 720 watt and 900 watt power for different time periods for sintering. The sintered tablets were evaluated for various tablet characteristics including dissolution study. Tablets sintered at 900 watt power for 8 min gave better dissolution profile compared to others. We conclude that microwave oven sintering is better than conventional hot air oven sintering process in preparation of controlled release tablets.

  20. Health status among urban residents living in proximity to petroleum coke storage: a first examination. (United States)

    Hendryx, Michael; Entwhistle, Jennifer; Kenny, Emily; Illyn, Peter


    We conducted an in-person survey in neighborhoods in south Chicago to examine whether residence near outdoor petroleum coke storage piles was associated with poorer health status and illness symptoms. A total of 223 adults (≥18) completed the surveys in English or Spanish, including 136 from a neighborhood exposed to the petroleum coke and 87 from a nearby comparison neighborhood. Exposure was defined based on prevailing winds and distance. We conducted a propensity score regression analysis, and found that residents in the exposed neighborhood were significantly more likely to report poor self-rated health, more unhealthy physical and mental health days, more illness symptoms including in particular respiratory and neurological symptoms, and worse perceived environmental conditions. The survey is limited by the small sample and the self-report nature of the data, but provides initial quantitative evidence that residence near outdoor petroleum coke storage piles may pose a public health risk.

  1. 75 FR 42611 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedure for Microwave Ovens (United States)


    ..., Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, EE-2J, 1000 Independence Avenue... Procedure for Microwave Ovens AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy... of Energy, Forrestal Building, Room 8E-089, 1000 Independence Avenue, SW., Washington, DC 20585-0121...

  2. Tensile strength of type IV dental stones dried in a microwave oven. (United States)

    Hersek, Nur; Canay, Senay; Akça, Kivanç; Ciftçi, Yalçin


    It is known that drying dental stones in a microwave oven can save time, but the strength of the material may be affected by different drying methods. This study evaluated the diametral tensile strength (DTS) of 5 type IV gypsum products at different time intervals using microwave and air-drying methods. . A total of 300 cylinder specimens were prepared from 5 type IV dental stones (Moldano, Amberok, Herastone, Shera-Sockel, and Fujirock; n = 60 per stone) in accordance with the manufacturers' recommendations. Half of the specimens of each stone (n = 30) were dried in open air within a temperature range of 20 +/- 2 degrees C; the other half (n = 30) underwent initial setting in a silicone rubber mold in open air for 10 minutes and then were dried in a microwave oven for 10 minutes. Within these groups, 10 specimens were tested under diametral compression at each of the following time periods: 30, 60, and 120 minutes after drying. Three-way analysis of variance and Scheffe's post hoc test were performed for statistical comparisons at a significance level of Pmicrowave oven (mean 2.99 MPa) were significantly higher (Pmicrowave oven drying had a positive effect on the diametral tensile strength of 5 type IV dental stones.

  3. Computer-Presented Video Prompting for Teaching Microwave Oven Use to Three Adults with Developmental Disabilities (United States)

    Sigafoos, Jeff; O'Reilly, Mark; Cannella, Helen; Upadhyaya, Megha; Edrisinha, Chaturi; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Hundley, Anna; Andrews, Alonzo; Garver, Carolyn; Young, David


    We evaluated the use of a video prompting procedure for teaching three adults with developmental disabilities to make popcorn using a microwave oven. Training, using a 10-step task analysis, was conducted in the kitchen of the participant's vocational training program. During baseline, participants were instructed to make popcorn, but were given…

  4. Science at Home: Measuring a Thermophysical Property of Water with a Microwave Oven (United States)

    Levine, Zachary H.


    An attempt to calibrate a conventional oven led to making a measurement of a thermophysical property of water using items found in the author's home. Specifically, the ratio of the energy required to heat water from the melting point to boiling to the energy required to completely boil away the water is found to be 5.7. This may be compared to the…

  5. A solar oven in the aim of reducing wood consumption in the Sahel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ba, A.; Hamadou, A. [Centre National d' Energie Solaire, Niamey (Nigeria); Saley, H.A. [UDUS, Sokoto (Niger)


    01 Traditional ovens working with large amount of wood are used by butchers to roast mutton in Niger. As we know, this country is mostly occupied by Sahara desert. It is quite important to preserve its forest and all initiative to reduce wood consumption is welcome. That is one of the reasons that a solar oven is conceived. It is a hot box type solar cooker that has parallelepiped form with 1200 mm length, 975 mm width, and 755 mm height, the all with four rollers feet. The absorber is half cylinder, constituted with a black-painted sheet and with 1100 mm length and 965 mm diameter. The oven has a double glass cover and two reflectors permitting the increase of solar radiation in the box. The external wall is constituted of wood board on which a layer of varnish has been putted. Between the board and the absorber there is a glass wool insulation of 25 mm thickness. Tests have been run to characterise the oven: -temperature profile in the box (from the bottom to the glass cover) -efficiency of the cooker calculated - economic aspects examined. (orig.)

  6. Mathematical modeling for temperature and concentration study inside a thermal drying oven (United States)

    Tanthadiloke, Surasit; Kittisupakorn, Paisan


    In order to investigate the dynamic behavior for further performance improvements of a thermal drying oven in a can production plant, mathematical models based on continuity equations are developed and validated with COMSOL simulation result. Profiles of temperature and the concentration of evaporated solvent (Ethylene glycol monobutyl ether; C6H14O2) in three different volumetric air flow rates such as 1.67, 1.00 and 0.33 m3/s are investigated and compared with the simulation results. The results demonstrated that the developed models for the thermal drying oven provide good prediction with a very small error from the validating data and the coefficient of determination (R2) of these models is 0.9926. Furthermore, these models can keep a good evaluation of both temperature and the concentration of evaporated solvent when changing the volumetric air flow rates. The simulation results from the developed models in all cases have the similar trends when compared with the COMSOL results. In addition, the results in this work guarantee that the developed models can provide the dynamic behavior inside the thermal drying oven and are applicable for the future improvements of the thermal drying oven performance.

  7. Strength of Geopolymer Cement Curing at Ambient Temperature by Non-Oven Curing Approaches: An Overview (United States)

    Wattanachai, Pitiwat; Suwan, Teewara


    At the present day, a concept of environmentally friendly construction materials has been intensively studying to reduce the amount of releasing greenhouse gases. Geopolymer is one of the cementitious binders which can be produced by utilising pozzolanic wastes (e.g. fly ash or furnace slag) and also receiving much more attention as a low-CO2 emission material. However, to achieve excellent mechanical properties, heat curing process is needed to apply to geopolymer cement in a range of temperature around 40 to 90°C. To consume less oven-curing energy and be more convenience in practical work, the study on geopolymer curing at ambient temperature (around 20 to 25°C) is therefore widely investigated. In this paper, a core review of factors and approaches for non-oven curing geopolymer has been summarised. The performance, in term of strength, of each non-oven curing method, is also presented and analysed. The main aim of this review paper is to gather the latest study of ambient temperature curing geopolymer and to enlarge a feasibility of non-oven curing geopolymer development. Also, to extend the directions of research work, some approaches or techniques can be combined or applied to the specific properties for in-field applications and embankment stabilization by using soil-cement column.

  8. Use of a Microwave Oven. Youth Training Scheme. Core Exemplar Work Based Project. (United States)

    Further Education Staff Coll., Blagdon (England).

    This trainer's guide is intended to assist supervisors of work-based career training projects in helping students understand the benefits, advantages, and disadvantages of a microwave oven and its use. The guide is one in a series of core curriculum modules that is intended for use in combination on- and off-the-job programs to familiarize youth…

  9. Heat transfer and heating rate of food stuffs in commercial shop ovens

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Heat transfer and heating rate of food stuffs in commercial shop ovens. P NAVANEETHAKRISHNAN. ∗. , P S S SRINIVASAN and. S DHANDAPANI. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kongu Engineering College,. Perundurai 638 052 e-mail:, MS received 24 May 2006; ...

  10. Studies on Some Major and Trace Metals in Smoked and Oven ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mineral (Li, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn and Pb) composition of each of five species of fish, including Sarotherodon galilaues, Cyprinus carpio, Clarias gariepinus, Sardinella spp. and Labeo spp. Was determined in samples previously dried, either by traditional smoking method, or in laboratory oven, to gain ...

  11. 40 CFR 60.105a - Monitoring of emissions and operations for fluid catalytic cracking units (FCCU) and fluid coking... (United States)


    ... for fluid catalytic cracking units (FCCU) and fluid coking units (FCU). 60.105a Section 60.105a... and operations for fluid catalytic cracking units (FCCU) and fluid coking units (FCU). (a) FCCU and... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Petroleum Refineries: Catalytic Cracking Units...

  12. 77 FR 34012 - Foundry Coke Products From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order (United States)


    ... International Trade Administration Foundry Coke Products From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of... antidumping duty order on foundry coke products from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') would likely... Products from China Determination, 77 FR 32998 (June 4, 2012), and USITC Publication 4326 (May 29, 2012...

  13. Reaction Mechanism for the Formation of Nitrogen Oxides (NO x ) During Coke Oxidation in Fluidized Catalytic Cracking Units

    KAUST Repository

    Chaparala, Sree Vidya


    Fluidized catalytic cracking (FCC) units in refineries process heavy feedstock obtained from crude oil distillation. While cracking feed, catalysts get deactivated due to coke deposition. During catalyst regeneration by burning coke in air, nitrogen oxides (NOx) are formed. The increase in nitrogen content in feed over time has resulted in increased NOx emissions. To predict NOx concentration in flue gas, a reliable model for FCC regenerators is needed that requires comprehensive understanding and accurate kinetics for NOx formation. Based on the nitrogen-containing functional groups on coke, model molecules are selected to study reactions between coke-bound nitrogen and O2 to form NO and NO2 using density functional theory. The reaction kinetics for the proposed pathways are evaluated using transition state theory. It is observed that the addition of O2 on coke is favored only when the free radical is present on the carbon atom instead of nitrogen atom. Thus, NOx formation during coke oxidation does not result from the direct attack by O2 on N atoms of coke, but from the transfer of an O atom to N from a neighboring site. The low activation energies required for NO formation indicate that it is more likely to form than NO2 during coke oxidation. The favorable pathways for NOx formation that can be used in FCC models are identified. Copyright © 2015 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  14. 41 CFR 101-26.4904-416 - DD Form 416: Purchase Request for Coal, Coke, or Briquettes. (United States)


    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true DD Form 416: Purchase Request for Coal, Coke, or Briquettes. 101-26.4904-416 Section 101-26.4904-416 Public Contracts and... DD Form 416: Purchase Request for Coal, Coke, or Briquettes. Note: The form illustrated in § 101-26...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handoko Sugiharto


    Full Text Available The conventional method of water content measurement of aggregate and fresh concrete need along time to perform. As an alternative the use of microwave oven is explored in this research. The microwave oven used has 900 watt power and equiped with a turn table. Nine (9 type of aggregate consist of five (5 type of fine aggregate and four (4 type of coarse aggregate with varions water absorbsion value, are unvestigated. The rater contents measured is then compared with the once obtained using conventional oven. Four (4 type of mix using aggegate with varions water absorbsion values. Water content used for the fresh concrete mix is 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7. The test results show that this method can beused to measure water content of fine and coarse aggregate regardless of the water absorbsion values of the aggregates. For fine aggregate nine (9 minutes drying time is needed to get 100% accuracy while for coarse aggregate 11 minutes with 96% accuracy. For fresh concrete using aggregate with less than 5% absorbsion value 18 minutes is neede to get 98% accuracy, while for aggregate with 40% absorbsion value 35 minutes is needed to get 80% accuracy. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Pengukuran kadar air pada agregat dan beton segar dengan metode konvensional memerlukan waktu yang cukup lama, maka dilakukan penelitian penggunaan microwave oven sebagai metode alternatifnya. Microwave oven yang digunakan mempunyai daya 900 watt dan dilengkapi dengan piring putar. Dilakukan penelitian terhadap 9 tipe agregat (5 jenis agregat halus dan 4 jenis agregat kasar dengan berbagai nilai absorpsi. Sedangkan untuk beton segar dibuat 4 macam campuran dengan berbagai nilai absorpsi agregat. Faktor air-semen yang digunakan adalah 0.3, 0.5 dan 0.7. Hasil pengukuran kadar airnya dengan microwave oven dibandingkan terhadap oven standard. Hasil tes yang diperoleh menunjukkan bahwa metode ini dapat digunakan untuk mengukur kadar air agregat halus dan kasar dengan tidak tergantung pada

  16. F-door spaces and F-submaximal spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobna Dridi


    Full Text Available Submaximal spaces and door spaces play an enigmatic role in topology. In this paper, reinforcing this role, we are concerned with reaching two main goals: The first one is to characterize topological spaces X such that F(X is a submaximal space (resp., door space for some covariant functor Ff rom the category Top to itself. T0, and FH functors are completely studied. Secondly, our interest is directed towards the characterization of maps f given by a flow (X, f in the category Set, such that (X,P(f is submaximal (resp., door where P(f is a topology on X whose closed sets are exactly the f-invariant sets.

  17. Confounding adjustment through front-door blocking in longitudinal studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvid Sjölander


    Full Text Available A common aim of epidemiological research is to estimate the causal effect of a particular exposure on a particular outcome. Towards this end, observed associations are often ‘adjusted’ for potential confounding variables. When the potential confounders are unmeasured, explicit adjustment becomes unfeasible. It has been demonstrated that causal effects can be estimated even in the presence of umeasured confounding, utilizing a method called ‘front-door blocking’. In this paper we generalize this method to longitudinal studies. We demonstrate that the method of front-door blocking poses a number of challenging statistical problems, analogous to the famous problems associ- ated with the method of ‘back-door blocking’.

  18. Coke fouling process on the oil refining; Processo de incrustacao por coque no refino do petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bombardelli, Clovis; Fiorentin, Leila D.; Negrao, Cezar O.R.; Franco, Admilson T. [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica do Parana (CEFET-PR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica e de Materiais (PPGEM)


    The heavy crude fraction processing is performed under very high vacuum to minimize thermal cracking which cause coke deposition and damage the equipment. The current tendency is to process heavier oil leading to higher process temperatures and consequently to greater fouling. This situation demands better knowledge fouling process by carbonization. This problem is pronounced in the residual gasoil region of a vacuum distillation unit because it obstructs the recirculation circuits and the spray system with serious environmental and economics implications. This paper review the main correlated published work related to coke generation and fouling and presents a discussion about the works. (author)

  19. Effect of Contact Resistance on Bulk Resistivity of Dry Coke Beds (United States)

    Eidem, P. A.; Runde, M.; Tangstad, M.; Bakken, J. A.; Zhou, Z. Y.; Yu, A. B.


    Measurements show that bulk resistivity of dry coke beds decreases with increasing particle size. A further development of a coke bed model is proposed to explain this correlation. By image analysis, it has been determined that the total porosity increases with increasing particle size. An increased total porosity of the particles decreases the mechanical strength of the particles. In the modeling work, the strength of the coke particles is introduced through Young’s modulus. By the use of discrete element method (DEM) modeling of a dry coke bed, the particle-to-particle contact area variation with varying particle size and particle strength has been introduced into a model of the dry coke bed. This was done by the introduction of the concept of the Holm’s radius, known from metal contact theory for describing how the contact resistance is affected by the material resistivity and the contact area. By assuming a decrease in the particle strength due to increased porosity of the coke particles with increasing particle size, the calculated bulk resistivity for 7.3-mm particles with a Young’s modulus of 1.0 GPa is 5.24·10-3 Ωm and 3.44·10-3 Ωm for the 20-mm particles with a Young’s modulus of 0.1 GPa. By comparison, the measured bulk resistivity of the Corus coke is 4.67 ± 0.30·10-3 Ωm for the 5- to 10-mm fraction and 3.71 ± 0.45·10-3 Ωm for the 15- to 20-mm fraction. The measured contact resistance of Swedish Steel AB (SSAB) coke decreases with increasing contact area size from a contact diameter of 5 mm to a contact diameter of 30 mm. This is probably due to an increasing number of electrical contact spots. When two spheres are in contact, the measured contact resistance is lower compared to the 5-mm-diameter contact, which indicates that the increased contact pressure has lowered the contact resistance. This supports the modeling results.

  20. Advanced FCC catalyst matrix technology for reduced coke and slurry yields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maglio, A.; Keweshan, C.F.; Madon, R.J. (Engelhard Corp., Iselin, NJ (United States)); McLean, J.B. (Engelhard Corp., Houston, TX (United States))


    Engelhard's new Reduxion line of FCC catalysts have been developed to offer 10 to 20% lower coke versus current catalysts, while maintaining high bottoms upgrading selectivity. Aspects of Engelhard's PyroChem zeolite technology featured in the Precision Catalyst line have been combined with a controlled matrix acidity distribution which maintains sites selective for bottoms cracking while reducing the strong sites which lead to coke and gas formation. Results from pilot unit testing are presented and projections for commercial operations are provided.

  1. An engineering model for hazard prediction of ammunition magazine doors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voort, M.M. van der; Conway, R.; Kummer, P.O.; Rakvåg, K.; Weerheijm, J.


    An accidental explosion in an ammunition magazine may break-up the structure and cause a significant debris hazard. Experimental and theoretical research mainly focusses on the break-up of the reinforced concrete or brick magazine walls. The behaviour of the door has usually been ignored in the

  2. Doors to Discovery[TM]. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013


    "Doors to Discovery"]TM] is a preschool literacy curriculum that uses eight thematic units of activities to help children build fundamental early literacy skills in oral language, phonological awareness, concepts of print, alphabet knowledge, writing, and comprehension. The eight thematic units cover topics such as nature, friendship,…

  3. Portal: Your Door to World Languages and Cultures (United States)

    Elliott, Don; Lawton, Rachele


    Portal: Your Door to World Languages and Cultures was a series of public cultural events, in a variety of formats, created through a new partnership between the credit and continuing education (noncredit) foreign language programs at the Community College of Baltimore County (CCBC). Portal was designed to cultivate interest in foreign languages…

  4. Schone consumptie aal door groeiverdunning van kleine wilde aal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotterman, M.J.J.; Bierman, S.M.


    Dit rapport beschrijft hoe kleine wilde aal, gevangen in de gesloten gebieden, kan uitgroeien tot grote aal die aan de consumptie-normen voldoet. Door groei van een aal onder schone omstandigheden neemt de biomassa toe, maar de hoeveelheid verontreiniging in de aal niet of nauwelijks. Het

  5. Tuition and the Open-Door: A Relative Perspective. (United States)

    Zucker, Jacob D.; Nazari-Robati, Ali


    Explores the effects of changing tuition rates on open-door policies at U.S. community/junior colleges. Assesses nationwide tuition trends and analyzes the relationship between tuition rates and enrollment levels. Points to continuous tuition increases since 1951. Concludes that further increases could close colleges to those unable to afford…

  6. Bear at the back door | Prinsloo | Scientia Militaria: South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 9, No 3 (1979) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Bear at the back door. C Prinsloo. Abstract.

  7. Locked doors in acute inpatient psychiatry: a literature review. (United States)

    van der Merwe, M; Bowers, L; Jones, J; Simpson, A; Haglund, K


    Many acute inpatient psychiatric wards in the UK are permanently locked, although this is contrary to the current Mental Health Act Code of Practice. To conduct a literature review of empirical articles concerning locked doors in acute psychiatric inpatient wards, an extensive literature search was performed in SAGE Journals Online, EBM Reviews, British Nursing Index, CINAHL, EMBASE Psychiatry, International Bibliography of the Social Sciences, Ovid MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Google, using the search terms 'open$', 'close$', '$lock$', 'door', 'ward', 'hospital', 'psychiatr', 'mental health', 'inpatient' and 'asylum'. A total of 11 empirical papers were included in the review. Both staff and patients reported advantages (e.g. preventing illegal substances from entering the ward and preventing patients from absconding and harming themselves or others) and disadvantages (e.g. making patients feel depressed, confined and creating extra work for staff) regarding locked doors. Locked wards were associated with increased patient aggression, poorer satisfaction with treatment and more severe symptoms. The limited literature available showed the urgent need for research to determine the real effects of locked doors in inpatient psychiatry.

  8. Polychaete Anneliden verzameld door Het Rijksinstituut voor Biologisch Visscherijonderzoek

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, R.


    Lepidonotus squamatus L. juv. Waarn. 134. Enkhuizerzand. 7 Febr. 1909. Zooals vroeger door mij aangetoond, is deze soort vrij gemeen in de Zuiderzee. Eunoa nodosa M. Sars. Waarn. 16. 55° 40' N.Br., 0° 50' W.L. 8 Maart 1914. Harmothoë (Evarne) impar (Johnst.). Waarn. 69. Molengat. 16 Oct. 1913. De

  9. 36 CFR 1192.153 - Doors, steps and thresholds. (United States)


    ... minimum clear width when open of 30 inches (760 mm), measured from the lowest step to a height of at least...-resistant. (b) All step edges shall have a band of color(s) running the full width of the step which... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Doors, steps and thresholds...

  10. Barcode van DNA. Democratisering van de taxonomie door digitaal identificatiesysteem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, F.T.


    Het herkennen van biologische soorten aan de hand van een gestandaardiseerde DNA-barcode heeft de laatste tijd een enorme vlucht genomen. Gedreven door aan de ene kant de biodiversiteitscrises en de mogelijke global change, en aan de andere kant zowel razendsnelle technologische vooruitgang als ook

  11. Electrical Resistivity Measurement of Petroleum Coke Powder by Means of Four-Probe Method (United States)

    Rouget, G.; Majidi, B.; Picard, D.; Gauvin, G.; Ziegler, D.; Mashreghi, J.; Alamdari, H.


    Carbon anodes used in Hall-Héroult electrolysis cells are involved in both electrical and chemical processes of the cell. Electrical resistivity of anodes depends on electrical properties of its constituents, of which carbon coke aggregates are the most prevalent. Electrical resistivity of coke aggregates is usually characterized according to the ISO 10143 standardized test method, which consists of measuring the voltage drop in the bed of particles between two electrically conducing plungers through which the current is also applied. Estimation of the electrical resistivity of coke particles from the resistivity of particle bed is a challenging task and needs consideration of the contribution of the interparticle void fraction and the particle/particle contact resistances. In this work, the bed resistivity was normalized by subtracting the interparticle void fraction. Then, the contact size was obtained from discrete element method simulation and the contact resistance was calculated using Holm's theory. Finally, the resistivity of the coke particles was obtained from the bed resistivity.

  12. Reduction in toxicity of coking wastewater to aquatic organisms by vertical tubular biological reactor. (United States)

    Zhou, Siyun; Watanabe, Haruna; Wei, Chang; Wang, Dongzhou; Zhou, Jiti; Tatarazako, Norihisa; Masunaga, Shigeki; Zhang, Ying


    We conducted a battery of toxicity tests using photo bacterium, algae, crustacean and fish to evaluate acute toxicity profile of coking wastewater, and to evaluate the performance of a novel wastewater treatment process, vertical tubular biological reactor (VTBR), in the removal of toxicity and certain chemical pollutants. A laboratory scale VTBR system was set up to treat industrial coking wastewater, and investigated both chemicals removal efficiency and acute bio-toxicity to aquatic organisms. The results showed that chemical oxygen demand (COD) and phenol reductions by VTBR were approximately 93% and 100%, respectively. VTBR also reduced the acute toxicity of coking wastewater significantly: Toxicity Unit (TU) decreased from 21.2 to 0.4 for Photobacterium phosphoreum, from 9.5 to 0.6 for Isochrysis galbana, from 31.9 to 1.3 for Daphnia magna, and from 30.0 to nearly 0 for Danio rerio. VTBR is an efficient treatment method for the removal of chemical pollutants and acute bio-toxicity from coking wastewater. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Coke drums inspection and evaluation using stress and strain analysis techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haraguchi, Marcio Issamu [Tricom Tecnologia e Servicos de Manutencao Industrial Ltda., Piquete, SP (Brazil); Samman, Mahmod [Houston Engineering Solutions, Houston, TX (United States); Tinoco, Ediberto Bastos; Marangone, Fabio de Castro; Silva, Hezio Rosa da; Barcelos, Gustavo de Carvalho [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    Coke drums deform due to a complex combination of mechanical and thermal cyclic stresses. Bulges have progressive behavior and represent the main maintenance problem related to these drums. Bulge failure typically result in through-wall cracks, leaks, and sometimes fires. Such failures generally do not represent a great risk to personnel. Repairs needed to maintain reliability of these vessels might require extensive interruption to operation which in turn considerably impacts the profitability of the unit. Therefore the condition, progression and severity of these bulges should be closely monitored. Coke drums can be inspected during turnaround with 3D Laser Scanning and Remote Visual Inspection (RVI) tools, resulting in a detailed dimensional and visual evaluation of the internal surface. A typical project has some goals: inspect the equipment to generate maintenance or inspection recommendations, comparison with previous results and baseline data. Until recently, coke drum structural analysis has been traditionally performed analyzing Stress Concentration Factors (SCF) thought Finite Element Analysis methods; however this technique has some serious technical and practical limitations. To avoid these shortcomings, the new strain analysis technique PSI (Plastic Strain Index) was developed. This method which is based on API 579/ ASME FFS standard failure limit represents the state of the art of coke drum bulging severity assessment has an excellent correlation with failure history. (author)

  14. The US merchant blast furnace coke market: current state of play

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aloe, A. [Shenango Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (US)


    A five page text is accompanied by a set of 11 slides/overheads. The talk discussed the reasons why the presenter believes that coke prices will stay above their historical levels for the foreseeable future. 3 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  15. Strength and deformation properties of polymer composites with finely dispersed coke (United States)

    Kozyrev, Yu. P.; Kovalenko, N. A.


    When the adhesive strength at a polymer/filler interface is changed from minimum values (FK materials) to maximum values (EK materials), the threshold concentration of finely dispersed coke, i.e., the lowest concentration for quasibrittle failure, of the composites, is more than doubled, increasing from 25% to 55% by volume.

  16. Utilizing the phenol byproducts of coke production: 3. Phenols as coinhibitors of thermopolymerization during styrene production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    I.I. Batura; A.F. Gogotov; V.I. Cherepanov; O.I. Baranov; A.A. Levchuk; M.V. Parilova [Irkutsk State Technical University, Irkutsk (Russian Federation)


    A new oligomerization procedure for phenol byproducts from coke production is experimentally studied. This method, oxidative combination, is intended to produce an effective coinhibitor of styrene thermopolymerization. When combined with a Mannich base, the new oligomer exhibits excellent inhibiting properties in the heat treatment of styrene and matches the effectiveness of imported inhibitors based on nitroxyl radicals. 15 refs., 1 tab.



    Zhang, Lu; Qi, Shi-Chao; Norinaga, Koyo


    Coking coal from Xinyu of Shanxi Province is extracted under elevated temperature and pressure via Accelerated Solvent and Soxhlet Extraction. Analyzing their GC/MS results, we explore the two extraction methods’ impact on the dissolution behavior of small molecules in coal and investigate the mechanism of the extraction.

  18. Selective Coke Combustion by Oxygen Pulsing During Mo/ZSM-5-Catalyzed Methane Dehydroaromatization. (United States)

    Kosinov, Nikolay; Coumans, Ferdy J A G; Uslamin, Evgeny; Kapteijn, Freek; Hensen, Emiel J M


    Non-oxidative methane dehydroaromatization is a promising reaction to directly convert natural gas into aromatic hydrocarbons and hydrogen. Commercialization of this technology is hampered by rapid catalyst deactivation because of coking. A novel approach is presented involving selective oxidation of coke during methane dehydroaromatization at 700 °C. Periodic pulsing of oxygen into the methane feed results in substantially higher cumulative product yield with synthesis gas; a H2 /CO ratio close to two is the main side-product of coke combustion. Using 13 C isotope labeling of methane it is demonstrated that oxygen predominantly reacts with molybdenum carbide species. The resulting molybdenum oxides catalyze coke oxidation. Less than one-fifth of the available oxygen reacts with gaseous methane. Combined with periodic regeneration at 550 °C, this strategy is a significant step forward, towards a process for converting methane into liquid hydrocarbons. © 2016 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  19. Modelling and Simulation of Coking in the Riser of an Industrial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Under normal Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) conditions, coke is the most important factor that affects catalyst activity. A pseudo homogeneous two - dimensional (2D) model of an industrial FCC riser is here presented. The FCC riser models of previous researchers were mostly based on the assumption of negligible mass ...

  20. Recycling waste plastics in EAF steelmaking. Carbon/slag interactions of HDPE-coke blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahajwalla, Veena; Rahman, Muhammad; Khanna, Rita; Saha-Chaudhury, Narendra [Centre for Sustainable Materials Research and Technology, The Univ. of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia); O' Kane, Paul; Skidmore, Catherine; Knights, David [OneSteel, Rooty Hill, Sydney, NSW (Australia)


    Due to the inherent limitations of current methods of plastic waste disposal, there have been concerted efforts worldwide towards developing alternative, environment friendly and economic recycling processes. With an aim to recycle waste plastics in EAF steelmaking, carbon/slag interactions for a number of blends made of metallurgical coke and HDPE (high density polyethylene) and an EAF slag (34.8 mass-% Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) have been investigated at 1550 C using a sessile drop arrangement. The rate of gas generation showed an increase with increasing HDPE concentration, reaching a maximum for blend 3 (with appr. 30% HDPE) and decreasing thereafter. Among all the blends investigated, blend 3 showed significantly higher levels of slag foaming as compared to metallurgical coke. HDPE-coke blends also showed better wetting compared to metallurgical coke with contact angles in some cases improving from 140 to 70 after 10 minutes of contact. These results have been discussed in terms of ash and sulphur contents of carbonaceous residues and dynamic changes in slag composition. Industrial trials on blend 3 showed a good agreement with laboratory results. This work opens novel avenues for the utilisation of plastics wastes as a valuable carbon resource in EAF steelmaking. (orig.)

  1. Coke, char and organic waste behaviour in the blast furnace with high injection rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudenau, H. W.


    Full Text Available Blast furnace operation with low coke rate, high amount of auxiliary hydrocarbons and use of nut coke causes a change in coke quality requirements. In particular, not burned in the raceway residues of injected substances (char and ash can influence the coke behaviour. Therefore combustion efficiency of various organic wastes with and without pulverized coal injection (PCI and coal char has been investigated under the raceway simulation conditions. Mixing of various substances improves their combustion efficiency. Study on coke gasification by carbon dioxide in the presence of char showed that with the increase of char concentration, coke strength reduction becomes smaller. The reactivity of char with CO2 is higher than that of coke. Therefore char is consumed preferentially. In presence of injected char, total pore volume in coke and its wear resistance were increased. Coke reactivity and microstructure in the presence of various kinds of ash has been studied. Many ash spheres were observed on the surface of coke matrix and its size was dependent on ash properties.

    La operación del horno alto con una tasa baja de coque, una cantidad elevada de hidrocarburos auxiliares y el empleo de coque calibrado, origina un cambio en las necesidades de calidad del coque. En particular, pueden influir en el comportamiento del coque los residuos inquemados en el raceway (cavidad enfrente a las toberas del horno de las sustancias que se inyectan (char y cenizas. El char es el residuo de carbón que se origina después que el carbón libera sus sustancias volátiles. Por tanto, se ha investigado la eficiencia de la combustión de varios residuos orgánicos con y sin inyección de carbón pulverizado (ICP y char, bajo las condiciones de simulación del raceway. La mezcla de varias sustancias mejora la eficiencia a la combustión. El estudio de la gasificación del coque por el dióxido de carbono en la

  2. Optimization of experimental conditions for recovery of coking coal fines by oil agglomeration technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.H.V.C. Chary; M.G. Dastidar [Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi (India). Centre for Energy Studies


    The significance of coking coal in the metallurgical sector as well as the meager coking coal reserves across the globe increase the necessity to recover coking coal fines from the fine coking coal slurries generated from coal preparation and utilization activities. Oil agglomeration studies were carried out by varying the experimental conditions for maximum recovery of coking coal fines i.e., yield of the agglomerates. The various operational parameters studied were oil dosage, agitation speed, agglomeration time and pulp density. By using Taguchi experimental design, oil dosage (20%), agitation speed (1100 rpm), agglomeration time (3 min) and pulp density (4.5%) were identified as the optimized conditions. A confirmation experiment has also been carried out at the optimized conditions. The percentage contribution of each parameter on agglomerate yield was analyzed by adopting analysis of variance (ANOVA) statistical method as well as multiple linear regression analysis. The order of influence of the parameters on the agglomerate yield is of the following order: pulp density {lt} oil dosage {lt} agitation speed {gt} agglomeration time. A mathematical model was developed to fit the set of experimental condition with the yield obtained at each test run and also at the optimized conditions. The experimentally obtained yield was compared with the predicted yield of the model and the results indicate a maximum error of 5% between the two. A maximum yield of 90.42% predicted at the optimized conditions appeared to be in close agreement with the experimental yield thus indicating the accuracy of the model in predicting the results. 12 refs., 4 figs., 11 tabs.

  3. Variations in toxicity of semi-coking wastewater treatment processes and their toxicity prediction. (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoyan; Wang, Xiaochang; Liu, Yongjun; Gao, Jian; Wang, Yongkun


    Chemical analyses and bioassays using Vibrio fischeri and Daphnia magna were conducted to evaluate comprehensively the variation of biotoxicity caused by contaminants in wastewater from a semi-coking wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Pretreatment units (including an oil-water separator, a phenols extraction tower, an ammonia stripping tower, and a regulation tank) followed by treatment units (including anaerobic-oxic treatment units, coagulation-sedimentation treatment units, and an active carbon adsorption column) were employed in the semi-coking WWTP. Five benzenes, 11 phenols, and five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated as the dominant contaminants in semi-coking wastewater. Because of residual extractant, the phenols extraction process increased acute toxicity to V. fischeri and immobilization and lethal toxicity to D. magna. The acute toxicity of pretreated wastewater to V. fischeri was still higher than that of raw semi-coking wastewater, even though 90.0% of benzenes, 94.8% of phenols, and 81.0% of PAHs were removed. After wastewater pretreatment, phenols and PAHs were mainly removed by anaerobic-oxic and coagulation-sedimentation treatment processes respectively, and a subsequent active carbon adsorption process further reduced the concentrations of all target chemicals to below detection limits. An effective biotoxicity reduction was found during the coagulation-sedimentation and active carbon adsorption treatment processes. The concentration addition model can be applied for toxicity prediction of wastewater from the semi-coking WWTP. The deviation between the measured and predicted toxicity results may result from the effects of compounds not detectable by instrumental analyses, the synergistic effect of detected contaminants, or possible transformation products. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Emission characteristics and size distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from coke production in China (United States)

    Mu, Ling; Peng, Lin; Liu, Xiaofeng; He, Qiusheng; Bai, Huiling; Yan, Yulong; Li, Yinghui


    Coking is regarded as a major source of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), but few researches have been conducted on the emission characteristics of PAHs from coke production. In this study, emissions of size-segregated particulate matter (PM) and particle-bound PAHs emitted from charging of coal (CC) and pushing of coke (PC) in four typical coke plants were determined. The emission factors on average, sums of CC and PC, were 4.65 mg/kg, 5.96 mg/kg, 19.18 μg/kg and 20.69 μg/kg of coal charged for PM2.1 (≤ 2.1 μm), PM, PAHs in PM2.1 and total-PAHs, respectively. PM and PAHs emission from plants using stamp charging were significantly more than those using top charging. The profile of PAHs in PM with size ≤ 1.4 μm (PM1.4) emitted from CC process were similar with that from PC, however, it revealed obviously different tendency for PAHs in PM with size > 1.4 μm, indicating the different formation mechanism for coarse particles emitted from CC and PC. Size distributions of PM and PAHs indicated that they were primarily connected with PM1.4, and the contributions of PM1.4 to PM and PAHs emitted from the plants using stamp charging were higher than those using top charging. Some improved technology in air-pollution control devices should be considered in coke production in future based on the considerable impacts of PM1.4 and PAHs on human health and ambient air quality.

  5. Environmental sustainability comparison of a hypothetical pneumatic waste collection system and a door-to-door system. (United States)

    Punkkinen, Henna; Merta, Elina; Teerioja, Nea; Moliis, Katja; Kuvaja, Eveliina


    Waste collection is one of the life cycle phases that influence the environmental sustainability of waste management. Pneumatic waste collection systems represent a new way of arranging waste collection in densely populated urban areas. However, limited information is available on the environmental impacts of this system. In this study, we compare the environmental sustainability of conventional door-to-door waste collection with its hypothetical pneumatic alternative. Furthermore, we analyse whether the size of the hypothetical pneumatic system, or the number of waste fractions included, have an impact on the results. Environmental loads are calculated for a hypothetical pneumatic waste collection system modelled on an existing dense urban area in Helsinki, Finland, and the results are compared to those of the prevailing, container-based, door-to-door waste collection system. The evaluation method used is the life-cycle inventory (LCI). In this study, we report the atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), SO(2) and NO(x). The results indicate that replacing the prevailing system with stationary pneumatic waste collection in an existing urban infrastructure would increase total air emissions. Locally, in the waste collection area, emissions would nonetheless diminish, as collection traffic decreases. While the electricity consumption of the hypothetical pneumatic system and the origin of electricity have a significant bearing on the results, emissions due to manufacturing the system's components prove decisive. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison and Research of the Mechanical Items of Standards for Controlled Door Closing Devices (United States)

    Ren, X.; Wang, M.; Li, Z. K.; Ou, S. M.


    This paper analyzes the standards of controlled door closing devices at home and abroad, compares the standards from test devices and items, and illustrates the backcheck function, delayed action and dead stop degree test in detail. In addition, experiments have been done to verify the influence of different door weights on closing time, opening and closing moment and efficiency. The results show that the door weight has significant influence on mechanical performance of controlled door closing devices.

  7. Characterization of coke, or carbonaceous matter, formed on CoMo catalysts used in hydrodesulfurization unit in oil refinery (United States)

    Kimura, Nobuharu; Iwanami, Yoshimu; Koide, Ryutaro; Kudo, Reiko


    When a mixture of light gas oil (LGO) and light cycle oil is fed into an oil refinery’s hydrodesulfurization (HDS) unit to produce diesel fuel, the catalyst in the HDS unit is rapidly deactivated. By contrast, when the feed is LGO mixed with residue desulfurization gas oil, the catalyst is deactivated slowly. Hoping to understand why, the authors focused on the coke formed on the catalysts during the HDS reaction. The result of a comprehensive analysis of the coke suggested that the ways coke formed and grew on the catalysts may differ depending on the feeds used, which in turn could affect the deactivation behaviors of the catalysts.

  8. Using Face Recognition in the Automatic Door Access Control in a Secured Room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Gilca


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to help users improve the door security of sensitive locations by using face detection and recognition. This paper is comprised mainly of three subsystems: face detection, face recognition and automatic door access control. The door will open automatically for the known person due to the command of the microcontroller.

  9. 16 CFR 1211.13 - Inherent force activated secondary door sensors. (United States)


    ... sensors. 1211.13 Section 1211.13 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT... § 1211.13 Inherent force activated secondary door sensors. (a) Normal operation test. (1) A force activated door sensor of a door system installed according to the installation instructions shall actuate...

  10. Improving heating uniformity of pathological tissue specimens inside a domestic microwave oven. (United States)

    Hassan, Osama A; Kandil, Ahmed H; El Bialy, Ahmed M; Hassaballa, Iman A


    A 3D coupled electromagnetic thermal model was developed using COMSOL 4.0 to predict the electromagnetic field distribution and temperature profile in pathological tissue samples immersed in a reagent inside the oven cavity. The effect of the volume of reagent on the mean heating rate and heating uniformity within the tissue sample was investigated. Also, the effect of using a water load, as a method of temperature control, is emphasized. A well insulated K type thermocouple connected to a PC is used for model validation. Good agreement is found between experimental and simulated temperature profiles. Results show that as the volume of reagent increases, the mean heating rate decreases and temperature homogeneity increases. Also, it is possible to minimize overshooting temperature values inside the tissue sample and enhance tissue uniformity by about 27% using 100 ml of water load and 42.26% using 150 ml. Domestic microwave oven is a low cost economical tool that can speed up tissue processing steps. Achieving uniform heating inside the microwave oven is the key factor for improving workflow inside pathological labs and maintaining tissue quality and integrity.

  11. Exposure assessment of microwave ovens and impact on total exposure in WLANs. (United States)

    Plets, David; Verloock, Leen; Van Den Bossche, Matthias; Tanghe, Emmeric; Joseph, Wout; Martens, Luc


    In situ exposure of electric fields of 11 microwave ovens is assessed in an occupational environment and in an office. Measurements as a function of distance without load and with a load of 275 ml of tap water were performed at distances of oven (without load), which is 2.5 and 1.1 times below the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection reference level for occupational exposure and general public exposure, respectively. For exposure at distances of >1 m, a model of the electric field in a realistic environment is proposed. In an office scenario, switching on a microwave oven increases the median field strength from 91 to 145 mV m(-1) (+91 %) in a traditional Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) deployment and from 44 to 92 mV m(-1) (+109 %) in an exposure-optimised WLAN deployment. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  12. Dry matter genotypes of Cynodon by microwave and conventional oven methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euclides Reuter de Oliveira


    Full Text Available The aimed of this work was to comparing the drying process in a microwave oven and forced air ventilation, as well as their effects on the chemical composition of different genotypes of the genus Cynodon (Tifton 85, Jiggs, Russell, Tifton 68 and Vaquero collected at different ages cutting (28, 48, 63 and 79 days. The experimental design was a randomized block in a split-plot design, with 4 replicates. There was no difference (P>0.05 between the methods analyzed on the chemical composition of the genotypes studied. Increasing age cutoff negatively influenced (P<0.05 the crude protein content of the different plant parts. A significant increase (P<0.05 of dry matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber and dry matter production was observed with increasing age cut. The use of the microwave oven is a quick and precise method obtain the dry matter content of the fodder showing efficiency similar to the method of drying in an oven with forced air circulation. The genotypes showed better chemical composition results when handled at age 28 days.

  13. Information exchange about installation of a fifth oven for paste regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Schappert documented a discussion relating to a prior meeting about the aspects of adding a fifth oven to a series of ovens to take the burden off preheaters in the liquid phase. Saving energy was the uppermost consideration in adding the new equipment, which according to Schappert, would amortize itself in a short while. He reiterated that, by lowering temperatures, the preheaters would not be over-burdened, an equalization in temperature could be obtained, and no deterioration problems would occur. Also, he pointed out that, with the temperature drop, a new chamber could be charged correspondingly higher, providing the pumps sufficed and resistance permitted, if one gradually reduced the through-put with the increase of incrustation in the preheater. Thus, the fifth oven would pay for itself in diversified ways. Also, it was suggested that plants which so far did not use paste regeneration should introduce it if possible. Finally, it was suggested that plants having regeneration already should add an extra gas regenerator at the coolest position to give more heat there.

  14. Proposal to eliminate caviar-residue in ovens by analogous occurrences in other equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The idea was that, since the water vapor in the ovens under normal conditions was kept fluid at 700 atmospheres/450/sup 0/C, the inorganic salts would dissolve. This proposal was based on information published in a couple of technical journals and observations of silicification of turbine blades in steam turbine operations and quartz veins in geological formations. The articles dealt with solubility of salts such as BaCl/sub 2/, KCl, Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, and NaOH. Unfortunately, measurements stopped in the area of critical pressure. Results purported, however, that inorganic salts, rather concentrated, were soluble by highly superheated steam, and solubility improved as pressure increased. It was anticipated that this process could be applied to hydrogenation ovens since there was water present in the operation. Proposed was researching a method of getting the salts to form a mud instead of crystallizing and precipitating into the oven. The writer said that research should be conducted since high pressure techniques were available as well as required apparatus.

  15. Digestion of Plastic Materials for the Determination of Toxic Metals with a Microwave Oven for Household Use

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    SAKURAI, Hiroki; NORO, Junji; KAWASE, Akira; FUJINAMI, Masanori; OGUMA, Koichi


    A rapid sample-digestion method for the determination of toxic metals, cadmium, chromium, and lead, in polyethylene and polyvinyl chloride has been developed by using a microwave oven for household use...

  16. Coke Formation During Hydrocarbons Pyrolysis. Part Two: Methane Thermal Cracking Formation de coke pendant la pyrolyse des hydrocarbures. Deuxième partie : pyrolyse du méthane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billaud F.


    Full Text Available Part one of this article dealt with coking in a steam cracking furnace. In this process, coke deposition is a very complex phenomenon due to the number of parameters involved. Nevertheless, for this process, coke deposition is a secondary reaction which does not affect steam cracking yields. It is completely different for methane thermal cracking. Coke is one of the main products of this reaction. Part two of this article deals with coke deposition on the walls of the reactors used for methane thermal cracking. After a brief description of the different set-ups used to study coke deposition, the main parameters involved are listed. The importance of temperature, conversion, type of diluent, and hydrocarbon partial pressure will be enhanced. To conclude, two approaches to the mechanism are proposed to explain coke formation during methane thermal cracking. La première partie de cet article faisait le point sur les réactions indésirables de cokage dans les réacteurs de vapocraquage : dans le cadre de ce procédé, la formation de coke est un phénomène complexe du fait du nombre important de paramètres mis en jeu. Toutefois, pour ce procédé, la réaction de formation du coke à la paroi des réacteurs est une réaction secondaire qui n'affecte pas les rendements de vapocraquage. Ceci est complètement différent dans le cas de la pyrolyse thermique du méthane, procédé pour lequel le coke est un produit principal et indésirable de la réaction. La seconde partie de cet article est consacrée plus particulièrement à la formation du coke, lors de la pyrolyse du méthane et présente les principaux résultats expérimentaux décrits dans la littérature. Parmi les différents montages expérimentaux utilisés pour mesurer le dépôt de coke, il est mentionné, à partir des travaux de la littérature, les 2 techniques suivantes : - la technique de la paroi chaude, - la technique du fil chaud. Pour la première technique, les montages exp

  17. The doors have been removed… for YOUR safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard, Mette Simonsen

    was far from anything seen on the streets before: The Question Mark was named for its simple form in curved stainless steel. Surprisingly, the design, which had received a price for its accessibility, became the centre of a political deadlock when the Minister for Transportation argued that the booth......A sociomaterial case study of how bombs (and their users), doors and politics instigated the destabilization and dismantling of the public telephone booth in Denmark, and the subsequent re-assembling process, through design contests and political struggle, to establish a new appropriate design...... Paper Long Abstract: This sociomaterial case study deals with the destabilization and dismantling of the public telephone booth in Denmark, which began in 1977-1978 when an unforeseen use - a series of bomb attacks - struck the booths in Copenhagen. As a safety measure, police removed the doors...

  18. Torrefaction reduction of coke formation on catalysts used in esterification and cracking of biofuels from pyrolysed lignocellulosic feedstocks (United States)

    Kastner, James R; Mani, Sudhagar; Hilten, Roger; Das, Keshav C


    A bio-oil production process involving torrefaction pretreatment, catalytic esterification, pyrolysis, and secondary catalytic processing significantly reduces yields of reactor char, catalyst coke, and catalyst tar relative to the best-case conditions using non-torrefied feedstock. The reduction in coke as a result of torrefaction was 28.5% relative to the respective control for slow pyrolysis bio-oil upgrading. In fast pyrolysis bio-oil processing, the greatest reduction in coke was 34.9%. Torrefaction at C. reduced levels of acid products including acetic acid and formic acid in the bio-oil, which reduced catalyst coking and increased catalyst effectiveness and aromatic hydrocarbon yields in the upgraded oils. The process of bio-oil generation further comprises a catalytic esterification of acids and aldehydes to generate such as ethyl levulinate from lignified biomass feedstock.

  19. Investigation of Helicopter Door, Window, and Access Panel Losses (United States)


    7 EMERGENCY ESCAPE HATCH 15.4 8 SWASHPLATE INSPECTION PANEL 11.1 9 SYNC. SHAFT INSPECTION COVER 8.6 10 OTHER 21.1 98I CONTRIBUTING CIRCUMSTANCES...Access Door ( Swashplate Access Panel) The Swashelate Access Panel (Reference: Figure E-2, Annotation 5) accounts for a significant number of losses. It...the Swashplate Access Panel is that the Camloc fasteners are not securing the panel adequately. Failure could be caused by not using enough fasteners

  20. Dissipation by fear of downdraught; Verspilling door angst voor koudeval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelissen, E. [Nelissen Ingeneieursbureau, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Timmers, S. [Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Eindhoven (Netherlands)


    Thermal comfort problems in case of cold vertical surfaces (windows) can be caused by downdraught due to buoyant forces and radiation asymmetry. When easy applicable design guidelines are available, it can be determined if heating systems are still needed to maintain thermal comfort with current glazing types. Energy and materials could be saved that way, because the assumption is that too often heating systems are placed beneath windows because of fear for downdraught. [Dutch] Het komt regelmatig voor dat verwarmingslichamen in gebouwen zijn geplaatst terwijl dit hoogstwaarschijnlijk volstrekt overbodig is. Ook worden er complete gevels dubbel uitgevoerd om een probleem te voorkomen dat wellicht niet bestaat. Het betreft dan een oncomfortabele situatie door koudeval of asymmetrische straling, waarbij door ventilatievoorzieningen veroorzaakte tocht of koudeval buiten beschouwing blijft. Een zorgvuldiger installatietechnisch en bouwkundig ontwerp is gewenst. Door meer aandacht te schenken aan het veronderstelde probleem kan worden bespaard op grondstoffen, ruimte, energie en veel geld. Verder ontwikkelde en nauwkeurigere vuistregels om (comfort)problemen te voorkomen, zullen de risico's voor de adviespraktijk vooraf inzichtelijk maken.

  1. Lagrangian Coherent Structures for Design Analysis of Revolving Doors. (United States)

    Schindler, B; Fuchs, R; Barp, S; Waser, J; Pobitzer, A; Carnecky, R; Matkovic, K; Peikert, R


    Room air flow and air exchange are important aspects for the design of energy-efficient buildings. As a result, simulations are increasingly used prior to construction to achieve an energy-efficient design. We present a visual analysis of air flow generated at building entrances, which uses a combination of revolving doors and air curtains. The resulting flow pattern is challenging because of two interacting flow patterns: On the one hand, the revolving door acts as a pump, on the other hand, the air curtain creates a layer of uniformly moving warm air between the interior of the building and the revolving door. Lagrangian coherent structures (LCS), which by definition are flow barriers, are the method of choice for visualizing the separation and recirculation behavior of warm and cold air flow. The extraction of LCS is based on the finite-time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) and makes use of a ridge definition which is consistent with the concept of weak LCS. Both FTLE computation and ridge extraction are done in a robust and efficient way by making use of the fast Fourier transform for computing scale-space derivatives.

  2. Results of the simulation of gasification of the mexican petroleum coke from the refineries of Ciudad Madero and Cadereyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Urquiza–Beltrán


    Full Text Available This paper evaluates in terms of energy the gasification of the petroleum coke from the refineries of Cd Madero and Cadereyta in Mexico. The energy evaluation of the synthetic gas (syngas focuses mainly on the chemical composition of the clean syngas (gasl and its energy characteristics: heating value, the energy power, the cold gas efficiency and the thermal efficiency of gasification. The results of the simulation indicate that the gasification of the petroleum coke from Cadereyta called CRC, produces a gasl with better performance and energy characteristics than those obtained when gasifying the coke of petroleum from Cd. Madero, called CRM. When the CRC is gasified, the rate of production of gasl obtained is of 2.07 kggasl/kgcoque, while the rate of production of gasl for the CRM is 1.89 kggasl/kgcoque. The HHV of the gasl of the CRC is 12 729.56 kJ/kggasl while for the CRM is 11 639.13 kJ/kggasl. The energy power of the gasl of the CRC is greater, with a difference of 25.87 GJ/h, with regard to the energy power of the gasl of the CRM. Under the specified conditions of operation, energy is generated ata rate of 26.46 MJ/kgcoque coke in the gasification of the CRC coke of petroleum, while when gasifying the CRM coke of petroleum 22.09 MJ/kgcoque are generated. Currently, the petroleum coke produced in the refinery of Madero is consumed in the power plants of Tamuín, San Luis Potosí, Mexico, while the petroleum coke produced by the refinery of Cadereyta is used in the cement industry.

  3. 40 CFR 63.301 - Definitions. (United States)


    ... design capacity of the coke plant as of November 15, 1990 (including capacity qualifying under § 63.304(b... a coke oven between the bench and the top of the battery between two adjacent buckstays. Cold-idle coke oven battery means an existing coke oven battery that has been shut down, but is not dismantled...

  4. Novel carbon-rich additives preparation by degradative solvent extraction of biomass wastes for coke-making. (United States)

    Zhu, Xianqing; Li, Xian; Xiao, Li; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Tong, Shan; Wu, Chao; Ashida, Ryuichi; Liu, Wenqiang; Miura, Kouichi; Yao, Hong


    In this work, two extracts (Soluble and Deposit) were produced by degradative solvent extraction of biomass wastes from 250 to 350°C. The feasibilities of using Soluble and Deposit as additives for coke-making were investigated for the first time. The Soluble and Deposit, having significantly higher carbon content, lower oxygen content and extremely lower ash content than raw biomasses. All Solubles and most of Deposits can melt completely at the temperature ranged from 80 to 120°C and 140 to 180°C, respectively. The additions of Soluble or Deposit into the coke-making coal significantly improved their thermoplastic properties with as high as 9°C increase of the plastic range. Furthermore, the addition of Deposit or Soluble also markedly enhanced the coke quality through increasing coke strength after reaction (CSR) and reducing coke reactivity index (CRI). Therefore, the Soluble and Deposit were proved to be good additives for coke-making. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Recycling of rubber tires in electric arc furnace steelmaking: simultaneous combustion of metallurgical coke and rubber tyres blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magdalena Zaharia; Veena Sahajwalla; Byong-Chul Kim; Rita Khanna; N. Saha-Chaudhury; Paul O' Kane; Jonathan Dicker; Catherine Skidmore; David Knights [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). School of Materials Science and Engineering


    The present study investigates the effect of addition of waste rubber tires on the combustion behavior of its blends with coke for carbon injection in electric arc furnace steelmaking. Waste rubber tires were mixed in different proportions with metallurgical coke (MC) (10:90, 20:80, 30:70) for combustion and pyrolysis at 1473 K in a drop tube furnace (DTF) and thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), respectively. Under experimental conditions most of the rubber blends indicated higher combustion efficiencies compared to those of the constituent coke. In the early stage of combustion the weight loss rate of the blends is much faster compared to that of the raw coke due to the higher volatile yield of rubber. The presence of rubber in the blends may have had an impact upon the structure during the release and combustion of their high volatile matter (VM) and hence increased char burnout. Measurements of micropore surface area and bulk density of the chars collected after combustion support the higher combustion efficiency of the blends in comparison to coke alone. The surface morphology of the 30% rubber blend revealed pores in the residual char that might be attributed to volatile evolution during high temperature reaction in oxygen atmosphere. Physical properties and VM appear to have a major effect upon the measured combustion efficiency of rubber blends. The study demonstrates that waste rubber tires can be successfully co-injected with metallurgical coke in electric arc furnace steelmaking process to provide additional energy from combustion. 44 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Purification of highly polluted tip seepage water using brown coal coke. Reinigung hochbelasteter Deponiesickerwaesser mit Braunkohlenkoks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felgener, G. (Rheinbraun AG, Koeln (Germany)); Janitza, J.; Koscielski, S. (Inst. fuer Textil- und Verfahrenstechnik, Denkendorf (Germany))


    The purpose of tests conducted over a long period of time on actual seepage water from five different household refuse tips was to ascertain whether brown coal coke, which is available as a mass product and therefore cheap, is suitable for use as an adsorptive purification agent on highly polluted tip seepage water. The present paper discusses the concept, treatment costs and the findings obtained from the tests. On the strength of the purification results it is shown that the treatment of tip seepage water can be effected successfully with brown coal coke and that the values obtained are even much lower than those stipulated in Appendix 31 of the general administrative regulations. (orig.).

  7. Influence of Coke Breeze Combustion Conditions on the Emission of NOx in Sintering Process (United States)

    Su, Bo; Wu, Sheng-li; Zhang, Guo-liang; Que, Zhi-gang; Hou, Chao-gang

    NOx released during fuel combustion is one of the major air pollutants, such as acid rain and photochemical smog. At present, still not have an economical and effective method of inhibiting NOx emission for sintering flue gas. Therefore, controlling conditions of fuel combustions to enhance the reduction of NOx is important for decreased the emission. In this study, micro-sintering furnace has been performed to investigate the effects of NOx emission from char-N during coke breeze combustion. The results show that the emission concentration of NOx decreased with increasing temperature when it is sinter bed temperature higher than 1000°C. The lower emission concentration of NOx was obtained when the concentration of oxygen was decreased. And the maximum concentration of NOx will be reduced with the enhanced of heating rate. If heating preservation time was prolonged, it would promote to NOx reduction with reduction substances resulted in lower NOx emissions in the combustion of coke breezes.

  8. Reducibility mill scale industrial waste via coke breeze at 850-950ºC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaballah N.M.


    Full Text Available Mill scale is a very attractive industrial waste due to its elevated iron content (about = 69.33% Fe besides being suiTab. for direct recycling to the blast furnace via sintering plant. In this paper the characteristics of raw materials and the briquettes produced from this mill scale were studied by different methods of analyses. The produced briquettes were reduced with different amounts of coke breeze at varying temperatures, and the reduction kinetics was determined. The activation energy of this reaction ≈ 61.5 kJ/mole for reduction of mill scale with coke breeze in the form of briquettes with 2% molasses where the chemical reaction interface model is applicable.

  9. Study on CO2 gasification reactivity and physical characteristics of biomass, petroleum coke and coal chars. (United States)

    Huo, Wei; Zhou, Zhijie; Chen, Xueli; Dai, Zhenghua; Yu, Guangsuo


    Gasification reactivities of six different carbonaceous material chars with CO2 were determined by a Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA). Gasification reactivities of biomass chars are higher than those of coke and coal chars. In addition, physical structures and chemical components of these chars were systematically tested. It is found that the crystalline structure is an important factor to evaluate gasification reactivities of different chars and the crystalline structures of biomass chars are less order than those of coke and coal chars. Moreover, initial gasification rates of these chars were measured at high temperatures and with relatively large particle sizes. The method of calculating the effectiveness factor η was used to quantify the effect of pore diffusion on gasification. The results show that differences in pore diffusion effects among gasification with various chars are prominent and can be attributed to different intrinsic gasification reactivities and physical characteristics of different chars. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Automatic monitoring of moisture of circulating gases used for dry coke quenching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grishchenko, A.I.; Ereskovskii, O.S.; Savka, M.D.; Papochkin, A.I.; Sirotkin, I.A.; Stovolosov, S.M.; Kvasov, A.V.


    Evaluates effects of increased moisture in flue gases used for dry coke quenching and methods for moisture measurement. Increased moisture leads to an increase in hydrogen and carbon monoxide content, which increases explosion hazards as well as coke burnout degree. From among the measuring methods used in the USSR, the sorptive-electrolytic method is characterized by high accuracy and uncomplicated design of measuring instruments. The DV-1K moisture sensor indirectly determines gas moisture by measuring electric conductivity of the unsaturated water solutions of electrolyte (lithium chloride). Fluctuations of gas moisture cause temperature fluctuations of a moisture-sensitive element. A moisture measuring system consists of a number of DV-1K sensors, a power source and a recording system. Operation of the system is evaluated.

  11. Raw materials inventory management for a Coke plant / by Christoffel van Dijk


    Van Dijk, Christoffel


    Analysis of inventory management and logistics for a metallurgical coke plant at Mittal Steel, Vanderbijlpark Works , Gauteng, South Africa. Inventory management and logistics is a concept, which has shown considerable development in the post-World War II era. The concept of applying inventory and logistics as a business function initially emerged during the price wars era and evolved during the quest for quality era. Thereafter, business inventory and logistics had a promotion/marketing focu...

  12. [Enhanced bioremediation of coking plant soils contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons]. (United States)

    Lu, Xiao-Xia; Li, Xiu-Li; Ma, Jie; Wu, Shu-Ke; Chen, Chao-Qi; Wu, Wei


    Soil samples contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were collected from Beijing Coking Plant. The purposes were to isolate PAHs degrading bacteria from the soils, determine their appropriate living condition, enrich them and apply them in the enhanced bioremediation of the contaminated soils. Using each of the 16 USEPA priority PAHs as the sole carbon source, PAHs degrading bacteria were isolated using the method of plate streaking and identified by genetic analysis. In total seven species of PAHs degrading bacteria were obtained. When mixed, these bacteria could degrade the 16 (2-6 cyclic) PAHs studied at appropriate concentrations. In the liquid medium, when the total concentration of the 16 PAHs (sigma PAH16) was 17 microg/mL, single bacteria could grow well and degrade the PAHs. However, when sigma PAH16 was 166 microg/mL, the growth and activity of either single PAHs degrading bacteria or a mixture of the seven PAHs degrading bacteria were inhibited. Aiming at the contaminated soils from Beijing coking plant, five treatments were performed, i.e., control (C), addition of nutrient (N), addition of nutrient and PAHs degrading bacteria (N + B), addition of nutrient and surfactant (N +S), addition of nutrient and PAHs degrading bacteria and surfactant (N + B + S). After five weeks of experiment, compared to the C treatment, the mean removal rate of the 16 PAHs in the N + B treatment was increased 32%, and the mean removal rate of the 16 PAHs in the N + B + S treatment was increased 46% (the mean removal rate of the 10 4-6 cyclic PAHs was increased 52%). The addition of PAHs degrading bacteria and surfactant could significantly enhance the degradation of PAHs in the soils. This study provides evidence for the enhanced bioremediation of PAHs contaminated soil for Beijing coking plant and other coking plants.

  13. Microwave Ovens (United States)

    ... Manufacture Label on Radiation-Emitting Consumer Electronics Information Requirements For Cookbooks, and User and Service Manuals (PDF - 233KB) Guidance for Industry and FDA Staff - Addition of URLs to Electronic Product Labeling Other Resources FDA Consumer Update: 5 Tips for ...

  14. Drying Characteristics and Product Quality of Lemon Slices Dried with Hot Air Circulation Oven and Hybrid Heatpump Dryers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Hong Lee


    Full Text Available In this research, drying characteristics and product quality of Coulomb-force-assisted heatpump and oven dried lemon slices were studied. Lemon slices with 3 mm thickness each, were dried using oven and Coulomb-force-assisted-heatpump dryer with and without auxiliary heater at different drying conditions. It was found that the drying rate of the lemon slices dried by all drying methods showed only falling rate states, which indicates the drying kinetics were controlled by internal moisture diffusion. Oven drying of lemon slices at 60°C showed the highest drying rate among all, followed by oven dried slices at 50°C, Coulomb-force-heater-assisted-heatpump (CF-HT-HP dried slices at 31°C, Coulomb-force-assisted-heatpump (CF-HP dried slices at 22°C, oven dried slices at 40°C and heatpump dried slices at 22°C. The average effective moisture diffusivity value for the slices dried with these drying methods was found in the range of 16.2 to 63.8´10-4 mm2min-1. In terms of quality assessment, CF-HP dried lemon slices retained the highest amount of Vitamin C as compared to the lemon slices dried by other drying methods. However, it retained relatively lower amount of total phenolic content (TPC as compared to oven dried products. Among of all, CF-HP drying method produced dried lemon slices with the highest Vitamin C (6.74 mg AA / g dry weight whereas oven dried lemon slices at 50°C preserved most of the TPC in the dried slices, which recorded as 13.76 mg GA / g dry weight.

  15. Biological removal of antiandrogenic activity in gray wastewater and coking wastewater by membrane reactor process. (United States)

    Ma, Dehua; Chen, Lujun; Liu, Cong; Bao, Chenjun; Liu, Rui


    A recombinant human androgen receptor yeast assay was applied to investigate the occurrence of antiandrogens as well as the mechanism for their removal during gray wastewater and coking wastewater treatment. The membrane reactor (MBR) system for gray wastewater treatment could remove 88.0% of antiandrogenic activity exerted by weakly polar extracts and 97.3% of that by moderately strong polar extracts, but only 32.5% of that contributed by strong polar extracts. Biodegradation by microorganisms in the MBR contributed to 95.9% of the total removal. After the treatment, the concentration of antiandrogenic activity in the effluent was still 1.05 μg flutamide equivalence (FEQ)/L, 36.2% of which was due to strong polar extracts. In the anaerobic reactor, anoxic reactor, and membrane reactor system for coking wastewater treatment, the antiandrogenic activity of raw coking wastewater was 78.6 mg FEQ/L, and the effluent of the treatment system had only 0.34 mg FEQ/L. The antiandrogenic activity mainly existed in the medium strong polar and strong polar extracts. Biodegradation by microorganisms contributed to at least 89.2% of the total antiandrogenic activity removal in the system. Biodegradation was the main removal mechanism of antiandrogenic activity in both the wastewater treatment systems. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Effect of petroleum coke expanding by perchloric acid on the performance of the resulted activated carbon (United States)

    Deng, Mei-Gen; Wang, Ren-Qing


    Petroleum coke (PC) was expanded by using KMnO4 as oxidant and HClO4 as intercalator so as to decrease the amount of KOH needed for the successive activation. Activated carbon (AC) was prepared by activation of the expanded PC (EPC) at KOH/coke mass ratio of 3:1 (denoted as EAC-3). As a comparison, AC was also made by activation of PC at KOH/coke mass ratio of 3:1, 4:1 and 5:1 (denoted as AC-3, AC-4 and AC-5). Influence of expanding modification on the structure and performance of PC and AC was investigated. The results revealed that the expanding treatment increased the interplanar distance of PC microcrystalline from 0.344 to 0.362 nm and decreased the microcrystalline thickness from 2.34 to 1.57 nm. The specific surface area of EAC-3 and AC-5 was 3461 and 3291 m2ṡg-1, respectively. The average pore size of EAC-3 was 2.19 nm, which is 0.11 nm larger than that of AC-5. At a scan rate of 0.5 mVṡs-1, EAC-3 and AC-5 achieved a specific gravimetric capacitance of 486 and 429 Fṡg-1, respectively. Supercapacitor based on EAC-3 possessed lower resistance and better power performance.

  17. Oxygen-containing coke species in zeolite-catalyzed conversion of methanol to hydrocarbons

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Zhaohui


    Zeolites are the most commonly used catalysts for methanol-to-hydrocarbon (MTH) conversion. Here, we identified two oxygen-containing compounds as coke species in zeolite catalysts after MTH reactions. We investigated the possible influences of the oxygen-containing compounds on coke formation, catalyst deactivation, product selectivity, and the induction period of the MTH reaction through a series of controlled experiments in which one of the identified compounds (2,3-dimethyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one) was co-fed with methanol over a zeolite H-ZSM-5 catalyst. Our results allow us to infer that once produced, the oxygen-containing compounds block the Brønsted acid sites by strong chemisorption and their rapid conversion to aromatics expedites the formation of coke and thus the deactivation of the catalyst. A minor effect of the production of such compounds during the MTH reaction is that the aromatic-based catalytic cycle can be slightly promoted to give higher selectivity to ethylene.

  18. Delayed coking unit preheat train optimization; Otimizacao do preaquecimento das Unidades de Coque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marins, Edson R.; Geraldelli, Washington O.; Barros, Francisco C. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)


    The oil industry has been investing in research and development of new techniques and process improvements with the objective to increase the residual fraction profitability and to fulfill the market demands. The adequacy of the refining scheme has led to the development of bottom of the barrel processes that has the objective to convert heavy fractions into products of higher aggregate value. In this context, the process of Delayed Coking presents a great importance in the production of distillates in the diesel range as well as the processing of heavy residues, mostly in the markets where the fuel oil consumption is being reduced. With the approach to help PETROBRAS decide which route to follow during new designs of Delayed Coking units, this work presents a comparative study of the preheat train performance among the energy recovery to preheat the feed, in contrast with preheating the feed and generating steam, simultaneously. In this study the Pinch Technology methodology was used as a procedure for heat integration with the objective of getting the maximum energy recovery from the process, finding the best trade-off between operational cost and investment cost. The alternative of steam generation aims to provide an appropriate flexibility in Delayed Coking units design and operation. (author)

  19. 24 CFR 200.949 - Building product standards and certification program for exterior insulated steel door systems. (United States)


    ... Doors and Frames; (viii) ISDSI-107-80—Thermal Performance Standard for Insulated Steel Door Systems; (ix... certification program for exterior insulated steel door systems. 200.949 Section 200.949 Housing and Urban... program for exterior insulated steel door systems. (a) Applicable standards. (1) All Exterior Insulated...

  20. Microwave oven heating for inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes on frankfurters before consumption. (United States)

    Rodríguez-Marval, Mawill; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Kendall, Patricia A; Scanga, John A; Belk, Keith E; Sofos, John N


    Microwave oven heating was evaluated for inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes on inoculated and stored frankfurters. Frankfurters formulated without/with 1.5% potassium lactate and 0.1% sodium diacetate were inoculated with L. monocytogenes (1.9 +/- 0.2 log CFU/cm(2)), vacuum-packaged, and stored (4 degrees C) to simulate conditions prior to purchase by consumers. At storage days 18, 36, and 54, packages were opened and placed at 7 degrees C, simulating aerobic storage in a household refrigerator. At 0, 3, and 7 d of aerobic storage, 2 frankfurters were placed in a bowl with water (250 mL) and treated in a household microwave oven at high (1100 W) power for 30, 45, 60, or 75 s, or medium (550 W) power for 60 or 75 s. Frankfurters and the heating water were analyzed for total microbial counts and L. monocytogenes populations. Exposure to high power for 75 s reduced pathogen levels (0.7 +/- 0.0 to 1.0 +/- 0.1 log CFU/cm(2)) to below the detection limit ( 1.5 and 5.9 log CFU/cm(2) from control levels of 1.5 +/- 0.1 to 7.2 +/- 0.5 log CFU/cm(2). Depending on treatment and storage time, the water used to reheat the frankfurters had viable L. monocytogenes counts of microwave oven at high power for 75 s to inactivate up to 3.7 log CFU/cm(2) of L. monocytogenes contamination.

  1. Fracture toughness of yttria-stabilized zirconia sintered in conventional and microwave ovens. (United States)

    Marinis, Aristotelis; Aquilino, Steven A; Lund, Peter S; Gratton, David G; Stanford, Clark M; Diaz-Arnold, Ana M; Qian, Fang


    The fabrication of zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) dental prosthetic substructures requires an extended sintering process (8 to 10 hours) in a conventional oven. Microwave sintering is a shorter process (2 hours) than conventional sintering. The purpose of this study was to compare the fracture toughness of 3 mol % Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2 sintered in a conventional or microwave oven. Partially sintered ZrO2 specimens from 3 manufacturers, KaVo, Lava 3M, and Crystal HS were milled (KaVo Everest engine) and randomly divided into 2 groups: conventional sintering and microwave sintering (n=16 per group). The specimens were sintered according to the manufacturers' recommendations and stored in artificial saliva for 10 days. Fracture toughness was determined by using a 4-point bend test, and load to fracture was recorded. Mean fracture toughness for each material was calculated. A 2-way ANOVA followed by the Tukey HDS post hoc test was used to assess the significance of sintering and material effects on fracture toughness, including an interaction between the 2 factors (α=.05). The 2-way ANOVA suggested a significant main effect for ZrO2 manufacturer (P.05). The main effect of the sintering process (Conventional [5.30 MPa·m(1/2) ±1.00] or Microwave [5.36 MPa·m(1/2) ±0.92]) was not significant (P=.76), and there was no interaction between sintering and ZrO2 manufacturer (P=.91). Based on the results of this study, no statistically significant difference was observed in the fracture toughness of ZrO2 sintered in microwave or conventional ovens. Copyright © 2013 The Editorial Council of the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Halim


    Full Text Available Drying phenomena of oil palm frond waste as agriculture waste was observed using simple batch oven dryer. The operation temperatures were 50, 80 and 120 °C. The sample of oil palm frond was weighed periodically every 30 minutes. Moisture content, shrinkage phenomena and drying kinetic model were investigated to the difference operation temperature. Experimental result exhibited that temperature influent significantly to the drying rate. The water transport controlled by diffuse mechanism. Shrinkage occurred in radial direction and decreased the size to almost 65% from initial size. In longitudinal direction almost is not change of size.

  3. Microwave chemistry: Effect of ions on dielectric heating in microwave ovens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamil Anwar


    Full Text Available To understand the interactions of microwaves with dielectric materials and their conversion to thermal energy in aqueous systems, the effect of ionic concentration has been studied. Aqueous solutions of inorganic ions were exposed to microwaves (2.45 GHz in a modified oven under identical conditions. Difference in solution temperatures with reference to pure (deionized water was monitored in each case. A significant decrease in the temperature was observed with an increase in the quantity of ions. Experiments were repeated with several inorganic ions varying in size and charge. The information can be helpful in understanding the role of ions during dielectric heating.

  4. Death in the "microwave oven": A form of execution by carbonization. (United States)

    Durão, Carlos; Machado, Marcos P; Daruge Júnior, Eduardo


    Death in the "microwave oven" has nothing to do with microwaves energy. It is the jargon name given to a criminal form of execution by carbonization that has been adopted by drug dealers in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). The goal is to torture and intimidate victims, in an attempt of corpse occultation and to make identification harder or impossible. This paper brings to attention of the forensic international community an unusual and very cruel form of execution as a way to document these situations. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  5. Simulation of electrical and thermal fields in a multimode microwave oven using software written in C++ (United States)

    Abrudean, C.


    Due to multiple reflexions on walls, the electromagnetic field in a multimode microwave oven is difficult to estimate analytically. This paper presents a C++ program that calculates the electromagnetic field in a resonating cavity with an absorbing payload, uses the result to calculate heating in the payload taking its properties into account and then repeats. This results in a simulation of microwave heating, including phenomena like thermal runaway. The program is multithreaded to make use of today’s common multiprocessor/multicore computers.

  6. Robust Design of Terminal ILC with H∞ Mixed Sensitivity Approach for a Thermoforming Oven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Gauthier


    Full Text Available This paper presents a robust design approach for terminal iterative learning control (TILC. This robust design uses the H∞ mixed-sensitivity technique. An industrial application is described where TILC is used to control the reheat phase of plastic sheets in a thermoforming oven. The TILC adjusts the heater temperature setpoints such that, at the end of the reheat cycle, the surface temperature map of the plastic sheet will converge to the desired one. Simulation results are included to show the effectiveness of the control law.

  7. Evaluation of microwave oven heating for prediction of drug-excipient compatibilities and accelerated stability studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou-Pedersen, Anne Marie V; Østergaard, Jesper; Cornett, Claus


    a design of experiments (DoE) approach in order to be able to rank excipients regarding reactivity: Study A: cetirizine with PEG 400, sorbitol, glycerol and propylene glycol. Study B: 6-aminocaproic acid with citrate, acetate, tartrate and gluconate. Study C: atenolol with citric, tartaric, malic, glutaric......, and sorbic acid. The model formulations were representative for oral solutions (co-solvents), parenteral solutions (buffer species) and solid dosage forms (organic acids applicable for solubility enhancement). The DoE studies showed overall that the same impurities were generated by microwave oven heating...

  8. Mechanical strength of extrusion briquettes (BREX) for blast-furnace and ferroalloy production: II. Effect of the method of grinding coke breeze on the strength of extrusion briquettes (United States)

    Bizhanov, A. M.; Kurunov, I. F.; Dashevskii, V. Ya.


    The influence of the method of grinding coke breeze on the strength and the behavior of extrusion briquette (BREX) during static loading is studied. It is found that the size, the shape, and the surface relief of coke breeze particles affect the character of BREX fracture. The application of a shearing extruder for preliminary refinement of coke breeze can result in viscoelastic fracture of BREX due to an increase in its impact toughness.

  9. Aquecimento em forno de microondas / desenvolvimento de alguns conceitos fundamentais Heating in microwave ovens/ developing of basic concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia R. N. Barboza


    Full Text Available The microwave oven became a common domestic equipment, due mainly to the short time spent to heat foods. One of the most interesting characteristics of the microwave oven is the selective heating. Different from the conventional oven, where the heating is not selective, the heating by microwave depends on the chemical nature of the matter. Many Students of Chemistry have no knowledge of the principles involved in this selective heating, in spite of the daily microwave oven use. The heating by microwave is feasible for chemistry courses. In discussions about the microwave absorption by the matter it is possible to explore chemical properties like: heat capacity, chemical bound, molecular structure, dipole moments, polarization and dielectric constant. This paper presents the basic principles involved in the microwave heating. It is proposed a simple and inexpensive experiment that could be developed in general chemistry courses, to illustrate the relationship between heating and the chemical properties of some solvents. Experiments to check the power of the microwave oven are also proposed.

  10. Effect of plant extracts on physicochemical properties of chicken breast meat cooked using conventional electric oven or microwave. (United States)

    Rababah, T M; Ereifej, K I; Al-Mahasneh, M A; Al-Rababah, M A


    This study evaluated effects of vacuum-infused fresh chicken breast meats with grape seed extracts, green tea extracts, or tertiary butyl hydroquinone on pH, texture, color, and thiobarbituric reactive substances after cooking using a microwave or conventional electric oven for 12 d storage at 5 degrees C. Thiobarbituric reactive substances values of uncooked (raw) chicken breast meats for 0 to 12 d of storage ranged from 1.12 to 3.5 mg of malonaldehyde/100 g of chicken. During 0 to 12 d of storage, thiobarbituric reactive substances values ranged from 2.50 to 7.80 and from 2.4 to 7.35 mg of malonaldehyde/100 g of chicken breast meat cooked by microwave and conventional electric oven, respectively. Meats cooked by microwave had higher redness and lower lightness values than those cooked by conventional electric oven. Also, meats cooked by microwave had higher maximum shear force, working of shear, hardness, springiness, cohesiveness, and chewiness values than meats cooked by conventional electric oven. Tertiary butyl hydroquinone was the most effective in raw and cooked meats in reducing lipid oxidation, followed by grape seed and green tea extracts. Plant extracts are effective in preventing undesirable changes in chemical properties in chicken breast meat caused by microwave and conventional electric oven cooking.

  11. Influence of oxidation and heating velocity of metallurgic cokes upon the plastic properties; Influencia da oxidacao e da velocidade de aquecimento de carvoes coqueificaveis sobre as propriedades plasticas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andretta, Cleidy Walery; Vilela, Antonio C.F. [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia Metalurgica e dos Materiais


    The determination of plastic properties of coal to coke production is a routine in brazilian coke plant laboratories. However, few specific and systematical studies on the plastic behaviour of coals been published. In the Laboratorio de Siderurgia of PPGEMM/UFRGS if was created a research line to characterize coals siderurgical and cokes with the support of the interested industrial sector. This work aim to study effects caused by induced oxidation and variations in heating rate on foreign coking coals, type high, medium and low volatile. (author) 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. A novel approach to mitigating sulphur dioxide emissions and producing a mercury sorbent material using oil-sands fluid coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, E.; Jia, C.Q. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry; Tong, S. [Wuhan Univ. of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering


    Pyrometallurgical smelting operations are a major source of sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) which is a precursor to acid rain and increased levels of UV-B penetration in boreal lakes. Mercury is also released in copper smelter off-gas, which can bioaccumulate and cause neurological disorders and death in humans. Fluid coke is produced in massive quantities as a by-product of bitumen upgrading at Syncrude Canada's facility in Fort McMurray, Alberta. Oilsands fluid coke can be used to reduce SO{sub 2} and produce elemental sulphur as a co-product. This process was dubbed SOactive. The reaction physically activates the fluid coke to produce a sulphur-impregnated activated carbon (SIAC) which is known as ECOcarbon. Some studies have indicated that SIAC is well suited for the removal of vapour phase mercury, mainly due to the formation of stable mercuric sulphide species. This paper discussed the findings made to date in relation to the SOactive process and the characterization of ECOcarbons. The paper discussed the use of fluid coke for reducing SO{sub 2} emissions while producing elemental sulphur as well as coke-SO{sub 2}-oxygen (O{sub 2}) and coke-SO{sub 2}-water (H{sub 2}O) systems. The paper also examined the production of SIAC products for use in capturing vapour phase mercury. The paper presented the materials and methodology, including an illustration of the apparatus used in reduction of SO{sub 2} and activation of fluid coke. It was concluded that more work is still needed to analyse the effect of O{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} reduction and SIAC properties under smelter flue gas conditions. 10 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.

  13. Effect of Extracted Compositions of Liquefaction Residue on the Structure and Properties of the Formed-coke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Yong-hui


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of extracted compositions of the de-ash liquefaction residue (D-DCLR on pyrolysis products yields, compressive strength and composition of the formed-coke, which was prepared by co-pyrolysis of the low metamorphic pulverized coal and D-DCLR. The scanning electron microscope (SEM and the Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR were used to characterize the morphology and functional group of the formed-coke, respectively. The results showed that the extracted compositions of D-DCLR were heavy oil (HS, asphaltene (A, pre-asphaltene (PA and tetrahydrofuran isolusion (THFIS, whose contents were 5.10%, 40.90%, 14.4%, 39.60%, respectively. During the pyrolysis process, HS was the main source of tar, and HS, A as well as PA were conducive to improve gas yields. The THFIS helped to improve the yield of the formed-coke up to 89.5%, corresponding to the compressive strength was only 147.7N/ball for the coke. A and PA were the key factors affecting the compressive strength and surface structure of the formed-coke. The compressive strength of coke could be up to 728.0N/ball with adding D-DCLR, which reduced by 50% after the removal of A and PA. The FT-IR analysis showed that the types of surface functional groups of the formed-coke were remained the same after co-pyrolysis, but the absorption peak intensity of each functional group was changed.

  14. A professional curriculum vitae will open career doors. (United States)

    Harper, D S


    In today's challenging healthcare environment, it is essential for nurse practitioners to be able to describe themselves professionally on paper to compete for practice and academic opportunities. Nurse practitioners are competing with physician assistants as well as physicians for primary and acute care positions. A carefully compiled curriculum vitae will present the individual in the best light possible to help open career doors and enhance chances of success. Preparing a curriculum vitae will serve to highlight relevant professional accomplishments, whatever the setting, toward the fulfillment of professional goals. This article reviews the current professional print and electronic literature on preparing a curriculum vitae to assist the nurse practitioner in developing this vital document.

  15. Bluetooth enables in-door mobile location services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thongthammachart, Saowanee; Olesen, Henning


    mobile location techniques can also provide the user's position, but the accuracy is rather low. In order to improve the accuracy and make location-based services really attractive, existing approaches must be supplemented by new technologies. Wireless short-range technologies like Bluetooth could...... be candidates for solving these problems. This paper shows that Bluetooth can act as a key enabler of mobile location services in an in-door environment. The advantage of Bluetooth technology is, that it can provide rather precise location data inside a building or hotspot area, while the Bluetooth terminal...

  16. 3D modelling of coupled mass and heat transfer of a convection-oven roasting process. (United States)

    Feyissa, Aberham Hailu; Gernaey, Krist V; Adler-Nissen, Jens


    A 3D mathematical model of coupled heat and mass transfer describing oven roasting of meat has been developed from first principles. The proposed mechanism for the mass transfer of water is modified and based on a critical literature review of the effect of heat on meat. The model equations are based on a conservation of mass and energy, coupled through Darcy's equations of porous media - the water flow is mainly pressure-driven. The developed model together with theoretical and experimental assessments were used to explain the heat and water transport and the effect of the change in microstructure (permeability, water binding capacity and elastic modulus) that occur during the meat roasting process. The developed coupled partial differential equations were solved by using COMSOL Multiphysics®3.5 and state variables are predicted as functions of both position and time. The proposed mechanism was partially validated by experiments in a convection oven where temperatures were measured online. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cost-effective single-step carbon nanotube synthesis using microwave oven (United States)

    Algadri, Natheer A.; Ibrahim, K.; Hassan, Z.; Bououdina, M.


    This paper reports the characterization of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) synthesised using a conventional microwave oven method, offering several advantages including fast, simple, low cost, and solvent free growth process. The procedure involves flattening of graphite/ferrocene mixture catalyst inside the microwave oven under ambient conditions for a very short duration of 5 s, which inhibits the loss factor of graphite and ferrocene. The effect of graphite/ferrocene mixture ratio for the synthesis of CNTs is investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and UV-NIR-Vis measurements. The samples produced using the different ratios contain nanotubes with an average diameter in the range 44-79 nm. The highest yield of CNTs is attained with graphite/ferrocene mixture ratio of 70:30. The lowest I D/I G ratio intensity as identified by Raman spectroscopy for 70:30 ratio indicates the improved crystallinity of CNTs. Due to the capillary effect of CNTs, Fe nanoparticles are found to be encapsulated inside the tubes at different positions along the tube length. The obtained results showed that the smaller the diameter of graphite and ferrocene favors the synthesis of graphene oxide upon microwave radiation.

  18. Drying kinetics of apricot halves in a microwave-hot air hybrid oven (United States)

    Horuz, Erhan; Bozkurt, Hüseyin; Karataş, Haluk; Maskan, Medeni


    Drying behavior and kinetics of apricot halves were investigated in a microwave-hot air domestic hybrid oven at 120, 150 and 180 W microwave power and 50, 60 and 70 °C air temperature. Drying operation was finished when the moisture content reached to 25% (wet basis) from 77% (w.b). Increase in microwave power and air temperature increased drying rates and reduced drying time. Only falling rate period was observed in drying of apricot halves in hybrid oven. Eleven mathematical models were used for describing the drying kinetics of apricots. Modified logistic model gave the best fitting to the experimental data. The model has never been used to explain drying behavior of any kind of food materials up to now. Fick's second law was used for determination of both effective moisture diffusivity and thermal diffusivity values. Activation energy values of dried apricots were calculated from Arrhenius equation. Those that obtained from effective moisture diffusivity, thermal diffusivity and drying rate constant values ranged from 31.10 to 39.4 kJ/mol, 29.56 to 35.19 kJ/mol, and 26.02 to 32.36 kJ/mol, respectively.

  19. Survivability of Salmonella cells in popcorn after microwave oven and conventional cooking. (United States)

    Anaya, I; Aguirrezabal, A; Ventura, M; Comellas, L; Agut, M


    The survivability of Salmonella cells in popcorn preparation was determined for two distinct cooking methods. The first method used a standard microwave oven. The second method used conventional cooking in a pan. Prior to thermal processing in independent experiments, 12 suspensions in a range between 1x10(3) and 8x10(6) colony-forming units (CFU) per gram of Salmonella cells were inoculated in both raw microwave popcorn and conventional corn kernels. The influence of the initial concentration of Salmonella cells in the raw products and the lethal effects on Salmonella by thermal treatments for cooking were studied. Survival of Salmonella cells was determined in the thermally processed material by pre-enrichment and enrichment in selective medium, in accordance with the legislation for expanded cereals and cereals in flakes. Viable experimental contaminants were recovered from the conventionally cooked popcorn with initial inoculation concentrations of 9x10(4)cells/g or greater. Salmonella cell viability was significantly reduced after microwave oven treatment, with recoveries only from initial concentrations of 2x10(6)cells/g or superior.

  20. Multiple tube structure for heating uniformity and efficiency optimization of microwave ovens (United States)

    Zhou, Rong; Yang, Xiaoqing; Sun, Di; Jia, Guozhu


    Microwave heating is widely applied to microwave assisted chemical reactions in modified domestic microwave ovens, however, the potential issues (non-uniformity and low heating efficiency) still exist during the heating process. In this paper, a new heating model of multiple tube structure is proposed and the relevant simulations and experiments of heating water were performed based on the computational platform COMSOL Multi-physics software in order to achieve the better temperature uniformity and heating efficiency. Besides, the influence of the instability of microwave ovens on the heating performances of the optimal heating models was analyzed. The simulation results show that the heating uniformity and efficiency of water in optimal six tube structure increased by 7.1% and 68.5% (30 mL), 9.2% and 61% (60 mL) respectively compared with the optimal single tube structure. Moreover, the heating performances of the optimal heating models do not change obviously, while the working frequency and power change slightly. The simulation results are in good agreement with the experiment data.

  1. Comparison of childhood burns associated with use of microwave ovens and conventional stoves. (United States)

    Powell, E C; Tanz, R R


    To identify the incidence, type, and severity of burns associated with microwave oven (MW) use and to compare MW-associated burns with those associated with use of conventional stoves, we conducted a review of a national data base. Data were obtained from the US Consumer Product Safety Commission Injury Information Clearinghouse for 1986 through 1990 concerning burn injuries to children (0 to 19 years). There were an estimated 5160 burns associated with MW use. The mean age was 7.6 years (median, 6 years); 25% of burns were to children younger than 36 months old. Fifty-eight percent involved females. Most MW burns were scalds (95%); 16% of these scalds were from exploding eggs or other food. No MW burn involved a body surface area greater than 25% and no patient required hospital admission. Microwave oven burns were compared with stove burns. There were an estimated 41198 stove-associated burns to children. The mean age was 5.8 years; the median was 3 years. Forty-five percent of burns were to children younger than 36 months old; 55% were to males. Most stove burns (74%) were thermal; 7% involved a body surface area greater than 25%. Five percent of children with stove burns required hospital admission. We conclude that (1) burns to children associated with MW use are less frequent and less severe than stove burns; (2) MW burns predominantly affect females; and (3) burn prevention efforts should emphasize the hazards of stoves, which vastly exceed those of MWs.

  2. Study on compressive strength of self compacting mortar cubes under normal & electric oven curing methods (United States)

    Prasanna Venkatesh, G. J.; Vivek, S. S.; Dhinakaran, G.


    In the majority of civil engineering applications, the basic building blocks were the masonry units. Those masonry units were developed as a monolithic structure by plastering process with the help of binding agents namely mud, lime, cement and their combinations. In recent advancements, the mortar study plays an important role in crack repairs, structural rehabilitation, retrofitting, pointing and plastering operations. The rheology of mortar includes flowable, passing and filling properties which were analogous with the behaviour of self compacting concrete. In self compacting (SC) mortar cubes, the cement was replaced by mineral admixtures namely silica fume (SF) from 5% to 20% (with an increment of 5%), metakaolin (MK) from 10% to 30% (with an increment of 10%) and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) from 25% to 75% (with an increment of 25%). The ratio between cement and fine aggregate was kept constant as 1: 2 for all normal and self compacting mortar mixes. The accelerated curing namely electric oven curing with the differential temperature of 128°C for the period of 4 hours was adopted. It was found that the compressive strength obtained from the normal and electric oven method of curing was higher for self compacting mortar cubes than normal mortar cube. The cement replacement by 15% SF, 20% MK and 25%GGBS obtained higher strength under both curing conditions.

  3. Impact of operating wood-burning fireplace ovens on indoor air quality. (United States)

    Salthammer, Tunga; Schripp, Tobias; Wientzek, Sebastian; Wensing, Michael


    The use of combustion heat sources like wood-burning fireplaces has regained popularity in the past years due to increasing energy costs. While the outdoor emissions from wood ovens are strictly regulated in Germany, the indoor release of combustion products is rarely considered. Seven wood burning fireplaces were tested in private homes between November 2012 and March 2013. The indoor air quality was monitored before, during and after operation. The following parameters were measured: ultra-fine particles (5.6-560 nm), fine particles (0.3-20 μm), PM2.5, NOx, CO, CO2, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). Most ovens were significant sources of particulate matter. In some cases, an increase of benzene and BaP concentrations was observed in the indoor air. The results illustrate that wood-burning fireplaces are potential sources of indoor air contaminants, especially ultra-fine particles. Under the aspect of lowering indoor air exchange rates and increasing the use of fuels with a net zero-carbon footprint, indoor combustion sources are an important topic for the future. With regards to consumer safety, product development and inspection should consider indoor air quality in addition to the present fire protection requirements. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Changes in dental enamel oven heated or irradiated with Er,Cr:YSGG laser. Analysis by FTIR (United States)

    Rabelo, J. S.; Ana, P. A.; Benetti, C.; Valério, M. E. G.; Zezell, D. M.


    This study evaluated the change that occurs in dental enamel under action of oven heating or Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation aiming to obtain a structure more resistant to demineralization. Enamel powder was obtained from bovine teeth. Samples were subjected to oven heating at temperatures of 200, 400, 600, 800, and 1000°C or during laser irradiation with energy densities of 7.53, 10.95, and 13.74 J/cm2. The infrared thermography was used to measure the surface temperature generated in the solid samples of enamel during lasers irradiation. The samples were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), which shows changes on enamel oven heated or laser irradiated, due to treatments, related to carbonates, adsorbed water and hydroxyl content. These compositional effects were more evident in lased samples. These changes may alter the material properties such as its solubility, and decrese of demineralization that is important for caries prevention.

  5. Sensory quality and energy use for scrambled eggs and beef patties heated in institutional microwave and convection ovens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremer, M.L.


    Scrambled eggs (96 portions) and beef patties (96 portions) were heated in institutional microwave and convection ovens to determine energy use in heating and sensory quality of food. For both products, significantly (P < 0.01) more energy (BTU) was used for heating in the convection than in the microwave oven and respective amounts (BTU) were 28658.7 and 9385.7 for eggs; 31313.3 and 9365.0 for beef patties. All scores for sensory quality were significantly (P < 0.01) higher for eggs heated in the microwave than in the convection, but for beef patties, scores were higher for all characteristics and significantly (P < 0.01) higher for appearance, flavor, and general acceptability after heating in the convection rather than the microwave oven.

  6. Buy American Act Requirements in Acquisitions of Vertical Lifting Hangar Doors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    .... Specifically, the constituent implied that Megadoor, Inc. did not comply with the Buy American Act when supplying hangar doors to construction contractors for Air National Guard construction projects...

  7. Influence of electrolytes (TEABF4 and TEMABF4) on electrochemical performance of graphite oxide derived from needle coke. (United States)

    Yang, Sunhye; Kim, Ick-Jun; Choi, In-Sik; Bae, Mi-Kyeong; Kim, Hyun-Soo


    The structure of needle coke was changed to graphite oxide structure after oxidation treatment with 70 wt.% of nitric acid and sodium chlorate (NaClO3), and the inter-layer distance of the oxidized needle coke was expanded to 6.9 angstroms. The first charge profile of the oxidized needle coke-cell with 1.2 M TEMABF4/acetonitrile solution displayed that the intercalation of electrolyte ions into the inter-layer occurred at 1.0 V, which value is lower than 1.3 V of the oxidized needle coke-cell with 1.2 M TEABF4/acetonitrile solution. After first charge/discharge, the cell using TEMABF4 electrolyte exhibited smaller electrode resistance of 0.05 omega, and larger specific volume capacitance of 25.5 F/ml at the two-electrode system in the potential range 0-2.5 V than those of the cell using TEABF4 electrolyte. Compared to the TEABF4 electrolyte, better electrochemical performance of the TEMABF4 electrolyte in the oxidized needle coke may be caused by the smaller cation (TEMA+) size and better ion mobility in the nanopores between inter-layers.

  8. Cosmos Caudatus as a Potential Source of Polyphenolic Compounds: Optimisation of Oven Drying Conditions and Characterisation of Its Functional Properties


    Chin Ping Tan; Alfi Khatib; Faridah Abas; Ahmed Mediani


    The aim of the study was to analyze the influence of oven thermal processing of Cosmos caudatus on the total polyphenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant capacity (DPPH) of two different solvent extracts (80% methanol, and 80% ethanol). Sonication was used to extract bioactive compounds from this herb. The results showed that the optimised conditions for the oven drying method for 80% methanol and 80% ethanol were 44.5 °C for 4 h with an IC50 of 0.045 mg/mL and 43.12 °C for 4.05 h with an IC50 ...

  9. Electrochemical Oxidation Using BDD Anodes Combined with Biological Aerated Filter for Biotreated Coking Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Wang


    Full Text Available Coking wastewater is characterized by poor biodegradability and high microorganism toxicity. Thus, it is difficult to meet Grade I of Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard of China by biological treatment technology; specifically, COD cannot meet above standard due to containing refractory organics. A novel coupling reactor, electrochemical oxidation using BDD anodes and biological aerated filter (BAF, has been developed for carbon and nitrogen removal from biotreated coking wastewater, focusing on COD, BOD5, NH4+-N, and NO3--N removal on operation over 90 days with average effluent value of 91.3, 9.73, 0.62, and 13.34 mgL−1, respectively. Average value of BOD5/COD and BOD5/NO3--N was enhanced from 0.05 to 0.27 and from 0.45 to 1.21 by electrochemical oxidation, respectively, with average energy consumption of 67.9 kWh kg−1 COD. In addition, the refractory organics also were evidently mineralized in the unit based on the data of the three-dimensional fluorescence spectra. Meanwhile, its effluent provided excellent substrate for biological denitrification in BAF. At hydraulic retention time (HRT of 13.08 h, about 12 mgL−1  NO3--N was depleted through denitrification, and it mainly occurred at top of 0.25 m height of BAF. Therefore, it is feasible to apply the coupling reactor for biotreated coking wastewater treatment and achieve desirable effluent quality.

  10. Determination of the coke bed voidage in the blast furnace hearth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havelange, O.; Danloy, G.; Venturini, M.J. [and others] [CRM, Liege (Belgium)


    The objectives of the research were to develop and apply techniques and model tools allowing an online evaluation of the blast furnace hearth conditions and its permeability, in order to guarantee a stable furnace operation and to control the refractory wear through early corrective actions. CRM determined the coke bed voidage in the hearth of BFB of Cockerill-Sambre by two techniques: one based on pressure measurement inside the taphole and the other based on electromotive force measurement. A mathematicalmodel was developed taking into account the movements of the deadman. ln order to continuously determine the hot metal flow rate, BFI measured the filling level in the runner at BF 2 of TKS. A statistical wear model evaluated the cross-sectional runner geometry. The data have been fed into a model to calculate the coke bed voidage on multiple taphole blast furnaces. To control the wear caused by preferential liquid flow, Corus IJmuiden developed a monitoring of temperature and heat flux information from purpose-installed duplex thermocouples. This information has been correlated over time to identify any persistent trends and used to evaluate control measures such as blocked tuyeres and process shutdowns. Industrial trials at Fos BF1 enabled IRSID to propose a picture to describe the effects of the central coke charging practice. IRSID used the Fluent code to describe the liquid flow in the hearth with regard to the deadman conditions and to simulate tracer experiments. From studies of the behaviour of the hearth skull, Corus UK proposed a method for its monitoring. The iron flow rate was measured by using strain gauges attached to the torpedo ladles, and the slag flow rate was estimated from the slag pelletiser current. Data from tuyere core drilling samples were examined to estimate the voidage in the hearth. 38 refs., 127 figs.

  11. Identifying the causes of oil sands coke leachate toxicity to aquatic invertebrates. (United States)

    Puttaswamy, Naveen; Liber, Karsten


    A previous study found that coke leachates (CL) collected from oil sands field sites were acutely toxic to Ceriodaphnia dubia; however, the cause of toxicity was not known. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to generate CL in the laboratory to evaluate the toxicity response of C. dubia and perform chronic toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) tests to identify the causes of CL toxicity. Coke was subjected to a 15-d batch leaching process at pH 5.5 and 9.5. Leachates were filtered on day 15 and used for chemical and toxicological characterization. The 7-d median lethal concentration (LC50) was 6.3 and 28.7% (v/v) for pH 5.5 and 9.5 CLs, respectively. Trace element characterization of the CLs showed Ni and V levels to be well above their respective 7-d LC50s for C. dubia. Addition of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid significantly (p ≤ 0.05) improved survival and reproduction in pH 5.5 CL, but not in pH 9.5 CL. Cationic and anionic resins removed toxicity of pH 5.5 CL only. Conversely, the toxicity of pH 9.5 CL was completely removed with an anion resin alone, suggesting that the pH 9.5 CL contained metals that formed oxyanions. Toxicity reappeared when Ni and V were added back to anion resin-treated CLs. The TIE results combined with the trace element chemistry suggest that both Ni and V are the cause of toxicity in pH 5.5 CL, whereas V appears to be the primary cause of toxicity in pH 9.5 CL. Environmental monitoring and risk assessments should therefore focus on the fate and toxicity of metals, especially Ni and V, in coke-amended oil sands reclamation landscapes. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  12. Is A/A/O process effective in toxicity removal? Case study with coking wastewater. (United States)

    Shi, Liu; Wang, Dong; Cao, Di; Na, Chunhong; Quan, Xie; Zhang, Ying


    The anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (A/A/O) process is the commonly used biological wastewater treatment process, especially for the coking wastewater. However, limit is known about its ability in bio-toxicity removal from wastewater. In this study, we evaluated the performance of A/A/O process in bio-toxicity removal from the coking wastewater, using two test species (i.e. crustacean (Daphnia magna) and zebra fish (Danio rerio)) in respect of acute toxicity, oxidative damage and genotoxicity. Our results showed that the acute toxicity of raw influent was reduced gradually along with A/A/O process and the effluent presented no acute toxicity to Daphnia magna (D. magna) and zebra fish. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in D. magna and zebra fish was promoted by the effluent from each tank of A/A/O process, showing that coking wastewater induced oxidative damage. Herein, the oxidative damage to D. magna was mitigated in the oxic tank, while the toxicity to zebra fish was reduced in the anoxic tank. The comet assays showed that genotoxicity to zebra fish was removed stepwise by A/A/O process, although the final effluent still presented genotoxicity to zebra fish. Our results indicated that the A/A/O process was efficient in acute toxicity removal, but not so effective in the removal of other toxicity (e.g. oxidative damage and genotoxicity). Considering the potential risks of wastewater discharge, further advanced toxicity mitigation technology should be applied in the conventional biological treatment process, and the toxicity index should be introduced in the regulation system of wastewater discharge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Surface treatment of dental porcelain: CO2 laser as an alternative to oven glaze. (United States)

    Sgura, Ricardo; Reis, Mariana Cavalcante; Hernandes, Antonio Carlos; de Abreu Fantini, Márcia Carvalho; Andreeta, Marcello Rubens Barsi; Medeiros, Igor Studart


    This work tested continuous CO2 laser as a surface treatment to dental porcelain and compared it to oven glaze (auto-glaze) by means of roughness and color parameters. Three commercial veneering porcelains with different crystalline content were tested: VM7, VM9, and VM13. Porcelain discs (3.5 × 2.0 mm, diameter × height) were sintered and had one side ground by a diamond bur (45 μm) simulating a chairside adjustment in a clinical office. Specimens (n = 7) were divided into the following groups: C--control (no treatment), G--auto-glaze (oven), and L--surface continuous irradiation with CO2 laser (Gem Laser, Coherent; λ = 10.6 μm). Laser was tested in three exposure times (3, 4, or 5 min) and two irradiances (45 and 50 W/cm(2)). Roughness parameters (Ra, Rz, and Rpm/Rz) were measured using a rugosimeter (Surftest 301, Mitutoyo). Color differences (ΔE) between the G and L groups were calculated (VITA Easyshade); ΔE values up to 3.3 were considered as not perceivable. A surface analysis was conducted by stereomicroscopy (Olympus SZ61) and SEM (Stereoscan 440, LEO). Crystalline content of specimens from groups C and L (50 W/cm(2), 5 min) was assessed by X-ray diffraction and then compared. Surface roughness (Ra and Rz) observed for laser-irradiated groups was similar to G for all studied porcelains. Rpm/Rz ratios were near 1.0 for all groups that indicated a sharp ridge profile for all specimens. Only one laser condition studied (50 W/cm(2), 3 min) from VM7 porcelain resulted in color difference (ΔE = 3.5) to G. Specimens irradiated with 50 W/cm(2) for 5 min presented the smoother surface observed by SEM, comparable to G. X-ray diffraction data revealed an increase in leucite crystallite size for VM9 and VM13 porcelains after laser treatment. Regarding roughness, continuous CO2 laser applied on porcelain surface was as effective as conventional oven auto-glaze.

  14. COD removal by flotation and nitrogen removal tests at Rautaruuki Steel's coking plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerssi, P.; Piirainen, I. [Rautaruukki Steeli, Raahe (Finland)


    The activated sludge process has been in operation since 1987 and no changes were made in 1992 when the production of coking plant was doubled. 97% ammonium and 85% COD removal efficiencies have been achieved. The flotation unit has been tested to purify the outflow of the wastewater treatment. By the flotation it is possible to increase a COD removal efficiency of the plant above 90% and decrease a discharge under 100g COD/ton coal. According to the pilot studies the nitrogen removal stage can be supplemented to the existing basins. The main changes were made in the pumping system. 1 ref., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Control of explosion hazards of circulating gas in a dry coke quenching system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trishkina, I.V.; Savka, M.D.; Grishchenko, A.I.; Ereskovskii, O.S. (Dnepropetrovskii Metallurgicheskii Institut (USSR))


    Discusses design and operation of an automatic system for control of explosion hazards in dry quenching systems. The circulating gas consists not only of nitrogen and carbon dioxide but also of carbon monoxide, oxygen, hydrogen, water vapor and methane. Explosion hazards are associated with increased content of combustible components. Composition of the circulating gas is determined. Its molecular mass is calculated. Changing molecular mass supplies information on explosion hazards. Increasing explosion hazards are controlled by coke burnout degree (during oxidation and combustion content of combustible components declines). The system detects explosion hazards and determines optimum burnout degree. 3 refs.

  16. Method for Detecting the Inside of Coke Drum Using Acoustic Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Guo


    Full Text Available A distance and acoustic intensity reverberation (DAIR physical model is developed that can be successfully applied to the signal processing of the hydraulic decoking process online monitoring. In this model, the transmission characteristics of acoustic signals generated by a moving sound source in a dynamic confined space are first analyzed using data recursion and correction according to the coordinate continuity in adjacent area and adjacent time. The results show that the nondetection zone of acoustic signals generated directly by the impact of water is eliminated, and the surface distribution of coke in the drum can be mapped in real time.

  17. Coking of Ni-based catalysts at the process of methane conversion with carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudnitsky, L.A.; Soboleva, T.N.; Korotkova, G.; Alexseev, A.M. [Institute for Nitrogen Industry, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    The process of methane conversion with carbon dioxide over Ni-based supported catalyst (NiSC) is followed by the reversible reaction of carbon formation on the NiSC at certain conditions. This reaction is of interest as a model for investigation of coking reaction (CR) and it`s reverse one - gasification (GR) on different types of NiSC. The study of dynamics of CR and GR was carried out with thermomicrobalance at the atmospheric pressure in methane - carbon dioxide mixture flow over previously reduced NiSC at linear temperature programming in heating and cooling regimes.

  18. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 85-441-1765, New Boston Coke Corporation, New Boston, Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Malley, M.A.


    In response to a request from the Industrial Commission of Ohio, worker complaints of skin disease at the New Boston Coke Corporation, New Boston, Ohio were investigated. The request was based on seven reports of dermatitis thought to be associated with steam exposure during coke quenching. Quench water had a pH of 8.85 and contained phenol, ammonia, calcium-oxide, and suspended particulates (82% organic compounds); no irritant threshold levels were found for these compounds. Skin tests in rabbits showed a minimal irritant capacity for quench water. Medical records did not reveal the origin of dermatitis. Active skin lesions were characterized as nummular eczema or atopic dermatitis, which were not thought to be of occupational origin. The author concludes that coke-quenching steam does not pose a skin hazard, but certain work activities may aggravate existing skin conditions. Recommendations include elimination of abrasive cleansing agents, use of skin moisturizers after washing, and prompt medical evaluation of skin complaints.

  19. Door to Door Survey and Community Participation to Implement a New County Mosquito Control Program in Wayne County, North Carolina, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Kelley


    Full Text Available Community involvement in mosquito management programs provides more sustainable and effective organization and service. A door to door survey in Wayne County, NC carried out by student volunteers, resulted in 60 household responses. Residents had not previously experienced outreach from the county (88%, and 95% of them thought the student door to door survey was an effective form of outreach. One third of the residents thought mosquitoes were severe where they lived, but only 9% thought they had any containers in their yard that might breed mosquitoes. Only 15% of the residents were concerned about mosquito borne diseases. These responses provide evidence that outreach and education on mosquito control and diseases were necessary steps for future mosquito control community planning.

  20. The effect of high and low dissolved oxygen on the toxicity of oil sands coke and its leachate to Chironomus tentans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Squires, A.J.; Liber, K. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada)


    A study was conducted to assess the effect of low dissolved oxygen on the long-term leaching potential of the toxic constituents found in coke. Coke is one of the waste products produced during the oil sand upgrading process used at Syncrude Canada Ltd. and Suncor Energy Inc. Coke is contaminated by metals and organic compounds which can leach into the environment. In this study, coke from both companies was exposed to reconstituted water and high dissolved oxygen for a period of 30 days, during which time the overlying water containing the leachate and the coke pore-water was chemically analyzed. The benthic macroinvertebrate, Chironomus tentans, was exposed to the aged coke and the overlying leachate after the 30 day period. The study did not reveal any major difference in the survival or growth between the dissolved oxygen treatments or any of the leachate treatments. The macroinvertebrate in the aged Syncrude grew significantly while the Suncor coke strongly inhibited both survival and growth of the macroinvertebrate. The study demonstrates that coke has the potential to negatively affect benthic organisms if it is used uncovered in an aquatic reclamation effort.

  1. Use of microwave oven improves morphology and staining of cryostat sections. (United States)

    Kennedy, A; Foulis, A K


    The quality of microscopic image of cryostat sections that had been subjected to microwave assisted fixation was compared with that resulting from conventional air drying of the sections. The role of microwaves in producing rapid special stains on cryostat sections was also assessed. Methods used permitted stains such as periodic acid Schiff, alcian blue, Gordon and Sweets's reticulin, Masson Fontana, Elastica, Prussian blue and Van Gieson to be performed within three minutes of cutting a cryostat section. The cytological detail of nuclei was much clearer using the microwave technique, allowing more accurate determination of cell type. The microwave oven seems to have major potential in improving the diagnostic accuracy of surgical frozen sections. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 PMID:2466053


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.I. ANWAR


    Full Text Available In jaggery making furnaces, sugarcane bagasse is used as fuel. Moisture content of bagasse affects its calorific value. So burning of bagasse at suitable level of moisture is essential from the viewpoint of furnace performance. Moisture content can also be used for indirect calculation of fibre content in sugarcane. Normally gravimetric method is used for moisture content determination, which is time consuming. Therefore, an attempt has been made to use microwave oven for drying of bagasse. It took about 20 to 25 minutes for the determination as compared to 8-10 hours in conventional hot air drying method and the results were comparable to the values obtained from hot air drying method.

  3. Comparison of Mathematical Equation and Neural Network Modeling for Drying Kinetic of Mendong in Microwave Oven (United States)

    Maulidah, Rifa'atul; Purqon, Acep


    Mendong (Fimbristylis globulosa) has a potentially industrial application. We investigate a predictive model for heat and mass transfer in drying kinetics during drying a Mendong. We experimentally dry the Mendong by using a microwave oven. In this study, we analyze three mathematical equations and feed forward neural network (FNN) with back propagation to describe the drying behavior of Mendong. Our results show that the experimental data and the artificial neural network model has a good agreement and better than a mathematical equation approach. The best FNN for the prediction is 3-20-1-1 structure with Levenberg- Marquardt training function. This drying kinetics modeling is potentially applied to determine the optimal parameters during mendong drying and to estimate and control of drying process.

  4. Microwave-induced plasma reactor based on a domestic microwave oven for bulk solid state chemistry (United States)

    Brooks, David J.; Douthwaite, Richard E.


    A microwave-induced plasma (MIP) reactor has been constructed from a domestic microwave oven (DMO) and applied to the bulk synthesis of solid state compounds. Low pressure MIP can be initiated and maintained using a range of gases including Ar, N2, NH3, O2, Cl2, and H2S. In order to obtain reproducible synthesis conditions the apparatus is designed to allow control of gas flow rate, gas composition, and pressure. The use of the reactor is demonstrated by the synthesis of three binary metal nitrides formed in a NH3 MIP. The reactions are rapid and the products show good crystallinity and phase purity as judged by powder x-ray diffraction.

  5. Hybrid solar-electric oven construction prototype; Construccion de prototipo de horno hibrido solar-electrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez Roman, M. A; Pineda Pinon, J; Arcos Pichardo, A [CICATA, Santiago de Queretaro, Queretaro (Mexico)


    The oven construction consists of a solar collector system of cylindrical parabolic type, a heating through electrical resistance and a curing chamber. The warm fluid is air, which is injected into the chamber through forced draft. The temperature required in the system is within a range of 150 to 300 degrees Celsius. [Spanish] La construccion del horno consta de un sistema de captacion solar del tipo cilindrico parabolico, un sistema de calentamiento a traves de resistencias electricas y una camara de curado. El fluido a calentar es aire, el cual es inyectado dentro de la camara a traves de tiro forzado. La temperatura solicitada en el sistema es dentro de un rango de 150 a 300 grados centigrados.

  6. Simulation of blast furnace operation during the substitution of coke and pulverized coal with granulated waste plastic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Tihomir M.


    Full Text Available The possibility of using the waste plastic as reducing agent in blast furnace for obtaining pig iron is in focus for the past couple year. The simulation of blast furnace process in BFC software has been performed in order to analyze the coke and coals saving, CO2 emission and determining the economic benefits. Three different batches were made for comparative analysis, depending on the batch composition and input of batch components into the blast furnace: case 1 (C1, case 2 (C2 and case 3 (C3. The base case, C1 contains sinter (bulk material which is needed for obtaining 1 tone of pig iron, quartz which provides slag alkalinity and coke as reducing and energy agent. C2 has the same components as C1, but contains pulverized coal instead one part of coke and C3 contains granulated waste plastic instead coke in an approximately the same amount as pulverized coal. The substitution of coke with pulverized coal and waste plastic is 18.6 % and 25.2 %, respectively. The economic, productivity and ecologic aspects have been analyzed. The consumption of each tone of waste plastic in blast furnace saves 360 $, which is 18 times more than its price, bearing in mind that the market price of coke is 380 $/t % and waste plastic 20 $/t. Regarding the specific productivity, it decreases from 2.13 for C1 to 1.87 for C3. From an environmental aspect there are two main benefits: reduction of CO2 emission and impossibility of dioxin formation. The CO2 emission was 20.18, 19.46 and 17.21 for C1, C2 and C3, respectively.

  7. Glass bead sterilizer comprehensively defeats hot air oven in orthodontic clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Vasudev Jakati


    Full Text Available Background: It is necessary to ′try in′ several bands before the correct one is selected. A possible concern with re-using such bands is the lack of cross-infection control. Aim and Objectives: To determine whether such bands could be successfully decontaminated with Glass bead sterilization so that they could be re-used without a cross-infection risk. Materials: Custom made molar bands were taken and buccal tubes,lingual sheath and lingual cleat were welded under strict aseptic conditions. Methods: Samples were divided into 2 groups i.e. A and B, based on mode for sterilization. Sterilized attachments were placed in each of 2 conical flask. The bacteria spores were inoculated into both flask under strict aseptic conditions. Bacteria Bacillus subtillis and Staphylococcus albus species were allowed to multiply in individual flasks filled with BHI broth for 24 hours. Bands from 1st group were placed in a glass bead sterilizer. For the 2 nd group i.e. hot air oven group, all bands were placed together. After sterilization bands were removed and placed in freshly sterilized 500ml conical flask containing BHI broth for 24 hours in the incubator. The following day randomly 4 attachments were selected from each group and streaked on blood agar culture plates. Results: After sterilization and on further incubation in BHI broth for 24 and 48 hrs. Respectively no growth was seen. Conclusion: 1 hr. of Hot Air Oven sterilization (excluding pre sterilization heat up time and post sterilization cooling time at 190°C is as effective as 3 min of Chair side Glass Bead sterilization.

  8. Study and modelling of deactivation by coke in catalytic reforming of hydrocarbons on Pt-Sn/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst; La microbalance inertielle: etude et modelisation cinetique de la desactivation par le coke en reformage catalytique des hydrocarbures sur catalyseur Pt-Sn/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathieu-Deghais, S.


    Catalytic reforming is the refining process that produces gasoline with a high octane number. During a reforming operation, undesired side reactions promote the formation of carbon deposits (coke) on the surface of the catalyst. As the reactions proceed, the coke accumulation leads to a progressive decrease of the catalyst activity and to a change in its selectivity. Getting this phenomenon under control is interesting to optimize the industrial plants. This work aims to improve the comprehension and the modeling of coke formation and its deactivating effect on reforming reactions, while working under conditions chosen within a range as close as possible to the industrial conditions of the regenerative process. The experimental study is carried out with a micro unit that is designed to observe simultaneously the coke formation and its influence on the catalyst activity. A vibrational microbalance reactor (TEOM - Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance) is used to provide continuous monitoring of coke. On-line gas chromatography is used to observe the catalyst activity and selectivity as a function of the coke content. The coking experiments are performed on a fresh Pt-Sn/alumina catalyst, with mixtures of hydrocarbon molecules of 7 carbon atoms as hydrocarbon feeds. The coking tests permitted to highlight the operating parameters that may affect the amount of coke, and to identify the hydrocarbon molecules that behave as coke intermediate. A kinetic model for coke formation could be developed through the compilation of these results. The catalytic activity analysis permitted to point out the coke effect on both of the active phases of the catalyst, to construct a simplified reforming kinetic model that simulates the catalyst activity under the reforming conditions, and to quantify deactivation via deactivation functions. (author)

  9. Effect of Extracted Compositions of Liquefaction Residue on the Structure and Properties of the Formed-coke


    Song Yong-hui; Ma Qiao-na; He Wen-jin


    The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of extracted compositions of the de-ash liquefaction residue (D-DCLR) on pyrolysis products yields, compressive strength and composition of the formed-coke, which was prepared by co-pyrolysis of the low metamorphic pulverized coal and D-DCLR. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) were used to characterize the morphology and functional group of the formed-coke, respectively. The results showed that the...

  10. Variable effect of steam injection level on beef muscles: semitendinosus and biceps femoris cooked in convection-steam oven. (United States)

    Zając, Marzena; Kącik, Sławomir; Palka, Krystyna; Widurek, Paweł


    Combi ovens are used very often in restaurants to heat up food. According to the producers the equipment allows to cook meat portions which are more tender and flavoursome comparing to conventional cooking techniques. Beef steaks from muscles semitendinosus and biceps femoris were cooked in convection-steam oven at three humidity levels: 10, 60 and 100%. Chemical composition, including total and insoluble collagen content and cook losses were analysed along with the texture and colour parameters. M. biceps femoris was the hardest and the most chewy at 100% steam saturation level and hardness measured for m. semitendinosus was the lowest at 10% of vapour injection. Changing the steam conditions in the oven chamber did not affect the detectable colour differences of m. biceps femoris, but it was significant for m. semitendinosus. Applying 100% steam saturation caused higher cook losses and the increase of insoluble collagen fractions in both analysed muscles. The results are beneficial for caterers using steam-convection ovens in terms of providing evidence that the heating conditions should be applied individually depending on the muscle used. The tenderness of m. semitendinosus muscle cooked at 10% steam saturation level was comparable to the tenderness obtained for the same muscle aged for 10 days and cooked with 100% steam saturation. Steaks from m. biceps femoris muscle should be cooked with maximum 60% saturation level to obtain higher tenderness.

  11. 40 CFR 63.1183 - How do I comply with the formaldehyde standards for existing, new, and reconstructed curing ovens? (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I comply with the formaldehyde... with the formaldehyde standards for existing, new, and reconstructed curing ovens? To comply with the formaldehyde standards, you must meet all of the following: (a) Install, calibrate, maintain, and operate a...

  12. Effects of insulation parameters on the energy consumption in domestic ovens and the most efficient insulation design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onbasioglu S.U.


    Full Text Available Studying on insulation and its parameters has some difficulties comparing to the other factors which affect energy consumption. On the other hand, not only computational studies, but also experimental studies are important in understanding the heat and fluid flow in domestic ovens. By having knowledge onhow insulation parameters effect on the energy consumption, getting efficient designs will come through easily. This study focuses on deciding optimum insulation design, by decreasing thermal bridges over itself. Firstly, experiments are performed for determining excessive heat region on a reference oven's insulation. Also these experiments are completed with two different thermocouple layouts in various temperatures and isotherm maps are generated for innerand outer chassis surfaces. Reference oven's insulation is also scanned by thermal camera. The results of overheated areas and thermal camera images are compared with each other. Different insulation designs are devised on the comparison of the conclusions. Standard energy consumption experiments are performed for each insulation designs under the working mode, which the dominant one in heat transfer, is forced convection. The most efficient insulation was scanned again by thermal camera and these thermal images showed that it decreased overheated areas on outer chassis surface. The experimental studies showed that energy consumption of the domestic oven decreased 4.5% with the new insulation design.

  13. Simulation of the noise transmission through automotive door seals

    CERN Document Server

    Hazir, Andreas


    Andreas Hazir is investigating the door seal contribution to the interior noise level of production vehicles. These investigations contain experimental contribution analyses of real production vehicles and of academic test cases as well as the development of a simulation methodology for noise transmission through sealing systems and side windows. The simulations are realized by coupling transient computational aeroacoustics of the exterior flow to nonlinear finite element simulations of the structural transmission. By introducing a linear transmission model, the setup and computational costs of the seal noise transmission are significantly reduced, resulting in the feasibility of numerical contribution analyses of real production vehicles. Contents Contribution Analyses of Production Vehicles Acoustic Excitation versus Aeroacoustic Excitation Development of a Simulation Methodology Sensitivity Analysis of Noise Transmission Simulations Target Groups Researchers and students in the field of automotive engineer...

  14. Windows to the world, doors to the space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogler, A.; Jørgensen, Jesper


    Living in a confined environment with minimal external stimuli available, such as a space habitat, is a strain on normal human life and puts great pressure on groups and individuals. Designers working on a space habitat not only must work on its functional role, but also must integrate functional...... mediums. In this paper the authors advocate a closer connection among architecture, anthropology and psychology in designing space habitats as part of a new concept of environmental design strategy in space architecture....... functionality with mental representation and symbolic meaning. Space-connection interfaces such as doors and windows act as “sensory organs” of a building. They allow inside-out communication, but also allow the user to control the flow of light and air, which in a direct or indirect way are communication...

  15. Greenery vs. Concrete and Walls and Doors: Images and Metaphors Affecting an Urban Mission. (United States)

    Severino, Carl


    The traditional pastoralism of American higher education has interfered with efforts to develop an urban mission for the university. In addition, current open-door metaphors of access, political trends, and media coverage are promulgating closed-door, wall-building rhetoric and policies. Now is the time to counter antiurban attitudes by reviving…

  16. Het bepalen van de plasma renine activiteit door middel van de radioimmunochemische bepaling van angiotensine I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elvers LH; Somers HHJ; Loeber JG


    De plasma renine activiteit (PRA) wordt gemeten door de radioimmunochemische bepaling (RIA) van het angiotensine I (AI) dat gevormd wordt tijdens incubatie van het renine met zijn substraat (angiotensinogeen). Om degradatie van het gevormde AI door peptidases te voorkomen worden als angiotensinases

  17. 16 CFR 1201.40 - Interpretation concerning bathtub and shower doors and enclosures. (United States)


    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretation concerning bathtub and shower... Policy and Interpretation § 1201.40 Interpretation concerning bathtub and shower doors and enclosures. (a) Purpose and background. The purpose of this section is to clarify the scope of the terms “bathtub doors...

  18. Understanding the Revolving Door Phenomenon for Retired Mid-Grade Military Officers (United States)


    preservation become more important. The revolving door is an efficient but politically charged HC and SC preservation method. How are retired military second...policy-makers continue the revolving door practice with safeguards in place to maintain transparency , equity, and oversight.

  19. Design concepts for a composite door frame system for general automotive applications (United States)

    Tauber, J. A.


    Conceptual design, manufacturing process, and costs are explored to determine the feasibility of replacing present steel parts in automotive door structures with various composite materials. The problems of conforming to present anti-intrusion specifications with advanced materials are examined and discussed. Modest weight reductions, at competitive costs, were identified for the utilization of specific composite materials in automotive door structures.

  20. 24 CFR 3280.403 - Standard for windows and sliding glass doors used in manufactured homes. (United States)


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Standard for windows and sliding... AND SAFETY STANDARDS Testing § 3280.403 Standard for windows and sliding glass doors used in manufactured homes. (a) Scope. This section sets the requirements for prime windows and sliding glass doors...