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Sample records for coincidence based blood

  1. Introduction to Neutron Coincidence Counter Design Based on Boron-10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Siciliano, Edward R.

    2012-01-22

    The Department of Energy Office of Nonproliferation Policy (NA-241) is supporting the project 'Coincidence Counting With Boron-Based Alternative Neutron Detection Technology' at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for development of an alternative neutron coincidence counter. The goal of this project is ultimately to design, build and demonstrate a boron-lined proportional tube based alternative system in the configuration of a coincidence counter. This report, providing background information for this project, is the deliverable under Task 1 of the project.

  2. Simulations of Lithium-Based Neutron Coincidence Counter for Gd-Loaded Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowles, Christian C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kouzes, Richard T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Siciliano, Edward R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Safeguards and Security (NA-241) is supporting the project Lithium-Based Alternative Neutron Detection Technology Coincidence Counting for Gd-loaded Fuels at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the development of a lithium-based neutron coincidence counter for nondestructively assaying Gd loaded nuclear fuel. This report provides results from MCNP simulations of a lithium-based coincidence counter for the possible measurement of Gd-loaded nuclear fuel. A comparison of lithium-based simulations and UNCL-II simulations with and without Gd loaded fuel is provided. A lithium-based model, referred to as PLNS3A-R1, showed strong promise for assaying Gd loaded fuel.

  3. Silicon PIN diode based electron-gamma coincidence detector system for Noble Gases monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrustalev, K; Popov, V Yu; Popov, Yu S

    2017-08-01

    We present a new second generation SiPIN based electron-photon coincidence detector system developed by Lares Ltd. for use in the Noble Gas measurement systems of the International Monitoring System and the On-site Inspection verification regimes of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). The SiPIN provide superior energy resolution for electrons. Our work describes the improvements made in the second generation detector cells and the potential use of such detector systems for other applications such as In-Situ Kr-85 measurements for non-proliferation purposes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Correlation-Based Amplitude Estimation of Coincident Partials in Monaural Musical Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayme Garcia Arnal Barbedo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method for estimating the amplitude of coincident partials generated by harmonic musical sources (instruments and vocals. It was developed as an alternative to the commonly used interpolation approach, which has several limitations in terms of performance and applicability. The strategy is based on the following observations: (a the parameters of partials vary with time; (b such a variation tends to be correlated when the partials belong to the same source; (c the presence of an interfering coincident partial reduces the correlation; and (d such a reduction is proportional to the relative amplitude of the interfering partial. Besides the improved accuracy, the proposed technique has other advantages over its predecessors: it works properly even if the sources have the same fundamental frequency, it is able to estimate the first partial (fundamental, which is not possible using the conventional interpolation method, it can estimate the amplitude of a given partial even if its neighbors suffer intense interference from other sources, it works properly under noisy conditions, and it is immune to intraframe permutation errors. Experimental results show that the strategy clearly outperforms the interpolation approach.

  5. A Rapid Coordinate Transformation Method Applied in Industrial Robot Calibration Based on Characteristic Line Coincidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailing Liu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Coordinate transformation plays an indispensable role in industrial measurements, including photogrammetry, geodesy, laser 3-D measurement and robotics. The widely applied methods of coordinate transformation are generally based on solving the equations of point clouds. Despite the high accuracy, this might result in no solution due to the use of ill conditioned matrices. In this paper, a novel coordinate transformation method is proposed, not based on the equation solution but based on the geometric transformation. We construct characteristic lines to represent the coordinate systems. According to the space geometry relation, the characteristic line scan is made to coincide by a series of rotations and translations. The transformation matrix can be obtained using matrix transformation theory. Experiments are designed to compare the proposed method with other methods. The results show that the proposed method has the same high accuracy, but the operation is more convenient and flexible. A multi-sensor combined measurement system is also presented to improve the position accuracy of a robot with the calibration of the robot kinematic parameters. Experimental verification shows that the position accuracy of robot manipulator is improved by 45.8% with the proposed method and robot calibration.

  6. Primary standardization of activity using the coincidence method based on analogue instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobin, Ch. [Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel CEA/Saclay, (LNE-LNHB), 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2007-08-15

    Widely implemented at national metrology institutes (NMIs), the coincidence method is a technique to assay a wide variety of radionuclides which decay through two or more types of radiation. Through a survey of the literature, this paper seeks to describe the main aspects of one of the most powerful direct methods available in radionuclide metrology. The basics of coincidence counting and the efficiency extrapolation method are covered. The problem of non-linearities in the extrapolation curve is also considered. The main characteristics of variants to the conventional coincidence instrumentation are presented. (author)

  7. The coincidence theory of consonance: A re-evaluation based on modern scientific evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcomb, Benjamin Dwight

    The coincidence theory was a theory of consonance advocated by many of the scientists of the period 1550-1800, including Galileo, Mersenne, Descartes, and Euler. It was the first truly scientific explanation of consonance, addressing the way that sound waves interact with each other either constructively or destructively. Within the present century, historians of music and science have turned their attention to the coincidence theory and the important role it played in both fields in the 17th century. Many of these same authors have charged the theory with having had serious faults. However, an investigation of modern scientific evidence reveals that these alleged problems are either answerable or irrelevant to the coincidence theory. Furthermore, a survey of the major theories of consonance since the 18th century shows that the premises of the coincidence theory pervade and underlie many of these more recent theories. Examples of such theories include those of Helmholtz, Lipps, Boomsliter and Creel, and Terhardt. In the process of establishing these theses, many relevant secondary issues are addressed. For example, this dissertation contains a discussion of the different meanings of the word consonance, the relationship between integer ratios and musical intervals, and the similarities between pitch perception and rhythmic perception. Also, several different versions of the coincidence theory are identified and evaluated.

  8. Coincidence studies with antiprotons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGovern, M; Walters, H R J [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Queen' s University, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Assafrao, D; Mohallem, J R [Laboratorio de Atomos e Moleculas Especiais, Departamento de Fisica, ICEx, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, P.O Box 702, 30123-970 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Whelan, Colm T, E-mail: mmcgovern06@qub.ac.u [Department of Physics, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529-0116 (United States)

    2010-02-01

    We present a short overview of a new method for calculating fully differential cross sections that is able to describe any aspect of coincidence measurements involving heavy projectiles. The method is based upon impact parameter close coupling with pseudostates. Examples from antiproton impact ionization are shown.

  9. The findings of F-18 FDG camera-based coincidence PET in acute leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, S. N.; Joh, C. W.; Lee, M. H. [Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    We evaluated the usefulness of F-18 FDG coincidence PET (CoDe-PET) using a dual-head gamma camera in the assessment of patients with acute leukemia. F-18 FDG CoDE-PET studies were performed in 5 patients with acute leukemia (6 ALL and 2 AML) before or after treatment. CoDe-PET was performed utilizing a dual-head gamma camera equipped with 5/8 inch NaI(Tl) crystal. Image acquisition began 60 minutes after the injection of F-18 FDG in the fasting state. A whole trunk from cervical to inguinal regions or selected region were scanned. No attenuation correction was made and image reconstruction was done using filtered back-projection. CoDe-PET studies were evaluated visually. F-18 FDG image performed in 5 patients with ALL before therapy depicted multiple lymph node involvement and diffuse increased uptake involving axial skeleton, pelvis and femurs. F-18 FDG image done in 2 AML after chemotherapy showed only diffuse increased uptake in sternum, ribs, spine, pelvis and proximal femur and these may be due to G-CSF stimulation effect in view of drug history. But bone marrow histology showed scattered blast cell suggesting incomplete remission in one and completer remission in another. F-18 image done in 1 ALL after therapy showed no abnormal uptake. CoDe-PET with F-18 FDG in acute lymphoblastic lymphoma showed multiple lymphnode and bone marrow involvement in whole body. Therefore we conclude that CoDe-PET with F-18 FDG usefulness for evaluation of extent in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. But there was a limitation to assess therapy effectiveness during therapy due to reactive bone marrow.

  10. Standardization of 68Ge/68Ga using the 4πβ-γ coincidence method based on Cherenkov counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobin, C; Thiam, C; Bouchard, J

    2017-06-29

    In the framework of an international BIPM comparison (Bureau International des Poids et Mesures), the activity standardization of 68Ge in a solution of 68Ge/68Ga in equilibrium provided by NIST was carried out at LNHB. This exercise was organized to meet the growing interest in 68Ga as a radiopharmaceutical in nuclear medicine services (e.g. as a surrogate of 18F for PET imaging). Due to the volatility of germanium, the activity standardization of 68Ge was investigated at LNHB by means of 4πβ-γ coincidence counting based on Cherenkov measurements. This technique was applied to take advantage of the Cherenkov threshold (~ 260keV in aqueous solutions) in order to prevent counting from electron-capture events associated with 68Ge disintegrations. Cherenkov counting was performed using glass and polyethylene vials and the resulting activity concentrations were compared with 4πβ-γ coincidence measurements based on liquid scintillation. The efficiency-extrapolation curve obtained with Cherenkov measurements in glass vials was compared to Monte Carlo simulations based on the Geant4 code. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Towards Software-Based Real-Time Singles and Coincidence Processing of Digital PET Detector Raw Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldschmidt, Benjamin; Lerche, Christoph W.; Solf, Torsten; Salomon, André; Kiessling, Fabian; Schulz, Volkmar

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents a software-based singles and coincidence processing (SCP) architecture for a digital PET/MR system that is based on SiPM detectors with local digitization coupled to preclinical crystal arrays. Compared with traditional PET systems, our system outputs detector raw data of the individual detector elements via optical Gigabit Ethernet interfaces instead of singles or coincidences. The raw data contains the digitized timestamps, energies, and identifiers of triggered SiPM pixels (hits). Although this approach requires a high bandwidth for the detector data transmission system, the availability of detector raw data offers unique opportunities to employ more accurate and computationally complex, iterative algorithms, which can lead to PET images with higher quality and accuracy. In this paper, we evaluate a parallel software-based SCP for three different crystal position estimation approaches with regard to its real-time capabilities. The SCP receives detector raw data as input and outputs list-mode coincidence data. The investigated PET system features ten singles processing units (SPU), each equipped with two PET detector stacks and a Gigabit Ethernet interface to a data acquisition and processing server (Dell Poweredge R910 equipped with 4× Intel Xeon X7560@2.27 GHz CPUs and 256 GByte DDR3-RAM), allowing lossless real-time acquisition of the entire raw data stream. Using the detector raw data of three previously stored measurements, our results show that the throughput (in Mhits/s) of a center-of-gravity (COG)-based parallel SCP is nearly 4× higher on average than the estimated detector raw data output that is generated from an activity of 37 MBq in the iso-center of the detector ring. Under the same conditions, an iterative maximum-likelihood (ML)-based parallel SCP leads to a 6× higher throughput on average, while a Gaussian-based parallel SCP also results in a 13× higher throughput on average. Compared with a serial processing approach, the

  12. An overview of the web-based Google Earth coincident imaging tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chander, Gyanesh; Kilough, B.; Gowda, S.

    2010-01-01

    The Committee on Earth Observing Satellites (CEOS) Visualization Environment (COVE) tool is a browser-based application that leverages Google Earth web to display satellite sensor coverage areas. The analysis tool can also be used to identify near simultaneous surface observation locations for two or more satellites. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) CEOS System Engineering Office (SEO) worked with the CEOS Working Group on Calibration and Validation (WGCV) to develop the COVE tool. The CEOS member organizations are currently operating and planning hundreds of Earth Observation (EO) satellites. Standard cross-comparison exercises between multiple sensors to compare near-simultaneous surface observations and to identify corresponding image pairs are time-consuming and labor-intensive. COVE is a suite of tools that have been developed to make such tasks easier.

  13. [Human cognitive space: coincidence of the models, built on base of EEG rhythms and psychometric measurements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roik, A O; Ivanitskiĭ, G A; Ivanitskiĭ, A M

    2012-11-01

    Earlier it was shown that the specific rhythmical EEG patterns appear during solution of the particular cognitive tasks, such as spatial and verbal ones. In this study not only basic, but also mixed, intermediate cognitive tasks were used. The aim was to estimate the similarity and the difference between EEG spectra during performance of the whole line of the thinking operations. The distances between EEG spectra were calculated in this base. We could see that these distances formed the arranged space where the spatial, imaginative and verbal thinking types found their logical position along the appropriate coordinate axes forming the model of cognitive space. Furthermore, though the EEG spectra varied across subjects, the distances between these spectra were rather similar. Thus, the cognitive map was almost invariant to particular spectral data. The same tasks were then presented to professional psychologists. Using the subjective scaling technique, they appointed the position of the tasks in the spatial, imaginative and verbal scales. These measurements were then used to build the subjective cognitive space map. The maps got via brain rhythms analysis and subjective scaling appeared to be practically identical. The data show that the thinking process is indeed encoded in brain rhythms.

  14. Achalasia following reflux disease: coincidence, consequence, or accommodation? An experience-based literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vereczkei A

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available András Vereczkei, Laura Bognár, András Papp, Örs Péter Horváth Department of Surgery, University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary Abstract: Achalasia is a motility disorder of the esophagus characterized by the defective peristaltic activity of the esophageal body and impaired relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter due to the degeneration of the inhibitory neurons in the myenteric plexus of the esophageal wall. The histopathological and pathophysiological changes in achalasia have been well described. However, the exact etiological factors leading to the disease still remain unclear. Currently, achalasia is believed to be a multifactorial disease, involving both extrinsic and intrinsic factors. Based on our experience and the review of literature, we believe that gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD might be one of the triggering factors leading to the development of achalasia. However, it is also stated that the two diseases can simultaneously appear independently from each other. Considering the large number and routine treatment of patients with GERD and achalasia, the rare combination of the two may even remain unnoticed; thus, the analysis of larger patient groups with this entity is not feasible. In this context, we report four cases where long-standing reflux symptoms preceded the development of achalasia. A literature review of the available data is also given. We hypothesize that achalasia following the chronic acid exposure of the esophagus is not accidental but either a consequence of a chronic inflammation or a protective reaction of the organism in order to prevent aspiration and lessen reflux-related symptoms. This hypothesis awaits further clinical confirmation. Keywords: achalasia, gastroesophageal reflux disease, Barrett’s esophagus, Nissen fundoplication

  15. Synchrotron-based double imaging photoelectron/photoion coincidence spectroscopy of radicals produced in a flow tube: OH and OD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Gustavo A.; Tang, Xiaofeng; Gil, Jean-François; Nahon, Laurent [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, St. Aubin, BP 48, 91192 Gif sur Yvette (France); Ward, Michael; Batut, Sebastien; Fittschen, Christa [PC2A, Université de Lille 1, UMR CNRS-USTL 8522, Cité Scientifique Bât. C11, F-59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq (France); Taatjes, Craig A.; Osborn, David L. [Combustion Research Facility, Mail Stop 9055, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, California 94551-0969 (United States); Loison, Jean-Christophe [ISM, Université Bordeaux 1, CNRS, 351 cours de la Libération, 33405 Talence Cedex (France)

    2015-04-28

    We present a microwave discharge flow tube coupled with a double imaging electron/ion coincidence device and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) synchrotron radiation. The system has been applied to the study of the photoelectron spectroscopy of the well-known radicals OH and OD. The coincidence imaging scheme provides a high selectivity and yields the spectra of the pure radicals, removing the ever-present contributions from excess reactants, background, or secondary products, and therefore obviating the need for a prior knowledge of all possible byproducts. The photoelectron spectra encompassing the X{sup 3}Σ{sup −} ground state of the OH{sup +} and OD{sup +} cations have been extracted and the vibrational constants compared satisfactorily to existing literature values. Future advantages of this approach include measurement of high resolution VUV spectroscopy of radicals, their absolute photoionization cross section, and species/isomer identification in chemical reactions as a function of time.

  16. Response function simulation of the anti-coincidence detector based on NaI crystal with a complex shape in registration systems for the experiments SAGE and BEST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazalov, V. V.; Gavrin, V. N.; Gorbachev, V. V.; Gavriljuk, Yu M.; Ibragimova, T. V.; Kalikhov, A. V.; Shikhin, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    Response function simulation using Geant 4 for the detector based on NaI crystal of complex shape in registration systems for the SAGE and BEST experiments is presented. Cylindric NaI crystal has a large well for placing up to eight proportional counters. The detector is using as anti-coincidence shield for counters and an instrument for analysis of different γ-rays sources. The result of detector response function simulation for different background sources and their registration efficiency are given.

  17. Lower blood pressure and apathy coincide in older persons with poorer functional ability: the Discontinuation of Antihypertensive Treatment in Elderly People (DANTE) Study Leiden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonen, Justine E F; Bertens, Anne Suzanne; Foster-Dingley, Jessica C; Smit, Roelof A J; van der Grond, Jeroen; de Craen, Anton J M; de Ruijter, Wouter; van der Mast, Roos C

    2015-01-01

    To examine the association between blood pressure (BP) measures and symptoms of apathy and depression in older adults with various levels of functional ability. Cross-sectional study using baseline data from the Discontinuation of Antihypertensive Treatment in Elderly people (DANTE) Study Leiden. Primary care setting, the Netherlands. Community-dwelling individuals aged 75 and older (N = 430). Systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were measured during home visits. Symptoms of apathy and depression were assessed using the Apathy Scale and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15), respectively. Stratified linear regression was performed in participants with better and worse functional ability according to the median of the Groningen Activity Restriction Scale. In participants with lower functional ability, each 10-mmHg lower SBP, DBP, and MAP was associated with higher Apathy Scale scores (0.63, 0.92, and 0.94 points, respectively, all P Apathy Scale or GDS-15 scores. In older participants with poorer functional ability, lower BP was associated with more symptoms of apathy but not depression. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  18. Towards hemerythrin-based blood substitutes: Comparative ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 36; Issue 2. Towards hemerythrin-based blood substitutes: Comparative performance to hemoglobin on human leukocytes and umbilical vein endothelial cells. Eva Fischer-Fodor Augustin Mot Florina Deac Mariann Arkosi Radu Silaghi-Dumitrescu. Brief communication ...

  19. Performance assessment of a preclinical PET scanner with pinhole collimation by comparison to a coincidence-based small-animal PET scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Matthew D; Goorden, Marlies C; Dinelle, Katherine; Ramakers, Ruud M; Blinder, Stephan; Shirmohammad, Maryam; van der Have, Frans; Beekman, Freek J; Sossi, Vesna

    2014-08-01

    PET imaging of rodents is increasingly used in preclinical research, but its utility is limited by spatial resolution and signal-to-noise ratio of the images. A recently developed preclinical PET system uses a clustered-pinhole collimator, enabling high-resolution, simultaneous imaging of PET and SPECT tracers. Pinhole collimation strongly departs from traditional electronic collimation achieved via coincidence detection in PET. We investigated the potential of such a design by direct comparison to a traditional PET scanner. Two small-animal PET scanners, 1 with electronic collimation and 1 with physical collimation using clustered pinholes, were used to acquire data from Jaszczak (hot rod) and uniform phantoms. Mouse brain imaging using (18)F-FDG PET was performed on each system and compared with quantitative ex vivo autoradiography as a gold standard. Bone imaging using (18)F-NaF allowed comparison of imaging in the mouse body. Images were visually and quantitatively compared using measures of contrast and noise. Pinhole PET resolved the smallest rods (diameter, 0.85 mm) in the Jaszczak phantom, whereas the coincidence system resolved 1.1-mm-diameter rods. Contrast-to-noise ratios were better for pinhole PET when imaging small rods (superior to that on the pinhole system (5%). The high (18)F-FDG uptake in the striatum of the mouse brain was fully resolved using the pinhole system, with contrast to nearby regions equaling that from autoradiography; a lower contrast was found using the coincidence PET system. For short-duration images (low-count), the coincidence system was superior. In the cases for which small regions need to be resolved in scans with reasonably high activity or reasonably long scan times, a first-generation clustered-pinhole system can provide image quality in terms of resolution, contrast, and the contrast-to-noise ratio superior to a traditional PET system. © 2014 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  20. Coincidence gamma-ray spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markovic, Nikola; Roos, Per; Nielsen, Sven Poul

    2017-01-01

    events are recorded in a list mode file with their timestamp and energy, enabling coincidence identification and spectrum manipulation in post-processing. When coincidence gamma-spectrometry is used for cascade emitting nuclides, coincident signals can be extracted thus significantly reducing......Gamma-ray spectrometry with high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors is often the technique of choice in an environmental radioactivity laboratory. When measuring environmental samples associated activities are usually low so an important parameter that describes the performance of the spectrometer...... for a nuclide of interest is the minimum detectable activity (MDA). There are many ways for lowering the MDAs in gamma spectrometry. Recently, developments of fast and compact digital acquisition systems have led to growing number of multiple HPGe detector spectrometers. In these applications all detected...

  1. Coincidence Techniques in Gamma-ray Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikit, Istvan; Mrdja, Dusan; Veskovic, Miroslav; Krmar, Miodrag; Slivka, Jaroslav; Todorovic, Natasa; Bikit, Kristina

    In many different gamma-ray detection systems, the events are registered in coincidence, i.e. within short time interval, by two or more detectors. Depending on purpose of an experiment, these events can be rejected (anticoincidence counting) or acquired (coincidence counting). The construction, setup and application of several coincidence systems in Laboratory for nuclear physics of Department of Physics in Novi sad are presented. The anti-Compton shield for HPGe detector based on big annular NaI(Tl) detector and corresponding measurement which proved existing of 283 keV level in Ba-137 populating by beta decay of Cs-137, is described. The application of this system (in addition with NaI(Tl) plug detector) where HPGe detector is actively shielded by NaI(Tl) detector for investigation of double beta decay of positron emitters (Cr-50, Zn-64,) is also shown. The improving of detection limit of HPGe detector by the active shield consisting of five plastic scintillation detectors is presented, as well as the measurements of cross sections for X-ray production, induced by interaction of cosmic-ray muons with massive lead shield. We found that the prompt and delayed coincidence events between plastic veto detector and Ge detector can be sharply divided in two groups. Also, the bremsstrahlung and annihilation events can be time resolved from (n,n') events, although all these events belong to the group of delayed events.

  2. Video Histories, Memories, and Coincidences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kacunko, Slavko

    2012-01-01

    Looping images allows us to notice things that we have never noticed before. Looping a small but exquisite selection of the video tapes of Marcel Odenbach, Dieter Kiessling and Matthias Neuenhofer may allow the discovering of Histories, Coincidences, and Infinitesimal Aesthetics inscribed...

  3. Using Willie's Acid-Base Box for Blood Gas Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, John R.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a method developed by Dr. William T. Lipscomb for teaching blood gas analysis of acid-base status and provides three examples using Willie's acid-base box. Willie's acid-base box is constructed using three of the parameters of standard arterial blood gas analysis: (1) pH; (2) bicarbonate; and (3) CO[subscript…

  4. Potential blood-based markers of celiac disease

    OpenAIRE

    Bragde, Hanna; Jansson, Ulf; Fredrikson, Mats; Grodzinsky, Ewa; Soederman, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Background Blood-based diagnostics has the potential to simplify the process of diagnosing celiac disease (CD). Although high levels of autoantibodies against tissue transglutaminase (anti-TG2) are strongly indicative of active CD, several other scenarios involve a need for additional blood-based CD markers. Methods We investigated the levels of messenger RNA (mRNA) in whole blood (n?=?49) and protein in plasma (n?=?22) from cases with active CD (n?=?20), with confirmed CD and normalized hist...

  5. A model based method for retinal blood vessel detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer, K. A.; Vos, F. M.; Lemij, H. G.; Vossepoel, A. M.

    2004-01-01

    Retinal blood vessels are important structures in ophthalmological images. Many detection methods are available, but the results are not always satisfactory. In this paper, we present a novel model based method for blood vessel detection in retinal images. It is based on a Laplace and thresholding

  6. Exposure-based treatment to control excessive blood glucose monitoring.

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, K D; Evans, J H

    2001-01-01

    We investigated an exposure-based procedure for reducing excessive checking of blood glucose by a child with diabetes. In a changing criterion design, an exposure-based procedure was implemented by systematically exposing the child to decreasing amounts of information about blood sugar levels (checking) and thereby increasing exposure to potential hypoglycemia. Access to information was reduced in graduated increments, with the parents setting criteria to levels at which they were willing to ...

  7. Toward a patient-based paradigm for blood transfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrugia A

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Albert Farrugia,1,2 Eleftherios Vamvakas31College of Medicine, Biology and Environment, Australian National University, Acton, ACT, Australia; 2Centre for Orthopaedic Research, Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, University of Western Australia, Perth, WA, Australia; 3Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USAAbstract: The current "manufacturing paradigm" of transfusion practice has detached transfusion from the clinical environment. As an example, fresh whole blood in large-volume hemorrhage may be superior to whole blood reconstituted from multiple components. Multicomponent apheresis can overcome logistical difficulties in matching patient needs with fresh component availability and can deliver the benefits of fresh whole blood. Because of the different transfusion needs of patients in emerging economies and the vulnerability of these blood systems to emerging infections, fresh whole blood and multicomponent apheresis can better meet patient needs when compared with transplants of the "manufacturing paradigm". We propose that patient blood management, along with panels of repeat, paid, accredited apheresis and fresh whole-blood donors can be used in emerging economies to support decentralized blood services. This alternative transfusion–medicine paradigm could eventually also be adopted by established economies to focus transfusion medicine on local patient needs and to alleviate the problem of the aging volunteer donor base.Keywords: indications, emerging countries, patient blood management

  8. Human blood rheology in MEMS-based microneedles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, P.; Johnston, C. R.

    2005-02-01

    MEMS-based microneedles have the potential to revolutionize biomedical/biotechnology applications by providing precise transdermal drug delivery and localized blood sampling. In this paper, we propose a novel theory-based model that predicts drift velocity of blood-flow through the microchannels embedded in the microneedles. The profile of blood flow in the microneedles is determined by solving the conservation of momentum equation of the liquid phase, coupled with the force balance equations at the liquid-air interface. For the first time, this work enables accurate calculation/prediction of the velocity profile of the blood flow through a vertical in-plane microneedle, considering the effect of surface tension forces which are the most prominent forces. In order to withdraw blood samples from capillaries in the dermis layer, the length of our MEMS-based in-plane microneedle has been set at 600 μm with the micro-channel thickness chosen to be 35 μm, to avoid deformation of red blood cells. Blood flow through microneedles has been computed analytically using the proposed formulation. The results are then verified by a commercial finite element simulation tool "ANSYS".

  9. Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... organs and show how well treatments are working. Problems with your blood may include bleeding disorders, excessive clotting and platelet disorders. If you lose too much blood, you may need a transfusion. NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

  10. Computed neutron coincidence counting applied to passive waste assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruggeman, M.; Baeten, P.; De Boeck, W.; Carchon, R. [Nuclear Research Centre, Mol (Belgium)

    1997-11-01

    Neutron coincidence counting applied for the passive assay of fissile material is generally realised with dedicated electronic circuits. This paper presents a software based neutron coincidence counting method with data acquisition via a commercial PC-based Time Interval Analyser (TIA). The TIA is used to measure and record all time intervals between successive pulses in the pulse train up to count-rates of 2 Mpulses/s. Software modules are then used to compute the coincidence count-rates and multiplicity related data. This computed neutron coincidence counting (CNCC) offers full access to all the time information contained in the pulse train. This paper will mainly concentrate on the application and advantages of CNCC for the non-destructive assay of waste. An advanced multiplicity selective Rossi-alpha method is presented and its implementation via CNCC demonstrated. 13 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Aptamer-based modulation of blood coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, G; Rohrbach, F; Pötzsch, B; Müller, J

    2011-11-01

    Nucleic acid based aptamers are single-stranded oligonucleotide ligands isolated from random libraries by an in-vitro selection procedure. Through the formation of unique three-dimensional structures, aptamers are able to selectively interact with a variety of target molecules and are therefore also promising candidates for the development of anticoagulant drugs. While thrombin represents the most prominent enzymatic target in this field, also aptamers directed against other coagulation proteins and proteases have been identified with some currently being tested in clinical trials. In this review, we summarize recent developments in the design and evaluation of aptamers for anticoagulant therapy and research.

  12. Association between blood lead and blood pressure: a population-based study in Brazilian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida Lopes, Ana Carolina Bertin de; Silbergeld, Ellen Kovner; Navas-Acien, Ana; Zamoiski, Rachel; Martins, Airton da Cunha; Camargo, Alissana Ester Iakmiu; Urbano, Mariana Ragassi; Mesas, Arthur Eumann; Paoliello, Monica Maria Bastos

    2017-03-14

    Environmental lead exposure among adults may increase blood pressure and elevate the risk of hypertension. The availability of data on blood lead levels (BLL) in adult Brazilian population is scarce and population-based studies are important for screening the population exposure and also to evaluate associations with adverse health effects. The goal of this study was to examine the association of BLL with blood pressure and hypertension in a population-based study in a city in Southern Brazil. A total of 948 adults, aged 40 years or older, were randomly selected. Information on socioeconomic, dietary, lifestyle and occupational background was obtained by orally administered household interviews. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured according to the guidelines VI Brazilian Guidelines on Hypertension. BLL were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry technique. Multiple linear and logistic regression models were performed to evaluate associations of BLL with SBP and DBP, and with the chance of hypertension and of elevated SBP and DBP. The geometric mean of BLL was 1.97 μg/dL (95%CI:1.90-2.04 μg/dL). After multivariable adjustment, participants in the quartile 4 of blood lead presented 0.06 mm/Hg (95%CI, 0.04-0.09) average difference in DBP comparing with those in quartile 1. Participants in the 90th percentile of blood lead distribution had 0.07 mmHg (95% CI, 0.03 to 0.11) higher DBP compared with those participants in the 10th percentile of blood lead. The adjusted OR for hypertension was 2.54 (95% CI, 1.17-5.53), comparing the highest to the lowest blood lead quartiles. Compared with participants in the 10th percentile of blood lead, participants in the 90th percentile presented higher OR for hypertension (OR: 2.77; 95% CI, 1.41 to 5.46). At low concentrations, BLL were positively associated with DBP and with the odds for hypertension in adults aged 40 or older. It is important to enforce lead

  13. [Blood acid-base balance of sportsmen during physical activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrushova, O P; Mikulyak, N I

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the acid-base balance parameters in blood of sportsmen by physical activity. Before exercise lactate concentration in blood was normal. Carbon dioxide pressure (рСО2), bicarbonate concentration (НСО3 -), base excess (BE), were increased immediately after physical activity lactate concentration increased, while pH, BE, НСО3 -, рСО2 decreased in capillary blood of sportsmen. These changes show the development of lactate-acidosis which is partly compensated with bicarbonate buffering system and respiratory alkalosis. During postexercise recovery lactate concentration decreased, while рСО2, НСО3 -, BE increased. The results of this study can be used for diagnostics of acid-base disorders and their medical treatment for preservation of sportsmen physical capacity.

  14. In-operation field-of-view retrieval (IFR) for satellite and ground-based DOAS-type instruments applying coincident high-resolution imager data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihler, Holger; Lübcke, Peter; Lang, Rüdiger; Beirle, Steffen; de Graaf, Martin; Hörmann, Christoph; Lampel, Johannes; Penning de Vries, Marloes; Remmers, Julia; Trollope, Ed; Wang, Yang; Wagner, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    Knowledge of the field of view (FOV) of a remote sensing instrument is particularly important when interpreting their data and merging them with other spatially referenced data. Especially for instruments in space, information on the actual FOV, which may change during operation, may be difficult to obtain. Also, the FOV of ground-based devices may change during transportation to the field site, where appropriate equipment for the FOV determination may be unavailable. This paper presents an independent, simple and robust method to retrieve the FOV of an instrument during operation, i.e. the two-dimensional sensitivity distribution, sampled on a discrete grid. The method relies on correlated measurements featuring a significantly higher spatial resolution, e.g. by an imaging instrument accompanying a spectrometer. The method was applied to two satellite instruments, GOME-2 and OMI, and a ground-based differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) instrument integrated in an SO2 camera. For GOME-2, quadrangular FOVs could be retrieved, which almost perfectly match the provided FOV edges after applying a correction for spatial aliasing inherent to GOME-type instruments. More complex sensitivity distributions were found at certain scanner angles, which are probably caused by degradation of the moving parts within the instrument. For OMI, which does not feature any moving parts, retrieved sensitivity distributions were much smoother compared to GOME-2. A 2-D super-Gaussian with six parameters was found to be an appropriate model to describe the retrieved OMI FOV. The comparison with operationally provided FOV dimensions revealed small differences, which could be mostly explained by the limitations of our IFR implementation. For the ground-based DOAS instrument, the FOV retrieved using SO2-camera data was slightly smaller than the flat-disc distribution, which is assumed by the state-of-the-art correlation technique. Differences between both methods may be

  15. Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... anemia. Iron deficiency anemia is the most common type of anemia and can affect people who have a diet ... 2015 More on this topic for: Teens Blood Types Donating Blood Blood Transfusions Anemia Sickle Cell Disease Hemophilia When Cancer Keeps You ...

  16. The Washington Large Area Time Coincidence Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gran, R.; Berns, H.G.; Buchli, M.; Burnett, T.H.; Edmon, P.; Gran, R.; Haff, T.; Lemagie; Muhs, E.; Wheel, G.; Wilkes, R.J.

    2003-07-01

    WALTA (WAshington Large-area Time-coincidence Array) aims to study ultra-high energy (> 1018 eV) cosmic rays (UHECR) by placing detector elements in Seattle area secondary scho ols, and linking their data acquisition systems to the University of Washington via a computer network. The goal of WALTA is to have teachers and students become active participants in forefront scientific project, while building a long term partnership between the scho ols and the university-based physics research community. Considerable progress has been made in recruiting and training teachers and equipping scho ol sites since the last ICRC, including development of a low-cost data acquisition card in collab oration with Fermilab and the University of Nebraska.

  17. The future of blood-based biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Kim; O'Bryant, Sid E; Hampel, Harald

    2014-01-01

    progression or treatment response, and most are measured in cerebrospinal fluid, which limits their applicability. With these aspects in mind, the aim of this article is to underscore the concerted efforts of the Blood-Based Biomarker Interest Group, an international working group of experts in the field...

  18. Load balancing of parallel cell-based blood flow simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alowayyed, S.; Závodszky, G.; Azizi, V.; Hoekstra, A.G.

    The non-homogeneous distribution of computational costs is often challenging to handle in highly parallel applications. Using a methodology based on fractional overheads, we studied the fractional load imbalance overhead in a high-performance biofluid simulation aiming to accurately resolve blood

  19. [Development of ultrasound-based monitor of relative blood volume].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shunzhong; Hu, Xiao; Liang, Zhongwei; Fan, Jianghong; Xia, Wubing; Zhou, Hongbo; Yi, Wei

    2013-12-01

    Assessing dry weight accurately is crucial in providing effective and safe haemodialysis. Biases towards dry weight assessment may bring a series of dialysis complications. This study introduces an online detection technique of relative blood volume (RBV) based on ultrasound, which analyzes the correlation between changes in blood density and sound speed. By measuring the attenuation in sound velocity, this method was employed to calculate RBV, and then to evaluate the dry weight of patients on dialysis. TDC-GP2 time measurement chip and MSP430 Single-chip Microcontroller (SCM) were used in the system to measure the ultrasonic travel time. In the clinical trials, RBV values range between 71.3% and 108.1%, showing consistent result with Fresenius 4008S blood volume monitor (BVM). This detection method possesses several advantages, such as real time, convenient, reproducible, non-invasive, and etc.

  20. Image-based red cell counting for wild animals blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauricio, Claudio R M; Schneider, Fabio K; Dos Santos, Leonilda Correia

    2010-01-01

    An image-based red blood cell (RBC) automatic counting system is presented for wild animals blood analysis. Images with 2048×1536-pixel resolution acquired on an optical microscope using Neubauer chambers are used to evaluate RBC counting for three animal species (Leopardus pardalis, Cebus apella and Nasua nasua) and the error found using the proposed method is similar to that obtained for inter observer visual counting method, i.e., around 10%. Smaller errors (e.g., 3%) can be obtained in regions with less grid artifacts. These promising results allow the use of the proposed method either as a complete automatic counting tool in laboratories for wild animal's blood analysis or as a first counting stage in a semi-automatic counting tool.

  1. Food-based ingredients to modulate blood glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thondre, Pariyarath Sangeetha

    2013-01-01

    Maintenance of normal blood glucose levels is important for avoiding chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular problems, and obesity. Type 2 diabetes is one of the major health problems affecting the world population and this condition can be exacerbated by poor diet, low physical activity, and genetic abnormalities. Food plays an important role in the management of blood glucose and associated complications in diabetes. This is attributed to the ability of food-based ingredients to modulate blood glucose without causing any adverse health consequences. This chapter focuses on four important food groups such as cereals, legumes, fruits, and spices that have active ingredients such as soluble dietary fiber, polyphenols, and antinutrients with the ability to reduce glycemic and insulin response in humans. Other food ingredients such as simple sugars, sugar alcohols, and some proteins are also discussed in moderation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. BLOOD

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    benefit (altruism). '35 An individual who gives blood in replacement for that which has been given to his relation is referred to as family replacement donor. '2 But when a person donates blood for the purpose of transfusing a. defined patient, such a person is referred to as. AHMED S. G. AND HASSAN A. W. a directed donor.

  3. Potential blood-based markers of celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragde, Hanna; Jansson, Ulf; Fredrikson, Mats; Grodzinsky, Ewa; Söderman, Jan

    2014-10-09

    Blood-based diagnostics has the potential to simplify the process of diagnosing celiac disease (CD). Although high levels of autoantibodies against tissue transglutaminase (anti-TG2) are strongly indicative of active CD, several other scenarios involve a need for additional blood-based CD markers. We investigated the levels of messenger RNA (mRNA) in whole blood (n = 49) and protein in plasma (n = 22) from cases with active CD (n = 20), with confirmed CD and normalized histology (n = 15), and without a CD diagnosis (n = 14). Group differences were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance by ranks. We also investigated correlations between levels of potential markers, histopathology according to the modified Marsh scale, and CD risk gradient based on HLA type, using Spearman rank correlation. The relation between HLA-DQ2 gene dose effect and the expression levels of selected blood-based markers was investigated using the Mann-Whitney U test. Finally, the diagnostic performance of anti-TG2, potential blood-based CD markers, and logistic regression models of combined markers was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. CXCL11 protein levels and TNFRSF9 and TNFSF13B mRNA levels were identified as potential CD markers. These are all affected by or involved in the regulation of the NF-κB complex. CXCL11 protein levels and IL21 and IL15 mRNA levels were correlated with histopathology according to the modified Marsh scale, as were the established CD markers. HLA genotype risk and HLA-DQ2 gene dose effect did not show any significant relations with either the potential CD markers or the established CD markers. ROC curve analysis revealed a slight, non-significant increase in the area under the curve for the combined use of anti-TG2 and different constellations of potential blood-based CD markers compared to anti-TG2 alone. The CD markers identified in this study further emphasize the significance of

  4. Emerging blood-based biomarkers for detection of gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalniņa, Zane; Meistere, Irēna; Kikuste, Ilze; Tolmanis, Ivars; Zayakin, Pawel; Linē, Aija

    2015-01-01

    Early detection and efficient monitoring of tumor dynamics are prerequisites for reducing disease burden and mortality, and for improving the management of patients with gastric cancer (GC). Blood-based biomarker assays for the detection of early-stage GC could be of great relevance both for population-wide or risk group-based screening programs, while circulating biomarkers that reflect the genetic make-up and dynamics of the tumor would allow monitoring of treatment efficacy, predict recurrences and assess the genetic heterogeneity of the tumor. Recent research to identify blood-based biomarkers of GC has resulted in the identification of a wide variety of cancer-associated molecules, including various proteins, autoantibodies against tumor associated antigens, cell-free DNA fragments, mRNAs and various non-coding RNAs, circulating tumor cells and cancer-derived extracellular vesicles. Each type of these biomarkers provides different information on the disease status, has different advantages and disadvantages, and distinct clinical usefulness. In the current review, we summarize the recent developments in blood-based GC biomarker discovery, discuss the origin of various types of biomarkers and their clinical usefulness and the technological challenges in the development of biomarker assays for clinical use. PMID:26556992

  5. Blood transcriptome based biomarkers for human circadian phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laing, Emma E; Möller-Levet, Carla S; Poh, Norman; Santhi, Nayantara; Archer, Simon N; Dijk, Derk-Jan

    2017-02-20

    Diagnosis and treatment of circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders both require assessment of circadian phase of the brain's circadian pacemaker. The gold-standard univariate method is based on collection of a 24-hr time series of plasma melatonin, a suprachiasmatic nucleus-driven pineal hormone. We developed and validated a multivariate whole-blood mRNA-based predictor of melatonin phase which requires few samples. Transcriptome data were collected under normal, sleep-deprivation and abnormal sleep-timing conditions to assess robustness of the predictor. Partial least square regression (PLSR), applied to the transcriptome, identified a set of 100 biomarkers primarily related to glucocorticoid signaling and immune function. Validation showed that PLSR-based predictors outperform published blood-derived circadian phase predictors. When given one sample as input, the R2 of predicted vs observed phase was 0.74, whereas for two samples taken 12 hr apart, R2 was 0.90. This blood transcriptome-based model enables assessment of circadian phase from a few samples.

  6. Blood based proteomic biomarkers of Alzheimer’s disease pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Louise Baird

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of Alzheimer’s disease (AD and its long prodromal phase poses challenges for early diagnosis and yet allows for the possibility of the development of disease modifying treatments for secondary prevention. It is therefore of importance to develop biomarkers, in particular in the preclinical or early phases that reflect the pathological characteristics of the disease and moreover could be of utility in triaging subjects for preventative therapeutic clinical trials. Much research has sought biomarkers for diagnostic purposes by comparing affected people to unaffected controls. However, given that AD pathology precedes disease onset, a pathology endophenotype design for biomarker discovery creates the opportunity for detection of much earlier markers of disease. Blood based biomarkers potentially provide a minimally invasive option for this purpose and research in the field has adopted various omics approaches in order to achieve this. This review will therefore examine the current literature regarding blood based proteomic biomarkers of AD and its associated pathology.

  7. Expert Consensus Statement on achieving self-sufficiency in safe blood and blood products, based on voluntary non-remunerated blood donation (VNRBD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    All countries face challenges in making sufficient supplies of blood and blood products available and sustainable, while also ensuring the quality and safety of these products in the face of known and emerging threats to public health. Since 1975, the World Health Assembly (WHA) has highlighted the global need for blood safety and availability. WHA resolutions 63·12, 58·13 and 28·72, The Melbourne Declaration on 100% Voluntary Non-Remunerated Donation of Blood and Blood Components and WHO Global Blood Safety Network recommendations have reaffirmed the achievement of 'Self-sufficiency in blood and blood products based on voluntary non-remunerated blood donation (VNRBD)' as the important national policy direction for ensuring a safe, secure and sufficient supply of blood and blood products, including labile blood components and plasma-derived medicinal products. Despite some successes, self-sufficiency is not yet a reality in many countries. A consultation of experts, convened by the World Health Organization (WHO) in September 2011 in Geneva, Switzerland, addressed the urgent need to establish strategies and mechanisms for achieving self-sufficiency. Information on the current situation, and country perspectives and experiences were shared. Factors influencing the global implementation of self-sufficiency, including safety, ethics, security and sustainability of supply, trade and its potential impact on public health, availability and access for patients, were analysed to define strategies and mechanisms and provide practical guidance on achieving self-sufficiency. Experts developed a consensus statement outlining the rationale and definition of self-sufficiency in safe blood and blood products based on VNRBD and made recommendations to national health authorities and WHO. © 2012 World Health Organization. Vox Sanguinis © 2012 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  8. Coincidence theorems for some multivalued mappings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. E. Rhoades

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available Two coincidence theorems in a metric space are proved for a multi-valued mapping that commutes with a single-valued mapping and satisfies a general multi-valued contraction type condition.

  9. Differential blood-based biomarkers of psychopathological dimensions of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Alvarez, Leticia; Garcia-Portilla, Maria Paz; Gonzalez-Blanco, Leticia; Saiz Martinez, Pilar Alejandra; de la Fuente-Tomas, Lorena; Menendez-Miranda, Isabel; Iglesias, Celso; Bobes, Julio

    Symptomatology of schizophrenia is heterogeneous, there is not any pathognomonic symptom. Moreover, the diagnosis is difficult, since it is based on subjective information, instead of markers. The purpose of this study is to provide a review of the current status of blood-based biomarkers of psychopathological dimensions of schizophrenia. Inflammatory, hormonal or metabolic dysfunctions have been identified in patients with schizophrenia and it has attempted to establish biomarkers responsible for these dysfunctions. The identification of these biomarkers could contribute to the diagnosis and treatment of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of a blood pressure alarm detector based on seven ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper introduces the development of a blood pressure alarm detector, meant to be incorporated into an electronic blood pressure tracking unit, from which it detects signals for the measured blood pressure (BP), that is, the systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). It simultaneously displays the ...

  11. Paper-Origami-Based Multiplexed Malaria Diagnostics from Whole Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gaolian; Nolder, Debbie; Reboud, Julien; Oguike, Mary C; van Schalkwyk, Donelly A; Sutherland, Colin J; Cooper, Jonathan M

    2016-12-05

    We demonstrate, for the first time, the multiplexed determination of microbial species from whole blood using the paper-folding technique of origami to enable the sequential steps of DNA extraction, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), and array-based fluorescence detection. A low-cost handheld flashlight reveals the presence of the final DNA amplicon to the naked eye, providing a "sample-to-answer" diagnosis from a finger-prick volume of human blood, within 45 min, with minimal user intervention. To demonstrate the method, we showed the identification of three species of Plasmodium, analyzing 80 patient samples benchmarked against the gold-standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay in an operator-blinded study. We also show that the test retains its diagnostic accuracy when using stored or fixed reference samples. © 2016 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  12. Work stress, anthropometry, lung function, blood pressure, and blood-based biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.; Westerlund, Hugo; Goldberg, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    -based biomarkers. Linear regression analyses before and after multivariable adjustment for age, socioeconomic status, depressive symptoms, health-related behaviours, and chronic conditions showed that work stress was associated with higher BMI, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio, alanine transaminase, white......, creatinine, glucose levels or resting blood pressure measures. This indicates that work stress is associated altered metabolic profile, increased systemic inflammation, and, in men, poorer liver function, which is a marker of high alcohol consumption.......Work stress is a risk factor for cardio-metabolic diseases, but few large-scale studies have examined the clinical profile of individuals with work stress. To address this limitation, we conducted a cross-sectional study including 43,593 working adults from a French population-based sample aged 18...

  13. A color and shape based algorithm for segmentation of white blood cells in peripheral blood and bone marrow images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Salim; Ozyurek, Emel; Gunduz-Demir, Cigdem

    2014-06-01

    Computer-based imaging systems are becoming important tools for quantitative assessment of peripheral blood and bone marrow samples to help experts diagnose blood disorders such as acute leukemia. These systems generally initiate a segmentation stage where white blood cells are separated from the background and other nonsalient objects. As the success of such imaging systems mainly depends on the accuracy of this stage, studies attach great importance for developing accurate segmentation algorithms. Although previous studies give promising results for segmentation of sparsely distributed normal white blood cells, only a few of them focus on segmenting touching and overlapping cell clusters, which is usually the case when leukemic cells are present. In this article, we present a new algorithm for segmentation of both normal and leukemic cells in peripheral blood and bone marrow images. In this algorithm, we propose to model color and shape characteristics of white blood cells by defining two transformations and introduce an efficient use of these transformations in a marker-controlled watershed algorithm. Particularly, these domain specific characteristics are used to identify markers and define the marking function of the watershed algorithm as well as to eliminate false white blood cells in a postprocessing step. Working on 650 white blood cells in peripheral blood and bone marrow images, our experiments reveal that the proposed algorithm improves the segmentation performance compared with its counterparts, leading to high accuracies for both sparsely distributed normal white blood cells and dense leukemic cell clusters. © 2014 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  14. A CZT-based blood counter for quantitative molecular imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espagnet, Romain; Frezza, Andrea; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Hamel, Louis-André; Lechippey, Laëtitia; Beauregard, Jean-Mathieu; Després, Philippe

    2017-12-01

    Robust quantitative analysis in positron emission tomography (PET) and in single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) typically requires the time-activity curve as an input function for the pharmacokinetic modeling of tracer uptake. For this purpose, a new automated tool for the determination of blood activity as a function of time is presented. The device, compact enough to be used on the patient bed, relies on a peristaltic pump for continuous blood withdrawal at user-defined rates. Gamma detection is based on a 20 × 20 × 15 mm3 cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detector, read by custom-made electronics and a field-programmable gate array-based signal processing unit. A graphical user interface (GUI) allows users to select parameters and easily perform acquisitions. This paper presents the overall design of the device as well as the results related to the detector performance in terms of stability, sensitivity and energy resolution. Results from a patient study are also reported. The device achieved a sensitivity of 7.1 cps/(kBq/mL) and a minimum detectable activity of 2.5 kBq/ml for 18F. The gamma counter also demonstrated an excellent stability with a deviation in count rates inferior to 0.05% over 6 h. An energy resolution of 8% was achieved at 662 keV. The patient study was conclusive and demonstrated that the compact gamma blood counter developed has the sensitivity and the stability required to conduct quantitative molecular imaging studies in PET and SPECT.

  15. An indicator cell assay for blood-based diagnostics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel A Danziger

    Full Text Available We have established proof of principle for the Indicator Cell Assay Platform™ (iCAP™, a broadly applicable tool for blood-based diagnostics that uses specifically-selected, standardized cells as biosensors, relying on their innate ability to integrate and respond to diverse signals present in patients' blood. To develop an assay, indicator cells are exposed in vitro to serum from case or control subjects and their global differential response patterns are used to train reliable, disease classifiers based on a small number of features. In a feasibility study, the iCAP detected pre-symptomatic disease in a murine model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS with 94% accuracy (p-Value = 3.81E-6 and correctly identified samples from a murine Huntington's disease model as non-carriers of ALS. Beyond the mouse model, in a preliminary human disease study, the iCAP detected early stage Alzheimer's disease with 72% cross-validated accuracy (p-Value = 3.10E-3. For both assays, iCAP features were enriched for disease-related genes, supporting the assay's relevance for disease research.

  16. Correlation between arterial blood gas analysis and peripheral blood gas analysis in acid-base unbalance state

    OpenAIRE

    Lee Kim, Hyun; Ho Ryu, Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Acid-base unbalance is most common problem in severe ill patient, especially in condition of abnormal renal function state. Acid-base unbalances are respiratory acidosis, respiratory alkalosis, metabolic acidosis, and metabolic alkalosis. Metabolic acidosis is frequently appeared in clinical state. Arterial blood gas analysis is considered as a basic test to the intensive care unit patient and emergency state. Recently some researches were done, comparing with arterial blood gas analysis and ...

  17. Zeolite-based hemostat QuikClot releases calcium into blood and promotes blood coagulation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Cao, Wei; Lv, Xiao-xing; Jiang, Li; Li, Yue-jun; Li, Wang-zhou; Chen, Shao-zong; Li, Xue-yong

    2013-03-01

    To examine the changes in electrolyte concentrations after addition of zeolite-based hemostat QuikClot in blood and the effects of zeolite on blood coagulation in vitro. Fresh blood was taken from healthy adult volunteers and sheep, and the electrolyte concentrations in blood were measured using a blood electrolyte analyzer. Zeolite Saline Solution (ZSS) was prepared by addition of 2 g zeolite to 0.9% NaCl solution (4, 8, or 16 mL). The electrolytes in ZSS were measured using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. The prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) of blood were measured using the test tube method. The activated clotting time (ACT) and clotting rate (CR) of blood were measured with Sonoclot Coagulation and Platelet Function Analyzer. Addition of zeolite (50 and 100 mg) in 2 mL human blood significantly increased Ca(2+) concentration, while Na(+) and K(+) concentrations were significantly decreased. Addition of zeolite (50 and 100 mg) in 0.9% NaCl solution (2 mL) caused similar changes in Ca(2+) and Na(+) concentrations. Si(4+) (0.2434 g/L) and Al(3+) (0.2575 g/L) were detected in ZSS (2 g/8 mL). Addition of ZSS in sheep blood shortened APTT in a concentration dependent manner, without changing PT. ZSS or aqueous solution of CaCl2 that contained Ca(2+) concentration identical to that of ZSS significantly shortened ACT in human blood without significantly changing CR, and the effect of ZSS on ACT was not significantly different from that of CaCl2. Zeolite releases Ca(2+) into blood, thus accelerating the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation and shortening the clot formation time.

  18. Coincidence velocity map imaging using a single detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Arthur; Sándor, Péter; Weinacht, Thomas

    2017-07-01

    We demonstrate a single-detector velocity map imaging setup which is capable of rapidly switching between coincidence and non-coincidence measurements. By rapidly switching the extraction voltages on the electrostatic lenses, both electrons and ions can be collected in coincidence with a single detector. Using a fast camera as the 2D detector avoids the saturation problem associated with traditional delay line detectors and allows for easy transitions between coincidence and non-coincidence data collection modes. This is a major advantage in setting up a low-cost and versatile coincidence apparatus. We present both coincidence and non-coincidence measurements of strong field atomic and molecular ionization.

  19. Blood Pressure Mobile Monitoring for Pregnant Woman Based Android System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supriyanti, Retno; Erfayanto, Uji; Ramadani, Yogi; Murdyantoro, Eko; Widodo, Haris B.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, at least 18,000 women die every year in Indonesia due to pregnancy or childbirth. It means that every half hour a woman dies due to pregnancy or childbirth. As a result, every year 36,000 children became orphans. The high maternal mortality rate was put Indonesia on top in ASEAN. The main causes of maternal mortality are high-risk pregnancy. Mothers who have diseases like high blood pressure, pre-eclampsia, diabetes, hyperthyroidism, and already over 40 years old and infectious diseases such as rubella, hepatitis and HIV can be factors that lead to high-risk pregnancy. This paper will discuss the development of a blood pressure monitoring device that is suitable for pregnant women. It is based on convenience for pregnant women to get the equipment that is flexible with her presence. Results indicate that the equipment is in use daily support for pregnant women therefore, one of the causes of maternal mortality can be detected earlier.

  20. Blood-based biomarkers of aggressive prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Men Long Liong

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Prostate cancer is a bimodal disease with aggressive and indolent forms. Current prostate-specific-antigen testing and digital rectal examination screening provide ambiguous results leading to both under-and over-treatment. Accurate, consistent diagnosis is crucial to risk-stratify patients and facilitate clinical decision making as to treatment versus active surveillance. Diagnosis is currently achieved by needle biopsy, a painful procedure. Thus, there is a clinical need for a minimally-invasive test to determine prostate cancer aggressiveness. A blood sample to predict Gleason score, which is known to reflect aggressiveness of the cancer, could serve as such a test. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Blood mRNA was isolated from North American and Malaysian prostate cancer patients/controls. Microarray analysis was conducted utilizing the Affymetrix U133 plus 2·0 platform. Expression profiles from 255 patients/controls generated 85 candidate biomarkers. Following quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR analysis, ten disease-associated biomarkers remained for paired statistical analysis and normalization. RESULTS: Microarray analysis was conducted to identify 85 genes differentially expressed between aggressive prostate cancer (Gleason score ≥8 and controls. Expression of these genes was qRT-PCR verified. Statistical analysis yielded a final seven-gene panel evaluated as six gene-ratio duplexes. This molecular signature predicted as aggressive (ie, Gleason score ≥8 55% of G6 samples, 49% of G7(3+4, 79% of G7(4+3 and 83% of G8-10, while rejecting 98% of controls. CONCLUSION: In this study, we have developed a novel, blood-based biomarker panel which can be used as the basis of a simple blood test to identify men with aggressive prostate cancer and thereby reduce the overdiagnosis and overtreatment that currently results from diagnosis using PSA alone. We discuss possible clinical uses of the panel to identify men more likely to benefit from

  1. Blood Based Biomarkers of Early Onset Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN...blood donated to blood banks ~15 years ago and subsequently linked to the California Cancer Registry. In this fashion, we have access to blood from

  2. Effects of Hemoglobin-Based Oxygen Carriers on Blood Coagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimia Roghani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available For many decades, Hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs have been central in the development of resuscitation agents that might provide oxygen delivery in addition to simple volume expansion. Since 80% of the world population lives in areas where fresh blood products are not available, the application of these new solutions may prove to be highly beneficial (Kim and Greenburg 2006. Many improvements have been made to earlier generation HBOCs, but various concerns still remain, including coagulopathy, nitric oxide scavenging, platelet interference and decreased calcium concentration secondary to volume expansion (Jahr et al. 2013. This review will summarize the current challenges faced in developing HBOCs that may be used clinically, in order to guide future research efforts in the field.

  3. Novel blood protein based scaffolds for cardiovascular tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuhn Antonia I.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge in cardiovascular tissue engineering is the fabrication of scaffolds, which provide appropriate morphological and mechanical properties while avoiding undesirable immune reactions. In this study electrospinning was used to fabricate scaffolds out of blood proteins for cardiovascular tissue engineering. Lyophilised porcine plasma was dissolved in deionised water at a final concentration of 7.5% m/v and blended with 3.7% m/v PEO. Electrospinning resulted in homogeneous fibre morphologies with a mean fibre diameter of 151 nm, which could be adapted to create macroscopic shapes (mats, tubes. Cross-linking with glutaraldehyde vapour improved the long-term stability of protein based scaffolds in comparison to untreated scaffolds, resulting in a mass loss of 41% and 96% after 28 days of incubation in aqueous solution, respectively.

  4. Blood-based biomarkers of microvascular pathology in Alzheimer's disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ewers, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Sporadic Alzheimer\\'s disease (AD) is a genetically complex and chronically progressive neurodegenerative disorder with molecular mechanisms and neuropathologies centering around the amyloidogenic pathway, hyperphosphorylation and aggregation of tau protein, and neurofibrillary degeneration. While cerebrovascular changes have not been traditionally considered to be a central part of AD pathology, a growing body of evidence demonstrates that they may, in fact, be a characteristic feature of the AD brain as well. In particular, microvascular abnormalities within the brain have been associated with pathological AD hallmarks and may precede neurodegeneration. In vivo assessment of microvascular pathology provides a promising approach to develop useful biological markers for early detection and pathological characterization of AD. This review focuses on established blood-based biological marker candidates of microvascular pathology in AD. These candidates include plasma concentration of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) that are increased in AD. Measures of endothelial vasodilatory function including endothelin (ET-1), adrenomedullin (ADM), and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), as well as sphingolipids are significantly altered in mild AD or during the predementia stage of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), suggesting sensitivity of these biomarkers for early detection and diagnosis. In conclusion, the emerging clinical diagnostic evidence for the value of blood-based microvascular biomarkers in AD is promising, however, still requires validation in phase II and III diagnostic trials. Moreover, it is still unclear whether the described protein dysbalances are early or downstream pathological events and how the detected systemic microvascular alterations relate to cerebrovascular and neuronal pathologies in the AD brain.

  5. Tripled coincidence and fixed point results in partial metric spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen Aydi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce the concept of W-compatiblity of mappings F : X × X × X ! X and g : X ! X and based on this notion, we obtain tripled coincidence and common tripled fixed point results in the setting of partial metric spaces. The presented results generalize and extend several well known comparable results in the existing literature. We also provide an example to support our results.

  6. Influence of different storage times and temperatures on blood gas and acid-base balance in ovine venous blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, H A; Aamer, A A

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effects of storage temperature and time on blood gas and acid-base balance of ovine venous blood. Ten clinically healthy sheep were used in this study. A total number of 30 blood samples, were divided into three different groups, and were stored in a refrigerator adjusted to +4 ºC (Group I, n = 10), at RT of about 22-25 ºC (Group II, n = 10) and in an incubator adjusted to 37 ºC (Group III, n = 10) for up to 48 h. Blood samples were analysed for blood gas and acid-base indices at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h of storage. In comparison to the baseline value (0), there were significant decreases of blood pH of samples stored at RT and in the incubator after 1 h (pbase excess decreased significantly for all the groups during the study especially in Groups II and III. In comparison with baseline values, in all groups, bicarbonate (HCO3) increased between 1 h and 6 h (pacid-base indices of the samples stored at refrigerator and RT were found within normal reference range and it may be of clinical diagnostic use for up to 6 h.

  7. Kinematical coincidence method in transfer reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Acosta, L; Auditore, L; Berceanu, I; Cardella, G; Chatterjiee, M B; De Filippo, E; FrancalanzA, L; Gianì, R; Grassi, L; Grzeszczuk, A; La Guidara, E; Lanzalone, G; Lombardo, I; Loria, D; Minniti, T; Pagano, E V; Papa, M; Pirrone, S; Politi, G; Pop, A; Porto, F; Rizzo, F; Rosato, E; Russotto, P; Santoro, S; Trifirò, A; Trimarchi, M; Verde, G; Vigilante, M

    2012-01-01

    A new method to extract high resolution angular distributions from kinematical coincidence measurements in binary reactions is presented. Kinematic is used to extract the center of mass angular distribution from the measured energy spectrum of light particles. Results obtained in the case of 10Be+p-->9Be+d reaction measured with the CHIMERA detector are shown. An angular resolution of few degrees in the center of mass is obtained.

  8. Influence of different storage times and temperatures on blood gas and acid-base balance in ovine venous blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. Hussein

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the effects of storage temperature and time on blood gas and acid-base balance of ovine venous blood. Ten clinically healthy sheep were used in this study. A total number of 30 blood samples, were divided into three different groups, and were stored in a refrigerator adjusted to +4 ºC (Group I, n = 10, at RT of about 22-25 ºC (Group II, n = 10 and in an incubator adjusted to 37 ºC (Group III, n = 10 for up to 48 h. Blood samples were analysed for blood gas and acid-base indices at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h of storage. In comparison to the baseline value (0, there were significant decreases of blood pH of samples stored at RT and in the incubator after 1 h (p<0.05, the pH value of refrigerated blood samples exhibited insignificant changes during the study (p<0.05. Mean values of pCO2 showed a significant increase in Group I and Group III after 1 h then a progressive decrease after 12 h in all Groups. Mean pO2 values were significantly higher for Group I after 2 h and for Groups II and III after 1 h (p<0.05. In general, base excess decreased significantly for all the groups during the study especially in Groups II and III. In comparison with baseline values, in all groups, bicarbonate (HCO3 increased between 1 h and 6 h (p<0.05, and later decreased at the end of the study (p<0.05. In conclusion, status of acid-base indices of the samples stored at refrigerator and RT were found within normal reference range and it may be of clinical diagnostic use for up to 6 h.

  9. An Appraisal of Hospital Based Blood Pressure Control in Port ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Adequate blood pressure control is a major strategy, in the attempt to reduce the morbidity and mortality of hypertension related cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to determine the level of blood pressure control among patients receiving treatment for hypertension in a specialist medical ...

  10. Glyphosate applications on arable fields considerably coincide with migrating amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Gert; Graef, Frieder; Pfeffer, Holger

    2013-01-01

    Glyphosate usage is increasing worldwide and the application schemes of this herbicide are currently changing. Amphibians migrating through arable fields may be harmed by Glyphosate applied to field crops. We investigated the population-based temporal coincidence of four amphibian species with Glyphosate from 2006 to 2008. Depending on a) age- and species-specific main migration periods, b) crop species, c) Glyphosate application mode for crops, and d) the presumed DT50 value (12 days or 47 days) of Glyphosate, we calculated up to 100% coincidence with Glyphosate. The amphibians regularly co-occur with pre-sowing/pre-emerging Glyphosate applications to maize in spring and with stubble management prior to crop sowing in late summer and autumn. Siccation treatment in summer coincides only with early pond-leaving juveniles. We suggest in-depth investigations of both acute and long-term effects of Glyphosate applications on amphibian populations not only focussed on exposure during aquatic periods but also terrestrial life stages.

  11. Anticipation of coincidence, gender, and sports classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, F

    1996-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of sport classification and gender on anticipation of coincidence. 102 undergraduate male and female students from open skills, closed skills, and nonathletic groups were tested on the Bassin Anticipation Timer. The dependent measures of absolute error, constant error, and variable error were analyzed in a 2 (gender) x 3 (sport classification) x 4 (speeds) design. Men had lower absolute and constant error scores than women. Open skills athletes were less variable in their responses while male open skills athletes were more accurate and less variable at the faster speeds. Performance on the Bassin Anticipation Timer may not be representative of athletic skills.

  12. A method for coincidence timing resolution enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ermis, E. E., E-mail: elermis@hotmail.com; Celiktas, C. [Faculty of Science, Physics Department, Ege University, 35100 Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Pilicer, E. [Faculty of Arts and Science, Physics Department, Uludag University, Gorukle, Bursa (Turkey)

    2016-05-15

    A method including the coincidence time resolution improvement for a TOF/positron emission tomography system was suggested. The spectrometer for this aim was composed of two NaI(Tl) and two plastic scintillation detectors. Experimental results were supported by FLUKA Monte Carlo simulation program by constructing the detector setup in software medium. Present experimental results verified our previous results and conclusions obtained from the suggested method. It was concluded that better resolutions would help the improvement not only on the TOF gain but also on the spatial resolution, leading to better images and helping the Physician in his/her diagnosis and treatment.

  13. Non Invasive Blood Glucose Measurement using NIR technique based on occlusion spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Prof..Mrs.A.A.Shinde; Dr.R.K.Prasad

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes is considered to be one of the major health care epidemics of modern era. The determination of blood glucose concentration using the self monitoring blood glucose devices involves the chemical analysis of blood samples taken by pricking the finger or extracting blood from forearm. The pain, discomfort and inconvenience in the current invasive method has led to the feasibility study of noninvasive measurement techniques. In this paper, an optical method using NIR technique based on oc...

  14. CHARACTERIZATION OF RENAL BLOOD FLOW REGULATION BASED ON WAVELET COEFFICIENTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavlov, A.N.; Pavlova, O.N.; Mosekilde, Erik

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the possibility of revealing new characteristic features of renal blood flow autoregulation in healthy and pathological states through the application of discrete wavelet transforms to experimental time series for normotensive and hypertensive rats....... A reduction in the variability of the wavelet coefficients in hypertension is observed at both the microscopic level of the blood flow in efferent arterioles of individual nephrons and at the macroscopic level of the blood pressure in the main arteries. The reduction is manifest in both of the main frequency...

  15. Drug-perturbation-based stratification of blood cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Dietrich, Sascha; et al; Rossi, Davide; Zenz, Thorsten

    2018-01-01

    As new generations of targeted therapies emerge and tumor genome sequencing discovers increasingly comprehensive mutation repertoires, the functional relationships of mutations to tumor phenotypes remain largely unknown. Here, we measured ex vivo sensitivity of 246 blood cancers to 63 drugs alongside genome, transcriptome, and DNA methylome analysis to understand determinants of drug response. We assembled a primary blood cancer cell encyclopedia data set that revealed disease-specific sensit...

  16. Assessing Acceptability of Short Message Service Based Interventions towards Becoming Future Voluntary Blood Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana Saleem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available All blood bank services, especially those of developing countries, face a major shortfall of blood donations due to lack of voluntary blood donors. Our study aims to evaluate the acceptability of Short Message Service based interventions towards becoming voluntary blood donors among medical university students of Karachi, Pakistan. Methods. A total of 350 medical students were approached in medical universities of Karachi, Pakistan, using a nonprobability convenient sampling technique. Data collectors administered a self-made questionnaire to each participant using an interview based format. All data was recorded and analyzed on SPSS 16. Results. 350 participants, having a mean age of 21.47 ± 1.36, were included in our study with 30.6% (107/350 being males and 69.4% (243/350 being females. 93.4% (327/350 of participants agreed that donating blood was healthy, but only 26% had donated blood in the past with 79.1% donating voluntarily. 65.7% (230/350 of the participants agreed to take part in Short Message Service based behavioral interventions to become voluntary blood donors with 69.7% (244/350 also agreeing that Short Message Service reminders will promote them to donate blood more often. Conclusion. With university students willing to become voluntary blood donors, Pakistani blood banks can carry out Short Message Service based interventions to encourage them to donate blood.

  17. Application of length vernier in phase coincidence detection and precision frequency measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Miao; Wei, Zhou; Bin, Wang

    2012-02-01

    For comparison of arbitrary frequency signals, the paper proposed two levels of length vernier based on the time-space relationship are used in three levels of phase coincidence detecting circuits to extract the phase coincidence information by proper logic calculation. The length∕phase of each vernier is respectively corresponding to the accuracy and the resolution of detecting circuit. The time-space relationship is based on high-stability, high-accuracy, and high-speed of signal transmission. The method is effective to reduce the fuzzy region in the phase coincidence information and reach a higher measuring precision.

  18. Comparison and combination of blood-based inflammatory markers with faecal occult blood tests for non-invasive colorectal cancer screening

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tao, S; Haug, U; Kuhn, K; Brenner, H

    2012-01-01

    Faecal occult blood tests (FOBTs) are widely used for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. Blood-based inflammatory markers have been suggested as alternative or supplementary non-invasive CRC screening tests...

  19. DIAGNOSIS OF DISEASES OF THE BLOOD BASED ON CLUSTER ANALYSIS SAVED GAS-DISCHARGE RADIATION

    OpenAIRE

    N. V. Hlukhova; L. A. Pisotska

    2015-01-01

    The problems of diagnosis of diseases of blood and the risk of their development, the analysis of the shortcomings of existing methods. A new approach to the implementation of screening studies, which is based on image capture gasdischarge radiation smears or drops of blood in the electromagnetic field of high voltage on x-ray film. In order to improve the reliability of diagnostic decisions by eliminating subjective factors proposed automated computer processing of images glow blood-based hi...

  20. Development of a Blood-Based Biomarker Panel for Indeterminate Lung Nodules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-15-1-0127 TITLE: Development of a Blood -Based Biomarker Panel for Indeterminate Lung Nodules PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Ayumu...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Development of a Blood -Based Biomarker Panel for Indeterminate Lung Nodules 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1...LDCT) has been shown to reduce mortality by 20%, although there are concerns including high false positivity, cost, and radiation exposure. Blood

  1. In vivo vascular flow profiling combined with optical tweezers based blood routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, Robert; Sugden, Wade W.; Siekmann, Arndt F.; Denz, Cornelia

    2017-07-01

    In vivo wall shear rate is quantified during zebrafish development using particle image velocimetry for biomedical diagnosis and modeling of artificial vessels. By using brightfield microscopy based high speed video tracking we can resolve single heart-beat cycles of blood flow in both space and time. Maximum blood flow velocities and wall shear rates are presented for zebrafish at two and three days post fertilization. By applying biocompatible optical tweezers as an Optical rail we present rerouting of red blood cells in vivo. With purely light-driven means we are able to compensate the lack of proper red blood cell blood flow in so far unperfused capillaries.

  2. Fabry's disease and psychosis: causality or coincidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gairing, S; Wiest, R; Metzler, S; Theodoridou, A; Hoff, P

    2011-01-01

    A 21-year-old female with Fabry's disease (FD) presented acute psychotic symptoms such as delusions, auditory hallucinations and formal thought disorders. Since the age of 14, she had suffered from various psychiatric symptoms increasing in frequency and intensity. We considered the differential diagnoses of prodromal symptoms of schizophrenia and organic schizophrenia-like disorder. Routine examinations including cognitive testing, electroencephalography and structural magnetic resonance imaging revealed no pathological findings. Additional structural and functional imaging demonstrated a minor CNS involvement of FD, yet without functional limitations. In summary our examination results support the thesis that in the case of our patient a mere coincidence of FD and psychotic symptoms is more likely than a causal connection. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. [Rare adverse events following immunization: coincidence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alò, Gian Loreto; Terracciano, Elisa; Zorzoli, Ermanno; Capanna, Alessandra; Gervasi, Giuseppe; Zaratti, Laura; Franco, Elisabetta

    2016-01-01

    The high standards of safety and effectiveness of vaccines have allowed them to get a prominent role in disease prevention and health protection. However, like any other intervention, vaccination is not free from risks. Rare adverse events occur after immunization in less than one in a thousand individuals and can be linked to vaccination by causality or coincidence. These events are reported on the SmPC (Summary of Product Characteristics). We have first divided the rare adverse events in local and generalized, and then we have analyzed them according to the type of vaccine linked to the event. Communication of the benefits of vaccines, that are surely greater than their risks, must take place in a conscious and scientific way, in order to avoid vaccinations being perceived as an imposition, instead of the great opportunity for everyone that they are.

  4. Preliminary experience of coincidence PET in oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, C. H.; Yoon, S. N.; Joh, C. W.; Hwang, K. H.; Kim, Su Zy; Lim, S. M.; Yang, S. D. [Korea Cancer Ceter, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-07-01

    Recently more medical centers in the western world are interested in the coincidence (CoDe) PET using a dual head gamma camera since its cost is about one tenth of the conventional PET, low cost to maintain and operate, and able to perform other routine planar and SPECT imaging studies. Elscint's Varicam is able to perform planar, SPECT, 511keV SPECT and CoDe PET. One such system with 5/8' crystals was installed at Ajou University Hospital early this year. Forty one patients with various cancers underwent F-18-FDG CoDe PET of the various anatomic sites. The patients were injected with 3-10mCi of F-18-FDG, supplied by the Korea Cancer Center Hospital, following more than 4 hr fasting. After 45-60 mimutes uptake period, raw data were acquired for 30 minutes by 10 clockwise continuous revolutions using a slip ring type gantry. Data acquisition was 3-D using only a filter / horizontal septae combination system in order to eliminate scatter and residual activity from the brain bladder. The data processed similar to SPECT in short axis, sagittal and coronal slices as well as reporjection profile. Coincidence subset expectation minimization (COSEM) iterative reconstruction algorithm was not available for the studies. Images were interpreted subjectively for unavailability of quantitative method of the system. Results of the study is tabulized and representive interesting cases will be shown. In conclusion, F-18-FDG CoDe PET was useful in diagnosis, staging and detection of recurrence of residual cancers. Draw backs of our study include, lack of specificities, inability to obtain WB and inability to quantitative F-18-FDG uptake. We believe these limitations will be resolved gradually in the future.

  5. Coincidence of pollen season with the first fetal trimester together with early pet exposure is associated with sensitization to cat and dog allergens in early childhood: A Finnish population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrhönen, K; Kulmala, P; Näyhä, S

    2017-11-24

    Children whose 11th fetal week falls in pollen season (spring) reportedly have an increased risk of sensitization to food allergens. No such finding has been reported for pet allergens. The aim of the study was to (i) evaluate the incidence of pet (dog and cat) sensitization according to the season of the 11th fetal week and (ii) whether the association between pet exposure and respective sensitization is modified by the coincidence of the 11th fetal week with pollen season. The study population comprised all children (born between 2001 and 2006) in the province of South Karelia, Finland (N = 5920). Their data of immunoglobulin E antibodies and skin prick tests to pet allergens (N = 538) were collected from patient records and linked with questionnaire data on pet exposure. The seasonal incidence peak of cat sensitization was observed in children whose 11th fetal week occurred in June (7.4%) and that of dog sensitization in April (3.8%) and June (4.7%). The relative rate (RR) for cat sensitization was 2.92 (95% CI 1.40-6.08) in children with cat exposure alone, 8.53 (4.07-17.86) in children with cat and fetal pollen exposures and 0.61 (0.20-1.83) in children exposed to pollen alone, compared with children without these exposures. The respective RRs for dog sensitization were 2.17 (1.13-4.19), 4.40 (2.19-8.83) and 1.65 (0.77-3.53). Coincidence of the first fetal trimester with pollen season strengthens the association between pet exposure and respective sensitization. Pollen exposure at early pregnancy may deviate immune system towards Th2-type reactivity promoting development of specific allergy in case allergen exposure occurred. Therefore, primary prevention of allergic diseases may need to begin during early pregnancy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Platelet-Rich Blood Derivatives for Stem Cell-Based Tissue Engineering and Regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masoudi, E.A.; Ribas, J.; Kaushik, G.; Leijten, Jeroen Christianus Hermanus; Khademhosseini, A.

    2016-01-01

    Platelet-rich blood derivatives have been widely used in different fields of medicine and stem cell-based tissue engineering. They represent natural cocktails of autologous growth factors, which could provide an alternative for recombinant protein-based approaches. Platelet-rich blood derivatives,

  7. An Appraisal of Hospital Based Blood Pressure Control in Port ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    observed that death from ischemic heart disease and stroke increases progressively from blood pressure ... control such as stroke, chronic kidney disease and coronary heart disease. This study was undertaken to ..... The authors acknowledge the Nursing staff, clinical assistants and Interns who worked in the MOPD during ...

  8. Blood based cell biopsy for early detection of cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Cha-Mei; Adams, Daniel; Adams, Diane; Alpaugh, R. Katherine; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Martin, Stuart; Chumsri, Saranya; Marks, Jeffrey

    Early detection (ED) of cancer holds the promise for less aggressive treatments and better outcome. However, there are few accepted methods for ED. We report on a previously unknown blood cell found specifically in the peripheral blood of many solid tumors. They are defined as Cancer Associated Macrophage-Like cells (CAMLs) and are characterized by large size (25-300 μm) and expression of cancer markers. CAMLs were isolated on precision filters during blood filtration. We conducted prospective studies in breast cancer (BC) to ascertain CAML prevalence, specificity and sensitivity in relation to disease status at clinical presentation. We report on two related but separate studies: 1) the isolation of CAMLs from patients with known invasive BC, compared to healthy volunteers and, 2) a double blind study conducted on women undergoing core needle biopsy to evaluate suspicious breast masses. The studies show that CAMLs are found in all stages of BC and suggest that detection of CAMLs can differentiate patients with BC from those with benign breast conditions and healthy individuals. This non-invasive blood test can be potentially used for ED of BC and other malignancies after validation studies with the advantage of a minimally invasive procedure and longitudinal monitoring. This work was supported by Grants from Maryland TEDCO MTTCF, R01-CA154624 from NIH, KG100240 from Susan G. Komen Foundation, Era of Hope Scholar award from DoD (BC100675), and U01-CA084955 from NCI EDRN.

  9. Blood Is Thicker: Moral Spillover Effects Based on Kinship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlmann, Eric Luis; Zhu, Luke; Pizarro, David A.; Bloom, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Three empirical studies document the intuitive spillover of moral taint from a person who engages in immoral acts to another individual who is related by ties of blood kinship. In Study 1, participants were more likely to recommend that the biological grandchild of a wrongdoer, compared to a non-biological grandchild, help the descendants of his…

  10. Low-level exposure to lead, blood pressure, and hypertension in a population-based cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambelunghe, Angela; Sallsten, Gerd; Borné, Yan; Forsgard, Niklas; Hedblad, Bo; Nilsson, Peter; Fagerberg, Björn; Engström, Gunnar; Barregard, Lars

    2016-08-01

    Environmental lead exposure is a possible causative factor for increased blood pressure and hypertension, but large studies at low-level exposure are scarce, and results inconsistent. We aimed to examine the effects of environmental exposure to lead in a large population-based sample. We assessed associations between blood lead and systolic/diastolic blood pressure and hypertension in 4452 individuals (46-67 years) living in Malmö, Sweden, in 1991-1994. Blood pressure was measured using a mercury sphygmomanometer after 10min supine rest. Hypertension was defined as high systolic (≥140mmHg) or diastolic (≥90mmHg) blood pressure and/or current use of antihypertensive medication. Blood lead was calculated from lead in erythrocytes and haematocrit. Multivariable associations between blood lead and blood pressure or hypertension were assessed by linear and logistic regression. Two-thirds of the cohort was re-examined 16 years later. At baseline, mean blood pressure was 141/87mmHg, 16% used antihypertensive medication, 63% had hypertension, and mean blood lead was 28µg/L. Blood lead in the fourth quartile was associated with significantly higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure (point estimates: 1-2mmHg) and increased prevalence of hypertension (odds ratio: 1.3, 95% confidence interval: 1.1-1.5) versus the other quartiles after adjustment for sex, age, smoking, alcohol, waist circumference, and education. Associations were also significant with blood lead as a continuous variable. Blood lead at baseline, having a half-life of about one month, was not associated with antihypertensive treatment at the 16-year follow-up. Low-level lead exposure increases blood pressure and may increase the risk of hypertension. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Electrolyte and acid-base disturbances caused by blood transfusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linko, K; Saxelin, I

    1986-02-01

    The effect of blood transfusions on the electrolyte, metabolic and hemodynamic status of 31 patients undergoing major laparotomies was studied. Two groups were compared: Group I, 11 patients receiving continuous intraoperative blood transfusions exceeding 5 units at a rate over 0.3 ml/kg/min, and Group II, 20 patients receiving transfusions of 1-5 units at a rate below the limit. Transiently increased potassium values (5.2 +/- 0.3 mmol/l) were found in Group I during the rapid transfusion phase. The difference was statistically significant (P less than 0.05) when compared to Group II (4.3 +/- 0.2 mmol/l). There was also a significant correlation (r = 0.64; P less than 0.05) between the increase in serum potassium concentrations and the respective potassium load caused by the blood transfused. Most of the hyperpotassemic patients had surgery of the abdominal aorta. During the rapid transfusion, the patients in Group I had significantly lower concentrations of serum ionized calcium (P less than 0.05) and higher central venous pressures (P less than 0.05), but more periods of hypotension when compared to Group II. After the transfusion the massively transfused patients had slight metabolic alcalosis, the BE and pH differing significantly (P less than 0.05) from the values of Group II. It is concluded that hyperpotassemia may occur during rapid transfusions (over 0.4 ml/kg/min) of stored blood, especially in patients undergoing surgery of the abdominal aorta, even without simultaneous shock, acidosis or hypothermia. Calcium administration may be of benefit especially in situations where combined hyperpotassemia and hypocalcemia reduce the myocardial performance.

  12. Blood glucose measurement by using hollow optical fiber-based attenuated total reflection probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kino, Saiko; Tanaka, Yuki; Matsuura, Yuji

    2014-05-01

    A noninvasive glucose monitoring system based on mid-infrared, attenuated total reflection spectroscopy using a hollow optical fiber probe is developed. Owing to the flexible fiber probe, measurement of oral mucosa, where blood capillaries are near the skin surface, is possible. Blood glucose levels are measured by detecting the peak intensity of glucose absorption bands, and the experimental results showed that the reproducibility of the measurement is high enough for monitoring blood glucose.

  13. Coincidence avoidance principle in surface haptic interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, Steven G.; Klatzky, Roberta L.; Peshkin, Michael A.; Colgate, James Edward

    2015-01-01

    When multiple fingertips experience force sensations, how does the brain interpret the combined sensation? In particular, under what conditions are the sensations perceived as separate or, alternatively, as an integrated whole? In this work, we used a custom force-feedback device to display force signals to two fingertips (index finger and thumb) as they traveled along collinear paths. Each finger experienced a pattern of forces that, taken individually, produced illusory virtual bumps, and subjects reported whether they felt zero, one, or two bumps. We varied the spatial separation between these bump-like force-feedback regions, from being much greater than the finger span to nearly exactly the finger span. When the bump spacing was the same as the finger span, subjects tended to report only one bump. We found that the results are consistent with a quantitative model of perception in which the brain selects a structural interpretation of force signals that relies on minimizing coincidence stemming from accidental alignments between fingertips and inferred surface structures. PMID:25675477

  14. A memory-based model for blood viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, Clara M.

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents a comparison between existing models for non-Newtonian fluid viscosity as a function of shear rate variations. A novel model is introduced whose parameters are linked to physiological phenomena in the blood. The end use of such models is to predict changes in viscosity to adapt the speed of a nanorobot device for targeted drug delivery purposes. Simulation results show the agreement between the proposed model and available models from literature. A laboratory scale validation of the proposed model for a fluid mimicking non-Newtonian properties has been performed. Conceptual perspectives are also given in this work.

  15. Blood pulse wave velocity and pressure sensing via fiber based and free space based optical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirkis, Talia; Beiderman, Yevgeny; Agdarov, Sergey; Beiderman, Yafim; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2017-02-01

    Continuous noninvasive measurement of vital bio-signs, such as cardiopulmonary parameters, is an important tool in evaluation of the patient's physiological condition and health monitoring. On the demand of new enabling technologies, some works have been done in continuous monitoring of blood pressure and pulse wave velocity. In this paper, we introduce two techniques for non-contact sensing of vital bio signs. In the first approach the optical sensor is based on single mode in-fibers Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) to detect heartbeat, respiration and pulse wave velocity (PWV). The introduced interferometer is based on a new implanted scheme. It replaces the conventional MZI realized by inserting of discontinuities in the fiber to break the total internal reflection and scatter/collect light. The proposed fiber sensor was successfully incorporated into shirt to produce smart clothing. The measurements obtained from the smart clothing could be obtained in comfortable manner and there is no need to have an initial calibration or a direct contact between the sensor and the skin of the tested individual. In the second concept we show a remote noncontact blood pulse wave velocity and pressure measurement based on tracking the temporal changes of reflected secondary speckle patterns produced in human skin when illuminated by a laser beams. In both concept experimental validation of the proposed schemes is shown and analyzed.

  16. Blood flow measurements during hemodialysis vascular access interventions - Catheter-based thermodilution or Doppler ultrasound?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heerwagen, Søren T; Hansen, Marc A; Schroeder, Torben V

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To test the clinical performance of catheter-based thermodilution and Doppler ultrasound of the feeding brachial artery for blood flow measurements during hemodialysis vascular access interventions.Methods: Thirty patients with arteriovenous fistulas who underwent 46 interventions had...... access blood flow measured before and after every procedure. Two methods, catheter-based thermodilution and Doppler ultrasound, were compared to the reference method of ultrasound dilution. Catheter-based thermodilution and Doppler ultrasound were performed during the endovascular procedures while flow...

  17. A consensus-based tool for ranking the risk of blood-transmissible infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oei, Welling; Neslo, Rabin; Janssen, Mart P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304818208

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) pose a threat to blood transfusion safety. Despite a lack of evidence, safety interventions may be required. However, what should decision makers base their decisions on? A model was developed that allows valuing the perceived risk of an EID for blood

  18. A Microcontroller-Based Device for Monitoring Blood Pressure in the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    accuracies of a finger blood pressure monitor and an oscillometric blood pressure monitor" Journal of Clinical Monitoring, Volume 7 (2), April 1991. 14. Sesler...J.M. and Munroe W.P. "Clinical evaluation of a finger oscillometric blood pressure device" DICP: the annals of pharmacotherapy, Volume 25 (12...National 06fense Defence nationale AD-A279 938 III111 II 111111111i1111 llM I ~ll l lll A MICROCONTROLLER-BASED DEVICE FOR MONITORING BLOOD PRESSURE

  19. Quantitative High-Throughput Screening Using a Coincidence Reporter Biocircuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuck, Brittany W; MacArthur, Ryan; Inglese, James

    2017-04-10

    Reporter-biased artifacts-i.e., compounds that interact directly with the reporter enzyme used in a high-throughput screening (HTS) assay and not the biological process or pharmacology being interrogated-are now widely recognized to reduce the efficiency and quality of HTS used for chemical probe and therapeutic development. Furthermore, narrow or single-concentration HTS perpetuates false negatives during primary screening campaigns. Titration-based HTS, or quantitative HTS (qHTS), and coincidence reporter technology can be employed to reduce false negatives and false positives, respectively, thereby increasing the quality and efficiency of primary screening efforts, where the number of compounds investigated can range from tens of thousands to millions. The three protocols described here allow for generation of a coincidence reporter (CR) biocircuit to interrogate a biological or pharmacological question of interest, generation of a stable cell line expressing the CR biocircuit, and qHTS using the CR biocircuit to efficiently identify high-quality biologically active small molecules. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  20. Impedimetric characterization of human blood using three-electrode based ECIS devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangadhar Pradhan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, three-electrode based electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS devices were used to study the electrical properties of blood and its constituents using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The three-electrode based ECIS devices were fabricated using micromachining technology with varying sizes for working, reference, and counter electrodes.  The blood and its constituents such as serum, plasma, and red blood cells (RBCs were prepared by conventional methods and stored for impedance measurement using fabricated microdevices. Equivalent circuits for blood, serum, plasma, and RBCs were proposed using the software package ZSimpWin to validate the experimental data. The proposed equivalent circuit models of blood and its components have excellent agreement up to a frequency of 1 MHz.  It is evident from the experimental results that blood and its components have specific impedance signatures that decrease with the increase of frequency. Blood shows higher impedance than the other samples in the lower frequency range (<50 kHz.  It was also found that above 50 kHz, the impedance value of RBCs is nearly the same as whole blood. The impedance of serum and plasma steadily decreases with the increase of frequency up to 100 kHz and flattens out after that. The minimum impedance value achieved for serum and plasma is much less than the value obtained for whole blood.

  1. The attitude of Canadian university students toward a behavior-based blood donor health assessment questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Stephanie L; Lam, Cindy T Y; Lin, Yahui T; Wong, Deborah J; Lazo-Langner, Alejandro; Chin-Yee, Ian

    2011-04-01

    In Canada, all men who have sex with men (MSM) are indefinitely deferred from donating blood. The purpose of this study was to determine the acceptability of an alternative behavior-based donor health questionnaire among Canadian university students. Further we sought to determine the perception of blood safety associated with specific risk behaviors. Questions found on the Canadian Blood Services' donor health assessment questionnaire as well as from studies assessing high-risk behavior for human immunodeficiency virus infection were included. For each question participants were asked to rate the acceptability, comfort in answering, perceived effect on blood safety, and whether the question would deter them from donating blood. Data were analyzed using nonparametric tests. A total of 741 students participated in the study. Questions regarding sexual practices of the donor were rated less important for blood safety compared to those assessing for sexually transmitted infections, sex for money, and injection drug use (30%-62% vs. 69%-95% unsafe). A total of 24.4% of students rated both questions on MSM status and a behavior-based alternative as equally unacceptable. We found an inverse correlation between perception of safety and acceptability of questions. Our findings suggest that a behavior-based screening modification is unlikely to change opinions or satisfy those who object to the MSM current policy in place. Acceptability of these questions might be related to a poor understanding of the effect of sexual practices on blood supply safety. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.

  2. True coincidence-summing corrections for the coincident gamma-rays measured with coplanar grid CdZnTe detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yücel, H; Solmaz, A N; Köse, E; Bor, D

    2010-06-01

    In this study, true coincidence-summing (TCS) correction factors have been measured for the sources (22)Na, (60)Co, (133)Ba and (152)Eu by use of three large volume coplanar grid CdZnTe (acronym: CZT) detectors. In case of a close-in detection geometry, two different TCS calculation algorithms were used to compute the required TCS correction factors. Both of the algorithms are based on the measured total-to-peak (TTP) ratio and full-energy peak (FEP) efficiency values that were obtained using almost "single" energy and coincidence-free nuclides. The results for TCS correction factors obtained by two different algorithms were agreeable to each other. The obtained TCS factors were ranged from about 7% to 30.5% in a 2250 mm(3) CZT detector when a close counting geometry was used. For other two detectors with a volume of 1000 and 1687.5mm(3), the resulted TCS correction factors were relatively smaller and varied between about 0.1% and 20% at the close counting geometry condition. Therefore, the results indicate that there is a need for the estimation of TCS corrections in CZT detectors, especially when their crystal volumes are greater than 1cm(3) and these detectors are used in the case of a close-in detection geometry. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Community-based intervention for blood pressure reduction in Nepal (COBIN trial)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neupane, Dinesh; McLachlan, Craig S; Christensen, Bo

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hypertension contributes to a significant burden of cardiovascular disease in low- and middle-income countries; however, responses are inadequate because of a lack of conclusive evidence on population-based approaches to hypertension control. METHODS/DESIGN: The objective of the present...... study is to determine the effect of family-based home health education and blood pressure monitoring by trained female community health volunteers. The primary outcome is change in mean systolic blood pressure. A community-based, open-masked, two-armed, cluster-randomized trial will be conducted...... will conduct home visits for health education and blood pressure measurement. The primary outcomes will be modeled by using multiple linear regression analysis. DISCUSSION: This project will be an investigation of a community-based intervention to control blood pressure in countries with limited resources...

  4. Digital gamma-gamma coincidence HPGe system for environmental analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markovic, Nikola; Roos, Per; Nielsen, Sven Poul

    2017-01-01

    The performance of a new gamma-gamma coincidence spectrometer system for environmental samples analysis at the Center for Nuclear Technologies of the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) is reported. Nutech Coincidence Low Energy Germanium Sandwich (NUCLeGeS) system consists of two HPGe detectors...... in a surface laboratory with a digital acquisition system used to collect the data in time-stamped list mode with 10. ns time resolution. The spectrometer is used in both anticoincidence and coincidence modes....

  5. Acid base balance in blood and cerebrospinal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horovitz, Y; Tal, I; Keynan, A

    1985-01-01

    Thirty four infants were studied; 21 with acute gastroenteritis, dehydration, and metabolic acidosis and 13 who served as controls. All infants with metabolic acidosis and without neurological signs had a normal to near normal cerebrospinal fluid acid base balance, but five with metabolic acidosis and severe neurological signs had cerebrospinal fluid acid base disequilibrium. Acute metabolic acidosis in infants may lead to cerebrospinal fluid acid base imbalance causing cerebral dysfunction. PMID:4015176

  6. Blood coagulation screening using a paper-based microfluidic lateral flow device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H; Han, D; Pauletti, G M; Steckl, A J

    2014-10-21

    A simple approach to the evaluation of blood coagulation using a microfluidic paper-based lateral flow assay (LFA) device for point-of-care (POC) and self-monitoring screening is reported. The device utilizes whole blood, without the need for prior separation of plasma from red blood cells (RBC). Experiments were performed using animal (rabbit) blood treated with trisodium citrate to prevent coagulation. CaCl2 solutions of varying concentrations are added to citrated blood, producing Ca(2+) ions to re-establish the coagulation cascade and mimic different blood coagulation abilities in vitro. Blood samples are dispensed into a paper-based LFA device consisting of sample pad, analytical membrane and wicking pad. The porous nature of the cellulose membrane separates the aqueous plasma component from the large blood cells. Since the viscosity of blood changes with its coagulation ability, the distance RBCs travel in the membrane in a given time can be related to the blood clotting time. The distance of the RBC front is found to decrease linearly with increasing CaCl2 concentration, with a travel rate decreasing from 3.25 mm min(-1) for no added CaCl2 to 2.2 mm min(-1) for 500 mM solution. Compared to conventional plasma clotting analyzers, the LFA device is much simpler and it provides a significantly larger linear range of measurement. Using the red colour of RBCs as a visible marker, this approach can be utilized to produce a simple and clear indicator of whether the blood condition is within the appropriate range for the patient's condition.

  7. COINCIDENCE OF AUTOANTIBODIES AMONG PATIENTS WITH DIFFUSE CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Sozina

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Presence of some antinuclear antibodies (ANAis a typical feature of connective tissue disorders (CTD, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, Sjogren’s syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis (RA. The purpose of our work was to estimate the significance of laboratory tests commonly used in CTD.We examines blood serum collected from 1312 patients with suspected connective tissue disorders, 105 patients with confirmed SLE, 163 patients with RA, 15 patient with Sjogren’s syndrome (SS, and 100 healthy volunteers. Blood serum was tested for antinuclear factor (ANF using HEp-2 method, antibodies against extractable nuclear antigens (anti-ENA, line blot ANA, IgG antibodies against double-stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA IgG, IgG and IgM antibodies against cardiolipin (CL and beta-2-glycoprotein 1 (B2GP1. The Crithidia luciliae immunofluorescence (CLIF assay was also used to detect antibodies to native dsDNA.ANF prevalence in the patients with suspected CTD was 23,4% (309/1318. Speckled pattern of ANF was detected in 100% (15/15 of patients with SS. Prevalence of ANF in patients with SLE and RA was 79% and 36%, correspondingly. ANF was revealed only in 3% of healthy volunteers and its titer did not exceed 1/80. Blood serum from 282 patients was tested for ANF and anti-ENA. Coincidence of ANF and antibodies against ENA were found in 12% of cases (34/282, and isolated anti-ENA – in 7% of cases (20/282. In this group (anti-ENA-positive/ANF negative, antibodies to SS-A antigen were detected in 64% of patients, using ANA lineblot, 36% of patients were negative. Blood sera from 614 patients were tested, in order to evaluate coincidence of ANF and anti-dsDNA. The antibodies were revealed in 45.9% of cases, whereas a combination of ANF and anti-dsDNA in diagnostic titers was found in 151 patient. Anti-dsDNA in absence of ANF were detected in 14.9% (42/282 of patients; in 6.7% of the samples (19/282, higher concentrations of antibodies were detected (> 50 IU

  8. Feasibility of hospital-based blood banking: a Tanzanian case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, B; Mercer, A

    1999-12-01

    The demand for blood transfusion is high in sub-Saharan Africa because of the high prevalence of anaemia and pregnancy related complications, but the practice is estimated to account for 10% of HIV infections in some regions. The main response to this problem by the international donor community is to establish vertically implemented blood transfusion services producing suitable (safe) blood at a cost of US$25-40 per unit. However, the economic sustainability of such interventions is questionable and it is argued here that hospital-based blood transfusion services operating at a basic adequate level are sufficient for low-income African countries. The results of a project aimed at improving such services in Tanzania are presented. The main findings are: (1) the cost per suitable blood unit produced was US$12.4; (2) at an HIV test sensitivity of 93.5% during the study period, discounted financial benefits of the interventions exceeded costs by a factor of between 17.2 and 37.1; (3) the cost per undiscounted year of life saved by use of these interventions was US$2.7-2.8; and (4) safe blood transfusion practices can be assured at an annual cost of US$0.07 per capita. Recommendations are made to ensure safe blood transfusion practices at hospital-based blood banks in Tanzania.

  9. Towards reproducible MRM based biomarker discovery using dried blood spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Sureyya; Cooper, Jason D; Lago, Santiago G; Kenny, Diarmuid; Rustogi, Nitin; Stocki, Pawel; Bahn, Sabine

    2017-03-27

    There is an increasing interest in the use of dried blood spot (DBS) sampling and multiple reaction monitoring in proteomics. Although several groups have explored the utility of DBS by focusing on protein detection, the reproducibility of the approach and whether it can be used for biomarker discovery in high throughput studies is yet to be determined. We assessed the reproducibility of multiplexed targeted protein measurements in DBS compared to serum. Eighty-two medium to high abundance proteins were monitored in a number of technical and biological replicates. Importantly, as part of the data analysis, several statistical quality control approaches were evaluated to detect inaccurate transitions. After implementing statistical quality control measures, the median CV on the original scale for all detected peptides in DBS was 13.2% and in Serum 8.8%. We also found a strong correlation (r = 0.72) between relative peptide abundance measured in DBS and serum. The combination of minimally invasive sample collection with a highly specific and sensitive mass spectrometry (MS) technique allows for targeted quantification of multiple proteins in a single MS run. This approach has the potential to fundamentally change clinical proteomics and personalized medicine by facilitating large-scale studies.

  10. Efficient Monte Carlo simulation of coincidence effects in radioisotope decays including γ-γ angular correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Elizabeth; Tickner, James

    2012-09-01

    Many nuclear decays lead to the emission of multiple gamma-rays or X-rays in close temporal coincidence. Nuclear polarization effects lead to angular correlations between these successive gamma-ray emissions that depend on the spins of the states involved and the multipolarities of the transitions in question. To accurately simulate the transport and detection of such coincident gamma decays, these polarization effects should be taken into account. However, most standard Monte Carlo codes either ignore coincidence effects completely, or treat the direction of each gamma-ray emitted in a decay cascade as uncorrelated and isotropic. We have developed tools to facilitate the accurate simulation of decays or arbitrary radioisotopes based on level-scheme and decay data available in the Evaluated Nuclear Structure and Decay Files (ENSDF) library. Analogue simulation of coincidence effects is inefficient in many practical cases, necessitating the use of variance reduction techniques. Implementing biased sampling in situations where coincidence effects are important is recognized as a complicated problem. We have developed a modified approach that simplifies the coding of variance reduction techniques for such cases. We demonstrate that a combination of deterministic transport and forced collision biasing allows for efficient simulation of coincidence effects in gamma-ray detection.

  11. Study on time-based variation of blood circulation index, pulse wave energy, and RAI of healthy adult men after different eating times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyeong-Cheol Kim

    2013-12-01

    Conclusions: Different eating times can bring about changes on blood circulation index, E, and RAI. These changes show a certain tendency and coincide with the physiological factors that eating causes a rise of HR, an increase of systolic cardiac pump performance, and a reduction of peripheral vascular resistance.

  12. Modification method to reduce the impact of blood vessel on noncontact discrimination of human blood based on ;M+N; theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linna; Ding, Hongyan; Lin, Ling; Wang, Yimin; Guo, Xin

    2018-01-01

    Noncontact discriminating human blood is significantly crucial for import-export ports and inspection and quarantine departments. We had already demonstrated that visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy combining PLS-DA method can successfully realize noncontact human blood discrimination. However, the circulated blood vessels may be produced with different materials. The use of various kinds of blood tubes may have a negative effect on the discrimination, based on ;M+N; theory (Li et al., 2016). In this research, we explored the impact of different material of blood vessels, such as glass tube and plastic tube, on the prediction ability of the discrimination model. Furthermore, we searched for the modification method to reduce the influence from the blood tubes. Our work indicated that generalized diffuse reflectance method can greatly improve the discrimination accuracy. This research can greatly facilitate the application of noncontact discrimination method based on visible and near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy.

  13. Causes of differences in exercise-induced changes of base excess and blood lactate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böning, Dieter; Klarholz, Carola; Himmelsbach, Bärbel; Hütler, Matthias; Maassen, Norbert

    2007-01-01

    It has been concluded from comparisons of base excess (BE) and lactic acid (La) concentration changes in blood during exercise-induced acidosis that more H+ than La- leave the muscle and enter interstitial fluid and blood. To examine this, we performed incremental cycle tests in 13 untrained males and measured acid-base status and [La] in arterialized blood, plasma, and red cells until 21 min after exhaustion. The decrease of actual BE (-deltaABE) was 2.2 +/- 0.5 (SEM) mmol l(-1) larger than the increase of [La]blood at exhaustion, and the difference rose to 4.8 +/- 0.5 mmol l(-1) during the first minutes of recovery. The decrease of standard BE (SBE), a measure of mean BE of interstitial fluid (if) and blood, however, was smaller than the increase of [La] in the corresponding volume (delta[La](if+blood)) during exercise and only slightly larger during recovery. The discrepancy between -deltaABE and delta[La]blood mainly results from the Donnan effect hindering the rise of [La]erythrocyte to equal values like [La]plasma. The changing Donnan effect during acidosis causes that Cl- from the interstitial fluid enter plasma and erythrocytes in exchange for HCO3(-). A corresponding amount of La- remains outside the blood. SBE is not influenced by ion shifts among these compartments and therefore is a rather exact measure of acid movements across tissue cell membranes, but changes have been compared previously to delta[La]blood instead to delta[La](if+blood). When performing correct comparisons and considering Cl-/HCO3(-) exchange between erythrocytes and extracellular fluid, neither the use of deltaABE nor of deltaSBE provides evidence for differences in H+ and La- transport across the tissue cell membranes.

  14. Paper membrane-based SERS platform for the determination of glucose in blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torul, Hilal; Çiftçi, Hakan; Çetin, Demet; Suludere, Zekiye; Boyacı, Ismail Hakkı; Tamer, Uğur

    2015-11-01

    In this report, we present a paper membrane-based surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) platform for the determination of blood glucose level using a nitrocellulose membrane as substrate paper, and the microfluidic channel was simply constructed by wax-printing method. The rod-shaped gold nanorod particles were modified with 4-mercaptophenylboronic acid (4-MBA) and 1-decanethiol (1-DT) molecules and used as embedded SERS probe for paper-based microfluidics. The SERS measurement area was simply constructed by dropping gold nanoparticles on nitrocellulose membrane, and the blood sample was dropped on the membrane hydrophilic channel. While the blood cells and proteins were held on nitrocellulose membrane, glucose molecules were moved through the channel toward the SERS measurement area. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to confirm the effective separation of blood matrix, and total analysis is completed in 5 min. In SERS measurements, the intensity of the band at 1070 cm(-1) which is attributed to B-OH vibration decreased depending on the rise in glucose concentration in the blood sample. The glucose concentration was found to be 5.43 ± 0.51 mM in the reference blood sample by using a calibration equation, and the certified value for glucose was 6.17 ± 0.11 mM. The recovery of the glucose in the reference blood sample was about 88 %. According to these results, the developed paper-based microfluidic SERS platform has been found to be suitable for use for the detection of glucose in blood samples without any pretreatment procedure. We believe that paper-based microfluidic systems may provide a wide field of usage for paper-based applications.

  15. Coincidence Prompt Gamma-Ray Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.P. gandner; C.W. Mayo; W.A. Metwally; W. Zhang; W. Guo; A. Shehata

    2002-11-10

    The normal prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis for either bulk or small beam samples inherently has a small signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio due primarily to the neutron source being present while the sample signal is being obtained. Coincidence counting offers the possibility of greatly reducing or eliminating the noise generated by the neutron source. The present report presents our results to date on implementing the coincidence counting PGNAA approach. We conclude that coincidence PGNAA yields: (1) a larger signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio, (2) more information (and therefore better accuracy) from essentially the same experiment when sophisticated coincidence electronics are used that can yield singles and coincidences simultaneously, and (3) a reduced (one or two orders of magnitude) signal from essentially the same experiment. In future work we will concentrate on: (1) modifying the existing CEARPGS Monte Carlo code to incorporate coincidence counting, (2) obtaining coincidence schemes for 18 or 20 of the common elements in coal and cement, and (3) optimizing the design of a PGNAA coincidence system for the bulk analysis of coal.

  16. Lensless optical implementation of the coincidence fractional Fourier transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yangjian; Wang, Fei

    2006-08-01

    A lensless optical system for implementing the coincidence fractional Fourier transform (FRT) is proposed. The conditions for the lensless optical system to implement the coincidence FRT with incoherent light and entangled photon pairs are discussed. The results offer a novel scheme for FRTs and thus suggest useful applications.

  17. An Inexpensive Coincidence Circuit for the Pasco Geiger Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Fichera, F; Librizzi, F; Riggi, F

    2005-01-01

    A simple coincidence circuit was devised to carry out educational coincidence experiments involving the use of Geiger counters. The system was tested by commercially available Geiger sensors from PASCO, and is intended to be used in collaboration with high school students and teachers

  18. DIAGNOSIS OF DISEASES OF THE BLOOD BASED ON CLUSTER ANALYSIS SAVED GAS-DISCHARGE RADIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Hlukhova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The problems of diagnosis of diseases of blood and the risk of their development, the analysis of the shortcomings of existing methods. A new approach to the implementation of screening studies, which is based on image capture gasdischarge radiation smears or drops of blood in the electromagnetic field of high voltage on x-ray film. In order to improve the reliability of diagnostic decisions by eliminating subjective factors proposed automated computer processing of images glow blood-based histogram brightness of pixels and performing procedures fuzzy cluster analysis method «fuzzy c-means». Informed choice of methodology radiation imaging of biological objects yielded satisfactory results in the field of diagnostic screening for blood diseases, early definition of risk incurred. The practical value of the proposed diagnostic technique is confirmed by the results of experimental data using cluster analysis.

  19. Effect of Intensive Versus Standard Clinic-Based Hypertension Management on Ambulatory Blood Pressure: Results From the SPRINT (Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial) Ambulatory Blood Pressure Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drawz, Paul E; Pajewski, Nicholas M; Bates, Jeffrey T; Bello, Natalie A; Cushman, William C; Dwyer, Jamie P; Fine, Lawrence J; Goff, David C; Haley, William E; Krousel-Wood, Marie; McWilliams, Andrew; Rifkin, Dena E; Slinin, Yelena; Taylor, Addison; Townsend, Raymond; Wall, Barry; Wright, Jackson T; Rahman, Mahboob

    2017-01-01

    The effect of clinic-based intensive hypertension treatment on ambulatory blood pressure (BP) is unknown. The goal of the SPRINT (Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial) ambulatory BP ancillary study was to evaluate the effect of intensive versus standard clinic-based BP targets on ambulatory BP. Ambulatory BP was obtained within 3 weeks of the 27-month study visit in 897 SPRINT participants. Intensive treatment resulted in lower clinic systolic BP (mean difference between groups=16.0 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, 14.1-17.8 mm Hg), nighttime systolic BP (mean difference=9.6 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, 7.7-11.5 mm Hg), daytime systolic BP (mean difference=12.3 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, 10.6-13.9 mm Hg), and 24-hour systolic BP (mean difference=11.2 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, 9.7-12.8 mm Hg). The night/day systolic BP ratio was similar between the intensive (0.92±0.09) and standard-treatment groups (0.91±0.09). There was considerable lack of agreement within participants between clinic systolic BP and daytime ambulatory systolic BP with wide limits of agreement on Bland-Altman plots. In conclusion, targeting a systolic BP of hypertension therapy on out of office BP. Further studies are needed to assess whether targeting hypertension therapy based on ambulatory BP improves clinical outcomes. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01835249. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Evaluation of red blood cell labelling methods based on a statistical model for red blood cell survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korell, Julia; Coulter, Carolyn V; Duffull, Stephen B

    2011-12-21

    The aim of this work is to compare different labelling methods that are commonly used to estimate the lifespan of red blood cells (RBCs), e.g. in anaemia of renal failure, where the effect of treatment with erythropoietin depends on the lifespan of RBCs. A previously developed model for the survival time of RBCs that accounts for plausible physiological processes of RBC destruction was used to simulate ideal random and cohort labelling methods for RBCs, as well as the flaws associated with these methods (e.g. reuse of label and loss of the label from the surviving RBCs). Random labelling with radioactive chromium and cohort labelling using heavy nitrogen were considered. Blood sampling times were determined for RBC survival studies using both labelling methods by applying the theory of optimal design. It was assessed whether the underlying parameter values of the model are estimable from these studies, and the precision of the parameter estimates were calculated. In theory, parameter estimation would be possible for both types of ideal labelling methods without flaws. However, flaws associated with random labelling are significant and not all parameters controlling RBC survival in the model can be estimated with good precision. In contrast, cohort labelling shows good precision in the parameter estimates even in the presence of reuse and prolonged incorporation of the label. A model based analysis of RBC survival studies is recommended in future to account for limitations in methodology as well as likely causes of RBC destruction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Roles for Coincidence Detection in Coding Amplitude-Modulated Sounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go Ashida

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Many sensory neurons encode temporal information by detecting coincident arrivals of synaptic inputs. In the mammalian auditory brainstem, binaural neurons of the medial superior olive (MSO are known to act as coincidence detectors, whereas in the lateral superior olive (LSO roles of coincidence detection have remained unclear. LSO neurons receive excitatory and inhibitory inputs driven by ipsilateral and contralateral acoustic stimuli, respectively, and vary their output spike rates according to interaural level differences. In addition, LSO neurons are also sensitive to binaural phase differences of low-frequency tones and envelopes of amplitude-modulated (AM sounds. Previous physiological recordings in vivo found considerable variations in monaural AM-tuning across neurons. To investigate the underlying mechanisms of the observed temporal tuning properties of LSO and their sources of variability, we used a simple coincidence counting model and examined how specific parameters of coincidence detection affect monaural and binaural AM coding. Spike rates and phase-locking of evoked excitatory and spontaneous inhibitory inputs had only minor effects on LSO output to monaural AM inputs. In contrast, the coincidence threshold of the model neuron affected both the overall spike rates and the half-peak positions of the AM-tuning curve, whereas the width of the coincidence window merely influenced the output spike rates. The duration of the refractory period affected only the low-frequency portion of the monaural AM-tuning curve. Unlike monaural AM coding, temporal factors, such as the coincidence window and the effective duration of inhibition, played a major role in determining the trough positions of simulated binaural phase-response curves. In addition, empirically-observed level-dependence of binaural phase-coding was reproduced in the framework of our minimalistic coincidence counting model. These modeling results suggest that coincidence

  2. Roles for Coincidence Detection in Coding Amplitude-Modulated Sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashida, Go; Kretzberg, Jutta; Tollin, Daniel J

    2016-06-01

    Many sensory neurons encode temporal information by detecting coincident arrivals of synaptic inputs. In the mammalian auditory brainstem, binaural neurons of the medial superior olive (MSO) are known to act as coincidence detectors, whereas in the lateral superior olive (LSO) roles of coincidence detection have remained unclear. LSO neurons receive excitatory and inhibitory inputs driven by ipsilateral and contralateral acoustic stimuli, respectively, and vary their output spike rates according to interaural level differences. In addition, LSO neurons are also sensitive to binaural phase differences of low-frequency tones and envelopes of amplitude-modulated (AM) sounds. Previous physiological recordings in vivo found considerable variations in monaural AM-tuning across neurons. To investigate the underlying mechanisms of the observed temporal tuning properties of LSO and their sources of variability, we used a simple coincidence counting model and examined how specific parameters of coincidence detection affect monaural and binaural AM coding. Spike rates and phase-locking of evoked excitatory and spontaneous inhibitory inputs had only minor effects on LSO output to monaural AM inputs. In contrast, the coincidence threshold of the model neuron affected both the overall spike rates and the half-peak positions of the AM-tuning curve, whereas the width of the coincidence window merely influenced the output spike rates. The duration of the refractory period affected only the low-frequency portion of the monaural AM-tuning curve. Unlike monaural AM coding, temporal factors, such as the coincidence window and the effective duration of inhibition, played a major role in determining the trough positions of simulated binaural phase-response curves. In addition, empirically-observed level-dependence of binaural phase-coding was reproduced in the framework of our minimalistic coincidence counting model. These modeling results suggest that coincidence detection of excitatory

  3. Biomarkers in schizophrenia: A focus on blood based diagnostics and theranostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chi-Yu; Scarr, Elizabeth; Udawela, Madhara; Everall, Ian; Chen, Wei J; Dean, Brian

    2016-03-22

    Identifying biomarkers that can be used as diagnostics or predictors of treatment response (theranostics) in people with schizophrenia (Sz) will be an important step towards being able to provide personalized treatment. Findings from the studies in brain tissue have not yet been translated into biomarkers that are practical in clinical use because brain biopsies are not acceptable and neuroimaging techniques are expensive and the results are inconclusive. Thus, in recent years, there has been search for blood-based biomarkers for Sz as a valid alternative. Although there are some encouraging preliminary data to support the notion of peripheral biomarkers for Sz, it must be acknowledged that Sz is a complex and heterogeneous disorder which needs to be further dissected into subtype using biological based and clinical markers. The scope of this review is to critically examine published blood-based biomarker of Sz, focusing on possible uses for diagnosis, treatment response, or their relationship with schizophrenia-associated phenotype. We sorted the studies into six categories which include: (1) brain-derived neurotrophic factor; (2) inflammation and immune function; (3) neurochemistry; (4) oxidative stress response and metabolism; (5) epigenetics and microRNA; and (6) transcriptome and proteome studies. This review also summarized the molecules which have been conclusively reported as potential blood-based biomarkers for Sz in different blood cell types. Finally, we further discusses the pitfall of current blood-based studies and suggest that a prediction model-based, Sz specific, blood oriented study design as well as standardize blood collection conditions would be useful for Sz biomarker development.

  4. [Dynamics of blood gases and acid-base balance in patients with carbon monoxide acute poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polozova, E V; Shilov, V V; Bogachova, A S; Davydova, E V

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of blood gases and acid-base balance covered patients with carbon monoxide acute poisoning, in accordance with inhalation trauma presence. Evidence is that thermochemical injury of respiratory tract induced severe acid-base dysbalance remaining decompensated for a long time despite the treatment.

  5. Ethico-legal aspects of hospital-based blood transfusion practice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Relevant articles retrieved via PubMed/MEDLINE and Google scholar search engines were used. Results: This review found that, medical practitioners are directly or vicariously liable in professional negligence in hospital-based transfusion injuries. The potential weaknesses in hospital-based blood transfusion ...

  6. Clonal integration of Fragaria orientalis in reciprocal and coincident patchiness resources: cost-benefit analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunchun Zhang

    Full Text Available Clonal growth allows plants to spread horizontally and to experience different levels of resources. If ramets remain physiologically integrated, clonal plants can reciprocally translocate resources between ramets in heterogeneous environments. But little is known about the interaction between benefits of clonal integration and patterns of resource heterogeneity in different patches, i.e., coincident patchiness or reciprocal patchiness. We hypothesized that clonal integration will show different effects on ramets in different patches and more benefit to ramets under reciprocal patchiness than to those under coincident patchiness, as well as that the benefit from clonal integration is affected by the position of proximal and distal ramets under reciprocal or coincident patchiness. A pot experiment was conducted with clonal fragments consisting of two interconnected ramets (proximal and distal ramet of Fragaria orientalis. In the experiment, proximal and distal ramets were grown in high or low availability of resources, i.e., light and water. Resource limitation was applied either simultaneously to both ramets of a clonal fragment (coincident resource limitation or separately to different ramets of the same clonal fragment (reciprocal resource limitation. Half of the clonal fragments were connected while the other half were severed. From the experiment, clonal fragments growing under coincident resource limitation accumulated more biomass than those under reciprocal resource limitation. Based on a cost-benefit analysis, the support from proximal ramets to distal ramets was stronger than that from distal ramets to proximal ramets. Through division of labour, clonal fragments of F. orientalis benefited more in reciprocal patchiness than in coincident patchiness. While considering biomass accumulation and ramets production, coincident patchiness were more favourable to clonal plant F. orientalis.

  7. Data Based Prediction of Blood Glucose Concentrations Using Evolutionary Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, J Ignacio; Colmenar, J Manuel; Kronberger, Gabriel; Winkler, Stephan M; Garnica, Oscar; Lanchares, Juan

    2017-08-08

    Predicting glucose values on the basis of insulin and food intakes is a difficult task that people with diabetes need to do daily. This is necessary as it is important to maintain glucose levels at appropriate values to avoid not only short-term, but also long-term complications of the illness. Artificial intelligence in general and machine learning techniques in particular have already lead to promising results in modeling and predicting glucose concentrations. In this work, several machine learning techniques are used for the modeling and prediction of glucose concentrations using as inputs the values measured by a continuous monitoring glucose system as well as also previous and estimated future carbohydrate intakes and insulin injections. In particular, we use the following four techniques: genetic programming, random forests, k-nearest neighbors, and grammatical evolution. We propose two new enhanced modeling algorithms for glucose prediction, namely (i) a variant of grammatical evolution which uses an optimized grammar, and (ii) a variant of tree-based genetic programming which uses a three-compartment model for carbohydrate and insulin dynamics. The predictors were trained and tested using data of ten patients from a public hospital in Spain. We analyze our experimental results using the Clarke error grid metric and see that 90% of the forecasts are correct (i.e., Clarke error categories A and B), but still even the best methods produce 5 to 10% of serious errors (category D) and approximately 0.5% of very serious errors (category E). We also propose an enhanced genetic programming algorithm that incorporates a three-compartment model into symbolic regression models to create smoothed time series of the original carbohydrate and insulin time series.

  8. Quantifying radionuclide signatures from a γ-γ coincidence system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Richard; Jackson, Mark J; Davies, Ashley V

    2015-11-01

    A method for quantifying gamma coincidence signatures has been developed, and tested in conjunction with a high-efficiency multi-detector system to quickly identify trace amounts of radioactive material. The γ-γ system utilises fully digital electronics and list-mode acquisition to time-stamp each event, allowing coincidence matrices to be easily produced alongside typical 'singles' spectra. To quantify the coincidence signatures a software package has been developed to calculate efficiency and cascade summing corrected branching ratios. This utilises ENSDF records as an input, and can be fully automated, allowing the user to quickly and easily create/update a coincidence library that contains all possible γ and conversion electron cascades, associated cascade emission probabilities, and true-coincidence summing corrected γ cascade detection probabilities. It is also fully searchable by energy, nuclide, coincidence pair, γ multiplicity, cascade probability and half-life of the cascade. The probabilities calculated were tested using measurements performed on the γ-γ system, and found to provide accurate results for the nuclides investigated. Given the flexibility of the method, (it only relies on evaluated nuclear data, and accurate efficiency characterisations), the software can now be utilised for a variety of systems, quickly and easily calculating coincidence signature probabilities. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Single-step preparation and image-based counting of minute volumes of human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Zachary J; Gao, Tingjuan; Chu, Kaiqin; Lane, Stephen M; Matthews, Dennis L; Dwyre, Denis M; Hood, James; Tatsukawa, Keith; Heifetz, Laurence; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian

    2014-08-21

    Current flow-based blood counting devices require significant medical infrastructure and are not appropriate for field use. In this article we report on the development of a sample preparation, measurement, and analysis method that permits automated and accurate counting of red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs), and platelets, as well as allowing a 3-part differential of the WBCs to be performed on extremely small volumes of whole blood. This method is compatible with portable instrumentation that can be deployed in the field. The method consists of serially diluting blood samples first with sodium dodecyl sulfate dissolved in phosphate buffered saline, then in acridine orange dissolved in phosphate buffered saline, followed by fluorescence and dark field imaging with low magnification objectives. Image analysis is performed to extract cell counts and differentials. We performed a paired analysis of 20 volunteers with complete blood count values both within and beyond the normal reference range using a commercial automated hematology analyzer and the image-based method, with the new method achieving accuracies comparable to that of the commercial system. Because the sample preparation and imaging are simple and inexpensive to implement, this method has applications for pediatrics, clinician offices, and global health in regions that do not have access to central hematology laboratories.

  10. [Hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers and trials to substitute red blood cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smani, Y; Labrude, P; Vigneron, C; Faivre, B

    2007-11-01

    The idea to develop a blood substitute was stimulated by the need of military in the last two world wars and by transmission of pathogenic germs (Hepatitis B in 1960, HIV in 1980 and Hepatitis C in 1990) during blood transfusion that limited the donor blood transfusion. There are two main groups of blood substitutes: perfluorocarbon emulsions and hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOC). These latter are of natural origin: human, bovine or recombinant and undergo three modifications types: chemicals (intramolecular cross-linking, polymerisation, conjugation to macromolecules and combination of several chemical modifications), genetics or technological by microencapsulation. HBOCs are in different phases of clinical trials and some of them present side effects (hemodynamic and oxidative). The understanding of these effects and the possibility of correcting them, condition their use on a large scale and the economic consequences, which they can generate.

  11. Application to Noninvasive Measurement of Blood Components Based on Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Kazuto; Ishizawa, Hiroaki; Fujita, Keiichi; Kaneko, Wataru; Morikawa, Tomotaka; Toba, Eiji; Kobayashi, Hideo

    Recently, lifestyle diseases (diabetics, hyperlipemia etc.) have been steadily increasing, because change of diet, lack of exercise, increase an alcoholic intake, and increase a stress. It is a matter of vital importance to us. About tens of millions of people in Japan have approached the danger of lifestyle diseases. So they have to do a blood test to make sure that they have controlled physical condition themselves. Therefore, they have to measure blood components again and again. So, they are burden too heavy. This paper describes a new noninvasive measurement of blood components based on optical sensing. This uses Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of attenuated total reflection. In order to study, the influence of individual difference, the internal standard method was introduced. This paper describes the detail of the internal standard method and its effect to the blood components calibration. Significant improvement was obtained by using the internal standard.

  12. Polymer-based blood vessel models with micro-temperature sensors in EVE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizoshiri, Mizue; Ito, Yasuaki; Hayakawa, Takeshi; Maruyama, Hisataka; Sakurai, Junpei; Ikeda, Seiichi; Arai, Fumihito; Hata, Seiichi

    2017-04-01

    Cu-based micro-temperature sensors were directly fabricated on poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) blood vessel models in EVE using a combined process of spray coating and femtosecond laser reduction of CuO nanoparticles. CuO nanoparticle solution coated on a PDMS blood vessel model are thermally reduced and sintered by focused femtosecond laser pulses in atmosphere to write the sensors. After removing the non-irradiated CuO nanoparticles, Cu-based microtemperature sensors are formed. The sensors are thermistor-type ones whose temperature dependences of the resistance are used for measuring temperature inside the blood vessel model. This fabrication technique is useful for direct-writing of Cu-based microsensors and actuators on arbitrary nonplanar substrates.

  13. EFFECT OF CASEIN-BASED SEMISYNTHETIC FOOD ON RENAL ACID EXCRETION AND ACID-BASE STATE OF BLOOD IN DOGS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZIJLSTRA, WG; LANGBROEK, AJM; KRAAN, J; RISPENS, P; NIJMEIJER, A

    1995-01-01

    Urinary acid excretion and blood acid-base stare were determined in dogs fed a casein-based semi-synthetic food (SSF), to which different amounts of salts had been added, in comparison with feeding normal dog food. Net acid excretion (NAE) and inorganic acid excretion (IAE) increased during SSF

  14. Thresholds for Diagnosing Hypertension Based on Automated Office Blood Pressure Measurements and Cardiovascular Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Martin G; Kaczorowski, Janusz; Paterson, J Michael; Dolovich, Lisa; Tu, Karen

    2015-09-01

    The risk of cardiovascular events in relation to blood pressure is largely based on readings taken with a mercury sphygmomanometer in populations which differ from those of today in terms of hypertension severity and drug therapy. Given replacement of the mercury sphygmomanometer with electronic devices, we sought to determine the blood pressure threshold for a significant increase in cardiovascular risk using a fully automated device, which takes multiple readings with the subject resting quietly alone. Participants were 3627 community-dwelling residents aged >65 years untreated for hypertension. Automated office blood pressure readings were obtained in a community pharmacy with subjects seated and undisturbed. This method for recording blood pressure produces similar readings in different settings, including a pharmacy and family doctor's office providing the above procedures are followed. Subjects were followed for a mean (SD) of 4.9 (1.0) years for fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events. Adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) were computed for 10 mm Hg increments in blood pressure (mm Hg) using Cox proportional hazards regression and the blood pressure category with the lowest event rate as the reference category. A total of 271 subjects experienced a cardiovascular event. There was a significant (P=0.02) increase in the hazard ratio of 1.66 (1.09, 2.54) at a systolic blood pressure of 135 to 144 and 1.72 (1.21, 2.45; P=0.003) at a diastolic blood pressure of 80 to 89. A significant (P=0.03) increase in hazard ratio of 1.73 (1.04, 2.86) occurred with a pulse pressure of 80 to 89. These findings are consistent with a threshold of 135/85 for diagnosing hypertension in older subjects using automated office blood pressure. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. An ontology based approach in health information systems: Blood test ontology example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Sezer

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Health domain is a complex and distributed research area, where different institutions and people take and provide service, at the same time. Therefore, the health data about a patient is completely distributed among doctors, clinics, hospitals, pharmacies and insurance companies. To share and reuse the distributed, well-structured and semantically rich clinical data with the appropriate permissions from anywhere is one of the major areas that the research of information systems focused in healthcare domain in recent years. The semantic web provides a technological infrastructure with representing the meaning of data and reasoning new information from the existing knowledge for the healthcare domain. The blood, as the life fluid, gives hints to the clinicians about a patient's general health status by analyzing the ingredients in. The results of blood tests contain lots of information that can be used by different clinics. In the diagnostic phase, analyzing the blood for the same tests repeatedly delays to start the treatment process and increases the cost. The Blood Test Ontology is developed to model the blood tests semantically that is done in the health field and also to define information related with the blood and the blood tests as well as the relationships between them. The ontology in this work is developed with the aim to be used in the health information system, which should provide the querying, sharing and reusing the personalized the blood test result of the patients, as a knowledge base. The Blood Test Ontology is supported by the medical information standards to be able to interoperable with the other medical ontologies that are developed in the health.

  16. Analysis of Algorithms Predicting Blood: Air and Tissue: Blood Partition Coefficient from Solvent Partition Coefficients for Use in Complex Mixture Physiological Based Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Modeling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sterner, Teresa R; Robinson, Peter J; Mattie, David R; Burton, G. A

    2004-01-01

    ... (octanol:water, saline or water:air, oil:air coefficients) were compared to assess their usefulness for a petroleum mixtures physiologically based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model. Measured blood:air...

  17. Entangled-photon coincidence fluorescence imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarcelli, Giuliano; Yun, Seok H

    2008-09-29

    We describe fluorescence imaging using the second-order correlation of entangled photon pairs. The proposed method is based on the principle that one photon of the pair carries information on where the other photon has been absorbed and has produced fluorescence in a sample. Because fluorescent molecules serve as "detectors" breaking the entanglement, multiply-scattered fluorescence photons within the sample do not cause image blur. We discuss experimental implementations.

  18. Blood viscosity monitoring during cardiopulmonary bypass based on pressure-flow characteristics of a Newtonian fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okahara, Shigeyuki; Zu Soh; Takahashi, Shinya; Sueda, Taijiro; Tsuji, Toshio

    2016-08-01

    We proposed a blood viscosity estimation method based on pressure-flow characteristics of oxygenators used during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in a previous study that showed the estimated viscosity to correlate well with the measured viscosity. However, the determination of the parameters included in the method required the use of blood, thereby leading to high cost of calibration. Therefore, in this study we propose a new method to monitor blood viscosity, which approximates the pressure-flow characteristics of blood considered as a non-Newtonian fluid with characteristics of a Newtonian fluid by using the parameters derived from glycerin solution to enable ease of acquisition. Because parameters used in the estimation method are based on fluid types, bovine blood parameters were used to calculate estimated viscosity (ηe), and glycerin parameters were used to estimate deemed viscosity (ηdeem). Three samples of whole bovine blood with different hematocrit levels (21.8%, 31.0%, and 39.8%) were prepared and perfused into the oxygenator. As the temperature changed from 37 °C to 27 °C, the oxygenator mean inlet pressure and outlet pressure were recorded for flows of 2 L/min and 4 L/min, and the viscosity was estimated. The value of deemed viscosity calculated with the glycerin parameters was lower than estimated viscosity calculated with bovine blood parameters by 20-33% at 21.8% hematocrit, 12-27% at 31.0% hematocrit, and 10-15% at 39.8% hematocrit. Furthermore, deemed viscosity was lower than estimated viscosity by 10-30% at 2 L/min and 30-40% at 4 L/min. Nevertheless, estimated and deemed viscosities varied with a similar slope. Therefore, this shows that deemed viscosity achieved using glycerin parameters may be capable of successfully monitoring relative viscosity changes of blood in a perfusing oxygenator.

  19. A mathematical model of blood-interstitial acid-base balance: application to dilution acidosis and acid-base status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Matthew B; Deland, Edward C

    2011-04-01

    We developed mathematical models that predict equilibrium distribution of water and electrolytes (proteins and simple ions), metabolites, and other species between plasma and erythrocyte fluids (blood) and interstitial fluid. The models use physicochemical principles of electroneutrality in a fluid compartment and osmotic equilibrium between compartments and transmembrane Donnan relationships for mobile species. Across the erythrocyte membrane, the significant mobile species Cl⁻ is assumed to reach electrochemical equilibrium, whereas Na(+) and K(+) distributions are away from equilibrium because of the Na(+)/K(+) pump, but movement from this steady state is restricted because of their effective short-term impermeability. Across the capillary membrane separating plasma and interstitial fluid, Na(+), K(+), Ca²(+), Mg²(+), Cl⁻, and H(+) are mobile and establish Donnan equilibrium distribution ratios. In each compartment, attainment of equilibrium by carbonates, phosphates, proteins, and metabolites is determined by their reactions with H(+). These relationships produce the recognized exchange of Cl(-) and bicarbonate across the erythrocyte membrane. The blood submodel was validated by its close predictions of in vitro experimental data, blood pH, pH-dependent ratio of H(+), Cl⁻, and HCO₃⁻ concentrations in erythrocytes to that in plasma, and blood hematocrit. The blood-interstitial model was validated against available in vivo laboratory data from humans with respiratory acid-base disorders. Model predictions were used to gain understanding of the important acid-base disorder caused by addition of saline solutions. Blood model results were used as a basis for estimating errors in base excess predictions in blood by the traditional approach of Siggaard-Andersen (acid-base status) and more recent approaches by others using measured blood pH and Pco₂ values. Blood-interstitial model predictions were also used as a basis for assessing prediction errors of

  20. Standardization of (67)Ga using a 4pi(LS)beta-gamma anti-coincidence system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobin, C; Bouchard, J; Hamon, C; Iroulart, M G; Plagnard, J

    2007-07-01

    (67)Ga is an interesting radionuclide as it is widely used in nuclear medicine. The meta-stable level related to the 93.3keV gamma-transition represents the main difficulty when using the coincidence method to standardize this radionuclide. The 4pi(LS)beta-gamma anti-coincidence system implemented at LNHB is based on the use of electronic modules specifically designed for radioactivity metrology. On the contrary to classical coincidence systems, activity measurements of (67)Ga are carried out as for prompt beta-gamma emitters; indeed, when using a live-timed anti-coincidence system with extendable dead times, the problem due to the excess of counting generated by the meta-stable level is avoided. Considering that the standardization of (67)Ga does not depend on the decay scheme parameters (except for the half-life), the measurement of the gamma-emission intensities has been performed. The standardization of this radionuclide was also a good opportunity for a new participation of our laboratory in the SIR of (67)Ga (International Reference System); the result obtained with the 4pi(LS)beta-gamma anti-coincidence system is compared with those submitted by other National Metrology Institutes (NMIs). The non-extendable dead times used in most of the participations could be one of the causes responsible for the abnormal dispersion of the results. The optimization of the standard solution of (67)Ga for the radioactive source preparation is also discussed.

  1. Associations between cystatin C-based eGFR, ambulatory blood pressure parameters, and in-clinic vs. ambulatory blood pressure agreement in older community-living adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodell, Tyler B.; Hughes-Austin, Jan M.; Tran, Tiffany V.; Malhotra, Atul; Abdelmalek, Joseph A.; Rifkin, Dena E.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To determine the relationship between chronic kidney disease (measured by cystatin C-based eGFR) and abnormal ambulatory blood pressure (including nocturnal dipping) in healthy older adults. Further, to assess agreement between clinic and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. METHODS Serum cystatin C levels were measured to calculate eGFR. Participants underwent clinic and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure measurement. Multiple linear regression, was performed to examine the association between reduced cystatin C-based eGFR (CKDcys) and blood pressure parameters. Bland-Altman analysis was performed to evaluate agreement between clinic and ambulatory measurements. RESULTS Average age was 72. There were 60 individuals with CKDcys (eGFR ambulatory diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (−2 mm Hg, p = 0.048), but not with nocturnal dipping or other blood pressure parameters. Clinic systolic blood pressure (SBP) significantly overestimated mean wake time ambulatory SBP; mean difference was 11 mmHg for those without CKDcys (95% limits of agreement −14 to 35 mmHg) and 14 mmHg for those with CKDcys (95% limits of agreement −13 to 41 mmHg); there was no statistically significant effect modification by CKD status. CONCLUSION In older, seemingly healthy adults, mild CKD was associated with lower ambulatory DBP. The presence of CKD did not affect interpretation of clinic vs. ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, although accuracy of clinic SBP was poor. PMID:26683379

  2. Adaptive and automatic red blood cell counting method based on microscopic hyperspectral imaging technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xi; Zhou, Mei; Qiu, Song; Sun, Li; Liu, Hongying; Li, Qingli; Wang, Yiting

    2017-12-01

    Red blood cell counting, as a routine examination, plays an important role in medical diagnoses. Although automated hematology analyzers are widely used, manual microscopic examination by a hematologist or pathologist is still unavoidable, which is time-consuming and error-prone. This paper proposes a full-automatic red blood cell counting method which is based on microscopic hyperspectral imaging of blood smears and combines spatial and spectral information to achieve high precision. The acquired hyperspectral image data of the blood smear in the visible and near-infrared spectral range are firstly preprocessed, and then a quadratic blind linear unmixing algorithm is used to get endmember abundance images. Based on mathematical morphological operation and an adaptive Otsu’s method, a binaryzation process is performed on the abundance images. Finally, the connected component labeling algorithm with magnification-based parameter setting is applied to automatically select the binary images of red blood cell cytoplasm. Experimental results show that the proposed method can perform well and has potential for clinical applications.

  3. Single-Dose Lignocaine-Based Blood Cardioplegia in Single Valve Replacement Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaydip Ramani

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE: Myocardial protection is the most important in cardiac surgery. We compared our modified single-dose long-acting lignocaine-based blood cardioplegia with short-acting St Thomas 1 blood cardioplegia in patients undergoing single valve replacement. METHODS: A total of 110 patients who underwent single (aortic or mitral valve replacement surgery were enrolled. Patients were divided in two groups based on the cardioplegia solution used. In group 1 (56 patients, long-acting lignocaine based-blood cardioplegia solution was administered as a single dose while in group 2 (54 patients, standard St Thomas IB (short-acting blood-based cardioplegia solution was administered and repeated every 20 minutes. All the patients were compared for preoperative baseline parameters, intraoperative and all the postoperative parameters. RESULTS: We did not find any statistically significant difference in preoperative baseline parameters. Cardiopulmonary bypass time were 73.8±16.5 and 76.4±16.9 minutes (P=0.43 and cross clamp time were 58.9±10.3 and 66.3±11.2 minutes (P=0.23 in group 1 and group 2, respectively. Mean of maximum inotrope score was 6.3±2.52 and 6.1±2.13 (P=0.65 in group 1 and group 2, respectively. We also did not find any statistically significant difference in creatine-phosphokinase-MB (CPK-MB, Troponin-I levels, lactate level and cardiac functions postoperatively. CONCLUSION: This study proves the safety and efficacy of long-acting lignocaine-based single-dose blood cardioplegia compared to the standard short-acting multi-dose blood cardioplegia in patients requiring the single valve replacement. Further studies need to be undertaken to establish this non-inferiority in situations of complex cardiac procedures especially in compromised patients.

  4. Blood glucose, diet-based glycemic load and cognitive aging among dementia-free older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seetharaman, Shyam; Andel, Ross; McEvoy, Cathy; Dahl Aslan, Anna K; Finkel, Deborah; Pedersen, Nancy L

    2015-04-01

    Although evidence indicates that Type II Diabetes is related to abnormal brain aging, the influence of elevated blood glucose on long-term cognitive change is unclear. In addition, the relationship between diet-based glycemic load and cognitive aging has not been extensively studied. The focus of this study was to investigate the influence of diet-based glycemic load and blood glucose on cognitive aging in older adults followed for up to 16 years. Eight-hundred and thirty-eight cognitively healthy adults aged ≥50 years (M = 63.1, SD = 8.3) from the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging were studied. Mixed effects growth models were utilized to assess overall performance and change in general cognitive functioning, perceptual speed, memory, verbal ability, and spatial ability as a function of baseline blood glucose and diet-based glycemic load. High blood glucose was related to poorer overall performance on perceptual speed as well as greater rates of decline in general cognitive ability, perceptual speed, verbal ability, and spatial ability. Diet-based glycemic load was related to poorer overall performance in perceptual speed and spatial ability. Diet-based glycemic load and, in particular, elevated blood glucose appear important for cognitive performance/cognitive aging. Blood glucose control (perhaps through low glycemic load diets) may be an important target in the detection and prevention of age-related cognitive decline. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Application of a simple asynchronous mechanical light chopper to multielectron coincidence spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Kenji; Suzuki, Isao H. [Photon Factory, IMSS, KEK, Oho 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Penent, Francis; Lablanquie, Pascal [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie (UPMC), 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); CNRS, LCPMR(UMR 7614), 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Hikosaka, Yasumasa; Shigemasa, Eiji [UVSOR Facility, Institute for Molecular Science, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan); Eland, John H. D. [PTCL, Oxford University, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QZ (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-15

    A simple asynchronous mechanical light chopper, based on modification of a turbo-molecular pump, has been developed to extend the interval between light pulses in single bunch operation at the Photon Factory storage ring. A pulse repetition rate of 80 kHz was achieved using a cylinder rotating at 48000 rpm, with 100 slits of 80 {mu}m width. This allows absolute timing of particles up to 12.48 {mu}s instead of the single-bunch period of 624 ns. We have applied the chopper together with a light pulse monitor to measure multielectron coincidence spectra using a magnetic bottle time-of-flight electron spectrometer. With such a system, the electron energies are determined without any ambiguity, the folding of coincidence spectra disappears and the effect of false coincidences is drastically reduced.

  6. Passive neutron coincidence counting with plastic scintillators for the characterization of radioactive waste drums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deyglun, C.; Simony, B.; Perot, B.; Carasco, C. [CEA, DEN, Cadarache, Nuclear Measurement Laboratory, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Saurel, N.; Colas, S. [CEA, DAM, Valduc, F-21120 Is-sur-Tille (France); Collot, J. [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Universite Grenoble Alpes, CNRS/IN2P3, Grenoble (France)

    2015-07-01

    The quantification of radioactive material is essential in the fields of safeguards, criticality control of nuclear processes, dismantling of nuclear facilities and components, or radioactive waste characterization. The Nuclear Measurement Laboratory (LMN) of CEA is involved in the development of time-correlated neutron detection techniques using plastic scintillators. Usually, 3He proportional counters are used for passive neutron coincidence counting owing to their high thermal neutron capture efficiency and gamma insensitivity. However, the global {sup 3}He shortage in the past few years has made these detectors extremely expensive. In addition, contrary to {sup 3}He counters for which a few tens of microseconds are needed to thermalize fast neutrons, in view to maximize the {sup 3}He(n,p){sup 3}H capture cross section, plastic scintillators are based on elastic scattering and therefore the light signal is formed within a few nanoseconds, correlated pulses being detected within a few dozen- or hundred nanoseconds. This time span reflects fission particles time of flight, which allows reducing accordingly the duration of the coincidence gate and thus the rate of random coincidences, which may totally blind fission coincidences when using {sup 3}He counters in case of a high (α,n) reaction rate. However, plastic scintillators are very sensitive to gamma rays, requiring the use of a thick metallic shield to reduce the corresponding background. Cross talk between detectors is also a major issue, which consists on the detection of one particle by several detectors due to elastic or inelastic scattering, leading to true but undesired coincidences. Data analysis algorithms are tested to minimize cross-talk in simultaneously activated detectors. The distinction between useful fission coincidences and the correlated background due to cross-talk, (α,n) and induced (n,2n) or (n,n'γ) reactions, is achieved by measuring 3-fold coincidences. The performances of a

  7. One-step in situ solid-substrate-based whole blood immunoassay based on FRET between upconversion and gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cuixia; Zuo, Jing; Li, Qiqing; Chang, Yulei; Zhang, Youlin; Tu, Langping; Liu, Xiaomin; Xue, Bin; Zhao, Huiying; Zhang, Hong; Kong, Xianggui

    2017-06-15

    Despite their general clinical applications, current fluorescence-based immunoassays are confronted with serious challenges, e.g. the advance serum/ plasma separation and the tedious washing process in current heterogeneous approaches, and aggregation of particles, low sensitivity and the narrow linear range in homogeneous approaches. In this paper, these urgent problems were solved in a novel one-step in situ immunoassay of whole blood samples by combining the traditional fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) technology (between upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) and gold nanoparticles (GNPs)) and the solid-substrate based immunoassay technology. The low detection limits of goat IgG (gIgG) as 0.042μg/mL in buffers, 0.51μg/mL in 20-fold diluted whole blood samples and a wide linear range from 0.75μg/mL to 60μg/mL in blood samples were achieved. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first one-step in situ solid-substrate-based immunoassay of whole blood samples with large linear detection range. This development provides a promising platform for a rapid and sensitive immunoassay of various bio-molecules directly in whole blood without tedious separation, washing steps and aggregation problems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Internet-Based Contingency Management to Improve Adherence with Blood Glucose Testing Recommendations for Teens with Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiff, Bethany R.; Dallery, Jesse

    2010-01-01

    The current study used Internet-based contingency management (CM) to increase adherence with blood glucose testing to at least 4 times daily. Four teens diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes earned vouchers for submitting blood glucose testing videos over a Web site. Participants submitted a mean of 1.7 and 3.1 blood glucose tests per day during the 2…

  9. First observation of the excited states in the doubly odd nucleus [sup 118]Cs identified through [gamma]-recoil coincidences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bednarczyk, P. (INFN, Lab. Nazionali di Legnaro (Italy)); De Angelis, G. (INFN, Lab. Nazionali di Legnaro (Italy)); Spolaore, P. (INFN, Lab. Nazionali di Legnaro (Italy)); Ackermann, D. (INFN, Lab. Nazionali di Legnaro (Italy)); Rico, J. (INFN, Lab. Nazionali di Legnaro (Italy)); Bazzacco, D. (Dipt. di Fisica dell' Universita and INFN, Padua (Italy)); Lunardi, S. (Dipt. di Fisica dell' Universita and INFN, Padua (Italy)); Mueller, L. (Dipt. di Fisica dell' Universita and INFN, Padua (Italy)); Rossi Alvarez, C. (Dipt. di Fisica dell' Universita and INFN, Padua (Italy)); Scarlassara, R. (Dipt. di Fisica dell' Universita and INFN, Padua (Italy)); Segato, G.F. (Dipt. di Fisica dell' Universita and INFN, Padua (Italy)); Soramel, F. (Udine Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica)

    1993-10-01

    The previously unknown nucleus [sup 118]Cs has been identified through [gamma]-[gamma] and [gamma]-recoil coincidences using the GASP [gamma]-spectrometer and Recoil Mass Spectrometer. The level scheme constructed on the base of triple [gamma] coincidences shows a collective structure based on the [pi][sup -1] g[sub 9/2] x [nu] h[sub 11/2] configuration. (orig.)

  10. Theorical and practical bases for blood sample collection from the heel of newborns for neonatal screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Vela-Amieva

    2014-07-01

    collected in a special filter paper (Guthrie’s card. Despite its apparent simplicity, NBS laboratories commonly receive a large number of samples collected incorrectly and technically unsuitable for perfor4ming biochemical determinations. The aim of the present paper is to offer recommendations based on scientific evidence, for the properly blood collection on filter paper for NBS programs.

  11. Optimal blood pressure targets in 2014 - Does the guideline recommendation match the evidence base?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alviar, C L; Bangalore, S; Messerli, F H

    2015-01-01

    Various scientific societies have recently published practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of arterial hypertension with no clear consensus on a blood pressure target. This article reviews those recommendations and critically examines if they are based on sound evidence. Copyright © 2015 SEHLELHA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Machine Learning Based Single-Frame Super-Resolution Processing for Lensless Blood Cell Counting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiwei Huang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A lensless blood cell counting system integrating microfluidic channel and a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS image sensor is a promising technique to miniaturize the conventional optical lens based imaging system for point-of-care testing (POCT. However, such a system has limited resolution, making it imperative to improve resolution from the system-level using super-resolution (SR processing. Yet, how to improve resolution towards better cell detection and recognition with low cost of processing resources and without degrading system throughput is still a challenge. In this article, two machine learning based single-frame SR processing types are proposed and compared for lensless blood cell counting, namely the Extreme Learning Machine based SR (ELMSR and Convolutional Neural Network based SR (CNNSR. Moreover, lensless blood cell counting prototypes using commercial CMOS image sensors and custom designed backside-illuminated CMOS image sensors are demonstrated with ELMSR and CNNSR. When one captured low-resolution lensless cell image is input, an improved high-resolution cell image will be output. The experimental results show that the cell resolution is improved by 4×, and CNNSR has 9.5% improvement over the ELMSR on resolution enhancing performance. The cell counting results also match well with a commercial flow cytometer. Such ELMSR and CNNSR therefore have the potential for efficient resolution improvement in lensless blood cell counting systems towards POCT applications.

  13. Blood velocity estimation using spatio-temporal encoding based on frequency division approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gran, Fredrik; Nikolov, Svetoslav; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2005-01-01

    In this paper a feasibility study of using a spatial encoding technique based on frequency division for blood flow estimation is presented. The spatial encoding is carried out by dividing the available bandwidth of the transducer into a number of narrow frequency bands with approximately disjoint...

  14. Machine Learning Based Single-Frame Super-Resolution Processing for Lensless Blood Cell Counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiwei; Jiang, Yu; Liu, Xu; Xu, Hang; Han, Zhi; Rong, Hailong; Yang, Haiping; Yan, Mei; Yu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    A lensless blood cell counting system integrating microfluidic channel and a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor is a promising technique to miniaturize the conventional optical lens based imaging system for point-of-care testing (POCT). However, such a system has limited resolution, making it imperative to improve resolution from the system-level using super-resolution (SR) processing. Yet, how to improve resolution towards better cell detection and recognition with low cost of processing resources and without degrading system throughput is still a challenge. In this article, two machine learning based single-frame SR processing types are proposed and compared for lensless blood cell counting, namely the Extreme Learning Machine based SR (ELMSR) and Convolutional Neural Network based SR (CNNSR). Moreover, lensless blood cell counting prototypes using commercial CMOS image sensors and custom designed backside-illuminated CMOS image sensors are demonstrated with ELMSR and CNNSR. When one captured low-resolution lensless cell image is input, an improved high-resolution cell image will be output. The experimental results show that the cell resolution is improved by 4×, and CNNSR has 9.5% improvement over the ELMSR on resolution enhancing performance. The cell counting results also match well with a commercial flow cytometer. Such ELMSR and CNNSR therefore have the potential for efficient resolution improvement in lensless blood cell counting systems towards POCT applications. PMID:27827837

  15. Ontology-based Malaria Parasite Stage and Species Identification from Peripheral Blood Smear Images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makkapati, V.; Rao, R.

    2011-01-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of malaria infection requires detectingthe presence of malaria parasite in the patient as well as identification of the parasite species. We present an image processing-basedapproach to detect parasites in microscope images of blood smear andan ontology-based

  16. Coincidence ion imaging with a fast frame camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Suk Kyoung; Cudry, Fadia; Lin, Yun Fei; Lingenfelter, Steven; Winney, Alexander H; Fan, Lin; Li, Wen

    2014-12-01

    A new time- and position-sensitive particle detection system based on a fast frame CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductors) camera is developed for coincidence ion imaging. The system is composed of four major components: a conventional microchannel plate/phosphor screen ion imager, a fast frame CMOS camera, a single anode photomultiplier tube (PMT), and a high-speed digitizer. The system collects the positional information of ions from a fast frame camera through real-time centroiding while the arrival times are obtained from the timing signal of a PMT processed by a high-speed digitizer. Multi-hit capability is achieved by correlating the intensity of ion spots on each camera frame with the peak heights on the corresponding time-of-flight spectrum of a PMT. Efficient computer algorithms are developed to process camera frames and digitizer traces in real-time at 1 kHz laser repetition rate. We demonstrate the capability of this system by detecting a momentum-matched co-fragments pair (methyl and iodine cations) produced from strong field dissociative double ionization of methyl iodide.

  17. ABO blood group and risk of cancer: A register-based cohort study of 1.6 million blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasan, Senthil K; Hwang, Jinseub; Rostgaard, Klaus; Nyrén, Olof; Ullum, Henrik; Pedersen, Ole B V; Erikstrup, Christian; Melbye, Mads; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Pawitan, Yudi; Edgren, Gustaf

    2016-10-01

    The associations between ABO blood group and cancer risk have been studied repeatedly, but results have been variable. Consistent associations have only been reported for pancreatic and gastric cancers. We estimated associations between different ABO blood groups and site-specific cancer risk in a large cohort of healthy blood donors from Sweden and Denmark. A total of 1.6 million donors were followed over 27 million person-years (20 million in Sweden and 7 million in Denmark). We observed 119,584 cancer cases. Blood groups A, AB and B were associated either with increased or decreased risk of cancer at 13 anatomical sites (p≤0.05), compared to blood group O. Consistent with assessment using a false discovery rate approach, significant associations with ABO blood group were observed for cancer of the pancreas, breast, and upper gastrointestinal tract (mouth, salivary glands, pharynx, esophageal adenocarcinoma and stomach). Our study reconfirms the association between ABO blood group and cancer risk and exact underlying mechanisms involved needs further research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Hyperventilation and blood acid-base balance in hypercapnia exposed red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ern, Rasmus; Esbaugh, Andrew J

    2016-05-01

    Hyperventilation is a common response in fish exposed to elevated water CO2. It is believed to lessen the respiratory acidosis associated with hypercapnia by lowering arterial PCO2, but the contribution of hyperventilation to blood acid-base compensation has yet to be quantified. Hyperventilation may also increase the flux of irons across the gill epithelium and the cost of osmoregulation, owing to the osmo-respiratory compromise. Therefore, hypercapnia exposed fish may increase standard metabolic rate (SMR) leaving less energy for physiological functions such as foraging, migration, growth and reproduction. Here we show that gill ventilation, blood PCO2 and total blood [CO2] increased in red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) exposed to 1000 and 5000 µatm water CO2, and that blood PCO2 and total blood [CO2] decrease in fish during hypoxia induced hyperventilation. Based on these results we estimate the ventilatory contributions to total acid-base compensation in 1000 and 5000 µatm water CO2. We find that S. ocellatus only utilize a portion of its ventilatory capacity to reduce the acid-base disturbance in 1000 µatm water CO2. SMR was unaffected by both salinity and hypercapnia exposure indicating that the cost of osmoregulation is small relative to SMR, and that the lack of increased ventilation in 1000 µatm water CO2 despite the capacity to do so is not due to an energetic tradeoff between acid-base balance and osmoregulation. Therefore, while ocean acidification may impact ventilatory parameters, there will be little impact on the overall energy budget of S. ocellatus.

  19. Association of physical activity with blood pressure and blood glucose among Malaysian adults: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Chien Huey; Chan, Ying Ying; Lim, Kuang Hock; Kee, Chee Cheong; Lim, Kuang Kuay; Yeo, Pei Sien; Azahadi, Omar; Fadhli, Yusoff; Tahir, Aris; Lee, Han Lim; Nazni, Wasi Ahmad

    2015-12-03

    The health-enhancing benefits of physical activity (PA) on hypertension and diabetes have been well documented for decades. This study aimed to determine the association of PA with systolic and diastolic blood pressure as well as blood glucose in the Malaysian adult population. Data were extracted from the 2011 National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS), a nationally representative, cross-sectional study. A two-stage stratified sampling method was used to select a representative sample of 18,231 Malaysian adults aged 18 years and above. The PA levels of the respondents were categorised as low, moderate or high according to the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ)-short form. Blood pressure and fasting blood glucose levels were measured using a digital blood pressure-measuring device and finger-prick test, respectively. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) level was positively associated with PA level (p = 0.02) whilst no significant association was noted between PA level and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). In contrast, respondents with low (adjusted coefficient = 0.17) or moderate (adjusted coefficient = 0.03) level of PA had significantly higher blood glucose level as compared to those who were highly active (p = 0.04). A significant negative association was observed between PA level and blood glucose only. Future studies should employ an objective measurement in estimating PA level in order to elucidate the actual relationship between PA, hypertension and diabetes for the development of effective interventions to combat the increasing burden of premature-mortality and cardiovascular disease-related morbidity in Malaysia.

  20. Opto-fluidics based microscopy and flow cytometry on a cell phone for blood analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongying; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2015-01-01

    Blood analysis is one of the most important clinical tests for medical diagnosis. Flow cytometry and optical microscopy are widely used techniques to perform blood analysis and therefore cost-effective translation of these technologies to resource limited settings is critical for various global health as well as telemedicine applications. In this chapter, we review our recent progress on the integration of imaging flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy on a cell phone using compact, light-weight and cost-effective opto-fluidic attachments integrated onto the camera module of a smartphone. In our cell-phone based opto-fluidic imaging cytometry design, fluorescently labeled cells are delivered into the imaging area using a disposable micro-fluidic chip that is positioned above the existing camera unit of the cell phone. Battery powered light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are butt-coupled to the sides of this micro-fluidic chip without any lenses, which effectively acts as a multimode slab waveguide, where the excitation light is guided to excite the fluorescent targets within the micro-fluidic chip. Since the excitation light propagates perpendicular to the detection path, an inexpensive plastic absorption filter is able to reject most of the scattered light and create a decent dark-field background for fluorescent imaging. With this excitation geometry, the cell-phone camera can record fluorescent movies of the particles/cells as they are flowing through the microchannel. The digital frames of these fluorescent movies are then rapidly processed to quantify the count and the density of the labeled particles/cells within the solution under test. With a similar opto-fluidic design, we have recently demonstrated imaging and automated counting of stationary blood cells (e.g., labeled white blood cells or unlabeled red blood cells) loaded within a disposable cell counting chamber. We tested the performance of this cell-phone based imaging cytometry and blood analysis platform

  1. Broadband diffuse optical spectroscopy assessment of hemorrhage- and hemoglobin-based blood substitute resuscitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jangwoen; Kim, Jae G.; Mahon, Sari; Tromberg, Bruce J.; Mukai, David; Kreuter, Kelly; Saltzman, Darin; Patino, Renee; Goldberg, Robert; Brenner, Matthew

    2009-07-01

    Hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs) are solutions of cell-free hemoglobin (Hb) that have been developed for replacement or augmentation of blood transfusion. It is important to monitor in vivo tissue hemoglobin content, total tissue hemoglobin [THb], oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin concentrations ([OHb], [RHb]), and tissue oxygen saturation (StO2=[OHb]/[THb]×100%) to evaluate effectiveness of HBOC transfusion. We designed and constructed a broadband diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) prototype system to measure bulk tissue absorption and scattering spectra between 650 and 1000 nm capable of accurately determining these tissue hemoglobin component concentrations in vivo. Our purpose was to assess the feasibility of using DOS to optically monitor tissue [OHb], [RHb], StO2, and total tissue hemoglobin concentration ([THb]=[OHb]+[RHb]) during HBOC infusion using a rabbit hypovolemic shock model. The DOS prototype probe was placed on the shaved inner thigh muscle of the hind leg to assess concentrations of [OHb], [RHb], [THb], as well as StO2. Hemorrhagic shock was induced in intubated New Zealand white rabbits (N=6) by withdrawing blood via a femoral arterial line to 20% blood loss (10-15 cc/kg). Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (Hb-200) 1:1 volume resuscitation was administered following the hemorrhage. These values were compared against traditional invasive measurements, serum hemoglobin concentration (sHGB), systemic blood pressure, heart rate, and blood gases. DOS revealed increases of [THb], [OHb], and tissue hemoglobin oxygen saturation after Hb-200 infusion, while blood total hemoglobin values continued did not increase; we speculate, due to hyperosmolality induced hemodilution. DOS enables noninvasive in vivo monitoring of tissue hemoglobin and oxygenation parameters during shock and volume expansion with HBOC and potentially enables the assessment of efficacy of resuscitation efforts using artificial blood substitutes.

  2. The Effect of Theory Based Nutritional Education on Fat Intake, Weight and Blood Lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamran, Aziz; Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Heydari, Heshmatolah; Sharifian, Elham

    2016-12-01

    Though Nutrition plays a key role in the control of hypertension, it is often forgotten in Iranian patients' diet. In fact, dietary behavior can be regarded as unsatisfactory among Iranian patients. This study was aimed to assess the effectiveness of theory based educational intervention on fat intake, weight, and blood lipids among rural hypertensive patients. This quasi experimental study was conducted on 138 hypertensive patients who had referred to Ardabil rural health centers during 2014. The nutritional education based on DASH and Health Promotion Model (HPM) was treated for six sessions. The pre-test and post-test had intervals of two and six months. Data were analyzed using SPSS-18 and Chi-square, independent-samples t-test, paired-samples t-test and repeated measure ANOVA. After treating intervention, weight, dietary fat, LDL_C and Total cholesterol, systolic and diastolic blood pressures decreased significantly in the intervention group compared with the control group (p intervention group. Educational intervention, provided based on Pender's health promotion model, affecting fat intake, blood lipids, and blood pressure, led to their decrease.

  3. LED-Based Optical Device for Chronic In Vivo Cerebral Blood Volume Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Marshall P; Ma, Hongtao; Bahlke, Matthias E; Beck, Jonathan H; Schwartz, Theodore H; Kymissis, Ioannis

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate a reflectivity-based cerebral blood volume sensor comprised of surface-mount light-emitting diodes on a flexible substrate with integrated photodetectors in a form factor suitable for direct brain contact and chronic implantation. This reflectivity monitor is able to measure blood flow through the change of the surface reflectivity and, through this mechanism, detect the cerebral-blood-volume changes associated with epileptic seizures with a signal-to-noise (SNR) response of 42 dB. The device is tested in an in vivo model confirming its compatibility and sensitivity. The data taken demonstrate that placing the sensor into direct brain contact improves the SNR by more than four orders of magnitude over current noncontact technologies.

  4. Method of evaluation of process of red blood cell sedimentation based on photometry of droplet samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristov, Alexander; Nosova, Ekaterina

    2017-04-01

    The paper focuses on research aimed at creating and testing a new approach to evaluate the processes of aggregation and sedimentation of red blood cells for purpose of its use in clinical laboratory diagnostics. The proposed method is based on photometric analysis of blood sample formed as a sessile drop. The results of clinical approbation of this method are given in the paper. Analysis of the processes occurring in the sample in the form of sessile drop during the process of blood cells sedimentation is described. The results of experimental studies to evaluate the effect of the droplet sample focusing properties on light radiation transmittance are presented. It is shown that this method significantly reduces the sample volume and provides sufficiently high sensitivity to the studied processes.

  5. Central venous blood gas and acid-base status in conscious dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Jun; Itami, Takaharu; Ishizuka, Tomohito; Fukui, Sho; Miyoshi, Kenjirou; Sano, Tadashi; Yamashita, Kazuto

    2015-07-01

    To determine the reference level of central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) and clinical efficacy of central venous blood gas analysis, partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide, pH, oxygen saturation, base excess (B.E.) and HCO3 concentration were compared between simultaneously obtained central venous and arterial blood samples from conscious healthy 6 dogs and 5 cats. Comparisons between arteriovenous samples were performed by a paired t-test and Bland-Altman analysis. Between arteriovenous samples, B.E. showed good agreement, but there were significant differences in other parameters in the dogs, and no good agreement was detected in cats. The ScvO2 in dogs and cats were 82.3 ± 3.5 and 62.4 ± 13.5%, respectively. Central venous blood gas analysis is indispensable, especially in cats.

  6. Strategies for classifying patients based on office, home, and ambulatory blood pressure measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Li, Yan; Wei, Fang-Fei; Thijs, Lutgarde; Kang, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Shuai; Xu, Ting-Yan; Wang, Ji-Guang; Staessen, Jan A

    2015-06-01

    Hypertension guidelines propose home or ambulatory blood pressure monitoring as indispensable after office measurement. However, whether preference should be given to home or ambulatory monitoring remains undetermined. In 831 untreated outpatients (mean age, 50.6 years; 49.8% women), we measured office (3 visits), home (7 days), and 24-h ambulatory blood pressures. We applied hypertension guidelines for cross-classification of patients into normotension or white-coat, masked, or sustained hypertension. Based on office and home blood pressures, the prevalence of white-coat, masked, and sustained hypertension was 61 (10.3%), 166 (20.0%), and 162 (19.5%), respectively. Using daytime (from 8 am to 6 pm) instead of home blood pressure confirmed the cross-classification in 575 patients (69.2%), downgraded risk from masked hypertension to normotension (n=24) or from sustained to white-coat hypertension (n=9) in 33 (4.0%), but upgraded risk from normotension to masked hypertension (n=179) or from white-coat to sustained hypertension (n=44) in 223 (26.8%). Analyses based on 24-h ambulatory blood pressure were confirmatory. In adjusted analyses, both the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (+20.6%; confidence interval, 4.4-39.3) and aortic pulse wave velocity (+0.30 m/s; confidence interval, 0.09-0.51) were higher in patients who moved up to a higher risk category. Both indexes of target organ damage and central augmentation index were positively associated (P≤0.048) with the odds of being reclassified. In conclusion, for reliably diagnosing hypertension and starting treatment, office measurement should be followed by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Using home instead of ambulatory monitoring misses the high-risk diagnoses of masked or sustained hypertension in over 25% of patients. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Blood donor deferral: time for change? An evidence-based analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borra V

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Vere Borra,1 Giovani Vandewalle,1 Hans Van Remoortel,1 Veerle Compernolle,1,2 Emmy De Buck,1 Philippe Vandekerckhove1–31Belgian Red Cross-Flanders, Mechelen, 2Faculty of Medicine, University of Ghent, Ghent, 3Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Faculty of Medicine, KU Leuven, Leuven, BelgiumAbstract: Donor selection remains an important part in the safety of the blood supply all over the world. Yet, donor deferral criteria seem to be strongly based on the precautionary principle protecting safety and quality, and on supply and expense considerations. This review therefore provides an overview of the available evidence on donor exclusion criteria, as well as on their cost-effectiveness, for the most frequent reasons of donor deferral in our region. PubMed was queried to retrieve primary research studies, systematic reviews, and health technology assessments (HTAs concerning donor exclusion criteria. With a similar approach, HTAs about the different blood-banking safety interventions were included. Reasons for donor deferral were recorded via the blood bank information system of the Belgian Red Cross-Flanders. Seven systematic reviews were identified: four on donor safety (hypotension, hypertension/type 2 diabetes, epilepsy, and higher age and three on recipient safety (hemochromatosis, men who have sex with men, and endoscopy. Forty-three low-quality observational studies were included, as well as 16 HTAs: three about donor exclusion criteria and 13 cost-utility analyses about blood-banking safety interventions. In general, the available evidence for deferral reasons was of low quality, and for 60% of the top 30 reasons for excluding donors, no evidence was found. Blood banking shows its unique position as many safety measures far exceed the normally accepted cost of €50,000/quality-adjusted life-years. The historical model based on the precautionary principle and on supply and expense considerations provides adequate supplies of

  8. Association of physical activity with blood pressure and blood glucose among Malaysian adults: a population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Teh, Chien Huey; Chan, Ying Ying; Lim, Kuang Hock; Kee, Chee Cheong; Lim, Kuang Kuay; Yeo, Pei Sien; Azahadi, Omar; Fadhli, Yusoff; Tahir, Aris; Lee, Han Lim; Nazni, Wasi Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Background The health-enhancing benefits of physical activity (PA) on hypertension and diabetes have been well documented for decades. This study aimed to determine the association of PA with systolic and diastolic blood pressure as well as blood glucose in the Malaysian adult population. Methods Data were extracted from the 2011 National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS), a nationally representative, cross-sectional study. A two-stage stratified sampling method was used to select a represen...

  9. Team-Based Care with Pharmacists to Improve Blood Pressure: a Review of Recent Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennelty, Korey A; Polgreen, Linnea A; Carter, Barry L

    2018-01-18

    We review studies published since 2014 that examined team-based care strategies and involved pharmacists to improve blood pressure (BP). We then discuss opportunities and challenges to sustainment of team-based care models in primary care clinics. Multiple studies presented in this review have demonstrated that team-based care including pharmacists can improve BP management. Studies highlighted the cost-effectiveness of a team-based pharmacy intervention for BP control in primary care clinics. Little information was found on factors influencing sustainability of team-based care interventions to improve BP control. Future work is needed to determine the best populations to target with team-based BP programs and how to implement team-based approaches utilizing pharmacists in diverse clinical settings. Future studies need to not only identify unmet clinical needs but also address reimbursement issues and stakeholder engagement that may impact sustainment of team-based care interventions.

  10. A Volume-Fraction Based Two-Phase Constitutive Model for Blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Rui (Carnegie-Mellon Univ.); Massoudi, Mehrdad; Hund, S.J. (Carnegie-Mellon Univ.); •Antaki, J.F. (Carnegie-Mellon Univ.)

    2008-06-01

    Mechanically-induced blood trauma such as hemolysis and thrombosis often occurs at microscopic channels, steps and crevices within cardiovascular devices. A predictive mathematical model based on a broad understanding of hemodynamics at micro scale is needed to mitigate these effects, and is the motivation of this research project. Platelet transport and surface deposition is important in thrombosis. Microfluidic experiments have previously revealed a significant impact of red blood cell (RBC)-plasma phase separation on platelet transport [5], whereby platelet localized concentration can be enhanced due to a non-uniform distribution of RBCs of blood flow in a capillary tube and sudden expansion. However, current platelet deposition models either totally ignored RBCs in the fluid by assuming a zero sample hematocrit or treated them as being evenly distributed. As a result, those models often underestimated platelet advection and deposition to certain areas [2]. The current study aims to develop a two-phase blood constitutive model that can predict phase separation in a RBC-plasma mixture at the micro scale. The model is based on a sophisticated theory known as theory of interacting continua, i.e., mixture theory. The volume fraction is treated as a field variable in this model, which allows the prediction of concentration as well as velocity profiles of both RBC and plasma phases. The results will be used as the input of successive platelet deposition models.

  11. Thromboelastography-based transfusion algorithm reduces blood product use after elective CABG: a prospective randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ak, Koray; Isbir, Cemil S; Tetik, Sermin; Atalan, Nazan; Tekeli, Atike; Aljodi, Maher; Civelek, Ali; Arsan, Sinan

    2009-01-01

    Bleeding and allogeneic transfusion remain constant problems in cardiac surgical procedures. In this study, we aimed to test the role of a routine thromboelastography (TEG)-based algorithm on bleeding and transfusions in patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Patients (n = 224) undergoing elective CABG with cardiopulmonary bypass were prospectively randomized into two groups according to transfusion strategy: in group 1 (clinician-directed transfusion, n = 110) need for blood transfusion was based on clinician's discretion and standard coagulation tests and in group 2 (TEG algorithm group, n = 114) kaolin-activated (k) TEG-based algorithm-guided perioperative transfusion management. Transfusion, blood loss, and outcome data were recorded. There were no differences in consumption of packed cell units, blood loss, re-exploration for bleeding, and early clinical outcome between the groups. Patients in the TEG group had significantly lower median units of fresh frozen plasma and platelets compared with the other group (p = 0.001). The median number of total allogeneic units transfused (packed cells and blood products) was significantly reduced in the TEG group compared with the other group (median 2, range 1-3 units vs. median 3, range 2-4 units, respectively, p = 0.001). The need for tranexamic acid was significantly diminished in the TEG group compared with the other group (10.3% vs. 19%, respectively, p = 0.007). Our results show that routine use of a kTEG-guided algorithm reduces the consumption of blood products in patients undergoing elective CABG. Adopting such an algorithm into routine management of these patients may help to improve clinical outcome and reduce the potential risks of transfusion-related complications and total costs after CABG.

  12. The ZEPLIN-III Anti-Coincidence Veto Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Akimov, D Yu; Barnes, E J; Belov, V A; Burenkov, A A; Chepel, V; Currie, A; Edwards, B; Francis, V; Ghag, C; Hollingsworth, A; Horn, M; Kalmus, G E; Kobyakin, A S; Kovalenko, A G; Lebedenko, V N; Lindote, A; Lopes, M I; Lüscher, R; Lyons, K; Majewski, P; Murphy, A St J; Neves, F; Paling, S M; da Cunha, J Pinto; Preece, R; Quenby, J J; Reichhart, L; Scovell, P R; Solovov, V N; Smith, N J T; Smith, P F; Stekhanov, V N; Sumner, T J; Taylor, R; Thorne, C; Walker, R J

    2010-01-01

    The design, optimisation and construction of an anti-coincidence veto detector to complement the ZEPLIN-III direct dark matter search instrument is described. One tonne of plastic scintillator is arranged into 52 bars individually read out by photomultipliers and coupled to a gadolinium-loaded passive polypropylene shield. Particular attention has been paid to radiological content. The overall aim has been to achieve a veto detector of low threshold and high efficiency without the creation of additional background in ZEPLIN-III, all at a reasonable cost. Extensive experimental measurements of the components have been made, including radioactivity levels and performance characteristics. These have been used to inform a complete end-to-end Monte Carlo simulation that has then been used to calculate the expected performance of the new instrument, both operating alone and as an anti-coincidence detector for ZEPLIN-III. The veto device will be capable of rejecting over 65% of coincident nuclear recoil events from ...

  13. CDL, a Precise, Low-Cost Coincidence Detector Latch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Joost

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The electronic detection of the coincidence of two events is still a key ingredient for high-performance applications, such as Positron Emission Tomography and Quantum Optics. Such applications are demanding, since the precision of their calculations and thus their conclusions directly depend on the duration of the interval in which two events are considered coincidental. This paper proposes a new circuitry, called coincidence detector latch (CDL, which is derived from standard RS latches. The CDL has the following advantages: low complexity, fully synthesizable, and high scalability. Even in its simple implementation, it achieves a coincidence window width as short as 115 ps, which is more than 10 times better than that reported by recent research.

  14. Blood-based DNA methylation as biomarker for breast cancer: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qiuqiong; Cheng, Jie; Cao, Xue; Surowy, Harald; Burwinkel, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Multiple studies have investigated global DNA methylation profiles and gene-specific DNA methylation in blood-based DNA to develop powerful screening markers for cancer. This systematic review summarizes the current evidence on methylation studies that investigated methylation level of blood-derived DNA of breast cancer (BC) patients in comparison to healthy controls by conducting a systematic literature review in PubMed and Web of Science. Essential results, such as methylation levels of BC cases and healthy controls, p values, and odds ratios, were extracted from these studies by two investigators independently. Overall, 45 publications met the inclusion criteria for this review. DNA from whole blood, as well as cell-free DNA (cfDNA) from serum or plasma, was used in these studies. The most common method used for measuring global DNA methylation was the investigation of repetitive elements as surrogates and the application of array-based genome-wide methylation analysis. For measuring gene-specific methylation level, methylation-specific PCR and pyrosequencing were the most frequently used methods. Epigenome-wide blood DNA hypomethylation in BC patients were reported in several studies; however, the evidence is still not conclusive. The most frequently investigated gene in whole blood was BRCA1, which was found more frequently methylated in patients compared to controls. RASSF1A was the most widely investigated gene in cfDNA of serum or plasma, which was also found more frequently methylated in patients compared to controls. Several of the eligible studies reported the associations of global hypomethylation and increased BC risk. Studies investigated associations between gene-specific methylation and BC risk, while got heterogeneous results. But two studies reported that hypermethylation of ATM gene was associated with increased BC risk, which suggest the potential use of this gene for BC risk stratification. Overall, our review suggests the possibility of using

  15. A study for the development of K-sound based automatic blood pressure device using PVDF film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong Li; Panicker, Gayathri V; Im, Jae J

    2016-08-01

    Traditional indirect standard measurement of blood pressure is based on hearing Korotkoff sounds to determine systolic and diastolic blood pressure. However, the problem exists among different types of automatic blood pressure monitoring devices because of no standard algorithm for estimating accurate blood pressure values. Aim of the study was to develop an automatic blood pressure measurement device based on Korotkoff sounds. PVDF(poliyvinylidene fluoride) film was used as a contact microphone to detect Korotkoff sounds on the brachial artery, and pressure sensor was used to obtain cuff pressure. With those two variables, an algorithm to determine systolic and diastolic blood pressure was established. Correlation coefficients between auscultatory method and developed device were 0.977 and 0.968 for systolic and diastolic, respectively. Validation results based on the international protocol shows 95% and 91.6% of accuracies.

  16. Effects of syringe type and storage conditions on results of equine blood gas and acid-base analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Sarah A; Constable, Peter D; Sen, Ismail; Couëtil, Laurent

    2012-07-01

    To determine effects of syringe type and storage conditions on blood gas and acid-base values for equine blood samples. Blood samples obtained from 8 healthy horses. Heparinized jugular venous blood was equilibrated via a tonometer at 37°C with 12% O(2) and 5% CO(2). Aliquots (3 mL) of tonometer-equilibrated blood were collected in random order by use of a glass syringe (GS), general-purpose polypropylene syringe (GPPS), or polypropylene syringe designed for blood gas analysis (PSBGA) and stored in ice water (0°C) or at room temperature (22°C) for 0, 5, 15, 30, 60, or 120 minutes. Blood pH was measured, and blood gas analysis was performed; data were analyzed by use of multivariable regression analysis. Blood Po(2) remained constant for the reference method (GS stored at 0°C) but decreased linearly at a rate of 7.3 mm Hg/h when stored in a GS at 22°C. In contrast, Po(2) increased when blood was stored at 0°C in a GPPS and PSBGA or at 22°C in a GPPS; however, Po(2) did not change when blood was stored at 22°C in a PSBGA. Calculated values for plasma concentration of HCO(3) and total CO(2) concentration remained constant in the 3 syringe types when blood was stored at 22°C for 2 hours but increased when blood was stored in a GS or GPPS at 0°C. Blood samples for blood gas and acid-base analysis should be collected into a GS and stored at 0°C or collected into a PSBGA and stored at room temperature.

  17. Paper-based analytical devices for electrochemical study of the breathing process of red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiang-Yun; Wu, Ling-Ling; Pan, Zhong-Qin; Shi, Chuan-Guo; Bao, Ning; Gu, Hai-Ying

    2015-04-01

    Herein we utilized the filter paper to physically trap red blood cells (RBC) to observe the breathing process of red blood cells based on the permeability of the filter paper. By integrating double-sided conductive carbon tape as the working electrodes, the device could be applied to monitor electrochemical responses of RBC for up to hundreds of minutes. The differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) peak currents increased under oxygen while decreased under nitrogen, indicating that RBC could take in and release oxygen. Further studies demonstrated that the RBC suspension could more effectively take in oxygen than the solution of hemoglobin and the supernatant of RBC, suggesting the natural advantage of RBC on oxygen transportation. This study implied that simple paper-based analytical devices might be effectively applied in the study of gas-participating reactions and biochemical detections. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Control performance of paper-based blood analysis devices through paper structure design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lizi; Huang, Xiaolei; Liu, Wen; Shen, Wei

    2014-12-10

    In this work, we investigated the influence of paper structure on the performance of paper-based analytical devices that are used for blood analysis. The question that we aimed to answer is how the fiber type (i.e., softwood and hardwood fibers) influences the fiber network structure of the paper, which affects the transport of red blood cells (RBCs) in paper. In the experimental design, we isolated the influence of fiber types on the paper structure from all other possible influencing factors by removing the fines from the pulps and not using any additives. Mercury porosimetry was employed to characterize the pore structures of the paper sheets. The results show that papers with a low basis weight that are made with short hardwood fibers have a higher porosity (i.e., void fraction) and simpler pore structures compared with papers made with long softwood fibers. RBC transport in paper carried by saline solution was investigated in two modes: lateral chromatographic elution and vertical flow-through. The results showed that the complexity of the paper's internal pore structure has a dominant influence on the transport of RBCs in paper. Hardwood fiber sheets with a low basis weight have a simple internal pore structure and allow for the easy transport of RBCs. Blood-typing sensors built with low basis weight hardwood fibers deliver high-clarity assays. Softwood fiber papers are found to have a more complex pore structure, which makes RBC transport more difficult, leading to blood-typing results of low clarity. This study provides the principle of paper sheet design for paper-based blood analysis sensors.

  19. Efficient blood flow visualization using flowline extraction and opacity modulation based on vascular structure analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ohjae; Lee, Jeongjin; Kim, Bohyoung; Shin, Juneseuk; Shin, Yeong-Gil

    2017-03-01

    With the recent advances regarding the acquisition and simulation of blood flow data, blood flow visualization has been widely used in medical imaging for the diagnosis and treatment of pathological vessels. In this paper, we present a novel method for the visualization of the blood flow in vascular structures. The vessel inlet or outlet is first identified using the orthogonality metric between the normal vectors of the flow velocity and vessel surface. Then, seed points are generated on the identified inlet or outlet by Poisson disk sampling. Therefore, it is possible to achieve the automatic seeding that leads to a consistent and faster flow depiction by skipping the manual location of a seeding plane for the initiation of the line integration. In addition, the early terminated line integration in the thin curved vessels is resolved through the adaptive application of the tracing direction that is based on the flow direction at each seed point. Based on the observation that blood flow usually follows the vessel track, the representative flowline for each branch is defined by the vessel centerline. Then, the flowlines are rendered through an opacity assignment according to the similarity between their shape and the vessel centerline. Therefore, the flowlines that are similar to the vessel centerline are shown transparently, while the different ones are shown opaquely. Accordingly, the opacity modulation method enables the flowlines with an unusual flow pattern to appear more noticeable, while the visual clutter and line occlusion are minimized. Finally, Hue-Saturation-Value color coding is employed for the simultaneous exhibition of flow attributes such as local speed and residence time. The experiment results show that the proposed technique is suitable for the depiction of the blood flow in vascular structures. The proposed approach is applicable to many kinds of tubular structures with embedded flow information. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  20. Constructing coincident indices of economic activity for the Latin American economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Victor Issler

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper has three main contributions. The first is to propose an individual coincident indicator for the following Latin American countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Mexico. In order to obtain similar series to those traditionally used in business-cycle research in constructing coincident indices (output, sales, income and employment we were forced to back-cast several individual country series which were not available in a long time-series span. The second contribution is to establish a chronology of recessions for these countries, covering the period from 1980 to 2012 on a monthly basis. Based on this chronology, the countries are compared in several respects. The final contribution is to propose an aggregate coincident indicator for the Latin American economy, which weights individual-country composite indices. Finally, this indicator is compared with the coincident indicator (The Conference Board - TCB of the U.S. economy. We find that the U.S. indicator Granger-causes the Latin American indicator in statistical tests

  1. Three-dimensional imaging of absolute blood flow velocity and blood vessel position under low blood flow velocity based on Doppler signal information included in scattered light from red blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyoden, Tomoaki; Akiguchi, Shunsuke; Tajiri, Tomoki; Andoh, Tsugunobu; Hachiga, Tadashi

    2017-11-01

    The development of a system for in vivo visualization of occluded distal blood vessels for diabetic patients is the main target of our research. We herein describe two-beam multipoint laser Doppler velocimetry (MLDV), which measures the instantaneous multipoint flow velocity and can be used to observe the blood flow velocity in peripheral blood vessels. By including a motorized stage to shift the measurement points horizontally and in the depth direction while measuring the velocity, the path of the blood vessel in the skin could be observed using blood flow velocity in three-dimensional space. The relationship of the signal power density between the blood vessel and the surrounding tissues was shown and helped us identify the position of the blood vessel. Two-beam MLDV can be used to simultaneously determine the absolute blood flow velocity distribution and identify the blood vessel position in skin.

  2. KINEMATIC VARIABLES AND BLOOD ACID-BASE STATUS IN THE ANALYSIS OF COLLEGIATE SWIMMERS’ ANAEROBIC CAPACITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Bielec

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Short duration repeated maximal efforts are often used in swimming training to improve lactate tolerance, which gives swimmers the ability to maintain a high work rate for a longer period of time. The aim of the study was to examine the kinematics of swimming and its relation to the changes in blood acid-base status and potassium level. Seven collegiate swimmers, with at least 6 years of training experience, volunteered to participate in the study. The test consisted of 8 x 25 m front crawl performed with maximum effort. The rest period between repetitions was set to five seconds. Blood samples were taken from the fingertip at rest, after warm-up and in the 3rd minute after completion of the test. The swimming was recorded with a video recorder, for later analysis of time, velocity and technique (stroke index. Based on the swimming velocity results, the obtained curve can be divided into rapid decrease of velocity and relatively stable velocities. The breaking point of repetition in swimming velocity was assumed as the swimming velocity threshold and it was highly correlated with the decrease of the blood acid-base status (pH r=0.82, BE r=0.87, HCO3- r=0.76; p<0.05 in all cases. There was no correlation between stroke index or fatigue index and blood acid-base status. Analysis of the swimming speed in the 8 x 25 m test seems to be helpful in evaluation of lactate tolerance (anaerobic capacity in collegiate swimmers.

  3. A SURVEY OF RETINA BASED DISEASE IDENTIFICATION USING BLOOD VESSEL SEGMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Kuppusamy

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The colour retinal photography is one of the most essential features to identify the confirmation of various eye diseases. The iris is primary attribute to authenticate the human. This research work presents the survey and comparison of various blood vessel related feature identification, segmentation, extraction and enhancement methods. Additionally, this study is observed the various databases performance for storing the images and testing in minimal time. This paper is also provides the better performance techniques based on the survey.

  4. The effect of prolonged pancreatic secretion on blood acid-base balance in the conscious dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawcett, A. N.; Newman, C. A.

    1971-01-01

    Prolonged near maximal pancreatic secretion in conscious dogs has been found to result in a metabolic acidosis. This is mild and is accompanied by respiratory and other forms of compensation. Measurements of blood bicarbonate or base-excess changes cannot be used to estimate pancreatic bicarbonate output. The acidosis caused by pancreatic secretion cannot explain the changes in bicarbonate concentration seen in pancreatic juice during prolonged secretion. PMID:5132224

  5. Engineered isopeptide bond stabilized fibrin inspired nanoscale peptide based sealants for efficient blood clotting

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Snehasish; Mukherjee, Sanchita; Dutta, Chiranjit; Chakraborty, Kasturee; Gayen, Paramita; Jan, Somnath; Bhattacharyya, Dhananjay; Roy, Rituparna Sinha

    2017-01-01

    Designing biologically inspired nanoscale molecular assembly with desired functionality is a challenging endeavour. Here we report the designing of fibrin-inspired nanostructured peptide based sealants which facilitate remarkably fast entrapping of blood corpuscles (~28 seconds) in contrast to fibrin (~56 seconds). Our engineered sealants are stabilized by lysine-aspartate ionic interactions and also by N?(?-glutamyl) lysine isopeptide bond mediated covalent interaction. Each sealant is forme...

  6. Obesidade e asma: associação ou coincidência? Obesity and asthma: association or coincidence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella Fernandes Camilo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A asma e a obesidade estão entre as maiores causas de morbidade na infância e adolescência. A obesidade precoce aumenta as chances de doenças crônicas degenerativas no adulto. Embora a concomitância de ambas as situações clínicas vem sendo demonstrada em vários estudos, os mecanismos intrínsecos dessa associação ainda são pouco conhecidos. Portanto, o objetivo deste artigo foi revisar os principais trabalhos sobre a associação de obesidade e asma e verificar se existe relação de causa e efeito entre ambas. FONTES DOS DADOS: Revisão sistemática baseada em bases de dados indexadas MEDLINE (PubMed e SciELO. Foram revisados artigos originais (transversal, caso-controle e prospectivo e meta-análises publicados no período de janeiro de 1998 a janeiro de 2008. Foram pesquisados estudos divulgados em língua inglesa, espanhola e portuguesa. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Embora existam muitos estudos sobre as crescentes prevalências da asma e da obesidade, poucos estabelecem relações de causa e efeito entre ambas. Os mecanismos fisiopatológicos e os fatores envolvidos nesse processo ainda são pouco conhecidos. CONCLUSÃO: O rigor metodológico em estudos futuros deverá buscar respostas para melhor entender se existe associação entre asma e obesidade, ou se a relação entre ambas as doenças é coincidência.OBJECTIVE: Asthma and obesity are among the major causes of morbidity in childhood and adolescence. Early obesity increases the chances of chronic degenerative diseases in adults. Although the concomitance or both clinical situations are being demonstrated in various studies, the intrinsic mechanisms of this association are still very little known. Therefore, the objective of this article was to review the main studies on the association of obesity and asthma and check if there is a cause-effect relation between them. SOURCES: Systematic review based on indexed data bases MEDLINE (PubMed and SciELO. Original articles

  7. An academic-based hospital donor site: do physicians donate blood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanner, William A; Jeffus, Susanne; Wehrli, Gay

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this prospective, cross-sectional study were to characterize blood donors in an academic-based hospital donor center, to determine whether physicians donate, and to elucidate the donation impetus. A confidential survey was issued to presenting, potential donors over 200 weekdays. Three questions were asked: their role at the institution, if and when they had previously donated blood, and what prompted the current donation. The majority of the 687 respondents were institution-affiliated (73.5%) and 79.3% had previously donated, with a median of 3 mo since the prior donation. Only 21 (3.1%) respondents were physicians. The predominant reasons for donor presentation were an appointment, knowing it had been 8 wk since the last donation, and contact by the blood center to donate. This study shows the dearth of physician blood donors and a strong cohort of institution-affiliated repeat donors. Physicians represent a potential, stable, and sustainable donor pool; further studies are needed to establish physician recruitment programs.

  8. [Research of bleeding volume and method in blood-letting acupuncture therapy based on data mining].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Jia, Chun-Sheng; Wang, Jian-Ling; Du, Yu-Zhu; Zhang, Xiao-Xu; Shi, Jing; Li, Xiao-Feng; Sun, Yan-Hui; Zhang, Shen; Zhang, Xuan-Ping; Gang, Wei-Juan

    2014-03-01

    Through computer-based technology and data mining method, with treatment in cases of bloodletting acupuncture therapy in collected literature as sample data, the association rule in data mining was applied. According to self-built database platform, the data was input, arranged and summarized, and eventually required data was acquired to perform the data mining of bleeding volume and method in blood-letting acupuncture therapy, which summarized its application rules and clinical values to provide better guide for clinical practice. There were 9 kinds of blood-letting tools in the literature, in which the frequency of three-edge needle was the highest, accounting for 84.4% (1239/1468). The bleeding volume was classified into six levels, in which less volume (less than 0.1 mL) had the highest frequency (401 times). According to the results of the data mining, blood-letting acupuncture therapy was widely applied in clinical practice of acupuncture, in which use of three-edge needle and less volume (less than 0.1 mL) of blood were the most common, however, there was no central tendency in general.

  9. Engineered isopeptide bond stabilized fibrin inspired nanoscale peptide based sealants for efficient blood clotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Snehasish; Mukherjee, Sanchita; Dutta, Chiranjit; Chakraborty, Kasturee; Gayen, Paramita; Jan, Somnath; Bhattacharyya, Dhananjay; Roy, Rituparna Sinha

    2017-07-26

    Designing biologically inspired nanoscale molecular assembly with desired functionality is a challenging endeavour. Here we report the designing of fibrin-inspired nanostructured peptide based sealants which facilitate remarkably fast entrapping of blood corpuscles (~28 seconds) in contrast to fibrin (~56 seconds). Our engineered sealants are stabilized by lysine-aspartate ionic interactions and also by N(ε)(γ-glutamyl) lysine isopeptide bond mediated covalent interaction. Each sealant is formed by two peptides having complementary charges to promote lysine-aspartate ionic interactions and designed isopeptide bond mediated interactions. Computational analysis reveals the isopeptide bond mediated energetically favourable peptide assemblies in sealants 1-3. Our designed sealants 2 and 3 mimic fibrin-mediated clot formation mechanism in presence of transglutaminase enzyme and blood corpuscles. These fibrin-inspired peptides assemble to form sealants having superior hemostatic activities than fibrin. Designed sealants feature mechanical properties, biocompatibility, biodegradability and high adhesive strength. Such nature-inspired robust sealants might be potentially translated into clinics for facilitating efficient blood clotting to handle traumatic coagulopathy and impaired blood clotting.

  10. Aptamer-based surface plasmon resonance sensing of glycated human blood proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reaver, Nathan G. F.; Zheng, Rui; Kim, Dong-Shik; Cameron, Brent D.

    2013-02-01

    The concentration ratio of glycated to non-glycated forms of various blood proteins can be used as a diagnostic measure in diabetes to determine a history of glycemic compliance. Depending on a protein's half-life in blood, compliance can be assessed from a few days to several months in the past, which can then be used to provide additional therapeutic guidance. Current glycated protein detection methods are limited in their ability to measure multiple proteins, and are susceptible to interference from other blood pathologies. In this study, we developed and characterized DNA aptamers for use in Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) sensors to assess the blood protein hemoglobin. The aptamers were developed by way of a modified Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX) process which selects DNA sequences that have a high binding affinity to a specific protein. DNA products resulting from this process are sequenced and identified aptamers are then synthesized. The SELEX process was performed to produce aptamers for a glycated form of hemoglobin. Equilibrium dissociation constants for the binding of the identified aptamer to glycated hemoglobin, hemoglobin, and fibrinogen were calculated from fitted Langmuir isotherms obtained through SPR. These constants were determined to be 94 nM, 147 nM, and 244 nM respectively. This aptamer can potentially be used to create a SPR aptamer based biosensor for detection of glycated hemoglobin, a technology that has the potential to deliver low-cost and immediate glycemic compliance assessment in either a clinical or home setting.

  11. Development of class model based on blood biochemical parameters as a diagnostic tool of PSE meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Daofeng; Zhou, Xu; Yang, Feng; Tian, Shiyi; Zhang, Xiaojun; Ma, Lin; Han, Jianzhong

    2017-06-01

    A fast, sensitive and effective method based on the blood biochemical parameters for the detection of PSE meat was developed in this study. A total of 200 pigs were slaughtered in the same slaughterhouse. Meat quality was evaluated by measuring pH, electrical conductivity and color at 45min, 2h and 24h after slaughtering in M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LD). Blood biochemical parameters were determined in blood samples collected during carcass bleeding. Principal component analysis (PCA) biplot showed that high levels of exsanguination Creatine Kinase, Lactate Dehydrogenase, Aspertate aminotransferase, blood glucose and lactate were associated with the PSE meat, and the five biochemical parameters were found to be good indicators of PSE meat Discriminant function analysis (DFA) was able to clearly identify PSE meat using the five biochemical parameters as input data, and the class model is an effective diagnostic tool in pigs which can be used to detect the PSE meat and reduce economic loss for the company. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A Gaussian process and derivative spectral-based algorithm for red blood cell segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yingying; Wang, Jianbiao; Zhou, Mei; Hou, Xiyue; Li, Qingli; Liu, Hongying; Wang, Yiting

    2017-07-01

    As an imaging technology used in remote sensing, hyperspectral imaging can provide more information than traditional optical imaging of blood cells. In this paper, an AOTF based microscopic hyperspectral imaging system is used to capture hyperspectral images of blood cells. In order to achieve the segmentation of red blood cells, Gaussian process using squared exponential kernel function is applied first after the data preprocessing to make the preliminary segmentation. The derivative spectrum with spectral angle mapping algorithm is then applied to the original image to segment the boundary of cells, and using the boundary to cut out cells obtained from the Gaussian process to separated adjacent cells. Then the morphological processing method including closing, erosion and dilation is applied so as to keep adjacent cells apart, and by applying median filtering to remove noise points and filling holes inside the cell, the final segmentation result can be obtained. The experimental results show that this method appears better segmentation effect on human red blood cells.

  13. Blood Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... maternity. Learn About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Components Whole Blood and Red Blood Cells Platelets Plasma ... About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Types Blood Components What Happens to Donated Blood Blood and Diversity ...

  14. Safeguards Technology Factsheet 3He-free Neutron Coincidence Counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henzlova, Daniela [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Menlove, Howard Olsen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-04-21

    A full scale thermal neutron coincidence counter (High Level Neutron Counter – Boron: HLNB) based on 3He alternative detection technology was designed and built at LANL and field tested at Plutonium Conversion Development Facility (PCDF) of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) during FY15. HLNB is based on boron-lined proportional plates that replace the traditional 3He proportional tubes and was designed as a direct alternative to 3He-based High Level Neutron Coincidence Counter (HLNC-II). During the JAEA field trial the HLNB demonstrated comparable performance to HLNC-II, which represents a key development in the area of 3He alternative technologies and provides a complete demonstration of the technology for nuclear safeguards applications including high mass MOX samples.

  15. Non-minimal quintessence: Dynamics and coincidence problem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Brans–Dicke scalar–tensor theory provides a conformal coupling of the scalar field with gravity in Einstein's frame. This model is equivalent to an interacting quintessence in which dark matter is coupled to dark energy. This provides a natural mechanism to alleviate the coincidence problem. We investigate the dynamics of ...

  16. The Effect of Bilateral Transfer on Coincidence-Anticipation Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Paul, Jr.

    This experiment was undertaken to determine whether coincidence-anticipation (intercepting a moving object at a designated point and instant) is facilitated for one side of the body after practice by the other side of the body. This phenomenon is called bilateral transference. Subjects were asked to throw a switch five times with their right…

  17. Optical Co-Incidence Gate | Srinivasulu | African Journal of Science ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper explains Optical co-incidence gate, realized using Unijunction transistors (UJT), Light emitting diodes (LED) and Photo-resistors (LDR), which works on 1.8Vdc instead of 3Vdc. The power dissipation of the designed gate is only 3 mW. This optical gate finds application in the field of Mechatronics, Instrumentation ...

  18. A {beta} - {gamma} coincidence; Metodo de coincidencias {beta} - {gamma}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agullo, F.

    1960-07-01

    A {beta} - {gamma} coincidence method for absolute counting is given. The fundamental principles are revised and the experimental part is detailed. The results from {sup 1}98 Au irradiated in the JEN 1 Swimming pool reactor are given. The maximal accuracy is 1 per cent. (Author) 11 refs.

  19. Coincidence and common fixed point theorems in compact Hausdorff spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeqing Liu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The existence of coincidence and fixed points for continuous mappings in compact Hausdorff spaces is established. Some equivalent conditions of the existence of fixed and common fixed points for any continuous mapping and a pair of mappings in compact Hausdorff spaces are given, respectively. Our results extend, improve, and unify the corresponding results due to Jungck, Liu, and Singh and Rao.

  20. Coincident optima for two-facility Weber problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Henrik

    1983-01-01

    The location problem with two new facilities in continuous space is considered, with distance measured by arbitrary norms. Necessary and sufficient conditions for a proposed solution to be optimal are given for several cases. These cases include situations where the cost function...... is nondifferentiable because facilities coincide...

  1. Non-minimal quintessence: Dynamics and coincidence problem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Brans–Dicke scalar–tensor theory provides a conformal coupling of the scalar field with gravity in Einstein's frame. This model is equivalent to an interacting quintessence in which dark matter is coupled to dark energy. This provides a natural mechanism to alleviate the coincidence problem. We investigate the ...

  2. [Analysis on anti-hepatoma effect of medicine invigorating blood circulation and eliminating blood stasis based on warm-pungent-liver efficiency network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Hao; Ma, Li; Yuan, Bin; Zhang, Yan-Ling; Wang, Yun; Qiao, Yan-Jiang

    2014-07-01

    The efficiency network is a complicated network for revealing the efficient mechanism of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) and relations among efficiencies. The efficiency-property relations were used to establish a warm-pungent-liver efficiency network to explain the principle of treating hepatoma with medicines invigorating blood circulation and eliminating blood stasis. Safflower, a warm-pungent medicine distributing along the live meridian, was taken for example to discuss the efficiency network' s application in the identification of active ingredients of TCMs and the combination. In the early stage of this study, combined warm-pungent-liver medicines distributed along the liver meridian and invigorating blood circulation and eliminating blood stasis were taken as the study objects to collect the pharmacological effect data of warm-pungent-liver medicines and obtain the pharmacological effect combinations with the highest blood circulation-invigorating association by the association rules and the chi-square test. The pharmacological target data recorded in the DrugBank database is used to establish the warm-pungent-liver efficiency network according to the principle line of "efficiency-property-pharmacology-target-protein interaction" under the background of the protein interaction network. The blood circulation-invigorating medicines could directly treat hepatoma by impacting protooncogene, cancer suppressor gene, cell apoptosis and anti-inflammation, and indirectly treat hepatoma by resisting coagulation and adhesion, regulating local blood circulation, preventing cancer cell metastasis and enhancing the tissues' sensitivity to the anticancer drugs. Among the active ingredients of safflower screened based on the blood circulation-invigorating network targets, carthamin yellow, quercetin and luteolin have been proved to have the anti-hepatoma effect in literatures, which indicated the reliability of this study's results and the purpose of the efficiency

  3. A novel white blood cells segmentation algorithm based on adaptive neutrosophic similarity score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahin, A I; Guo, Yanhui; Amin, K M; Sharawi, Amr A

    2018-12-01

    White blood cells (WBCs) play a crucial role in the diagnosis of many diseases according to their numbers or morphology. The recent digital pathology equipments investigate and analyze the blood smear images automatically. The previous automated segmentation algorithms worked on healthy and non-healthy WBCs separately. Also, such algorithms had employed certain color components which leak adaptively with different datasets. In this paper, a novel segmentation algorithm for WBCs in the blood smear images is proposed using multi-scale similarity measure based on the neutrosophic domain. We employ neutrosophic similarity score to measure the similarity between different color components of the blood smear image. Since we utilize different color components from different color spaces, we modify the neutrosphic score algorithm to be adaptive. Two different segmentation frameworks are proposed: one for the segmentation of nucleus, and the other for the cytoplasm of WBCs. Moreover, our proposed algorithm is applied to both healthy and non-healthy WBCs. in some cases, the single blood smear image gather between healthy and non-healthy WBCs which is considered in our proposed algorithm. Also, our segmentation algorithm is performed without any external morphological binary enhancement methods which may effect on the original shape of the WBC. Different public datasets with different resolutions were used in our experiments. We evaluate the system performance based on both qualitative and quantitative measurements. The quantitative results indicates high precision rates of the segmentation performance measurement A1 = 96.5% and A2 = 97.2% of the proposed method. The average segmentation performance results for different WBCs types reach to 97.6%. In this paper, a method based on adaptive neutrosphic sets similarity score is proposed in order to detect WBCs from a blood smear microscopic image and segment its components (nucleus and the cytoplasm). The proposed

  4. Association between plasma leptin and blood pressure in two population-based samples of children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Anders; Steene-Johannessen, Jostein; Kynde, Iben

    2011-01-01

    In this study we examined the association between leptin and blood pressure in a population-based study of Danish and Norwegian children and adolescents. Because of the putative bidirectional relationship between leptin and adiposity we formally tested (i) the mediating effect of body mass index...... in the association between leptin and blood pressure, and (ii) the mediating effect of leptin in the association between body mass index and blood pressure....

  5. A Method to Determine Diastolic Blood Pressure Based on Pressure Pulse Propagation in the Electronic Palpation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-25

    electronically palpated pulse. This particular patient seems to have arrhythmia, and, because of that, oscillometric blood pressure methods may give...of multiple oscillometric methods for blood pressure measurement in finger�, Proceedings of The First Joint BMES/EMBS Conference Serving Humanity...1 of 4 A METHOD TO DETERMINE DIASTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE BASED ON PRESSURE PULSE PROPAGATION IN THE ELECTRONIC PALPATION METHOD H. S. S

  6. Community-based blood pressure measurement by non-health workers using electronic devices: a validation study

    OpenAIRE

    Reidpath, Daniel D.; Ling, Mei Lee; Yasin, Shajahan; Rajagobal, Kanason; Allotey, Pascale

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Population monitoring and screening of blood pressure is an important part of any population health strategy. Qualified health workers are expensive and often unavailable for screening. Non-health workers with electronic blood pressure monitors are increasingly used in community-based research. This approach is unvalidated. In a poor, urban community we compared blood pressure measurements taken by non-health workers using electronic devices against qualified health workers usin...

  7. Physically consistent data assimilation method based on feedback control for patient-specific blood flow analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ii, Satoshi; Adib, Mohd Azrul Hisham Mohd; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Wada, Shigeo

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a novel data assimilation method for patient-specific blood flow analysis based on feedback control theory called the physically consistent feedback control-based data assimilation (PFC-DA) method. In the PFC-DA method, the signal, which is the residual error term of the velocity when comparing the numerical and reference measurement data, is cast as a source term in a Poisson equation for the scalar potential field that induces flow in a closed system. The pressure values at the inlet and outlet boundaries are recursively calculated by this scalar potential field. Hence, the flow field is physically consistent because it is driven by the calculated inlet and outlet pressures, without any artificial body forces. As compared with existing variational approaches, although this PFC-DA method does not guarantee the optimal solution, only one additional Poisson equation for the scalar potential field is required, providing a remarkable improvement for such a small additional computational cost at every iteration. Through numerical examples for 2D and 3D exact flow fields, with both noise-free and noisy reference data as well as a blood flow analysis on a cerebral aneurysm using actual patient data, the robustness and accuracy of this approach is shown. Moreover, the feasibility of a patient-specific practical blood flow analysis is demonstrated. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. The effects of Energised Greens™ upon blood acid-base balance during resting conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell Nigel

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The consumption of fresh fruit & vegetable in concentrate form (FVC have recently become an alternative approach to combating excessive renal acid loads often associated with Western Diets. Additionally, these FVC's have been purported to induce metabolic alkalosis, which perhaps may enhance the blood buffering capacity of an individual. Therefore, the aim of this preliminary study was to profile the acid-base response after ingestion of an acute dose of fruit and vegetable extract (Energised Greens™ (EG, Nottingham, UK and compare it to a standard, low dose (0.1 g·kg-1 of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3. Findings As part of a randomized, cross over design participants consumed 750 mL of water with either 9 g of EG (manufacturer recommendations, 0.1 g·kg-1 of NaHCO3 or a placebo (plain flour in opaque encapsulated pills following an overnight fast. Capillary samples were obtained and analyzed every 15 min for a period of 120 min following ingestion. Significant interactions (p 3-, BE. Interactions indicated significant elevation in blood alkalosis for only the NaHCO3 condition when compared to both placebo and EG from 15 to 120 minutes. Conclusions Despite previous findings of elevated blood pH following acute mineral supplementation, manufacturer recommended doses of EG do not induce any significant changes in acid-base regulation in resting males.

  9. Blood-Based Bioenergetic Profiling Reflects Differences in Brain Bioenergetics and Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Tyrrell

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood-based bioenergetic profiling provides a minimally invasive assessment of mitochondrial health shown to be related to key features of aging. Previous studies show that blood cells recapitulate mitochondrial alterations in the central nervous system under pathological conditions, including the development of Alzheimer’s disease. In this study of nonhuman primates, we focus on mitochondrial function and bioenergetic capacity assessed by the respirometric profiling of monocytes, platelets, and frontal cortex mitochondria. Our data indicate that differences in the maximal respiratory capacity of brain mitochondria are reflected by CD14+ monocyte maximal respiratory capacity and platelet and monocyte bioenergetic health index. A subset of nonhuman primates also underwent [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET imaging to assess brain glucose metabolism. Our results indicate that platelet respiratory capacity positively correlates to measures of glucose metabolism in multiple brain regions. Altogether, the results of this study provide early evidence that blood-based bioenergetic profiling is related to brain mitochondrial metabolism. While these measures cannot substitute for direct measures of brain metabolism, provided by measures such as FDG-PET, they may have utility as a metabolic biomarker and screening tool to identify individuals exhibiting systemic bioenergetic decline who may therefore be at risk for the development of neurodegenerative diseases.

  10. Image-based model of the spectrin cytoskeleton for red blood cell simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fai, Thomas G; Leo-Macias, Alejandra; Stokes, David L; Peskin, Charles S

    2017-10-01

    We simulate deformable red blood cells in the microcirculation using the immersed boundary method with a cytoskeletal model that incorporates structural details revealed by tomographic images. The elasticity of red blood cells is known to be supplied by both their lipid bilayer membranes, which resist bending and local changes in area, and their cytoskeletons, which resist in-plane shear. The cytoskeleton consists of spectrin tetramers that are tethered to the lipid bilayer by ankyrin and by actin-based junctional complexes. We model the cytoskeleton as a random geometric graph, with nodes corresponding to junctional complexes and with edges corresponding to spectrin tetramers such that the edge lengths are given by the end-to-end distances between nodes. The statistical properties of this graph are based on distributions gathered from three-dimensional tomographic images of the cytoskeleton by a segmentation algorithm. We show that the elastic response of our model cytoskeleton, in which the spectrin polymers are treated as entropic springs, is in good agreement with the experimentally measured shear modulus. By simulating red blood cells in flow with the immersed boundary method, we compare this discrete cytoskeletal model to an existing continuum model and predict the extent to which dynamic spectrin network connectivity can protect against failure in the case of a red cell subjected to an applied strain. The methods presented here could form the basis of disease- and patient-specific computational studies of hereditary diseases affecting the red cell cytoskeleton.

  11. Method of measuring blood oxygenation based on spectroscopy of diffusely scattered light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleshnin, M. S.; Orlova, A. G.; Kirillin, M. Yu.; Golubyatnikov, G. Yu.; Turchin, I. V.

    2017-05-01

    A new approach to the measurement of blood oxygenation is developed and implemented, based on an original two-step algorithm reconstructing the relative concentration of biological chromophores (haemoglobin, water, lipids) from the measured spectra of diffusely scattered light at different distances from the radiation source. The numerical experiments and approbation of the proposed approach using a biological phantom have shown the high accuracy of the reconstruction of optical properties of the object in question, as well as the possibility of correct calculation of the haemoglobin oxygenation in the presence of additive noises without calibration of the measuring device. The results of the experimental studies in animals agree with the previously published results obtained by other research groups and demonstrate the possibility of applying the developed method to the monitoring of blood oxygenation in tumour tissues.

  12. Volumetric measurement of human red blood cells by MOSFET-based microfluidic gate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jinhong; Ai, Ye; Cheng, Yuanbing; Li, Chang Ming; Kang, Yuejun; Wang, Zhiming

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we present a MOSFET-based (metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor) microfluidic gate to characterize the translocation of red blood cells (RBCs) through a gate. In the microfluidic system, the bias voltage modulated by the particles or biological cells is connected to the gate of MOSFET. The particles or cells can be detected by monitoring the MOSFET drain current instead of DC/AC-gating method across the electronic gate. Polystyrene particles with various standard sizes are utilized to calibrate the proposed device. Furthermore, RBCs from both adults and newborn blood sample are used to characterize the performance of the device in distinguishing the two types of RBCs. As compared to conventional DC/AC current modulation method, the proposed device demonstrates a higher sensitivity and is capable of being a promising platform for bioassay analysis. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. MALDI-TOF MS based carbapenemase detection from culture isolates and from positive blood culture vials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghebremedhin, B; Halstenbach, A; Smiljanic, M; Kaase, M; Ahmad-Nejad, P

    2016-02-02

    Antibiotic resistance in bacteria leads to massive health problems. Incidence of carbapenem and multidrug resistance in Gram-negative bacteria are increasing globally and turn out to be a very urgent challenge in health care. Resistant bacteria play an important clinical role during hospital outbreaks as well as in sepsis. Rapid diagnostic tests are necessary to provide immediate information for antimicrobial treatment and infection control measures. Our mass spectrometry-based assay was validated with 63 carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacterial isolates, and 35 carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative species with no carbapenemase production. These were analyzed from solid culture media and positive blood culture vials. After 4 h of incubation the carbapenemase products were analyzed with the MALDI-TOF MS. All the isolates were genotyped for carbapenemase genes by PCR and sequencing. For culture isolates the concordance of hydrolysis assay to genetic results was 98 % for OXA variants, KPC, VIM, IMP, GIM, and NDM. In contrast, only 14 of 29 Acinetobacter baumannii isolates carrying the OXA and NDM genes could be identified from blood culture. However, from blood culture vials our method allowed the detection of carbapenemases in 98 % of Pseudomonas and Enterobacteriaceae isolates harboring different genes. This MALDI-TOF MS-based assay permitted the detection of carbapenemases either from solid culture media (98-100 %) or blood culture vials (96 %) for all non-A. baumannii isolates within 4 h. In case of A. baumannii isolates the assay was highly sensitive for the detection of carbapenemases directly from solid culture media.

  14. [Whole blood leukocyte phagocytosis assay for Candida albicans based on flow cytometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhengxin; Chen, Jing; Wang, Xianling; Zhao, Bohua; Hou, Tianwen

    2015-04-01

    To establish a whole blood leukocyte phagocytosis assay for Candida albicans (C.albicans) based on flow cytometry (FCM). C.albicans of mid-logarithmic growth phase was labeled by fluorescence probe carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFDA-SE), and then added into CD45-PC5 pre-stained human whole blood cells at a 10:1 multiplicity of infection (MOI) in 37DegreesCelsius. The cells were incubated for 10, 30 and 60 minutes. Phagocytosis rate of C.albicans by the CD45 positive cells in the blood was determined by FCM. In yeast extract peptone dextrose medium (YPD) and under the conditions of 37DegreesCelsius and 50 mL/L CO2, the logarithmic growth phase of C.albicans SC5314 was from the 5th to 11th hour. C.albicans were well stained by 10 mmol/L CFDA-SE after 30-minute incubation. After 10-, 30- and 60-minute incubation with SC5314 C.albicans with CD45⁺ cells, the phagocytosis rates measured by FCM were (80.1 ± 6.1)%, (83.8 ± 7.7)% and (92.3 ± 11.2)% for the neutrophils, (11.2 ± 3.6)%, (15.8 ± 4.4)% and (27.7 ± 6.8)% for the monocytes and (0.9 ± 0.3)%, (0.8 ± 0.4)% and (5.2 ± 1.6)% for the lymphocytes. The method for measuring whole blood leukocyte phagocytosis of C.albicans based on FCM is successfully established, and 30 minutes are the proper incubation time for the phagocytosis assay.

  15. Thermography-based blood flow imaging in human skin of the hands and feet: a spectral filtering approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagaidachnyi, A A; Fomin, A V; Usanov, D A; Skripal, A V

    2017-02-01

    The determination of the relationship between skin blood flow and skin temperature dynamics is the main problem in thermography-based blood flow imaging. Oscillations in skin blood flow are the source of thermal waves propagating from micro-vessels toward the skin's surface, as assumed in this study. This hypothesis allows us to use equations for the attenuation and dispersion of thermal waves for converting the temperature signal into the blood flow signal, and vice versa. We developed a spectral filtering approach (SFA), which is a new technique for thermography-based blood flow imaging. In contrast to other processing techniques, the SFA implies calculations in the spectral domain rather than in the time domain. Therefore, it eliminates the need to solve differential equations. The developed technique was verified within 0.005-0.1 Hz, including the endothelial, neurogenic and myogenic frequency bands of blood flow oscillations. The algorithm for an inverse conversion of the blood flow signal into the skin temperature signal is addressed. The examples of blood flow imaging of hands during cuff occlusion and feet during heating of the back are illustrated. The processing of infrared (IR) thermograms using the SFA allowed us to restore the blood flow signals and achieve correlations of about 0.8 with a waveform of a photoplethysmographic signal. The prospective applications of the thermography-based blood flow imaging technique include non-contact monitoring of the blood supply during engraftment of skin flaps and burns healing, as well the use of contact temperature sensors to monitor low-frequency oscillations of peripheral blood flow.

  16. Correlation-based discrimination between cardiac tissue and blood for segmentation of 3D echocardiographic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saris, Anne E. C. M.; Nillesen, Maartje M.; Lopata, Richard G. P.; de Korte, Chris L.

    2013-03-01

    Automated segmentation of 3D echocardiographic images in patients with congenital heart disease is challenging, because the boundary between blood and cardiac tissue is poorly defined in some regions. Cardiologists mentally incorporate movement of the heart, using temporal coherence of structures to resolve ambiguities. Therefore, we investigated the merit of temporal cross-correlation for automated segmentation over the entire cardiac cycle. Optimal settings for maximum cross-correlation (MCC) calculation, based on a 3D cross-correlation based displacement estimation algorithm, were determined to obtain the best contrast between blood and myocardial tissue over the entire cardiac cycle. Resulting envelope-based as well as RF-based MCC values were used as additional external force in a deformable model approach, to segment the left-ventricular cavity in entire systolic phase. MCC values were tested against, and combined with, adaptive filtered, demodulated RF-data. Segmentation results were compared with manually segmented volumes using a 3D Dice Similarity Index (3DSI). Results in 3D pediatric echocardiographic images sequences (n = 4) demonstrate that incorporation of temporal information improves segmentation. The use of MCC values, either alone or in combination with adaptive filtered, demodulated RF-data, resulted in an increase of the 3DSI in 75% of the cases (average 3DSI increase: 0.71 to 0.82). Results might be further improved by optimizing MCC-contrast locally, in regions with low blood-tissue contrast. Reducing underestimation of the endocardial volume due to MCC processing scheme (choice of window size) and consequential border-misalignment, could also lead to more accurate segmentations. Furthermore, increasing the frame rate will also increase MCC-contrast and thus improve segmentation.

  17. Decorrelation-based blood flow velocity estimation: effect of spread of flow velocity, linear flow velocity gradients, and parabolic flow.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lupotti, F.A.; Steen, A.F.W. van der; Mastik, F.; Korte, C.L. de

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, a new method to measure transverse blood flow, based on the decorrelation of the radio frequency (RF) signals has been developed. In this paper, we investigated the influence of nonuniform flow on the velocity estimation. The decorrelation characteristics of transverse blood flow

  18. Traditional blood irradiation facilities based on radioactive sources are phased out; Tradisjonelle blodbestraalingsanlegg basert paa radioaktive kilder fases ut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-03-01

    Blood irradiation facilities containing radioactive sources are among the most powerful sources of radiation. As government we want to phase out this type of facility for the benefit of virtually risk-free blood irradiation facility based on X-ray technology.(eb)

  19. a New Approach of Dynamic Blood Pressure Measurement Based on the Time Domain Analysis of the Pulse Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimei, Su; Wei, Xu; Hui, Yu; Fei, Du; Jicun, Wang; Kexin, Xu

    2009-08-01

    In this study the pulse wave characteristics were used as a new approach to measure the human blood pressure. Based the principle of pulse wave and theory of the elastic vascular, the authors analyzed the characteristic of the pulse waveforms and revealed the characteristics points which could be used to represent the blood pressure. In this investigation the relevant mathematical feature was used to identify the relationship between the blood pressure and pulse wave parameters in a more accurate way. It also provided an experimental basis to carry out continuing non-invasive blood pressure monitoring using the pulse wave method.

  20. [Investigation of reference intervals of blood gas and acid-base analysis assays in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Wang, Wei; Wang, Zhiguo

    2015-10-01

    To investigate and analyze the upper and lower limits and their sources of reference intervals in blood gas and acid-base analysis assays. The data of reference intervals were collected, which come from the first run of 2014 External Quality Assessment (EQA) program in blood gas and acid-base analysis assays performed by National Center for Clinical Laboratories (NCCL). All the abnormal values and errors were eliminated. Data statistics was performed by SPSS 13.0 and Excel 2007 referring to upper and lower limits of reference intervals and sources of 7 blood gas and acid-base analysis assays, i.e. pH value, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2), partial pressure of oxygen (PO2), Na+, K+, Ca2+ and Cl-. Values were further grouped based on instrument system and the difference between each group were analyzed. There were 225 laboratories submitting the information on the reference intervals they had been using. The three main sources of reference intervals were National Guide to Clinical Laboratory Procedures [37.07% (400/1 079)], instructions of instrument manufactures [31.23% (337/1 079)] and instructions of reagent manufactures [23.26% (251/1 079)]. Approximately 35.1% (79/225) of the laboratories had validated the reference intervals they used. The difference of upper and lower limits in most assays among 7 laboratories was moderate, both minimum and maximum (i.e. the upper limits of pH value was 7.00-7.45, the lower limits of Na+ was 130.00-156.00 mmol/L), and mean and median (i.e. the upper limits of K+ was 5.04 mmol/L and 5.10 mmol/L, the upper limits of PCO2 was 45.65 mmHg and 45.00 mmHg, 1 mmHg = 0.133 kPa), as well as the difference in P2.5 and P97.5 between each instrument system group. It was shown by Kruskal-Wallis method that the P values of upper and lower limits of all the parameters were lower than 0.001, expecting the lower limits of Na+ with P value 0.029. It was shown by Mann-Whitney that the statistic differences were found among instrument

  1. Momentum spectrometer for electron-electron coincidence studies on superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallauer, Robert; Voss, Stefan; Bauer, Tobias; Schneider, Deborah; Titze, Jasmin; Ulrich, Birte; Kreidi, Katharina; Neumann, Nadine; Havermeier, Tilo; Schoeffler, Markus; Jahnke, Till; Czasch, Achim; Schmidt, Lothar; Schmidt-Boecking, Horst; Doerner, Reinhard [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet Frankfurt, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Foucar, Lutz [Max Planck Advanced Study Group, Center for Free Electron Laser Science (CFEL), Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer medizinische Forschung, Jahnstrasse 29, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Kanigel, Amit [Technion, Technion City, 32000 Haifa (Israel); Campuzano, Juan Carlos [University of Illinois at Chicago, 601 S. Morgan St., Chicago, Illinois 60607 (United States); Jeschke, Harald; Valenti, Roser [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Frankfurt, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt/Main (Germany); and others

    2012-10-15

    We present a new experimental setup to study electron-electron coincidences from superconducting surfaces. In our approach, electrons emitted from a surface are projected onto a time- and position-sensitive microchannel plate detector with delayline position readout. Electrons that are emitted within 2 {pi} solid angle with respect to the surface are detected in coincidence. The detector used is a hexagonal delayline detector with enhanced multiple hit capabilities. It is read out with a Flash analog-to-digital converter. The three-dimensional momentum vector is obtained for each electron. The intrinsic dead time of the detector has been greatly reduced by implementing a new algorithm for pulse analysis. The sample holder has been matched to fit the spectrometer while being capable of cooling down the sample to 4.5 K during the measurement and heating it up to 420 K for the cleaning procedure.

  2. Using CHIMERA detector at LNS for gamma-particle coincidences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardella G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We have recently evaluated the quality of γ-ray angular distributions that can be extracted in particle-gamma coincidence measurements using the CHIMERA detector at LNS. γ-rays have been detected using the CsI(Tl detectors of the spherical part of the CHIMERA array. Very clean γ-rays angular distributions were extracted in reactions induced by different stable beams impinging on 12C thin targets. The results evidenced an effect of projectile spin flip on the γ-rays angular distributions. γ-particle coincidence measurements were also performed in reactions induced by neutron rich exotic beams produced through in-flight fragmentation at LNS. In recent experiments also the Farcos array was used to improve energy and angular resolution measurements of the detected charged particles. Results obtained with both stable and radioactive beams are reported.

  3. Subthreshold production of pions in coincidence with light particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbera, R.; Badala, A.; Adorno, A.; Bonasera, A.; Di Toro, M.; Palmeri, A.; Pappalardo, G.S.; Riggi, F.; Russo, G. (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania (Italy)); Bizard, G.; Durand, D.; Laville, J.L. (Caen Univ., 14 (France). Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire); Jin, G.M. (Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France)); Rosato, E. (Naples Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Fisiche Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Naples (Italy))

    1990-12-03

    He ions have been detected in coincidence with charged pions in the reaction {sup 16}O on {sup 27}Al at E{sub lab}=94 MeV/u. We analyse velocity spectra and cross-sections of He ions emitted in the angular range 4deg/150deg in coincidence with charged pions detected at 90deg. A two source emission mechanism of the helium particles and a pion statistical production from an equilibrated participant zone is stressed. The absolute yields at different angles are compared with results of a theoretical model for medium energy heavy ion reactions in the frame of a participant-spectator picture. A comparison of the pion energy spectra with Boltzmann-Nordheim-Vlasov calculations and a discussion on the time scale for pion emission is also presented. (orig.).

  4. Alpha-Photon Coincidence Spectroscopy Along Element 115 Decay Chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudolph, D. [Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden); Forsberg, U. [Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden); Golubev, P. [Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden); Sarmiento, L. G. [Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden); Yakushev, A. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fur Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Andersson, L. -L. [Helmholtz Institute Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Di Nitto, A. [Johannes Gutenberg-Univ. Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Dullmann, Ch. E. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fur Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Helmholtz Institute Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Johannes Gutenberg-Univ. Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Gates, J. M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gregorich, K. E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gross, C. J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Herzberg, R. -D. [Univ. of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Hessberger, F. P. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fur Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Helmholtz Institute Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Khuyagbaatar, J. [Helmholtz Institute Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Kratz, J. V. [Johannes Gutenberg-Univ. Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Rykaczewski, K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Schadel, M. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fur Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai (Japan); Aberg, S. [Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden); Ackermann, D. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fur Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Block, M. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fur Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Brand, H. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fur Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Carlsson, B. G. [Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden); Cox, D. [Univ. of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Derkx, X. [Helmholtz Institute Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Johannes Gutenberg-Univ. Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Eberhardt, K. [Helmholtz Institute Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Johannes Gutenberg-Univ. Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Even, J. [Helmholtz Institute Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Fahlander, C. [Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden); Gerl, J. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fur Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Jager, E. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fur Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Kindler, B. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fur Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Krier, J. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fur Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Kojouharov, I. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fur Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Kurz, N. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fur Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Lommel, B. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fur Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Mistry, A. [Univ. of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Mokry, C. [Helmholtz Institute Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Johannes Gutenberg-Univ. Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Nitsche, H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Omtvedt, J. P. [Univ. of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Papadakis, P. [Univ. of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Ragnarsson, I. [Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden); Runke, J. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fur Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Schaffner, H. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fur Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Schausten, B. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fur Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Thorle-Pospiech, P. [Helmholtz Institute Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Johannes Gutenberg-Univ. Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Torres, T. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fur Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Traut, T. [Johannes Gutenberg-Univ. Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Trautmann, N. [Johannes Gutenberg-Univ. Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Turler, A. [Paul Scherrer Institute and Univ. of Bern, Villigen (Switzerland); Ward, A. [Univ. of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Ward, D. E. [Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden); Wiehl, N. [Helmholtz Institute Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Johannes Gutenberg-Univ. Mainz, Mainz (Germany)

    2014-01-01

    Produced in the reaction 48Ca+ 243Am, thirty correlated α-decay chains were observed in an experiment conducted at the GSI Helmholzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt, Germany. The decay chains are basically consistent with previous findings and are considered to originate from isotopes of element 115 with mass numbers 287, 288, and 289. A set-up aiming specifically for high-resolution charged particle and photon coincidence spectroscopy was placed behind the gas-filled separator TASCA. For the first time, γ rays as well as X-ray candidates were observed in prompt coincidence with the α-decay chains of element 115.

  5. Simultaneous measurements of total hemoglobin concentration and blood oxygenation with laser diode-based optoacoustic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Irene Y.; Prough, Donald S.; Petrov, Yuriy; Henkel, S. Nan; Seeton, Roger; Esenaliev, Rinat O.

    2017-03-01

    Noninvasive, accurate, continuous monitoring of multiple variables, including blood oxygenation, i.e. oxyhemoglobin saturation (SO2) and total hemoglobin concentration (THb) in both high acuity and low acuity environments would greatly facilitate prompt diagnosis and treatment of physiologic derangements. However, most of the existing techniques for patient monitoring are invasive, while noninvasive techniques often fail to provide accurate measurements. We built a compact, multi-wavelength, nanosecond, fiber-coupled laser diode-based optoacoustic system for noninvasive, accurate monitoring of blood SO2 and THb in veins and arteries. We tested the system by probing the radial artery of healthy volunteers. Using blood samples obtained by venipuncture, we also measured a reference THb for each volunteer. Moreover, the optoacoustic data were compared with that obtained from a commercially available noninvasive monitor for measurements of these variables. The optoacoustic system provided rapid, simultaneous, and continuous measurement of THb and SO2 with high precision. The obtained results are promising and we plan to further test the system in clinical studies and at conditions simulating circulatory shock.

  6. A coincidence of addiction to "Kratom" and severe primary hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheleg, Sergey V; Collins, Gregory B

    2011-12-01

    Here we present a case of a coincidence of addiction to "Kratom" (botanically known as Mitragyna speciosa Korth) and developed severe primary hypothyroidism. We are discussing a possibility that high dose of indole alkaloid mitragynine (the major alkaloid identified from "Kratom") might reduce the normal response of the thyroid gland to thyroid-stimulating hormone resulting in primary hypothyroidism. Further experimental investigations of mitragynine as a possible suppressor of thyroid gland function would be a matter of interest.

  7. Beta-gated gamma coincidence counting with a phoswich detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaye, J.H.; Warner, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    A special type of phoswich detector system has been evaluated for measurement of radionuclides which decay with emission of time coincident beta and gamma radiation. Background reductions of more than two orders of magnitude have been obtained for the energy region from 500 to 950 keV. Both NE 102 plastic scintillators and anthracene were evaluated. Advantages and disadvantages of the method are discussed.

  8. Childhood psychosis and neurofibromatosis--more than a coincidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillberg, C; Forsell, C

    1984-03-01

    Three children with both childhood psychosis and neurofibromatosis are reported from a total population screening of psychotic disorder in childhood that had produced 51 cases born in the years 1962-1976 in the Göteborg region, Sweden. The findings suggest that the simultaneous occurrence of neurofibromatosis and childhood psychosis might be more than a coincidence. Underlying monoaminergic dysfunction is postulated as one possible reason for the finding.

  9. Importance of interpolation and coincidence errors in data fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ceccherini

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The complete data fusion (CDF method is applied to ozone profiles obtained from simulated measurements in the ultraviolet and in the thermal infrared in the framework of the Sentinel 4 mission of the Copernicus programme. We observe that the quality of the fused products is degraded when the fusing profiles are either retrieved on different vertical grids or referred to different true profiles. To address this shortcoming, a generalization of the complete data fusion method, which takes into account interpolation and coincidence errors, is presented. This upgrade overcomes the encountered problems and provides products of good quality when the fusing profiles are both retrieved on different vertical grids and referred to different true profiles. The impact of the interpolation and coincidence errors on number of degrees of freedom and errors of the fused profile is also analysed. The approach developed here to account for the interpolation and coincidence errors can also be followed to include other error components, such as forward model errors.

  10. Neural mechanisms of timing control in a coincident timing task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaki, Hiroaki; Sommer, Werner; Takasawa, Noriyoshi; Yamazaki, Katuo

    2012-04-01

    Many ball sports such as tennis or baseball require precise temporal anticipation of both sensory input and motor output (i.e., receptor anticipation and effector anticipation, respectively) and close performance monitoring. We investigated the neural mechanisms underlying timing control and performance monitoring in a coincident timing task involving both types of anticipations. Peak force for two time-to-peak force (TTP) conditions-recorded with a force-sensitive key-was required to coincide with a specific position of a stimulus rotating either slow or fast on a clock face while the contingent negative variation (CNV) and the motor-elicited negativity were recorded. Absolute timing error was generally smaller for short TTP (high velocity) conditions. CNV amplitudes increased with both faster stimulus velocity and longer TTPs possibly reflecting increased motor programming efforts. In addition, the motor-elicited negativity was largest in the slow stimulus/short TTP condition, probably representing some forms of performance monitoring as well as shorter response duration. Our findings indicate that the coincident timing task is a good model for real-life situations of tool use.

  11. Cost estimation of hypertension management based on home blood pressure monitoring alone or combined office and ambulatory blood pressure measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubouchairopoulou, Nadia; Karpettas, Nikos; Athanasakis, Kostas; Kollias, Anastasios; Protogerou, Athanase D; Achimastos, Apostolos; Stergiou, George S

    2014-10-01

    This study aims at estimating the resources consumed and subsequent costs for hypertension management, using home blood pressure (BP) monitoring (HBPM) alone versus combined clinic measurements and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (C/ABPM). One hundred sixteen untreated hypertensive subjects were randomized to use HBPM or C/ABPM for antihypertensive treatment initiation and titration. Health resources utilized within 12-months follow-up, their respective costs, and hypertension control were assessed. The total cost of the first year of hypertension management was lower in HBPM than C/ABPM arm (€1336.0 vs. €1473.5 per subject, respectively; P cost was identical in both arms. There was no difference in achieved BP control and drug expenditure (HBPM: €233.1 per subject; C/ABPM: €247.6 per subject; P = not significant), whereas the cost of BP measurements and/or visits was higher in C/ABPM arm (€393.9 vs. €516.9, per patient, respectively P cost for subsequent years (>1) was €348.9 and €440.2 per subject, respectively for HBPM and C/ABPM arm and €2731.4 versus €3234.3 per subject, respectively (P cost than C/ABPM, and the same trend is observed in 5-year projection. The results on the resources consumption can be used to make cost estimates for other health-care systems.

  12. Auxotrophy-Based Detection of Hyperornithinemia in Mouse Blood and Urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth M. Palanza BSc

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Gyrate atrophy of the choroid and retina (GACR is a hereditary form of progressive blindness caused by homozygosity for loss-of-function mutations in the ornithine aminotransferase gene ( Oat . The high levels of circulating ornithine that lead to ophthalmic symptoms in young adults are also displayed by 2 ornithine aminotransferase (OAT-deficient mouse models of GACR. Here, we have developed an inexpensive and quantitative bacteria-based test for detecting hyperornithinemia in blood or urine samples from these mutant mice, a test that we suggest could be used to facilitate the identification and treatment of OAT-deficient humans before the onset of visual impairment.

  13. Epileptic Seizure Detection and Prediction Based on Continuous Cerebral Blood Flow Monitoring – a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senay Tewolde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is the third most common neurological illness, affecting 1% of the world’s population. Despite advances in medicine, about 25 to 30% of the patients do not respond to or cannot tolerate the severe side effects of medical treatment, and surgery is not an option for the majority of patients with epilepsy. The objective of this article is to review the current state of research on seizure detection based on cerebral blood flow (CBF data acquired by thermal diffusion flowmetry (TDF, and CBF-based seizure prediction. A discussion is provided on the applications, advantages, and disadvantages of TDF in detecting and localizing seizure foci, as well as its role in seizure prediction. Also presented are an overview of the present challenges and possible future research directions (along with methodological guidelines of the CBF-based seizure detection and prediction methods.

  14. SPADnet: Embedded coincidence in a smart sensor network for PET applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruschini, C., E-mail: claudio.bruschini@epfl.ch [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne (Switzerland); Charbon, E. [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne (Switzerland); Veerappan, C. [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Braga, L.H.C.; Massari, N.; Perenzoni, M.; Gasparini, L.; Stoppa, D. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), Trento (Italy); Walker, R.; Erdogan, A.; Henderson, R.K. [University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); East, S.; Grant, L. [STMicroelectronics (R and D) Ltd, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Jatekos, B.; Ujhelyi, F.; Erdei, G.; Lörincz, E. [Budapest University of Technology and Economics (BME), Budapest (Hungary); André, L.; Maingault, L.; Reboud, V. [CEA-LETI, Grenoble (France); and others

    2014-01-11

    In this paper we illustrate the core technologies at the basis of the European SPADnet project ( (www.spadnet.eu)), and present the corresponding first results. SPADnet is aimed at a new generation of MRI-compatible, scalable large area image sensors, based on CMOS technology, that are networked to perform gamma-ray detection and coincidence to be used primarily in (Time-of-Flight) Positron Emission Tomography (PET). The project innovates in several areas of PET systems, from optical coupling to single-photon sensor architectures, from intelligent ring networks to reconstruction algorithms. In addition, SPADnet introduced the first computational model enabling study of the full chain from gamma photons to network coincidence detection through scintillation events, optical coupling, etc.

  15. Ion-ion coincidence imaging at high event rate using an in-vacuum pixel detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jingming; Furch, Federico J.; Durá, Judith; Tremsin, Anton S.; Vallerga, John; Schulz, Claus Peter; Rouzée, Arnaud; Vrakking, Marc J. J.

    2017-07-01

    A new ion-ion coincidence imaging spectrometer based on a pixelated complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor detector has been developed for the investigation of molecular ionization and fragmentation processes in strong laser fields. Used as a part of a velocity map imaging spectrometer, the detection system is comprised of a set of microchannel plates and a Timepix detector. A fast time-to-digital converter (TDC) is used to enhance the ion time-of-flight resolution by correlating timestamps registered separately by the Timepix detector and the TDC. In addition, sub-pixel spatial resolution (principle experiment on strong field dissociative double ionization of carbon dioxide molecules (CO2), using a 400 kHz repetition rate laser system. The experimental results demonstrate that the spectrometer can detect multiple ions in coincidence, making it a valuable tool for studying the fragmentation dynamics of molecules in strong laser fields.

  16. SPADnet: Embedded coincidence in a smart sensor network for PET applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruschini, C.; Charbon, E.; Veerappan, C.; Braga, L. H. C.; Massari, N.; Perenzoni, M.; Gasparini, L.; Stoppa, D.; Walker, R.; Erdogan, A.; Henderson, R. K.; East, S.; Grant, L.; Jatekos, B.; Ujhelyi, F.; Erdei, G.; Lörincz, E.; André, L.; Maingault, L.; Reboud, V.; Verger, L.; Gros d'Aillon, E.; Major, P.; Papp, Z.; Németh, G.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we illustrate the core technologies at the basis of the European SPADnet project (www.spadnet.eu), and present the corresponding first results. SPADnet is aimed at a new generation of MRI-compatible, scalable large area image sensors, based on CMOS technology, that are networked to perform gamma-ray detection and coincidence to be used primarily in (Time-of-Flight) Positron Emission Tomography (PET). The project innovates in several areas of PET systems, from optical coupling to single-photon sensor architectures, from intelligent ring networks to reconstruction algorithms. In addition, SPADnet introduced the first computational model enabling study of the full chain from gamma photons to network coincidence detection through scintillation events, optical coupling, etc.

  17. A simple assay of paracetamol based on dried blood spot suitable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dried blood spots in Guthrie cards are a reliable means of blood sampling suitable for pharmacoki-netic analysis in children. The aim of this study was to develop a simple and reliable bioanalytical method to measure the concentration of paracetamol in dried blood spots. Paracetamol was ex-tracted from dry blood spots by ...

  18. White blood cells identification system based on convolutional deep neural learning networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahin, A I; Guo, Yanhui; Amin, K M; Sharawi, Amr A

    2017-11-16

    White blood cells (WBCs) differential counting yields valued information about human health and disease. The current developed automated cell morphology equipments perform differential count which is based on blood smear image analysis. Previous identification systems for WBCs consist of successive dependent stages; pre-processing, segmentation, feature extraction, feature selection, and classification. There is a real need to employ deep learning methodologies so that the performance of previous WBCs identification systems can be increased. Classifying small limited datasets through deep learning systems is a major challenge and should be investigated. In this paper, we propose a novel identification system for WBCs based on deep convolutional neural networks. Two methodologies based on transfer learning are followed: transfer learning based on deep activation features and fine-tuning of existed deep networks. Deep acrivation featues are extracted from several pre-trained networks and employed in a traditional identification system. Moreover, a novel end-to-end convolutional deep architecture called "WBCsNet" is proposed and built from scratch. Finally, a limited balanced WBCs dataset classification is performed through the WBCsNet as a pre-trained network. During our experiments, three different public WBCs datasets (2551 images) have been used which contain 5 healthy WBCs types. The overall system accuracy achieved by the proposed WBCsNet is (96.1%) which is more than different transfer learning approaches or even the previous traditional identification system. We also present features visualization for the WBCsNet activation which reflects higher response than the pre-trained activated one. a novel WBCs identification system based on deep learning theory is proposed and a high performance WBCsNet can be employed as a pre-trained network. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Evaluation of targeted exome sequencing for 28 protein-based blood group systems, including the homologous gene systems, for blood group genotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeman, Elizna M; Lopez, Genghis H; McGowan, Eunike C; Millard, Glenda M; O'Brien, Helen; Roulis, Eileen V; Liew, Yew-Wah; Martin, Jacqueline R; McGrath, Kelli A; Powley, Tanya; Flower, Robert L; Hyland, Catherine A

    2017-04-01

    Blood group single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping probes for a limited range of polymorphisms. This study investigated whether massively parallel sequencing (also known as next-generation sequencing), with a targeted exome strategy, provides an extended blood group genotype and the extent to which massively parallel sequencing correctly genotypes in homologous gene systems, such as RH and MNS. Donor samples (n = 28) that were extensively phenotyped and genotyped using single nucleotide polymorphism typing, were analyzed using the TruSight One Sequencing Panel and MiSeq platform. Genes for 28 protein-based blood group systems, GATA1, and KLF1 were analyzed. Copy number variation analysis was used to characterize complex structural variants in the GYPC and RH systems. The average sequencing depth per target region was 66.2 ± 39.8. Each sample harbored on average 43 ± 9 variants, of which 10 ± 3 were used for genotyping. For the 28 samples, massively parallel sequencing variant sequences correctly matched expected sequences based on single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping data. Copy number variation analysis defined the Rh C/c alleles and complex RHD hybrids. Hybrid RHD*D-CE-D variants were correctly identified, but copy number variation analysis did not confidently distinguish between D and CE exon deletion versus rearrangement. The targeted exome sequencing strategy employed extended the range of blood group genotypes detected compared with single nucleotide polymorphism typing. This single-test format included detection of complex MNS hybrid cases and, with copy number variation analysis, defined RH hybrid genes along with the RHCE*C allele hitherto difficult to resolve by variant detection. The approach is economical compared with whole-genome sequencing and is suitable for a red blood cell reference laboratory setting. © 2017 AABB.

  20. Feasibility study for the non-invasive blood pressure estimation based on ppg morphology: normotensive subject study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hangsik; Min, Se Dong

    2017-01-10

    Blood pressure is a critical bio-signal and its importance has been increased with the aged society and the growth of cardiovascular disease population. However, most of hypertensive patients have been suffered the inconvenience in monitoring blood pressure in daily life because the measurement of the blood pressure depends on the cuff-based technique. Nowadays there are many trials to measure blood pressure without cuff, especially, photoplethysmography (PPG) based research is carried out in various ways. Our research is designed to hypothesis the relationship between vessel wall movement and pressure-flow relationship of PPG and to validate its appropriateness by experimental methods. PPG waveform is simplified by approximate model, and then it is analyzed as the velocity and the acceleration of blood flow using the derivatives of PPG. Finally, we develop pressure index (PI) as an estimation factor of blood pressure by combining of statistically significant segments of photoplethysmographic waveform. Twenty-five subjects were participated in the experiment. As a result of simulation, correlation coefficients between developed PI and blood pressure were represented with R = 0.818, R = 0.827 and R = 0.615 in systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure and mean arterial pressure, respectively, and both of result showed the meaningful statistically significance (P blood pressure but could not find the absolute pressure value. Moreover, proposed index has the limitation of diastolic pressure tracing. However, the result shows that the proposed PI is statistically significantly correlated with blood pressures, and it suggests that the proposed PI as a promising additional parameter for the cuff less blood pressure monitoring.

  1. Highly Sensitive Bacteriophage-Based Detection of Brucella abortus in Mixed Culture and Spiked Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill V. Sergueev

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available For decades, bacteriophages (phages have been used for Brucella species identification in the diagnosis and epidemiology of brucellosis. Traditional Brucella phage typing is a multi-day procedure including the isolation of a pure culture, a step that can take up to three weeks. In this study, we focused on the use of brucellaphages for sensitive detection of the pathogen in clinical and other complex samples, and developed an indirect method of Brucella detection using real-time quantitative PCR monitoring of brucellaphage DNA amplification via replication on live Brucella cells. This assay allowed the detection of single bacteria (down to 1 colony-forming unit per milliliter within 72 h without DNA extraction and purification steps. The technique was equally efficient with Brucella abortus pure culture and with mixed cultures of B. abortus and α-proteobacterial near neighbors that can be misidentified as Brucella spp., Ochrobactrum anthropi and Afipia felis. The addition of a simple short sample preparation step enabled the indirect phage-based detection of B. abortus in spiked blood, with the same high sensitivity. This indirect phage-based detection assay enables the rapid and sensitive detection of live B. abortus in mixed cultures and in blood samples, and can potentially be applied for detection in other clinical samples and other complex sample types.

  2. Whole Blood mRNA Expression-Based Prognosis of Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthik V. Giridhar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC prognostic score is based on clinical parameters. We analyzed whole blood mRNA expression in metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (mCCRCC patients and compared it to the MSKCC score for predicting overall survival. In a discovery set of 19 patients with mRCC, we performed whole transcriptome RNA sequencing and selected eighteen candidate genes for further evaluation based on associations with overall survival and statistical significance. In an independent validation of set of 47 patients with mCCRCC, transcript expression of the 18 candidate genes were quantified using a customized NanoString probeset. Cox regression multivariate analysis confirmed that two of the candidate genes were significantly associated with overall survival. Higher expression of BAG1 [hazard ratio (HR of 0.14, p < 0.0001, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.04–0.36] and NOP56 (HR 0.13, p < 0.0001, 95% CI 0.05–0.34 were associated with better prognosis. A prognostic model incorporating expression of BAG1 and NOP56 into the MSKCC score improved prognostication significantly over a model using the MSKCC prognostic score only (p < 0.0001. Prognostic value of using whole blood mRNA gene profiling in mCCRCC is feasible and should be prospectively confirmed in larger studies.

  3. Highly Sensitive Bacteriophage-Based Detection of Brucella abortus in Mixed Culture and Spiked Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergueev, Kirill V.; Filippov, Andrey A.; Nikolich, Mikeljon P.

    2017-01-01

    For decades, bacteriophages (phages) have been used for Brucella species identification in the diagnosis and epidemiology of brucellosis. Traditional Brucella phage typing is a multi-day procedure including the isolation of a pure culture, a step that can take up to three weeks. In this study, we focused on the use of brucellaphages for sensitive detection of the pathogen in clinical and other complex samples, and developed an indirect method of Brucella detection using real-time quantitative PCR monitoring of brucellaphage DNA amplification via replication on live Brucella cells. This assay allowed the detection of single bacteria (down to 1 colony-forming unit per milliliter) within 72 h without DNA extraction and purification steps. The technique was equally efficient with Brucella abortus pure culture and with mixed cultures of B. abortus and α-proteobacterial near neighbors that can be misidentified as Brucella spp., Ochrobactrum anthropi and Afipia felis. The addition of a simple short sample preparation step enabled the indirect phage-based detection of B. abortus in spiked blood, with the same high sensitivity. This indirect phage-based detection assay enables the rapid and sensitive detection of live B. abortus in mixed cultures and in blood samples, and can potentially be applied for detection in other clinical samples and other complex sample types. PMID:28604602

  4. A system-based approach to modeling the ultrasound signal backscattered by red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, I; Bertrand, M; Cloutier, G

    1999-11-01

    A system-based model is proposed to describe and simulate the ultrasound signal backscattered by red blood cells (RBCs). The model is that of a space-invariant linear system that takes into consideration important biological tissue stochastic scattering properties as well as the characteristics of the ultrasound system. The formation of the ultrasound signal is described by a convolution integral involving a transducer transfer function, a scatterer prototype function, and a function representing the spatial arrangement of the scatterers. The RBCs are modeled as nonaggregating spherical scatterers, and the spatial distribution of the RBCs is determined using the Percus-Yevick packing factor. Computer simulations of the model are used to study the power backscattered by RBCs as a function of the hematocrit, the volume of the scatterers, and the frequency of the incident wave (2-500 MHz). Good agreement is obtained between the simulations and theoretical and experimental data for both Rayleigh and non-Rayleigh scattering conditions. In addition to these results, the renewal process theory is proposed to model the spatial arrangement of the scatterers. The study demonstrates that the system-based model is capable of accurately predicting important characteristics of the ultrasound signal backscattered by blood. The model is simple and flexible, and it appears to be superior to previous one- and two-dimensional simulation studies.

  5. International validation of pyrogen tests based on cryopreserved human primary blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Stefanie; Spreitzer, Ingo; Löschner, Bettina; Hoffmann, Sebastian; Hennes, Kilian; Halder, Marlies; Brügger, Peter; Frey, Esther; Hartung, Thomas; Montag, Thomas

    2006-10-20

    Pyrogens as fever-inducing agents can be a major health hazard in parenterally applied drugs. For the control of these contaminants, pyrogen testing for batch release is required by pharmacopoeias. This has been done either by the in vivo rabbit pyrogen test (since 1942) or the limulus amoebocyte lysate test (LAL), since 1976. New approaches include cell-based assays employing in vitro culture of human immune cells which respond e.g. by cytokine production (IL-1beta; IL-6) upon contact with pyrogens. Six variants of these assays have been validated in a collaborative international study. The recent successful development of cryopreservation methods promises to make standardized immunoreactive primary human blood cells available for widespread use. Furthermore, the pretesting of donors for infectious agents such as HIV or hepatitis has made it possible to develop a safe and standardised reagent for pyrogen testing. Using a total of 13 drugs, we have validated the pyrogen test based on fresh and cryopreserved human whole blood in four laboratories. The test reached >90% sensitivity and specificity. In contrast to the LAL, the test was capable of detecting non-endotoxin pyrogens derived from Gram-positive bacteria or fungi.

  6. A proline racemase based PCR for identification of Trypanosoma vivax in cattle blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikru, Regassa; Hagos, Ashenafi; Rogé, Stijn; Reyna-Bello, Armando; Gonzatti, Mary Isabel; Merga, Bekana; Goddeeris, Bruno Maria; Büscher, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to develop a Trypanosoma vivax (T. vivax) specific PCR based on the T. vivax proline racemase (TvPRAC) gene. Forward and reverse primers were designed that bind at 764-783 bp and 983-1002 bp of the gene. To assess its specificity, TvPRAC PCR was conducted on DNA extracted from different haemotropic pathogens: T. vivax from Nigeria, Ethiopia and Venezuela, T. congolense Savannah type, T. brucei brucei, T. evansi, T. equiperdum, T. theileri, Theileria parva, Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina and from bovine, goat, mouse, camel and human blood. The analytical sensitivity of the TvPRAC PCR was compared with that of the ITS-1 PCR and the 18S PCR-RFLP on a dilution series of T. vivax DNA in water. The diagnostic performance of the three PCRs was compared on 411 Ethiopian bovine blood specimens collected in a former study. TvPRAC PCR proved to be fully specific for T. vivax, irrespective of its geographical origin. Its analytical sensitivity was lower than that of ITS-1 PCR. On these bovine specimens, TvPRAC PCR detected 8.3% T. vivax infections while ITS-1 PCR and 18S PCR-RFLP detected respectively 22.6 and 6.1% T. vivax infections. The study demonstrates that a proline racemase based PCR could be used, preferably in combination with ITS-1 PCR, as a species-specific diagnostic test for T. vivax infections worldwide.

  7. A proline racemase based PCR for identification of Trypanosoma vivax in cattle blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regassa Fikru

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to develop a Trypanosoma vivax (T. vivax specific PCR based on the T. vivax proline racemase (TvPRAC gene. Forward and reverse primers were designed that bind at 764-783 bp and 983-1002 bp of the gene. To assess its specificity, TvPRAC PCR was conducted on DNA extracted from different haemotropic pathogens: T. vivax from Nigeria, Ethiopia and Venezuela, T. congolense Savannah type, T. brucei brucei, T. evansi, T. equiperdum, T. theileri, Theileria parva, Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina and from bovine, goat, mouse, camel and human blood. The analytical sensitivity of the TvPRAC PCR was compared with that of the ITS-1 PCR and the 18S PCR-RFLP on a dilution series of T. vivax DNA in water. The diagnostic performance of the three PCRs was compared on 411 Ethiopian bovine blood specimens collected in a former study. TvPRAC PCR proved to be fully specific for T. vivax, irrespective of its geographical origin. Its analytical sensitivity was lower than that of ITS-1 PCR. On these bovine specimens, TvPRAC PCR detected 8.3% T. vivax infections while ITS-1 PCR and 18S PCR-RFLP detected respectively 22.6 and 6.1% T. vivax infections. The study demonstrates that a proline racemase based PCR could be used, preferably in combination with ITS-1 PCR, as a species-specific diagnostic test for T. vivax infections worldwide.

  8. Diagnosis of Pompe disease: muscle biopsy vs blood-based assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissing, John; Lukacs, Zoltan; Straub, Volker

    2013-07-01

    The diagnosis of Pompe disease (acid maltase deficiency, glycogen storage disease type II) in children and adults can be challenging because of the heterogeneous clinical presentation and considerable overlap of signs and symptoms found in other neuromuscular diseases. This review evaluates some of the methods used in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of late-onset Pompe disease. Muscle biopsy is commonly used as an early diagnostic tool in the evaluation of muscle disease. However, experience has shown that relying solely on visualizing a periodic acid-Schiff-positive vacuolar myopathy to identify late-onset Pompe disease often leads to false-negative results and subsequent delays in identification and treatment of the disorder. Serum creatine kinase level can be normal or only mildly elevated in late-onset Pompe disease and is not very helpful alone to suggest the diagnosis, but in combination with proximal and axial weakness it may raise the suspicion for Pompe disease. A simple blood-based assay to measure the level of α-glucosidase activity is the optimal initial test for confirming or excluding Pompe disease. A timely and accurate diagnosis of late-onset Pompe disease likely will improve patient outcomes as care standards including enzyme replacement therapy can be applied and complications can be anticipated. Increased awareness of the clinical phenotype of Pompe disease is therefore warranted to expedite diagnostic screening for this condition with blood-based enzymatic assays.

  9. The potential use of gingival crevicular blood for measuring glucose to screen for diabetes: an examination based on characteristics of the blood collection site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Shiela M; Wheeler, Alla J; Russell, Stefanie L; Brodsky, Anya; Davidson, Robert M; Gluzman, Rima; Li, Lin; Malo, Roberto Galao; Salis, Bram; Schoor, Robert; Tzvetkova, Krassimira

    2009-06-01

    This study examined conditions under which gingival crevicular blood (GCB) could be used to obtain a useful glucose reading to screen for undiagnosed diabetes during routine dental visits. GCB and capillary finger-stick blood (CFB) glucose readings obtained with a glucometer were compared for 46 patients recruited from an urban university dental clinic. Study participants were divided into two groups based on probing depth or bleeding on probing (BOP) at the site of collection of the GCB sample. Group 1 participants had blood collected from sites with adequate BOP to obtain a sample without touching the tooth or gingival margin, whereas group 2 participants had blood collected from sites with little or no bleeding. For each group, Pearson correlations were calculated for glucose readings obtained using GCB and CFB samples, and the limits of agreement between the two samples were examined. For group 1 participants, correlations between CFB and GCB glucose readings were high (0.89), and the limits of agreement were acceptable (-27.1 to 29.7). By contrast, for participants in group 2, correlations between the glucose readings were lower (0.78), and limits of agreement were much broader (-25.1 to 80.5). GCB samples were suitable to screen for diabetes in persons with sufficient BOP to obtain a sample without touching the tooth or gingival margin (i.e., in patients having the basic clinical signs of gingivitis or periodontal disease).

  10. Identification of bacterial and fungal pathogens from positive blood culture bottles: a microarray-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raich, Teresa; Powell, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Rapid identification and characterization of bacterial and fungal pathogens present in the bloodstream are essential for optimal patient management and are associated with improved patient outcomes, improved antimicrobial stewardship, improved infection control, and reduced healthcare costs. Microarrays serve as reliable platforms for the identification of these bloodstream pathogens and their associated antimicrobial resistance genes, if present. Nanosphere's (Nanosphere, Inc., Northbrook, IL, USA) Verigene Gram-Positive Blood Culture Nucleic-Acid Test (BC-GP) is one such microarray-based approach for the detection of bacteria that cause bloodstream infection. Here, we describe the design of the microarray-based Verigene BC-GP Test, the steps necessary for performing the test, and the different components of the test including nucleic acid extraction and hybridization of target nucleic acid to a microarray.

  11. An Automatic Cognitive Graph-Based Segmentation for Detection of Blood Vessels in Retinal Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasha Al Shehhi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a hierarchical graph-based segmentation for blood vessel detection in digital retinal images. This segmentation employs some of perceptual Gestalt principles: similarity, closure, continuity, and proximity to merge segments into coherent connected vessel-like patterns. The integration of Gestalt principles is based on object-based features (e.g., color and black top-hat (BTH morphology and context and graph-analysis algorithms (e.g., Dijkstra path. The segmentation framework consists of two main steps: preprocessing and multiscale graph-based segmentation. Preprocessing is to enhance lighting condition, due to low illumination contrast, and to construct necessary features to enhance vessel structure due to sensitivity of vessel patterns to multiscale/multiorientation structure. Graph-based segmentation is to decrease computational processing required for region of interest into most semantic objects. The segmentation was evaluated on three publicly available datasets. Experimental results show that preprocessing stage achieves better results compared to state-of-the-art enhancement methods. The performance of the proposed graph-based segmentation is found to be consistent and comparable to other existing methods, with improved capability of detecting small/thin vessels.

  12. Convex optimization of coincidence time resolution for a high-resolution PET system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Paul D; Olcott, Peter D; Pratx, Guillem; Lau, Frances W Y; Levin, Craig S

    2011-02-01

    We are developing a dual panel breast-dedicated positron emission tomography (PET) system using LSO scintillators coupled to position sensitive avalanche photodiodes (PSAPD). The charge output is amplified and read using NOVA RENA-3 ASICs. This paper shows that the coincidence timing resolution of the RENA-3 ASIC can be improved using certain list-mode calibrations. We treat the calibration problem as a convex optimization problem and use the RENA-3's analog-based timing system to correct the measured data for time dispersion effects from correlated noise, PSAPD signal delays and varying signal amplitudes. The direct solution to the optimization problem involves a matrix inversion that grows order (n(3)) with the number of parameters. An iterative method using single-coordinate descent to approximate the inversion grows order (n). The inversion does not need to run to convergence, since any gains at high iteration number will be low compared to noise amplification. The system calibration method is demonstrated with measured pulser data as well as with two LSO-PSAPD detectors in electronic coincidence. After applying the algorithm, the 511 keV photopeak paired coincidence time resolution from the LSO-PSAPD detectors under study improved by 57%, from the raw value of 16.3 ±0.07 ns full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) to 6.92 ±0.02 ns FWHM ( 11.52 ±0.05 ns to 4.89 ±0.02 ns for unpaired photons).

  13. Double Photon Emission Coincidence Imaging using GAGG-SiPM pixel detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazoe, K.; Uenomachi, M.; Mizumachi, Y.; Takahashi, H.; Masao, Y.; Shoji, Y.; Kamada, K.; Yoshikawa, A.

    2017-12-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography(SPECT) is a useful medical imaging modality using single photon detection from radioactive tracers, such as 99Tc and 111In, however further development of increasing the contrast in the image is still under investigation. A novel method (Double Photon Emission CT / DPECT) using a coincidence detection of two cascade gamma-rays from 111In is proposed and characterized in this study. 111In, which is well-known and commonly used as a SPECT tracer, emits two cascade photons of 171 keV and 245 keV with a short delay of approximately 85 ns. The coincidence detection of two gamma-rays theoretically determines the position in a single point compared with a line in single photon detection and increases the signal to noise ratio drastically. A fabricated pixel detector for this purpose consists of 8 × 8 array of high-resolution type 1.5 mm thickness Ce:GAGG (3.9% @ 662 keV, 6.63g/cm3, C&A Co. Ce:Gd3Ga2.7Al2.3O12 2.5 × 2.5 × 1.5 mm3) crystals coupled a 3 mm pixel SiPM array (Hamamatsu MPPC S13361-2050NS-08). The signal from each pixel is processed and readout using time over threshold (TOT) based parallel processing circuit to extract the energy and timing information. The coincidence was detected by FPGA with the frequency of 400 MHz. Two pixel detectors coupled to parallel-hole collimators are located at the degree of 90 to determine the position and coincidence events (time window =1 μs) are detected and used for making back-projection image. The basic principle of DPECT is characterized including the detection efficiency and timing resolution.

  14. Electrolyte and acid/base changes in dogs undergoing autologous blood transfusion via a cell salvage device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Jodie L; Thieman Mankin, Kelley M; Levine, Gwendolyn J; Thompson, James

    2015-09-01

    This study reports electrolyte and acid/base disturbances observed in clinical cases receiving autologous transfusion of blood processed by a cell salvage device. The records of 12 client-owned dogs that received an autologous transfusion via a cell salvage device with pre- and post-autologous transfusion blood work available were reviewed. Blood work from the 12 case dogs was compared to blood work from 12 control dogs with similar diseases. Control dogs received similar surgical treatment and were administered a similar volume per kg of packed red blood cells as case dogs, but did not undergo autologous transfusion. Case dogs that received autologous transfusion via a cell salvage device were significantly more likely to experience a decrease in ionized calcium and magnesium levels post-transfusion than were control dogs. Calcium and magnesium levels should be closely monitored during and after autologous transfusion. Calcium and/or magnesium supplementation may be required.

  15. Non-invasive blood glucose detection system based on conservation of energy method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Zhu, Jian-Ming; Liang, Yong-Bo; Chen, Hong-Bo; Yin, Shi-Min; Chen, Zhen-Cheng

    2017-02-01

    The most common method used for minimizing the occurrence of diabetes complications is frequent glucose testing to adjust the insulin dose. However, using blood glucose (BG) meters presents a risk of infection. It is of great importance to develop non-invasive BG detection techniques. To realize high-accuracy, low-cost and continuous glucose monitoring, we have developed a non-invasive BG detection system using a mixed signal processor 430 (MSP430) microcontroller. This method is based on the combination of the conservation-of-energy method with a sensor integration module, which collects physiological parameters, such as the blood oxygen saturation (SPO2), blood flow velocity and heart rate. New methods to detect the basal metabolic rate (BMR) and BV are proposed, which combine the human body heat balance and characteristic signals of photoplethysmography as well dual elastic chambers theory. Four hundred clinical trials on real-time non-invasive BG monitoring under suitable experiment conditions were performed on different individuals, including diabetic patients, senior citizens and healthy adults. A multisensory information fusion model was applied to process these samples. The algorithm (we defined it as DCBPN algorithm) applied in the model combines a decision tree and back propagation neural network, which classifies the physiological and environmental parameters into three categories, and then establishes a corresponding prediction model for the three categories. The DCBPN algorithm provides an accuracy of 88.53% in predicting the BG of new samples. Thus, this system demonstrates a great potential to reliably detect BG values in a non-invasive setting.

  16. Development and validation of a rapid, aldehyde dehydrogenase bright-based cord blood potency assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoulars, Kevin; Noldner, Pamela; Troy, Jesse D; Cheatham, Lynn; Parrish, Amanda; Page, Kristin; Gentry, Tracy; Balber, Andrew E; Kurtzberg, Joanne

    2016-05-12

    Banked, unrelated umbilical cord blood provides access to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for patients lacking matched bone marrow donors, yet 10% to 15% of patients experience graft failure or delayed engraftment. This may be due, at least in part, to inadequate potency of the selected cord blood unit (CBU). CBU potency is typically assessed before cryopreservation, neglecting changes in potency occurring during freezing and thawing. Colony-forming units (CFUs) have been previously shown to predict CBU potency, defined as the ability to engraft in patients by day 42 posttransplant. However, the CFU assay is difficult to standardize and requires 2 weeks to perform. Consequently, we developed a rapid multiparameter flow cytometric CBU potency assay that enumerates cells expressing high levels of the enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH bright [ALDH(br)]), along with viable CD45(+) or CD34(+) cell content. These measurements are made on a segment that was attached to a cryopreserved CBU. We validated the assay with prespecified criteria testing accuracy, specificity, repeatability, intermediate precision, and linearity. We then prospectively examined the correlations among ALDH(br), CD34(+), and CFU content of 3908 segments over a 5-year period. ALDH(br) (r = 0.78; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.76-0.79), but not CD34(+) (r = 0.25; 95% CI, 0.22-0.28), was strongly correlated with CFU content as well as ALDH(br) content of the CBU. These results suggest that the ALDH(br) segment assay (based on unit characteristics measured before release) is a reliable assessment of potency that allows rapid selection and release of CBUs from the cord blood bank to the transplant center for transplantation. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  17. Development and validation of a rapid, aldehyde dehydrogenase bright–based cord blood potency assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noldner, Pamela; Troy, Jesse D.; Cheatham, Lynn; Parrish, Amanda; Page, Kristin; Gentry, Tracy; Balber, Andrew E.; Kurtzberg, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Banked, unrelated umbilical cord blood provides access to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for patients lacking matched bone marrow donors, yet 10% to 15% of patients experience graft failure or delayed engraftment. This may be due, at least in part, to inadequate potency of the selected cord blood unit (CBU). CBU potency is typically assessed before cryopreservation, neglecting changes in potency occurring during freezing and thawing. Colony-forming units (CFUs) have been previously shown to predict CBU potency, defined as the ability to engraft in patients by day 42 posttransplant. However, the CFU assay is difficult to standardize and requires 2 weeks to perform. Consequently, we developed a rapid multiparameter flow cytometric CBU potency assay that enumerates cells expressing high levels of the enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH bright [ALDHbr]), along with viable CD45+ or CD34+ cell content. These measurements are made on a segment that was attached to a cryopreserved CBU. We validated the assay with prespecified criteria testing accuracy, specificity, repeatability, intermediate precision, and linearity. We then prospectively examined the correlations among ALDHbr, CD34+, and CFU content of 3908 segments over a 5-year period. ALDHbr (r = 0.78; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.76-0.79), but not CD34+ (r = 0.25; 95% CI, 0.22-0.28), was strongly correlated with CFU content as well as ALDHbr content of the CBU. These results suggest that the ALDHbr segment assay (based on unit characteristics measured before release) is a reliable assessment of potency that allows rapid selection and release of CBUs from the cord blood bank to the transplant center for transplantation. PMID:26968535

  18. Diagnosis of Morquio Syndrome in Dried Blood Spots Based on a New MRM-MS Assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Cozma

    Full Text Available Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA; Morquio A disease is an autosomal recessive disease caused and characterized by a decreased activity of N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase (GALNS, resulting in accumulation of keratan sulfate and chondroitin-6-sulfate in tissues and secondary organ damage. Recently approved enzyme replacement therapy renders the easy and early identification of MPS IVA of out-most importance.We propose a completely new assay for the stable and reproducible detection of GALNS deficiency in dry blood spots (DBS. For the validation blood samples were taken from 59 healthy individuals and 24 randomly selected genetically confirmed MPS IVA patients. The material extracted from DBS was incubated with a 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-D-galactopyranoside-6-sulfate as a specific substrate. Final enzymatic product, 4-methylumbelliferone, obtained after adding exogenous beta-galactosidase, was quantified by LC/MRM-MS (liquid-chromatography/multiple-reaction-monitoring mass-spectrometry. 4-propyl-5-hydroxy-7-methyl-2h-chromen-2-one was used as internal standard, a compound with a similar molecular structure and fragmentation pattern in negative ion mode as 4-methylumbelliferone.The enzymatic assay yielded a positive and negative predictive value of 1.0 for genetically confirmed MPS IVA patients (GALNS activity of 0.35 ± 0.21 μmol/L/h and for controls with normal GALNS activity (23.1 ± 5.3 μmol/L /h. With present enzymatic conditions, the reaction yield in dried blood spots is at least 20 fold higher than any previously reported data with other assays.The present LC/MRM-MS based assay for MPS IVA diagnosis provides an easy, highly-standardized, accurate and innovative quantification of the enzymatic product in vitro and distinguishes perfectly between MPS IVA affected patients and normal controls. This technique will significantly simplify the early detection of MPS IVA patients.

  19. Coincidence corrected efficiency calibration of Compton-suppressed HPGe detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aucott, Timothy [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Brand, Alexander [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); DiPrete, David [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-04-20

    The authors present a reliable method to calibrate the full-energy efficiency and the coincidence correction factors using a commonly-available mixed source gamma standard. This is accomplished by measuring the peak areas from both summing and non-summing decay schemes and simultaneously fitting both the full-energy efficiency, as well as the total efficiency, as functions of energy. By using known decay schemes, these functions can then be used to provide correction factors for other nuclides not included in the calibration standard.

  20. gamma-ray anisotropy measurement in coincidence mode

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang Yong; LiuMinLiang; Liu Zhong; He Jian Jun; Guo Ying Xiang; Lei Xiang Guo; Zhang Yu Hu; Luo Wan Ju

    2002-01-01

    In order to assign gamma-ray multipolarity, a method of ADO ratios deduced from coincidence data has been described. The factors affecting the reliability of the ADO ratios have been discussed using an experimental detector configuration. The multipolarities for known gamma rays deduced by the ADO method are consistent with the previous results obtained from gamma-ray angular distribution and DCO ratio measurements. This consistence proves that the ADO method is reliable. The advantages of the ADO method over the traditional DCO ratio measurement have been discussed

  1. Coincident systemic lupus erythematosus and psoriasis vulgaris: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Da, G; Yu, Y; Han, J; Li, H

    2015-12-01

    Psoriasis vulgaris is an autoimmune chronic inflammatory skin disease, but its association with other typical autoimmune disease such as systemic lupus erythematosus has only occasionally been reported. We presented a 25-year-old female who developed systemic lupus erythematosus associated with psoriasis vulgaris. Her conditions were in good control after she got administration of prednisolone (5 mg/day) and Tripterygium Wilfordii Hook (20 mg/day). It is necessary to integrate past history and physical examination to diagnose coincident SLE and psoriasis, and combined treatment with prednisolone and Tripterygium Wilfordii Hook proves effective.

  2. Joint Effect of Non-invasive Central Systolic Blood Pressure and Peripheral Systolic Blood Pressure on Incident Hypertension in a Chinese Community-based Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shixuan; Zhou, Zechen; Fan, Fangfang; Qi, Litong; Jia, Jia; Sun, Pengfei; Jiang, Yimeng; Kou, Minghao; Chen, Dafang; Zhang, Yan; Huo, Yong

    2018-02-19

    Central blood pressure level is not always consistent with peripheral blood pressure level, and especially their joint effect on incident hypertension is not well established. A total of 1607 non-hypertensive subjects from an atherosclerosis cohort in Beijing, China were included. Central systolic blood pressure (cSBP) was obtained using Omron HEM-9000AI machine and peripheral systolic blood pressure (pSBP) was measured using Omron HEM-7117 electronic sphygmomanometer, separately. Hypertension was defined as BP ≥ 140/90 mmHg or self-reported hypertension or taking any antihypertension drugs at the follow-up survey. After a median follow-up of 2.3 years, incident hypertension was 13.1%. Every 1 standard deviation increase of cSBP and pSBP was associated with 1.98 (95%CI: 1.69-2.33) and 2.84 (95%CI: 2.30-3.52) times of incident hypertension after adjustment for confounders. Moreover, hypertension risk in single pSBP ≥ 120 mmHg group, single cSBP ≥ 120 mmHg group, and both pSBP and cSBP ≥ 120 mmHg group was 2.83 (95%CI: 0.98-8.16), 3.28 (95%CI: 1.24-8.70), and 11.47 (95%CI: 4.97-26.46) times higher than both pSBP and cSBP < 120 mmHg group, respectively. The joint effect of cSBP and pSBP is superior to either cSBP or pSBP to predict incident hypertension in a Chinese community-based population. Screening of central blood pressure should be considered in non-hypertensive population for the purpose of primary intervention, especially for subjects with pSBP ≥ 120 mmHg.

  3. Influence of saline-based hydroxyethyl starch on umbilical cord blood electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatabe, Tomoaki; Nishigaki, Atsushi; Tamura, Takahiko; Yokoyama, Masataka

    2017-04-01

    Hydroxyethyl starch (HES) is widely used to prevent and treat spinal anesthesia-induced hypotension during cesarean section. However, the use of saline-based HES may lead to hyperchloremia. This study aimed to clarify the effects of saline-based HES on umbilical cord chloride level at delivery. We retrospectively analyzed 93 consecutive single-pregnancy patients who underwent cesarean section with combined spinal-epidural anesthesia. The patients were divided into two groups, depending on the use of 6% HES 130/0.4: group A (461 ± 167 ml of saline-based HES was administered; 43 patients) and group B (HES not administered; 50 patients). The major outcome was umbilical cord chloride level at delivery. The volume infused from operating room admission until delivery was not significantly different between groups. The umbilical cord chloride level at delivery was statistically significantly higher in group A than in group B, but clinically similar (108 ± 2 vs. 107 ± 2 mmol/l, P = 0.02). No differences were observed in the Apgar score or other umbilical cord laboratory data at delivery (Na(+), K(+), pH, base excess). In conclusion, we suggest that although the use of up to 500 ml of saline-based HES during cesarean section influences umbilical cord blood electrolytes, the effect is not of a clinically significant magnitude.

  4. Effects of intravenous solutions on acid-base equilibrium: from crystalloids to colloids and blood components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Thomas; Ferrari, Michele; Zazzeron, Luca; Gattinoni, Luciano; Caironi, Pietro

    2014-01-01

    Intravenous fluid administration is a medical intervention performed worldwide on a daily basis. Nevertheless, only a few physicians are aware of the characteristics of intravenous fluids and their possible effects on plasma acid-base equilibrium. According to Stewart's theory, pH is independently regulated by three variables: partial pressure of carbon dioxide, strong ion difference (SID), and total amount of weak acids (ATOT). When fluids are infused, plasma SID and ATOT tend toward the SID and ATOT of the administered fluid. Depending on their composition, fluids can therefore lower, increase, or leave pH unchanged. As a general rule, crystalloids having a SID greater than plasma bicarbonate concentration (HCO₃-) cause an increase in plasma pH (alkalosis), those having a SID lower than HCO₃- cause a decrease in plasma pH (acidosis), while crystalloids with a SID equal to HCO₃- leave pH unchanged, regardless of the extent of the dilution. Colloids and blood components are composed of a crystalloid solution as solvent, and the abovementioned rules partially hold true also for these fluids. The scenario is however complicated by the possible presence of weak anions (albumin, phosphates and gelatins) and their effect on plasma pH. The present manuscript summarises the characteristics of crystalloids, colloids, buffer solutions and blood components and reviews their effect on acid-base equilibrium. Understanding the composition of intravenous fluids, along with the application of simple physicochemical rules best described by Stewart's approach, are pivotal steps to fully elucidate and predict alterations of plasma acid-base equilibrium induced by fluid therapy.

  5. Retinal blood vessels segmentation by using Gumbel probability distribution function based matched filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nagendra Pratap; Srivastava, Rajeev

    2016-06-01

    Retinal blood vessel segmentation is a prominent task for the diagnosis of various retinal pathology such as hypertension, diabetes, glaucoma, etc. In this paper, a novel matched filter approach with the Gumbel probability distribution function as its kernel is introduced to improve the performance of retinal blood vessel segmentation. Before applying the proposed matched filter, the input retinal images are pre-processed. During pre-processing stage principal component analysis (PCA) based gray scale conversion followed by contrast limited adaptive histogram equalization (CLAHE) are applied for better enhancement of retinal image. After that an exhaustive experiments have been conducted for selecting the appropriate value of parameters to design a new matched filter. The post-processing steps after applying the proposed matched filter include the entropy based optimal thresholding and length filtering to obtain the segmented image. For evaluating the performance of proposed approach, the quantitative performance measures, an average accuracy, average true positive rate (ATPR), and average false positive rate (AFPR) are calculated. The respective values of the quantitative performance measures are 0.9522, 0.7594, 0.0292 for DRIVE data set and 0.9270, 0.7939, 0.0624 for STARE data set. To justify the effectiveness of proposed approach, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve is plotted and the average area under the curve (AUC) is calculated. The average AUC for DRIVE and STARE data sets are 0.9287 and 0.9140 respectively. The obtained experimental results confirm that the proposed approach performance better with respect to other prominent Gaussian distribution function and Cauchy PDF based matched filter approaches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Development and practice evaluation of blood acid-base imbalance analysis software].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bo; Huang, Haiying; Zhou, Qiang; Peng, Shan; Jia, Hongyu; Ji, Tianxing

    2014-11-01

    To develop a blood gas, acid-base imbalance analysis computer software to diagnose systematically, rapidly, accurately and automatically determine acid-base imbalance type, and evaluate the clinical application. Using VBA programming language, a computer aided diagnostic software for the judgment of acid-base balance was developed. The clinical data of 220 patients admitted to the Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University were retrospectively analyzed. The arterial blood gas [pH value, HCO(3)(-), arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO₂)] and electrolytes included data (Na⁺ and Cl⁻) were collected. Data were entered into the software for acid-base imbalances judgment. At the same time the data generation was calculated manually by H-H compensation formula for determining the type of acid-base imbalance. The consistency of judgment results from software and manual calculation was evaluated, and the judgment time of two methods was compared. The clinical diagnosis of the types of acid-base imbalance for the 220 patients: 65 cases were normal, 90 cases with simple type, mixed type in 41 cases, and triplex type in 24 cases. The accuracy of the judgment results of the normal and triplex types from computer software compared with which were calculated manually was 100%, the accuracy of the simple type judgment was 98.9% and 78.0% for the mixed type, and the total accuracy was 95.5%. The Kappa value of judgment result from software and manual judgment was 0.935, P=0.000. It was demonstrated that the consistency was very good. The time for software to determine acid-base imbalances was significantly shorter than the manual judgment (seconds:18.14 ± 3.80 vs. 43.79 ± 23.86, t=7.466, P=0.000), so the method of software was much faster than the manual method. Software judgment can replace manual judgment with the characteristics of rapid, accurate and convenient, can improve work efficiency and quality of clinical doctors and has great

  7. Identification of gene-based responses in human blood cells exposed to alpha particle radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Vinita; Howland, Matthew; Wilkins, Ruth

    2014-07-12

    The threat of a terrorist-precipitated nuclear event places humans at danger for radiological exposures. Isotopes which emit alpha (α)-particle radiation pose the highest risk. Currently, gene expression signatures are being developed for radiation biodosimetry and triage with respect to ionizing photon radiation. This study was designed to determine if similar gene expression profiles are obtained after exposures involving α-particles. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were used to identify sensitive and robust gene-based biomarkers of α-particle radiation exposure. Cells were isolated from healthy individuals and were irradiated at doses ranging from 0-1.5 Gy. Microarray technology was employed to identify transcripts that were differentially expressed relative to unirradiated cells 24 hours post-exposure. Statistical analysis identified modulated genes at each of the individual doses. Twenty-nine genes were common to all doses with expression levels ranging from 2-10 fold relative to control treatment group. This subset of genes was further assessed in independent complete white blood cell (WBC) populations exposed to either α-particles or X-rays using quantitative real-time PCR. This 29 gene panel was responsive in the α-particle exposed WBCs and was shown to exhibit differential fold-changes compared to X-irradiated cells, though no α-particle specific transcripts were identified. Current gene panels for photon radiation may also be applicable for use in α-particle radiation biodosimetry.

  8. Development, validation and applications of the monocyte activation test for pyrogens based on human whole blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Stefanie; von Aulock, Sonja; Daneshian, Mardas; Hartung, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Microorganisms such as Gram-negative or Gram-positive bacteria, viruses and fungi contain components that activate the innate immune system. These components, called pyrogens (Greek: pyros=fire), can occur independently of viable microorganisms and are a major safety concern in parenterally administered drugs, since they can cause severe reactions such as fever, organ failure, and shock in the recipient. So far these drugs have been tested by injecting them intravenously into rabbits and measuring their fever reaction or, alternatively, by the Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate (LAL) test, employing the coagulation of the hemolymph lysate of Limulus polyphemus. Both tests have inherent limitations. A new in vitro monocyte activation test (MAT) based on human whole blood, capable of measuring all pyrogens relevant to the human patient, introduced in this journal in 1995, was validated and recently accepted by European Pharmacopoeia and US FDA. This review describes its principle, development, validation and the wide spectrum of applications, such as for testing of medical devices, blood products, toxic or immunomodulatory drugs, dialysis liquids, lipidic parenterals, and air quality. This alternative method promises to replace the rabbit pyrogen test fully and to overcome several limitations of the LAL assay.

  9. Chaos based blood glucose noninvasive measurement: new concept and custom study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Non invasive monitoring of Blood Glucose (BG has been a challenge calling for new accurate and fast measurement methods. Objective. To propose new concept of chaos based BG non invasive test aiming at personal customization requirements. Methods. First to build the compact RC model of tissue BG through impedance precision measuring Kit, then to simulate and soft-test BG by Boolean chaotic Codec circuits in soft tool Multisim 13.0, The third to capture the chaotic decoding outputs with the Kit plus PC in calculated signatures of resistor and phase of the tested impedance at the subjects’ left wrist in synchronous test by Bayer BG meter. Results. All in controlled trials of Bayer BG meter, the chaotic BG modelling had gained three new compared formulae in merits of errors less than 1mmol/L and latency less than 1minute. Conclusion. During further verification of this chaotic test paradigm, the opened logic route of above methods will boost measurement experts’ confidence in overcoming future problems of blood glucose monitoring in vivo.

  10. Roles of Renal Proximal Tubule Transport in Acid/Base Balance and Blood Pressure Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motonobu Nakamura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sodium-coupled bicarbonate absorption from renal proximal tubules (PTs plays a pivotal role in the maintenance of systemic acid/base balance. Indeed, mutations in the Na+-HCO3- cotransporter NBCe1, which mediates a majority of bicarbonate exit from PTs, cause severe proximal renal tubular acidosis associated with ocular and other extrarenal abnormalities. Sodium transport in PTs also plays an important role in the regulation of blood pressure. For example, PT transport stimulation by insulin may be involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension associated with insulin resistance. Type 1 angiotensin (Ang II receptors in PT are critical for blood pressure homeostasis. Paradoxically, the effects of Ang II on PT transport are known to be biphasic. Unlike in other species, however, Ang II is recently shown to dose-dependently stimulate human PT transport via nitric oxide/cGMP/ERK pathway, which may represent a novel therapeutic target in human hypertension. In this paper, we will review the physiological and pathophysiological roles of PT transport.

  11. A bioimage informatics based reconstruction of breast tumor microvasculature with computational blood flow predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatelos, Spyros K; Kim, Eugene; Pathak, Arvind P; Popel, Aleksander S

    2014-01-01

    Induction of tumor angiogenesis is among the hallmarks of cancer and a driver of metastatic cascade initiation. Recent advances in high-resolution imaging enable highly detailed three-dimensional geometrical representation of the whole-tumor microvascular architecture. This enormous increase in complexity of image-based data necessitates the application of informatics methods for the analysis, mining and reconstruction of these spatial graph data structures. We present a novel methodology that combines ex-vivo high-resolution micro-computed tomography imaging data with a bioimage informatics algorithm to track and reconstruct the whole-tumor vasculature of a human breast cancer model. The reconstructed tumor vascular network is used as an input of a computational model that estimates blood flow in each segment of the tumor microvascular network. This formulation involves a well-established biophysical model and an optimization algorithm that ensures mass balance and detailed monitoring of all the vessels that feed and drain blood from the tumor microvascular network. Perfusion maps for the whole-tumor microvascular network are computed. Morphological and hemodynamic indices from different regions are compared to infer their role in overall tumor perfusion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Genetic characteristic of swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) from Pampangan, South Sumatra based on blood protein profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windusari, Yuanita; Hanum, Laila; Wahyudi, Rizki

    2017-11-01

    Swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is an endemic species and one of the genetic wealth of South Sumatra with a distribution area in the district of Pampangan (OganIlir and OganOganIlir). Suspected inbreeding causes decreased phenotypic properties. Inbreeding among various swamp buffalo is certainly not only lower the qualities but also genotypes and phenotypes. It is of interest to determine kinship variants swamp buffaloes from Pampangan through the analysis of a blood protein profile. Blood protein profile of four variants swamps buffalo was studied by using five electrophoresis system i.e. pre-albumin (Palb), albumin (Alb), ceruloplasmin (Cp), transferrin (Tf) and transferrin post (Ptf). In this paper, it is obtained that there was no significant differences among the four variants of the buffaloes were used as a sample. Prealbumin has two alleles (Palb1 and Palb2), albumin has three alleles (Alba, AlbB, AlbC), ceruloplasmin has one allele (BPA), post-transferrin has one allele (PTFA) with an allele frequency 1.0000 at any time transferrin has two alleles (TFA and TFB) with the allele frequency of 0.7500 and 1.0000. Characteristics prealbumin (Palb), albumin (Alb), ceruloplasmin (Cp), and post-transferrin (P-tf) is monomorphic, while transferrin is polymorphic average heterozygosity values all loci (H) 0.1286. Based on average heterozygosity, the swamp buffalo (Bubalusbubalis) from Pampangan has low genetic variation and closest genetic relationship.

  13. Effectiveness of physical activity promotion in blood pressure and blood sugar reduction: A community-based intervention study in rural south India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subitha Lakshminarayanan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Physical activity of moderate intensity for 30 minutes a day, on most days substantially reduces the risk of many chronic diseases. Aim: To assess the effect of regular physical activity on blood pressure and blood sugar levels in a rural Indian community Settings and Design: This community-based study was carried out in Periakattupalayam and Rangareddipalayam in south India, with 485 subjects, aged 20 to 49 years. Materials and Methods: The study was done in five phases: Awareness campaign, baseline assessment of participants, intervention phase (10 weeks, interim, and final assessment. Physical activity of moderate intensity (brisk walking for 30 minutes on four days / week was promoted by forming 30 small walking groups, in a home-based setting, with professional supervision. Village leaders and Self-Help Group members were the resource people for the promotion of physical activity. Statistical Analysis: Analysis was done by using paired ′t′ test; the ′Intention-to-Treat′ approach was utilized for the interpretation of the findings of the study. Results: Of the 485 subjects, 265 (54.6% complied with walking on more than four days / week, while 156 (32.2% walked on one to four days / week, and 64 (13.2% dropped out during the intervention period. This study has shown that a 10-week intervention to promote physical activity was effective in significantly decreasing the population′s BP by 1.56 / 0.74 mm Hg, fasting blood sugar levels by 2.82 mg%, body weight by 0.17 kg, and BMI by 0.06 kg / m 2 . Conclusions: This study has proved the functional feasibility of enabling people to undertake physical activity in a rural Indian community, and the effectiveness of using physical activity, to significantly reduce the population′s mean BP and blood sugar levels.

  14. Is there another coincidence problem at the reionization epoch?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombriser, Lucas; Smer-Barreto, Vanessa

    2017-12-01

    The cosmological coincidences between the matter and radiation energy densities at recombination as well as between the densities of matter and the cosmological constant at the present time are well known. We point out that, moreover, the third intersection between the energy densities of radiation and the cosmological constant coincides with the reionization epoch. To quantify the statistical relevance of this concurrence, we compute the Bayes factor between the concordance cosmology with free Thomson scattering optical depth and a model for which this parameter is inferred from imposing a match between the time of density equality and the epoch of reionization. This is to characterize the potential explanatory gain if one were to find a parameter-free physical connection. We find a very strong preference for such a concurrence on the Jeffreys scale from current cosmological observations. We furthermore discuss the effect of the choice of priors, changes in reionization history, and free sum of neutrino masses. We also estimate the impact of adding intermediate polarization data from the Planck High Frequency Instrument and prospects for future 21 cm surveys. In the first case, the preference for the correlation remains substantial, whereas future data may give results more decisive in pro or substantial in contra of it. Finally, we provide a discussion on different interpretations of these findings. In particular, we show how a connection between the star-formation history and the cosmological background dynamics can give rise to this concurrence.

  15. Coincidence-anticipation timing requirements are different in racket sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpinar, Selçuk; Devrilmez, Erhan; Kirazci, Sadettin

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the coincidence-anticipation timing accuracy of athletes of different racket sports with various stimulus velocity requirements. Ninety players (15 girls, 15 boys for each sport) from tennis (M age = 12.4 yr., SD = 1.4), badminton (M age = 12.5 yr., SD = 1.4), and table tennis (M age = 12.4 yr., SD = 1.2) participated in this study. Three different stimulus velocities, low, moderate, and high, were used to simulate the velocity requirements of these racket sports. Tennis players had higher accuracy when they performed under the low stimulus velocity compared to badminton and table tennis players. Badminton players performed better under the moderate speed comparing to tennis and table tennis players. Table tennis players had better performance than tennis and badminton players under the high stimulus velocity. Therefore, visual and motor systems of players from different racket sports may adapt to a stimulus velocity in coincidence-anticipation timing, which is specific to each type of racket sports.

  16. Distribution patterns and coincidence of sesamoid bones at metatarsophalangeal joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tao; Zhao, Haitao; Wang, Lingxiang; Wu, Wenjuan; Hu, Wenhai

    2017-04-01

    Our aim was to identify the incidence and distribution of sesamoid bones plantar to the metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joints in adults, and to evaluate patterns of coincidence among these sesamoid bones. We conducted a retrospective review of 7949 plain radiographs obtained from patients evaluated for foot trauma or symptomology. Associations between the distributions of MTP sesamoid bones as well as the association of age, sex, and laterality with identified prevalence, distribution, and coincidence were evaluated using Spearman's correlation coefficient. Overall, 17,060 sesamoid bones were identified for 9005 MTP joints, with 16 distinctive distribution patterns. Among possible patterns, we identified a prevalence rate of complete absence of MTP sesamoid of 0.04 %, of a single sesamoid at the hallux of 89.08 % of radiographs; and of sesamoid at ≥2 MTP joints of 10.88 %. The presence of a sesamoid at the hallux was consistent, and was not correlated with the presence or absence of a sesamoid bone at one of the other MTP joints (P > 0.05). However, there was a positive correlation between the presence and absence of sesamoid bones at any two of the other four MTP joints (P joints with sesamoids (P < 0.001). Information from this study would assist clinicians in the diagnosis of patients presenting with pain and discomfort of the foot after trauma and overuse, as well as contribute a robust data set for research in forensic science and anthropology.

  17. Pharmacological mechanisms in the cardiovascular effects of DCLHb, a hemoglobin based blood substitute

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Gulati (Anil)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThe search for a clinically useful blood substitute has been stimulated by the inherent limitations of the homologous blood transfusion system, particularly its sufficiency, safety and costs. Blood has been described as the "most complicated fluid in animals" (Winslow, 1992). An attempt

  18. Treatment of hypertension based on measurement of blood pressure variability: lessons from animal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ding-Feng

    2006-09-01

    Blood pressure variability, a quantitative index for the spontaneous variation in blood pressure, has been proposed as a risk factor for end-organ damage and to determine the efficacy of hypertension treatment. Animal studies indicate that blood pressure variability is as important as blood pressure level in determining end-organ damage, and that high blood pressure variability is associated with end-organ damage, including myocardial lesions, aortic hypertrophy, vascular remodeling and renal damage. Although the organ damage induced by high blood pressure variability was similar to that induced by hypertension, comparative studies in sinoaortic-denervated and spontaneously hypertensive rats revealed that aortic hypertrophy is a sensitive index of high blood pressure variability, and left ventricular hypertrophy is a sensitive index of high blood pressure level. The possible mechanisms for high blood pressure variability-induced end-organ damage include: direct endothelial lesions, renin-angiotensin system activation, inflammation initiation and cardiomyocyte apoptosis augmentation. Blood pressure variability reduction contributes importantly to the organ-protective effect of some antihypertensive drugs. Although animal studies suggest some advantages in blood pressure variability measurements, clinical trials are necessary before the widespread use of blood pressure variability as a predictor of hypertensive organ damage and a new strategy for the treatment of hypertension.

  19. Proposed Application of Fast Fourier Transform in Near Infra Red Based Non Invasive Blood Glucose Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenie, R. P.; Iskandar, J.; Kurniawan, A.; Rustami, E.; Syafutra, H.; Nurdin, N. M.; Handoyo, T.; Prabowo, J.; Febryarto, R.; Rahayu, M. S. K.; Damayanthi, E.; Rimbawan; Sukandar, D.; Suryana, Y.; Irzaman; Alatas, H.

    2017-03-01

    Worldwide emergence of glycaemic status related health disorders, such as diabetes and metabolic syndrome, is growing in alarming rate. The objective was to propose new methods for non invasive blood glucose level measurement system, based on implementation of Fast Fourier Transform methods. This was an initial-lab-scale-research. Data on non invasive blood glucose measurement are referred from Scopus, Medline, and Google Scholar, from 2011 until 2016, and was used as design references, combined with in house verification. System was developed in modular fashion, based on aforementioned compiled references. Several preliminary tests to understand relationship between LED and photo-diode responses have been done. Several references were used as non invasive blood glucose measurement tools design basis. Solution is developed in modular fashion. we have proven different sensor responses to water and glucose. Human test for non invasive blood glucose level measurement system is needed.

  20. Fluorescent blood glucose monitor by hemin-functionalized graphene quantum dots based sensing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Yuezhen; Wang, Xiaoxun; Sun, Jian; Jiao, Shoufeng; Chen, Hongqi; Gao, Feng; Wang, Lun, E-mail: wanglun@mail.ahnu.edu.cn

    2014-01-31

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Hemin is assembled onto the surfaces of graphene quantum dots (GQDs). •With the aid of hemin, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} could quench the FL signal of GQDs obviously. •Based on this effect, a fluorescent platform is proposed for the sensing of glucose. •The proposed method provides a new pathway to explore practical application of GQDs. -- Abstract: In the present work, a highly sensitive and specific fluorescent biosensor for blood glucose monitoring is developed based on hemin-functionalized graphene quantum dots (GQDs) and glucose oxidase (GOx) system. The GQDs which are simply prepared by pyrolyzing citric acid exhibit strong fluorescence and good water-solubility. Due to the noncovalent assembly between hemin and GQDs, the addition of hemin can make hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) to destroy the passivated surface of GQDs, leading to significant fluorescence quenching of GQDs. Based on this effect, a novel fluorescent platform is proposed for the sensing of glucose. Under the optimized conditions, the linear range of glucose is from 9 to 300 μM, and the limit of detection is 0.1 μM. As unique properties of GQDs, the proposed biosensor is green, simple, cost-efficient, and it is successfully applied to the determination of glucose in human serum. In addition, the proposed method provides a new pathway to further design the biosensors based on the assembly of GQDs with hemin for detection of biomolecules.

  1. Agent based modeling of blood coagulation system: implementation using a GPU based high speed framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenan; Ward, Kevin; Li, Qi; Kecman, Vojislav; Najarian, Kayvan; Menke, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    The coagulation and fibrinolytic systems are complex, inter-connected biological systems with major physiological roles. The complex, nonlinear multi-point relationships between the molecular and cellular constituents of two systems render a comprehensive and simultaneous study of the system at the microscopic and macroscopic level a significant challenge. We have created an Agent Based Modeling and Simulation (ABMS) approach for simulating these complex interactions. As the scale of agents increase, the time complexity and cost of the resulting simulations presents a significant challenge. As such, in this paper, we also present a high-speed framework for the coagulation simulation utilizing the computing power of graphics processing units (GPU). For comparison, we also implemented the simulations in NetLogo, Repast, and a direct C version. As our experiments demonstrate, the computational speed of the GPU implementation of the million-level scale of agents is over 10 times faster versus the C version, over 100 times faster versus the Repast version and over 300 times faster versus the NetLogo simulation.

  2. Model-Based Oscillometric Blood Pressure Measurement: Preliminary Validation in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiankun; Cheng, Hao-min; Chen, Chen-Huan; Sung, Shih-Hsien; Hahn, Jin-Oh; Mukkamala, Ramakrishna

    2015-01-01

    We conceived new oscillometric blood pressure (BP) estimation methods based on physical modeling. The crux of these methods is to simultaneously estimate the arterial stiffness and BP of the patient from a standard oscillometric waveform. Hence, in contrast to previous methods, the BP estimation is specific to the patient at the time of measurement and is robust against arterial stiffening. We conducted initial testing of one of the methods against invasive reference brachial BP measurements in eight cardiac catheterization patients before and after nitroglycerin infusions. The method achieved systolic, diastolic and mean BP root-mean-squared-errors of 7.2, 7.6 and 6.7 mmHg. These errors were, on average, 40% lower than an existing high-end method. PMID:25570365

  3. Calculating acid-base and oxygenation status during COPD exacerbation using mathematically arterialised venous blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rees, Stephen Edward; Rychwicka-Kielek, Beate A; Andersen, Bjarne F

    2012-01-01

    for exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods: Simultaneous arterial and peripheral venous blood was analysed. Venous values were used to calculate arterial pH, PCO2 and PO2, with these compared to measured values using Bland-Altman analysis and scatter plots. Calculated values of PO2......Abstract Background: Repeated arterial puncture is painful. A mathematical method exists for transforming peripheral venous pH, PCO2 and PO2 to arterial eliminating the need for arterial sampling. This study evaluates this method to monitor acid-base and oxygenation during admission...... be calculated from peripheral venous values so as to characterise changes seen during exacerbation. Application of the method has potential to reduce arterial sampling, decrease discomfort and enable venous sampling as routine practice....

  4. Blood-based neurochemical diagnosis of vascular dementia: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibl, Mirko; Esselmann, Hermann; Mollenhauer, Brit; Weniger, Godehard; Welge, Volker; Liess, Michael; Lewczuk, Piotr; Otto, Markus; Schulz, Jörg B; Trenkwalder, Claudia; Kornhuber, Johannes; Wiltfang, Jens

    2007-10-01

    Blood-based tests for the differential diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are under intensive investigation and have shown promising results with regard to Abeta40 and Abeta42 peptide species in incipient AD. Moreover, plasma Abeta40 was suggested as an independent cerebrovascular risk factor candidate. These considerations prompted us to analyse a total of 72 plasma samples in vascular dementias (VAD, n = 15), AD with cerebrovascular disease (AD with CVD, n = 7), AD (n = 15), Parkinson's disease and Parkinson's disease dementia (PD/PDD, n = 20) and 15 patients with depression that served as controls (DC) for distinct plasma amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptide patterns. For the analysis of plasma we used immunoprecipitation followed by the quantitative Abeta-SDS-PAGE/immunoblot. For comparison, CSF tau and Abeta1-42 analyses were performed. The major outcome was an increase in Abeta1-40 in plasma of VAD paralleled by a decrease in the ratio of Abeta1-38/Abeta1-40. The ratio Abeta1-38/Abeta1-40 in plasma enabled contrasts of beyond 85% and 80% for discriminating VAD from DC and all other patients, respectively. In CSF, we confirmed the typical CSF biomarker constellation of increased tau and diminished Abeta1-42 levels for AD. The diagnostic accuracy of plasma Abeta1-38/Abeta1-40 for VAD resembled the accuracy of CSF biomarkers for AD. From the presented results, we consider the ratio of plasma Abeta1-38/Abeta1-40 peptides to be a blood-based biomarker candidate for VAD.

  5. Blood-Based Indicators of Insulin Resistance and Metabolic Syndrome in Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venn-Watson, Stephanie; Smith, Cynthia Rowe; Stevenson, Sacha; Parry, Celeste; Daniels, Risa; Jensen, Eric; Cendejas, Veronica; Balmer, Brian; Janech, Michael; Neely, Benjamin A; Wells, Randall

    2013-01-01

    Similar to people with metabolic syndrome, bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) can have a sustained postprandial hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, and fatty liver disease. A panel of potential postprandial blood-based indicators of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome were compared among 34 managed collection dolphins in San Diego Bay, CA, USA (Group A) and 16 wild, free-ranging dolphins in Sarasota Bay, FL, USA (Group B). Compared to Group B, Group A had higher insulin (2.1 ± 2.5 and 13 ± 13 μIU/ml), glucose (87 ± 19 and 108 ± 12 mg/dl), and triglycerides (75 ± 28 and 128 ± 45 mg/dl) as well as higher cholesterol (total, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol), iron, transferrin saturation, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), alanine transaminase, and uric acid. Group A had higher percent unmodified adiponectin. While Group A dolphins were older, the same blood-based differences remained when controlling for age. There were no differences in body mass index (BMI) between the groups, and comparisons between Group B and Group A dolphins have consistently demonstrated lower stress hormones levels in Group A. Group A dolphins with high insulin (greater than 14 μIU/ml) had higher glucose, iron, GGT, and BMI compared to Group A dolphins with lower insulin. These findings support that some dolphin groups may be more susceptible to insulin resistance compared to others, and primary risk factors are not likely age, BMI, or stress. Lower high-molecular weight adiponectin has been identified as an independent risk factor for type 2 diabetes in humans and may be a target for preventing insulin resistance in dolphins. Future investigations with these two dolphin populations, including dietary and feeding differences, may provide valuable insight for preventing and treating insulin resistance in humans.

  6. Blood-based indicators of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie eVenn-Watson

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Similar to people with metabolic syndrome, bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus can have a sustained postprandial hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, and fatty liver disease. A panel of potential postprandial blood-based indicators of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome were compared among 34 managed collection dolphins in San Diego Bay, California (Group A and 16 wild, free-ranging dolphins in Sarasota Bay, Florida (Group B. Compared to Group B, Group A had higher insulin (2.1 ± 2.5 and 13 ± 13 µIU/ml, glucose (87 ± 19 and 108 ± 12 mg/dl and triglycerides (75 ± 28 and 128 ± 45 mg/dl as well as higher cholesterol (total, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol, iron, transferrin saturation, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT, alanine transaminase, and uric acid. Group A had higher percent unmodified adiponectin. While Group A dolphins were older, the same blood-based differences remained when controlling for age. There were no differences in body mass index (BMI between the groups, and comparisons between Group B and Group A dolphins have consistently demonstrated lower stress hormones levels in Group A. Group A dolphins with high insulin (greater than 14 µIU/ml had higher glucose, iron, GGT, and BMI compared to Group A dolphins with lower insulin. These findings support that some dolphin groups may be more susceptible to insulin resistance compared to others, and primary risk factors are not likely age, BMI, or stress. Lower high-molecular weight adiponectin has been identified as an independent risk factor for type 2 diabetes in humans and may be a target for preventing insulin resistance in dolphins. Future investigations with these two dolphin populations, including dietary and feeding differences, may provide valuable insight for preventing and treating insulin resistance in humans.

  7. Blood-Based Indicators of Insulin Resistance and Metabolic Syndrome in Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venn-Watson, Stephanie; Smith, Cynthia Rowe; Stevenson, Sacha; Parry, Celeste; Daniels, Risa; Jensen, Eric; Cendejas, Veronica; Balmer, Brian; Janech, Michael; Neely, Benjamin A.; Wells, Randall

    2013-01-01

    Similar to people with metabolic syndrome, bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) can have a sustained postprandial hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, and fatty liver disease. A panel of potential postprandial blood-based indicators of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome were compared among 34 managed collection dolphins in San Diego Bay, CA, USA (Group A) and 16 wild, free-ranging dolphins in Sarasota Bay, FL, USA (Group B). Compared to Group B, Group A had higher insulin (2.1 ± 2.5 and 13 ± 13 μIU/ml), glucose (87 ± 19 and 108 ± 12 mg/dl), and triglycerides (75 ± 28 and 128 ± 45 mg/dl) as well as higher cholesterol (total, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol), iron, transferrin saturation, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), alanine transaminase, and uric acid. Group A had higher percent unmodified adiponectin. While Group A dolphins were older, the same blood-based differences remained when controlling for age. There were no differences in body mass index (BMI) between the groups, and comparisons between Group B and Group A dolphins have consistently demonstrated lower stress hormones levels in Group A. Group A dolphins with high insulin (greater than 14 μIU/ml) had higher glucose, iron, GGT, and BMI compared to Group A dolphins with lower insulin. These findings support that some dolphin groups may be more susceptible to insulin resistance compared to others, and primary risk factors are not likely age, BMI, or stress. Lower high-molecular weight adiponectin has been identified as an independent risk factor for type 2 diabetes in humans and may be a target for preventing insulin resistance in dolphins. Future investigations with these two dolphin populations, including dietary and feeding differences, may provide valuable insight for preventing and treating insulin resistance in humans. PMID:24130551

  8. Skeletonization algorithm-based blood vessel quantification using in vivo 3D photoacoustic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiburger, K. M.; Nam, S. Y.; Chung, E.; Suggs, L. J.; Emelianov, S. Y.; Molinari, F.

    2016-11-01

    Blood vessels are the only system to provide nutrients and oxygen to every part of the body. Many diseases can have significant effects on blood vessel formation, so that the vascular network can be a cue to assess malicious tumor and ischemic tissues. Various imaging techniques can visualize blood vessel structure, but their applications are often constrained by either expensive costs, contrast agents, ionizing radiations, or a combination of the above. Photoacoustic imaging combines the high-contrast and spectroscopic-based specificity of optical imaging with the high spatial resolution of ultrasound imaging, and image contrast depends on optical absorption. This enables the detection of light absorbing chromophores such as hemoglobin with a greater penetration depth compared to purely optical techniques. We present here a skeletonization algorithm for vessel architectural analysis using non-invasive photoacoustic 3D images acquired without the administration of any exogenous contrast agents. 3D photoacoustic images were acquired on rats (n  =  4) in two different time points: before and after a burn surgery. A skeletonization technique based on the application of a vesselness filter and medial axis extraction is proposed to extract the vessel structure from the image data and six vascular parameters (number of vascular trees (NT), vascular density (VD), number of branches (NB), 2D distance metric (DM), inflection count metric (ICM), and sum of angles metric (SOAM)) were calculated from the skeleton. The parameters were compared (1) in locations with and without the burn wound on the same day and (2) in the same anatomic location before (control) and after the burn surgery. Four out of the six descriptors were statistically different (VD, NB, DM, ICM, p  <  0.05) when comparing two anatomic locations on the same day and when considering the same anatomic location at two separate times (i.e. before and after burn surgery). The study demonstrates an

  9. Overlapping White Blood Cells Detection Based on Watershed Transform and Circle Fitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. N. Sukhia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available White blood cell (WBC count and segmentation is considered to be important step to diagnose diseases like leukemia, malaria etc. Automatic analysis of blood smear images will help hematologists to detect WBCs efficiently and effectively as compared to manual analysis which is quite time consuming. Therefore, an automatic white blood cells detection technique for complex blood smear images is proposed. The proposed scheme uses segmentation and edge map extraction for the separation of overlapped WBCs and further parametric circle approximation is used which is capable of detecting both separated and overlapped white blood cells. Simulation results compared with the existing techniques verify the accuracy and robustness of the proposed scheme.

  10. Community-based blood pressure measurement by non-health workers using electronic devices: a validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel D. Reidpath

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Population monitoring and screening of blood pressure is an important part of any population health strategy. Qualified health workers are expensive and often unavailable for screening. Non-health workers with electronic blood pressure monitors are increasingly used in community-based research. This approach is unvalidated. In a poor, urban community we compared blood pressure measurements taken by non-health workers using electronic devices against qualified health workers using mercury sphygmomanometers. Method: Fifty-six adult volunteers participated in the research. Data were collected by five qualified health workers, and six non-health workers. Participants were randomly allocated to have their blood pressure measured on four consecutive occasions by alternating a qualified health worker with a non-health worker. Descriptive statistics and graphs, and mixed effects linear models to account for the repeated measurement were used in the analysis. Results: Blood pressure readings by non-health workers were more reliable than those taken by qualified health workers. There was no significant difference between the readings taken by qualified health workers and those taken by non-health workers for systolic blood pressure. Non-health workers were, on average, 5–7 mmHg lower in their measures of blood pressure than the qualified health workers (95%HPD: −2.9 to −10.0 for diastolic blood pressure. Conclusion: The results provide empirical evidence that supports the practice of non-health workers using electronic devices for BP measurement in community-based research and screening. Non-health workers recorded blood pressures that differed from qualified health workers by no more than 10 mmHg. The approach is promising, but more research is needed to establish the generalisability of the results.

  11. Community-based blood pressure measurement by non-health workers using electronic devices: a validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidpath, Daniel D; Ling, Mei Lee; Yasin, Shajahan; Rajagobal, Kanason; Allotey, Pascale

    2012-01-01

    Population monitoring and screening of blood pressure is an important part of any population health strategy. Qualified health workers are expensive and often unavailable for screening. Non-health workers with electronic blood pressure monitors are increasingly used in community-based research. This approach is unvalidated. In a poor, urban community we compared blood pressure measurements taken by non-health workers using electronic devices against qualified health workers using mercury sphygmomanometers. Fifty-six adult volunteers participated in the research. Data were collected by five qualified health workers, and six non-health workers. Participants were randomly allocated to have their blood pressure measured on four consecutive occasions by alternating a qualified health worker with a non-health worker. Descriptive statistics and graphs, and mixed effects linear models to account for the repeated measurement were used in the analysis. Blood pressure readings by non-health workers were more reliable than those taken by qualified health workers. There was no significant difference between the readings taken by qualified health workers and those taken by non-health workers for systolic blood pressure. Non-health workers were, on average, 5-7 mmHg lower in their measures of blood pressure than the qualified health workers (95%HPD: -2.9 to -10.0) for diastolic blood pressure. The results provide empirical evidence that supports the practice of non-health workers using electronic devices for BP measurement in community-based research and screening. Non-health workers recorded blood pressures that differed from qualified health workers by no more than 10 mmHg. The approach is promising, but more research is needed to establish the generalisability of the results.

  12. Height-Based Equations can Improve the Diagnosis of Elevated Blood Pressure in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourato, F A; Mattos, S S; Lima Filho, J L; Mourato, M F; Nadruz JÚnior, W

    2018-02-14

    High blood pressure (BP) is usually underdiagnosed in children and adolescents, particularly due to its complex diagnosis process. This study describes novel height-based equations for the detection of BP disorders (BP>90th percentile) and compares the accuracy of this approach with previously described screening methods to identify BP disorders. Height-based equations were built using the 90th percentile values for systolic and diastolic BP and respective height values from the current guideline of high BP management in children. This guideline was also used as the gold standard method for identification of BP disorders. The equations were tested in Brazilian (n=2,936) and American (n=6,541) populations of children with 8-13 years-old. the obtained equations were 70+0.3*height (in cm) for systolic BP and 35+0.25*height (in cm) for diastolic BP. The new equations were tested in Height-based equations presented sensitivity and negative predictive value of near 100% and specificity >91%, and showed higher specificity and positive predictive value when compared to other screening tools. Importantly, height-based equations had greater agreement (kappa coefficient=0.75-0.81) with the gold standard method than the other methods (kappa coefficient=0.53-0.73). Further analysis showed that alternative height-based equations designed to identify hypertension (BP≥95th percentile) also showed superior performance (kappa coefficient=0.89-0.92) compared to other screening methods (kappa coefficient=0.43-0.85). These findings suggest that the use of height-based equations may be a simple and feasible approach to improve the detection of high BP in the pediatric population.

  13. Can blood pressure be measured during exercise with an automated sphygmomanometer based on an oscillometric method?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Tomoyuki; Tsuchida, Naoko; Seki, Kanako; Otani, Tomohiro; Yamane, Tatsuya; Ishihara, Yamato; Usuda, Chinatsu

    2017-06-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the reliability of an automated sphygmomanometer based on an oscillometric method, when used during exercise. [Subjects and Methods] Ten healthy subjects were included. Blood pressure (BP) was measured with an automated sphygmomanometer based on a cuff-oscillometric method. The experiment consisted of five tests: sitting posture at rest, walking with swinging the upper limbs, walking without swinging the upper limbs, walking on a treadmill, and riding a bicycle ergometer. Right and left brachial artery BP was measured twice at the same times. If the difference in systolic BP on bilateral testing was less than 15 mmHg, it was judged to be accurate, and accurate measurement rates were calculated. [Results] BP could not be measured in most limbs on walking with swinging the upper limbs, walking without swinging the upper limbs, or walking on a treadmill. The accurate measurement rates in bilateral limbs were 95.0% in sitting posture at rest, 0.0% on walking with swinging upper limbs, 5.0% on walking without swinging upper limbs, 15.0% on walking on a treadmill, and 65.0% on riding a bicycle ergometer. [Conclusion] An automated sphygmomanometer based on an oscillometric method was useful for BP measurement only at rest.

  14. Direct blood culturing on solid medium outperforms an automated continuously monitored broth-based blood culture system in terms of time to identification and susceptibility testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Idelevich

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pathogen identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST should be available as soon as possible for patients with bloodstream infections. We investigated whether a lysis-centrifugation (LC blood culture (BC method, combined with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS identification and Vitek 2 AST, provides a time advantage in comparison with the currently used automated broth-based BC system. Seven bacterial reference strains were added each to 10 mL human blood in final concentrations of 100, 10 and 1 CFU/mL. Inoculated blood was added to the Isolator 10 tube and centrifuged at 3000 g for 30 min, then 1.5 mL sediment was distributed onto five 150-mm agar plates. Growth was observed hourly and microcolonies were subjected to MALDI-TOF MS and Vitek 2 as soon as possible. For comparison, seeded blood was introduced into an aerobic BC bottle and incubated in the BACTEC 9240 automated BC system. For all species/concentration combinations except one, successful identification and Vitek 2 inoculation were achieved even before growth detection by BACTEC. The fastest identification and inoculation for AST were achieved with Escherichia coli in concentrations of 100 CFU/mL and 10 CFU/mL (after 7 h each, while BACTEC flagged respective samples positive after 9.5 h and 10 h. Use of the LC-BC method allows skipping of incubation in automated BC systems and, used in combination with rapid diagnostics from microcolonies, provides a considerable advantage in time to result. This suggests that the usefulness of direct BC on solid medium should be re-evaluated in the era of rapid microbiology.

  15. Red blood transfusion in preterm infants: changes in glucose, electrolytes and acid base balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shereen Abdelghaffar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preterm neonates comprise the most heavily transfused group of patients, and about 85% of extremely low birth weight newborns receive a transfusion by the end of their hospital stay. The aim of this study was to assess the possible metabolic effects of RBC transfusion on preterm infants, especially during the first 2 weeks of life, and its relation to blood volume. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 40 preterm neonates with gestational age of less than or equal to 34 weeks. They received RBCs transfusion during first 2 weeks of life. Venous blood samples of infants were collected 2 to 4 hours before and 1 hour after the end of transfusion to evaluate hemoglobin (Hb level, hematocrit, acid-base, electrolytes, and glucose status. Then, infants were classified into two main groups: those who received RBCs volume less than or 20 ml/kg and those who received RBCs volume more than 20 ml/kg. Results: Infants received a mean volume of 20.38 ± 3.2 ml/kg RBCs (range, 10.9 - 26.6 ml/kg at a median age of 9.8 ± 3.6 days. After transfusion, a significant increase of mean Hb (P<0.001, mean Hct (P<0.001, pH (P<0.001, pO 2 (P<0.05, and a significant decrease of the pCO2 (41.46 ± 8.8torr vs 35.4 ± 9.34 torr; P<0.001 were observed. In addition, there was a significant increase of serum K + (P<0.001, and a significant decrease of Ca +2 (P<0.001. A positive correlation was found between the K + intake and the changes of kalemia (r = 0.99; P = 0.00. Furthermore, we observed an inverse correlation between the patients′ calcium intake and the changes of calcemia (r = -0.35; P = 0.02. On comparing the changes in clinical and biochemical variables between two groups after transfusion, we observed a significant increase in mean Hb and Hct associated with a significant decrease in mean serum Ca +2 (P<0.001 in the group receiving the larger blood volume. Conclusion: RBC transfusion was effective in improving anemia, oxygenation, increasing

  16. Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction and Parathyroid Adenoma: Coincidence or Link?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Termos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO is the most common cause of upper urinary tract obstruction in children. It is generally diagnosed in the routine work-up during antenatal period and is characterized by spontaneous recovery. It can be associated with urolithiasis; hence further investigation should be carried out. We report the case of a 15-year-old boy, who is known to have right UPJO, presented with right renal colic and discovered to have bilateral kidney stones. Further studies showed primary hyperparathyroidism and genetic analysis revealed a CDC73 mutation (initially HRPT2. We believe that association of UPJO and PHPT is a rare coincidence that can be linked. Careful work-up of children with UPJO and urolithiasis is recommended to exclude an underlying metabolic disease. Surgical correction can be evitable as treatment of the primary cause can lead to complete dissolution of kidney stones and improvement of the medical condition.

  17. Nuclear reaction studies with particle-gamma coincidences using the Saci-Perere spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, J R B; Zagatto, V A B; Pereira, D; Allegro, P R P; Chamon, L C; Cybulska, E W; Linares, R; Medina, N H; Rossi, E S Jr; Seale, W A; Silva, C P [Instituto de Fisica da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Lubian, J; Shorto, J M B [Instituto de Fisica da Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Toufen, D L [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia, Guarulhos, SP (Brazil); Silveira, M A G [Centro Universitario da FEI, Sao Bernardo do Campo, SP (Brazil); Zahn, G S; Genezini, F A [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Gasques, L [Centro de Fisica Nuclear da Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal); Ribas, R V, E-mail: zero@if.usp.b

    2010-01-01

    The Saci-Perere spectrometer of the University of Sao Paulo has been configured to perform particle-gamma coincidence measurements in order to study nuclear reaction mechanisms. The motivation of this type of measurement comes from the recent development of nuclear reaction models based on the Sao Paulo potential with the inclusion of an imaginary part with no adjustable parameters. New preliminary data on the {sup 18}O+{sup 110}Pd transitional system are presented, and apparent similarities to weakly bound cases (e.g. {sup 7}Li + {sup 120}Sn) are briefly discussed.

  18. Coincident photoelectron spectroscopy on superconductors; Koinzidente Photoelektronenspektroskopie an Supraleitern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voss, Stefan

    2011-07-01

    Aim of the performed experiments of this thesis was to attempt to detect Cooper pairs as carriers of the superconducting current directly by means of the photoelectric effect. The method of the coincident photoelectron spectroscopy aims thereby at the detection of two coherently emitted electrons by the interaction with a photon. Because electrostatic analyzers typically cover only a very small spatial angle, which goes along with very low coincidence rates, in connection with this thesis a time-of-flight projection system has been developed, which maps nearly the whole spatial angle on a position-resolving detector. The pulsed light source in form of special synchrotron radiation necessary for the measurement has been adjusted so weak, that only single photons could arrive at the sample. Spectroscoped were beside test measurements on silver layers both a lead monocrystal as representative of the classical BCS superconductors and monocrystalline Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} from the family of the high-temperature superconductors. With excitation energies up to 40 eV could be shown that sufficiently smooth and clean surfaces in the superconducting phase exhibit within the resolving power of about 0.5 eV no recognizable differences in comparison to the normally conducting phase. Beside these studies furthermore the simple photoemission at the different samples and especially in the case of the lead crystal is treated, because here no comparable results are known. Thereby the whole momentum space is discussed and the Fermi surface established as three-dimensional model, by means of which the measurement results are discussed. in the theoretical descriptions different models for the Cooper-pair production are presented, whereby to the momentum exchange with the crystal a special role is attributed, because this can only occur in direct excitations via discrete lattice vectors.

  19. Low affinity PEGylated hemoglobin from Trematomus bernacchii, a model for hemoglobin-based blood substitutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Conjugation of human and animal hemoglobins with polyethylene glycol has been widely explored as a means to develop blood substitutes, a novel pharmaceutical class to be used in surgery or emergency medicine. However, PEGylation of human hemoglobin led to products with significantly different oxygen binding properties with respect to the unmodified tetramer and high NO dioxygenase reactivity, known causes of toxicity. These recent findings call for the biotechnological development of stable, low-affinity PEGylated hemoglobins with low NO dioxygenase reactivity. Results To investigate the effects of PEGylation on protein structure and function, we compared the PEGylation products of human hemoglobin and Trematomus bernacchii hemoglobin, a natural variant endowed with a remarkably low oxygen affinity and high tetramer stability. We show that extension arm facilitated PEGylation chemistry based on the reaction of T. bernacchii hemoglobin with 2-iminothiolane and maleimido-functionalyzed polyethylene glycol (MW 5000 Da) leads to a tetraPEGylated product, more homogeneous than the corresponding derivative of human hemoglobin. PEGylated T. bernacchii hemoglobin largely retains the low affinity of the unmodified tetramer, with a p50 50 times higher than PEGylated human hemoglobin. Moreover, it is still sensitive to protons and the allosteric effector ATP, indicating the retention of allosteric regulation. It is also 10-fold less reactive towards nitrogen monoxide than PEGylated human hemoglobin. Conclusions These results indicate that PEGylated hemoglobins, provided that a suitable starting hemoglobin variant is chosen, can cover a wide range of oxygen-binding properties, potentially meeting the functional requirements of blood substitutes in terms of oxygen affinity, tetramer stability and NO dioxygenase reactivity. PMID:22185675

  20. Population-based study of blood biomarkers in prediction of sub-acute recurrent stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Helen C; Burgess, Annette I; Poole, Debbie L; Mehta, Ziyah; Silver, Louise E; Rothwell, Peter M

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose Risk of recurrent stroke is high in the first few weeks after TIA or stroke and clinic risk prediction tools have only limited accuracy, particularly after the hyper-acute phase. Previous studies of the predictive value of biomarkers have been small, been done in selected populations and have not concentrated on the acute phase or on intensively treated populations. We aimed to determine the predictive value of a panel of blood biomarkers in intensively treated patients early after TIA and stroke. Methods We studied 14 blood biomarkers related to inflammation, thrombosis, atherogenesis and cardiac or neuronal cell damage in early TIA or ischaemic stroke in a population-based study (Oxford Vascular Study). Biomarker levels were related to 90-day risk of recurrent stroke as Hazard Ratio (95%CI) per decile increase, adjusted for age and sex. Results Among 1292 eligible patients there were 53 recurrent ischaemic strokes within 90 days. There were moderate correlations (r>0.40; pstroke were weak, with significant associations limited to Interleukin-6 (HR=1.12, 1.01-1.24; p=0.035) and C-reactive protein (1.16, 1.02-1.30; p=0.019). When stratified by type of presenting event, P-selectin predicted stroke after TIA (1.31, 1.03-1.66; p=0.028) and C-reactive protein predicted stroke after stroke (1.16, 1.01-1.34; p=0.042). These associations remained after fully adjusting for other vascular risk factors. Conclusion In the largest study to date, we found very limited predictive utility for early recurrent stroke for a panel of inflammatory, thrombotic and cell damage biomarkers. PMID:25158774

  1. Gestational diabetes mellitus identification based on self-monitoring of blood glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, Catherine; Sahyouni, Elie; Menard, Julie; Houde, Ghislaine; Pesant, Marie-Hélène; Perron, Patrice; Ouellet, Annie; Moutquin, Jean-Marie; Ardilouze, Jean-Luc; Hivert, Marie-France

    2015-04-01

    In Sherbrooke, the gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) Regional Committee proposed GDM screening during the first trimester for all pregnant women based on a 50 g glucose challenge test (50 g GCT) followed directly by capillary self-monitoring blood glucose (SMBG) at home. We evaluated implementation of committee's recommendations on the clinical trajectory of women receiving prenatal care at our institution. We analyzed data collected systematically by the Blood Sampling in Pregnancy clinic from 2008 to 2011. We evaluated the clinical trajectory of 7710 pregnant women to assess GDM screening/diagnoses and referral rates to the diabetes care centre (DCC) for education and treatment during both the first and second trimesters. The Canadian Diabetes Association glycemic treatment targets in women with GDM were used as diagnosis thresholds and DCC referral decisions: Fasting glucose of 5.3 mmol/L and postprandial 2 h glucose of 6.7 mmol/L. We found that pregnant women were 28.0±4.8 years old, and their body mass indexes were 24.5±5.5 kg/m(2). During the first trimester, 47% of women were screened for GDM, mostly (84%) using the 50 g GCT. Following SMBG, 5.7% were referred to the DCC. Only 32% of women with early GDM had >1 GDM risk factor. Thereafter, 67% of normoglycemic women screened during the first trimester were screened again during the second trimester. Among women screened during the second trimester, most screening was done using 50 g GCT, and 8.8% were referred to the DCC following SMBG. Implementation of 50 g GCT testing followed by direct home SMBG was well implemented in our area. The importance of early GDM screening and rescreening during the second trimester still needs to be emphasized. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A new sensor for stress measurement based on blood flow fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, I.; Kaminsky, A. V.; Shenkman, L.

    2016-03-01

    It is widely recognized that effective stress management could have a dramatic impact on health care and preventive medicine. In order to meet this need, efficient and seamless sensing and analytic tools for the non-invasive stress monitoring during daily life are required. The existing sensors still do not meet the needs in terms of specificity and robustness. We utilized a miniaturized dynamic light scattering sensor (mDLS) which is specially adjusted to measure skin blood flow fluctuations and provides multi- parametric capabilities. Based on the measured dynamic light scattering signal from the red blood cells flowing in skin, a new concept of hemodynamic indexes (HI) and oscillatory hemodynamic indexes (OHI) have been developed. This approach was utilized for stress level assessment for a few usecase scenario. The new stress index was generated through the HI and OHI parameters. In order to validate this new non-invasive stress index, a group of 19 healthy volunteers was studied by measuring the mDLS sensor located on the wrist. Mental stress was induced by using the cognitive dissonance test of Stroop. We found that OHIs indexes have high sensitivity to the mental stress response for most of the tested subjects. In addition, we examined the capability of using this new stress index for the individual monitoring of the diurnal stress level. We found that the new stress index exhibits similar trends as reported for to the well-known diurnal behavior of cortisol levels. Finally, we demonstrated that this new marker provides good sensitivity and specificity to the stress response to sound and musical emotional arousal.

  3. How to encourage non-donors to be more willing to donate blood? Testing of binding communication based interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonte, D; Blondé, J; Girandola, F

    2017-06-01

    Our study aims to test the effectiveness of binding communication based interventions (vs classical persuasive communication based ones) inciting non-donors to act in favour of blood donation. The implementation of effective communication interventions represents a major public health issue. Nevertheless, persuasive media campaigns appear to have little effect on behaviours. Even though non-donors hold a positive attitude towards blood donation, they are not inclined to donate. As an alternative to producing behavioural changes, many recent studies have shown the superiority of binding communication over persuasive communication. All participants, non-donors, were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions of a 2 (type of communication: persuasive vs binding) × 2 (source credibility: low vs high) factorial design. Then, they were asked to report their intention to donate blood, and their intention to distribute leaflets regarding blood donation. Binding communication is a more effective strategy for increasing intention towards blood donation compared with persuasive communication, especially when combined with high credibility source. Accordingly this study calls for more consideration of knowledge of social psychology to design effective communication interventions and increase the number of donations. © 2016 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  4. Artificial Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umit Yasar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The problems and additional cost factor involved in collecting and storing human blood, as well as the pending worldwide shortages are the main driving forces in the development of blood substitutes. Studies on artificial blood basically aim to develop oxygen carrying compounds, produce stem cell-based erythrocyte cells in vitro and, implement the functions and movements of natural hemoglobin molecules found in erythrocyte cells through artificial erythrocyte cells. Consequently, major areas of research in artificial blood studies are haemoglobin-based oxygen carriers, perfluorochemicals, respirocytes and stem cells. Even though these artificial erythrocyte cells do not qualify as perfect red blood cell substitutes yet, they have many potential clinical and non clinical uses. Studies are being carried out on the elimination of side effects of blood substitutes and extensive clinical trials are being conducted to test their safety and efficacy. Artificial blood substitutes could only be used clinically for patient management following clinical trials and approvals, and will be the ultimate global solution to the problems associated with donor scarcity, blood collection and transfusion-mediated diseases. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2012; 21(2.000: 95-108

  5. Fabrication of a Textile-Based Wearable Blood Leakage Sensor Using Screen-Offset Printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Ken-Ichi; Horii, Yoshinori; Kanazawa, Shusuke; Kusaka, Yasuyuki; Ushijima, Hirobumi

    2018-01-15

    We fabricate a wearable blood leakage sensor on a cotton textile by combining two newly developed techniques. First, we employ a screen-offset printing technique that avoids blurring, short circuiting between adjacent conductive patterns, and electrode fracturing to form an interdigitated electrode structure for the sensor on a textile. Furthermore, we develop a scheme to distinguish blood from other substances by utilizing the specific dielectric dispersion of blood observed in the sub-megahertz frequency range. The sensor can detect blood volumes as low as 15 μL, which is significantly lower than those of commercially available products (which can detect approximately 1 mL of blood) and comparable to a recently reported value of approximately 10 μL. In this study, we merge two technologies to develop a more practical skin-friendly sensor that can be applied for safe, stress-free blood leakage monitoring during hemodialysis.

  6. Blood-based biomarkers of age-associated epigenetic changes in human islets associate with insulin secretion and diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacos, Karl; Gillberg, Linn; Volkov, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Aging associates with impaired pancreatic islet function and increased type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk. Here we examine whether age-related epigenetic changes affect human islet function and if blood-based epigenetic biomarkers reflect these changes and associate with future T2D. We analyse DNA...... methylation genome-wide in islets from 87 non-diabetic donors, aged 26-74 years. Aging associates with increased DNA methylation of 241 sites. These sites cover loci previously associated with T2D, for example, KLF14. Blood-based epigenetic biomarkers reflect age-related methylation changes in 83 genes...... demonstrate that blood-based epigenetic biomarkers reflect age-related DNA methylation changes in human islets, and associate with insulin secretion in vivo and T2D....

  7. A new estimate technology of non-invasive continuous blood pressure measurement based on electrocardiograph

    OpenAIRE

    Chung-Min Wu; Chueh Yu Chuang; Yeou-Jiunn Chen; Shih-Chung Chen

    2016-01-01

    Various physiological parameters have been widely used in the prevention and detection of diseases. In particular, the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases can be observed through daily measurement of blood pressure. Currently, the most common blood pressure measurement method records blood pressure on the upper arm. This can lead to the subject feeling uncomfortable and tension in the arm from the stress may lead to measurement errors. An electrocardiogram represents the electrical activity...

  8. White Blood Cell-Based Detection of Asymptomatic Scrapie Infection by Ex Vivo Assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliez, Sophie; Jaumain, Emilie; Huor, Alvina; Douet, Jean-Yves; Lugan, Séverine; Cassard, Hervé; Lacroux, Caroline; Béringue, Vincent; Andréoletti, Olivier; Vilette, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Prion transmission can occur by blood transfusion in human variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and in experimental animal models, including sheep. Screening of blood and its derivatives for the presence of prions became therefore a major public health issue. As infectious titer in blood is reportedly low, highly sensitive and robust methods are required to detect prions in blood and blood derived products. The objectives of this study were to compare different methods - in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo assays - to detect prion infectivity in cells prepared from blood samples obtained from scrapie infected sheep at different time points of the disease. Protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) and bioassays in transgenic mice expressing the ovine prion protein were the most efficient methods to identify infected animals at any time of the disease (asymptomatic to terminally-ill stages). However scrapie cell and cerebellar organotypic slice culture assays designed to replicate ovine prions in culture also allowed detection of prion infectivity in blood cells from asymptomatic sheep. These findings confirm that white blood cells are appropriate targets for preclinical detection and introduce ex vivo tools to detect blood infectivity during the asymptomatic stage of the disease. PMID:25122456

  9. New prospects for noninvasive blood monitoring based on effect of RBC aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvartsman, L. D.; Fine, I.; Romanov, D. A.

    2008-02-01

    Our analysis of spectral behavior of time-variant optical characteristics caused by RBC aggregation is applied to issues of non-invasive blood monitoring. Modulations of blood flow cause the change in geometry of RBC aggregates and corresponding variance of light scattering. This changes cause the variation of optical transmission, reflection, and polarization of outcoming light. The last can be translated back in absorption coefficients of various blood constituents, refractive index mismatch, etc. For instance, in case of long occlusion simultaneous measurements of both the azimuthal angle and the ellipticity of outcoming light can provide sufficient data to determine the blood glucose.

  10. Constructing coincident indices of economic activity for the Latin American economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Victor Issler

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper has three main contributions. The first is to propose an individual coincident indicator for the following Latin American countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Mexico. In order to obtain similar series to those traditionally used in business-cycle research in constructing coincident indices (output, sales, income and employment we were forced to back-cast several individual country series which were not available in a long time-series span. The second contribution is to establish a chronology of recessions for these countries, covering the period from 1980 to 2012 on a monthly basis. Based on this chronology, the countries are compared in several respects. The final contribution is to propose an aggregate coincident indicator for the Latin American economy, which weights individual-country composite indices. Finally, this indicator is compared with the coincident indicator (The Conference Board - TCB of the U.S. economy. We find that the U.S. indicator Granger-causes the Latin American indicator in statistical testsEsse artigo tem 3 contribuições à literatura de ciclos de negócios. A primeira é a de construir indicadores coincidentes de atividade econômica para Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Colômbia e México, usando pesos idênticos para as séries de Emprego, Produção, Renda, e Vendas. Para tal, tivemos que fazer o back-cast de algumas séries chave para poder construir esses indicadores. A segunda é a de estabelecer uma cronologia de recessões para esses países no período 1980-2012 em bases mensais. Com base na última, fazemos comparações em várias dimensões. Finalmente, nossa última contribuição é propor um índice coincidente agregado para a América Latina, que é comparado ao índice agregado dos EUA. Esta comparação indica que o índice coincidente dos EUA Granger-causa o da América Latina, mas a recíproca não é verdadeira

  11. A Real Time Coincidence System for High Count-Rate TOF or Non-TOF PET Cameras Using Hybrid Method Combining AND-Logic and Time-Mark Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Li, Hongdi; Ramirez, Rocio A; Zhang, Yuxuan; Baghaei, Hossain; Liu, Shitao; An, Shaohui; Wong, Wai-Hoi

    2010-04-01

    A fully digital FPGA-based high count-rate coincidence system has been developed for TOF (Time of Flight) and non-TOF PET cameras. Using a hybrid of AND-logic and Time-mark technology produced both excellent timing resolution and high processing speed. In this hybrid architecture, every gamma event was synchronized by a 125 MHz system clock and generating a trigger associated with a time-mark given by an 8-bit high-resolution TDC (68.3 ps/bin). AND-logic was applied to the synchronized triggers for the real-time raw sorting of coincident events. An efficient FPGA based Time-mark fine-sort algorithm is used to select all the possible coincidence events within the preset coincidence time window. This FPGA-based coincidence system for a modular PET camera offers reprogrammable flexibility and expandability, so the coincidence system is easily employed, regardless of differences in the scale of the PET camera detector setup. A distributed processing method and pipeline technology were adopted in the design to obtain very high processing speed. In this design, both prompt and time-delayed accidental coincidences are simultaneously processed in real time. The real-time digital coincidence system supports coincidence in 2 to 12 detector module setups, capable of processing 72 million single events per second with no digital data loss and captures multiple-event coincidence for better imaging performance evaluation. The coincidence time window-size and time-offset of each coincidence event pair can be programmed independently in 68.3 ps increments (TDC LSB) during the data acquisition in different applications to optimize the signal-to-noise ratio. The complex coincidence system is integrated in one circuit board with 1.5 Gbps fiber optic interface. We demonstrated the system performance using the actual circuit and Monte Carlo simulations.

  12. A Novel Continuous Blood Pressure Estimation Approach Based on Data Mining Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Fen; Fu, Nan; Zhang, Yuan-Ting; Ding, Xiao-Rong; Hong, Xi; He, Qingyun; Li, Ye

    2017-11-01

    Continuous blood pressure (BP) estimation using pulse transit time (PTT) is a promising method for unobtrusive BP measurement. However, the accuracy of this approach must be improved for it to be viable for a wide range of applications. This study proposes a novel continuous BP estimation approach that combines data mining techniques with a traditional mechanism-driven model. First, 14 features derived from simultaneous electrocardiogram and photoplethysmogram signals were extracted for beat-to-beat BP estimation. A genetic algorithm-based feature selection method was then used to select BP indicators for each subject. Multivariate linear regression and support vector regression were employed to develop the BP model. The accuracy and robustness of the proposed approach were validated for static, dynamic, and follow-up performance. Experimental results based on 73 subjects showed that the proposed approach exhibited excellent accuracy in static BP estimation, with a correlation coefficient and mean error of 0.852 and -0.001 ± 3.102 mmHg for systolic BP, and 0.790 and -0.004 ± 2.199 mmHg for diastolic BP. Similar performance was observed for dynamic BP estimation. The robustness results indicated that the estimation accuracy was lower by a certain degree one day after model construction but was relatively stable from one day to six months after construction. The proposed approach is superior to the state-of-the-art PTT-based model for an approximately 2-mmHg reduction in the standard derivation at different time intervals, thus providing potentially novel insights for cuffless BP estimation.

  13. Economies of scale in blood banking: a study based on data envelopment analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, A

    2006-05-01

    Exploitation of economies of scale is often argued in favour of blood-bank consolidation into large regional centres, despite a lack of adequate empirical support. This study was aimed at testing the economies of scale hypothesis in a sample of blood centres in the USA. An input-orientated data envelopment analysis (DEA) was used to calculate the technical efficiency scores of blood centres, and to determine whether they were operating under increasing returns to scale (IRS), constant returns to scale (CRS) or decreasing returns to scale (DRS). Correlation between the blood-centre efficiency score and the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the service area was further investigated. Seventy-one blood centres were included in the analysis. The scale of operations ranged from 7270 to 275,500 red blood cell (RBC) units per year. Six (8%) centres operated under CRS, 29 (55%) under IRS, and most of their technical inefficiency was scale-independent, and 26 (37%) operated under DRS, and most of their technical inefficiency was size-related. Efficiency scores were unrelated to any demographic or socioeconomic characteristics of the blood centre service area. Within the size range of blood centres included in this study, expanding the level of operations beyond a certain point leads to DRS.

  14. Numerical analysis of the internal flow field in screw centrifugal blood pump based on CFD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, W.; Han, B. X.; Y Wang, H.; Shen, Z. J.

    2013-12-01

    As to the impeller blood pump, the high speed of the impeller, the local high shear force of the flow field and the flow dead region are the main reasons for blood damage. The screw centrifugal pump can effectively alleviate the problems of the high speed and the high shear stress for the impeller. The softness and non-destructiveness during the transfer process can effectively reduce the extent of the damage. By using CFD software, the characteristics of internal flow are analyzed in the screw centrifugal pump by exploring the distribution rules of the velocity, pressure and shear deformation rate of the blood when it flows through the impeller and the destructive effects of spiral blades on blood. The results show that: the design of magnetic levitation solves the sealing problems; the design of regurgitation holes solves the problem of the flow dead zone; the magnetic levitated microcirculation screw centrifugal pump can effectively avoid the vortex, turbulence and high shear forces generated while the blood is flowing through the pump. Since the distribution rules in the velocity field, pressure field and shear deformation rate of the blood in the blood pump are comparatively uniform and the gradient change is comparatively small, the blood damage is effectively reduced.

  15. Blood pressure and mortality in elderly people aged 85 and older: Community based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boshuizen, H.C.; Izaks, G.J.; Buuren, S. van; Ligthart, G.J.

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether the inverse relation between blood pressure and all cause mortality in elderly people over 85 years of age can be explained by adjusting for health status, and to determine whether high blood pressure is a risk factor for mortality when the effects of poor health are

  16. Ethico-legal aspects of hospital-based blood transfusion practice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    2014-12-31

    Dec 31, 2014 ... Therefore, the actions and inactions of all other support staff in blood transfusion practice in Nigeria including nurses, laboratory scientists' technicians' attendants have legal implications on the medical practitioners. Any deviation from blood transfusion standards may result in an error or mistake termed a.

  17. Dried blood spots on carboxymethyl cellulose sheets: Rapid sample preparation based on dissolution and precipitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skoglund Ask, Kristine; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig; Gjelstad, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    This short communication describes the use of carboxymethyl cellulose sheets as sampling material for dried blood spots. Whole blood, spiked with quetiapine, a hydrophobic and basic small molecule drug substance, was spotted on the sheet and subsequently dried. The dried spot was then almost...

  18. Development of a Melting Curve-Based Allele-Specific PCR of Apolipoprotein E (APOE Genotyping Method for Genomic DNA, Guthrie Blood Spot, and Whole Blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hsiang Chen

    Full Text Available Genetic polymorphisms of apolipoprotein E (APOE are associated with various health conditions and diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, etc. Hence, genotyping of APOE has broad applications in biomedical research and clinical settings, particularly in the era of precision medicine. The study aimed to develop a convenient and accurate method with flexible throughput to genotype the APOE polymorphisms. A melting curve-based allele-specific PCR method was developed to genotype two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of APOE, i.e. rs429358 at codon 112 and rs7412 at codon 158. These two SNPs determine the genotype of APOE2, E3, and E4. PCR-based Sanger sequencing was used as the reference method for APOE genotyping. A 100% concordance rate was obtained in 300 subjects between the melting curve-based allele-specific PCR method and the Sanger sequencing method. This method was applied to a genetic association analysis of APOE and schizophrenia consisting of 711 patients with schizophrenia and 665 control subjects from Taiwan. However, no significant differences in the allele and genotype frequencies were detected between these two groups. Further experiments showed that DNA dissolved from blood collected on Guthrie filter paper and total blood cell lysate without DNA extraction can be used in the melting curve-based allele-specific PCR method. Thus, we suggest that this is a fast, accurate and robust APOE genotyping method with a flexible throughput and suitable for DNA template from different preparations. This convenient method shall meet the different needs of various research and clinical laboratories.

  19. Home blood pressure vs. clinic blood pressure measurement-based follow up in type ii diabetics: Effect on 24-h ambulatory BP and albuminuria. Randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, María A; Garcia-Puig, Juan; Loeches, Maria P; Mateo, Maria C; Utiel, Isaías; Torres, Rosa

    2017-08-31

    To compare the efficacy of two strategies of blood pressure (BP) measurement-based follow-up in hypertension and albuminuria control. Multicentre, prospective, randomised, open trial with a parallel-group design. Nineteen primary care centres and a hospital clinic participated. Adult type 2 diabetics with systolic BP ≥140mmHg without relevant renal disease were randomised to one of two follow-up strategies: 1) standard follow up, with a clinic BP target <140/90mmHg and 2) self-monitoring home BP (SMHBP)-based follow up, with a BP target <135/85mmHg. Biochemical standard blood variables, albuminuria, and 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring were performed at entry, 12 and 24 months. The main outcome measurement was 24-h ambulatory systolic BP variation. Albuminuria change was analysed as a secondary outcome. 116 patients were analysed (mean age: 66.8 years). Mean systolic ambulatory 24- h BP change in two years was 3.9mmHg (95% CI 1.8-6.1). We did not find significant differences between both groups (p=0.706). Similarly, no differences were found when we compared other ambulatory BP values. Initial albuminuria was similar in both groups and did not significantly changed throughout the follow-up period. In type 2 diabetics without relevant nephropathy a SMHBP- based follow up was equivalent to a standard clinic-based BP follow up in BP and albuminuria control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Blood flowing state analysis in outflow tract of chick embryonic heart based on spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuqian; Suo, Yanyan; Liang, Chengbo; Ma, Zhenhe

    2016-03-01

    The cardiac development is a complicated process affected by genetic and environmental factors. Wall shear stress (WSS) and periodic stress (WPS) are the components which have been proved to influence the morphogenesis during early stages of cardiac development. The vessel wall will be deformed by the blood pressure and produce natural elastic force acting on the blood. Because blood flowing in different flow state and show different characteristics of fluid, which influence the calculation of WSS and WPS directly, it is necessary to study the blood flow state. In this paper, we introduce a method to quantify the blood flowing state of early stage chick embryonic heart based on high speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT).4D (x,y,z,t) scan was performed on the outflow tract (OFT) of HH18 (~3 days of incubation) chick embryonic heart. By processing the structural image, the geometric parameters were obtained. Blood flow velocity distribution in the OFT were calculated by Doppler OCT method. Hemodynamic parameters were obtained at different times during the cardiac cycle used biofluid mechanics theory, such as Reynolds number and Womersley number.

  1. Boronic Acid Functionalized Aza-Bodipy (azaBDPBA) based Fluorescence Optodes for the Analysis of Glucose in Whole Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yueling; Zhu, Jingwei; Xu, Yanmei; Qin, Yu; Jiang, Dechen

    2015-06-03

    A near-infrared fluorescent dye (aza-bodipy or azaBDPBA) functionalized with boronic acid groups was synthesized for the preparation of optodes to measure glucose in 40-fold diluted whole blood. Boronic acid groups as an electron deficient group on aza-bodipy was reacted with hydrogen peroxide into an electron-rich phenolic group leading to the red-shift of emission wavelength from 682 to 724 nm. The emission in near-infrared region offered a low level of background interference from whole blood. Also, the dual-wavelength emission guaranteed our probe to measure glucose in whole blood accurately after the conversion of glucose into hydrogen peroxide using glucose oxidase. The measuring range of glucose from 0.2 to 200 mM in the buffer was achieved with high selectivity. To facilitate the blood test, the probe was immobilized into thin hydrophobic polymer films to prepare the disposal glucose optode, which could detect glucose in the solution from 60 μM to 100 mM. The concentration of glucose in 40-fold diluted whole blood was determined using our optode and the reference method, respectively. The consistence in the concentration obtained from these two assays revealed that our azaBDPBA-based optodes were promising for the clinic assay of glucose in the whole blood.

  2. Oral cancer detection based on fluorescence polarization of blood plasma at excitation wavelength 405 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachaiappan, Rekha; Prakasarao, Aruna; Manoharan, Yuvaraj; Dornadula, Koteeswaran; Singaravelu, Ganesan

    2017-02-01

    During metabolism the metabolites such as hormones, proteins and enzymes were released in to the blood stream by the cells. These metabolites reflect any change that occurs due to any disturbances in normal metabolic function of the human system. This was well observed with the altered spectral signatures observed with fluorescence spectroscopic technique. Previously many have reported on the significance of native fluorescence spectroscopic method in the diagnosis of cancer. As fluorescence spectroscopy is sensitive and simple, it has complementary techniques such as excitation-emission matrix, synchronous and polarization. The fluorescence polarization measurement provides details about any association or binding reactions and denaturing effects that occurs due to change in the micro environment of cells and tissues. In this study, we have made an attempt in the diagnosis of oral cancer at 405 nm excitation using fluorescence polarization measurement. The fluorescence anisotropic values calculated from polarized fluorescence spectral data of normal and oral cancer subjects yielded a good accuracy when analyzed with linear discriminant analysis based artificial neural network. The results will be discussed in detail.

  3. Application of Blood Based Biomarkers in Human Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex P Di Battista

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI is a global health concern. The majority of TBI’s are mild, yet our ability to diagnose and treat mTBI is lacking. This deficiency results from a variety of issues including the difficulty in interpreting ambiguous clinically presented symptoms, and ineffective imaging techniques. Thus, researchers have begun to explore cellular and molecular based approaches to improve both diagnosis and prognosis. This has been met with a variety of challenges, including difficulty in relating biological markers to current clinical symptoms, and overcoming our lack of fundamental understanding of the pathophysiology of mTBI. However, recent adoption of high throughput technologies and a change in focus from the identification of single to multiple markers has given just optimism to mTBI research. The purpose of this review is to highlight a number of current experimental peripheral blood biomarkers of mTBI, as well as comment on the issues surrounding their clinical application and utility.

  4. Potential Retinal Benefits of Dietary Polyphenols Based on Their Permeability across the Blood-Retinal Barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yixiang; Liu, Guang-Ming; Cao, Min-Jie; Chen, Qingchou; Sun, Lechang; Ji, Baoping

    2017-04-19

    Whether all dietary polyphenols nourish the eyes via oral supplementation is controversial. Given that passage of dietary polyphenols across the blood-retina barrier (BRB) is the precondition for polyphenols to exhibit ocular benefits, the BRB permeability of polyphenols was assessed in this study. Being common dietary polyphenols in fruits and vegetables, nonanthocyanin flavonoids, anthocyanins, and phenolic acids were investigated. BRB was simulated in vitro by using a differentiated retinal pigment epithelial cell monolayer cultivated on a Transwell culture system. Penetration rate was calculated by quantitatively analyzing the polyphenols in basolateral media. The BRB permeability of different polyphenols obviously (p nonanthocyanin flavonoids > anthocyanins. Glycosylation and methylation improved the BRB permeability of nonanthocyanin flavonoids and anthocyanins. However, instability and carbonylation at the C-4 position severely suppressed the BRB permeability of anthocyanins and nonanthocyanin flavonoids. Moreover, a new metabolite was discovered during penetration of anthocyanins into the BRB. However, hydrophilic phenolic acids exhibited better BRB permeability than hydrophobic ones. Data demonstrate that BRB permeability of polyphenols was determined based on structural characteristics, hydrophilicity, stability, and metabolic changes.

  5. Nonlinear and Robust Control Strategy Based on Chemotherapy to Minimize the HIV Concentration in Blood Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Aguilar-López

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonlinear PI-type control strategy is designed in order to minimize the HIV concentration in blood plasma, via medical drug injection, under the framework of bounded uncertain input disturbances. For control design it is considered a simplified mathematical model of the virus infection as a benchmark. The model is based on mass balances of healthy cells, infected cells, and the virus concentrations. The proposed controller contains a nonlinear feedback PI structure of bounded functions of the regulation error. The closed-loop stability of the system is analyzed via Lyapunov technique, in which robustness against system disturbances is demonstrated. Numerical experiments show a satisfactory performance of the proposed methodology as a HIV therapy, in which the virion particles and the infected CD4+T cells are minimized and, as an interesting result, the drug dosage can be suspended, thus avoiding drug resistance from the virus. Finally, the proposed controller is compared to a standard sliding-mode and hyperbolic tangent controllers showing better performance.

  6. Biomonitoring Study of Heavy Metals in Blood from a Cement Factory Based Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bank M.S.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the effects of cement factory pollution, emissions, and kiln dust on contaminant exposure in human populations, including school environments, in close proximity to these point sources. In Ravena, New York, USA and vicinity, environmental pollution from a local cement plant is considered significant and substantial according to the United States Environmental Protection Agency’s Toxic Release Inventory, published in 2006, 2007, and 2010. We hypothesized that cement factory based communities, such as the one in Ravena, NY, may be differentially exposed to heavy metals, including mercury, via dust, soil, and air in addition to any contributions from fish consumption, dental amalgams, smoking habits, and occupational exposures, etc. Here we report measurements of several heavy metals in blood (Pb, Cd, As, Hg, Se and Al and, for comparative purposes, total mercury in hair from a local (six-mile radius population of Caucasian adults and children. We also report and synthesize local atmospheric emissions inventory information and new indoor air data (NYSERDA, 2011 from the local school which is situated directly across the street (within 750 feet from the cement factory and quarry. In addition, to our human and environmental heavy metal results we also discuss scientific outreach coordination, and public health action opportunities that will likely have wide applicability for other community and environmental health studies confronting similar pollution issues.

  7. Optimized dynamic framing for PET-based myocardial blood flow estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolthammer, Jeffrey A.; Muzic, Raymond F.

    2013-08-01

    An optimal experiment design methodology was developed to select the framing schedule to be used in dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) for estimation of myocardial blood flow using 82Rb. A compartment model and an arterial input function based on measured data were used to calculate a D-optimality criterion for a wide range of candidate framing schedules. To validate the optimality calculation, noisy time-activity curves were simulated, from which parameter values were estimated using an efficient and robust decomposition of the estimation problem. D-optimized schedules improved estimate precision compared to non-optimized schedules, including previously published schedules. To assess robustness, a range of physiologic conditions were simulated. Schedules that were optimal for one condition were nearly-optimal for others. The effect of infusion duration was investigated. Optimality was better for shorter than for longer tracer infusion durations, with the optimal schedule for the shortest infusion duration being nearly optimal for other durations. Together this suggests that a framing schedule optimized for one set of conditions will also work well for others and it is not necessary to use different schedules for different infusion durations or for rest and stress studies. The method for optimizing schedules is general and could be applied in other dynamic PET imaging studies.

  8. Single Sodium Pyruvate Ingestion Modifies Blood Acid-Base Status and Post-Exercise Lactate Concentration in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Olek

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of a single sodium pyruvate ingestion on a blood acid-base status and exercise metabolism markers. Nine active, but non-specifically trained, male subjects participated in the double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. One hour prior to the exercise, subjects ingested either 0.1 g·kg−1 of body mass of a sodium pyruvate or placebo. The capillary blood samples were obtained at rest, 60 min after ingestion, and then three and 15 min after completing the workout protocol to analyze acid-base status and lactate, pyruvate, alanine, glucose concentrations. The pulmonary gas exchange, minute ventilation and the heart rate were measured during the exercise at a constant power output, corresponding to ~90% O2max. The blood pH, bicarbonate and the base excess were significantly higher after sodium pyruvate ingestion than in the placebo trial. The blood lactate concentration was not different after the ingestion, but the post-exercise was significantly higher in the pyruvate trial (12.9 ± 0.9 mM than in the placebo trial (10.6 ± 0.3 mM, p < 0.05 and remained elevated (nonsignificant after 15 min of recovery. The blood pyruvate, alanine and glucose concentrations, as well as the overall pulmonary gas exchange during the exercise were not affected by the pyruvate ingestion. In conclusion, the sodium pyruvate ingestion one hour before workout modified the blood acid-base status and the lactate production during the exercise.

  9. Occupational exposure limits for 30 organophosphate pesticides based on inhibition of red blood cell acetylcholinesterase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, J E; Rozman, K K; Doull, J

    2000-09-07

    Toxicity and other relevant data for 30 organophosphate pesticides were evaluated to suggest inhalation occupational exposure limits (OELs), and to support development of a risk assessment strategy for organophosphates in general. Specifically, the value of relative potency analysis and the predictability of inhalation OELs by acute toxicity measures and by repeated oral exposure NOELs was assessed. Suggested OELs are based on the prevention of red blood cell (RBC) acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition and are derived using a weight-of-evidence risk assessment approach. Suggested OEL values range from 0.002 to 2 mg/m(3), and in most cases, are less than current permissible exposure levels (PELs) or threshold limit values(R) (TLVs(R)). The available data indicate that experimental data for most organophosphates evaluated are limited; most organophosphates are equally potent RBC AChE inhibitors in different mammalian species; NOELs from repeated exposure studies of variable duration are usually equivalent; and, no particular grouping based on organophosphate structure is consistently more potent than another. Further, relative potency analyses have limited usefulness in the risk assessment of organophosphates. The data also indicated that equivalent relative potency relationships do not exist across either exposure duration (acute vs. repeated) or exposure route (oral vs. inhalation). Consideration of all variable duration and exposure route studies are therefore usually desirable in the development of an OEL, especially when data are limited. Also, neither acute measures of toxicity nor repeated oral exposure NOELs are predictive of weight-of-evidence based inhalation OELs. These deviations from what is expected based on the common mechanism of action for organophosphates across exposure duration and route - AChE inhibition - is likely due to the lack of synchrony between the timing of target tissue effective dose and the experimental observation of equivalent

  10. Validation of MODIS Active Fire Products With Coincident ASTER Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csiszar, I. A.; Morisette, J. T.; Giglio, L.; Justice, C. O.

    2002-12-01

    Satellites provide valuable information for the large-scale monitoring of biomass burning over the globe. However, the accuracy of the satellite-derived fire products needs to be determined. An active fire product from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument on board the polar orbiter Terra satellite has been available since 2000. A unique feature of the Terra satellite is the availability of coincident high resolution data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER). In this study we used the elevated signal in the 30 m resolution ASTER channel 9 at 2.4 micron to characterize fires within the 1-km MODIS pixels. The probability of MODIS detection was determined by logistic regression as a function of sub-pixel fractional fire coverage and spatial heterogeneity. Examples of individual fires and summarized statistics will be presented for various regions of the globe. The effects of algorithm changes on product accuracy will also be discussed. This work is being undertaken in the framework of the international GOFC/GOLD-Fire program. Involvement of regional scientists in validation of satellite data products is encouraged and will help build a user community informed on the capabilities and limitations of a given product for subsequent application.

  11. Coincidence of mandibular fractures with isolated posterior maxillary sinus fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatt, Sebastian; Rahimi-Nedjat, Roman; Sagheb, Keyvan; Piechowiak, Lisa; Walter, Christian; Brüllmann, Dan

    2017-10-01

    There are no data available to show whether there is a relationship between mandibular fractures and isolated fractures of the posterior and/or lateral walls of the maxillary sinus. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is a coincidence between these fracture patterns. Four hundred large volume cone beam computed tomography scans (CBCT) of patients with a fracture of the mandible between 2008 and 2013 were analyzed retrospectively. Patients with multiple midfacial fractures were excluded. The radiographic findings were correlated with epidemiological and clinical data of the patients such as gender, age, treatment methods, or complications. The most frequent fracture sites of the mandible were the jaw angle, the parasymphysis region, and the condyle. Nineteen of the 400 patients (4.75%) had an isolated fracture of the lateral and/or posterior maxillary sinus. Odds-ratio analysis revealed a high tendency for significant correlation of condylar process fractures with isolated maxillary sinus fractures. Chi-square test demonstrated a P-value near statistical significance (P=.054). No other fracture site of the mandible could be associated with an isolated fracture of the maxillary sinus. A condylar process fracture of the mandible after trauma without any further injury of the midface may be associated with an isolated fracture of the lateral and/or posterior maxillary sinus. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Photoion-photoelectron coincidence studies clusters and transient molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norwood, K.

    1990-11-16

    Experimental photoion-photoelectron coincidence (PIPECO) spectra have been obtained at different nozzle stagnation pressures for Ar, Kr, Xe, and CO dimers and trimers in the wavelength regions corresponding to the respective ground states through all states accessible with a photon energy of 20 eV. Ionization energies for all ground states were measured and agree well with previously reported values. The formation of stable dimer ions from fragmentation of larger cluster ions initially produced by photoionization is efficient. For nozzle expansion conditions which minimize the formation of clusters larger than dimers, the intensities of the excited PIPECO bands for all clusters, except Ar{sub 2}{sup +} and Ar{sub 3}{sup +}, are found to be negligible with respect to the ground state PIPECO bands. The PIPECO technique has been used successfully to obtain the mass-selected threshold photoelectron spectra of the SO and S{sub 2}O transient molecules formed from a microwave discharge, effusive beam source. Analysis of the PIPECO spectra of all the clusters and transient molecules are presented. 177 refs., 32 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Serendipity in Cancer Drug Discovery: Rational or Coincidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Sahdeo; Gupta, Subash C; Aggarwal, Bharat B

    2016-06-01

    Novel drug development leading to final approval by the US FDA can cost as much as two billion dollars. Why the cost of novel drug discovery is so expensive is unclear, but high failure rates at the preclinical and clinical stages are major reasons. Although therapies targeting a given cell signaling pathway or a protein have become prominent in drug discovery, such treatments have done little in preventing or treating any disease alone because most chronic diseases have been found to be multigenic. A review of the discovery of numerous drugs currently being used for various diseases including cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular, pulmonary, and autoimmune diseases indicates that serendipity has played a major role in the discovery. In this review we provide evidence that rational drug discovery and targeted therapies have minimal roles in drug discovery, and that serendipity and coincidence have played and continue to play major roles. The primary focus in this review is on cancer-related drug discovery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Detecting blood-based biomarkers in metastatic breast cancer : A systematic review of their current status and clinical utility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghuis, A.M. Sofie; Koffijberg, Hendrik; Prakash, Jai; Terstappen, Leon W.M.M.; Ijzerman, Maarten J.

    2017-01-01

    Reviews on circulating biomarkers in breast cancer usually focus on one single biomarker or a selective group of biomarkers. An overview summarizing the discovery and evaluation of all blood-based biomarkers in metastatic breast cancer is lacking. This systematic review aims to identify the

  15. Gadolinium-based magnetic resonance contrast agents at 7 Tesla: in vitro T1 relaxivities in human blood plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noebauer-Huhmann, Iris M; Szomolanyi, Pavol; Juras, Vladimír; Kraff, Oliver; Ladd, Mark E; Trattnig, Siegfried

    2010-09-01

    PURPOSE/INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to determine the T1 relaxivities (r1) of 8 gadolinium (Gd)-based MR contrast agents in human blood plasma at 7 Tesla, compared with 3 Tesla. Eight commercially available Gd-based MR contrast agents were diluted in human blood plasma to concentrations of 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2 mmol/L. In vitro measurements were performed at 37 degrees C, on a 7 Tesla and on a 3 Tesla whole-body magnetic resonance imaging scanner. For the determination of T1 relaxation times, Inversion Recovery Sequences with inversion times from 0 to 3500 ms were used. The relaxivities were calculated. The r1 relaxivities of all agents, diluted in human blood plasma at body temperature, were lower at 7 Tesla than at 3 Tesla. The values at 3 Tesla were comparable to those published earlier. Notably, in some agents, a minor negative correlation of r1 with a concentration of up to 2 mmol/L could be observed. This was most pronounced in the agents with the highest protein-binding capacity. At 7 Tesla, the in vitro r1 relaxivities of Gd-based contrast agents in human blood plasma are lower than those at 3 Tesla. This work may serve as a basis for the application of Gd-based MR contrast agents at 7 Tesla. Further studies are required to optimize the contrast agent dose in vivo.

  16. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring after 1 year on valsartan or amlodipine-based treatment: a VALUE substudy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ole Lederballe; Mancia, Giuseppe; Pickering, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    of ABP levels on valsartan (VAL) and amlodipine (AML)-based regimens. METHODS: ABP was measured every 20 min during a 25-h period after morning administration of medicine; 659 patients were available for intention-to-treat analysis. RESULTS: Office blood pressure (BP) differences were smaller than...

  17. [Acid-base blood balance in patients with ulcer under treatment by the gastric secretion inhibitors and antacids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinevich, V B; Sablin, O A; Uspenskiĭ, Iu L

    2002-01-01

    There was an analysis of the results of the study of intragastric acidity and acid-base balance (ABB) of the blood in 25 patients with duodenal ulcer. The patients were examined before and against the background of the 14-day monotherapy with one of the following preparations: Losec, 40 mg (omeprazole), famotidine, 80 mg (Quamatel), Phosphalugel, or placebo.

  18. Selected Reaction Monitoring method to determine the species origin of blood-based binding agents in meats: a collaborative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grundy, H.; Read, W.A.; Macarthur, R.; Alewijn, M.

    2013-01-01

    Binding products or food ‘glues’ are used throughout the food industry to increase the meat use rate or to augment economic efficiency. Some of these binders contain thrombin from bovine and porcine blood. The European parliament has recently banned thrombin-based additives and labelling legislation

  19. 3C.09: STRATEGIES FOR CLASSIFYING PATIENTS BASED ON OFFICE, HOME AND AMBULATORY BLOOD PRESSURE MEASUREMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Zhang, L; Wei, F F; Thijs, L; Kang, Y Y; Wang, S; Xu, T Y; Wang, J G; Staessen, J A

    2015-06-01

    Hypertension guidelines propose home (HBP) or ambulatory (ABP) blood pressure monitoring as indispensable after office measurement (OBP). However, whether preference should be given to HBP or ABP remains undetermined. We recruited 831 consecutive patients (mean age, 50.6 years; 49.8% women) referred for ABP monitoring to our clinic, if they had never taken (∼90%) or had discontinued antihypertensive medication for at least 2 weeks (∼10%). SpaceLabs 90217 monitors were programed to obtain 24-h ABP recordings. OBP was measured at three visits at 1 week intervals using the Omron HEM-7051 device. Patients were requested to measure their HBP three times in the morning and three times in the evening at 1 minute intervals during 7 consecutive days. We applied hypertension guidelines for cross-classification of patients based on OBP, HBP and ABP into normotension (NT) or white-coat (WCH), masked (MH) or sustained (SH) hypertension. Aortic pulse wave velocity was measured by the SphygmoCor system and a first-morning urine sample was collected for the measurement of urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio. Based on OBP and HBP, the prevalence of NT, WCH, MH and SH was 442 (53.2%), 61 (10.3%), 166 (20.0%) and 162 (19.5%), respectively. Using daytime ABP (30 readings from 8 AM to 6 PM) instead of HBP, confirmed the cross-classification based on OBP and HBP in 575 patients (69.2%), downgraded risk from MH to NT (n = 24) or from SH to WCH (n = 9) in 33 (4.0%), but upgraded risk from NT to MH (n = 179) or from WCH to SH (n = 44) in 223 (26.8%). Analyses based on 24 h ABP were confirmatory. In adjusted analyses, both the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (+20.6%; CI, 4.4-39.3) and aortic pulse wave velocity (+0.30 m/s; CI, 0.09-0.51) were higher in patients who moved up to a higher risk category. Both indexes of target organ damage were positively associated (P < 0.008) with the odds of being reclassified. For reliably diagnosing HT and starting treatment

  20. Hydrodynamic and direct-current insulator-based dielectrophoresis (H-DC-iDEP) microfluidic blood plasma separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Mahdi; Madadi, Hojjat; Casals-Terré, Jasmina; Sellarès, Jordi

    2015-06-01

    Evaluation and diagnosis of blood alterations is a common request for clinical laboratories, requiring a complex technological approach and dedication of health resources. In this paper, we present a microfluidic device that owing to a novel combination of hydrodynamic and dielectrophoretic techniques can separate plasma from fresh blood in a microfluidic channel and for the first time allows optical real-time monitoring of the components of plasma without pre- or post-processing. The microchannel is based on a set of dead-end branches at each side and is initially filled using capillary forces with a 2-μL droplet of fresh blood. During this process, stagnation zones are generated at the dead-end branches and some red blood cells (RBCs) are trapped there. An electric field is then applied and dielectrophoretic trapping of RBCs is used to prevent more RBCs entering into the channel, which works like a sieve. Besides, an electroosmotic flow is generated to sweep the rest of the RBCs from the central part of the channel. Consequently, an RBC-free zone of plasma is formed in the middle of the channel, allowing real-time monitoring of the platelet behavior. To study the generation of stagnation zones and to ensure RBC trapping in the initial constrictions, two numerical models were solved. The proposed experimental design separates up to 0.1 μL blood plasma from a 2-μL fresh human blood droplet. In this study, a plasma purity of 99 % was achieved after 7 min, according to the measurements taken by image analysis. Graphical Abstract Schematics of a real-time plasma monitoring system based on a Hydrodynamic and direct-current insulator-based dielectrophoresis microfluidic channel.

  1. Two-Step Pseudomaximum Amplitude-Based Confidence Interval Estimation for Oscillometric Blood Pressure Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soojeong; Jeon, Gwanggil; Kang, Seokhoon

    2015-01-01

    Blood pressure (BP) is an important vital sign to determine the health of an individual. Although the estimation of average arterial blood pressure using oscillometric methods is possible, there are no established methods for obtaining confidence intervals (CIs) for systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). In this paper, we propose a two-step pseudomaximum amplitude (TSPMA) as a novel approach to obtain improved CIs of SBP and DBP using a double bootstrap approach. The weighted median (WM) filter is employed to reduce impulsive and Gaussian noises in the step of preprocessing. Application of the proposed method provides tighter CIs and smaller standard deviation of CIs than the pseudomaximum amplitude-envelope and maximum amplitude algorithms with Student's t-method.

  2. Two-Step Pseudomaximum Amplitude-Based Confidence Interval Estimation for Oscillometric Blood Pressure Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soojeong Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood pressure (BP is an important vital sign to determine the health of an individual. Although the estimation of average arterial blood pressure using oscillometric methods is possible, there are no established methods for obtaining confidence intervals (CIs for systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP. In this paper, we propose a two-step pseudomaximum amplitude (TSPMA as a novel approach to obtain improved CIs of SBP and DBP using a double bootstrap approach. The weighted median (WM filter is employed to reduce impulsive and Gaussian noises in the step of preprocessing. Application of the proposed method provides tighter CIs and smaller standard deviation of CIs than the pseudomaximum amplitude-envelope and maximum amplitude algorithms with Student’s t-method.

  3. Bidirectional Glenn With Additional Pulmonary Blood Flow: Systematic Review and Evidence-Based Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghamdi, Abdullah A

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this report was to review the exiting literature to date to inform clinical decision-making regarding the additional pulmonary blood flow at the time of bidirectional Glenn procedure. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Implementation of the ABL-90 blood gas analyzer in a ground-based mobile emergency care unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Søren; Wolsing-Hansen, Jonathan; Nybo, Mads

    2015-01-01

    Point-of Care analysis is increasingly being applied in the prehospital scene. Arterial blood gas analysis is one of many new initiatives adding to the diagnostic tools of the prehospital physician. In this paper we present a study on the feasibility of the Radiometer ABL-90 in a ground-based Mob......Point-of Care analysis is increasingly being applied in the prehospital scene. Arterial blood gas analysis is one of many new initiatives adding to the diagnostic tools of the prehospital physician. In this paper we present a study on the feasibility of the Radiometer ABL-90 in a ground...

  5. A 4pi(LS)beta-gamma coincidence system using a TDCR apparatus in the beta-channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobin, Ch; Bouchard, J

    2006-01-01

    This article is an overview of the capabilities of a 4 pi(LS)beta-gamma coincidence counting system based on a liquid scintillation detector in the beta-channel. Equipped with a three-photomultiplier apparatus designed for the triple to double coincidence ratio (TDCR) method, the 4 pi(LS)beta-gamma coincidence system developed at LNHB combines the two techniques. The 4 pi(LS)beta-gamma counting setup records the different types of scintillation events between photomultipliers (double and triple coincidences) and the associated gamma-spectra according to a bi-dimensional configuration. When measuring the activity of a (54)Mn solution, the extrapolation method is carried out by defocusing the photomultipliers; this procedure allows the measurement of gamma-ray sensitivity of the scintillation cocktail in the 835 keV energy region. In addition, in the framework of a (65)Zn standardization, 4 pi(LS)beta-gamma measurements are compared with standard 4 pi(PC)beta-gamma anticoincidence counting using a proportional counter in the beta-channel.

  6. A 4{pi}(LS){beta}-{gamma} coincidence system using a TDCR apparatus in the {beta}-channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobin, Ch. [LNHB, CEA/Saclay, F-91191 Gif/Yvette Cedex (France)]. E-mail: christophe.bobin@cea.fr; Bouchard, J. [LNHB, CEA/Saclay, F-91191 Gif/Yvette Cedex (France)

    2006-01-01

    This article is an overview of the capabilities of a 4{pi}(LS){beta}-{gamma} coincidence counting system based on a liquid scintillation detector in the {beta}-channel. Equipped with a three-photomultiplier apparatus designed for the triple to double coincidence ratio (TDCR) method, the 4{pi}(LS){beta}-{gamma} coincidence system developed at LNHB combines the two techniques. The 4{pi}(LS){beta}-{gamma} counting setup records the different types of scintillation events between photomultipliers (double and triple coincidences) and the associated {gamma}-spectra according to a bi-dimensional configuration. When measuring the activity of a {sup 54}Mn solution, the extrapolation method is carried out by defocusing the photomultipliers; this procedure allows the measurement of {gamma}-ray sensitivity of the scintillation cocktail in the 835 keV energy region. In addition, in the framework of a {sup 65}Zn standardization, 4{pi}(LS){beta}-{gamma} measurements are compared with standard 4{pi}(PC){beta}-{gamma} anticoincidence counting using a proportional counter in the {beta}-channel.

  7. [Hemoglobin from newborn calves during artificial changes in the acid-base parameters of blood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hryshchenko, V A

    1999-01-01

    The modelling of metabolic acidosis and alcalosis states proves that AAB is capable to influence on the haemoglobin parameters and its oxiform levels in the blood of newborn animals. The quantitative redistribution of the indicated haemoglobin forms in blood of the experimental animal is estimated as compensator process and is explained by their buffer properties. The investigated regularities revealed some aspects of adaptive mechanisms manifested during the abnormal exit of the newborn organism from the respiratory-metabolic acidosis state.

  8. Direct, rapid antimicrobial susceptibility test from positive blood cultures based on microscopic imaging analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Jungil; Jeong, Hyun Yong; Lee, Gi Yoon; Han, Sangkwon; Han, Shinhun; Jin, Bonghwan; Lim, Taegeun; Kim, Shin; Kim, Dong Young; Kim, Hee Chan; Kim, Eui-Chong; Song, Sang Hoon; Kim, Taek Soo; Kwon, Sunghoon

    2017-01-01

    For the timely treatment of patients with infections in bloodstream and cerebrospinal fluid, a rapid antimicrobial susceptibility test (AST) is urgently needed. Here, we describe a direct and rapid antimicrobial susceptibility testing (dRAST) system, which can determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of bacteria from a positive blood culture bottle (PBCB) in six hours. The positive blood culture sample is directly mixed with agarose and inoculated into a micropatterned plastic microchip wit...

  9. Derivation of a measure of systolic blood pressure mutability: a novel information theory-based metric from ambulatory blood pressure tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Danitza J; Vogel, Eugenio E; Saravia, Gonzalo; Stockins, Benjamin

    2016-03-01

    We provide ambulatory blood pressure (BP) exams with tools based on information theory to quantify fluctuations thus increasing the capture of dynamic test components. Data from 515 ambulatory 24-hour BP exams were considered. Average age was 54 years, 54% were women, and 53% were under BP treatment. The average systolic pressure (SP) was 127 ± 8 mm Hg. A data compressor (wlzip) designed to recognize meaningful information is invoked to measure mutability which is a form of dynamical variability. For patients with the same average SP, different mutability values are obtained which reflects the differences in dynamical variability. In unadjusted linear regression models, mutability had low association with the mean systolic BP (R(2) = 0.056; P information toward diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Noncontact blood species identification method based on spatially resolved near-infrared transmission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linna; Sun, Meixiu; Wang, Zhennan; Li, Hongxiao; Li, Yingxin; Li, Gang; Lin, Ling

    2017-09-01

    The inspection and identification of whole blood are crucially significant for import-export ports and inspection and quarantine departments. In our previous research, we proved Near-Infrared diffuse transmitted spectroscopy method was potential for noninvasively identifying three blood species, including macaque, human and mouse, with samples measured in the cuvettes. However, in open sampling cases, inspectors may be endangered by virulence factors in blood samples. In this paper, we explored the noncontact measurement for classification, with blood samples measured in the vacuum blood vessels. Spatially resolved near-infrared spectroscopy was used to improve the prediction accuracy. Results showed that the prediction accuracy of the model built with nine detection points was more than 90% in identification between all five species, including chicken, goat, macaque, pig and rat, far better than the performance of the model built with single-point spectra. The results fully supported the idea that spatially resolved near-infrared spectroscopy method can improve the prediction ability, and demonstrated the feasibility of this method for noncontact blood species identification in practical applications.

  11. [Numerical assessment of impeller features of centrifugal blood pump based on fast hemolysis approximation model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shou, Chen; Guo, Yongjun; Su, Lei; Li, Yongqian

    2014-12-01

    The impeller profile, which is one of the most important factors, determines the creation of shear stress which leads to blood hemolysis in the internal flow of centrifugal blood pump. The investigation of the internal flow field in centrifugal blood pump and the estimation of the hemolysis within different impeller profiles will provide information to improve the performance of centrifugal blood pump. The SST kappa-omega with low Reynolds correction was used in our laboratory to study the internal flow fields for four kinds of impellers of centrifugal blood pump. The flow fields included distributions of pressure field, velocity field and shear stress field. In addition, a fast numerical hemolysis approximation was adopted to calculate the normalized index of hemolysis (NIH). The results indicated that the pressure field distribution in all kinds of blood pump were reasonable, but for the log spiral impeller pump, the vortex and backflow were much lower than those of the other pumps, and the high shear stress zone was just about 0.004%, and the NIH was 0.0089.

  12. Rearranged EML4-ALK fusion transcripts sequester in circulating blood platelets and enable blood-based crizotinib response monitoring in non-small-cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, R Jonas A; Karachaliou, Niki; Berenguer, Jordi; Gimenez-Capitan, Ana; Schellen, Pepijn; Teixido, Cristina; Tannous, Jihane; Kuiper, Justine L; Drees, Esther; Grabowska, Magda; van Keulen, Marte; Heideman, Danielle A M; Thunnissen, Erik; Dingemans, Anne-Marie C; Viteri, Santiago; Tannous, Bakhos A; Drozdowskyj, Ana; Rosell, Rafael; Smit, Egbert F; Wurdinger, Thomas

    2016-01-05

    Non-small-cell lung cancers harboring EML4-ALK rearrangements are sensitive to crizotinib. However, despite initial response, most patients will eventually relapse, and monitoring EML4-ALK rearrangements over the course of treatment may help identify these patients. However, challenges associated with serial tumor biopsies have highlighted the need for blood-based assays for the monitoring of biomarkers. Platelets can sequester RNA released by tumor cells and are thus an attractive source for the non-invasive assessment of biomarkers. EML4-ALK rearrangements were analyzed by RT-PCR in platelets and plasma isolated from blood obtained from 77 patients with non-small-cell lung cancer, 38 of whom had EML4-ALK-rearranged tumors. In a subset of 29 patients with EML4-ALK-rearranged tumors who were treated with crizotinib, EML4-ALK rearrangements in platelets were correlated with progression-free and overall survival. RT-PCR demonstrated 65% sensitivity and 100% specificity for the detection of EML4-ALK rearrangements in platelets. In the subset of 29 patients treated with crizotinib, progression-free survival was 3.7 months for patients with EML4-ALK+ platelets and 16 months for those with EML4-ALK- platelets (hazard ratio, 3.5; P = 0.02). Monitoring of EML4-ALK rearrangements in the platelets of one patient over a period of 30 months revealed crizotinib resistance two months prior to radiographic disease progression. Platelets are a valuable source for the non-invasive detection of EML4-ALK rearrangements and may prove useful for predicting and monitoring outcome to crizotinib, thereby improving clinical decisions based on radiographic imaging alone.

  13. A Novel Automated Slide-Based Technology for Visualization, Counting, and Characterization of the Formed Elements of Blood: A Proof of Concept Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelman, James W; Tanasijevic, Milenko J; Zahniser, David J

    2017-08-01

    - A novel automated slide-based approach to the complete blood count and white blood cell differential count is introduced. - To present proof of concept for an image-based approach to complete blood count, based on a new slide preparation technique. A preliminary data comparison with the current flow-based technology is shown. - A prototype instrument uses a proprietary method and technology to deposit a precise volume of undiluted peripheral whole blood in a monolayer onto a glass microscope slide so that every cell can be distinguished, counted, and imaged. The slide is stained, and then multispectral image analysis is used to measure the complete blood count parameters. Images from a 600-cell white blood cell differential count, as well as 5000 red blood cells and a variable number of platelets, that are present in 600 high-power fields are made available for a technologist to view on a computer screen. An initial comparison of the basic complete blood count parameters was performed, comparing 1857 specimens on both the new instrument and a flow-based hematology analyzer. - Excellent correlations were obtained between the prototype instrument and a flow-based system. The primary parameters of white blood cell, red blood cell, and platelet counts resulted in correlation coefficients (r) of 0.99, 0.99, and 0.98, respectively. Other indices included hemoglobin (r = 0.99), hematocrit (r = 0.99), mean cellular volume (r = 0.90), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (r = 0.97), and mean platelet volume (r = 0.87). For the automated white blood cell differential counts, r values were calculated for neutrophils (r = 0.98), lymphocytes (r = 0.97), monocytes (r = 0.76), eosinophils (r = 0.96), and basophils (r = 0.63). - Quantitative results for components of the complete blood count and automated white blood cell differential count can be developed by image analysis of a monolayer preparation of a known volume of peripheral blood.

  14. Comparison of a New Cobinamide-Based Method to a Standard Laboratory Method for Measuring Cyanide in Human Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swezey, Robert; Shinn, Walter; Green, Carol; Drover, David R.; Hammer, Gregory B.; Schulman, Scott R.; Zajicek, Anne; Jett, David A.; Boss, Gerry R.

    2013-01-01

    Most hospital laboratories do not measure blood cyanide concentrations, and samples must be sent to reference laboratories. A simple method is needed for measuring cyanide in hospitals. The authors previously developed a method to quantify cyanide based on the high binding affinity of the vitamin B12 analog, cobinamide, for cyanide and a major spectral change observed for cyanide-bound cobinamide. This method is now validated in human blood, and the findings include a mean inter-assay accuracy of 99.1%, precision of 8.75% and a lower limit of quantification of 3.27 µM cyanide. The method was applied to blood samples from children treated with sodium nitroprusside and it yielded measurable results in 88 of 172 samples (51%), whereas the reference laboratory yielded results in only 19 samples (11%). In all 19 samples, the cobinamide-based method also yielded measurable results. The two methods showed reasonable agreement when analyzed by linear regression, but not when analyzed by a standard error of the estimate or paired t-test. Differences in results between the two methods may be because samples were assayed at different times on different sample types. The cobinamide-based method is applicable to human blood, and can be used in hospital laboratories and emergency rooms. PMID:23653045

  15. Chemogenomic profiling of endogenous PARK2 expression using a genome-edited coincidence reporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasson, Samuel A; Fogel, Adam I; Wang, Chunxin; MacArthur, Ryan; Guha, Rajarshi; Heman-Ackah, Sabrina; Martin, Scott; Youle, Richard J; Inglese, James

    2015-05-15

    Parkin, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, is a central mediator of mitochondrial quality control and is linked to familial forms of Parkinson's disease (PD). Removal of dysfunctional mitochondria from the cell by Parkin is thought to be neuroprotective, and pharmacologically increasing Parkin levels may be a novel therapeutic approach. We used genome-editing to integrate a coincidence reporter into the PARK2 gene locus of a neuroblastoma-derived cell line and developed a quantitative high-throughput screening (qHTS) assay capable of accurately detecting subtle compound-mediated increases in endogenous PARK2 expression. Interrogation of a chemogenomic library revealed diverse chemical classes that up-regulate the PARK2 transcript, including epigenetic agents, drugs controlling cholesterol biosynthesis, and JNK inhibitors. Use of the coincidence reporter eliminated wasted time pursuing reporter-biased false positives accounting for ∼2/3 of the actives and, coupled with titration-based screening, greatly improves the efficiency of compound selection. This approach represents a strategy to revitalize reporter-gene assays for drug discovery.

  16. Cosmology of a FLRW 3-brane, late-time cosmic acceleration, and the cosmic coincidence

    CERN Document Server

    Doolin, Ciaran

    2013-01-01

    A late epoch cosmic acceleration may be naturally entangled with cosmic coincidence - the observation that at the onset of acceleration the vacuum energy density fraction nearly coincides with the matter density fraction. In this letter we show that this is indeed the case with the cosmology of a Friedmann-Lama\\^itre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) 3-brane in a 5-dimensional anti-de Sitter spacetime. We derive the 4-dimensional effective action on a FLRW 3-brane, which helps define a general reduction formula, namely $M_P^{2}=\\rho_{b}/|\\Lambda_5|$, where $M_{P}$ is the effective Planck mass, $\\Lambda_5$ is the 5-dimensional cosmological constant and $\\rho_b$ is the sum of the 3-brane tension $V$ and the matter density $\\rho$. The behavior of the background solution is consistent with the results based on the form of the 4D effective potential. Although the range of variation in $\\rho_{b}$ is strongly constrained, the Big Bang Nucleosynthesis bound on the time variation of the renormalised Newton constant $G_N = (8\\pi...

  17. Prediction of passive blood-brain partitioning: straightforward and effective classification models based on in silico derived physicochemical descriptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar, Santiago; Chakrabarti, Mayukh; Costanzi, Stefano

    2010-06-01

    The distribution of compounds between blood and brain is a very important consideration for new candidate drug molecules. In this paper, we describe the derivation of two linear discriminant analysis (LDA) models for the prediction of passive blood-brain partitioning, expressed in terms of logBB values. The models are based on computationally derived physicochemical descriptors, namely the octanol/water partition coefficient (logP), the topological polar surface area (TPSA) and the total number of acidic and basic atoms, and were obtained using a homogeneous training set of 307 compounds, for all of which the published experimental logBB data had been determined in vivo. In particular, since molecules with logBB>0.3 cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) readily while molecules with logBBdrug design and virtual screenings. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Blood pressure goal achievement with olmesartan medoxomil-based treatment: additional analysis of the OLMEBEST study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Vivencio; Escobar, Carlos; Calderon, Alberto; Böhm, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Aims Guidelines recommend blood pressure (BP) in hypertensive patients should be <140 systolic BP (SBP) and <90 diastolic BP (DBP) mmHg. This analysis assessed goal rate achievement in hypertensive patients receiving olmesartan-based treatment in the OLMEBEST study. Methods Patients with essential hypertension (DBP ≥ 90 mmHg and <110 mmHg) received open-label olmesartan medoxomil 20 mg/day (n = 2306). After 8 weeks, patients with DBP ≥ 90 mmHg (n = 627) were randomized to 4 weeks’ double-blind treatment with olmesartan 40 mg/day monotherapy or olmesartan 20 mg/day plus hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) 12.5 mg/day. For this analysis, the numbers and proportions of patients who achieved SBP < 140 mmHg and/or DBP < 90 mmHg at the end of the 4 weeks were calculated. Results In patients who achieved DBP normalization (<90 mmHg) at week 8 (n = 1546) and continued open-label olmesartan 20 mg/day, 66.7% achieved SBP/DBP < 140/90 mmHg at Week 12. In patients who did not achieve DBP normalization at Week 8, 26.8% of those randomized to olmesartan 40 mg/day and 42.5% of those randomized to olmesartan 20 mg/day plus HCTZ 12.5 mg/day achieved a SBP/DBP < 140/90 mmHg at Week 12. Conclusion Olmesartan 40 mg/day and olmesartan 20 mg/day plus HCTZ 12.5 mg/day allow substantial proportions of patients to achieve BP goals. PMID:19756164

  19. Coincidence symptomatic gall stone and helicobacter pylori: a brief report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Kazem Nezam

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: On of the most common gasterointrestinal disease is gallstone disease and it`s prevalence is 11%-36%in autopsies. If gallstone leads to symptoms and side effect cholecystectomy will be inevitable. Gastric infection due to H.P will cause several symptoms of which dyspepsia and epigastric pain are outstanding .Gall stones also usually causes epigastric and/or right upper quadrant pain. Pain in other abdominal quadrant is less common. In this study we investigated the coincidence of gall stone and gastro intestinal H.P regarding the common symptom, between these two conditions to prevent unnecessary operation.Methods: The cases were adopted from cholecystectomy candidates due to gall stone disease (proved by ultrasonography. The control group were normal people who proved to be gall stone free ultrasonographicly. Serum IgG anti H.P was checked and compared between the two groups.Results: Seventy percent of patients entered into the study which consisted of 35 case and 35 controls. The two groups were not significantly different in age and gender. There were 22 (68.8% and 10 (31.2% H.P positive cases in case and control groups respectively. Thirteen (34.2% and 25 (65.8% cases were H.P negative in case and control groups respectively. Comparing these results will reveal a statistically significant difference (P=0.004.Conclusion: The relationship between gastric H.P and gall stone in this study supports the role of H.P in gall stone formation. According to our results and the common symptoms of two conditions specially in atypic biliary colic, it seems that in many cases gastrointestinal H.P causes the pain. Prospective studies are recommended.

  20. Optics based signal processing methods for intraoperative blood vessel detection and quantification in real time (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Amal; Shukair, Shetha A.; Le Rolland, Paul; Vijayvergia, Mayank; Subramanian, Hariharan; Gunn, Jonathan W.

    2016-03-01

    Minimally invasive operations require surgeons to make difficult cuts to blood vessels and other tissues with impaired tactile and visual feedback. This leads to inadvertent cuts to blood vessels hidden beneath tissue, causing serious health risks to patients and a non-reimbursable financial burden to hospitals. Intraoperative imaging technologies have been developed, but these expensive systems can be cumbersome and provide only a high-level view of blood vessel networks. In this research, we propose a lean reflectance-based system, comprised of a dual wavelength LED, photodiode, and novel signal processing algorithms for rapid vessel characterization. Since this system takes advantage of the inherent pulsatile light absorption characteristics of blood vessels, no contrast agent is required for its ability to detect the presence of a blood vessel buried deep inside any tissue type (up to a cm) in real time. Once a vessel is detected, the system is able to estimate the distance of the vessel from the probe and the diameter size of the vessel (with a resolution of ~2mm), as well as delineate the type of tissue surrounding the vessel. The system is low-cost, functions in real-time, and could be mounted on already existing surgical tools, such as Kittner dissectors or laparoscopic suction irrigation cannulae. Having been successfully validated ex vivo, this technology will next be tested in a live porcine study and eventually in clinical trials.

  1. Impact of acute metabolic acidosis on the acid-base balance in follicular fluid and blood in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrova, E; Dolezel, R; Novakova-Mala, J; Pechova, A; Zavadilova, M; Cech, S

    2017-02-01

    Acid-base balance is one of the most vigorously regulated variables of the body, including genital organs. Subacute ruminal acidosis is a common disturbance in dairy cows that disturbs several biochemical indices in the blood, cerebrospinal fluid, and urine. The possible negative effects of metabolic acidosis on the follicular fluid (FF) composition and, subsequently, on oocyte quality, are not fully elucidated. This study aimed to evaluate the changes in acid-base balance (ABB) in FF and blood during acute metabolic acidosis in dairy heifers. Ten Holstein heifers were stimulated with FSH in eight decreasing doses at 12-hour intervals (D0-D3). Acidosis was induced by oral administration of sucrose at 9 g/kg of body weight, dissolved in 10 L of warm tap water, at D3. Samples were collected from each cow at 0, 8, 12, 16, 24, 32, 40, and 48 hours after treatment. Samples of FF, obtained by transvaginal follicular aspiration, and peripheral blood were examined for ABB parameters: pH, pCO2, pO2, HCO3-, and base excess (BE). A significant decrease in pH, HCO3-, and BE values in the blood, as well as FF, occurred after sucrose treatment. The lowest pH values occurred in blood at 16 hours, and in FF at 24 hours, after treatment (7.30 ± 0.05 and 7.33 ± 0.05, respectively). The lowest HCO3- values in blood (18.75 ± 3.2 mmol/L) and FF (18.07 ± 2.84 mmol/L) occurred 24 hours after treatment, as did the lowest BE values (-6.61 ± 3.7 mmol/L and -7.53 ± 3.89 mmol/L, in blood and FF, respectively). Significant correlations for HCO3- (r = 0.928), BE (r = 0.946), pH (r = 0.889), and pCO2 (r = 0.522) existed between blood and FF samples. The results demonstrated that metabolic acute acidosis substantially influences the characteristics of both serum and FF. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Blood group AB is protective factor for gestational diabetes mellitus: a prospective population-based study in Tianjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cuiping; Li, Yi; Wang, Leishen; Sun, Shurong; Liu, Gongshu; Leng, Junhong; Guo, Jia; Lv, Li; Li, Weidong; Zhang, Cuilin; Hu, Gang; Yu, Zhijie; Yang, Xilin

    2015-09-01

    The ABO blood types are associated with cancers, cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes mellitus but whether they are also associated with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is unknown. We examined the relationship between the ABO blood types and the risk of GDM in a prospective population-based Chinese cohort. From 2010 to 2012, we recruited 14,198 pregnant women within the first 12 weeks of gestation in Tianjin, China. All women had a glucose challenge test (GCT) at 24-28 gestational weeks, followed by a 75-g 2-h oral glucose tolerance test if the results from GCT were ≥7.8 mmol/L. GDM was diagnosed based on the glucose cut-points of the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Group criteria. Logistic regression was used to obtain odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) adjusted for traditional risk factors. Stratified analysis was performed by family history of diabetes (yes versus no). Sensitivity analyses were also performed by using the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for GDM. Women with blood groups A, B or O (i.e. non-AB) were associated with increased risk of GDM as compared with those with blood group AB (adjusted OR: 1.44, 95% CI: 1.13-1.83). Sensitivity analyses showed that the result was consistent using WHO criteria. The adjusted OR of blood group non-AB versus AB for GDM was enhanced among women with a family history of diabetes (2.69, 1.21-5.96) and attenuated among those without (1.33, 1.03-1.71). Blood group AB was a protective factor against GDM in pregnant Chinese women. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Poor Reliability of Wrist Blood Pressure Self-Measurement at Home: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casiglia, Edoardo; Tikhonoff, Valérie; Albertini, Federica; Palatini, Paolo

    2016-10-01

    The reliability of blood pressure measurement with wrist devices, which has not previously been assessed under real-life circumstances in general population, is dependent on correct positioning of the wrist device at heart level. We determined whether an error was present when blood pressure was self-measured at the wrist in 721 unselected subjects from the general population. After training, blood pressure was measured in the office and self-measured at home with an upper-arm device (the UA-767 Plus) and a wrist device (the UB-542, not provided with a position sensor). The upper-arm-wrist blood pressure difference detected in the office was used as the reference measurement. The discrepancy between office and home differences was the home measurement error. In the office, systolic blood pressure was 2.5% lower at wrist than at arm (P=0.002), whereas at home, systolic and diastolic blood pressures were higher at wrist than at arm (+5.6% and +5.4%, respectively; Phome measurement error of at least ±5 mm Hg and 455 of at least ±10 mm Hg (bad measurers). In multivariable linear regression, a lower cognitive pattern independently determined both the systolic and the diastolic home measurement error and a longer forearm the systolic error only. This was confirmed by logistic regression having bad measurers as dependent variable. The use of wrist devices for home self-measurement, therefore, leads to frequent detection of falsely elevated blood pressure values likely because of a poor memory and rendition of the instructions, leading to the wrong position of the wrist. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Adult Population towards Blood Donation in Gondar Town, Northwest Ethiopia: A Community Based Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asrie, Fikir; Melak, Tadele; Tsegay, Yakob Gebregziabher; Areba, Mohamedamin

    2016-01-01

    Background. Though World Health Organization recommends 100% voluntary blood donation, the percentage of blood collected from voluntary blood donors and the average annual blood collection rate are extremely low in Ethiopia. The role of adults is crucial to meet the demand of safe blood. Thus, this study aimed to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice of adult population towards blood donation in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia. Method. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 768 adults. Multistage sampling technique together with simple random and systematic random sampling technique was employed. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis and bivariate correlation analysis were done. Result. About 436 (56.8%), 630 (82%), and 141 (18.4%) study participants had adequate knowledge, good attitude, and experience of blood donation, respectively. Secondary and higher educational statuses were significantly associated with adequate knowledge towards blood donation. Participants who were protestant by religion were more likely to have good attitude towards blood donation. Age, self-perceived health status, and religion were significantly associated with blood donation practice. Conclusion. Knowledge and attitude towards blood donation are high. However, the level of practice is low. District and national blood banks and transfusion agency should design strategies that promote and motivate the communities to donate blood. PMID:27516920

  5. Serial blood-based analysis of AR-V7 in men with advanced prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, M.; Lu, C.; Chen, Y.; Paller, C. J.; Carducci, M. A.; Eisenberger, M. A.; Luo, J.; Antonarakis, E. S.

    2015-01-01

    during taxane therapies. Serial blood-based AR-V7 testing is feasible in routine clinical practice, and may provide insights into temporal changes in tumor evolution. PMID:26117829

  6. Image-based red blood cell counter for multiple species of wild and domestic animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.R.M. Mauricio

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT RBC count plays an important role in animal diagnosis. Despite the many technologies available in different automated hematology analyzers, when it comes to the blood of wild animals it is still difficult to find an easy and affordable solution for multiple species. This study aims to evaluate the proposed automatic red blood cell counter. Blood samples (1 ocelot - Leopardus pardalis, 1 monkey - Cebus apella, 1 coati - Nasua nasua, 62 dogs - Canis familiaris, and 5 horses - Equus caballus were analyzed using three methods: 1-manual count, 2-automatic count by image, and 3-semi-automatic count by image; blood from dogs and horses were also analyzed by a fourth method: 4-automatic count by impedance. The counts in methods 2 and 3 were produced by the proposed red blood cell counter. Results were compared using Pearson's correlation and plots with different methods as the criterion standard. RBC counts in methods 1, 2, and 3 correlated very well with those in the method 4 (r ≥ 0.94. RBC counts produced by method 2 were highly correlated with method 3 (r = 0.998. The results indicate that the proposed method can be used as an automatic or semi-automatic counting method in clinics that are currently using the manual method for RBC assessment.

  7. Blood meal-based compound. Good choice as iron fertilizer for organic farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunta, Felipe; Di Foggia, Michele; Bellido-Díaz, Violeta; Morales-Calderón, Manuel; Tessarin, Paola; López-Rayo, Sandra; Tinti, Anna; Kovács, Krisztina; Klencsár, Zoltán; Fodor, Ferenc; Rombolà, Adamo Domenico

    2013-05-01

    Prevention of iron chlorosis with Fe synthetic chelates is a widespread agronomical practice but implies high costs and environmental risks. Blood meal is one of the main fertilizers allowed to be used in organic farming. Through this work a novel blood meal fertilizer was audited. Measurements such as FTIR, Raman, electron paramagnetic resonance, and Mössbauer spectroscopy, UV-visible properties, stability against pH, and batch experiments were performed to characterize and assess the reactivity on soil constituents and agronomic soils. The spectroscopy findings give clear indications that Fe is in the ferric oxidation state, is hexacoordinated, and has a low-spin form suggesting a similar structure to hemin and hematin. A spectrophotometric method at 400 nm was validated to quantify blood meal concentration at low electrolyte concentrations. Batch experiments demonstrated high reactivity of blood meal fertilizer with soil constituents, mainly in the presence of calcium, where aggregation processes are predominant, and its ability to take Fe from synthetic Fe (hydr)oxides. The beneficial profile of blood meal by a providing nitrogen source together with the capability to keep the Fe bound to porphyrin organic compounds makes it a good candidate to be used as Fe fertilizer in organic farming.

  8. Pilot study on vascular intervention training based on blood flow effected guidewire simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiayin Cai; Hongzhi Xie; Shuyang Zhang; Lixu Gu

    2017-07-01

    A decent guidewire behavior simulation is vital to the virtual vascular intervention training. The influence of blood flow has rarely been taken into consideration in former works of guidewire simulation. This paper addresses the problem by integrating blood flow analysis and proposes a novel guidewire simulation model.The blood flow distribution inside arterial vasculature is computed by separating the vascular model into discrete cylindrical vessels and modeling the flow in each vessel with the Poiseuille Law. The blood flow computation is then integrated into a Kirchhoff rods model. The simulation could be run in real time with hardware acceleration at least 30 fps. To validate the result, an experiment environment with a 3D printed vascular phantom and an electromagnetic tracking(EMT) system was set up with clinical-used guidewire sensors applied in phantom to trace its motion as the standard for comparison. Experiment results reveal that the shown blood flow effected model presents better physical credibility with a lower and more stable root-mean-square(RMS) at 2.14mm ± 1.24mm, better than the Kirchhoff model of 4.81mm±3.80mm.

  9. Standardization of {sup 67}Ga using a 4{pi}(LS){beta}-{gamma} anti-coincidence system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobin, C. [LNE-LNHB, Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel, CEA/Saclay, F-91191 Gif/Yvette Cedex (France)]. E-mail: christophe.bobin@cea.fr; Bouchard, J. [LNE-LNHB, Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel, CEA/Saclay, F-91191 Gif/Yvette Cedex (France); Hamon, C. [LNE-LNHB, Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel, CEA/Saclay, F-91191 Gif/Yvette Cedex (France); Iroulart, M.G. [LNE-LNHB, Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel, CEA/Saclay, F-91191 Gif/Yvette Cedex (France); Plagnard, J. [LNE-LNHB, Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel, CEA/Saclay, F-91191 Gif/Yvette Cedex (France)

    2007-07-15

    {sup 67}Ga is an interesting radionuclide as it is widely used in nuclear medicine. The meta-stable level related to the 93.3 keV {gamma}-transition represents the main difficulty when using the coincidence method to standardize this radionuclide. The 4{pi}(LS){beta}-{gamma} anti-coincidence system implemented at LNHB is based on the use of electronic modules specifically designed for radioactivity metrology. On the contrary to classical coincidence systems, activity measurements of {sup 67}Ga are carried out as for prompt {beta}-{gamma} emitters; indeed, when using a live-timed anti-coincidence system with extendable dead times, the problem due to the excess of counting generated by the meta-stable level is avoided. Considering that the standardization of {sup 67}Ga does not depend on the decay scheme parameters (except for the half-life), the measurement of the {gamma}-emission intensities has been performed. The standardization of this radionuclide was also a good opportunity for a new participation of our laboratory in the SIR of {sup 67}Ga (International Reference System); the result obtained with the 4{pi}(LS){beta}-{gamma} anti-coincidence system is compared with those submitted by other National Metrology Institutes (NMIs). The non-extendable dead times used in most of the participations could be one of the causes responsible for the abnormal dispersion of the results. The optimization of the standard solution of {sup 67}Ga for the radioactive source preparation is also discussed.

  10. Micro-scale blood particulate dynamics using a non-uniform rational B-spline-based isogeometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chivukula, V; Mousel, J; Lu, J; Vigmostad, S

    2014-12-01

    The current research presents a novel method in which blood particulates - biconcave red blood cells (RBCs) and spherical cells are modeled using isogeometric analysis, specifically Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS) in 3-D. The use of NURBS ensures that even with a coarse representation, the geometry of the blood particulates maintains an accurate description when subjected to large deformations. The fundamental advantage of this method is the coupling of the geometrical description and the stress analysis of the cell membrane into a single, unified framework. Details on the modeling approach, implementation of boundary conditions and the membrane mechanics analysis using isogeometric modeling are presented, along with validation cases for spherical and biconcave cells. Using NURBS - based isogeometric analysis, the behavior of individual cells in fluid flow is presented and analyzed in different flow regimes using as few as 176 elements for a spherical cell and 220 elements for a biconcave RBC. This work provides a framework for modeling a large number of 3-D deformable biological cells, each with its own geometric description and membrane properties. To the best knowledge of the authors, this is the first application of the NURBS - based isogeometric analysis to model and simulate blood particulates in flow in 3D. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Patients Empowerment Based on Experimential Learning to Behavior of Acute Compilation Prevention and Blood Glucose Levels of Patients DM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunung Ernawati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute complications are common in patients with Diabetes Mellitus (DM. To improve the behavior prevention of complications and control blood sugar levels, patients need to be equipped with knowledge about the disease process to built a positive attitude and good behavior. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of patient empowerment based on experiential learning behavior on the prevention of complications and blood sugar levels. Methods: This study used a quasi-experimental design with pre-post test approach using control groups. Samples were 46 diabetic patients who take control in poly RS Mardi Waluyo Blitar taken by consecutive sampling. Data were collected using a questionnaire and checklist recall. Data were analyzed using paired t test, wilcoxon signed rank test and mann whitney. Results: The patient empowerment-based experiential learning have a significant impact on the behavior of prevention of complications. Discussion: Methods of experiential learning can be applied to improve the self-care of patients, especially those who have experienced an acute complications, so the patient is easier to implement behavioral prevention of complications and control blood sugar levels. Keywords: patient empowerment, experiential learning, behavioral prevention, blood glucose

  12. HIV-1 RNA may decline more slowly in semen than in blood following initiation of efavirenz-based antiretroviral therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M Graham

    Full Text Available Antiretroviral therapy (ART decreases HIV-1 RNA levels in semen and reduces sexual transmission from HIV-1-infected men. Our objective was to study the time course and magnitude of seminal HIV-1 RNA decay after initiation of efavirenz-based ART among 13 antiretroviral-naïve Kenyan men.HIV-1 RNA was quantified (lower limit of detection, 120 copies/mL in blood and semen at baseline and over the first month of ART. Median log(10 HIV-1 RNA was compared at each time-point using Wilcoxon Signed Rank tests. Perelson's two-phase viral decay model and nonlinear random effects were used to compare decay rates in blood and semen.Median baseline HIV-1 RNA was 4.40 log(10 copies/mL in blood (range, 3.20-5.08 log(10 copies/mL and 3.69 log(10 copies/mL in semen (range, <2.08-4.90 log(10 copies/mL. The median reduction in HIV-1 RNA by day 28 was 1.90 log(10 copies/mL in blood (range, 0.56-2.68 log(10 copies/mL and 1.36 log(10 copies/mL in semen (range, 0-2.66 log(10 copies/mL. ART led to a decrease from baseline by day 7 in blood and day 14 in semen (p = 0.005 and p = 0.006, respectively. The initial modeled decay rate was slower in semen than in blood (p = 0.06. There was no difference in second-phase decay rates between blood and semen.Efavirenz-based ART reduced HIV-1 RNA levels more slowly in semen than in blood. Although this difference was of borderline significance in this small study, our observations suggest that there is suboptimal suppression of seminal HIV-1 RNA for some men in the early weeks of treatment.

  13. Design and development of microcontroller-based clinical chemistry analyser for measurement of various blood biochemistry parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taneja, S R; Gupta, R C; Kumar, Jagdish; Thariyan, K K; Verma, Sanjeev

    2005-01-01

    Clinical chemistry analyser is a high-performance microcontroller-based photometric biochemical analyser to measure various blood biochemical parameters such as blood glucose, urea, protein, bilirubin, and so forth, and also to measure and observe enzyme growth occurred while performing the other biochemical tests such as ALT (alkaline amino transferase), amylase, AST (aspartate amino transferase), and so forth. These tests are of great significance in biochemistry and used for diagnostic purposes and classifying various disorders and diseases such as diabetes, liver malfunctioning, renal diseases, and so forth. An inexpensive clinical chemistry analyser developed by the authors is described in this paper. This is an open system in which any reagent kit available in the market can be used. The system is based on the principle of absorbance transmittance photometry. System design is based around 80C31 microcontroller with RAM, EPROM, and peripheral interface devices. The developed system incorporates light source, an optical module, interference filters of various wave lengths, peltier device for maintaining required temperature of the mixture in flow cell, peristaltic pump for sample aspiration, graphic LCD display for displaying blood parameters, patients test results and kinetic test graph, 40 columns mini thermal printer, and also 32-key keyboard for executing various functions. The lab tests conducted on the instrument include versatility of the analyzer, flexibility of the software, and treatment of sample. The prototype was tested and evaluated over 1000 blood samples successfully for seventeen blood parameters. Evaluation was carried out at Government Medical College and Hospital, the Department of Biochemistry. The test results were found to be comparable with other standard instruments.

  14. Blood culture Gram stain and clinical categorization based empirical antimicrobial therapy of bloodstream infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautala, Timo; Syrjälä, Hannu; Lehtinen, Ville; Kauma, Heikki; Kauppila, Jaana; Kujala, Pekka; Pietarinen, Ilmo; Ylipalosaari, Pekka; Koskela, Markku

    2005-04-01

    Early antimicrobial treatment has a great influence on the outcome of patients with blood stream infections (BSI). The study was designed to see if the simple practice of patient categorization (community acquired, nosocomial or infection in haematological unit) combined with Gram stain data could be used to guide empirical treatment of BSI in 1901 consecutive positive blood culture findings. There were considerable differences in the occurrence of common pathogens and their antimicrobial susceptibilities between patient categories especially for Gram-positive cocci. For example, second generation cephalosporins covered more than 70% cocci in clusters and over 80% of cocci in chains in community acquired infections whereas in hospital acquired infections the corresponding figures were only 47 and 44%. We conclude that Gram stain results of positive blood cultures along with the knowledge of where the infection was acquired, would allow early accurate targeting of antimicrobial therapy for BSI.

  15. Arginine Vasopressin Is a Blood-Based Biomarker of Social Functioning in Children with Autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean S Carson

    Full Text Available Brain arginine vasopressin (AVP critically regulates normative social behavior in mammals, and experimental disruption of the AVP signaling pathway produces social impairments in rodent models. We therefore hypothesized that AVP signaling deficits may contribute to social impairments in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD. Since blood measures (which are far easier to obtain than brain measures of AVP are most meaningful if they are related to brain AVP activity, Study 1 tested the relationship between AVP concentrations in concomitantly collected blood and CSF samples from children and adults (N = 28 undergoing clinical procedures. Study 2 tested whether blood AVP concentrations: 1 differed between children with ASD (N = 57, their ASD discordant siblings (N = 47, and neurotypical controls (N = 55; and 2 predicted social functioning (using the NEPSY-II Theory of Mind and Affect Recognition tasks and the Social Responsiveness Scale in this large, well-characterized child cohort. Blood AVP concentrations significantly and positively predicted CSF AVP concentrations (F1,26 = 7.17, r = 0.46, p = 0.0127 in Study 1. In Study 2, blood AVP concentrations did not differ between groups or by sex, but significantly and positively predicted Theory of Mind performance, specifically in children with ASD, but not in non-ASD children (F1,144 = 5.83, p = 0.017. Blood AVP concentrations can be used: 1 as a surrogate for brain AVP activity in humans; and 2 as a robust biomarker of theory of mind ability in children with ASD. These findings also suggest that AVP biology may be a promising therapeutic target by which to improve social cognition in individuals with ASD.

  16. Blood flow-induced physically based guidewire simulation for vascular intervention training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jiayin; Xie, Hongzhi; Zhang, Shuyang; Gu, Lixu

    2017-09-01

    A realistic guidewire behavior simulation is a vital component of a virtual vascular intervention system. Such systems are a safe, low-cost means of establishing a training environment to help inexperienced surgeons develop their intervention skills. Previous attempts to simulate the complex movement of a guidewire inside blood vessels have rarely considered the influence of blood flow. In this paper, we address this problem by integrating blood flow analysis and propose a novel guidewire simulation model. The blood flow distribution inside the arterial vasculature was computed by separating the vascular model into discrete cylindrical vessels and modeling the flow in each vessel according to Poiseuille Law. The blood flow computation was then integrated into a robust Kirchhoff elastic model. With hardware acceleration, the guidewire simulation can be run in real time. To evaluate the simulation, an experimental environment with a 3D-printed vascular phantom and an electromagnetic tracking system was set up, with clinically used guidewire sensors applied to trace its motion as the standard for comparison. The virtual guidewire motion trace was assessed by comparing it to the comparison standard. The root-mean-square (RMS) value of the newly proposed guidewire model was 2.14 mm ± 1.24 mm, lower than the value of 4.81 mm ± 3.80 mm for the previous Kirchhoff model, while maintaining a computation speed of at least 30 fps. The experimental results revealed that the blood flow-induced model exhibits better performance and physical credibility with a lower and more stable RMS error than the previous Kirchhoff model.

  17. The meanings of consent to the donation of cord blood stem cells: perspectives from an interview-based study of a public cord blood bank in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, Helen

    2010-03-01

    This paper explores the perspectives of women who have agreed that their umbilical cord blood may be collected for a public 'cord blood bank', for use in transplant medicine or research. Drawing on interview data from 27 mothers who agreed to the collection and use of their umbilical cord blood, these choices and the informed consent process are explored. It is shown that the needs of sick children requiring transplants are prominent in narrative accounts of cord blood banking, together with high expectations for future applications of stem cells. Given this dynamic, a concern arises that the complex and multiple uses of tissues and related data might be oversimplified in the consent process. In conclusion, the positive finding of a commitment to mutuality in cord blood banking among these women is underlined, and its implications for the wider debate on cord blood banking are discussed.

  18. Blood pressure control and treatment adherence in hypertensive patients with metabolic syndrome: protocol of a randomized controlled study based on home blood pressure telemonitoring vs. conventional management and assessment of psychological determinants of adherence (TELEBPMET Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parati Gianfranco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inadequate blood pressure control and poor adherence to treatment remain among the major limitations in the management of hypertensive patients, particularly of those at high risk of cardiovascular events. Preliminary evidence suggests that home blood pressure telemonitoring (HBPT might help increasing the chance of achieving blood pressure targets and improve patient’s therapeutic adherence. However, all these potential advantages of HBPT have not yet been fully investigated. Methods/design The purpose of this open label, parallel group, randomized, controlled study is to assess whether, in patients with high cardiovascular risk (treated or untreated essential arterial hypertension - both in the office and in ambulatory conditions over 24 h - and metabolic syndrome, long-term (48 weeks blood pressure control is more effective when based on HBPT and on the feedback to patients by their doctor between visits, or when based exclusively on blood pressure determination during quarterly office visits (conventional management (CM. A total of 252 patients will be enrolled and randomized to usual care (n=84 or HBPT (n=168. The primary study endpoint will be the rate of subjects achieving normal daytime ambulatory blood pressure targets ( Discussion The TELEBPMET Study will show whether HBPT is effective in improving blood pressure control and related medical and economic outcomes in hypertensive patients with metabolic syndrome. It will also provide a comprehensive understanding of the psychological determinants of medication adherence and blood pressure control of these patients. Trial registration Clinical Trials.gov: NCT01541566

  19. Experimental observation of coincidence fractional Fourier transform with a partially coherent beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Cai, Yangjian; He, Sailing

    2006-08-07

    The coincidence Fractional Fourier transform (FRT) is implemented with a partially coherent light source experimentally. The visibility and quality of the coincidence FRT pattern of an object are investigated theoretically. The FRT pattern of an object is obtained by measuring the coincidence counting rate between the detected signals passing through two different optical paths. The experimental results are analyzed and found to be consistent with the theoretical results.

  20. Studies on the true coincidence correction in measuring filter samples by gamma spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Lian Qi; Chang Yong Fu; Xia Bing

    2002-01-01

    The true coincidence correction in measuring filter samples has been studied by high efficiency HPGe gamma detectors. The true coincidence correction for a specific three excited levels de-excitation case has been analyzed, and the typical analytical expressions of true coincidence correction factors have been given. According to the measured relative efficiency on the detector surface with 8 'single' energy gamma emitters and efficiency of filter samples, the peak and total efficiency surfaces are fitted. The true coincidence correction factors of sup 6 sup 0 Co and sup 1 sup 5 sup 2 Eu calculated by the efficiency surfaces agree well with experimental results

  1. Blood pressure goal achievement with olmesartan medoxomil-based treatment: additional analysis of the OLMEBEST study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivencio Barrios

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Vivencio Barrios1, Carlos Escobar1, Alberto Calderon2, Michael Böhm31Department of Cardiology, Hospital Ramón y Cajal, Madrid, Spain; 2Primary Care Center Rosa de Luxemburgo, Madrid, Spain; 3Klinik für Innere Medizin III, Universitätsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar, GermanyAims: Guidelines recommend blood pressure (BP in hypertensive patients should be <140 systolic BP (SBP and <90 diastolic BP (DBP mmHg. This analysis assessed goal rate achievement in hypertensive patients receiving olmesartan-based treatment in the OLMEBEST study.Methods: Patients with essential hypertension (DBP ≥ 90 mmHg and <110 mmHg received open-label olmesartan medoxomil 20 mg/day (n = 2306. After 8 weeks, patients with DBP ≥ 90 mmHg (n = 627 were randomized to 4 weeks’ double-blind treatment with olmesartan 40 mg/day monotherapy or olmesartan 20 mg/day plus hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ 12.5 mg/day. For this analysis, the numbers and proportions of patients who achieved SBP < 140 mmHg and/or DBP < 90 mmHg at the end of the 4 weeks were calculated.Results: In patients who achieved DBP normalization (<90 mmHg at week 8 (n = 1546 and continued open-label olmesartan 20 mg/day, 66.7% achieved SBP/DBP < 140/90 mmHg at Week 12. In patients who did not achieve DBP normalization at Week 8, 26.8% of those randomized to olmesartan 40 mg/day and 42.5% of those randomized to olmesartan 20 mg/day plus HCTZ 12.5 mg/day achieved a SBP/DBP < 140/90 mmHg at Week 12.Conclusion: Olmesartan 40 mg/day and olmesartan 20 mg/day plus HCTZ 12.5 mg/day allow substantial proportions of patients to achieve BP goals.Keywords: olmesartan medoxomil, hypertension, angiotensin II receptor blocker, goal rates, hydrochlorothiazide

  2. Comparison of PCR-Based Diagnosis with Centrifuged-Based Enrichment Method for Detection of Borrelia persica in Animal Blood Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SR Naddaf

    2011-06-01

    Background: The mainstay of diagnosis of relapsing fever (RF is demonstration of the spirochetes in Giemsa-stained thick blood smears, but during non fever periods the bacteria are very scanty and rarely detected in blood smears by mi­cros­copy. This study is aimed to evaluate the sensitivity of different methods developed for detection of low-grade spi­ro­chetemia. Methods: Animal blood samples with low degrees of spirochetemia were tested with two PCRs and a nested PCR tar­get­ing flaB, GlpQ, and rrs genes. Also, a centrifuged-based enrichment method and Giemsa staining were per­formed on blood samples with various degrees of spirochetemia. Results: The flaB-PCR and nested rrs-PCR turned positive with various degrees of spirochetemia including the blood samples that turned negative with dark-field microscopy. The GlpQ-PCR was positive as far as at least one spi­ro­chete was seen in 5-10 microscopic fields. The sensitivity of GlpQ-PCR increased when DNA from Buffy Coat Layer (BCL was used as template. The centrifuged-based enrichment method turned positive with as low concentra­tion as 50 bacteria/ml blood, while Giemsa thick staining detected bacteria with concentrations ≥ 25000 bacteria/ml.  Conclusion: Centrifuged-based enrichment method appeared as much as 500-fold more sensitive than thick smears, which makes it even superior to some PCR assays. Due to simplicity and minimal laboratory requirements, this method can be considered a valuable tool for diagnosis of RF in rural health centers.  

  3. Early dystrophin loss is coincident with the transition of compensated cardiac hypertrophy to heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Fernanda P; Dos Santos, Daniele O; Blefari, Valdecir; Silva, Carlos A; Machado, Juliano; Kettelhut, Isis do Carmo; Ramos, Simone G; Baruffi, Marcelo Dias; Salgado, Helio C; Prado, Cibele M

    2017-01-01

    Hypertension causes cardiac hypertrophy, one of the most important risk factors for heart failure (HF). Despite the importance of cardiac hypertrophy as a risk factor for the development of HF, not all hypertrophied hearts will ultimately fail. Alterations of cytoskeletal and sarcolemma-associated proteins are considered markers cardiac remodeling during HF. Dystrophin provides mechanical stability to the plasma membrane through its interactions with the actin cytoskeleton and, indirectly, to extracellular matrix proteins. This study was undertaken to evaluate dystrophin and calpain-1 in the transition from compensated cardiac hypertrophy to HF. Wistar rats were subjected to abdominal aorta constriction and killed at 30, 60 and 90 days post surgery (dps). Cardiac function and blood pressure were evaluated. The hearts were collected and Western blotting and immunofluorescence performed for dystrophin, calpain-1, alpha-fodrin and calpastatin. Statistical analyses were performed and considered significant when pcardiac disease. We showed that decreased expression of dystrophin and increased expression of calpains are coincident and could work as possible therapeutic targets to prevent heart failure as a consequence of cardiac hypertrophy.

  4. Is the ventilatory threshold coincident with maximal fat oxidation during submaximal exercise in women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorino, T A

    2000-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to detect the fraction of peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) that elicits maximal rates of fat oxidation during submaximal treadmill exercise. It was hypothesized that this point would appear at a work rate just below the ventilatory threshold. subjects completed a protocol requiring them to exercise for 15 min on a treadmill at six different workloads, 25, 40, 55, 65, 75, and 85% VO2peak, over two separate visits. nine healthy, moderately-trained eumenorrheic females (age = 28.8+/-5.99 yrs, VO2peak = 47.20 +/-2.57 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) volunteered for the study. a one-way ANOVA with repeated measures was used to test for differences across exercise intensities in the metabolic variables (i.e. substrate oxidation, blood lactate concentration ([La-]), RER, and the contribution of fat to total energy expenditure). Following significant F ratios, post-hoc tests were used to detect differences between the means for various exercise intensities. Exercise at 75% VO2peak elicited the greatest rate of fat oxidation (4.75+/-0.49 kcal x min(-1)), and this intensity was coincident with the ventilatory threshold (76+/-7.41% VO2peak). Moreover, a significant difference (t(8) = -3.98, ppopulation has application in exercise prescription and refutes the belief that low-intensity exercise is preferred for fat metabolism.

  5. Blood Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. Blood disorders affect one or more parts of the blood ... They can be acute or chronic. Many blood disorders are inherited. Other causes include other diseases, side ...

  6. Four-Parameter white blood cell differential counting based on light scattering measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terstappen, Leonardus Wendelinus Mathias Marie; de Grooth, B.G.; Visscher, K.; Kouterik, F.A.; Greve, Jan

    1988-01-01

    Measurement of the depolarized orthogonal light scattering in flow cytometry enables one to discriminate human eosinephilic granulocytes from neutrophilic granulocytes. We use this method to perform a four-parameter differential white blood cell analysis. A simple flow cytometer was built equipped

  7. Microfluidic point-of-care blood panel based on a novel technique: Reversible electroosmotic flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Mahdi; Madadi, Hojjat; Casals-Terré, Jasmina

    2015-09-01

    A wide range of diseases and conditions are monitored or diagnosed from blood plasma, but the ability to analyze a whole blood sample with the requirements for a point-of-care device, such as robustness, user-friendliness, and simple handling, remains unmet. Microfluidics technology offers the possibility not only to work fresh thumb-pricked whole blood but also to maximize the amount of the obtained plasma from the initial sample and therefore the possibility to implement multiple tests in a single cartridge. The microfluidic design presented in this paper is a combination of cross-flow filtration with a reversible electroosmotic flow that prevents clogging at the filter entrance and maximizes the amount of separated plasma. The main advantage of this design is its efficiency, since from a small amount of sample (a single droplet [Formula: see text]10 μl) almost 10% of this (approx 1 μl) is extracted and collected with high purity (more than 99%) in a reasonable time (5-8 min). To validate the quality and quantity of the separated plasma and to show its potential as a clinical tool, the microfluidic chip has been combined with lateral flow immunochromatography technology to perform a qualitative detection of the thyroid-stimulating hormone and a blood panel for measuring cardiac Troponin and Creatine Kinase MB. The results from the microfluidic system are comparable to previous commercial lateral flow assays that required more sample for implementing fewer tests.

  8. A Cuffless Blood Pressure Measurement Based on the Impedance Plethysmography Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shing-Hong Liu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, cuffless blood pressure measurement technology has been widely studied because it could be applied to a wearable apparatus. Electrocardiography (ECG, photo-plethysmography (PPG, and phonocardiography are always used to detect the pulse transit time (PTT because the changed tendencies of the PTT and blood pressure have a negative relationship. In this study, the PPG signal was replaced by the impedance plethysmography (IPG signal and was used to detect the PTT. The placement and direction of the electrode array for the IPG measurement were discussed. Then, we designed an IPG ring that could measure an accurate IPG signal. Twenty healthy subjects participated in this study. The changes in blood pressure after exercise were evaluated through the changes of the PTT. The results showed that the change of the systolic pressure had a better relationship with the change of the PTTIPG than that of the PTTPPG (r = 0.700 vs. r = 0.450. Moreover, the IPG ring with spot electrodes would be more suitable to develop with the wearable cuffless blood pressure monitor than the PPG sensor.

  9. Predicting bacteremia based on nurse-assessed food consumption at the time of blood culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Takayuki; Onda, Toshihito; Murayama, Go; Yamanouchi, Masashi; Inukai, Minori; Sakai, Ai; Kikuta, Masumi; Branch, Joel; Aoki, Makoto; Tierney, Lawrence M; Inoue, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    Bacteremia and its complications are important causes of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. However, the yield of blood cultures is relatively low, with many false-positive results from bacterial contamination. We investigated the relationship between patient food consumption and the presence of bacteremia. This was an observational analysis of a cohort of 1179 patients who underwent blood culture analysis between January 2005 and December 2009. Patients with anorexia-inducing conditions, such as gastrointestinal illness and malignant disease treated with chemotherapy, were excluded. Food consumption was rated by nurses as the percentage of food consumed during the meal preceding the blood culture. Groupings were as follows: low consumption (50% to 80%). Low consumption was observed in 39.8% of patients, moderate in 17.8%, and high in 41.6%. The average body temperature was 38.1 ± 1.1°C. Bacteremia was present in 18.5%, 3.9%, and 1.4% of patients in the low, moderate, and high food consumption groups, respectively. The negative predictive value was 98.3%, suggesting that bacteremia is very unlikely in the setting of good food intake. Bacteremia is an unlikely occurrence in hospitalized patients who maintain adequate food consumption at the time of blood culture. Copyright © 2012 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  10. Blood Pool Agent Contrast-Enhanced MRA: Level-Set Based Artery-Vein Separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bemmel, C.M.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Verdonck, B.; Viergever, M.A.; Niessen, W.J.

    2002-01-01

    Blood pool agents (BPAs) for contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) allow prolonged imaging times for higher contrast and resolution by imaging during the steady state when the contrast agent is distributed through the complete vascular system. However, simultaneous arterial and

  11. Level-Set Based Artery-Vein Separation in Blood Pool Agent CE-MR Angiograms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bemmel, C.M.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Viergever, M.A.; Niessen, W.J.

    2003-01-01

    Blood pool agents (BPAs) for contrast-enhanced (CE) magnetic-resonance angiography (MRA) allow prolonged imaging times for higher contrast and resolution. Imaging is performed during the steady state when the contrast agent is distributed through the complete vascular system. However, simultaneous

  12. Using Blood Indexes to Predict Overweight Statuses: An Extreme Learning Machine-Based Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huiling; Yang, Bo; Liu, Dayou; Liu, Wenbin; Liu, Yanlong; Zhang, Xiuhua; Hu, Lufeng

    2015-01-01

    The number of the overweight people continues to rise across the world. Studies have shown that being overweight can increase health risks, such as high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, and certain forms of cancer. Therefore, identifying the overweight status in people is critical to prevent and decrease health risks. This study explores a new technique that uses blood and biochemical measurements to recognize the overweight condition. A new machine learning technique, an extreme learning machine, was developed to accurately detect the overweight status from a pool of 225 overweight and 251 healthy subjects. The group included 179 males and 297 females. The detection method was rigorously evaluated against the real-life dataset for accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and AUC (area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve) criterion. Additionally, the feature selection was investigated to identify correlating factors for the overweight status. The results demonstrate that there are significant differences in blood and biochemical indexes between healthy and overweight people (p-value < 0.01). According to the feature selection, the most important correlated indexes are creatinine, hemoglobin, hematokrit, uric Acid, red blood cells, high density lipoprotein, alanine transaminase, triglyceride, and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase. These are consistent with the results of Spearman test analysis. The proposed method holds promise as a new, accurate method for identifying the overweight status in subjects.

  13. Blood-Based Gene Expression Signatures of Infants and Toddlers with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatt, Stephen J.; Tsuang, Ming T.; Winn, Mary; Chandler, Sharon D.; Collins, Melanie; Lopez, Linda; Weinfeld, Melanie; Carter, Cindy; Schork, Nicholas; Pierce, Karen; Courchesne, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorders that onset clinically during the first years of life. ASD risk biomarkers expressed early in life could significantly impact diagnosis and treatment, but no transcriptome-wide biomarker classifiers derived from fresh blood samples from children with…

  14. Pattern recognition of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in whole blood samples using new platforms based on nanostructured materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan-van Staden, Raluca-Ioana; Gugoasa, Livia Alexandra; Biris, Alexandru Radu

    2015-09-01

    Four stochastic microsensors based on nanostructured materials (graphene, maltodextrin (MD), and diamond) integrated in miniaturized platforms were proposed. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine whose main function is to regulate cell trafficking. It is correlated with the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and obesity, and was used as the model analyte in this study. The screening of whole blood samples for MCP-1 can be done for concentrations ranging from 10-12 to 10-8 g mL-1. The method was used for both qualitative and quantitative assessments of MCP-1 in whole blood samples. The lowest quantification limits for the assay of MCP-1 (1 pg mL-1) were reached when the microsensors based on protoporphyrin IX/Graphene-Au-3 and on MD/Graphene were employed in the platform design.

  15. Magnetic permeability based diagnostic test for the determination of the canine C-reactive protein concentration in undiluted whole blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibraimi, Filiz; Kriz, Kirstin [Department of Pure and Applied Biochemistry, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); LifeAssays AB, IDEON Science Park, SE-223 70 Lund (Sweden); Merin, Henrik [Malmoe Animal Hospital, P.O. Box 9090, SE-213 63 Malmoe (Sweden); Kriz, Dario [Department of Pure and Applied Biochemistry, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); LifeAssays AB, IDEON Science Park, SE-223 70 Lund (Sweden)], E-mail: dario.kriz@euris.org

    2009-05-15

    We describe an one-step 11-min magnetic permeability based two-site immunoassay for C-reactive protein (CRP) utilizing polyclonal anti-canine CRP antibody conjugated dextran iron oxide nanoparticles (79 nm) as superparamagnetic labels and polyclonal anti-canine CRP conjugated silica microparticles (15 to 40 {mu}m) as carriers. An inductance based magnetic permeability reader was used to detect the target analyte, CRP, in 10 {mu}L whole blood samples, by measuring the magnetic permeability increase of the silica microparticle sediment due to immuno complex superparamagnetic nanoparticles. Measurements on standards showed a linear response between 0 and 17.5 mg/L CRP. Measurements performed on 16 whole blood samples from mixed breeds showed good correlation with a commercially available ELISA assay.

  16. Adhesion of Blood Plasma Proteins and Platelet-rich Plasma on l-Valine-Based Poly(ester urea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, Erin P; Peterson, Gregory I; Ellenberger, Alex B; Domino, Karen; Seifert, Gabrielle V; Becker, Matthew L

    2016-10-10

    The competitive absorption of blood plasma components including fibrinogen (FG), bovine serum albumin (BSA), and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on l-valine-based poly(ester urea) (PEU) surfaces were investigated. Using four different PEU polymers, possessing compositionally dependent trends in thermal, mechanical, and critical surface tension measurements, water uptake studies were carried out to determine in vitro behavior of the materials. Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) measurements were used to quantify the adsorption characteristics of PRP onto PEU thin films by coating the surfaces initially with FG or BSA. Pretreatment of the PEU surfaces with FG inhibited the adsorption of PRP and BSA decreased the absorption 4-fold. In vitro studies demonstrated that cells cultured on l-valine-based PEU thin films allowed attachment and spreading of rat aortic cells. These measurements will be critical toward efforts to use this new class of materials in blood-contacting biomaterials applications.

  17. Fractional cholesterol absorption measurements in humans: determinants of the blood-based dual stable isotope tracer technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellaard, Frans; Lütjohann, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    The flux of absorbed cholesterol is a controlling element in the regulation of cholesterol biosynthesis and catabolism. A review of 5 published methods to measure cholesterol absorption is presented, including 2 dual stable isotope approaches. The continuous dual isotope feeding procedure is accurate, but only suitable for small-scale studies. The blood-based dual stable isotope technique is the least invasive and complex procedure, but leads to large variations in individual (90%) and mean population values (24%-70%) for healthy subjects. The results may be partly determined by the experimental and analytical procedures. Fifteen blood-based dual stable isotope studies published between 1993 and 2013 have been analyzed. The results were related to the methodologies applied and evidence was sought for accordance to the test principles. Seven different isotopic tracers, 3 cholesterol subcompartments in blood, and 6 mass spectrometry techniques were applied. The oral and intravenous test formulations were presented in only 1 study. Time points for blood sampling and methodologies for blood sample preparation and analysis were highly variable. No definite proofs were supplied for the fates of the oral and intravenous cholesterol tracers. Isotope enrichment measurements in free and total cholesterol in plasma and erythrocytes were never compared. Fractional cholesterol absorption rate values depend strongly on the mass spectrometry methodology. Dual-inlet isotope ratio mass spectrometry appears to be the method of choice. Dual stable isotope approaches require validation and standardization of administration and analysis procedures. A control group must always be included to correct for methodological differences. Copyright © 2015 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Blood Pressure Control in Hypertensive Patients in the "Hiperdia Program": A Territory-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarita Silva de Souza

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Systemic hypertension is highly prevalent and an important risk factor for cardiovascular events. Blood pressure control in hypertensive patients enrolled in the Hiperdia Program, a program of the Single Health System for the follow-up and monitoring of hypertensive patients, is still far below the desired level. Objective: To describe the epidemiological profile and to assess blood pressure control of patients enrolled in Hiperdia, in the city of Novo Hamburgo (State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Methods: Cross-sectional study with a stratified cluster random sample, including 383 adults enrolled in the Hiperdia Program of the 15 Basic Health Units of the city of Porto Alegre, conducted between 2010 and 2011. Controlled blood pressure was defined as ≤140 mmHg × 90 mmHg. The hypertensive patients were interviewed and their blood pressure was measured using a calibrated aneroid device. Prevalence ratios (PR with 95% confidence interval, Wald's χ2 test, and simple and multiple Poisson regression were used in the statistical analysis. Results: The mean age was 63 ± 10 years, and most of the patients were females belonging to social class C, with a low level of education, a sedentary lifestyle, and family history positive for systemic hypertension. Diabetes mellitus (DM was observed in 31%; adherence to the antihypertensive treatment in 54.3%; and 33.7% had their blood pressure controlled. DM was strongly associated with inadequate BP control, with only 15.7% of the diabetics showing BP considered as controlled. Conclusion: Even for hypertensive patients enrolled in the Hiperdia Program, BP control is not satisfactorily reached or sustained. Diabetic hypertensive patients show the most inappropriate BP control.

  19. Determination of total creatine kinase activity in blood serum using an amperometric biosensor based on glucose oxidase and hexokinase

    OpenAIRE

    Kucherenko, Ivan S; Soldatkin, Oleksandr O.; Lagarde, Florence; Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole; Dzyadevych, S. V.; Soldatkin, A. P.

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Creatine kinase (CK: adenosine-5-triphosphate-creatine phosphotransferase) is an important enzyme of muscle cells; the presence of a large amount of the enzyme in blood serum is a biomarker of muscular injuries, such as acute myocardial infarction. This work describes a bi-enzyme (glucose oxidase and hexokinase based) biosensor for rapid and convenient determination of CK activity by measuring the rate of ATP production by this enzyme. Simultaneously the biosensor dete...

  20. Relation of caffeine intake and blood caffeine concentrations during pregnancy to fetal growth: prospective population based study.

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, D.G.; Peacock, J. L.; Feyerabend, C; Carey, I M; Jarvis, M J; Anderson, H. R.; Bland, J M

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the association of plasma caffeine concentrations during pregnancy with fetal growth and to compare this with relations with reported caffeine intake. DESIGN: Prospective population based study. SETTING: District general hospital, inner London. SUBJECTS: Women booking for delivery between 1982 and 1984. Stored plasma was available for 1,500 women who had provided a blood sample on at least one occasion and for 640 women who had provided a sample on all three occasions (...

  1. Frequent floods in the European Alps coincide with cooler periods of the past 2500 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glur, Lukas; Wirth, Stefanie B; Büntgen, Ulf; Gilli, Adrian; Haug, Gerald H; Schär, Christoph; Beer, Jürg; Anselmetti, Flavio S

    2013-09-26

    Severe floods triggered by intense precipitation are among the most destructive natural hazards in Alpine environments, frequently causing large financial and societal damage. Potential enhanced flood occurrence due to global climate change would thus increase threat to settlements, infrastructure, and human lives in the affected regions. Yet, projections of intense precipitation exhibit major uncertainties and robust reconstructions of Alpine floods are limited to the instrumental and historical period. Here we present a 2500-year long flood reconstruction for the European Alps, based on dated sedimentary flood deposits from ten lakes in Switzerland. We show that periods with high flood frequency coincide with cool summer temperatures. This wet-cold synchronism suggests enhanced flood occurrence to be triggered by latitudinal shifts of Atlantic and Mediterranean storm tracks. This paleoclimatic perspective reveals natural analogues for varying climate conditions, and thus can contribute to a better understanding and improved projections of weather extremes under climate change.

  2. Molecular photoionisation using synchrotron radiation. Photoelectron photoion coincidence and circular dichroism

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Macias, G A

    2002-01-01

    The first ionisation potential of the CF sub 3 radical has been determined in this work from the appearance potential of the CF sub 3 sup + fragment, formed in the photofragmentation of CF sub 3 Br. In obtaining this value special care has been taken in removing the contributions from second order light and internal energy of the fragmenting parent ion. The resulting ionisation potential was found to be in very good agreement with a number of recent theoretical calculations. The valence photoelectron spectra of three monoterpenes such as limonene, carvone and camphor have been recorded along with their mass spectra taken in coincidence with energy selected photoelectrons, providing information about state selected parent ion fragmentation channels. A new photoelectron spectrometer based on the Alien box design has been studied by ray-tracing simulations. It will include a two dimensional position sensitive detector system consisting in two micro channel plates in a chevron stack and a delay-line anode to enco...

  3. Rotational coherence as an alternative to coincidence techniques at x-ray free electron lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffee, Ryan; Hegazy, Kareem; Hartmann, Nick; Walter, Peter; Osipov, Timur; Lindahl, Anton; Helml, Wolfram; Ilchen, Markus; Galler, Andreas; Liu, Jia; Buck, Jens; Shevchuk, Ivan; Viefhaus, Jens; Hartmann, Gregor; Knie, Andre; Demekhin, Philipp; Inhester, Ludger; Li, Zheng; Ziaja-Motyka, Beata; Medvedev, Nikita; Bostedt, Christoph; Guillemin, Renaud; Simon, Marc; Novella-Piancastelli, Maria; Miron, Catalin; LCLS-AMOI0314 Team

    2017-04-01

    We demonstrate an alternative approach to coincidence particle detection, based on impulsive rotational Raman excitation, for molecular frame measurements at x-ray FELs. A train of 8 infrared laser pulses induces the lab-frame observable coherence. At a field-free alignment revival, we register the angle-resolved laboratory frame Auger and photo-electron spectral feature variations with the tumbling molecular body frame. The time and angle dependence of the electron emission patterns that constrain theory are amenable to large numbers of interactions per pulse and, more importantly, has no axial recoil requirement for kinematic reconstruction. We see this as a method to bypass experimental challenges at XFELs by accepting The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is supported by the U.S. DoE-BES Contract No. DE-AC02-76SF0051.

  4. Do climate extreme events foster violent civil conflicts? A coincidence analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleussner, Carl-Friedrich; Donges, Jonathan F.; Donner, Reik V.

    2014-05-01

    Civil conflicts promoted by adverse environmental conditions represent one of the most important potential feedbacks in the global socio-environmental nexus. While the role of climate extremes as a triggering factor is often discussed, no consensus is yet reached about the cause-and-effect relation in the observed data record. Here we present results of a rigorous statistical coincidence analysis based on the Munich Re Inc. extreme events database and the Uppsala conflict data program. We report evidence for statistically significant synchronicity between climate extremes with high economic impact and violent conflicts for various regions, although no coherent global signal emerges from our analysis. Our results indicate the importance of regional vulnerability and might aid to identify hot-spot regions for potential climate-triggered violent social conflicts.

  5. Mid-infrared coincidence measurements on twin photons at room temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mancinelli, M.; Trenti, A.; Piccione, S.

    2017-01-01

    Quantum measurements using single-photon detectors are opening interesting new perspectives in diverse fields such as remote sensing, quantum cryptography and quantum computing. A particularly demanding class of applications relies on the simultaneous detection of correlated single photons....... In the visible and near infrared wavelength ranges suitable single-photon detectors do exist. However, low detector quantum efficiency or excessive noise has hampered their mid-infrared (MIR) counterpart. Fast and highly efficient single-photon detectors are thus highly sought after for MIR applications. Here we...... pave the way to quantum measurements in the MIR by the demonstration of a room temperature coincidence measurement with non-degenerate twin photons at about 3.1 mu m. The experiment is based on the spectral translation of MIR radiation into the visible region, by means of efficient up-converter modules...

  6. BloodLink: Computer-based Decision Support for Blood Test Ordering; Assessment of the effect on physicians' test-ordering behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A.M. van Wijk (Marc)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractRequesting blood tests is an important aspect of the health care delivered by the general practitioner in The Netherlands. About three to four percent of the patients encounters with Dutch general practitioners result in the physician requesting blood tests, which is lower than in many

  7. Universal Probe Library based real-time PCR for rapid detection of bacterial pathogens from positive blood culture bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lingxiang; Shen, Ding-Xia; Zhou, Qiming; Liu, Chao-Jun; Li, Zexia; Fang, Xiangdong; Li, Quan-Zhen

    2014-03-01

    A set of real-time PCR based assays using the locked nucleic acid probes from Roche Universal ProbeLibrary were developed for rapid detection of eight bacterial species from positive blood culture bottles. Four duplex real-time PCR reactions targeting to one Gram-positive bacterium and one Gram-negative bacterium were optimized for species identification according to Gram stain results. We also included mecA-specific primers and probes in the assays to indicate the presence of methicillin resistance in the bacterial species. The analytical sensitivity was in the range of 1-10 CFU per PCR reaction mixture. The specificity and cross reactivity of the assay was validated by 28 ATCC reference strains and 77 negative blood culture specimens. No cross-reactivity was observed in these samples thus demonstrating 100 % specificity. 72 previously characterized clinical isolates were tested by the real-time PCR assay and validated the accuracy and feasibility of the real-time PCR assay. Furthermore, 55 positive blood culture samples were tested using real-time PCR and 50 (90.9 %) of them were identified as the same species as judged by biochemical analysis. In total, real-time PCR showed 98.2 % consistent to that of traditional methods. Real-time PCR can be used as a supplement for early detection of the frequently-occurred pathogens from the positive blood cultures.

  8. Surfactant BL-Induced Changes in Blood Gas Composition and Acid-Base Balance In Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Perepelitsa

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a study of blood gas composition and acid-base balance (ABB in the use of the Russian drug Surfactant BL in preterm neonatal infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS. The surfactant was given to 57 preterm neonates. A control group consisted of 52 children with RDS who had received a course of treatment before the use of the drug in the hospital. Statistical analysis indicated the virtual similarity of the study and control groups. The study demonstrated that that in Surfactant BL-treated patients, blood oxygenation (pO2, %SO2c, A-a DO2, respiratory coefficient improved much more rapidly and the mean values of these parameters remained statistically significantly better from the end of 24 hours of treatment than in the control neonates up to the end of therapy in the intensive care unit of the maternity hospital. Studies of blood ABB showed that the neonates of both groups had moderate metabolic acidosis at the initiation of therapy. With the therapy performed, the parameters of ABB generally reached normal values within the first 24 hours of therapy. There were no obvious differences in the changes of blood ABB parameters in the neonatal infants of both groups. Analysis of the results of treatment in neonates with ABB showed a statistically significant advantage in terms of positive outcomes of treatment in the group of Surfactant BL-treated patients. 

  9. Dry period cooling ameliorates physiological variables and blood acid base balance, improving milk production in murrah buffaloes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarif, Ovais; Aggarwal, Anjali

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of evaporative cooling during late gestation on physiological responses, blood gas and acid base balance and subsequent milk production of Murrah buffaloes. To investigate this study sixteen healthy pregnant dry Murrah buffaloes (second to fourth parity) at sixty days prepartum were selected in the months of May to June and divided into two groups of eight animals each. One group of buffaloes (Cooled/CL) was managed under fan and mist cooling system during dry period. Group second buffaloes (Noncooled/NCL) remained as control without provision of cooling during dry period. The physiological responses viz. Rectal temperature (RT), Respiratory rate (RR) and Pulse rate were significantly ( P < 0.05) lower in group 2, with the provision of cooling. Skin surface temperature at thorax was significantly lower in cooled group relative to noncooled group. Blood pH and pO2 were significantly ( P < 0.05) higher in heat stressed group as compared to the cooled group. pCO2, TCO2, HCO3, SBC, base excess in extracellular fluid (BEecf), base excess in blood (BEb), PCV and Hb were significantly ( P < 0.05) higher in cooled group as compared to noncooled group. DMI was significantly ( P < 0.05) higher in cooled relative to noncooled animals. Milk yield, FCM, fat yield, lactose yield and total solid yield was significantly higher ( P < 0.05) in cooled group of Murrah buffaloes.

  10. Achieving self-sufficiency of red blood cells based on universal voluntary blood donation in Latin America. The case of Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrios, René; Gonzalez, Alcides; Cruz, José Ramiro

    2013-12-01

    In 2007, the blood collection rate in Nicaragua was 106.6 units per 10,000 inhabitants. Voluntary donation was 39%. The health authorities decided to pursue self sufficiency of blood by eliminating replacement donation and consolidating blood processing in two centers. Replacement donation was terminated in 2009, voluntary donation reached 100% in 2010, and the blood collection rate increased to 125.9 in 2011. The rate of red blood cell transfusion improved from 96.0 to 119.1 units per 10,000 during the 4-year period. The political will of the government, pertinent technical leadership, and a country-wide approach were essential for attaining those goals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Peripheral arterial stenosis and coronary artery disease coincidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Ghasemi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is a chronic slow-developing condition affecting medium-size and large blood vessels. It is the principal underlying pathology of coronary heart disease and stroke. In some countries, coronary artery disease (CAD is the cause of nearly half (48% of the deaths and, loss of productivity life. Peripheral arterial disease (PAD is defined as atherosclerosis in peripheral arteries instead of coronary arteries. CAD and PAD have same risk factors and underlying pathophysiological processes. Therefore, patient with CAD should be considered for PAD. Ankle brachial index (ABI, duplex sonography, and some other non-invasive techniques are recommended for PAD diagnosis in patients with the history of CAD. Pharmacotherapy, endovascular interventions, and surgical management could be chosen according to the patient’s situation. Cardiologists and general practitioners should consider PAD in a patient with CAD or DM as a strong correlated disease.      

  12. The choice of home blood pressure result reporting method is essential: Results mailed to physicians did not improve hypertension control compared with ordinary office-based blood pressure treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varis, Juha; Kantola, Ilkka

    2010-10-01

    Effective antihypertensive care is not possible without regular and reliable blood pressure measurements. The use of blood pressure home measurement has increased a lot during the last years. Various methods have been used in communication between the patients and physicians. In a randomized study we compared traditional office-based hypertension treatment protocol (n=68) to the home-based blood pressure measurement protocol (n=89) in which the patient mailed their home-measured BP diary in a letter to the office of their physician. The studied home-based antihypertensive care system was not more effective than the ordinary office-based treatment. The results highlight the importance of continuous home measurement data interpretation by the physician. The system based on mailing the results to the physician office does not seem to be a suitable method in communication between the patient and the physician. Online or other telemedicine-aided means of communication might yield better antihypertensive control.

  13. Comparative effects of valsartan plus either cilnidipine or hydrochlorothiazide on home morning blood pressure surge evaluated by information and communication technology-based nocturnal home blood pressure monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Takeshi; Tomitani, Naoko; Kanegae, Hiroshi; Kario, Kazuomi

    2018-01-01

    The authors tested the hypothesis that a valsartan/cilnidipine combination would suppress the home morning blood pressure (BP) surge (HMBPS) more effectively than a valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide combination in patients with morning hypertension, defined as systolic BP (SBP) ≥135 mm Hg or diastolic BP ≥85 mm Hg assessed by a self-measuring information and communication technology-based home BP monitoring device more than three times before either combination's administration. This was an 8-week prospective, multicenter, randomized, open-label clinical trial. The HMBPS, which is a new index, was defined as the mean morning SBP minus the mean nocturnal SBP, both measured on the same day. The authors randomly allocated 129 patients to the valsartan/cilnidipine (63 patients; mean 68.4 years) or valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide (66 patients; mean 67.3 years) combination groups, and the baseline HMBPS values were 17.4 mm Hg vs 16.9 mm Hg, respectively (P = .820). At the end of the treatment period, the changes in nocturnal SBP and morning SBP from baseline were significant in both the valsartan/cilnidipine and valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide groups (P surge. ©2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Analysis of the effect of true coincidence summing on efficiency calibration for an HP GE detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodenas, J.; Gallardo, S.; Ballester, S.; Primault, V. [Valencia Univ. Politecnica, Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear (Spain); Ortiz, J. [Valencia Univ. Politecnica, Lab. de Radiactividad Ambiental (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    The H.P. (High Purity) Germanium detector is commonly used for gamma spectrometry in environmental radioactivity laboratories. The efficiency of the detector must be calibrated for each geometry considered. This calibration is performed using a standard solution containing gamma emitter sources. The usual goal is the obtaining of an efficiency curve to be used in the determination of the activity of samples with the same geometry. It is evident the importance of the detector calibration. However, the procedure presents some problems as it depends on the source geometry (shape, volume, distance to detector, etc.) and shall be repeated when these factors change. That means an increasing use of standard solutions and consequently an increasing generation of radioactive wastes. Simulation of the calibration procedure with a validated computer program is clearly an important auxiliary tool for environmental radioactivity laboratories. This simulation is useful for both optimising calibration procedures and reducing the amount of radioactivity wastes produced. The M.C.N.P. code, based on the Monte Carlo method, has been used in this work for the simulation of detector calibration. A model has been developed for the detector as well as for the source contained in a Petri box. The source is a standard solution that contains the following radionuclides: {sup 241}Am, {sup 109}Cd, {sup 57}Co, {sup 139}Ce, {sup 203}Hg, {sup 113}Sn, {sup 85}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 88}Y and {sup 60}Co; covering a wide energy range (50 to 2000 keV). However, there are two radionuclides in the solution ({sup 60}Co and {sup 88}Y) that emit gamma rays in true coincidence. The effect of the true coincidence summing produces a distortion of the calibration curve at higher energies. To decrease this effect some measurements have been performed at increasing distances between the source and the detector. As the true coincidence effect is observed in experimental measurements but not in the Monte Carlo

  15. Stability of heparin blood samples during transport based on defined pre-analytical quality goals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Esther A; Stahl, Marta; Brandslund, Ivan

    2008-01-01

    , centrifuged and separated at the doctor's office within 45-60 min. This sample was considered as the best estimate of a comparison value. RESULTS: The pre-set quality goals were fulfilled for all the investigated components for samples transported to hospital by courier either as whole blood or as "on gel...... impact on the quality of results, we wanted to study which combination of transport conditions could fulfil our pre-defined goals for maximum allowable error. METHODS: Samples from 406 patients from nine general practitioners (GPs) in two Danish counties were sent to two hospitals for analyses, during...... whole blood if the above mentioned conditions are met. There is no need for centrifugation in the primary sector. Neither mailing of samples with plasma "on gel" nor public transport by coach bus fulfil our analytical goals....

  16. Model-Based Computation of Total Stressed Blood Volume from a Preload Reduction Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Pironet, Antoine; Desaive, Thomas; Chase, J. Geoffrey; MORIMONT, Philippe; Dauby, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Total stressed blood volume is an important parameter for both doctors and engineers. From a medical point of view, it has been associated with the success or failure of fluid resuscitation therapy, which is a treatment for cardiac failure. From an engineering point of view, this parameter dictates the cardiovascular system's dynamic behavior. Current methods to determine this parameter involve repeated phases of circulatory arrests followed by fluid administration. In this work, a method is ...

  17. Automatic blood vessels segmentation based on different retinal maps from OCTA scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eladawi, Nabila; Elmogy, Mohammed; Helmy, Omar; Aboelfetouh, Ahmed; Riad, Alaa; Sandhu, Harpal; Schaal, Shlomit; El-Baz, Ayman

    2017-10-01

    The retinal vascular network reflects the health of the retina, which is a useful diagnostic indicator of systemic vascular. Therefore, the segmentation of retinal blood vessels is a powerful method for diagnosing vascular diseases. This paper presents an automatic segmentation system for retinal blood vessels from Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography (OCTA) images. The system segments blood vessels from the superficial and deep retinal maps for normal and diabetic cases. Initially, we reduced the noise and improved the contrast of the OCTA images by using the Generalized Gauss-Markov random field (GGMRF) model. Secondly, we proposed a joint Markov-Gibbs random field (MGRF) model to segment the retinal blood vessels from other background tissues. It integrates both appearance and spatial models in addition to the prior probability model of OCTA images. The higher order MGRF (HO-MGRF) model in addition to the 1 st -order intensity model are used to consider the spatial information in order to overcome the low contrast between vessels and other tissues. Finally, we refined the segmentation by extracting connected regions using a 2D connectivity filter. The proposed segmentation system was trained and tested on 47 data sets, which are 23 normal data sets and 24 data sets for diabetic patients. To evaluate the accuracy and robustness of the proposed segmentation framework, we used three different metrics, which are Dice similarity coefficient (DSC), absolute vessels volume difference (VVD), and area under the curve (AUC). The results on OCTA data sets (DSC=95.04±3.75%, VVD=8.51±1.49%, and AUC=95.20±1.52%) show the promise of the proposed segmentation approach. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Classification of peripheral occlusive arterial diseases based on symptoms, signs and distal blood pressure measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, K H; Noer, Ivan; Paaske, William

    1980-01-01

    Systolic blood pressures at toe and ankle were measured in 459 consecutive patients with occlusive arterial disease. Fifty-eight per cent had intermittent claudication with arterial disease of all degrees of severity. Seventeen per cent complained of rest pain having toe systolic pressures below 30...... occlusive arterial disease which was located distally on the legs. A classification in three groups is suggested: (1) ischemia only during exercise; (2) ischemia at rest with or without ulcerations: and (3) diabetics with chronic ulcerations....

  19. Clinic Blood Pressure Underestimates Ambulatory Blood Pressure in an Untreated Employer-Based US Population: Results From the Masked Hypertension Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Joseph E; Burg, Matthew M; Shimbo, Daichi; Broderick, Joan E; Stone, Arthur A; Ishikawa, Joji; Sloan, Richard; Yurgel, Tyla; Grossman, Steven; Pickering, Thomas G

    2016-12-06

    Ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) is consistently superior to clinic blood pressure (CBP) as a predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality risk. A common perception is that ABP is usually lower than CBP. The relationship of the CBP minus ABP difference to age has not been examined in the United States. Between 2005 and 2012, 888 healthy, employed, middle-aged (mean±SD age, 45±10.4 years) individuals (59% female, 7.4% black, 12% Hispanic) with screening BP ABP recording for the Masked Hypertension Study. The distributions of CBP, mean awake ABP (aABP), and the CBP-aABP difference in the full sample and by demographic characteristics were compared. Locally weighted scatterplot smoothing was used to model the relationship of the BP measures to age and body mass index. The prevalence of discrepancies in ABP- versus CBP-defined hypertension status-white-coat hypertension and masked hypertension-were also examined. Average systolic/diastolic aABP (123.0/77.4±10.3/7.4 mm Hg) was significantly higher than the average of 9 CBP readings over 3 visits (116.0/75.4±11.6/7.7 mm Hg). aABP exceeded CBP by >10 mm Hg much more frequently than CBP exceeded aABP. The difference (aABP>CBP) was most pronounced in young adults and those with normal body mass index. The systolic difference progressively diminished, but did not disappear, at older ages and higher body mass indexes. The diastolic difference vanished around age 65 and reversed (CBP>aABP) for body mass index >32.5 kg/m2. Whereas 5.3% of participants were hypertensive by CBP, 19.2% were hypertensive by aABP; 15.7% of those with nonelevated CBP had masked hypertension. Contrary to a widely held belief, based primarily on cohort studies of patients with elevated CBP, ABP is not usually lower than CBP, at least not among healthy, employed individuals. Furthermore, a substantial proportion of otherwise healthy individuals with nonelevated CBP have masked hypertension. Demonstrated CBP-aABP gradients, if confirmed

  20. The development of a canine anorectal autotransplantation model based on blood supply: a preliminary case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Araki

    Full Text Available Colostomy is conventionally the only treatment for anal dysfunction. Recently, a few trials of anorectal transplantation in animals have been published; however, further development of this technique is required. Moreover, it is crucial to perform this research in dogs, which resemble humans in anorectal anatomy and biology. We designed a canine anorectal transplantation model, wherein anorectal autotransplantation was performed by anastomoses of the rectum, inferior mesenteric artery (IMA and vein, and pudendal nerves. Resting pressure in the anal canal and anal canal pressure fluctuation were measured before and after surgery. Graft pathology was examined three days after surgery. The anal blood supply was compared with that in three beagles using indocyanine green (ICG fluorescence angiography. The anorectal graft had sufficient arterial blood supply from the IMA; however, the graft's distal end was congested and necrotized. Functional examination demonstrated reduced resting pressure and the appearance of an irregular anal canal pressure wave after surgery. ICG angiography showed that the pudendal arteries provided more blood flow than the IMA to the anal segment. This is the first canine model of preliminary anorectal autotransplantation, and it demonstrates the possibility of establishing a transplantation model in dogs using appropriate vascular anastomoses, thus contributing to the progress of anorectal transplantation.

  1. Evaluation of alert-based monitoring in a computerised blood transfusion management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabestari, Omid; Gooch, Philip; Goddard, Kate; Golchin, Kamran; Kay, Jonathan; Roudsari, Abdul

    2011-01-01

    Blood transfusion is a critical and multi-step process that can be lifesaving. At the same time, any mistakes can be life threatening. An electronic blood transfusion system has been designed to ensure the correctness and safety of the blood transfusion process. The standards for the system include notification mechanisms to inform system managers of any errors in the process. Analysis of system alerts has been used to evaluate the performance of the system. The majority of alerts were classified as 'moderate' in terms of risk (i.e. operational rather than affecting clinical safety) and tended to result from user error. The process of alert acknowledgement and resolution by the system administrator acted as a bottleneck whenever the alerts increased above 100 items per month. Although there was no statistically significant correlation between the number of alerts and the number of transfusions or number of the new users of the system, relatively similar patterns were observable in their charts. A major benefit is that the alerts automatically provided information that would not be captured in a manual transfusion process.

  2. The accuracy of the central venous blood gas for acid-base monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkey, Allan J; Farber, Harrison W; O'Donnell, Charles; Cabral, Howard; Eagan, Janet S; Philippides, George J

    2010-01-01

    Routine use of central venous blood gases (VBGs) may reduce complications from prolonged arterial cannulation. We investigated the reliability of the VBG as a substitute for arterial blood gas (ABG) in multiple care settings. We developed a VBG adjustment rule of ABG pH = VBG pH + 0.05, ABG CO(2) = VBG PCO(2) -5 mm Hg from prior studies and validated this relationship with simultaneous venous and arterial blood obtained from 187 medical/surgical intensive care, cardiac catheterization laboratory, and coronary care unit patients with central venous access. The overall accuracy of a normal adjusted VBG (aVBG) to predict a normal ABG was 90%. After adjustment, the mean systematic difference (bias) between ABG and VBG pH decreased from 0.035 +/- 0.02 to -0.015 +/- 0.02 and PCO(2) bias decreased from -4.5 +/- 3.5 to 0.5 +/- 3.5. Intraclass correlation coefficients for agreement improved after applying the adjustment rule to venous pH (from 0.84 to 0.93, P central VBG.

  3. A malaria diagnostic tool based on computer vision screening and visualization of Plasmodium falciparum candidate areas in digitized blood smears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Nina; Turkki, Riku; Walliander, Margarita; Mårtensson, Andreas; Diwan, Vinod; Rahtu, Esa; Pietikäinen, Matti; Lundin, Mikael; Lundin, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Microscopy is the gold standard for diagnosis of malaria, however, manual evaluation of blood films is highly dependent on skilled personnel in a time-consuming, error-prone and repetitive process. In this study we propose a method using computer vision detection and visualization of only the diagnostically most relevant sample regions in digitized blood smears. Giemsa-stained thin blood films with P. falciparum ring-stage trophozoites (n = 27) and uninfected controls (n = 20) were digitally scanned with an oil immersion objective (0.1 µm/pixel) to capture approximately 50,000 erythrocytes per sample. Parasite candidate regions were identified based on color and object size, followed by extraction of image features (local binary patterns, local contrast and Scale-invariant feature transform descriptors) used as input to a support vector machine classifier. The classifier was trained on digital slides from ten patients and validated on six samples. The diagnostic accuracy was tested on 31 samples (19 infected and 12 controls). From each digitized area of a blood smear, a panel with the 128 most probable parasite candidate regions was generated. Two expert microscopists were asked to visually inspect the panel on a tablet computer and to judge whether the patient was infected with P. falciparum. The method achieved a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 95% and 100% as well as 90% and 100% for the two readers respectively using the diagnostic tool. Parasitemia was separately calculated by the automated system and the correlation coefficient between manual and automated parasitemia counts was 0.97. We developed a decision support system for detecting malaria parasites using a computer vision algorithm combined with visualization of sample areas with the highest probability of malaria infection. The system provides a novel method for blood smear screening with a significantly reduced need for visual examination and has a potential to increase the

  4. A malaria diagnostic tool based on computer vision screening and visualization of Plasmodium falciparum candidate areas in digitized blood smears.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Linder

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Microscopy is the gold standard for diagnosis of malaria, however, manual evaluation of blood films is highly dependent on skilled personnel in a time-consuming, error-prone and repetitive process. In this study we propose a method using computer vision detection and visualization of only the diagnostically most relevant sample regions in digitized blood smears. METHODS: Giemsa-stained thin blood films with P. falciparum ring-stage trophozoites (n = 27 and uninfected controls (n = 20 were digitally scanned with an oil immersion objective (0.1 µm/pixel to capture approximately 50,000 erythrocytes per sample. Parasite candidate regions were identified based on color and object size, followed by extraction of image features (local binary patterns, local contrast and Scale-invariant feature transform descriptors used as input to a support vector machine classifier. The classifier was trained on digital slides from ten patients and validated on six samples. RESULTS: The diagnostic accuracy was tested on 31 samples (19 infected and 12 controls. From each digitized area of a blood smear, a panel with the 128 most probable parasite candidate regions was generated. Two expert microscopists were asked to visually inspect the panel on a tablet computer and to judge whether the patient was infected with P. falciparum. The method achieved a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 95% and 100% as well as 90% and 100% for the two readers respectively using the diagnostic tool. Parasitemia was separately calculated by the automated system and the correlation coefficient between manual and automated parasitemia counts was 0.97. CONCLUSION: We developed a decision support system for detecting malaria parasites using a computer vision algorithm combined with visualization of sample areas with the highest probability of malaria infection. The system provides a novel method for blood smear screening with a significantly reduced need for

  5. Controlled multicenter evaluation of a bacteriophage-based method for rapid detection of Staphylococcus aureus in positive blood cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmick, T; Mirrett, S; Reller, L B; Price, C; Qi, C; Weinstein, M P; Kirn, T J

    2013-04-01

    Staphylococci are a frequent cause of bloodstream infections (BSIs). Appropriate antibiotic treatment for BSIs may be delayed because conventional laboratory testing methods take 48 to 72 h to identify and characterize isolates from positive blood cultures. We evaluated a novel assay based on bacteriophage amplification that identifies Staphylococcus aureus and differentiates between methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MSSA and MRSA, respectively) in samples taken directly from signal-positive Bactec blood culture bottles within 24 h of positive signal, with results available within 5 h. The performance of the MicroPhage KeyPath MRSA/MSSA blood culture test was compared to conventional identification and susceptibility testing methods. At four sites, we collectively tested a total of 1,165 specimens, of which 1,116 were included in our analysis. Compared to standard methods, the KeyPath MRSA/MSSA blood culture test demonstrated a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 91.8%, 98.3%, 96.3%, and 96.1%, respectively, for correctly identifying S. aureus. Of those correctly identified as S. aureus (n = 334), 99.1% were correctly categorized as either MSSA or MRSA. Analysis of a subset of the data revealed that the KeyPath MRSA/MSSA blood culture test delivered results a median of 30 h sooner than conventional methods (a median of 46.9 h versus a median of 16.9 h). Although the sensitivity of the test in detecting S. aureus-positive samples is not high, its accuracy in determining methicillin resistance and susceptibility among positives is very high. These characteristics may enable earlier implementation of appropriate antibiotic treatment for many S. aureus BSI patients.

  6. Alpha and conversion electron spectroscopy of 238,239Pu and 241Am and alpha-conversion electron coincidence measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dion, Michael P.; Miller, Brian W.; Warren, Glen A.

    2016-09-01

    A technique to determine the isotopics of a mixed actinide sample has been proposed by measuring the coincidence of the alpha particle during radioactive decay with the conversion electron (or Auger) emitted during the relaxation of the daughter isotope. This presents a unique signature to allow the deconvolution of isotopes that possess overlapping alpha particle energy. The work presented here are results of conversion electron spectroscopy of 241Am, 238Pu and 239Pu using a dual-stage peltier-cooled 25 mm2 silicon drift detector. A passivated ion implanted planar silicon detector provided measurements of alpha spectroscopy. The conversion electron spectra were evaluated from 20–55 keV based on fits to the dominant conversion electron emissions, which allowed the relative conversion electron emission intensities to be determined. These measurements provide crucial singles spectral information to aid in the coincident measurement approach.

  7. Standardization of {sup 68}Ge/{sup 68}Ga by 4πβ-γ coincidence method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agusbudiman, A.; Lee, K. B.; Lee, J. M.; Park, T. S. [Korea University of Science and Technology (UST), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Radionuclide {sup 68}Ge decays by electron capture (100%) to the {sup 68}Ga ground state with a half-life of 270.95 (26) days. The daughter nuclide {sup 68}Ga also disintegrates by electron capture (11.12%) but mainly by positron emission (88.88%) with a half life 67.83 (20) min to {sup 68}Zn. (Bé et al., 2004). Most of {sup 68}Ga decay goes to the ground state of {sup 68}Zn and only 3.38% of the decay goes to excited levels {sup 68}Zn which are followed by gamma transitions. Activity of {sup 68}Ge/{sup 68}Ga was determined based on coincidences event between positron and the 511 keV gamma annihilation. The radionuclide {sup 68}Ge/{sup 68}Ga has been standardized using the 4πβ(LS)-γcoincidence counting with digital sampling method.

  8. Alpha and conversion electron spectroscopy of 238,239Pu and 241Am and alpha-conversion electron coincidence measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dion, Michael P.; Miller, Brian W.; Warren, Glen A.

    2016-09-01

    A technique to determine the isotopic constituents of a mixed actinide sample has been proposed by a coincident alpha-conversion electron measurement. This presents a unique signature to allow the unfolding of isotopes that possess overlapping alpha particle energy and reduce backgrounds of an unseparated sample. The work presented here are results of conversion electron spectroscopy of 241Am, 238Pu and 239Pu using a dual-stage peltier-cooled 25 mm2 silicon drift detector and alpha spectroscopy with a passivated ion implanted planar silicon detector. The conversion electron spectra were evaluated from 20-55 keV based on fits to the dominant conversion electron emissions, which allowed the relative conversion electron emission intensities to be determined. These measurements provide crucial singles spectral information and calibration to aid in the coincident measurement approach. Furthermore, an alpha-conversion electron spectrometer was assembled using the silicon based detectors described and results of a coincident spectrum analysis is reported for 241Am.

  9. Impact of Exercise and Aging on Rat Urine and Blood Metabolome. An LC-MS Based Metabolomics Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Deda

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aging is an inevitable condition leading to health deterioration and death. Regular physical exercise can moderate the metabolic phenotype changes of aging. However, only a small number of metabolomics-based studies provide data on the effect of exercise along with aging. Here, urine and whole blood samples from Wistar rats were analyzed in a longitudinal study to explore metabolic alterations due to exercise and aging. The study comprised three different programs of exercises, including a life-long protocol which started at the age of 5 months and ended at the age of 21 months. An acute exercise session was also evaluated. Urine and whole blood samples were collected at different time points and were analyzed by LC-MS/MS (Liquid Chromatography–tandem Mass Spectrometry. Based on their metabolic profiles, samples from trained and sedentary rats were differentiated. The impact on the metabolome was found to depend on the length of exercise period with acute exercise also showing significant changes. Metabolic alterations due to aging were equally pronounced in sedentary and trained rats in both urine and blood analyzed samples.

  10. Impact of Exercise and Aging on Rat Urine and Blood Metabolome. An LC-MS Based Metabolomics Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deda, Olga; Gika, Helen G; Taitzoglou, Ioannis; Raikos, Νikolaos; Theodoridis, Georgios

    2017-02-23

    Aging is an inevitable condition leading to health deterioration and death. Regular physical exercise can moderate the metabolic phenotype changes of aging. However, only a small number of metabolomics-based studies provide data on the effect of exercise along with aging. Here, urine and whole blood samples from Wistar rats were analyzed in a longitudinal study to explore metabolic alterations due to exercise and aging. The study comprised three different programs of exercises, including a life-long protocol which started at the age of 5 months and ended at the age of 21 months. An acute exercise session was also evaluated. Urine and whole blood samples were collected at different time points and were analyzed by LC-MS/MS (Liquid Chromatography-tandem Mass Spectrometry). Based on their metabolic profiles, samples from trained and sedentary rats were differentiated. The impact on the metabolome was found to depend on the length of exercise period with acute exercise also showing significant changes. Metabolic alterations due to aging were equally pronounced in sedentary and trained rats in both urine and blood analyzed samples.

  11. An Improved PID Algorithm Based on Insulin-on-Board Estimate for Blood Glucose Control with Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ruiqiang; Li, Chengwei

    2015-01-01

    Automated closed-loop insulin infusion therapy has been studied for many years. In closed-loop system, the control algorithm is the key technique of precise insulin infusion. The control algorithm needs to be designed and validated. In this paper, an improved PID algorithm based on insulin-on-board estimate is proposed and computer simulations are done using a combinational mathematical model of the dynamics of blood glucose-insulin regulation in the blood system. The simulation results demonstrate that the improved PID algorithm can perform well in different carbohydrate ingestion and different insulin sensitivity situations. Compared with the traditional PID algorithm, the control performance is improved obviously and hypoglycemia can be avoided. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed control algorithm, in silico testing is done using the UVa/Padova virtual patient software. PMID:26550021

  12. An Improved PID Algorithm Based on Insulin-on-Board Estimate for Blood Glucose Control with Type 1 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiqiang Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Automated closed-loop insulin infusion therapy has been studied for many years. In closed-loop system, the control algorithm is the key technique of precise insulin infusion. The control algorithm needs to be designed and validated. In this paper, an improved PID algorithm based on insulin-on-board estimate is proposed and computer simulations are done using a combinational mathematical model of the dynamics of blood glucose-insulin regulation in the blood system. The simulation results demonstrate that the improved PID algorithm can perform well in different carbohydrate ingestion and different insulin sensitivity situations. Compared with the traditional PID algorithm, the control performance is improved obviously and hypoglycemia can be avoided. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed control algorithm, in silico testing is done using the UVa/Padova virtual patient software.

  13. A Novel Approach for Arabic Text Steganography Based on the “BloodGroup” Text Hiding Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Malalla,

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Steganography is the science of hiding certain messages (data in groups of irrelevant data possibly of other form. The purpose of steganography is covert communication to hide the existence of a message from an intermediary. Text Steganography is the process of embedding secret message (text in another text (cover text so that the existence of secret message cannot be detected by a third party. This paper presents a novel approach for text steganography using the Blood Group (BG method based on the behavior of blood group. Experimentally it is found that the proposed method got good results in capacity, hiding capacity, time complexity, robustness, visibility, and similarity which shows its superiority as compared to most several existing methods.

  14. Coincidence detection in the medial superior olive: mechanistic implications of an analysis of input spiking patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franken, Tom P; Bremen, Peter; Joris, Philip X

    2014-01-01

    Coincidence detection by binaural neurons in the medial superior olive underlies sensitivity to interaural time difference (ITD) and interaural correlation (ρ). It is unclear whether this process is akin to a counting of individual coinciding spikes, or rather to a correlation of membrane potential waveforms resulting from converging inputs from each side. We analyzed spike trains of axons of the cat trapezoid body (TB) and auditory nerve (AN) in a binaural coincidence scheme. ITD was studied by delaying "ipsi-" vs. "contralateral" inputs; ρ was studied by using responses to different noises. We varied the number of inputs; the monaural and binaural threshold and the coincidence window duration. We examined physiological plausibility of output "spike trains" by comparing their rate and tuning to ITD and ρ to those of binaural cells. We found that multiple inputs are required to obtain a plausible output spike rate. In contrast to previous suggestions, monaural threshold almost invariably needed to exceed binaural threshold. Elevation of the binaural threshold to values larger than 2 spikes caused a drastic decrease in rate for a short coincidence window. Longer coincidence windows allowed a lower number of inputs and higher binaural thresholds, but decreased the depth of modulation. Compared to AN fibers, TB fibers allowed higher output spike rates for a low number of inputs, but also generated more monaural coincidences. We conclude that, within the parameter space explored, the temporal patterns of monaural fibers require convergence of multiple inputs to achieve physiological binaural spike rates; that monaural coincidences have to be suppressed relative to binaural ones; and that the neuron has to be sensitive to single binaural coincidences of spikes, for a number of excitatory inputs per side of 10 or less. These findings suggest that the fundamental operation in the mammalian binaural circuit is coincidence counting of single binaural input spikes.

  15. Coincidence detection in the medial superior olive: mechanistic implications of an analysis of input spiking patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom P. Franken

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Coincidence detection by binaural neurons in the medial superior olive underlies sensitivity to interaural time difference (ITD and interaural correlation (rho. It is unclear whether this process is akin to a counting of individual coinciding spikes, or rather to a correlation of membrane potential waveforms resulting from converging inputs from each side. We analyzed spike trains of axons of the cat trapezoid body (TB and auditory nerve (AN in a binaural coincidence scheme. ITD was studied by delaying ipsi- versus contralateral inputs; rho was studied by using responses to different noises. We varied the number of inputs; the monaural and binaural threshold and the coincidence window duration. We examined physiological plausibility of output spike trains by comparing their rate and tuning to ITD and rho to those of binaural cells. We found that multiple inputs are required to obtain a plausible output spike rate. In contrast to previous suggestions, monaural threshold almost invariably needed to exceed binaural threshold. Elevation of the binaural threshold to values larger than 2 spikes caused a drastic decrease in rate for a short coincidence window. Longer coincidence windows allowed a lower number of inputs and higher binaural thresholds, but decreased the depth of modulation. Compared to AN fibers, TB fibers allowed higher output spike rates for a low number of inputs, but also generated more monaural coincidences. We conclude that, within the parameter space explored, the temporal patterns of monaural fibers require convergence of multiple inputs to achieve physiological binaural spike rates; that monaural coincidences have to be suppressed relative to binaural ones; and that the neuron has to be sensitive to single binaural coincidences of spikes, for a number of excitatory inputs per side of 10 or less. These findings suggest that the fundamental operation in the mammalian binaural circuit is coincidence counting of single binaural

  16. The Diabetes Assistant: A Smartphone-Based System for Real-Time Control of Blood Glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Keith-Hynes

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM is an autoimmune disease in which the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas are destroyed and insulin must be injected daily to enable the body to metabolize glucose. Standard therapy for T1DM involves self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG several times daily with a blood glucose meter and injecting insulin via a syringe, pen or insulin pump. An “Artificial Pancreas” (AP is a closed-loop control system that uses a continuous glucose monitor (CGM, an insulin pump and an internal algorithm to automatically manage insulin infusion to keep the subject’s blood glucose within a desired range. Although no fully closed-loop AP systems are currently commercially available there are intense academic and commercial efforts to produce safe and effective AP systems. In this paper we present the Diabetes Assistant (DiAs, an ultraportable AP research platform designed to enable home studies of Closed Loop Control (CLC of blood glucose in subjects with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. DiAs consists of an Android (Google Inc., Mountain View, CA, USA smartphone equipped with communication, control and user interface software wirelessly connected to a continuous glucose monitor and insulin pump. The software consists of a network of mobile applications with well-defined Application Programming Interfaces (APIs running atop an enhanced version of Android with non-essential elements removed. CLC and safety applications receive real-time data from the CGM and pump, estimate the patient’s metabolic state and risk of hypo- and hyperglycemia, adjust the insulin infusion rate, raise alarms as needed and transmit de-identified data to a secure remote server. Some applications may be replaced by researchers wishing to conduct outpatient ambulatory studies of novel Closed Loop Control, Safety or User Interface modules. Over the past three years the DiAs platform has been used in a series of AP clinical trials sponsored by the National

  17. School-based blood drive: successful nurse collaboration with parents, students, and the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Diane Cody; Taylor, Mary Ellen; Pyle, Audrey

    2015-05-01

    The nurses at an independent Pre-K through 12 educational institution in Houston, Texas (The Kinkaid School), expanded the blood drive program to include innovative collaboration with high school student leaders, parents, and school faculty. Methods implemented in this endeavor included technology utilization, science education, and an enhanced parent workforce. By focusing on community involvement and an altruistic reason for donating, the Kinkaid school nurses helped their community break school donation records 2 years in a row. © 2015 The Author(s).

  18. Conflict, Coincidence And Emerging Interactions As Logics Of Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottlieb, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    This paper seeks out to construct a model of innovation based on research conducted in 3 different entrepreneurial contexts. The model attempts to describe how innovation is emerging in the everyday interactions of people involved in the projects, through conversations in meetings, on social media...... and in workshops. Based on the presented model, the author will discuss how logics of innovation can be seen in a new perspective in the light of Sarasvathys theory of Effectuation. The research methodology is based on Participatory Innovation (Buur & Matthews 2008) with a strong emphasis on involving many...... stakeholders in the process of innovation, a high level of “doing” through Action Research based activities. And on reflection in situ with the involved stakeholders. The author takes on an Autoethnographical approach (Anderson 2006) to investigate from the perspective of his own involvement in the 3 different...

  19. Knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding voluntary blood donation among adult residents of Harar town, Eastern Ethiopia: a community-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urgesa K

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Kedir Urgesa,1 Nejat Hassen,2 Ayichew Seyoum1 1Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, 2Department of Public Health, Haramaya University, Harar, Ethiopia Background: The availability of safe blood and blood products is a critical factor in improving health care. In Ethiopia, lack of voluntary blood donors is a major challenge. This could be due to low community knowledge, unfavorable attitude, and poor donation practice regarding voluntary blood donation. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess community knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding voluntary blood donation among adults in Harar town, Ethiopia.Materials and methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from July 1 to July 31, 2015. A total of 845 adults were randomly selected and interviewed using a pretested, structured questionnaire. Six trained data collectors conducted a face-to-face interview. Data were entered into EpiData Version 3 and analyzed using STATA Version 11.Results: Comprehensive knowledge of the study participants toward voluntary blood donation was 43.5%. Multivariable logistic regression demonstrated that male sex (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.69, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.19–2.39, age (31–45 years; AOR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.34–0.74 and >45 years (AOR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.38–0.95, and higher education (AOR = 15.34, 95% CI: 5.01–46.91 were significantly associated with comprehensive knowledge about voluntary blood donation. A total of 278 (32.9% study participants had positive attitude toward voluntary blood donation. College graduates (AOR = 13.05, 95% CI: 4.12–41.29 were significantly associated with positive attitude toward voluntary blood donation. Only 191 (22.6% subjects had ever donated blood. However, the proportion of study participants who donated blood voluntarily with good knowledge about voluntary blood donation was significantly lower than the study participants who donated blood voluntarily with low knowledge

  20. Blood Cell Segmentation Based on Improved Pulse Coupled Neural Network and Fuzzy Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanbo Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the field of biomedical image processing, because of the low intensity and brightness of the cell image, and the complex structure of the cell image, the segmentation of cell images is very difficult. A large number of studies have shown that the Pulse Coupled Neural Networks (PCNN is suitable for image segmentation. However, the traditional PCNN must set a large number of parameters in image segmentation, and the optimal number of iterations cannot be automatically determined. In this paper, a new improved PCNN model is proposed. The work of improved PCNN includes the acceptance portion of the PCNN model being simplified and the connection portion of PCNN being improved. In addition, the maximum fuzzy entropy is used as the criterion to determine the optimal number of iterations. Experimental results on blood cell image segmentation show that this proposed method can automatically determine the number of loop iterations and automatically select the best threshold. It also has the characteristics of fast convergence, high accuracy and good segmentation effect in blood cell image segmentation processing.

  1. Neurotrophin blood-based gene expression and social cognition analysis in patients with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, Mònica; Pedreño, Carla; Obiols, Jordi; Taurines, Regina; Pàmias, Montserrat; Grünblatt, Edna; Gella, Alejandro

    2015-04-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) comprise neurodevelopmental disorders with clinical onset during the first years of life. The identification of peripheral biomarkers could significantly impact diagnosis and an individualized, early treatment. Although the aetiology of ASD remains poorly understood, there is increasing evidence that neurotrophins and their receptors represent a group of candidate genes for ASD pathophysiology and biomarker research. Total messenger RNA (mRNA) from whole blood was obtained from adolescents and adults diagnosed as ASD (n = 21) according to DSM-IV criteria and confirmed by the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) and Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) algorithms, as well as healthy controls (n = 10). The mRNA expression of neurotrophins (BDNF, NT3 and NT4) and their receptors (TrkA, TrkB and p75 (NTR) ) was determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Moreover, social cognition abilities of ASD patients and controls were determined according to three Theory of Mind (ToM) tests (Reading the Mind in the Eyes, Faux pas, and Happé stories). The NT3 and NT4 mRNA expression in the whole blood was significantly lower in ASD compared to healthy controls, while p75(NTR) was higher (P diagnostics and therapy in ASD. Further investigations with larger numbers of samples are needed to verify these results.

  2. Wavelength selection in measuring red blood cell aggregation based on light transmittance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyuklu, Mehmet; Canpolat, Murat; Meiselman, Herbert J.; Baskurt, Oguz K.

    2011-11-01

    The reversible aggregation of red blood cells (RBC) is of current basic science and clinical interest. Using a flow channel and light transmittance (LT) through RBC suspensions, we have examined the effects of wavelength (500 to 900 nm) on the static and dynamic aspects of RBC aggregation for normal blood and suspensions with reduced or enhanced aggregation; the effects of oxygenation were also explored. Salient observations include: 1. significant effects of wavelength on aggregation parameters reflecting the extent of aggregation (i.e., number of RBC per aggregate); 2. no significant effects of wavelength on parameters reflecting the time course of RBC aggregation; 3. a prominent influence of hemoglobin oxygen saturation on both extent and time-course related aggregation parameters measured at wavelengths less than 700 nm, but only on the time-course at 800 nm; and 4. the power of parameters in detecting a given alteration of RBC aggregation is affected by wavelength, in general being greater at higher wavelengths. It is recommended that light sources with wavelengths around 800 nm be used in instruments for measuring RBC aggregation via LT.

  3. Donating Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Is It Possible to Donate Blood After Having Hepatitis B? Hepatitis Natural Disasters: How to Help Blood Blood Transfusions Blood Types Contact Us Print Resources Send to ...

  4. Blood Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Group Links Advocacy Toolkit Home For Patients Blood Basics Blood is a specialized body fluid. It ... about nine pints. Jump To: The Components of Blood and Their Importance Many people have undergone blood ...

  5. Blood culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - blood ... A blood sample is needed . The site where blood will be drawn is first cleaned with an antiseptic such ... organism from the skin getting into (contaminating) the blood sample and causing a false-positive result (see ...

  6. Smart blood cell and microvesicle-based Trojan horse drug delivery: Merging expertise in blood transfusion and biomedical engineering in the field of nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Wen; Goubran, Hadi; Seghatchian, Jerard; Burnouf, Thierry

    2016-04-01

    Therapeutic and diagnostic applications of nanomedicine are playing increasingly important roles in human health. Various types of synthetic nanoparticles, including liposomes, micelles, and other nanotherapeutic platforms and conjugates, are being engineered to encapsulate or carry drugs for treating diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disorders, neurodegeneration, and inflammations. Nanocarriers are designed to increase the half-life of drugs, decrease their toxicity and, ideally, target pathological sites. Developing smart carriers with the capacity to deliver drugs specifically to the microenvironment of diseased cells with minimum systemic toxicity is the goal. Blood cells, and potentially also the liposome-like micro- and nano-vesicles they generate, may be regarded as ideally suited to perform such specific targeting with minimum immunogenic risks. Blood cell membranes are "decorated" with complex physiological receptors capable of targeting and communicating with other cells and tissues and delivering their content to the surrounding pathological microenvironment. Blood cells, such as erythrocytes, have been developed as permeable carriers to release drugs to diseased tissues or act as biofactory allowing enzymatic degradation of a pathological substrate. Interestingly, attempts are also being made to improve the targeting capacity of synthetic nanoparticles by "decorating" their surface with blood cell membrane receptor-like biochemical structures. Research is needed to further explore the benefits that blood cell-derived microvesicles, as a Trojan horse delivery systems, can bring to the arsenal of therapeutic micro- and nanotechnologies. This short review focuses on the therapeutic roles that red blood cells and platelets can play as smart drug-delivery systems, and highlights the benefits that blood transfusion expertise can bring to this exciting and novel biomedical engineering field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Fetal Environment and Glycosylation Status in Neonatal Cord Blood: A Comprehensive Mass Spectrometry-based Glycosylation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Ryosuke; Tsuchiya, Kenji J; Matsuzaki, Hideo; Takei, Nori; Itoh, Hiroaki; Kanayama, Naohiro; Suda, Takafumi; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Ohashi, Tetsu; Tanaka, Masakazu; Nishimura, Shin-Ichiro; Maekawa, Masato

    2016-04-01

    Fetal environment is known to be a major predictive factor of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. However, associations of fetal environment and cord blood glycoforms are uncertain. In this study, we aimed to determine whether glycosylation status in neonatal cord blood is associated with perinatal outcomes reflecting a poor fetal environment.Thirty-six low birth weight (LBW) infants and 120 normal birth weight infants were recruited from a longitudinal birth cohort. We conducted a comprehensive cord blood N-glycan analysis using matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Associations of N-glycans with perinatal outcomes, including LBW, small for gestational age, and levels of cord blood leptin and adiponectin, were evaluated using logistic or multiple regression. We also prospectively explored correlations between N-glycans and 6 or 18-month rapid weight gain (>0.67 SD score).A total of 35 N-glycans were detected (m/z value 1362.481-3865.407). Of these, abundance levels of G3414 (m/z value 3414.238) were inversely correlated with LBW and small for gestational age. Abundance levels of G1915 (m/z value 1914.698), G2744 (m/z value 2743.994), G3049 (m/z value 3049.105), and G3719 (m/z value 3719.349) were inversely related to LBW. The total N-glycan abundance levels were strongly positively correlated with levels of leptin and adiponectin in cord blood. In a prospective exploratory analysis, the 5 LBW-related N-glycans (G1915, G2744, G3049, G3414, and G3719) were all inversely associated with 6 or 18-month rapid weight gain. These N-glycans are structurally categorized into 2 different categories: fucosylated bi or tri-antennary N-glycans; and tri or tetra-antennary N-glycans without fucosylation.In conclusion, mass spectrometry-based cord blood glycosylation analysis shows that 5 types of N-glycans are potential predictors of a poor fetal environment.

  8. Acute regulation of hematocrit and blood acid-base balance during severe hypoxic challenges in late chicken embryos (Gallus gallus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazawa, Hiroshi; Andrewartha, Sarah J; Burggren, Warren W

    2012-10-15

    Acid-base and hematocrit (Hct) responses of vertebrate embryos to severe hypoxia are as yet unknown, but may reveal the maturation process of physiological regulatory mechanisms. The present study elucidated how acute, severe hypoxia (10% O2, with and without 5% CO2) affects Hct and blood acid-base balance in late prenatal (days 11-19) chicken embryos. The time-course of the resulting Hct changes and blood acid-base disturbances was examined in detail in day 15 (d15) embryos to further understand the magnitude and time-components of these physiological changes. We hypothesized that Hct of developing embryos increases during severe hypoxia (10% O2) and hypercapnic hypoxia (5% CO2, 10% O2), due to increased mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and red blood cell concentration ([RBC]). We additionally hypothesized that 10% O2 would induce anaerobic glycolysis and the attendant increase in lactate concentration ([La-]) would create a severe metabolic acidosis. Hct increased in all embryos (d11-d19) during severe hypoxia (2h) but, with the exception of d19 embryos, the increase was due to increased MCV and was therefore unlikely related to O2 transport. The time-course of the d15 embryonic Hct response to hypoxic or hypercapnic hypoxic exposure was very rapid with MCV increasing within 30min. Severe metabolic acidosis occurred in all developing embryos (d11-d19) during 2h hypoxic exposure. Additionally, respiratory acidosis was induced in d15 embryos during hypercapnic hypoxia, with acid-base status recovering within 120 min in air. Throughout hypoxic exposure and recovery, changes in [HCO3-] were matched by those in [La-], indicating that anaerobic glycolysis is a key factor determining the metabolic alterations and overall acid-base status. Further, the blood gas and Hct values recovered in air and unchanged embryo mass suggest that the hypoxia-induced disturbances were only transient and may not affect long-term survival. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparable accuracy of micro-electromechanical blood flowmetry-based analysis vs. electrocardiography-based analysis in evaluating heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Terukazu; Miyazaki, Tatsuya; Ito, Hiroki; Nogami, Hirofumi; Higurashi, Eiji; Ando, Shin-Ichi; Sawada, Renshi

    2015-01-01

    Because the conventional evaluation of autonomic nervous system (ANS) function inevitably uses long-lasting uncomfortable electrocardiogram (ECG) recording, a more simplified and comfortable analysis system has been sought for this purpose. The feasibility of using a portable micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) blood flowmeter to analyze heart rate variability (HRV) for evaluating ANS function was thus examined. Measurements of the R-R interval (TRR) derived from an ECG, simultaneously with the pulse wave interval (TPP) derived from a MEMS blood flowmeter, in 8 healthy subjects was performed and resultant HRV variables in time and frequency domains were compared. The TRR- and TPP-derived variables were strongly correlated (coefficients of regression for low frequency (LF), high frequency (HF), and LF/HF of 1.1, 0.66, and 0.35, respectively; corresponding coefficients of determination of 0.92, 0.63, and 0.91, respectively (Panalysis for the evaluation of ANS function, which is as accurate as analysis based on ECG within comparable tolerances. As MEMS blood flowmetry can more easily and comfortably record physiological variables for longer durations than ECG recording, and can further capture skin blood flow information, this device has great potential to be used in a wider area of physiological analyses.

  10. A therapy parameter-based model for predicting blood glucose concentrations in patients with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Alain; François, Grégory; Gillet, Denis

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, the problem of predicting blood glucose concentrations (BG) for the treatment of patients with type 1 diabetes, is addressed. Predicting BG is of very high importance as most treatments, which consist in exogenous insulin injections, rely on the availability of BG predictions. Many models that can be used for predicting BG are available in the literature. However, it is widely admitted that it is almost impossible to perfectly model blood glucose dynamics while still being able to identify model parameters using only blood glucose measurements. The main contribution of this work is to propose a simple and identifiable linear dynamical model, which is based on the static prediction model of standard therapy. It is shown that the model parameters are intrinsically correlated with physician-set therapy parameters and that the reduction of the number of model parameters to identify leads to inferior data fits but to equivalent or slightly improved prediction capabilities compared to state-of-the-art models: a sign of an appropriate model structure and superior reliability. The validation of the proposed dynamic model is performed using data from the UVa simulator and real clinical data, and potential uses of the proposed model for state estimation and BG control are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Determination of total creatine kinase activity in blood serum using an amperometric biosensor based on glucose oxidase and hexokinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucherenko, I S; Soldatkin, O O; Lagarde, F; Jaffrezic-Renault, N; Dzyadevych, S V; Soldatkin, A P

    2015-11-01

    Creatine kinase (CK: adenosine-5-triphosphate-creatine phosphotransferase) is an important enzyme of muscle cells; the presence of a large amount of the enzyme in blood serum is a biomarker of muscular injuries, such as acute myocardial infarction. This work describes a bi-enzyme (glucose oxidase and hexokinase based) biosensor for rapid and convenient determination of CK activity by measuring the rate of ATP production by this enzyme. Simultaneously the biosensor determines glucose concentration in the sample. Platinum disk electrodes were used as amperometric transducers. Glucose oxidase and hexokinase were co-immobilized via cross-linking with BSA by glutaraldehyde and served as a biorecognition element of the biosensor. The biosensor work at different concentrations of CK substrates (ADP and creatine phosphate) was investigated; optimal concentration of ADP was 1mM, and creatine phosphate - 10 mM. The reproducibility of the biosensor responses to glucose, ATP and CK during a day was tested (relative standard deviation of 15 responses to glucose was 2%, to ATP - 6%, to CK - 7-18% depending on concentration of the CK). Total time of CK analysis was 10 min. The measurements of creatine kinase in blood serum samples were carried out (at 20-fold sample dilution). Twentyfold dilution of serum samples was chosen as optimal for CK determination. The biosensor could distinguish healthy and ill people and evaluate the level of CK increase. Thus, the biosensor can be used as a test-system for CK analysis in blood serum or serve as a component of multibiosensors for determination of important blood substances. Determination of activity of other kinases by the developed biosensor is also possible for research purposes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The efficacy of internet-based cognitive behavior therapy on blood pressure for comorbid hypertension and insomnia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-ju YANG

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of internet-based cognitive behavior therapy (CBT-I on blood pressure in patients with hypertension comorbid with insomnia. Methods One hundred and six patients met the JNC-8 diagnostic criteria for hypertension and DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for insomnia were selected, and randomly assigned to CBT-I group (n=53 and regular treatment group (n=53. All the patients accepted relevant treatment for 8 consecutive weeks. Changes of systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, the sleep parameters and the anxiety and depression levels were observed between baseline and 8 weeks of follow-up. Results Compared with pre-treatment, SBP and DBP decreased significantly in both CBT-I group and regular treatment group (P<0.01, the decrease was more significant in CBT-I group than in regular treatment group (P<0.01. The sleep latency, sleep efficiency, bed time and rating anxiety scale were improved more significantly in CBT-I group than in regular treatment group (44.49±22.75min vs. 55.50±34.96min; 72.31%±9.15% vs. 57.70%±11.53%; 302.65±43.76min vs. 262.70±50.64min and 17.14±6.45 vs. 21.02±6.64, respectively, the differences were of statistical significance (P<0.05. In addition, no significant difference was found in the level of depression between CBT-I group and regular treatment group. Conclusion CBT-I can effectively shorten sleep latency, improve sleep efficiency, extend bed time and improve anxiety, meanwhile effectively lower the blood pressure of patients with hypertension comorbid with insomnia by optimizing sleep quality. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.04.11

  13. Application of PCR-based DNA sequencing technique for the detection of Leptospira in peripheral blood of septicemia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram, S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Isolation, dark field detection and microscopic agglutination test (MAT are considered ―gold standard‖ tests for diagnosis of Leptospirosis. Several PCR assays are reported but very few have been evaluated for detection of Leptospirosis. Therefore, this study was undertaken. This study aims to design and standardize polymerase chain reaction (PCR - based DNA sequencing technique for the detection of pathogenic Leptospira from peripheral blood of patients clinically diagnosed with septicemia. Methodology and Results: Two hundred and seven (207 blood samples from patients were diagnosed with septicemia which includes 100 bacterial (other than Leptospira culture positive and 107 bacterial culture negative samples were studied. Primers for Nested PCR targeting LipL32 gene of Leptospira interrogans were designed and the specificity of primers was tested against serum samples positive/negative by either MAT or dark field microscopy. PCR amplified products were further confirmed by DNA sequencing. The standardized nPCR was sensitive and specific to Leptospira interrogans. Twenty-one (21% out of 100 culture positive blood samples, three (2.8% out of 107 culture negative samples showed nPCR positivity and were confirmed as Leptospira interrogans by DNA sequencing (p<0.001. A sensitive nPCR specific to Leptospira interrogans was developed. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The p value (<0.001 signifies that Leptospira is commonly associated with other bacteria circulating in blood indicating that a decreased immune status is created primarily by a bacterium with enhanced possibility of development of Leptospiral infection probably be of an endogenous origin.

  14. A Novel Physiology-Based Mathematical Model to Estimate Red Blood Cell Lifespan in Different Human Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Guohua; Widness, John A; Mock, Donald M; Veng-Pedersen, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Direct measurement of red blood cell (RBC) survival in humans has improved from the original accurate but limited differential agglutination technique to the current reliable, safe, and accurate biotin method. Despite this, all of these methods are time consuming and require blood sampling over several months to determine the RBC lifespan. For situations in which RBC survival information must be obtained quickly, these methods are not suitable. With the exception of adults and infants, RBC survival has not been extensively investigated in other age groups. To address this need, we developed a novel, physiology-based mathematical model that quickly estimates RBC lifespan in healthy individuals at any age. The model is based on the assumption that the total number of RBC recirculations during the lifespan of each RBC (denoted by N max) is relatively constant for all age groups. The model was initially validated using the data from our prior infant and adult biotin-labeled red blood cell studies and then extended to the other age groups. The model generated the following estimated RBC lifespans in 2-year-old, 5-year-old, 8-year-old, and 10-year-old children: 62, 74, 82, and 86 days, respectively. We speculate that this model has useful clinical applications. For example, HbA1c testing is not reliable in identifying children with diabetes because HbA1c is directly affected by RBC lifespan. Because our model can estimate RBC lifespan in children at any age, corrections to HbA1c values based on the model-generated RBC lifespan could improve diabetes diagnosis as well as therapy in children.

  15. Predictive Modeling for Blood Transfusion Following Adult Spinal Deformity Surgery: A Tree-Based Machine Learning Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Wesley M; DePasse, J Mason; Daniels, Alan H

    2017-12-05

    Retrospective cohort study. Blood transfusion is frequently necessary following adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgery. We sought to develop predictive models for blood transfusion following ASD surgery, utilizing both classification tree and random forest machine-learning approaches. Past models for transfusion risk among spine surgery patients are disadvantaged through use of single-institutional data, potentially limiting generalizability. This investigation was conducted utilizing the ACS NSQIP dataset years 2012-2015. Patients undergoing surgery for ASD were identified using primary-listed CPT codes. In total, 1,029 patients were analyzed. The primary outcome measure was intra-/post-operative blood transfusion. Patients were divided into training (n = 824) and validation (n = 205) datasets. Single classification tree and random forest models were developed. Both models were tested on the validation dataset using AUC, which was compared between models. Overall, 46.5% (n = 479) of patients received a transfusion intraoperatively or within 72 h postoperatively. The final classification tree model utilized operative duration, hematocrit, and weight, exhibiting AUC = 0.79 (95%CI 0.73-0.85) on the validation set. The most influential variables in the random forest model were operative duration, surgical invasiveness, hematocrit, weight, and age. The random forest model exhibited AUC = 0.85 (95%CI 0.80-0.90). The difference between the classification tree and random forest AUCs was non-significant at the validation cohort size of 205 patients (p = 0.1551). This investigation produced tree-based machine-learning models of blood transfusion risk following ASD surgery. The random forest model offered very good predictive capability as measured by AUC. Our single classification tree model offered superior ease of implementation, but a lower AUC as compared to the random forest approach, though this difference was not statistically significant at

  16. Dietary intake, food pattern, and abnormal blood glucose status of middle-aged adults: a cross-sectional community-based study in Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hlaing Hlaing Hlaing

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lifestyle changes, particularly dietary intake, had resulted in increasing trends of type-2 diabetes mellitus worldwide. However, dietary intake is diverse across country contexts. This study aimed to compare the dietary intake, food patterns, and blood glucose among middle-aged adults living in urban and suburban areas in Mandalay city, Myanmar, and explore their relationships. Methods: A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted during June–November 2014. Adults aged 35–64 were randomly selected and requested to record all food they ate in a 4-day diary. Fasting and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose values were measured over two consecutive days. Dietary intakes were calculated in terms of energy, macronutrients, glycemic index, and glycemic load, and food patterns were identified by factor analysis. The relationships between food pattern, dietary intake, and blood glucose were assessed. Results: Of 440 participants, dietary intake between urban and suburban residents was significantly different. Six food patterns were identified. There was no difference in fasting and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose between urban and suburban residents, but a strong correlation between fasting blood glucose and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose was found (correlation coefficient=0.8. Identification of abnormal blood glucose status using original fasting and converted 2-hour postprandial values showed substantial agreement (prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted Kappa= 0.8. Relationships between food patterns and blood glucose or abnormal blood glucose status were not found. Conclusion: Food patterns were associated with dietary intake, not with abnormal blood glucose status. Two-hour postprandial blood glucose was highly correlated with fasting blood glucose and may be used for identifying abnormal blood glucose status.

  17. Blood and Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... BLOOD Learn About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Components Whole Blood and Red Blood Cells Platelets Plasma ... About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Types Blood Components What Happens to Donated Blood Blood and Diversity ...

  18. Well-type HPGe-detector absolute-peak-efficiency calibration and true-coincidence correction

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, T K; Tseng, C L

    1999-01-01

    A personal-computer-based program SWELL has been developed for well-type HPGe detector effective-solid-angle calculation. This program is very useful in constructing the absolute-peak efficiency (epsilon sub p) versus gamma-ray energy (E subgamma) curves for different sample geometries based on a pre-determined epsilon sub p under a reference counting geometry. The validity of using this program for epsilon sub p (E subgamma) conversion was successfully demonstrated for photons in the energy range approx 20 keV-1.5 MeV; the overall uncertainty can be controlled to be within 3%. In addition, a semi-empirical method has been developed to estimate the true-coincidence correction (COI) factor for well-type HPGe detector. Results based on sup 6 sup 0 Co, sup 1 sup 3 sup 9 Ce, sup 1 sup 3 sup 3 Ba and sup 5 sup 9 Fe sources indicated that the estimated COI factors are in good agreement with the experimentally validated COI values.

  19. Intrinsic coincident full-Stokes polarimeter using stacked organic photovoltaics and architectural comparison of polarimeter techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ruonan; Sen, Pratik; O'Connor, B. T.; Kudenov, M. W.

    2017-08-01

    An intrinsic coincident full-Stokes polarimeter is demonstrated by using stain-aligned polymer-based organic photovoltaics (OPVs) which can preferentially absorb certain polarized states of incident light. The photovoltaic-based polarimeter is capable of measuring four stokes parameters by cascading four semitransparent OPVs in series along the same optical axis. Two wave plates were incorporated into the system to modulate the S3 stokes parameter so as to reduce the condition number of the measurement matrix. The model for the full-Stokes polarimeter was established and validated, demonstrating an average RMS error of 0.84%. The optimization, based on minimizing the condition number of the 4-cell OPV design, showed that a condition number of 2.4 is possible. Performance of this in-line polarimeter concept was compared to other polarimeter architectures, including Division of Time (DoT), Division of Amplitude (DoAm), Division of Focal Plane (DoFP), and Division of Aperture (DoA) from signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) perspective. This in-line polarimeter concept has the potential to enable both high temporal (as compared with a DoT polarimeter) and high spatial resolution (as compared with DoFP and DoA polarimeters). We conclude that the intrinsic design has the same √2 SNR advantage as the DoAm polarimeter, but with greater compactness.

  20. Coincidence of Varicella-Zoster Virus Anterior Uveitis in a Patient with Chandler's Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Joko

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We report a patient who, based on the clinical manifestations, was originally diagnosed as having Chandler's syndrome and later developed varicella-zoster virus (VZV DNA-positive anterior uveitis. Methods: The patient with Chandler's syndrome who manifested anterior uveitis underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR was used to amplify the viral DNA in the aqueous humor to determine the cause of the intraocular inflammation. Results: Slit-lamp biomicroscopy showed focal iris atrophy and peripheral anterior synechiae (PAS; specular microscopy of the corneal endothelium disclosed the hammered-silver appearance. Based on these clinical findings, we diagnosed this patient as having Chandler's syndrome. During the follow-up period, however, the inflammatory cells suddenly appeared in the anterior chamber with formation of keratic precipitates and an increased intraocular pressure (IOP. VZV DNA was displayed in the aqueous humor by PCR. Based upon the diagnosis of VZV anterior uveitis, corticosteroids and acyclovir were given topically and systemically. The inflammation subsided with these medications; however, trabeculectomy was finally needed to control the IOP due to PAS progression. Conclusion: The coincidence of VZV anterior uveitis with Chandler's syndrome may constitute an implication for the possible viral etiology of iridocorneal endothelial syndrome.

  1. GFR and Blood Lead Levels in Gas Station Workers Based on δ-Alad Gene Polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lantip Rujito

    2015-04-01

    showed that the proportion of ALAD genotype for ALAD 1-1, 1-2 and 2-2 were 94.7%, 5.3%, and 0% respectively. The mean of serum levels in homozygous 1-1 was 15.94 ppb and heterozygote 1-2 was 1.15 ppb. GFR of participants ranged from 71.11 mL/min to 185.20 mL/min with a mean of 117.34mL/min. There was no correlation between serum Pb and GFR (p = 0.19. Study also could not determine the correlation between GFR and ALAD gene Polymorphism. Discussion: Study then concluded that there was no correlation between blood lead levels in the GFR on each δ-ALAD genotypes. Keywords: Lead intoxication, GFR, δ-ALAD, gas station workers

  2. Knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding voluntary blood donation among adult residents of Harar town, Eastern Ethiopia: a community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urgesa, Kedir; Hassen, Nejat; Seyoum, Ayichew

    2017-01-01

    The availability of safe blood and blood products is a critical factor in improving health care. In Ethiopia, lack of voluntary blood donors is a major challenge. This could be due to low community knowledge, unfavorable attitude, and poor donation practice regarding voluntary blood donation. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess community knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding voluntary blood donation among adults in Harar town, Ethiopia. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from July 1 to July 31, 2015. A total of 845 adults were randomly selected and interviewed using a pretested, structured questionnaire. Six trained data collectors conducted a face-to-face interview. Data were entered into EpiData Version 3 and analyzed using STATA Version 11. Comprehensive knowledge of the study participants toward voluntary blood donation was 43.5%. Multivariable logistic regression demonstrated that male sex (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.69, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.19-2.39), age (31-45 years; AOR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.34-0.74) and >45 years (AOR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.38-0.95), and higher education (AOR = 15.34, 95% CI: 5.01-46.91) were significantly associated with comprehensive knowledge about voluntary blood donation. A total of 278 (32.9%) study participants had positive attitude toward voluntary blood donation. College graduates (AOR = 13.05, 95% CI: 4.12-41.29) were significantly associated with positive attitude toward voluntary blood donation. Only 191 (22.6%) subjects had ever donated blood. However, the proportion of study participants who donated blood voluntarily with good knowledge about voluntary blood donation was significantly lower than the study participants who donated blood voluntarily with low knowledge ( X 2 = 6.1746, P = 0.013). This study showed an inauspicious attitude toward blood donation and poor blood donation practices. Subjects with good comprehensive knowledge about voluntary blood donation were less likely to donate

  3. [Blood pressure values in adolescents in the Community of Madrid: Tables based on the MEPAFAC Study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinero, A; Cervero, M; Magro, M C; Partearroyo, T; Zuluaga, P; Martín, A

    High blood pressure (HBP) is a modifiable cardiovascular risk factor and its detection at early ages may allow strategies to be designed to reduce cardiovascular risk in adulthood. To provide blood pressure (BP) values in a sample of adolescents using an electronic oscillometric device. BP was measured according the European Society of Hypertension guidelines using an oscillometric device. Height and weight were also measured. Four height groups were used in order to associate the 90, 95, and 99 percentiles with systolic BP (pSBP) and diastolic BP percentiles (pDBP) for sex and age: H150 (≤ 150cm), H160(151-160cm), H170(161-170cm), and H180(≥171cm). Data from 2,758 students aged 12-17 years were included in the analysis. BP increases with age, with differences of up to 11mmHg in boys vs. 3mmHg in girls for SBP and 3mmHg vs. 1mmHg for DBP. In high SBP, for the younger adolescents, the difference related to height was 15mmHg in boys vs. 8mmHg in girls, with no significant increase in the older ones in either gender. The high BDP varied depending on the height, 10mmHg in younger boys and 3mmHg in older ones, while in girls the variation was 3mmHg for all ages. SBP/DBP in adolescents increases with age and also with height, giving similar figures in the taller ones, regardless of age. Copyright © 2017 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Retrotransposon Proliferation Coincident with the Evolution of Dioecy in Asparagus

    OpenAIRE

    Alex Harkess; Francesco Mercati; Loredana Abbate; Michael McKain; J Chris Pires; Tea Sala; Francesco Sunseri; Agostino Falavigna; Jim Leebens-Mack

    2016-01-01

    Current phylogenetic sampling reveals that dioecy and an XY sex chromosome pair evolved once, or possibly twice, in the genus Asparagus. Although there appear to be some lineage-specific polyploidization events, the base chromosome number of 2n = 2× = 20 is relatively conserved across the Asparagus genus. Regardless, dioecious species tend to have larger genomes than hermaphroditic species. Here, we test whether this genome size expansion in dioecious species is related to a polyploidization ...

  5. The relationship between extent of hemoglobin purification and the performance characteristics of a blood-based flocculant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole blood is a highly complex substance. Hemoglobin, the most abundant blood protein, can function as a flocculant of colloidal clay; most of the other blood components exhibit poor flocculant activity. For the purpose of processing raw whole blood into a flocculant product, the practical value of...

  6. Effects of supplementation with acai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) berry-based juice blend on the blood antioxidant defence capacity and lipid profile in junior hurdlers. A pilot study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sadowska-Krępa, E; Kłapcińska, B; Podgórski, T; Szade, B; Tyl, K; Hadzik, A

    The purpose of this pilot study was to examine whether regular consumption of an acai berry-based juice blend would affect sprint performance and improve blood antioxidant status and lipid profile in junior athletes...

  7. On Orbit Immuno-Based, Label-Free, White Blood Cell Counting System with MicroElectroMechanical Sensor (MEMS) Technology (OILWBCS-MEMS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation and our partner, Draper Laboratory, propose to develop an on orbit immuno-based, label-free, white blood cell counting system for...

  8. On Orbit Immuno-Based, Label-Free, White Blood Cell Counting System with MicroElectroMechanical Sensor (MEMS) Technology (OILWBCS-MEMS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation and partner, Draper Laboratory, propose to develop an on-orbit immuno-based label-free white blood cell counting system using MEMS...

  9. Comparison of satellite reflectance algorithms for estimating chlorophyll-a in a temperate reservoir using coincident hyperspectral aircraft imagery and dense coincident surface observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    We analyzed 10 established and 4 new satellite reflectance algorithms for estimating chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) in a temperate reservoir in southwest Ohio using coincident hyperspectral aircraft imagery and dense water truth collected within one hour of image acquisition to develop si...

  10. Coincidence of diabetes mellitus and hypertension in a semi-urban Cameroonian population: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katte, Jean-Claude; Dzudie, Anastase; Sobngwi, Eugene; Mbong, Eta N; Fetse, Gerard Tama; Kouam, Charles Kouam; Kengne, Andre-Pascal

    2014-07-08

    Hypertension and diabetes mellitus are increasingly common in population within Africa. We determined the rate of coincident diabetes and hypertension and assessed the levels of co-awareness, treatment and control in a semi-urban population in Cameroon. A total of 1702 adults (967 women) self-selected from the community were consecutively recruited in Bafoussam (West region of Cameroon) during November 2012. Existing diabetes and hypertension and treatments were investigated and blood pressure and fasting blood glucose measured. Multinomial logistic regressions models were used to investigate the determinants of prevalent diabetes and hypertension. Age-standardized prevalence rates (95% confidence intervals) men vs. women were 40.4% (34.7 to 46.1) and 23.8% (20.4 to 27.2) for hypertension alone; 3.3% (1.5 to 5.1) and 5.6% (3.5 to 7.7) for diabetes alone; and 3.9% (2.6 to 5.2) and 5.0% (3.5 to 6.5) for hypertension and diabetes. The age-standardized awareness, treatment and control rates for hypertension alone were 6.5%, 86.4% and 37.2% for men, and 24.3%, 52.1% and 51.6% in women. Equivalent figures for diabetes alone were 35.4%, 65.6% and 23.1% in men and 26.4%, 75.5% and 33.7% in women; and those for hypertension and diabetes were 86.6%, 3.3% and 0% in men, and 74.7%, 22.6% and 0% in women. Sex, age and adiposity were the main determinants of the three conditions. Coincident diabetes and hypertension is as high as diabetes alone in this population, driven by sex, age and adiposity. Awareness, treatment and control remain unacceptably low.

  11. Intrinsic coincident linear polarimetry using stacked organic photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, S Gupta; Awartani, O M; Sen, P; O'Connor, B T; Kudenov, M W

    2016-06-27

    Polarimetry has widespread applications within atmospheric sensing, telecommunications, biomedical imaging, and target detection. Several existing methods of imaging polarimetry trade off the sensor's spatial resolution for polarimetric resolution, and often have some form of spatial registration error. To mitigate these issues, we have developed a system using oriented polymer-based organic photovoltaics (OPVs) that can preferentially absorb linearly polarized light. Additionally, the OPV cells can be made semitransparent, enabling multiple detectors to be cascaded along the same optical axis. Since each device performs a partial polarization measurement of the same incident beam, high temporal resolution is maintained with the potential for inherent spatial registration. In this paper, a Mueller matrix model of the stacked OPV design is provided. Based on this model, a calibration technique is developed and presented. This calibration technique and model are validated with experimental data, taken with a cascaded three cell OPV Stokes polarimeter, capable of measuring incident linear polarization states. Our results indicate polarization measurement error of 1.2% RMS and an average absolute radiometric accuracy of 2.2% for the demonstrated polarimeter.

  12. Retrotransposon Proliferation Coincident with the Evolution of Dioecy in Asparagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Harkess

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Current phylogenetic sampling reveals that dioecy and an XY sex chromosome pair evolved once, or possibly twice, in the genus Asparagus. Although there appear to be some lineage-specific polyploidization events, the base chromosome number of 2n = 2× = 20 is relatively conserved across the Asparagus genus. Regardless, dioecious species tend to have larger genomes than hermaphroditic species. Here, we test whether this genome size expansion in dioecious species is related to a polyploidization and subsequent chromosome fusion, or to retrotransposon proliferation in dioecious species. We first estimate genome sizes, or use published values, for four hermaphrodites and four dioecious species distributed across the phylogeny, and show that dioecious species typically have larger genomes than hermaphroditic species. Utilizing a phylogenomic approach, we find no evidence for ancient polyploidization contributing to increased genome sizes of sampled dioecious species. We do find support for an ancient whole genome duplication (WGD event predating the diversification of the Asparagus genus. Repetitive DNA content of the four hermaphroditic and four dioecious species was characterized based on randomly sampled whole genome shotgun sequencing, and common elements were annotated. Across our broad phylogenetic sampling, Ty-1 Copia retroelements, in particular, have undergone a marked proliferation in dioecious species. In the absence of a detectable WGD event, retrotransposon proliferation is the most likely explanation for the precipitous increase in genome size in dioecious Asparagus species.

  13. Retrotransposon Proliferation Coincident with the Evolution of Dioecy in Asparagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkess, Alex; Mercati, Francesco; Abbate, Loredana; McKain, Michael; Pires, J Chris; Sala, Tea; Sunseri, Francesco; Falavigna, Agostino; Leebens-Mack, Jim

    2016-09-08

    Current phylogenetic sampling reveals that dioecy and an XY sex chromosome pair evolved once, or possibly twice, in the genus Asparagus Although there appear to be some lineage-specific polyploidization events, the base chromosome number of 2n = 2× = 20 is relatively conserved across the Asparagus genus. Regardless, dioecious species tend to have larger genomes than hermaphroditic species. Here, we test whether this genome size expansion in dioecious species is related to a polyploidization and subsequent chromosome fusion, or to retrotransposon proliferation in dioecious species. We first estimate genome sizes, or use published values, for four hermaphrodites and four dioecious species distributed across the phylogeny, and show that dioecious species typically have larger genomes than hermaphroditic species. Utilizing a phylogenomic approach, we find no evidence for ancient polyploidization contributing to increased genome sizes of sampled dioecious species. We do find support for an ancient whole genome duplication (WGD) event predating the diversification of the Asparagus genus. Repetitive DNA content of the four hermaphroditic and four dioecious species was characterized based on randomly sampled whole genome shotgun sequencing, and common elements were annotated. Across our broad phylogenetic sampling, Ty-1 Copia retroelements, in particular, have undergone a marked proliferation in dioecious species. In the absence of a detectable WGD event, retrotransposon proliferation is the most likely explanation for the precipitous increase in genome size in dioecious Asparagus species. Copyright © 2016 Harkess et al.

  14. Standardization of I-125. Sum-Peak Coincidence Counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grau Carles, A.; Grau Malonda, A.

    2011-07-01

    I-125 is a nuclide which presents difficulties for standardization. The sum-peak method is one of the procedures used to standardize this radionuclide. Initially NaI (Tl)detectors and then the semiconductor detectors with higher resolution have been used.This paper describes the different methods based on the sum-peak procedure and the different expressions used to calculate the activity are deduced. We describe a general procedure for obtaining all of the above equations and many more. We analyze the influence of uncertainties in the used parameters in the uncertainty of the activity. We give a complete example of the transmission of uncertainty and the effects of correlations in the uncertainty of the activity of the sample. High-resolution spectra show an unresolved doublet of 62.0 keV and 62.8 keV. The paper presents two approaches to solve this problem. One is based on the calculation of area ratio and the sum of peak areas obtained from atomic and nuclear data, in the other we modify the equations so that the sum of the peak areas doublet, rather than its components, is present. (Author) 19 refs.

  15. Biomarker-based classification of bacterial and fungal whole-blood infections in a genome-wide expression study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas eDix

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis is a clinical syndrome that can be caused by bacteria or fungi. Early knowledge on the nature of the causative agent is a prerequisite for targeted anti-microbial therapy. Besides currently used detection methods like blood culture and PCR-based assays, the analysis of the transcriptional response of the host to infecting organisms holds great promise. In this study, we aim to examine the transcriptional footprint of infections caused by the bacterial pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and the fungal pathogens Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus in a human whole-blood model. Moreover, we use the expression information to build a random forest classifier to classify if a sample contains a bacterial, fungal, or mock-infection. After normalizing the transcription intensities using stably expressed reference genes, we filtered the gene set for biomarkers of bacterial or fungal blood infections. This selection is based on differential expression and an additional gene relevance measure. In this way, we identified 38 biomarker genes, including IL6, SOCS3, and IRG1 which were already associated to sepsis by other studies. Using these genes, we trained the classifier and assessed its performance. It yielded a 96% accuracy (sensitivities >93%, specificities >97% for a 10-fold stratified cross-validation and a 92% accuracy (sensitivities and specificities >83% for an additional test dataset comprising Cryptococcus neoformans infections. Furthermore, the classifier is robust to Gaussian noise, indicating correct class predictions on datasets of new species. In conclusion, this genome-wide approach demonstrates an effective feature selection process in combination with the construction of a well-performing classification model. Further analyses of genes with pathogen-dependent expression patterns can provide insights into the systemic host responses, which may lead to new anti-microbial therapeutic advances.

  16. Validation of AclarusDx™, a blood-based transcriptomic signature for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehlbaum-Beurdeley, Pascale; Sol, Olivier; Désiré, Laurent; Touchon, Jacques; Dantoine, Thierry; Vercelletto, Martine; Gabelle, Audrey; Jarrige, Anne-Charlotte; Haddad, Raphaël; Lemarié, Jean Christophe; Zhou, Weiyin; Hampel, Harald; Einstein, Richard; Vellas, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Biomarkers have gained an increased importance in the past years in helping physicians to diagnose Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study was designed to identify a blood-based, transcriptomic signature that can differentiate AD patients from control subjects. The performance of the signature was then evaluated for robustness in an independent blinded sample population. RNA was extracted from 177 blood samples (90 AD patients and 87 controls) and gene expression profiles were generated using the human Genome-Wide Splice Array™. These profiles were used to establish a signature to differentiate AD patients from controls. Subsequently, prediction results were optimized by establishing grey zone boundaries that discount prediction scores near the disease status threshold. Signature validation was then performed on a blinded independent cohort of 209 individuals (111 AD and 98 controls). The AclarusDx™ signature consists of 170 probesets which map to 136 annotated genes, a significant number of which are associated with inflammatory, gene expression, and cell death pathways. Additional signature genes are known to interact with pathways involved in amyloid and tau metabolism. The validation sample set, after removal of 45 individuals with prediction profile scores within the grey zone, consisted of 164 subjects. The AclarusDx™ performance on this validation cohort had a sensitivity of 81.3% (95% CI: [73.3%; 89.3%]); and a specificity of 67.1% (95% CI: [56.3%; 77.9%]). AclarusDx™ is a non-invasive blood-based transcriptomic test that, in combination with standard assessments, can provide physicians with objective information to support the diagnosis of AD.

  17. Independent validation of DNA-based approaches for age prediction in blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sohee; Jung, Sang-Eun; Hong, Sae Rom; Lee, Eun Hee; Lee, Ji Hyun; Lee, Soong Deok; Lee, Hwan Young

    2017-07-01

    Numerous molecular biomarkers have been proposed as predictors of chronological age. Among them, T-cell specific DNA rearrangement and DNA methylation markers have been introduced as forensic age predictors in blood because of their high prediction accuracy. These markers appear highly promising, but for better application to forensic casework sample analysis the proposed markers and genotyping methods must be tested further. In the current study, signal-joint T-cell receptor excision circles (sjTRECs) and DNA methylation markers located in the ELOVL2, C1orf132, TRIM59, KLF14, and FHL2 genes were reanalyzed in 100 Korean blood samples to test their associations with chronological age, using the same analysis platform used in previous reports. Our study replicated the age association test for sjTREC and DNA methylation markers in the 5 genes in an independent validation set of 100 Koreans, and proved that the age predictive performance of the previous models is relatively consistent across different population groups. However, the extent of age association at certain CpG loci was not identical in the Korean and Polish populations; therefore, several age predictive models were retrained with the data obtained here. All of the 3 models retrained with DNA methylation and/or sjTREC data have a CpG site each from the ELOVL2 and FHL2 genes in common, and produced better prediction accuracy than previously reported models. This is attributable to the fact that the retrained model better fits the existing data and that the calculated prediction accuracy could be higher when the training data and the test data are the same. However, it is notable that the combination of different types of markers, i.e., sjTREC and DNA methylation, improved prediction accuracy in the eldest group. Our study demonstrates the usefulness of the proposed markers and the genotyping method in an independent dataset, and suggests the possibility of combining different types of DNA markers to improve

  18. Detection system for electron-proton coincidences in neutron decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broussard, Leah; Nab Collaboration; Ucnb Collaboration; Tristan Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    By precisely measuring angular correlations in neutron decay, we can perform precise tests of the Standard Model and search for new physics beyond the Standard Model. The upcoming Nab and UCNB experiments will measure the correlations a and b, and B, respectively, in neutron decay. The collaborations have jointly developed a prototype detection system based on thick, large area silicon detectors which meets experimental requirements of 3 keV FWHM energy resolution, rise times of 50 ns, and energy thresholds below 10 keV. We will present results of characterization of the prototype and an update on the development of the final, fully instrumented detection system. We also present a study of very thin deadlayer silicon drift detectors in development by the TRISTAN collaboration, and their possible applicability to neutron decay correlation experiments.

  19. Radar Coincidence Imaging for Off-Grid Target Using Frequency-Hopping Waveforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Radar coincidence imaging (RCI is a high-resolution staring imaging technique without the limitation of the target relative motion. To achieve better imaging performance, sparse reconstruction is commonly used. While its performance is based on the assumption that the scatterers are located at the prediscretized grid-cell centers, otherwise, off-grid emerges and the performance of RCI degrades significantly. In this paper, RCI using frequency-hopping (FH waveforms is considered. The off-grid effects are analyzed, and the corresponding constrained Cramér-Rao bound (CCRB is derived based on the mean square error (MSE of the “oracle” estimator. For off-grid RCI, the process is composed of two stages: grid matching and off-grid error (OGE calibration, where two-dimension (2D band-excluded locally optimized orthogonal matching pursuit (BLOOMP and alternating iteration minimization (AIM algorithms are proposed, respectively. Unlike traditional sparse recovery methods, BLOOMP realizes the recovery in the refinement grids by overwhelming the shortages of coherent dictionary and is robust to noise and OGE. AIM calibration algorithm adaptively adjusts the OGE and, meanwhile, seeks the optimal target reconstruction result.

  20. Wavelength selection for portable noninvasive blood component measurement system based on spectral difference coefficient and dynamic spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ximeng; Li, Gang; Yu, Haixia; Wang, Shaohui; Yi, Xiaoqing; Lin, Ling

    2018-03-15

    Noninvasive blood component analysis by spectroscopy has been a hotspot in biomedical engineering in recent years. Dynamic spectrum provides an excellent idea for noninvasive blood component measurement, but studies have been limited to the application of broadband light sources and high-resolution spectroscopy instruments. In order to remove redundant information, a more effective wavelength selection method has been presented in this paper. In contrast to many common wavelength selection methods, this method is based on sensing mechanism which has a clear mechanism and can effectively avoid the noise from acquisition system. The spectral difference coefficient was theoretically proved to have a guiding significance for wavelength selection. After theoretical analysis, the multi-band spectral difference coefficient-wavelength selection method combining with the dynamic spectrum was proposed. An experimental analysis based on clinical trial data from 200 volunteers has been conducted to illustrate the effectiveness of this method. The extreme learning machine was used to develop the calibration models between the dynamic spectrum data and hemoglobin concentration. The experiment result shows that the prediction precision of hemoglobin concentration using multi-band spectral difference coefficient-wavelength selection method is higher compared with other methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. New optical sensing technique of tissue viability and blood flow based on nanophotonic iterative multi-plane reflectance measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yariv, Inbar; Haddad, Menashe; Duadi, Hamootal; Motiei, Menachem; Fixler, Dror

    Physiological substances pose a challenge for researchers since their optical properties change constantly according to their physiological state. Examination of those substances noninvasively can be achieved by different optical methods with high sensitivity. Our research suggests the application of a novel noninvasive nanophotonics technique, ie, iterative multi-plane optical property extraction (IMOPE) based on reflectance measurements, for tissue viability examination and gold nanorods (GNRs) and blood flow detection. The IMOPE model combines an experimental setup designed for recording light intensity images with the multi-plane iterative Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm for reconstructing the reemitted light phase and calculating its standard deviation (STD). Changes in tissue composition affect its optical properties which results in changes in the light phase that can be measured by its STD. We have demonstrated this new concept of correlating the light phase STD and the optical properties of a substance, using transmission measurements only. This paper presents, for the first time, reflectance based IMOPE tissue viability examination, producing a decrease in the computed STD for older tissues, as well as investigating their organic material absorption capability. Finally, differentiation of the femoral vein from adjacent tissues using GNRs and the detection of their presence within blood circulation and tissues are also presented with high sensitivity (better than computed tomography) to low quantities of GNRs (<3 mg).

  2. Detecting Blood-Based Biomarkers in Metastatic Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review of Their Current Status and Clinical Utility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Sofie Berghuis

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Reviews on circulating biomarkers in breast cancer usually focus on one single biomarker or a selective group of biomarkers. An overview summarizing the discovery and evaluation of all blood-based biomarkers in metastatic breast cancer is lacking. This systematic review aims to identify the available evidence of known blood-based biomarkers in metastatic breast cancer, regarding their clinical utility and state-of-the-art position in the validation process. The initial search yielded 1078 original studies, of which 420 were assessed for eligibility. A total of 320 studies were included in the final synthesis. A Development, Evaluation and Application Chart (DEAC of all biomarkers was developed. Most studies focus on identifying new biomarkers and search for relations between these biomarkers and traditional molecular characteristics. Biomarkers are usually investigated in only one study (68.8%. Only 9.8% of all biomarkers was investigated in more than five studies. Circulating tumor cells, gene expression within tumor cells and the concentration of secreted proteins are the most frequently investigated biomarkers in liquid biopsies. However, there is a lack of studies focusing on identifying the clinical utility of these biomarkers, by which the additional value still seems to be limited according to the investigated evidence.

  3. Development of a direct blood-based PCR system to detect BLV provirus using CoCoMo primers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshima, Shin-Nosuke; Watanuki, Sonoko; Ishizaki, Hiroshi; Matoba, Kazuhiro; Aida, Yoko

    2016-06-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV), the etiologic agent of enzootic bovine leucosis, has caused pandemic outbreaks worldwide. Because transcription of the BLV is quickly blocked after infection, detecting integrated provirus at host genome is an important method of identifying whether an animal is infected. The aim of the present study was to develop a novel direct blood-based PCR system to detect the BLV provirus with high specificity and at low cost. The assay was based on the BLV-CoCoMo degenerate primers, which amplify all known BLV strains. Cattle blood samples (n = 182) were collected from the same BLV-positive farm and subjected to BLV-CoCoMo-direct-PCR to detect the BLV provirus. The proviral load was then estimated. This novel PCR method showed 100 % specificity. The BLV-CoCoMo-direct-PCR can be used in a variety of laboratory situations because it does not require expensive equipment/reagents, DNA purification, or a second round of PCR. Therefore, the method is extremely cost-effective and the risk of a false-positive result due to DNA contamination is very low.

  4. Fluid mechanics of blood flow in human fetal left ventricles based on patient-specific 4D ultrasound scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chang Quan; Lim, Guat Ling; Jamil, Muhammad; Mattar, Citra Nurfarah Zaini; Biswas, Arijit; Yap, Choon Hwai

    2016-10-01

    The mechanics of intracardiac blood flow and the epigenetic influence it exerts over the heart function have been the subjects of intense research lately. Fetal intracardiac flows are especially useful for gaining insights into the development of congenital heart diseases, but have not received due attention thus far, most likely because of technical difficulties in collecting sufficient intracardiac flow data in a safe manner. Here, we circumvent such obstacles by employing 4D STIC ultrasound scans to quantify the fetal heart motion in three normal 20-week fetuses, subsequently performing 3D computational fluid dynamics simulations on the left ventricles based on these patient-specific heart movements. Analysis of the simulation results shows that there are significant differences between fetal and adult ventricular blood flows which arise because of dissimilar heart morphology, E/A ratio, diastolic-systolic duration ratio, and heart rate. The formations of ventricular vortex rings were observed for both E- and A-wave in the flow simulations. These vortices had sufficient momentum to last until the end of diastole and were responsible for generating significant wall shear stresses on the myocardial endothelium, as well as helicity in systolic outflow. Based on findings from previous studies, we hypothesized that these vortex-induced flow properties play an important role in sustaining the efficiency of diastolic filling, systolic pumping, and cardiovascular flow in normal fetal hearts.

  5. An in vivo quantitative Raman-pH sensor of arterial blood based on laser trapping of erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Manman; Xu, Bin; Yao, Huilu; Shen, Aiguo; Hu, Jiming

    2016-05-10

    We report on a continuous and non-invasive approach in vivo to monitor arterial blood pH based on the laser trapping and Raman detection of single live erythrocytes. A home-built confocal laser tweezers Raman system (LTRS) is applied to trace the live erythrocytes at different pH values of the extracellular environment to record their corresponding Raman changes in vitro and in vivo. The analysis results in vitro show that when the extracellular environment pH changes from 6.5 to 9.0, the Raman intensity ratio (R1603, 1616 = I1603/I1616) of single erythrocytes decrease regularly; what is more, there is a good linear relationship between these two variables, and the linearity is 0.985, which is also verified successfully via in vivo Raman measurements. These results demonstrate that the Raman signal of single live erythrocytes is possible as a marker of the extracellular pH value. This in vivo and quantitative Raman-pH sensor of arterial blood will be an important candidate for monitoring the acid-base status during the treatment of ill patients and in some major surgeries because of its continuous and non-invasive characters.

  6. New biodiagnostics based on optical tweezers: typing red blood cells, and identification of drug resistant bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia-Wen; Lin, Chuen-Fu; Wang, Shyang-Guang; Lee, Yi-Chieh; Chiang, Chung-Han; Huang, Min-Hui; Lee, Yi-Hsiung; Vitrant, Guy; Pan, Ming-Jeng; Lee, Horng-Mo; Liu, Yi-Jui; Baldeck, Patrice L.; Lin, Chih-Lang

    2013-09-01

    Measurements of optical tweezers forces on biological micro-objects can be used to develop innovative biodiagnostics methods. In the first part of this report, we present a new sensitive method to determine A, B, D types of red blood cells. Target antibodies are coated on glass surfaces. Optical forces needed to pull away RBC from the glass surface increase when RBC antigens interact with their corresponding antibodies. In this work, measurements of stripping optical forces are used to distinguish the major RBC types: group O Rh(+), group A Rh(+) and group B Rh(+). The sensitivity of the method is found to be at least 16-folds higher than the conventional agglutination method. In the second part of this report, we present an original way to measure in real time the wall thickness of bacteria that is one of the most important diagnostic parameters of bacteria drug resistance in hospital diagnostics. The optical tweezers force on a shell bacterium is proportional to its wall thickness. Experimentally, we determine the optical tweezers force applied on each bacteria family by measuring their escape velocity. Then, the wall thickness of shell bacteria can be obtained after calibrating with known bacteria parameters. The method has been successfully applied to indentify, from blind tests, Methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), including VSSA (NCTC 10442), VISA (Mu 50), and heto-VISA (Mu 3)

  7. OCT imaging detection of brain blood vessels in mouse, based on semiconducting polymer nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shaozhuang; Chen, Haobin; Liu, Liwei; Chen, Bingling; Yang, Zhigang; Wu, Changfeng; Hu, Siyi; Lin, Huiyun; Li, Buhong; Qu, Junle

    2017-11-20

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a valuable technology that has been used to obtain microstructure images of tissue, and has several advantages, though its applications are limited in high-scattering tissues. Therefore, semiconducting polymer nanoparticles (SPNs) that possess strong absorption characteristics are applied to decrease light scattering in tissues and used as exogenous contrast agents for enhancing the contrast of OCT imaging detection. In this paper, we prepared two kinds of SPNs, termed PIDT-TBZ SPNs and PBDT-TBZ SPNs, as the contrast agents for OCT detection to enhance the signal. Firstly, we proved that they were good contrast agents for OCT imaging in agar-TiO 2 . After that, the contrast effects of these two SPNs were quantitatively analyzed, and then cerebral blood vessels were monitored by a home-made SD-OCT system. Finally, we created OCT images in vitro and in vivo with these two probes and performed quantitative analysis using the images. The results indicated that these SPNs created a clear contrast enhancement of small vessels in the OCT imaging process, which provides a basis for the application of SPNs as contrast agents for bioimaging studies.

  8. Minisequencing-based genotyping of Duffy and ABO blood groups for forensic purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Gianmarco; Bini, Carla; Ceccardi, Stefania; Ingravallo, Francesca; Lugaresi, Federica; Pelotti, Susi

    2006-03-01

    Duffy and ABO blood group genetic polymorphisms were studied by minisequencing analysis of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at nucleotide positions--33, 125, 265, and 298 of the Duffy gene and at nucleotide positions-261, 297, 467, 646, and 703 of the ABO gene. In an Italian population sample, we found four alleles and seven genotypes for the Duffy and six alleles and 16 genotypes for the ABO systems. The lower limit for reproducible results was 200 pg DNA, with a range of up to 10 ng and an optimum at 1 ng. All of the 16 analyzed inclusive paternity tests were also consistent with parentage and two out of four inconsistencies with parentage cases were excluded by one or more SNPs. Although Duffy and ABO SNP typing show lower informativeness than most current forensic tests, their robustness, the limited population distribution of FY* Fy type, and the sensitivity of the minisequencing technology suggest that these markers can be useful in selected forensic applications.

  9. Right patient, Right blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selberg, Hanne; Madsen, Trine Stougaard

    2014-01-01

    Right patient, Right Blood Simulation based training in blood transfusion practice in nursing education Background: In spite of strict checking procedures to handling transfusion of blood severe adverse reactions are likely to happen and the major cause of morbidity occurs to be liable to human...

  10. Can we observe neutrino flares in coincidence with explosive transients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guépin, C.; Kotera, K.

    2017-12-01

    The new generation of powerful instruments is reaching sensitivities and temporal resolutions that will allow multi-messenger astronomy of explosive transient phenomena, with high-energy neutrinos as a central figure. We derive general criteria for the detectability of neutrinos from powerful transient sources for given instrument sensitivities. In practice, we provide the minimum photon flux necessary for neutrino detection based on two main observables: the bolometric luminosity and the time variability of the emission. This limit can be compared to the observations in specified wavelengths in order to target the most promising sources for follow-ups. Our criteria can also help distinguishing false associations of neutrino events with a flaring source. We find that relativistic transient sources such as high- and low-luminosity gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), blazar flares, tidal disruption events, and magnetar flares could be observed with IceCube, as they have a good chance to occur within a detectable distance. Of the nonrelativistic transient sources, only luminous supernovae appear as promising candidates. We caution that our criterion should not be directly applied to low-luminosity GRBs and type Ibc supernovae, as these objects could have hosted a choked GRB, leading to neutrino emission without a relevant counterpart radiation. We treat the concrete example of PKS 1424-418 major outburst and the possible association with an IceCube event IC 35.

  11. Can we observe neutrino flares in coincidence with explosive transients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guépin, Claire; Kotera, Kumiko

    2017-07-01

    The new generation of powerful instruments is reaching sensitivities and temporal resolutions that will allow multi-messenger astronomy of explosive transient phenomena, with high-energy neutrinos as a central figure. We derive general criteria for the detectability of neutrinos from powerful transient sources for given instrument sensitivities. In practice, we provide the minimum photon flux necessary for neutrino detection based on two main observables: the bolometric luminosity and the time variability of the emission. This limit can be compared to the observations in specified wavelengths in order to target the most promising sources for follow-ups. Our criteria can also help distinguishing false associations of neutrino events with a flaring source. We find that relativistic transient sources such as high- and low-luminosity gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), blazar flares, tidal disruption events, and magnetar flares could be observed with IceCube, as they have a good chance to occur within a detectable distance. Of the nonrelativistic transient sources, only luminous supernovae appear as promising candidates. We caution that our criterion should not be directly applied to low-luminosity GRBs and type Ibc supernovae, as these objects could have hosted a choked GRB, leading to neutrino emission without a relevant counterpart radiation. We treat a set of concrete examples and show that several transients, some of which are being monitored by IceCube, are far from meeting the criterion for detectability (e.g., Crab flares or Swift J1644+57).

  12. MALDI-TOF MS based carbapenemase detection from culture isolates and from positive blood culture vials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ghebremedhin, B; Halstenbach, A; Smiljanic, M; Kaase, M; Ahmad-Nejad, P

    2016-01-01

    .... Our mass spectrometry-based assay was validated with 63 carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacterial isolates, and 35 carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative species with no carbapenemase production...

  13. A Neural-Network-Based Approach to White Blood Cell Classification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Su, Mu-Chun; Cheng, Chun-Yen; Wang, Pa-Chun

    2014-01-01

    ... of important hematic pathologies. For example, the presence of infections, leukemia, and some particular kinds of cancers can be diagnosed based on the results of the classification and the count of ...

  14. Blood Clots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms Blood clots By Mayo Clinic Staff Blood clots are gel-like clumps of blood. They are beneficial when they form in response to an injury or a cut, plugging the injured blood vessel, which stops bleeding. Some blood clots form inside your veins without a good reason and don't ...

  15. Innovative continuous non-invasive cuffless blood pressure monitoring based on photoplethysmography technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Rodríguez, Juan C; Ruiz-Sanmartín, Adolf; Ribas, Vicent; Caballero, Jesús; García-Roche, Alejandra; Riera, Jordi; Nuvials, Xavier; de Nadal, Miriam; de Sola-Morales, Oriol; Serra, Joaquim; Rello, Jordi

    2013-09-01

    To develop and validate a continuous non-invasive blood pressure (BP) monitoring system using photoplethysmography (PPG) technology through pulse oximetry (PO). This prospective study was conducted at a critical care department and post-anesthesia care unit of a university teaching hospital. Inclusion criteria were critically ill adult patients undergoing invasive BP measurement with an arterial catheter and PO monitoring. Exclusion criteria were arrhythmia, imminent death condition, and disturbances in the arterial or the PPG curve morphology. Arterial BP and finger PO waves were recorded simultaneously for 30 min. Systolic arterial pressure (SAP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and diastolic arterial pressure (DAP) were extracted from computer-assisted arterial pulse wave analysis. Inherent traits of both waves were used to construct a regression model with a Deep Belief Network-Restricted Boltzmann Machine (DBN-RBM) from a training cohort of patients and in order to infer BP values from the PO wave. Bland-Altman analysis was performed. A total of 707 patients were enrolled, of whom 135 were excluded. Of the 572 studied, 525 were assigned to the training cohort (TC) and 47 to the validation cohort (VC). After data processing, 53,708 frames were obtained from the TC and 7,715 frames from the VC. The mean prediction biases were -2.98 ± 19.35, -3.38 ± 10.35, and -3.65 ± 8.69 mmHg for SAP, MAP, and DAP respectively. BP can be inferred from PPG using DBN-RBM modeling techniques. The results obtained with this technology are promising, but its intrinsic variability and its wide limits of agreement do not allow clinical application at this time.

  16. A double-gaussian, percentile-based method for estimating maximum blood flow velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzban, Caren; Illian, Paul R; Morison, David; Mourad, Pierre D

    2013-11-01

    Transcranial Doppler sonography allows for the estimation of blood flow velocity, whose maximum value, especially at systole, is often of clinical interest. Given that observed values of flow velocity are subject to noise, a useful notion of "maximum" requires a criterion for separating the signal from the noise. All commonly used criteria produce a point estimate (ie, a single value) of maximum flow velocity at any time and therefore convey no information on the distribution or uncertainty of flow velocity. This limitation has clinical consequences especially for patients in vasospasm, whose largest flow velocities can be difficult to measure. Therefore, a method for estimating flow velocity and its uncertainty is desirable. A gaussian mixture model is used to separate the noise from the signal distribution. The time series of a given percentile of the latter, then, provides a flow velocity envelope. This means of estimating the flow velocity envelope naturally allows for displaying several percentiles (e.g., 95th and 99th), thereby conveying uncertainty in the highest flow velocity. Such envelopes were computed for 59 patients and were shown to provide reasonable and useful estimates of the largest flow velocities compared to a standard algorithm. Moreover, we found that the commonly used envelope was generally consistent with the 90th percentile of the signal distribution derived via the gaussian mixture model. Separating the observed distribution of flow velocity into a noise component and a signal component, using a double-gaussian mixture model, allows for the percentiles of the latter to provide meaningful measures of the largest flow velocities and their uncertainty.

  17. Blood Lead Levels and Associated Factors among Children in Guiyu of China: A Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Pi; Xu, Xijin; Huang, Binliang; Sun, Di; Zhang, Jian; Chen, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Qin

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Children's health problems caused by the electronic waste (e-waste) lead exposure in China remains. To assess children's blood lead levels (BLLs) in Guiyu of China and investigate risk factors of children's elevated BLLs in Guiyu. Material and Methods 842 children under 11 years of age from Guiyu and Haojiang were enrolled in this population-based study during 2011–2013. Participants completed a lifestyle and residential environment questionnaire and their physical growth indices were measured, and blood samples taken. Blood samples were tested to assess BLLs. Children's BLLs between the two groups were compared and factors associated with elevated BLLs among Guiyu children were analyzed by group Lasso logistic regression model. Results Children living in Guiyu had significant higher BLLs (7.06 µg/dL) than the quantity (5.89 µg/dL) of Haojiang children (Pe-waste piles or recycling workshops around the house (odds ratio, 2.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.37 to 3.87) significantly contributed to the elevated BLLs of children in Guiyu, and girls had less risk (odds ratio, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.31 to 0.83) of e-waste lead exposure than boys. Conclusions This analysis reinforces the importance of shifting e-waste recycling piles or workshops to non-populated areas as part of a comprehensive response to e-waste lead exposure control in Guiyu. To correct the problem of lead poisoning in children in Guiyu should be a long-term mission. PMID:25136795

  18. Orthostatic change in blood pressure and incidence of atrial fibrillation: results from a bi-ethnic population based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil K Agarwal

    Full Text Available Autonomic fluctuations are associated with the initiation and possibly maintenance of atrial fibrillation (AF. However, little is known about the relationship between orthostatic blood pressure change, a common manifestation of autonomic dysfunction, and incident AF.We examined whether supine-to-standing changes in systolic blood pressure (SBP are associated with incident AF in 12,071 African American and white men and women aged 45-64 years, enrolled in the Atherosclerosis Risks in Communities (ARIC study. Orthostatic hypotension (OH was defined as a supine-standing drop in SBP by ≥20 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure by ≥10 mmHg. AF cases were identified based on study scheduled 12-lead ECG, hospital discharge ICD codes, and death certificates through 2009.OH was seen in 603 (5% at baseline. During an average follow-up of 18.1 years, 1438 (11.9% study participants developed AF. Incident AF occurred more commonly among those with OH than those without, a rate of 9.3 vs. 6.3 per 1000 person years, (p<0.001. The age, gender, and race adjusted hazard ratio (95%CI of AF among those with OH compared to those without was 1.62 (1.34, 2.14. This association was attenuated after adjustment for common AF risk factors to HR 1.40 (1.15, 1.71, a strength similar to that of diabetes or hypertension with AF in the same model. A non-linear relationship between orthostatic change in SBP and incident AF was present after multivariable adjustment.OH is associated with higher AF incidence. Whether interventions that decrease OH can reduce AF risk remains unknown.

  19. The ancient Egyptian civilization: maximum and minimum in coincidence with solar activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaltout, M.

    It is proved from the last 22 years observations of the total solar irradiance (TSI) from space by artificial satellites, that TSI shows negative correlation with the solar activity (sunspots, flares, and 10.7cm Radio emissions) from day to day, but shows positive correlations with the same activity from year to year (on the base of the annual average for each of them). Also, the solar constant, which estimated fromth ground stations for beam solar radiations observations during the 20 century indicate coincidence with the phases of the 11- year cycles. It is known from sunspot observations (250 years) , and from C14 analysis, that there are another long-term cycles for the solar activity larger than 11-year cycle. The variability of the total solar irradiance affecting on the climate, and the Nile flooding, where there is a periodicities in the Nile flooding similar to that of solar activity, from the analysis of about 1300 years of the Nile level observations atth Cairo. The secular variations of the Nile levels, regularly measured from the 7 toth 15 century A.D., clearly correlate with the solar variations, which suggests evidence for solar influence on the climatic changes in the East African tropics The civilization of the ancient Egyptian was highly correlated with the Nile flooding , where the river Nile was and still yet, the source of the life in the Valley and Delta inside high dry desert area. The study depends on long -time historical data for Carbon 14 (more than five thousands years), and chronical scanning for all the elements of the ancient Egyptian civilization starting from the firs t dynasty to the twenty six dynasty. The result shows coincidence between the ancient Egyptian civilization and solar activity. For example, the period of pyramids building, which is one of the Brilliant periods, is corresponding to maximum solar activity, where the periods of occupation of Egypt by Foreign Peoples corresponding to minimum solar activity. The decline

  20. The measurement of cross sections of inelastic and transfer reactions with gamma-particle coincidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zagatto, V.A.B.; Oliveira, J.R.B.; Pereira, D.; Allegro, P.R.P.; Chamon, L.C.; Cybulska, E.W.; Medina, N.H.; Ribas, R.V.; Rossi Junior, E.S.; Seale, W.A.; Silva, C.P.; Gasques, L. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Toufen, D.L. [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia, Guarulhos, SP (Brazil); Silveira, M.A.G. [Centro Universitario da FEI, Sao Bernardo do Campo, SP (Brazil); Zahn, G.S.; Genezini, F.A.; Shorto, J.M.B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Lubian, J.; Linares, R. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Nobre, G.P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: A new method was developed in Pelletron laboratory to measure gamma-particle coincidences and the chosen experiment to test this method was the {sup 18}O +{sup 110} Pd in the 46-60 MeV range. The following work aims to obtain experimental cross sections of inelastic excitation 0{sup +} {yields} 2{sup +} of {sup 110}Pd and transfer to excited states reactions (both measured by gamma-particle coincidences). The measurements were made at the Pelletron accelerator laboratory of the University of Sao Paulo with the Saci-Perere spectrometer [1], which consists of 4 GeHP Compton suppressed gamma detectors and a 4{pi} charged particle ancillary system with 11{Delta}E-E plastic phoswich scintillators (further details about the experimental procedure may be found in [2]). Calculations were performed with a new model based on the Sao Paulo Potential, specifically developed for the inclusion of dissipative processes like deep-inelastic collisions (DIC) [3,4] considering the Coulomb plus nuclear potential (with the aid of FRESCO code [5]). The experimental cross sections were obtained such as described in [6] including particle-gamma angular correlations, finite size of gamma and particle detectors as the vacuum de-alignment effects [7] (caused by hyperfine interaction) for the {sup 110}Pd inelastic reaction and for the {sup 110}Pd 2n transfer reaction. Also the effects of the beam spot size and energy loss in the target were included in these calculations. For these purposes a new code has been developed to assist in the data analysis. The gamma-particle angular correlations are calculated using the scattering amplitudes given by FRESCO. The theoretical predictions still consider 2 different types of normalization factors in its the real part: 1:0, and 0:6 as proposed in [3] for the weakly bound projectile cases. The analyses indicate that the 0:6 factor describes better the experimental data possible due to the large density of states in the transitional region. [1