WorldWideScience

Sample records for cohort study vacs

  1. Impact of vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) therapy on clinical outcomes of patients with sternal wound infections: a meta-analysis of non-randomized studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falagas, Matthew E; Tansarli, Giannoula S; Kapaskelis, Anastasios; Vardakas, Konstantinos Z

    2013-01-01

    To examine the impact of VAC therapy on mortality of patients with sternal wound infections after cardiothoracic surgery. Controversial results regarding mortality of patients with sternal wound infections were published. We performed a systematic search in PubMed and Scopus. Mortality was the primary outcome of the meta-analysis. Recurrences, complications and length of stay were secondary outcomes. Twenty-two retrospective studies including 2467 patients were eligible for inclusion. Patients treated with VAC had significantly lower mortality compared to those treated without VAC [2233 patients, RR = 0.40, (95% CI 0.28, 0.57)]. This finding was consistent regardless of the study design, the exclusion of studies with positive findings, the criteria for establishment of the compared groups, the time of mortality assessment or the type of infections under study, provided that adequate data was available. VAC therapy was associated with fewer recurrences (RR = 0.34, 95% CI: 0.19-0.59). The meta-analysis did not show any difference in the length of stay (RR = -2.25, 95% CI: -7.52-3.02). VAC therapy was associated with lower mortality than other surgical techniques in retrospective cohorts of patients with DSWIs following cardiothoracic surgery.

  2. A VACUUM ASSISTED CLOSURE (VAC THERAPY IN ORTHOPAEDIC TRAUMA : A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

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    Suresh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Management of open fractures and massive soft tissue injuries around leg ankle, foot and hand requires multi - disciplinary approach. VAC therapy is an innovative approach to the treatment of these wounds. VAC therapy facilitates granulation tissue formation, promotes healing, reduces infection and allows early skin grafting or flap closure. AIM: To describe our experience with VAC therapy for orthopaedics trauma around leg ankle, foot and hand. MATERIALS AND METHODS : 41 patients were included in Prospective Study performed at Preethi hospital, Madurai in years 2011 - 12. Only patients having t raumatic wound of leg, ankle, foot and hand were i ncluded. Patients with bleeding disorders were not included. VAC therapy was used as adjuvant to debridement in wound care. RESULTS: In 39 patients lower limb and in 2 patient hands was involved. The mean age was 39.3 years and 38 pateints were male 3 were female. Mean wound grade after VAC therapy decrease by 1 grade. Average wound area reduction was 10%. The mean duration of VAC therapy was 5.2 days. Plastic surgery was done in mean 6 days after removal of VAC dressing. Local flap was required in only 39% of patients. After VAC therapy all 10 patients having heel injury showed good granulation tissue. Complications like infection, bleeding and skin irritation were not seen in our study. CONCLUSION : VAC therapy is a viable adjuvant in the management of trau matic open wounds. It facilitates the rapid granulation tissue formation and wound healing. It reduces the duration of treatment, hospital stay and need of extensive plastic surgery

  3. Vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) therapy in the management of wound infection following renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, B M; Nathan, V C; Delbridge, M C; Parker, K; Throssell, D; McKane, W S; Karim, M S; Raftery, A T

    2007-01-01

    Wound infection in the setting of immunosuppressed state such as renal transplantation (RT) causes significant morbidity from sepsis, prolongs hospital stay and is expensive. Vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) therapy is a new technique of management of wound based on the principle of application of controlled negative pressure. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of VAC therapy in the management of wound infection following RT. This is a prospective study of a cohort of 180 consecutive RTs performed over a period of 4 years, where the data were retrieved from a prospectively maintained computerised database and case-notes. 9 of 180 (5%) patients developed wound infection following RT which led to cavitations and dehiscence with copious discharge, and refused to heal with conventional treatment. All 9 cases were treated with VAC therapy. The VAC system was removed after a median of 9 (range 3-30) days when discharge from the wound ceased. Four patients were discharged home with portable VAC device and managed on an outpatient basis, where the system was removed after a median 5.5 (range 3-7) days. The median hospital stay after initiation of VAC therapy was significantly shorter (5, range 2-12 days) than on conventional treatment prior to VAC therapy (11, range, 5-20 days) (p=0.003). Complete healing was achieved in all cases. The use of VAC therapy is an effective and safe adjunct to conventional and established treatment modalities for the management of wound infection and dehiscence following RT. Key words: Renal transplantation, wound infection, vacuum-assisted closure therapy.

  4. A clinical study of the LiVac laparoscopic liver retractor system.

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    Gan, Philip; Bingham, Judy

    2016-02-01

    All retractors for laparoscopic operations on the gallbladder or stomach apply an upward force to the under-surface of the liver or gallbladder, most requiring an additional skin incision. The LiVac laparoscopic liver retractor system (LiVac retractor) comprises a soft silicone ring attached to suction tubing and connected to a regulated source of suction. The suction tubing extends alongside existing ports. When placed between the liver and diaphragm, and suction applied, a vacuum is created within the ring, keeping these in apposition. Following successful proof-of-concept animal testing, a clinical study was conducted to evaluate the performance and safety of the retractor in patients. The study was a dual-centre, single-surgeon, open-label study and recruited ten patients scheduled to undergo routine upper abdominal laparoscopic surgery including cholecystectomy, primary gastric banding surgery or fundoplication. The study was conducted at two sites and was approved by the institutions' ethics committees. The primary objective of the study was to evaluate the performance of the LiVac retractor in patients undergoing upper abdominal single- or multi-port laparoscopic surgery. Performance was measured by the attainment of milestones for the retractor and accessory bevel, where used, and safety outcomes through the recording of adverse events, physical parameters, pain scales, blood tests and a post-operative liver ultrasound. The LiVac retractor achieved both primary and secondary performance and safety objectives in all patients. No serious adverse events and no device-related adverse events or device deficiencies were reported. The LiVac retractor achieved effective liver retraction without clinically significant trauma and has potential application in multi- or single-port laparoscopic upper abdominal surgery. As a separate incision is not required, the use of the LiVac retractor in multi-port surgery therefore reduces the number of incisions.

  5. [Prospective evaluation on ventilator-associated events: a cohort study from eight intensive care units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W S; Liu, J; Liu, H; Song, Y Y; Chen, H Y; Wang, R; Zhang, Y P; Jiang, W; Li, H F; Li, S Q; Zhang, S M; Liu, B; Zhang, X; Zhang, W H

    2016-08-10

    The aim of this study was to prospectively investigate the incidence of ventilator associated events (VAEs) in intensive care units (ICUs) among adult patients, and to evaluate the correlation between VAEs and ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP). A prospective 3-month cohort study (January 2015 to March 2015) was carried out. VAEs were divided into three groups: with ventilator-associated condition (VAC), with infection related ventilator-associated complication (IVAC) and with possible VAP (PVAP). Sensitivity and specificity of VAEs were evaluated and compared to the traditional VAP. Kappa test was applied to judge the consistency of VAC and VAP. During Jan. 2015 and Mar. 2015, 1 014 patients were admitted to 8 ICUs, with 7 977 patients per day. In total, 197 patients used the mechanical ventilation installation, with, a total number of 3 152 ventilator-days. Finally, 1 214 ventilation days in the VAC group and 1 938 ventilation days in the non-VAC group) that were available for final analysis. 46 VAC cases were identified including 22 classified as IVAC (14.59 and 6.98 per 1 000 ventilation days, respectively). Length of ICU stay and duration on mechanical ventilation for VAC patients were both significantly longer than those for non-VAC patients (PVAC criteria for the detection of VAP were 36.92% and 83.33%, respectively. The VAEs surveillance paradigms could be applied to monitor patients on the use of mechanical ventilation installation. However, sensitivity and specificity of VAC were under pool for the diagnosis of VAP. However, automatically surveillance programs was relied on the improvement of auto-information systems.

  6. Skin graft secured by VAC (vacuum-assisted closure) therapy in chronic leg ulcers: A controlled randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq, A; Labeille, B; Perrot, J-L; Vercherin, P; Cambazard, F

    2016-01-01

    Leg ulcers are a common condition. There have been very few studies of combined therapy involving VAC (vacuum-assisted closure) and skin graft. We performed a randomized controlled trial of VAC therapy vs. hydrocolloid dressings over 5 days following autologous grafting on chronic leg ulcers. The primary objective was to assess the difference in success (defined as a reduction in wound area of at least 50% at 1 month) between the two dressing methods. Forty-six patients with ulcers present for over one month were included. Following a 7-day hospitalization period, follow-up was performed for 3 months on an outpatient basis. Our study does not demonstrate a statistically significant difference, with a 45.8% success rate in the VAC group vs. 40.9% in the conventional dressing group (P=0.73). In the venous ulcer group, the success rate was 57.9% for VAC vs. 40% for conventional dressings (P=0.3). The difference in favor of VAC in this group was not statistically significant, most likely due to an insufficient number of patients studied. Our study does not demonstrate superiority of VAC associated with skin graft over conventional dressings. We observed more complications with VAC (40%) than with conventional dressings (23%) (P=0.06). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Inhibition of primary human T cell proliferation by Helicobacter pylori vacuolating toxin (VacA) is independent of VacA effects on IL-2 secretion

    OpenAIRE

    Sundrud, Mark S.; Torres, Victor J.; Unutmaz, Derya; Cover, Timothy L.

    2004-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that the secreted Helicobacter pylori vacuolating toxin (VacA) inhibits the activation of T cells. VacA blocks IL-2 secretion in transformed T cell lines by suppressing the activation of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT). In this study, we investigated the effects of VacA on primary human CD4+ T cells. VacA inhibited the proliferation of primary human T cells activated through the T cell receptor (TCR) and CD28. VacA-treated Jurkat T cells secreted markedly ...

  8. An Overview of Helicobacter pylori VacA Toxin Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foegeding, Nora J.; Caston, Rhonda R.; McClain, Mark S.; Ohi, Melanie D.; Cover, Timothy L.

    2016-01-01

    The VacA toxin secreted by Helicobacter pylori enhances the ability of the bacteria to colonize the stomach and contributes to the pathogenesis of gastric adenocarcinoma and peptic ulcer disease. The amino acid sequence and structure of VacA are unrelated to corresponding features of other known bacterial toxins. VacA is classified as a pore-forming toxin, and many of its effects on host cells are attributed to formation of channels in intracellular sites. The most extensively studied VacA activity is its capacity to stimulate vacuole formation, but the toxin has many additional effects on host cells. Multiple cell types are susceptible to VacA, including gastric epithelial cells, parietal cells, T cells, and other types of immune cells. This review focuses on the wide range of VacA actions that are detectable in vitro, as well as actions of VacA in vivo that are relevant for H. pylori colonization of the stomach and development of gastric disease. PMID:27271669

  9. Diversification of the vacAs1m1 and vacAs2m2 strains of Helicobacter pylori in Meriones unguiculatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Mendoza Elizalde

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The bacterium Helicobacter pylori exhibits great genetic diversity, and the pathogenic roles of its virulence factors have been widely studied. However, the evolutionary dynamics of H. pylori strains during stomach colonization are not well characterized. Here, we analyzed the microevolutionary dynamics of the toxigenic strain vacAs1m1, the non-toxigenic strain vacAs2m2, and a combination of both strains in an animal model over time. Meriones unguiculatus were inoculated with the following bacteria: group 1–toxigenic strain vacAs1m1/cagA+/cagE+/babA2+; ST181, group 2–non-toxigenic strain vacAs2m2/ cagA+/ cagE+/ babA2+; ST2901, and group 3–both strains. The gerbils were euthanized at different time points (3, 6, 12 and 18 months. In group 1, genetic alterations were observed at 6 and 12 months. With the combination of both strains, group 3 also exhibited genetic alterations at 3 and 18 months; moreover, a chimera, vacA m1-m2, was detected. Additionally, four new sequence types (STs were reported in the PubMLST database for H. pylori. Synonymous and non-synonymous mutations were analyzed and associated with alterations in amino acids. Microevolutionary analysis of the STs (PHYLOViZ identified in each group revealed many mutational changes in the toxigenic (vacAs1m1 and non-toxigenic (vacAs2m2 strains. Phylogenetic assessments (eBURST did not reveal clonal complexes. Our findings indicate that the toxigenic strain, vacAs1m1, and a combination of toxigenic and non-toxigenic strains acquired genetic material by recombination. The allelic combination, vacAs2m1, displayed the best adaptation in the animal model over time, and a chimera, m1-m2, was also identified, which confirmed previous reports.

  10. Pleiotropic Actions of Helicobacter pylori Vacuolating Cytotoxin, VacA

    OpenAIRE

    Isomoto, Hajime; Moss, Joel; Hirayama, Toshiya

    2010-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori produces a vacuolating cytotoxin, VacA, and most virulent H. pylori strains secrete VacA. VacA binds to two types of receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatase (RPTP), RPTPα and RPTPβ, on the surface of host cells. VacA bound to RPTPβ, relocates and concentrates in lipid rafts in the plasma membrane. VacA causes vacuolization, membrane anion-selective channel and pore formation, and disruption of endosomal and lysosomal activity in host cells. Secreted VacA is processed in...

  11. Single Center Experience with the AngioVac Aspiration System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salsamendi, Jason, E-mail: jsalsamendi@med.miami.edu; Doshi, Mehul, E-mail: mdoshi@med.miami.edu; Bhatia, Shivank, E-mail: sbhatia1@med.miami.edu [University of Miami Miller School of Medicine/Jackson Memorial Hospital, Department of Vascular and Interventional Radiology (United States); Bordegaray, Matthew, E-mail: matthewbordegaray@gmail.com [University of Miami Miller School of Medicine/Jackson Memorial Hospital, Department Radiology (United States); Arya, Rahul, E-mail: rahul.arya@jhsmiami.org [University of Miami Miller School of Medicine/Jackson Memorial Hospital, Department of Vascular and Interventional Radiology (United States); Morton, Connor, E-mail: cmorton@med.miami.edu [University of Miami Miller School of Medicine (United States); Narayanan, Govindarajan, E-mail: gnarayanan@med.miami.edu [University of Miami Miller School of Medicine/Jackson Memorial Hospital, Department of Vascular and Interventional Radiology (United States)

    2015-08-15

    PurposeThe AngioVac catheter system is a mechanical suction device designed for removal of intravascular material using extracorporeal veno-venous bypass circuit. The purpose of this study is to present the outcomes in patients treated with the AngioVac aspiration system and to discuss its efficacy in different vascular beds.Materials and MethodsA retrospectively review was performed of seven patients treated with AngioVac between October 2013 and December 2014. In 6/7 cases, the AngioVac cannula was inserted percutaneously and the patient was placed on veno-venous bypass. In one of the cases, the cannula was inserted directly into the Fontan circuit after sternotomy and the patient was maintained on cardiopulmonary bypass. Thrombus location included iliocaval (2), SVC (1), pulmonary arteries (1), Fontan circuit and Glenn shunt with pulmonary artery extension (1), right atrium (1), and IVC with renal vein extension (1).ResultsThe majority of thrombus (50–95 %) was removed in 5/7 cases, and partial thrombus removal (<50 %) was confirmed in 2/7 cases. Mean follow-up was 205 days (range 64–403 days). All patients were alive at latest follow-up. Minor complications included three neck hematomas in two total patients. No major complications occurred.ConclusionAngioVac is a useful tool for acute thrombus removal in the large vessels. The setup and substantial cost may limit its application in straightforward cases. More studies are needed to establish the utility of AngioVac in treatment of intravascular and intracardiac material.

  12. Relationship between vacA Types and Development of Gastroduodenal Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Thi Huyen Trang, Tran; Thanh Binh, Tran; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    The Helicobacter pylori vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA) is a secreted pore-forming toxin and a major virulence factor in the pathogenesis of H. pylori infection. While VacA is present in almost all strains, only some forms are toxigenic and pathogenic. While vacA and its genotypes are considered as markers of H. pylori-related diseases or disorders, the pathophysiological mechanisms of VacA and its genotypes remain controversial. This review outlines key findings of publications regarding vacA w...

  13. [Vacuum assisted closure (VAC) in the treatment of advanced diabetic foot].

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    Dzieciuchowicz, Lukasz; Espinosa, Gaudencio; Grochowicz, Lukasz

    2009-10-01

    Deep diabetic foot lesions pose an enormous therapeutic problem. The purpose of this study was to present the experience of the use of vacuum assisted closure (VAC) in the treatment of advanced and complicated diabetic foot lesions. Five cases of advanced diabetic foot that were treated with VAC were prospectively studied. Three patients were diagnosed with renal failure, including one with renal transplant, who were receiving immunosuppression therapy. Four patients had undergone local foot surgery. The foot lesions were classified as grade 3 or 4 according to the Wagner classification. In all patients extensive debridement was performed that resulted in open minor amputations in four cases and resection of the metatarsophalangeal joint in one case. The VAC was applied during the same procedure. The median follow-up period of the patients was 9 months. Foot salvage was achieved in all cases. The median number of changes of VAC was 16 within median period of 8 weeks. Half of the changes were performed as an outpatient procedure. There were no major complications or clinical signs of infection observed. In one case before treatment with VAC began, angioplasty of the iliac artery and superficial femoral artery was performed. Other interventions carried out after the treatment was started were, two distal revascularizations and two partial transmetatarsal amputations. VAC appears to be very useful in the treatment of advanced diabetic foot lesions.

  14. Relationship between Helicobacter pylori vacA genotypes status and risk of peptic ulcer in Saudi patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momenah, Aiman M.; Tayeb, Mohammad T.

    2006-01-01

    To determine if there is a significant correlation between different Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) vacA genotypes strains and severe gastric clinical outcomes. A total of 1104 gastric biopsies from 368 patients who presented with symptoms suggestive of chronic gastritis or peptic ulcer were taken from the main hospitals in the western region of Saudi Arabia from July 2004 to July 2005. These samples were cultured for H. pylori, and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was carried out to determine vacA genotypes status. One hundred and three (28%) patients were positive for H. pylori using culture technique. The distribution of vacA genotypes was 13 for vacAs1m1, 47 for vacAs1m2 and 43 for vacAs2m2. None of the clinical isolates were vacAs2m1 positive. The study showed a significant correlation between the vacAs1m2 genotype and gastritis cases, and a significant correlation between vacAs1m1 genotype and ulcer cases. The results of this study might be used for the identification of high-risk patients who are infected by vacAs1m1 genotype H. pylori strains. (author)

  15. Expression and Antigenic Evaluation of VacA Antigenic Fragment of Helicobacter Pylori

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    Hasanzadeh, Leila; Ghaznavi-Rad, Ehsanollah; Soufian, Safieh; Farjadi, Vahideh; Abtahi, Hamid

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s) : Helicobacter pylori, a human specific gastric pathogen is a causative agent of chronic active gastritis. The vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA) is an effective virulence factor involved in gastric injury. The aim of this study was to construct a recombinant protein containing antigenic region of VacA gene and determine its antigenicity. Materials and Methods: The antigenic region of VacA gene was detected by bioinformatics methods. The polymerase chain reaction method was used to amplify a highly antigenic region of VacA gene from chromosomal DNA of H. pylori. The eluted product was cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pET32a. The target protein was expressed in the Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) pLysS. The bacteria including pET32a-VacA plasmids were induced by IPTG. The antigenicity was finally studied by western blotting using sera of 15 H. pylori infected patients after purification. Results: Enzyme digestion analysis, PCR and DNA sequencing results showed that the target gene was inserted correctly into the recombinant vector. The expressed protein was purified successfully via affinity chromatography. Data indicated that antigenic region of VacA protein from Helicobacter pylori was recognized by all 15 patient’s sera. Conclusion : Our data showed that antigenic region of VacA protein can be expressed by in E. co.li. This protein was recognized by sera patients suffering from H. pylori infection. the recombinant protein has similar epitopes and close antigenic properties to the natural form of this antigen. Recombinant antigenic region of VacA protein also seems to be a promising antigen for protective and serologic diagnosis . PMID:23997913

  16. Expression and Antigenic Evaluation of VacA Antigenic Fragment of Helicobacter Pylori

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    Leila Hasanzadeh

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Helicobacter pylori, a human specific gastric pathogen is a causative agent of chronic active gastritis. The vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA is an effective virulence factor involved in gastric injury. The aim of this study was to construct a recombinant protein containing antigenic region of VacA gene and determine its antigenicity.   Materials and Methods: The antigenic region of VacA gene was detected by bioinformatics methods. The polymerase chain reaction method was used to amplify a highly antigenic region of VacA gene from chromosomal DNA of H. pylori. The eluted product was cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pET32a. The target protein was expressed in the Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3 pLysS. The bacteria including pET32a-VacA plasmids were induced by IPTG. The antigenicity was finally studied by western blotting using sera of 15 H. pylori infected patients after purification. Results: Enzyme digestion analysis, PCR and DNA sequencing results showed that the target gene was inserted correctly into the recombinant vector. The expressed protein was purified successfully via affinity chromatography. Data indicated that antigenic region of VacA protein from Helicobacter pylori was recognized by all 15 patient’s sera. Conclusion : Our data showed that antigenic region of VacA protein can be expressed by in E. co.li. This protein was recognized by sera patients suffering from H. pylori infection. the recombinant protein has similar epitopes and close antigenic properties to the natural form of this antigen. Recombinant antigenic region of VacA protein also seems to be a promising antigen for protective and serologic diagnosis .

  17. Oral immunisation of laying hens with the live vaccine strains of TAD Salmonella vac E and TAD Salmonella vac T reduces internal egg contamination with Salmonella Enteritidis.

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    Gantois, Inne; Ducatelle, Richard; Timbermont, Leen; Boyen, Filip; Bohez, Lotte; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank; van Immerseel, Filip

    2006-09-11

    Eggs are a major source of human infections with Salmonella. Therefore controlling egg contamination in laying hen flocks is one of the main targets for control programmes. A study was carried out to assess the effect of oral vaccination with TAD Salmonella vac E, TAD Salmonella vac T and with both vaccines TAD Salmonella vac E and TAD Salmonella vac T, on colonization of the reproductive tract and internal egg contamination of laying hens with Salmonella Enteritidis. Three groups of 30 laying hens were vaccinated at 1 day, 6 weeks and 16 weeks of age with either one of the vaccine strains, or a combination of both vaccine strains, while a fourth group was left unvaccinated. At 24 weeks of age, the birds were intravenously challenged with 0.5 ml containing 5 x 10(7)cfu Salmonella Enteritidis PT4 S1400/94. The number of oviducts from which Salmonella was isolated, was significantly lower in the vaccinated than in the non-vaccinated hens at 3 weeks post-challenge. Significantly less egg contents were Salmonella positive in the birds vaccinated with TAD Salmonella vac E or TAD Salmonella vac T (12/105 batches of eggs in both groups) than in the unvaccinated birds (28/105 batches of eggs). Internal egg contamination in the hens vaccinated with both TAD Salmonella vac E and TAD Salmonella vac T was even more reduced, as over the whole experiment, only one batch of eggs was positive. In conclusion, these data indicate that vaccination of laying hens with these live vaccines could be considered as a valuable tool in controlling internal egg contamination.

  18. Sphingomyelin functions as a novel receptor for Helicobacter pylori VacA.

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    Vijay R Gupta

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA of the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori binds and enters epithelial cells, ultimately resulting in cellular vacuolation. Several host factors have been reported to be important for VacA function, but none of these have been demonstrated to be essential for toxin binding to the plasma membrane. Thus, the identity of cell surface receptors critical for both toxin binding and function has remained elusive. Here, we identify VacA as the first bacterial virulence factor that exploits the important plasma membrane sphingolipid, sphingomyelin (SM, as a cellular receptor. Depletion of plasma membrane SM with sphingomyelinase inhibited VacA-mediated vacuolation and significantly reduced the sensitivity of HeLa cells, as well as several other cell lines, to VacA. Further analysis revealed that SM is critical for VacA interactions with the plasma membrane. Restoring plasma membrane SM in cells previously depleted of SM was sufficient to rescue both toxin vacuolation activity and plasma membrane binding. VacA association with detergent-resistant membranes was inhibited in cells pretreated with SMase C, indicating the importance of SM for VacA association with lipid raft microdomains. Finally, VacA bound to SM in an in vitro ELISA assay in a manner competitively inhibited by lysenin, a known SM-binding protein. Our results suggest a model where VacA may exploit the capacity of SM to preferentially partition into lipid rafts in order to access the raft-associated cellular machinery previously shown to be required for toxin entry into host cells.

  19. Inhibitory Effects of Anthocyanins on Secretion of Helicobacter pylori CagA and VacA Toxins

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    Kim, Sa-Hyun; Park, Min; Woo, Hyunjun; Tharmalingam, Nagendran; Lee, Gyusang; Rhee, Ki-Jong; Eom, Yong Bin; Han, Sang Ik; Seo, Woo Duck; Kim, Jong Bae

    2012-01-01

    Anthocyanins have been studied as potential antimicrobial agents against Helicobacter pylori. We investigated whether the biosynthesis and secretion of cytotoxin-associated protein A (CagA) and vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA) could be suppressed by anthocyanin treatment in vitro. H. pylori reference strain 60190 (CagA+/VacA+) was used in this study to investigate the inhibitory effects of anthocyanins; cyanidin 3-O-glucoside (C3G), peonidin 3-O-glucoside (Peo3G), pelargonidin 3-O-glucoside (Pel3G), and malvidin 3-O-glucoside (M3G) on expression and secretion of H. pylori toxins. Anthocyanins were added to bacterial cultures and Western blotting was used to determine secretion of CagA and VacA. Among them, we found that C3G inhibited secretion of CagA and VacA resulting in intracellular accumulation of CagA and VacA. C3G had no effect on cagA and vacA expression but suppressed secA transcription. As SecA is involved in translocation of bacterial proteins, the down-regulation of secA expression by C3G offers a mechanistic explanation for the inhibition of toxin secretion. To our knowledge, this is the first report suggesting that C3G inhibits secretion of the H. pylori toxins CagA and VacA via suppression of secA transcription. PMID:23155357

  20. VacA, the vacuolating cytotoxin of Helicobacter pylori, binds to multimerin 1 on human platelets

    OpenAIRE

    Satoh, Kaneo; Hirayama, Toshiya; Takano, Katsuhiro; Suzuki-Inoue, Katsue; Sato, Tadashi; Ohta, Masato; Nakagomi, Junko; Ozaki, Yukio

    2013-01-01

    Platelets were activated under the infection with H. pylori in human and mice. We investigated the role of VacA, an exotoxin released by H. pylori in this context. Acid-activated VacA, but not heated VacA, induced platelet CD62P expression. However, VacA reacted with none of the alleged VacA receptors present on platelet membranes. We therefore analyzed VacA associated proteins obtained through VacA affinity chromatography, using MALDI-TOF-MS. Multimerin1 was detected in two consecutive exper...

  1. VAC*TRAX - Thermal desorption for mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElwee, M.J.; Palmer, C.R.

    1995-01-01

    The patented VAC*TRAX process was designed in response to the need to remove organic constituents from mixed waste, waste that contains both a hazardous (RCRA or TSCA regulated) component and a radioactive component. Separation of the mixed waste into its hazardous and radioactive components allows for ultimate disposal of the material at existing, permitted facilities. The VAC*TRAX technology consists of a jacketed vacuum dryer followed by a condensing train. Solids are placed in the dryer and indirectly heated to temperatures as high as 260 degrees C, while a strong vacuum (down to 50 mm Hg absolute pressure) is applied to the system and the dryer is purged with a nitrogen carrier gas. The organic contaminants in the solids are thermally desorbed, swept up in the carrier gas and into the condensing train where they are cooled and recovered. The dryer is fitted with a filtration system that keeps the radioactive constituents from migrating to the condensate. As such, the waste is separated into hazardous liquid and radioactive solid components, allowing for disposal of these streams at a permitted incinerator or a radioactive materials landfill, respectively. The VAC*TRAX system is designed to be highly mobile, while minimizing the operational costs with a simple, robust process. These factors allow for treatment of small waste streams at a reasonable cost. This paper describes the VAC*TRAX thermal desorption process, as well as results from the pilot testing program. Also, the design and application of the full-scale treatment system is presented. Materials tested to date include spiked soil and debris, power plant trash and sludge contaminated with solvents, PCB contaminated soil, solvent-contaminated uranium mill-tailings, and solvent and PCB-contaminated sludge and trash. Over 70 test runs have been performed using the pilot VAC*TRAX system, with more than 80% of the tests using mixed waste as the feed material

  2. Genotyping of vacA alleles of Helicobacter pylori strains recovered ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    commonly detected genotypes in the meat-based foods, viz, vegetable sandwich and ready to eat fish, were vacA ... Keywords: Helicobacter pylori, VacA genotypes, Genotyping, Food items ..... Microbiology and Quality Control, Islamic Azad.

  3. [An approach to vacuum-assisted closure therapy using the S-B Vac].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayoshi, Yasuhiro; Kiyosawa, Jun; Mikami, Naofusa; Mizuno, Fumito; Noguchi, Yasuhisa; Kobata, Takashi; Yokote, Jun; Hida, Kenji; Shikata, Hiroo; Akita, Toshiaki

    2010-09-01

    Vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) therapy is increasingly applied for patients with wound dehiscence or mediastinitis caused by surgical site infection (SSI) after open-heart surgery. We have used wall suction for such cases in the past. But this method was an obstacle for improvement of the quality of life (QOL) of the patient. Since the S-B Vac is portable, this equipment may allow wound healing without decreasing QOL. Here, we report a case in which VAC therapy was performed using the S-B Vac.

  4. Managing virtual machines with Vac and Vcycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNab, A.; Love, P.; MacMahon, E.

    2015-12-01

    We compare the Vac and Vcycle virtual machine lifecycle managers and our experiences in providing production job execution services for ATLAS, CMS, LHCb, and the GridPP VO at sites in the UK, France and at CERN. In both the Vac and Vcycle systems, the virtual machines are created outside of the experiment's job submission and pilot framework. In the case of Vac, a daemon runs on each physical host which manages a pool of virtual machines on that host, and a peer-to-peer UDP protocol is used to achieve the desired target shares between experiments across the site. In the case of Vcycle, a daemon manages a pool of virtual machines on an Infrastructure-as-a-Service cloud system such as OpenStack, and has within itself enough information to create the types of virtual machines to achieve the desired target shares. Both systems allow unused shares for one experiment to temporarily taken up by other experiements with work to be done. The virtual machine lifecycle is managed with a minimum of information, gathered from the virtual machine creation mechanism (such as libvirt or OpenStack) and using the proposed Machine/Job Features API from WLCG. We demonstrate that the same virtual machine designs can be used to run production jobs on Vac and Vcycle/OpenStack sites for ATLAS, CMS, LHCb, and GridPP, and that these technologies allow sites to be operated in a reliable and robust way.

  5. Comparison of two different vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) treatments of multiple chronic diabetic foot wounds in the same extremity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uğurlar, Meriç; Sönmez, Mesut Mehmet; Armağan, Raffi; Eren, Osman Tuğrul

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the present study is to compare the clinical efficacy and safety of two different vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) applications in one center between two groups of patients with Wagner Grade 3-4 multiple chronic diabetic foot wounds. The study was a randomized-controlled, prospective investigation between two groups of patients with Wagner Grade 3-4 multiple chronic diabetic foot wounds at single extremity. There were 10 patients in the first group receiving VAC treatment by means of Y-connector and 11 patients in the second group receiving bridge-VAC treatment. There were no significant difference in Revised Foot Function Index scores and total treatment costs between the both groups. The cost of the VAC dressing supplies in one session of the dressings was lower in the bridge-VAC group. In conclusion, although bridge-VAC treatment seems to be an alternative method to the VAC treatment by means of Y-connector, we found no superiority of one over the other VAC application for chronic diabetic foot wounds. Copyright © 2016 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. ROLE OF VACUUM ASSISTED CLOSURE (VAC - IN WOUND HEALING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Lokanadha Rao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Large, complicated wounds pose a significant surgical problem. Negative pressure wound therapy is one of several methods enabling to obtain better treatment results in case of open infected wounds.1,2 The use of negative pressure therapy enables to obtain a reduction in the number of bacteria which significantly reduces the number of complications.3,4,5 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To review the Role of VAC in wound healing in Orthopaedics. MATERIALS AND METHODS The cases presented in this study are those who were admitted in King George Hospital in the time period from January 2014 to August 2015. This is a prospective interventional study. In this study, 15 patients were assigned to the study group (Negative Pressure Wound Therapy- NPWT based on their willingness for undergoing treatment. OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTS 12 males and 3 females are involved in the study. There is decrease in the mean wound area from 64 cm2 to 38 cm2 . There is decrease in the duration of hospital stay. Finally, wound is closed by SSG or secondary suturing. DISCUSSION NPWT is known to reduce bacterial counts, although they remain colonised with organisms. Wounds covered with NPW dressing are completely isolated from the environment, thereby reduces cross infection. In our series, we had 73.3% (11 cases excellent results and 26.7% (4 cases good results and no poor results. As interpretation with results, VAC therapy is effective mode of adjuvant therapy for the management of infected wounds. CONCLUSION VAC has been proven to be a reliable method of treating a variety of infected wounds. It greatly increases the rate of granulation tissue formation and lowers bacterial counts to accelerate wound healing. It can be used as a temporary dressing to prepare wounds optimally prior to closure or as a definitive treatment for nonsurgical and surgical wounds. VAC is now being used in a multitude of clinical settings, including the treatment of surgical wounds, infected wounds

  7. The use of endoluminal vacuum (E-Vac) therapy in the management of upper gastrointestinal leaks and perforations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallwood, Nathan R; Fleshman, James W; Leeds, Steven G; Burdick, J S

    2016-06-01

    Upper intestinal leaks and perforations are associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Despite the growing experience using endoscopically placed stents, the treatment of these leaks and perforations remain a challenge. Endoluminal vacuum (E-Vac) therapy is a novel treatment that has been successfully used in Germany to treat upper gastrointestinal leaks and perforations. There currently are no reports on its use in the USA. E-Vac therapy was used to treat 11 patients with upper gastrointestinal leaks and perforations from September 2013 to September 2014. Five patients with leaks following sleeve gastrectomy were excluded from this study. A total of six patients were treated with E-Vac therapy; these included: (n = 2) iatrogenic esophageal perforations, (n = 1) iatrogenic esophageal and gastric perforations, (n = 1) iatrogenic gastric perforation, (n = 1) gastric staple line leak following a surgical repair of a traumatic gastric perforation, and (n = 1) esophageal perforation due to an invasive fungal infection. Four patients had failed an initial surgical repair prior to starting E-Vac therapy. All six patients (100 %) had complete closure of their perforation or leak after an average of 35.8 days of E-Vac therapy requiring 7.2 different E-Vac changes. No deaths occurred in the 30 days following E-Vac therapy. One patient died following complete closure of his perforation and transfer to an acute care facility due to an unrelated complication. There were no complications directly related to the use of E-Vac therapy. Only one patient had any symptoms of dysphagia. This patient had severe dysphagia from an esophagogastric anastomotic stricture prior to her iatrogenic perforations. Following E-Vac therapy, her dysphagia had actually improved and she could now tolerate a soft diet. E-Vac therapy is a promising new method in the treatment of upper gastrointestinal leaks and perforations. Current successes need to be validated through future

  8. Effectiveness of vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) therapy in the healing of chronic diabetic foot ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nather, Aziz; Chionh, Siok Bee; Han, Audrey Y Y; Chan, Pauline P L; Nambiar, Ajay

    2010-05-01

    This is the fi rst prospective study done locally to determine the effectiveness of vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) therapy in the healing of chronic diabetic foot ulcers. An electronic vacuum pump was used to apply controlled negative pressure evenly across the wound surface. Changes in wound dimension, presence of wound granulation and infection status of diabetic foot ulcers in 11 consecutive patients with diabetes were followed over the course of VAC therapy. Healing was achieved in all wounds. Nine wounds were closed by split-skin grafting and 2 by secondary closure. The average length of treatment with VAC therapy was 23.3 days. Ten wounds showed reduction in wound size. All wounds were satisfactorily granulated and cleared of bacterial infection at the end of VAC therapy. VAC therapy was useful in the treatment of diabetic foot infection and ulcers, which after debridement, may present with exposed tendon, fascia and/or bone. These included ray amputation wounds, wounds post-debridement for necrotising fasciitis, wounds post-drainage for abscess, a heel ulcer and a sole ulcer. It was able to prepare ulcers well for closure via split-skin grafting or secondary closure in good time. This reduced cost of VAC therapy, as therapy was not prolonged to attain greater reduction in wound area. VAC therapy also provides a sterile, more controlled resting environment to large, exudating wound surfaces. Large diabetic foot ulcers were thus made more manageable.

  9. Mechanisms and clinical applications of the vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) Device: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturi, Mark L; Attinger, Christopher E; Mesbahi, Ali N; Hess, Christopher L; Graw, Katherine S

    2005-01-01

    The use of sub-atmospheric pressure dressings, available commercially as the vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) device, has been shown to be an effective way to accelerate healing of various wounds. The optimal sub-atmospheric pressure for wound healing appears to be approximately 125 mm Hg utilizing an alternating pressure cycle of 5 minutes of suction followed by 2 minutes off suction. Animal studies have demonstrated that this technique optimizes blood flow, decreases local tissue edema, and removes excessive fluid from the wound bed. These physiologic changes facilitate the removal of bacteria from the wound. Additionally, the cyclical application of sub-atmospheric pressure alters the cytoskeleton of the cells in the wound bed, triggering a cascade of intracellular signals that increases the rate of cell division and subsequent formation of granulation tissue. The combination of these mechanisms makes the VAC device an extremely versatile tool in the armamentarium of wound healing. This is evident in the VAC device's wide range of clinical applications, including treatment of infected surgical wounds, traumatic wounds, pressure ulcers, wounds with exposed bone and hardware, diabetic foot ulcers, and venous stasis ulcers. VAC has also proven useful in reconstruction of wounds by allowing elective planning of the definitive reconstructive surgery without jeopardizing the wound or outcome. Furthermore, VAC has significantly increased the skin graft success rate when used as a bolster over the freshly skin-grafted wound. VAC is generally well tolerated and, with few contraindications or complications, is fast becoming a mainstay of current wound care.

  10. Experience with wound VAC and delayed primary closure of contaminated soft tissue injuries in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leininger, Brian E; Rasmussen, Todd E; Smith, David L; Jenkins, Donald H; Coppola, Christopher

    2006-11-01

    Wartime missile injuries are frequently high-energy wounds that devitalize and contaminate tissue, with high risk for infection and wound complications. Debridement, irrigation, and closure by secondary intention are fundamental principles for the management of these injuries. However, closure by secondary intention was impractical in Iraqi patients. Therefore, wounds were closed definitively before discharge in all Iraqi patients treated for such injures at our hospital. A novel wound management protocol was developed to facilitate this practice, and patient outcomes were tracked. This article describes that protocol and discusses the outcomes in a series of 88 wounds managed with it. High-energy injuries were treated with rapid aggressive debridement and pulsatile lavage, then covered with negative pressure (vacuum-assisted closure [VAC]) dressings. Patients underwent serial operative irrigation and debridement until wounds appeared clean to gross inspection, at which time they were closed primarily. Patient treatment and outcome data were recorded in a prospectively updated database. Treatment and outcomes data from September 2004 through May 2005 were analyzed retrospectively. There were 88 high-energy soft tissue wounds identified in 77 patients. Surprisingly, for this cohort of patients the wound infection rate was 0% and the overall wound complication rate was 0%. This series of 88 cases is the first report of the use of a negative pressure dressing (wound VAC) as part of the definitive management of high-energy soft tissue wounds in a deployed wartime environment. Our experience with these patients suggests that conventional wound management doctrine may be improved with the wound VAC, resulting in earlier more reliable primary closure of wartime injuries.

  11. Effectiveness of bridge V.A.C. dressings in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Nather

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This is a prospective study of the clinical efficacy of the V.A.C. Granufoam Bridge Dressing for the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers. Materials and methods: Five consecutive patients with diabetic foot ulcers were treated with V.A.C. Granufoam Bridge Dressings and studied over a period of 22–48 days. The indications for treatment included diabetic patients with open ray amputation wounds and wounds post-drainage for abscess with exposed deep structures. Clinical outcome was measured in terms of reduction in wound dimensions, presence of wound granulation, microbial clearance, and development of wound complications. Results: Our results showed that with V.A.C. therapy, wound healing occurred in all patients. The number of dressings required ranged from 8 to 10. The baseline average wound size was 23.1 cm2. Wound areas shrunk by 18.4–41.7%. All subjects achieved 100% wound bed granulation with an average length of treatment of 33 days. Microbial clearance was achieved in all cases. All wounds healed by secondary intention in one case and four cases required split-thickness skin grafting. Conclusion: The V.A.C. Granufoam Bridge Dressing is effective in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers. It promotes reduction of wound area, wound bed granulation, and microbial clearance. By allowing placement of the suction pad outside the foot, it allowed patients to wear protective shoes and to walk non-weight bearing with crutches during V.A.C. therapy.

  12. Anti-CagA IgG Antibody is Independent from Helicobacter pylori vacA and cagA Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashem Fakhre Yaseri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Helicobacter pylori strains have two classical virulence genes, the cytotoxinassociated A (cagA gene and the vacuolating cytotoxin A (vacA gene, which are located in thecag pathogenicity island (cagPAI. Serum immunoglobulin G (IgG antibodies to H. pylori,especially, the CagA antigen may be a reliable marker for selection of dyspeptic patients for upperendoscopy.Methods: Serum sample of 129 dyspeptic patients with positive H. pylori, were tested for serumIgG Anti-CagA antibody by ELISA. The presence of the cagA and vacA genotypes weredetermined using polymerase chain reaction (PCR on biopsy samples taken via endoscopy.Results: Positive serum IgG anti-CagA antibodies in patients with cagA+/vacA+ and cagA+/vacA- genotypes were 22/23 (95.6% and 18/19 (94.7%, respectively. In addition, serum IgG anti-CagAantibodies in patients with cagA-/vacA+ and cagA-/vacA- genotypes were 22/47 (46.8% and 33/40(82.5%, respectively.Conclusions: It can be concluded that the serum IgG anti-CagA antibody alone could selectpatients with dyspepsia following upper endoscopy. The assessment of vacuolating cytotoxinactivity of H. Pylori is, therefore, not required, even when vacA gene is positive. This hypothesisneeds to be studied in a large number of patients with dyspepsia.

  13. Violence Against Children Surveys (VACS): towards a global surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Laura F; Kress, Howard; Sumner, Steven A; Gleckel, Jessie; Kawemama, Philbert; Gordon, Rebecca N

    2016-04-01

    To describe the Violence Against Children Surveys (VACS). The survey is a national, household survey that systematically measures the prevalence, nature and consequences of sexual, physical and emotional violence against children. This report provides information about the history, implementation, ethical protections, utility, results, limitations, and future directions of the VACS work. The study has been implemented in 11 countries in Africa, Asia and the Caribbean, providing each of these countries with baseline data and momentum to address violence against children as a public health and human rights priority. These data are novel in each country, and VACS is well poised to contribute to an existing surveillance system or be used as the basis of a periodic surveillance system. Without ongoing surveillance to assess prevalence and the impact of policy, prevention and response programming, violence will likely continue to be overlooked as the linchpin public health crisis that it is, globally and in individual countries. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  14. Effectiveness of bridge V.A.C. dressings in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers

    OpenAIRE

    Nather, Aziz; Hong, Ng Yau; Lin, Wong Keng; Sakharam, Joshi Abhijit

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This is a prospective study of the clinical efficacy of the V.A.C. Granufoam Bridge Dressing for the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers. Materials and methods: Five consecutive patients with diabetic foot ulcers were treated with V.A.C. Granufoam Bridge Dressings and studied over a period of 22-48 days. The indications for treatment included diabetic patients with open ray amputation wounds and wounds post-drainage for abscess with exposed deep structures. Clinical outcome was meas...

  15. VAC Therapy Direct to the Medullary Cavity for Chronic Tibial Osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamura, Satoshi; Tsuji, Shigeyoshi; Iwai, Takao; Hamada, Masayuki

    2016-06-01

    Vacuum-assisted wound closure (VAC) is useful for difficult wound beds, although sites where bleeding or infection is expected are usually regarded as problematic for this therapy. This report outlines the treatment of chronic tibial osteomyelitis (Cierny- Mader type III) due to mixed infection with Nocardia spp and Bacteroi- des fragilis by postoperative VAC therapy direct to the medullary cavity, followed by wound coverage with a gastrocnemius myocutaneous skin flap. A 64-year-old man developed chronic left tibial os- teomyelitis after a work injury. The nonviable tissues were debrided, including a sequestrum. Nocardia spp and B. fragilis were isolated from surgical bone specimens, and chronic tibial osteomyelitis due to mixed infection was diagnosed. Postoperatively, VAC therapy was performed directly to the open medullary cavity of the tibia and sub- sequently covered the residual soft tissue defect with a gastrocnemius myocutaneous flap. The authors could not find any English literature on VAC therapy direct to the medullary cavity combined with transplantation of a myocutaneous flap for osteomyelitis. Nocardia spp can cause a variety of infections, among which osteomyelitis occupies a relatively small percentage. This case raises the possibil- ity of treating chronic tibial osteomyelitis caused by mixed infection with Nocardia spp and B. fragilis by applying postoperative VAC ther- apy directly to the medullary cavity and covering the residual wound with a gastrocnemius myocutaneous flap.

  16. Association between cagA, vacAi, and dupA genes of Helicobacter pylori and gastroduodenal pathologies in Chilean patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes-Osses, Esteban; Sáez, Katia; Sanhueza, Enrique; Hebel, Sonja; González, Carlos; Briceño, Carlos; García Cancino, Apolinaria

    2017-09-01

    In addition to the already known cagA gene, novel genetic markers have been associated with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) virulence: the dupA and vacAi genes. These genes might play an important role as specific markers to determine the clinical outcome of the disease, especially the vacAi gene, which has been expected to be a good marker of severe pathologies like gastric adenocarcinoma. In the present study, the association of cagA, dupA, and vacAi genes with gastroduodenal pathologies in Chilean patients was studied. One hundred and thirty-two patients positive for H. pylori were divided into two groups-non-severe and severe gastric pathologies-and investigated for the presence of cagA, dupA, and vacAi H. pylori virulence genes by PCR. The cagA gene was detected in 20/132 patients (15.2%), the vacAi1 gene was detected in 54/132 patients (40.9%), the vacAi2 gene was detected in 26/132 patients (19.7%), and the dupA gene was detected in 50/132 (37.9%) patients. Logistic regression model analysis showed that the vacAi1 isoform gene in the infected strains and the severity of the diseases outcome were highly associated, causing severe gastric damage that may lead to gastric cancer (p dupA gene was associated significantly with non-severe clinical outcome (p = 0.0032; OR = 0.25; 95% CI 0.09-0.65). In addition, dupA gene exerts protection against severe gastric pathologies induced by vacAi1 by delaying the outcome of the disease by approximately 20 years.

  17. VAC*TRAX - thermal desorption for mixed wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McElwee, M.J.; Palmer, C.R. [RUST-Clemson Technical Center, Anderson, SC (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The patented VAC*TRAX process was designed in response to the need to remove organic constituents from mixed waste, waste that contains both a hazardous (RCRA or TSCA regulated) component and a radioactive component. Separation of the mixed waste into its hazardous and radioactive components allows for ultimate disposal of the material at existing, permitted facilities. The VAC*TRAX technology consists of a jacketed vacuum dryer followed by a condensing train. Solids are placed in the dryer and indirectly heated to temperatures as high as 2600{degrees}C, while a strong vacuum (down to 50 mm Hg absolute pressure) is applied to the system and the dryer is purged with a nitrogen carrier gas. The organic contaminants in the solids are thermally desorbed, swept up in the carrier gas and into the condensing train where they are cooled and recovered. The dryer is fitted with a filtration system that keeps the radioactive constituents from migrating to the condensate. As such, the waste is separated into hazardous liquid and radioactive solid components, allowing for disposal of these streams at a permitted incinerator or a radioactive materials landfill, respectively. The VAC*TRAX system is designed to be highly mobile, while minimizing the operational costs with a simple, robust process. These factors allow for treatment of small waste streams at a reasonable cost.

  18. Inhibitory Effects of Anthocyanins on Secretion of Helicobacter pylori CagA and VacA Toxins

    OpenAIRE

    Sa-Hyun Kim, Min Park, Hyunjun Woo, Nagendran Tharmalingam, Gyusang Lee, Ki-Jong Rhee, Yong Bin Eom, Sang Ik Han, Woo Duck Seo, Jong Bae Kim

    2012-01-01

    Anthocyanins have been studied as potential antimicrobial agents against Helicobacter pylori. We investigated whether the biosynthesis and secretion of cytotoxin-associated protein A (CagA) and vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA) could be suppressed by anthocyanin treatment in vitro. H. pylori reference strain 60190 (CagA+/VacA+) was used in this study to investigate the inhibitory effects of anthocyanins; cyanidin 3-O-glucoside (C3G), peonidin 3-O-glucoside (Peo3G), pelargonidin 3-O-glucoside (Pe...

  19. En-Vac Robotic Wall Scabbler. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost-effective technologies for use in decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of nuclear facilities. To this end, the Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA) of the DOE's Office of Science and Technology (OST) sponsors Large-Scale Demonstration and Deployment Projects (LSDDP). At these LSDDPs, developers and vendors of improved or innovative technologies showcase products that are potentially beneficial to DOE's projects and to others in the D and D community. Benefits sought include decreased health and safety risks to personnel and the environment, increased productivity, and decreased cost of operation. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) LSDDP generated a list of statements defining specific needs or problems where improved technology could be incorporated into ongoing D and D tasks. One of the stated needs was for a Robotic Wall Scabbler that would reduce costs and shorten schedules in DOE's Decommissioning Project. This demonstration investigated the associated costs and time required to remove paint from the Test Area North (TAN-607) Decontamination Shop walls by comparing the En-vac Robotic Wall Scabbler against the baseline technology. The baseline technologies consist of the Pentek Vac Pac System with the Pentek Rotopeen and Needle Gun hand-held attachments. This system only removes paint from the surface of concrete. Innovative Technology The En-vac Robotic Wall Scabbler is a remote-controlled scabbling unit with individually motor-controlled wheels that moves horizontally and vertically along floors, walls, and ceilings, adhering to the surface with the help of a high-vacuum suction created at its base (see Figures 1 and 2). The complete En-vac Blasting System consists of the En-vac robot, a recycling unit, a filter, and a vacuum unit, and uses an abrasive, steel-grit blasting technology for the scabbling process. By comparison, this

  20. vacA Genotype Status of Helicobacter pylori Isolated from Foods with Animal Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elnaz Saeidi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to controversial theories and results of studies, foods with animal origins play an important role in the transmission of H. pylori to human. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of vacA genotypes of H. pylori, isolated from milk and meat samples of cow, sheep, goat, camel, and buffalo. Eight hundred and twenty raw milk and meat samples were collected from various parts of Iran. Samples were cultured and those found positive for H. pylori were analyzed for the presence of various genotypes of vacA gene. Out of 420 milk and 400 meat samples, 92 (21.90% and 105 (26.25% were positive for H. pylori, respectively. The most commonly detected genotypes in the vacA gene were s1a (86.80%, m1a (79.18%, s1b (69.54%, and m1b (63.45% and detected combined genotypes were mostly m1as1a (68.52%, m1as1b (60.40%, m1bs1b (55.83%, and m1bs1a (53.29%. High presence of bacteria in the milk and meat samples of sheep represents that sheep may be the natural host of H. pylori. High presence of H. pylori strains in milk and meat samples similar to vacA genotypes in human being suggests that milk and meat samples could be the sources of bacteria for human.

  1. vacA Genotype Status of Helicobacter pylori Isolated from Foods with Animal Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeidi, Elnaz; Sheikhshahrokh, Amirhossein

    2016-01-01

    According to controversial theories and results of studies, foods with animal origins play an important role in the transmission of H. pylori to human. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of vacA genotypes of H. pylori, isolated from milk and meat samples of cow, sheep, goat, camel, and buffalo. Eight hundred and twenty raw milk and meat samples were collected from various parts of Iran. Samples were cultured and those found positive for H. pylori were analyzed for the presence of various genotypes of vacA gene. Out of 420 milk and 400 meat samples, 92 (21.90%) and 105 (26.25%) were positive for H. pylori, respectively. The most commonly detected genotypes in the vacA gene were s1a (86.80%), m1a (79.18%), s1b (69.54%), and m1b (63.45%) and detected combined genotypes were mostly m1as1a (68.52%), m1as1b (60.40%), m1bs1b (55.83%), and m1bs1a (53.29%). High presence of bacteria in the milk and meat samples of sheep represents that sheep may be the natural host of H. pylori. High presence of H. pylori strains in milk and meat samples similar to vacA genotypes in human being suggests that milk and meat samples could be the sources of bacteria for human.

  2. Helicobacter pylori cagA and vacA genotypes in Cuban and Venezuelan populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Ortiz-Princz

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the presence of Helicobacter pylori cytotoxin-associated gene (cagA/vacuolating cytotoxin gene (vacA among patients with chronic gastritis in Cuba and Venezuela. Gastric antrum biopsies were taken for culture, DNA extraction and PCR analysis. Amplification of vacA and cagA segments was performed using two regions of cagA: 349 bp were amplified with the F1/B1 primers and the remaining 335 bp were amplified with the B7629/B7628 primers. The VA1-F/VA1-R set of primers was used to amplify the 259-bp (s1 or 286-bp (s2 product and the VAG-R/VAG-F set of primers was used to amplify the 567-bp (m1 or 642-bp (m2 regions of vacA. cagA was detected in 87% of the antral samples from Cuban patients and 80.3% of those from Venezuelan patients. All possible combinations of vacA regions were found, with the exception of s2/m1. The predominant combination found in both countries was s1/m1. The percentage of cagA+ strains was increased by the use of a second set of primers and a greater number of strains was amplified with the B7629/B7628 primers in the Cuban patients (p = 0.0001. There was no significant difference between the presence of the allelic variants of vacA and cagA in both populations. The predominant genotype was cagA+/s1m1 in both countries. The results support the necessary investigation of isolates circulating among the human population in each region.

  3. ProVac Global Initiative: a vision shaped by ten years of supporting evidence-based policy decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauregui, Barbara; Janusz, Cara Bess; Clark, Andrew D; Sinha, Anushua; Garcia, Ana Gabriela Felix; Resch, Stephen; Toscano, Cristiana M; Sanderson, Colin; Andrus, Jon Kim

    2015-05-07

    The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) created the ProVac Initiative in 2004 with the goal of strengthening national technical capacity to make evidence-based decisions on new vaccine introduction, focusing on economic evaluations. In view of the 10th anniversary of the ProVac Initiative, this article describes its progress and reflects on lessons learned to guide the next phase. We quantified the output of the Initiative's capacity-building efforts and critically assess its progress toward achieving the milestones originally proposed in 2004. Additionally, we reviewed how country studies supported by ProVac have directly informed and strengthened the deliberations around new vaccine introduction. Since 2004, ProVac has conducted four regional workshops and supported 24 health economic analyses in 15 Latin American and Caribbean countries. Five Regional Centers of Excellence were funded, resulting in six operational research projects and nine publications. Twenty four decisions on new vaccine introductions were supported with ProVac studies. Enduring products include the TRIVAC and CERVIVAC cost-effectiveness models, the COSTVAC program costing model, methodological guides, workshop training materials and the OLIVES on-line data repository. Ten NITAGs were strengthened through ProVac activities. The evidence accumulated suggests that initiatives with emphasis on sustainable training and direct support for countries to generate evidence themselves, can help accelerate the introduction of the most valuable new vaccines. International and Regional Networks of Collaborators are necessary to provide technical support and tools to national teams conducting analyses. Timeliness, integration, quality and country ownership of the process are four necessary guiding principles for national economic evaluations to have an impact on policymaking. It would be an asset to have a model that offers different levels of complexity to choose from depending on the vaccine being

  4. Preparation and Characterization of P(AN-VAc-PMMT Nanocomposites and Nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available P(AN-VAc-PMMT nanocomposites were prepared using in situ emulsion polymerization and further confirmed by FTIR. A polymerizable quaternary ammonium ion monomer was used to modify montmorillonite. XRD testing showed that the quaternary ammonium ion was successfully intercalated into the montmorillonite chip layer. This is the first paper to discuss an investigation of P(AN-VAc-PMMT nanofiber morphology using SEM. The fibers were prepared through electrospinning.

  5. Vacuum-assisted closure therapy for infected perineal wounds after abdominoperineal resection. A retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walma, M S; Burbach, J P M; Verheijen, P M; Pronk, A; van Grevenstein, W M U

    2016-02-01

    Perineal wound complications are a main problem after abdominoperineal resection (APR). There is little evidence concerning perineal wound management. This study describes and evaluates the role of vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) therapy in wound management strategies of perineal wound infections after APR. Patients undergoing APR for malignant disease between January 2007 and January 2013 were identified retrospectively. Data regarding occurrence and management of perineal wound complications were collected. Perineal wound infections were classified into minor or major complications and time to wound healing was measured. Time to wound healing was compared between patients receiving routine care or with additional VAC therapy. Of 171 included patients, 76 (44.4%) had minor and 36 (21.1%) major perineal wound infections. Management of major infected perineal wounds consisted of drainage (n = 16), debridement (n = 4), drainage combined with debridement (n = 4), VAC therapy alone (n = 5), or VAC therapy combined with other treatments (n = 7). Median duration of perineal wound healing in major infected wounds was 141 days (range 17-739). Median time to wound healing was not different in patients treated with (172 days, range 23-368) or without VAC therapy (131 days, range 17-739). In this study, VAC therapy did not shorten time to wound healing. However, prospective studies are required to investigate the role of VAC therapy in management of infected perineal wounds after APR. Up to then, wound management will remain to be based on clinical perception and 'gut-feeling'. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. La gestión del vacío urbano: contextos, casos y propuestas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Montes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo de revisión tiene como propósito discutir una noción ampliada del concepto de vacío urbano en el marco de una coyuntura global de crecimiento urbano disperso y una urgente gestión sostenible del territorio. Para informar sobre el estado actual de la discusión sobre el tema de los vacíos urbanos, este ensayo se ha articulado en dos secciones. La primera incluye la presentación de una serie de conceptos que justifican un contexto global de reclamo de los vacíos urbanos. La segunda sección contiene una recopilación de casos de gestión de vacíos urbanos, cuya viabilidad ha sido posible gracias a que se han sustentado en innovadoras herramientas de legislación urbana. En el contexto costarricense, en donde la escasa discusión en torno a los vacíos urbanos continua alojada en los imaginarios negativos sobre la ciudad, resulta importante visibilizar experiencias en donde esta acepción negativa ha sido superada. The purpose of this review article is to discuss a broaden notion of urban void, in the context of urban sprawl and the urgent need for sustainable land management. To draw a picture about the topic of urban voids, this essay has been divided into two sections. The first part presents a number of concepts that justify a global response of reclaiming urban voids. The second section contains a compilation of case studies of urban void management, whose viability has been possible because innovative urban legislation tools. In the Costa Rican context, where the little discussion about urban voids remain housed in negative urban imaginary, it is important to make visible experiences where its negative meaning has been overcome.

  7. Comparative evaluation of debris removal from root canal wall by using EndoVac and conventional needle irrigation: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana J Gade

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Microbial control is of paramount importance in Clinical Endodontics. Therefore, cleaning and disinfection of root canals are essential to achieve endodontic success. Aims: The purpose of this study is to compare the efficacy of EndoVac irrigation system and conventional needle (30 gauges side venting needle irrigation for removal of debris from the root canal walls at coronal, middle and apical third by using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Settings and Design: An in vitro randomized control trial study. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 mandibular premolars with completely formed roots were selected and randomly divided into two groups - Group 1: Irrigation with the Conventional system and Group 2: EndoVac irrigation. After access opening and working length determination biomechanical preparation completed up to a rotary protaper F4 file. Groupwise irrigation with sodium hypochlorite and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid was done with each canal in between instrumentation. Then, the teeth were sectioned in buccolingual direction and the halves were sputter-coated with gold palladium and coronal, middle and apical third were examined by SEM at x2000 magnification. Statistical Analysis: Mann-Whitney test for comparison between methods, Kruskal-Wallis test for comparison among thirds and Miller test for individual comparisons. Results: The apical, middle and cervical root canal thirds were evaluated and the results were analyzed statistically by the Mann-Whitney test for comparison between methods, Kruskal-Wallis test for comparison among thirds and Miller test for individual comparisons. Conclusions: EndoVac group resulted in significantly less debris at apical third compared with the conventional needle irrigation group. There was no statistical significant difference found in debris removal at coronal and middle third of root canal wall between the EndoVac group and conventional needle irrigation group.

  8. Red wine and green tea reduce H pylori- or VacA-induced gastritis in a mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggiero, Paolo; Rossi, Giacomo; Tombola, Francesco; Pancotto, Laura; Lauretti, Laura; Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Zoratti, Mario

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether red wine and green tea could exert anti-H pylori or anti-VacA activity in vivo in a mouse model of experimental infection. METHODS: Ethanol-free red wine and green tea concentrates were administered orally as a mixture of the two beverages to H pylori infected mice, or separately to VacA-treated mice. Gastric colonization and gastric inflammation were quantified by microbiological, histopathological, and immunohistochemical analyses. RESULTS: In H pylori-infected mice, the red wine and green tea mixture significantly prevented gastritis and limited the localization of bacteria and VacA to the surface of the gastric epithelium. Similarly, both beverages significantly prevented gastric epithelium damage in VacA-treated mice; green tea, but not red wine, also altered the VacA localization in the gastric epithelium. CONCLUSION: Red wine and green tea are able to prevent H pylori-induced gastric epithelium damage, possibly involving VacA inhibition. This observation supports the possible relevance of diet on the pathological outcome of H pylori infection. PMID:17230601

  9. VAC therapy to promote wound healing after surgical revascularisation for critical lower limb ischaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Caridi, Giovanni; Massara, Mafalda; Greco, Michele; Pipitò, Narayana; Spinelli, Francesco; Grande, Raffaele; Butrico, Lucia; de Franciscis, Stefano; Serra, Raffaele

    2016-06-01

    Vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) therapy is a new emerging non-invasive system in wound care, which speeds up wound healing by causing vacuum, improving tissue perfusion and suctioning the exudates, and facilitating the removal of bacteria from the wound. The application of sub-atmospheric pressure on the lesions seems to alter the cytoskeleton of the cells on the wound bed, triggering a cascade of intracellular signals that increase the rate of cell division and subsequent formation of granulation tissue. The aim of this study is to analyse the results of VAC therapy used as an adjuvant therapy for the treatment of foot wounds in patients affected by critical limb ischaemia (CLI) (Rutherford 6 class) after distal surgical revascularisation, to promote and accelerate the healing of ulcers. Twenty-nine patients (20 males, 9 females; mean age 68·4) affected by CLI of Rutherford 6 class, after surgical revascularisation of the lower limb, underwent VAC therapy in order to speed up wound healing. Complete wound healing was achieved in 19 patients (65·51%), in an average period of 45·4 ± 25·6 days. VAC therapy is a valid aid, after surgical revascularisation, to achieve rapid healing of foot lesions in patients with CLI. © 2014 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2014 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Modification and Application of a Leaf Blower-vac for Field Sampling of Arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yi; van Telgen, Mario D; Chen, Junhui; Xiao, Haijun; de Kraker, Joop; Bianchi, Felix J J A; van der Werf, Wopke

    2016-08-10

    Rice fields host a large diversity of arthropods, but investigating their population dynamics and interactions is challenging. Here we describe the modification and application of a leaf blower-vac for suction sampling of arthropod populations in rice. When used in combination with an enclosure, application of this sampling device provides absolute estimates of the populations of arthropods as numbers per standardized sampling area. The sampling efficiency depends critically on the sampling duration. In a mature rice crop, a two-minute sampling in an enclosure of 0.13 m(2) yields more than 90% of the arthropod population. The device also allows sampling of arthropods dwelling on the water surface or the soil in rice paddies, but it is not suitable for sampling fast flying insects, such as predatory Odonata or larger hymenopterous parasitoids. The modified blower-vac is simple to construct, and cheaper and easier to handle than traditional suction sampling devices, such as D-vac. The low cost makes the modified blower-vac also accessible to researchers in developing countries.

  11. El sistema de cierre asistido al vacío en el tratamiento del pie diabético avanzado

    OpenAIRE

    Dzieciuchowicz, L. (Lukasz); Espinosa, G. (Gaudencio); Grochowicz, L. (Lukasz)

    2009-01-01

    Deep diabetic foot lesions pose an enormous therapeutic problem. The purpose of this study was to present the experience of the use of vacuum assisted closure (VAC) in the treatment of advanced and complicated diabetic foot lesions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Five cases of advanced diabetic foot that were treated with VAC were prospectively studied. Three patients were diagnosed with renal failure, including one with renal transplant, who were receiving...

  12. Human genetic variation in VAC14 regulates Salmonella invasion and typhoid fever through modulation of cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Monica I; Glover, Luke C; Luo, Peter; Wang, Liuyang; Theusch, Elizabeth; Oehlers, Stefan H; Walton, Eric M; Tram, Trinh Thi Bich; Kuang, Yu-Lin; Rotter, Jerome I; McClean, Colleen M; Chinh, Nguyen Tran; Medina, Marisa W; Tobin, David M; Dunstan, Sarah J; Ko, Dennis C

    2017-09-12

    Risk, severity, and outcome of infection depend on the interplay of pathogen virulence and host susceptibility. Systematic identification of genetic susceptibility to infection is being undertaken through genome-wide association studies, but how to expeditiously move from genetic differences to functional mechanisms is unclear. Here, we use genetic association of molecular, cellular, and human disease traits and experimental validation to demonstrate that genetic variation affects expression of VAC14, a phosphoinositide-regulating protein, to influence susceptibility to Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi ( S Typhi) infection. Decreased VAC14 expression increased plasma membrane cholesterol, facilitating Salmonella docking and invasion. This increased susceptibility at the cellular level manifests as increased susceptibility to typhoid fever in a Vietnamese population. Furthermore, treating zebrafish with a cholesterol-lowering agent, ezetimibe, reduced susceptibility to S Typhi. Thus, coupling multiple genetic association studies with mechanistic dissection revealed how VAC14 regulates Salmonella invasion and typhoid fever susceptibility and may open doors to new prophylactic/therapeutic approaches.

  13. Antibacterial potency of V.A.C. GranuFoam Silver(®) Dressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachsenmaier, Saskia; Peschel, Andreas; Ipach, Ingmar; Kluba, Torsten

    2013-10-01

    V.A.C.(®) GranuFoam™ therapy is regularly used in the surgical therapy of infected wounds and soft tissue injuries. Silver nanoparticles can destroy bacterial cell walls and inhibit enzymes for cell replication. Silver dressings are therefore successfully used for many indications in wound therapy. In this study, we investigated the antimicrobial potency of ionic silver released from the silver-coated V.A.C.(®) GranuFoam™ during vacuum therapy. Silver dressing was exposed to agar plates populated with bacteria to measure silver release. A total of 15 agar plates colonised with either Staphylococcus aureus populations or with Staphylococcus epidermidis, were loaded with V.A.C. GranuFoam Silver(®) Dressing polyurethane foam (KCI, San Antonio, Texas). Each of 13 pieces of silver-coated foam was applied to an agar plate. Two plates were loaded with conventional black foam without any coating. After connecting to a vacuum pump, the vacuum therapy of the 15 plates lasted 5 days. The zone of inhibition of bacterial growth around the foam was measured daily. Silver release was also determined as a function of time. At each time point, there was evidence of silver in the agar independent of bacterial colonisation. The S. aureus agar showed a consecutive increase in silver concentration from baseline upon 48 h after exposure to the negative pressure of V.A.C. therapy. An increasing mean silver level after 48, 72 and 96 h was measured under V.A.C. therapy with a peak value after 120 h. In contrast, the results from the S. epidermidis plates did not follow a linear pattern. At the beginning of vacuum therapy, we documented a rise in silver concentration. After 48-96h, the silver levels fluctuated. A maximum zone of inhibition in both bacterial colonised plates (S. aureus and S. epidermidis) was found 39 h after the start of the V.A.C. GranuFoam Silver(®) therapy. From our results, we confirmed the antimicrobial effect of the silver ions against S. aureus and S

  14. Genomic and bioinformatics analyses of HAdV-4vac and HAdV-7vac, two human adenovirus (HAdV) strains that constituted original prophylaxis against HAdV-related acute respiratory disease, a reemerging epidemic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purkayastha, Anjan; Su, Jing; McGraw, John; Ditty, Susan E; Hadfield, Ted L; Seto, Jason; Russell, Kevin L; Tibbetts, Clark; Seto, Donald

    2005-07-01

    Vaccine strains of human adenovirus serotypes 4 and 7 (HAdV-4vac and HAdV-7vac) have been used successfully to prevent adenovirus-related acute respiratory disease outbreaks. The genomes of these two vaccine strains have been sequenced, annotated, and compared with their prototype equivalents with the goals of understanding their genomes for molecular diagnostics applications, vaccine redevelopment, and HAdV pathoepidemiology. These reference genomes are archived in GenBank as HAdV-4vac (35,994 bp; AY594254) and HAdV-7vac (35,240 bp; AY594256). Bioinformatics and comparative whole-genome analyses with their recently reported and archived prototype genomes reveal six mismatches and four insertions-deletions (indels) between the HAdV-4 prototype and vaccine strains, in contrast to the 611 mismatches and 130 indels between the HAdV-7 prototype and vaccine strains. Annotation reveals that the HAdV-4vac and HAdV-7vac genomes contain 51 and 50 coding units, respectively. Neither vaccine strain appears to be attenuated for virulence based on bioinformatics analyses. There is evidence of genome recombination, as the inverted terminal repeat of HAdV-4vac is initially identical to that of species C whereas the prototype is identical to species B1. These vaccine reference sequences yield unique genome signatures for molecular diagnostics. As a molecular forensics application, these references identify the circulating and problematic 1950s era field strains as the original HAdV-4 prototype and the Greider prototype, from which the vaccines are derived. Thus, they are useful for genomic comparisons to current epidemic and reemerging field strains, as well as leading to an understanding of pathoepidemiology among the human adenoviruses.

  15. 硫糖铝对幽门螺杆菌VacA IgY的保护作用的动物实验评价%Evaluation on protective effects of sucralfate on H.pylori-VacA-IgY in animal experiments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭丽媛; 吴金英; 黄伟; 杨致邦; 吴敏; 马小京

    2010-01-01

    目的 评价硫糖铝在胃内对H.pylori VacA IgY型抗体的保护作用,为制备H.pylori VacA IgY型抗体口服剂提供实验依据.方法 大量诱导工程菌DH5α-vacA-pQE30, 表达并纯化重组蛋白VacA.以VacA为抗原接种洛曼母鸡,制备纯化的IgY.建立H.pylori 感染的小鼠模型,在不同浓度的IgY液中分别加入30%硫糖铝,灌胃后观察胃黏膜慢性炎症反应以评价硫糖铝在胃内对VacA IgY的保护作用.结果 在小鼠胃内,0.5 mg IgY+30%硫糖铝/天灌胃小鼠即可有效防治H.pylori感染引起的胃黏膜损害,与不加硫糖铝比较,其效果提高了8倍.结论 30%以上的硫糖铝在小鼠胃内可增强VacA IgY对低pH和胃蛋白酶的耐受能力,是较理想的抗H.pylori VacA IgY型抗体保护剂.

  16. Prevalence and Correlation with Clinical Diseases of Helicobacter pylori cagA and vacA Genotype among Gastric Patients from Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Aziz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori vacA and cagA genes have significant genetic heterogenicity, resulting in different clinical outcomes. Northeast part of China has reported high prevalence of H. pylori infections and gastric cancer. Hence, we investigated the H. pylori cagA and vacA genotypes with clinical outcomes in Northeast China. Gastric tissue samples (n=169, chronic gastritis (GIs, gastric ulcer (GU, and gastric cancer (GC were analysed for 16S rRNA ureA, cagA, and cagA genotypes by PCR. A total of 141 (84% cases were found positive for H. pylori by 16S rRNA and ureA. GC showed high H. pylori infection (93% compared with GIs (72% and GU (84%. The vacAs1am1 was highly found in GC (40% and GU (36%, vacAs1am2 in GIs (33%, vacAs1bm1 (14% and vacAs1bm2 (8% in GU cases, and s2m1 in normal cases (33%, while vacAs1cm1 showed low frequency in GIs (2% and GU (3% and GC showed negative result. The East-Asian cagA strain was highly observed in GC (43%, as compared to GIs (41% and GU (20%. The East-Asian cagA/vacAs1am1 was significantly higher in GC (23% than in GU (22% and GIs (145 patients. The East-Asian type cagA with vacAs1a and vacAm1 is the most predominant genotype in H. pylori strains of Northeast China.

  17. Helicobacter pylori oipA, vacA and dupA genetic diversity in individual hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteo, Mario José; Armitano, Rita Inés; Granados, Gabriela; Wonaga, Andrés Dario; Sánches, Christian; Olmos, Martín; Catalano, Mariana

    2010-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori putative virulence factors can undergo a continuously evolving mechanism as an approach to bacterial adaptation to the host changing environment during chronic infection. oipA, vacA and dupA genetic diversity among isolates from multiple biopsies (niches) from the antrum and corpus of 40 patients was investigated. A set of 229 isolates was examined. Direct DNA sequence analysis of amplified fragments was used to study oipA 'on/off' expression status as well as the presence of C or T insertion in jhp0917 that originates a continuous (jhp0917-jhp0918) dupA gene. vacA alleles were identified by multiplex PCR. Different inter-niches oipA CT repeat patterns were observed in nine patients; in six of these, 'on' and 'off' mixed patterns were found. In three of these nine patients, different vacA alleles were also observed in a single host. Inter-niche dupA differences involved the absence and presence of jhp0917 and/or jhp0918 or mutations in dupA, including those that may originate a non-functional gene, and they were also present in two patients with mixed oipA CT patterns and in another seven patients. Evidence of mixed infection was observed in two patients only. In conclusion, oipA and dupA genes showed similar inter-niche variability, occurring in approximately 1/4 patients. Conversely, vacA allele microevolution seemed to be a less common event, occurring in approximately 1/10 patients, probably due to the mechanism that this gene evolves 'in vivo'.

  18. Detection of Helicobacter pylori vacA, cagA and iceA1 virulence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ahmed El-Shenawy

    related genes in different age group patients with ... vacA and iceA1 genotypes of H. pylori strains recovered from patients with dyspepsia. Subjects and methods: ..... many decades in the absence of antimicrobial treatment. Longitu- dinal studies ...

  19. A systematic review on the association between the Helicobacter pylori vacA i genotype and gastric disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xian; He, Bangshun; Cho, William C; Pan, Yuqin; Chen, Jie; Ying, Houqun; Wang, Feng; Lin, Kang; Peng, Hongxin; Wang, Shukui

    2016-05-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) has been recognized as a cause of gastrointestinal diseases and progress of the pathology of gastrointestinal diseases is related to the genotype of H. pylori. Published studies have indicated that the H. pylori vacuolating cytotoxin gene A (vacA) i1/i2 genotype is associated with peptic ulcer disease (PUD) and gastric cancer (GC), but their conclusions are inconsistent. This study aimed to further assess the risk of vacA i gene for PUD and/or GC. A systematic search was conducted across three main electronic databases (PubMed, Web of Science, and CNKI). A meta-analysis was then performed on the pooled data of the published articles to estimate the overall influence of vacA i polymorphisms on PUD and/or GC by crude odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). The reliability of the results were confirmed by publication bias and sensitivity analysis of included studies. A total of 14 studies were selected according to the specific inclusion and exclusion criteria. The pooled results revealed that patients with GC were more vulnerable to infection by H. pylori i1 genotype (OR = 5.12; 95% CI: 2.66-9.85; P gastritis or nonulcer disease. Moreover, the results of subgroup analysis indicated that the i1 genotype of H. pylori was associated with an increased GC risk (OR = 10.89; 95% CI: 4.11-20.88; P < 0.001) in the Middle Asian population. The H. pylori vacA i1 genotype is associated with an increased GC risk, especially in the Middle Asian population.

  20. VacA and cagA genotypes of Helicobacter pylori isolated from raw meat in Isfahan province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilani, Ali; Razavilar, Vadood; Rokni, Nordahr; Rahimi, Ebrahim

    2017-01-01

    Foods with animal origins play a substantial role in the transmission of Helicobacter pylori . The present investigation was carried out to study the vacA and cagA genotypes status of H. pylori isolated from various types of meat samples. Two hundred and twenty meat samples were collected and cultured. H. pylori -positive strains were analyzed for the presence of vacA and cagA genotypes. Eleven out of 220 (5.00%) samples were positive for H. pylori . Findings were confirmed by nested PCR. Prevalence of H. pylori in the meat samples of slaughterhouses and butcheries were 72.20% and 27.70%, respectively. The most commonly detected genotypes in the meat samples of slaughterhouses and butcheries were vacA m1a (66.66%) and vacA s1a (37.50%), respectively. The S1am1a was the most commonly detected genotype. Meat sampled from butcheries had the higher prevalence of H. pylori and its genotypes than those of slaughterhouses ( p meat samples could be the potential sources of virulent strains of H. pylori . Application of sanitary measures in the storage, transportation and sale of meat is essential for reducing the levels of H. pylori cross contamination.

  1. Helicobacter pylori counteracts the apoptotic action of its VacA toxin by injecting the CagA protein into gastric epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Oldani

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Infection with Helicobacter pylori is responsible for gastritis and gastroduodenal ulcers but is also a high risk factor for the development of gastric adenocarcinoma and lymphoma. The most pathogenic H. pylori strains (i.e., the so-called type I strains associate the CagA virulence protein with an active VacA cytotoxin but the rationale for this association is unknown. CagA, directly injected by the bacterium into colonized epithelium via a type IV secretion system, leads to cellular morphological, anti-apoptotic and proinflammatory effects responsible in the long-term (years or decades for ulcer and cancer. VacA, via pinocytosis and intracellular trafficking, induces epithelial cell apoptosis and vacuolation. Using human gastric epithelial cells in culture transfected with cDNA encoding for either the wild-type 38 kDa C-terminal signaling domain of CagA or its non-tyrosine-phosphorylatable mutant form, we found that, depending on tyrosine-phosphorylation by host kinases, CagA inhibited VacA-induced apoptosis by two complementary mechanisms. Tyrosine-phosphorylated CagA prevented pinocytosed VacA to reach its target intracellular compartments. Unphosphorylated CagA triggered an anti-apoptotic activity blocking VacA-induced apoptosis at the mitochondrial level without affecting the intracellular trafficking of the toxin. Assaying the level of apoptosis of gastric epithelial cells infected with wild-type CagA(+/VacA(+H. pylori or isogenic mutants lacking of either CagA or VacA, we confirmed the results obtained in cells transfected with the CagA C-ter constructions showing that CagA antagonizes VacA-induced apoptosis. VacA toxin plays a role during H. pylori stomach colonization. However, once bacteria have colonized the gastric niche, the apoptotic action of VacA might be detrimental for the survival of H. pylori adherent to the mucosa. CagA association with VacA is thus a novel, highly ingenious microbial strategy to locally protect its

  2. Expression of cagA, virB/D Complex and/or vacA Genes in Helicobacter pylori Strains Originating from Patients with Gastric Diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Szkaradkiewicz

    Full Text Available In order to better understand pathogenicity of Helicobacter pylori, particularly in the context of its carcinogenic activity, we analysed expression of virulence genes: cagA, virB/D complex (virB4, virB7, virB8, virB9, virB10, virB11, virD4 and vacA in strains of the pathogen originating from persons with gastric diseases. The studies were conducted on 42 strains of H. pylori isolated from patients with histological diagnosis of non-atrophic gastritis-NAG (group 1, including subgroup 1 containing cagA+ isolates and subgroup 2 containing cagA- strains, multifocal atrophic gastritis-MAG (group 2 and gastric adenocarcinoma-GC (group 3. Expression of H. pylori genes was studied using microarray technology. In group 1, in all strains of H. pylori cagA+ (subgroup 1 high expression of the gene as well as of virB/D was disclosed, accompanied by moderate expression of vacA. In strains of subgroup 2 a moderate expression of vacA was detected. All strains in groups 2 and 3 carried cagA gene but they differed in its expression: a high expression was detected in isolates of group 2 and its hyperexpression in strains of group 3 (hypervirulent strains. In both groups high expression of virB/D and vacA was disclosed. Our results indicate that chronic active gastritis may be induced by both cagA+ strains of H. pylori, manifesting high expression of virB/D complex but moderate activity of vacA, and cagA- strains with moderate expression of vacA gene. On the other hand, in progression of gastric pathology and carcinogenesis linked to H. pylori a significant role was played by hypervirulent strains, manifesting a very high expression of cagA and high activity of virB/D and vacA genes.

  3. Relationship between New Allelic Types of Helicobacter pylori vacA Gene and cagA Status and Risk of GU or DU in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Bakhti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Several studies have described VacA and CagA as the two important virulence determinants of Helicobacter pylori, which are associated with gastric ulcer (GU and duodenal ulcer (DU. The aim of present study was to determine the associations of the i and d regions genotypes of H. pylori vacA gene and cagA status with GU and DU risk. Methods: A total of 177 isolates were cultured from the biopsies of Iranian patients with different geographic origins and genotyped. Data were collected and analyzed. Results: Frequency of the vacA i1, i2, i1i2, d1, and d2 alleles and cagA in all patients was 42.9%, 55.4%, 1.7%, 41.8%, 58.2% and 68.4%, respectively. There was a significant difference between the frequencies of vacA i1 in isolates from GU than those from non-atrophic gastritis (p<0.05. When the GU was considered as a dependant factor by the multiple logistic regression analysis, the vacA i1 genotype was significantly associated with the age- and sex-adjusted risk for GU (p=0.006, odds ratio [OR]=3.56 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.45–8.75. Statistical analysis showed no significant association between vacA d genotype and digestive diseases. After controlling for age and sex variables, the cagA genotype remained in the final model when the DU was considered as a dependant factor by the the multiple logistic regression analysis (p=0.021, OR=3.77 95% CI=1.22-11.60. Conclusion: We have proposed that the H. pylori vacA i1 and cagA genotypes could be considered as benefit biomarkers for prediction of risk of GU and DU in Iran, respectively.

  4. Helicobacter pylori VacA, acting through receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase ?, is crucial for CagA phosphorylation in human duodenum carcinoma cell line AZ-521

    OpenAIRE

    Nakano, Masayuki; Yahiro, Kinnosuke; Yamasaki, Eiki; Kurazono, Hisao; Akada, Junko; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Niidome, Takuro; Hatakeyama, Masanori; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Yamamoto, Taro; Moss, Joel; Isomoto, Hajime; Hirayama, Toshiya

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Helicobacter pylori, a major cause of gastroduodenal diseases, produces vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA) and cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA), which seem to be involved in virulence. VacA exhibits pleiotropic actions in gastroduodenal disorders via its specific receptors. Recently, we found that VacA induced the phosphorylation of cellular Src kinase (Src) at Tyr418 in AZ-521 cells. Silencing of receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase (RPTP)?, a VacA receptor, reduced VacA-induced Src ph...

  5. The "Fistula VAC," a technique for management of enterocutaneous fistulae arising within the open abdomen: report of 5 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goverman, Jeremy; Yelon, Jay A; Platz, John Joseph; Singson, Rufino C; Turcinovic, Michael

    2006-02-01

    Management of intestinal fistulae in open abdominal wounds remains a significant clinical challenge for those caring for patients surviving damage control abdominal operations. Breaking the cycle of tissue inflammation, infection, and sepsis, resulting from leakage of enteric contents, should be a major goal in the approach to these complex patients. We describe a technique utilizing vacuum assisted closure (VAC) which achieves control of enteric flow from fistulae in open abdominal wounds. The fistula-VAC is fashioned from standard sponge supplies, negative pressure pumps, and ostomy appliances. The fistula-VAC was changed every three days prior to split thickness skin grafting, and every five days following grafting. Five patients underwent application of the fistula-VAC. All patients had complete diversion of enteric contents. This enteric diversion allowed for successful skin grafting in all patients. Application of the fistula-VAC should be considered a useful option in treating patients with intestinal fistulae in open abdominal wounds.

  6. Distribution of Helicobacter pylori cagA, cagE and vacA in different ethnic groups in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Huck Joo; Rizal, Abdul Manaf; Rosmadi, Mohamed-Yusoff; Goh, Khean-Lee

    2005-04-01

    There is a geographic variation in Helicobacter pylori (HP) genotypes and virulence factors. Cytotoxin associated genes A (cagA) and E (cagE), and certain vacuolating cytotoxin (vacA) genotypes are associated with peptic ulcer disease (PUD). There is also a different prevalence of PUD among different ethnic groups in Malaysia. The present study compared the distribution of vacA alleles and cagA and cagE status in three ethnic groups residing in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, and their association with clinical outcome. All patients with cultured positive HP were recruited prospectively. DNA was extracted and polymerase chain reaction was carried out to determine the cagA and cagE status and vacA alleles. The results of 127 patients (72 men and 55 women) were included. The mean age was 55.53 +/- 12.52 years. The ethnic distribution was 59 Chinese, 38 Indian and 30 Malay patients. The predominant genotype was s1a among the Malay (76.6%) and Indian patients (71.0%), and s1c among the Chinese patients (66.1%). The vacA middle region sequence m1 was detected in 66.7% of Malay, 54.2% of Chinese and 76.3% of Indian patients. Of the Malay, Chinese and Indian patients, 76.6%, 86.4% and 86.8%, respectively, were cagA positive, and 70.0%, 39.0% and 81.6%, respectively, were cagE positve. HP cagA, cagE and vacA were not associated with PUD. There is a distinctive difference in the HP strains among the three ethnic groups in Malaysia. There was no association between cagA, cagE or vacA genotypes and clinical outcome in the patients. None of these markers are helpful in predicting the clinical presentation of a HP infection.

  7. Improvement in ionic conductivity of self-supported P(MMA-AN-VAc) gel electrolyte by fumed silica for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Youhao; Rao Mumin; Li Weishan; Tan Chunlin; Yi Jin; Chen Lang

    2009-01-01

    Fumed silica was used as a dopant in the preparation of poly(methyl methacrylate-acrylonitrile-vinyl acetate) (P(MMA-AN-VAc)) to improve the ionic conductivity of the P(MMA-AN-VAc)-based gel polymer electrolyte (GPE). The performance of the P(MMA-AN-VAc) membrane and its GPE for lithium ion battery use were studied by XRD, SEM, TGA, LSV, CA, EIS, and charge/discharge test. It is found that the doping of fumed silica in the P(MMA-AN-VAc) changes the membrane from semi-crystal to amorphous state and the pore structure of the membrane. By the doping of 10 wt.% fumed silica in the membrane, the porosity of the membrane increases with the pore dispersed more uniformly and interconnected and having higher electrolyte uptake, resulting in the improvement in ionic conductivity of the GPE from 3.48 x 10 -3 to 5.13 x 10 -3 S cm -1 at ambient temperature. On the other hand, the thermal stability of the membrane, the electrochemical stability of the GPE, and the cyclic performance of the battery are also improved.

  8. An economic evaluation of VAC therapy compared with wound dressings in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flack, S; Apelqvist, J; Keith, M; Trueman, P; Williams, D

    2008-02-01

    To determine the cost-effectiveness ofVacuum Assisted Closure (VAC) therapy (KCI Medical), based on a comparison with both traditional and advanced wound dressings, for the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers in the US. A Markov model was designed to estimate the cost per amputation avoided and the cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) of VAC therapy, compared with both traditional and advanced dressings. Over a one-year period the Markov model simulated 1000 patients using transition probabilities obtained from the literature. The health states used in the model were: uninfected ulcer; infected ulcer; infected ulcer post-amputation; healed; healed post-amputation; amputation; and death. Patients initially treated with VAC switched to the advanced dressing after three months of treatment if their wound remained unhealed. Patients treated with traditional or advanced dressings were assumed to continue with their treatment for the full 12 months if they remained unhealed. The model results demonstrate improved healing rates (61% versus 59%), more QALYs (0.54 versus 0.53) and an overall lower cost of care ($52,830 versus $61,757 per person) for patients treated with VAC therapy compared with advanced dressings. Vacuum Assisted Closure was also shown to be a dominant intervention when compared with traditional dressings. The model results indicate thatVAC therapy is less costly and more effective than both traditional and advanced dressings. The results are robust to changes in key parameters, including the transition probabilities, the cost ofVAC therapy and the utility weights applied to health states.

  9. Helicobacter pylori vacA and cagA genotypes in patients from northeastern Brazil with upper gastrointestinal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyssa Quezado de Figueiredo Cavalcante

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori causes chronic gastric inflammation and significantly increases the risk of duodenal and gastric ulcer disease and distal gastric carcinoma. In this study, we evaluated the Helicobacter pylori vacA and cagA genotypes in patients from a Brazilian region where there is a high prevalence of gastric cancer. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR was used to investigate vacA mosaicism and cagA status in the gastric mucosa of 134 H. pylori-positive patients, including 76 with gastritis: 28 with peptic ulcer disease and 30 with gastric cancer. The s1m1 variant was the predominant vacA genotype observed, whereas the s1 allele was more frequently observed in patients with more severe diseases associated with H. pylori infection [p = 0.03, odds ratio (OR = 5.72, 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.15-38.60]. Furthermore, all of the s1 alleles were s1b. Mixed vacA m1/m2 strains were found more frequently in patients with gastric cancer and a cagA-positive status was significantly associated with gastric cancer (p = 0.016, OR = 10.36, 95% CI = 1.35-217.31. Patients with gastric cancer (21/21, 100%, p = 0.006 or peptic ulcers (20/21, 95%, p = 0.02 were more frequently colonised by more virulent H. pylori strains compared to gastritis patients (41/61, 67.2%. In conclusion, in the northeastern of Brazil, which is one of the regions with the highest prevalence of gastric cancer in the country, infection with the most virulent H. pylori strains, carrying the cagA gene and s1m1 vacA alleles, predominates and is correlated with more severe H. pylori-associated diseases.

  10. Ventilation and air conditioning systems in maritime productions units; Panorama dos sistemas de VAC em unidades maritimas de producao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guedes, Fernando Pedrosa; Sztajnbok, Ernani Luis [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Padua, Carlos Eduardo Dantas de; Passos, Alfredo Silveira [DUOVAC Engenharia Ltda. (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    In an Offshore Stationary Production Unit (SPU), the adequate project of the Ventilation and Air Conditioning (VAC) System is not only a thermal comfort requirement but part of the essential safety services of the installation and complement for area classification requirements associated with electrical equipment. The VAC installations are sometimes the object of complaints by onboard team. Problems such as unsatisfactory system performance, high noise levels in the accommodation quarters, offices and other areas and the discomfort caused by unbalanced ventilation and air conditioning systems, are some of the most frequent complaints. Air Conditioning systems are classified as Direct and Indirect Expansion. Decentralized systems with Indirect Expansion has been adopted in PETROBRAS projects. This conception is not used in VAC Systems for platforms installed in North Sea, where the use of Centralized Systems with Direct Expansion are more common. The objective of this work is to compare the VAC conception projects, analyzing their advantages and disadvantages . The evaluation of VAC System in PETROBRAS project, and their steps in SPU development, is also scope of this paper. (author)

  11. Low-density Lipoprotein Receptor-related Protein-1 (LRP1) Mediates Autophagy and Apoptosis Caused by Helicobacter pylori VacA*

    OpenAIRE

    Yahiro, Kinnosuke; Satoh, Mamoru; Nakano, Masayuki; Hisatsune, Junzo; Isomoto, Hajime; Sap, Jan; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Nomura, Fumio; Noda, Masatoshi; Moss, Joel; Hirayama, Toshiya

    2012-01-01

    In Helicobacter pylori infection, vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA)-induced mitochondrial damage leading to apoptosis is believed to be a major cause of cell death. It has also been proposed that VacA-induced autophagy serves as a host mechanism to limit toxin-induced cellular damage. Apoptosis and autophagy are two dynamic and opposing processes that must be balanced to regulate cell death and survival. Here we identify the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP1) as the VacA rec...

  12. Chips de papa, la fritura en vacío y beneficios para la salud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Crosa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Existe una tendencia del mercado al consumo de alimentos más saludables que ha motivado a la industria alimentaria a innovar en tecnologías. La fritura en vacío es una tecnología alternativa a la fritura tradicional que preserva las propiedades sensoriales del snack frito y mejora la calidad nutricional.El objetivo del trabajo fue estudiar los beneficios nutricionales y para la salud y las características organolépticas de chips de papa elaborados por fritura en vacío en relación a los elaborados por fritura tradicional y diferenciarlos de los actualmente presentes en el mercado uruguayo.Los chips elaborados por fritura en vacío presentaron un 61% menos de materia grasa y 90% menos de acrilamida que los chips elaborados por fritura tradicional. Sensorialmente fueron muy bien evaluados en todos los atributos menos en la percepción de intensidad de sabor salado. 

  13. Wound infections after median sternotomy treated by VAC therapy, summary of results, and risk factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulman, M; Bezak, B; Artemiou, P; Cikrai, R

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to summarize results and analyze risk factors for the development of wound infection in heart surgery patients after median sternotomy. In this retrospective analysis with assessment of multiple risk factors, we examined 143 patients with infection after median sternotomy treated with VAC therapy from total of 4,650 patients operated in our department from 2012 to 2015. Total of 143 patients developed significant SSI treated by VAC therapy following cardiac surgery. Of these, only 14 patients developed DSWI and one patient was diagnosed with suspected osteomyelitis. BMI, female gender, and use of BIMA proved to be statistically significant risk factors in our study (p infection (p infection proved to be a significant prognostic factor for patients' outcome (p infection (Tab. 3, Ref. 30).

  14. Polymorphism in the Helicobacter pylori CagA and VacA toxins and disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, Dacie R.; Merrell, D. Scott

    2013-01-01

    Half of the world’s population is infected with Helicobacter pylori and approximately 20% of infected individuals develop overt clinical disease such as ulcers and stomach cancer. Paradoxically, despite its classification as a class I carcinogen, H. pylori has been shown to be protective against development of asthma, allergy, and esophageal disease. Given these conflicting roles for H. pylori, researchers are attempting to define the environmental, host, and pathogen interactions that ultimately result in severe disease in some individuals. From the bacterial perspective, the toxins, CagA and VacA, have each been shown to be polymorphic and to contribute to disease in an allele-dependent manner. Based on the notable advances that have recently been made in the CagA field, herein we review recent studies that have begun to shed light on the role of CagA polymorphism in H. pylori disease. Moreover, we discuss the potential interaction of CagA and VacA as a mediator of gastric disease. PMID:23380646

  15. Genotyping of vacA alleles of Helicobacter pylori strains recovered ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genotyping of vacA alleles of Helicobacter pylori strains recovered from some Iranian food items. ... Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research ... Conclusion: The presence of similar genotypes in H. pylori strains of foods and those of human clinical samples suggest that contaminated foods may be the source of bacteria ...

  16. vacío - presión e inmersión

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Machuca-Velasco

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo se realizó con la finalidad de conocer la capacidad de absorción de preservadores de las maderas de Pinus arizonica (pino blanco, Pinus engelmanni (pino real, Pinus patula (pino colorado, Ceiba pentandra (ceiba, Manilkara zapota (chicozapote, Spondias mombin (jobo, Quercus insignis (chicalaba, Quercus laurina (laurelillo y Quercus oleoides (tesmol, aplicando los procesos de impregnación vacío-presión e inmersión con sales CCA (cobre, cromo, arsénico tipo C, a 2.5 %; pentaclorofenol (PCP, a 5 %; y creosota a 50 % de concentración. Los niveles de absorción se analizaron con técnicas univariadas. De acuerdo a los niveles de absorción alcanzados con el método de vacío-presión, con las sales CCA (cromo, cobre, arsénico los pinos, la ceiba y el jobo resultaron fáciles de impregnar, con pentaclorofenol y creosota sólo los pinos resultaron fáciles de impregnar. En cuanto al método de inmersión, con sales CCA, el pino colorado, la ceiba y el tesmol fueron fáciles de impregnar; con pentaclorofenol y creosota, los encinos, el chicozapote y el jobo fueron difíciles de impregnar. Para los pinos, la ceiba y el jobo, la mayor absorción con sales CCA se alcanzó con el método de impregnación a vacío-presión; para los encinos y el chicozapote, la mayor absorción con sales CCA fue con la inmersión prolongada.

  17. Vacíos adjetivos. El espacio construído en la fotografía

    OpenAIRE

    Morón Serna, María Elena

    2015-01-01

    La investigación emprendió la tarea de formación de una taxonomía visual basada en el concepto de la representación del espacio arquitectónico. Desde una lectura global del registro fotográfico, la propuesta adopta el principio del vacío como instrumento de análisis y como categoría activa, relacional y sensible. El resultado, un Ensayo de un esquema binario de la imagen, atendiendo a las relaciones entre lleno y vacío, las conexiones sintácticas de los elementos alfabéticos y el protagoni...

  18. Helicobacter pylori vacA and cagA genotype diversity and interferon gamma expression in patients with chronic gastritis and patients with gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Carrillo, D N; Atrisco-Morales, J; Hernández-Pando, R; Reyes-Navarrete, S; Betancourt-Linares, R; Cruz-del Carmen, I; Illades Aguiar, B; Román-Román, A; Fernández-Tilapa, G

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the main risk factor for the development of chronic gastritis, gastric ulcer, and gastric cancer. In H. pylori-infected individuals, the clinical result is dependent on various factors, among which are bacterial components, the immune response, and environmental influence. To compare IFN-γ expression with the H. pylori vacA and cagA genotypes in patients with chronic gastritis and patients with gastric cancer. Ninety-five patients diagnosed with chronic gastritis and 20 with gastric cancer were included in the study. Three gastric biopsies were taken; one was used for the molecular detection and genotyping of H. pylori; another was fixed in absolute alcohol and histologic sections were made for determining IFN-γ expression through immunohistochemistry. No differences were found in the cells that expressed IFN-γ between the patients with chronic gastritis (median percentage of positive cells: 82.6% in patients without H. pylori and 82% in infected persons) and those with gastric cancer (70.5% in H. pylori-negative patients and 78.5% in infected persons). IFN-γ expression was 69% in chronic gastritis patients infected with H. pylori vacAs2m2/cagA⁻ it was 86.5% in patients infected with H. pylori vacAs1m2/cagA⁻, 86.5% in vacAs1m1/cagA⁻, and 82% in vacAs1m1/cagA⁺. Similar data were found in the patients with gastric cancer. IFN-γ expression varied depending on the H. pylori vacA and cagA genotype, but not in accordance with the presence of chronic gastritis or gastric cancer.

  19. Serum TNF-α levels and Helicobacter pylori cagA and vacA genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siregar, G. A.; Halim, S.; Sitepu, R. R.; Darmadi

    2018-03-01

    Helicobacter pylori is associated with higher virulence. TNF-α has an important role in host defense against H. pylori infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between TNF-α serum levels with cagA and vacA genes in H. pylori infection. This was a cross-sectional study involving 80 patients that consecutively admitted to endoscopy unit. Diagnosis of H. pylori infection was based on rapid urease test. Serum samples werecollected to determine circulating TNF-α level. Polymerase chain reaction was done to examine H. pylori vacA and cagA genes. Data analysis was carriedout using SPSS version 22 with 95%CI and p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. About 45 (56.3%) patients infected with Helicobacter pylori. There were 33 (73.3%) patients with H. pylori cagA positive. Serum TNF-α levels in patients with the H. pylori positive were significantly higher compared to H. pylori negative. Serum level of TNF-α was significantly higher in cagA positive than negative. Subjects with H. pylori cagA gene positive were more likely to have ahigher level of serum TNF-α than H. pylori cagA gene negative.

  20. High diversity of vacA and cagA Helicobacter pylori genotypes in patients with and without gastric cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda López-Vidal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori is associated with chronic gastritis, peptic ulcers, and gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to assess the topographical distribution of H. pylori in the stomach as well as the vacA and cagA genotypes in patients with and without gastric cancer. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Three gastric biopsies, from predetermined regions, were evaluated in 16 patients with gastric cancer and 14 patients with dyspeptic symptoms. From cancer patients, additional biopsy specimens were obtained from tumor centers and margins; among these samples, the presence of H. pylori vacA and cagA genotypes was evaluated. Positive H. pylori was 38% and 26% in biopsies obtained from the gastric cancer and non-cancer groups, respectively (p = 0.008, and 36% in tumor sites. In cancer patients, we found a preferential distribution of H. pylori in the fundus and corpus, whereas, in the non-cancer group, the distribution was uniform (p = 0.003. A majority of the biopsies were simultaneously cagA gene-positive and -negative. The fundus and corpus demonstrated a higher positivity rate for the cagA gene in the non-cancer group (p = 0.036. A mixture of cagA gene sizes was also significantly more frequent in this group (p = 0.003. Ninety-two percent of all the subjects showed more than one vacA gene genotype; s1b and m1 vacA genotypes were predominantly found in the gastric cancer group. The highest vacA-genotype signal-sequence diversity was found in the corpus and 5 cm from tumor margins. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: High H. pylori colonization diversity, along with the cagA gene, was found predominantly in the fundus and corpus of patients with gastric cancer. The genotype diversity observed across systematic whole-organ and tumor sampling was remarkable. We find that there is insufficient evidence to support the association of one isolate with a specific disease, due to the multistrain nature of H. pylori infection shown in this work.

  1. CagA and VacA Helicobacter Pylori Antibodies in Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renzo Suriani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infection with different genotypes of virulent Helicobacter pylori strains (cytotoxin-associated gene A [CagA]-and/or vacuolating cytotoxin A [VacA]-positive can play a role in the development of atrophic gastritis, duodenal ulcer (DU and gastric cancer (GC.

  2. KenVACS: Improving Vaccination of Children through Cellular Network Technology in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Gatuha

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Health Data collection is one of the major components of public health systems. Decision makers, policy makers, and medical service providers need accurate and timely data in order to improve the quality of health services. The rapid growth and use of mobile technologies has exerted pressure on the demand for mobile-based data collection solutions to bridge the information gaps in the health sector. We propose a prototype using open source data collection frameworks to test its feasibility in improving the vaccination data collection in Kenya. KenVACS, the proposed prototype, offers ways of collecting vaccination data through mobile phones and visualizes the collected data in a web application; the system also sends reminder short messages service (SMS to remind parents on the date of the next vaccination. Early evaluation demonstrates the benefits of such a system in supporting and improving vaccination of children. Finally, we conducted a qualitative study to assess challenges in remote health data collection and evaluated usability and functionality of KenVACS.

  3. vacA s1m1 genotype and cagA EPIYA-ABC pattern are predominant among Helicobacter pylori strains isolated from Mexican patients with chronic gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atrisco-Morales, Josefina; Martínez-Santos, Verónica I; Román-Román, Adolfo; Alarcón-Millán, Judit; De Sampedro-Reyes, José; Cruz-Del Carmen, Iván; Martínez-Carrillo, Dinorah N; Fernández-Tilapa, Gloria

    2018-03-01

    Virulent genotypes of Helicobacter pylori vacA s1m1/cagA + /babA2 + have been associated with severe gastric diseases. VacA, CagA and BabA are polymorphic proteins, and their association with the disease is allele-dependent. The aims of this work were: (i) to determine the prevalence of H. pylori by type of chronic gastritis; (ii) to describe the frequency of cagA, babA2 and vacA genotypes in strains from patients with different types of chronic gastritis; (iii) to characterize the variable region of cagA alleles. A total of 164 patients with chronic gastritis were studied. Altogether, 50 H. pylori strains were isolated, and the status of cagA, babA2 and vacA genotypes was examined by PCR. cagA EPIYA segment identification was performed using PCR and sequencing of cagA fragments of six randomly selected strains.Results/Key findings. The overall prevalence of H. pylori was 30.5 %. Eighty percent of the isolated strains were vacA s1m1, and the cagA and babA2 genes were detected in 74 and 32 % of the strains, respectively. The most frequent genotypes were vacA s1m1/cagA + /babA2 - and vacA s1m1/cagA + /babA2 + , with 40 % (20/50) and 28 % (14/50), respectively. In cagA + , the most frequent EPIYA motif was -ABC (78.4 %), and EPIYA-ABCC and -ABCCC motifs were found in 10.8 % of the strains. A modified EPIYT-B motif was found in 66.6 % of the sequenced strains. H. pylori strains carrying vacA s1m1, cagA + and babA2 - genotypes were the most prevalent in patients with chronic gastritis from the south of Mexico. In the cagA + strains, the EPIYA-ABC motif was the most common.

  4. Bio-Engineering tissue and V.A.C. therapy: A new method for the treatment of extensive necrotizing infection in the diabetic foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenio, Andrea; Cutrignelli, Daniela Anna; Nardulli, Maria Luisa; Maggio, Giulio; Memeo, Giuseppe; De Santis, Valerio; Giudice, Giuseppe; Ressa, Cosmo Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study is to compare the standard care for progressive necrotizing infection in diabetic foot with a treatment protocol based on the association between autologous fibroblast grafts and vacuum-assisted closure therapy (V.A.C.). A retrospective matched Case-Control study was carried out on 20 patients with diabetic foot infection, 10 treated with the standard care and 10 with our new protocol. Inclusion criteria were: acute diabetic foot necrosis (Wagner III and IV), ulcer size (30 to 80 cm2), tendon and bone exposure. Success in the treatment was evaluated as: percentage of healing at the 20th week, time of healing, deambulation, recurrence and major amputation rate. A 90% healing rate was observed after 20 weeks in the study group, compared to a 28.6% in the control group. The recurrence rate in the treated areas was 20% in the study group and 100% in the control group. None of the patients in either group required major amputations. We achieved very promising results by associating autologous fibroblasts grafts and V.A.C. therapy, in comparison with standard care. V.A.C. therapy seems to improve the growth rate of the fibroblasts, probably by sealing the wound and providing a moist environment following the fibroblast graft. The improved neoangiogenesis of the neo-dermis could explain the reduced recurrence rate of the study group. Despite the low number of patients involved and the retrospective nature of the analysis, this study showed a reliable, safe and cost-effective method of treating extensive infection in the diabetic foot. Bio-Engineered Tissue, Diabetic foot, Fibroblast graft, V.A.C.

  5. VAC*TRAX vacuum thermal desorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    Pilot VAC*TRAX treatability tests were conducted on RCRA, TSCA, and RCRA/radioactive mixed wastes, to determine the efficiency in remediating organics' contaminated solids. The process volatilizes organic compounds by indirectly heating the feed material in a vacuum batch dryer and condensing the organics separately from the remaining solids. Contaminants included tetrachloroethene, bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, pentachlorophenol, and PCBs. Treatment specifications were met: a tetrachloroethene removal >99.99% and PCB removal from a starting level of 990 ppM to a final level of 3 , as a uranium simulant; the Mo remained in the treated solids, not transferring to the condensate. In the mixed waste tests, uranium present in a feed soil remained in the soil. Economic viability was demonstrated by achieving excellent treatment on a routine basis with both 4 and 6 hour heating cycles

  6. [Vacuum-assisted Closure (VAC) Treatment for Sternal Infection in a Patient after Cardiovascular Surgery; Report of a Case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shima, Shotaro; Okamura, Kennichi; Morizumi, Sei; Kanamori, Taro; Ichihara, Tetsuya; Kawata, Mitsuhiro; Suematsu, Yoshihiro

    2015-03-01

    One year ago, a 42-year-old woman underwent aortic root replacement because of a pseudoaneurysm that developed at the site of an anastomosis after ascending aortic replacement for acute aortic dissection. Six months later, she complained of fever and cough. A computed tomography revealed recurrence of the peudoaneurysm at the proximal anastomosis of the aortic root replacement. After emergency re-do aortic root replacement, she was admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) without sternal closure because of mediastinitis. The mediastinitis was managed by debridement and lavage drainage, followed by vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) treatment. The VAC treatment facilitated wound healing and active rehabilitation using a portable device. Finally, the wound was closed completely using a skin graft. VAC treatment is considered very useful in a case of post-sternotomy madiastinitis.

  7. Non-clinical efficacy and safety of HyVac4:IC31 vaccine administered in a BCG prime-boost regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeiky, Yasir A W; Dietrich, Jes; Lasco, Todd M; Stagliano, Katherine; Dheenadhayalan, Veerabadran; Goetz, Margaret Ann; Cantarero, Luis; Basaraba, Randall J; Bang, Peter; Kromann, Ingrid; McMclain, J Bruce; Sadoff, Jerald C; Andersen, Peter

    2010-01-22

    Despite the extensive success with the introduction of M. bovis Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG), tuberculosis (TB) remains a major global epidemic infecting between 8 and 9 million people annually with an estimated 1.7 million deaths each year. However, because of its demonstrated effectiveness against some of the most severe forms of childhood TB, it is now realized that BCG vaccination of newborns is unlikely to be replaced. Therefore, BCG or an improved BCG will continue to be used as a prime TB vaccine and there is a need to develop effective boost vaccines that would enhance and prolong the protective immunity induced by BCG prime immunization. We report on a heterologous booster approach using two highly immunogenic TB antigens comprising Ag85B and TB10.4 (HyVac4) delivered as a fusion molecule and formulated in the proprietary adjuvant IC31. This vaccine was found to be immunogenic and demonstrated greater protection in the more stringent guinea pig model of pulmonary tuberculosis than BCG alone when used in a prime/boost regimen. Significant difference in lung involvement was observed for all animals in the HyVac4 boosted group compared to BCG alone regardless of time to death or sacrifice. A vaccine toxicology study of the HyVac4:IC31 regimen was performed and it was judged safe to advance the vaccine into clinical trials. Therefore, all non-clinical data supports the suitability of HyVac4 as a safe, immunogenic, and effective vaccination in a prime-boost regimen with BCG.

  8. Can vacuum-assisted closure and instillation therapy (VAC-Instill therapy) play a role in the treatment of the infected open abdomen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Hondt, M; D'Haeninck, A; Dedrye, L; Penninckx, F; Aerts, R

    2011-03-01

    Severe superimposed infection during open abdomen treatment with development of intra-abdominal sepsis is a challenging complication associated with high mortality rates. We report our experience with VAC-Instill therapy (KCI, San Antonio, USA) used for treatment of an infected open abdomen following pancreatic surgery. A literature search revealed no analogous case reports using VAC-Instill therapy for treatment of an infected laparostomy. The encouraging result of the case presented seems to indicate that VAC-Instill therapy could be used as adjunctive treatment in the management of the infected open abdomen when traditional therapy fails to control the infection.

  9. The Immunomodulator VacA Promotes Immune Tolerance and Persistent Helicobacter pylori Infection through Its Activities on T-Cells and Antigen-Presenting Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Djekic, Aleksandra; M?ller, Anne

    2016-01-01

    VacA is a pore-forming toxin that has long been known to induce vacuolization in gastric epithelial cells and to be linked to gastric disorders caused by H. pylori infection. Its role as a major colonization and persistence determinant of H. pylori is less well-understood. The purpose of this review is to discuss the various target cell types of VacA and its mechanism of action; specifically, we focus on the evidence showing that VacA targets myeloid cells and T-cells to directly and indirect...

  10. VAC Therapy in Large Infected Sacral Pressure Ulcer Grade IV—Can Be an Alternative to Flap Reconstruction?

    OpenAIRE

    Batra, R. K.; Aseeja, Veena

    2012-01-01

    Vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) therapy is a new entrant in wound care after growth factors and alginate or hydrocolloid dressing, in the treatment of pressure ulcers. We have been using this technique for diabetic foot ulcers. A young nondiabetic man presented with a large sacral bed sore after high doses of ionotropes in an intensive care unit for treating severe hypotension. His wound was debrided, and instead of flap surgery in such infected wound, he was treated with VAC therapy. The compl...

  11. Strengthening national decision-making on immunization by building capacity for economic evaluation: Implementing ProVac in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blau, Julia; Hoestlandt, Céline; D Clark, Andrew; Baxter, Louise; Felix Garcia, Ana Gabriela; Mounaud, Bérénice; Mosina, Liudmila

    2015-05-07

    For many years, low- and middle-income countries have made efforts to strengthen national decision-making on immunization. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) ProVac Initiative was established to help expedite the use of evidence-based decision-making around new vaccine introduction. This initiative provides training in user-friendly cost-effectiveness models and supports the development of country-led economic evaluations. Due to the success of the ProVac Initiative in the Americas, and following requests from countries from outside the Americas, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation funded a two-year pilot effort to expand the initiative to other world regions. Called the ProVac International Working Group (IWG), this endeavor took place in 2012 and 2013. It was coordinated by PAHO and carried out in collaboration with several international partners, including the Agence de Médecine Préventive (AMP), London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine (LSHTM), Program for Appropriate Technology in Health, Sabin Vaccine Institute, United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the World Health Organization (WHO). In the WHO European Region, technical support was provided by AMP, in close collaboration with the WHO Regional Office for Europe and other ProVac IWG partners. In 2012, AMP, the WHO Regional Office for Europe, and other partners held a training workshop in Dubrovnik, Croatia, for 31 participants from four countries of the WHO European Region. The aim was to train health professionals in standard methods of economic evaluation and to assess regional demand for economic studies to support decision-making on immunization. AMP and the other organizations also supported four national cost-effectiveness studies in the WHO European Region. The assistance included country visits and support over a period of six months, the establishment of multidisciplinary teams of experts, ongoing training on the TRIVAC decision-support model for new

  12. VAC*TRAX vacuum thermal desorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    Pilot VAC*TRAX treatability tests were conducted on RCRA, TSCA, and RCRA/radioactive mixed wastes, to determine the efficiency in remediating organics` contaminated solids. The process volatilizes organic compounds by indirectly heating the feed material in a vacuum batch dryer and condensing the organics separately from the remaining solids. Contaminants included tetrachloroethene, bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, pentachlorophenol, and PCBs. Treatment specifications were met: a tetrachloroethene removal >99.99% and PCB removal from a starting level of 990 ppM to a final level of <1 ppM. One test run was spiked with MoO{sub 3}, as a uranium simulant; the Mo remained in the treated solids, not transferring to the condensate. In the mixed waste tests, uranium present in a feed soil remained in the soil. Economic viability was demonstrated by achieving excellent treatment on a routine basis with both 4 and 6 hour heating cycles.

  13. The evaluation of effectiveness of 3DCA using vacuum bag(Vac-Lock) for patient immobilization device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Chul; Lee, Chul Bin; Kang, No Hyun; Kim, Dong Euk; Lee, Jung Yong; Jeong, In Pyo

    2004-01-01

    Patient immobilization is crucial factor for radiation therapy. Generally, we have been used vacuum bag immobilization device(Vac-Lock) for whole body immobilization. In order to easily set up of vacuum bag(Vac-Lock), we made a 3DCA(3-Dimensional Conformal Accessory). The purpose of this study is evaluation of effectiveness of 3DCA using Vack-Lock for patient immobilization. We made 3DCA(3-Dimensional Conformal Accessory) tool of wooden boards. The reasons to choice of wooden boards are its easily handling nature and cheap expenses. (1) We reduced man power from 5-6 persons to 1 person to make immobilizations, (2) Shortened work time from 1 hour to within 10 minutes. (3) Avoid a collision to treatment gantry head. (4) Its shapes are smart and clean. We have made and used 3DCA(3-Dimensional Conformal Accessory) tool was very effective and convenience for the patients and users.

  14. PlanetVac: Sample Return with a Puff of Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacny, K.; Mueller, R.; Betts, B. H.

    2014-12-01

    PlanetVac is a regolith sample acquisition mission concept that uses compressed gas to blow material from the surface up a pneumatic tube and directly into a sample return container. The PlanetVac sampling device is built into the lander legs to eliminate cost and complexity associated with robotic arms and scoops. The pneumatic system can effectively capture fine and coarse regolith, including small pebbles. It is well suited for landed missions to Mars, asteroids, or the Moon. Because of the low pressures on all those bodies, the technique is extremely efficient. If losses are kept to minimum, 1 gram of compressed gas could efficiently lift 6000 grams of soil. To demonstrate this approach, the PlanetVac lander with four legs and two sampling tubes has been designed, integrated, and tested. Vacuum chamber testing was performed using two well-known planetary regolith simulants: Mars Mojave Simulant (MMS) and lunar regolith simulant JSC-1A. One of the two sampling systems was connected to a mockup of an earth return rocket while the second sampling system was connected to a lander deck mounted instrument (clear box for easy viewing). The tests included a drop from a height of approximately 50 cm onto the bed of regolith, deployment of sampling tubes into the regolith, pneumatic acquisition of sample into an instrument (sample container) and the rocket, and the launch of the rocket. The demonstration has been successful and can be viewed here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DjJXvtQk6no. In most of the tests, 20 grams or more of sample was delivered to the 'instrument' and approximately 5 grams of regolith was delivered into a sampling chamber within the rocket. The gas lifting efficiency was calculated to be approximately 1000:1; that is 1 gram of gas lofted 1000 grams of regolith. Efficiencies in lower gravity environments are expected to be much higher. This successful, simple and lightweight sample capture demonstration paves the way to using such sampling system

  15. Distribution of Helicobacter pylori cagA, cagE, oipA and vacA in different major ethnic groups in Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabiri, Hossein; Maleknejad, Parviz; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Feizabadi, Mohammad M; Jafari, Fereshteh; Rezadehbashi, Maryam; Nakhjavani, Farrokh A; Mirsalehian, Akbar; Zali, Mohammad R

    2009-08-01

    There are geographical variations in Helicobacter pylori virulence genes; cagA, cagE, vacA and oipA. The present study compared the distribution of these genotypes in major ethnic groups residing in Tehran, Iran and their association with clinical outcomes. A total of 124 H. pylori-positive patients living in Tehran were enrolled in this study. The ethnic distribution was 74 Persians, 33 Turks and 17 other ethnics including Kurds, Lurs, Afghanis and Arabs. The presence of the cagA, cagE and oipA genes and vacA alleles (signal [s] and middle [m] region) were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from H. pylori DNA. The cagA-positive status was predominant in all three ethnic groups (e.g. 65% in Persians and 73% in Turks). In contrast, the cagE-positive status was less than half in Persians (47%) and Turks (30%), whereas it was 77% in other ethnicities (P = 0.008). The predominant vacA genotypes were s1 and m1 in all three ethnic groups (e.g. 68% in Persians and 70% in Turks were s1). There was no significant association between cagA and cagE status or vacA genotypes and clinical outcomes. The oipA-positive strains were more common in non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD) (63%) than in peptic ulcer patients (15%) (P = 0.001) in Persians, but the association was not observed in other ethnic groups. There are some differences in the H. pylori genotypes among the ethnic groups in Iran. However, none of these markers seemed to be clinically helpful in predicting the clinical presentation of a H. pylori infection in Iran.

  16. Role of Helicobacter pylori cagA EPIYA motif and vacA genotypes for the development of gastrointestinal diseases in Southeast Asian countries: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahara Shu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infection with cagA-positive, cagA EPIYA motif ABD type, and vacA s1, m1, and i1 genotype strains of Helicobacter pylori is associated with an exacerbated inflammatory response and increased risk of gastroduodenal diseases. However, it is unclear whether the prevalence and virulence factor genotypes found in Southeast Asia are similar to those in Western countries. Here, we examined the cagA status and prevalence of cagA EPIYA motifs and vacA genotypes among H. pylori strains found in Southeast Asia and examined their association with gastroduodenal disease. Methods To determine the cagA status, cagA EPIYA motifs, and vacA genotypes of H. pylori, we conducted meta-analyses of 13 previous reports for 1,281 H. pylori strains detected from several Southeast Asian countries. Results The respective frequencies of cagA-positive and vacA s1, m1, and i1 genotypes among examined subjects were 93% (1,056/1,133, 98% (1,010/1,033, 58% (581/1,009, and 96% (248/259, respectively. Stratification showed significant variation in the frequencies of cagA status and vacA genotypes among countries and the individual races residing within each respective country. The frequency of the vacA m-region genotype in patients infected with East Asian-type strains differed significantly between the northern and southern areas of Vietnam (p vacA m1 type or cagA-positive strains was associated with an increased risk of peptic ulcer disease (odds ratio: 1.46, 95%CI: 1.01-2.12, p = 0.046 and 2.83, 1.50-5.34, p = 0.001, respectively in the examined Southeast Asian populations. Conclusions Both Western- and East Asian-type strains of H. pylori are found in Southeast Asia and are predominantly cagA-positive and vacA s1 type. In Southeast Asia, patients infected with vacA m1 type or cagA-positive strains have an increased risk of peptic ulcer disease. Thus, testing for this genotype and the presence of cagA may have clinical usefulness.

  17. [Comparing effectivity of VAC therapy for treatment of infections following arthroplasty or soft-tissue surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmal, H; Oberst, M; Hansen, S; Six-Merker, J; Südkamp, N P; Izadpanah, K

    2013-08-01

    Although vacuum-assisted wound closure (VAC) has been developed into a standard technique in septic surgery, reliable data about the efficacy of the treatment are still lacking. Postoperative infections after arthroplasty or soft-tissue surgery were identified using a prospective database for complications (Critical Incidence Reporting System) which was retrospectively supplemented with items for evaluation of VAC therapy. Eradication success of infection was analysed considering epidemiological parameters, course of treatment, and characteristics of causing bacterial strains. Furthermore, serological C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations were evaluated for diagnostic and prognostic reliability. 92 patients with an average age of 60 ± 4 years were included in the study. Patients with soft tissue infections (STI, n = 53) were statistically significant younger compared to patients with infections following arthroplasty (AI, n = 39) (53 ± 6 vs. 70 ± 4 years; p infected endoprostheses were longer treated on intensive care units (6.1 ± 8.4 vs. 3.5 ± 6.5 days; p infection was with 81 % statistically significant higher in the STI group compared to 38 % in the AI group (p infections in the AI group were associated with a better healing success when compared to chronic infections (p infections (p infection, the probability for eradication of infection was impaired (p infection was reached. CRP values were higher in the AI group and associated with the prognosis (p VAC therapy is higher after soft-tissue infections compared to infections following arthroplasty. Accordingly, mortality is higher in this group. Chronic courses have worse chances for healing in both groups. For serological CRP values a prognostic relevance could be shown. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Modification and application of a leaf blower-vac for field sampling of arthropods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zou, Yi; Telgen, van Mario D.; Chen, Junhui; Xiao, Haijun; Kraker, de Joop; Bianchi, Felix J.J.A.; Werf, van der Wopke

    2016-01-01

    Rice fields host a large diversity of arthropods, but investigating their population dynamics and interactions is challenging. Here we describe the modification and application of a leaf blower-vac for suction sampling of arthropod populations in rice. When used in combination with an enclosure,

  19. Relationship between VacA Toxin and Host Cell Autophagy in Helicobacter pylori Infection of the Human Stomach: A Few Answers, Many Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Ricci

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacterium that colonizes the stomach of about half the global population and represents the greatest risk factor for gastric malignancy. The relevance of H. pylori for gastric cancer development is equivalent to that of tobacco smoking for lung cancer. VacA toxin seems to play a pivotal role in the overall strategy of H. pylori towards achieving persistent gastric colonization. This strategy appears to involve the modulation of host cell autophagy. After an overview of autophagy and its role in infection and carcinogenesis, I critically review current knowledge about the action of VacA on host cell autophagy during H. pylori infection of the human stomach. Although VacA is a key player in modulation of H. pylori-induced autophagy, a few discrepancies in the data are also evident and many questions remain to be answered. We are thus still far from a definitive understanding of the molecular mechanisms through which VacA affects autophagy and the consequences of this toxin action on the overall pathogenic activity of H. pylori.

  20. Association of Vac A- and Cag A-specific Helicobacter pylori strain infection with spontaneous preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Seung Woo; Kwon, Han Sung; Sohn, In Sook; Kim, Young Ju; Hwang, Han Sung

    2017-04-01

    To better understand the correlation between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) seropositivity and spontaneous preterm birth. A total of 320 pregnant women were classified into two groups: normal control singleton pregnant group (n = 264) and singleton spontaneous preterm birth group (n = 56). Blood samples were collected at the time of delivery, and the H. pylori IgG, various virulence factors and systemic inflammation status were compared between the two groups. Between the two groups, the serum H. pylori IgG, Cytotoxin-associated agntigen A (Cag A), Vacuolating cytotoxin A (Vac A) significantly increased in spontaneous preterm birth group than in the control group. Also, in preterm group, highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) as a systemic inflammatory marker is statistically elevated at inflammatory status range. Whereas in the term pregnant group, hsCRP was normal range even though high incidence of H. pylori IgG seropositivity. Also, in the seropositive group, hsCRP is statistically correlated with H. pylori IgG, Cag A and Vac A. There is an association between the presence of antibodies against H. pylori in maternal serum and the development of preterm birth. Furthermore, serology type of H. pylori with Vac A, Cag A relates to preterm birth even though high H. pylori prevalence rate.

  1. La silla vacía y el dilema de la participación ciudadana en el Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Castro Montero

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo describe, explica e interpreta el funcionamiento del mecanismo constitucional “silla vacía”, a través del análisis de la evidencia empírica. En un primer momento, se realizan precisiones conceptuales y normativas sobre la configuración institucional del mecanismo, para luego mostrar cómo ha sido aplicado en los gobiernos municipales de la provincia de Pichincha, desde 2010 hasta 2013. Posteriormente, se evalúa la dinámica de votación del ocupante de la silla vacía en los gobiernos locales, a partir del análisis documental de actas y entrevistas semiestructuradas. Las conclusiones sugieren que, a pesar de que el derecho al voto puede constituir un incentivo para la participación ciudadana, también genera comportamientos sociales que tienden al autoritarismo, a la monopolización y a la discriminación en el uso de este mecanismo participativo. Finalmente, se evidencia que la silla vacía no necesariamente favorece la representación de la ciudadanía en gobiernos locales con mayorías partidista dominantes y modelos de ocupación cerrados.

  2. VAC Therapy in Large Infected Sacral Pressure Ulcer Grade IV-Can Be an Alternative to Flap Reconstruction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, R K; Aseeja, Veena

    2014-04-01

    Vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) therapy is a new entrant in wound care after growth factors and alginate or hydrocolloid dressing, in the treatment of pressure ulcers. We have been using this technique for diabetic foot ulcers. A young nondiabetic man presented with a large sacral bed sore after high doses of ionotropes in an intensive care unit for treating severe hypotension. His wound was debrided, and instead of flap surgery in such infected wound, he was treated with VAC therapy. The complete wound healing was achieved in 6 weeks and at half the cost of flap surgery. Moreover, the chances of flap failure and its related complications were eliminated.

  3. Helicobacter pylori VacA toxin/subunit p34: targeting of an anion channel to the inner mitochondrial membrane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazyna Domańska

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The vacuolating toxin VacA, released by Helicobacter pylori, is an important virulence factor in the pathogenesis of gastritis and gastroduodenal ulcers. VacA contains two subunits: The p58 subunit mediates entry into target cells, and the p34 subunit mediates targeting to mitochondria and is essential for toxicity. In this study we found that targeting to mitochondria is dependent on a unique signal sequence of 32 uncharged amino acid residues at the p34 N-terminus. Mitochondrial import of p34 is mediated by the import receptor Tom20 and the import channel of the outer membrane TOM complex, leading to insertion of p34 into the mitochondrial inner membrane. p34 assembles in homo-hexamers of extraordinary high stability. CD spectra of the purified protein indicate a content of >40% beta-strands, similar to pore-forming beta-barrel proteins. p34 forms an anion channel with a conductivity of about 12 pS in 1.5 M KCl buffer. Oligomerization and channel formation are independent both of the 32 uncharged N-terminal residues and of the p58 subunit of the toxin. The conductivity is efficiently blocked by 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylaminobenzoic acid (NPPB, a reagent known to inhibit VacA-mediated apoptosis. We conclude that p34 essentially acts as a small pore-forming toxin, targeted to the mitochondrial inner membrane by a special hydrophobic N-terminal signal.

  4. vacA genotypes of Helicobacter pylori in the oral cavity and stomach of patients with chronic gastritis and gastric ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román-Román, Adolfo; Giono-Cerezo, Silvia; Camorlinga-Ponce, Margarita; Martínez-Carrillo, Dinorah Nashely; Loaiza-Loeza, Salome; Fernández-Tilapa, Gloria

    2013-03-01

    Helicobacter pylori adheres to various components of the human saliva. Therefore, the objective of this research was to simultaneously detect H. pylori in saliva and in gastric biopsy, and to determine the agreement between the vacA genotypes in both saliva and gastric biopsy. A total of 162 patients with chronic gastritis and 34 with gastric ulcer were studied, and saliva and biopsy samples were collected from each patient. H. pylori DNA was detected by conventional PCR and nested PCR was used for vacA genotyping. In 24% of the patients (47/196) H. pylori DNA was found in saliva and in biopsy; 52.5% (103/196) were saliva(negative)/biopsy(positive) and 6.6% (13/196) were saliva(positive)/biopsy(negative). In either or both H. pylori vacAs1m1 or s1m2 genotypes were detected in saliva in 41.5% of the patients with chronic gastritis. Forty-seven percent had >1 genotype, and the s1m1/s1m2 combination was found in 36% of them. H. pylori vacAs1m1 and s1m2 were also found in the saliva and biopsy of patients with gastric ulcer. The genotypes found in saliva and biopsy of the same patient had 51.1% agreement. In 27.6% of the 47 patients saliva(positive)/biopsy(positive) two genotypes were found in saliva, and one or both in the stomach. The s1m1/s1m2 genotypes, alone or together, are found simultaneously in saliva and gastric biopsy of the same patient. These results suggest that H. pylori reaches the oral cavity by various ways, and that saliva can be the transmitting and re-infecting vector. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  5. Vacuum-assisted closure therapy for infected perineal wounds after abdominoperineal resection. A retrospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walma, M S; Burbach, J P M; Verheijen, P M; Pronk, A; van Grevenstein, W M U

    INTRODUCTION: Perineal wound complications are a main problem after abdominoperineal resection (APR). There is little evidence concerning perineal wound management. This study describes and evaluates the role of vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) therapy in wound management strategies of perineal wound

  6. AngioVac System Used for Vegetation Debulking in a Patient with Tricuspid Valve Endocarditis: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam Abubakar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available AngioVac is a vacuum-based device approved in 2014 for percutaneous removal of undesirable materials from the intravascular system. Although numerous reports exist with regard to the use of the AngioVac device in aspiration of iliocaval, pulmonary, upper extremity, and right-sided heart chamber thrombi, very few data are present demonstrating its use in treatment of right-sided endocarditis. In this case report, we describe the novel device used in debulking a large right-sided tricuspid valve vegetation reducing the occurrence of septic embolisation and enhancing the efficacy of antibiotics in clearance of bloodstream infection. Further research is needed in larger RSIE patient populations to confirm the benefits and the potential of improved outcomes associated with the AngioVac device as well as identify its potential complications.

  7. Genotyping of Helicobacter pylori Strains Isolated from Patients with Gastric Ulcer and Non Ulcer Disease using RFLP-PCR of ureAB, vacA , cagA Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Farshad

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Different studies show that the reasons for clinically diverse outcomes of infections caused by H. pylori may include host and environmental factors as well as differences in the prevalence or expression of bacterial virulence factors. The aim of this study was to study the distribution of different genotypes of major virulence factors cagA, vacA and ureAB among H. pylori strains isolated from patients with gastric ulcer (ulcerative disease and patients with gastritis (non ulcerative disease.Materials & Methods: In this cross sectional study 65 H. pylori strains, 30 from patients with gastric ulcer and 35 from patients with non ulcerative gastritis disease were investigated by RFLP-PCR.Results: The prevalence of vacA-positive strains in ulcerative patients was significantly more than that in non ulcerative patients (P0.05.Conclusion: It seems that in the patients under our study the presence of cagA gene may not necessarily be a risk factor for ulcer disease, while a homologous genotype of vacA appears to be associated with an increase risk of ulcer development. Lastly, despite the existence of a high degree of genomic variability within ureAB, conserved DNA banding profiles are distributed in our areas.

  8. Association of IL1B -511C/-31T haplotype and Helicobacter pylori vacA genotypes with gastric ulcer and chronic gastritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández-Tilapa Gloria

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between proinflammatory cytokine gene polymorphisms and gastric diseases related to Helicobacter pylori varies by population and geographic area. Our objective was to determine if the IL-1B -511 T>C and -31 C>T polymorphisms and H. pylori vacA genotypes are associated with risk of chronic gastritis and gastric ulcer in a Mexican population. Methods We conducted endoscopic studies in 128 patients with symptoms of dyspepsia. We took two biopsies from the body, antrum, or ulcer edge from each patient, and classified our histopathological findings according to the Sydney System. H. pylori infection and vacA genotyping were accomplished via PCR from total DNA of the gastric biopsies. We confirmed the presence of anti-H. pylori serum IgG and IgM in 102 control subjects. In both case subjects and control subjects, the IL-1B -511 T>C polymorphism was genotyped by PCR-RFLPs and the IL-1B -31 C>T polymorphism was genotyped by pyrosequencing. Results Sixty-two point seven (62.7% of the 102 control subjects were H. pylori-seropositive. Among the case subjects, 100 were diagnosed with chronic gastritis and 28 with gastric ulcer. We found that 77% of the patients with chronic gastritis and 85.7% of the patients with gastric ulcer were H. pylori-positive. The predominant H. pylori genotype was vacA s1m1 (58.4% and the most frequent subtype was vacA s1. The -511 TC, (rs16944 -511 T>C genotype and the -511C allele were associated with chronic gastritis (OR = 3.1, 95% CI = 1.4-6.8 and OR = 3.0, 95% CI = 1.4-6.0, respectively. The subjects carrying -31T (rs1143627 -31 C>T were found to be at a higher risk of having chronic gastritis (OR = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.3-5.8. The IL-1B -511C/-31T haplotype was associated with chronic gastritis (OR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.2-3.8 but not with gastric ulcer. Conclusions The H. pylori vacA genotypes identified herein were similar to those reported for other regions of Mexico. The vacA s1m1 genotype was

  9. AngioVac Aspiration for Paradoxical Emboli Protection through a Fenestrated Fontan During Central Venous Thrombus Manipulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Hakim, Ramsey, E-mail: ralhakim@mednet.ucla.edu [University of California, Department of Radiology, Division of Interventional Radiology (United States); Patel, Komal, E-mail: kdpatel@mednet.ucla.edu [University of California, Department of Anesthesiology, Division of Cardiothoracic Anesthesiology (United States); Moriarty, John M., E-mail: jmoriarty@mednet.ucla.edu [University of California, Department of Radiology, Division of Interventional Radiology (United States)

    2015-06-15

    This case reports describes a 39-year-old female with a history of surgically repaired hypoplastic left heart syndrome who presented with a left peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) with associated large volume subclavian and brachiocephalic vein thrombus. Due to the presence of a right-to-left shunt via a fenestrated Fontan, there was clinical concern for a paradoxical embolism during removal of the PICC. The AngioVac aspiration system was successfully utilized to aspirate thromboemboli from the level of the proximal Glenn shunt during manipulation and removal of the PICC. This is the first reported case to demonstrate the safe and effective use of the AngioVac aspiration system for protection of paradoxical emboli through a cardiac right-to-left shunt during a procedure at high risk for thromboembolism.

  10. Methodology Series Module 1: Cohort Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Maninder Singh

    2016-01-01

    Cohort design is a type of nonexperimental or observational study design. In a cohort study, the participants do not have the outcome of interest to begin with. They are selected based on the exposure status of the individual. They are then followed over time to evaluate for the occurrence of the outcome of interest. Some examples of cohort studies are (1) Framingham Cohort study, (2) Swiss HIV Cohort study, and (3) The Danish Cohort study of psoriasis and depression. These studies may be prospective, retrospective, or a combination of both of these types. Since at the time of entry into the cohort study, the individuals do not have outcome, the temporality between exposure and outcome is well defined in a cohort design. If the exposure is rare, then a cohort design is an efficient method to study the relation between exposure and outcomes. A retrospective cohort study can be completed fast and is relatively inexpensive compared with a prospective cohort study. Follow-up of the study participants is very important in a cohort study, and losses are an important source of bias in these types of studies. These studies are used to estimate the cumulative incidence and incidence rate. One of the main strengths of a cohort study is the longitudinal nature of the data. Some of the variables in the data will be time-varying and some may be time independent. Thus, advanced modeling techniques (such as fixed and random effects models) are useful in analysis of these studies.

  11. Methodology series module 1: Cohort studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maninder Singh Setia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cohort design is a type of nonexperimental or observational study design. In a cohort study, the participants do not have the outcome of interest to begin with. They are selected based on the exposure status of the individual. They are then followed over time to evaluate for the occurrence of the outcome of interest. Some examples of cohort studies are (1 Framingham Cohort study, (2 Swiss HIV Cohort study, and (3 The Danish Cohort study of psoriasis and depression. These studies may be prospective, retrospective, or a combination of both of these types. Since at the time of entry into the cohort study, the individuals do not have outcome, the temporality between exposure and outcome is well defined in a cohort design. If the exposure is rare, then a cohort design is an efficient method to study the relation between exposure and outcomes. A retrospective cohort study can be completed fast and is relatively inexpensive compared with a prospective cohort study. Follow-up of the study participants is very important in a cohort study, and losses are an important source of bias in these types of studies. These studies are used to estimate the cumulative incidence and incidence rate. One of the main strengths of a cohort study is the longitudinal nature of the data. Some of the variables in the data will be time-varying and some may be time independent. Thus, advanced modeling techniques (such as fixed and random effects models are useful in analysis of these studies.

  12. Vzduchotechnika kina s nahrávacím studiem

    OpenAIRE

    Jurča, Jaromír

    2014-01-01

    Téma bakalářské práce je zaměřeno na návrh vzduchotechniky kina s nahrávacím studiem. Tento objekt sestává ze tří samostatně klimatizovaných celků. Teoretická část se zabývá problematikou akustiky ve vzduchotechnice. Projektová část zahrnuje detailní realizační dokumentaci vzduchotechnického zařízení klimatizovaných prostor objektu. Bachelor thesis focuses on design of air-conditioning in the cinema with a recording studio. This building consists of two three separate air-conditioned parts...

  13. Efecto del proceso de fritura a vacío sobre la calidad de un pasabocas de mango (Manguifera indica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Humberto Villamizar V

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El consumo cada vez más creciente de pasabocas ha estimulado la búsqueda de procesos para mejorar su calidad. En este estudio se evaluó el comportamiento de los parámetros de calidad de un pasabocas frito hecho con mango (Manguifera indica L., utilizando vacío sobre una pasta elaborada con ese fruto. El proceso de fritura se realizó aplicando diferentes presiones de vacío (0.4, 0.5, 0.6 bar, temperaturas (100, 110 y 120 °C y tiempos (30, 45, 60, 75 y 90 seg. Los resultados mostraron que el vacío mejora las características de calidad del producto ya que los contenidos de grasa y humedad fueron muy bajos, la actividad de agua fue menor, la textura fue adecuada para las exigencias del mercado y el color presentó cambios muy pequeños en relación con los de la pasta. El mejor tratamiento fue 0.5 bar de presión, 110 °C de temperatura y 90 seg de inmersión.

  14. Protective Effect of Sucralfate on Activity of IgY against Recombinant VacA of Helicobacter pylori%硫糖铝对抗幽门螺杆菌重组VacA卵黄抗体的保护作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭丽媛; 杨致邦; 田一玲; 黄伟; 韩飞; 范贵荣; 向瑜

    2009-01-01

    目的 观察硫糖铝对抗幽门螺杆菌重组细胞空泡毒素抗原(VacA)卵黄抗体(IgY)的保护作用,为制备能耐受胃酸和蛋白酶的IgY制剂奠定基础.方法 诱导重组菌DH5α-vacA-pQE30,大量表达并纯化VacA重组蛋白,免疫洛曼母鸡,制备VacA IgY,并进行纯化.在不同pH值的IgY液中加入不同浓度的硫糖铝和不同浓度的胃蛋白酶,将含不同浓度硫糖铝的IgY反复冻融7次,将含30%糖铝的IgY室温放置1 d~4周,ELISA法测定各实验组IgY的相对抗体活性(AT/Ac).结果 在pH 1.5、2.0和3.0的条件下,含30%~60%硫糖铝的IgY的相对抗体活性高于不加硫糖铝的IgY;在pH 1.5条件下,60%硫糖铝可使IgY的相对抗体活性保持68.7%;在pH 2.0和3.0条件下,50%和40%以上的硫糖铝几乎可完全保持IgY的相对抗体活性.在pH值为2.0和3.0时,正常胃蛋白酶浓度(0.02 mg/ml)下,30%以上的硫糖铝均可有效保护IgY的相对抗体活性.30%以上的硫糖铝可增强IgY的抗冻融能力.室温放置4周后,含30%硫糖铝的IgY仍能保持80%以上的相对抗体活性.结论 30%以上的硫糖铝可增强VacA IgY对低pH和胃蛋白酶的耐受能力及抗冻融能力,是较理想的IgY保护剂.

  15. La terapia de vacío como alternativa terapéutica en quemaduras con exposición ósea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro J. Bernal-Martínez

    Full Text Available Introducción y Objetivos: En determinados casos el desbridamiento quirúrgico de las quemaduras de espesor total genera defectos de cobertura con exposición de hueso. Cuando se trata de pacientes con gran superficie corporal quemada, la disponibilidad de tejidos para llevar a cabo la reconstrucción de estos defectos es limitada. La introducción de la terapia de vacío en el tratamiento de este tipo de lesiones supone una alternativa para estos pacientes. Pacientes y Método: Presentamos 2 casos de pacientes con quemaduras extensas y profundas en las extremidades inferiores y exposición ósea. En ambos aplicamos terapia de vacío. Resultados: Logramos el cierre completo de las heridas tras obtener una cobertura total del hueso con tejido de granulación y posterior injerto cutáneo. Conclusiones: Consideramos que la terapia de vacío es una alternativa útil que actúa de forma segura estimulando el cierre de la herida y minimizando las necesidades de tratamiento quirúrgico en quemaduras de espesor total con exposición ósea.

  16. [Clinical significance of infection with cag A and vac A positive Helicobacter pylori strains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokić-Milutinović, Aleksandra; Todorović, Vera; Milosavljević, Tomica

    2004-01-01

    Clinical relevance of infection with different Helicobacter pylori strains was reviewed in this paper. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection plays a role in pathogenesis of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, gastric adenocarcinoma and MALT lymphoma. Extragastric manifestations of H. pylori infection most probably include acne rosacea and chronic urticaria, while the importance of H. pylori infection for pathogenesis of growth retardation in children, iron deficiency anemia, coronary heart disease, stroke and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura remains vague. The expression of two H. pylori proteins, cytotoxin associated protein (cag A) and vacuolization cytotoxin (vac A) is considered to be related with pathogenicity of the bacterium. It is clear that presence of cag A+ strains is important for development of peptic ulcer; nevertheless, it is also protective against esophageal reflux disease. On the other hand, cag A+ strains are common in gastric adenocarcinoma and MALT lymphoma patients, but it seems that certain subtypes of vac A cytotoxin are more important risk factors. Infection with cag A+ strains is more common in patients with acne rosacea, stroke and coronary heart disease.

  17. Clinical significance of infection with cag A and vac A positive helicobacter pylori strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokić-Milutinović Aleksandra

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical relevance of infection with different Helicobacter pylori strains was reviewed in this paper. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection plays a role in pathogenesis of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, gastric adenocarcinoma and MALT lymphoma. Extragastric manifestations of H. pylori infection most probably include acne rosacea and chronic urticaria, while the importance of H. pylori infection for pathogenesis of growth retardation in children, iron deficiency anemia, coronary heart disease, stroke and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura remains vague. The expression of two H. pylori proteins, cytotoxin associated protein (cag A and vacuolization cytotoxin (vac A is considered to be related with pathogenicity of the bacterium. It is clear that presence of cag A+ strains is important for development of peptic ulcer; nevertheless, it is also protective against esophageal reflux disease. On the other hand, cag A+ strains are common in gastric adenocarcinoma and MALT lymphoma patients, but it seems that certain subtypes of vac A cytotoxin are more important risk factors. Infection with cag A+ strains is more common in patients with acne rosacea, stroke and coronary heart disease.

  18. 1970 British Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Brown

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70 is one of Britain’s world famous national longitudinal birth cohort studies, three of which are run by the Centre for Longitudinal Studies at the Institute of Education, University of London.  BCS70 follows the lives of more than 17,000 people born in England, Scotland and Wales in a single week of 1970. Over the course of cohort members lives, the BCS70 has collected information on health, physical, educational and social development, and economic circumstances among other factors. Since the birth survey in 1970, there have been nine ‘sweeps’ of all cohort members at ages 5, 10, 16, 26, 30, 34, 38 and most recently at 42. Data has been collected from a number of different sources (the midwife present at birth, parents of the cohort members, head and class teachers, school health service personnel and the cohort members themselves. The data has been collected in a variety of ways including via paper and electronic questionnaires, clinical records, medical examinations, physical measurements, tests of ability, educational assessments and diaries. The majority of BCS70 survey data can be accessed by bona fide researchers through the UK Data Service at the University of Essex.

  19. VacA, CagA, IceA and OipA Genotype Status of Helicobacter pylori ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the state of vacA, cagA, oipA and iceA genotypes of H. pylori isolated from gastric biopsy samples of dogs. Methods: A total of 240 gastric biopsy samples were taken from 240 dogs using gastric endoscope. All the samples were cultured and H. pylori-positive samples were analyzed for the presence ...

  20. Association among H. pylori virulence markers dupA, cagA and vacA in Brazilian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Weendelly Nayara; Ferraz, Mariane Avante; Zabaglia, Luanna Munhoz; de Labio, Roger William; Orcini, Wilson Aparecido; Bianchi Ximenez, João Paulo; Neto, Agostinho Caleman; Payão, Spencer Luiz Marques; Rasmussen, Lucas Trevizani

    2014-01-23

    Only a few Helicobacter pylori-infected individuals develop severe gastric diseases and virulence factors of H. pylori appear to be involved in such clinical outcomes. Duodenal ulcer promoting gene A (dupA) is a novel virulence factor of Helicobacter pylori that is associated with duodenal ulcer development and reduced risk for gastric carcinoma in some populations. The aims of the present study were to determine the presence of dupA gene and evaluate the association among dupA and other virulence factors including cagA and vacA in Brazilian patients. Gastric biopsies were obtained from 205 dyspeptic patients (100 children and 105 adults). DNA was extracted and analyzed for the presence of H. pylori and its virulence factors using the polymerase chain reaction method. Patients with gastritis tested positive for H. pylori more frequently. The dupA gene was detected in 41.5% of them (85/205); cagA gene was found in 98 isolates (47.8%) and vacA genotype s1/m1 in 50.2%, s1/m2 in 8.3%, s2/m2 in 36.6%, s2/m1 in 0.5% and s1/s2/m1/m2 in 4.4%. We also verified a significant association between cagA and dupA genes [p = 0.0003, relative risk (RR) 1.73 and confidence interval [CI] = 1.3-2.3]. The genotypes s1/m1 were also associated with dupA gene (p = 0.0001, RR: 1.72 and CI: 1.3-2.2). The same associations were found when analyzing pediatric and adult groups of patients individually. Ours results suggest that dupA is highly frequent in Brazilian patients and is associated with cagA gene and vacA s1/m1 genotype, and it may be considered an important virulence factor in the development of gastric diseases in adults or children.

  1. Efecto del proceso de fritura a vacío sobre la calidad de un pasabocas de mango (Manguifera indica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villamizar V Rafael Humberto

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available El consumo cada vez más creciente de pasabocas ha estimulado la búsqueda de procesos para mejorar su calidad. En este estudio se evaluó el comportamiento de los parámetros de calidad de un pasabocas frito hecho con mango (Manguifera indica L., utilizando vacío sobre una pasta elaborada con ese fruto. El proceso de fritura se realizó aplicando diferentes presiones de vacío (0.4, 0.5, 0.6 bar, temperaturas (100, 110 y 120 °C y tiempos (30, 45, 60, 75 y 90 seg. Los resultados mostraron que el vacío mejora las características de calidad del producto ya que los contenidos de grasa y humedad fueron muy ba- jos, la actividad de agua fue menor, la textura fue adecuada para las exigencias del mercado y el color presentó cambios muy pequeños en relación con los de la pasta.  El mejor tratamiento fue 0.5 bar de presión, 110 ºC de temperatura y 90 seg de inmersión.

  2. A prospective evaluation of ventilator-associated conditions and infection-related ventilator-associated conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Anthony F; Schoenberg, Noah; Babcock, Hilary; McMullen, Kathleen M; Micek, Scott T; Kollef, Marin H

    2015-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has shifted policy away from using ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and toward using ventilator-associated conditions (VACs) as a marker of ICU quality. To date, limited prospective data regarding the incidence of VAC among medical and surgical ICU patients, the ability of VAC criteria to capture patients with VAP, and the potential clinical preventability of VACs are available. This study was a prospective 12-month cohort study (January 2013 to December 2013). We prospectively surveyed 1,209 patients ventilated for ≥ 2 calendar days. Sixty-seven VACs were identified (5.5%), of which 34 (50.7%) were classified as an infection-related VAC (IVAC) with corresponding rates of 7.0 and 3.6 per 1,000 ventilator days, respectively. The mortality rate of patients having a VAC was significantly greater than that of patients without a VAC (65.7% vs 14.4%, P VACs included IVACs (50.7%), ARDS (16.4%), pulmonary edema (14.9%), and atelectasis (9.0%). Among IVACs, 44.1% were probable VAP and 17.6% were possible VAP. Twenty-five VACs (37.3%) were adjudicated to represent potentially preventable events. Eighty-six episodes of VAP occurred in 84 patients (10.0 of 1,000 ventilator days) during the study period. The sensitivity of the VAC criteria for the detection of VAP was 25.9% (95% CI, 16.7%-34.5%). Although relatively uncommon, VACs are associated with greater mortality and morbidity when they occur. Most VACs represent nonpreventable events, and the VAC criteria capture a minority of VAP episodes.

  3. Importance of Helicobacter pylori cagA and vacA status for the efficacy of antibiotic treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.-J. van Doorn (Leen-Jan); P.M. Schneeberger (Peter); N. Nouhan (N.); A.P. Plaisier (Anton); W.G.V. Quint (Wim); W.A. de Boer (Wink)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractBackground - Virulence factors of Helicobacter pylori are associated with peptic ulcer disease and may be also associated with the efficacy of treatment. Aims - To determine the relation between the vacA and the cagA status of H pylori, clinical disease, and treatment outcome. Patients -

  4. The Vacuum-Assisted Closure (VAC) device for hastened attachment of a superficial inferior-epigastric flap to third-degree burns on hand and fingers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinand, Christian

    2009-01-01

    The vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) device has a wide range of clinical applications, including treatment of infected surgical wounds, traumatic wounds, pressure ulcers, wounds with exposed bone and hardware, diabetic foot ulcers, and venous stasis ulcers. Increased release of growth factors has been described, leading to improved vascularization and thereby formation of new tissue. The system is also used in burn surgery for reconstructive purposes. In this case report, a patient suffered from a third-degree burn injury to the dorsum of the hand with exposure of tendons, necessitating the use of a flap reconstruction. The patient was treated with a superficial inferior-epigastric artery-based flap and the VAC system was applied in a created glove-like shape. Hastened attachment of the flap onto the exposed fingers was observed after 4 days. The author reports on the additional use of the VAC system to hasten flap attachment in a patient with a burn injury to the dorsum of the hand.

  5. Early Conversion of External Fixation to Interlocked Nailing in Open Fractures of Both Bone Leg Assisted with Vacuum Closure (VAC) - Final Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Simrat Pal Singh; Raj, Manish; Kumar, Sunil; Singh, Pulkesh; Kumar, Dinesh; Singh, Jasveer; Deep, Akash

    2016-02-01

    Management of compound grade III fractures of both bone leg includes external stabilization for long period, followed by various soft tissue coverage procedures. Primary interlocking of tibia had been also done with variable results. External fixation for long time without any bone loss often leads to infected nonunion, loss of reduction, pin tract infection and failure of fixation, primary interlocking in compound grade III fractures had shown high medullary infection rate. We managed all cases of compound grade III A/B fractures with primary external fixation, simultaneous wound management using vacuum assisted closure (VAC) followed by early conversion to interlocking within 2 weeks of fixator application. To determine the effectiveness of vacuum assisted closure (VAC) for the early conversion of external fixator to definitive interlocking in open fractures of the both bone leg. In current study we selected 84 cases of compound grade IIIA/B diaphyseal fractures of both bone leg during period of May 2010 to September 2013. We managed these cases by immediate debridement and application of external fixation followed by repeated debridement, application of vacuum assisted closure (VAC) and conversion to interlocking within two weeks. Out of 84 cases union was achieved in 80(95%) of cases with definitive tibial interlocking. Excellent to good result were obtained in 77(91.8%) of cases and fair to poor result seen in rest of 7(8.2%) of cases according to modified Ketenjian's criteria. 5 out of these 7 poor result group cases were from Compound Grade III B group to start with. Deep infection rate in our series were 7% i.e. total 6 cases and 4 out of these were from compound Grade III B group to start with. Vacuum assisted closure (VAC) give a good help for rapid closure of the wound and help in early conversion to definitive intramedullary nailing. Reamed nail could well be used in compound grade IIIA/B fractures without increasing the risk of infection. It gives

  6. Distally based saphenous neurocutaneous perforator flap combined with vac therapy for soft tissue reconstruction and hardware salvage in the lower extremities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Gen; Wang, Chun-Yang; Chai, Yi-Min; Cheng, Liang; Chen, Ming; Yi-Min, L V

    2013-11-01

    The complex wound with the exposed hardware and infection is one of the common complications after the internal fixation of the tibia fracture. The salvage of hardware and reconstruction of soft tissue defect remain challenging. In this report, we presented our experience on the use of the distally based saphenous neurocutaneous perforator flap combined with vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) therapy for the coverage of the soft tissue defect and the exposed hardware in the lower extremity with fracture. Between January 2008 and July 2010, seven patients underwent the VAC therapy followed by transferring a reversed saphenous neurocutaneous perforator flap for reconstruction of the wound with exposed hardware around the distal tibia. The sizes of the flaps ranged from 6 × 3 cm to 15 × 6 cm. Six flaps survived completely. Partial necrosis occurred in one patient. There were no other complications of repair and donor sites. Bone healing was achieved in all patients. In conclusion, the reversed saphenous neurocutaneous perfortor flaps combined with the VAC therapy might be one of the options to cover the complex wound with exposed hardware in the lower extremities. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori vacA Genotypes and cagA Gene in Dental Plaque of Asymptomatic Mexican Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Cantú, Alejandra; Urbina-Ríos, Cynthia Sofía; García-Martínez, Martha Elena; Torre-Martínez, Hilda H. H.

    2017-01-01

    The variability in Helicobacter pylori vacA and cagA genes has been related to the progression of the gastrointestinal disease; also the presence of H. pylori in the oral cavity has been associated with periodontal disease in adults, but, in children without dyspeptic symptoms, little is known about this. We evaluated the prevalence of H. pylori and the presence of vacA/cagA genotypes in the oral cavity of Mexican children without dyspeptic symptoms. The gingival status was measured, and dental plaque samples (n = 100) were taken. 38% of children were positive for H. pylori 16S rRNA gene by qPCR. A significant association between H. pylori oral infection and gingival status was observed (P < 0.001). In 34.6% (9/26) of mild gingivitis cases, s1m2 genotype was found, while s1m1 was typed in 50% (3/6) of moderate gingivitis. The cagA prevalence among H. pylori-positive children was 80.8% (21/26), 83.3% (5/6), and 16.7% (1/6) of cases of mild gingivitis, moderate gingivitis, and nongingivitis, respectively (P < 0.001). The s1m1/cagA+ combinational genotype was the most detected in children with gingivitis. Our results suggest that the prevalence of H. pylori and detection of vacA/cagA genotypes-associated gastrointestinal disease in the oral cavity could be related to the progression of gingivitis in asymptomatic children. PMID:29226140

  8. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori vacA Genotypes and cagA Gene in Dental Plaque of Asymptomatic Mexican Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Mendoza-Cantú

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The variability in Helicobacter pylori vacA and cagA genes has been related to the progression of the gastrointestinal disease; also the presence of H. pylori in the oral cavity has been associated with periodontal disease in adults, but, in children without dyspeptic symptoms, little is known about this. We evaluated the prevalence of H. pylori and the presence of vacA/cagA genotypes in the oral cavity of Mexican children without dyspeptic symptoms. The gingival status was measured, and dental plaque samples (n=100 were taken. 38% of children were positive for H. pylori 16S rRNA gene by qPCR. A significant association between H. pylori oral infection and gingival status was observed (P<0.001. In 34.6% (9/26 of mild gingivitis cases, s1m2 genotype was found, while s1m1 was typed in 50% (3/6 of moderate gingivitis. The cagA prevalence among H. pylori-positive children was 80.8% (21/26, 83.3% (5/6, and 16.7% (1/6 of cases of mild gingivitis, moderate gingivitis, and nongingivitis, respectively (P<0.001. The s1m1/cagA+ combinational genotype was the most detected in children with gingivitis. Our results suggest that the prevalence of H. pylori and detection of vacA/cagA genotypes-associated gastrointestinal disease in the oral cavity could be related to the progression of gingivitis in asymptomatic children.

  9. Prevalence of cagA and vacA among Helicobacter pylori-infected patients in Iran: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayehmiri, Fatemeh; Kiani, Faezeh; Sayehmiri, Kourosh; Soroush, Setareh; Asadollahi, Khairollah; Alikhani, Mohammad Yousef; Delpisheh, Ali; Emaneini, Mohammad; Bogdanović, Lidija; Varzi, Ali Mohammad; Zarrilli, Raffaele; Taherikalani, Morovat

    2015-07-30

    The varieties of infections caused by Helicobacter pylori may be due to differences in bacterial genotypes and virulence factors as well as environmental and host-related factors. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of cagA and vacA genes among H. pylori-infected patients in Iran and analyze their relevance to the disease status between two clinical groups via a meta-analysis method. Different databases including PubMed, ISI, Scopus, SID, Magiran, Science Direct, and Medlib were investigated, and 23 relevant articles from the period between 2001 and 2012 were finally analyzed. The relevant data obtained from these papers were analyzed by a random-effects model. Data were analyzed using R software and STATA. The prevalence of cagA and vacA genes among H. pylori-infected patients was 70% (95% CI, 64-75) and 41% (95% CI, 24.3-57.7), respectively. The prevalence of duodenal ulcers, peptic ulcers, and gastritis among cagA+ individuals was 53% (95% CI, 20-86), 65% (95% CI, 34-97), and 71% (95% CI, 59-84), respectively. Odds ratio (OR) between cagA-positive compared with cagA-negative patients showed a 1.89 (95% CI, 1.38-2.57) risk of ulcers. In conclusion, the frequency of cagA gene among H. pylori strains is elevated in Iran and it seems to be more frequently associated with gastritis. Therefore, any information about cagA and vacA prevalence among different H. pylori-infected clinical groups in the country can help public health authorities to plan preventive policies to reduce the prevalence of diseases associated with H. pylori infection.

  10. La búsqueda incansable en Los cálices vacíos de Delmira Agustini / The incessant search in Los cálices vacíos by Delmira Agustini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Sales Delgado

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En Los cálices vacíos Delmira Agustini subvierte los roles de género impuestos sobre la mujer en su época, reivindicando su deseo sexual como algo natural también para la mujer frente a la concepción del deseo sexual femenino como el producto subconsciente e incomprensible de su propia psique. Asimismo, se desprende de rol ocupado por la mujer en la poesía como sujeto pasivo para ejercer un rol activo que es capaz de crear y a su vez, es capaz de sentir deseo sexual. Agustini, además, hace uso de un lenguaje erótico y sexual en el que la búsqueda de la satisfacción sexual sería una metáfora de la búsqueda incansable de la perfección poética.ABSTRACT: In Los cálices vacíos, Delmira Agustini subverts the gender roles imposed on women in her time and reclaims their sexual desire as something natural, in opposition to the conception of female sexual desire as the unconscious and incomprehensible product of their own psyche. Likewise, she eschews the traditional passive role as object of desire and admiration occupied by women in poetry and assumes a new active role as creator. Agustini makes use of an erotic and sexual language in which the search for sexual satisfaction would be a metaphor for the unceasing search for poetic perfection.

  11. Sistema de alcantarillado por vacío en la Avenida de Valencia y adyacentes de Santa Pola

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro Brotóns, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Sustitución de sistema de alcantarillado común por el tipo por vacío para eliminar problemas endémicos de pueblos con alto nivel freático marino que transmiten a la EDAR, afectando el alto contenido en sales al reactor biológico.

  12. Cohort profile: the Spanish WORKing life Social Security (WORKss) cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Gómez, María Andrée; Durán, Xavier; Zaballa, Elena; Sanchez-Niubo, Albert; Delclos, George L; Benavides, Fernando G

    2016-03-07

    The global economy is changing the labour market and social protection systems in Europe. The effect of both changes on health needs to be monitored in view of an ageing population and the resulting increase in prevalence of chronic health conditions. The Spanish WORKing life Social Security (WORKss) cohort study provides unique longitudinal data to study the impact of labour trajectories and employment conditions on health, in terms of sickness absence, permanent disability and death. The WORKss cohort originated from the Continuous Working Life Sample (CWLS) generated by the General Directorate for the Organization of the Social Security in Spain. The CWLS contains a 4% representative sample of all individuals in contact with the Social Security system. The WORKss cohort exclusively includes individuals with a labour trajectory from 1981 or later. In 2004, the cohort was initiated with 1,022 ,79 Social Security members: 840,770 (82.2%) contributors and 182,009 (17.8%) beneficiaries aged 16 and older. The WORKss cohort includes demographic characteristics, chronological data about employment history, retirement, permanent disability and death. These data make possible the measurement of incidence of permanent disability, the number of potential years of working life lost, and the number of contracts and inactive periods with the Social Security system. The WORKss cohort was linked to temporary sickness absence registries to study medical diagnoses that lead to permanent disability and consequently to an earlier exit from the labour market in unhealthy conditions. Thanks to its administrative source, the WORKss cohort study will continue follow-up in the coming years, keeping the representativeness of the Spanish population affiliated to the Social Security system. The linkage between the WORKss cohort and temporary sickness absence registries is envisioned to continue. Future plans include the linkage of the cohort with mortality registries. Published by the BMJ

  13. Cohort Profile : LifeLines, a three-generation cohort study and biobank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Salome; Smidt, Nynke; Swertz, Morris A.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Dotinga, Aafje; Vonk, Judith M.; van Dijk, Freerk; van Zon, Sander K. R.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Stolk, Ronald P.

    The LifeLines Cohort Study is a large population-based cohort study and biobank that was established as a resource for research on complex interactions between environmental, phenotypic and genomic factors in the development of chronic diseases and healthy ageing. Between 2006 and 2013, inhabitants

  14. Clustering of Helicobacter pylori VacA in lipid rafts, mediated by its receptor, receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatase beta, is required for intoxication in AZ-521 Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakayama, Masaaki; Hisatsune, Jyunzo; Yamasaki, Eiki

    2006-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori vacuolating cytotoxin, VacA, induces multiple effects on epithelial cells through different cellular events: one involves pore formation, leading to vacuolation, mitochondrial damage, and apoptosis, and the second involves cell signaling, resulting in stimulation of proinflamm......Helicobacter pylori vacuolating cytotoxin, VacA, induces multiple effects on epithelial cells through different cellular events: one involves pore formation, leading to vacuolation, mitochondrial damage, and apoptosis, and the second involves cell signaling, resulting in stimulation...

  15. Safety and efficacy of using the Viabahn endoprosthesis for percutaneous treatment of vascular access complications after transfemoral aortic valve implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Backer, Ole; Arnous, Samer; Sandholt, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Vascular access complications (VACs) remain one of the biggest challenges when performing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). This study aimed to investigate the short- and medium-term safety and efficacy of the Viabahn endoprosthesis (Gore, Flagstaff, AZ) when used to treat TAVI......-induced vascular injury. Over a 40-month period, 354 patients underwent true percutaneous transfemoral (TF)-TAVI using a CoreValve and Prostar-XL closure system; this was our study population. A VAC leading to acute intervention occurred in 72 patients (20.3%) - of these, 18 were managed by balloon angioplasty, 48...... were treated by Viabahn stenting (technical success rate 98%), and 6 needed surgical intervention. Overall, this approach resulted in a major VAC rate of 3.1% (n = 11) in our study cohort. Length of hospitalization and 30-day mortality rates were comparable in patients with a VAC treated by Viabahn...

  16. Validating Smoking Data From the Veteran’s Affairs Health Factors Dataset, an Electronic Data Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Cynthia A.; Skanderson, Melissa; Justice, Amy C.; Shahrir, Shahida; Butt, Adeel A.; Brown, Sheldon T.; Freiberg, Matthew S.; Gibert, Cynthia L.; Goetz, Matthew Bidwell; Kim, Joon Woo; Pisani, Margaret A.; Rimland, David; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C.; Sico, Jason J.; Tindle, Hilary A.; Crothers, Kristina

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: We assessed smoking data from the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) electronic medical record (EMR) Health Factors dataset. Methods: To assess the validity of the EMR Health Factors smoking data, we first created an algorithm to convert text entries into a 3-category smoking variable (never, former, and current). We compared this EMR smoking variable to 2 different sources of patient self-reported smoking survey data: (a) 6,816 HIV-infected and -uninfected participants in the 8-site Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS-8) and (b) a subset of 13,689 participants from the national VACS Virtual Cohort (VACS-VC), who also completed the 1999 Large Health Study (LHS) survey. Sensitivity, specificity, and kappa statistics were used to evaluate agreement of EMR Health Factors smoking data with self-report smoking data. Results: For the EMR Health Factors and VACS-8 comparison of current, former, and never smoking categories, the kappa statistic was .66. For EMR Health Factors and VACS-VC/LHS comparison of smoking, the kappa statistic was .61. Conclusions: Based on kappa statistics, agreement between the EMR Health Factors and survey sources is substantial. Identification of current smokers nationally within the VHA can be used in future studies to track smoking status over time, to evaluate smoking interventions, and to adjust for smoking status in research. Our methodology may provide insights for other organizations seeking to use EMR data for accurate determination of smoking status. PMID:21911825

  17. Cohort profile: the lidA Cohort Study-a German Cohort Study on Work, Age, Health and Work Participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselhorn, Hans Martin; Peter, Richard; Rauch, Angela; Schröder, Helmut; Swart, Enno; Bender, Stefan; du Prel, Jean-Baptist; Ebener, Melanie; March, Stefanie; Trappmann, Mark; Steinwede, Jacob; Müller, Bernd Hans

    2014-12-01

    The lidA Cohort Study (German Cohort Study on Work, Age, Health and Work Participation) was set up to investigate and follow the effects of work and work context on the physical and psychological health of the ageing workforce in Germany and subsequently on work participation. Cohort participants are initially employed people subject to social security contributions and born in either 1959 (n = 2909) or 1965 (n = 3676). They were personally interviewed in their homes in 2011 and will be visited every 3 years. Data collection comprises socio-demographic data, work and private exposures, work ability, work and work participation attitudes, health, health-related behaviour, personality and attitudinal indicators. Employment biographies are assessed using register data. Subjective health reports and physical strength measures are complemented by health insurance claims data, where permission was given. A conceptual framework has been developed for the lidA Cohort Study within which three confirmatory sub-models assess the interdependencies of work and health considering age, gender and socioeconomic status. The first set of the data will be available to the scientific community by 2015. Access will be given by the Research Data Centre of the German Federal Employment Agency at the Institute for Employment Research (http://fdz.iab.de/en.aspx). © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  18. Intrathoracic application of a vacuum-assisted closure device in managing pleural space infection after lung resection: is it an option?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghshenasskashani, Alireza; Rahnavardi, Mohammad; Yan, Tristan D; McCaughan, Brian C

    2011-08-01

    Empyema after lung resection is a challenging condition to manage and is associated with a high mortality. Intrathoracic application of a vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) device is recently introduced as an adjunct in the management of this condition. A best evidence topic was constructed to address whether this approach is effective in successful chest closure and reducing hospital stay. Twenty-three papers were found using the reported search, of which nine papers were identified that provided the best evidence to answer the question. All papers were retrospective and included a total of 69 patients treated with intrathoracic VAC. There was only one cohort study and the rest were either case series or case reports. In a cohort of 19 patients reported by Palmen et al. the average duration of an open window thoracostomy in a group of patients with VAC (n=11) was 39 ± 17 days and in those without VAC (n=8) was 933 ± 1422 days. Median length of VAC treatment was 22 days (range 6-66 days) in a series of 28 patients reported by Saadi et al. Some authors excluded patients with a bronchopleural fistula (BPF) from VAC treatment. However, Groetzner et al. have safely used VAC in patients with BPF after covering the bronchus stump with an intrathoracic muscle flap. The mediastinum and the bronchus can be covered using a polyvinyl-alcohol foam. Polyurethane foam is commonly used to fill the intrathoracic cavity up to the superficial wound. The suggested starting level of negative pressure is as low as -25 mmHg to -75 mmHg depending on the presence or absence of signs of mediastinal traction; this negative pressure can gradually be increased to -125 mmHg over time. The recommended interval between VAC changes is two to five days. Accumulated evidence in this article, although limited, suggests that VAC, as an adjunct to the standard treatment, can potentially alleviate the morbidity and decrease hospital stay in patients with empyema after lung resection. VAC can reduce

  19. Infecção por Helicobacter pylori e câncer gástrico: freqüência de cepas patogênicas cagA e vacA em pacientes com câncer gástrico Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer: distribution of cagA and vacA genotypes in patients with gastric carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Melissa Thomazini

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Apesar da alta freqüência de infecção por Helicobacter pylori na população, somente uma minoria de indivíduos desenvolve câncer gástrico. É provável que a colonização da mucosa por cepas patogênicas, levando a maior agressão e inflamação da mucosa seja um dos elos da cadeia de eventos da oncogênese gástrica. OBJETIVOS: Investigar a freqüência de cepas patogênicas cagA e vacA do H. pylori em pacientes com câncer gástrico. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Foram estudados retrospectivamente 42 pacientes com câncer gástrico. A infecção por H. pylori foi avaliada por exame histológico e pelo PCR para identificação dos genótipos cagA e vacA em amostras de material fixado em formalina e incluído em parafina. RESULTADOS: A análise histológica permitiu a visualização direta do H. pylori em 85,7% dos casos, e o método de PCR para o gene urease C demonstrou a presença de DNA da bactéria em 95% dos casos. O gene cagA foi detectado em amostras de 23 pacientes (54,7% com câncer gástrico. O alelo s1 do gene vacA foi identificado em amostras de 24 pacientes (57,1% e o alelo m1, em amostras de 26 pacientes (61,9%. Os alelos s1 e m1 foram identificados simultaneamente em 24 pacientes (57,1%. O alelo s2 foi identificado em amostras de quatro pacientes (9,5%, e o alelo m2, em amostras de três pacientes (7,1%. A freqüência de infecção pelo Helicobacter pylori foi similar em ambos os tipos histológicos de câncer gástrico (intestinal e difuso. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados confirmam a relevância dos genótipos patogênicos cagA e vacA do H. pylori para lesões orgânicas significativas tais como o câncer gástrico, sugerindo a participação dessa bactéria na cadeia de eventos da oncogênese gástrica.BACKGROUND: The rates of Helicobacter pylori infection are very high worldwide, but only a minority of infected patients develop gastric carcinoma. This might be related, among several factors, to the colonization of

  20. Results of endoscopic vacuum-assisted closure device for treatment of upper GI leaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bludau, Marc; Fuchs, Hans F; Herbold, Till; Maus, Martin K H; Alakus, Hakan; Popp, Felix; Leers, Jessica M; Bruns, Christiane J; Hölscher, Arnulf H; Schröder, Wolfgang; Chon, Seung-Hun

    2018-04-01

    Esophageal perforations and postoperative leakage of esophagogastrostomies are considered to be life-threatening conditions due to the potential development of mediastinitis and consecutive sepsis. Vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) techniques, a well-established treatment method for superficial infected wounds, are based on a negative pressure applied to the wound via a vacuum-sealed sponge. Endoluminal VAC (E-VAC) therapy as a treatment for GI leakages in the rectum was introduced in 2008. E-VAC therapy is a novel method, and experience regarding esophageal applications is limited. In this retrospective study, the experience of a high-volume center for upper GI surgery with E-VAC therapy in patients with leaks of the upper GI tract is summarized. To our knowledge, this series presents the largest patient cohort worldwide in a single-center study. Between October 2010 and January 2017, 77 patients with defects in the upper gastrointestinal tract were treated using the E-VAC application. Six patients had a spontaneous perforation, 12 patients an iatrogenic injury, and 59 patients a postoperative leakage in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Complete restoration of the esophageal defect was achieved in 60 of 77 patients. The average duration of application was 11.0 days, and a median of 2.75 E-VAC systems were used. For 21 of the 77 patients, E-VAC therapy was combined with the placement of self-expanding metal stents. This study demonstrates that E-VAC therapy provides an additional treatment option for esophageal wall defects. Esophageal defects and mediastinal abscesses can be treated with E-VAC therapy where endoscopic stenting may not be possible. A prospective multi-center study has to be directed to bring evidence to the superiority of E-VAC therapy for patients suffering from upper GI defects.

  1. [Application of cohort study in cancer prevention and control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Min; Bai, Yana; Pu, Hongquan; Cheng, Ning; Li, Haiyan; He, Jie

    2016-03-01

    Cancer control is a long-term work. Cancer research and intervention really need the support of cohort study. In the recent years, more and more cohort studies on cancer control were conducted in China along with the increased ability of scientific research in China. Since 2010, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, collaborated with Lanzhou University and the Worker' s Hospital of Jinchuan Group Company Limited, have carried out a large-scale cohort study on cancer, which covered a population of more than 50 000 called " Jinchang cohort". Since 2012, a National Key Public Health Project, "cancer screening in urban China" , has been conducted in Jinchang, which strengthened the Jinchang cohort study. Based on the Jinchang cohort study, historical cohort study, cross-sectional study and prospective cohort study have been conducted, which would provide a lot of evidence for the cancer control in China.

  2. [Ethical considerations in genomic cohort study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun Kyung; Kim, Ock-Joo

    2007-03-01

    During the last decade, genomic cohort study has been developed in many countries by linking health data and genetic data in stored samples. Genomic cohort study is expected to find key genetic components that contribute to common diseases, thereby promising great advance in genome medicine. While many countries endeavor to build biobank systems, biobank-based genome research has raised important ethical concerns including genetic privacy, confidentiality, discrimination, and informed consent. Informed consent for biobank poses an important question: whether true informed consent is possible in population-based genomic cohort research where the nature of future studies is unforeseeable when consent is obtained. Due to the sensitive character of genetic information, protecting privacy and keeping confidentiality become important topics. To minimize ethical problems and achieve scientific goals to its maximum degree, each country strives to build population-based genomic cohort research project, by organizing public consultation, trying public and expert consensus in research, and providing safeguards to protect privacy and confidentiality.

  3. A novel approach to severe acute pancreatitis in sequential liver-kidney transplantation: the first report on the application of VAC therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanus, Giacomo; Boetto, Riccardo; D'Amico, Francesco; Gringeri, Enrico; Vitale, Alessandro; Carraro, Amedeo; Bassi, Domenico; Scopelliti, Michele; Bonsignore, Pasquale; Burra, Patrizia; Angeli, Paolo; Feltracco, Paolo; Cillo, Umberto

    2011-03-01

    This work is the first report of vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) therapy applied as a life-saving surgical treatment for severe acute pancreatitis occurring in a sequential liver- and kidney-transplanted patient who had percutaneous biliary drainage for obstructive "late-onset" jaundice. Surgical exploration with necrosectomy and sequential laparotomies was performed because of increasing intra-abdominal pressure with hemodynamic instability and intra-abdominal multidrug-resistant sepsis, with increasingly difficult abdominal closure. Repeated laparotomies with VAC therapy (applying a continuous negative abdominal pressure) enabled a progressive, successful abdominal decompression, with the clearance of infection and definitive abdominal wound closure. The application of a negative pressure is a novel approach to severe abdominal sepsis and laparostomy management with a view to preventing compartment syndrome and fatal sepsis, and it can lead to complete abdominal wound closure. © 2010 The Authors. Transplant International © 2010 European Society for Organ Transplantation.

  4. Use of subatmospheric (VAC) therapy to improve bioengineered tissue grafting in diabetic foot wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espensen, Eric H; Nixon, Brent P; Lavery, Lawrence A; Armstrong, David G

    2002-01-01

    The use of bioengineered tissue and topical subatmospheric pressure therapy have both been widely accepted as adjunctive therapies for the treatment of noninfected, nonischemic diabetic foot wounds. This article describes a temporally overlapping method of care that includes a period of simultaneous application of bioengineered tissue (Apligraf, Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corp, East Hanover, New Jersey) and subatmospheric pressure therapy delivered through the VAC (Vacuum Assisted Closure) system (KCI, Inc, San Antonio, Texas). Future descriptive and analytic works may test the hypothesis that combined therapies used at different and often overlapping periods during the wound-healing cycle may be more effective than a single modality.

  5. CD8+ T-Cells Count in Acute Myocardial Infarction in HIV Disease in a Predominantly Male Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwatosin A. Badejo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human Immunodeficiency Virus- (HIV- infected persons have a higher risk for acute myocardial infarction (AMI than HIV-uninfected persons. Earlier studies suggest that HIV viral load, CD4+ T-cell count, and antiretroviral therapy are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD risk. Whether CD8+ T-cell count is associated with CVD risk is not clear. We investigated the association between CD8+ T-cell count and incident AMI in a cohort of 73,398 people (of which 97.3% were men enrolled in the U.S. Veterans Aging Cohort Study-Virtual Cohort (VACS-VC. Compared to uninfected people, HIV-infected people with high baseline CD8+ T-cell counts (>1065 cells/mm3 had increased AMI risk (adjusted HR=1.82, P<0.001, 95% CI: 1.46 to 2.28. There was evidence that the effect of CD8+ T-cell tertiles on AMI risk differed by CD4+ T-cell level: compared to uninfected people, HIV-infected people with CD4+ T-cell counts ≥200 cells/mm3 had increased AMI risk with high CD8+ T-cell count, while those with CD4+ T-cell counts <200 cells/mm3 had increased AMI risk with low CD8+ T-cell count. CD8+ T-cell counts may add additional AMI risk stratification information beyond that provided by CD4+ T-cell counts alone.

  6. Distribution of freshwater snails in family-based VAC ponds and associated waterbodies with special reference to intermediate hosts of fish-borne zoonotic trematodes in Nam Dinh Province, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dung, Bui Thi; Madsen, Henry; The, Dang Tat

    2010-10-01

    Fish-borne zoonotic trematodes, such as Clonorchis sinensis, heterophyids and others, constitute a public health concern in parts of northern Vietnam and infections with these trematodes are often thought to be linked to fish culture. One common fish culture system is the integrated fish-livestock (VAC) ponds where individual households have 1 or more ponds. Fish fry, mainly of various carp species, produced in hatcheries, not necessarily local, are introduced into nursery ponds and after approximately 6 weeks, juvenile fishes are transferred to household ponds, referred to as grow-out ponds. Grow-out ponds are usually fertilized with organic debris, including animal excreta, to stimulate algal growth and subsequently fish growth. This paper describes the distribution of freshwater snails and occurrence of trematode infections in these in VAC ponds and associated habitats as part of a major study on risk factors of FZT infections in cultured fish in two communes, Nghia Lac and Nghia Phu, Nghia Hung District, Nam Dinh Province. The area is under intense rice cultivation with an extensive canal network supplying fields and also household VAC ponds. A total of 16 snail species was found and four were widely distributed i.e. Angulyagra polyzonata, Melanoides tuberculata, Bithynia fuchsiana and Pomacea insularum. Snail diversity and counts were higher in nursery ponds than in grow-out ponds. Species of the families Thiaridae and Viviparidae were more abundant than other species in VAC ponds while species of the Bithyniidae, Stenothyridae and Planorbidae dominated in rice fields and small canals. Trematode infections were found in eight snail species and among these M. tuberculata had the highest overall prevalence of infection (13.28%). No trematode infections were found in species of the Viviparidae and Ampullaridae except for metacercariae. Parapleurolophocercous and pleurolophocercous cercariae constituted the most common type of cercariae recovered, contributing 40

  7. Global teaching and training initiatives for emerging cohort studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica K. Paulus

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A striking disparity exists across the globe, with essentially no large-scale longitudinal studies ongoing in regions that will be significantly affected by the oncoming non-communicable disease epidemic. The successful implementation of cohort studies in most low-resource research environments presents unique challenges that may be aided by coordinated training programs. Leaders of emerging cohort studies attending the First World Cohort Integration Workshop were surveyed about training priorities, unmet needs and potential cross-cohort solutions to these barriers through an electronic pre-workshop questionnaire and focus groups. Cohort studies representing India, Mexico, Nigeria, South Africa, Sweden, Tanzania and Uganda described similar training needs, including on-the-job training, data analysis software instruction, and database and bio-bank management. A lack of funding and protected time for training activities were commonly identified constraints. Proposed solutions include a collaborative cross-cohort teaching platform with web-based content and interactive teaching methods for a range of research personnel. An international network for research mentorship and idea exchange, and modifying the graduate thesis structure were also identified as key initiatives. Cross-cohort integrated educational initiatives will efficiently meet shared needs, catalyze the development of emerging cohorts, speed closure of the global disparity in cohort research, and may fortify scientific capacity development in low-resource settings.

  8. Language-specific strategy for programming hearing aids - A double-blind randomized controlled crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Nozomu; Suzuki, Nobuyoshi; Iwasaki, Satoshi; Ishikawa, Kazuha; Tsukiji, Hiroki; Higashino, Yoshie; Tabuki, Tomoko; Nakagawa, Takashi

    2018-08-01

    Voice-aligned compression (VAC) is a method used in Oticon's hearing aids to provide more comfortable hearing without sacrificing speech discrimination. The complex, non-linear compression curve for the VAC strategy is designed based on the frequency profile of certain spoken Western languages. We hypothesized that hearing aids could be further customized for Japanese-speaking users by modifying the compression curve using the frequency profile of spoken Japanese. A double-blind randomized controlled crossover study was performed to determine whether or not Oticon's modified amplification strategy (VAC-J) provides subjectively preferable hearing aids for Japanese-speaking hearing aid users compared to the same company's original amplification strategy (VAC). The participants were randomized to two groups. The VAC-first group received a pair of hearing aids programmed using the VAC strategy and wore them for three weeks, and then received a pair of hearing aids programmed using VAC-J strategy and wore them for three weeks. The VAC-J-first group underwent the same study, but they received hearing aids in the reverse sequence. A Speech, Spatial and Qualities (SSQ) questionnaire was administered before beginning to use the hearing aids, at the end of using the first pair of hearing aids, and at the end of using the second pair of hearing aids. Twenty-five participants that met the inclusion/exclusion criteria from January 1 to October 31, 2016, were randomized to two groups. Twenty-two participants completed the study. There were no statistically significant differences in the increment of SSQ scores between the participants when using the VAC- or the VAC-J-programmed hearing aids. However, participants preferred the VAC-J strategy to the VAC strategy at the end of the study, and this difference was statistically significant. Japanese-speaking hearing aid users preferred using hearing aids that were fitted with the VAC-J strategy. Our results show that the VAC strategy

  9. VacA, cagA, iceA and oipA genotypes status and antimicrobial resistance properties of Helicobacter pylori isolated from various types of ready to eat foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmatinezhad, Behsan; Momtaz, Hassan; Rahimi, Ebrahim

    2016-01-20

    Despite the high clinical standing of Helicobacter pylori, its exact routes of transmission and origin have not been determined. Based on the contentious hypothesis, foods play an important roles in the transmission of H. pylori to humans. The present study was carried out to investigate the vacA, cagA, oipA and iceA genotypes status of H. pylori isolated from the various types of ready to eat foods. A total of 550 ready to eat food samples were cultured and tested. H. pylori-positive strains were analyzed for the presence of various genotypes and antimicrobial resistance pattern. Seventy four out of 550 (13.45 %) samples were positive for H. pylori. Olvie salad (36 %), restaurant salad (30 %), fruit salad (28 %) and soup (22 %) were the most commonly contaminated. H. pylori strains harbored the highest levels of resistance against amoxicillin (94.59 %), ampicillin (93.24 %), metronidazole (89.18 %) and tetracycline (72.97 %). The most commonly detected genotypes were vacA s1a (78.37 %), vacA m2 (75.67 %), vacA m1a (51.35 %) and cagA (41.89 %). The prevalence of iceA1, iceA2 and oipA genotypes were 13.51, 4.05 and 18.91 %, respectively. S1am2 (70.27 %), s1am1a (39.18 %) and m1am2 (31.08 %) were the most commonly detected combined genotypes. Of 40 different genotypic combinations, s1a/cagA+/iceA1/oipA- (12.16 %), s1a/cagA+/iceA1/oipA+ (10.81 %) and s1a/cagA-/iceA1/oipA+ (10.81 %) were the most prevalent. The present investigation showed that some types of ready to eat food samples maybe the sources of resistant and virulent strains of H. pylori. Warily use of antibiotics with respect to the results of disk diffusion method and careful health monitoring on food and staffs of food producing companies maybe reduce the risk of H. pylori in foods.

  10. ROTO PEEN Scalar and VAC-PAC reg-sign system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    The Pentek, Inc., milling technology, comprising the ROTO PEEN Scaler and the VAC-PAC reg-sign waste collection system, is a fully developed and commercialized technology used to remove hazardous coatings from concrete and steel floors, walls, ceilings, and structural components. This report describes a demonstration of the Pentek, Inc., milling system to remove the paint coating from 650 ft 2 of concrete flooring on the service floor of the Chicago Pile-5 (CP-5) Research Reactor. CP-5 is a heavy-water moderated and cooled, highly enriched, uranium-fueled thermal reactor designed to supply neutrons for research. The reactor had a thermal-power rating of 5 megawatts and was operated continuously for 25 years until its final shutdown in 1979. These 25 years of operation produced activation and contamination characteristics representative of other nuclear facilities within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex and the commercial nuclear sector. CP-5 contains many of the essential features of other DOE and commercial nuclear facilities and can be used safely as a demonstration facility for the evaluation of innovative technologies for the future D and D of much larger, more highly contaminated facilities

  11. Delayed flap coverage of open extremity fractures after previous vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) therapy - worse or worth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiert, Andreas E; Gohritz, Andreas; Schreiber, Thomas C; Krettek, Christian; Vogt, Peter M

    2009-05-01

    Controversy remains regarding timing in the management of complex traumatic lower extremity defects. Many authors recommend a definitive bony and soft tissue reconstruction within a critical period of 72 h, yet in many patients this may be impossible due to concomitant injuries or delayed referral. However, little data are available on the results of delayed flap reconstruction of complex traumatic extremity defects, especially using new technologies of wound coverage such as vacuum-assisted closure (VAC((R))) therapy which may reduce the disadvantages of conventional open wound therapy prior to a subsequent flap reconstruction. We retrospectively analysed the soft tissue reconstructions in 43 open extremity fractures during a 4-year period with special regard to complications, overall flap loss and wound infection. A total of 29 male and 13 female patients with 33 open fractures of the lower and 10 of the upper extremity were included. All patients had been referred from a trauma centre at a mean interval of 19 days (range 1-96 days) after the trauma event with temporary VAC((R)) of their wounds after initial fracture fixation and initial debridement of necrotic tissue. Flap reconstruction was thus only possible later than 72 h and definitive wound closure was achieved at a mean time of 28 days (range 3-106 days). Overall, three pedicled flaps were lost and one of 38 microsurgical free flaps (2.6%) underwent necrosis, the cause of which was unrelated to treatment delay. According to this study, the flap reconstructions performed beyond the frequently quoted critical interval yielded similar results to those of immediate reconstruction within the first 3 days, as reported in the literature. This strategy is in accordance with the principles of 'Damage Control Orthopaedics (DCO)' and may reduce the importance of emergency reconstructions, especially in poly-traumatised patients.

  12. El vacío de Lenin: hacia un kenograma del management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Baecker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available No existe una sociología del management generalmente aceptada y al enfoque cognitivo de la sociología se le hace difícil lidiar con los aspectos volitivos del management. El siguiente artículo presenta un intento de entender al management como un mecanismo evolutivo que integra entre sí aspectos cognitivos y volitivos. Se introduce la idea general de una kenogramática, con cuya ayuda se puede describir el vacío que es procesado por el management que introduce un objetivo. Se presenta a continuación un modelo que describe el management de la revolución rusa de Lenin como una "estrategia de acceso" (Philip Selznick. El Bolchevismo transforma a los miembros del partido en agentes del mismo, los cuales intentan llenar puestos en diferentes organizaciones relevantes y en dicho proceso son apoyados, tanto por una "teoría" apropiada, así como por una determinada "praxis" rutinaria propia de la revolución.

  13. Impact of deep sternal wound infection management with vacuum-assisted closure therapy followed by sternal osteosynthesis: a 15-year review of 23,499 sternotomies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillot, Richard; Cloutier, Daniel; Montalin, Livia; Côté, Louise; Lellouche, François; Houde, Chanel; Gaudreau, Geneviève; Voisine, Pierre

    2010-04-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the outcome of patients with deep sternal wound infection (DSWI) now treated with vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) therapy as a bridge to sternal osteosynthesis with horizontal titanium plate fixation. From 1992 to 2007, a consecutive cohort of 23,499 patients underwent open-heart surgery (OHS) in our institution. The period under study was divided in two according to the use of therapeutic modalities: conventional (1992-2001, N=118 DSWI): debridement/drainage with primary closure and irrigation (N=37), debridement/drainage, open packing followed by pectoralis myocutaneous flaps (PMFs) (N=81); contemporary (2002-2007, N=149 DSWI): conventional treatment (N=24) and VAC therapy (N=125/83.8%). VAC was followed by sternal osteosynthesis with horizontal titanium plates in 92 patients (61.7%). DSWI was diagnosed in 267 out of 23 499 (1.1%) patients of our entire series according to Center for Disease Control - Atlanta (CDC) criteria, 118 out of 13 180 (0.9%) in the first and 149 out of 10 319 (1.4%) in the second period (p=0.001). Hospital mortality (N=267/23,499) has been 10.25% for the entire cohort under study without any difference between groups (1992-2001: 11.4%; 2002-2007: 9.1%, p=0.67). More recently, VAC therapy (N=125) was associated with a lower mortality (4.8% vs 14.1%, p=0.01). Stepwise multivariable logistic regression analysis for both periods revealed that prolonged intubation in the intensive care unit (ICU), use of bilateral internal thoracic artery grafting (BIMA), diabetes, re-operation for bleeding and body mass index (BMI) >30 kgm(-2) are the most powerful predictors of DSWI. In the more recently treated patients using VAC therapy, combined procedures (valve and graft) also emerged as a significant predictor. For the entire study, Staphylococcus epidermidis (49.6%) has been the most frequently identified pathogen, followed by Staphylococcus aureus (38.8%). Methicillin-resistant S.aureus (MRSA) was observed in 4

  14. A comparison of Cox and logistic regression for use in genome-wide association studies of cohort and case-cohort design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, James R; Jones, Edmund; Kaptoge, Stephen; Butterworth, Adam S; Sweeting, Michael J; Wood, Angela M; Howson, Joanna M M

    2017-06-01

    Logistic regression is often used instead of Cox regression to analyse genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and disease outcomes with cohort and case-cohort designs, as it is less computationally expensive. Although Cox and logistic regression models have been compared previously in cohort studies, this work does not completely cover the GWAS setting nor extend to the case-cohort study design. Here, we evaluated Cox and logistic regression applied to cohort and case-cohort genetic association studies using simulated data and genetic data from the EPIC-CVD study. In the cohort setting, there was a modest improvement in power to detect SNP-disease associations using Cox regression compared with logistic regression, which increased as the disease incidence increased. In contrast, logistic regression had more power than (Prentice weighted) Cox regression in the case-cohort setting. Logistic regression yielded inflated effect estimates (assuming the hazard ratio is the underlying measure of association) for both study designs, especially for SNPs with greater effect on disease. Given logistic regression is substantially more computationally efficient than Cox regression in both settings, we propose a two-step approach to GWAS in cohort and case-cohort studies. First to analyse all SNPs with logistic regression to identify associated variants below a pre-defined P-value threshold, and second to fit Cox regression (appropriately weighted in case-cohort studies) to those identified SNPs to ensure accurate estimation of association with disease.

  15. Cohort profile: The Limache, Chile, birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amigo, Hugo; Bustos, Patricia; Zumelzú, Elinor; Rona, Roberto J

    2014-08-01

    The Limache cohort was set up to assess the programming and life course events hypotheses in relation to cardiovascular risk factors and chronic respiratory conditions, especially asthma, in the context of an unprecedented economic growth in Chile. The cohort was a representative sample of 1232 participants born between 1974 and 1978 in the hospital of Limache. The study includes data collected at birth, during the 1st year of life, at 22 to 28 years (collected between 2000 and 2002) and at 32 to 38 years (collected between 2010 and 2012). The data collected include anthropometric measurements at birth, 1st year of life and in adulthood, socio-economic and demographic data, lifestyle information including smoking, alcohol consumption and food intake, respiratory symptoms, lung function, broncho-reactivity to methacholine and skin prick reaction to eight allergens, measurement of cardiovascular risk factors and information on common mental health, mainly in the most recent study. The principal researchers welcome collaborative projects, especially those that will compare similar data sets in other settings. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association © The Author 2013; all rights reserved.

  16. Age, time period, and birth cohort differences in self-esteem: Reexamining a cohort-sequential longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenge, Jean M; Carter, Nathan T; Campbell, W Keith

    2017-05-01

    Orth, Trzesniewski, and Robins (2010) concluded that the nationally representative Americans' Changing Lives (ACL) cohort-sequential study demonstrated moderate to large age differences in self-esteem, and no birth cohort (generational) differences in the age trajectory. In a reanalysis of these data using 2 different statistical techniques, we find significant increases in self-esteem that could be attributed to birth cohort or time period. First, hierarchical linear modeling analyses with birth cohort as a continuous variable (vs. the multiple group formulation used by Orth et al.) find that birth cohort has a measurable influence on self-esteem through its interaction with age. Participants born in later years (e.g., 1960) were higher in self-esteem and were more likely to increase in self-esteem as they aged than participants born in earlier years (e.g., 1920). However, the estimated age trajectory up to age 60 is similar in Orth et al.'s results and in the results from our analyses including cohort. Second, comparing ACL respondents of the same age in 1986 versus 2002 (a time-lag design) yields significant birth cohort differences in self-esteem, with 2002 participants of the same age higher in self-esteem than those in 1986. Combined with some previous studies finding significant increases in self-esteem and positive self-views over time, these results suggest that cultural change in the form of cohort and time period cannot be ignored as influences in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Los “vacíos urbanos”. Causas de su existencia en el suelo urbano de la primera periferia de Madrid. / The “urban voids”. Causes of their existence within Madrid’s urban fabric former periphery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Freire Trigo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa existencia de “vacíos urbanos” en el suelo consolidado de nuestra ciudad es un hecho que, si bien se ha debatido ampliamente desde un punto de vista práctico (para qué podrían servir estos espacios, apenas sí se ha considerado desde un punto de vista conceptual (por qué existen estos espacios. La presente investigación parte del convencimiento de la necesaria reflexión sobre las causas que originan estos “vacíos urbanos” y plantea la hipótesis de que su existencia se debe a la conjugación de una serie concreta de Factores Endógenos. El objetivo de la investigación será, por tanto, determinar dicha cadena de Factores a partir del análisis de una serie de casos de estudio situados en la primera periferia de Madrid. Palabras claveVacío urbano, espacios vacíos, suelo consolidado, factor endógeno, uso del suelo, propiedad del suelo. AbstractThe existence of “urban voids” within our city’s solid urban fabric is a fact that, although it has been widely discussed from a practical view point (what these empty areas could be useful for, has been barely considered from a theoretical view point (why these empty areas exist. The current research is based on the belief that a reflection about the causes that yield these “urban voids” is needed and establishes the hypothesis of which their existence is due to the combination of specific Endogenous Factors. Accordingly, the main aim of the research will be that of determine such chain of Factors considering the analysis of several study cases located in Madrid’s former periphery.KeywordsUrban void, empty areas, solid urban fabric, endogenous factor, land use, land ownership.

  18. Significantes vacíos y disputas por el sentido en el discurso político: un enfoque argumentativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Soledad Montero

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo se propone dar cuenta de la utilidad de la teoría polifónico-argumentativa desarrollada por O. Ducrot para abordar fenómenos relativos a las luchas discursivas por los sentidos políticos. En particular, se intenta trazar un posible vínculo teórico entre esa teoría lingüística y la noción de significante vacío elaborada por E. Laclau. Se postula la hipótesis de es que posible realizar una descripción semántica del funcionamiento de esos significantes desde un enfoque argumentativo y polifónico, especialmente a partir de la noción de topos (Anscombre, 1995a; Ducrot, 1988b, proveniente de la retórica griega y reelaborada por teorías contemporáneas. Principios ideológicos y culturales que funcionan como puntos de apoyo y garantes tanto de los enunciados como del sentido de las palabras mismas, los topoï permiten dar cuenta, desde una perspectiva lingüística que considera el anclaje material y estructural de los procesos de configuración del sentido, de la lógica argumentativa que subyace a los significantes vacíos en particular, y a la ideología en general.

  19. VacA and CagA Status as Biomarker of Two Opposite End Outcomes of Helicobacter pylori Infection (Gastric Cancer and Duodenal Ulcer) in a Moroccan Population

    OpenAIRE

    El Khadir, Mounia; Alaoui Boukhris, Samia; Benajah, Dafr-Allah; El Rhazi, Karima; Ibrahimi, Sidi Adil; El Abkari, Mohamed; Harmouch, Taoufiq; Nejjari, Chakib; Mahmoud, Mustapha; Benlemlih, Mohamed; Bennani, Bahia

    2017-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection induces inflammation of the gastric mucosa, which may progress to precancerous lesions leading to gastric cancer. Pathological determinism is associated to some virulence genes of the bacterium, notably the vacA and cagA genes. The present study aimed to determine the H. pylori genotypes distribution and their association with sex, age and gastric diseases in a Moroccan population. Gastric biopsy was taken from 1079 consenting patients. The specimens ...

  20. Public perceptions of cohort studies and biobanks in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkbaum, Johannes; Gottweis, Herbert; Gottweis, Ursula; Kleiser, Christina; Linseisen, Jakob; Meisinger, Christa; Kamtsiuris, Panagiotis; Moebus, Susanne; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Börm, Sonja; Wichmann, H-Erich

    2014-04-01

    Cohort studies and biobank projects have led to public discussions in several European countries in the past. In Germany, many medium-sized studies are currently running successfully in terms of respondent rates. However, EU-wide research on general public perceptions of biobanks and cohort studies have shown that Germany is among those countries where people express the highest reluctance for providing body material and other data for research purposes. Because of early efforts of the just-initiated German National Cohort Study, we are able to begin to investigate in greater detail how various groups of people across Germany reflect and discuss the ongoing implementation of cohort studies and biobanking in Germany. Our research is based on 15 focus group discussions in four German regions, as well as on Eurobarometer poll data on biobanking.

  1. The value of debridement and Vacuum-Assisted Closure (V.A.C.) Therapy in diabetic foot ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eneroth, Magnus; van Houtum, William H

    2008-01-01

    Treatment of diabetic foot ulcers includes a number of different regimes such as glycaemic control, re-vascularization, surgical, local wound treatment, offloading and other non-surgical treatments. Although considered the standard of care, the scientific evidence behind the various debridements used is scarce. This presentation will focus on debridement and V.A.C. Therapy, two treatments widely used in patients with diabetes and foot ulcers. A review of existing literature on these treatments in diabetic foot ulcers, with focus on description of the various types of debridements used, the principles behind negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) using the V.A.C. Therapy system and level of evidence. Five randomized controlled trials (RCT) of debridement were identified; three assessed the effectiveness of a hydrogel as a debridement method, one evaluated surgical debridement and one evaluated larval therapy. Pooling the three hydrogel RCTs suggested that hydrogels are significantly more effective than gauze or standard care in healing diabetic foot ulcers. Surgical debridement and larval therapy showed no significant benefit. Other debridement methods such as enzyme preparations or polysaccharide beads have not been evaluated in RCTs of people with diabetes. More than 300 articles have been published on negative pressure wound therapy, including several small RCTs and a larger multi-centre RCT of diabetic foot ulcers. Negative pressure wound therapy seems to be a safe and effective treatment for complex diabetic foot wounds, and could lead to a higher proportion of healed wounds, faster healing rates, and potentially fewer re-amputations than standard care. Although debridement of the ulcer is considered a prerequisite for healing of diabetic foot ulcers, the grade of evidence is quite low. This may be due to a lack of studies rather than lack of effect. Negative pressure wound therapy seems to be safe and effective in the treatment of some diabetic foot ulcers

  2. Cohort studies in health sciences librarianship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldredge, Jonathan

    2002-10-01

    What are the key characteristics of the cohort study design and its varied applications, and how can this research design be utilized in health sciences librarianship? The health, social, behavioral, biological, library, earth, and management sciences literatures were used as sources. All fields except for health sciences librarianship were scanned topically for either well-known or diverse applications of the cohort design. The health sciences library literature available to the author principally for the years 1990 to 2000, supplemented by papers or posters presented at annual meetings of the Medical Library Association. A narrative review for the health, social, behavioral, biological, earth, and management sciences literatures and a systematic review for health sciences librarianship literature for the years 1990 to 2000, with three exceptions, were conducted. The author conducted principally a manual search of the health sciences librarianship literature for the years 1990 to 2000 as part of this systematic review. The cohort design has been applied to answer a wide array of theoretical or practical research questions in the health, social, behavioral, biological, and management sciences. Health sciences librarianship also offers several major applications of the cohort design. The cohort design has great potential for answering research questions in the field of health sciences librarianship, particularly evidence-based librarianship (EBL), although that potential has not been fully explored.

  3. Japanese Legacy Cohorts: The Life Span Study Atomic Bomb Survivor Cohort and Survivors’ Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotaro Ozasa

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Cohorts of atomic bomb survivors—including those exposed in utero—and children conceived after parental exposure were established to investigate late health effects of atomic bomb radiation and its transgenerational effects by the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC in the 1950s. ABCC was reorganized to the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF in 1975, and all work has been continued at RERF. The Life Span Study, the cohort of survivors, consists of about 120,000 subjects and has been followed since 1950. Cohorts of in utero survivors and the survivors’ children include about 3,600 and 77,000 subjects, respectively, and have been followed since 1945. Atomic bomb radiation dose was estimated for each subject based on location at the time of the bombing and shielding conditions from exposure, which were obtained through enormous efforts of investigators and cooperation of subjects. Outcomes include vital status, cause of death, and cancer incidence. In addition, sub-cohorts of these three cohorts were constructed to examine clinical features of late health effects, and the subjects have been invited to periodic health examinations at clinics of ABCC and RERF. They were also asked to donate biosamples for biomedical investigations. Epidemiological studies have observed increased radiation risks for malignant diseases among survivors, including those exposed in utero, and possible risks for some non-cancer diseases. In children of survivors, no increased risks due to parental exposure to radiation have been observed for malignancies or other diseases, but investigations are continuing, as these cohorts are still relatively young.

  4. Japanese Legacy Cohorts: The Life Span Study Atomic Bomb Survivor Cohort and Survivors' Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozasa, Kotaro; Grant, Eric J; Kodama, Kazunori

    2018-04-05

    Cohorts of atomic bomb survivors-including those exposed in utero-and children conceived after parental exposure were established to investigate late health effects of atomic bomb radiation and its transgenerational effects by the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) in the 1950s. ABCC was reorganized to the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) in 1975, and all work has been continued at RERF. The Life Span Study, the cohort of survivors, consists of about 120,000 subjects and has been followed since 1950. Cohorts of in utero survivors and the survivors' children include about 3,600 and 77,000 subjects, respectively, and have been followed since 1945. Atomic bomb radiation dose was estimated for each subject based on location at the time of the bombing and shielding conditions from exposure, which were obtained through enormous efforts of investigators and cooperation of subjects. Outcomes include vital status, cause of death, and cancer incidence. In addition, sub-cohorts of these three cohorts were constructed to examine clinical features of late health effects, and the subjects have been invited to periodic health examinations at clinics of ABCC and RERF. They were also asked to donate biosamples for biomedical investigations. Epidemiological studies have observed increased radiation risks for malignant diseases among survivors, including those exposed in utero, and possible risks for some non-cancer diseases. In children of survivors, no increased risks due to parental exposure to radiation have been observed for malignancies or other diseases, but investigations are continuing, as these cohorts are still relatively young.

  5. Japanese Legacy Cohorts: The Life Span Study Atomic Bomb Survivor Cohort and Survivors’ Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Eric J; Kodama, Kazunori

    2018-01-01

    Cohorts of atomic bomb survivors—including those exposed in utero—and children conceived after parental exposure were established to investigate late health effects of atomic bomb radiation and its transgenerational effects by the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) in the 1950s. ABCC was reorganized to the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) in 1975, and all work has been continued at RERF. The Life Span Study, the cohort of survivors, consists of about 120,000 subjects and has been followed since 1950. Cohorts of in utero survivors and the survivors’ children include about 3,600 and 77,000 subjects, respectively, and have been followed since 1945. Atomic bomb radiation dose was estimated for each subject based on location at the time of the bombing and shielding conditions from exposure, which were obtained through enormous efforts of investigators and cooperation of subjects. Outcomes include vital status, cause of death, and cancer incidence. In addition, sub-cohorts of these three cohorts were constructed to examine clinical features of late health effects, and the subjects have been invited to periodic health examinations at clinics of ABCC and RERF. They were also asked to donate biosamples for biomedical investigations. Epidemiological studies have observed increased radiation risks for malignant diseases among survivors, including those exposed in utero, and possible risks for some non-cancer diseases. In children of survivors, no increased risks due to parental exposure to radiation have been observed for malignancies or other diseases, but investigations are continuing, as these cohorts are still relatively young. PMID:29553058

  6. Follow-up methods for retrospective cohort studies in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawcett, Jackie; Garrett, Nick; Bates, Michael N

    2002-01-01

    To define a general methodology for maximising the success of follow-up processes for retrospective cohort studies in New Zealand, and to illustrate an approach to developing country-specific follow-up methodologies. We recently conducted a cohort study of mortality and cancer incidence in New Zealand professional fire fighters. A number of methods were used to trace vital status, including matching with records of the New Zealand Health Information Service (NZHIS), pension records of Work and Income New Zealand (WINZ), and electronic electoral rolls. Non-electronic methods included use of paper electoral rolls and the records of the Registrar of Births Deaths and Marriages. 95% of the theoretical person-years of follow-up of the cohort were traced using these methods. In terms of numbers of cohort members traced to end of follow-up, the most useful tracing methods were fire fighter employment records, the NZHIS, WINZ, and the electronic electoral rolls. The follow-up process used for the cohort study was highly successful. On the basis of this experience, we propose a generic, but flexible, model for follow-up of retrospective cohort studies in New Zealand. Similar models could be constructed for other countries. Successful follow-up of cohort studies is possible in New Zealand using established methods. This should encourage the use of cohort studies for the investigation of epidemiological issues. Similar models for follow-up processes could be constructed for other countries.

  7. Case-Cohort Studies: Design and Applicability to Hand Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojvodic, Miliana; Shafarenko, Mark; McCabe, Steven J

    2018-04-24

    Observational studies are common research strategies in hand surgery. The case-cohort design offers an efficient and resource-friendly method for risk assessment and outcomes analysis. Case-cohorts remain underrepresented in upper extremity research despite several practical and economic advantages over case-control studies. This report outlines the purpose, utility, and structure of the case-cohort design and offers a sample research question to demonstrate its value to risk estimation for adverse surgical outcomes. The application of well-designed case-cohort studies is advocated in an effort to improve the quality and quantity of observational research evidence in hand and upper extremity surgery. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Riyadh Mother and Baby Multicenter Cohort Study: The Cohort Profile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayfaa Wahabi

    Full Text Available To assess the effects of non-communicable diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension and obesity, on the mother and the infant.A multicentre cohort study was conducted in three hospitals in the city of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia. All Saudi women and their babies who delivered in participating hospitals were eligible for recruitment. Data on socio-demographic characteristics in addition to the maternal and neonatal outcomes of pregnancy were collected. The cohort demographic profile was recorded and the prevalence of maternal conditions including gestational diabetes, pre-gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorders in pregnancy and obesity were estimated.The total number of women who delivered in participating hospitals during the study period was 16,012 of which 14,568 women participated in the study. The mean age of the participants was 29 ± 5.9 years and over 40% were university graduates. Most of the participants were housewives, 70% were high or middle income and 22% were exposed to secondhand smoke. Of the total cohort, 24% were married to a first cousin. More than 68% of the participants were either overweight or obese. The preterm delivery rate was 9%, while 1.5% of the deliveries were postdate. The stillbirth rate was 13/1000 live birth. The prevalence of gestational diabetes was 24% and that of pre-gestational diabetes was 4.3%. The preeclampsia prevalence was 1.1%. The labour induction rate was 15.5% and the cesarean section rate was 25%.Pregnant women in Saudi Arabia have a unique demographic profile. The prevalence of obesity and diabetes in pregnancy are among the highest in the world.

  9. Cohort profile: LIFEWORK, a prospective cohort study on occupational and environmental risk factors and health in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reedijk, M.; Lenters, V.; Slottje, P.; Pijpe, A.; Peeters, P.H.; Korevaar, J.C.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, B.; Verschuren, W.M.M.; Verheij, R.A.; Pieterson, I.; Leeuwen, F.E. van; Rookus, M.A.; Kromhout, H.; Vermeulen, R.C.H.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose LIFEWORK is a large federated prospective cohort established in the Netherlands to quantify the health effects of occupational and environmental exposures. This cohort is also the Dutch contribution to the international Cohort Study of Mobile Phone Use and Health (COSMOS). In this paper, we

  10. Variable Acceleration Force Calibration System (VACS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhew, Ray D.; Parker, Peter A.; Johnson, Thomas H.; Landman, Drew

    2014-01-01

    Conventionally, force balances have been calibrated manually, using a complex system of free hanging precision weights, bell cranks, and/or other mechanical components. Conventional methods may provide sufficient accuracy in some instances, but are often quite complex and labor-intensive, requiring three to four man-weeks to complete each full calibration. To ensure accuracy, gravity-based loading is typically utilized. However, this often causes difficulty when applying loads in three simultaneous, orthogonal axes. A complex system of levers, cranks, and cables must be used, introducing increased sources of systematic error, and significantly increasing the time and labor intensity required to complete the calibration. One aspect of the VACS is a method wherein the mass utilized for calibration is held constant, and the acceleration is changed to thereby generate relatively large forces with relatively small test masses. Multiple forces can be applied to a force balance without changing the test mass, and dynamic forces can be applied by rotation or oscillating acceleration. If rotational motion is utilized, a mass is rigidly attached to a force balance, and the mass is exposed to a rotational field. A large force can be applied by utilizing a large rotational velocity. A centrifuge or rotating table can be used to create the rotational field, and fixtures can be utilized to position the force balance. The acceleration may also be linear. For example, a table that moves linearly and accelerates in a sinusoidal manner may also be utilized. The test mass does not have to move in a path that is parallel to the ground, and no re-leveling is therefore required. Balance deflection corrections may be applied passively by monitoring the orientation of the force balance with a three-axis accelerometer package. Deflections are measured during each test run, and adjustments with respect to the true applied load can be made during the post-processing stage. This paper will

  11. Study protocol: the JEU cohort study--transversal multiaxial evaluation and 5-year follow-up of a cohort of French gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challet-Bouju, Gaëlle; Hardouin, Jean-Benoit; Vénisse, Jean-Luc; Romo, Lucia; Valleur, Marc; Magalon, David; Fatséas, Mélina; Chéreau-Boudet, Isabelle; Gorsane, Mohamed-Ali; Grall-Bronnec, Marie

    2014-08-20

    There is abundant literature on how to distinguish problem gambling (PG) from social gambling, but there are very few studies of the long-term evolution of gambling practice. As a consequence, the correlates of key state changes in the gambling trajectory are still unknown. The objective of the JEU cohort study is to identify the determinants of key state changes in the gambling practice, such as the emergence of a gambling problem, natural recovery from a gambling problem, resolution of a gambling problem with intermediate care intervention, relapses or care recourse. The present study was designed to overcome the limitations of previous cohort study on PG. Indeed, this longitudinal case-control cohort is the first which plans to recruit enough participants from different initial gambling severity levels to observe these rare changes. In particular, we plan to recruit three groups of gamblers: non-problem gamblers, problem gamblers without treatment and problem gamblers seeking treatment.Recruitment takes place in various gambling places, through the press and in care centers. Cohort participants are gamblers of both sexes who reported gambling on at least one occasion in the previous year and who were aged between 18 and 65. They were assessed through a structured clinical interview and self-assessment questionnaires at baseline and then once a year for five years. Data collection comprises sociodemographic characteristics, gambling habits (including gambling trajectory), the PG section of the DSM-IV, the South Oaks Gambling Screen, the Gambling Attitudes and Beliefs Survey - 23, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the Wender-Utah Rating Scale-Child, the Adult ADHD Self-report Scale, somatic comorbidities (especially current treatment and Parkinson disease) and the Temperament and Character Inventory - 125. The JEU cohort study is the first study which proposes to identify the predictive factors of key state changes in gambling practice. This is

  12. Regression analysis for secondary response variable in a case-cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yinghao; Cai, Jianwen; Kim, Sangmi; Zhou, Haibo

    2017-12-29

    Case-cohort study design has been widely used for its cost-effectiveness. In any real study, there are always other important outcomes of interest beside the failure time that the original case-cohort study is based on. How to utilize the available case-cohort data to study the relationship of a secondary outcome with the primary exposure obtained through the case-cohort study is not well studied. In this article, we propose a non-parametric estimated likelihood approach for analyzing a secondary outcome in a case-cohort study. The estimation is based on maximizing a semiparametric likelihood function that is built jointly on both time-to-failure outcome and the secondary outcome. The proposed estimator is shown to be consistent, efficient, and asymptotically normal. Finite sample performance is evaluated via simulation studies. Data from the Sister Study is analyzed to illustrate our method. © 2017, The International Biometric Society.

  13. Helicobacter pylori strains from a Nigerian cohort show divergent antibiotic resistance rates and a uniform pathogenicity profile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ute Harrison

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance in Helicobacter pylori is a factor preventing its successful eradication. Particularly in developing countries, resistance against commonly used antibiotics is widespread. Here, we present an epidemiological study from Nigeria with 111 isolates. We analyzed the associated disease outcome, and performed a detailed characterization of these isolated strains with respect to their antibiotic susceptibility and their virulence characteristics. Furthermore, statistical analysis was performed on microbiological data as well as patient information and the results of the gastroenterological examination. We found that the variability concerning the production of virulence factors between strains was minimal, with 96.4% of isolates being CagA-positive and 92.8% producing detectable VacA levels. In addition, high frequency of bacterial resistance was observed for metronidazole (99.1%, followed by amoxicillin (33.3%, clarithromycin (14.4% and tetracycline (4.5%. In conclusion, this study indicated that the infection rate of H. pylori infection within the cohort in the present study was surprisingly low (36.6%. Furthermore, an average gastric pathology was observed by histological grading and bacterial isolates showed a uniform pathogenicity profile while indicating divergent antibiotic resistance rates.

  14. Exportación de jamón ibérico envasado al vacío a Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Batres Martínez, Jaime; Da Corte Dos Ramos, Sara M.; Doblas Martínez, Alejandro; Mancera Carmona, Lucía; Ramírez Sotomayor, Pilar

    2014-01-01

    La siguiente operación de comercio exterior trata sobre la exportación de jamón ibérico envasado al vacío desde España a Hong Kong, un producto gourmet de alto prestigio con gran reconocimiento a nivel mundial. Ésta se articula a través de la intermediación de VENSPA TRADE AGENTS S.L., una sociedad constituida por los integrantes de este proyecto que pone en contacto al exportador del producto, Dehesas del Múrtiga S.L., con el importador en Hong Kong, The Spanish Pantry HK Limited. Esto compo...

  15. Long-term immunogenicity studies of formalin-inactivated enterovirus 71 whole-virion vaccine in macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chyi Liu

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV71 has caused epidemics of hand, foot and mouth diseases in Asia during the past decades and no vaccine is available. A formalin-inactivated EV71 candidate vaccine (EV71vac based on B4 subgenotype has previously been developed and found to elicit strong neutralizing antibody responses in mice and humans. In this study, we evaluated the long-term immunogenicity and safety of this EV71vac in a non-human primate model. Juvenile macaques were immunized at 0, 3 and 6 weeks either with 10 or 5 µg doses of EV71vac formulated with AlPO4 adjuvant, or PBS as control. During the 56 weeks of studies, no fever nor local redness and swelling at sites of injections was observed in the immunized macaques. After single immunization, 100% seroconversion based on 4-fold increased in neutralization titer (Nt was detected in EV71vac immunized monkeys but not PBS controls. A dose-dependent IgG antibody response was observed in monkeys receiving EV71vac immunization. The Nt of EV71vac immunized macaques had reached the peak after 3 vaccinations, then decreased gradually; however, the GMT of neutralizing antibody in the EV71vac immunized macaques were still above 100 at the end of the study. Correspondingly, both dose- and time-dependent interferon-γ and CD4+ T cell responses were detected in monkeys receiving EV71vac. Interestingly, similar to human responses, the dominant T cell epitopes of macaques were identified mainly in VP2 and VP3 regions. In addition, strong cross-neutralizing antibodies against most EV71 subgenotypes except some C2 and C4b strains, and Coxsackievirus A16 were observed. In summary, our results indicate that EV71vac elicits dose-dependent T-cell and antibody responses in macaques that could be a good animal model for evaluating the long-term immune responses elicited by EV71 vaccines.

  16. Preliminary results of M-VAC chemotherapy combined with mild hyperthermia, a new therapeutic strategy for advanced or metastatic transitional cell carcinoma of the urothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yoshiaki; Itoh, Youko; Aoki, Shigeyuki; Nakamura, Kogenta; Taki, Tomohiro; Naruse, Katsuya; Tobiume, Motoi; Zennami, Kenji; Katsuda, Remi; Kato, Yoshiharu; Watanabe, Masahito; Nishikawa, Genya; Minami, Miwako; Nakahira, Mariko; Ukai, Sayaka; Sawada, Masaki; Kitamura, Akiko; Honda, Nobuaki

    2009-11-01

    We evaluated the efficacy and safety of M-VAC chemotherapy combined with mild hyperthermia, a new therapeutic strategy for advanced metastatic transitional cell carcinoma of the urothelium. The subjects were 12 patients diagnosed with advanced metastatic transitional cell carcinoma of the urothelium. For mild hyperthermia, the patients' oral temperature was elevated to about 38 degrees C by heating for 20 min and retaining the heat for 20 min with a far-infrared heater. The antitumor effect was evaluated according to the RECIST, while adverse drug reactions were assessed based on the NCI-CTC. The antitumor effect was rated as partial remission (PR) in 10 of the 12 patients and stable disease in 2 patients, with an efficacy rate of 83% (10/12). All 10 patients who had achieved PR received three courses of treatment. Of the 12 patients, 5 died during the observation period, with survival for 9-23 months (mean: 15.6 months). Adverse drug reactions included myelosuppression in all patients (Grade 3 in 4 patients, Grade 4 in 8), and gastrointestinal toxicity, such as nausea or vomiting, which was mild (Grade 0 in 2 patients, Grade 1 in 8, Grade 2 in 1, Grade 3 in 1). The results of the present study suggest that M-VAC chemotherapy combined with mild hyperthermia, which potentiates the anticancer effect and reduces adverse drug reactions such as gastrointestinal symptoms, is a useful and safe method for the treatment of advanced transitional cell carcinoma of the urothelium.

  17. Weight at birth and subsequent fecundability: a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Cathrine Wildenschild; Hammerich Riis, Anders; Ehrenstein, Vera

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between a woman's birth weight and her subsequent fecundability. METHOD: In this prospective cohort study, we included 2,773 Danish pregnancy planners enrolled in the internet-based cohort study "Snart-Gravid", conducted during 2007-2012. Participants were 18...

  18. Rationale, design, and methods for Canadian alliance for healthy hearts and minds cohort study (CAHHM) - a Pan Canadian cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Sonia S; Tu, Jack V; Awadalla, Philip; Black, Sandra; Boileau, Catherine; Busseuil, David; Desai, Dipika; Després, Jean-Pierre; de Souza, Russell J; Dummer, Trevor; Jacquemont, Sébastien; Knoppers, Bartha; Larose, Eric; Lear, Scott A; Marcotte, Francois; Moody, Alan R; Parker, Louise; Poirier, Paul; Robson, Paula J; Smith, Eric E; Spinelli, John J; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Teo, Koon K; Tusevljak, Natasa; Friedrich, Matthias G

    2016-07-27

    The Canadian Alliance for Healthy Hearts and Minds (CAHHM) is a pan-Canadian, prospective, multi-ethnic cohort study being conducted in Canada. The overarching objective of the CAHHM is to understand the association of socio-environmental and contextual factors (such as societal structure, activity, nutrition, social and tobacco environments, and access to health services) with cardiovascular risk factors, subclinical vascular disease, and cardiovascular and other chronic disease outcomes. Participants between 35 and 69 years of age are being recruited from existing cohorts and a new First Nations Cohort to undergo a detailed assessment of health behaviours (including diet and physical activity), cognitive function, assessment of their local home and workplace environments, and their health services access and utilization. Physical measures including weight, height, waist/hip circumference, body fat percentage, and blood pressure are collected. In addition, eligible participants undergo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain, heart, carotid artery and abdomen to detect early subclinical vascular disease and ectopic fat deposition. CAHHM is a prospective cohort study designed to investigate the impact of community level factors, individual health behaviours, and access to health services, on cognitive function, subclinical vascular disease, fat distribution, and the development of chronic diseases among adults living in Canada.

  19. Intra-abdominal vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) after necrosectomy for acute necrotising pancreatitis: preliminary experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sermoneta, D; Di Mugno, M; Spada, P L; Lodoli, C; Carvelli, M E; Magalini, S C; Cavicchioni, C; Bocci, M G; Martorelli, F; Brizi, M G; Gui, D

    2010-12-01

    Infection of pancreatic necrosis, although present in less than 10% of acute pancreatitis, carries a high risk of mortality; debridment and drainage of necrosis is the treatment of choice, followed by 'open' or 'close' abdomen management. We recently introduced the use of intra-abdominal vacuum sealing after a classic necrosectomy and laparostomy. Two patients admitted to ICU for respiratory insufficiency and a diagnosis of severe acute pancreatitis developed pancreatic necrosis and were treated by necrosectomy, lesser sac marsupialisation and posterior lumbotomic opening. Both of the patients recovered from pancreatitis and a good healing of laparostomic wounds was obtained with the use of the VAC system. Most relevant advantages of this technique seem to be: the prevention of abdominal compartment syndrome, the simplified nursing of patients and the reduction of time to definitive abdominal closure. © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and Medicalhelplines.com Inc.

  20. The Netherlands Cohort Study – Meat Investigation Cohort; a population-based cohort over-represented with vegetarians, pescetarians and low meat consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Vegetarian diets have been associated with lower risk of chronic disease, but little is known about the health effects of low meat diets and the reliability of self-reported vegetarian status. We aimed to establish an analytical cohort over-represented with vegetarians, pescetarians and 1 day/week meat consumers, and to describe their lifestyle and dietary characteristics. In addition, we were able to compare self-reported vegetarians with vegetarians whose status has been confirmed by their response on the extensive food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Study methods Embedded within the Netherlands Cohort Study (n = 120,852; including 1150 self-reported vegetarians), the NLCS-Meat Investigation Cohort (NLCS-MIC) was defined by combining all FFQ-confirmed-vegetarians (n = 702), pescetarians (n = 394), and 1 day/week meat consumers (n = 1,396) from the total cohort with a random sample of 2–5 days/week- and 6–7 days/week meat consumers (n = 2,965 and 5,648, respectively). Results Vegetarians, pescetarians, and 1 day/week meat consumers had more favorable dietary intakes (e.g. higher fiber/vegetables) and lifestyle characteristics (e.g. lower smoking rates) compared to regular meat consumers in both sexes. Vegetarians adhered to their diet longer than pescetarians and 1 day/week meat consumers. 75% of vegetarians with a prevalent cancer at baseline had changed to this diet after diagnosis. 50% of self-reported vegetarians reported meat or fish consumption on the FFQ. Although the misclassification that occurred in terms of diet and lifestyle when merely relying on self-reporting was relatively small, the impact on associations with disease risk remains to be studied. Conclusion We established an analytical cohort over-represented with persons at the lower end of the meat consumption spectrum which should facilitate prospective studies of major cancers and causes of death using ≥20.3 years of follow-up. PMID:24289207

  1. Cohort Profile: The JS High School study (JSHS): a cohort study of Korean adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Dong Phil; Lee, Joo Young; Kim, Hyeon Chang

    2017-04-01

    Major aetiologies of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases begin in childhood and atherosclerotic vascular abnormalities can be observed among children and adolescents. Adolescent cohort studies have important advantages because they can observe earlier changes in vascular structure and function. The purpose of the JS High School study (JSHS) is to identify biomarkers predicting or indicating early structural and functional vascular change in adolescents. The JSHS is a prospective cohort study of a Korean adolescent population. The target population of the JSHS was first-graders (aged 14 to17 years) at a high school of South Korea. Enrolment and baseline examinations were conducted in years 2007, 2010, 2011 and 2012. Among the total eligible population of 1115 students, 1071 (96.1%) participated in the study and completed all baseline examinations. Informed consent forms were obtained from each participant and his/her parent or guardian. Baseline examinations include: questionnaires on demographics, health behaviours, medical history, and depression symptoms; fasting blood analysis; anthropometric measurement; body impedance analysis; blood pressure measurement; radial artery tonometry; bone densitometry; pulmonary function tests; and carotid ultrasonography. Participants enrolled from 2007 through 2012 were re-examined after 30 months of follow-up, and those who enrolled in 2012 were re-examined after 24 months of follow-up. The corresponding author may be contacted for potential collaboration and data access. © The Author 2015; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  2. El vacío iluminado del negro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Sánchez Ortiz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Negación y suma de todos los colores, el negro posee una enorme potencialidad que a lo largo de los siglos se ha visto plasmada a través de diversas manifestaciones artísticas, en un lento transcurrir que le ha posibilitado asumir un puesto relevante en el ámbito contemporáneo. La negrura tiene un inmenso abanico de asociaciones negativas y espantosas. Nos remite a los rincones más oscuros de nuestra memoria. Algo lógico teniendo en cuenta su vinculación con la oscuridad y el miedo a lo oculto, a diferencia de lo luminoso, que se relaciona preferentemente con cualidades muy positivas. Cosmogónicamente, la negrura es el caos; ontogénicamente, es el signo de la muerte y la tumba, o del ambivalente útero; es también el color del no ser, del vacío; físicamente connota la ceguera; psicológicamente significa la temible tierra de los sueños y el inconsciente. El negro nos exhorta a mirar la oscuridad, a reconocer la belleza en la ausencia del color y de la luz.Black (disclaimer and sum of all colours has a large potential that, over the centuries, has been reflected through various art forms which has enabled him to assume an important place in the contemporary scene. The blackness has a huge range of negative and appalling associations. It refers us to the darkest corners of our memory; which makes sense considering its link with the darkness and fear of the occult (in contrast to light, which is associated preferentially with very positive qualities. Cosmogonically, the darkness is chaos. Ontogenetically, is the sign of death and the grave, or ambivalent uterus. It is also the colour of non-being, emptiness and physically it connotes blindness. Psychologically it signifies the dreaded land of dreams and the unconscious. The black exhorts us to look at the darkness and to recognize beauty in the absence of colour and light.

  3. Cohort Differences in Cognitive Aging in the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brailean, Anamaria; Huisman, Martijn; Prince, Martin; Prina, A Matthew; Deeg, Dorly J H; Comijs, Hannie

    2016-09-30

    This study aims to examine cohort differences in cognitive performance and rates of change in episodic memory, processing speed, inductive reasoning, and general cognitive performance and to investigate whether these cohort effects may be accounted for by education attainment. The first cohort (N = 705) was born between 1920 and 1930, whereas the second cohort (N = 646) was born between 1931 and 1941. Both birth cohorts were aged 65 to 75 years at baseline and were followed up 3 and 6 years later. Data were analyzed using linear mixed models. The later born cohort had better general cognitive performance, inductive reasoning, and processing speed at baseline, but cohort differences in inductive reasoning and general cognitive performance disappeared after adjusting for education. The later born cohort showed steeper decline in processing speed. Memory decline was steeper in the earlier born cohort but only from Time 1 to Time 3 when the same memory test was administered. Education did not account for cohort differences in cognitive decline. The later born cohort showed better initial performance in certain cognitive abilities, but no better preservation of cognitive abilities overtime compared with the earlier born cohort. These findings carry implications for healthy cognitive aging. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America.

  4. El vacío como fenómeno estético-religioso en la obra de José Ángel Valente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Aguirre-Martínez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Un espacio carente de dimensiones y de contenido podrá observarse a modo de límite primero y último en la poesía de José Ángel Valente. De este modo, a un vacío inicial del que surgirá la creación poética, le corresponderá, en su otro extremo, un margen igualmente carente de medida y de sustancia al que se arrojará la palabra poética en su búsqueda de un orden trascendental. El vacío –la nada, lo indefinido–, se constituirá como polo de atracción de una poesía cuyas formalizaciones participan de una serie de metamorfosis que, a modo de escala, permiten el desplazamiento de las imágenes entre los dos límites que componen el espacio creativo del autor. Las siguientes páginas estudiarán la función y el valor de este espacio libre de formas en la obra lírica de José Ángel Valente. This study focuses on the role and value of void and silence in José Ángel Valente’s poetry. In this light, the void can be seen as the origin and end of Valente’s work. On the one hand, the void signals the source from which the poetic word grows. On the other, it refers to the kind of emptiness characteristic of a sacred space in a transcendental order. In this way, the notion of void, silence, or nothingness can be viewed as a double pole of attraction whose boundaries reflect the movement of the poetic word. Considering its spiritual nature, this word undergoes a series of metamorphoses between these two poles.

  5. Rationale, design, and methods for Canadian alliance for healthy hearts and minds cohort study (CAHHM – a Pan Canadian cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia S. Anand

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Canadian Alliance for Healthy Hearts and Minds (CAHHM is a pan-Canadian, prospective, multi-ethnic cohort study being conducted in Canada. The overarching objective of the CAHHM is to understand the association of socio-environmental and contextual factors (such as societal structure, activity, nutrition, social and tobacco environments, and access to health services with cardiovascular risk factors, subclinical vascular disease, and cardiovascular and other chronic disease outcomes. Methods/Design Participants between 35 and 69 years of age are being recruited from existing cohorts and a new First Nations Cohort to undergo a detailed assessment of health behaviours (including diet and physical activity, cognitive function, assessment of their local home and workplace environments, and their health services access and utilization. Physical measures including weight, height, waist/hip circumference, body fat percentage, and blood pressure are collected. In addition, eligible participants undergo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the brain, heart, carotid artery and abdomen to detect early subclinical vascular disease and ectopic fat deposition. Discussion CAHHM is a prospective cohort study designed to investigate the impact of community level factors, individual health behaviours, and access to health services, on cognitive function, subclinical vascular disease, fat distribution, and the development of chronic diseases among adults living in Canada.

  6. Cohort profile: the Spanish WORKing life Social Security (WORKss) cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    López Gómez, María Andreé, 1985-; Duran Jordà, Xavier, 1974-; Zaballa, Elena; Sánchez Niubò, Albert; Delclòs i Clanchet, Jordi, 1956-; Benavides, Fernando G. (Fernando García)

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The global economy is changing the labour market and social protection systems in Europe. The effect of both changes on health needs to be monitored in view of an ageing population and the resulting increase in prevalence of chronic health conditions. The Spanish WORKing life Social Security (WORKss) cohort study provides unique longitudinal data to study the impact of labour trajectories and employment conditions on health, in terms of sickness absence, permanent disability and deat...

  7. Alcohol and ovarian cancer risk: Results from the Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, L.J.; Zeegers, M.P.A.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study alcohol consumption in relation to ovarian cancer risk in a prospective cohort study. Methods: The Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer was initiated in 1986. A self-administered questionnaire on dietary habits and other risk factors for cancer was completed by 62,573

  8. Las modalidades débiles de la identidad. De la identidad en los territorios vacíos de sociedad y de sociología Las modalidades débiles de la identidad. De la identidad en los territorios vacíos de sociedad y de sociología

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Gatti

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El lugar de trabajo de este artículo quiere ser el de la tensión entre la sociología y lo social. Más en concreto: el de la tensión entre los moldes que la representación científica elabora para su objeto y los objetos que se escapan de esos moldes. A poco que pensemos en esa tensión nos encontraremos —primero-- con que la sociología ha moldeado su objeto de acuerdo a la equiparación entre sociedad y un producto genuinamente moderno, el Estada-nación. Pero nos encontraremos —segundo-- con que, hoy, esa equiparación está vacía de sentido. Para salir de este vacío, una salida posible (y frecuente pasa por ajustar los presupuestas teóricos de las ciencias sociales a la actual empiricidad de su objeto; otra, no tan optimista, apoyándose en el diagnóstico de la muerte de la social, dice del fin de la posibilidad misma de la representación sociológica. Pero un tercer diagnóstico —en este trabajo le llamaré “post-constructivista”—puede venir como resultado de pensar que en los territorios vacíos de sentido —lo “social/ vacío de sociedad y de sociología “—se emplazan entidades cuya identidad —las “modalidades débiles de la identidad”— se define precisamente por su competencia para fugarse de nuestros dispositivos teóricos paro representarlas. De la identidad y de las estrategias para elaborarla e imaginarla en los territorios ajenos a los modelos de la identidad moderna. Los modelos de la “sociedad de los sociólogos”, habla, pues, este texto.This article focuses on the tension between Sociology an the social. More concretely, it situates in the tension between the pattern that scientific representation proposes for its object and the objects that escape from these patterns. Just in a first approach to that tension we could find out, firstly, that sociology has shaped its object according to the parallel between society and a purely modern product, the State-nation. But, secondly, nowadays this

  9. Subclinical Hyperthyroidism-A Cohort Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashim, R.; Anwer, M. S.; Khan, F. A.; Ijaz, A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare the development of overt hyperthyroidism in a cohort of patients of subclinical hyperthyroidism (SCR) and in subjects with normal thyroid function tests. Study Design: A cohort study. Place and Duration of study: The study was conducted in the department of Chemical Pathology and Endocrinology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi from Sept 2006 to Sept 2007. Patients and Methods: Fifty patients of SCR and almost equal number of age and sex-matched subjects with normal Thyroid function test (TFT) were included in the study as controls. Subclinical hyperthyroid patients and controls were followed for a period of one year on a six monthly basis. The patients were examined for signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism and serum TSH, total T3 and free T4 were estimated. The clinical history, physical examination and TFT results were recorded. Five ml of blood was collected for serum thyroid profile in plain tube. Hormonal analysis(TSH, T4 and T3) was done for the patients and the controls enrolled in the study. The TFTs was analyzed using Chemiluminescence Immunoassay technique on Immulite 2000 an automated, random access, immunoassay analyzer. Results: Six (12%) out of 50 cases of the SCR patients and 2 (4%) out of 50 controls developed overt hyperthyroidism. SCR had no significant risk for conversion to overt hyperthyroidism as compared to healthy controls in this study. In addition to initial levels of serum TSH were one of important predictor for conversion of SCR to overt hyperthyroidism. Conclusion: Patients with SCR have no significant risk but showed an increase in frequency of conversion to overt hyperthyroidism (12% in this study) as compared to controls. (author)

  10. Cohort profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tollånes, Mette C; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Forthun, Ingeborg

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of MOthers and BAbies in Norway and Denmark cerebral palsy (MOBAND-CP) was to study CP aetiology in a prospective design. PARTICIPANTS: MOBAND-CP is a cohort of more than 210 000 children, created as a collaboration between the world's two largest pregnancy cohorts-the Norweg......PURPOSE: The purpose of MOthers and BAbies in Norway and Denmark cerebral palsy (MOBAND-CP) was to study CP aetiology in a prospective design. PARTICIPANTS: MOBAND-CP is a cohort of more than 210 000 children, created as a collaboration between the world's two largest pregnancy cohorts......-the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort study (MoBa) and the Danish National Birth Cohort. MOBAND-CP includes maternal interview/questionnaire data collected during pregnancy and follow-up, plus linked information from national health registries. FINDINGS TO DATE: Initial harmonisation of data from the 2 cohorts...... has created 140 variables for children and their mothers. In the MOBAND-CP cohort, 438 children with CP have been identified through record linkage with validated national registries, providing by far the largest such sample with prospectively collected detailed pregnancy data. Several studies...

  11. Distress among young adult cancer survivors: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanez, Betina; Garcia, Sofia F; Victorson, David; Salsman, John M

    2013-09-01

    Being diagnosed with cancer as a young adult can lead to significant psychological distress and impaired quality of life. Compared to children and older adults diagnosed with cancer, fewer studies have addressed psychological distress among young adult cancer survivors. This study sought to identify the prevalence of, and factors associated with, distress among young adult cancer survivors (ages 18-39). Young adult cancer survivors (N = 335, mean age = 31.8, women = 68.4%) were recruited from an online research panel and stratified by cohort (time postactive treatment: 0-12, 13-24, and 25-60 months). Participants completed measures assessing demographic and clinical characteristics, global impact of cancer, cancer-related education and work interruption, and cancer-specific distress using the impact of event scale (IES). The mean score on the IES (M = 31.0, range = 0-75) was above the cut point of 20, suggesting clinically elevated distress. Analysis of covariance revealed significant main effects for cohort, global impact and cancer-related education/work interruption, and an interaction between cohort and cancer-related education/work interruption on distress. Although there was no significant effect of education/work interruption on distress for those in the 0-12 month cohort (p = .88), survivors in the 13-24 and 25-60 month cohorts reporting education/work interruption were significantly more distressed than those not reporting education/work interruption in the respective cohorts (p cancer survivors face unique challenges. These data underscore the importance of attending to cancer-related distress beyond the completion of treatment and may help inform targeted interventions to prevent or reduce significant distress and related sequelae in this population.

  12. STATUS REPORT, BEGIN TO DEVELOP COMPLETE OPERATIONS MANUALS FOR THE COHORT: PREPARE TO IMPLEMENT A COHORT STUDY OF CHILDREN'S ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a precursor to the National Children's Study (NCS), the North Carolina Cohort Study (NC Cohort Study) will provide the opportunity to field test procedures to better inform the implementation of the NCS. In order to test some of the study hypotheses, it will be important to ob...

  13. Historic cohort study in Montreal's fur industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guay, D; Siemiatycki, J

    1987-01-01

    A historic cohort mortality study was carried out among two groups of male workers in the Montreal fur industry: 263 dressers and dyers and 599 fur garment manufacturers. The first group is exposed to a very wide variety of chemicals used in tanning, cleaning, and dyeing fur, including substances considered to be carcinogenic and/or mutagenic. The second group is exposed to residue from the dressing and dyeing stage and to respirable fur dust. The cohorts consisted of all active members of two unions as of January 1, 1966. The mean age of the workers was 43.2 and the mean number of years since first employment 14.1. The follow-up period was from January 1, 1966, to December 31, 1981; 95% of the workers were successfully traced. Observed deaths were compared with those expected based on mortality rates of the population of metropolitan Montreal. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for the manufacturers were significantly low, probably because of the ethnic composition of the cohort and a healthy worker effect. SMRs for the dressers and dyers were also low, but not as low as for the manufacturers. When attention was restricted to the French Canadians in the cohort, the observed deaths were close to the expected; there was a noteworthy excess of colorectal cancer (four observed, 0.8 expected) for dressers and dyers. Apart from this weak suggestive evidence, the results did not indicate any excess mortality risks in the fur industry. However, because of the relatively small number of expected and observed deaths in the cohort and especially among the heavily exposed dressers and dyers, the confidence intervals around SMR estimates were wide and excess risks cannot be ruled out.

  14. Mediastinitis after coronary artery bypass grafting: the effect of vacuum-assisted closure versus traditional closed drainage on survival and re-infection rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risnes, Ivar; Abdelnoor, Michael; Veel, Terje; Svennevig, Jan Ludvig; Lundblad, Runar; Rynning, Stein Erik

    2014-04-01

    Mediastinitis is treated with either vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) or traditional closed drainage (TCD) with irrigation. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of the two treatments on mortality and re-infection rate in a source population, using 21 314 consecutive patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) from January 1997 to October 2010. Median observation time was 2·9 years in the VAC group and 8·0 years in the TCD group. The epidemiological design was of an exposed (VAC, n = 64) versus non-exposed (TCD, n = 66) cohort with two endpoints: (1) mortality and (2) failure of sternal wound healing or re-infection. The crude effect of treatment technique versus endpoint was estimated by univariate analysis. Stratification analysis by the Mantel-Haenszel method was performed to quantify confounders and to pinpoint effect modifiers. Adjustment for confounders was performed using Cox regression analysis. Mediastinitis was diagnosed 6-105 (median 14) days after primary operation in the VAC group and 13 (5-29) days in the TCD group. There was no difference between groups in long-term survival. Failure of sternal wound healing or re-infection occurred less frequently in the VAC group (6%) than in the TCD group (21%; relative risk = 0·29, 95% CI = 0·06-0·88, P = 0·01). There are concerns for increase in right ventricle rupture in VAC compared with TCD. There was no difference in survival after VAC therapy and TCD therapy of post-CABG mediastinitis. Failure of sternal wound healing or re-infection was more common after TCD therapy. © 2012 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2012 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. International Network of Chronic Kidney Disease cohort studies (iNET-CKD): a global network of chronic kidney disease cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dienemann, Thomas; Fujii, Naohiko; Orlandi, Paula; Nessel, Lisa; Furth, Susan L; Hoy, Wendy E; Matsuo, Seiichi; Mayer, Gert; Methven, Shona; Schaefer, Franz; Schaeffner, Elke S; Solá, Laura; Stengel, Bénédicte; Wanner, Christoph; Zhang, Luxia; Levin, Adeera; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Feldman, Harold I

    2016-09-02

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global health burden, yet it is still underrepresented within public health agendas in many countries. Studies focusing on the natural history of CKD are challenging to design and conduct, because of the long time-course of disease progression, a wide variation in etiologies, and a large amount of clinical variability among individuals with CKD. With the difference in health-related behaviors, healthcare delivery, genetics, and environmental exposures, this variability is greater across countries than within one locale and may not be captured effectively in a single study. Studies were invited to join the network. Prerequisites for membership included: 1) observational designs with a priori hypotheses and defined study objectives, patient-level information, prospective data acquisition and collection of bio-samples, all focused on predialysis CKD patients; 2) target sample sizes of 1,000 patients for adult cohorts and 300 for pediatric cohorts; and 3) minimum follow-up of three years. Participating studies were surveyed regarding design, data, and biosample resources. Twelve prospective cohort studies and two registries covering 21 countries were included. Participants age ranges from >2 to >70 years at inclusion, CKD severity ranges from stage 2 to stage 5. Patient data and biosamples (not available in the registry studies) are measured yearly or biennially. Many studies included multiple ethnicities; cohort size ranges from 400 to more than 13,000 participants. Studies' areas of emphasis all include but are not limited to renal outcomes, such as progression to ESRD and death. iNET-CKD (International Network of CKD cohort studies) was established, to promote collaborative research, foster exchange of expertise, and create opportunities for research training. Participating studies have many commonalities that will facilitate comparative research; however, we also observed substantial differences. The diversity we observed across

  16. Sardasht-Iran cohort study of chemical warfare victims: design and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazanfari, Tooba; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat; Aragizadeh, Hassan; Soroush, Mohammad-Reza; Yaraee, Roya; Mohammad Hassan, Zuhair; Foroutan, Abbas; Vaez-Mahdavi, Mohammad-Reza; Javadi, Mohammad-Ali; Moaiedmohseni, Sakine; Azizi, Fereidoun; Panahi, Yunes; Mostafaie, Ali; Ghasemi, Hassan; Shams, Jalaleddin; Pourfarzam, Shahryar; Jalali-Nadoushan, Mohammad-Reza; Fallahi, Faramarz; Ebtekar, Massoumeh; Davoudi, Seyyed-Masoud; Ghazanfari, Zeinab; Ardestani, Sussan K; Shariat-Panahi, Shamsa; Moin, Athar; Rezaei, Abbas; Kariminia, Amina; Ajdary, Soheila; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Roshan, Rasoul; Ghaderi, Sulayman; Babai, Mahmoud; Naghizadeh, Mohammad-Mehdi; Ghanei, Mohammad-Mostafa

    2009-01-01

    Insights into long-term clinical consequences of sulfur mustard have emerged from some investigations but less is known about the basic and molecular mechanisms of these complications. Sardasht-Iran Cohort Study is a comprehensive historical cohort study on Sardasht chemical victims' population which was designed to find out the long-term complications of sulfur mustard exposure and the basic mechanisms underlying clinical manifestations. This paper describes the design and methodology of Sardasht-Iran Cohort Study. In Sardasht-Iran Cohort Study, 500 individuals including 372 subjects from Sardasht, as the exposed group, and 128 subjects from Rabat, as the unexposed age-matched control group were evaluated. The exposed group was divided into two groups based on the severity of clinical complications at the time of exposure. Different samples including blood, sputum, saliva, tear, urine, and semen were collected for immunologic, hematologic, biochemical, and other laboratory analysis. Data were gathered from medical records, clinical examinations, laboratory tests, and questionnaires for psychological and lifestyle situations. The important distinctions setting this study apart from the previous ones are discussed. The Sardasht-Iran Cohort Study provides important information on various aspects of long-term consequences of sulfur mustard exposure. This database will provide a better position to suggest guidelines for the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of delayed complications in the patients exposed to sulfur mustard.

  17. Harmonising measures of knee and hip osteoarthritis in population-based cohort studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leyland, K M; Gates, L S; Nevitt, M

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Population-based osteoarthritis (OA) cohorts provide vital data on risk factors and outcomes of OA, however the methods to define OA vary between cohorts. We aimed to provide recommendations for combining knee and hip OA data in extant and future population cohort studies, in order to ...

  18. Methodological aspects of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victora, Cesar Gomes; Araújo, Cora Luiza Pavin; Menezes, Ana Maria Batista; Hallal, Pedro Curi; Vieira, Maria de Fátima; Neutzling, Marilda Borges; Gonçalves, Helen; Valle, Neiva Cristina; Lima, Rosangela Costa; Anselmi, Luciana; Behague, Dominique; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; Barros, Fernando Celso

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the main methodological aspects of a cohort study, with emphasis on its recent phases, which may be relevant to investigators planning to carry out similar studies. In 1993, a population based study was launched in Pelotas, Southern Brazil. All 5,249 newborns delivered in the city’s hospitals were enrolled, and sub-samples were visited at the ages of one, three and six months and of one and four years. In 2004-5 it was possible to trace 87.5% of the cohort at the age of 10-12 years. Sub-studies are addressing issues related to oral health, psychological development and mental health, body composition, and ethnography. Birth cohort studies are essential for investigating the early determinants of adult disease and nutritional status, yet few such studies are available from low and middle-income countries where these determinants may differ from those documented in more developed settings. PMID:16410981

  19. Possibilities and considerations when merging dietary data from the world's two largest pregnancy cohorts: the Danish National Birth Cohort and the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Sjurdur F; Birgisdottir, Bryndis Eva; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Brantsaeter, Anne Lise; Haugen, Margaretha; Torjusen, Hanne; Petersen, Sesilje B; Strøm, Marin; Meltzer, Helle Margrete

    2014-11-01

    To elucidate the research possibilities when merging data on maternal diet from the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) and the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa), through comparison of (i) the methodology used for dietary assessment and (ii) the estimated intake of selected food groups in the two cohorts. Qualitative and quantitative comparison of the two dietary databases. Two national prospective pregnancy cohorts. Denmark, Norway. Comparison of food intake using food frequency questionnaires (FFQs). The FFQs had overlapping time windows and a majority of the questions in the two FFQs were comparable. Calculation principles shared similar features, including the software used and use of global questions to calibrate intakes of different food groups. A total of 63 food groups were defined that could be compared across the two cohorts; these were further aggregated down to 31 broader groups. A comparison of food intakes (grams/d) showed 39, 74 and 141% lower daily intakes of fish, potatoes and rice, respectively, in DNBC vs. MoBa and 39, 54 and 65% higher daily intakes of milk, butter and potatoes in DNBC vs. MoBa. For most other food groups, differences in consumption data were below 20%. The two FFQs are to a large extent compatible and substantial differences in dietary habits were observed between the two cohorts. This may strengthen studies using pooled analysis to examine diet-disease relations. This is a conclusion of great importance given the colossal and costly task involved to establish each of these two cohorts. © 2014 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  20. Representativeness of the LifeLines Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijs, B.; Scholtens, S.; Mandemakers, J.J.; Snieder, H.; Stolk, R.P.; Smidt, N.

    2015-01-01

    Background LifeLines is a large prospective population-based three generation cohort study in the north of the Netherlands. Different recruitment strategies were adopted: recruitment of an index population via general practitioners, subsequent inclusion of their family members, and online

  1. Study design of DIACORE (DIAbetes COhoRtE – a cohort study of patients with diabetes mellitus type 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dörhöfer Lena

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2 is highly associated with increased risk for chronic kidney disease (CKD, end stage renal disease (ESRD and cardiovascular morbidity. Epidemiological and genetic studies generate hypotheses for innovative strategies in DM2 management by unravelling novel mechanisms of diabetes complications, which is essential for future intervention trials. We have thus initiated the DIAbetes COhoRtE study (DIACORE. Methods DIACORE is a prospective cohort study aiming to recruit 6000 patients of self-reported Caucasian ethnicity with prevalent DM2 for at least 10 years of follow-up. Study visits are performed in University-based recruiting clinics in Germany using standard operating procedures. All prevalent DM2 patients in outpatient clinics surrounding the recruiting centers are invited to participate. At baseline and at each 2-year follow-up examination, patients are subjected to a core phenotyping protocol. This includes a standardized online questionnaire and physical examination to determine incident micro- and macrovascular DM2 complications, malignancy and hospitalization, with a primary focus on renal events. Confirmatory outcome information is requested from patient records. Blood samples are obtained for a centrally analyzed standard laboratory panel and for biobanking of aliquots of serum, plasma, urine, mRNA and DNA for future scientific use. A subset of the cohort is subjected to extended phenotyping, e.g. sleep apnea screening, skin autofluorescence measurement, non-mydriatic retinal photography and non-invasive determination of arterial stiffness. Discussion DIACORE will enable the prospective evaluation of factors involved in DM2 complication pathogenesis using high-throughput technologies in biosamples and genetic epidemiological studies.

  2. The Pelotas birth cohort study, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 1982-2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victora Cesar G.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the growing recognition of the importance of the life course approach for the determination of chronic diseases, birth cohort studies are becoming increasingly important. This paper describes the methods used in the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil birth cohort study, one of the largest and longest studies of this type in developing countries. All 5,914 hospital births occurring in Pelotas in 1982 (over 99% of all deliveries were studied prospectively. The main stages of the study took place in 1983, 1984, 1986, 1995, 1997, 2000, and 2001. More than two thousand variables are available for each subject who participated in all stages of the study. Recent phases of the study included the examination of 2,250 males when presenting for the army recruitment exam in 2000, the study of a 27% sample of men and women in 2001 through household visits, and the study of over 400 children born to the cohort women. Follow-up rates in the recent stages of the cohort were 78.9% for the army examination and 69.0% for the household visits. Ethnographic and oral health studies were conducted in sub-samples. Some recent results on blood pressure, adolescent pregnancy, and asthma are presented as examples of utilization of the data. Suggestions on lessons learned for other cohort studies are proposed.

  3. The Pelotas Birth Cohort Study, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 1982-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Given the growing recognition of the importance of the life course approach for the determination of chronic diseases, birth cohort studies are becoming increasingly important. This paper describes the methods used in the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study, one of the largest and longest studies of this type in developing countries. All 5,914 hospital births occurring in Pelotas in 1982 (over 99% of all deliveries) were studied prospectively. The main stages of the study took place in 1983, 1984, 1986, 1995, 1997, 2000, and 2001. More than two thousand variables are available for each subject who participated in all stages of the study. Recent phases of the study included the examination of 2,250 males when presenting for the army recruitment exam in 2000, the study of a 27% sample of men and women in 2001 through household visits, and the study of over 400 children born to the cohort women. Follow-up rates in the recent stages of the cohort were 78.9% for the army examination and 69.0% for the household visits. Ethnographic and oral health studies were conducted in sub-samples. Some recent results on blood pressure, adolescent pregnancy, and asthma are presented as examples of utilization of the data. Suggestions on lessons learned for other cohort studies are proposed. PMID:14666206

  4. Cohorts based on decade of death: no evidence for secular trends favoring later cohorts in cognitive aging and terminal decline in the AHEAD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hülür, Gizem; Infurna, Frank J; Ram, Nilam; Gerstorf, Denis

    2013-03-01

    Studies of birth-year cohorts examined over the same age range often report secular trends favoring later-born cohorts, who are cognitively fitter and show less steep cognitive declines than earlier-born cohorts. However, there is initial evidence that those advantages of later-born cohorts do not carry into the last years of life, suggesting that pervasive mortality-related processes minimize differences that were apparent earlier in life. Elaborating this work from an alternative perspective on cohort differences, we compared rates of cognitive aging and terminal decline in episodic memory between cohorts based on the year participants had died, earlier (between 1993 and 1999) or later in historical time (between 2000 and 2010). Specifically, we compared trajectories of cognitive decline in 2 death-year cohorts of participants in the Asset and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest Old study that were matched on age at death and education and controlled for a variety of additional covariates. Results revealed little evidence of secular trends favoring later cohorts. To the contrary, the cohort that died in the 2000s showed a less favorable trajectory of age-related memory decline than the cohort that died in the 1990s. In examinations of change in relation to time to death, the cohort dying in the 2000s experienced even steeper terminal declines than the cohort dying in the 1990s. We suggest that secular increases in "manufacturing" survival may exacerbate age- and mortality-related cognitive declines among the oldest old.

  5. VacA and cagA genotypes status and antimicrobial resistance properties of Helicobacter pylori strains isolated from meat products in Isfahan province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilani, A; Razavilar, V; Rokni, N; Rahimi, E

    2017-01-01

    Although Helicobacter pylori has a significant impact on the occurrence of severe clinical syndromes, its exact ways of transmission and origin have not been identified. According to the results of some previously published articles, foods with animal origins play a substantial role in the transmission of H. pylori to humans. The present investigation was carried out to study the vacuolating cytotoxin A ( vacA ) and cytotoxin associated gene A ( cagA ) genotypes status and antibiotic resistance properties of H. pylori strains recovered from minced-meat and hamburger samples. A total of 150 meat product samples were collected from supermarkets. All samples were cultured and the susceptive colonies were then subjected to nested-PCR, PCR-based genotyping and disk diffusion methods. 11 out of 150 samples (7.33%) were positive for H. pylori . All the isolates were further identified using the nested-PCR assay. Prevalence of H. pylori in hamburger and minced-meat samples was 1.42% and 12.5%, respectively. S1a , m1a and cagA were the most commonly detected genotypes. The most commonly detected combined genotypes in the H. pylori strains of minced-meat were s1am1a (10%), s1am1b (10%) and s2m1a (10%). Helicobacter pylori strains of meat products harbored the highest levels of resistance against ampicillin (90.90%), erythromycin (72.72%), amoxicillin (72.72%), trimethoprim (63.63%), tetracycline (63.63%), and clarithromycin (63.63%). Hamburger and minced-meat samples may be the sources of virulent and resistant strains of H. pylori . Meat products are possible sources of resistant and virulent strains of H. pylori similar to those vacA and cagA genotypes. Using healthy raw materials and observation of personal hygiene can reduce the risk of H. pylori in meat products.

  6. Birth cohort differences in cardiovascular risk factors in a Brazilian population of older elderly: the Bambuí cohort study of aging (1997 and 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Polo Dias Freitas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether cohort differences exist in the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among older elderly from the Bambuí Cohort Study of Aging. Participants were those aged 71-81 years at two points in time a decade apart: 457 in 1997 (earlier cohort and 553 in 2008 (recent cohort. The prevalence of hypertension (PR = 1.27; 95%CI: 1.19-1.36 and of diabetes mellitus (PR = 1.39; 95%CI: 1.06-1.83 was higher in the recent cohort compared to the earlier one, regardless of sex. The recent cohort had a lower prevalence of smoking (PR = 0.58; 95%CI: 0.42-0.80, and lower total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio level (PR = 0.85; 95%CI: 0.80-0.89. There was a 136% increase in the pharmacologic treatment of diabetes and a 56% increase in pharmacologic management of hypertension in 2008 in comparison with 1997. Overall, the number of cardiovascular risk factors in the recent cohort remained similar to that of the early cohort.

  7. The role of birth cohorts in studies of adult health: the New York women's birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Mary Beth; Flom, Julie; Tehranifar, Parisa; Susser, Ezra

    2009-09-01

    Epidemiological studies investigating associations between early life factors and adult health are often limited to studying exposures that can be reliably recalled in adulthood or obtained from existing medical records. There are few US studies with detailed data on the pre- and postnatal environment whose study populations are now in adulthood; one exception is the Collaborative Perinatal Project (CPP). We contacted former female participants of the New York site of the CPP who were born from 1959 to 1963 and were prospectively followed for 7 years to examine whether the pre- and postnatal environment is associated with adult health in women 40 years after birth. The New York CPP cohort is particularly diverse; at enrolment, the race/ethnicity distribution of mothers was approximately 30% White, 40% Black and 30% Puerto Rican. Of the 841 eligible women, we successfully traced 375 women (45%) and enrolled 262 women (70% of those traced). Baseline data were available for all eligible women, and we compared those who participated with the remaining cohort (n = 579). Higher family socio-economic status at age 7, availability of maternal social security number, and White race/ethnicity were statistically significantly associated with a higher probability of tracing. Of those traced, race/ethnicity was associated with participation, with Blacks and Puerto Ricans less likely to participate than Whites (OR = 0.5, 95% CI 0.3, 0.8, and OR = 0.5, 95% CI 0.3, 1.0, respectively). In addition, higher weight at 7 years was associated with lower participation (OR = 0.95, 95% CI 0.92, 0.99), but this association was observed only among the non-White participants. None of the other maternal characteristics, infant or early childhood growth measures was associated with participation or with tracing, either overall or within each racial/ethnic subgroup. Daughters' recall of early life factors such as pre-eclampsia (sensitivity = 24%) and birthweight were generally poor, with the

  8. The Congenital Heart Disease Genetic Network Study: Cohort description.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh T Hoang

    Full Text Available The Pediatric Cardiac Genomics Consortium (PCGC designed the Congenital Heart Disease Genetic Network Study to provide phenotype and genotype data for a large congenital heart defects (CHDs cohort. This article describes the PCGC cohort, overall and by major types of CHDs (e.g., conotruncal defects and subtypes of conotrucal heart defects (e.g., tetralogy of Fallot and left ventricular outflow tract obstructions (e.g., hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Cases with CHDs were recruited through ten sites, 2010-2014. Information on cases (N = 9,727 and their parents was collected through interviews and medical record abstraction. Four case characteristics, eleven parental characteristics, and thirteen parent-reported neurodevelopment outcomes were summarized using counts and frequencies and compared across CHD types and subtypes. Eleven percent of cases had a genetic diagnosis. Among cases without a genetic diagnosis, the majority had conotruncal heart defects (40% or left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (21%. Across CHD types, there were significant differences (p<0.05 in the distribution of all four case characteristics (e.g., sex, four parental characteristics (e.g., maternal pregestational diabetes, and five neurodevelopmental outcomes (e.g., learning disabilities. Several characteristics (e.g., sex were also significantly different across CHD subtypes. The PCGC cohort is one of the largest CHD cohorts available for the study of genetic determinants of risk and outcomes. The majority of cases do not have a genetic diagnosis. This description of the PCGC cohort, including differences across CHD types and subtypes, provides a reference work for investigators who are interested in collaborating with or using publically available resources from the PCGC.

  9. How to investigate and adjust for selection bias in cohort studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nohr, Ellen A; Liew, Zeyan

    2018-01-01

    National Birth Cohort (DNBC) as examples on how to quantify selection bias and also understand the underlying selection mechanisms. Although women who chose to participate in the cohort were typically of higher social status, healthier and with less disease than all those eligible for study, differential...... of the presented methods are applicable even with limited data on non-participants and those lost to follow-up, and can also be applied to other study designs such as case-control studies and surveys. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.......Longitudinal cohort studies can provide important evidence about preventable causes of disease, but the success relies heavily on the commitment of their participants, both at recruitment and during follow-up. Initial participation rates have decreased in recent decades as have willingness...

  10. Systematically missing confounders in individual participant data meta-analysis of observational cohort studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jackson, D.; White, I.; Kostis, J.B.

    2009-01-01

    One difficulty in performing meta-analyses of observational cohort studies is that the availability of confounders may vary between cohorts, so that some cohorts provide fully adjusted analyses while others only provide partially adjusted analyses. Commonly, analyses of the association between an...

  11. Systematically missing confounders in individual participant data meta-analysis of observational cohort studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jackson, D.; White, I.; Kostis, J.B.; Wilson, A.C.; Folsom, A.R.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    One difficulty in performing meta-analyses of observational cohort studies is that the availability of confounders may vary between cohorts, so that some cohorts provide fully adjusted analyses while others only provide partially adjusted analyses. Commonly, analyses of the association between an

  12. Cohort profile: the Italian Network of Longitudinal Metropolitan Studies (IN-LiMeS), a multicentre cohort for socioeconomic inequalities in health monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caranci, Nicola; Di Girolamo, Chiara; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo; Spadea, Teresa; Pacelli, Barbara; Broccoli, Serena; Ballotari, Paola; Costa, Giuseppe; Zengarini, Nicolás; Agabiti, Nera; Bargagli, Anna Maria; Cacciani, Laura; Canova, Cristina; Cestari, Laura; Biggeri, Annibale; Grisotto, Laura; Terni, Gianna; Costanzo, Gianfranco; Mirisola, Concetta; Petrelli, Alessio

    2018-04-20

    The Italian Network of Longitudinal Metropolitan Studies (IN-LiMeS) is a system of integrated data on health outcomes, demographic and socioeconomic information, and represents a powerful tool to study health inequalities. IN-LiMeS is a multicentre and multipurpose pool of metropolitan population cohorts enrolled in nine Italian cities: Turin, Venice, Reggio Emilia, Modena, Bologna, Florence, Leghorn, Prato and Rome. Data come from record linkage of municipal population registries, the 2001 population census, mortality registers and hospital discharge archives. Depending on the source of enrolment, cohorts can be closed or open. The census-based closed cohort design includes subjects resident in any of the nine cities at the 2001 census day; 4 466 655 individuals were enrolled in 2001 in the nine closed cohorts. The open cohort design includes subjects resident in 2001 or subsequently registered by birth or immigration until the latest available follow-up (currently 31 December 2013). The open cohort design is available for Turin, Venice, Reggio Emilia, Modena, Bologna, Prato and Rome. Detailed socioeconomic data are available for subjects enrolled in the census-based cohorts; information on demographic characteristics, education and citizenship is available from population registries. The first IN-LiMeS application was the study of differentials in mortality between immigrants and Italians. Either using a closed cohort design (nine cities) or an open one (Turin and Reggio Emilia), individuals from high migration pressure countries generally showed a lower mortality risk. However, a certain heterogeneity between the nine cities was noted, especially among men, and an excess mortality risk was reported for some macroareas of origin and specific causes of death. We are currently working on the linkage of the 2011 population census data, the expansion of geographical coverage and the implementation of the open design in all the participating cohorts. © Article author

  13. Neurological recovery in obstetric brachial plexus injuries: an historical cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeksma, Agnes F.; ter Steeg, Anne Marie; Nelissen, Rob G. H. H.; van Ouwerkerk, Willem J. R.; Lankhorst, Gustaaf J.; de Jong, Bareld A.

    2004-01-01

    An historical cohort study was conducted to investigate the rate and extent of neurological recovery in obstetric brachial plexus injury (OBPI) and to identify possible prognostic factors in a cohort of children with OBPI from birth to 7 years. All children (n=56; 31 females, 25 males) with OBPI

  14. Association of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and hemorrhoids: A nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lih-Hwa; Siu, Justin Ji-Yuen; Liao, Po-Chi; Chiang, Jen-Huai; Chou, Pei-Chi; Chen, Huey-Yi; Ho, Tsung-Jung; Tsai, Ming-Yen; Chen, Yung-Hsiang; Chen, Wen-Chi

    2017-03-01

    According to traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) theory, a specific physiological and pathological relationship exists between the lungs and the large intestine. The aim of this study is to delineate the association of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and hemorrhoids in order to verify the "interior-exterior" relationship between the lungs and the large intestine. A retrospective cohort study is conceived from the National Health Insurance Research Database, Taiwan. The 2 samples (COPD cohort and non-COPD cohort) were selected from the 2000 to 2003 beneficiaries of the NHI, representing patients age 20 and older in Taiwan, with the follow-up ending on December 31, 2011. The COPD cohort (n = 51,506) includes every patient newly diagnosed as having Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD, ICD-9-CM: 490-492, 494, 496), who have made at least 2 confirmed visits to the hospital/clinic. The non-COPD cohort (n = 103,012) includes patients without COPD and is selected via a 1:2 (COPD: non-COPD) matching by age group (per 5 years), gender, and index date (diagnosis date of COPD for the COPD cohort). Compared with non-COPD cohorts, patients with COPD have a higher likelihood of having hemorrhoids and the age-, gender- and comorbidies-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for hemorrhoids is 1.56 (95% confidence intervals [CI]:1.50-1.62). The adjusted HR of hemorrhoids for females is 0.79 (95% CI: 0.77-0.83), which is significantly less than that for males. The elderly groups, 40 to 59 years and aged 60 or above, have higher adjusted HRs than younger age groups (20-39 years), 1.19 (95% CI: 1.14-1.26), and 1.18 (95% CI: 1.12-1.24), respectively. Patients with COPD may have a higher likelihood to have hemorrhoids in this retrospective cohort study. This study verifies the fundamental theorem of TCM that there is a definite pathogenic association between the lungs and large intestine.

  15. The HyVac4 subunit vaccine efficiently boosts BCG-primed anti-mycobacterial protective immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Billeskov

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The current vaccine against tuberculosis (TB, BCG, has failed to control TB worldwide and the protective efficacy is moreover limited to 10-15 years. A vaccine that could efficiently boost a BCG-induced immune response and thus prolong protective immunity would therefore have a significant impact on the global TB-burden. METHODS/FINDINGS: In the present study we show that the fusion protein HyVac4 (H4, consisting of the mycobacterial antigens Ag85B and TB10.4, given in the adjuvant IC31® or DDA/MPL effectively boosted and prolonged immunity induced by BCG, leading to improved protection against infection with virulent M. tuberculosis (M.tb. Increased protection correlated with an increased percentage of TB10.4 specific IFNγ/TNFα/IL-2 or TNFα/IL-2 producing CD4 T cells at the site of infection. Moreover, this vaccine strategy did not compromise the use of ESAT-6 as an accurate correlate of disease development/vaccine efficacy. Indeed both CD4 and CD8 ESAT-6 specific T cells showed significant correlation with bacterial levels. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: H4-IC31® can efficiently boost BCG-primed immunity leading to an increased protective anti-M.tb immune response dominated by IFNγ/TNFα/IL-2 or TNFα/IL2 producing CD4 T cells. H4 in the CD4 T cell inducing adjuvant IC31® is presently in clinical trials.

  16. Treatment of cyclical mastalgia with a solution containing a Vitex agnus castus extract: results of a placebo-controlled double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halaska, M; Beles, P; Gorkow, C; Sieder, C

    1999-08-01

    In a placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind study the efficacy of a Vitex agnus castus extract-containing solution (VACS) was investigated in patients suffering from cyclical mastalgia. Patients had mastalgia on at least 5 days in the pre-treatment cycle. During this cycle and during treatment (3 cycles; 2 x 30 drops/day), the intensity of mastalgia was recorded once per cycle using a visual analogue scale (VAS). After one/two treatment cycles, the mean decrease in pain intensity (mm, VAS) was 21.4 mm /33.7 mm in women taking VACS (n=48) and 10.6 mm/20.3 mm with placebo (n=49). The differences of the VAS-values for VACS were significantly greater than those with placebo (p=0.018; p=0.006). After three cycles, the mean VAS-score reduction for women taking VACS was 34.3 mm, a reduction of 'borderline significance' (p=0.064) on statistical testing compared with placebo (25.7 mm). There was no difference in the frequency of adverse events between both groups (VACS: n=5; placebo : n=4). VACS appears effective and was well tolerated and further evaluation of this agent in the treatment of cyclical mastalgia is warranted.

  17. Grand Junction projects office mixed-waste treatment program, VAC*TRAX mobile treatment unit process hazards analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, R.R.

    1996-04-01

    The objective of this report is to demonstrate that a thorough assessment of the risks associated with the operation of the Rust Geotech patented VAC*TRAX mobile treatment unit (MTU) has been performed and documented. The MTU was developed to treat mixed wastes at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Albuquerque Operations Office sites. The MTU uses an indirectly heated, batch vacuum dryer to thermally desorb organic compounds from mixed wastes. This process hazards analysis evaluated 102 potential hazards. The three significant hazards identified involved the inclusion of oxygen in a process that also included an ignition source and fuel. Changes to the design of the MTU were made concurrent with the hazard identification and analysis; all hazards with initial risk rankings of 1 or 2 were reduced to acceptable risk rankings of 3 or 4. The overall risk to any population group from operation of the MTU was determined to be very low; the MTU is classified as a Radiological Facility with low hazards

  18. Grand Junction projects office mixed-waste treatment program, VAC*TRAX mobile treatment unit process hazards analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloom, R.R.

    1996-04-01

    The objective of this report is to demonstrate that a thorough assessment of the risks associated with the operation of the Rust Geotech patented VAC*TRAX mobile treatment unit (MTU) has been performed and documented. The MTU was developed to treat mixed wastes at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Albuquerque Operations Office sites. The MTU uses an indirectly heated, batch vacuum dryer to thermally desorb organic compounds from mixed wastes. This process hazards analysis evaluated 102 potential hazards. The three significant hazards identified involved the inclusion of oxygen in a process that also included an ignition source and fuel. Changes to the design of the MTU were made concurrent with the hazard identification and analysis; all hazards with initial risk rankings of 1 or 2 were reduced to acceptable risk rankings of 3 or 4. The overall risk to any population group from operation of the MTU was determined to be very low; the MTU is classified as a Radiological Facility with low hazards.

  19. Analysis of 1:1 Matched Cohort Studies and Twin Studies, with Binary Exposures and Binary Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Sjölander, Arvid; Johansson, Anna L. V.; Lundholm, Cecilia; Altman, Daniel; Almqvist, Catarina; Pawitan, Yudi

    2012-01-01

    To improve confounder adjustments, observational studies are often matched on potential confounders. While matched case-control studies are common and well covered in the literature, our focus here is on matched cohort studies, which are less common and sparsely discussed in the literature. Matched data also arise naturally in twin studies, as a cohort of exposure–discordant twins can be viewed as being matched on a large number of potential confounders. The analysis of twin studies will be g...

  20. Selective reporting bias of harm outcomes within studies: findings from a cohort of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Pooja; Loke, Yoon K; Gamble, Carrol; Altman, Douglas G; Williamson, Paula R; Kirkham, Jamie J

    2014-11-21

    To determine the extent and nature of selective non-reporting of harm outcomes in clinical studies that were eligible for inclusion in a cohort of systematic reviews. Cohort study of systematic reviews from two databases. Outcome reporting bias in trials for harm outcomes (ORBIT II) in systematic reviews from the Cochrane Library and a separate cohort of systematic reviews of adverse events. 92 systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials and non-randomised studies published in the Cochrane Library between issue 9, 2012 and issue 2, 2013 (Cochrane cohort) and 230 systematic reviews published between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 2011 in other publications, synthesising data on harm outcomes (adverse event cohort). A 13 point classification system for missing outcome data on harm was developed and applied to the studies. 86% (79/92) of reviews in the Cochrane cohort did not include full data from the main harm outcome of interest of each review for all of the eligible studies included within that review; 76% (173/230) for the adverse event cohort. Overall, the single primary harm outcome was inadequately reported in 76% (705/931) of the studies included in the 92 reviews from the Cochrane cohort and not reported in 47% (4159/8837) of the 230 reviews in the adverse event cohort. In a sample of primary studies not reporting on the single primary harm outcome in the review, scrutiny of the study publication revealed that outcome reporting bias was suspected in nearly two thirds (63%, 248/393). The number of reviews suspected of outcome reporting bias as a result of missing or partially reported harm related outcomes from at least one eligible study is high. The declaration of important harms and the quality of the reporting of harm outcomes must be improved in both primary studies and systematic reviews. © Saini et al 2014.

  1. Wound management with vacuum assisted closure in surgical site infection after ankle surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhen-Yu; Liu, Ya-Ke; Chen, Hong-Lin; Liu, Fan

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of vacuum assisted closure (VAC) with standard moist wound care (SMWC) in surgical site infection after ankle surgery. A prospective cohort was performed among patients with surgical site infection after ankle surgery between 2012 and 2013. The follow-up period was three month, and the efficacy end point was complete wound closure rate. Ninety-four patients were analyzed, with 61 patients in the VAC group and 33 in the SMWC group. The complete wound closure rate in the VAC group was higher than that in the SMWC group at 3 month follow up (90.2% Vs. 72.7%, p = 0.028). The median time to complete wound closure was 31 days (95% CI 20.2-41.8) for VAC, and 63 days (95% CI 46.9-79.1) for SMWC (χ(2) = 4.023, p = 0.045). In the superficial infection subgroup, the median times to complete wound closure were 20 days (95% CI 14.2-35.1) in the VAC group and 42 days (95% CI 35.4-69.4) in SMWC group (χ(2) = 4.331, p = 0.041). In the deep subgroup, the median times to complete wound closure were 46 days (95% CI 28.2-65.9) in the VAC group and 75 days (95% CI 43.2-79.6) in SMWC group (χ(2) = 6.475, p = 0.026). Our result showed that vacuum assisted closure was more effective than standard moist wound care in surgical site infection after ankle surgery. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. An inventory of Canadian pregnancy and birth cohort studies: research in progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joly Marie-Pier

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A web-based inventory was developed as a voluntary registry of Canadian pregnancy and birth cohort studies, with the objective to foster collaboration and sharing of research tools among cohort study groups as a means to enrich research in maternal and child health across Canada. Description Information on existing birth cohort studies conducted in Canada exclusively or as part of broader international initiatives was accessed by searching the literature in PubMed and PsychInfo databases. Additional studies were identified by enquiring about the research activities of researchers at Canadian universities or working in affiliated hospitals or research centres or institutes. Of the fifty-eight birth cohort studies initially identified, forty-six were incorporated into the inventory if they were of a retrospective and/or prospective longitudinal design and with a minimum of two phases of data collection, with the first period having occurred before, during, or shortly after pregnancy and had an initial study sample size of a minimum of 200 participants. Information collected from each study was organized into four main categories: basic information, data source and period of collection, exposures, and outcome measures and was coded and entered into an Excel spreadsheet. The information incorporated into the Excel spreadsheet was double checked, completed when necessary, and verified for completeness and accuracy by contacting the principal investigator or research coordinator. All data collected were then uploaded onto the website of the Institute of Human Development Child and Youth Health of the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. Subsequently, the database was updated and developed as an online searchable inventory on the website of the Maternal, Infant, Child and Youth Research Network. Conclusions This inventory is unique, as it represents detailed information assembled for the first time on a large number of Canadian

  3. Family Structure and Childhood Obesity, Early Childhood Longitudinal Study ? Kindergarten Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Alex Y.; Escarce, Jos? J.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Little is known about the effect of family structure on childhood obesity among US children. This study examines the effect of number of parents and number of siblings on children's body mass index and risk of obesity. Methods We conducted a secondary data analysis of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study ? Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K), which consists of a nationally representative cohort of children who entered kindergarten during 1998-1999. Our analyses included 2 cross-sectio...

  4. Toenail selenium status and the risk of Barrett's esophagus: The Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steevens, J.; Schouten, L.J.; Driessen, A.L.C.; Huysentruyt, C.J.R.; Keulemans, Y.C.A.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association between selenium and the risk of Barrett's esophagus (BE), the precursor lesion of esophageal adenocarcinoma. Methods: Data from the prospective Netherlands Cohort Study were used. This cohort study was initiated in 1986, when 120,852 subjects aged 55-69

  5. Cohort Profile: Antiretroviral Therapy Cohort Collaboration (ART-CC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Margaret T; Ingle, Suzanne M; Costagliola, Dominique; Justice, Amy C; de Wolf, Frank; Cavassini, Matthias; D’Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Casabona, Jordi; Hogg, Robert S; Mocroft, Amanda; Lampe, Fiona C; Dabis, François; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; Sterling, Timothy R; del Amo, Julia; Gill, M John; Crane, Heidi M; Saag, Michael S; Guest, Jodie; Brodt, Hans-Reinhard; Sterne, Jonathan AC

    2014-01-01

    The advent of effective combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) in 1996 resulted in fewer patients experiencing clinical events, so that some prognostic analyses of individual cohort studies of human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals had low statistical power. Because of this, the Antiretroviral Therapy Cohort Collaboration (ART-CC) of HIV cohort studies in Europe and North America was established in 2000, with the aim of studying the prognosis for clinical events in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and the mortality of adult patients treated for HIV-1 infection. In 2002, the ART-CC collected data on more than 12,000 patients in 13 cohorts who had begun combination ART between 1995 and 2001. Subsequent updates took place in 2004, 2006, 2008, and 2010. The ART-CC data base now includes data on more than 70 000 patients participating in 19 cohorts who began treatment before the end of 2009. Data are collected on patient demographics (e.g. sex, age, assumed transmission group, race/ethnicity, geographical origin), HIV biomarkers (e.g. CD4 cell count, plasma viral load of HIV-1), ART regimen, dates and types of AIDS events, and dates and causes of death. In recent years, additional data on co-infections such as hepatitis C; risk factors such as smoking, alcohol and drug use; non-HIV biomarkers such as haemoglobin and liver enzymes; and adherence to ART have been collected whenever available. The data remain the property of the contributing cohorts, whose representatives manage the ART-CC via the steering committee of the Collaboration. External collaboration is welcomed. Details of contacts are given on the ART-CC website (www.art-cohort-collaboration.org). PMID:23599235

  6. Cohort profile: LIFEWORK, a prospective cohort study on occupational and environmental risk factors and health in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reedijk, Marije; Lenters, Virissa; Slottje, Pauline; Pijpe, Anouk; Peeters, Petra H; Korevaar, Joke C; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Verschuren, W M Monique; Verheij, Robert A; Pieterson, Inka; van Leeuwen, Flora E; Rookus, Matti A; Kromhout, Hans; Vermeulen, Roel C H

    2018-02-03

    LIFEWORK is a large federated prospective cohort established in the Netherlands to quantify the health effects of occupational and environmental exposures. This cohort is also the Dutch contribution to the international Cohort Study of Mobile Phone Use and Health (COSMOS). In this paper, we describe the study design, ongoing data collection, baseline characteristics of participants and the repeatability of key questionnaire items. 88 466 participants were enrolled in three cohort studies in 2011-2012. Exposure information was collected by a harmonised core questionnaire, or modelled based on occupational and residential histories; domains include air pollution (eg, nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), particulate matter with diameter ≤2.5 µm (PM 2.5 )), noise, electromagnetic fields (EMF), mobile phone use, shift work and occupational chemical exposures. Chronic and subacute health outcomes are assessed by self-report and through linkage with health registries. Participants had a median age of 51 years at baseline (range 19-87), and the majority are female (90%), with nurses being over-represented. Median exposure levels of NO 2 , PM 2.5 , EMF from base stations and noise at the participants' home addresses at baseline were 22.9 µg/m 3 , 16.6 µg/m 3 , 0.003 mWm 2 and 53.1 dB, respectively. Twenty-two per cent of participants reported to have started using a mobile phone more than 10 years prior to baseline. Repeatability for self-reported exposures was moderate to high (weighted kappa range: 0.69-1) for a subset of participants (n=237) who completed the questionnaire twice. We are actively and passively observing participants; we plan to administer a follow-up questionnaire every 4-5 years-the first follow-up will be completed in 2018-and linkage to cause-of-death and cancer registries occurs on a (bi)annual basis. This prospective cohort offers a unique, large and rich resource for research on contemporary occupational and environmental health risks and will

  7. The clinical impact and preventability of ventilator-associated conditions in critically ill patients who are mechanically ventilated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscedere, John; Sinuff, Tasnim; Heyland, Daren K; Dodek, Peter M; Keenan, Sean P; Wood, Gordon; Jiang, Xuran; Day, Andrew G; Laporta, Denny; Klompas, Michael

    2013-11-01

    Ventilator-associated conditions (VACs) and infection-related ventilator-associated complications (iVACs) are the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's new surveillance paradigms for patients who are mechanically ventilated. Little is known regarding the clinical impact and preventability of VACs and iVACs and their relationship to ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). We evaluated these using data from a large, multicenter, quality-improvement initiative. We retrospectively applied definitions for VAC and iVAC to data from a prospective time series study in which VAP clinical practice guidelines were implemented in 11 North American ICUs. Each ICU enrolled 30 consecutive patients mechanically ventilated > 48 h during each of four study periods. Data on clinical outcomes and concordance with prevention recommendations were collected. VAC, iVAC, and VAP rates over time, the agreement (κ statistic) between definitions, associated morbidity/mortality, and independent risk factors for each were determined. Of 1,320 patients, 139 (10.5%) developed a VAC, 65 (4.9%) developed an iVAC, and 148 (11.2%) developed VAP. The agreement between VAP and VAC was 0.18, and between VAP and iVAC it was 0.19. Patients who developed a VAC or iVAC had significantly more ventilator days, hospital days, and antibiotic days and higher hospital mortality than patients who had neither of these conditions. Increased concordance with VAP prevention guidelines during the study was associated with decreased VAP and VAC rates but no change in iVAC rates. VACs and iVACs are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Although the agreement between VAC, iVAC, and VAP is poor, a higher adoption of measures to prevent VAP was associated with lower VAP and VAC rates.

  8. Non-cancer morbidity among Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers: a register-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahu, Kaja; Bromet, Evelyn J; Hakulinen, Timo; Auvinen, Anssi; Uusküla, Anneli; Rahu, Mati

    2014-05-14

    To examine non-cancer morbidity in the Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers cohort compared with the population sample with special attention to radiation-related diseases and mental health disorders. Register-based cohort study. Estonia. An exposed cohort of 3680 men (cleanup workers) and an unexposed cohort of 7631 men (population sample) were followed from 2004 to 2012 through the Population Registry and Health Insurance Fund database. Morbidity in the exposed cohort compared with the unexposed controls was estimated in terms of rate ratio (RR) with 95% CIs using Poisson regression models. Elevated morbidity in the exposed cohort was found for diseases of the nervous system, digestive system, musculoskeletal system, ischaemic heart disease and for external causes. The most salient excess risk was observed for thyroid diseases (RR=1.69; 95% CI 1.38 to 2.07), intentional self-harm (RR=1.47; 95% CI 1.04 to 2.09) and selected alcohol-related diagnoses (RR=1.25; 95% CI 1.12 to 1.39). No increase in morbidity for stress reactions, depression, headaches or sleep disorders was detected. No obvious excess morbidity consistent with biological effects of radiation was seen in the exposed cohort, with the possible exception of benign thyroid diseases. Increased alcohol-induced morbidity may reflect alcohol abuse, and could underlie some of the higher morbidity rates. Mental disorders in the exposed cohort were probably under-reported. The future challenge will be to study mental and physical comorbidities in the Chernobyl cleanup workers cohort. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Cancer in ANCA-Associated Glomerulonephritis: A Registry-Based Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeevan Sriskandarajah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Immunosuppressive therapy for antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis has been associated with increased malignancy risk. Objectives. To quantify the cancer risk associated with contemporary cyclophosphamide-sparing protocols. Methods. Patients from the Norwegian Kidney Biopsy Registry between 1988 and 2012 who had biopsy-verified pauci-immune glomerulonephritis and positive antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA serology were included. Standardised incidence ratios (SIRs were calculated to compare the study cohort with the general population. Results. The study cohort included 419 patients. During 3010 person-years, cancer developed in 41 patients (9.79%; the expected number of cancer cases was 37.5 (8.95%. The cohort had SIRs as follows: 1.09, all cancer types (95% CI, 0.81 to 1.49; 0.96, all types except nonmelanoma skin cancer (95% CI, 0.69 to 1.34; 3.40, nonmelanoma skin cancer (95% CI, 1.62 to 7.14; 3.52, hematologic cancer (95% CI, 1.32 to 9.37; 2.12, posttransplant cancer (95% CI, 1.01 to 4.44; and 1.53, during the 1–5-year follow-up after diagnosis (95% CI, 1.01 to 2.32. Conclusions. Cancer risk did not increase significantly in this cohort with ANCA-associated glomerulonephritis. However, increased risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer, posttransplant cancer, and hematologic cancer indicates an association between immunosuppression and malignancy.

  10. The Korea Nurses' Health Study: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Oksoo; Ahn, Younjhin; Lee, Hea-Young; Jang, Hee Jung; Kim, Sue; Lee, Jung Eun; Jung, Heeja; Cho, Eunyoung; Lim, Joong-Yeon; Kim, Min-Ju; Willett, Walter C; Chavarro, Jorge E; Park, Hyun-Young

    2017-08-01

    The Korea Nurses' Health Study (KNHS) is a prospective cohort study of female nurses, focusing on the effects of occupational, environmental, and lifestyle risk factors on the health of Korean women. Female registered nurses aged 20-45 years and living in the Republic of Korea were invited to join the study, which began in July 2013. They were asked to complete a web-based baseline survey. The study protocols and questionnaires related to the KNHS are based on the Nurses' Health Study 3 (NHS3) in the United States, although they were modified to reflect the Korean lifestyle. Participants were asked about demographic, lifestyle factors, disease history, occupational exposure, reproductive factors, and dietary habits during their adolescence: Follow-up questionnaires were/will be completed at 6-8 month intervals after the baseline survey. If a participant became pregnant, she answered additional questionnaires containing pregnancy-related information. Among 157,569 eligible female nurses, 20,613 (13.1%) completed the web-based baseline questionnaire. The mean age of the participants was 29.4 ± 5.9 years, and more than half of them were in their 20s. Eighty-eight percent of the participants had worked night shifts as a nurse (mean, 5.3 ± 4.3 nights per month). Approximately 80% of the participants had a body mass index below 23 kg/m 2 . Gastrointestinal diseases were the most prevalent health issues (25.9%). The findings from this prospective cohort study will help to identify the effects of lifestyle-related and occupational factors on reproductive health and development of chronic diseases in Korean women.

  11. Equipo de fusión al vacío para la determinación cuantitativa del gas atrapado en piezas fundidas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández-Ortega, J. J.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Parts manufactured with casting processes may trap substantial quantities of gas, which could harm the mechanical properties of the manufactured parts. In this work, a vacuum melting device manufactured to measure trapped gas in castings is described. Adjustment correlations, which accurately calculate trapped gas quantity as a function of the pressure increments measured by the vacuum equipment, are obtained. Finally, as an application of the equipment, we present the results obtained for several parts manufactured using a pressure die casting machine. It is expected that the vacuum melting device will be useful to optimize the operating conditions which reduce the trapped gas in casting processes.

    Las piezas obtenidas mediante procesos de fundición pueden contener cantidades importantes de gas ocluido, lo que podría afectar negativamente a las propiedades mecánicas de las piezas fabricadas. En este artículo se describe un equipo de fusión al vacío fabricado para la determinación de la cantidad de gas ocluido en piezas obtenidas mediante procesos de fundición. Se han obtenido correlaciones de ajuste que permiten el cálculo, con un buen grado de precisión, de la cantidad de gas ocluido en piezas fundidas en función de los incrementos de presión detectados por el equipo de vacío. Finalmente, se presentan, como aplicación del equipo, los resultados obtenidos en piezas fabricadas en una máquina industrial de fundición por inyección a presión. Se espera que el equipo desarrollado sea de gran utilidad para optimizar las condiciones de operación que reduzcan el aire atrapado en procesos de fundición.

  12. Primary Sjogren's syndrome and the risk of acute pancreatitis: a nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chi-Ching; Chang, Yu-Sheng; Wang, Shu-Hung; Lin, Shyr-Yi; Chen, Yi-Hsuan; Chen, Jin Hua

    2017-08-11

    Studies on the risk of acute pancreatitis in patients with primary Sjogren's syndrome (pSS) are limited. We evaluated the effects of pSS on the risk of acute pancreatitis in a nationwide, population-based cohort in Taiwan. Population-based retrospective cohort study. We studied the claims data of the >97% Taiwan population from 2002 to 2012. We identified 9468 patients with pSS by using the catastrophic illness registry of the National Health Insurance Database in Taiwan. We also selected 37 872 controls that were randomly frequency matched by age (in 5 year bands), sex and index year from the general population. We analysed the risk of acute pancreatitis by using Cox proportional hazards regression models including sex, age and comorbidities. From 23.74 million people in the cohort, 9468 patients with pSS (87% women, mean age=55.6 years) and 37 872 controls were followed-up for 4.64 and 4.74 years, respectively. A total of 44 cases of acute pancreatitis were identified in the pSS cohort versus 105 cases in the non-pSS cohort. Multivariate Cox regression analysis indicated that the incidence rate of acute pancreatitis was significantly higher in the pSS cohort than in the non-pSS cohort (adjusted HR (aHR) 1.48, 95% CI 1.03 to 2.12). Cyclophosphamide use increased the risk of acute pancreatitis (aHR 5.27, 95% CI 1.16 to 23.86). By contrast, hydroxychloroquine reduced the risk of acute pancreatitis (aHR 0.23, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.55). This nationwide, retrospective cohort study demonstrated that the risk of acute pancreatitis was significantly higher in patients with pSS than in the general population. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Anthropometry, physical activity, and endometrial cancer risk: Results from the Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, L.J.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2004-01-01

    Although obesity is an established risk factor for endometrial cancer, evidence linking risk to height, weight change since age 20, and physical activity is limited. In this case-cohort study, 62 573 women from The Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer were followed up from 1986 to 1995, and

  14. Comparison of early surgical alternatives in the management of open abdomen: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rencüzoğulları, Ahmet; Dalcı, Kubilay; Eray, İsmail Cem; Yalav, Orçun; Okoh, Alexis Kofi; Akcam, Tolga; Ülkü, Abdullah; Sakman, Gürhan; Parsak, Cem P

    2015-05-01

    Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is a clinical syndrome characterized by progressive intraabdominal organ dysfunction resulting from an acute increase in intra-abdominal pressure (IAP). In the absence of prompt treatment, ACS can lead to lethal organ failure. Treatment of ACS is achieved by immediate decompression of the abdominal cavity. As to how and when decompression laparotomy should be performed depends on the clinical condition of the patients. There is limited data regarding outcomes of abdominal closure techiques. The present study aimed to investigate two different temporary closure methods, the vacuum assisted closure (VAC) and Bogota bag techniques, in 40 patients who underwent decompressive laparotomy as part of the management of ACS. The study included 40 patients who developed ACS during follow-up or following trauma and abdominal surgery. As part of the treatment for ACS, these patients underwent decompressive laparotomy at the Cukurova University Medical Faculty, General Surgery Department and followed up in the Intensive Care Unit of the same hospital. VAC and Bogota bag procedures were performed as temporary closure methods for the treatment of ACS. Patients were randomly assigned to each of the two groups according to the temporary closure method performed. Clinical, laboratory, mortality and morbidity results of the patients in both groups were compared. Demographic features of the patients (age, sex, body mass index, co-morbidities) were similar between the two groups. The most common reason of ACS was gastrointestinal perforation in 12 (30%) patients. Decrease in incision width was significantly faster in the VAC group than in the Bogota group. Primary closure of fascia was considered appropriate in 16.9 days in the VAC group and 20.5 days in the Bogota bag group. The decrease in abdominal pressure was similar between the two groups on days 1, 4 and 7 but appeared to be significantly lower on day 14 in the VAC group. 12 patients (30

  15. Efecto del proceso de fritura a vacío sobre la calidad de un pasabocas de mango (Manguifera indica L. Effect of vacuum frying process on the quality of a snack of mango (Manguifera indica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Humberto Villamizar V

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El consumo cada vez más creciente de pasabocas ha estimulado la búsqueda de procesos para mejorar su calidad. En este estudio se evaluó el comportamiento de los parámetros de calidad de un pasabocas frito hecho con mango (Manguifera indica L., utilizando vacío sobre una pasta elaborada con ese fruto. El proceso de fritura se realizó aplicando diferentes presiones de vacío (0.4, 0.5, 0.6 bar, temperaturas (100, 110 y 120 °C y tiempos (30, 45, 60, 75 y 90 seg. Los resultados mostraron que el vacío mejora las características de calidad del producto ya que los contenidos de grasa y humedad fueron muy bajos, la actividad de agua fue menor, la textura fue adecuada para las exigencias del mercado y el color presentó cambios muy pequeños en relación con los de la pasta. El mejor tratamiento fue 0.5 bar de presión, 110 °C de temperatura y 90 seg de inmersión.The latest trends in consumption of snacks, have led to the search for processes that enhance the quality of snack. The aim of this study was to observe the behavior of quality parameters of a fried snack made from mango (Manguifera indica L., using vacuum on a base of mango pulp and starch, in their preparation. The frying process was carried out using different vacuum pressures (0.4, 0.5, 0.6 bar, temperatures (100, 110 and 120 °C and times (30, 45, 60, 75 and 90s. The results showed that the vacuum improves the quality characteristics of the snacks, finding a fat and very low humidity contents, lower water activity, and texture, according to market products and a small color variation with respect to paste color. The best treatment was to 0.5 bar, 110 °C y 90s of immersion time.

  16. Incense use and respiratory tract carcinomas: a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, J.M.; Wang, R.; Koh, W.P.

    2008-01-01

    of cancer and ages 45 to 74 years completed a comprehensive interview regarding living conditions and dietary and lifestyle factors. Through linkage to population-based registries, the cohort was followed through 2005 and cancer occurrence determined. The relative risk for these cancers associated......BACKGROUND: Incense use is an integral part of daily life in large parts of Asia. The burning of incense is a powerful producer of particulate matter and the smoke contains a multitude of well-characterized carcinogens. However, to the authors' knowledge, no convincing association has been reported...... between exposure to incense smoke and the development of cancer. Therefore, the relation between incense use and the risk of respiratory tract carcinomas was analyzed in a prospective cohort study. METHODS: Between 1993 and 1998, a population-based cohort of 61,320 Singapore Chinese who were free...

  17. A Cohort Study on Meniscal Lesions among Airport Baggage Handlers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Sigurd; Brauer, Charlotte; Pedersen, Ellen Bøtker

    2016-01-01

    socioeconomic background and less knee-straining work. Baggage handlers lifted suitcases with an average weight of approximately 15 kg, in total approximately five tonnes during a 9-hour workday. The cohort was followed in the National Patient Register and Civil Registration System. The outcome was a first time......Meniscal lesions are common and may contribute to the development of knee arthrosis. A few case-control and cross-sectional studies have identified knee-straining work as risk factors for meniscal lesions, but exposure-response relations and the role of specific exposures are uncertain...... of unskilled men employed at Copenhagen Airport or in other companies in the metropolitan Copenhagen area from 1990 to 2012 (the Copenhagen Airport Cohort). The cohort at risk included 3,307 airport baggage handlers with heavy lifting and kneeling or squatting work tasks and 63,934 referents with a similar...

  18. Treatment of premenstrual tension syndrome with Vitex agnus castus controlled, double-blind study versus pyridoxine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauritzen, C; Reuter, H D; Repges, R; Böhnert, K J; Schmidt, U

    1997-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the efficacy and tolerability of a new solid formulation (capsules) of Agnolyt®(*)) in a randomized, controlled trial versus pyridoxine in women with PMTS over a period of three treatment cycles (Vitex agnus castus (VAC): 1 capsule + 1 placebo capsule/day, n = 90; pyridoxine (B6): 2 capsules day, n = 85). The therapeutic response was assessed using the premenstrual tension syndrome scale (PMTS scale), the recording of six characteristic complaints of the syndrome, and the clinical global impression scale (CGI scale). Upon completion of the trial, efficacy of the treatment was assessed by the physician as well as by the patient. On the PMTS scale, treatment with VAC and B6 produced a reduction in score points from 15.2 to 5.1 (-47,4%) and from 11.9 to 5.1 (-48%)(*), respectively. In comparison with pyridoxine, VAC caused a considerably more marked alleviation of typical PMTS complaints, such as breast tenderness, edema, inner tension, headache, constipation, and depression. Analogous results were obtained with the CGI scale. In both treatment groups, efficacy was rated as at least adequate by more than 80% of the investigators; however, VAC treatment was rated as excellent by 24.5% and pyridoxine treatment by 12.1% of the investigators. According to the patients' assessment, 36.1% of the cases in the VAC group and 21.3% in the pyridoxine group were free from complaints. Adverse events (gastrointestinal and lower abdominal complaints, skin manifestations and transitory headache) occurred in 5 patients under B6 and in 12 patients under VAC. Serious adverse events were not observed. The results of the present study confirm the efficacy and safety of Agnolyt® capsules in the treatment of PMTS. Copyright © 1997 Gustav Fischer Verlag. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  19. Feasibility of a cohort study on health risks caused by occupational exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breckenkamp, Jürgen; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele; Münster, Eva

    2009-01-01

    , in addition, a cohort of amateur radio operators were considered. Based on expert ratings, literature reviews and our set of predefined criteria, three of the cohorts were identified as promising for further evaluation: the personnel (technicians) of medium/short wave broadcasting stations, amateur radio......BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of performing a cohort study on health risks from occupational exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) in Germany. METHODS: A set of criteria was developed to evaluate the feasibility of such a cohort study...... and mixture of exposures, e.g. plastic vapours), although exposure was highest in this occupational setting. The advantage of the cohort of amateur radio operators was the large number of persons it includes, while the advantage of the cohort of personnel working at broadcasting stations was the quality...

  20. Chocolate consumption and risk of atrial fibrillation: Two cohort studies and a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Susanna C; Drca, Nikola; Jensen-Urstad, Mats; Wolk, Alicja

    2018-01-01

    Chocolate consumption has been inconsistently associated with risk of atrial fibrillation (AF). We investigated the association between chocolate consumption and risk of AF in Swedish adults from two cohort studies and conducted a meta-analysis to summarize available evidence from cohort studies on this topic. Our study population comprised 40,009 men from the Cohort of Swedish Men and 32,486 women from the Swedish Mammography Cohort. Incident AF cases were ascertained through linkage with the Swedish National Patient Register. Published cohort studies of chocolate consumption in relation to risk of AF were identified by a PubMed search through September 14, 2017. During a mean follow-up of 14.6 years, AF was diagnosed in 9978 Swedish men and women. Compared with non-consumers, the multivariable hazard ratio of AF for those in the highest category of chocolate consumption (≥3-4 servings/week) was 0.96 (95% CI 0.88-1.04). In a random-effects meta-analysis of 5 cohort studies, including 180,454 participants and 16,356 AF cases, the hazard ratios of AF were 0.97 (95% CI 0.94-1.01) per 2 servings/week increase in chocolate consumption and 0.96 (95% CI 0.90-1.03) for the highest versus lowest category of chocolate consumption. Available data provide no evidence of an association of chocolate consumption with risk of AF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Opium use and mortality in Golestan Cohort Study: prospective cohort study of 50,000 adults in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khademi, Hooman; Malekzadeh, Reza; Pourshams, Akram; Jafari, Elham; Salahi, Rasool; Semnani, Shahryar; Abaie, Behrooz; Islami, Farhad; Nasseri-Moghaddam, Siavosh; Etemadi, Arash; Byrnes, Graham; Abnet, Christian C; Dawsey, Sanford M; Day, Nicholas E; Pharoah, Paul D; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul; Kamangar, Farin

    2012-04-17

    To investigate the association between opium use and subsequent risk of death. Prospective cohort study. The Golestan Cohort Study in north-eastern Iran collected detailed validated data on opium use and other exposures at baseline. Participants were enrolled between January 2004 and June 2008 and were followed to May 2011, with a follow-up success rate of over 99%. 50,045 participants aged 40-75 at baseline. Mortality, all cause and major subcategories. 17% (n = 8487) of the participants reported opium use, with a mean duration of 12.7 years. During the follow-up period 2145 deaths were reported. The adjusted hazard ratio for all cause mortality associated with ever use of opium was 1.86 (95% confidence interval 1.68 to 2.06). Opium consumption was significantly associated with increased risks of deaths from several causes including circulatory diseases (hazard ratio 1.81) and cancer (1.61). The strongest associations were seen with deaths from asthma, tuberculosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (11.0, 6.22, and 5.44, respectively). After exclusion of people who self prescribed opium after the onset of major chronic illnesses, the associations remained strong with a dose-response relation. Opium users have an increased risk of death from multiple causes compared with non-users. Increased risks were also seen in people who used low amounts of opium for a long period and those who had no major illness before use.

  2. Trends in Dementia Incidence in a Birth Cohort Analysis of the Einstein Aging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derby, Carol A; Katz, Mindy J; Lipton, Richard B; Hall, Charles B

    2017-11-01

    Trends in dementia incidence rates have important implications for planning and prevention. To better understand incidence trends over time requires separation of age and cohort effects, and few prior studies have used this approach. To examine trends in dementia incidence and concomitant trends in cardiovascular comorbidities among individuals aged 70 years or older who were enrolled in the Einstein Aging Study between 1993 and 2015. In this birth cohort analysis of all-cause dementia incidence in persons enrolled in the Einstein Aging Study from October 20, 1993, through November 17, 2015, a systematically recruited, population-based sample of 1348 participants from Bronx County, New York, who were 70 years or older without dementia at enrollment and at least one annual follow-up was studied. Poisson regression was used to model dementia incidence as a function of age, sex, educational level, race, and birth cohort, with profile likelihood used to identify the timing of significant increases or decreases in incidence. Birth year and age. Incident dementia defined by consensus case conference based on annual, standardized neuropsychological and neurologic examination findings, using criteria from the DSM-IV. Among 1348 individuals (mean [SD] baseline age, 78.5 [5.4] years; 830 [61.6%] female; 915 [67.9%] non-Hispanic white), 150 incident dementia cases developed during 5932 person-years (mean [SD] follow-up, 4.4 [3.4] years). Dementia incidence decreased in successive birth cohorts. Incidence per 100 person-years was 5.09 in birth cohorts before 1920, 3.11 in the 1920 through 1924 birth cohorts, 1.73 in the 1925 through 1929 birth cohorts, and 0.23 in cohorts born after 1929. Change point analyses identified a significant decrease in dementia incidence among those born after July 1929 (95% CI, June 1929 to January 1930). The relative rate for birth cohorts before July 1929 vs after was 0.13 (95% CI, 0.04-0.41). Prevalence of stroke and myocardial infarction

  3. Cohort study of atypical pressure ulcers development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaul, Efraim

    2014-12-01

    Atypical pressure ulcers (APU) are distinguished from common pressure ulcers (PU) with both unusual location and different aetiology. The occurrence and attempts to characterise APU remain unrecognised. The purpose of this cohort study was to analyse the occurrence of atypical location and the circumstances of the causation, and draw attention to the prevention and treatment by a multidisciplinary team. The cohort study spanned three and a half years totalling 174 patients. The unit incorporates two weekly combined staff meetings. One concentrates on wound assessment with treatment decisions made by the physician and nurse, and the other, a multidisciplinary team reviewing all patients and coordinating treatment. The main finding of this study identified APU occurrence rate of 21% within acquired PU over a three and a half year period. Severe spasticity constituted the largest group in this study and the most difficult to cure wounds, located in medial aspects of knees, elbows and palms. Medical devices caused the second largest occurrence of atypical wounds, located in the nape of the neck, penis and nostrils. Bony deformities were the third recognisable atypical wound group located in shoulder blades and upper spine. These three categories are definable and time observable. APU are important to be recognisable, and can be healed as well as being prevented. The prominent role of the multidisciplinary team is primary in identification, prevention and treatment. © 2013 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2013 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Role of different negative pressure values in the process of infected wounds treated by vacuum-assisted closure: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Min; Yu, Aixi; Wu, Gang; Xia, Chengyan; Hu, Xiang; Qi, Baiwen

    2013-10-01

    treated with 75 and 150 mmHg negative pressure values compared with the wounds treated with 225 and 300 mmHg on day 5. Treatment using VAC with different negative pressure values more than 75 mmHg has similar efficiency on reducing bacteria in the infected wound. VAC with negative pressure values of 75 and 150 mmHg promote wound healing more quickly than other pressure values. Moreover, comparing with vigorous negative pressure, relatively moderate pressures contribute to wound healing via accelerated granulation growth, increased angiogenic factor production and improved collagen fibre deposition. Further study of this model may show other molecular mechanisms. © 2012 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Medicalhelplines.com Inc.

  5. The Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Olsen, Jørn

    2011-01-01

    , physical exercise, working conditions, medication and infections during pregnancy, and environmental possible toxins. The study designs cover straightforward cohort analyses, case-control studies and sub-cohort analyses with enriched data collection. CONCLUSION: So far, the Danish National Birth Cohort has......INTRODUCTION: In this review a selection of studies published during the period 2002-2010, based on data from the Danish National Birth Cohort linked with other health registers, is described. Illustrative examples of studies addressing perinatal health outcomes (pregnancy complications and fetal...... that this investment in epidemiologic infrastructure was well spent. The existence of the Danish National Birth Cohort together with other cohorts and national registers has given Denmark a leading position in reproductive epidemiology....

  6. Sensor, a population-based cohort study on gastroenteritis in the Netherlands: incidence and etiology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, M.A.S. de; Koopmans, M.P.G.; Kortbeek, L.M.; Wannet, W.J.B.; Vinje, J; Leusden, F. van; Bartelds, A.I.M.; Duynhoven, Y.T.H.P. van

    2001-01-01

    A prospective population-based cohort study with a nested case- control study was conducted to estimate the incidence of gastroenteritis and the associated pathogens in the general Dutch population. Follow-up of two consecutive cohorts was performed by weekly reporting cards from december 1998 to

  7. Feasibility of a cohort study on health risks caused by occupational exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahrendorf Jürgen

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of performing a cohort study on health risks from occupational exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF in Germany. Methods A set of criteria was developed to evaluate the feasibility of such a cohort study. The criteria aimed at conditions of exposure and exposure assessment (level, duration, preferably on an individual basis, the possibility to assemble a cohort and the feasibility of ascertaining various disease endpoints. Results Twenty occupational settings with workers potentially exposed to RF-EMF and, in addition, a cohort of amateur radio operators were considered. Based on expert ratings, literature reviews and our set of predefined criteria, three of the cohorts were identified as promising for further evaluation: the personnel (technicians of medium/short wave broadcasting stations, amateur radio operators, and workers on dielectric heat sealers. After further analyses, the cohort of workers on dielectric heat sealers seems not to be feasible due to the small number of exposed workers available and to the difficulty of assessing exposure (exposure depends heavily on the respective working process and mixture of exposures, e.g. plastic vapours, although exposure was highest in this occupational setting. The advantage of the cohort of amateur radio operators was the large number of persons it includes, while the advantage of the cohort of personnel working at broadcasting stations was the quality of retrospective exposure assessment. However, in the cohort of amateur radio operators the exposure assessment was limited, and the cohort of technicians was hampered by the small number of persons working in this profession. Conclusion The majority of occupational groups exposed to RF-EMF are not practicable for setting up an occupational cohort study due to the small numbers of exposed subjects or due to exposure levels being only marginally higher

  8. Feasibility of a cohort study on health risks caused by occupational exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of performing a cohort study on health risks from occupational exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) in Germany. Methods A set of criteria was developed to evaluate the feasibility of such a cohort study. The criteria aimed at conditions of exposure and exposure assessment (level, duration, preferably on an individual basis), the possibility to assemble a cohort and the feasibility of ascertaining various disease endpoints. Results Twenty occupational settings with workers potentially exposed to RF-EMF and, in addition, a cohort of amateur radio operators were considered. Based on expert ratings, literature reviews and our set of predefined criteria, three of the cohorts were identified as promising for further evaluation: the personnel (technicians) of medium/short wave broadcasting stations, amateur radio operators, and workers on dielectric heat sealers. After further analyses, the cohort of workers on dielectric heat sealers seems not to be feasible due to the small number of exposed workers available and to the difficulty of assessing exposure (exposure depends heavily on the respective working process and mixture of exposures, e.g. plastic vapours), although exposure was highest in this occupational setting. The advantage of the cohort of amateur radio operators was the large number of persons it includes, while the advantage of the cohort of personnel working at broadcasting stations was the quality of retrospective exposure assessment. However, in the cohort of amateur radio operators the exposure assessment was limited, and the cohort of technicians was hampered by the small number of persons working in this profession. Conclusion The majority of occupational groups exposed to RF-EMF are not practicable for setting up an occupational cohort study due to the small numbers of exposed subjects or due to exposure levels being only marginally higher than those of the general

  9. Building and Validating a Computerized Algorithm for Surveillance of Ventilator-Associated Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Tal; Ellsworth, Joseph; Huda, Najia; Neelakanta, Anupama; Chevalier, Thomas; Sims, Kristin L; Dhar, Sorabh; Robinson, Mary E; Kaye, Keith S

    2015-09-01

    To develop an automated method for ventilator-associated condition (VAC) surveillance and to compare its accuracy and efficiency with manual VAC surveillance The intensive care units (ICUs) of 4 hospitals This study was conducted at Detroit Medical Center, a tertiary care center in metropolitan Detroit. A total of 128 ICU beds in 4 acute care hospitals were included during the study period from August to October 2013. The automated VAC algorithm was implemented and utilized for 1 month by all study hospitals. Simultaneous manual VAC surveillance was conducted by 2 infection preventionists and 1 infection control fellow who were blinded to each another's findings and to the automated VAC algorithm results. The VACs identified by the 2 surveillance processes were compared. During the study period, 110 patients from all the included hospitals were mechanically ventilated and were evaluated for VAC for a total of 992 mechanical ventilation days. The automated VAC algorithm identified 39 VACs with sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of 100%. In comparison, the combined efforts of the IPs and the infection control fellow detected 58.9% of VACs, with 59% sensitivity, 99% specificity, 91% PPV, and 92% NPV. Moreover, the automated VAC algorithm was extremely efficient, requiring only 1 minute to detect VACs over a 1-month period, compared to 60.7 minutes using manual surveillance. The automated VAC algorithm is efficient and accurate and is ready to be used routinely for VAC surveillance. Furthermore, its implementation can optimize the sensitivity and specificity of VAC identification.

  10. Vegetarianism, low meat consumption and the risk of colorectal cancer in a population based cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilsing, A.M.J.; Schouten, L.J.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Dagnelie, P.C.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Weijenberg, M.P.

    2015-01-01

    To study how a vegetarian or low meat diet influences the risk of colorectal cancer compared to a high meat diet, and to assess the explanatory role of factors associated with these diets. In the Netherlands Cohort Study – Meat Investigation Cohort (NLCS-MIC) (cohort of 10,210 individuals including

  11. The effect of gender medicine education in GP training: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dielissen, Patrick; Verdonk, Petra; Waard, Magreet Wieringa-de; Bottema, Ben; Lagro-Janssen, Toine

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the change in general practitioner (GP) trainees' gender awareness following a modular gender medicine programme or a mainstream gender medicine programme. In 2007, a prospective study was conducted in three cohorts of in total 207 GP trainees who entered GP training in the Netherlands. The outcome measure was the Nijmegen Gender Awareness in Medicine Scale and a 16-item gender knowledge questionnaire. Two gender medicine teaching methods were compared: a modular approach (n = 75) versus a mainstream approach (n = 72). Both strategies were compared with a control cohort (n = 60). Statistical analysis included analysis of variance and t-tests. The overall response rates for the modular, mainstream and control cohort were 78, 72 and 82 %, respectively. There was a significant difference in change in gender knowledge scores between the modular cohort compared with the mainstream and control cohort (p = 0.049). There were no statistical differences between the cohorts on gender sensitivity and gender role ideology. At entry and end, female GP trainees demonstrated significantly higher gender awareness than male GP trainees. A modular teaching method is not a more favourable educational method to teach gender medicine in GP training. Female GP trainees are more gender aware, but male GP trainees are not unaware of gender-related issues.

  12. Adaptation During a Great Economic Recession: A Cohort Study of Greek and Immigrant Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motti-Stefanidi, Frosso; Asendorpf, Jens B

    2017-07-01

    This study examined how Greek and immigrant youth adapted to school life during the economic recession in Greece. Two cohorts of adolescents (M age  = 12.6 years) were compared, one assessed before the crisis and the other during the crisis (N = 1,057 and 1,052, respectively). Cohort findings were disaggregated by immigrant status, generation, and ethnic group. Crisis-cohort youth experienced more economic problems, displayed worse conduct, higher levels of absenteeism, and lower self-efficacy than precrisis youth. The cohorts did not differ in well-being, school engagement, and academic achievement. Most crisis-cohort groups showed a pervasive increase in conduct problems compared to the precrisis cohort. However, some of these groups also showed an increase in academic achievement. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  13. Case series and descriptive cohort studies in neurosurgery: the confusion and solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esene, Ignatius N; Ngu, Julius; El Zoghby, Mohamed; Solaroglu, Ihsan; Sikod, Anna M; Kotb, Ali; Dechambenoit, Gilbert; El Husseiny, Hossam

    2014-08-01

    Case series (CS) are well-known designs in contemporary use in neurosurgery but are sometimes used in contexts that are incompatible with their true meaning as defined by epidemiologists. This inconsistent, inappropriate and incorrect use, and mislabeling impairs the appropriate indexing and sorting of evidence. Using PubMed, we systematically identified published articles that had "case series" in the "title" in 15 top-ranked neurosurgical journals from January 2008 to December 2012. The abstracts and/or full articles were scanned to identify those with descriptions of the principal method as being "case series" and then classified as "true case series" or "non-case series" by two independent investigators with 100 % inter-rater agreement. Sixty-four articles had the label "case series" in their "titles." Based on the definition of "case series" and our appraisal of the articles using Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) guidelines, 18 articles (28.13 %) were true case series, while 46 (71.87 %) were mislabeled. Thirty-five articles (54.69 %) mistook retrospective (descriptive) cohorts for CS. CS are descriptive with an outcome-based sampling, while "descriptive cohorts" have an exposure-based sampling of patients, followed over time to assess outcome(s). A comparison group is not a defining feature of a cohort study and distinguishes descriptive from analytic cohorts. A distinction between a case report, case series, and descriptive cohorts is absolutely necessary to enable the appropriate indexing, sorting, and application of evidence. Researchers need better training in methods and terminology, and editors and reviewers should scrutinize more carefully manuscripts claiming to be "case series" studies.

  14. New architectural design of delivery room reduces morbidity in preterm neonates: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrin, Gianluca; Conte, Francesca; Scipione, Antonella; Aleandri, Vincenzo; Di Chiara, Maria; Bacchio, Erica; Messina, Francesco; De Curtis, Mario

    2016-03-23

    A multidisciplinary committee composed of a panel of experts, including a member of the American Academy of Pediatrics and American Institute of Architects, has suggested that the delivery room (DR) and the neonatal intensive care units (NICU) room should be directly interconnected. We aimed to investigate the impact of the architectural design of the DR and the NICU on neonatal outcome. Two cohorts of preterm neonates born at architectural renovation of the DR realized in accordance with specific standards (Cohort 2: "new concept of DR"). In Cohort 1, neonates were initially cared for a conventional resuscitation area, situated in the DR, and then transferred to the NICU, located on a separate floor of the same hospital. In Cohort 2 neonates were assisted at birth directly in the NICU room, which was directly connected to the DR via a pass-through door. The primary outcome of the study was morbidity, defined by the proportion of neonates with at least one complication of prematurity (i.e., late-onset sepsis, patent ductus arteriosus, intraventricular hemorrhage, periventricular leukomalacia, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, retinopathy of prematurity and necrotizing enterocolitis). Secondary outcomes were mortality and duration of hospitalization. Statistical analysis was performed using standard methods by SPSS software. We enrolled 106 neonates (56 in Cohort 1 and 50 in Cohort 2). The main clinical and demographic characteristics of the 2 cohorts were similar. Moderate hypothermia (body temperature ≤ 35.9 °C) was more frequent in Cohort 1 (57%) compared with Cohort 2 (24%, p = 0.001). Morbidity was increased in Cohort 1 (73%) compared with Cohort 2 (44%, p = 0.002). No statistically significant differences in mortality and median duration of hospitalization were observed between the 2 cohorts of the study. If realized according to the proposed architectural standards, renovation of DR and NICU may represent an opportunity to reduce morbidity in preterm neonates.

  15. The Danish National Cohort Study (DANCOS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helweg-Larsen, Karin; Kjøller, Mette; Davidsen, Michael

    2003-01-01

    This article gives an overview of a nationally representive public health research database in Denmark, the Danish National Cohort Study (DANCOS). DANCOS combines baseline data from health interview surveys with both pre- and post-baseline data from national health registries with date from a re...... and administrative registries. All respondents and non-respondents were followed through 2002, a total of 3,796 had died and 249 had emigrated. The specific cause of death for 2,485 people was recorded in the Danish Register of Causes of Death, updated through 1998. For 1978-1977, the Danish National Hospital...

  16. Nordic registry-based cohort studies: Possibilities and pitfalls when combining Nordic registry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maret-Ouda, John; Tao, Wenjing; Wahlin, Karl; Lagergren, Jesper

    2017-07-01

    All five Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden) have nationwide registries with similar data structure and validity, as well as personal identity numbers enabling linkage between registries. These resources provide opportunities for medical research that is based on large registry-based cohort studies with long and complete follow-up. This review describes practical aspects, opportunities and challenges encountered when setting up all-Nordic registry-based cohort studies. Relevant articles describing registries often used for medical research in the Nordic countries were retrieved. Further, our experiences of conducting this type of study, including planning, acquiring permissions, data retrieval and data cleaning and handling, and the possibilities and challenges we have encountered are described. Combining data from the Nordic countries makes it possible to create large and powerful cohorts. The main challenges include obtaining all permissions within each country, usually in the local language, and retrieving the data. These challenges emphasise the importance of having experienced collaborators within each country. Following the acquisition of data, data management requires the understanding of the differences between the variables to be used in the various countries. A concern is the long time required between initiation and completion. Nationwide Nordic registries can be combined into cohorts with high validity and statistical power, but the considerable expertise, workload and time required to complete such cohorts should not be underestimated.

  17. Cohort profile: cerebral palsy in the Norwegian and Danish birth cohorts (MOBAND-CP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollånes, Mette C; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Forthun, Ingeborg; Petersen, Tanja Gram; Moster, Dag; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Olsen, Jørn; Wilcox, Allen J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of MOthers and BAbies in Norway and Denmark cerebral palsy (MOBAND-CP) was to study CP aetiology in a prospective design. Participants MOBAND-CP is a cohort of more than 210 000 children, created as a collaboration between the world's two largest pregnancy cohorts—the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort study (MoBa) and the Danish National Birth Cohort. MOBAND-CP includes maternal interview/questionnaire data collected during pregnancy and follow-up, plus linked information from national health registries. Findings to date Initial harmonisation of data from the 2 cohorts has created 140 variables for children and their mothers. In the MOBAND-CP cohort, 438 children with CP have been identified through record linkage with validated national registries, providing by far the largest such sample with prospectively collected detailed pregnancy data. Several studies investigating various hypotheses regarding CP aetiology are currently on-going. Future plans Additional data can be harmonised as necessary to meet requirements of new projects. Biological specimens collected during pregnancy and at delivery are potentially available for assay, as are results from assays conducted on these specimens for other projects. The study size allows consideration of CP subtypes, which is rare in aetiological studies of CP. In addition, MOBAND-CP provides a platform within the context of a merged birth cohort of exceptional size that could, after appropriate permissions have been sought, be used for cohort and case-cohort studies of other relatively rare health conditions of infants and children. PMID:27591025

  18. Locoregional first recurrence after mastectomy: prospective cohort studies with and without immediate chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haylock, Brian J.; Coppin, Chris M.L.; Jackson, Jeremy; Basco, Vivien E.; Wilson, Kenneth S.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate prospectively the impact of combination chemotherapy in the combined modality treatment of isolated first locoregional recurrence (LRR) following mastectomy for breast cancer. Methods and Materials: Between 1979 and 1989, 120 chemotherapy-naive women with isolated LRR as first failure after mastectomy were prospectively identified, uniformly staged, and systematically followed. Treatment consisted of excision if feasible, radical locoregional radiotherapy, and a hormonal maneuver (unless estrogen receptor negative). The initial chemotherapy cohort also received 8 cycles of doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide. This was compared to a subsequent control cohort. Results: For all patients, the 10-year actuarial relapse-free survival ± 95% confidence interval was 42.1 ± 9.2%, and overall survival was 56.8 ± 9.1%. No difference was seen in locoregional control between cohorts. At 5 years, distant recurrence-free survival for chemotherapy and control cohort respectively was 75.4 ± 10.8% and 60.7 ±12.5% (p = 0.33) and overall survival was 81.9% ± 9.6 and 74.3% ± 11.2 (p = 0.24). Univariate analysis showed no prognostic importance for any imbalance between cohorts. Cox modeling confirmed that complete resection was strongly associated with fewer LRR (hazard ratio [HR] 0.32, p = 0.001) and also with better overall survival (HR 1.82, p = 0.019). Chemotherapy produced a substantial reduction in risk of death (HR 0.72 CI 0.421-1.235, p = 0.23). Conclusions: In this prospective but nonrandomized study of treatment for first LRR, the risk of death in the later control cohort was 1.39 times the risk in the chemotherapy cohort but failed to reach statistical significance. The results justify further study

  19. The impact of attrition on the representativeness of cohort studies of older people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brilleman Samuel L

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are well-established risk factors, such as lower education, for attrition of study participants. Consequently, the representativeness of the cohort in a longitudinal study may deteriorate over time. Death is a common form of attrition in cohort studies of older people. The aim of this paper is to examine the effects of death and other forms of attrition on risk factor prevalence in the study cohort and the target population over time. Methods Differential associations between a risk factor and death and non-death attrition are considered under various hypothetical conditions. Empirical data from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH for participants born in 1921-26 are used to identify associations which occur in practice, and national cross-sectional data from Australian Censuses and National Health Surveys are used to illustrate the evolution of bias over approximately ten years. Results The hypothetical situations illustrate how death and other attrition can theoretically affect changes in bias over time. Between 1996 and 2008, 28.4% of ALSWH participants died, 16.5% withdrew and 10.4% were lost to follow up. There were differential associations with various risk factors, for example, non-English speaking country of birth was associated with non-death attrition but not death whereas being underweight (body mass index Conclusions Deaths occur in both the target population and study cohort, while other forms of attrition occur only in the study cohort. Therefore non-death attrition may cause greater bias than death in longitudinal studies. However although more than a quarter of the oldest participants in the ALSWH died in the 12 years following recruitment, differences from the national population changed only slightly.

  20. Investing in Prospective Cohorts for Etiologic Study of Occupational Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prospective cohorts have played a major role in understanding the role of diet, physical activity, medical conditions, and genes in the development of many diseases, but have not been widely used in the study of occupational exposures. Studies in agriculture are an exception. W...

  1. Assessment of participation bias in cohort studies: systematic review and meta-regression analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Henrique Almeida da Silva Junior

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The proportion of non-participation in cohort studies, if associated with both the exposure and the probability of occurrence of the event, can introduce bias in the estimates of interest. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of participation and its characteristics in longitudinal studies. A systematic review (MEDLINE, Scopus and Web of Science for articles describing the proportion of participation in the baseline of cohort studies was performed. Among the 2,964 initially identified, 50 were selected. The average proportion of participation was 64.7%. Using a meta-regression model with mixed effects, only age, year of baseline contact and study region (borderline were associated with participation. Considering the decrease in participation in recent years, and the cost of cohort studies, it is essential to gather information to assess the potential for non-participation, before committing resources. Finally, journals should require the presentation of this information in the papers.

  2. The Shozu Herpes Zoster (SHEZ) Study: Rationale, Design, and Description of a Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takao, Yukiko; Miyazaki, Yoshiyuki; Onishi, Fumitake; Kumihashi, Hideaki; Gomi, Yasuyuki; Ishikawa, Toyokazu; Okuno, Yoshinobu; Mori, Yasuko; Asada, Hideo; Yamanishi, Koichi; Iso, Hiroyasu

    2012-01-01

    Background The incidence and risk factors for herpes zoster have been studied in cross-sectional and cohort studies, although most such studies have been conducted in Western countries. Evidence from Asian populations is limited, and no cohort study has been conducted in Asia. We are conducting a 3-year prospective cohort study in Shozu County in Kagawa Prefecture, Japan to determine the incidence and predictive and immunologic factors for herpes zoster among Japanese. Methods The participants are followed for 3 years, and a telephone survey is conducted every 4 weeks. The participants were assigned to 1 of 3 studies. Participants in study A gave information on past history of herpes zoster and completed health questionnaires. Study B participants additionally underwent varicella-zoster virus (VZV) skin testing, and study C participants additionally underwent blood testing. If the participants develop herpes zoster, we evaluate clinical symptoms, measure cell-mediated immunity and humoral immunity using venous blood sampling, photograph skin areas with rash, conduct virus identification testing by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and virus isolation from crust sampling, and evaluate postherpetic pain. Results We recruited 12 522 participants aged 50 years or older in Shozu County from December 2009 through November 2010. The participation rate was 65.7% of the target population. Conclusions The present study is likely to provide valuable data on the incidence and predictive and immunologic factors for herpes zoster in a defined community-based population of Japanese. PMID:22343323

  3. Absorción de soluciones preservantes de nueve especies de maderas, mediante procesos de impregnación a vacío - presión e inmersión

    OpenAIRE

    R. Machuca-Velasco; M. Fuentes-Salinas; A. Borja-de la Rosa

    2006-01-01

    El presente trabajo se realizó con la finalidad de conocer la capacidad de absorción de preservadores de las maderas de Pinus arizonica (pino blanco), Pinus engelmanni (pino real), Pinus patula (pino colorado), Ceiba pentandra (ceiba), Manilkara zapota (chicozapote), Spondias mombin (jobo), Quercus insignis (chicalaba), Quercus laurina (laurelillo) y Quercus oleoides (tesmol), aplicando los procesos de impregnación vacío-presión e inmersión con sales CCA (cobre, cromo, arsénico) tipo...

  4. Opium use and mortality in Golestan Cohort Study: prospective cohort study of 50 000 adults in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khademi, Hooman; Pourshams, Akram; Jafari, Elham; Salahi, Rasool; Semnani, Shahryar; Abaie, Behrooz; Islami, Farhad; Nasseri-Moghaddam, Siavosh; Etemadi, Arash; Byrnes, Graham; Abnet, Christian C; Dawsey, Sanford M; Day, Nicholas E; Pharoah, Paul D; Boffetta, Paolo; Kamangar, Farin

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the association between opium use and subsequent risk of death. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting The Golestan Cohort Study in north-eastern Iran collected detailed validated data on opium use and other exposures at baseline. Participants were enrolled between January 2004 and June 2008 and were followed to May 2011, with a follow-up success rate of over 99%. Participants 50 045 participants aged 40-75 at baseline. Main outcomes Mortality, all cause and major subcategories. Results 17% (n=8487) of the participants reported opium use, with a mean duration of 12.7 years. During the follow-up period 2145 deaths were reported. The adjusted hazard ratio for all cause mortality associated with ever use of opium was 1.86 (95% confidence interval 1.68 to 2.06). Opium consumption was significantly associated with increased risks of deaths from several causes including circulatory diseases (hazard ratio 1.81) and cancer (1.61). The strongest associations were seen with deaths from asthma, tuberculosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (11.0, 6.22, and 5.44, respectively). After exclusion of people who self prescribed opium after the onset of major chronic illnesses, the associations remained strong with a dose-response relation. Conclusion Opium users have an increased risk of death from multiple causes compared with non-users. Increased risks were also seen in people who used low amounts of opium for a long period and those who had no major illness before use. PMID:22511302

  5. Vacuum-assisted closure versus closure without vacuum assistance for preventing surgical site infections and infections of chronic wounds: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansarli, Giannoula S; Vardakas, Konstantinos Z; Stratoulias, Constantinos; Peppas, George; Kapaskelis, Anastasios; Falagas, Matthew E

    2014-08-01

    We sought to examine whether vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) is associated with fewer surgical site infections (SSIs) or infections of chronic wounds than other management procedures for surgical wounds. The PubMed and Scopus databases were searched systematically. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the development of SSIs or infections of chronic wounds between patients treated with VAC for acute or chronic wounds and those whose wounds were treated without VAC were considered eligible for inclusion in the study. Eight RCTs met the inclusion criteria for the study. Four of the studies included chronic or diabetic lower extremity wounds and four included fractures. In three of four studies reporting on fractures, the wounds were not closed post-operatively, whereas in one study primary closure of the wound was performed. With regard to wounds left open after the stabilization of fractures, patients whose wounds were treated with VAC developed fewer SSIs than those whose wounds were treated without VAC ([367 patients (196 with VAC; 171 without VAC) relative risk [RR], 0.47; 95% CI 0.28-0.81]). On the contrary, no difference in the development of SSIs occurred among patients with chronic or diabetic lower-extremity wounds treated with VAC and those whose wounds were treated without VAC ([638 patients (320 with VAC; 318 without VAC) RR 1.67; 95% CI: 0.71-3.94]). The available evidence suggests that the development of infections in wounds treated with VAC depends on the type of wound being treated.

  6. Design and conduct of an internet-based preconception cohort study in North America: Pregnancy Study Online (PRESTO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Lauren A; Rothman, Kenneth J.; Mikkelsen, Ellen M.; Stanford, Joseph B.; Wesselink, Amelia K.; McKinnon, Craig; Gruschow, Siobhan M.; Horgan, Casie E.; Wiley, Aleta S.; Hahn, Kristen A.; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Hatch, Elizabeth E.

    2015-01-01

    Background We launched the Boston University Pregnancy Study Online (PRESTO) to assess the feasibility of carrying out an internet-based preconception cohort study in the U.S. and Canada. Methods We recruited female participants age 21–45 and their male partners through internet advertisements, word of mouth, and flyers. Female participants were randomized with 50% probability to receive a subscription to FertilityFriend.com (FF), a web-based program that collects real-time data on menstrual characteristics. We compared recruitment methods within PRESTO, assessed the cost-efficiency of PRESTO relative to its Danish counterpart (Snart-Gravid), and validated retrospectively-reported date of last menstrual period (LMP) against FF data. Results After 99 weeks of recruitment (2013–2015), 2,421 women enrolled; 1,384 (57%) invited their male partners to participate, of whom 693 (50%) enrolled. Baseline characteristics were balanced across randomization groups. Cohort retention was similar among those randomized vs. not randomized to FF (84% vs. 81%). At study enrollment, 56%, 22%, and 22% couples had been trying to conceive for cost per subject enrolled was $146 (2013 $US), which was similar to our companion Danish study and half that of a traditional cohort study. Among FF users who conceived, >97% reported their LMP on the PRESTO questionnaire within 1 day of the LMP recorded via FF. Conclusions Use of the internet as a method of recruitment and follow-up in a North American preconception cohort study was feasible and cost-effective. PMID:26111445

  7. Dropout from exercise programs for seniors: A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stiggelbout, M.; Hopman-Rock, M.; Tak, E.; Lechner, L.; Mechelen, W. van

    2005-01-01

    This study examines dropout incidence, moment of dropout, and switching behavior in organized exercise programs for seniors in the Netherlands, as determined in a prospective cohort study (with baseline measurements at the start of the exercise program and follow-up after 6 months; N = 1,725,

  8. Helicobacter pylori VacA enhances prostaglandin E2 production through induction of cyclooxygenase 2 expression via a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase/activating transcription factor 2 cascade in AZ-521 cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hisatsune, Junzo; Yamasaki, Eiki; Nakayama, Masaaki

    2007-01-01

    of a COX-2 promoter reporter gene and activated a COX-2 promoter containing mutated NF-kappaB or NF-interleukin-6 sites but not a mutated cis-acting replication element (CRE) site, suggesting direct involvement of the activating transcription factor 2 (ATF-2)/CREB-binding region in VacA-induced COX-2...... to activation of the CRE site in the COX-2 promoter....

  9. Specialist Cohort Event Monitoring studies: a new study method for risk management in pharmacovigilance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Deborah; Shakir, Saad A W

    2015-02-01

    The evolving regulatory landscape has heightened the need for innovative, proactive, efficient and more meaningful solutions for 'real-world' post-authorization safety studies (PASS) that not only align with risk management objectives to gather additional safety monitoring information or assess a pattern of drug utilization, but also satisfy key regulatory requirements for marketing authorization holder risk management planning and execution needs. There is a need for data capture across the primary care and secondary care interface, or for exploring use of new medicines in secondary care to support conducting PASS. To fulfil this need, event monitoring has evolved. The Specialist Cohort Event Monitoring (SCEM) study is a new application that enables a cohort of patients prescribed a medicine in the hospital and secondary care settings to be monitored. The method also permits the inclusion of a comparator cohort of patients receiving standard care, or another counterfactual comparator group, to be monitored concurrently, depending on the study question. The approach has been developed in parallel with the new legislative requirement for pharmaceutical companies to undertake a risk management plan as part of post-authorization safety monitoring. SCEM studies recognize that the study population comprises those patients who may have treatment initiated under the care of specialist health care professionals and who are more complex in terms of underlying disease, co-morbidities and concomitant medications than the general disease population treated in primary care. The aims of this paper are to discuss the SCEM new-user study design, rationale and features that aim to address possible bias (such as selection bias) and current applications.

  10. Prevalence and predictors of alcohol use during pregnancy: findings from international multicentre cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keeffe, Linda M; Kearney, Patricia M; McCarthy, Fergus P; Khashan, Ali S; Greene, Richard A; North, Robyn A; Poston, Lucilla; McCowan, Lesley M E; Baker, Philip N; Dekker, Gus A; Walker, James J; Taylor, Rennae; Kenny, Louise C

    2015-07-06

    To compare the prevalence and predictors of alcohol use in multiple cohorts. Cross-cohort comparison of retrospective and prospective studies. Population-based studies in Ireland, the UK, Australia and New Zealand. 17,244 women of predominantly Caucasian origin from two Irish retrospective studies (Growing up in Ireland (GUI) and Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System Ireland (PRAMS Ireland)), and one multicentre prospective international cohort, Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE) study. Prevalence of alcohol use pre-pregnancy and during pregnancy across cohorts. Sociodemographic factors associated with alcohol consumption in each cohort. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy in Ireland ranged from 20% in GUI to 80% in SCOPE, and from 40% to 80% in Australia, New Zealand and the UK. Levels of exposure also varied substantially among drinkers in each cohort ranging from 70% consuming more than 1-2 units/week in the first trimester in SCOPE Ireland, to 46% and 15% in the retrospective studies. Smoking during pregnancy was the most consistent predictor of gestational alcohol use in all three cohorts, and smokers were 17% more likely to drink during pregnancy in SCOPE, relative risk (RR)=1.17 (95% CI 1.12 to 1.22), 50% more likely to drink during pregnancy in GUI, RR=1.50 (95% CI 1.36 to 1.65), and 42% more likely to drink in PRAMS, RR=1.42 (95% CI 1.18 to 1.70). Our data suggest that alcohol use during pregnancy is prevalent and socially pervasive in the UK, Ireland, New Zealand and Australia. New policy and interventions are required to reduce alcohol prevalence both prior to and during pregnancy. Further research on biological markers and conventions for measuring alcohol use in pregnancy is required to improve the validity and reliability of prevalence estimates. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. Risk of thyroid cancer in patients with thyroiditis: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chien-Liang; Cheng, Shih-Ping; Lin, Hui-Wen; Lai, Yuen-Liang

    2014-03-01

    The causative relationship between autoimmune thyroiditis and thyroid cancer remains a controversial issue. The aim of this population-based study was to investigate the risk of thyroid cancer in patients with thyroiditis. From the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005 (LHID2005) of Taiwan, we identified adult patients newly diagnosed with thyroiditis between 2004 and 2009 (n = 1,654). The comparison cohort (n = 8,270) included five randomly selected age- and sex-matched controls for each patient in the study cohort. All patients were followed up from the date of cohort entry until they developed thyroid cancer or to the end of 2010. Multivariate Cox regression was used to assess the risk of developing thyroid cancer. A total of 1,000 bootstrap replicates were created for internal validation. A total of 35 patients developed thyroid cancer during the study period, of whom 24 were from the thyroiditis cohort and 11 were from the comparison cohort (incidence 353 and 22 per 100,000 person-years, respectively). After adjusting for potential confounding factors, the hazard ratio (HR) for thyroid cancer in patients with thyroiditis was 13.24 (95 % CI 6.40-27.39). Excluding cancers occurring within 1 year of follow-up, the HR remained significantly increased (6.64; 95 % CI 2.35-18.75). Hypothyroidism was not an independent factor associated with the occurrence of thyroid cancer. We found an increased risk for the development of thyroid cancer after a diagnosis of thyroiditis, independent of comorbidities.

  12. Reflexiones sobre la aplicación de la institución del voto vacío (empty voting) en las sociedades de responsabilidad limitada.

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Ruiz, Emilio

    2013-01-01

    El denominado “voto vacío”, comenzó a estudiarse en Estados Unidos ya en los años 60 del siglo XX, aunque los estudios más abundantes, profundos y puestos al día se han publicado en la primera década del XXI, por razón sobre todo de la actividad de los fondos de inversión libre (hedge funds) cuyas actividades, sobre todo en el ámbito de los países anglosajones, pero también en Europa, han dado lugar a una cierta disociación entre los derechos de propiedad y los derechos de voto y su ejercicio...

  13. Fish intake during pregnancy, fetal growth, and gestational length in 19 European birth cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventakou, Vasiliki; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Martinez, David; Barros, Henrique; Brantsaeter, Anne-Lise; Casas, Maribel; Charles, Marie-Aline; Cordier, Sylvaine; Eggesbø, Merete; van Eijsden, Manon; Forastiere, Francesco; Gehring, Ulrike; Govarts, Eva; Halldórsson, Thorhallur I; Hanke, Wojciech; Haugen, Margaretha; Heppe, Denise H M; Heude, Barbara; Inskip, Hazel M; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Jansen, Maria; Kelleher, Cecily; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Merletti, Franco; Moltó-Puigmartí, Carolina; Mommers, Monique; Murcia, Mario; Oliveira, Andreia; Olsen, Sjúrður F; Pele, Fabienne; Polanska, Kinga; Porta, Daniela; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Robinson, Siân M; Stigum, Hein; Strøm, Marin; Sunyer, Jordi; Thijs, Carel; Viljoen, Karien; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; Wijga, Alet H; Kogevinas, Manolis; Vrijheid, Martine; Chatzi, Leda

    2014-03-01

    Fish is a rich source of essential nutrients for fetal development, but in contrast, it is also a well-known route of exposure to environmental pollutants. We assessed whether fish intake during pregnancy is associated with fetal growth and the length of gestation in a panel of European birth cohort studies. The study sample of 151,880 mother-child pairs was derived from 19 population-based European birth cohort studies. Individual data from cohorts were pooled and harmonized. Adjusted cohort-specific effect estimates were combined by using a random- and fixed-effects meta-analysis. Women who ate fish >1 time/wk during pregnancy had lower risk of preterm birth than did women who rarely ate fish (≤ 1 time/wk); the adjusted RR of fish intake >1 but 1 but <3 times/wk and 15.2 g (95% CI: 8.9, 21.5 g) for ≥ 3 times/wk independent of gestational age. The association was greater in smokers and in overweight or obese women. Findings were consistent across cohorts. This large, international study indicates that moderate fish intake during pregnancy is associated with lower risk of preterm birth and a small but significant increase in birth weight.

  14. pilot studies to test the feasibility of a birth cohort study investigating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-04-20

    Apr 20, 1991 ... of a birth cohort study investigating the effects of urbanisation in South Africa. S. FONN, M. DE ... is to determine the biological, environmental, economic and psychological factors that are associated with ... the South African Medical Research Council, Parowvallei,. CP. S. FONN, M.B. B.CH., D.O.H., D.EPL, ...

  15. Birth cohorts in Asia: The importance, advantages, and disadvantages of different-sized cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishi, Reiko; Araki, Atsuko; Minatoya, Machiko; Itoh, Sachiko; Goudarzi, Houman; Miyashita, Chihiro

    2018-02-15

    Asia contains half of the world's children, and the countries of Asia are the most rapidly industrializing nations on the globe. Environmental threats to the health of children in Asia are myriad. Several birth cohorts were started in Asia in early 2000, and currently more than 30 cohorts in 13 countries have been established for study. Cohorts can contain from approximately 100-200 to 20,000-30,000 participants. Furthermore, national cohorts targeting over 100,000 participants have been launched in Japan and Korea. The aim of this manuscript is to discuss the importance of Asian cohorts, and the advantages and disadvantages of different-sized cohorts. As for case, one small-sized (n=514) cohort indicate that even relatively low level exposure to dioxin in utero could alter birth size, neurodevelopment, and immune and hormonal functions. Several Asian cohorts focus prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyo substances and reported associations with birth size, thyroid hormone levels, allergies and neurodevelopment. Inconsistent findings may possibly be explained by the differences in exposure levels and target chemicals, and by possible statistical errors. In a smaller cohort, novel hypotheses or preliminary examinations are more easily verifiable. In larger cohorts, the etiology of rare diseases, such as birth defects, can be analyzed; however, they require a large cost and significant human resources. Therefore, conducting studies in only one large cohort may not always be the best strategy. International collaborations, such as the Birth Cohort Consortium of Asia, would cover the inherent limitation of sample size in addition to heterogeneity of exposure, ethnicity, and socioeconomic conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Hyperthyroidism and female urinary incontinence: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Shiu-Dong; Chen, Yi-Kuang; Chen, Yi-Hua; Lin, Herng-Ching

    2011-11-01

    The imbalanced autonomic nervous system present in hyperthyroidism may cause lower urinary tract symptoms. Urinary incontinence (UI) is the most bothersome lower urinary tract symptom; however, in the literature, reports regarding urinary dysfunction and/or incontinence among hyperthyroid patients are scarce. This population-based cohort study aimed to examine the relationship between hyperthyroidism in women and the risk of developing UI in Taiwan. This study used data from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database. For this study, 10,817 female patients diagnosed with hyperthyroidism from 2001 to 2005 were recruited together with a comparison cohort of 54,085 matched enrollees who did not have a history of hyperthyroidism. All patients were tracked for a 3-year period from their index date to identify those who had a subsequent UI. The stratified Cox proportional hazards models were used to compute the risk of UI between study and comparison cohorts. During the follow-up period, of 64,169 patients, 173 (1·60%) from the hyperthyroidism group and 560 (1·04%) from the comparison group, had a diagnosis of UI. The regression analysis showed that, after adjusting for monthly income, geographic region, urbanization level of the community in which the patient resided, obesity and hysterectomy, patients with hyperthyroidism were more likely to have UI during the 3-year follow-up period than the comparison patients (hazard ratio = 1·54; 95% CI = 1·30-1·83; P hyperthyroidism at the 3-year follow-up. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Association between diverticular disease and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome: a 13-year nationwide population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leganger, Julie; Søborg, Marie-Louise Kulas; Mortensen, Laura Quitzau; Gregersen, Rasmus; Rosenberg, Jacob; Burcharth, Jakob

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine occurrence and consequences of diverticular disease in patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) compared with a matched cohort. This nationwide population-based cohort study was conducted using data from medical registers in Denmark from year 2000 to 2012. The EDS cohort was identified using the specific diagnosis code for EDS and was randomly matched in a ratio of 1:20 by sex and date of birth (±1 year) with persons from the Danish general population. The occurrence of diverticular disease and the clinical characteristics of the initial diverticular event were compared between the EDS cohort and the comparison cohort. The first admission with diverticulitis was identified, and severity of diverticulitis, treatment, colonoscopies, length of stay, and 30-day mortality were investigated. We identified 1336 patients with EDS and matched a control cohort of 26,720 patients. The occurrence of diverticular disease in the EDS cohort (2.0 %) and the comparison cohort (0.68 %) differed significantly (p < 0.001). At the first diverticular event, the majority of patients were women (85 % for EDS and 87 % for the comparison cohort). Mean age, localization, and type of contact did not differ significantly. Admission with diverticulitis (1.0 % for EDS and 0.34 % for the comparison cohort) differed significantly (p < 0.001). We found no significant difference in severity of diverticulitis, treatment, length of stay, or 30-day mortality between the EDS and the comparison cohorts. Patients with EDS had an increased occurrence of overall diverticular events and admissions with diverticulitis compared with the general population.

  18. Cohort-Sequential Study of Conflict Inhibition during Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Leslie; Riggins, Tracy

    2017-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined developmental changes in conflict inhibition and error correction in three cohorts of children (5, 7, and 9 years of age). At each point of assessment, children completed three levels of Luria's tapping task (1980), which requires the inhibition of a dominant response and maintenance of task rules in working…

  19. Workplace bullying, sleep problems and leisure-time physical activity: a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Gullander, Maria; Hogh, Annie

    2015-01-01

    and Harassment (WBH) cohort (N=3278) or the Psychosocial Risk Factors for Stress and Mental Disease (PRISME) cohort (N=4455). We measured workplace bullying using one question that was preceded by a definition of bullying. We used the Karolinska sleep questionnaire to assess sleep problems. The number of hours......OBJECTIVES: Workplace bullying is a potent stressor that may increase sleep problems. Since physical fitness improves resilience to stress, it seems plausible that recreational physical activities may moderate the association between bullying and sleep. The study aimed to examine prospectively...... whether (i) bullying increases the risk of sleep problems, and (ii) the association between bullying and sleep problems is moderated by leisure-time physical activity (LTPA). METHODS: The study sample comprised a cohort of public and private sector employees, who were enrolled into the Work Bullying...

  20. Data linkage in an established longitudinal cohort: the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountain, Jenny A; Nyaradi, Anett; Oddy, Wendy H; Glauert, Rebecca A; de Klerk, Nick H; Straker, Leon M; Stanley, Fiona J

    2016-07-15

    The Western Australian Data Linkage System is one of a few comprehensive, population-based data linkage systems worldwide, creating links between information from different sources relating to the same individual, family, place or event, while maintaining privacy. The Raine Study is an established cohort study with more than 2000 currently active participants. Individual consent was obtained from participants for information in publicly held databases to be linked to their study data. A waiver of consent was granted where it was impracticable to obtain consent. Approvals to link the datasets were obtained from relevant ethics committees and data custodians. The Raine Study dataset was subsequently linked to academic testing data collected by the Western Australian Department of Education. Examination of diet and academic performance showed that children who were predominantly breastfed for at least 6 months scored higher academically at age 10 than children who were breastfed for less than 6 months. A further study found that better diet quality at ages 1, 2 and 3 years was associated with higher academic scores at ages 10 and 12 years. Examination of nutritional intake at 14 years of age found that a better dietary pattern was associated with higher academic performance. The detailed longitudinal data collected in the Raine Study allowed for adjustment for multiple covariates and confounders. Data linkage reduces the burden on cohort participants by providing additional information without the need to contact participants. It can give information on participants who have been lost to follow-up; provide or complement missing data; give the opportunity for validation studies comparing recall of participants with administrative records; increase the population sample of studies by adding control participants from the general population; and allow for the adjustment of multiple covariates and confounders. The Raine Study dataset is extensive and detailed, and can be

  1. Dietary Fat Intake and Fecundability in 2 Preconception Cohort Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wise, Lauren A; Wesselink, Amelia K; Tucker, Katherine L

    2018-01-01

    American preconception cohort studies. Women who were attempting to become pregnant completed a validated food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Pregnancy status was updated bimonthly for 12 months or until pregnancy. Fecundability ratios (FR) and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using...

  2. Hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancer risk: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, N-C; Chou, C-W; Weng, S-F; Yang, C-Y; Yen, F-C; Lee, S-Y; Wang, J-J; Tien, K-J

    2013-07-01

    Thyroid hormones regulate the rate of metabolism and affect the differentiation and growth of many tissues in the body. We investigated the association between hyperthyroidism and cancer risk in Taiwan. A random sample of 1 000 000 individuals from Taiwan's National Health Insurance database was enrolled. We found 17 033 patients to have newly diagnosed hyperthyroidism between 2000 and 2005. These patients were recruited along with a match cohort of 34 066 patients without hyperthyroidism. Starting from index date, we followed up all patients for 4 years to identify those who developed cancer. During the 4-year follow-up study, cancer was diagnosed in 1.23% of patients with hyperthyroidism and 1.02% of the member of the comparison cohort. Regression analysis showed that patients with hyperthyroidism were at greater risk of cancer incidence, especially thyroid cancer, compared the comparison cohort (HR: 1.213; 95% CI: 1.022-1.440; phyperthyroidism remained at increased risk of cancer incidence and thyroid cancer (Adjusted HR: 1.206; 95% CI: 1.015-1.433 and 6.803; 95% CI: 3.584-12.91, respectively) (both phyperthyroidism, the greater the risk of thyroid cancer. This 4-year follow up study suggests that patients with hyperthyroidism are at increased risk of cancer, especially thyroid cancer. © J. A. Barth Verlag in Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Knee disarticulation : Survival, wound healing and ambulation. A historic cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Duis, K.; Bosmans, J. C.; Voesten, H. G. J.; Geertzen, J. H. B.; Dijkstra, P. U.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze survival, wound healing and ambulation after knee disarticulation (KD). A historic cohort study using medical records and nursing home records was performed. Data included demographics, reason for amputation, concomitant diseases, survival, wound healing,

  4. Risk of Nephrotic Syndrome following Enteroviral Infection in Children: A Nationwide Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiun-Nong; Lin, Cheng-Li; Yang, Chi-Hui; Lin, Ming-Chia; Lai, Chung-Hsu; Lin, Hsi-Hsun; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Nephrotic syndrome is a common chronic illness encountered during childhood. Infections have been identified as a cause of nephrotic syndrome. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between enteroviral infection and nephrotic syndrome. A nationwide retrospective cohort study was conducted by analyzing data from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. Children aged children were randomly selected as the comparison cohort. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of nephrotic syndrome. This study included 280,087 enterovirus-infected children and 280,085 non-enterovirus-infected children. The mean age of the enterovirus-infected children was 2.38 years, and 53.7% of these children were boys. The overall incidence densities of nephrotic syndrome for enterovirus- and non-enterovirus-infected children were 2.65 and 2.21 per 10,000 person-years, respectively. The enterovirus-infected cohort had a higher cumulative incidence of nephrotic syndrome than did the non-enterovirus-infected cohort (log-rank test, p = 0.01). Multivariable analyses revealed that children with enteroviral infection were significantly associated with an increased risk of nephrotic syndrome compared with those without enteroviral infection (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.20; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.39; p = 0.01), particularly in children infected with coxsackievirus. Subgroup analyses revealed that enterovirus-infected girls, children of blue-collar workers, and children without allergies had a higher risk of nephrotic syndrome than did children in the non-enterovirus-infected cohort. This study revealed a significant association between enteroviral infection and nephrotic syndrome. Additional studies elucidating the role and pathogenesis of enterovirus in nephrotic syndrome are warranted.

  5. Malignant transformation of Taiwanese patients with oral leukoplakia: A nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tung-Yuan Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Purpose: Oral leukoplakia (OL is one of the clinically diagnosed oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs with an increased risk of oral cancer development. In this study, we investigated the malignant transformation of OL in Taiwanese population. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was analyzed from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. A comparison cohort was randomly frequency-matched with the OL cohort according to age, sex, and index year. Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF and oral lichen planus (OLP were further stratified to evaluate the possible synergistic effects for OL-associated malignant transformation. Results: In this cohort, 102 (5.374% of 1898 OL patients were observed to transform into oral cancer. The malignant transformation rate was 26.40-fold in the OL cohort than in the comparison cohort after adjustment (95% confidence intervals 18.46–37.77. To further stratify with OSF and OLP, OL with OSF (58.38; 95% confidence intervals 34.61–98.50 and OL with OLP (36.88; 95% confidence intervals 8.90–152.78 had higher risk of malignant transformation rate than OL alone (27.01; 95% confidence intervals 18.91–38.59. The Kaplan–Meier plot revealed the free of malignant transformation rate was significant over the 13 years follow-up period (log-rank test, p < 0.001. Conclusion: OL patients exhibited a significantly higher risk of malignant transformation than those without OL. In addition, both OSF and OLP could enhance malignant transformation in patients with OL. However, further studies are required to identify the histopathological and clinical parameters in the pathogenesis of malignant transformation among OPMDs. Keywords: Oral leukoplakia, Oral submucous fibrosis, Oral lichen planus, Malignant transformation, Nationwide population, Cohort study, Taiwan

  6. Is Child Abuse Associated with Adolescent Obesity? A Population Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawton, Katherine; Norris, Tom; Crawley, Esther; Shield, Julian P H

    Child abuse is associated with obesity in adulthood through multiple mechanisms. However, little is known about the relationship between abuse and obesity during adolescence. The aim of this study was to investigate, using a birth cohort, whether there is an association between child abuse and overweight or obesity in adolescence. This study utilizes data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a prospective cohort study based in South West England. Using data from the 4205 children with complete data at 13 and 16 years, we analyzed body mass index (BMI) and anonymous parental report of abuse. Abuse was categorized as emotional, physical, or sexual. A sub-sample of 3429 had BMI recorded at 18 years, enabling a longitudinal analysis of BMI trajectories. Using linear and logistic regression analysis, adjusting for sex and family adversity, no association was found between child abuse and BMI, BMI Z-scores, overweight, or obesity, at 13 or 16 years, with all confidence intervals straddling the null. There was weak evidence of a negative association between physical and emotional abuse and BMI trajectories between 13 and 18 years. No relationship was found between child abuse and adolescent obesity in this cohort. This challenges the assumption that adolescent obesity is linked to previous child abuse, as demonstrated for obesity in adult life. A further longitudinal study utilizing both parental and child reports with data record linkage, to improve reporting of abuse, and including neglect as an abuse category, would be desirable.

  7. The LifeLines Cohort Study: Prevalence and treatment of cardiovascular disease and risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    van der Ende, M. Yldau; Hartman, Minke H. T.; Hagemeijer, Yanick; Meems, Laura M. G.; de Vries, Hendrik Sierd; Stolk, Ronald P.; de Boer, Rudolf A.; Sijtsma, Anna; van der Meer, Peter; Rienstra, Michiel; van der Harst, Pim

    2017-01-01

    Background: The LifeLines Cohort Study is a large three-generation prospective study and Biobank. Recruitment and data collection started in 2006 and follow-up is planned for 30 years. The central aim of LifeLines is to understand healthy ageing in the 21st century. Here, the study design, methods, baseline and major cardiovascular phenotypes of the LifeLines Cohort Study are presented. Methods and results: Baseline cardiovascular phenotypeswere defined in 9700 juvenile (8-18 years) and 152,1...

  8. Mother's education and offspring asthma risk in 10 European cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kate Marie; Ruiz, Milagros; Goldblatt, Peter; Morrison, Joana; Porta, Daniela; Forastiere, Francesco; Hryhorczuk, Daniel; Zvinchuk, Oleksandr; Saurel-Cubizolles, Marie-Josephe; Lioret, Sandrine; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Vrijheid, Martine; Torrent, Maties; Iniguez, Carmen; Larranaga, Isabel; Harskamp-van Ginkel, Margreet W; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; Klanova, Jana; Svancara, Jan; Barross, Henrique; Correia, Sofia; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Taanila, Anja; Ludvigsson, Johnny; Faresjo, Tomas; Marmot, Michael; Pikhart, Hynek

    2017-09-01

    Highly prevalent and typically beginning in childhood, asthma is a burdensome disease, yet the risk factors for this condition are not clarified. To enhance understanding, this study assessed the cohort-specific and pooled risk of maternal education on asthma in children aged 3-8 across 10 European countries. Data on 47,099 children were obtained from prospective birth cohort studies across 10 European countries. We calculated cohort-specific prevalence difference in asthma outcomes using the relative index of inequality (RII) and slope index of inequality (SII). Results from all countries were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis procedures to obtain mean RII and SII scores at the European level. Final models were adjusted for child sex, smoking during pregnancy, parity, mother's age and ethnicity. The higher the score the greater the magnitude of relative (RII, reference 1) and absolute (SII, reference 0) inequity. The pooled RII estimate for asthma risk across all cohorts was 1.46 (95% CI 1.26, 1.71) and the pooled SII estimate was 1.90 (95% CI 0.26, 3.54). Of the countries examined, France, the United Kingdom and the Netherlands had the highest prevalence's of childhood asthma and the largest inequity in asthma risk. Smaller inverse associations were noted for all other countries except Italy, which presented contradictory scores, but with small effect sizes. Tests for heterogeneity yielded significant results for SII scores. Overall, offspring of mothers with a low level of education had an increased relative and absolute risk of asthma compared to offspring of high-educated mothers.

  9. The WISTAH hand study: A prospective cohort study of distal upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garg Arun

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few prospective cohort studies of distal upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders have been performed. Past studies have provided somewhat conflicting evidence for occupational risk factors and have largely reported data without adjustments for many personal and psychosocial factors. Methods/design A multi-center prospective cohort study was incepted to quantify risk factors for distal upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders and potentially develop improved methods for analyzing jobs. Disorders to analyze included carpal tunnel syndrome, lateral epicondylalgia, medial epicondylalgia, trigger digit, deQuervain’s stenosing tenosynovitis and other tendinoses. Workers have thus far been enrolled from 17 different employment settings in 3 diverse US states and performed widely varying work. At baseline, workers undergo laptop administered questionnaires, structured interviews, two standardized physical examinations and nerve conduction studies to ascertain demographic, medical history, psychosocial factors and current musculoskeletal disorders. All workers’ jobs are individually measured for physical factors and are videotaped. Workers are followed monthly for the development of musculoskeletal disorders. Repeat nerve conduction studies are performed for those with symptoms of tingling and numbness in the prior six months. Changes in jobs necessitate re-measure and re-videotaping of job physical factors. Case definitions have been established. Point prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome is a combination of paraesthesias in at least two median nerve-served digits plus an abnormal nerve conduction study at baseline. The lifetime cumulative incidence of carpal tunnel syndrome will also include those with a past history of carpal tunnel syndrome. Incident cases will exclude those with either a past history or prevalent cases at baseline. Statistical methods planned include survival analyses and logistic regression. Discussion A

  10. Recipient Age and Mortality Risk after Liver Transplantation: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsiu-Pin; Tsai, Yung-Fong; Lin, Jr-Rung; Liu, Fu-Chao; Yu, Huang-Ping

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present large population-based cohort study is to explore the risk factors of age-related mortality in liver transplant recipients in Taiwan. Basic information and data on medical comorbidities for 2938 patients who received liver transplants between July 1, 1998, and December 31, 2012, were extracted from the National Health Insurance Research Database on the basis of ICD-9-codes. Mortality risks were analyzed after adjusting for preoperative comorbidities and compared among age cohorts. All patients were followed up until the study endpoint or death. This study finally included 2588 adults and 350 children [2068 (70.4%) male and 870 (29.6%) female patients]. The median age at transplantation was 52 (interquartile range, 43-58) years. Recipients were categorized into the following age cohorts: recipients (≥60 years), especially dialysis patients, have a higher mortality rate, possibly because they have more medical comorbidities. Our findings should make clinicians aware of the need for better risk stratification among elderly liver transplantation candidates.

  11. European birth cohort studies on asthma and atopic diseases I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keil, T; Kulig, M; Simpson, A

    2006-01-01

    , recruitment process and follow-up rates. A subsequent review (part II) will compare outcome and exposure parameters. METHODS: For each birth cohort, we collected detailed information regarding recruitment process, study setting, baseline data (pregnancy, birth, parents/siblings) as well as follow-up rates...

  12. Long working hours and cancer risk: a multi-cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heikkila, K.; Nyberg, S.T.; Madsen, I.E.; Vroome, E. de; Alfredsson, L.; Bjorner, J.B.; Borritz, M.; Burr, H.; Erbel, R.; Ferrie, J.E.; Fransson, E.; Geuskens, G.A.; Hooftman, W.E.; Houtman, I.L.; Jöckel, K.H.; Knutsson, A.; Koskenvuo, M.; Lunau, T.; Nielsen, M.L.; Nordin, M.; Oksanen, T.; Pejtersen, J.H.; Pentti, J.; Shipley, M.J.; Steptoe, A.; Suominen, S.B.; Theorell, T.; Vahtera, J.; Westerholm, P.J.M.; Westerlund, H.; Dragano, N.; Rugulies, R.; Kawachi, I.; Batty, G.D.; Singh-Manoux, A.; Virtanen, M.; Kivimäki, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Working longer than the maximum recommended hours is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but the relationship of excess working hours with incident cancer is unclear. Methods: This multi-cohort study examined the association between working hours and cancer risk

  13. Necessary accuracy of dose estimation during cohort epidemiologic study after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlov, M.Yu.; Stepanenko, V.F.; Khoshi, M.; Takada, Dzh.

    2003-01-01

    Effect of breadth of dose ranges on values of radiation risk was estimated. Ratios of observed numbers of mortalities because of leukemia in the cohort in 1950 - 1974 under deferent radiation dose to expected number of mortalities in this cohort only under background radiation were used as degree of risk. Data of cooperative Japan-American Program LSS (Life Span Study) were applied in the researches. It is established that required for the risk assessment with uncertainty 20 - 30 % the accuracy of dose estimation comprises 30 - 35 % in the range 1 - 5 rad and 5 - 10 % in the range 5 - 30 rad [ru

  14. Copenhagen Airport Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Karina Lauenborg; Brauer, Charlotte; Mikkelsen, Sigurd

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Copenhagen Airport Cohort 1990-2012 presents a unique data source for studies of health effects of occupational exposure to air pollution (ultrafine particles) and manual baggage handling among airport employees. We describe the extent of information in the cohort and in the follow...... covers 69 175 men in unskilled positions. The exposed cohort includes men in unskilled jobs employed at Copenhagen Airport in the period 1990-2012 either as baggage handlers or in other outdoor work. The reference cohort includes men in unskilled jobs working in the greater Copenhagen area. FINDINGS...... TO DATE: The cohort includes environmental Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements in Copenhagen Airport, information on job function/task for each calendar year of employment between 1990 and 2012, exposure to air pollution at residence, average weight of baggage lifted per day and lifestyle...

  15. Cohort changes in cognitive function among Danish centenarians. A comparative study of 2 birth cohorts born in 1895 and 1905

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Henriette; Christensen, Kaare; Andersen-Ranberg, Karen

    2008-01-01

    of 276 persons participated (75%). The Danish 1905 Cohort Survey includes all individuals born in 1905. In total, 225 out of 364 persons who reached the age of 100 in the cohort participated in the most recent 2005 follow-up (62%). In both cohorts, cognitive function was assessed using the Mini-Mental...

  16. Efficacy and safety of Vitex agnus-castus extract for treatment of premenstrual syndrome in Japanese patients: a prospective, open-label study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momoeda, Mikio; Sasaki, Hidetaka; Tagashira, Eiko; Ogishima, Masayuki; Takano, Yuichi; Ochiai, Kazunori

    2014-03-01

    Herbal medicine containing Vitex agnus-castus (VAC) extract is widely used by women with premenstrual syndrome (PMS) in Europe, however, in Japan, clinical evidence remains to be determined. This study attempted to investigate the efficacy and safety profiles of VAC extract in Japanese patients with PMS. A multi-center, prospective, open-label, single-arm, phase 3 study was performed in Japanese women with PMS and aged 18-44 years. The patients received Prefemin® (Max Zeller Söhne AG, Romanshorn, Switzerland), containing 20 mg of VAC extract, once daily for three menstrual cycles. The efficacy profile was examined based on the intensity of ten PMS symptoms-irritability, depressed mood, anger, headache, bloating, breast fullness, skin disorder, fatigue, drowsiness, and sleeplessness-recorded by patients via a visual analog scale (VAS). In addition, the responder rate was calculated based on the total VAS score defined by the sum of the VAS scores of the first six symptoms mentioned above. Furthermore, physician's global assessment (PGA) scores were recorded. Adverse events including vital signs and laboratory test values were monitored as safety evaluation. Sixty-nine patients received Prefemin®. After the first menstrual cycle, a statistically significant decrease in total VAS score was observed (P<0.001), and the score continued to diminish for the following two cycles. Each of the ten symptom scores decreased significantly in this manner. In addition, the responder rate increased in a time-dependent manner; the rate at the third menstrual cycle was 91.0%, and almost all of the patients were without symptoms or exhibited only mild symptoms based on PGA. Eight patients exhibited non-serious adverse events, one of which was allergic dermatitis whose causal relationship with VAC was not ruled out. VAC extract improved PMS symptoms in Japanese patients, with no substantial adverse events. This is the first study to report the effect of VAC extract in Japanese

  17. Testicular cancer risk and maternal parity: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westergaard, T; Andersen, P K; Pedersen, J B; Frisch, M; Olsen, J H; Melbye, M

    1998-04-01

    The aim was to study, in a population-based cohort design, whether first-born sons run a higher risk of testicular cancer than later born sons; to investigate whether this difference in risk was affected by birth cohort, age of the son, maternal age, interval to previous delivery and other reproductive factors; and, finally, to evaluate to what extent changes in women's parity over time might explain the increasing incidence of testicular cancer. By using data from the Civil Registration System, a database was established of all women born in Denmark since 1935 and all their children alive in 1968 or born later. Sons with testicular cancer were identified in the Danish Cancer Registry. Among 1015994 sons followed for 15981 967 person-years, 626 developed testicular cancer (443 non-seminomas, 183 seminomas). Later born sons had a decreased risk of testicular cancer (RR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.67-0.95) compared with first-born sons. The RR was 0.79 (95% CI = 0.64-0.98) for non-seminomas and 0.81 (95% CI = 0.58-1.13) for seminomas. There was no association between testicular cancer risk and overall parity of the mother, maternal or paternal age at the birth of the son, or maternal age at first birth. The decreased risk of testicular cancer among later born sons was not modified by age, birth cohort, interval to the previous birth, sex of the first-born child, or maternal age at birth of the son or at first birth. The increased proportion of first-borns from birth cohort 1946 to birth cohort 1969 only explained around 3% of an approximated two-fold increase in incidence between the cohorts. Our data document a distinctly higher risk of testicular cancer in first-born compared with later born sons and suggest that the most likely explanation should be sought among exposures in utero. The increase in the proportion of first-borns in the population has only contributed marginally to the increase in testicular cancer incidence.

  18. The population-based Occupational and Environmental Health Prospective Cohort Study (AMIGO) in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slottje, Pauline; Yzermans, C Joris; Korevaar, Joke C; Hooiveld, Mariëtte; Vermeulen, Roel C H

    2014-11-26

    Occupational and environmental exposures remain important modifiable risk factors of public health. Existing cohort studies are often limited by the level of detail of data collected on these factors and health. It is also often assumed that the more healthy group is over-represented in cohort studies, which is of concern for their external validity. In this cohort profile, we describe how we set up the population-based Occupational and Environmental Health Cohort Study (AMIGO) to longitudinally study occupational and environmental determinants of diseases and well-being from a multidisciplinary and life course point of view. Reviewed by the Medical Ethics Research Committee of the University Medical Center Utrecht (protocol 10-268/C). All cohort members participate voluntarily and gave informed consent prior to their inclusion. 14,829 adult cohort members (16% of those invited) consented and filled in the online baseline questionnaire. Determinants include chemical, biological, physical (eg, electromagnetic fields), and psychosocial factors. Priority health outcomes include cancer, neurological, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases and non-specific symptoms. Owing to the recruitment strategy via general practitioners of an established network, we also collect longitudinal data registered in their electronic medical records including symptoms, diagnosis and treatments. Besides the advantage of health outcomes that cannot be easily captured longitudinally by other means, this created a unique opportunity to assess health-related participation bias by comparing general practitioner-registered prevalence rates in the cohort and its source population. We found no indications of such a systematic bias. The major assets of the AMIGO approach are its detailed occupational and environmental determinants in combination with the longitudinal health data registered in general practice besides linkage to cancer and mortality registries and self-reported health. We are now

  19. Vitex agnus castus: a systematic review of adverse events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniele, Claudia; Thompson Coon, Joanna; Pittler, Max H; Ernst, Edzard

    2005-01-01

    Vitex agnus castus L. (VAC) [Verbenaceae] is a deciduous shrub that is native to Mediterranean Europe and Central Asia. Traditionally, VAC fruit extract has been used in the treatment of many female conditions, including menstrual disorders (amenorrhoea, dysmenorrhoea), premenstrual syndrome (PMS), corpus luteum insufficiency, hyperprolactinaemia, infertility, acne, menopause and disrupted lactation. The German Commission E has approved the use of VAC for irregularities of the menstrual cycle, premenstrual disturbances and mastodynia. Clinical reviews are available for the efficacy of VAC in PMS, cycle disorders, hyperprolactinaemia and mastalgia, but so far no systematic review has been published on adverse events or drug interactions associated with VAC. Therefore, this review was conducted to evaluate all the available human safety data of VAC monopreparations. Literature searches were conducted in six electronic databases, in references lists of all identified papers and in departmental files. Data from spontaneous reporting schemes of the WHO and national drug safety bodies were also included. Twelve manufacturers of VAC-containing preparations and five herbalist organisations were contacted for additional information. No language restrictions were imposed. Combination preparations including VAC or homeopathic preparations of VAC were excluded. Data extraction of key data from all articles reporting adverse events or interactions was performed independently by at least two reviewers, regardless of study design. Data from clinical trials, postmarketing surveillance studies, surveys, spontaneous reporting schemes, manufacturers and herbalist organisations indicate that the adverse events following VAC treatment are mild and reversible. The most frequent adverse events are nausea, headache, gastrointestinal disturbances, menstrual disorders, acne, pruritus and erythematous rash. No drug interactions were reported. Use of VAC should be avoided during pregnancy or

  20. Pulmonary artery enlargement and cystic fibrosis pulmonary exacerbations: a cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, J. Michael; Farris, Roopan F.; Gosdin, Taylor A.; Dransfield, Mark T.; Wood, Michelle E.; Bell, Scott C.; Rowe, Steven M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Acute pulmonary exacerbations are associated with progressive lung function decline and increased mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF). The role of pulmonary vascular disease in pulmonary exacerbations is unknown. We investigated the association between pulmonary artery enlargement (PA:A>1), a marker of pulmonary vascular disease, and exacerbations. Methods We analyzed clinical, computed tomography (CT), and prospective exacerbation data in a derivation cohort of 74 adult CF patients, measuring the PA:A at the level of the PA bifurcation. We then replicated our findings in a validation cohort of 190 adult CF patients. Patients were separated into groups based on the presence or absence of a PA:A>1 and were followed for 1-year in the derivation cohort and 2-years in the validation cohort. The primary endpoint was developing ≥1 acute pulmonary exacerbation during follow-up. Linear and logistic regression models were used to determine associations between clinical factors, the PA:A ratio, and pulmonary exacerbations. We used Cox regression to determine time to first exacerbation in the validation cohort. Findings We found that PA:A>1 was present in n=37/74 (50%) of the derivation and n=89/190 (47%) of the validation cohort. In the derivation cohort, n=50/74 (68%) had ≥1 exacerbation at 1 year and n=133/190 (70%) in the validation cohort had ≥1 exacerbation after 2 years. PA:A>1 was associated with younger age in both cohorts and with elevated sweat chloride (100.5±10.9 versus 90.4±19.9mmol/L, difference between groups 10.1mmol/L [95%CI 2.5–17.7], P=0.017) in the derivation group. PA:A>1 was associated with exacerbations in the derivation (OR 3.49, 95%CI 1.18–10.3, P=0.023) and validation (OR 2.41, 95%CI 1.06–5.52, P=0.037) cohorts when adjusted for confounders. Time to first exacerbation was shorter in PA:A>1 versus PA:Apulmonary exacerbation risk in two well-characterized cohorts. PA:A may be a predictive marker in CF. PMID:27298019

  1. Classification of patients with sepsis according to blood genomic endotype: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scicluna, Brendon P; van Vught, Lonneke A; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; Wiewel, Maryse A; Davenport, Emma E; Burnham, Katie L; Nürnberg, Peter; Schultz, Marcus J; Horn, Janneke; Cremer, Olaf L; Bonten, Marc J; Hinds, Charles J; Wong, Hector R; Knight, Julian C; van der Poll, Tom

    2017-10-01

    Host responses during sepsis are highly heterogeneous, which hampers the identification of patients at high risk of mortality and their selection for targeted therapies. In this study, we aimed to identify biologically relevant molecular endotypes in patients with sepsis. This was a prospective observational cohort study that included consecutive patients admitted for sepsis to two intensive care units (ICUs) in the Netherlands between Jan 1, 2011, and July 20, 2012 (discovery and first validation cohorts) and patients admitted with sepsis due to community-acquired pneumonia to 29 ICUs in the UK (second validation cohort). We generated genome-wide blood gene expression profiles from admission samples and analysed them by unsupervised consensus clustering and machine learning. The primary objective of this study was to establish endotypes for patients with sepsis, and assess the association of these endotypes with clinical traits and survival outcomes. We also established candidate biomarkers for the endotypes to allow identification of patient endotypes in clinical practice. The discovery cohort had 306 patients, the first validation cohort had 216, and the second validation cohort had 265 patients. Four molecular endotypes for sepsis, designated Mars1-4, were identified in the discovery cohort, and were associated with 28-day mortality (log-rank p=0·022). In the discovery cohort, the worst outcome was found for patients classified as having a Mars1 endotype, and at 28 days, 35 (39%) of 90 people with a Mars1 endotype had died (hazard ratio [HR] vs all other endotypes 1·86 [95% CI 1·21-2·86]; p=0·0045), compared with 23 (22%) of 105 people with a Mars2 endotype (HR 0·64 [0·40-1·04]; p=0·061), 16 (23%) of 71 people with a Mars3 endotype (HR 0·71 [0·41-1·22]; p=0·19), and 13 (33%) of 40 patients with a Mars4 endotype (HR 1·13 [0·63-2·04]; p=0·69). Analysis of the net reclassification improvement using a combined clinical and endotype model

  2. Vacuum-assisted closure versus conventional dressings in the management of diabetic foot ulcers: a prospective case–control study

    OpenAIRE

    Lone, Ali M.; Zaroo, Mohd I.; Laway, Bashir A.; Pala, Nazir A.; Bashir, Sheikh A.; Rasool, Altaf

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effectiveness of vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) versus conventional dressings in the healing of diabetic foot ulcerations (DFUs) in terms of healing rate (time to prepare the wound for closure either spontaneously or by surgery), safety, and patient satisfaction.Methods: Randomized case–control study enrolling 56 patients, divided into two groups. Group A (patients treated with VAC) and Group B (patients treated with conventional dressings), with an equal number of pa...

  3. Challenges in translating end points from trials to observational cohort studies in oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ording AG

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Anne Gulbech Ording,1 Deirdre Cronin-Fenton,1 Vera Ehrenstein,1 Timothy L Lash,1,2 John Acquavella,1 Mikael Rørth,1 Henrik Toft Sørensen1 1Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; 2Department of Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA Abstract: Clinical trials are considered the gold standard for examining drug efficacy and for approval of new drugs. Medical databases and population surveillance registries are valuable resources for post-approval observational research, which are increasingly used in studies of benefits and risk of new cancer drugs. Here, we address the challenges in translating endpoints from oncology trials to observational studies. Registry-based cohort studies can investigate real-world safety issues – including previously unrecognized concerns – by examining rare endpoints or multiple endpoints at once. In contrast to clinical trials, observational cohort studies typically do not exclude real-world patients from clinical practice, such as old and frail patients with comorbidity. The observational cohort study complements the clinical trial by examining the effectiveness of interventions applied in clinical practice and by providing evidence on long-term clinical outcomes, which are often not feasible to study in a clinical trial. Various endpoints can be included in clinical trials, such as hard endpoints, soft endpoints, surrogate endpoints, and patient-reported endpoints. Each endpoint has it strengths and limitations for use in research studies. Endpoints used in oncology trials are often not applicable in observational cohort studies which are limited by the setting of standard clinical practice and by non-standardized endpoint determination. Observational studies can be more helpful moving research forward if they restrict focus to appropriate and valid endpoints. Keywords: endpoint determination, medical oncology

  4. Transcranial direct-current stimulation induced in stroke patients with aphasia: a prospective experimental cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Santos,Michele Devido; Gagliardi,Rubens José; Mac-Kay,Ana Paula Machado Goyano; Boggio,Paulo Sergio; Lianza,Roberta; Fregni,Felipe

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Previous animal and human studies have shown that transcranial direct current stimulation can induce significant and lasting neuroplasticity and may improve language recovery in patients with aphasia. The objective of the study was to describe a cohort of patients with aphasia after stroke who were treated with transcranial direct current stimulation. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective cohort study developed in a public university hospital. METHODS: Nineteen patients with ...

  5. Pregnancy periodontitis and low birth weight: A cohort study in rural Belgaum, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murthy S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low birth weight can cause devastating long term medical and economical impacts to the family as whole and much interest prevails in preventing LBW by controlling its potential risk factors. Pregnancy periodontitis, being reported as one of such risk factors, is amenable to prevention, control and cure. Confirmative evidence can bring drastic improvements in birth weight and also health of the mother. This cohort study was an attempt to find if such a relation exists since limited conclusive evidence is available. Objectives: To determine the relation between pregnancy periodontitis and low birth weight of newborn in primigravida women in rural Belgaum. To assess the oral health status of the same primigravida women in rural Belgaum. Materials & Methods:Study Design & Period: A cohort study for 18 months Study location: 3 rural field areas of JNMC (Handiganur, Kinaye and Vantamuri in Belgaum. Study Population: Primigravida women in the 3 villages in their first trimester in January/February 2011 during enrolment and expected to deliver in August/September 2011. Sample Size: 240 (120 in each cohort. Data Collection: After ethical review, a pilot study was conducted on 10% of study population in each village to essentially pre-test the interview schedule. Then screening visit to enrol women based on eligibility criteria was done. Subsequent screening periodontal examination was done by CPI to allocate the women into study (pregnant women with periodontitis and control (pregnant women without periodontitis cohort. Oral health status was also recorded using OHI-S and DMFT indices. Follow up visits consisted of trimester-wise visit to check on periodontal status and a post delivery visit to record term of delivery and LBW. Data was entered in Microsoft Excel 2007 and SPSS (β version 20 and analyzed in in proportions, percentages, Odds Ratio, Relative Risk, Chi-Square test and Logistic Regression Analysis.Results: The total incidence of

  6. Pregnancy periodontitis and low birth weight: A cohort study in rural Belgaum, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murthy S

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low birth weight can cause devastating long term medical and economical impacts to the family as whole and much interest prevails in preventing LBW by controlling its potential risk factors. Pregnancy periodontitis, being reported as one of such risk factors, is amenable to prevention, control and cure. Confirmative evidence can bring drastic improvements in birth weight and also health of the mother. This cohort study was an attempt to find if such a relation exists since limited conclusive evidence is available. Objectives: To determine the relation between pregnancy periodontitis and low birth weight of newborn in primigravida women in rural Belgaum. To assess the oral health status of the same primigravida women in rural Belgaum. Materials & Methods: Study Design & Period: A cohort study for 18 months Study location: 3 rural field areas of JNMC (Handiganur, Kinaye and Vantamuri in Belgaum. Study Population: Primigravida women in the 3 villages in their first trimester in January/February 2011 during enrolment and expected to deliver in August/September 2011. Sample Size: 240 (120 in each cohort. Data Collection: After ethical review, a pilot study was conducted on 10% of study population in each village to essentially pre-test the interview schedule. Then screening visit to enrol women based on eligibility criteria was done. Subsequent screening periodontal examination was done by CPI to allocate the women into study (pregnant women with periodontitis and control (pregnant women without periodontitis cohort. Oral health status was also recorded using OHI-S and DMFT indices. Follow up visits consisted of trimester-wise visit to check on periodontal status and a post delivery visit to record term of delivery and LBW. Data was entered in Microsoft Excel 2007 and SPSS (β version 20 and analyzed in in proportions, percentages, Odds Ratio, Relative Risk, Chi-Square test and Logistic Regression Analysis.Results: The total incidence of

  7. Technical evaluation report on the 120 Vac vital instrument buses and inverter Technical Specifications Issue B71

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St Leger-Barter, G.; White, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    The operation of a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) with one of its 120 Vac vital buses energized in an off-normal mode was analyzed. A Probabilistic Risk Assessment was made to determine the increment of risk by energizing a vital bus from an off-site source directly vs energizing it from its normal, uninterruptible source (i.e., a battery/inverter arrangement). The calculations were made based on uninterruptible source energized vital buses as the normal mode. The analysis indicated that a reduction in the incremental risk increase (caused by plant operation with a vital bus being energized in an off-normal mode) can be accomplished by limiting the time permitted in that condition. Currently, the time that a vital bus can be energized in the off-normal mode is not universally time-limited by plant Technical Specifications. Several alternatives for the reduction in incremental risk were examined and their value/impacts were derived. These data indicate that a recommendation be made for a Technical Specification time limitation of 72 hours per year for off-normal energizing a vital bus during operation of a PWR

  8. Risk stratification after paracetamol overdose using mechanistic biomarkers: results from two prospective cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dear, James W; Clarke, Joanna I; Francis, Ben; Allen, Lowri; Wraight, Jonathan; Shen, Jasmine; Dargan, Paul I; Wood, David; Cooper, Jamie; Thomas, Simon H L; Jorgensen, Andrea L; Pirmohamed, Munir; Park, B Kevin; Antoine, Daniel J

    2018-02-01

    Paracetamol overdose is common but patient stratification is suboptimal. We investigated the usefulness of new biomarkers that have either enhanced liver specificity (microRNA-122 [miR-122]) or provide mechanistic insights (keratin-18 [K18], high mobility group box-1 [HMGB1], and glutamate dehydrogenase [GLDH]). The use of these biomarkers could help stratify patients for their risk of liver injury at hospital presentation. Using data from two prospective cohort studies, we assessed the potential for biomarkers to stratify patients who overdose with paracetamol. We completed two independent prospective studies: a derivation study (MAPP) in eight UK hospitals and a validation study (BIOPAR) in ten UK hospitals. Patients in both cohorts were adults (≥18 years in England, ≥16 years in Scotland), were diagnosed with paracetamol overdose, and gave written informed consent. Patients who needed intravenous acetylcysteine treatment for paracetamol overdose had circulating biomarkers measured at hospital presentation. The primary endpoint was acute liver injury indicating need for continued acetylcysteine treatment beyond the standard course (alanine aminotransferase [ALT] activity >100 U/L). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, category-free net reclassification index (cfNRI), and integrated discrimination index (IDI) were applied to assess endpoint prediction. Between June 2, 2010, and May 29, 2014, 1187 patients who required acetylcysteine treatment for paracetamol overdose were recruited (985 in the MAPP cohort; 202 in the BIOPAR cohort). In the derivation and validation cohorts, acute liver injury was predicted at hospital presentation by miR-122 (derivation cohort ROC-area under the curve [AUC] 0·97 [95% CI 0·95-0·98]), HMGB1 (0·95 [0·93-0·98]), and full-length K18 (0·95 [0·92-0·97]). Results were similar in the validation cohort (miR-122 AUC 0·97 [95% CI 0·95-0·99], HMGB1 0·98 [0·96-0·99], and full-length K18 0·93 [0·86-0·99]). A

  9. A Phenomenological Study of an Indonesian Cohort Group's Transformative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiraharjo, Markus

    2013-01-01

    This study was set to investigate how a cohort of ten Indonesian teachers experienced transformations in their teaching professionalism upon receiving an assignment of instructional leadership training to other school leaders. These ten teachers, who came from three different Indonesian Jesuit high schools and one archdiocese-based educational…

  10. Birth order and mortality: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Kieron; Kolk, Martin

    2015-04-01

    This study uses Swedish population register data to investigate the relationship between birth order and mortality at ages 30 to 69 for Swedish cohorts born between 1938 and 1960, using a within-family comparison. The main analyses are conducted with discrete-time survival analysis using a within-family comparison, and the estimates are adjusted for age, mother's age at the time of birth, and cohort. Focusing on sibships ranging in size from two to six, we find that mortality risk in adulthood increases with later birth order. The results show that the relative effect of birth order is greater among women than among men. This pattern is consistent for all the major causes of death but is particularly pronounced for mortality attributable to cancers of the respiratory system and to external causes. Further analyses in which we adjust for adult socioeconomic status and adult educational attainment suggest that social pathways only mediate the relationship between birth order and mortality risk in adulthood to a limited degree.

  11. Residential radon and lung cancer: a cohort study in Galicia, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Barbosa-Lorenzo

    Full Text Available Case-control studies show an association between residential radon and lung cancer. The aim of this paper is to investigate this association through a cohort study. We designed an ambispective cohort study using the Galician radon map, Spain, with controls drawn from a previous case-control study. Subjects were recruited between 2002 and 2009. The data were cross-checked to ascertain lung cancer incidence and then analysed using a Cox regression model. A total of 2,127 subjects participated; 24 lung cancer cases were identified; 76.6% of subjects were drawn from the radon map. The adjusted hazard ratio was 1.2 (95%CI: 0.5-2.8 for the category of subjects exposed to 50Bq/m3 or more. This risk rose when subjects from the case-control study were analyzed separately. In conclusion, we did not observe any statistically significant association between residential radon exposure and lung cancer; however, it appears that with a sample of greater median age (such as participants from the case-control study, the risk of lung cancer would have been higher.

  12. Lifestyle factors affecting fruit and vegetable consumption in the UK Women's Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, J; Greenwood, D; Kirk, S; Cade, J

    2001-08-01

    The UK Women's Cohort Study (UKWCS) was originally set up to look at morbidity and mortality data on subjects with a wide range of dietary intakes including vegans, lacto-ovo vegetarians, non-red meat eaters and red meat eaters. The aim of the present study was to investigate factors that affect fruit and vegetable consumption within this particular cohort of women. Females of ages 35-69 years, taking part in the UK Women's Cohort Study (N=35 367), provided health and lifestyle information including a 217-item food frequency questionnaire. In multiple logistic regression, the strongest predictors of a higher reported level of fruit and vegetable consumption were being a vegetarian or vegan, taking vitamin or mineral supplements, being married, educated to A-level or degree level and belonging to a higher socio-economic group. Conversely, smokers were found to be only half as likely as non-smokers to be high fruit and vegetable consumers. These lifestyle distinctions among three levels of reported fruit and vegetable consumption are relevant to the future targeting of health promotion strategies. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  13. Alcohol and Difficulty Conceiving in the SUN Cohort: A Nested Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Lopez-del Burgo; Alfredo Gea; Jokin de Irala; Miguel A. Martínez-González; Jorge E. Chavarro; Estefania Toledo

    2015-01-01

    The role of alcohol on fertility remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the association between alcohol and specific alcoholic beverages consumption and the risk of difficulty getting pregnant. We used a case-control study nested within the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) cohort, a prospective, dynamic and multipurpose cohort of 21,705 Spanish university graduates, followed biennially with mailed questionnaires. We identified 686 case-control pairs, matched for age and time in the ...

  14. International Childhood Cancer Cohort Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    An alliance of several large-scale prospective cohort studies of children to pool data and biospecimens from individual cohorts to study various modifiable and genetic factors in relation to cancer risk

  15. Counselling for burnout in Norwegian doctors: one year cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rø, Karin E Isaksson; Gude, Tore; Tyssen, Reidar; Aasland, Olaf G

    2008-11-11

    To investigate levels and predictors of change in dimensions of burnout after an intervention for stressed doctors. Cohort study followed by self reported assessment at one year. Norwegian resource centre. 227 doctors participating in counselling intervention, 2003-5. Counselling (lasting one day (individual) or one week (group based)) aimed at motivating reflection on and acknowledgement of the doctors' situation and personal needs. Levels of burnout (Maslach burnout inventory) and predictors of reduction in emotional exhaustion investigated by linear regression. 185 doctors (81%, 88 men, 97 women) completed one year follow-up. The mean level of emotional exhaustion (scale 1-5) was significantly reduced from 3.00 (SD 0.94) to 2.53 (SD 0.76) (t=6.76, Ppsychotherapy, from 20% (36/182) to 53% (97/182). In the whole cohort, reduction in emotional exhaustion was independently associated with reduced number of work hours/week (beta=0.17, P=0.03), adjusted for sex, age, and personality dimensions. Among men "satisfaction with the intervention" (beta=0.25, P=0.04) independently predicted reduction in emotional exhaustion. A short term counselling intervention could contribute to reduction in emotional exhaustion in doctors. This was associated with reduced working hours for the whole cohort and, in men, was predicted by satisfaction with the intervention.

  16. Life-course pathways to psychological distress: A cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Von Stumm, S.; Deary, I. J.; Hagger-Johnson, G.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Objectives: Early life factors, like intelligence and socioeconomic status (SES), are associated with health outcomes in adulthood. Fitting comprehensive life-course models, we tested (1) the effect of childhood intelligence and SES, education and adulthood SES on psychological distress at midlife, and (2) compared alternative measurement specifications (reflective and formative) of SES. Design: Prospective cohort study (the Aberdeen Children of the 1950s). Setting: Aberdeen, Scotla...

  17. Pancreatic protective and hypoglycemic effects of Vitex agnus-castus L. fruit hydroalcoholic extract in D-galactose-induced aging mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahangarpour, Akram; Oroojan, Ali Akbar; Khorsandi, Layasadat; Najimi, Seyedeh Asma

    2017-04-01

    D-galactose induces pancreatic disorder along with aging mouse model. Vitex agnus-castus (VAC) has potential pancreatic protective effect. Hence, this study was designed to evaluate the hypoglycemic and pancreas protective effects of VAC hydroalcoholic extract in D-galactose-induced aging female mice. In the present experimental study, 72 adult female Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) mice (weighing 30-35 g) were divided into 6 groups of control, VAC hydroalcoholic extract, D-galactose, D-galactose + VAC hydroalcoholic extract, aged, aged + VAC hydroalcoholic extract. The aged model was prepared by subcutaneous injection of D-galactose for 45 days and, VAC hydroalcoholic extract was gavaged twice a day in the last 7 days. 24 h after the last drug and extract administrations, serum samples and pancreatic tissues were removed to evaluate experimental and histological determinations. Serum glucose level decreased in VAC, D-galactose and, aged-treated groups compared to the control ( P < 0.05). Insulin level increased in VAC and decreased in D-galactose and aged VAC-treated mice compared to the control ( P < 0.05). Homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) increased in D-galactose, aging, and VAC hydroalcoholic extract groups ( P < 0.05) and, administration of VAC hydroalcoholic extract improved HOMA-IR in D-galactose and aging treated animals. Despite the size of pancreatic islets decreased in aged and D-galactose groups, VAC administration recovered it. Present data showed that VAC hydroalcoholic extract has hypoglycemic and pancreatic protective effects in natural aged and aging model mice.

  18. Impact of organised mammography screening on breast cancer mortality in a case–control and cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinävaara, Sirpa; Sarkeala, Tytti; Anttila, Ahti

    2016-01-01

    Background: The usefulness of case–control studies has been questioned. Our aim was to evaluate the long-term effect of screening on breast cancer mortality within the population-based mammography programme in Finland using a case–control design, and to compare the analyses with the earlier cohort study. Methods: The cases were women invited to screening, diagnosed and died from breast cancer in 1992–2011 while being 50–84 years at death. We chose 10 controls for each case with non-restrictive eligibility criteria. Our data included 1907 cases and 18 978 matched controls. We analysed associations between the screening participation and the risk of breast cancer death using the conditional Cox proportional hazards model. The effect estimates were corrected for self-selection bias. Results: An overall effect of screening was 0.67 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.49–0.90), and that remained unchanged over time. Analyses with matching criteria comparable to the cohort study yielded an effect (0.70, 95% CI: 0.49–1.00) in 1992–2003 similar to that of the previous cohort analysis (0.72, 95% CI: 0.56–0.88). Conclusions: Organised mammography screening decreases mortality from breast cancer by 33% among the participants. If made comparable, a case–cohort study can yield effect estimates similar to a cohort study. PMID:27010748

  19. The interaction of lexical semantics and cohort competition in spoken word recognition: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Jie; Randall, Billi; Stamatakis, Emmanuel A; Marslen-Wilson, William D; Tyler, Lorraine K

    2011-12-01

    Spoken word recognition involves the activation of multiple word candidates on the basis of the initial speech input--the "cohort"--and selection among these competitors. Selection may be driven primarily by bottom-up acoustic-phonetic inputs or it may be modulated by other aspects of lexical representation, such as a word's meaning [Marslen-Wilson, W. D. Functional parallelism in spoken word-recognition. Cognition, 25, 71-102, 1987]. We examined these potential interactions in an fMRI study by presenting participants with words and pseudowords for lexical decision. In a factorial design, we manipulated (a) cohort competition (high/low competitive cohorts which vary the number of competing word candidates) and (b) the word's semantic properties (high/low imageability). A previous behavioral study [Tyler, L. K., Voice, J. K., & Moss, H. E. The interaction of meaning and sound in spoken word recognition. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 7, 320-326, 2000] showed that imageability facilitated word recognition but only for words in high competition cohorts. Here we found greater activity in the left inferior frontal gyrus (BA 45, 47) and the right inferior frontal gyrus (BA 47) with increased cohort competition, an imageability effect in the left posterior middle temporal gyrus/angular gyrus (BA 39), and a significant interaction between imageability and cohort competition in the left posterior superior temporal gyrus/middle temporal gyrus (BA 21, 22). In words with high competition cohorts, high imageability words generated stronger activity than low imageability words, indicating a facilitatory role of imageability in a highly competitive cohort context. For words in low competition cohorts, there was no effect of imageability. These results support the behavioral data in showing that selection processes do not rely solely on bottom-up acoustic-phonetic cues but rather that the semantic properties of candidate words facilitate discrimination between competitors.

  20. Risk of sexual transmitted infection following bipolar disorder: a nationwide population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shyh-Chyang; Hu, Chang-Kuo; Hung, Jeng-Hsiu; Yang, Albert C; Tsai, Shih-Jen; Huang, Min-Wei; Hu, Li-Yu; Shen, Cheng-Che

    2018-04-03

    Bipolar disorder is a severe mental disorder associated with functional and cognitive impairment. Numerous studies have investigated associations between sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and psychiatric illnesses. However, the results of these studies are controversial. We explored the association between bipolar disorder and the subsequent development of STIs, including human immunodeficiency virus infection; primary, secondary, and latent syphilis; genital warts; gonorrhea; chlamydial infection; and trichomoniasis. The bipolar cohort consisted of 1293 patients, and the comparison cohort consisted of 5172 matched control subjects without bipolar disorder. The incidence of subsequent STIs (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.68-2.96) was higher among the patients with bipolar disorder than in the comparison cohort. Furthermore, female gender is a risk factor for acquisition of STIs (HR = 2.36, 95% CI 1.73-4.89) among patients with bipolar disorder. For individual STIs, the results indicated that the patients with bipolar disorder exhibited a markedly higher risk for subsequently contracting syphilis, genital warts, and trichomoniasis. Bipolar disorder might increase the risk of subsequent newly diagnosed STIs, including syphilis, genital warts, and trichomoniasis. Clinicians should pay particular attention to STIs in patients with bipolar disorder. Patients with bipolar disorder, especially those with a history of high-risk sexual behaviors, should be routinely screened for STIs. We identified patients who were diagnosed with bipolar disorder in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. A comparison cohort was constructed of patients without bipolar disorder who were matched with the bipolar cohort according to age and gender. The occurrence of subsequent new-onset STIs was evaluated in both cohorts.

  1. Relationship Between Prehypertension/Hypertension and Periodontal Disease: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Yuya; Ekuni, Daisuke; Miyai, Hisataka; Kataoka, Kota; Yamane, Mayu; Mizutani, Shinsuke; Irie, Koichiro; Azuma, Tetsuji; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Iwasaki, Yoshiaki; Morita, Manabu

    2016-03-01

    Most cross-sectional studies have found a significant positive relationship between periodontal disease and prehypertension/hypertension. However, these studies had limitations and there are few prospective cohort studies in young adults. The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to investigate whether periodontal disease was related to prehypertension/hypertension in Japanese university students. Students (n = 2,588), who underwent health examinations before entering university and before graduation, were included in the analysis. The association between periodontal disease such as the percentage of bleeding on probing (BOP) and community periodontal index (CPI) scores, and change in blood pressure status was determined. At the reexamination, the numbers of participants with prehypertension (systolic blood pressure 120-139mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure 80-89mm Hg) and hypertension (≥140/90mm Hg) were 882 (34.1%) and 109 (4.2%), respectively. In a logistic regression model, the risk of hypertension was significantly associated with male (odds ratio (OR): 6.31; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.63-15.13; P periodontal disease defined as the presence of both probing pocket depth (PPD) ≥ 4mm and BOP ≥ 30% at baseline (OR: 2.74; 95% CI: 1.19-6.29; P = 0.02) in participants with prehypertension at baseline. On the other hand, the risk of prehypertension was not associated with presence of periodontal disease (OR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.51-1.70; P = 0.82). In the short-term prospective cohort study, a significant association between presence of periodontal disease and hypertension was observed in Japanese university students. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2015. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Cohort profile: Pacific Islands Families (PIF) growth study, Auckland, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, E; Oliver, M; Plank, L D; Taylor, S; Iusitini, L; Jalili-Moghaddam, S; Savila, F; Paterson, J; Tautolo, E

    2016-11-02

    This article profiles a birth cohort of Pacific children participating in an observational prospective study and describes the study protocol used at ages 14-15 years to investigate how food and activity patterns, metabolic risk and family and built environment are related to rates of physical growth of Pacific children. From 2000 to 2015, the Pacific Islands Families Study has followed, from birth, the growth and development of over 1000 Pacific children born in Auckland, New Zealand. In 2014, 931 (66%) of the original cohort had field measures of body composition, blood pressure and glycated haemoglobin. A nested subsample (n=204) was drawn by randomly selecting 10 males and 10 females from each decile of body weight. These participants had measurement of body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, food frequency, 6 min walk test and accelerometer-determined physical activity and sedentary behaviours, and blood biomarkers for metabolic disease such as diabetes. Built environment variables were generated from individual addresses. Compared to the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reference population with mean SD scores (SDS) of 0, this cohort of 931 14-year-olds was taller, weighed more and had a higher body mass index (BMI) (mean SDS height >0.6, weight >1.6 and BMI >1.4). 7 of 10 youth were overweight or obese. The nested-sampling frame achieved an even distribution by body weight. Cross-sectional relationships between body size, fatness and growth rate, food patterns, activity patterns, pubertal development, risks for diabetes and hypertension and the family and wider environment will be examined. In addition, analyses will investigate relationships with data collected earlier in the life course and measures of the cohort in the future. Understanding past and present influences on child growth and health will inform timely interventions to optimise future health and reduce inequalities for Pacific people. Published by the BMJ

  3. Cohort profile: Pacific Islands Families (PIF) growth study, Auckland, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, E; Oliver, M; Plank, L D; Taylor, S; Iusitini, L; Jalili-Moghaddam, S; Savila, F; Paterson, J; Tautolo, E

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This article profiles a birth cohort of Pacific children participating in an observational prospective study and describes the study protocol used at ages 14–15 years to investigate how food and activity patterns, metabolic risk and family and built environment are related to rates of physical growth of Pacific children. Participants From 2000 to 2015, the Pacific Islands Families Study has followed, from birth, the growth and development of over 1000 Pacific children born in Auckland, New Zealand. In 2014, 931 (66%) of the original cohort had field measures of body composition, blood pressure and glycated haemoglobin. A nested subsample (n=204) was drawn by randomly selecting 10 males and 10 females from each decile of body weight. These participants had measurement of body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, food frequency, 6 min walk test and accelerometer-determined physical activity and sedentary behaviours, and blood biomarkers for metabolic disease such as diabetes. Built environment variables were generated from individual addresses. Findings to date Compared to the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reference population with mean SD scores (SDS) of 0, this cohort of 931 14-year-olds was taller, weighed more and had a higher body mass index (BMI) (mean SDS height >0.6, weight >1.6 and BMI >1.4). 7 of 10 youth were overweight or obese. The nested-sampling frame achieved an even distribution by body weight. Future plans Cross-sectional relationships between body size, fatness and growth rate, food patterns, activity patterns, pubertal development, risks for diabetes and hypertension and the family and wider environment will be examined. In addition, analyses will investigate relationships with data collected earlier in the life course and measures of the cohort in the future. Understanding past and present influences on child growth and health will inform timely interventions to optimise future health and reduce

  4. A Population-Based Cohort Study on Peripheral Arterial Disease in Patients with Schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Yu Hsu

    Full Text Available Peripheral arterial disease (PAD is considered the leading cause of atherosclerotic cardiovascular morbidity. Several risk factors of PAD have been observed in patients with schizophrenia. Therefore, we hypothesize that the incidence of PAD is higher in the schizophrenia population than in the general population.The patients in this population-based cohort study were selected from the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database on the basis of the claims data from 2000 to 2011. We compared the incidence of PAD between schizophrenia and nonschizophrenia cohorts. Cox proportional hazard regression models were employed for analyzing the risk of PAD after adjustment for sex, age, and comorbidities.The adjusted hazard ratio (HR for PAD in the schizophrenia cohort was 1.26-fold higher than that in the nonschizophrenia cohort. Furthermore, patients with schizophrenia using atypical antipsychotics exhibited a high adjusted HR for PAD.Compared with the general population, the risk of PAD is higher among patients with schizophrenia. Early diagnosis and intervention can mitigate complications resulting from cardiovascular diseases and lower mortality.

  5. Effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of Vitex agnus-castus fruit on kidney of D-galactose-induced aging model in female mice

    OpenAIRE

    Oroojan, A. A.; Ahangarpour, A.; Khorsandi, L.; Najimi, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a hydro-alcoholic extract of Vitex agnus-castus (VAC) fruit on blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr) and, kidney histology of a female mouse model of D-galactose induced aging. In this experimental study, 72 NMRI mice were divided into 6 groups: control, VAC, D-galactose, D-galactose+VAC, aging, and aging+VAC. D-galactose was injected for 45 days and, VAC extract administered in the last 7 days, twice a day. Serum BUN and Cr leve...

  6. Coffee consumption and incidence of colorectal cancer in two prospective cohort studies of Swedish women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Susanna C; Bergkvist, Leif; Giovannucci, Edward; Wolk, Alicja

    2006-04-01

    Investigators have reported an inverse association between coffee consumption and risk of colorectal cancer in several case-control studies, but prospective studies, most of them involving small numbers of cases, have not supported such a relation. In this analysis, the authors prospectively examined the association of coffee consumption with colorectal cancer risk among participants from two population-based cohort studies: 61,433 women in the Swedish Mammography Cohort and 45,306 men in the Cohort of Swedish Men. Information about coffee consumption was obtained from food frequency questionnaires in 1987-1990 and 1997 for women and in 1997 for men. The authors used Cox proportional hazards modeling for cohort-specific multivariate analyses, and results were pooled using random-effects models. During 1,240,597 person-years of follow-up, 1,279 incident cases of colorectal cancer were diagnosed. Coffee consumption was not associated with risk of colorectal cancer, colon cancer, or rectal cancer in either women or men. For both cohorts combined, the multivariate rate ratio for colorectal cancer for each additional cup of coffee per day was 1.00 (95% confidence interval: 0.97, 1.04). The associations were not modified by colorectal cancer risk factors. The findings from these two large prospective cohort studies do not support the hypothesis that coffee consumption lowers the risk of colorectal cancer.

  7. Malignant transformation of Taiwanese patients with oral leukoplakia: A nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tung-Yuan; Chiu, Yu-Wei; Chen, Yi-Tzu; Wang, Yu-Hsun; Yu, Hui-Chieh; Yu, Chuan-Hang; Chang, Yu-Chao

    2018-05-01

    Oral leukoplakia (OL) is one of the clinically diagnosed oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs) with an increased risk of oral cancer development. In this study, we investigated the malignant transformation of OL in Taiwanese population. A retrospective cohort study was analyzed from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. A comparison cohort was randomly frequency-matched with the OL cohort according to age, sex, and index year. Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) and oral lichen planus (OLP) were further stratified to evaluate the possible synergistic effects for OL-associated malignant transformation. In this cohort, 102 (5.374%) of 1898 OL patients were observed to transform into oral cancer. The malignant transformation rate was 26.40-fold in the OL cohort than in the comparison cohort after adjustment (95% confidence intervals 18.46-37.77). To further stratify with OSF and OLP, OL with OSF (58.38; 95% confidence intervals 34.61-98.50) and OL with OLP (36.88; 95% confidence intervals 8.90-152.78) had higher risk of malignant transformation rate than OL alone (27.01; 95% confidence intervals 18.91-38.59). The Kaplan-Meier plot revealed the free of malignant transformation rate was significant over the 13 years follow-up period (log-rank test, p < 0.001). OL patients exhibited a significantly higher risk of malignant transformation than those without OL. In addition, both OSF and OLP could enhance malignant transformation in patients with OL. However, further studies are required to identify the histopathological and clinical parameters in the pathogenesis of malignant transformation among OPMDs. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Malignant transformation of oral submucous fibrosis in Taiwan: A nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Po-Yu; Chen, Yi-Tzu; Wang, Yu-Hsun; Su, Ni-Yu; Yu, Hui-Chieh; Chang, Yu-Chao

    2017-11-01

    Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is one of the well-recognized oral potentially malignant disorders. In this study, we investigated the malignant transformation of OSF in a Taiwanese population. A retrospective cohort study was analyzed from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. A comparison cohort was randomly frequency-matched with the OSF cohort according to age, sex, and index year. Oral leukoplakia (OL) was further stratified to evaluate for the possible synergistic effects of OSF-associated malignant transformation. In this cohort, 71 (9.13%) of 778 cases of OSF were observed to transform into oral cancer. The malignant transformation rate was 29.26-fold in the OSF cohort than in the comparison cohort after adjustment (95% confidence intervals 20.55-41.67). To further stratify with OL, OSF with OL (52.46%; 95% confidence intervals 34.88-78.91) had higher risk of malignant transformation rate than OSF alone (29.84%; 95% confidence intervals 20.99-42.42). The Kaplan-Meier plot revealed the rate free of malignant transformation was significant over the 13-year follow-up period (log-rank test, Ptransformation was 5.1, 2.7, and 2.2 years for non-OSF, OSF alone, and OSF with OL, respectively. Oral submucous fibrosis patients exhibited a significantly higher risk of malignant transformation than those without OSF. OL could enhance malignant transformation in patients with OSF. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Male sleep duration and fecundability in a North American preconception cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wise, Lauren Anne; Rothman, Kenneth Jay; Wesselink, Amelia Kent

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate prospectively the association between male sleep duration and fecundability. DESIGN: Pregnancy Online Study (PRESTO), a Web-based prospective cohort study of North American couples enrolled during the preconception period (2013-2017). SETTING: Not applicable. PATIENT(S): Male...

  10. Cohort Coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Gustav

    2013-01-01

    Cohorts are the aggregate of individuals who experience the same event within the same time interval. Cohorts can be based on people born in a given year, for example in 1940 or within a span of years, e.g. born in 1940-1944. The year of birth is here the defining event for cohorts. The health di...... differs between cohorts. This article focuses on the protective and detrimental cohort effect in relation to the risk of death from apoplexy. A dummy variable method is recommended to describe the changing cohort effect over a century....

  11. Effect of Birth Cohort on Risk of Hip Fracture: Age-Specific Incidence Rates in the Framingham Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samelson, Elizabeth J.; Zhang, Yuqing; Kiel, Douglas P.; Hannan, Marian T.; Felson, David T.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined the effect of birth cohort on incidence rates of hip fracture among women and men in the Framingham Study. Methods. Age-specific incidence rates of first hip fracture were presented according to tertile of year of birth for 5209 participants of the Framingham Study, a population-based cohort followed since 1948. Sex-specific incidence rate ratios were calculated by Cox regression to assess the relation between birth cohort and hip fracture incidence. Results. An increasing trend in hip fracture incidence rates was observed with year of birth for women (trend, P = .05) and men (trend, P = .03). Relative to those born from 1887 to 1900 (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 1.0), age-specific incidence rates were greatest in the most recent birth cohort, born from 1911 to 1921 (IRR = 1.4 for women, IRR = 2.0 for men), and intermediate in those born from 1901 to 1910 (IRR = 1.2 for women, IRR = 1.5 for men). Conclusions. Results suggest risk of hip fracture is increasing for successive birth cohorts. Projections that fail to account for the increase in rates associated with birth cohort underestimate the future public health impact of hip fracture in the United States. PMID:11988460

  12. Statins and Hip Fracture Prevention – A Population Based Cohort Study in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helin-Salmivaara, Arja; Korhonen, Maarit J.; Lehenkari, Petri; Junnila, Seppo Y. T.; Neuvonen, Pertti J.; Ruokoniemi, Päivi; Huupponen, Risto

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the association of long-term statin use and the risk of low-energy hip fractures in middle-aged and elderly women. Design A register-based cohort study. Setting Finland. Participants Women aged 45–75 years initiating statin therapy between 1996 and 2001 with adherence to statins ≥80% during the subsequent five years (n = 40 254), a respective cohort initiating hypertension drugs (n = 41 610), and women randomly selected from the population (n = 62 585). Main Outcome Measures Incidence rate of and hazard ratio (HR) for low-energy hip fracture during the follow-up extending up to 7 years after the 5-year exposure period. Results Altogether 199 low-energy hip fractures occurred during the 135 330 person-years (py) of follow-up in the statin cohort, giving an incidence rate of 1.5 hip fractures per 1000 py. In the hypertension and the population cohorts, the rates were 2.0 per 1000 py (312 fractures per 157 090 py) and 1.0 per 1000 py (212 fractures per 216 329 py), respectively. Adjusting for a propensity score and individual variables strongly predicting the outcome, good adherence to statins for five years was associated with a 29% decreased risk (HR 0.71; 95% CI 0.58–0.86) of a low-energy hip fracture in comparison with adherent use of hypertension drugs. The association was of the same magnitude when comparing the statin users with the population cohort, the HR being 0.69 (0.55–0.87). When women with poor (statins were compared to those with good adherence to hypertension drugs (≥80%) or to the population cohort, the protective effect associated with statin use attenuated with the decreasing level of adherence. Conclusions 5-year exposure to statins is associated with a reduced risk of low-energy hip fracture in women aged 50–80 years without prior hospitalizations for fractures. PMID:23144731

  13. Risk of Depression, Chronic Morbidities, and l-Thyroxine Treatment in Hashimoto Thyroiditis in Taiwan: A Nationwide Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, I-Ching; Chen, Hsin-Hung; Yeh, Su-Yin; Lin, Cheng-Li; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of depression in and effect of L-thyroxine therapy on patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) in Taiwan.In this retrospective, nationwide cohort study, we retrieved data from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000. We collected data of 1220 patients with HT and 4880 patients without HT for the period 2000 to 2011. The mean follow-up period for the HT cohort was 5.77 years. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate the risk of depression in the HT cohort.In the HT cohort, 89.6% of the patients were women. Compared with the non-HT cohort, the HT cohort exhibited a higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, and coronary artery disease. Furthermore, the HT cohort showed a higher overall incidence of depression compared with the non-HT cohort (8.67 and 5.49 per 1000 person-year; crude hazard ratio [HR] = 1.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.18-2.13). The risk of depression decreased after administration of L-thyroxine treatment for more than 1 year (adjusted HR = 1.02; 95% CI = 0.66-1.59).In Taiwan, the overall incidence of depression was greater in the young HT cohort. L-thyroxine treatment reduced the risk of depression.

  14. Aspectos de interés sobre el síndrome de silla turca vacía en los niños: a propósito de 5 pacientes Aspects of interest on the empty sella syndrome in children: apropos of 5 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro González Fernández

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan 5 pacientes menores de 12 años, atendidos en el Servicio de Endocrinología del Hospital Pediátrico Docente «William Soler» a quienes se les realizó un estudio imagenológico con tomografía axial computada y resonancia magnética nuclear, para confirmar diagnóstico de endocrinopatía. Tras el estudio se diagnosticó síndrome de la silla turca vacía. Existen diferencias clínicas entre niños y adultos con silla turca vacía; las más relevantes radican en que en los niños no hay predominio de sexo ni asociación con la obesidad, y en ellos se observa la presencia de afecciones endocrinas como expresión de alteraciones hipotálamo-hipofisarias.The cases of 5 patients under 12 that received attention at the Endocrinology Service of "William Soler" Pediatric Teaching Hospital and that underwent an imaging study with computerized axial tomography and nuclear magnetic imaging to confirm endocrinopathy were presented. The empty sella syndrome was diagnosed after concluding the study. Clinical differences were observed between children and adults with empty sella syndrome. The most significant were found in children, among whom there was neither predominance of sex nor association with obesity. The presence of endocrine affections as expression of hypothalamus-hypophyseal alterations was observed in them.

  15. Analysis of Clinical Cohort Data Using Nested Case-control and Case-cohort Sampling Designs. A Powerful and Economical Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohneberg, K; Wolkewitz, M; Beyersmann, J; Palomar-Martinez, M; Olaechea-Astigarraga, P; Alvarez-Lerma, F; Schumacher, M

    2015-01-01

    Sampling from a large cohort in order to derive a subsample that would be sufficient for statistical analysis is a frequently used method for handling large data sets in epidemiological studies with limited resources for exposure measurement. For clinical studies however, when interest is in the influence of a potential risk factor, cohort studies are often the first choice with all individuals entering the analysis. Our aim is to close the gap between epidemiological and clinical studies with respect to design and power considerations. Schoenfeld's formula for the number of events required for a Cox' proportional hazards model is fundamental. Our objective is to compare the power of analyzing the full cohort and the power of a nested case-control and a case-cohort design. We compare formulas for power for sampling designs and cohort studies. In our data example we simultaneously apply a nested case-control design with a varying number of controls matched to each case, a case cohort design with varying subcohort size, a random subsample and a full cohort analysis. For each design we calculate the standard error for estimated regression coefficients and the mean number of distinct persons, for whom covariate information is required. The formula for the power of a nested case-control design and the power of a case-cohort design is directly connected to the power of a cohort study using the well known Schoenfeld formula. The loss in precision of parameter estimates is relatively small compared to the saving in resources. Nested case-control and case-cohort studies, but not random subsamples yield an attractive alternative for analyzing clinical studies in the situation of a low event rate. Power calculations can be conducted straightforwardly to quantify the loss of power compared to the savings in the num-ber of patients using a sampling design instead of analyzing the full cohort.

  16. Homelessness as an independent risk factor for mortality: results from a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, David S

    2009-06-01

    Homelessness is associated with increased risks of mortality but it has not previously been possible to distinguish whether this is typical of other socio-economically deprived populations, the result of a higher prevalence of morbidity or an independent risk of homelessness itself. The aim of this study was to describe mortality among a cohort of homeless adults and adjust for the effects of morbidity and socio-economic deprivation. Retrospective 5-year study of two fixed cohorts, homeless adults and an age- and sex-matched random sample of the local non-homeless population in Greater Glasgow National Health Service Board area for comparison. Over 5 years of observation, 1.7% (209/12 451) of the general population and 7.2% (457/6323) of the homeless cohort died. The hazard ratio of all-cause mortality in homeless compared with non-homeless cohorts was 4.4 (95% CI: 3.8-5.2). After adjustment for age, sex and previous hospitalization, homelessness was associated with an all-cause mortality hazard ratio of 1.6 (95% CI: 1.3-1.9). Homelessness had differential effects on cause-specific mortality. Among patients who had been hospitalized for drug-related conditions, the homeless cohort experienced a 7-fold increase in risk of death from drugs compared with the general population. Homelessness is an independent risk factor for deaths from specific causes. Preventive programmes might be most effectively targeted at the homeless with these conditions.

  17. Association of Neovascular Glaucoma with Risk of Stroke: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Wen Su

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neovascular glaucoma (NVG, caused by ocular ischemia, is a serious ocular disease complicated by intractably increased intraocular pressure. Cerebrovascular accidents are classified into ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. Based on the similar pathogenic mechanisms of NVG and ischemic stroke, we investigated the relationship between NVG and stroke by using a nationally representative sample. This study included 416 NVG patients and 4160 controls. Medical comorbidities were also evaluated. The cumulative incidence of ischemic stroke was 15.6% higher in the NVG cohort than in the control cohort (p<0.001; the incidence density rates of stroke were 3.80 and 1.19 per 10,000 person-years in the NVG and control cohorts, respectively. According to the multivariable Cox regression results, the estimated adjusted hazard ratio (aHR of stroke was 2.07 (95% confidence interval (CI = 1.41–3.02 for the NVG cohort. Furthermore, the NVG cohort was 2.24-fold more likely to develop ischemic stroke (95% CI = 1.51–3.32. The risk of ischemic stroke was higher in patients with hypertension (aHR = 2.09, 95% CI = 1.55–2.82 and in patients with diabetic retinopathy (aHR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.05–2.72. Notably, patients with NVG have a higher risk of ischemic stroke, but not hemorrhagic stroke.

  18. Predictive factors of postpartum fatigue: a prospective cohort study among working women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.; Beek, A.J. van der; Hendriksen, I.J.M.; Bruinvels, D.J.; Poppel, M.N. van

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate which prepartum determinants contribute to the development of postpartum (PP) fatigue among working women in the Netherlands. Methods A prospective cohort study in 15 Dutch companies was conducted to measure different potential predictors using

  19. Falls in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: An observational cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roig, Marc; Eng, Janice J; MacIntyre, Donna L

    2011-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To investigate incidence, risk factors and impact of falls on health related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). DESIGN: Observational cohort study. METHODS: Patients completed these questionnaires at baseline and at 6-months...

  20. New Zealand Diabetes Cohort Study cardiovascular risk score for people with Type 2 diabetes: validation in the PREDICT cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Tom; Elley, C Raina; Wells, Sue; Robinson, Elizabeth; Kenealy, Tim; Pylypchuk, Romana; Bramley, Dale; Arroll, Bruce; Crengle, Sue; Riddell, Tania; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Metcalf, Patricia; Drury, Paul L

    2012-09-01

    New Zealand (NZ) guidelines recommend treating people for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk on the basis of five-year absolute risk using a NZ adaptation of the Framingham risk equation. A diabetes-specific Diabetes Cohort Study (DCS) CVD predictive risk model has been developed and validated using NZ Get Checked data. To revalidate the DCS model with an independent cohort of people routinely assessed using PREDICT, a web-based CVD risk assessment and management programme. People with Type 2 diabetes without pre-existing CVD were identified amongst people who had a PREDICT risk assessment between 2002 and 2005. From this group we identified those with sufficient data to allow estimation of CVD risk with the DCS models. We compared the DCS models with the NZ Framingham risk equation in terms of discrimination, calibration, and reclassification implications. Of 3044 people in our study cohort, 1829 people had complete data and therefore had CVD risks calculated. Of this group, 12.8% (235) had a cardiovascular event during the five-year follow-up. The DCS models had better discrimination than the currently used equation, with C-statistics being 0.68 for the two DCS models and 0.65 for the NZ Framingham model. The DCS models were superior to the NZ Framingham equation at discriminating people with diabetes who will have a cardiovascular event. The adoption of a DCS model would lead to a small increase in the number of people with diabetes who are treated with medication, but potentially more CVD events would be avoided.

  1. Motives for participating in a web-based nutrition cohort according to sociodemographic, lifestyle, and health characteristics: the NutriNet-Santé cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méjean, Caroline; Szabo de Edelenyi, Fabien; Touvier, Mathilde; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Julia, Chantal; Andreeva, Valentina A; Hercberg, Serge

    2014-08-07

    In traditional epidemiological studies, participants are likely motivated by perceived benefits, feelings of accomplishment, and belonging. No study has explored motives for participation in a Web-based cohort and the associated participant characteristics, although such information is useful for enhancing recruitment and improving cohort retention. We aimed to evaluate the relationships between motives for participation and sociodemographic, health, and lifestyle characteristics of participants in the NutriNet-Santé Web-based cohort, designed to identify nutritional risk or protective factors for chronic diseases. The motives for participation were assessed using a specifically developed questionnaire administered approximately 2 years after baseline. A total of 6352 completed the motives questionnaire (43.34%, 6352/15,000 randomly invited cohort participants). We studied the associations between motives (dependent variables) and individual characteristics with multivariate multinomial logistic regression models providing odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. In total, 46.45% (2951/6352) of participants reported that they would not have enrolled if the study had not been conducted on the Internet, whereas 28.75% (1826/6352) were not sure. Men (OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.04-1.42), individuals aged 26-35 years (OR 1.51, 95% CI 1.20-1.91), and obese participants (OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.02-1.65) were more inclined to be motivated by the Internet aspect. Compared with younger adults and managerial staff, individuals >55 years (OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.48-0.45) and employees/manual workers were less likely motivated by the Internet aspect (OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.63-0.92). Regarding reasons for participation, 61.37% (3898/6352) reported participating to help advance public health research on chronic disease prevention; 22.24% (1413/6352) to help advance nutrition-focused research; 6.89% (438/6352) in response to the call from the media, after being encouraged by a close friend/associate, or

  2. The use of rehabilitation among patients with breast cancer: a retrospective longitudinal cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Yi-Hsien

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. Along with improvements in treatment, the number of women who survive breast cancer has increased. Rehabilitation can alleviate post-treatment side effects and maintain quality of life. This study aimed to explore the use of rehabilitation among a cohort of patients diagnosed with breast cancer. Methods A retrospective longitudinal cohort study was conducted using a National Health Insurance (NHI research database in Taiwan. The study cohort consisted of 632 patients with breast cancer diagnosed in 2005. Their NHI claims over a period spanning 2005 through 2009 were analyzed. Results Overall, 39.6% of the cohort received rehabilitation therapy, with 9,691 rehabilitation visits claimed (an average of 38.8 visits per user. The prevalence of rehabilitation service use among the cohort was 16.5%, 13.3%, 13.0%, 13.3%, and 12.8% in the years 2005 through 2009, respectively. The average number of visits per rehabilitation user was 16.8, 25.0, 31.1, 24.2, and 23.8 in the years 2005 through 2009, respectively. Most rehabilitation therapy occurred as an outpatient service (96.0%. Physical therapy was the most commonly used form of rehabilitation (84.2%, followed by occupational therapy (15.4%. The most frequently recorded diagnoses were malignant neoplasm of the female breast, peripheral enthesopathies and allied syndromes, and osteoarthrosis and allied disorders. Conclusions Only a small proportion of patients with breast cancer received rehabilitation therapy in the first five years after diagnosis. The average number of rehabilitation visits per user peaked in the third year after diagnosis.

  3. Deep phenotyping of the unselected COPSAC2010 birth cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans Flinker; Vissing, Nadja Hawwa; Carson, C. G.

    2013-01-01

    for acute lung symptoms was conducted in the children with recurrent wheeze. Seven hundred and thirty‐eight mothers were recruited from week 24 of gestation, and 700 of their children were included in the birth cohort. The cohort has an over‐representation of atopic parents. The participant satisfaction...

  4. Maternal antecedents of adiposity and studying the transgenerational role of hyperglycemia and insulin (MAASTHI): a prospective cohort study : Protocol of birth cohort at Bangalore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Giridhara R; Murthy, Gvs; Deepa, R; Yamuna; Prafulla; Kumar, H Kiran; Karthik, Maithili; Deshpande, Keerti; Benjamin Neelon, Sara E; Prabhakaran, D; Kurpad, Anura; Kinra, Sanjay

    2016-10-14

    India is experiencing an epidemic of obesity-hyperglycaemia, which coincides with child bearing age for women. The epidemic can be sustained and augmented through transgenerational transmission of adiposity and glucose intolerance in women. This presents an opportunity for exploring a clear strategy for the control of this epidemic in India. We conducted a study between November 2013 and May 2015 to inform the design of a large pregnancy cohort study. Based on the findings of this pilot, we developed the protocol for the proposed birth cohort of 5000 women, the recruitment for which will start in April 2016. The protocol of the study documents the processes which aim at advancing the available knowledge, linking several steps in the evolution of obesity led hyperglycemia. Maternal Antecedents of Adiposity and Studying the Transgenerational role of Hyperglycemia and Insulin (MAASTHI) is a cohort study in the public health facilities in Bangalore, India. The objective of MAASTHI is to prospectively assess the effects of glucose levels in pregnancy on the risk of adverse infant outcomes, especially in predicting the possible risk markers of later chronic diseases. The primary objective of the proposed study is to investigate the effect of glucose levels in pregnancy on skinfold thickness (adiposity) in infancy as a marker of future obesity and diabetes in offspring. The secondary objective is to assess the association between psychosocial environment of mothers and adverse neonatal outcomes including adiposity. The study aims to recruit 5000 pregnant women and follow them and their offspring for a period of 4 years. The institutional review board at The Indian Institute of Public Health (IIPH)-H, Bangalore, Public Health Foundation of India has approved the protocol. All participants are required to provide written informed consent. The findings from this study may help to address important questions on screening and management of high blood sugar in pregnancy. It

  5. California Men's Health Study (CMHS: a multiethnic cohort in a managed care setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadler Marianne C

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We established a male, multiethnic cohort primarily to study prostate cancer etiology and secondarily to study the etiologies of other cancer and non-cancer conditions. Methods/Design Eligible participants were 45-to-69 year old males who were members of a large, prepaid health plan in California. Participants completed two surveys on-line or on paper in 2002 – 2003. Survey content included demographics; family, medical, and cancer screening history; sexuality and sexual development; lifestyle (diet, physical activity, and smoking; prescription and non-prescription drugs; and herbal supplements. We linked study data with clinical data, including laboratory, hospitalization, and cancer data, from electronic health plan files. We recruited 84,170 participants, approximately 40% from minority populations and over 5,000 who identified themselves as other than heterosexual. We observed a wide range of education (53% completed less than college and income. PSA testing rates (75% overall were highest among black participants. Body mass index (BMI (median 27.2 was highest for blacks and Latinos and lowest for Asians, and showed 80.6% agreement with BMI from clinical data sources. The sensitivity and specificity can be assessed by comparing self-reported data, such as PSA testing, diabetes, and history of cancer, to health plan data. We anticipate that nearly 1,500 prostate cancer diagnoses will occur within five years of cohort inception. Discussion A wide variety of epidemiologic, health services, and outcomes research utilizing a rich array of electronic, biological, and clinical resources is possible within this multiethnic cohort. The California Men's Health Study and other cohorts nested within comprehensive health delivery systems can make important contributions in the area of men's health.

  6. Risk of erectile dysfunction in transfusion-naive thalassemia men: a nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Guang; Lin, Te-Yu; Lin, Cheng-Li; Dai, Ming-Shen; Ho, Ching-Liang; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-04-01

    Based on the mechanism of pathophysiology, thalassemia major or transfusion-dependent thalassemia patients may have an increased risk of developing organic erectile dysfunction resulting from hypogonadism. However, there have been few studies investigating the association between erectile dysfunction and transfusion-naive thalassemia populations. We constructed a population-based cohort study to elucidate the association between transfusion-naive thalassemia populations and organic erectile dysfunction. This nationwide population-based cohort study involved analyzing data from 1998 to 2010 obtained from the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database, with a follow-up period extending to the end of 2011. We identified men with transfusion-naive thalassemia and selected a comparison cohort that was frequency-matched with these according to age, and year of diagnosis thalassemia at a ratio of 1 thalassemia man to 4 control men. We analyzed the risks for transfusion-naive thalassemia men and organic erectile dysfunction by using Cox proportional hazards regression models. In this study, 588 transfusion-naive thalassemia men and 2337 controls were included. Total 12 patients were identified within the thalassaemia group and 10 within the control group. The overall risks for developing organic erectile dysfunction were 4.56-fold in patients with transfusion-naive thalassemia men compared with the comparison cohort after we adjusted for age and comorbidities. Our long-term cohort study results showed that in transfusion-naive thalassemia men, there was a higher risk for the development of organic erectile dysfunction, particularly in those patients with comorbidities.

  7. The risk of cryptorchidism among sons of women working in horticulture in Denmark: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Pernille; Jensen, Morten Søndergaard; Andersen, Helle Raun; Baelum, Jesper; Thulstrup, Ane Marie; Bonde, Jens Peter; Toft, Gunnar

    2011-11-14

    Androgens are crucial for normal testicular descent. Studies show that some pesticides have estrogenic or antiandrogenic effects, and that female workers exposed to pesticides have increased risk of having a boy with cryptorchidism. The main objective of the present study was to investigate whether pregnant women exposed to pesticides due to their work in horticulture experience excess risk of having sons with cryptorchidism. We conducted a cohort study of pregnant women working in horticulture using four cohorts including one cohort established with data from the departments of occupational medicine in Jutland and Funen and three existing mother-child cohorts (n=1,468). A reference group was established from the entire Danish population of boys born in the period of 1986-2007 (n=783,817). Nationwide Danish health registers provided information on birth outcome, cryptorchidism diagnosis and orchiopexy. The level of occupational exposure to pesticides was assessed by expert judgment blinded towards outcome status. Risk of cryptorchidism among exposed horticulture workers compared to the background population and to unexposed horticulture workers was assessed by Cox regression models. Pesticide exposed women employed in horticulture had a hazard ratio (HR) of having cryptorchid sons of 1.39 (95% CI 0.84; 2.31) and a HR of orchiopexy of 1.34 (0.72; 2.49) compared to the background population. Analysis divided into separate cohorts revealed a significantly increased risk of cryptorchidism in cohort 2: HR 2.58 (1.07;6.20) and increased risk of orchiopexy in cohort 4: HR 2.76 (1.03;7.35), but no significant associations in the other cohorts. Compared to unexposed women working in horticulture, pesticide exposed women had a risk of having sons with cryptorchidism of 1.34 (0.30; 5.96) and of orchiopexy of 1.93 (0.24;15.4). The data are compatible with a slightly increased risk of cryptorchidism in sons of women exposed to pesticides by working in horticulture.

  8. Clarifying the distinction between case series and cohort studies in systematic reviews of comparative studies: potential impact on body of evidence and workload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Mathes

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Distinguishing cohort studies from case series is difficult. We propose a conceptualization of cohort studies in systematic reviews of comparative studies. The main aim of this conceptualization is to clarify the distinction between cohort studies and case series. We discuss the potential impact of the proposed conceptualization on the body of evidence and workload. All studies with exposure-based sampling gather multiple exposures (with at least two different exposures or levels of exposure and enable calculation of relative risks that should be considered cohort studies in systematic reviews, including non-randomized studies. The term “enables/can” means that a predefined analytic comparison is not a prerequisite (i.e., the absolute risks per group and/or a risk ratio are provided. Instead, all studies for which sufficient data are available for reanalysis to compare different exposures (e.g., sufficient data in the publication are classified as cohort studies. There are possibly large numbers of studies without a comparison for the exposure of interest but that do provide the necessary data to calculate effect measures for a comparison. Consequently, more studies could be included in a systematic review. Therefore, on the one hand, the outlined approach can increase the confidence in effect estimates and the strengths of conclusions. On the other hand, the workload would increase (e.g., additional data extraction and risk of bias assessment, as well as reanalyses.

  9. Childhood and adolescent energy restriction and subsequent colorectal cancer risk: Results from The Netherlands cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hughes, L.A.E.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Goldbohm, R.A.; Goeij, A.F.P.M. d; Bruïne, A.P. de; Engeland, M. van; Weijenberg, M.P.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Energy restriction during childhood and adolescence is suggested to lower colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. We investigated this in the Netherlands Cohort Study. Methods: Information on diet and other risk factors was collected by a baseline questionnaire in 1986 when cohort members were

  10. Longitudinal Assessment of Self-Reported Recent Back Pain and Combat Deployment in the Millennium Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-15

    deployment and self-reported recent back pain in a population- based U.S. military cohort. Summary of Background Data. The study consisted of Millennium Cohort...acute injury based on a ‘‘diathesis-stress’’ model in which predis- posing psychological characteristics are activated by stress.40 In our study , both...Other studies have shown psychosocial and psycho- logical factors, including depression, psychological distress, passive coping strategies, fear

  11. Allergic conditions and risk of hematological malignancies in adults: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwartzbaum Judith

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two contradictory hypotheses have been proposed to explain the relationship between allergic conditions and malignancies, the immune surveillance hypothesis and the antigenic stimulation hypothesis. The former advocates that allergic conditions may be protective against development of cancer, whereas the latter proposes an increased risk. This relationship has been studied in several case-control studies, but only in a few cohort studies. Methods The association between allergic conditions and risk of developing leukemia, Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and myeloma was investigated in a cohort of 16,539 Swedish twins born 1886–1925. Prospectively collected, self-reported information about allergic conditions such as asthma, hay fever or eczema was obtained through questionnaires administered in 1967. The cohort was followed 1969–99 and cancer incidence was ascertained from the Swedish Cancer Registry. Results Hives and asthma tended to increase the risk of leukemia (relative risk [RR] = 2.1, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.0–4.5 and RR = 1.6, 95% CI 0.8–3.5, respectively. There was also an indication of an increased risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma associated with eczema during childhood (RR = 2.3, 95% CI 1.0–5.3. Conclusion In contrast to most previous studies, our results do not indicate a protective effect of allergic conditions on the risk of developing hematological malignancies. Rather, they suggest that allergic conditions might increase the risk of some hematological malignancies.

  12. Breast implants and anaplastic large-cell lymphoma: a danish population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vase, Maja Ølholm; Friis, Søren; Bautz, Andrea; Bendix, Knud; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; d'Amore, Francesco

    2013-11-01

    A potential link between breast implants and anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL) has been suggested. We examined lymphoma occurrence in a nationwide cohort of 19,885 Danish women who underwent breast implant surgery during 1973-2010. Standardized incidence ratios (SIR), with 95% confidence intervals (CI), for ALCL and lymphoma overall associated with breast implantation were calculated. During 179,246 person-years of follow-up, we observed 31 cases of lymphoma among cohort members. No cases of ALCL were identified. SIRs for ALCL and lymphoma overall were zero (95% CI, 0-10.3) and 1.20 (95% CI, 0.82-1.70), respectively. In our nationwide cohort study, we did not find an increased risk of lymphoma in general, or ALCL in particular, among Danish women who underwent breast implantation. However, our evaluation of ALCL risk was limited by the rarity of the disease. Our results do not support an association between breast implants and ALCL and are consistent with other studies on cancer risk and breast implants. ©2013 AACR.

  13. Food and nutrient consumption trends in older Australians: a 10-year cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, V M; Burlutsky, G; Webb, K L; Wang, J J; Smith, W T; Mitchell, P

    2010-06-01

    Few longitudinal population-based cohort studies of older people have described dietary intakes over time. The objective of this study was to assess changes in the food and nutrient intake in a cohort of older Australians, using longitudinal data collected over 10 years. Population-based cohort of people aged 49 years and over at baseline (82% of those eligible) living in two postcode areas, west of Sydney. In 1992-1994, 3654 people were examined; 2334 were reexamined after 5 years and 1952 after 10 years (75% survivors at both examinations). A 145-item food frequency questionnaire was used to assess food and nutrient intake on each occasion, and 1166 participants provided usable dietary data at all three examinations. Energy and sugar intake significantly increased among women over the 10-year period (P-value for trend bread consumption decreased in both men and women (P-value for trend choices. This information could be used to inform nutrition policy and programs targeted to older persons. These data highlight the need to identify barriers to better food choices.

  14. Epilepsy in adults with mitochondrial disease: A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Roger G; Devine, Helen E; Gorman, Grainne S; Schaefer, Andrew M; Horvath, Rita; Ng, Yi; Nesbitt, Victoria; Lax, Nichola Z; McFarland, Robert; Cunningham, Mark O; Taylor, Robert W; Turnbull, Douglass M

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the prevalence and progression of epilepsy in adult patients with mitochondrial disease. We prospectively recruited a cohort of 182 consecutive adult patients attending a specialized mitochondrial disease clinic in Newcastle upon Tyne between January 1, 2005 and January 1, 2008. We then followed this cohort over a 7-year period, recording primary outcome measures of occurrence of first seizure, status epilepticus, stroke-like episode, and death. Overall prevalence of epilepsy in the cohort was 23.1%. Mean age of epilepsy onset was 29.4 years. Prevalence varied widely between genotypes, with several genotypes having no cases of epilepsy, a prevalence of 34.9% in the most common genotype (m.3243A>G mutation), and 92.3% in the m.8344A>G mutation. Among the cohort as a whole, focal seizures, with or without progression to bilateral convulsive seizures, was the most common seizure type. Conversely, all of the patients with the m.8344A>G mutation and epilepsy experienced myoclonic seizures. Patients with the m.3243A>G mutation remain at high risk of developing stroke-like episodes (1.16% per year). However, although the standardized mortality ratio for the entire cohort was high (2.86), this ratio did not differ significantly between patients with epilepsy (2.96) and those without (2.83). Epilepsy is a common manifestation of mitochondrial disease. It develops early in the disease and, in the case of the m.3243A>G mutation, often presents in the context of a stroke-like episode or status epilepticus. However, epilepsy does not itself appear to contribute to the increased mortality in mitochondrial disease. © 2015 The Authors. Annals of Neurology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Neurological Association.

  15. Apparent and internal validity of a Monte Carlo-Markov model for cardiovascular disease in a cohort follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijhuis, Rogier L; Stijnen, Theo; Peeters, Anna; Witteman, Jacqueline C M; Hofman, Albert; Hunink, M G Myriam

    2006-01-01

    To determine the apparent and internal validity of the Rotterdam Ischemic heart disease & Stroke Computer (RISC) model, a Monte Carlo-Markov model, designed to evaluate the impact of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and their modification on life expectancy (LE) and cardiovascular disease-free LE (DFLE) in a general population (hereinafter, these will be referred to together as (DF)LE). The model is based on data from the Rotterdam Study, a cohort follow-up study of 6871 subjects aged 55 years and older who visited the research center for risk factor assessment at baseline (1990-1993) and completed a follow-up visit 7 years later (original cohort). The transition probabilities and risk factor trends used in the RISC model were based on data from 3501 subjects (the study cohort). To validate the RISC model, the number of simulated CVD events during 7 years' follow-up were compared with the observed number of events in the study cohort and the original cohort, respectively, and simulated (DF)LEs were compared with the (DF)LEs calculated from multistate life tables. Both in the study cohort and in the original cohort, the simulated distribution of CVD events was consistent with the observed number of events (CVD deaths: 7.1% v. 6.6% and 7.4% v. 7.6%, respectively; non-CVD deaths: 11.2% v. 11.5% and 12.9% v. 13.0%, respectively). The distribution of (DF)LEs estimated with the RISC model consistently encompassed the (DF)LEs calculated with multistate life tables. The simulated events and (DF)LE estimates from the RISC model are consistent with observed data from a cohort follow-up study.

  16. Japan Diabetic Nephropathy Cohort Study: study design, methods, and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuichi, Kengo; Shimizu, Miho; Toyama, Tadashi; Koya, Daisuke; Koshino, Yoshitaka; Abe, Hideharu; Mori, Kiyoshi; Satoh, Hiroaki; Imanishi, Masahito; Iwano, Masayuki; Yamauchi, Hiroyuki; Kusano, Eiji; Fujimoto, Shouichi; Suzuki, Yoshiki; Okuda, Seiya; Kitagawa, Kiyoki; Iwata, Yasunori; Kaneko, Shuichi; Nishi, Shinichi; Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Ueda, Yoshihiko; Haneda, Masakazu; Makino, Hirofumi; Wada, Takashi

    2013-12-01

    Diabetic nephropathy, leading to end-stage renal disease, has a considerable impact on public health and the social economy. However, there are few national registries of diabetic nephropathy in Japan. The aims of this prospective cohort study are to obtain clinical data and urine samples for revising the clinical staging of diabetic nephropathy, and developing new diagnostic markers for early diabetic nephropathy. The Japanese Society of Nephrology established a nationwide, web-based, and prospective registry system. On the system, there are two basic registries; the Japan Renal Biopsy Registry (JRBR), and the Japan Kidney Disease Registry (JKDR). In addition to the two basic registries, we established a new prospective registry to the system; the Japan Diabetic Nephropathy Cohort Study (JDNCS), which collected physical and laboratory data. We analyzed the data of 321 participants (106 female, 215 male; average age 65 years) in the JDNCS. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was 130.1 and 72.3 mmHg, respectively. Median estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was 33.3 ml/min/1.73 m(2). Proteinuria was 1.8 g/gCr, and serum levels of albumin were 3.6 g/dl. The majority of the JDNCS patients presented with preserved eGFR and low albuminuria or low eGFR and advanced proteinuria. In the JRBR and JKDR registries, 484 and 125 participants, respectively, were enrolled as having diabetes mellitus. In comparison with the JRBR and JKDR registries, the JDNCS was characterized by diabetic patients presenting with low proteinuria with moderately preserved eGFR. There are few national registries of diabetic nephropathy to evaluate prognosis in Japan. Future analysis of the JDNCS will provide clinical insights into the epidemiology and renal and cardiovascular outcomes of type 2 diabetic patients in Japan.

  17. Treatment with vacuum-assisted closure and cryo-preserved homologous de-epidermalised dermis of complex traumas to the lower limbs with loss of substance, and bones and tendons exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandi, C; Grimaldi, L; Nisi, G; Silvestri, A; Brafa, A; Calabrò, M; D'Aniello, C

    2008-12-01

    Lower-limb injuries with loss of tissue and exposure of bones and tendons are an increasing problem. The condition of the wound locally and the patient in general does not always allow immediate and adequate coverage of the structures exposed by the trauma. Therefore, new therapeutic solutions are needed. A reduction in the time that bones and tendons are exposed is essential to achieve complete healing of bone fractures, with reduced risks of infection and less disabling outcomes. The effectiveness of vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) therapy in supporting wound healing and of cryopreserved homologous de-epidermalised dermis (DED) in providing an effective template for re-epithelialisation has been previously reported. We carried out a study to evaluate the effectiveness of the synergistic and combined use of the two methodologies. Eighteen patients with traumatic loss of tissue in the lower limbs, involving exposure of bone and tendon structures, were enrolled in the study. All participants had local, general contraindications to first-instance reconstructions, or both. All patients received a combination of VAC therapy and DED implants. Granulation tissue was obtained in all wounds, with complete coverage of exposed structures. No infections were detected in the cohort, and all patients were prepared for further necessary reconstructive treatments. In our experience, the combination of VAC therapy and DED could, in selected cases, constitute an effective treatment for complex lower limb traumatic injuries with bone and tendon exposure.

  18. Risk of Suicide Attempt in Poststroke Patients: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnod, Tomor; Lin, Cheng-Li; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2018-01-10

    This nationwide population-based cohort study evaluated the risk of and risk factors for suicide attempt in poststroke patients in Taiwan. The poststroke and nonstroke cohorts consisted of 713 690 patients and 1 426 009 controls, respectively. Adults (aged >18 years) who received new stroke diagnoses according to the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM ; codes 430-438) between 2000 and 2011 were included in the poststroke cohort. We calculated the adjusted hazard ratio for suicide attempt ( ICD-9-CM codes E950-E959) after adjustment for age, sex, monthly income, urbanization level, occupation category, and various comorbidities. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to measure the cumulative incidence of suicide attempt, and the Fine and Gray method was used as a competing event when estimating death subhazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals between groups. The cumulative incidence of suicide attempt was higher in the poststroke cohort, and the adjusted hazard ratio of suicide attempt was 2.20 (95% confidence interval, 2.04-2.37) compared with that of the controls. The leading risk factors for poststroke suicide attempt were earning low monthly income (US dollars), living in less urbanized regions, doing manual labor, and having a stroke before age 50 years. The attempted suicide risk did not differ significantly between male and female patients in this study. These results convey crucial information to clinicians and governments for preventing suicide attempt in poststroke patients in Taiwan and other Asian countries. © 2018 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  19. Operative Complications During Pregnancy After Gastric Bypass—a Register-Based Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Lisbeth A; Nilas, Lisbeth; Kjær, Mette M

    2014-01-01

    the puerperium. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of internal herniation during pregnancy was 1 % in our study. Internal herniation may be a serious complication in pregnant women, and both the diagnosis and treatment requires handling by experienced obstetrical, radiological, and surgical staff....... during pregnancy in a national cohort of women with a history of gastric bypass surgery. METHODS: A national, register-based cohort study of all Danish women with a history of gastric bypass surgery who had given birth from 2004 to 2010 was conducted. Surgical codes registered during pregnancy and until...... 120 days postpartum were identified in national registers, and the individual charts were reviewed in relevant cases. RESULTS: Of 286 women giving birth, fourteen women underwent procedures that might be related to the earlier gastric bypass surgery. Three women were operated on suspicion of internal...

  20. Convergent and discriminant validity of psychiatric symptoms reported in The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study at age 3 years with independent clinical assessment in the Longitudinal ADHD Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Biele

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies often use parent questionnaires to assess children's development and mental health. To date, few studies have investigated the validity of parent questionnaires with standardized clinical assessments as criterion. The current study examines discriminant and convergent validity of parent questionnaires for symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD, Oppositional Defiance Disorder (ODD, and Conduct Disorder (CD as well as symptoms of Separation Anxiety employed in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study by using structured clinical interviews performed 5 months later in the Longitudinal ADHD Cohort Study as a criterion. The comparison of confirmatory factor analysis models and examination of factor correlations indicate convergent and discriminant validity of MoBa parent questionnaires for preschool children, especially for the assessment of ADHD and ODD/CD. Future research should attempt to further improve parent questionnaires, examine their validity in representative samples, and explicitly test their utility for screening.

  1. Is outdoor work associated with elevated rates of cerebrovascular disease mortality? : a cohort study based on iron-ore mining

    OpenAIRE

    Björ, Ove; Jonsson, Håkan; Damber, Lena; Burström, Lage; Nilsson, Tohr

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A cohort study that examined iron ore mining found negative associations between cumulative working time employed underground and several outcomes, including mortality of cerebrovascular diseases. In this cohort study, and using the same group of miners, we examined whether work in an outdoor environment could explain elevated cerebrovascular disease rates. METHODS: This study was based on a Swedish iron ore mining cohort consisting of 13,000 workers. Poisson regression models wer...

  2. Mother's education and offspring asthma risk in 10 European cohort studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lewis, Kate Marie; Ruiz, Milagros; Goldblatt, Peter; Morrison, Joana; Porta, Daniela; Forastiere, Francesco; Hryhorczuk, Daniel; Zvinchuk, Oleksandr; Saurel-Cubizolles, Marie-Josephe; Lioret, Sandrine; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Vrijheid, Martine; Torrent, Maties; Iniguez, Carmen; Larranaga, Isabel; Harskamp-van Ginkel, Margreet W.; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.; Klanova, Jana; Svancara, Jan; Barross, Henrique; Correia, Sofia; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Taanila, Anja; Ludvigsson, Johnny; Faresjo, Tomas; Marmot, Michael; Pikhart, Hynek

    2017-01-01

    Highly prevalent and typically beginning in childhood, asthma is a burdensome disease, yet the risk factors for this condition are not clarified. To enhance understanding, this study assessed the cohort-specific and pooled risk of maternal education on asthma in children aged 3-8 across 10 European

  3. The New Zealand Asthma and Allergy Cohort Study (NZA2CS: Assembly, Demographics and Investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epton Michael J

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma and allergy are highly prevalent in industrialised countries. Longitudinal and cross-sectional studies have identified a number of potential risk factors for these conditions, including genetic and environmental factors, with significant gene-environment relationships. Birth cohort studies have been proposed as an important tool to explore these risk factors, particularly exposures in early life that are associated with later disease or protection from disease. This paper describes the establishment of a birth cohort in New Zealand. Methods A birth cohort was established in 1996 in Christchurch and Wellington and infants recruited between 1997–2001. Expectant mothers were recruited by midwives. Children and mothers have undergone assessment by serial questionnaires, environmental assessment including mould and allergen exposure, skin-prick testing, and at age six years are undergoing full assessment for the presence of asthma, atopy and allergic disease, including genetic assessment. Results A total of 1105 children have been recruited, and the retention rate at fifteen months was 91.4%. 15.2% of the children at recruitment have been identified as Maori. A positive family history of asthma, eczema or hay fever has been reported in 84% of children. All children have now been assessed at fifteen months and 685 children from the cohort have reached age six years and have completed the six year assessment. Conclusion The cohort is fully assembled, and assessment of children is well advanced, with good retention rates. The study is well placed to address many current hypotheses about the risk factors for allergic disease and asthma.

  4. Mammography Among Women With Severe Mental Illness: Exploring Disparities Through a Large Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Melanie; James, Monique; Vittinghoff, Eric; Creasman, Jennifer M; Schillinger, Dean; Mangurian, Christina

    2018-01-01

    This study examined mammogram screening rates among women with severe mental illness by using a socioecological framework. Because it has been shown that people with severe mental illness receive less preventive health care overall, the analysis included psychosocial predictors of mammogram screening rates in a cohort of women with severe mental illness. This retrospective cohort study (N=14,651) used existing statewide data for women ages 48-67 in California with Medicaid insurance who received treatment in the specialty mental health care system. The primary outcome of interest was evidence of breast cancer screening via mammogram. The associations of each predictor of interest with mammogram screening were evaluated by using Poisson models with robust standard errors. Across all demographic and diagnostic categories, rates of breast cancer screening in this cohort of women with severe mental illness fell below the national average. Only 26.3% (3,859/14,651) of women in the cohort received breast cancer screening in the past year. This study replicated previous findings that women with schizophrenia spectrum disorder and those with a comorbid substance use disorder are less likely to receive screening than those with other types of mental illness. In this cohort of women with severe mental illness, evidence of nonpsychiatric health care utilization was strongly associated with breast cancer screening (adjusted risk ratio=3.30, 95% confidence interval=2.61-4.16, pmental illness, such as targeted outreach to population subsets and colocation of primary care services in mental health treatment settings.

  5. Depressive symptoms, insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in the RISC cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bot, M.; Pouwer, F.; de Jonge, P.; Nolan, J.J.; Mari, A.; Højlund, K.; Golay, A.; Balkau, B.; Dekker, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Aim This study explored the association of depressive symptoms with indices of insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in a cohort of non-diabetic men and women aged 30 to 64 years. Methods The study population was derived from the 3-year follow-up of the Relationship between Insulin Sensitivity

  6. Depressive symptoms, insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in the RISC cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bot, M.; Pouwer, F.; De Jonge, P.; Nolan, J. J.; Mari, A.; Hojlund, K.; Golay, A.; Balkau, B.; Dekker, J. M.

    Aim. This study explored the association of depressive symptoms with indices of insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in a cohort of non-diabetic men and women aged 30 to 64 years. Methods. The study population was derived from the 3-year follow-up of the Relationship between Insulin Sensitivity

  7. Perinatal complications in patients with unisutural craniosynostosis: An international multicentre retrospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, Martijn J.; Softeland, Madiha; Apon, Inge; Ladfors, Lars; Mathijssen, Irene M. J.; Cohen-Overbeek, Titia E.; Bonsel, Gouke J.; Kolby, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Craniosynostosis may lead to hampered fetal head molding and birth complications. To study the interaction between single suture craniosynostosis and delivery complications, an international, multicentre, retrospective cohort study was performed. Materials and methods All infants born

  8. Childhood socioeconomic position and adult mental wellbeing: Evidence from four British birth cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Natasha; Bann, David; Hardy, Rebecca; Gale, Catharine; Goodman, Alissa; Crawford, Claire; Stafford, Mai

    2017-01-01

    There is much evidence showing that childhood socioeconomic position is associated with physical health in adulthood; however existing evidence on how early life disadvantage is associated with adult mental wellbeing is inconsistent. This paper investigated whether childhood socioeconomic position (SEP) is associated with adult mental wellbeing and to what extent any association is explained by adult SEP using harmonised data from four British birth cohort studies. The sample comprised 20,717 participants with mental wellbeing data in the Hertfordshire Cohort Study (HCS), the MRC National Survey of Health and Development (NSHD), the National Child Development Study (NCDS), and the British Cohort Study (BCS70). Warwick Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale (WEMWBS) scores at age 73 (HCS), 60-64 (NSHD), 50 (NCDS), or 42 (BCS70) were used. Harmonised socioeconomic position (Registrar General's Social Classification) was ascertained in childhood (age 10/11) and adulthood (age 42/43). Associations between childhood SEP, adult SEP, and wellbeing were tested using linear regression and multi-group structural equation models. More advantaged father's social class was associated with better adult mental wellbeing in the BCS70 and the NCDS. This association was independent of adult SEP in the BCS70 but fully mediated by adult SEP in the NCDS. There was no evidence of an association between father's social class and adult mental wellbeing in the HCS or the NSHD. Socioeconomic conditions in childhood are directly and indirectly, through adult socioeconomic pathways, associated with adult mental wellbeing, but findings from these harmonised data suggest this association may depend on cohort or age.

  9. Suicide in Scottish military veterans: a 30-year retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, B P; Mackay, D F; Smith, D J; Pell, J P

    2017-07-01

    Although reassuring data on suicide risk in UK veterans of the 1982 Falklands conflict and 1991 Gulf conflict have been published, there have been few studies on long-term overall suicide risk in UK veterans. To examine the risk of suicide in a broad population-based cohort of veterans in Scotland, irrespect ive of length of service or exposure to conflict, in comparison with people having no record of military service. A retrospective 30-year cohort study of 56205 veterans born 1945-85 and 172741 matched non-veterans, using Cox proportional hazard models to compare the risk of suicide and fatal self-harm overall, by sex, birth cohort, length of service and year of recruitment. There were 267 (0.48%) suicides in the veterans compared with 918 (0.53%) in non-veterans. The difference was not statistically significant overall [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 0.99; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.86-1.13]. The incidence was lower in younger veterans and higher in veterans aged over 40. Early service leavers were at non-significantly increased risk (adjusted HR 1.13; 95% CI 0.91-1.40) but only in the older age groups. Women veterans had a significantly higher risk of suicide than non-veteran women (adjusted HR 2.44; 95% CI 1.32-4.51, P suicide did not differ significantly between veterans and non-veterans, for either sex. The Scottish Veterans Health Study adds to the emerging body of evidence that there is no overall difference in long-term risk of suicide between veterans and non-veterans in the UK. However, female veterans merit further study. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  10. Effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of Vitex agnus-castus fruit on kidney of D-galactose-induced aging model in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oroojan, A A; Ahangarpour, A; Khorsandi, L; Najimi, S A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a hydro-alcoholic extract of Vitex agnus-castus (VAC) fruit on blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr) and, kidney histology of a female mouse model of D-galactose induced aging. In this experimental study, 72 NMRI mice were divided into 6 groups: control, VAC, D-galactose, D-galactose+VAC, aging, and aging+VAC. D-galactose was injected for 45 days and, VAC extract administered in the last 7 days, twice a day. Serum BUN and Cr levels were not significantly changed in the D-galactose and natural aged animals in comparison to control group. Histological changes such as nuclear pyknosis, proximal cell swelling, infiltration of inflammatory cells, tubular dilatation and, vasodilatation were observed in both D-galactose and natural aged mice. Further, glomerules diameter was decreased in them. Administration of VAC could attenuate the histological alterations. These results indicate that VAC may have beneficial effects on aging and aging related kidney disease.

  11. [Mortality of psychiatric patients. A retrospective cohort study of in-patients at the Psychiatric Hospital of Reggio Emilia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballone, E; Contini, G

    1992-03-01

    The authors report the results of historical cohort study in long-term patients of psychiatric hospitals in Reggio Emilia. The cohort was formed by 790 patients hospitalized before 1978, and has been followed-up until 31/12/'89. The results of the study are: 269 subjects deceased (34%); 117 discharges (14.8%) and 411 (52.1%) still in hospital on 1/1/'90. An excess mortality was observed in the cohort. Mortality appears to be particularly high among young patient and females.

  12. Alcohol attributable burden of incidence of cancer in eight European countries based on results from prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuetze, Madlen; Boeing, Heiner; Pischon, Tobias; Rehm, Juergen; Kehoe, Tara; Gmel, Gerrit; Olsen, Anja; Tjonneland, Anne M.; Dahm, Christina C.; Overvad, Kim; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Benetou, Vasiliki; Zylis, Dimosthenis; Kaaks, Rudolf; Rohrmann, Sabine; Palli, Domenico; Berrino, Franco; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Rodriguez, Laudina; Agudo, Antonio; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Dorronsoro, Miren; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Barricarte, Aurelio; Peeters, Petra H.; van Gils, Carla H.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Allen, Naomi E.; Key, Timothy J.; Boffetta, Paolo; Slimani, Nadia; Jenab, Mazda; Romaguera, Dora; Wark, Petra A.; Riboli, Elio; Bergmann, Manuela M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compute the burden of cancer attributable to current and former alcohol consumption in eight European countries based on direct relative risk estimates from a cohort study. Design Combination of prospective cohort study with representative population based data on alcohol exposure.

  13. Predicting Reading and Spelling Disorders: A 4-Year Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigozzi, Lucia; Tarchi, Christian; Caudek, Corrado; Pinto, Giuliana

    2016-01-01

    In this 4-year prospective cohort study, children with a reading and spelling disorder, children with a spelling impairment, and children without a reading and/or spelling disorder (control group) in a transparent orthography were identified in third grade, and their emergent literacy performances in kindergarten compared retrospectively. Six hundred and forty-two Italian children participated. This cohort was followed from the last year of kindergarten to third grade. In kindergarten, the children were assessed in phonological awareness, conceptual knowledge of writing systems and textual competence. In third grade, 18 children with a reading and spelling impairment and 13 children with a spelling impairment were identified. Overall, conceptual knowledge of the writing system was the only statistically significant predictor of the clinical samples. No differences were found between the two clinical samples.

  14. Physical activity and risk of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis in a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallo, Valentina; Vanacore, Nicola; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Vermeulen, Roel; Brayne, Carol; Pearce, Neil; Wark, Petra A.; Ward, Heather A.; Ferrari, Pietro; Jenab, Mazda; Andersen, Peter M.; Wennberg, Patrik; Wareham, Nicholas; Katzke, Verena; Kaaks, Rudolf; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Peeters, Petra H.; Mattiello, Amalia; Pala, Valeria; Barricante, Aurelio; Chirlaque, Maria Dolores; Travier, Noémie; Travis, Ruth C.; Sanchez, Maria Jose; Pessah-Rasmussen, Hélène; Petersson, Jesper; Tjønneland, Anne; Tumino, Rosario; Quiros, Jose Ramon; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Kyrozis, Andreas; Oikonomidou, Despoina; Masala, Giovanna; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Arriola, Larraitz; Boeing, Heiner; Vigl, Matthaeus; Claver-Chapelon, Francoise; Middleton, Lefkos; Riboli, Elio; Vineis, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Previous case–control studies have suggested a possible increased risk of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) with physical activity (PA), but this association has never been studied in prospective cohort studies. We therefore assessed the association between PA and risk of death from ALS in the

  15. Physical activity and risk of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis in a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallo, Valentina; Vanacore, Nicola; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Vermeulen, Roel; Brayne, Carol; Pearce, Neil; Wark, Petra A; Ward, Heather A; Ferrari, Pietro; Jenab, Mazda; Andersen, Peter M; Wennberg, Patrik; Wareham, Nicholas; Katzke, Verena; Kaaks, Rudolf; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Peeters, Petra H; Mattiello, Amalia; Pala, Valeria; Barricante, Aurelio; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Travier, Noémie; Travis, Ruth C; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Pessah-Rasmussen, Hélène; Petersson, Jesper; Tjønneland, Anne; Tumino, Rosario; Quiros, Jose Ramon; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Kyrozis, Andreas; Oikonomidou, Despoina; Masala, Giovanna; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Arriola, Larraitz; Boeing, Heiner; Vigl, Matthaeus; Claver-Chapelon, Francoise; Middleton, Lefkos; Riboli, Elio; Vineis, Paolo

    Previous case-control studies have suggested a possible increased risk of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) with physical activity (PA), but this association has never been studied in prospective cohort studies. We therefore assessed the association between PA and risk of death from ALS in the

  16. Association between adult otitis media and nasopharyngeal cancer: A nationwide population-based cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Wen-Yen; Lin, Che-Chen; Jen, Yee-Min; Lin, Kuen-Tze; Yang, Muh-Hwa; Chen, Chang-Ming; Chang, Ying-Nan; Sung, Fung-Chang; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether the diagnosis of otitis media (OM) in adults is associated with an increased risk for the subsequent development of nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) using a nationwide population-based retrospective study. Methods and materials: We selected 13,513 adult patients that had been previously diagnosed with OM between 2000 and 2005 from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000 as the study cohort, and randomly extracted the data of 135,130 participants matched by sex, age, and baseline year for the comparison cohort. The follow-up period was terminated upon developing NPC, withdrawal from the national health insurance system, or the end of 2009. Cumulative incidences and hazard ratios (HRs) of NPC development were determined. Results: The subsequent NPC incidence rates in the OM and comparison cohorts were 6.41 and 0.58 per 10 000 person-years, respectively (adjusted HR, 11.04; 95% CI, 7.68–5.87; P < 0.0001). The NPC risk for males was significantly higher than that for females (adjusted HR = 3.24; 95% CI, 2.16–4.85). In both female and male patients, the diagnosis of OM was associated with a significantly increased risk for NPC (adjusted HR, 11.91 vs. 10.78, respectively). Among the OM cohort, 62 participants were subsequently diagnosed with NPC, with 71% of them occurring within 1 year following the diagnosis of OM. However, even after 5-year follow-up, the OM cohort still displayed a higher risk for NPC (adjusted HR = 2.50). Stratified by the frequency of OM episodes, more than one episode per year had a significantly greater risk of developing NPC, compared with the comparison cohort (HR = 29.22; 95% CI, 20.19–42.27). Conclusion: We found that adult OM is a warning sign for the development of NPC in Taiwan, with approximately an 11-fold higher risk for adult OM patients. We recommend that OM patients undergo follow-up examinations for at least 5 years. To extrapolate our findings, further studies are warranted in other

  17. The effect of urinary incontinence status during pregnancy and delivery mode on incontinence postpartum. A cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Wesnes, Stian Langeland; Hunskår, Steinar; Bø, Kari; Rørtveit, Guri

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The objectives of this study were to investigate prevalence of urinary incontinence at 6 months postpartum and to study how continence status during pregnancy and mode of delivery influence urinary incontinence at 6 months postpartum in primiparous women.Design: Cohort study.Setting: Pregnant women attending routine ultrasound examination were recruited to the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa).Population A total of 12 679 primigravidas who were contin...

  18. Periodontal Disease and Incident Lung Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Cohort Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xian-Tao; Xia, Ling-Yun; Zhang, Yong-Gang; Li, Sheng; Leng, Wei-Dong; Kwong, Joey S W

    2016-10-01

    Periodontal disease is linked to a number of systemic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus. Recent evidence has suggested periodontal disease might be associated with lung cancer. However, their precise relationship is yet to be explored. Hence, this study aims to investigate the association of periodontal disease and risk of incident lung cancer using a meta-analytic approach. PubMed, Scopus, and ScienceDirect were searched up to June 10, 2015. Cohort and nested case-control studies investigating risk of lung cancer in patients with periodontal disease were included. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated, as were their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using a fixed-effect inverse-variance model. Statistical heterogeneity was explored using the Q test as well as the I(2) statistic. Publication bias was assessed by visual inspection of funnel plots symmetry and Egger's test. Five cohort studies were included, involving 321,420 participants in this meta-analysis. Summary estimates based on adjusted data showed that periodontal disease was associated with a significant risk of lung cancer (HR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.13 to 1.36; I(2) = 30%). No publication bias was detected. Subgroup analysis indicated that the association of periodontal disease and lung cancer remained significant in the female population. Evidence from cohort studies suggests that patients with periodontal disease are at increased risk of developing lung cancer.

  19. Coffee drinking and mortality in 10 European countries : A multinational cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunter, Marc J.; Murphy, Neil; Cross, Amanda J.; Dossus, Laure; Dartois, Laureen; Fagherazzi, Guy; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kühn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Larsen, Sofus Christian; Cornejo, Maria Luisa Redondo; Agudo, Antonio; Pérez, María José Sánchez; Altzibar, Jone M.; Navarro, Carmen; Ardanaz, Eva; Khaw, Kay Tee; Butterworth, Adam; Bradbury, Kathryn E.; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Grioni, Sara; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Bueno-De-Mesquita, Bas; Siersema, Peter; Leenders, Max; Beulens, Joline W.J.; Uiterwaal, Cuno U.; Wallström, Peter; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Landberg, Rikard; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Braaten, Tonje; Brennan, Paul; Licaj, Idlir; Muller, David C.; Sinha, Rashmi; Wareham, Nick; Riboli, Elio

    2017-01-01

    Background: The relationship between coffee consumption and mortality in diverse European populations with variable coffee preparation methods is unclear. Objective: To examine whether coffee consumption is associated with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Design: Prospective cohort study.

  20. Milk intake and risk of mortality and fractures in women and men : cohort studies

    OpenAIRE

    Michaëlsson, Karl; Wolk, Alicja; Langenskiöld, Sophie; Basu, Samar; Warensjö Lemming, Eva; Melhus, Håkan; Byberg, Liisa

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether high milk consumption is associated with mortality and fractures in women and men. DESIGN: Cohort studies. SETTING: Three counties in central Sweden. PARTICIPANTS: Two large Swedish cohorts, one with 61 433 women (39-74 years at baseline 1987-90) and one with 45 339 men (45-79 years at baseline 1997), were administered food frequency questionnaires. The women responded to a second food frequency questionnaire in 1997. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Multivariable survival ...

  1. Changing Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Heavy Drinking Trajectories Through Young Adulthood: A Comparative Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Edwina; Mulia, Nina; Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J; Lui, Camillia K

    2018-01-01

    There is evidence of racial/ethnic differences in the age at which young adults age out of heavy drinking. Some studies have found Black and Hispanic drinkers engage in more frequent heavy drinking than White people beyond adulthood. Yet, the alcohol-related disparities literature has produced contradictory findings on whether an age-crossover effect is evident among racial/ethnic groups; that is, whether racial/ethnic minorities' drinking levels or trajectories are lower than White people at young ages but later exceed (or crossover) those of White people. This study extends this scant literature by assessing whether racial/ethnic differences in heavy drinking have changed over time (possibly accounting for mixed findings from prior research); and tests for an age-crossover effect in heavy drinking using longitudinal data from 2 cohorts born 20 years apart. Data are from the 1979 (n = 10,963) and 1997 (n = 8,852) cohorts of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). Generalized estimating equations were used to model trajectories of heavy drinking frequency from ages 17 to 31. Racial/ethnic differences were determined using sex-stratified models and 3-way interactions of race/ethnicity with age, age-squared, and cohort. Racial/ethnic differences in heavy drinking trajectories have changed over time in men and women. In the older NLSY cohort, Hispanic men and Black women surpassed White men's and women's heavy drinking frequency by age 31. This crossover was absent in the younger cohort, where trajectories of all racial-sex groups converged by age 31. Normative trajectories have changed in Hispanics and White people of both sexes, with a delay in age of peak frequency, and greater levels of heavy drinking in the younger cohort of women. Changes in heavy drinking trajectories over time suggest the need for targeted interventions during young adulthood. While disparities in young adult heavy drinking were no longer apparent in the more recent birth cohort

  2. Cohort profile: Study of Transition, Outcomes and Gender (STRONG) to assess health status of transgender people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Virginia P; Nash, Rebecca; Hunkeler, Enid; Contreras, Richard; Cromwell, Lee; Becerra-Culqui, Tracy A; Getahun, Darios; Giammattei, Shawn; Lash, Timothy L; Millman, Andrea; Robinson, Brandi; Roblin, Douglas; Silverberg, Michael J; Slovis, Jennifer; Tangpricha, Vin; Tolsma, Dennis; Valentine, Cadence; Ward, Kevin; Winter, Savannah; Goodman, Michael

    2017-12-27

    The Study of Transition, Outcomes and Gender (STRONG) was initiated to assess the health status of transgender people in general and following gender-affirming treatments at Kaiser Permanente health plans in Georgia, Northern California and Southern California. The objectives of this communication are to describe methods of cohort ascertainment and data collection and to characterise the study population. A stepwise methodology involving computerised searches of electronic medical records and free-text validation of eligibility and gender identity was used to identify a cohort of 6456 members with first evidence of transgender status (index date) between 2006 and 2014. The cohort included 3475 (54%) transfeminine (TF), 2892 (45%) transmasculine (TM) and 89 (1%) members whose natal sex and gender identity remained undetermined from the records. The cohort was matched to 127 608 enrollees with no transgender evidence (63 825 women and 63 783 men) on year of birth, race/ethnicity, study site and membership year of the index date. Cohort follow-up extends through the end of 2016. About 58% of TF and 52% of TM cohort members received hormonal therapy at Kaiser Permanente. Chest surgery was more common among TM participants (12% vs 0.3%). The proportions of transgender participants who underwent genital reconstruction surgeries were similar (4%-5%) in the two transgender groups. Results indicate that there are sufficient numbers of events in the TF and TM cohorts to further examine mental health status, cardiovascular events, diabetes, HIV and most common cancers. STRONG is well positioned to fill existing knowledge gaps through comparisons of transgender and reference populations and through analyses of health status before and after gender affirmation treatment. Analyses will include incidence of cardiovascular disease, mental health, HIV and diabetes, as well as changes in laboratory-based endpoints (eg, polycythemia and bone density), overall and in relation to

  3. Dairy foods, calcium, and colorectal cancer: A pooled analysis of 10 cohort studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cho, E.; Smith-Warner, S.A.; Spiegelman, D.; Beeson, W.L.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Colditz, G.A.; Folsom, A.R.; Fraser, G.E.; Freudenheim, J.L.; Giovannucci, E.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Graham, S.; Miller, A.B.; Pietinen, P.; Potter, J.D.; Rohan, T.E.; Terry, P.; Toniolo, P.; Virtanen, M.J.; Willet, W.C.; Wolk, A.; Wu, K.; Yaun, S.-S.; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, A.; Hunter, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Studies in animals have suggested that calcium may reduce the risk of colorectal cancer. However, results from epidemiologic studies of intake of calcium or dairy foods and colorectal cancer risk have been inconclusive. Methods: We pooled the primary data from 10 cohort studies in five

  4. External validation of prognostic models to predict risk of gestational diabetes mellitus in one Dutch cohort: prospective multicentre cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamain-de Ruiter, Marije; Kwee, Anneke; Naaktgeboren, Christiana A; de Groot, Inge; Evers, Inge M; Groenendaal, Floris; Hering, Yolanda R; Huisjes, Anjoke J M; Kirpestein, Cornel; Monincx, Wilma M; Siljee, Jacqueline E; Van 't Zelfde, Annewil; van Oirschot, Charlotte M; Vankan-Buitelaar, Simone A; Vonk, Mariska A A W; Wiegers, Therese A; Zwart, Joost J; Franx, Arie; Moons, Karel G M; Koster, Maria P H

    2016-08-30

     To perform an external validation and direct comparison of published prognostic models for early prediction of the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus, including predictors applicable in the first trimester of pregnancy.  External validation of all published prognostic models in large scale, prospective, multicentre cohort study.  31 independent midwifery practices and six hospitals in the Netherlands.  Women recruited in their first trimester (diabetes mellitus of any type were excluded.  Discrimination of the prognostic models was assessed by the C statistic, and calibration assessed by calibration plots.  3723 women were included for analysis, of whom 181 (4.9%) developed gestational diabetes mellitus in pregnancy. 12 prognostic models for the disorder could be validated in the cohort. C statistics ranged from 0.67 to 0.78. Calibration plots showed that eight of the 12 models were well calibrated. The four models with the highest C statistics included almost all of the following predictors: maternal age, maternal body mass index, history of gestational diabetes mellitus, ethnicity, and family history of diabetes. Prognostic models had a similar performance in a subgroup of nulliparous women only. Decision curve analysis showed that the use of these four models always had a positive net benefit.  In this external validation study, most of the published prognostic models for gestational diabetes mellitus show acceptable discrimination and calibration. The four models with the highest discriminative abilities in this study cohort, which also perform well in a subgroup of nulliparous women, are easy models to apply in clinical practice and therefore deserve further evaluation regarding their clinical impact. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Recovery of standing balance in postacute stroke patients: a rehabilitation cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haart, Mirjam; Geurts, Alexander C.; Huidekoper, Steven C.; Fasotti, Luciano; van Limbeek, Jacques

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify and interrelate static and dynamic characteristics of the restoration of quiet standing balance in a representative sample of stroke survivors in the Netherlands during their inpatient rehabilitation. DESIGN: Exploratory study using an inception cohort with findings related to

  6. Adverse drug reactions to tocolytic treatment for preterm labour: Prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. de Heus (Roel); B.W.J. Mol (Ben); J.J.H.M. Erwich; H.P. van Geijn (Herman); W.J. Gyselaers (Wilfried); M. Hanssens (Myriam); L. Harmark (Linda); C.D. van Holsbeke (Caroline); J.J. Duvekot (Hans); F. Famschobben; H. Wolf (Hans Uwe); G.H. Visser (Gerhard Henk)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractObjective To evaluate the incidence of serious maternal complications after the use of various tocolytic drugs for the treatment of preterm labour in routine clinical situations. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting 28 hospitals in the Netherlands and Belgium. Participants 1920

  7. A Prospective Cohort Study of IRS Genes Polymorphisms in Type 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the genetic polymorphisms that may contribute to the worsening of glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with severe or acute hyperglycemia. Methods: The prospective cohort study included 156 T2DM patients with severe or acute hyperglycemia from all medical wards of the National ...

  8. A Canadian naturalistic study of a community-based cohort treated for bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandresena Ranjith

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bipolar illness is associated with significant psychosocial morbidity and health resource utilization. Second generation antipsychotics, used alone or in combination with mood stabilizers are effective in treating acute mania in community settings. This study was designed to compare the change in clinical parameters and resource utilization at one month in a group of patients who required treatment intervention for exacerbation of mania. The clinical response at one year was also evaluated. Methods 496 patients were enrolled at 75 psychiatric practices across Canada. The Olanzapine cohort (n = 287 included patients who had olanzapine added to their medication regimen or the dose of olanzapine increased. The Other cohort (n = 209 had a medication other than olanzapine added or the dose adjusted. Changes from baseline in the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS, Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale, Beck Anxiety Inventory and SF-12 Health Survey were compared at one month using ANCOVA. Categorical variables at one month for health resource utilization, employment status, abuse/dependency, and the number of suicide attempts were compared using Fisher's Exact test. Patients were followed for one year and a subgroup was evaluated. Results At one month, patients in the Olanzapine cohort recorded a mean reduction in the YMRS of 11.5, significantly greater than the mean reduction in the Other cohort of 9.7 (ANCOVA P = 0.002. The Olanzapine cohort was significantly improved compared to the Other cohort on the scales for depression and anxiety and did not experience the deterioration in physical functioning seen in the Other cohort. No significant differences were detected in health-related quality-of-life measures, employment status, drug abuse/dependency, number of suicide attempts, mental functioning, emergency room visits or inpatient psychiatric hospitalizations. In a subgroup treated for 12 months with a single second generation

  9. Nested Cohort - R software package

    Science.gov (United States)

    NestedCohort is an R software package for fitting Kaplan-Meier and Cox Models to estimate standardized survival and attributable risks for studies where covariates of interest are observed on only a sample of the cohort.

  10. The Nightingale study: rationale, study design and baseline characteristics of a prospective cohort study on shift work and breast cancer risk among nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijpe, Anouk; Slottje, Pauline; van Pelt, Cres; Stehmann, Floor; Kromhout, Hans; van Leeuwen, Flora E; Vermeulen, Roel C H; Rookus, Matti A

    2014-01-29

    Evidence for the carcinogenicity of shift work in humans is limited because of significant heterogeneity of the results, thus more in-depth research in needed. The Nightingale Study is a nationwide prospective cohort study on occupational exposures and risks of chronic diseases among female nurses and focuses on the potential association between shift work and risk of breast cancer. The study design, methods, and baseline characteristics of the cohort are described. The source population for the cohort comprised 18 to 65 year old women who were registered as having completed training to be a nurse in the nationwide register for healthcare professionals in the Netherlands. Eligible women were invited to complete a web-based questionnaire including full job history, a detailed section on all domains of shift work (shift system, cumulative exposure, and shift intensity) and potential confounding factors, and an informed consent form for linkage with national (disease) registries. Women were also asked to donate toenail clippings as a source of DNA for genetic analyses. Between October 6, 2011 and February 1, 2012, 31% of the 192,931 women who were invited to participate completed the questionnaire, yielding a sample size of 59,947 cohort members. The mean age of the participants was 46.9 year (standard deviation 11.0 years). Toenail clippings were provided by 23,439 participants (39%). Results from the Nightingale Study will contribute to the scientific evidence of potential shift work-related health risks among nurses and will help develop preventive measures and policy aimed at reducing these risks.

  11. The Nightingale study: rationale, study design and baseline characteristics of a prospective cohort study on shift work and breast cancer risk among nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence for the carcinogenicity of shift work in humans is limited because of significant heterogeneity of the results, thus more in-depth research in needed. The Nightingale Study is a nationwide prospective cohort study on occupational exposures and risks of chronic diseases among female nurses and focuses on the potential association between shift work and risk of breast cancer. The study design, methods, and baseline characteristics of the cohort are described. Methods/Design The source population for the cohort comprised 18 to 65 year old women who were registered as having completed training to be a nurse in the nationwide register for healthcare professionals in the Netherlands. Eligible women were invited to complete a web-based questionnaire including full job history, a detailed section on all domains of shift work (shift system, cumulative exposure, and shift intensity) and potential confounding factors, and an informed consent form for linkage with national (disease) registries. Women were also asked to donate toenail clippings as a source of DNA for genetic analyses. Between October 6, 2011 and February 1, 2012, 31% of the 192,931 women who were invited to participate completed the questionnaire, yielding a sample size of 59,947 cohort members. The mean age of the participants was 46.9 year (standard deviation 11.0 years). Toenail clippings were provided by 23,439 participants (39%). Discussion Results from the Nightingale Study will contribute to the scientific evidence of potential shift work-related health risks among nurses and will help develop preventive measures and policy aimed at reducing these risks. PMID:24475944

  12. Alterations of the Subgingival Microbiota in Pediatric Crohn's Disease Studied Longitudinally in Discovery and Validation Cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsen, Judith; Bittinger, Kyle; Pauly-Hubbard, Helen; Posivak, Leah; Grunberg, Stephanie; Baldassano, Robert; Lewis, James D; Wu, Gary D; Bushman, Frederic D

    2015-12-01

    Oral manifestations are common in Crohn's disease (CD). Here we characterized the subgingival microbiota in pediatric patients with CD initiating therapy and after 8 weeks to identify microbial community features associated with CD and therapy. Pediatric patients with CD were recruited from The Children's Hospital of Pennsylvania. Healthy control subjects were recruited from primary care or orthopedics clinic. Subgingival plaque samples were collected at initiation of therapy and after 8 weeks. Treatment exposures included 5-ASAs, immunomodulators, steroids, and infliximab. The microbiota was characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The study was repeated in separate discovery (35 CD, 43 healthy) and validation cohorts (43 CD, 31 healthy). Most subjects in both cohorts demonstrated clinical response after 8 weeks of therapy (discovery cohort 88%, validation cohort 79%). At week 0, both antibiotic exposure and disease state were associated with differences in bacterial community composition. Seventeen genera were identified in the discovery cohort as candidate biomarkers, of which 11 were confirmed in the validation cohort. Capnocytophaga, Rothia, and TM7 were more abundant in CD relative to healthy controls. Other bacteria were reduced in abundance with antibiotic exposure among CD subjects. CD-associated genera were not enriched compared with healthy controls after 8 weeks of therapy. Subgingival microbial community structure differed with CD and antibiotic use. Results in the discovery cohort were replicated in a separate validation cohort. Several potentially pathogenic bacterial lineages were associated with CD but were not diminished in abundance by antibiotic treatment, suggesting targets for additional surveillance.

  13. Use of fertility drugs and risk of ovarian cancer: Danish population based cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Allan; Sharif, Heidi; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Kj?r, Susanne Kr?ger

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine the effects of fertility drugs on overall risk of ovarian cancer using data from a large cohort of infertile women. Design Population based cohort study. Setting Danish hospitals and private fertility clinics. Participants 54?362 women with infertility problems referred to all Danish fertility clinics during 1963-98. The median age at first evaluation of infertility was 30 years (range 16-55 years), and the median age at the end of follow-up was 47 (range 18-81) years. In...

  14. Risk of respiratory morbidity in term infants delivered by elective caesarean section: cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Kirkeby; Wisborg, Kirsten; Uldbjerg, Niels

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between elective caesarean sections and neonatal respiratory morbidity and the importance of timing of elective caesarean sections. DESIGN: Cohort study with prospectively collected data from the Aarhus birth cohort, Denmark. SETTING: Obstetric department...... and neonatal department of a university hospital in Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: All liveborn babies without malformations, with gestational ages between 37 and 41 weeks, and delivered between 1 January 1998 and 31 December 2006 (34 458 babies). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Respiratory morbidity (transitory tachypnoea...

  15. Efficacy of vacuum-assisted closure therapy on rehabilitation during the treatment for surgical site infection after cardiovascular surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, Akihiro; Inoue, Takafumi; Fujisaki, Masayuki; Morizumi, Sei; Suematsu, Yoshihiro

    2016-08-01

    Surgical site infection (SSI) after cardiovascular procedures is a severe complication, potentially leading to high morbidity and mortality. In addition, during the treatment of SSI, rehabilitation is delayed, which can severely impair postoperative recovery. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) therapy on rehabilitation during the treatment of SSI after cardiovascular surgery. From January 2008 to March 2015, 10 patients underwent VAC therapy for SSI after cardiovascular operations. The patient characteristics, duration of VAC therapy, time interval from the implementation of VAC to physical therapy (PT) (T1), ambulation (T2) and walking (T3), functional independent measure (FIM), and maximum consecutive walking capacity (MCWC) were retrospectively analyzed. Nine patients underwent mid-sternal incision and one patient underwent thoraco-abdominal incision. The mean time interval from the beginning of VAC therapy to PT, ambulation, and walking was 0.38 ± 0.50, 0.63 ± 0.71, and 1.38 ± 1.86 days, respectively. The average FIM was 84.5 ± 14.0 at the beginning of VAC therapy and 106.7 ± 18.5 at the end of VAC therapy (P = 0.000494). On average, MCWC was 52.3 ± 54.6 m at the installation of VAC therapy and 189.7 ± 152.8 m at the completion of VAC therapy (P = 0.0169). FIM and MCWC improvement rate was better in VAC group than non-VAC group although these data are not suitable for statistical analysis because of a small sample size. Although further studies are warranted, VAC therapy may have a role in facilitating rehabilitation and improving the prognosis of SSI cases after major cardiovascular operations.

  16. perinatal depression in a cohort study of Iranian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Reza Kheirabadi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Childbearing years in the women’s life are associated with the highest risk of depression. Despite the results of some studies that suggested, depression during pregnancy has been associated with poor prenatal care, substance abuse, low birth weight, and preterm delivery and introduced antenatal depression and anxiety as predictors of postnatal depression, researches during past 25 years have focused mostly on postpartum depression so depression during pregnancy is relatively neglected. Materials and methods: We studied depression during third trimester of pregnancy and after delivery, using prospectively gathered data from a cohort of 1898 women. We compared depressive symptom score and the proportion of mothers above a threshold, to indicate probable depressive disorder at each stage. Results: Point prevalence of depressed pregnant women (clinical depression based on BDI score greater than 20 in last trimester of pregnancy, was 22.8% and postnatal rate of depression based on EPD score greater than 12 between 6 to 8 weeks after delivery, was 26.3%. Incidence of PPD in 6 to 8 weeks after delivery in those who were not clinically depressed during pregnancy was, 20.1%. Discussion: We found that history of depression, unplanned pregnancy; being housewife and having 3 or more children were variables with significant relation to ante partum depression. Two main risk factors for post partum depression in this cohort study, were previous history of depression and depression during current pregnancy that highlight the importance of these two variables assessment during pregnancy in order to facilitate timely identification of women at risk.

  17. Electrocardiographic PR prolongation and atrial fibrillation risk: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Min; Lu, Xiangfeng; Huang, Jianfeng; Zhang, Shu; Gu, Dongfeng

    2015-01-01

    Electrocardiographic PR interval prolongation is considered a benign condition, but recent studies have challenged the notion by demonstrating that prolonged PR interval is associated with an increased risk of atrial fibrillation (AF). The purpose of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to evaluate the evidence supporting an association of prolonged PR interval with AF incidence. We searched the MEDLINE and EMBASE database (from inception to May 2014) supplemented by manual searches of references of relevant retrieved articles. Prospective cohort studies were included with hazard ratio (HR) of prolonged PR interval for incident AF. The search strategy yielded 6 cohort studies meeting eligibility criteria. A total of 328,932 participants were included, with 14,191 participants suffering from AF during follow-up. Pooled HRs of prolonged PR interval for incident AF was 1.30 (95% CI: 1.13 to 1.49) using random-effect model (I(2) = 30%). There was a significant difference of combined HRs between studies with and without adjustment for taking of AV nodal blocking agents in subgroup analysis. Sensitivity analysis supported the robustness of the results. Prolonged PR interval is not a totally benign condition but an independent risk factor for AF incidence. The mechanisms underlying the association of prolonged PR interval with AF incidence need further research. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Cohort profile: Pacific Islands Families (PIF) growth study, Auckland, New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Rush, E; Oliver, M; Plank, L D; Taylor, S; Iusitini, L; Jalili-Moghaddam, S; Savila, F; Paterson, J; Tautolo, E

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This article profiles a birth cohort of Pacific children participating in an observational prospective study and describes the study protocol used at ages 14?15?years to investigate how food and activity patterns, metabolic risk and family and built environment are related to rates of physical growth of Pacific children. Participants From 2000 to 2015, the Pacific Islands Families Study has followed, from birth, the growth and development of over 1000 Pacific children born in Auckland...

  19. The impact of voice impairment after thyroidectomy on quality of life. A prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Roed; Døssing, Helle; Bonnema, Steen Joop

    Introduction: To assess the impact of voice and vocal fold changes (VVFC) after thyroidectomy on disease specific quality of life (QoL). Methods: Prospective cohort study (inclusion period: 18 months, ending April-2016) with six months follow-up of patients with nodular goiter undergoing thyroide......Introduction: To assess the impact of voice and vocal fold changes (VVFC) after thyroidectomy on disease specific quality of life (QoL). Methods: Prospective cohort study (inclusion period: 18 months, ending April-2016) with six months follow-up of patients with nodular goiter undergoing...

  20. Cohort profile: seek, test, treat and retain United States criminal justice cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Redonna; Gordon, Michael S; Kruszka, Bridget; Strand, Lauren N; Altice, Frederick L; Beckwith, Curt G; Biggs, Mary L; Cunningham, William; Chris Delaney, J A; Flynn, Patrick M; Golin, Carol E; Knight, Kevin; Kral, Alex H; Kuo, Irene; Lorvick, Jennifer; Nance, Robin M; Ouellet, Lawrence J; Rich, Josiah D; Sacks, Stanley; Seal, David; Spaulding, Anne; Springer, Sandra A; Taxman, Faye; Wohl, David; Young, Jeremy D; Young, Rebekah; Crane, Heidi M

    2017-05-16

    The STTR treatment cascade provides a framework for research aimed at improving the delivery of services, care and outcomes of PLWH. The development of effective approaches to increase HIV diagnoses and engage PLWH in subsequent steps of the treatment cascade could lead to earlier and sustained ART treatment resulting in viral suppression. There is an unmet need for research applying the treatment cascade to improve outcomes for those with criminal justice involvement. The Seek, Test, Treat, and Retain (STTR) criminal justice (CJ) cohort combines data from 11 studies across the HIV treatment cascade that focused on persons involved in the criminal justice system, often but not exclusively for reasons related to substance use. The studies were conducted in a variety of CJ settings and collected information across 11 pre-selected domains: demographic characteristics, CJ involvement, HIV risk behaviors, HIV and/or Hepatitis C infections, laboratory measures of CD4 T-cell count (CD4) and HIV RNA viral load (VL), mental illness, health related quality of life (QoL), socioeconomic status, health care access, substance use, and social support. The STTR CJ cohort includes data on 11,070 individuals with and without HIV infection who range in age from 18 to 77 years, with a median age at baseline of 37 years. The cohort reflects racial, ethnic and gender distributions in the U.S. CJ system, and 64% of participants are African-American, 12% are Hispanic and 83% are men. Cohort members reported a wide range of HIV risk behaviors including history of injection drug use and, among those who reported on pre-incarceration sexual behaviors, the prevalence of unprotected sexual intercourse ranged across studies from 4% to 79%. Across all studies, 53% percent of the STTR CJ cohort reported recent polysubstance use. The STTR CJ cohort is comprised of participants from a wide range of CJ settings including jail, prison, and community supervision who report considerable diversity in

  1. Arthritis in adults with community-acquired bacterial meningitis: a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weisfelt, M.; van de Beek, D.; Spanjaard, L.; de Gans, J.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Although the coexistence of bacterial meningitis and arthritis has been noted in several studies, it remains unclear how often both conditions occur simultaneously. Methods: We evaluated the presence of arthritis in a prospective nationwide cohort of 696 episodes of community-acquired

  2. Maternal cortisol and offspring birthweight: results from a large prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedhart, G.; Vrijkotte, T.G.M.; Roseboom, T.J.; van der Wal, M.F.; Cuijpers, P.; Bonsel, G.J.

    2010-01-01

    Maternal psychosocial problems may affect fetal growth through maternal cortisol. This large prospective cohort study examined among 2810 women (1) the association of maternal cortisol levels with offspring birthweight and small for gestational age (SGA) risk and (2) the mediating role of maternal

  3. The US Department of Defense Millennium Cohort Study: career span and beyond longitudinal follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tyler C

    2009-10-01

    To describe current and future career-span health research in the US Department of Defense Millennium Cohort Study. Collaborating with all military service branches and the Department of Veterans Affairs, the Millennium Cohort Study launched in 2001, before September 11 and the start of deployments in Afghanistan and Iraq, to conduct coordinated strategic research to determine any effects of military occupational and deployment-related exposures, on long-term health. More than 150,000 consenting members represent demographic, occupational, military, and health characteristics of the US military. More than 70% of the first two panels have submitted follow-up questionnaires and >50% have deployed since 2001. Prospective cohort data have identified subgroups of military populations at higher risk or more resilient to decrements in mental and physical health. Continued career span and beyond follow-up will answer long-term health questions related to military service.

  4. Diabetik Ayak Sağaltımında Vakum Destekli Kapama (VAC) Metodu ve Debridmanın Birlikte Etkinliği

    OpenAIRE

    Fırat, Cemal; Aytekin, Ahmet Hamdi; Fırat, Serkan ErbaturCemal; Aytekin, Ahmet Hamdi; Erbatur, Serkan

    2015-01-01

    Amaç: Diabetik ayak ülserleri periferik nöropati, vasküler yetmezlik ve immün sistem bozukluklarından oluşan kısır döngünün sonucu olup enfeksiyon ve doku kayıplarına neden olmaktadır. Bu yıkıcı süreç cerrahi onarım seçeneklerini oldukça kısıtlamakta ve greftle onarım seçeneğini öne çıkarmaktadır. Greftlerin başarısı enfeksiyondan arındırılmış yeterli granülasyon dokusunun varlığına bağlıdır. Vakum yardımlı yara kapama sistemi (VAC) tedavisi bu iki etkiyi aynı anda sağlamada oldukça etkili ve...

  5. Activation of the mu-opiate receptor by Vitex agnus-castus methanol extracts: implication for its use in PMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, D E; Lu, J; Chen, S-N; Farnsworth, N R; Wang, Z Jim

    2006-06-30

    The dried ripe fruit of Vitex agnus-castus L. (VAC) is widely used for the treatment of premenstrual syndrome (PMS). A previous study reported that extracts of VAC showed affinity to opiate receptors; however, functional activity was not determined. We tested two different VAC extracts in receptor binding and functional assays. Our objectives were: (1) to confirm the opiate affinity; (2) to rule out interference by free fatty acids (FFA); (3) to determine the mode of action of VAC at the mu-opiate receptor. Methanol extracts of VAC were prepared either before (VAC-M1) or after (VAC-M2) extraction with petroleum ether to remove fatty acids. Both extracts showed significant affinities to the mu-opiate receptor, as indicated by the concentration-dependent displacement of [3H]DAMGO binding in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-human mu-opiate receptor (hMOR) cells. The IC50 values were estimated to be 159.8 microg/ml (VAC-M1) and 69.5 microg/ml (VAC-M2). Since the defatted extract not only retained, but exhibited a higher affinity (p<0.001), it argued against significant interference by fatty acids. In an assay to determine receptor activation, VAC-M1 and VAC-M2 stimulated [35S]GTPgammaS binding by 41 and 61% (p<0.001), respectively. These results suggested for the first time that VAC acted as an agonist at the mu-opiate receptor, supporting its beneficial action in PMS.

  6. The effects of Vitex agnus castus extract and its interaction with dopaminergic system on LH and testosterone in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasri, Sima; Oryan, Shahrbano; Rohani, Ali Haeri; Amin, Gholam Reza

    2007-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the probable effects of Vitex agnus castus (Vac.) on the male reproductive physiology. It is a well known fact that LH secretion from the anterior pituitary of mammals is controlled by many neurotransmiters such as dopamine. In this experiment, we have studied the effect of Vac. extract on the LH and testosterone hormones and its interaction with the dopaminergic system on male mice. In order to evaluate these effects, we used the hydroalcoholic Vac. extract (for extraction we used percolation technique) injection with the following doses: 65, 165, 265, 365 and 465 mg kg-', bromocriptine as a dopamine receptor agonist (5, 10, 20 mg kg(-1)) and haloperidol as a dopamine receptor antagonist (1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3 mg kg(-1)). To study the interaction between Vac. extract and dopaminergic system, we injected the optimum doses of Vac. with bromocriptine or haloperidol at the same time. Intraperitoneal injections were applied in all experiments, once a day for 30 days. The control group remained intact and the sham group received vehicle. After the last injection, we collected the animal blood serums for hormonal assays. LH and testosterone were measured by Radio Immuno Assay (RIA). LH and testosterone, showed significant decrease in bromocriptine group and haloperidol increased these hormones. Vac. extract decreased significantly the LH and testosterone levels. The coadministration of Vac. extract and bromocriptine decreased LH and testosterone. Coadministration of Vac. extract and haloperidol decreased LH and testosterone levels. These results suggest: dopamine regulates the gonadotroph-leydig cells axis. It appears that Vac. exertes effects through dopaminergic system and other pathways. The findings of this study show we can use Vac. extract for pathological cases of increasing LH and testosterone.

  7. Diseño de un sistema de logística inversa para la recolección de envases y empaques vacíos de plaguicidas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduin Dionisio Contreras Castañeda

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Este documento presenta los resultados finales de una investigación adelantada en el sector del Pantano de Vargas del Departamento de Boyacá – Colombia, el cual enfrenta un problema a causa del mal manejo y tratamiento que se le viene dando a los envases y empaques vacíos de plaguicidas por parte de los agricultores, causando contaminación en el medio ambiente. Debido a lo anterior, se planteó como objetivo principal realizar el diagnóstico del proceso de recolección y disposición final de los residuos generados, que permita el diseño de un proceso de Logística Inversa para los envases y empaques vacíos de plaguicidas en esta unidad de riego. Para lograr el objetivo propuesto se recolectó información mediante rastreo bibliográfico, observación directa y encuestas dirigidas a proveedores, agricultores y recolectores de los residuos en la zona de estudio. Además, se revisó la normativa legal aplicable a la recolección de envases vacíos de plaguicidas. Asimismo, se obtuvo la descripción gráfica de la recolección actual y se plantea la caracterización de un proceso de Logística Inversa. Entre los principales hallazgos, se evidenció que los actores que participan en el proceso de recolección y disposición final de los residuos de plaguicidas, no están cumplimiento con la normativa estipulada, y se observa que el proceso realizado actualmente es empírico y no tiene en cuenta actividades propias de la logística inversa. Se propone un proceso documentado bajo los lineamientos de la norma NTC-ISO 9001:2008, que permita la mejora continua del mismo. This paper shows the outcomes of a research process that was implemented in the Pantano de Vargas area, in Boyacá – Colombia. This place faces a big issue due to bad management and treatment that farmers are giving to empty containers and packaging of pesticides, producing environmental pollution.Because of this, the main objective of this research project was carrying out a

  8. Childhood psychological distress and youth unemployment: evidence from two British cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Mark; Daly, Michael; Delaney, Liam

    2015-01-01

    The effect of childhood mental health on later unemployment has not yet been established. In this article we assess whether childhood psychological distress places young people at high risk of subsequent unemployment and whether the presence of economic recession strengthens this relationship. This study was based on 19,217 individuals drawn from two nationally-representative British prospective cohort studies; the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England (LSYPE) and the National Child Development Study (NCDS). Both cohorts contain rich contemporaneous information detailing the participants' early life socioeconomic background, household characteristics, and physical health. In adjusted analyses in the LSYPE sample (N = 10,232) those who reported high levels of distress at age 14 were 2 percentage points more likely than those with low distress to be unemployed between ages 16 and 21. In adjusted analyses of the NCDS sample (N = 8985) children rated as having high distress levels by their teachers at age 7 and 11 were 3 percentage points more likely than those with low distress to be unemployed between ages 16 and 23. Our examination of the 1980 UK recession in the NCDS cohort found the difference in average unemployment level between those with high versus low distress rose from 2.6 pct points in the pre-recession period to 3.9 points in the post-recession period. These findings point to a previously neglected contribution of childhood mental health to youth unemployment, which may be particularly pronounced during times of economic recession. Our findings also suggest a further economic benefit to enhancing the provision of mental health services early in life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparative study of abdominal cavity temporary closure techniques for damage control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCELO A. F. RIBEIRO JR

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The damage control surgery, with emphasis on laparostomy, usually results in shrinkage of the aponeurosis and loss of the ability to close the abdominal wall, leading to the formation of ventral incisional hernias. Currently, various techniques offer greater chances of closing the abdominal cavity with less tension. Thus, this study aims to evaluate three temporary closure techniques of the abdominal cavity: the Vacuum-Assisted Closure Therapy - VAC, the Bogotá Bag and the Vacuum-pack. We conducted a systematic review of the literature, selecting 28 articles published in the last 20 years. The techniques of the bag Bogotá and Vacuum-pack had the advantage of easy access to the material in most centers and low cost, contrary to VAC, which, besides presenting high cost, is not available in most hospitals. On the other hand, the VAC technique was more effective in reducing stress at the edges of lesions, removing stagnant fluids and waste, in addition to acting at the cellular level by increasing proliferation and cell division rates, and showed the highest rates of primary closure of the abdominal cavity.

  10. Anonymous non-response analysis in the ABCD cohort study enabled by probabilistic record linkage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tromp, M.; van Eijsden, M.; Ravelli, A. C. J.; Bonsel, G. J.

    2009-01-01

    Selective non-response is an important threat to study validity as it can lead to selection bias. The Amsterdam Born Children and their Development study (ABCD-study) is a large cohort study addressing the relationship between life style, psychological conditions, nutrition and sociodemographic

  11. Gulf war illness--better, worse, or just the same? A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotopf, Matthew; David, Anthony S; Hull, Lisa; Nikalaou, Vasilis; Unwin, Catherine; Wessely, Simon

    2003-12-13

    Firstly, to describe changes in the health of Gulf war veterans studied in a previous occupational cohort study and to compare outcome with comparable non-deployed military personnel. Secondly, to determine whether differences in prevalence between Gulf veterans and controls at follow up can be explained by greater persistence or greater incidence of disorders. Occupational cohort study in the form of a postal survey. Military personnel who served in the 1991 Persian Gulf war; personnel who served on peacekeeping duties to Bosnia; military personnel who were deployed elsewhere ("Era" controls). All participants had responded to a previous survey. United Kingdom. Self reported fatigue measured on the Chalder fatigue scale; psychological distress measured on the general health questionnaire, physical functioning and health perception on the SF-36; and a count of physical symptoms. Gulf war veterans experienced a modest reduction in prevalence of fatigue (48.8% at stage 1, 43.4% at stage 2) and psychological distress (40.0% stage 1, 37.1% stage 2) but a slight worsening of physical functioning on the SF-36 (90.3 stage 1, 88.7 stage 2). Compared with the other cohorts Gulf veterans continued to experience poorer health on all outcomes, although physical functioning also declined in Bosnia veterans. Era controls showed both lower incidence of fatigue than Gulf veterans, and both comparison groups showed less persistence of fatigue compared with Gulf veterans. Gulf war veterans remain a group with many symptoms of ill health. The excess of illness at follow up is explained by both higher incidence and greater persistence of symptoms.

  12. Candida Infective Endocarditis: an Observational Cohort Study with a Focus on Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Melissa; Bayer, Arnold S.; Bradley, Suzanne; Giannitsioti, Efthymia; Miró, José M.; Tornos, Pilar; Tattevin, Pierre; Strahilevitz, Jacob; Spelman, Denis; Athan, Eugene; Nacinovich, Francisco; Fortes, Claudio Q.; Lamas, Cristiane; Barsic, Bruno; Fernández-Hidalgo, Nuria; Muñoz, Patricia; Chu, Vivian H.

    2015-01-01

    Candida infective endocarditis is a rare disease with a high mortality rate. Our understanding of this infection is derived from case series, case reports, and small prospective cohorts. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical features and use of different antifungal treatment regimens for Candida infective endocarditis. This prospective cohort study was based on 70 cases of Candida infective endocarditis from the International Collaboration on Endocarditis (ICE)-Prospective Cohort Study and ICE-Plus databases collected between 2000 and 2010. The majority of infections were acquired nosocomially (67%). Congestive heart failure (24%), prosthetic heart valve (46%), and previous infective endocarditis (26%) were common comorbidities. Overall mortality was high, with 36% mortality in the hospital and 59% at 1 year. On univariate analysis, older age, heart failure at baseline, persistent candidemia, nosocomial acquisition, heart failure as a complication, and intracardiac abscess were associated with higher mortality. Mortality was not affected by use of surgical therapy or choice of antifungal agent. A subgroup analysis was performed on 33 patients for whom specific antifungal therapy information was available. In this subgroup, 11 patients received amphotericin B-based therapy and 14 received echinocandin-based therapy. Despite a higher percentage of older patients and nosocomial infection in the echinocandin group, mortality rates were similar between the two groups. In conclusion, Candida infective endocarditis is associated with a high mortality rate that was not impacted by choice of antifungal therapy or by adjunctive surgical intervention. Additionally, echinocandin therapy was as effective as amphotericin B-based therapy in the small subgroup analysis. PMID:25645855

  13. Reliability of sport fish consumption in the New York State Angler Cohort Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qiang; Vena, J.E.; Swanson, M.K.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the reliability of sport fish consumption data from the New York State Angler Cohort Study (NYSACS). NYSACS is a prospective cohort study conducted among New York State registered sportsmen and fishermen. Sport fish consumption information for New York State waters including the Great Lakes between June 1990 and June 1991 were collected through self-administered questionnaires, Spouses of male anglers were asked to provide their husbands' fish consumption during the same time period. A short telephone interview after the cohort was ascertained was also conducted among about 100 study participants for the purpose of quality control. Percentage agreement, kappa, and weighted kappa were calculated to evaluate the reliability of the interview using spousal data and reinterview data. Overall, for the total fish consumption between June 1990 and June 1991, percentage agreement, kappa, and weighted kappa between spousal data and primary response were 67.28%, 0.5087, and 0.6157, respectively. For reinterview data, weighted kappa ranged from 0.4510 to 0.5285 for season-specific analysis and kappa ranged from 0.4615 to 0.7006 for fish species-specific analysis. Spouses may be a good source of proxy data for fish consumption. The reliability of sport fish consumption data for the NYSACS study is acceptable, suggesting that the food frequency measuring methods employed are a viable approach to obtain retrospective sport fish consumption data from sportsmen and subsistence anglers

  14. Use of fertility drugs and risk of ovarian cancer: Danish Population Based Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Allan; Sharif, Heidi; Frederiksen, Kirsten

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of fertility drugs on overall risk of ovarian cancer using data from a large cohort of infertile women. DESIGN: Population based cohort study. SETTING: Danish hospitals and private fertility clinics. PARTICIPANTS: 54,362 women with infertility problems referred...... confounding factors. RESULTS: Analyses within cohort showed no overall increased risk of ovarian cancer after any use of gonadotrophins (rate ratio 0.83, 95% confidence interval 0.50 to 1.37), clomifene (1.14, 0.79 to 1.64), human chorionic gonadotrophin (0.89, 0.62 to 1.29), or gonadotrophin releasing...... hormone (0.80, 0.42 to 1.51). Furthermore, no associations were found between all four groups of fertility drugs and number of cycles of use, length of follow-up, or parity. CONCLUSION: No convincing association was found between use of fertility drugs and risk of ovarian cancer....

  15. Design of an Air Pollution Monitoring Campaign in Beijing for Application to Cohort Health Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedal, Sverre; Han, Bin; Xu, Jia; Szpiro, Adam; Bai, Zhipeng

    2017-12-15

    No cohort studies in China on the health effects of long-term air pollution exposure have employed exposure estimates at the fine spatial scales desirable for cohort studies with individual-level health outcome data. Here we assess an array of modern air pollution exposure estimation approaches for assigning within-city exposure estimates in Beijing for individual pollutants and pollutant sources to individual members of a cohort. Issues considered in selecting specific monitoring data or new monitoring campaigns include: needed spatial resolution, exposure measurement error and its impact on health effect estimates, spatial alignment and compatibility with the cohort, and feasibility and expense. Sources of existing data largely include administrative monitoring data, predictions from air dispersion or chemical transport models and remote sensing (specifically satellite) data. New air monitoring campaigns include additional fixed site monitoring, snapshot monitoring, passive badge or micro-sensor saturation monitoring and mobile monitoring, as well as combinations of these. Each of these has relative advantages and disadvantages. It is concluded that a campaign in Beijing that at least includes a mobile monitoring component, when coupled with currently available spatio-temporal modeling methods, should be strongly considered. Such a campaign is economical and capable of providing the desired fine-scale spatial resolution for pollutants and sources.

  16. Design of an Air Pollution Monitoring Campaign in Beijing for Application to Cohort Health Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sverre Vedal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available No cohort studies in China on the health effects of long-term air pollution exposure have employed exposure estimates at the fine spatial scales desirable for cohort studies with individual-level health outcome data. Here we assess an array of modern air pollution exposure estimation approaches for assigning within-city exposure estimates in Beijing for individual pollutants and pollutant sources to individual members of a cohort. Issues considered in selecting specific monitoring data or new monitoring campaigns include: needed spatial resolution, exposure measurement error and its impact on health effect estimates, spatial alignment and compatibility with the cohort, and feasibility and expense. Sources of existing data largely include administrative monitoring data, predictions from air dispersion or chemical transport models and remote sensing (specifically satellite data. New air monitoring campaigns include additional fixed site monitoring, snapshot monitoring, passive badge or micro-sensor saturation monitoring and mobile monitoring, as well as combinations of these. Each of these has relative advantages and disadvantages. It is concluded that a campaign in Beijing that at least includes a mobile monitoring component, when coupled with currently available spatio-temporal modeling methods, should be strongly considered. Such a campaign is economical and capable of providing the desired fine-scale spatial resolution for pollutants and sources.

  17. Risk of Dementia in Patients with Spinal Cord Injury: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shih-Wei; Wang, Wei-Te; Chou, Lin-Chuan; Liou, Tsan-Hon; Lin, Hui-Wen

    2017-02-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) can cause physical disability and psychological distress; however, whether SCI is a risk factor for dementia is unclear. This study evaluated the incidence of dementia in patients with SCI. Study participants were recruited from a nationwide cohort during 2004-2007 and categorized into SCI (patients diagnosed with SCI; n = 941) and non-SCI (age- and sex-matched controls; n = 5060) cohorts. Each participant was followed for 7 years until diagnosis of dementia or December 31, 2010, whichever occurred first. Data were subjected to Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses. The incidence of dementia was significantly higher in the SCI cohort (1106 per 100,000 person-years) than in the non-SCI cohort (p < 0.001). Patients with SCI had a significantly higher risk of dementia than did those without SCI (crude hazard ratio [HR] = 2.14, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.57-2.92, p < 0.001 vs. adjusted HR = 1.95, 95% CI, 1.43-2.67, p < 0.001). Further analysis found that there is no statistical significance of higher risk for developing Alzheimer's disease among SCI patients, but that SCI patients were at higher risk of developing other types of dementia than the control cohort (crude HR = 1.88, 95% CI, 1.33-2.63, p < 0.001 vs. adjusted HR = 1.90, 95% CI, 1.35-2.68, p < 0.001). In conclusion, patients with SCI are at high risk of dementia, and effective dementia prevention strategies are recommended for comprehensive SCI care.

  18. Secondary depression in severe anxiety disorders: a population-based cohort study in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Sandra M; Petersen, Liselotte; Mattheisen, Manuel; Mors, Ole; Mortensen, Preben B; Laursen, Thomas M

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Depression and anxiety disorders are highly comorbid conditions and a worldwide disease burden; however, large-scale studies delineating their association are scarce. In this retrospective study, we aimed to assess the effect of severe anxiety disorders on the risk and course of depression. Methods We did a population-based cohort study with prospectively gathered data in Denmark using data from three Danish population registers: The Danish Civil Registration System, the Danish Psychiatric Central Register, and the Danish National Hospital Registry. We selected the cohort from people born in Denmark between Jan 1, 1955, and Dec 31, 2002, who we followed up from Jan 1, 1994, to Dec 31, 2012. The cohort was restricted to individuals with known parents. First, we investigated the effect of specific anxiety diagnoses on risk of single depressive episodes and recurrent depressive disorder. Second, we investigated the effect of comorbid anxiety on risk of readmission for depression, adjusting for sex, age, calendar year, parental age, place at residence at time of birth, and the interaction of age with sex. Findings We included 3 380 059 individuals in our study cohort. The adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR) for single depressive episodes was 3·0 (95% CI 2·8–3·1, pdepressive disorder was 5·0 (4·8–5·2) in patients with severe anxiety disorders compared with the general population. Compared with control individuals, the offspring of parents with anxiety disorders were more likely to be diagnosed with single depressive episodes (1·9, 1·8–2·0) or recurrent depressive disorder (2·1, 1·9–2·2). Comorbid anxiety increased the readmission rates in both patients with single depressive episodes and patients with recurrent depressive disorder. Interpretation Severe anxiety constitutes a significant risk factor for depression. Focusing on specific anxiety disorders might help to identify individuals at risk of depression, thereby providing new

  19. Dietary folate intake and K-ras mutations in sporadic colon and rectal cancer in the Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, M.; Weijenberg, M.P.; Goeij, A.F.P.M. de; Roemen, G.M.J.M.; Lentjes, M.H.F.M.; Bruïne, A.P. de; Engeland, M. van; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2005-01-01

    We studied the association between dietary folate and specific K-ras mutations in colon and rectal cancer in The Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer. After 7.3 years of follow-up, 448 colon and 160 rectal cancer patients and 3,048 sub-cohort members (55-69 years at baseline) were available

  20. Educational outcomes for children with cerebral palsy: a linked data cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Malcolm B; Bowen, Jennifer R; Patterson, Jillian A; Roberts, Christine L; Torvaldsen, Siranda

    2018-04-01

    To identify a cohort of children with cerebral palsy (CP) from hospital data; determine the proportion that participated in standardized educational testing and attained a score within the normal range; and describe the relationship between test results and motor symptoms. This population-based retrospective cohort study used data from New South Wales, Australia. We linked hospital data for children younger than 16 years of age admitted between 1st July 2000 and 31st March 2014 to education data from 2009 to 2014. Hospital diagnosis codes were used to identify a cohort of children with CP (n=3944) and describe their motor symptoms. Educational outcomes in the CP cohort were compared with those among children without CP. Of those with educational data (n=1770), 46% were exempt from reading assessment because of intellectual or functional disability, 7% were absent or withdrawn from testing and 47% participated in testing. About 30% of all children with educational data had test scores in the normal range. The proportion was greatest among those with hemiplegia (>40%) and lowest among those with tetraplegia (<10%). One-third of children with CP participated in standardized testing and achieved a result in the normal range. The proportions were lower in children with more severe motor symptoms. From 2009 to 2014, most Australian children with cerebral palsy (CP) attended a mainstream school. The rate of disability-related exemption from standardized educational testing was almost 50%. Thirty per cent of children with CP achieved educational scores in the normal range. © 2017 Mac Keith Press.

  1. Comment on the article titled "Increased Incidence of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis in Polymyositis: A Nationwide Cohort Study".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parperis, Konstantinos

    2017-10-03

    With interest, I read the recent article in Arthritis Care and Research titled "Increased Incidence of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis in Polymyositis: A Nationwide Cohort Study" (1). Tseng at al (1) conducted a retrospective cohort study in Taiwan, exploring a link between amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and polymyositis (PM). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Plasma proteome analysis in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension: an observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Christopher J; Wharton, John; Ghataorhe, Pavandeep; Watson, Geoffrey; Girerd, Barbara; Howard, Luke S; Gibbs, J Simon R; Condliffe, Robin; Elliot, Charles A; Kiely, David G; Simonneau, Gerald; Montani, David; Sitbon, Olivier; Gall, Henning; Schermuly, Ralph T; Ghofrani, H Ardeschir; Lawrie, Allan; Humbert, Marc; Wilkins, Martin R

    2017-09-01

    Idiopathic and heritable pulmonary arterial hypertension form a rare but molecularly heterogeneous disease group. We aimed to measure and validate differences in plasma concentrations of proteins that are associated with survival in patients with idiopathic or heritable pulmonary arterial hypertension to improve risk stratification. In this observational cohort study, we enrolled patients with idiopathic or heritable pulmonary arterial hypertension from London (UK; cohorts 1 and 2), Giessen (Germany; cohort 3), and Paris (France; cohort 4). Blood samples were collected at routine clinical appointment visits, clinical data were collected within 30 days of blood sampling, and biochemical data were collected within 7 days of blood sampling. We used an aptamer-based assay of 1129 plasma proteins, and patient clinical details were concealed to the technicians. We identified a panel of prognostic proteins, confirmed with alternative targeted assays, which we evaluated against the established prognostic risk equation for pulmonary arterial hypertension derived from the REVEAL registry. All-cause mortality was the primary endpoint. 20 proteins differentiated survivors and non-survivors in 143 consecutive patients with idiopathic or heritable pulmonary arterial hypertension with 2 years' follow-up (cohort 1) and in a further 75 patients with 2·5 years' follow-up (cohort 2). Nine proteins were both prognostic independent of plasma NT-proBNP concentrations and confirmed by targeted assays. The functions of these proteins relate to myocardial stress, inflammation, pulmonary vascular cellular dysfunction and structural dysregulation, iron status, and coagulation. A cutoff-based score using the panel of nine proteins provided prognostic information independent of the REVEAL equation, improving the C statistic from area under the curve 0·83 (for REVEAL risk score, 95% CI 0·77-0·89; parterial hypertension in cohort 3 (p=0·0133). The protein panel was validated in 93 patients

  3. Development and validation of a predictive model for excessive postpartum blood loss: A retrospective, cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Álvarez, Ana; Molina-Alarcón, Milagros; Arias-Arias, Ángel; Hernández-Martínez, Antonio

    2018-03-01

    postpartum haemorrhage is one of the leading causes of maternal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite the use of uterotonics agents as preventive measure, it remains a challenge to identify those women who are at increased risk of postpartum bleeding. to develop and to validate a predictive model to assess the risk of excessive bleeding in women with vaginal birth. retrospective cohorts study. "Mancha-Centro Hospital" (Spain). the elaboration of the predictive model was based on a derivation cohort consisting of 2336 women between 2009 and 2011. For validation purposes, a prospective cohort of 953 women between 2013 and 2014 were employed. Women with antenatal fetal demise, multiple pregnancies and gestations under 35 weeks were excluded METHODS: we used a multivariate analysis with binary logistic regression, Ridge Regression and areas under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curves to determine the predictive ability of the proposed model. there was 197 (8.43%) women with excessive bleeding in the derivation cohort and 63 (6.61%) women in the validation cohort. Predictive factors in the final model were: maternal age, primiparity, duration of the first and second stages of labour, neonatal birth weight and antepartum haemoglobin levels. Accordingly, the predictive ability of this model in the derivation cohort was 0.90 (95% CI: 0.85-0.93), while it remained 0.83 (95% CI: 0.74-0.92) in the validation cohort. this predictive model is proved to have an excellent predictive ability in the derivation cohort, and its validation in a latter population equally shows a good ability for prediction. This model can be employed to identify women with a higher risk of postpartum haemorrhage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Quality of pain treatment after caesarean section : Results of a multicentre cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcus, H.; Gerbershagen, H. J.; Peelen, Linda M.; Aduckathil, S.; Kappen, T. H.; Kalkman, C. J.; Meissner, W.; Stamer, U. M.; Peelen, LM

    BackgroundA large cohort study recently reported high pain scores after caesarean section (CS). The aim of this study was to analyse how pain after CS interferes with patients' activities and to identify possible causes of insufficient pain treatment. MethodsWe analysed pain scores, pain-related

  5. The Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) cohort study : rationale and methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaplan, Bonnie J.; Giesbrecht, Gerald F.; Leung, Brenda M. Y.; Field, Catherine J.; Dewey, Deborah; Bell, Rhonda C.; Manca, Donna P.; O'Beirne, Maeve; Johnston, David W.; Pop, Victor J.; Singhal, Nalini; Gagnon, Lisa; Bernier, Francois P.; Eliasziw, Misha; McCargar, Linda J.; Kooistra, Libbe; Farmer, Anna; Cantell, Marja; Goonewardene, Laki; Casey, Linda M.; Letourneau, Nicole; Martin, Jonathan W.

    The Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) study is an ongoing prospective cohort study that recruits pregnant women early in pregnancy and, as of 2012, is following up their infants to 3 years of age. It has currently enrolled approximately 5000 Canadians (2000 pregnant women, their

  6. The Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) cohort study : Rationale and methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaplan, B.J.; Giesbrecht, G.F.; Leung, B.M.; Field, C.J.; Dewey, D.; Bell, R.C.; Manca, D.P.; O'Beirne, M.; Johnston, D.W.; Pop, V.J.M.; Singhal, N.; Gagnon, L.; Bernier, F.P.; Eliasziw, M.; McCargar, L.J.; Kooistra, L.; Farmer, A.; Cantell, M.; Goonewardene, L.; Casey, L.M.; Letourneau, N.; Martin, J.W.

    2014-01-01

    The Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) study is an ongoing prospective cohort study that recruits pregnant women early in pregnancy and, as of 2012, is following up their infants to 3 years of age. It has currently enrolled approximately 5000 Canadians (2000 pregnant women, their

  7. E-learning may improve adherence to alcohol-based hand rubbing: a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Sussie; Bibby, Bo Martin; Kristensen, Brian

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since 2004, we have promoted alcohol-based hand rubbing (HR) with an e-learning program (ELP) among hospital staff. This study sought to determine whether an ELP improves adherence to correct HR. METHODS: This was a cohort study of staff members at Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby, ...

  8. Asthma and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Nationwide Population-Based Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mu-Hong; Su, Tung-Ping; Chen, Ying-Sheue; Hsu, Ju-Wei; Huang, Kai-Lin; Chang, Wen-Han; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Bai, Ya-Mei

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous cross-sectional studies have suggested an association between asthma and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but the temporal relationship was not determined. Using a nationwide population-based prospective case-control cohort study (1:4, age-/gender-matched), we hypothesized that asthma in infanthood or early…

  9. An effective suicide prevention program in the Israeli Defense Forces: A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelef, L; Tatsa-Laur, L; Derazne, E; Mann, J J; Fruchter, E

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the IDF Suicide Prevention Program, implemented since 2006. Quasi-experimental (before and after) cohort study. Two cohorts of IDF mandatory service soldiers: the first inducted prior to (1992-2005, n=766,107) and the second subsequent to (2006-2012, n=405,252) the launching of the intervention program. The IDF Suicide Prevention Program is a population-based program, incorporating: reducing weapon availability, de-stigmatizing help-seeking behavior, integrating mental health officers into service units, and training commanders and soldiers to recognize suicide risk factors and warning signs. Suicide rate and time to suicide in cohorts before and after exposure to the Suicide Prevention Program. Trend analysis showed lower suicide rates in the cohort after intervention. The hazard ratio for the intervention effect on time to suicide was 0.44 (95% CI=0.34-0.56, Psuicide rate following the administration of the IDF Suicide Prevention Program. The effect of the intervention appears to be related to use of a weapon, and being able to benefit from improved help-seeking and de-stigmatization. Future efforts should seek to extend the program's prevention reach to other demographic groups of soldiers. The success of the IDF program may inform suicide prevention in other military organizations and in the civilian sector. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Serum Lipids and Breast Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibo Ni

    Full Text Available Epidemiologic studies exploring causal associations between serum lipids and breast cancer risk have reported contradictory results. We conducted a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to evaluate these associations.Relevant studies were identified by searching PubMed and EMBASE through April 2015. We included prospective cohort studies that reported relative risk (RR estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs for the associations of specific lipid components (i.e., total cholesterol [TC], high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C], and triglycerides [TG] with breast cancer risk. Either a fixed- or a random-effects model was used to calculate pooled RRs.Fifteen prospective cohort studies involving 1,189,635 participants and 23,369 breast cancer cases were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled RRs of breast cancer for the highest versus lowest categories were 0.96 (95% CI: 0.86-1.07 for TC, 0.92 (95% CI: 0.73-1.16 for HDL-C, 0.90 (95% CI: 0.77-1.06 for LDL-C, and 0.93 (95% CI: 0.86-1.00 for TG. Notably, for HDL-C, a significant reduction of breast cancer risk was observed among postmenopausal women (RR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.64-0.93 but not among premenopausal women. Similar trends of the associations were observed in the dose-response analysis.Our findings suggest that serum levels of TG but not TC and LDL-C may be inversely associated with breast cancer risk. Serum HDL-C may also protect against breast carcinogenesis among postmenopausal women.

  11. Rem Koolhaas y la nueva Babel. De la torre metropolitana al monumento al vacío

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Tallón

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Un primer acercamiento a las reflexiones de Rem Koolhaas en torno a la tipología de torre introduce al rascacielos neoyorquino como la alegoría del “automonumen­to”: una construcción en esencia destinada a reafirmar su sola presencia y que se distingue del resto por medio de su estatura, que la monumentaliza. La torre de Babel, símbolo inquebrantable de la leyenda de la construcción en altura, escenifi­ca una historia de construcción y destrucción que está vinculada ineludiblemente al pensamiento crítico de Rem Koolhaas en torno a la torre como tipología desa­creditada. Un recorrido por las distintas “Babel” que Rem Koolhaas cataloga en el glosario de términos incluido en el texto SMLXL construye un discurso en torno a la destrucción de la torre bíblica y la construcción de la nueva Babel koolhaasiana que inicia su recorrido con el rascacielos para acabar reclamando un nuevo estado de monumentalidad: la ausencia en su estado más puro representado por el muro, el máximo ejemplo de ausencia como la forma más elevada de presencia monu­mental. Una mirada crítica que comienza con la torre metropolitana como la nueva Babel para finalizar con el muro como el monumento al vacío

  12. Fish consumption and the risk of colorectal cancer: the Ohsaki Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Y; Kuriyama, S; Kakizaki, M; Nagai, M; Ohmori-Matsuda, K; Sone, T; Hozawa, A; Nishino, Y; Tsuji, I

    2009-09-01

    Evidence from laboratory and animal studies suggests that high fish consumption may reduce the risk of colorectal cancer, but the results of studies in humans have been inconsistent. The objective of this study was to prospectively examine the association between fish consumption and the risk of colorectal cancer incidence in Japan, where fish is widely consumed. We analysed data from 39 498 men and women registered in the Ohsaki National Health Insurance Cohort Study who were 40-79 years old and free of cancer at the baseline. Fish consumption was assessed at the baseline using a self-administered food frequency questionnaire. During 9 years of follow-up, we identified 566 incident cases of colorectal cancer (379 men and 187 women). The hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for colorectal cancer incidence in the highest quartile of fish consumption compared with the lowest quartile were 1.07 (95% CIs; 0.78-1.46, P-trend=0.43) for men, and 0.96 (95% CIs; 0.61-1.53, P-trend=0.69) for women. The results of this prospective cohort study revealed no association between fish consumption and the risk of colorectal cancer.

  13. Cancer risk among patients with multiple sclerosis: A cohort study in Isfahan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etemadifar, Masoud; Jahanbani-Ardakani, Hamidreza; Ghaffari, Sara; Fereidan-Esfahani, Maboobeh; Changaei, Hossein; Aghadoost, Nazila; Jahanbani Ardakani, Ameneh; Moradkhani, Negin

    2017-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS), a central nervous system (CNS) autoimmune disorder, affects 2.3 million people around the world. Cancer kills around 7.5 million people annually. Both diseases have similar risks and intertwining molecular causes. Most studies focusing on MS and cancer have found an insignificant difference or reduction in the amount of cancer found in the MS community. We performed a cohort study using data from Isfahan Multiple Sclerosis Society (IMSS) and Isfahan cancer society and followed-up for 8 years on average (2006-2014). All of the 1718 MS patients were diagnosed according to McDonald's criteria, then standardized incidence ratio and the numbers of expected cancer case were calculated. While patients had an insignificant change in cancer prevalence, men had fewer cancer cases and women showed an increased prevalence of cancer. Certain types of cancer proved statistically significant. Breast cancer, nervous system cancers, and lymphoma were elevated in the cohort. Our results support the hypothesis that MS significantly affects certain cancers in a protective or associative manner. All cancer rates, except breast cancer, cancers located in the nervous system, and lymphomas were reduced in cohort, suggesting that unregulated immune function may provide protective effects to MS patients against cancer.

  14. Validation of de-identified record linkage to ascertain hospital admissions in a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    English Dallas R

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cohort studies can provide valuable evidence of cause and effect relationships but are subject to loss of participants over time, limiting the validity of findings. Computerised record linkage offers a passive and ongoing method of obtaining health outcomes from existing routinely collected data sources. However, the quality of record linkage is reliant upon the availability and accuracy of common identifying variables. We sought to develop and validate a method for linking a cohort study to a state-wide hospital admissions dataset with limited availability of unique identifying variables. Methods A sample of 2000 participants from a cohort study (n = 41 514 was linked to a state-wide hospitalisations dataset in Victoria, Australia using the national health insurance (Medicare number and demographic data as identifying variables. Availability of the health insurance number was limited in both datasets; therefore linkage was undertaken both with and without use of this number and agreement tested between both algorithms. Sensitivity was calculated for a sub-sample of 101 participants with a hospital admission confirmed by medical record review. Results Of the 2000 study participants, 85% were found to have a record in the hospitalisations dataset when the national health insurance number and sex were used as linkage variables and 92% when demographic details only were used. When agreement between the two methods was tested the disagreement fraction was 9%, mainly due to "false positive" links when demographic details only were used. A final algorithm that used multiple combinations of identifying variables resulted in a match proportion of 87%. Sensitivity of this final linkage was 95%. Conclusions High quality record linkage of cohort data with a hospitalisations dataset that has limited identifiers can be achieved using combinations of a national health insurance number and demographic data as identifying variables.

  15. Anthropometry in relation to prostate cancer risk in the Netherlands : cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurman, A.G.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Dorant, E.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2000-01-01

    In the Netherlands Cohort Study, the authors investigated whether anthropometry is associated with prostate cancer risk. At baseline in 1986, 58,279 men aged 55-69 years completed a self- administered questionnaire on diet, anthropometry, and other risk factors for cancer. After 6.3 years of

  16. Milk intake and risk of mortality and fractures in women and men: cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaëlsson, Karl; Wolk, Alicja; Langenskiöld, Sophie; Basu, Samar; Warensjö Lemming, Eva; Melhus, Håkan; Byberg, Liisa

    2014-10-28

    To examine whether high milk consumption is associated with mortality and fractures in women and men. Cohort studies. Three counties in central Sweden. Two large Swedish cohorts, one with 61,433 women (39-74 years at baseline 1987-90) and one with 45,339 men (45-79 years at baseline 1997), were administered food frequency questionnaires. The women responded to a second food frequency questionnaire in 1997. Multivariable survival models were applied to determine the association between milk consumption and time to mortality or fracture. During a mean follow-up of 20.1 years, 15,541 women died and 17,252 had a fracture, of whom 4259 had a hip fracture. In the male cohort with a mean follow-up of 11.2 years, 10,112 men died and 5066 had a fracture, with 1166 hip fracture cases. In women the adjusted mortality hazard ratio for three or more glasses of milk a day compared with less than one glass a day was 1.93 (95% confidence interval 1.80 to 2.06). For every glass of milk, the adjusted hazard ratio of all cause mortality was 1.15 (1.13 to 1.17) in women and 1.03 (1.01 to 1.04) in men. For every glass of milk in women no reduction was observed in fracture risk with higher milk consumption for any fracture (1.02, 1.00 to 1.04) or for hip fracture (1.09, 1.05 to 1.13). The corresponding adjusted hazard ratios in men were 1.01 (0.99 to 1.03) and 1.03 (0.99 to 1.07). In subsamples of two additional cohorts, one in males and one in females, a positive association was seen between milk intake and both urine 8-iso-PGF2α (a biomarker of oxidative stress) and serum interleukin 6 (a main inflammatory biomarker). High milk intake was associated with higher mortality in one cohort of women and in another cohort of men, and with higher fracture incidence in women. Given the observational study designs with the inherent possibility of residual confounding and reverse causation phenomena, a cautious interpretation of the results is recommended. © Michaëlsson et al 2014.

  17. Mode of delivery affected questionnaire response rates in a birth cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Bray, I.; Noble, S.; Robinson, R.; Molloy, L.; Tilling, K.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Cohort studies must collect data from their participants as economically as possible, while maintaining response rates. This randomized controlled trial investigated whether offering a choice of online or paper questionnaires resulted in improved response rates compared with offering online first. Study Design and Setting Eligible participants were young people in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) study (born April 1, 1991, to December 31, 1992, in the Av...

  18. MR imaging of the brain in large cohort studies: feasibility report of the population- and patient-based BiDirect study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teuber, Anja; Berger, Klaus; Wersching, Heike; Sundermann, Benedikt; Kugel, Harald; Schwindt, Wolfram; Heindel, Walter; Minnerup, Jens; Dannlowski, Udo

    2017-01-01

    To describe the implementation and protocol of cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the longitudinal BiDirect study and to report rates of study participation as well as management of incidental findings. Data came from the BiDirect study that investigates the relationship between depression and arteriosclerosis and comprises 2258 participants in three cohorts: 999 patients with depression, 347 patients with manifest cardiovascular disease (CVD) and 912 population-based controls. The study program includes MRI of the brain. Reasons for non-participation were systematically collected. Incidental findings were categorized and disclosed according to clinical relevance. At baseline 2176 participants were offered MRI, of whom 1453 (67 %) completed it. Reasons for non-participation differed according to cohort, age and gender with controls showing the highest participation rate of 79 %. Patient cohorts had higher refusal rates and CVD patients a high prevalence of contraindications. In the first follow-up examination 69 % of participating subjects completed MRI. Incidental findings were disclosed to 246 participants (17 %). The majority of incidental findings were extensive white matter hyperintensities requiring further diagnostic work-up. Knowledge about subjects and sensible definition of incidental findings are crucial for large-scale imaging projects. Our data offer practical and concrete information for the design of future studies. (orig.)

  19. MR imaging of the brain in large cohort studies: feasibility report of the population- and patient-based BiDirect study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teuber, Anja; Berger, Klaus; Wersching, Heike [University of Muenster, Institute of Epidemiology and Social Medicine, Muenster (Germany); Sundermann, Benedikt; Kugel, Harald; Schwindt, Wolfram; Heindel, Walter [University Hospital Muenster, Department of Clinical Radiology, Muenster (Germany); Minnerup, Jens [University Hospital Muenster, Department of Neurology, Muenster (Germany); Dannlowski, Udo [University of Muenster, Department of Psychiatry, Muenster (Germany); University of Marburg, Department of Psychiatry, Marburg (Germany)

    2017-01-15

    To describe the implementation and protocol of cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the longitudinal BiDirect study and to report rates of study participation as well as management of incidental findings. Data came from the BiDirect study that investigates the relationship between depression and arteriosclerosis and comprises 2258 participants in three cohorts: 999 patients with depression, 347 patients with manifest cardiovascular disease (CVD) and 912 population-based controls. The study program includes MRI of the brain. Reasons for non-participation were systematically collected. Incidental findings were categorized and disclosed according to clinical relevance. At baseline 2176 participants were offered MRI, of whom 1453 (67 %) completed it. Reasons for non-participation differed according to cohort, age and gender with controls showing the highest participation rate of 79 %. Patient cohorts had higher refusal rates and CVD patients a high prevalence of contraindications. In the first follow-up examination 69 % of participating subjects completed MRI. Incidental findings were disclosed to 246 participants (17 %). The majority of incidental findings were extensive white matter hyperintensities requiring further diagnostic work-up. Knowledge about subjects and sensible definition of incidental findings are crucial for large-scale imaging projects. Our data offer practical and concrete information for the design of future studies. (orig.)

  20. Should applicants to Nottingham University Medical School study a non-science A-level?: a cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Yates, Janet; Smith, Jennifer; James, David; Ferguson, Eamonn

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background It has been suggested that studying non-science subjects at A-level should be compulsory for medical students. Our admissions criteria specify only Biology, Chemistry and one or more additional subjects. This study aimed to determine whether studying a non-science subject for A-level is an independent predictor of achievement on the undergraduate medical course. Methods The subjects of this retrospective cohort study were 164 students from one entry-year group (October 200...

  1. The Netherlands Cohort Study−Meat Investigation Cohort; a population-based cohort over-represented with vegetarians, pescetarians and low meat consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilsing, Anne M J; Weijenberg, Matty P; Goldbohm, R Alexandra; Dagnelie, Pieter C; van den Brandt, Piet A; Schouten, Leo J

    2013-11-29

    Vegetarian diets have been associated with lower risk of chronic disease, but little is known about the health effects of low meat diets and the reliability of self-reported vegetarian status. We aimed to establish an analytical cohort over-represented with vegetarians, pescetarians and 1 day/week meat consumers, and to describe their lifestyle and dietary characteristics. In addition, we were able to compare self-reported vegetarians with vegetarians whose status has been confirmed by their response on the extensive food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Embedded within the Netherlands Cohort Study (n = 120,852; including 1150 self-reported vegetarians), the NLCS-Meat Investigation Cohort (NLCS-MIC) was defined by combining all FFQ-confirmed-vegetarians (n = 702), pescetarians (n = 394), and 1 day/week meat consumers (n = 1,396) from the total cohort with a random sample of 2-5 days/week- and 6-7 days/week meat consumers (n = 2,965 and 5,648, respectively). Vegetarians, pescetarians, and 1 day/week meat consumers had more favorable dietary intakes (e.g., higher fiber/vegetables) and lifestyle characteristics (e.g. lower smoking rates) compared to regular meat consumers in both sexes. Vegetarians adhered to their diet longer than pescetarians and 1 day/week meat consumers. 75% of vegetarians with a prevalent cancer at baseline had changed to this diet after diagnosis. 50% of self-reported vegetarians reported meat or fish consumption on the FFQ. Although the misclassification that occurred in terms of diet and lifestyle when merely relying on self-reporting was relatively small, the impact on associations with disease risk remains to be studied. We established an analytical cohort over-represented with persons at the lower end of the meat consumption spectrum which should facilitate prospective studies of major cancers and causes of death using ≥20.3 years of follow-up.

  2. Socioeconomic status and stomach cancer incidence in men: Results from the Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, A.J.M. van; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    1998-01-01

    Study objective - To study the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and stomach cancer incidence (cardia and non-cardia) and the role of lifestyle factors in explaining this association. Design - Prospective cohort study on diet and cancer that started in 1986. Data were collected by means

  3. NWHSS Implement Family Member Assessment Component in the Millennium Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Response and Referral Rates (McMaster) Panel 4 Impact of Cognitive Dissonance Improvement Strategies *Open Discussion* Family Improvement... Cognitive Dissonance (Via Effort Justification) Study  This pilot study utilized a random selection of married Panel 4 Millennium Cohort members taking...Spousal and family  functioning  Determine service member  factors that are associated  with spouse reports of  marital  satisfaction  and  family

  4. In patients with post-sternotomy mediastinitis is vacuum-assisted closure superior to conventional therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Angela W; Rippel, Radoslaw A; Smock, Elliott; Jarral, Omar A

    2013-11-01

    A best evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was whether vacuum-assisted closure therapy (VAC) is superior to conventional therapy for treating post-sternotomy mediastinitis. Altogether >261 papers were found using the reported search, of which 9 represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are tabulated. Several studies indicate that VAC therapy is associated with shorter lengths of intensive care and in-hospital stay as well as faster rates of wound healing and fewer dressing changes. It has also been shown that VAC therapy is correlated with a statistically significant reduction in reinfection rates, particularly those that occur in the early postoperative period (at the 1-week follow-up). Patients can be discharged with the dressing in situ and managed in the community with a view to delayed closure or reconstruction. However, the studies comparing VAC with conventional therapy are all retrospective in nature and reinforce the need for randomized controlled trials in order to more accurately establish differences in outcomes between VAC and conventional therapy. Additionally, owing tło the variability of treatment protocols within the non-VAC arm, it is more challenging to draw definitive conclusions regarding the superiority of VAC therapy to every modality that is considered conventional treatment. We conclude that VAC therapy is a portable and an increasingly economical option for the treatment of post sternotomy mediastinitis. Although reductions in mortality rates were not reproduced in all studies, evidence suggests that VAC should still be considered as a first-line therapy for post-sternotomy mediastinitis and as a bridge therapy to musculocutaneous reconstruction or primary closure.

  5. Hyperemesis gravidarum and pregnancy outcomes in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort - a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikanes, Åse V; Støer, Nathalie C; Magnus, Per; Grjibovski, Andrej M

    2013-09-03

    Hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) characterized by excessive nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy, is reported to be associated with increased risks for low birthweight (LBW), preterm birth (PTB), small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and perinatal death. Conflicting results in previous studies underline the necessity to study HG's potential effect on pregnancy outcomes using large cohorts with valid data on exposure and outcome measures, as well as potential confounders. This study aims to investigate associations between HG and adverse pregnancy outcomes using the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). All singleton pregnancies in MoBa from 1998 to 2008 were included. Multivariable regression was used to estimate relative risks, approximated by odds ratios, for PTB, LBW, SGA and perinatal death. Linear regression was applied to assess differences in birthweight and gestational age for children born to women with and without HG. Potential confounders were adjusted for. Altogether, 814 out of 71,468 women (or 1.1%) had HG. In MoBa HG was not associated with PTB, LBW or SGA. Babies born to women with HG were born on average 1 day earlier than those born to women without HG; (-0.97 day (95% confidence intervals (CI): -1.80 - -0.15). There was no difference in birthweight when maternal weight gain was adjusted for; (23.42 grams (95% CI: -56.71 - 9.86). Babies born by women with HG had lower risk for having Apgar score < 7 after 1 minute (crude odds ratio was 0.64 (95% CI: 0.43 - 0.95)). No differences between the groups for Apgar score < 7 after 5 minutes were observed. Time-point for hospitalisation slightly increased differences in gestational age according to maternal HG status. HG was not associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Pregnancies complicated with HG had a slightly shorter gestational length. There was no difference in birth weight according to maternal HG-status. HG was associated with an almost 40% reduced risk for having Apgar score

  6. A Chinese Birth Cohort: Theoretical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friday, Paul C.; Ren, Xin; Weitekamp, Elmar; Kerner, Hans-Jurgen; Taylor, Terrance

    2005-01-01

    Research on delinquency has shown consistent results across Western industrialized countries. Few studies have been done in non-Western cultures. This study reports on the results of a birth cohort study in China, which was started by Marvin Wolfgang but never completed. The cohort, born in 1973, was traced through official and community files.…

  7. Cancer, fatigue and the return of patients to work-a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spelten, E. R.; Verbeek, J. H. A. M.; Uitterhoeve, A. L. J.; Ansink, A. C.; van der Lelie, J.; de Reijke, T. M.; Kammeijer, M.; de Haes, J. C. J. M.; Sprangers, M. A. G.

    2003-01-01

    Fatigue is a highly prevalent and debilitating symptom in cancer survivors. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of fatigue and other cancer-related symptoms on the return to work of cancer survivors. A prospective inception cohort study with 12 months of follow-up was initiated. At 6

  8. Meat consumption and K-ras mutations in sporadic colon and rectal cancer in The Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, M.; Weijenberg, M.P.; Goeij, A.F.P.M. de; Roemen, G.M.J.M.; Lentjes, M.H.F.M.; Bruïne, A.P. de; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2005-01-01

    Case-cohort analyses were performed on meat and fish consumption in relation to K-ras mutations in 448 colon and 160 rectal cancers that occurred during 7.3 years of follow-up, excluding the first 2.3 years, and 2948 subcohort members of The Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer. Adjusted

  9. The HIV-Brazil cohort study: design, methods and participant characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Grangeiro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The HIV-Brazil Cohort Study was established to analyze the effectiveness of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART and the impact of this treatment on morbidity, quality of life (QOL and mortality. The study design, patients' profiles and characteristics of cART initiation between 2003 and 2010 were described. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Since 2003, the HIV-Brazil Cohort has been following HIV-infected adults receiving cART at 26 public health care facilities, using routine clinical care data and self-reported QOL questionnaires. When not otherwise available, data are obtained from national information systems. The main outcomes of interest are diseases related or unrelated to HIV; suppression of viral replication; adverse events; virological, clinical and immunological failures; changes in the cART; and mortality. For the 5,061 patients who started cART between 2003 and 2010, the median follow-up time was 4.1 years (IQR 2.2-5.9 years with an 83.4% retention rate. Patient profiles were characterized by a predominance of men (male/female ratio 1.7∶1, with a mean age of 36.9 years (SD 9.9 years; 55.2% had been infected with HIV via heterosexual contact. The majority of patients (53.4% initiated cART with a CD4+ T-cell count ≤200 cells/mm3. The medications most often used in the various treatment regimens were efavirenz (59.7% and lopinavir/ritonavir (18.2%. The proportion of individuals achieving viral suppression within the first 12 months of cART use was 77.4% (95% CI 76.1-78.6. Nearly half (45.4% of the patients presented HIV-related clinical manifestations after starting cART, and the AIDS mortality rate was 13.9 per 1,000 person-years. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Results from cART use in the daily practice of health services remain relatively unknown in low- and middle-income countries, and studies with the characteristics of the HIV-Brazil Cohort contribute to minimizing these shortcomings, given its scope and patient

  10. Candida infective endocarditis: an observational cohort study with a focus on therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Christopher J; Johnson, Melissa; Bayer, Arnold S; Bradley, Suzanne; Giannitsioti, Efthymia; Miró, José M; Tornos, Pilar; Tattevin, Pierre; Strahilevitz, Jacob; Spelman, Denis; Athan, Eugene; Nacinovich, Francisco; Fortes, Claudio Q; Lamas, Cristiane; Barsic, Bruno; Fernández-Hidalgo, Nuria; Muñoz, Patricia; Chu, Vivian H

    2015-04-01

    Candida infective endocarditis is a rare disease with a high mortality rate. Our understanding of this infection is derived from case series, case reports, and small prospective cohorts. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical features and use of different antifungal treatment regimens for Candida infective endocarditis. This prospective cohort study was based on 70 cases of Candida infective endocarditis from the International Collaboration on Endocarditis (ICE)-Prospective Cohort Study and ICE-Plus databases collected between 2000 and 2010. The majority of infections were acquired nosocomially (67%). Congestive heart failure (24%), prosthetic heart valve (46%), and previous infective endocarditis (26%) were common comorbidities. Overall mortality was high, with 36% mortality in the hospital and 59% at 1 year. On univariate analysis, older age, heart failure at baseline, persistent candidemia, nosocomial acquisition, heart failure as a complication, and intracardiac abscess were associated with higher mortality. Mortality was not affected by use of surgical therapy or choice of antifungal agent. A subgroup analysis was performed on 33 patients for whom specific antifungal therapy information was available. In this subgroup, 11 patients received amphotericin B-based therapy and 14 received echinocandin-based therapy. Despite a higher percentage of older patients and nosocomial infection in the echinocandin group, mortality rates were similar between the two groups. In conclusion, Candida infective endocarditis is associated with a high mortality rate that was not impacted by choice of antifungal therapy or by adjunctive surgical intervention. Additionally, echinocandin therapy was as effective as amphotericin B-based therapy in the small subgroup analysis. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Gulf war illness—better, worse, or just the same? A cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotopf, Matthew; David, Anthony S; Hull, Lisa; Nikalaou, Vasilis; Unwin, Catherine; Wessely, Simon

    2003-01-01

    Objectives Firstly, to describe changes in the health of Gulf war veterans studied in a previous occupational cohort study and to compare outcome with comparable non-deployed military personnel. Secondly, to determine whether differences in prevalence between Gulf veterans and controls at follow up can be explained by greater persistence or greater incidence of disorders. Design Occupational cohort study in the form of a postal survey. Participants Military personnel who served in the 1991 Persian Gulf war; personnel who served on peacekeeping duties to Bosnia; military personnel who were deployed elsewhere (“Era” controls). All participants had responded to a previous survey. Setting United Kingdom. Main outcome measures Self reported fatigue measured on the Chalder fatigue scale; psychological distress measured on the general health questionnaire, physical functioning and health perception on the SF-36; and a count of physical symptoms. Results Gulf war veterans experienced a modest reduction in prevalence of fatigue (48.8% at stage 1, 43.4% at stage 2) and psychological distress (40.0% stage 1, 37.1% stage 2) but a slight worsening of physical functioning on the SF-36 (90.3 stage 1, 88.7 stage 2). Compared with the other cohorts Gulf veterans continued to experience poorer health on all outcomes, although physical functioning also declined in Bosnia veterans. Era controls showed both lower incidence of fatigue than Gulf veterans, and both comparison groups showed less persistence of fatigue compared with Gulf veterans. Conclusions Gulf war veterans remain a group with many symptoms of ill health. The excess of illness at follow up is explained by both higher incidence and greater persistence of symptoms. PMID:14670878

  12. Incinerator Pollution and Child Development in the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bih-Ching Shu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the direct and indirect effects of environmental pollutants on child development and parental concerns. It focused on the pathway relationships among the following factors: living within three kilometers of an incinerator, breastfeeding, place of residence, parental concerns about development, and parent-perceived child development. The Taiwan Birth Cohort Study (TBCS dataset includes randomized community data on 21,248 children at six, 18, and 36 months of age. The Parental Concern Checklist and the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study-Developmental Instrument were used to measure parental concern and parent-perceived child development. Living within three kilometers of an incinerator increased the risk of children showing delayed development in the gross motor domain at six and 36 months. Although breastfeeding is a protective factor against uneven/delayed developmental disability (U/DDD, children living near an incinerator who were breastfed had an increased risk of U/DDD compared with those who did not live near incinerators. The presence of a local incinerator affected parent-perceived child development directly and indirectly through the mediating factor of breastfeeding. Further follow-up of these children to investigate the long-term effects of specific toxins on their development and later diagnostic categorization is necessary.

  13. The use of new technologies in Cohort studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antonio Bruno da Silva

    2010-03-01

    élites de posicionamento (GPS para a localização de residências, o uso de coletas de DNA para comparações futuras, as bases de dados institucionais e governamentais são fontes de informações que abreviam, minimizam gastos e dão maior confiabilidade aos estudos de muito longa duração.Tem-se visto antigos trabalhos realizados há décadas sendo submetidos a novas avaliações estatísticas com o desenvolvimento de novas teorias e descobertas. Neste número da revista brasileira em promoção da saúde, acompanhamos o nascimento de uma nova coorte(14, que acompanhará a evolução dos determinantes de saúde de população de uma grande comunidade do Nordeste do Brasil.REFERÊNCIAS1. Morabia A, Guthold R. Wilhelm Weinberg’s 1913Large Retrospective Cohort Study: a rediscovery. Am JEpidemiol. 2007;165(7:727-33.2. Doll R. Cohort studies: history of the method. II.Retrospective cohort studies. Soz Praventivmed.2001;46(3:152-60. Erratum in: Soz Praventivmed2002;47(2:90.3. Dawber TR, Meadors GF, Moore Jr. FE. Epidemiologicalapproaches to heart disease: the Framingham Study.Am J Public Health Nations Health. 1951;41(3:279-81.4. Fonseca MGU, Peres F, Firmo JOA, Uchoa E.,Percepção de risco: maneiras de pensar e agirno manejo de agrotóxicos. Ciênc saúde coletiva[periódico na Internet]. 2007 Mar [acesso em 2010Maio 26]; 12(1:39-50. Disponível em: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-81232007000100009&lng=en&nrm=iso. doi: 10.1590/S1413-81232007000100009.5. Victora CG, Barros FC. Cohort profile: the 1982Pelotas (Brazil birth cohort study. Int J Epidemiol.2006;35(2:237-42.6. Armenian HK (editor. Applications of the case-controlmethod. Epidemiol Rev. 1994;16:1-164.7. Samet JM, Muñoz A. Evolution of the cohort study.Epidemiol Rev. 1998;20(1:1-14.8. Doll R. Cohort studies: history of the method. II.Retrospective cohort studies. Soz Praventivmed.2001;46(3:152-60. Erratum in: Soz Praventivmed2002;47(2:909. Lima-Costa MF, Barreto SM. Tipos de

  14. Descriptive epidemiology of the Multicenter ACL Revision Study (MARS) cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Rick W; Huston, Laura J; Spindler, Kurt P; Dunn, Warren R; Haas, Amanda K; Allen, Christina R; Cooper, Daniel E; DeBerardino, Thomas M; Lantz, Brett Brick A; Mann, Barton J; Stuart, Michael J

    2010-10-01

    Revision anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction has worse outcomes than primary reconstructions. Predictors for these worse outcomes are not known. The Multicenter ACL Revision Study (MARS) Group was developed to perform a multisurgeon, multicenter prospective longitudinal study to obtain sufficient subjects to allow multivariable analysis to determine predictors of clinical outcome. To describe the formation of MARS and provide descriptive analysis of patient demographics and clinical features for the initial 460 enrolled patients to date in this prospective cohort. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 2. After training and institutional review board approval, surgeons began enrolling patients undergoing revision ACL reconstruction, recording patient demographics, previous ACL reconstruction methods, intra-articular injuries, and current revision techniques. Enrolled subjects completed a questionnaire consisting of validated patient-based outcome measures. As of April 1, 2009, 87 surgeons have enrolled a total of 460 patients (57% men; median age, 26 years). For 89%, the reconstruction was the first revision. Mode of failure as deemed by the revising surgeon was traumatic (32%), technical (24%), biologic (7%), combination (37%), infection (MARS Group has been able to quickly accumulate the largest revision ACL reconstruction cohort reported to date. Traumatic reinjury is deemed by surgeons to be the most common single mode of failure, but a combination of factors represents the most common mode of failure. Allograft graft choice is more common in the revision setting than autograft. Concomitant knee injury is extremely common in this population.

  15. Differences in kinetic variables between injured and noninjured novice runners : A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bredeweg, Steef W.; Kluitenberg, Bas; Bessem, Bram; Buist, Ida

    Objectives: This prospective study examined differences in kinetic variables between injured and noninjured novice female and male runners and their potential contribution to RRIs. Design: A prospective cohort study. Methods: At baseline vertical ground reaction forces were assessed with an

  16. A cohort study protocol to analyze the predisposing factors to common chronic non-communicable diseases in rural areas: Fasa Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Farjam

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-communicable diseases (NCDs have become the main causes of morbidity and mortality even in rural areas of many developing countries, including Iran. In view of this increased risk, Fasa Cohort Study (FACS has been established to assess the risk factors for NCDs with the ultimate goal of providing optimal risk calculators for Iranian population and finding grounds for interventions at the population level. Methods In a population-based cohort, at least 10,000 people within the age range of 35 to 70 years old from Sheshdeh, the suburb of Fasa city and its 24 satellite villages are being recruited. A detailed demographic, socioeconomic, anthropometric, nutrition, and medical history is obtained for each individual besides limited physical examinations and determination of physical activity and sleep patterns supplemented by body composition and electrocardiographic records. Routine laboratory assessments are done and a comprehensive biobank is compiled for future biological investigations. All data are stored online using a dedicated software. Discussion FACS enrolls the individuals from rural and little township areas to evaluate the health conditions and analyze the risk factors pertinent to major NCDs. This study will provide an evidence-based background for further national and international policies in preventive medicine. Yearly follow ups are designed to assess the health events in the participating population. It is believed that the results would construct a contemporary knowledge of Iranian high risk health characteristics and behaviors as well as the platform for further interventions of risk reduction in a typical Iranian population. Constantly probing for future advances in NCDs prevention and management, the accumulated database and biobank serves as a potential for state of the art research and international collaborations.

  17. Renal failure in lithium-treated bipolar disorder: a retrospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Close

    Full Text Available Lithium users are offered routine renal monitoring but few studies have quantified the risk to renal health. The aim of this study was to assess the association between use of lithium carbonate and incidence of renal failure in patients with bipolar disorder.This was a retrospective cohort study using the General Practice Research Database (GPRD and a nested validation study of lithium exposure and renal failure. A cohort of 6360 participants aged over 18 years had a first recorded diagnosis of bipolar disorder between January 1, 1990 and December 31, 2007. Data were examined from electronic primary care records from 418 general practices across the UK. The primary outcome was the hazard ratio for renal failure in participants exposed to lithium carbonate as compared with non-users of lithium, adjusting for age, gender, co-morbidities, and poly-pharmacy.Ever use of lithium was associated with a hazard ratio for renal failure of 2.5 (95% confidence interval 1.6 to 4.0 adjusted for known renal risk factors. Absolute risk was age dependent, with patients of 50 years or older at particular risk of renal failure: Number Needed to Harm (NNH was 44 (21 to 150.Lithium is associated with an increased risk of renal failure, particularly among the older age group. The absolute risk of renal failure associated with lithium use remains small.

  18. Fish consumption and the risk of colorectal cancer: the Ohsaki Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sugawara, Y; Kuriyama, S; Kakizaki, M; Nagai, M; Ohmori-Matsuda, K; Sone, T; Hozawa, A; Nishino, Y; Tsuji, I

    2009-01-01

    Background: Evidence from laboratory and animal studies suggests that high fish consumption may reduce the risk of colorectal cancer, but the results of studies in humans have been inconsistent. The objective of this study was to prospectively examine the association between fish consumption and the risk of colorectal cancer incidence in Japan, where fish is widely consumed. Methods: We analysed data from 39?498 men and women registered in the Ohsaki National Health Insurance Cohort Study who...

  19. Increased risk of Bell palsy in patients with migraine: a nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Kuan-Po; Chen, Yung-Tai; Fuh, Jong-Ling; Tang, Chao-Hsiun; Wang, Shuu-Jiun

    2015-01-13

    To evaluate the association between migraine and Bell palsy and to examine the effects of age, sex, migraine subtype, and comorbid risk factors for Bell palsy. This nationwide cohort study was conducted using data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Subjects aged 18 years or older with neurologist-diagnosed migraine from 2005 to 2009 were included. A nonheadache age- and propensity score-matched control cohort was selected for comparison. All subjects were followed until the end of 2010, death, or the occurrence of a Bell palsy event. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate the adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals to compare the risk of Bell palsy between groups. Both cohorts (n = 136,704 each) were followed for a mean of 3.2 years. During the follow-up period, 671 patients (424,372 person-years) in the migraine cohort and 365 matched control subjects (438,677 person-years) were newly diagnosed with Bell palsy (incidence rates, 158.1 and 83.2/100,000 person-years, respectively). The adjusted hazard ratio for Bell palsy was 1.91 (95% confidence interval, 1.68-2.17; p Bell palsy remained significant in sensitivity analyses, and tests of interaction failed to reach significance in all subgroup analyses. Migraine is a previously unidentified risk factor for Bell palsy. The association between these 2 condition