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Sample records for cohort spanish study

  1. Cohort profile: the Spanish WORKing life Social Security (WORKss) cohort study

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    López Gómez, María Andreé, 1985-; Duran Jordà, Xavier, 1974-; Zaballa, Elena; Sánchez Niubò, Albert; Delclòs i Clanchet, Jordi, 1956-; Benavides, Fernando G. (Fernando García)

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The global economy is changing the labour market and social protection systems in Europe. The effect of both changes on health needs to be monitored in view of an ageing population and the resulting increase in prevalence of chronic health conditions. The Spanish WORKing life Social Security (WORKss) cohort study provides unique longitudinal data to study the impact of labour trajectories and employment conditions on health, in terms of sickness absence, permanent disability and deat...

  2. Cohort profile: the Spanish WORKing life Social Security (WORKss) cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Gómez, María Andrée; Durán, Xavier; Zaballa, Elena; Sanchez-Niubo, Albert; Delclos, George L; Benavides, Fernando G

    2016-03-07

    The global economy is changing the labour market and social protection systems in Europe. The effect of both changes on health needs to be monitored in view of an ageing population and the resulting increase in prevalence of chronic health conditions. The Spanish WORKing life Social Security (WORKss) cohort study provides unique longitudinal data to study the impact of labour trajectories and employment conditions on health, in terms of sickness absence, permanent disability and death. The WORKss cohort originated from the Continuous Working Life Sample (CWLS) generated by the General Directorate for the Organization of the Social Security in Spain. The CWLS contains a 4% representative sample of all individuals in contact with the Social Security system. The WORKss cohort exclusively includes individuals with a labour trajectory from 1981 or later. In 2004, the cohort was initiated with 1,022 ,79 Social Security members: 840,770 (82.2%) contributors and 182,009 (17.8%) beneficiaries aged 16 and older. The WORKss cohort includes demographic characteristics, chronological data about employment history, retirement, permanent disability and death. These data make possible the measurement of incidence of permanent disability, the number of potential years of working life lost, and the number of contracts and inactive periods with the Social Security system. The WORKss cohort was linked to temporary sickness absence registries to study medical diagnoses that lead to permanent disability and consequently to an earlier exit from the labour market in unhealthy conditions. Thanks to its administrative source, the WORKss cohort study will continue follow-up in the coming years, keeping the representativeness of the Spanish population affiliated to the Social Security system. The linkage between the WORKss cohort and temporary sickness absence registries is envisioned to continue. Future plans include the linkage of the cohort with mortality registries. Published by the BMJ

  3. Study of the prevalence of familial autoimmune myasthenia gravis in a Spanish cohort.

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    Salvado, Maria; Canela, Merce; Ponseti, Jose Maria; Lorenzo, Laura; Garcia, Cecilia; Cazorla, Sonia; Gili, Gisela; Raguer, Nuria; Gamez, Josep

    2016-01-15

    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disease caused by a failure of neuromuscular transmission. Familial clustering has been reported despiteMG usually manifesting as a sporadic condition presumed not to be inherited. Our study investigated the prevalence of FAMG in a Spanish cohort, characterizing their phenotype,antibody titres and thymus findings. We investigated the presence of familial cases in 462 MG patients, characterizing by age and MGFA class at debut, quantitative MG score, antibody titres, MGFA post-intervention status and thymus pathology. Sixteen cases from8 unrelated pedigrees were identified. The prevalence of FAMG caseswas 3.46%.Mean age at onset was 57.8 ± 17.4 years (range=23–82). Distribution at debut was: 6 ocular, 4 IIa, 4IIb, 1 IIIa and 1 IIIb. Thymoma was identified in two of the 7 thymectomized individuals. The prevalence of FAMG in Spain is similar to other populations. Post-intervention status did not differ from sporadic autoimmune MG. As in other neuromuscular disorders, phenotype and inheritance heterogeneity are present in FAMG. In addition to the interfamilial heterogeneity observed, members of the same family affected with FAMG may even present different ages of onset, severity and thymus involvement. Further studies are necessary to clarify the role of genetic risk factors in this form of autoimmune MG.

  4. Timing of renal replacement therapy after cardiac surgery: a retrospective multicenter Spanish cohort study.

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    García-Fernández, Nuria; Pérez-Valdivieso, José Ramón; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Vives, Marc; Lavilla, Javier; Herreros, Jesús; Monedero, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    The optimal time to initiate renal replacement therapy (RRT) in cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI) is unknown. Evidence suggests that the early use of RRT in critically ill patients is associated with improved outcomes. We studied the effects of time to initiation of RRT on outcome in patients with CSA-AKI. This was a retrospective observational multicenter study (24 Spanish hospitals). We analyzed data on 203 patients who required RRT after cardiac surgery in 2007. The cohort was divided into 2 groups based on the time at which RRT was initiated: in the early RRT group, therapy was initiated within the first 3 days after cardiac surgery; in the late group, RRT was begun after the 3rd day. Multivariate nonconditional logistic and linear regression models were used to adjust for potential confounders. In-hospital mortality was significantly higher in the late RRT group compared with early RRT patients (80.4 vs. 53.2%; p < 0.001; adjusted odds ratio of 4.1, 95% CI: 1.6-10.0). Also, patients in the late RRT group had longer adjusted hospital stays by 11.6 days (95% CI: 1.4-21.9) and higher adjusted percentage increases in creatinine at discharge compared with baseline by 67.7% (95% CI: 28.5-106.4). Patients who undergo early initiation of RRT after CSA-AKI have improved survival rates and renal function at discharge and decreased lengths of hospital stay. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Systemic lupus erythematosus in Spanish males: a study of the Spanish Rheumatology Society Lupus Registry (RELESSER) cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveros Frutos, A; Casas, I; Rúa-Figueroa, I; López-Longo, F J; Calvo-Alén, J; Galindo, M; Fernández-Nebro, A; Pego-Reigosa, J M; Olivé Marqués, A

    2017-06-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to describe the demographic, clinical, and immunological manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in male patients. Methods A cross-sectional, multicenter study was carried out of 3651 patients (353 men, 9.7%, and 3298 women, 90.2%) diagnosed with SLE, included in the Spanish Rheumatology Society SLE Registry (RELESSER). Results Mean ages (18-92 years) of symptom onset were 37 (SD 17) years (men) and 32 (SD 14) years (women). Male/female ratio was 1/9. Age of onset of symptoms and age at diagnosis were higher in men than in women ( p lupus nephritis was more common in men, being present in 155 (44.8%) of males versus 933 (29%) of females ( p  50 years had a higher mortality (odds ratios 3.6 and 2.1, respectively). Furthermore, SLE patients who developed pulmonary hemorrhage, pulmonary hypertension, psychiatric involvement, complement deficiency, and hemophagocytic syndrome also had higher mortality, regardless of gender. Conclusion Patients with SLE over the age of 50 years have an increased risk of mortality. In Caucasians, age at diagnosis and symptom onset is higher in men than in women. The diagnostic delay is shorter in men. Male SLE patients present more cardiovascular comorbidities, and also more serositis, adenopathies, splenomegaly, renal involvement, convulsion, thrombosis, and lupus anticoagulant positivity than women.

  6. Cardiac-surgery associated acute kidney injury requiring renal replacement therapy. A Spanish retrospective case-cohort study

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    Garcia-Fernandez Nuria

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute kidney injury is among the most serious complications after cardiac surgery and is associated with an impaired outcome. Multiple factors may concur in the development of this disease. Moreover, severe renal failure requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT presents a high mortality rate. Consequently, we studied a Spanish cohort of patients to assess the risk factors for RRT in cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI. Methods A retrospective case-cohort study in 24 Spanish hospitals. All cases of RRT after cardiac surgery in 2007 were matched in a crude ratio of 1:4 consecutive patients based on age, sex, treated in the same year, at the same hospital and by the same group of surgeons. Results We analyzed the data from 864 patients enrolled in 2007. In multivariate analysis, severe acute kidney injury requiring postoperative RRT was significantly associated with the following variables: lower glomerular filtration rates, less basal haemoglobin, lower left ventricular ejection fraction, diabetes, prior diuretic treatment, urgent surgery, longer aortic cross clamp times, intraoperative administration of aprotinin, and increased number of packed red blood cells (PRBC transfused. When we conducted a propensity analysis using best-matched of 137 available pairs of patients, prior diuretic treatment, longer aortic cross clamp times and number of PRBC transfused were significantly associated with CSA-AKI. Patients requiring RRT needed longer hospital stays, and suffered higher mortality rates. Conclusion Cardiac-surgery associated acute kidney injury requiring RRT is associated with worse outcomes. For this reason, modifiable risk factors should be optimised and higher risk patients for acute kidney injury should be identified before undertaking cardiac surgery.

  7. Latent class analysis of multimorbidity patterns and associated outcomes in Spanish older adults: a prospective cohort study.

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    Olaya, Beatriz; Moneta, Maria Victoria; Caballero, Francisco Félix; Tyrovolas, Stefanos; Bayes, Ivet; Ayuso-Mateos, José Luis; Haro, Josep Maria

    2017-08-18

    This study sought to identify multimorbidity patterns and determine the association between these latent classes with several outcomes, including health, functioning, disability, quality of life and use of services, at baseline and after 3 years of follow-up. We analyzed data from a representative Spanish cohort of 3541 non-institutionalized people aged 50 years old and over. Measures were taken at baseline and after 3 years of follow-up. Latent Class Analysis (LCA) was conducted using eleven common chronic conditions. Generalized linear models were conducted to determine the adjusted association of multimorbidity latent classes with several outcomes. 63.8% of participants were assigned to the "healthy" class, with minimum disease, 30% were classified under the "metabolic/stroke" class and 6% were assigned to the "cardiorespiratory/mental/arthritis" class. Significant cross-sectional associations were found between membership of both multimorbidity classes and poorer memory, quality of life, greater burden and more use of services. After 3 years of follow-up, the "metabolic/stroke" class was a significant predictor of lower levels of verbal fluency while the two multimorbidity classes predicted poor quality of life, problems in independent living, higher risk of hospitalization and greater use of health services. Common chronic conditions in older people cluster together in broad categories. These broad clusters are qualitatively distinct and are important predictors of several health and functioning outcomes. Future studies are needed to understand underlying mechanisms and common risk factors for patterns of multimorbidity and to propose more effective treatments.

  8. Prenatal Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl Substances and Cardiometabolic Risk in Children from the Spanish INMA Birth Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Maribel; Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Ballester, Ferran; Iñiguez, Carmen; Martinez, David; Romaguera, Dora; Fernández-Barrés, Silvia; Santa-Marina, Loreto; Basterretxea, Mikel; Schettgen, Thomas; Valvi, Damaskini; Vioque, Jesus; Sunyer, Jordi; Vrijheid, Martine

    2017-01-01

    Background: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) may affect body mass index (BMI) and other components of cardiometabolic (CM) risk during childhood, but evidence is scarce and inconsistent. Objectives: We estimated associations between prenatal PFAS exposures and outcomes relevant to cardiometabolic risk, including a composite CM-risk score. Methods: We measured perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) in maternal plasma (first trimester). We assessed weight gain from birth until 6 mo. At 4 and 7 y, we calculated the age- and sex-specific z-scores for BMI, waist circumference (WC), and blood pressure (BP) (n≈1,000). At age 4, we calculated the age-, sex-, and region-specific z-scores for cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs), high-density (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (n=627). At age 4, we calculated a CM-risk score (n=386) as the sum of the individual age-, sex-, and region-specific z-scores for WC, BP, HDL-C, and TGs. We used the average between the negative of HDL-C z-score and TGs z-score to give similar weight to lipids and the other components in the score. A higher score indicates a higher cardiometabolic risk at age 4. Results: PFOS and PFOA were the most abundant PFAS (geometric mean: 5.80 and 2.32 ng/mL, respectively). In general, prenatal PFAS concentrations were not associated with individual outcomes or the combined CM-risk score. Exceptions were positive associations between prenatal PFHxS and TGs z-score [for a doubling of exposure, β=0.11; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.01, 0.21], and between PFNA and the CM-risk score (β=0.60; 95% CI: 0.04, 1.16). There was not clear or consistent evidence of modification by sex. Conclusions: We observed little or no evidence of associations between low prenatal PFAS exposures and outcomes related to cardiometabolic risk in a cohort of Spanish children followed from birth until 7 y. https

  9. Characterisation of exposure to non-ionising electromagnetic fields in the Spanish INMA birth cohort: study protocol.

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    Gallastegi, Mara; Guxens, Mònica; Jiménez-Zabala, Ana; Calvente, Irene; Fernández, Marta; Birks, Laura; Struchen, Benjamin; Vrijheid, Martine; Estarlich, Marisa; Fernández, Mariana F; Torrent, Maties; Ballester, Ferrán; Aurrekoetxea, Juan J; Ibarluzea, Jesús; Guerra, David; González, Julián; Röösli, Martin; Santa-Marina, Loreto

    2016-02-18

    Analysis of the association between exposure to electromagnetic fields of non-ionising radiation (EMF-NIR) and health in children and adolescents is hindered by the limited availability of data, mainly due to the difficulties on the exposure assessment. This study protocol describes the methodologies used for characterising exposure of children to EMF-NIR in the INMA (INfancia y Medio Ambiente- Environment and Childhood) Project, a prospective cohort study. Indirect (proximity to emission sources, questionnaires on sources use and geospatial propagation models) and direct methods (spot and fixed longer-term measurements and personal measurements) were conducted in order to assess exposure levels of study participants aged between 7 and 18 years old. The methodology used varies depending on the frequency of the EMF-NIR and the environment (homes, schools and parks). Questionnaires assessed the use of sources contributing both to Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) and Radiofrequency (RF) exposure levels. Geospatial propagation models (NISMap) are implemented and validated for environmental outdoor sources of RFs using spot measurements. Spot and fixed longer-term ELF and RF measurements were done in the environments where children spend most of the time. Moreover, personal measurements were taken in order to assess individual exposure to RF. The exposure data are used to explore their relationships with proximity and/or use of EMF-NIR sources. Characterisation of the EMF-NIR exposure by this combination of methods is intended to overcome problems encountered in other research. The assessment of exposure of INMA cohort children and adolescents living in different regions of Spain to the full frequency range of EMF-NIR extends the characterisation of environmental exposures in this cohort. Together with other data obtained in the project, on socioeconomic and family characteristics and development of the children and adolescents, this will enable to evaluate the complex

  10. Characterisation of exposure to non-ionising electromagnetic fields in the Spanish INMA birth cohort: study protocol

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    Mara Gallastegi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analysis of the association between exposure to electromagnetic fields of non-ionising radiation (EMF-NIR and health in children and adolescents is hindered by the limited availability of data, mainly due to the difficulties on the exposure assessment. This study protocol describes the methodologies used for characterising exposure of children to EMF-NIR in the INMA (INfancia y Medio Ambiente- Environment and Childhood Project, a prospective cohort study. Methods/Design Indirect (proximity to emission sources, questionnaires on sources use and geospatial propagation models and direct methods (spot and fixed longer-term measurements and personal measurements were conducted in order to assess exposure levels of study participants aged between 7 and 18 years old. The methodology used varies depending on the frequency of the EMF-NIR and the environment (homes, schools and parks. Questionnaires assessed the use of sources contributing both to Extremely Low Frequency (ELF and Radiofrequency (RF exposure levels. Geospatial propagation models (NISMap are implemented and validated for environmental outdoor sources of RFs using spot measurements. Spot and fixed longer-term ELF and RF measurements were done in the environments where children spend most of the time. Moreover, personal measurements were taken in order to assess individual exposure to RF. The exposure data are used to explore their relationships with proximity and/or use of EMF-NIR sources. Discussion Characterisation of the EMF-NIR exposure by this combination of methods is intended to overcome problems encountered in other research. The assessment of exposure of INMA cohort children and adolescents living in different regions of Spain to the full frequency range of EMF-NIR extends the characterisation of environmental exposures in this cohort. Together with other data obtained in the project, on socioeconomic and family characteristics and development of the children

  11. Timing of surgery for hip fracture and in-hospital mortality: a retrospective population-based cohort study in the Spanish National Health System

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    Librero Julián

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the benefits or otherwise of early hip fracture repair is a long-running controversy with studies showing contradictory results, this practice is being adopted as a quality indicator in several health care organizations. The aim of this study is to analyze the association between early hip fracture repair and in-hospital mortality in elderly people attending public hospitals in the Spanish National Health System and, additionally, to explore factors associated with the decision to perform early hip fracture repair. Methods A cohort of 56,500 patients of 60-years-old and over, hospitalized for hip fracture during the period 2002 to 2005 in all the public hospitals in 8 Spanish regions, were followed up using administrative databases to identify the time to surgical repair and in-hospital mortality. We used a multivariate logistic regression model to analyze the relationship between the timing of surgery ( Results Early surgery was performed on 25% of the patients. In the unadjusted analysis early surgery showed an absolute difference in risk of mortality of 0.57 (from 4.42% to 3.85%. However, patients undergoing delayed surgery were older and had higher comorbidity and severity of illness. Timeliness for surgery was not found to be related to in-hospital mortality once confounding factors such as age, sex, chronic comorbidities as well as the severity of illness were controlled for in the multivariate analysis. Conclusions Older age, male gender, higher chronic comorbidity and higher severity measured by the Risk Mortality Index were associated with higher mortality, but the time to surgery was not.

  12. Prevalence of Comorbidities in Rheumatoid Arthritis and Evaluation of Their Monitoring in Clinical Practice: The Spanish Cohort of the COMORA Study.

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    Balsa, Alejandro; Lojo-Oliveira, Leticia; Alperi-López, Mercedes; García-Manrique, María; Ordóñez-Cañizares, Carmen; Pérez, Lorena; Ruiz-Esquide, Virginia; Corrales, Alfonso; Narváez, Javier; Rey-Rey, José; Rodríguez-Lozano, Carlos; Ojeda, Soledad; Muñoz-Fernández, Santiago; Nolla, Joan M; García-Torrón, José; Gamero, Fernando; García-Vicuña, Rosario; Hernández-Cruz, Blanca; Campos, José; Rosas, José; García-Llorente, José Francisco; Gómez-Centeno, Antonio; Cáliz, Rafael; Sanmartí, Raimon; Bermúdez, Alberto; Abasolo-Alcázar, Lydia; Fernández-Nebro, Antonio; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Luis; Marras, Carlos; González-Gay, Miguel Ángel; Hmamouchi, Ihsane; Martín-Mola, Emilio

    2017-07-12

    To describe the prevalence of comorbidities in patients with RA in Spain and discuss their management and implications using data from the Spanish cohort of the multinational study on COMOrbidities in Rheumatoid Arthritis (COMORA). This is a national sub-analysis of the COMORA study. We studied the demographics and disease characteristics of 200 adults patients diagnosed with RA (1987 ACR), and routine practices for screening and preventing the following selected comorbidities: cardiovascular, infections, cancer, gastrointestinal, pulmonary, osteoporosis and depression. Patients had a mean age of 58 years and a mean RA duration of 10 years. Mean DAS28 score was 3.3 and approximately 25% of patients were in remission (DAS28 20% (51%), hypercholesterolemia (46%) or hypertension (41%) and smoking (25%) were the most common CV risk factors. For prostate, colon and skin cancers, only 9%, 10% and 18% of patients, respectively, were optimally monitored. Infections were also inadequately managed, with 7% and 17% of patients vaccinated against influenza and pneumococcal, respectively, as was osteoporosis, with 47% of patients supplemented with vitamin D and 56% with a bone densitometry performed. In Spain, the prevalence of comorbidities and CV risk factors in RA patients with established and advanced disease is relatively high, and their management in clinical daily practice remains suboptimal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  13. Drinking water disinfection by-products during pregnancy and child neuropsychological development in the INMA Spanish cohort study.

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    Villanueva, Cristina M; Gracia-Lavedan, Esther; Julvez, Jordi; Santa-Marina, Loreto; Lertxundi, Nerea; Ibarluzea, Jesús; Llop, Sabrina; Ballester, Ferran; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Tardón, Adonina; Vrijheid, Martine; Guxens, Mònica; Sunyer, Jordi

    2018-01-01

    Disinfection by-products (DBPs) constitute a complex mixture of prevalent chemicals in drinking water and there is evidence of neurotoxicity for some of them. We evaluated the association between estimates of DBP exposure during pregnancy and child neuropsychological outcomes at 1 and 4-5years of age. We conducted a population-based mother-child cohort study in Spain with recruitment at first trimester of gestation (INMA Project, 2003-2008). Neuropsychological development was measured at 1year of age using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development and at 4-5years with the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities. Modeled tap water concentrations of trihalomethanes (THM) were combined with personal ingestion, showering and bathing habits to estimate exposure as ingestion uptake, all route (showering, bathing, ingestion) uptake (μg/day) and crude levels (μg/l) in the residence. Chloroform, brominated THMs (bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, bromoform) and total THMs (chloroform and brominated THMs) were analysed separately. Nine haloacetic acids levels were available in one of the areas. Linear regression was used to estimate associations in 1855 subjects adjusting for covariables. The median concentration of total THMs, chloroform, brominated THMs, total haloacetic acids, dichloroacetic acid, and trichloroacetic acid were, respectively 30.3μg/L, 9.4μg/L, 11.6μg/L, 10.5μg/L, 2.7μg/L, and 3.1μg/L. The associations between THM exposure and neuropsychological outcomes were null, except for total and brominated THM uptake though all routes and the general cognitive score at 4-5years, with a decrease in -0.54 points (95%CI -1.03, -0.05) and -0.64 (95%CI -1.16, -0.12), respectively, for doubling total and brominated THM uptake. A positive association found between dichloroacetic acid and the mental score at 1year did not persist at 4-5years. Minor associations observed between DBP exposure during gestation and child neuropsychological development at 1year

  14. Factors Associated with Long-Term Sickness Absence Due to Mental Disorders: A Cohort Study of 7.112 Patients during the Spanish Economic Crisis.

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    Eva Real

    Full Text Available Mental health problems are very common and often lead to prolonged sickness absence, having serious economic repercussions for most European countries. Periods of economic crisis are important social phenomena that are assumed to increase sickness absence due to mental disorders, although research on this topic remains scarce. The aim of this study was to gather data on long-term sickness absence (and relapse due to mental disorders in Spain during a period of considerable socio-economic crisis.Relationships were analyzed (using chi-squared tests and multivariate modelling via binary logistic regression between clinical, social/employment-related and demographic factors associated and long-term sickness absence (>60 consecutive days due to mental disorders in a cohort of 7112 Spanish patients during the period 2008-2012.Older age, severe mental disorders, being self-employed, having a non-permanent contract, and working in the real estate and construction sector were associated with an increased probability of long-term sickness absence (gender had a mediating role with respect to some of these variables. Relapses were associated with short-term sick leave (return to work due to 'improvement' and with working in the transport sector and public administration.Aside from medical factors, other social/employment-related and demographic factors have a significant influence on the duration of sickness absence due to mental disorders.

  15. Polymorphism at the TRIB1 gene modulates plasma lipid levels: insight from the Spanish familial hypercholesterolemia cohort study

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    rs17321515 SNP has been associated with variation in LDL-C, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations. This effect has never been studied in patients with severe hypercholesterolemia. Therefore, our aims were to assess the association of the rs17321515 (TRIB1) SNP with pl...

  16. Clinical characteristics and evaluation of LDL-cholesterol treatment of the Spanish Familial Hypercholesterolemia Longitudinal Cohort Study (SAFEHEART)

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    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) patients are at high risk for premature coronary heart disease (CHD). Despite the use of statins, most patients do not achieve an optimal LDL-cholesterol goal. The aims of this study are to describe baseline characteristics and to evaluate Lipid Lowering Therapy (L...

  17. Characterisation of exposure to non-ionising electromagnetic fields in the Spanish INMA birth cohort: Study protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Gallastegi (Mara); M. Guxens Junyent (Mònica); A. Jiménez-Zabala (Ana); I. Calvente (Irene); M. Fernández (Marta); L. Birks (Laura); B. Struchen (Benjamin); M. Vrijheid (Martine); M. Estarlich (Marisa); M.F. Fernandez (Mariana); M. Torrent (Maties); F. Ballester (Ferran); J.J. Aurrekoetxea (Juan José); J. Ibarluzea (Jesús); D. Guerra (David); J. González (Julián); M. Röösli (Martin); L. Santa-Marina (Loreto)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Analysis of the association between exposure to electromagnetic fields of non-ionising radiation (EMF-NIR) and health in children and adolescents is hindered by the limited availability of data, mainly due to the difficulties on the exposure assessment. This study protocol

  18. Intake of total omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid and risk of coronary heart disease in the Spanish EPIC cohort study.

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    Amiano, P; Machón, M; Dorronsoro, M; Chirlaque, M Dolores; Barricarte, A; Sánchez, M-J; Navarro, C; Huerta, J M; Molina-Montes, E; Sánchez-Cantalejo, E; Urtizberea, M; Arriola, L; Larrañaga, N; Ardanaz, E; Quirós, J R; Moreno-Iribas, C; González, C A

    2014-03-01

    The evidence about the benefits of omega-3 fatty acid intake on coronary heart disease (CHD) is not consistent. We thus aimed to assess the relation between dietary intake of total omega-3 fatty acids (from plant and marine foods) and marine polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), on the risk of CHD in the Spanish cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). The analysis included 41,091 men and women aged 20-69 years, recruited from 1992 to 1996 and followed-up until December 2004. Omega-3 fatty acid intake was estimated from a validated dietary questionnaire. Only participants with definite incident CHD event were considered as cases. Cox regression models were used to assess the association between the intake of total omega-3 fatty acids, EPA or DHA and CHD. A total of 609 participants (79% men) had a definite CHD event. Mean intakes of total omega-3 fatty acids, EPA and DHA were very similar in the cases and in the cohort, both in men and women. In the multivariate adjusted model, omega-3 fatty acids, EPA and DHA were not related to incident CHD in either men or women. The hazard ratios (HR) for omega-3 were 1.23 in men (95% CI 0.94-15.9, p = 0.20); and 0.77 in women (95% CI 0.46-1.30, p = 0.76). In the Spanish EPIC cohort, with a relatively high intake of fish, no association was found between EPA, DHA and total omega-3 fatty acid intake and risk of CHD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Impact of the Spanish smoking law on exposure to second-hand smoke and respiratory health in hospitality workers: a cohort study.

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    Fernández, Esteve; Fu, Marcela; Pascual, José A; López, María J; Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; Schiaffino, Anna; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Ariza, Carles; Saltó, Esteve; Nebot, Manel

    2009-01-01

    A smoke-free law came into effect in Spain on 1st January 2006, affecting all enclosed workplaces except hospitality venues, whose proprietors can choose among totally a smoke-free policy, a partial restriction with designated smoking areas, or no restriction on smoking on the premises. We aimed to evaluate the impact of the law among hospitality workers by assessing second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure and the frequency of respiratory symptoms before and one year after the ban. We formed a baseline cohort of 431 hospitality workers in Spain and 45 workers in Portugal and Andorra. Of them, 318 (66.8%) were successfully followed up 12 months after the ban, and 137 nonsmokers were included in this analysis. We obtained self-reported exposure to SHS and the presence of respiratory symptoms, and collected saliva samples for cotinine measurement. Salivary cotinine decreased by 55.6% after the ban among nonsmoker workers in venues where smoking was totally prohibited (from median of 1.6 ng/ml before to 0.5 ng/ml, phospitality venues where smoking was totally banned. Among nonsmoker hospitality workers in bars and restaurants where smoking was allowed, exposure to SHS after the ban remained similar to pre-law levels. The partial restrictions on smoking in Spanish hospitality venues do not sufficiently protect hospitality workers against SHS or its consequences for respiratory health.

  20. Impact of the Spanish smoking law on exposure to second-hand smoke and respiratory health in hospitality workers: a cohort study.

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    Esteve Fernández

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A smoke-free law came into effect in Spain on 1st January 2006, affecting all enclosed workplaces except hospitality venues, whose proprietors can choose among totally a smoke-free policy, a partial restriction with designated smoking areas, or no restriction on smoking on the premises. We aimed to evaluate the impact of the law among hospitality workers by assessing second-hand smoke (SHS exposure and the frequency of respiratory symptoms before and one year after the ban. METHODS AND FINDING: We formed a baseline cohort of 431 hospitality workers in Spain and 45 workers in Portugal and Andorra. Of them, 318 (66.8% were successfully followed up 12 months after the ban, and 137 nonsmokers were included in this analysis. We obtained self-reported exposure to SHS and the presence of respiratory symptoms, and collected saliva samples for cotinine measurement. Salivary cotinine decreased by 55.6% after the ban among nonsmoker workers in venues where smoking was totally prohibited (from median of 1.6 ng/ml before to 0.5 ng/ml, p<0.01. Cotinine concentration decreased by 27.6% (p = 0.068 among workers in venues with designated smoking areas, and by 10.7% (p = 0.475 among workers in venues where smoking was allowed. In Portugal and Andorra, no differences between cotinine concentration were found before (1.2 ng/ml and after the ban (1.2 ng/ml. In Spain, reported respiratory symptom declined significantly (by 71.9%; p<0.05 among workers in venues that became smoke-free. After adjustment for potential confounders, salivary cotinine and respiratory symptoms decreased significantly among workers in Spanish hospitality venues where smoking was totally banned. CONCLUSIONS: Among nonsmoker hospitality workers in bars and restaurants where smoking was allowed, exposure to SHS after the ban remained similar to pre-law levels. The partial restrictions on smoking in Spanish hospitality venues do not sufficiently protect hospitality workers against SHS

  1. Rheumatoid factor testing in Spanish primary care: A population-based cohort study including 4.8 million subjects and almost half a million measurements.

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    Morsley, Klara; Miller, Anne; Luqmani, Raashid; Fina-Aviles, Francesc; Javaid, Muhammad Kassim; Edwards, Christopher J; Pinedo-Villanueva, Rafael; Medina, Manuel; Calero, Sebastian; Cooper, Cyrus; Arden, Nigel; Prieto-Alhambra, Daniel

    2018-02-26

    Rheumatoid factor (RF) testing is used in primary care in the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA); however a positive RF may occur without RA. Incorrect use of RF testing may lead to increased costs and delayed diagnoses. The aim was to assess the performance of RF as a test for RA and to estimate the costs associated with its use in a primary care setting. A retrospective cohort study using the Information System for the Development of Research in Primary Care database (contains primary care records and laboratory results of >80% of the Catalonian population, Spain). Participants were patients ≥18 years with ≥1 RF test performed between 01/01/2006 and 31/12/2011, without a pre-existing diagnosis of RA. Outcome measures were an incident diagnosis of RA within 1 year of testing, and the cost of testing per case of RA. 495,434/4,796,498 (10.3%) patients were tested at least once. 107,362 (21.7%) of those tested were sero-positive of which 2768 (2.6%) were diagnosed with RA within 1 year as were 1141/388,072 (0.3%) sero-negative participants. The sensitivity of RF was 70.8% (95% CI 69.4-72.2), specificity 78.7% (78.6-78.8), and positive and negative predictive values 2.6% (2.5-2.7) and 99.7% (99.6-99.7) respectively. Approximately €3,963,472 was spent, with a cost of €1432 per true positive case. Although 10% of patients were tested for RF, most did not have RA. Limiting testing to patients with a higher pre-test probability would significantly reduce the cost of testing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  2. Five-year incidence of chronic kidney disease (stage 3-5 and associated risk factors in a Spanish cohort: the MADIABETES Study.

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    Miguel A Salinero-Fort

    Full Text Available To evaluate the incidence rate of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD stage 3-5 (persistent decreased kidney function under 60 mL/min per 1.73 m2 among patients with type 2 diabetes over five years, to identify the risk factors associated with CKD, and develop a risk table to predict five-year CKD stage 3-5 risk stratification for clinical use.The MADIABETES Study is a prospective cohort study of 3,443 outpatients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, sampled from 56 primary health care centers (131 general practitioners in Madrid (Spain.The cumulative incidence of CKD stage 3-5 at five-years was 10.23% (95% CI = 9.12-11.44 and the incidence density was 2.07 (95% CI = 1.83-2.33 cases per 1,000 patient-months or 2.48 (95% CI = 2.19-2.79 cases per 100 patient-years. The highest hazard ratio (HR for developing CKD stage 3-5 was albuminuria ≥ 300 mg/g (HR = 4.57; 95% CI= 2.46-8.48. Furthermore, other variables with a high HR were age over 74 years (HR = 3.20; 95% CI = 2.13-4.81, a history of Hypertension (HR = 2.02; 95% CI = 1.42-2.89, Myocardial Infarction (HR= 1.72; 95% IC= 1.25-2.37, Dyslipidemia (HR = 1.68; 95% CI 1.30-2.17, duration of diabetes mellitus ≥ 10 years (HR = 1.46; 95% CI = 1.14-1.88 and Systolic Blood Pressure >149 mmHg (HR = 1.52; 95% CI = 1.02-2.24.After a five-year follow-up, the cumulative incidence of CKD is concordant with rates described in Spain and other countries. Albuminuria ≥ 300 mg/g and age over 74 years were the risk factors more strongly associated with developing CKD (Stage 3-5. Blood Pressure, lipid and albuminuria control could reduce CKD incidence of CKD in patients with T2DM.

  3. Five-Year Incidence of Chronic Kidney Disease (Stage 3-5) and Associated Risk Factors in a Spanish Cohort: The MADIABETES Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinero-Fort, Miguel A.; San Andrés-Rebollo, Francisco J.; de Burgos-Lunar, Carmen; Gómez-Campelo, Paloma; Chico-Moraleja, Rosa M.; López de Andrés, Ana; Jiménez-García, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the incidence rate of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) stage 3-5 (persistent decreased kidney function under 60 mL/min per 1.73 m2) among patients with type 2 diabetes over five years, to identify the risk factors associated with CKD, and develop a risk table to predict five-year CKD stage 3-5 risk stratification for clinical use. Design The MADIABETES Study is a prospective cohort study of 3,443 outpatients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, sampled from 56 primary health care centers (131 general practitioners) in Madrid (Spain). Results The cumulative incidence of CKD stage 3-5 at five-years was 10.23% (95% CI = 9.12–11.44) and the incidence density was 2.07 (95% CI = 1.83–2.33) cases per 1,000 patient-months or 2.48 (95% CI = 2.19–2.79) cases per 100 patient-years. The highest hazard ratio (HR) for developing CKD stage 3-5 was albuminuria ≥300 mg/g (HR = 4.57; 95% CI= 2.46-8.48). Furthermore, other variables with a high HR were age over 74 years (HR = 3.20; 95% CI = 2.13–4.81), a history of Hypertension (HR = 2.02; 95% CI = 1.42–2.89), Myocardial Infarction (HR= 1.72; 95% IC= 1.25–2.37), Dyslipidemia (HR = 1.68; 95% CI 1.30–2.17), duration of diabetes mellitus ≥ 10 years (HR = 1.46; 95% CI = 1.14-1.88) and Systolic Blood Pressure >149 mmHg (HR = 1.52; 95% CI = 1.02–2.24). Conclusions After a five-year follow-up, the cumulative incidence of CKD is concordant with rates described in Spain and other countries. Albuminuria ≥ 300 mg/g and age over 74 years were the risk factors more strongly associated with developing CKD (Stage 3-5). Blood Pressure, lipid and albuminuria control could reduce CKD incidence of CKD in patients with T2DM. PMID:25856231

  4. 1970 British Cohort Study

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    Matt Brown

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70 is one of Britain’s world famous national longitudinal birth cohort studies, three of which are run by the Centre for Longitudinal Studies at the Institute of Education, University of London.  BCS70 follows the lives of more than 17,000 people born in England, Scotland and Wales in a single week of 1970. Over the course of cohort members lives, the BCS70 has collected information on health, physical, educational and social development, and economic circumstances among other factors. Since the birth survey in 1970, there have been nine ‘sweeps’ of all cohort members at ages 5, 10, 16, 26, 30, 34, 38 and most recently at 42. Data has been collected from a number of different sources (the midwife present at birth, parents of the cohort members, head and class teachers, school health service personnel and the cohort members themselves. The data has been collected in a variety of ways including via paper and electronic questionnaires, clinical records, medical examinations, physical measurements, tests of ability, educational assessments and diaries. The majority of BCS70 survey data can be accessed by bona fide researchers through the UK Data Service at the University of Essex.

  5. Phytosterol plasma concentrations and coronary heart disease in the prospective Spanish EPIC cohort

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    Escurriol, Verónica; Cofán, Montserrat; Moreno-Iribas, Concepción; Larrañaga, Nerea; Martínez, Carmen; Navarro, Carmen; Rodríguez, Laudina; González, Carlos A.; Corella, Dolores; Ros, Emilio

    2010-01-01

    Phytosterol intake with natural foods, a measure of healthy dietary choices, increases plasma levels, but increased plasma phytosterols are believed to be a coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factor. To address this paradox, we evaluated baseline risk factors, phytosterol intake, and plasma noncholesterol sterol levels in participants of a case control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Spanish cohort who developed CHD (n = 299) and matched controls (n = 584) who remained free of CHD after a 10 year follow-up. Sitosterol-to-cholesterol ratios increased across tertiles of phytosterol intake (P = 0.026). HDL-cholesterol level increased, and adiposity measures, cholesterol/HDL ratios, and levels of glucose, triglycerides, and lathosterol, a cholesterol synthesis marker, decreased across plasma sitosterol tertiles (P phytosterol intake and plasma sitosterol. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratio for CHD across the lowest to highest plasma sitosterol tertile was 0.59 (95% confidence interval, 0.36–0.97). Associations were weaker for plasma campesterol. The apolipoprotein E genotype was unrelated to CHD risk or plasma phytosterols. The data suggest that plasma sitosterol levels are associated with a lower CHD risk while being markers of a lower cardiometabolic risk in the EPIC-Spain cohort, a population with a high phytosterol intake. PMID:19786566

  6. [1991-2004 follow-up of a Spanish general population cohort. Mortality and raising risk factors in the DRECE III Study (Diet and Risk of Cardiovascular Diseases in Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez de la Cámara, Agustín; Rubio Herrera, Miguel Angel; Gutiérrez Fuentes, José Antonio; Gómez Gerique, Juan Antonio; del Campo, Jorge; Jurado Valenzuela, César; Lapetra Peralta, José; Menús Palazón, Elena; Rodríguez Pascual, Nieves

    2008-01-01

    The DRECE III study is based on the follow up of a cohort representative of the Spanish general population. The mortality, its main causes and relevant risk factors have been analyzed. The DRECE cohort is composed of 4783 subjects followed since 1991 to 2004 (70930 person-years). In 1991 a general medical exam including blood analysis and nutritional questionnaire was undertaken. Currently the age spam is from 18 to 73 years. Vital status and mortality causes were provided by the National Institute of Statistics. In this period, 125 deaths were registered: 53 persons (42.4%) due to cancer; 31 persons (24.8%) due to circulatory causes, of which 24 were due to cardiovascular origin. The remaining 41 (32.8%) deaths were included under the ICD 10 "Other chapters". For the all causes mortality the independent associated variables were: creatinina 1.5 mgr/dl, HR 3.78 (95% CI: 1.52-9.40); diabetes, HR 2.80 (95% CI: 1.74-4.46); male sex, HR 2.39 (I95% CI: 1.61-3.55); age, HR 1.08 (I95% CI: 1.07-1.10); and gammaglutamil transpeptidasa, HR 1.001 (I95% CI: 1.000-1.003). In the case of cancer mortality the risk factors founded were: age, HR 1.12 (I95% CI: 1.09-1.16); and tobacco, HR 1.33 (I95% CI: 1.14-1.54). For cardiovascular mortality were creatinina 1.5 mg/dl, HR 19.40 (I95% CI: 5.45-69.12); diabetes, HR 9.82 (I95% CI: 4.19-23.04); and age, HR 1.10 (I95% CI: 1.05-1.15). We obtain a mortality pattern where cancer is the most frequent cause. Classic risk factors appear associated to main death causes. Diabetes mellitus has an outstanding role as risk factor associated to early mortality. No specific diet data was associated neither to all causes mortality, nor to cardiovascular or cancer.

  7. Early Oral Language and Later Reading Development in Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners: Evidence from a Nine-Year Longitudinal Study

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    Kieffer, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Using nationally-representative, longitudinal data on a cohort of Spanish-speaking English language learners in the U.S., this study investigated the extent to which early oral language proficiency in Spanish and English predicts later levels and rates of growth in English reading. Latent growth models indicated that both Spanish and English…

  8. Educational health disparities in hypertension and diabetes mellitus among African descent populations in the Caribbean and the USA: a comparative analysis from the Spanish town cohort (Jamaica) and the Jackson heart study (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidulescu, Aurelian; Ferguson, Trevor S; Hambleton, Ian; Younger-Coleman, Novie; Francis, Damian; Bennett, Nadia; Griswold, Michael; Fox, Ervin; MacLeish, Marlene; Wilks, Rainford; Harris, E Nigel; Sullivan, Louis W

    2017-02-14

    Studies have suggested that social inequalities in chronic disease outcomes differ between industrialized and developing countries, but few have directly compared these effects. We explored inequalities in hypertension and diabetes prevalence between African-descent populations with different levels of educational attainment in Jamaica and in the United States of America (USA), comparing disparities within each location, and between countries. We analyzed baseline data from the Jackson Heart Study (JHS) in the USA and Spanish Town Cohort (STC) in Jamaica. Participants reported their highest level of educational attainment, which was categorized as 'less than high school' (HS). Educational disparities in the prevalence of hypertension and diabetes were examined using prevalence ratios (PR), controlling for age, sex and body mass index (BMI). Analyses included 7248 participants, 2382 from STC and 4866 from JHS, with mean age of 47 and 54 years, respectively (p hypertension and diabetes was significantly higher in the JHS compared to STC, 62% vs. 25% (p hypertension and diabetes in both studies; however, after accounting for confounding or interaction by age, sex and BMI these effects were attenuated. For hypertension, after adjusting for age and BMI, a significant education disparity was found only for women in JHS, with PR of 1.10 (95% CI 1.04-1.16) for  HS and 1.07 (95% CI 1.01-1.13) for HS vs > HS. For diabetes; when considering age-group and sex specific estimates adjusted for BMI, among men: significant associations were seen only in the 45-59 years age-group in JHS with PR 1.84 (95% CI 1.16-2.91) for  HS. Among women, significant PR comparing  HS was seen for all three age-groups for JHS, but not in STC; PR were 3.95 (95% CI 1.94-8.05), 1.53 (95% CI 1.10-2.11) and 1.32 (95% CI 1.06-1.64) for 25-44, 45-59 and 60-74 age-groups, respectively. In Jamaica, educational disparities were largely explained by age, sex and BMI, while in the USA these

  9. Transfer of perfluoroalkyl substances from mother to fetus in a Spanish birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzano-Salgado, Cyntia B; Casas, Maribel; Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Ballester, Ferran; Basterrechea, Mikel; Grimalt, Joan O; Jiménez, Ana-María; Kraus, Thomas; Schettgen, Thomas; Sunyer, Jordi; Vrijheid, Martine

    2015-10-01

    Prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) might affect child health; thus estimating PFAS fetal burden is relevant. PFAS fetal burden is best estimated in cord samples; previous studies have used either maternal plasma or serum during pregnancy as proxy, but their validity is not clear. We aimed to evaluate PFAS transfer between mother and fetus and determine its predictors in a Spanish birth cohort. We measured perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and perfluorononanoate (PFNA) in maternal blood and cord serum from 66 mother-child pairs. We used Spearman's rank coefficients to correlate PFAS concentrations in first trimester maternal plasma and serum, with cord serum samples. We assessed PFAS placental transfer by calculating maternal to cord ratios and examined their association with maternal socio-demographic characteristics and child sex using linear regression models. Median concentrations of PFAS (ng/mL) of PFHxS, PFOS, PFOA, and PFNA in maternal plasma (0.79, 6.18, 2.85 and 0.84, respectively) and serum (0.84, 6.99, 2.97 and 0.85) were higher than in cord serum (0.40, 1.86, 1.90 and 0.32). PFBS was not detected. Positive Spearman's correlations (p-valuesPFAS fetal body burden can be assessed using as proxy maternal plasma or serum collected early in pregnancy. Maternal age might influence PFAS placental transfer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. SPANISH PEAKS WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, COLORADO.

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    Budding, Karin E.; Kluender, Steven E.

    1984-01-01

    A geologic and geochemical investigation and a survey of mines and prospects were conducted to evaluate the mineral-resource potential of the Spanish Peaks Wilderness Study Area, Huerfano and Las Animas Counties, in south-central Colorado. Anomalous gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc concentrations in rocks and in stream sediments from drainage basins in the vicinity of the old mines and prospects on West Spanish Peak indicate a substantiated mineral-resource potential for base and precious metals in the area surrounding this peak; however, the mineralized veins are sparse, small in size, and generally low in grade. There is a possibility that coal may underlie the study area, but it would be at great depth and it is unlikely that it would have survived the intense igneous activity in the area. There is little likelihood for the occurrence of oil and gas because of the lack of structural traps and the igneous activity.

  11. Validity Assessment of Low-risk SCORE Function and SCORE Function Calibrated to the Spanish Population in the FRESCO Cohorts.

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    Baena-Díez, José Miguel; Subirana, Isaac; Ramos, Rafael; Gómez de la Cámara, Agustín; Elosua, Roberto; Vila, Joan; Marín-Ibáñez, Alejandro; Guembe, María Jesús; Rigo, Fernando; Tormo-Díaz, María José; Moreno-Iribas, Conchi; Cabré, Joan Josep; Segura, Antonio; Lapetra, José; Quesada, Miquel; Medrano, María José; González-Diego, Paulino; Frontera, Guillem; Gavrila, Diana; Ardanaz, Eva; Basora, Josep; García, José María; García-Lareo, Manel; Gutiérrez-Fuentes, José Antonio; Mayoral, Eduardo; Sala, Joan; Dégano, Irene R; Francès, Albert; Castell, Conxa; Grau, María; Marrugat, Jaume

    2018-04-01

    To assess the validity of the original low-risk SCORE function without and with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and SCORE calibrated to the Spanish population. Pooled analysis with individual data from 12 Spanish population-based cohort studies. We included 30 919 individuals aged 40 to 64 years with no history of cardiovascular disease at baseline, who were followed up for 10 years for the causes of death included in the SCORE project. The validity of the risk functions was analyzed with the area under the ROC curve (discrimination) and the Hosmer-Lemeshow test (calibration), respectively. Follow-up comprised 286 105 persons/y. Ten-year cardiovascular mortality was 0.6%. The ratio between estimated/observed cases ranged from 9.1, 6.5, and 9.1 in men and 3.3, 1.3, and 1.9 in women with original low-risk SCORE risk function without and with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and calibrated SCORE, respectively; differences were statistically significant with the Hosmer-Lemeshow test between predicted and observed mortality with SCORE (P cardiovascular mortality observed in the Spanish population. Despite the acceptable discrimination capacity, prediction of the number of fatal cardiovascular events (calibration) was significantly inaccurate. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Olive oil intake and CHD in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Spanish cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckland, Genevieve; Travier, Noemie; Barricarte, Aurelio; Ardanaz, Eva; Moreno-Iribas, Conchi; Sánchez, María-José; Molina-Montes, Esther; Chirlaque, María Dolores; Huerta, José María; Navarro, Carmen; Redondo, Maria Luisa; Amiano, Pilar; Dorronsoro, Miren; Larrañaga, Nerea; Gonzalez, Carlos A

    2012-12-14

    Olive oil is well known for its cardioprotective properties; however, epidemiological data showing that olive oil consumption reduces incident CHD events are still limited. Therefore, we studied the association between olive oil and CHD in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Spanish cohort study. The analysis included 40 142 participants (38 % male), free of CHD events at baseline, recruited from five EPIC-Spain centres from 1992 to 1996 and followed up until 2004. Baseline dietary and lifestyle information was collected using interview-administered questionnaires. Cox proportional regression models were used to assess the relationship between validated incident CHD events and olive oil intake (energy-adjusted quartiles and each 10 g/d per 8368 kJ (2000 kcal) increment), while adjusting for potential confounders. During a 10·4-year follow-up, 587 (79 % male) CHD events were recorded. Olive oil intake was negatively associated with CHD risk after excluding dietary mis-reporters (hazard ratio (HR) 0·93; 95 % CI 0·87, 1·00 for each 10 g/d per 8368 kJ (2000 kcal) and HR 0·78; 95 % CI 0·59, 1·03 for upper v. lower quartile). The inverse association between olive oil intake (per 10 g/d per 8368 kJ (2000 kcal)) and CHD was more pronounced in never smokers (11 % reduced CHD risk (P = 0·048)), in never/low alcohol drinkers (25 % reduced CHD risk (P culinary use of olive oil within the Mediterranean diet to reduce the CHD burden.

  13. Genetic analysis of high bone mass cases from the BARCOS cohort of Spanish postmenopausal women.

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    Patricia Sarrión

    Full Text Available The aims of the study were to establish the prevalence of high bone mass (HBM in a cohort of Spanish postmenopausal women (BARCOS and to assess the contribution of LRP5 and DKK1 mutations and of common bone mineral density (BMD variants to a HBM phenotype. Furthermore, we describe the expression of several osteoblast-specific and Wnt-pathway genes in primary osteoblasts from two HBM cases. A 0.6% of individuals (10/1600 displayed Z-scores in the HBM range (sum Z-score >4. While no mutation in the relevant exons of LRP5 was detected, a rare missense change in DKK1 was found (p.Y74F, which cosegregated with the phenotype in a small pedigree. Fifty-five BMD SNPs from Estrada et al. [NatGenet 44:491-501,2012] were genotyped in the HBM cases to obtain risk scores for each individual. In this small group of samples, Z-scores were found inversely related to risk scores, suggestive of a polygenic etiology. There was a single exception, which may be explained by a rare penetrant genetic variant, counterbalancing the additive effect of the risk alleles. The expression analysis in primary osteoblasts from two HBM cases and five controls suggested that IL6R, DLX3, TWIST1 and PPARG are negatively related to Z-score. One HBM case presented with high levels of RUNX2, while the other displayed very low SOX6. In conclusion, we provide evidence of lack of LRP5 mutations and of a putative HBM-causing mutation in DKK1. Additionally, we present SNP genotyping and expression results that suggest additive effects of several genes for HBM.

  14. Déficit de calidad del Índice Nacional de Defunciones: lecciones aprendidas al estudiar la mortalidad de dos cohortes de admitidos a tratamiento por drogas Quality deficits in the Spanish National Death Index: lessons learned from studying the mortality of two cohorts of people admitted to drug abuse treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Molist

    2012-06-01

    linking two cohorts of patients with the S-NDI, this study was performed to evaluate the quality of mortality data from this source. Methods: Individual records of two cohorts of persons admitted to drug abuse treatment in Barcelona (n=19,974 and Madrid (n=17,557 were linked with the S-NDI and then with the National Statistics Institute (NSI to assign vital status. The sensitivity and specificity of the S-NDI in relation to the NSI and estimates of mortality with both systems were obtained. Underestimation of mortality by the S-NDI for the same period in the whole of Spain was also calculated. Results: For Madrid, from 1997-2008, independent searches in the S-NDI underestimated mortality by 18.9% compared with the NSI. A subsequent individualized search limited to deaths detected by the NSI but not by the S-NDI reduced underestimation to 13.9%. For Barcelona, underestimation with a combined search (independent plus limited was 3.3%. From 2001-2002, underestimation with combined searches reached 32.3% in Madrid and 7.3% in Barcelona. Underestimation was also seen in the general Spanish population (1.8% in 1997-2008 and 9.3% in 2001-2002. From 1997-2008, the specificity of independent searches in the S-NDI was 100%, but its sensitivity in Madrid was only 81%. Conclusions: The quality of the S-NDI is good enough for many uses in the health sector, but this index underestimates mortality with substantial spatiotemporal variations. The quality of the S-NDI could be increased by improving its search algorithms, enabling on-line tabulations of the main results, and introducing quality controls and routine evaluations.

  15. [Screening of pulmonary hypertension in a Spanish cohort of patients with systemic sclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Hernández, Francisco José; Castillo Palma, María Jesús; Montero Mateos, Enrique; González León, Rocío; López Haldón, José Eduardo; Sánchez Román, Julio

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is an important cause of morbimortality in systemic sclerosis (SSc). Evolution is worse than that of subjects with idiopathic PAH, but prognosis improves when PAH is diagnosed early. The aim of this research is to describe results of a screening program for diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension (PH) carried out in a cohort of Spanish patients with SSc. PH screening was performed by transthoracic doppler echocardiography (TTDE) in 184 patients with SSc. Patients with systolic pulmonary arterial pressure estimated by TTDE>35 mmHg were evaluated per protocol to confirm diagnosis and type of PH. PAH was diagnosed in 25 patients (13.6%). Patients with diffuse and limited SSc developed PAH in a similar degree, 9/60 (15%) vs. 16/100 (16%), with no cases among patients with SSc "sine scleroderma" or "pre-scleroderma" (P<.001). The only clinical or epidemiological data characterizing patients with PAH were older age (mean age 67 years for patients with PAH vs. 56 years for those without PAH, P=.007), limited SSc, a trend toward shorter evolution of the underlying disease (median 8 years for patients with PAH vs. 10 years for those without PAH, P=.73), and a higher frequency of positive anticentromere antibodies (16 patients [64%] with PAH vs. 70 (48,3%) without PAH, P=.19). Prevalence of PAH in SSc was high and supports the implementation of a regular screening program. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. The contribution of GPR98 and DFNB31 genes to a Spanish Usher syndrome type 2 cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-García, Gema; Besnard, Thomas; Baux, David; Vaché, Christel; Aller, Elena; Malcolm, Sue; Claustres, Mireille; Millan, Jose M; Roux, Anne-Françoise

    2013-01-01

    Usher syndrome type 2 (USH2) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by moderate to severe hearing loss and retinitis pigmentosa. To date, three disease-causing genes have been identified, USH2A, GPR98, and DFNB31, of which USH2A is clearly the major contributor. The aim of this work was to determine the contribution of GPR98 and DFNB31 genes in a Spanish cohort of USH2A negative patients using exhaustive molecular analysis, including sequencing, dosage, and splicing analysis. Linkage analysis was performed to prioritize the gene to study, followed by sequencing of exons and intron-exon boundaries of the selected gene, GPR98 (90 exons) or DFNB31 (12 exons). Functional splicing analyses and comparative genomic hybridization array to detect large rearrangements were performed when appropriate. We confirmed that mutations in GPR98 contribute a significant but minor role to Usher syndrome type 2. In a group of patients referred for molecular diagnosis, 43 had been found to be positive for USH2A mutations, the remaining 19 without USH2A alterations were screened, and seven different mutations were identified in the GPR98 gene in seven patients (five in the homozygous state), of which six were novel. All detected mutations result in a truncated protein; deleterious missense mutations were not found. No pathological mutations were identified in the DFNB31 gene. In Spain, USH2A and GPR98 are responsible for 95.8% and 5.2% of USH2 mutated cases, respectively. DFNB31 plays a minor role in the Spanish population. There was a group of patients in whom no mutation was found. These findings confirm the importance of including at least GPR98 analysis for comprehensive USH2 molecular diagnosis.

  17. Child health and the environment: the INMA Spanish Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas-Fitó, Núria; Ramón, Rosa; Ballester, Ferran; Grimalt, Joan; Marco, Alfredo; Olea, Nicolás; Posada, Manuel; Rebagliato, Marisa; Tardón, Adonina; Torrent, Maties; Sunyer, Jordi

    2006-09-01

    The INMA (INfancia y Medio Ambiente [Environment and Childhood]) is a population-based cohort study in different Spanish cities, that focuses on prenatal environmental exposures and growth, development and health from early fetal life until childhood. The study focuses on five primary areas of research: (1) growth and physical development; (2) behavioural and cognitive development; (3) asthma and allergies; (4) sexual and reproductive development; and (5) environmental exposure pathways. The general aims of the project are: (1) to describe the degree of individual prenatal exposure to environmental pollutants, and the internal dose of chemicals during pregnancy, at birth and during childhood in Spain; (2) to evaluate the impact of the exposure to different contaminants on fetal and infant growth, health and development; (3) to evaluate the role of diet on fetal and infant growth, health and development; and (4) to evaluate the interaction between persistent pollutants, nutrients and genetic determinants on fetal and infant growth, health and development. Extensive assessments will be carried out on 3100 pregnant women and children. Data will be collected by physical examinations, questionnaires, interviews, ultrasound and biological samples. Pregnant women are being assessed at 12, 20 and 32 weeks of gestation to collect information about environmental exposures and fetal growth. The children will be followed until the age of 4 years.

  18. Work hours and incidence of hypertension among Spanish university graduates: the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra prospective cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta, Adriano M; Beunza, Juan J; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Alonso, Alvaro; López, Celeste N; Velásquez-Meléndez, Gustavo; Martínez-González, Miguel A

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the association between work hours and incidence of hypertension in 8779 participants of a Spanish dynamic prospective cohort of university graduates. The baseline questionnaire included information about the weekly number of hours the participants devoted to work and to home chores. The work hours were grouped into four categories: 39 or less, 40-49, 50-59, and at least 60 for men; 29 or less, 30-39, 40-49, and at least 50 for women. We added up the number of hours working and spent in home chores in what we called 'total activity hours' that was categorized in quartiles, specific by sex. A participant was classified as an incident case of hypertension if he/she was initially free of hypertension at baseline and reported a physician-made diagnosis of hypertension in at least one of the follow-up questionnaires. The associations between work hours or 'total activity hours' and incidence of hypertension were estimated by calculating the multivariable-adjusted odds ratio and its 95% confidence interval, using logistic regression models. The cumulative incidence of hypertension during 4.2 years median follow-up was 5.8%. No association was found between work hours or 'total activity hours' and incidence of hypertension in either sex. The results of our study do not support any association between work hours and incidence of hypertension. Further longitudinal studies in the general population should be conducted to test this relationship.

  19. Dyslipidaemia in HIV-infected women on antiretroviral therapy. Analysis of 922 patients from the Spanish VACH cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estrada Vicente

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information concerning lipid disturbances in HIV-infected women on antiretroviral therapy (ART is scarce. The objective of the study is to describe the lipid profile in a large cohort of HIV-infected women on contemporary ART and analyse differences between regimes and patient's characteristics. Methods Observational, multicentre, cross-sectional study from the Spanish VACH Cohort. 922 women on stable ART without lipid-lowering treatment were included. Results Median age was 42 years, median CD4 lymphocyte count was 544 cells/mm3, and 85.6% presented undetectable HIV-1 viral load. Median total cholesterol (TC was 189 mg/dL (interquartile range, IQR, 165-221, HDL cholesterol 53 mg/dL (IQR, 44-64, LDL cholesterol 108 mg/dL (IQR, 86-134, and triglycerides 116 mg/dL (IQR, 85-163. Mean accumulated time on ART was 116 months; 47.4% were on NNRTI-based regimes, 44.7% on PI, and 6.7% on only-NRTI therapy. 43.8% were also hepatitis C (HCV coinfected. Patients on PI treatment presented higher TC/HDL ratio than those on NNRTI (p Conclusions In HIV-infected women, the NNRTI-based ART is associated with a better lipid profile than the PI-based. Factors unrelated to ART selection may also exert an independent, significant influence on lipids; in particular, age, and triglyceride levels are associated with an increased TC/HDL ratio while HCV co-infection is associated with a reduced TC/HDL ratio.

  20. Pragmatic Instruction May Not Be Necessary among Heritage Speakers of Spanish: A Study on Requests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros García, María J.; Bachelor, Jeremy W.

    2018-01-01

    This paper studies the pragmatic competence of U.S. heritage speakers of Spanish in an attempt to determine (a) the degree of pragmatic transfer from English to Spanish experienced by heritage speakers when producing different types of requests in Spanish; and (b) how to best teach pragmatics to students of Spanish as a Heritage Language (SHL).…

  1. Towards methodological improvement in the Spanish studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Amante García

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The European Higher Education Area (EHEA has triggered many changes in the new degrees in Spanish universities, mainly in terms of methodology and assessment. However, in order to make such changes a success it is essential to have coordination within the teaching staff as well as active methodologies in use, which enhance and encourage students’ participation in all the activities carried out in the classroom. Most of all, when dealing with formative and summative evaluation, in which students become the ones responsible for their own learning process (López-Pastor, 2009; Torre, 2008. In this second issue of JOTSE we have included several teaching innovation experiences related to the above mentioned methodological and assessment changes.

  2. Methodology Series Module 1: Cohort Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Maninder Singh

    2016-01-01

    Cohort design is a type of nonexperimental or observational study design. In a cohort study, the participants do not have the outcome of interest to begin with. They are selected based on the exposure status of the individual. They are then followed over time to evaluate for the occurrence of the outcome of interest. Some examples of cohort studies are (1) Framingham Cohort study, (2) Swiss HIV Cohort study, and (3) The Danish Cohort study of psoriasis and depression. These studies may be prospective, retrospective, or a combination of both of these types. Since at the time of entry into the cohort study, the individuals do not have outcome, the temporality between exposure and outcome is well defined in a cohort design. If the exposure is rare, then a cohort design is an efficient method to study the relation between exposure and outcomes. A retrospective cohort study can be completed fast and is relatively inexpensive compared with a prospective cohort study. Follow-up of the study participants is very important in a cohort study, and losses are an important source of bias in these types of studies. These studies are used to estimate the cumulative incidence and incidence rate. One of the main strengths of a cohort study is the longitudinal nature of the data. Some of the variables in the data will be time-varying and some may be time independent. Thus, advanced modeling techniques (such as fixed and random effects models) are useful in analysis of these studies.

  3. Methodology series module 1: Cohort studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maninder Singh Setia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cohort design is a type of nonexperimental or observational study design. In a cohort study, the participants do not have the outcome of interest to begin with. They are selected based on the exposure status of the individual. They are then followed over time to evaluate for the occurrence of the outcome of interest. Some examples of cohort studies are (1 Framingham Cohort study, (2 Swiss HIV Cohort study, and (3 The Danish Cohort study of psoriasis and depression. These studies may be prospective, retrospective, or a combination of both of these types. Since at the time of entry into the cohort study, the individuals do not have outcome, the temporality between exposure and outcome is well defined in a cohort design. If the exposure is rare, then a cohort design is an efficient method to study the relation between exposure and outcomes. A retrospective cohort study can be completed fast and is relatively inexpensive compared with a prospective cohort study. Follow-up of the study participants is very important in a cohort study, and losses are an important source of bias in these types of studies. These studies are used to estimate the cumulative incidence and incidence rate. One of the main strengths of a cohort study is the longitudinal nature of the data. Some of the variables in the data will be time-varying and some may be time independent. Thus, advanced modeling techniques (such as fixed and random effects models are useful in analysis of these studies.

  4. Attitudes Toward Guarani and Spanish: A Pilot Study in Paraguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Nancy C.

    This study analyzes the language attitudes of the Paraguayan people toward their two languages, Guarani and Spanish. To study the bilingual situation in the South American country, a pilot survey was carried out in the capital city addressing the major topics of language attitudes, language usage, and language varieties. The goals of the survey…

  5. Validation Study of the Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale: Spanish Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jennifer L.; Sifuentes, Lucía Macías

    2016-01-01

    With growing numbers of Hispanic students enrolling in post-secondary school, there is a need to increase retention and graduation rates. The purpose of this study was to validate the Spanish adaptation of the Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale (AMAS). The AMAS was translated and administered to 804 freshman students at a post-secondary institution in…

  6. Clinical and microbiological profile of a retrospective cohort of enteric fever in 2 Spanish tertiary hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Montalvá, Adrián; Martínez-Pérez, Ángela; Pérez-Molina, José Antonio; González-López, Juan José; Lopez-Vélez, Rogelio; Salvador, Fernando; Sánchez, Irene; Planes, Anna M; Molina, Israel

    2015-05-01

    Enteric fever in high-income countries is diagnosed mainly in patients returning from endemic countries. We assess the clinical, microbiological, and prognosis aspects of enteric fever in 2 Spanish tertiary hospitals. A retrospective observational study was conducted at Vall d'Hebron University Hospital and Ramón y Cajal University Hospital in Spain. We reviewed medical records of all patients who were diagnosed with enteric fever from January 2000 to January 2014 at these hospitals. We identified 47 patients with enteric fever episodes. According to their travel history, 35 (74.5%) patients had travelled to highly endemic countries. Imported enteric fever was acquired mainly in Asia (70.3%). Imported infections were implicated in travelers (48.6%), visiting friends and relatives (40%) and immigrants (11.4%). We found that 12 patients were diagnosed with enteric fever without a travel history (autochthonous infection). The resistance profile of the isolates showed decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility in 66.7% of the imported group and 8.3% of the autochthonous group (P = 0.001). Salmonella strains from patients returning from Asia had an increased risk of having decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility (odds ratio, 52.25; 95% confidence interval: 8.6-317.7). Patients with imported enteric fever are at higher risk for having a Salmonella strain with decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility, especially in patients returning from Asia. Initial treatment with third-generation cephalosporin or azithromycin is strongly recommended until a drug-susceptibility test is available. Prevention strategies such as pretravel counseling and immunization before travel may be beneficial.

  7. Alcohol and Difficulty Conceiving in the SUN Cohort: A Nested Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Lopez-del Burgo; Alfredo Gea; Jokin de Irala; Miguel A. Martínez-González; Jorge E. Chavarro; Estefania Toledo

    2015-01-01

    The role of alcohol on fertility remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the association between alcohol and specific alcoholic beverages consumption and the risk of difficulty getting pregnant. We used a case-control study nested within the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) cohort, a prospective, dynamic and multipurpose cohort of 21,705 Spanish university graduates, followed biennially with mailed questionnaires. We identified 686 case-control pairs, matched for age and time in the ...

  8. Fostering Entrepreneurship at the University: A Spanish Empirical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis VÁZQUEZ

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to suggest best practices for improving the effectiveness of entrepreneurship education programs in the European area, based on their impact on expected attitudes of undergraduate students towards business startup as a career choice. Particularly, the paper presents some results from a study carried out in two Spanish universities aimed at validating a structure of entrepreneurship education based on a double component of curricular teaching and extracurricular support, and to analyze their effect upon undergraduates’ entrepreneurial selfefficacy and outcome expectations as immediate antecedents of entrepreneurial intentions and behaviors. Sample was comprised of 800 university students, and statistical treatment of data was based on factorial and regression analyses. Findings underline the very limited involvement of Spanish universities in entrepreneurship education as perceived by students, together with the existence of different effects of curricular and extracurricular elements when fostering entrepreneurial careers among future graduates. Implications of these results and limitations of the study are discussed.

  9. Emerging Literacy in Spanish among Hispanic Heritage Language University Students in the USA: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairclough, Marta; Belpoliti, Flavia

    2016-01-01

    This pilot study identifies some lexical aspects of the emerging writing skills in Spanish among receptive English/Spanish bilingual students with little or no exposure to formal study of the home language upon entering a Spanish Heritage Language Program at a large public university in the Southwestern United States. The 200+ essays analyzed in…

  10. Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl Substances and Metabolic Outcomes in Pregnant Women: Evidence from the Spanish INMA Birth Cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matilla-Santander, Nuria; Valvi, Damaskini; Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Manzano-Salgado, Cyntia B; Ballester, Ferran; Ibarluzea, Jesús; Santa-Marina, Loreto; Schettgen, Thomas; Guxens, Mònica; Sunyer, Jordi; Vrijheid, Martine

    2017-11-13

    Exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) may increase risk for metabolic diseases; however, epidemiologic evidence is lacking at the present time. Pregnancy is a period of enhanced tissue plasticity for the fetus and the mother and may be a critical window of PFAS exposure susceptibility. We evaluated the associations between PFAS exposures and metabolic outcomes in pregnant women. We analyzed 1,240 pregnant women from the Spanish INMA [Environment and Childhood Project (INfancia y Medio Ambiente)] birth cohort study (recruitment period: 2003-2008) with measured first pregnancy trimester plasma concentrations of four PFASs (in nanograms/milliliter). We used logistic regression models to estimate associations of PFASs (log 10 -transformed and categorized into quartiles) with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and we used linear regression models to estimate associations with first-trimester serum levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, and C-reactive protein (CRP). Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) were positively associated with IGT (137 cases) [OR per log 10 -unit increase=1.99 (95% CI: 1.06, 3.78) and OR=1.65 ( 95% CI: 0.99, 2.76), respectively]. PFOS and PFHxS associations with GDM (53 cases) were in a similar direction, but less precise. PFOS and perfluorononanoate (PFNA) were negatively associated with triglyceride levels [percent median change per log 10 -unit increase=-5.86% (95% CI: -9.91%, -1.63%) and percent median change per log 10 -unit increase=-4.75% (95% CI: -8.16%, -0.61%, respectively], whereas perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) was positively associated with total cholesterol [percent median change per log 10 -unit increase=1.26% (95% CI: 0.01%, 2.54%)]. PFASs were not associated with CRP in the subset of the population with available data ( n =640). Although further confirmation is required, the findings from this study suggest that PFAS exposures during pregnancy may

  11. Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl Substances and Metabolic Outcomes in Pregnant Women: Evidence from the Spanish INMA Birth Cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matilla-Santander, Nuria; Valvi, Damaskini; Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Manzano-Salgado, Cyntia B.; Ballester, Ferran; Ibarluzea, Jesús; Santa-Marina, Loreto; Schettgen, Thomas; Guxens, Mònica; Sunyer, Jordi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) may increase risk for metabolic diseases; however, epidemiologic evidence is lacking at the present time. Pregnancy is a period of enhanced tissue plasticity for the fetus and the mother and may be a critical window of PFAS exposure susceptibility. Objective: We evaluated the associations between PFAS exposures and metabolic outcomes in pregnant women. Methods: We analyzed 1,240 pregnant women from the Spanish INMA [Environment and Childhood Project (INfancia y Medio Ambiente)] birth cohort study (recruitment period: 2003–2008) with measured first pregnancy trimester plasma concentrations of four PFASs (in nanograms/milliliter). We used logistic regression models to estimate associations of PFASs (log10-transformed and categorized into quartiles) with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and we used linear regression models to estimate associations with first-trimester serum levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, and C-reactive protein (CRP). Results: Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) were positively associated with IGT (137 cases) [OR per log10-unit increase=1.99 (95% CI: 1.06, 3.78) and OR=1.65 ( 95% CI: 0.99, 2.76), respectively]. PFOS and PFHxS associations with GDM (53 cases) were in a similar direction, but less precise. PFOS and perfluorononanoate (PFNA) were negatively associated with triglyceride levels [percent median change per log10-unit increase=−5.86% (95% CI: −9.91%, −1.63%) and percent median change per log10-unit increase=−4.75% (95% CI: −8.16%, −0.61%, respectively], whereas perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) was positively associated with total cholesterol [percent median change per log10-unit increase=1.26% (95% CI: 0.01%, 2.54%)]. PFASs were not associated with CRP in the subset of the population with available data (n=640). Conclusions: Although further confirmation is required, the findings from this

  12. On the Nature of Cross-Linguistic Transfer: A Case Study of Andean Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntendam, Antje G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study on cross-linguistic transfer in Andean Spanish word order. In Andean Spanish the object appears in preverbal position more frequently than in non-Andean Spanish, which has been attributed to an influence from Quechua (a Subject-Object-Verb language). The high frequency of preverbal objects could be…

  13. Spanish Verbs Visualization: A study and scalable experimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana García Serrano

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it is presented a study on verbs in Spanish and it’s potential to display images from the Wikipedia (Wikimedia. It is designed and developed an Information Retrieval model based on linguistic structures of verbs and an environment that allows all subsequent scaling Spanish verbs. Adesse and EuroWordNet are the linguistic resources selected to bring the theoretical basis of the work. In the absence of an adequate corpus with relevant judgments to the problem, it has been recorded by the second author a subset of visual verbs sufficiently representative and enable to further work on this issue. Finally conclusions about visual verbs as well as the obtained results are provided

  14. Pregnancy in Spanish elite sportswomen: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Pascual, Beatriz; Alvarez-Harris, Sara; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Palacios-Ceña, Domingo

    2017-07-01

    Pregnancy and motherhood have been historically considered as reasons why elite sportswomen may end their sport careers. During pregnancy, the safety of both mother and baby has been identified as a key reason for ceasing sport participation. Recent "official" statistics on how many elite athletes are mothers suggest that pregnancy, motherhood, and sport could be no longer mutually exclusive. The aim of this qualitative phenomenological study was to describe the lived pregnancy of Spanish elite sportswomen. Spanish elite sportswomen (n = 20) aged between 18 and 65 years that had been pregnant during their sporting professional career and after the end of their pregnancy had taken up again their professional sporting career for at least one year were included. Data were collected from May 2010 to April 2012 using in-depth personal interviews, investigator's field notes, and extracts from the participants' personal letters. Identified themes included: (1) choosing the right moment; (2) fears and doubts; and (3) justifying physical exercise. By giving voice to these elite Spanish sportswomen, their pregnancy experiences are made visible, which might help to gain a better understanding into their expectations and develop policies and practices focused on elite sportswomen during and after pregnancy.

  15. Maternity in Spanish elite sportswomen: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Pascual, Beatriz; Alvarez-Harris, Sara; Fernández-De-Las-Peñas, César; Palacios-Ceña, Domingo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative phenomenological study was to describe the experiences of maternity among Spanish elite sportswomen. Twenty (n = 20) Spanish elite sportswomen with the following criteria were included: (a) aged 18-65 years; (b) had been pregnant during their sporting professional career; and (c) after the end of their pregnancy they had returned to their professional sporting career for at least one year. A qualitative analysis was conducted. Data were collected using in-depth personal interviews, investigator's field notes, and extracts from the participants' personal letters. Identified themes included: (a) a new identity, with two sub-themes ("mother role" and "being visible"); (b) going back to sport, with three subthemes ("guilt appears," "justifying going back to sport," and "rediscovering sport"); and, (c) reaching a goal, with two subthemes ("balancing mother-sportswoman" and "the challenge of maternity"). Understanding the meaning of maternity for elite Spanish sportswomen might help gain deeper insight into their expectations and develop training systems focused on elite sports women after pregnancy.

  16. Outdoor characterization of radio frequency electromagnetic fields in a Spanish birth cohort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvente, I.; Fernández, M.F.; Pérez-Lobato, R.; Dávila-Arias, C.; Ocón, O.; Ramos, R.; Ríos-Arrabal, S.; Villalba-Moreno, J.

    2015-01-01

    There is considerable public concern in many countries about the possible adverse effects of exposure to non-ionizing radiation electromagnetic fields, especially in vulnerable populations such as children. The aim of this study was to characterize environmental exposure profiles within the frequency range 100 kHz–6 GHz in the immediate surrounds of the dwellings of 123 families from the INMA-Granada birth cohort in Southern Spain, using spot measurements. The arithmetic mean root mean-square electric field (E RMS ) and power density (S RMS ) values were, respectively, 195.79 mV/m (42.3% of data were above this mean) and 799.01 µW/m 2 (30% of values were above this mean); median values were 148.80 mV/m and 285.94 µW/m 2 , respectively. Exposure levels below the quantification limit were assigned a value of 0.01 V/m. Incident field strength levels varied widely among different areas or towns/villages, demonstrating spatial variability in the distribution of exposure values related to the surface area population size and also among seasons. Although recorded values were well below International Commission for Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection reference levels, there is a particular need to characterize incident field strength levels in vulnerable populations (e.g., children) because of their chronic and ever-increasing exposure. The effects of incident field strength have not been fully elucidated; however, it may be appropriate to apply the precautionary principle in order to reduce exposure in susceptible groups. - Highlights: • Spot measurements were performed in the immediate surrounds of children's dwellings. • Mean root mean-square electric field and power density values were calculated. • Most recorded values were far below international standard guideline limits. • Data demonstrate spatial variability in the distribution of exposure levels. • While adverse effects are proven, application of the precautionary principle may be appropriate

  17. Influence of antibody profile in clinical features and prognosis in a cohort of Spanish patients with systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iniesta Arandia, Nerea; Simeón-Aznar, Carmen Pilar; Guillén Del Castillo, Alfredo; Colunga Argüelles, Dolores; Rubio-Rivas, Manuel; Trapiella Martínez, Luis; García Hernández, Francisco José; Sáez Comet, Luis; Egurbide Arberas, María Victoria; Ortego-Centeno, Norberto; Freire, Mayka; Marí Alfonso, Begoña; Vargas Hitos, José Antonio; Ríos Blanco, Juan José; Todolí Parra, José Antonio; Rodríguez-Carballeira, Monica; Marín Ballvé, Adela; Chamorro Fernández, Antonio Javier; Pla Salas, Xavier; Madroñero Vuelta, Ana Belen; Ruiz Muñoz, Manuel; Fonollosa Pla, Vicent; Espinosa, Gerard

    2017-01-01

    To assess the clinical manifestations and prognosis of Spanish patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) according to their immunological profile. From the Spanish Scleroderma Study Group or RESCLE (Registro de ESCLErodermia as Spanish nomenclature) Registry we selected those patients in which anti-centromere (ACA), anti-topoisomerase I (ATA), and anti-RNA polymerase III (ARA) antibodies had been determined, and a single positivity for each SSc specific antibody was detected. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, and survival data were compared according to the serologic status of these antibodies. Overall, 209 SSc patients were included. In 128 (61%) patients ACA was the only positive antibody, 46 (22%) were only positive for ATA, and 35 (17%) for ARA. Of note, the three groups were mutually exclusive. In univariate analysis, patients with ACA presented more frequently limited cutaneous SSc (lcSSc) (p<0.001), whereas diffuse cutaneous SSc (dcSSc) was the most frequent subtype in patients with ATA (54%) and ARA (62%) (both p<0.001). Positive patients for ARA showed the highest prevalence of joint involvement (p<0.001) and those from ATA group had a higher prevalence of interstitial lung disease (ILD) (p<0.001). Scleroderma renal crisis was more frequent in the ARA group (p<0.001). In multivariate analysis, ACA were associated with female gender and were protective for dcSSc and ILD. ATA were found to be protective for lcSSc and they were independently associated with interstitial reticular pattern. ARA positivity was independently associated with dcSSc. We did not find differences in mortality between the three groups. In Spanish SSc patients, the presence of SSc specific antibodies conferred a distinctive clinical profile.

  18. Outdoor characterization of radio frequency electromagnetic fields in a Spanish birth cohort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvente, I. [Unit Research Support of the San Cecilio University Hospital, Biosanitary Institute of Granada (ibs.GRANADA), University Hospitals of Granada/University of Granada, Granada (Spain); Department of Radiology and Physical Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Granada, Av. Madreid s/n, Granada 18071 (Spain); Fernández, M.F. [Unit Research Support of the San Cecilio University Hospital, Biosanitary Institute of Granada (ibs.GRANADA), University Hospitals of Granada/University of Granada, Granada (Spain); Department of Radiology and Physical Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Granada, Av. Madreid s/n, Granada 18071 (Spain); CIBER en Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP) (Spain); Pérez-Lobato, R.; Dávila-Arias, C.; Ocón, O.; Ramos, R. [Unit Research Support of the San Cecilio University Hospital, Biosanitary Institute of Granada (ibs.GRANADA), University Hospitals of Granada/University of Granada, Granada (Spain); Ríos-Arrabal, S. [Unit Research Support of the San Cecilio University Hospital, Biosanitary Institute of Granada (ibs.GRANADA), University Hospitals of Granada/University of Granada, Granada (Spain); Department of Radiology and Physical Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Granada, Av. Madreid s/n, Granada 18071 (Spain); Villalba-Moreno, J. [CIBER en Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP) (Spain); and others

    2015-04-15

    There is considerable public concern in many countries about the possible adverse effects of exposure to non-ionizing radiation electromagnetic fields, especially in vulnerable populations such as children. The aim of this study was to characterize environmental exposure profiles within the frequency range 100 kHz–6 GHz in the immediate surrounds of the dwellings of 123 families from the INMA-Granada birth cohort in Southern Spain, using spot measurements. The arithmetic mean root mean-square electric field (E{sub RMS}) and power density (S{sub RMS}) values were, respectively, 195.79 mV/m (42.3% of data were above this mean) and 799.01 µW/m{sup 2} (30% of values were above this mean); median values were 148.80 mV/m and 285.94 µW/m{sup 2}, respectively. Exposure levels below the quantification limit were assigned a value of 0.01 V/m. Incident field strength levels varied widely among different areas or towns/villages, demonstrating spatial variability in the distribution of exposure values related to the surface area population size and also among seasons. Although recorded values were well below International Commission for Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection reference levels, there is a particular need to characterize incident field strength levels in vulnerable populations (e.g., children) because of their chronic and ever-increasing exposure. The effects of incident field strength have not been fully elucidated; however, it may be appropriate to apply the precautionary principle in order to reduce exposure in susceptible groups. - Highlights: • Spot measurements were performed in the immediate surrounds of children's dwellings. • Mean root mean-square electric field and power density values were calculated. • Most recorded values were far below international standard guideline limits. • Data demonstrate spatial variability in the distribution of exposure levels. • While adverse effects are proven, application of the precautionary principle may

  19. Migration of Spanish nurses 2009-2014. Underemployment and surplus production of Spanish nurses and mobility among Spanish registered nurses: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbany-Estragués, Paola; Nelson, Sioban

    2016-11-01

    After the financial crisis of 2008, increasing numbers of nurses from Spain are going abroad to work. To examine the health and workforce policy trends in Spain between 2009 and 2014 and to analyze their correlation with the migration of nurses. Single embedded case study. We examined data published by: Health Statistics, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (1996 to 2013); Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports (2006 to 2013); Ministry of Employment and Social Security (2009 to 2014); Ministry of Health, Social Services and Equality (1997 to 2014); and National Institute of Statistics (1976 to 2014). In addition to reviewing the scholarly literature on the topic in Spanish and English, we also examined Spanish mobility laws and European directives. We used the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development definition of "professionally active nurses" which defines practising nurses and other nurses as those for whom their education is a prerequisite for employment as a nurse. Moreover, we used the term "nursing graduate" as defined by Spanish Ministry of Education to describe those who have obtained a recognized qualification in nursing in a given year, the term "registered nurses" is defined by Spanish law as nurses registered in the Nurses Associations and "unemployed nurses" are those without work and registered as seeking employment. A transformation of the Spanish health system has reduced the number of employed nurses per capita since 2010. Moreover, reductions in public spending, labour market reforms and widespread unemployment have affected nurses in two ways: first by increasing the number of applicants per vacancy between 2009 and 2013, and second, by an increase in casual positions. However, despite the poor job market and decreasing job security, the number of registered nurses and nursing graduates in Spain per year has continued to grow, increasing the pressure on the labour market. Spain is transforming from a stable

  20. "Sometimes I Am Spanish and Sometimes Not": A Study of the Identity and Integration of Spanish Muslim Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibai, Salam Adlbi

    2010-01-01

    This article reports part of a wider investigation which is still being developed and analyzes in depth the lives of female university students who are both Spanish and Muslim. The first part of this research was published in the "Revista Espanola de Educacion Comparada," where the results of the study in Madrid are presented. Here, the…

  1. Riyadh Mother and Baby Multicenter Cohort Study: The Cohort Profile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayfaa Wahabi

    Full Text Available To assess the effects of non-communicable diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension and obesity, on the mother and the infant.A multicentre cohort study was conducted in three hospitals in the city of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia. All Saudi women and their babies who delivered in participating hospitals were eligible for recruitment. Data on socio-demographic characteristics in addition to the maternal and neonatal outcomes of pregnancy were collected. The cohort demographic profile was recorded and the prevalence of maternal conditions including gestational diabetes, pre-gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorders in pregnancy and obesity were estimated.The total number of women who delivered in participating hospitals during the study period was 16,012 of which 14,568 women participated in the study. The mean age of the participants was 29 ± 5.9 years and over 40% were university graduates. Most of the participants were housewives, 70% were high or middle income and 22% were exposed to secondhand smoke. Of the total cohort, 24% were married to a first cousin. More than 68% of the participants were either overweight or obese. The preterm delivery rate was 9%, while 1.5% of the deliveries were postdate. The stillbirth rate was 13/1000 live birth. The prevalence of gestational diabetes was 24% and that of pre-gestational diabetes was 4.3%. The preeclampsia prevalence was 1.1%. The labour induction rate was 15.5% and the cesarean section rate was 25%.Pregnant women in Saudi Arabia have a unique demographic profile. The prevalence of obesity and diabetes in pregnancy are among the highest in the world.

  2. Cohort profile: The Limache, Chile, birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amigo, Hugo; Bustos, Patricia; Zumelzú, Elinor; Rona, Roberto J

    2014-08-01

    The Limache cohort was set up to assess the programming and life course events hypotheses in relation to cardiovascular risk factors and chronic respiratory conditions, especially asthma, in the context of an unprecedented economic growth in Chile. The cohort was a representative sample of 1232 participants born between 1974 and 1978 in the hospital of Limache. The study includes data collected at birth, during the 1st year of life, at 22 to 28 years (collected between 2000 and 2002) and at 32 to 38 years (collected between 2010 and 2012). The data collected include anthropometric measurements at birth, 1st year of life and in adulthood, socio-economic and demographic data, lifestyle information including smoking, alcohol consumption and food intake, respiratory symptoms, lung function, broncho-reactivity to methacholine and skin prick reaction to eight allergens, measurement of cardiovascular risk factors and information on common mental health, mainly in the most recent study. The principal researchers welcome collaborative projects, especially those that will compare similar data sets in other settings. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association © The Author 2013; all rights reserved.

  3. [Ethical considerations in genomic cohort study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun Kyung; Kim, Ock-Joo

    2007-03-01

    During the last decade, genomic cohort study has been developed in many countries by linking health data and genetic data in stored samples. Genomic cohort study is expected to find key genetic components that contribute to common diseases, thereby promising great advance in genome medicine. While many countries endeavor to build biobank systems, biobank-based genome research has raised important ethical concerns including genetic privacy, confidentiality, discrimination, and informed consent. Informed consent for biobank poses an important question: whether true informed consent is possible in population-based genomic cohort research where the nature of future studies is unforeseeable when consent is obtained. Due to the sensitive character of genetic information, protecting privacy and keeping confidentiality become important topics. To minimize ethical problems and achieve scientific goals to its maximum degree, each country strives to build population-based genomic cohort research project, by organizing public consultation, trying public and expert consensus in research, and providing safeguards to protect privacy and confidentiality.

  4. Variability of perfluoroalkyl substance concentrations in pregnant women by socio-demographic and dietary factors in a Spanish birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzano-Salgado, Cyntia B; Casas, Maribel; Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Ballester, Ferran; Martinez, David; Ibarluzea, Jesus; Santa-Marina, Loreto; Schettgen, Thomas; Vioque, Jesus; Sunyer, Jordi; Vrijheid, Martine

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) might affect child health; but maternal determinants of PFAS exposure are unclear. We evaluated the socio-demographic and dietary factors of prenatal PFAS concentrations in a Spanish birth cohort. We analyzed perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) in 1216 plasma samples collected during the 1(ST) trimester of pregnancy (2003-2008). We used multivariable linear regressions to assess the geometric mean (GM) ratios of PFAS concentrations by socio-demographic and dietary factors. We used analysis of variance (ANOVA) to assess the variability of PFAS concentrations by maternal factors. GM PFAS concentrations ranged from 0.55ng/mL for PFHxS to 5.77ng/mL for PFOS. Women born outside of Spain had lower PFAS concentrations (e.g. GM ratio for PFHxS 0.53[95%CI: 0.46, 0.60] than Spanish women. PFHxS and PFOA concentrations were higher in mothers from the regions of Sabadell (2.13[1.93, 2.35] and 1.73[1.60, 1.88], respectively) and Valencia (1.40[1.28, 1.54] and 1.42[1.31, 1.53], respectively) than Gipuzkoa. PFOA and PFNA concentrations decreased with parity (≥2 children: 0.79[0.67, 0.94] and 0.82[0.68, 0.99], respectively). Younger women (i.e. 6months compared to those who never breastfed (0.79[0.67, 0.94] and 0.82[0.71, 0.95], respectively). High intake of fish and shellfish during pregnancy (i.e. ≥5.6 servings/week) was associated with 11% (1.11[1.04, 1.18]) higher PFOS concentrations than the lowest intake group. Our ANOVA models explained 26% to 40% of PFAS concentrations variability. Prenatal PFAS concentrations were mainly determined by maternal country of birth, region of residence, previous breastfeeding and age. Fish and shellfish intake also contributed to PFOS and PFOA concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Association of triglycerides and new lipid markers with the incidence of hypertension in a Spanish cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Íñigo, Laura; Navarro-González, David; Pastrana-Delgado, Juan; Fernández-Montero, Alejandro; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2016-07-01

    Triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) are known to be risk factors for cardiovascular disease. However, there has been limited knowledge on the relationship between triglycerides and incident hypertension. The associations of incident hypertension with triglycerides and triglycerides-related indices such as triglycerides to HDL-C ratio (TG/HDL-C) and triglyceride-glucose index (TyG) were evaluated. Data from 3637 participants from the Vascular Metabolic Clinica Universidad Navarra cohort were followed-up during a mean of 8.49 years. A Cox proportional hazard ratio with repeated measures analyses was performed to assess the risk of developing hypertension across the quintiles of triglycerides, TG/HDL-C ratio, and TyG index. The risk of developing hypertension was 47% and 73% greater for those in the fourth and fifth quintiles of triglycerides, after adjusting for age, sex, BMI, cigarette smoking, daily alcohol intake, lifestyle pattern, type 2 diabetes, antiaggregation therapy, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, SBP, and DBP. In men, those in the top quintile of triglycerides, TG/HDL-C ratio or TyG index were two times more likely to develop hypertension than those in the bottom quintile. In women, the effect was attenuated although the risk of hypertension rose with increasing quintiles (P for trend triglycerides-related variables and incident hypertension independently of adiposity. This association was stronger than those observed for other commonly used lipid parameters or lipid ratios, such as the TC/HDL-C ratio. : http://links.lww.com/HJH/A620.

  6. Personality and Creativity: A Study in Spanish-Speaking Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Krumm

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed at studying the relationship between personality from the Big Five Personality model and creativity through different techniques (i.e., a paper and pencil task, and scales and informants (i.e., the child and parents. We evaluated a sample of 359 Spanish-speaking school children of both genders, aged 9 to 13 years. Personality was assessed with the Argentine Questionnaire of children’s Personality (CAPI. Creativity was evaluated using the following instruments: The Torrance Test of Creative Thinking-Figural Form B; and the Creative Personality Scale (EPC. Pearson correlations and multiple linear regressions consistently showed that Neuroticism related negatively to creativity while competence has a positive relation. The results suggested that more creative children presented less vulnerability, irritability and psychological distress, eventually becoming more independent, competent and emotionally self-regulated in coping with environmental demands.

  7. Etiology of Bronchiectasis in a Cohort of 2047 Patients. An Analysis of the Spanish Historical Bronchiectasis Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olveira, Casilda; Padilla, Alicia; Martínez-García, Miguel-Ángel; de la Rosa, David; Girón, Rosa-María; Vendrell, Montserrat; Máiz, Luis; Borderías, Luis; Polverino, Eva; Martínez-Moragón, Eva; Rajas, Olga; Casas, Francisco; Cordovilla, Rosa; de Gracia, Javier

    2017-07-01

    Bronchiectasis is caused by many diseases. Establishing its etiology is important for clinical and prognostic reasons. The aim of this study was to evaluate the etiology of bronchiectasis in a large patient sample and its possible relationship with demographic, clinical or severity factors, and to analyze differences between idiopathic disease, post-infectious disease, and disease caused by other factors. Multicenter, cross-sectional study of the SEPAR Spanish Historical Registry (RHEBQ-SEPAR). Adult patients with bronchiectasis followed by pulmonologists were included prospectively. Etiological studies were based on guidelines and standardized diagnostic tests included in the register, which were later included in the SEPAR guidelines on bronchiectasis. A total of 2,047 patients from 36 Spanish hospitals were analyzed. Mean age was 64.9years and 54.9% were women. Etiology was identified in 75.8% of cases (post-Infection: 30%; cystic fibrosis: 12.5%; immunodeficiencies: 9.4%; COPD: 7.8%; asthma: 5.4%; ciliary dyskinesia: 2.9%, and systemic diseases: 1.4%). The different etiologies presented different demographic, clinical, and microbiological factors. Post-infectious bronchiectasis and bronchiectasis caused by COPD and asthma were associated with an increased risk of poorer lung function. Patients with post-infectious bronchiectasis were older and were diagnosed later. Idiopathic bronchiectasis was more common in female non-smokers and was associated with better lung function, a higher body mass index, and a lower rate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa than bronchiectasis of known etiology. The etiology of bronchiectasis was identified in a large proportion of patients included in the RHEBQ-SEPAR registry. Different phenotypes associated with different causes could be identified. Copyright © 2016 SEPAR. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Language Usage and Culture Maintenance: A Study of Spanish-Speaking Immigrant Mothers in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía, Glenda

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the usage of the Spanish language by Hispanic mothers with their children, their views on language maintenance and culture within their bilingual families and their opinions on the benefits of bilingualism in a globalised world. Drawing upon detailed case studies of 16 native Spanish-speaking mothers married to…

  9. Synchronous Computer-Mediated Dynamic Assessment: A Case Study of L2 Spanish Past Narration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darhower, Mark Anthony

    2014-01-01

    In this study, dynamic assessment is employed to help understand the developmental processes of two university Spanish learners as they produce a series of past narrations in a synchronous computer mediated environment. The assessments were conducted in six weekly one-hour chat sessions about various scenes of a Spanish language film. The analysis…

  10. Teaching L2 Spanish Sociopragmatics through Concepts: A Classroom-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Compernolle, Rémi A.; Gomez-Laich, Maria Pia; Weber, Ashley

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the teaching of second language (L2) Spanish sociopragmatics through concept-based pragmatics instruction (van Compernolle, 2014). The concepts of self-presentation, social distance, and power were the focus of a pedagogical enrichment program in 2 sections of a beginning-level Spanish class at a northeastern U.S. university.…

  11. Parent Reports of Young Spanish-English Bilingual Children's Productive Vocabulary: A Development and Validation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancilla-Martinez, Jeannette; Gámez, Perla B.; Vagh, Shaher Banu; Lesaux, Nonie K.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This 2-phase study aims to extend research on parent report measures of children's productive vocabulary by investigating the development (n = 38) of the Spanish Vocabulary Extension and validity (n = 194) of the 100-item Spanish and English MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories Toddler Short Forms and Upward Extension…

  12. Prosodic Abilities in Spanish and English Children with Williams Syndrome: A Cross-Linguistic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Castilla, Pastora; Stojanovik, Vesna; Setter, Jane; Sotillo, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the prosodic profiles of English- and Spanish-speaking children with Williams syndrome (WS), examining cross-linguistic differences. Two groups of children with WS, English and Spanish, of similar chronological and nonverbal mental age, were compared on performance in expressive and receptive prosodic tasks…

  13. Lexical Anglicisms in Spanish and Slovak: a Contrastive Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohdan Ulašin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article compares two languages, Castillian Spanish and Slovak and contrasts the status and use of English loanwords in each language. It is a small part of a larger project comparing the lexical and semantic levels of both languages. The article classifies and gives examples of differences in the treatment of anglicisms between the two, starting with phonetic differences (introducing the most notable ones, orthographic, semantic and structural differences, then looking at synonyms and calques and ending with a discussion of the presence or absence of anglicisms in the cases of denotative mismatches. We also emphasize the importance of taking into account the cultural equivalent of the English loanwords in the extralinguistic reality of Spain and Slovakia. The phenomenon of so called pseudo-anglicisms in Spanish is mentioned, as well as the extremely numerous presence of false friends in Spanish (in comparison with Slovak. The article summarises the most typical differences between European Spanish and American Spanish varieties with regard to English loanwords. The article also discusses the case of acronyms, contrasting the use of English international acronyms in Slovak with the tendency to translate them in Spanish.

  14. The unresolved issue of oxygen therapy in lung fibrosis: Some clues from a Spanish cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Martin-Robles

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indication of oxygen therapy in fibrotic interstitial lung diseases is not standardized and its specific requirements are not well defined. The objective of this study was to evaluate ambulatory oxygen therapy features in lung fibrotic patients. Clinical and exploratory data, including 6-minute walking test and pulmonary hypertension, from one hundred and seven patients with fibrotic interstitial lung disease that received ambulatory oxygen treatment were studied. In up to 40% of cases the prescription of oxygen therapy was made after performing a 6-minute walking test. Patients who required ambulatory oxygen only during exercise presented a mild to moderate reduction of the predicted % FVC (62.1 ± 19 and DLCO (49 ± 14.4 while patients who had respiratory failure at rest (mean PaO2 51.9 ± 6.7 presented a moderate reduction of %FVC (56.8 ± 15.6 but a severe decrease of %DLCO (31.67 ± 12. Pulmonary hypertension (PH was evaluated in 47.7% of patients and occurred in 60.8% of them. In conclusion, there is no pulmonary functional predictor of oxyhaemoglobin desaturation during exercise. PH is frequently associated with interstitial lung diseases, mainly when respiratory failure at rest appears. The heterogeneity of the patients and limitation of retrospective studies could be the cause of the tributes for potential benefits of oxygen treatment in interstitial lung diseases.

  15. Cohort studies in health sciences librarianship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldredge, Jonathan

    2002-10-01

    What are the key characteristics of the cohort study design and its varied applications, and how can this research design be utilized in health sciences librarianship? The health, social, behavioral, biological, library, earth, and management sciences literatures were used as sources. All fields except for health sciences librarianship were scanned topically for either well-known or diverse applications of the cohort design. The health sciences library literature available to the author principally for the years 1990 to 2000, supplemented by papers or posters presented at annual meetings of the Medical Library Association. A narrative review for the health, social, behavioral, biological, earth, and management sciences literatures and a systematic review for health sciences librarianship literature for the years 1990 to 2000, with three exceptions, were conducted. The author conducted principally a manual search of the health sciences librarianship literature for the years 1990 to 2000 as part of this systematic review. The cohort design has been applied to answer a wide array of theoretical or practical research questions in the health, social, behavioral, biological, and management sciences. Health sciences librarianship also offers several major applications of the cohort design. The cohort design has great potential for answering research questions in the field of health sciences librarianship, particularly evidence-based librarianship (EBL), although that potential has not been fully explored.

  16. [Pain in Spanish rheumatology outpatient offices: EPIDOR epidemiological study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamero Ruiz, F; Gabriel Sánchez, R; Carbonell Abello, J; Tornero Molina, J; Sánchez-Magro, I

    2005-04-01

    To establish the prevalence and characteristics of rheumatologic pain in Spanish adult population cared in specialized rheumatology offices. Cross selection study in a population of patients cared in rheumatology offices of public Spanish hospitals. 1,134 patients selected through random sampling based on waiting lists of patients, during a period of 1 week, in rheumatology offices of each participating hospital. MAIN OUTCOMES OF THE STUDY: Reason behind the consultation (a new patient [NP] or a patient for revision [RP]), characteristics of the patient (sex, age, habits [alcohol/tobacco], marital status), location, type, intensity, duration, tolerance and management of pain; treatment (pharmacological or non-pharmacological) carried out; satisfaction with the treatment; and association with fibromyalgia. The prevalence of pain in NP was 98.6% and in RP 95.1%, with a global prevalence of 96%, predominating mainly in adult sedentary women with fibromyalgia. The frequency of acute pain was 20.9% and this of chronic pain 79.1% [corrected] The prevalence of fibromyalgia was 12% (2.2% in men, and 15.5% in women). The most prevalent pattern of current dominant pain was this of the mechanical type. More frequent associated pathologies were: hypertension (21.7%), depression (14.4%), gastrointestinal diseases (13.8%) and anxiety (13.4%). All variables analyzed in the study showed changes according to age, sex, and type of patient (NP or RP). Most used treatment was pharmacological; more than 57.6% of patients were receiving NSAIDs. In NP, medical prescriber of the treatment was first the general practitioner (56.1%) followed by the rheumatologist (14.1%); in PR the first one was the rheumatologist (69.9%) followed by the general practitioner (16.5%). Our results show that the prevalence of the rheumatologic pain is very high, predominating mainly in adult women with fibromyalgia. Pain location, intensity, and type, associated pathology, and treatment vary according to age

  17. Low-fat dairy products consumption is associated with lower triglyceride concentrations in a Spanish hypertriglyceridemic cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Merino, Jordi; Mateo-Gallego, Rocío; Plana, Nuria; Bea, Ana María; Ascaso, Juan; Lahoz, Carlos; Aranda, José Luis

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The first line of treatment for hypertriglyceridemic (HTG) includes a well-balanced diet, although the association of dietary components with triglyceride (TG) concentrations in hypertriglyceridemic patients is not fully understood. Objective: To describe the main dietary patterns in a cohort of hypertriglyceridaemic patients and to evaluate the association between dietary components and TG levels. Methods: This multicentre cross-sectional study included subjects (n = 1.394) wit...

  18. Prostate Cancer Biospecimen Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should not be construed as an official Department of the Army...SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 12. DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES...14. ABSTRACT The goal of the study is development of a Prostate Cancer Biorepository Network (PCBN) resource site with high quality and well

  19. Spanish scientific output on Helicobacter pylori. A study through Medline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapero-Marugán, M; Gisbert, J P; Pajares, J M

    2006-04-01

    to analyze scientific output from Spanish hospitals in relation to Helicobacter pylori infection. papers collected from the Medline database between January 1988 and December 2003 were selected. Our search strategy was: "Helicobacter pylori" [MeSH] AND ((Spain [AD] OR Espana [AD] OR Spanien [AD] OR Espagne [AD] OR Espanha [AD]) OR (Spanish [LA]) OR Spain). The following was analyzed: geographic area, Spanish or foreign publication, topic, and year of publication. Output and impact bibliometric markers were evaluated. in all, 691 papers were identified, of which 241 were excluded. Number of papers went from 2 in 1988 to 47 in 2002 and 13 in 2003. There were more reports in Spanish versus foreign journals (58 vs. 42%). In the first 5 years the areas with greater output were associated with diagnosis and microbiology (33 and 20%), whereas therapy was the predominating subject during the last 5 years (27%). Original papers were most common among publications (69%). Hospitals with highest output included La Princesa (24%) and Ramón y Cajal (17.6%) in Madrid, and Parc Taulí in Barcelona (6.4%). Mean impact factor progressively increased from 1.826 in 1988 to 2.142 in 2002 and 2.493 in 2003. the production and impact of documents published by Spanish scientists regarding H. pylori infection considerably increased during the past two decades.

  20. Impact of the Spanish smoking laws on tobacco consumption and secondhand smoke exposure: A longitudinal population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidón-Moyano, Cristina; Fu, Marcela; Ballbè, Montse; Martín-Sánchez, Juan Carlos; Matilla-Santander, Nuria; Martínez, Cristina; Fernández, Esteve; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M

    2017-12-01

    In Spain, two smoke-free laws have been passed after the approval of the WHO-FCTC. This study assesses the impact of these Spanish smoking legislations on the active and passive smoking through a population cohort in Barcelona (Spain). This is a longitudinal study before and after the implementation of two national smoking bans in Spain in a representative sample (n=1245) of adults (≥16years old) from Barcelona (Spain) surveyed in 2004-2005 and followed-up in 2013-2014. The final sample analyzed was 736 individuals. Both questionnaires (before and after the two laws) included the same variables about active and passive smoking. We calculated the prevalence and the prevalence ratio (PR, with their 95% confidence intervals, 95% CI) of smoking cigarettes and hand-rolled tobacco and also the prevalence of exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) at home, work, public transport, leisure time and at any setting after vs. before Spanish legislations. After the implementation of the two Spanish smoke-free bans, a significant decrease was observed in the smoking prevalence (from 34.5% to 26.1%, PR=0.76, psmoke-free legislations in Spain is related to a reduction in smoking prevalence and SHS exposure. However, the smoking of other tobacco products, particularly hand-rolled tobacco, has increased among young population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Selected ABCB1, ABCB4 and ABCC2 Polymorphisms Do Not Enhance the Risk of Drug-Induced Hepatotoxicity in a Spanish Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Ulzurrun, Eugenia; Stephens, Camilla; Ruiz-Cabello, Francisco; Robles-Diaz, Mercedes; Saenz-López, Pablo; Hallal, Hacibe; Soriano, German; Roman, Eva; Fernandez, M. Carmen; Lucena, M. Isabel; Andrade, Raúl J.

    2014-01-01

    [Background and Aims] Flawed ABC transporter functions may contribute to increased risk of drug-induced liver injury (DILI). We aimed to analyse the influence of genetic variations in ABC transporters on the risk of DILI development and clinical presentations in a large Spanish DILI cohort. [Methods] A total of ten polymorphisms in ABCB1 (1236T>C, 2677G>T,A, 3435T>C), ABCB4 (1954A>G) and ABCC2 (???1774G>del, ???1549A>G, ???24C>T, 1249G>A, 3972C>T and 4544G>A) were genotyped using T...

  2. Hurlbert Index of Sexual Assertiveness: a study of psychometric properties in a Spanish sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Iglesias, Pablo; Sierra, Juan Carlos

    2010-08-01

    The study analyzed psychometric properties of a Spanish version of the Hurlbert Index of Sexual Assertiveness in a Spanish sample of 400 men and 453 women who had had a partner for the last 6 mo. or longer at the time of the study. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses suggested a two-factor solution with the factors Initiation and No shyness/Refusal. Internal consistency values for total scores were .87 and .83 for the factors, respectively. Convergent validity tests were also satisfactory. It is therefore reasonable to conclude that the Spanish version of the scale has appropriate psychometric properties.

  3. Historic cohort study in Montreal's fur industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guay, D; Siemiatycki, J

    1987-01-01

    A historic cohort mortality study was carried out among two groups of male workers in the Montreal fur industry: 263 dressers and dyers and 599 fur garment manufacturers. The first group is exposed to a very wide variety of chemicals used in tanning, cleaning, and dyeing fur, including substances considered to be carcinogenic and/or mutagenic. The second group is exposed to residue from the dressing and dyeing stage and to respirable fur dust. The cohorts consisted of all active members of two unions as of January 1, 1966. The mean age of the workers was 43.2 and the mean number of years since first employment 14.1. The follow-up period was from January 1, 1966, to December 31, 1981; 95% of the workers were successfully traced. Observed deaths were compared with those expected based on mortality rates of the population of metropolitan Montreal. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for the manufacturers were significantly low, probably because of the ethnic composition of the cohort and a healthy worker effect. SMRs for the dressers and dyers were also low, but not as low as for the manufacturers. When attention was restricted to the French Canadians in the cohort, the observed deaths were close to the expected; there was a noteworthy excess of colorectal cancer (four observed, 0.8 expected) for dressers and dyers. Apart from this weak suggestive evidence, the results did not indicate any excess mortality risks in the fur industry. However, because of the relatively small number of expected and observed deaths in the cohort and especially among the heavily exposed dressers and dyers, the confidence intervals around SMR estimates were wide and excess risks cannot be ruled out.

  4. [Scientific publication output of Spanish emergency physicians from 2005 to 2014: a comparative study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Guerrero, Inés María; Martín-Sánchez, Francisco Javier; Burillo-Putze, Guillermo; Miró, Òscar

    2017-10-01

    To analyze the research output of Spanish emergency physicians between 2005 and 2014 and to compare it to their output in the previous 10-year period (1995-2004) as well as to that of emergency physicians in other countries and Spanish physicians in other specialties. Original articles indexed in the Science Citation Index Expanded of the Web of Science were included. Documents from Spanish emergency physicians were identified by combining the word Spain and any other search term identifying an emergency service or unit in Spain. To identify articles from 7 other Spanish specialties (hematology, endocrinology, cardiology, pneumology, digestive medicine, pediatrics, surgery and orthopedic medicine or traumatology) and emergency physicians in 8 other countries (United States, United Kingdom, Ireland, Italy, France, Germany, Netherlands, Belgium) we used similar strategies. Information about production between 1995 and 2004 was extracted from a prior publication. Spanish emergency physicians signed 1254 articles (mean [SD], 125 [44] articles/y) between 2005 and 2014. That level of productivity was greater than in the 1995-2004 period (mean, 26 [14] articles/y), although the annual growth rate fell from 12.5% in the previous 10-year period to 5.2% in the most recent one. Emergency medicine was among the least productive Spanish specialties we studied, but our discipline's annual growth rate of 5.2% was the highest. Spanish emergency medicine occupies an intermediate position (ranking fifth) among the 9 countries studied, although the population-adjusted rank was higher (fourth). When output was adjusted for gross domestic product, Spain climbed higher in rank, to second position. The annual growth rate was the fourth highest among countries, after Germany (9.9%), the Netherlands (7.3%), and Italy (6.0%). The research output of Spanish emergency physicians continues to be quantitatively lower than that of other Spanish specialties and of emergency physicians in other

  5. [Frailty and long term mortality, disability and hospitalisation in Spanish older adults. The FRADEA Study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Reig, Marta; Flores Ruano, Teresa; Fernández Sánchez, Miguel; Noguerón García, Alicia; Romero Rizos, Luis; Abizanda Soler, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse whether frailty is related to long-term mortality, incident disability in basic activities of daily living (BADL), and hospitalisation. A concurrent cohort study conducted on 993 participants over age 70 from the FRADEA Study. Frailty was determined with Fried frailty phenotype. Data was collected on mortality, hospitalisation and incident disability in BADL (bathing, grooming, dressing, toileting, eating or transferring) during the follow-up period. The risk of adverse events was determined by logistic regression, Kaplan-Meier analysis, and Cox proportional hazard analysis adjusted for age, sex, Barthel index, comorbidity and institutionalization. Mean follow-up was 952 days (SD 408), during which 182 participants (18.4%) died. Frail participants had an increased adjusted risk of death (HR 4.5, 95%CI: 1.8-11.1), incident disability in BADL (OR 2.7, 95%CI: 1.3-5.9) and the combined event mortality or incident disability (OR 3.0, 95%CI: 1.5-6.1). Pre-frail subjects had an increased adjusted risk of death (HR 2.9, 95%CI: 1.2-6.5), incident disability in BADL (OR 2.1, 95%CI: 1.2-3.6), and the combined event mortality or incident disability (OR 2.2, 95%CI: 1.3-3.6). There was a positive association between frailty and hospitalisation, which almost reached statistical significance (OR 1.7, 95%CI: 1.0-3.0). Frailty is long-term associated with mortality and incident disability in BADL in a Spanish cohort of older adults. Copyright © 2016 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Lifestyle Patterns and Weight Status in Spanish Adults: The ANIBES Study

    OpenAIRE

    P?rez-Rodrigo, Carmen; Gianzo-Citores, Marta; Gil, ?ngel; Gonz?lez-Gross, Marcela; Ortega, Rosa M.; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Limited knowledge is available on lifestyle patterns in Spanish adults. We investigated dietary patterns and possible meaningful clustering of physical activity, sedentary behavior, sleep time, and smoking in Spanish adults aged 18–64 years and their association with obesity. Analysis was based on a subsample (n = 1617) of the cross-sectional ANIBES study in Spain. We performed exploratory factor analysis and subsequent cluster analysis of dietary patterns, physical activity, sedentary behavi...

  7. Fluid intake in Spanish children and adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Fenández-Alvira, Juan Miguel; Iglesia, Iris; Ferreira-Pego, Cíntia; Babio, Nancy; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Moreno, Luis A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Some studies demonstrated that dehydration process is prevalent among young populations and subsequently, a cause of concern. However, the evaluation of the fluid consumption pattern of children and adolescent populations has not been widely assessed. Objective: To evaluate the total fluid intake from different types of beverages in Spanish children and adolescents. Methods: A total of 238 children and adolescents aged 3-17 years were randomly recruited from all Spanish regions....

  8. Factores de riesgo de fracturas por fragilidad en una cohorte de mujeres españolas Risk factors for fragility fractures in a cohort of Spanish women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Tebé

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Las fracturas por fragilidad constituyen un problema de salud pública. El objetivo fue analizar la asociación de los principales factores de riesgo de osteoporosis con la fracturas por fragilidad en una cohorte de mujeres con indicación de densitometría ósea. Métodos: Cohorte retrospectiva con seguimiento hasta una fractura por fragilidad, de una población de mujeres de 40 a 90 años de edad con una primera visita para realizarse una densitometría entre enero de 1992 y febrero de 2008. Se calcularon la tasa de incidencia de fracturas por 1000 mujeres-año de seguimiento y la hazard ratio (HR de fractura mediante un modelo de regresión de Cox. Resultados: Se estudiaron 49.735 mujeres con una edad media de 57,8 años (desviación estándar: 8,5. De ellas, 3631 mujeres (7,1% declararon al menos una fractura por fragilidad en las visitas posteriores a la basal. Los factores de riesgo con una mayor HR ajustada fueron la edad >75 años respecto a Introduction: Fragility fractures are an important public health issue. The aim of this study was to analyze the association of the main osteoporotic risk factors related to fragility fracture in a cohort of women with an indication of bone densitometry (BD. Methods: A retrospective cohort was followed-up until a fragile fracture occurred, in a population of women aged 40 to 90 years with a first visit for BD between January 1992 and February 2008. We calculated the incidence rate of fracture per 1000 women-years of follow-up, and the hazard ratio (HR of fragile fracture using a Cox regression model. Results: A total of 49,735 women were studied. The average age of participants was 57.8 years (SD: 8.5. Of these, 3631 women (7.1% reported a new fragility fracture in post-baseline visits. Risk factors with higher adjusted HR were age > 75 years compared with age < 55 years (HR: 3.8; 95% CI: 3.3-4.4 and having a BC result evaluated as osteoporosis compared to normal (HR: 2.0; 95% CI: 1

  9. Cohort study of HIV-positive and -negative methamphetamine users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spolsky, Vladimir W; Clague, Jason; Shetty, Vivek

    2018-04-20

    The effects of methamphetamine (MA) on caries have been well documented. Little, however, is known about its effects on the periodontium. The authors conducted this study to determine the prevalence and severity of periodontal disease in an urban population of HIV-positive MA users. This cross-sectional survey was conducted in one of the most populous urban areas of Los Angeles County, California, beset with high rates of MA use. Participants were recruited by a combination of street outreach methods, referral from drug treatment centers, and word of mouth. Participants were eligible if they were older than 18 years, spoke English or Spanish, used MA in the past 30 days, were willing to undergo a dental examination and psychosocial assessments, and were willing to provide a urine sample. Periodontal assessments were completed for 541 participants by 3 trained and calibrated dentists. The prevalence and severity of periodontal disease were high in this population of HIV-positive and -negative MA users. Cigarette smoking and age were identified as risk factors. The HIV-positive and -negative cohorts were remarkably similar, suggesting that their lifestyles contributed more to their destructive periodontal disease than their MA use. MA users are at high risk of developing destructive periodontal disease and badly broken-down teeth. Clinicians should plan accordingly for timely management of the patients' care, knowing that MA users have extensive periodontal and restorative treatment needs. Copyright © 2018 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Application of cohort study in cancer prevention and control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Min; Bai, Yana; Pu, Hongquan; Cheng, Ning; Li, Haiyan; He, Jie

    2016-03-01

    Cancer control is a long-term work. Cancer research and intervention really need the support of cohort study. In the recent years, more and more cohort studies on cancer control were conducted in China along with the increased ability of scientific research in China. Since 2010, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, collaborated with Lanzhou University and the Worker' s Hospital of Jinchuan Group Company Limited, have carried out a large-scale cohort study on cancer, which covered a population of more than 50 000 called " Jinchang cohort". Since 2012, a National Key Public Health Project, "cancer screening in urban China" , has been conducted in Jinchang, which strengthened the Jinchang cohort study. Based on the Jinchang cohort study, historical cohort study, cross-sectional study and prospective cohort study have been conducted, which would provide a lot of evidence for the cancer control in China.

  11. Measuring Nutrition Literacy in Spanish-Speaking Latinos: An Exploratory Validation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Heather D; Camargo, Juliana M T B; Owens, Sarah; Gajewski, Byron; Cupertino, Ana Paula

    2017-11-21

    Nutrition is important for preventing and treating chronic diseases highly prevalent among Latinos, yet no tool exists for measuring nutrition literacy among Spanish speakers. This study aimed to adapt the validated Nutrition Literacy Assessment Instrument for Spanish-speaking Latinos. This study was developed in two phases: adaptation and validity testing. Adaptation included translation, expert item content review, and interviews with Spanish speakers. For validity testing, 51 participants completed the Short Assessment of Health Literacy-Spanish (SAHL-S), the Nutrition Literacy Assessment Instrument in Spanish (NLit-S), and socio-demographic questionnaire. Validity and reliability statistics were analyzed. Content validity was confirmed with a Scale Content Validity Index of 0.96. Validity testing demonstrated NLit-S scores were strongly correlated with SAHL-S scores (r = 0.52, p internal consistency was excellent (Cronbach's α = 0.92). The NLit-S demonstrates validity and reliability for measuring nutrition literacy among Spanish-speakers.

  12. Cohort profile: the lidA Cohort Study-a German Cohort Study on Work, Age, Health and Work Participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselhorn, Hans Martin; Peter, Richard; Rauch, Angela; Schröder, Helmut; Swart, Enno; Bender, Stefan; du Prel, Jean-Baptist; Ebener, Melanie; March, Stefanie; Trappmann, Mark; Steinwede, Jacob; Müller, Bernd Hans

    2014-12-01

    The lidA Cohort Study (German Cohort Study on Work, Age, Health and Work Participation) was set up to investigate and follow the effects of work and work context on the physical and psychological health of the ageing workforce in Germany and subsequently on work participation. Cohort participants are initially employed people subject to social security contributions and born in either 1959 (n = 2909) or 1965 (n = 3676). They were personally interviewed in their homes in 2011 and will be visited every 3 years. Data collection comprises socio-demographic data, work and private exposures, work ability, work and work participation attitudes, health, health-related behaviour, personality and attitudinal indicators. Employment biographies are assessed using register data. Subjective health reports and physical strength measures are complemented by health insurance claims data, where permission was given. A conceptual framework has been developed for the lidA Cohort Study within which three confirmatory sub-models assess the interdependencies of work and health considering age, gender and socioeconomic status. The first set of the data will be available to the scientific community by 2015. Access will be given by the Research Data Centre of the German Federal Employment Agency at the Institute for Employment Research (http://fdz.iab.de/en.aspx). © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  13. The Danish National Cohort Study (DANCOS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helweg-Larsen, Karin; Kjøller, Mette; Davidsen, Michael

    2003-01-01

    This article gives an overview of a nationally representive public health research database in Denmark, the Danish National Cohort Study (DANCOS). DANCOS combines baseline data from health interview surveys with both pre- and post-baseline data from national health registries with date from a re...... and administrative registries. All respondents and non-respondents were followed through 2002, a total of 3,796 had died and 249 had emigrated. The specific cause of death for 2,485 people was recorded in the Danish Register of Causes of Death, updated through 1998. For 1978-1977, the Danish National Hospital...

  14. Cohort study of atypical pressure ulcers development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaul, Efraim

    2014-12-01

    Atypical pressure ulcers (APU) are distinguished from common pressure ulcers (PU) with both unusual location and different aetiology. The occurrence and attempts to characterise APU remain unrecognised. The purpose of this cohort study was to analyse the occurrence of atypical location and the circumstances of the causation, and draw attention to the prevention and treatment by a multidisciplinary team. The cohort study spanned three and a half years totalling 174 patients. The unit incorporates two weekly combined staff meetings. One concentrates on wound assessment with treatment decisions made by the physician and nurse, and the other, a multidisciplinary team reviewing all patients and coordinating treatment. The main finding of this study identified APU occurrence rate of 21% within acquired PU over a three and a half year period. Severe spasticity constituted the largest group in this study and the most difficult to cure wounds, located in medial aspects of knees, elbows and palms. Medical devices caused the second largest occurrence of atypical wounds, located in the nape of the neck, penis and nostrils. Bony deformities were the third recognisable atypical wound group located in shoulder blades and upper spine. These three categories are definable and time observable. APU are important to be recognisable, and can be healed as well as being prevented. The prominent role of the multidisciplinary team is primary in identification, prevention and treatment. © 2013 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2013 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Subclinical Hyperthyroidism-A Cohort Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashim, R.; Anwer, M. S.; Khan, F. A.; Ijaz, A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare the development of overt hyperthyroidism in a cohort of patients of subclinical hyperthyroidism (SCR) and in subjects with normal thyroid function tests. Study Design: A cohort study. Place and Duration of study: The study was conducted in the department of Chemical Pathology and Endocrinology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi from Sept 2006 to Sept 2007. Patients and Methods: Fifty patients of SCR and almost equal number of age and sex-matched subjects with normal Thyroid function test (TFT) were included in the study as controls. Subclinical hyperthyroid patients and controls were followed for a period of one year on a six monthly basis. The patients were examined for signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism and serum TSH, total T3 and free T4 were estimated. The clinical history, physical examination and TFT results were recorded. Five ml of blood was collected for serum thyroid profile in plain tube. Hormonal analysis(TSH, T4 and T3) was done for the patients and the controls enrolled in the study. The TFTs was analyzed using Chemiluminescence Immunoassay technique on Immulite 2000 an automated, random access, immunoassay analyzer. Results: Six (12%) out of 50 cases of the SCR patients and 2 (4%) out of 50 controls developed overt hyperthyroidism. SCR had no significant risk for conversion to overt hyperthyroidism as compared to healthy controls in this study. In addition to initial levels of serum TSH were one of important predictor for conversion of SCR to overt hyperthyroidism. Conclusion: Patients with SCR have no significant risk but showed an increase in frequency of conversion to overt hyperthyroidism (12% in this study) as compared to controls. (author)

  16. Financial performance after the Spanish banking reforms: A comparative study of 19 commercial banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pison F. Irene

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A diagnostic review of the Spanish financial system during the 2008 financial crisis reveals the emergency need for banking reform in the sector. In an attempt to evaluate the impact of the Spanish reform, the present study examines the bank´s performance before/after the reform was adopted, using data of 19 Spanish commercial banks extracted from the Global Vantage research database (Standard and Poor’s over the period 2006 to 2013. This study uses multivariable regression method to investigate the impact of the CAMELS rating system: capital adequacy, asset quality, management quality, liquidity and sensitivity to market risks on the bank´s performance such as earnings efficiency. The time-line of the study is essential because it helps us to determine the financial performance of Spanish commercial banks before the banking reforms during the financial crisis and an important set in terms of mergers and acquisition in the banking industry. The empirical results have found strong and positive evidence that Capital Adequacy, Management Capacity, Liquidity and Sensitivity to Market Risk are useful predictors of banks performance (earnings efficiency, thus, any reform pilot toward this banking indicators will eventually have a positive impact on banking performance. Base on the present study, the Spanish reform was so vital for better banking performance. Therefore, this study serves not only to academics but also to policy makers

  17. Cohort Profile : LifeLines, a three-generation cohort study and biobank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Salome; Smidt, Nynke; Swertz, Morris A.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Dotinga, Aafje; Vonk, Judith M.; van Dijk, Freerk; van Zon, Sander K. R.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Stolk, Ronald P.

    The LifeLines Cohort Study is a large population-based cohort study and biobank that was established as a resource for research on complex interactions between environmental, phenotypic and genomic factors in the development of chronic diseases and healthy ageing. Between 2006 and 2013, inhabitants

  18. The Influence of the Country of Origin Image on Brand Equity: A Study of Spanish Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Alves Prado

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available As there are few studies on the influence of the country of origin image on brand equity for services companies (as it is the case of financial institutions, the aim of this paper is to analyze the influence of the country of origin image on the brand equity of Spanish banks. A descriptive and quantitative research was employed, using the survey method to verify the hypothesis that the country of origin image (Spain positively influences the brand equity of Spanish banks. The main statistical analyzes were the  factor analysis and the multiple regression analysis. As a result, it was found that the Attitude dimension underlying the variable Brand equity of Spanish banks suffered more influence than the Awareness dimension. Furthermore, it was found that the country of origin image positively influences the brand equity of Spanish banks. The technical aspects, in general, influence more than friendly aspects, thus implying a direction for the Spain brand development strategy focused on these aspects. Limitations of this study include the use of a non-probability sample and the use of Spanish banks as the object of study. We suggest the development of new works in the services area, in different categories and with different countries of origin, in order to provide further discussion and theoretical basis for future studies and strategic actions, aiming to create and improve the image of countries.

  19. Mutations in HAMP and HJV genes and their impact on expression of clinical hemochromatosis in a cohort of 100 Spanish patients homozygous for the C282Y mutation of HFE gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altès, Albert; Bach, Vanessa; Ruiz, Angels; Esteve, Anna; Felez, Jordi; Remacha, Angel F; Sardà, M Pilar; Baiget, Montserrat

    2009-10-01

    Most hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) patients are homozygous for the C282Y mutation of the HFE gene. Nevertheless, penetrance of the disease is very variable. In some patients, penetrance can be mediated by concomitant mutations in other iron master genes. We evaluated the clinical impact of hepcidin (HAMP) and hemojuvelin mutations in a cohort of 100 Spanish patients homozygous for the C282Y mutation of the HFE gene. HAMP and hemojuvelin mutations were evaluated in all patients by bidirectional direct cycle sequencing. Phenotype-genotype interactions were evaluated. A heterozygous mutation of the HAMP gene (G71D) was found in only one out of 100 cases. Following, we performed a study of several members of that family, and we observed several members had a digenic inheritance of the C282Y mutation of the HFE gene and the G71D mutation of the HAMP gene. This mutation in the HAMP gene did not modify the phenotype of the individuals who were homozygous for the C282Y mutation. One other patient presented a new polymorphism in the hemojuvelin gene, without consequences in iron load or clinical course of the disease. In conclusion, HAMP and hemojuvelin mutations are rare among Spanish HH patients, and their impact in this population is not significant.

  20. Age and sex differences in the incidence of diabetes mellitus in a population-based Spanish cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Tomás; Gil, Milagros; Lozano, Jose

    2015-05-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in Spain ranges between 10% and 20%. However, very little is known about the incidence of DM because of difficulties involved in estimating it and its apparent lack of usefulness in practice. The aim of the present study was to describe the incidence of type 1 and type 2 DM (T1DM and T2DM, respectively) in the Castilla y León diabetes cohort (CODICyL). New diabetes cases, were registered on a standard form that included diagnostic criteria, background, symptoms, results of clinical examination, complications, other cardiovascular risk factors, and treatment. There were 1 354 619 person-years monitored between 2000 and 2013. We estimated the incidence of DM and calculated the relative risks adjusted for age, gender, and year of diagnosis with Poisson regression models. The incidence of DM in individuals aged ≥15 years was 196.9 per 100 000 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI] 188.4-205.7), whereas in those aged <15 years the incidence was 10.8 per 100 000 person-years (95% CI 7.8-14.8). Men had a 36% higher risk than women of developing T2DM (95% CI 25%-49%). The greatest incidence of T2DM was found in 55-64-year-old men and 65-69-year-old women. The annual incidence of T2DM is approximately 2 per 1000 person-years, higher in men, and peaks in middle age. Although specific tests to differentiate between the two types of DM are not available in this study, the estimation of incidence in those <15 years of age (10.8 per 100 000 person-years) represents a close approximation of the incidence of T1DM. © 2014 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. An insight into Twitter: a corpus based contrastive study in English and Spanish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Argüelles Álvarez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study the use of Spanish and English in the micro-blogging social network Twitter from a contrastive point of view. A quantitative research methodology is applied in order firstly, to identify specific common characteristics of language, organization and content in the medium and secondly, to find eventual differences in the use of a particular language. To carry out the experiment, two corpora were constructed using language data from Twitter, one in Spanish with a total number of 4,027,746 words and another with similar characteristics in English with a total number of 4,655,992 words. From the results obtained, the conclusion is that there are a number of very general discourse and organizational features common to the two corpora under study. It is also concluded that there are some particular characteristics which differentiate the use of English and Spanish in the medium.

  2. The Challenges of Spanish Language Teaching in Multilingual India: A Case Study of Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhiraj Kumar Rai

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The multilingual surrounding of Spanish Language Teaching (SLT in India has presented a unique linguistic principle. This principle relies upon the application of English language instructions (as FL1 to combine several methods for teaching-learning Spanish language (as FL2. However, the effectiveness and appropriateness of this linguistic principle, whereby English language instructions are used for SLT, remain undiagnosed. In fact, the technique of SLT in India needs to take into account the local linguistic or dialectical make-up of the actual or potential learners. As such, the process of Spanish Language acquisition in India as inspired by an exposure to local languages/dialects needs to be creatively explored. Furthermore, the recently increasing entries of specific Spanish words/terms in the Indian ‘popular language usage’, and their implications for SLT in India require to be sufficiently investigated. This article aims at filling in the above-mentioned lacunae by conducting a case study of the status of Spanish Language Teaching in Delhi. It draws the conclusion that the maximum flexibility in the process of eclectically mixing various pedagogical methods of SLT could go a long way in motivating and benefitting both the teachers as well as the students, thereby enhancing the overall efficiency of SLT in multilingual India.

  3. Directly alcohol-attributable mortality by industry and occupation in a Spanish Census cohort of economically active population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido, José; Vallejo, Fernando; Alonso-López, Ignacio; Regidor, Enrique; Villar, Fernando; de la Fuente, Luis; Domingo-Salvany, Antonia; Barrio, Gregorio

    2017-11-01

    To assess disparities in directly alcohol-attributable (DAA) mortality by industry/occupation in Spain during 2002-2011 and the contribution of different socio-demographic factors, including socioeconomic position, to explain such disparity. Nationwide cohort study covering 16 million economically active people living in Spain in 2001. Deaths at age 25-64 were analyzed. Subjects were classified by employment status, industry and occupation at baseline. Poisson regression models were built, calculating rate ratios (RRs) compared to all employees or those in the education sector. DAA mortality was much higher in the unemployed than in employees (Crude RR: 2.4; 95% CI: 2.3-2.6) and varied widely across industries/occupations. Crude RRs>3.0 (pindustries/fishing, agriculture/livestock, construction, catering/accommodation and protective services. Socio-demographic factors, especially age, gender and educational attainment contributed more to explain risk disparities than other factors or potential selection bias. However, after exhaustive sociodemographic adjustment, including education attainment and material wealth, a RR>1.33 (p<0.05) remained in unemployed, catering/accommodation employees and unskilled construction workers. RRs were significantly larger in women than men (p<0.05) among mineworkers/fishworkers/sailors (RR=8.6 vs. 1.2) and drivers (RR=3.7 vs. 1.0). The results could be extrapolated to all alcohol-attributable mortality since disparities for other strongly alcohol-related deaths, although smaller, were in the same direction. Given the wide occupational disparities in alcohol-attributable mortality, implementation of special measures to reduce this mortality in the highest risk groups is fully justified. Future research should better characterize the explanatory factors of disparities and their role in the causal chain. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Politicians through the press: a Spanish case study during 2008-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Navarro Sorolla

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The press cover the politicians’ message and grant them a degree of media visibility, insinuating more or less support for any given party and giving the general public a particular vision of the political class through the media influence on politics. This paper is the result of a study of national coverage of politics (2008-2012, as published in two leading Spanish media sources (El País and El Mundo, with a particular emphasis on the Popular Party (PP and the Spanish Social Workers’ Party (PSOE. The research considers whether the media give a political use to political information through media negativity. The conclusion was that both daily newspapers use the information in a biased and negative way when dealing with Spanish political information

  5. Experiencing the body during pregnancy: A qualitative research study among Spanish sportswomen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Pascual, Beatriz; Abuín-Porras, Vanesa; Pérez-de-Heredia-Torres, Marta; Martínez-Piedrola, Rosa María; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; Palacios-Ceña, Domingo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current qualitative phenomenological study was to describe the body experiences during pregnancy among Spanish elite sportswomen. Twenty Spanish sportswomen with the following criteria were included: (1) aged between 18 and 65 years; (2) had been pregnant during their professional sporting career; and (3) after the end of their pregnancy, had returned to their professional sports career for at least 1 year. A qualitative thematic analysis was conducted. Data were collected from May 2010 to April 2012 using in-depth personal interviews, investigator's field notes, and extracts from the participants' personal letters. Identified themes included: (1) a new body; (2) body control; (3) to feel their bodies and communicate with them; and (4) body's beauty ideal. Understanding the meaning of the body experience for elite Spanish sportswomen might provide us with deeper insight into their expectations and might help in the development of training systems focused on them.

  6. A Case Study: Writing a Spanish Dictionary as a Collaborative Task among Beginner Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Nuria

    2016-01-01

    This article reports a small-scale study carried out in a beginners' Spanish class of second year undergraduate students. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of a vocabulary task in terms of its impact on vocabulary acquisition, the learners' approach to vocabulary learning and their motivation and engagement. The task…

  7. Characteristics of La Literatura: A Reference Study of Spanish and Latin American Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolen, David S.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study is to examine the characteristics of scholarly communication, with particular emphasis on the usage of the monograph, in the field of Spanish and Latin American literature over a 30-year period. In addition, this study examines the age of materials referenced in an effort to gain insight into the shelf-life of these…

  8. Consumo de tabaco en titulados universitarios: El Proyecto SUN (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra Smoking among a cohort of Spanish university graduates: The SUN Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xabier Adrián García de Albéñiz

    2004-04-01

    enfermeras la prevalencia de tabaquismo sea más alta que en la media de las mujeres universitarias.Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the association between employment, educational level, marital status, and smoking in a large cohort of Spanish university graduates (3- and 5-year degrees, with a predominance of health professionals. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of the baseline data of the first 7,508 participants in the follow-up study of the University of Navarre (SUN Project was performed. The subjects were classified according to their smoking status. Independent variables were: employment, marital status, highest educational level attained, number of children, alcohol consumption (g/day, body mass index, and age. In the multivariate analysis, 3 non-conditional logistic regression models were built using the following outcomes: a smokers vs never-smokers plus ex-smokers; b smokers vs never-smokers; c smokers of 15 or more cigarettes a day vs smokers of less than 15 cigarettes a day plus never-smokers and ex-smokers. Results: Among men, no association was found between employment and smoking status in any of the comparisons. In contrast, among women, being a nurse was associated with a higher prevalence of smoking. The prevalence of current smokers among nurses was 48.5%. Female students were also more likely to smoke and had a higher risk of being heavy smokers (OR = 1.81; 95% CI, 1.28-2.57. A lower prevalence of smoking was found among participants of both sexes who had completed a doctorate. Conclusions: Among a large Spanish collective with higher education, the prevalence of smoking was higher in women with a shorter college degree. The prevalence of smoking among nurses was higher than the average among women graduates, which is a cause for concern.

  9. Patients with alcohol use disorder: initial results from a prospective multicenter registry in the Spanish Network on Addiction Disorders. CohRTA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanvisens, Arantza; Zuluaga, Paola; Rivas, Inmaculada; Rubio, Gabriel; Gual, Antoni; Torrens, Marta; Short, Antoni; Álvarez, Francisco Javier; Tor, Jordi; Farré, Magí; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Muga, Roberto

    2017-07-14

    The Alcohol Program of the Spanish Network on Addictive Disorders-RTA requires a longitudinal study to address different research questions related to alcoholism. The cohort study (CohRTA) focuses on patients seeking treatment for alcohol use disorder, as a multicentre, collaborative research project aimed to improve secondary prevention and early diagnosis of pathological processes associated with the disorder. multicentre cohort study in adults (>18 years) seeking their first treatment of the disorder. Patients sign an informed consent and data is collected in an online platform specifically designed for the study; patients are also requested to provide biological samples that are stored in a biobank. Baseline and prospective, socio-demographic, epidemiological, clinical and treatment data are collected. Currently there are 10 participating centres that expect to recruit more than 1,000 patients. As of December 2015, 344 patients (77% men) were included. Median age at admission was 50 years (IQR: 43-55 years). Median age at the start of alcohol consumption was 15 years (IQR: 14-18 years) and 61% of cases reported antecedents of alcohol use disorder in the family. During the 30 days prior to admission, alcohol consumption amounted to 12.5 SDU/day (IQR: 7.1-20 SDU/day), 72% of the patients were tobacco smokers and 30% currently used cocaine. Organising an open cohort of patients with alcohol use disorder may be crucial to better understand the clinical consequences of alcoholism in Spain. This cohort may potentiate quantitative and qualitative research within the Spanish Network on Addictive Disorders-RTA/RETICS. Having a well-established, representative cohort of patients will increase translational research on consequences of alcoholism in our country.

  10. PAR1 deletions downstream of SHOX are the most frequent defect in a Spanish cohort of Léri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD) probands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito-Sanz, Sara; del Blanco, Darya Gorbenko; Aza-Carmona, Miriam; Magano, Luis F; Lapunzina, Pablo; Argente, Jesús; Campos-Barros, Angel; Heath, Karen E

    2006-10-01

    Léri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD) is a skeletal dysplasia characterized by disproportionate short stature and Madelung deformity. Mutations or deletions of the SHOX gene have been previously identified as the main cause of LWD. We recently identified the existence of a second class of pseudoautosomal region 1 (PAR1) deletions which do not include SHOX, implicated in the etiopathogenesis of LWD. The deletions map at least 30-250 kb downstream of SHOX, are variable in size and clearly cosegregate with the LWD phenotype. In order to determine the frequency of this new type of deletions in the Spanish population we analyzed the distribution of PAR1 defects, including the screening of SHOX deletions, mutations, and PAR1 deletions downstream of SHOX, in a total of 26 LWD probands by a combination of MLPA, microsatellite analysis, SNP genotyping, dHPLC, and DNA sequencing. A molecular defect was identified in 16/26 LWD patients (61.5%): 10 PAR1 deletions downstream of SHOX, four SHOX encompassing deletions, and two SHOX mutations. No apparent phenotypic differences were observed between patients with SHOX defects and those with PAR1 deletions downstream of SHOX. In the examined cohort of Spanish LWD probands, PAR1 deletions downstream of SHOX represent the highest proportion of identified mutations (38%) compared to SHOX deletions (15%) and mutations (8%). As a consequence of our findings, the screening of this region should be included in the routine genetic testing of LWD. Also, LWD patients who tested negative for SHOX defects should be re-evaluated for PAR1 deletions downstream of SHOX.

  11. Learning through Political Participation: A Case Study of Spanish Elders Involved in Political Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrat, Rodrigo; Petriwskyj, Andrea; Villar, Feliciano; Warburton, Jeni

    2016-01-01

    Older people's civic participation contributes to community development while at the same time providing opportunities for personal growth in later life. One important dimension of civic participation that has been largely underexplored is informal learning. The aim of this study is to explore the learnings experienced by Spanish older people…

  12. Filial Therapy with Monolingual Spanish-Speaking Mothers: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangganjanavanich, Varunee Faii; Cook, Katrina; Rangel-Gomez, Maria

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a phenomenological study of filial therapy with monolingual, Spanish-speaking mothers living in the United States. Four mothers participated in a 5-week training in filial therapy. Data from the interviews revealed four emergent themes. These include (a) challenges in integrating play therapy skills in everyday life, (b)…

  13. Predictors of Reading Skills for Kindergartners and First Grade Students in Spanish: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk; Pallante, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated predictors of word reading and reading comprehension skills using longitudinal data from Spanish-speaking kindergartners (N = 163) and first grade students (N = 305) from high SES families in Chile. Individual differences in letter-naming fluency and phonemic segmentation fluency, but not vocabulary, were positive…

  14. Family Early Literacy Practices Questionnaire: A Validation Study for a Spanish-Speaking Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kandia

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the psychometric validity of a Spanish translated version of a family involvement questionnaire (the FELP) using a mixed-methods design. Thus, statistical analyses (i.e., factor analysis, reliability analysis, and item analysis) and qualitative analyses (i.e., focus group data) were assessed.…

  15. Brain Potentials for Derivational Morphology: An ERP Study of Deadjectival Nominalizations in Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havas, Viktoria; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; Clahsen, Harald

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates brain potentials to derived word forms in Spanish. Two experiments were performed on derived nominals that differ in terms of their productivity and semantic properties but are otherwise similar, an acceptability judgment task and a reading experiment using event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in which correctly and…

  16. A Sociolinguistic Study of Differential Object Marking (DOM) in Two Varieties of Contemporary Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasch Rodriguez, Sonia

    2011-01-01

    This sociolinguistic-variationist investigation sheds light on two little-studied issues concerning Spanish DOM, or variable use of a before animate "direct objects" (DOs), in vernacular language: the complex interaction of co-occurring linguistic (type of verb; definiteness, specificity, grammatical number, topicality, type and…

  17. Relationship between damage clustering and mortality in systemic lupus erythematosus in early and late stages of the disease: cluster analyses in a large cohort from the Spanish Society of Rheumatology Lupus Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pego-Reigosa, José María; Lois-Iglesias, Ana; Rúa-Figueroa, Íñigo; Galindo, María; Calvo-Alén, Jaime; de Uña-Álvarez, Jacobo; Balboa-Barreiro, Vanessa; Ibáñez Ruan, Jesús; Olivé, Alejandro; Rodríguez-Gómez, Manuel; Fernández Nebro, Antonio; Andrés, Mariano; Erausquin, Celia; Tomero, Eva; Horcada Rubio, Loreto; Uriarte Isacelaya, Esther; Freire, Mercedes; Montilla, Carlos; Sánchez-Atrio, Ana I; Santos-Soler, Gregorio; Zea, Antonio; Díez, Elvira; Narváez, Javier; Blanco-Alonso, Ricardo; Silva-Fernández, Lucía; Ruiz-Lucea, María Esther; Fernández-Castro, Mónica; Hernández-Beriain, José Ángel; Gantes-Mora, Marian; Hernández-Cruz, Blanca; Pérez-Venegas, José; Pecondón-Español, Ángela; Marras Fernández-Cid, Carlos; Ibáñez-Barcelo, Mónica; Bonilla, Gema; Torrente-Segarra, Vicenç; Castellví, Iván; Alegre, Juan José; Calvet, Joan; Marenco de la Fuente, José Luis; Raya, Enrique; Vázquez-Rodríguez, Tomás Ramón; Quevedo-Vila, Víctor; Muñoz-Fernández, Santiago; Otón, Teresa; Rahman, Anisur; López-Longo, Francisco Javier

    2016-07-01

    To identify patterns (clusters) of damage manifestations within a large cohort of SLE patients and evaluate the potential association of these clusters with a higher risk of mortality. This is a multicentre, descriptive, cross-sectional study of a cohort of 3656 SLE patients from the Spanish Society of Rheumatology Lupus Registry. Organ damage was ascertained using the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics Damage Index. Using cluster analysis, groups of patients with similar patterns of damage manifestations were identified. Then, overall clusters were compared as well as the subgroup of patients within every cluster with disease duration shorter than 5 years. Three damage clusters were identified. Cluster 1 (80.6% of patients) presented a lower amount of individuals with damage (23.2 vs 100% in clusters 2 and 3, P Cluster 2 (11.4% of patients) was characterized by musculoskeletal damage in all patients. Cluster 3 (8.0% of patients) was the only group with cardiovascular damage, and this was present in all patients. The overall mortality rate of patients in clusters 2 and 3 was higher than that in cluster 1 (P clusters. Both in early and late stages of the disease, there was a significant association of these clusters with an increased risk of mortality. Physicians should pay special attention to the early prevention of damage in these two systems. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Odontogenic sinus tracts: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slutzky-Goldberg, Iris; Tsesis, Igor; Slutzky, Hagay; Heling, Ilana

    2009-01-01

    To determine the prevalence,location, and distribution of sinus tracts in patients referred for endodontic consultation. This cohort study included 1,119 subjects referred for endodontic consultation, 108 of whom presented with sinus tracts. Following clinical and radiographic examination, the diameter of the rarifying osteitis lesion on the radiograph was measured and the path and origin of the sinus tracts determined. Signs and symptoms, tooth site,buccal/lingual location, and diameter were recorded. Data were statistically analyzed using Pearson chi-square test. Sinus tracts originated mainly from maxillary teeth (63.1%); only 38.9% originated from mandibular teeth. Chronic periapical abscess was the most prevalent diagnosed origin (71.0%). Broken restorations were highly associated with the presence of sinus tracts (53.0%). The most frequent site of orifices was buccal(82.4%), followed by lingual or palatal (12.0%). Orifices on the lingual aspect of the gingiva were observed in mandibularmolars. There was an 86.8% correlation between the occurrence of an apically located sinus tract and apical rarifying osteitis(P<.01). Sinus tract in the lingual or palatal aspect of the gingiva is relatively common. Practitioners should look for signs of sinus tract during routine examination

  19. Retrospective Cohort Study of Hydrotherapy in Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderlaan, Jennifer

    To describe the use of hydrotherapy for pain management in labor. This was a retrospective cohort study. Hospital labor and delivery unit in the Northwestern United States, 2006 through 2013. Women in a nurse-midwifery-managed practice who were eligible to use hydrotherapy during labor. Descriptive statistics were used to report the proportion of participants who initiated and discontinued hydrotherapy and duration of hydrotherapy use. Logistic regression was used to provide adjusted odds ratios for characteristics associated with hydrotherapy use. Of the 327 participants included, 268 (82%) initiated hydrotherapy. Of those, 80 (29.9%) were removed from the water because they met medical exclusion criteria, and 24 (9%) progressed to pharmacologic pain management. The mean duration of tub use was 156.3 minutes (standard deviation = 122.7). Induction of labor was associated with declining the offer of hydrotherapy, and nulliparity was associated with medical removal from hydrotherapy. In a hospital that promoted hydrotherapy for pain management in labor, most women who were eligible initiated hydrotherapy. Hospital staff can estimate demand for hydrotherapy by being aware that hydrotherapy use is associated with nulliparity. Copyright © 2017 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Similar and/or Different Writing Processes? A Study of Spanish Foreign Language and Heritage Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elola, Idoia; Mikulski, Ariana M.

    2016-01-01

    Following a cognitively-oriented framework, this study builds upon the authors' previous work (Elola and Mikulski 2013; Mikulski and Elola 2011), which analyzed writing processes (planning time, execution time, revision time), fluency, and accuracy of Spanish heritage language (SHL) learners when composing in English and in Spanish. By analyzing…

  1. A Preliminary Study of a Spanish Graphic Novella Targeting Hearing Loss Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiberson, Mark; Wakefield, Emily

    2017-09-18

    This preliminary study developed a digital graphic novella targeting hearing protection beliefs of Spanish-speaking agricultural workers. Researchers used pretest-posttest interview surveys to establish if the novella had an immediate influence on the participants' beliefs about noise-induced hearing loss and usage of hearing protection devices. Researchers developed a digital graphic novella directed to increase knowledge about noise-induced hearing loss and increase the proper use of hearing protection devices. The novella was tailored to meet the specific linguistic and literacy needs of Spanish-speaking agricultural workers. Thirty-one Spanish-speaking farmworkers of Mexican nationality participated. This study included an interview survey with specific questions on noise-induced hearing loss, myths, and hearing protection device usage. A pretest-posttest design was applied to measure the graphic novella's immediate influence on workers. The posttest scores on Hearing Protection Beliefs statements were significantly better than pretest scores, with a large effect size observed. Digital media may be an effective way to overcome language and literacy barriers with Spanish-speaking workers when providing health education and prevention efforts.

  2. Global teaching and training initiatives for emerging cohort studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica K. Paulus

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A striking disparity exists across the globe, with essentially no large-scale longitudinal studies ongoing in regions that will be significantly affected by the oncoming non-communicable disease epidemic. The successful implementation of cohort studies in most low-resource research environments presents unique challenges that may be aided by coordinated training programs. Leaders of emerging cohort studies attending the First World Cohort Integration Workshop were surveyed about training priorities, unmet needs and potential cross-cohort solutions to these barriers through an electronic pre-workshop questionnaire and focus groups. Cohort studies representing India, Mexico, Nigeria, South Africa, Sweden, Tanzania and Uganda described similar training needs, including on-the-job training, data analysis software instruction, and database and bio-bank management. A lack of funding and protected time for training activities were commonly identified constraints. Proposed solutions include a collaborative cross-cohort teaching platform with web-based content and interactive teaching methods for a range of research personnel. An international network for research mentorship and idea exchange, and modifying the graduate thesis structure were also identified as key initiatives. Cross-cohort integrated educational initiatives will efficiently meet shared needs, catalyze the development of emerging cohorts, speed closure of the global disparity in cohort research, and may fortify scientific capacity development in low-resource settings.

  3. Weight at birth and subsequent fecundability: a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Cathrine Wildenschild; Hammerich Riis, Anders; Ehrenstein, Vera

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between a woman's birth weight and her subsequent fecundability. METHOD: In this prospective cohort study, we included 2,773 Danish pregnancy planners enrolled in the internet-based cohort study "Snart-Gravid", conducted during 2007-2012. Participants were 18...

  4. Thiazolidinediones and Parkinson Disease: A Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, John G; Bykov, Katsiaryna; Gagne, Joshua J

    2015-12-01

    Thiazolidinediones, a class of medications indicated for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, reduce inflammation and have been shown to provide a therapeutic benefit in animal models of Parkinson disease. We examined the association between treatment with thiazolidinediones and the onset of Parkinson disease in older individuals. We performed a cohort study of 29,397 Medicare patients enrolled in state pharmaceutical benefits programs who initiated treatment with thiazolidinediones or sulfonylureas during the years 1997 through 2005 and had no prior diagnosis of Parkinson disease. New users of thiazolidinediones were propensity score matched to new users of sulfonylureas and followed to determine whether they were diagnosed with Parkinson disease. We used Cox proportional hazards models to compare time to diagnosis of Parkinson disease in the propensity score-matched populations. To assess the association with duration of use, we performed several analyses that required longer continuous use of medications. In the primary analysis, thiazolidinedione users had a hazard ratio for a diagnosis of Parkinson disease of 1.09 (95% confidence interval: 0.71, 1.66) when compared with sulfonylurea users. Increasing the duration-of-use requirements to 10 months did not substantially change the association; the hazard ratios ranged from 1.00 (95% confidence interval: 0.49, 2.05) to 1.17 (95% confidence interval: 0.60, 2.25). Thiazolidinedione use was not associated with a longer time to diagnosis of Parkinson disease than was sulfonylurea use, regardless of duration of exposure. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Validation of the Spanish version of the physical activity questionnaire used in the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals' Follow-up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-González, Miguel Angel; López-Fontana, Constanza; Varo, José Javier; Sánchez-Villegas, Almudena; Martinez, J Alfredo

    2005-10-01

    The objective of this analysis was to test the validity of the estimates of energy expenditure and sedentary lifestyle obtained through a self-administered questionnaire of physical activity for Spanish-speaking people adapted from US questionnaires (Nurses' Health Study and Health Professionals' Follow-up Study) using a triaxial accelerometer (RT3 Triaxial Research Tracker) as the reference. Validation study, calculating the non-parametric correlation coefficients between the level of physical activity and sedentary lifestyle collected by the self-administered questionnaire and the triaxial accelerometer measurements. Percentage of misclassification and kappa coefficients were also calculated. The study population consisted of a sample of 40 obese women who were participants of the SUN (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra) project (a prospective cohort study among Spanish university alumni). They were selected because of their peculiar metabolic characteristics, in the search for a sub-optimal scenario for validity. Physical activity during leisure time (estimated as MET-h week(-1)) derived from the self-administered questionnaire moderately correlated with kcal day(-1) assessed through the accelerometer (Spearman's rho = 0.507, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.232, 0.707). The Spearman correlation between the ratio of sedentary lifestyle to physical activity obtained through the questionnaire and the direct estimation (RT3) was -0.578 (95% CI -0.754, -0.325). The kappa index was 0.25 (P = 0.002) when assessing the cross-classification into quintiles and 0.41 for the dichotomous estimation of a sedentary lifestyle. Only 2.5% of participants were misclassified by the questionnaire more than two quintiles apart from the estimates of the RT3. The moderate values obtained for correlation in a sub-optimal scenario for validity and the low percentage of extreme misclassification suggest the validity of the questionnaire to assess physical activity in Spanish-speaking women

  6. Cohort Profile: The JS High School study (JSHS): a cohort study of Korean adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Dong Phil; Lee, Joo Young; Kim, Hyeon Chang

    2017-04-01

    Major aetiologies of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases begin in childhood and atherosclerotic vascular abnormalities can be observed among children and adolescents. Adolescent cohort studies have important advantages because they can observe earlier changes in vascular structure and function. The purpose of the JS High School study (JSHS) is to identify biomarkers predicting or indicating early structural and functional vascular change in adolescents. The JSHS is a prospective cohort study of a Korean adolescent population. The target population of the JSHS was first-graders (aged 14 to17 years) at a high school of South Korea. Enrolment and baseline examinations were conducted in years 2007, 2010, 2011 and 2012. Among the total eligible population of 1115 students, 1071 (96.1%) participated in the study and completed all baseline examinations. Informed consent forms were obtained from each participant and his/her parent or guardian. Baseline examinations include: questionnaires on demographics, health behaviours, medical history, and depression symptoms; fasting blood analysis; anthropometric measurement; body impedance analysis; blood pressure measurement; radial artery tonometry; bone densitometry; pulmonary function tests; and carotid ultrasonography. Participants enrolled from 2007 through 2012 were re-examined after 30 months of follow-up, and those who enrolled in 2012 were re-examined after 24 months of follow-up. The corresponding author may be contacted for potential collaboration and data access. © The Author 2015; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  7. Experimental Study of the Effect of Language (English and Spanish on Advertisement Effectiveness with Puerto Rican Hispanic University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Lebrón

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Even though the population of Puerto Rico includes a large percent of residents with some knowledge of the English language (bilinguals, the vast majority communicates using Spanish, which is their native language. Not surprisingly, the majority of advertisements in Puerto Rican media use the Spanish language. The common sense assumption that Spanish advertising is significantly superior to English advertising when targeting Puerto Rican Hispanics living in Puerto Rico is tested experimentally in this study. The Social Value component of the Theory of Consumption Values was used to generate several Hypotheses that would favor the use of English language. The experiment used magazine-like printed illustrated advertisements to test the hypotheses, all of them dealing with relative effectiveness of Spanish versus English language advertisements. The results show that Spanish advertisements and English advertisements were about the same in terms of their persuasion effectiveness.

  8. Spanish Readability Formulas for Elementary-Level Texts: A Validation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Richard I.; Hasbrouck, Jan E.; Weaver, Laurie

    2001-01-01

    Uses two formulas developed for Spanish language text to analyze 9 stories that were read by 36 Spanish-speaking second graders with limited English proficiency. Finds that the Spanish readability formulas only weakly predicted student performance, indicating the need to pursue broader, qualitative indices of difficulty for Spanish text. (SG)

  9. QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND INTEGRATED TOTAL QUALITY IN SPANISH MINING: RESULTS OF AN EMPIRICAL STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    ESCANCIANO, CARMEN; IGLESIAS-RODRÍGUEZ, FRANCISCO-JAVIER

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an empirical study conducted in Spain among mining companies that hold ISO 9001 certification. This study aimed at reflecting upon quality management in Spanish mining; and discovering whether the certification of a quality management system provides companies with a framework for integrating total quality management with other management systems, such as environmental management or occupational health and safety management. En este artículo se presentan ...

  10. Patterns of sedentary behavior and compliance with public health recommendations in Spanish adolescents: the AFINOS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Gómez, David; Veiga, Oscar L; Zapatera, Belén; Cabanas-Sánchez, Verónica; Gomez-Martinez, Sonia; Martinez-Hernández, David; Marcos, Ascensión

    2012-12-01

    The aims of the present study were: (i) describe patterns of sedentary behavior in Spanish adolescents; and (ii) determine the proportion of adolescents that do not meet the public health recommendations for sedentary behavior. This study comprised 1,724 Spanish adolescents (882 girls), aged 13 to 16 years. Patterns of sedentary behavior (TV viewing, use of computer games, console games and surfing the Internet) were assessed using the HELENA sedentary behavior questionnaire. The total proportion of adolescents watching TV, using computer and console games, and surfing the internet for more than two hours daily was 24%, 9%, 7%, and 17%, respectively, on weekdays, and 50%, 22%, 16%, and 35%, respectively, on weekends. Over 63% of the adolescents from the study did not meet the recommendation for sedentary behavior (health, public health interventions in Spain that take these factors into consideration are needed.

  11. Analysis of Dietary Pattern Impact on Weight Status for Personalised Nutrition through On-Line Advice: The Food4Me Spanish Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San-Cristobal, Rodrigo; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Brennan, Lorraine; Walsh, Marianne; Lovegrove, Julie A; Daniel, Hannelore; Saris, Wim H M; Traczyk, Iwonna; Manios, Yannis; Gibney, Eileen R; Gibney, Michael J; Mathers, John C; Martinez, J Alfredo

    2015-11-17

    Obesity prevalence is increasing. The management of this condition requires a detailed analysis of the global risk factors in order to develop personalised advice. This study is aimed to identify current dietary patterns and habits in Spanish population interested in personalised nutrition and investigate associations with weight status. Self-reported dietary and anthropometrical data from the Spanish participants in the Food4Me study, were used in a multidimensional exploratory analysis to define specific dietary profiles. Two opposing factors were obtained according to food groups' intake: Factor 1 characterised by a more frequent consumption of traditionally considered unhealthy foods; and Factor 2, where the consumption of "Mediterranean diet" foods was prevalent. Factor 1 showed a direct relationship with BMI (β = 0.226; r² = 0.259; p dietary patterns, which were characterized by high-density foods consumption, showed positive associations with overweight prevalence. Further analysis showed that prevention of overweight must focus on limiting the intake of known deleterious foods rather than exclusively enhance healthy products.

  12. Analysis of Dietary Pattern Impact on Weight Status for Personalised Nutrition through On-Line Advice: The Food4Me Spanish Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo San-Cristobal

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Obesity prevalence is increasing. The management of this condition requires a detailed analysis of the global risk factors in order to develop personalised advice. This study is aimed to identify current dietary patterns and habits in Spanish population interested in personalised nutrition and investigate associations with weight status. Self-reported dietary and anthropometrical data from the Spanish participants in the Food4Me study, were used in a multidimensional exploratory analysis to define specific dietary profiles. Two opposing factors were obtained according to food groups’ intake: Factor 1 characterised by a more frequent consumption of traditionally considered unhealthy foods; and Factor 2, where the consumption of “Mediterranean diet” foods was prevalent. Factor 1 showed a direct relationship with BMI (β = 0.226; r2 = 0.259; p < 0.001, while the association with Factor 2 was inverse (β = −0.037; r2 = 0.230; p = 0.348. A total of four categories were defined (Prudent, Healthy, Western, and Compensatory through classification of the sample in higher or lower adherence to each factor and combining the possibilities. Western and Compensatory dietary patterns, which were characterized by high-density foods consumption, showed positive associations with overweight prevalence. Further analysis showed that prevention of overweight must focus on limiting the intake of known deleterious foods rather than exclusively enhance healthy products.

  13. Anesthesia and Poliomyelitis: A Matched Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Alstine, Luke W; Gunn, Paul W; Schroeder, Darrell R; Hanson, Andrew C; Sorenson, Eric J; Martin, David P

    2016-06-01

    Poliomyelitis is a viral infectious disease caused by 1 of the 3 strains of poliovirus. The World Health Organization launched an eradication campaign in 1988. Although the number of cases of poliomyelitis has drastically declined, eradication has not yet been achieved, and there are a substantial number of survivors of the disease. Survivors of poliomyelitis present a unique set of challenges to the anesthesiologist. The scientific literature regarding the anesthetic management of survivors of poliomyelitis, however, is limited and primarily experiential in nature. Using a retrospective, matched cohort study, we sought to more precisely characterize the anesthetic implications of poliomyelitis and to determine what risks, if any, may be present for patients with a history of the disease. Using the Mayo Clinic Life Sciences System Data Discovery and Query Builder, study subjects were identified as those with a history of paralytic poliomyelitis who had undergone major surgery at Mayo Clinic Rochester between 2005 and 2009. For each case, 2 sex- and age-matched controls that underwent the same surgical procedure during the study period were randomly selected from a pool of possible controls. Medical records were manually interrogated with respect to demographic variables, comorbid conditions, operative and anesthetic course, and postoperative course. We analyzed 100 cases with 2:1 matched controls and found that the peri- and postoperative courses were very similar for both groups of patients. Pain scores, postanesthesia care unit admission, length of postanesthesia care unit stay, intensive care unit admission, length of intensive care unit stay, and initial extubation location were not significantly different between the 2 groups. Looking at pulmonary complications in our primary outcome, there was no significant difference between the 2 groups (17% vs 14% for polio versus control, respectively; conditional logistic regression odds ratio = 1.5; 95% confidence

  14. Validation of the Spanish version of the Hip Outcome Score: a multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seijas, Roberto; Sallent, Andrea; Ruiz-Ibán, Miguel Angel; Ares, Oscar; Marín-Peña, Oliver; Cuéllar, Ricardo; Muriel, Alfonso

    2014-05-13

    The Hip Outcome Score (HOS) is a self-reported questionnaire evaluating the outcomes of treatment interventions for hip pathologies, divided in 19 items of activities of daily life (ADL) and 9 sports' items. The aim of the present study is to translate and validate HOS into Spanish. A prospective and multicenter study with 100 patients undergoing hip arthroscopy was performed between June 2012 and January 2013. Crosscultural adaptation was used to translate HOS into Spanish. Patients completed the questionnaire before and after surgery. Feasibility, reliability, internal consistency, construct validity (correlation with Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index), ceiling and floor effects and sensitivity to change were assessed for the present study. Mean age was 45.05 years old. 36 women and 64 men were included. Feasibility: 13% had at least one missing item within the ADL subscale and 17% within the sport subscale. Reliability: the translated version of HOS was highly reproducible with intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.95 for ADL and 0.94 for the sports subscale. Internal consistency was confirmed with Cronbach's alpha >0.90 in both subscales. Construct validity showed statistically significant correlation with WOMAC. Ceiling effect was observed in 6% and 12% for ADL and sports subscale, respectively. Floor effect was found in 3% and 37% ADL and sports subscale, respectively. Large sensitivity to change was shown in both subscales. The translated version of HOS into Spanish has shown to be feasible, reliable and sensible to changes for patients undergoing hip arthroscopy. This validated translation of HOS allows for comparisons between studies involving either Spanish- or English-speaking patients. Prognostic study, Level I.

  15. Inventory analysis and carbon footprint of coastland-hotel services: A Spanish case study

    OpenAIRE

    Puig Vidal, Rita; Kiliç, Eylem; Navarro Diarte, Alejandra; Alberti, Jaume; Chacon, Lorenzo; Fullana Palmer, Pere

    2017-01-01

    Tourism is a key industry in the Spanish economy. Spain was in the World top three ranking by international tourist arrivals and by income in 2015. The development of the tourism industry is essential to maintain the established economic system. However, if the environmental requirements were not taken into account, the country would face a negative effect on depletion of local environmental resources from which tourism depends. This case study evaluates, through a life cycle perspective, the...

  16. A retrospective study of phonetic inventory complexity in acquisition of Spanish: Implications for phonological universals

    OpenAIRE

    Cataño, Lorena; Barlow, Jessica A.; Moyna, María Irene

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates 39 different phonetic inventories of 16 Spanish-speaking children (ages 0;11 to 5;1) in terms of hierarchical complexity. Phonetic featural differences are considered in order to evaluate the proposed implicational hierarchy of Dinnsen et al.’s phonetic inventory typology for English. The children’s phonetic inventories are examined independently and in relation to one another. Five hierarchical complexity levels are proposed, similar to those of English and other languag...

  17. Case study of French and Spanish fan reception of Game of Thrones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mélanie Bourdaa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The reception of the American TV show Game of Thrones (2011– by French and Spanish fans and nonfans is addressed via a qualitative methodology, the goal of which is to understand how European viewers perceive themselves as fans and what it means for them to be fans. Analysis of characteristics of a specifically European reception helps us learn what fan studies tell us about fans and what fans really think about fandoms.

  18. Spanish USA, 1984: A Study of the Hispanic Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankelovich, Daniel; And Others

    This report summarizes results of a 1984 study of the lifestyles, values, buying behavior, and media habits of the Hispanic American market. First, a number of shifts in U.S. political, social, and economic life (since 1981, when the first study of this type was conducted) which are changing the orientation of Hispanics are discussed. These shifts…

  19. Comparative study of paediatric prescription drug utilization between the spanish and immigrant population

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background The immigrant population has increased greatly in Spain in recent years to the point where immigrants made up 12% of the infant population in 2008. There is little information available on the profile of this group with regard to prescription drug utilization in universal public health care systems such as that operating in Spain. This work studies the overall and specific differences in prescription drug utilization between the immigrant and Spanish population. Methods Use was made of the Aragonese Health Service databases for 2006. The studied population comprises 159,908 children aged 0-14 years, 13.6% of whom are foreign nationals. Different utilization variables were calculated for each group. Prescription-drug consumption is measured in Defined Daily Doses (DDD) and DDD/1000 persons/day/(DID). Results A total of 833,223 prescriptions were studied. Utilization is lower for immigrant children than in Spanish children for both DID (66.27 v. 113.67) and average annual expense (€21.55 v. €41.14). Immigrant children consume fewer prescription drugs than Spanish children in all of the therapy groups, with the most prescribed (in DID) being: respiratory system, anti-infectives for systemic use, nervous system, sensory organs. Significant differences were observed in relation to the type of drugs and the geographical background of immigrants. Conclusion Prescription drug utilization is much greater in Spanish children than in immigrant children, particularly with reference to bronchodilators (montelukast and terbutaline) and attention-disorder hyperactivity drugs such as methylphenidate. There are important differences regarding drug type and depending on immigrants' geographical backgrounds that suggest there are social, cultural and access factors underlying these disparities. PMID:19995453

  20. Comparative study of paediatric prescription drug utilization between the spanish and immigrant population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macipe-Costa Rosa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The immigrant population has increased greatly in Spain in recent years to the point where immigrants made up 12% of the infant population in 2008. There is little information available on the profile of this group with regard to prescription drug utilization in universal public health care systems such as that operating in Spain. This work studies the overall and specific differences in prescription drug utilization between the immigrant and Spanish population. Methods Use was made of the Aragonese Health Service databases for 2006. The studied population comprises 159,908 children aged 0-14 years, 13.6% of whom are foreign nationals. Different utilization variables were calculated for each group. Prescription-drug consumption is measured in Defined Daily Doses (DDD and DDD/1000 persons/day/(DID. Results A total of 833,223 prescriptions were studied. Utilization is lower for immigrant children than in Spanish children for both DID (66.27 v. 113.67 and average annual expense (€21.55 v. €41.14. Immigrant children consume fewer prescription drugs than Spanish children in all of the therapy groups, with the most prescribed (in DID being: respiratory system, anti-infectives for systemic use, nervous system, sensory organs. Significant differences were observed in relation to the type of drugs and the geographical background of immigrants. Conclusion Prescription drug utilization is much greater in Spanish children than in immigrant children, particularly with reference to bronchodilators (montelukast and terbutaline and attention-disorder hyperactivity drugs such as methylphenidate. There are important differences regarding drug type and depending on immigrants' geographical backgrounds that suggest there are social, cultural and access factors underlying these disparities.

  1. Trust Development With the Spanish-Speaking Mexican American Patient: A Grounded Theory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sharon M

    2018-06-01

    Interpersonal trust between patient and nurse is important in patient-centered care. Trust development may be more difficult if the patient and nurse do not speak the same language. In this grounded theory study, Spanish-speaking Mexican American adults ( n = 20) hospitalized on a medical-surgical or obstetric unit in the Midwestern United States were interviewed. Through data analysis, a model of how trust develops between nurse and patient revealed eight categories and the core category Caring for Me Well Even When Not Understanding Me. The beginning phase had four categories: Asking for Help, Bothering, Communicating, and Understanding. The middle phase had two categories: Platicando (chatting) and Being Available. The end point category was Having Trust, and outcomes were Feeling Comfortable and Feeling Supported. The language barrier was a hindrance to trust development but the nurse's way of being (personality) was more important. Therefore, the patient did develop trust with nurses who did not speak Spanish.

  2. Application, results and perceptions of a think-aloud study in listening comprehension of Spanish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogueroles López, Marta

    2017-01-01

    . After listening, they completed five comprehension questions, listened one more time with the transcript, reflected on their understanding and their strategic behaviour, and evaluated the protocol itself. These interviews were recorded, transcribed, analysed, categorized and computed. Results reveal......The present article outlines the procedure and shows the outcomes of a think-aloud study intended to, first, find out what listening strategies Hong Kong students of Spanish use to comprehend a particular oral passage in the target language, and, second, understand the participants’ perceptions...... of the think-aloud protocol. Such a protocol was developed during interviews in which students listened to an unidirectional text in Spanish twice, the first time interruptedly and the second without intermediate pauses, and were asked to verbalize the processes they had been using to understand such a passage...

  3. Long-term intercomparison of Spanish environmental dosimetry services. Study of transit dose estimations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duch, Ma Amor; Carlos Saez-Vergara, Jose; Ginjaume, Merce; Gomez, Candelas; Maria Gonzalez-Leiton, Ana; Herrero, Javier; Jose de Lucas, Ma; Rodriguez, Rafael; Marugan, Immaculada; Salas, Rosario

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the layout and results of a three-year follow-up of a national intercomparison campaign organized on a voluntary basis among the Spanish Laboratories in charge of environmental monitoring at and in the vicinity of Spanish nuclear installations. The dosemeters were exposed in the field at an environmental reference station with a known ambient dose equivalent, and controlled meteorological parameters. The study aimed at verifying the consistency of the different laboratories in estimating the ambient dose equivalent in realistic fields and to evaluate the influence of two different procedures to estimate the transit dose during the transfer of the dosemeters both from and to the dosimetric laboratory and the monitored site. All the results were within 20% of the reference doses for all the dosemeters tested, and in most cases they were within 10%

  4. Study on vent containment filtering for the Spanish NPPS systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peinado, A.; Serrano, C.; Garcia-Serrano, J. L.

    2013-01-01

    The study discusses filtering systems on the market, and its suppliers, taking into account aspects such as ease of integration into the current plant design, characteristics of the process of filtering, operational range, autonomy of the system, maintenance, qualification and proven experiences, among others. The study, also contains an analysis of sequences kind of accident that serve to define the design parameters of the system.

  5. Public perceptions of cohort studies and biobanks in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkbaum, Johannes; Gottweis, Herbert; Gottweis, Ursula; Kleiser, Christina; Linseisen, Jakob; Meisinger, Christa; Kamtsiuris, Panagiotis; Moebus, Susanne; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Börm, Sonja; Wichmann, H-Erich

    2014-04-01

    Cohort studies and biobank projects have led to public discussions in several European countries in the past. In Germany, many medium-sized studies are currently running successfully in terms of respondent rates. However, EU-wide research on general public perceptions of biobanks and cohort studies have shown that Germany is among those countries where people express the highest reluctance for providing body material and other data for research purposes. Because of early efforts of the just-initiated German National Cohort Study, we are able to begin to investigate in greater detail how various groups of people across Germany reflect and discuss the ongoing implementation of cohort studies and biobanking in Germany. Our research is based on 15 focus group discussions in four German regions, as well as on Eurobarometer poll data on biobanking.

  6. Japanese Legacy Cohorts: The Life Span Study Atomic Bomb Survivor Cohort and Survivors’ Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotaro Ozasa

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Cohorts of atomic bomb survivors—including those exposed in utero—and children conceived after parental exposure were established to investigate late health effects of atomic bomb radiation and its transgenerational effects by the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC in the 1950s. ABCC was reorganized to the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF in 1975, and all work has been continued at RERF. The Life Span Study, the cohort of survivors, consists of about 120,000 subjects and has been followed since 1950. Cohorts of in utero survivors and the survivors’ children include about 3,600 and 77,000 subjects, respectively, and have been followed since 1945. Atomic bomb radiation dose was estimated for each subject based on location at the time of the bombing and shielding conditions from exposure, which were obtained through enormous efforts of investigators and cooperation of subjects. Outcomes include vital status, cause of death, and cancer incidence. In addition, sub-cohorts of these three cohorts were constructed to examine clinical features of late health effects, and the subjects have been invited to periodic health examinations at clinics of ABCC and RERF. They were also asked to donate biosamples for biomedical investigations. Epidemiological studies have observed increased radiation risks for malignant diseases among survivors, including those exposed in utero, and possible risks for some non-cancer diseases. In children of survivors, no increased risks due to parental exposure to radiation have been observed for malignancies or other diseases, but investigations are continuing, as these cohorts are still relatively young.

  7. Japanese Legacy Cohorts: The Life Span Study Atomic Bomb Survivor Cohort and Survivors' Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozasa, Kotaro; Grant, Eric J; Kodama, Kazunori

    2018-04-05

    Cohorts of atomic bomb survivors-including those exposed in utero-and children conceived after parental exposure were established to investigate late health effects of atomic bomb radiation and its transgenerational effects by the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) in the 1950s. ABCC was reorganized to the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) in 1975, and all work has been continued at RERF. The Life Span Study, the cohort of survivors, consists of about 120,000 subjects and has been followed since 1950. Cohorts of in utero survivors and the survivors' children include about 3,600 and 77,000 subjects, respectively, and have been followed since 1945. Atomic bomb radiation dose was estimated for each subject based on location at the time of the bombing and shielding conditions from exposure, which were obtained through enormous efforts of investigators and cooperation of subjects. Outcomes include vital status, cause of death, and cancer incidence. In addition, sub-cohorts of these three cohorts were constructed to examine clinical features of late health effects, and the subjects have been invited to periodic health examinations at clinics of ABCC and RERF. They were also asked to donate biosamples for biomedical investigations. Epidemiological studies have observed increased radiation risks for malignant diseases among survivors, including those exposed in utero, and possible risks for some non-cancer diseases. In children of survivors, no increased risks due to parental exposure to radiation have been observed for malignancies or other diseases, but investigations are continuing, as these cohorts are still relatively young.

  8. Japanese Legacy Cohorts: The Life Span Study Atomic Bomb Survivor Cohort and Survivors’ Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Eric J; Kodama, Kazunori

    2018-01-01

    Cohorts of atomic bomb survivors—including those exposed in utero—and children conceived after parental exposure were established to investigate late health effects of atomic bomb radiation and its transgenerational effects by the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) in the 1950s. ABCC was reorganized to the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) in 1975, and all work has been continued at RERF. The Life Span Study, the cohort of survivors, consists of about 120,000 subjects and has been followed since 1950. Cohorts of in utero survivors and the survivors’ children include about 3,600 and 77,000 subjects, respectively, and have been followed since 1945. Atomic bomb radiation dose was estimated for each subject based on location at the time of the bombing and shielding conditions from exposure, which were obtained through enormous efforts of investigators and cooperation of subjects. Outcomes include vital status, cause of death, and cancer incidence. In addition, sub-cohorts of these three cohorts were constructed to examine clinical features of late health effects, and the subjects have been invited to periodic health examinations at clinics of ABCC and RERF. They were also asked to donate biosamples for biomedical investigations. Epidemiological studies have observed increased radiation risks for malignant diseases among survivors, including those exposed in utero, and possible risks for some non-cancer diseases. In children of survivors, no increased risks due to parental exposure to radiation have been observed for malignancies or other diseases, but investigations are continuing, as these cohorts are still relatively young. PMID:29553058

  9. Educational Innovation from Distributed Leadership: Case Study Spanish Public School

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Ingrid

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the communication is to present a case study of distributed leadership practices and the performances of the Principal of a public school in Madrid. Educational leadership can be considered one of the most important elements of the education system to be effective, achieve quality results, and develop processes of change and…

  10. Brief Study and Spanish Translation of Die Kunst das Clavier zu Spielen by Friedrich Wilhelm Marpurg (Berlin, Henning, 1750

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de las Nieves Pascual León

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper includes the fi rst Spanish version of F. W. Marpurg’s treaty Die Kunst das Clavier zu spielen, which had been restricted for the common Spanish-speaking reader since its fi rst appearance in 1750. This philological translation of the treaty (with the facsimile of the fi rst edition and its Spanish translation on the opposite page is instroduced by a brief study of the text’s various editions published during the author’s life, and pretends to offer an initial approach to the treaty, to facilitate the public’s access to the work and to contribute to its full disclosure.

  11. Dietary Fat Intake and Fecundability in 2 Preconception Cohort Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wise, Lauren A; Wesselink, Amelia K; Tucker, Katherine L

    2018-01-01

    American preconception cohort studies. Women who were attempting to become pregnant completed a validated food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Pregnancy status was updated bimonthly for 12 months or until pregnancy. Fecundability ratios (FR) and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using...

  12. Cohort profile: LIFEWORK, a prospective cohort study on occupational and environmental risk factors and health in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reedijk, M.; Lenters, V.; Slottje, P.; Pijpe, A.; Peeters, P.H.; Korevaar, J.C.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, B.; Verschuren, W.M.M.; Verheij, R.A.; Pieterson, I.; Leeuwen, F.E. van; Rookus, M.A.; Kromhout, H.; Vermeulen, R.C.H.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose LIFEWORK is a large federated prospective cohort established in the Netherlands to quantify the health effects of occupational and environmental exposures. This cohort is also the Dutch contribution to the international Cohort Study of Mobile Phone Use and Health (COSMOS). In this paper, we

  13. Geochemical of clay formations : study of Spanish clay REFERENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turrero, M. J.; Pena, J.

    2003-01-01

    Clay rocks are investigated in different international research programs in order to assess its feasibility for the disposal of high level radioactive wastes. This is because different sepcific aspects: they have low hydraulic conductivity (10''-11-10''-15 m/s), a high sorption capacity, self-sealing capacity of facults and discontinuities and mechanical resistance. Several research programs on clay formations are aimed to study the chemistry of the groundwater and the water-rock reactions that control it: e. g. Boom Clay (Mol, Belgium), Oxford Clay /Harwell, United Kingdom), Toarcian Clay (Tournemire, France), Palfris formation (Wellenberg, Switzerland), Opalinus Clay (Bure, France). Based on these studies, considerable progress in the development of techniques for hydrologic, geochemical and hydrogeochemical characterization of mudstones has been accomplished (e. g. Beaufais et al. 1994, De Windt el al. 1998. Thury and Bossart 1999, Sacchi and Michelot 2000) with important advances in the knowledge of geochemical process in these materials (e. g. Reeder et al. 1993, Baeyens and Brandbury 1994, Beaucaire et al. 2000, Pearson et al., 2003).Furtermore, geochemical modeling is commonly used to simulate the evolution of water chemistry and to understand quantitatively the processes controlling the groundwater chemistry (e. g. Pearson et al. 1998, Tempel and Harrison 2000, Arcos et al., 2001). The work presented here is part of a research program funded by Enresa in the context of its R and D program. It is focused on the characterization of a clay formation (reference Argillaceous Formation, RAF) located within the Duero Basin (north-centralSpain). The characterisation of th ephysical properties,, fluid composition, mineralogy, water-rock reaction processes, geochemical modelling and sorption properties of the clays from the mentioned wells is the main purpose of this work. (Author)

  14. The Effects of Institutional Culture on Study Strategies of Hispanic Students as Measured by the "Inventario de Comportamiento de Estudio": The Spanish Version of the "Study Behavior Inventory."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, Leonard B.; Sandiford, Janice R.

    The study behaviors of Spanish-speaking students at a large two-year public college in the United States were studied using the Inventario de Comportamiento de Estudio (ECI) (L. Bliss, D. Vinay, and F. Koenigner), the Spanish version of the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (C. Weinstein, 1987). Behaviors of these students were compared with…

  15. Case-Cohort Studies: Design and Applicability to Hand Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojvodic, Miliana; Shafarenko, Mark; McCabe, Steven J

    2018-04-24

    Observational studies are common research strategies in hand surgery. The case-cohort design offers an efficient and resource-friendly method for risk assessment and outcomes analysis. Case-cohorts remain underrepresented in upper extremity research despite several practical and economic advantages over case-control studies. This report outlines the purpose, utility, and structure of the case-cohort design and offers a sample research question to demonstrate its value to risk estimation for adverse surgical outcomes. The application of well-designed case-cohort studies is advocated in an effort to improve the quality and quantity of observational research evidence in hand and upper extremity surgery. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Studying the atmospheric chemistry: Statististical study of epiphyte plant Spanish Moss in Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, S.; Parker, W.; Odom, L.

    2003-04-01

    The detrimental influence which airborne contaminants has on vegetation in many parts of the world has become of increasing interest and concern in recent years. The use of suitable plants such as epiphytes (vegetation which grows on another plant) for measuring concentrations of airborne materials provides the advantages of (a) an integration of the periodic fluctuations in amounts of these materials that occur over relatively long periods of time and (b) economy in sampling. This class of plants, which are mosses and lichens, are somewhat less dependent on their substrates and may act more purely as air indicators. The epiphytes do not derive nutrients from soil, but depend on airborne moisture and particulates for elemental sources. The way with which they absorb nutrients from these external sources gives rise to an uncommon sensitivity to the harmful effects of air pollution. Also in addition, plants of this class absorb constituents of airborne particulates which may not be directly toxic to the plant but of environmental concern to humans. In particular, trace element accumulation in epiphytic Tillandsia usneoides L. (Spanish Moss) common in Atlantic and Gulf Coastal plains has been used in air pollution studies. Recent studies have also evaluated Spanish moss as an indicator of contamination of pesticides and other organic aromatic compounds. Two hundred and six samples of Spanish moss (Tillandsia usneoides L.) were collected from over its geographic range in Florida for this study. The samples were analyzed for a variety of major and minor elements, and the resulting data were statistically analyzed for pertinent geochemical associations. Three statistical methods have been used on the geochemical data of Spanish moss to evaluate the nature of probable sources for each of the elements. This kind of work is being done because the exact nature and location of each specimen is unknown. So, the three different statistical methods have been used to classify or

  17. Spanish Instruction in Head Start and Dual Language Learners' Academic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elizabeth B

    2017-09-01

    Data from the Head Start Impact Study ( N = 1,141) and the Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey, 2009 Cohort ( N = 825) were used to investigate whether Spanish instruction in Head Start differentially increased Spanish-speaking Dual Language Learners' (DLLs) academic achievement. Although hypothesized that Spanish instruction would be beneficial for DLLs' early literacy and math skills, results from residualized growth models showed there were no such positive associations. Somewhat surprisingly, DLL children instructed in Spanish had higher English receptive vocabulary skills at the end of the Head Start year than those not instructed, with children randomly assigned to Head Start and instructed in Spanish having the highest scores. Policy implications for Head Start-eligible Spanish-speaking DLLs are discussed.

  18. A prospective study of eating away-from-home meals and weight gain in a Mediterranean population: the SUN (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra) cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Bes-Rastrollo, M. (Maira); Basterra-Gortari, F.J. (Francisco Javier); Sanchez-Villegas, A. (Almudena); Marti, A. (Amelia); Martinez, J.A. (José Alfredo); Martinez-Gonzalez, M.A. (Miguel Ángel)

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The traditional Mediterranean food pattern is more easily preserved when meals are eaten at home; however, as a result of recent socio-economic changes, away-from-home meal consumption has increased rapidly in Mediterranean countries. Little research has been conducted so far to investigate the long-term health effects of these changes in the Mediterranean area. DESIGN: In a prospective Spanish dynamic cohort of 9182 university graduates (the SUN Study; Seguimiento Univer...

  19. Speaking with (Dis)respect: A Study of Reactions to Mock Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Laura

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on an investigation into the reactions of 147 participants of various ethnicities to a language practice in the USA that has been characterized as Mock Spanish, a special register in which Spanish words or phrases are used to evoke humor by indexing an often unflattering image of Spanish speakers. Research questions include…

  20. High prevalence of mutations affecting the splicing process in a Spanish cohort with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezquerra-Inchausti, Maitane; Barandika, Olatz; Anasagasti, Ander; Irigoyen, Cristina; López de Munain, Adolfo; Ruiz-Ederra, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa is the most frequent group of inherited retinal dystrophies. It is highly heterogeneous, with more than 80 disease-causing genes 27 of which are known to cause autosomal dominant RP (adRP), having been identified. In this study a total of 29 index cases were ascertained based on a family tree compatible with adRP. A custom panel of 31 adRP genes was analysed by targeted next-generation sequencing using the Ion PGM platform in combination with Sanger sequencing. This allowed us to detect putative disease-causing mutations in 14 out of the 29 (48.28%) families analysed. Remarkably, around 38% of all adRP cases analysed showed mutations affecting the splicing process, mainly due to mutations in genes coding for spliceosome factors (SNRNP200 and PRPF8) but also due to splice-site mutations in RHO. Twelve of the 14 mutations found had been reported previously and two were novel mutations found in PRPF8 in two unrelated patients. In conclusion, our results will lead to more accurate genetic counselling and will contribute to a better characterisation of the disease. In addition, they may have a therapeutic impact in the future given the large number of studies currently underway based on targeted RNA splicing for therapeutic purposes. PMID:28045043

  1. Validity of the Physical Activity Questionnaires IPAQ-SF and GPAQ for Cancer Survivors: Insights from a Spanish Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Casado, A; Alejo, L B; Santos-Lozano, A; Soria, A; Ortega, M J; Pagola, I; Fiuza-Luces, C; Palomo, I; Garatachea, N; Cebolla, H; Lucia, A

    2016-11-01

    Regular physical activity (PA) decreases mortality risk in survivors of breast and colorectal cancer. Such impacts of exercise have prompted initiatives designed both to promote and adequately monitor PA in cancer survivors. This study examines the validity of 2 widely used self-report methods for PA determination, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire short version (IPAQ-SF) and Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ). Both instruments were compared with the triaxial accelerometry (Actigraph) method as an objective reference standard. Study participants were 204 cancer survivors (both sexes, aged 18-79 years). Compared with accelerometry, both questionnaires significantly overestimated PA levels (across all intensities) and underestimated physical inactivity levels. No differences were detected between the 2 questionnaires except for a shorter inactivity time estimated by GPAQ ( p =0.001). The Bland and Altman method confirmed that both questionnaires overestimated all PA levels. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis classified IPAQ and GPAQ as fair and poor predictors, respectively, of the proportions of survivors fulfilling international PA recommendations (≥150 min·week -1 of moderate-vigorous PA). IPAQ-SF showed a higher sensitivity but lower specificity than GPAQ. Our data do not support the use of IPAQ-SF or GPAQ to determine PA or inactivity levels in cancer survivors. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. The Korea Nurses' Health Study: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Oksoo; Ahn, Younjhin; Lee, Hea-Young; Jang, Hee Jung; Kim, Sue; Lee, Jung Eun; Jung, Heeja; Cho, Eunyoung; Lim, Joong-Yeon; Kim, Min-Ju; Willett, Walter C; Chavarro, Jorge E; Park, Hyun-Young

    2017-08-01

    The Korea Nurses' Health Study (KNHS) is a prospective cohort study of female nurses, focusing on the effects of occupational, environmental, and lifestyle risk factors on the health of Korean women. Female registered nurses aged 20-45 years and living in the Republic of Korea were invited to join the study, which began in July 2013. They were asked to complete a web-based baseline survey. The study protocols and questionnaires related to the KNHS are based on the Nurses' Health Study 3 (NHS3) in the United States, although they were modified to reflect the Korean lifestyle. Participants were asked about demographic, lifestyle factors, disease history, occupational exposure, reproductive factors, and dietary habits during their adolescence: Follow-up questionnaires were/will be completed at 6-8 month intervals after the baseline survey. If a participant became pregnant, she answered additional questionnaires containing pregnancy-related information. Among 157,569 eligible female nurses, 20,613 (13.1%) completed the web-based baseline questionnaire. The mean age of the participants was 29.4 ± 5.9 years, and more than half of them were in their 20s. Eighty-eight percent of the participants had worked night shifts as a nurse (mean, 5.3 ± 4.3 nights per month). Approximately 80% of the participants had a body mass index below 23 kg/m 2 . Gastrointestinal diseases were the most prevalent health issues (25.9%). The findings from this prospective cohort study will help to identify the effects of lifestyle-related and occupational factors on reproductive health and development of chronic diseases in Korean women.

  3. Methodological aspects of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victora, Cesar Gomes; Araújo, Cora Luiza Pavin; Menezes, Ana Maria Batista; Hallal, Pedro Curi; Vieira, Maria de Fátima; Neutzling, Marilda Borges; Gonçalves, Helen; Valle, Neiva Cristina; Lima, Rosangela Costa; Anselmi, Luciana; Behague, Dominique; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; Barros, Fernando Celso

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the main methodological aspects of a cohort study, with emphasis on its recent phases, which may be relevant to investigators planning to carry out similar studies. In 1993, a population based study was launched in Pelotas, Southern Brazil. All 5,249 newborns delivered in the city’s hospitals were enrolled, and sub-samples were visited at the ages of one, three and six months and of one and four years. In 2004-5 it was possible to trace 87.5% of the cohort at the age of 10-12 years. Sub-studies are addressing issues related to oral health, psychological development and mental health, body composition, and ethnography. Birth cohort studies are essential for investigating the early determinants of adult disease and nutritional status, yet few such studies are available from low and middle-income countries where these determinants may differ from those documented in more developed settings. PMID:16410981

  4. Explaining differences in perceived health-related quality of life: a study within the Spanish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Fernández, Jesús; Ariza-Cardiel, Gloria; Polentinos-Castro, Elena; Sanz-Cuesta, Teresa; Sarria-Santamera, Antonio; Del Cura-González, Isabel

    2017-09-25

    To assess the burden of several determinants on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and to study its heterogeneity among the different Spanish regions. Cross-sectional study. Data were obtained from the Spanish National Health Survey (2012), and HRQOL was measured using the EQ-5D-5L questionnaire (utility and visual analogue scale -VAS- scores). Demographic variables, physical health condition, social variables, mental health status, and lifestyle were also analysed. Tobit regression models were employed to study the relationships between expressed HRQOL and personal characteristics. A total of 20,979 surveys were obtained. Of them, 62.4% expressed a utility score of 1, corresponding to perfect health (95%CI: 61.8%-63.2%), and 54.2% showed VAS scores ≥80 (95%CI: 53.5%-54.9%). HRQOL was mainly described as a function of age, chronic limitation in daily activities, and mental health status. Belonging to a higher-class strata and physical activity were related to better self-perceived HRQOL. Ageing worsened perceived HRQOL, but did not influence its determinants, and differences in HRQOL by regions were also not significant after model adjustment. HRQOL perception in the Spanish population varied slightly depending on the measure used (utilities index or VAS). Age, chronic limitations in daily life, and mental health status best explained the variability in perception, and no meaningful differences in HRQOL perception among regions were found after adjustment. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Clinical, epidemiological and treatment failure data among HIV-1 non-B-infected patients in the Spanish AIDS Research Network Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrecilla García, Esther; Yebra Sanz, Gonzalo; Llácer-Delicado, Teresa; Rubio García, Rafael; González-García, Juan; García García, Federico; López-Aldeguer, José; Asensi Álvarez, Víctor; Holguín Fernández, África

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of HIV-1 non-B variants is increasing in Spain, showing a higher number of transmitted drug resistance mutations (TDR) since 2002. This study presents the features of non-B-infected patients enrolled in the cohort of antiretroviral treatment (ART) naïve HIV-infected patients included in the Research Network on HIV/AIDS (CoRIS). The study includes a selected group of HIV-1 non-B-infected subjects from 670 subjects with pol sequences collected from 2004 to 2008 in the CoRIS cohort. Epidemiological-clinical-virological data were analyzed since cohort entry until October 2011, considering the presence or absence of treatment failure (TF). Eighty two non-B infected subjects with known HIV-1 variants were selected from 2004 to 2008 in the CoRIS cohort, being mainly female, immigrants, infected by recombinant viruses, and by heterosexual route. They had an intermediate TDR rate (9.4%), a high rate of TF (25.6%), of losses to follow-up (35%), of coinfections (32.9%), and baseline CD4+ counts ≥350cells/mm(3) (61.8%). Non-B subjects with TF showed higher rates of heterosexual infection (85.7% vs. 69.5%, pHIV-1 non-B-infected patients in Spain had a particular epidemiological and clinical profile that should be considered during their clinical management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  6. Lifestyle Patterns and Weight Status in Spanish Adults: The ANIBES Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Rodrigo, Carmen; Gianzo-Citores, Marta; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Ortega, Rosa M; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier

    2017-06-14

    Limited knowledge is available on lifestyle patterns in Spanish adults. We investigated dietary patterns and possible meaningful clustering of physical activity, sedentary behavior, sleep time, and smoking in Spanish adults aged 18-64 years and their association with obesity. Analysis was based on a subsample ( n = 1617) of the cross-sectional ANIBES study in Spain. We performed exploratory factor analysis and subsequent cluster analysis of dietary patterns, physical activity, sedentary behaviors, sleep time, and smoking. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore the association between the cluster solutions and obesity. Factor analysis identified four dietary patterns, " Traditional DP ", " Mediterranean DP ", " Snack DP " and " Dairy-sweet DP ". Dietary patterns, physical activity behaviors, sedentary behaviors, sleep time, and smoking in Spanish adults aggregated into three different clusters of lifestyle patterns: " Mixed diet-physically active-low sedentary lifestyle pattern ", " Not poor diet-low physical activity-low sedentary lifestyle pattern " and " Poor diet-low physical activity-sedentary lifestyle pattern ". A higher proportion of people aged 18-30 years was classified into the " Poor diet-low physical activity-sedentary lifestyle pattern ". The prevalence odds ratio for obesity in men in the " Mixed diet-physically active-low sedentary lifestyle pattern " was significantly lower compared to those in the " Poor diet-low physical activity-sedentary lifestyle pattern ". Those behavior patterns are helpful to identify specific issues in population subgroups and inform intervention strategies. The findings in this study underline the importance of designing and implementing interventions that address multiple health risk practices, considering lifestyle patterns and associated determinants.

  7. Language effects in second-language learners: A longitudinal electrophysiological study of spanish classroom learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soskey, Laura; Holcomb, Phillip J; Midgley, Katherine J

    2016-09-01

    How do the neural mechanisms involved in word recognition evolve over the course of word learning in adult learners of a new second language? The current study sought to closely track language effects, which are differences in electrophysiological indices of word processing between one's native and second languages, in beginning university learners over the course of a single semester of learning. Monolingual L1 English-speakers enrolled in introductory Spanish were first trained on a list of 228 Spanish words chosen from the vocabulary to be learned in class. Behavioral data from the training session and the following experimental sessions spaced over the course of the semester showed expected learning effects. In the three laboratory sessions participants read words in three lists (English, Spanish and mixed) while performing a go/no-go lexical decision task in which event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. As observed in previous studies there were ERP language effects with larger N400s to native than second language words. Importantly, this difference declined over the course of L2 learning with N400 amplitude increasing for new second language words. These results suggest that even over a single semester of learning that new second language words are rapidly incorporated into the word recognition system and begin to take on lexical and semantic properties similar to native language words. Moreover, the results suggest that electrophysiological measures can be used as sensitive measures for tracking the acquisition of new linguistic knowledge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Lifestyle Patterns and Weight Status in Spanish Adults: The ANIBES Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Pérez-Rodrigo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Limited knowledge is available on lifestyle patterns in Spanish adults. We investigated dietary patterns and possible meaningful clustering of physical activity, sedentary behavior, sleep time, and smoking in Spanish adults aged 18–64 years and their association with obesity. Analysis was based on a subsample (n = 1617 of the cross-sectional ANIBES study in Spain. We performed exploratory factor analysis and subsequent cluster analysis of dietary patterns, physical activity, sedentary behaviors, sleep time, and smoking. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore the association between the cluster solutions and obesity. Factor analysis identified four dietary patterns, “Traditional DP”, “Mediterranean DP”, “Snack DP” and “Dairy-sweet DP”. Dietary patterns, physical activity behaviors, sedentary behaviors, sleep time, and smoking in Spanish adults aggregated into three different clusters of lifestyle patterns: “Mixed diet-physically active-low sedentary lifestyle pattern”, “Not poor diet-low physical activity-low sedentary lifestyle pattern” and “Poor diet-low physical activity-sedentary lifestyle pattern”. A higher proportion of people aged 18–30 years was classified into the “Poor diet-low physical activity-sedentary lifestyle pattern”. The prevalence odds ratio for obesity in men in the “Mixed diet-physically active-low sedentary lifestyle pattern” was significantly lower compared to those in the “Poor diet-low physical activity-sedentary lifestyle pattern”. Those behavior patterns are helpful to identify specific issues in population subgroups and inform intervention strategies. The findings in this study underline the importance of designing and implementing interventions that address multiple health risk practices, considering lifestyle patterns and associated determinants.

  9. Japan Diabetic Nephropathy Cohort Study: study design, methods, and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuichi, Kengo; Shimizu, Miho; Toyama, Tadashi; Koya, Daisuke; Koshino, Yoshitaka; Abe, Hideharu; Mori, Kiyoshi; Satoh, Hiroaki; Imanishi, Masahito; Iwano, Masayuki; Yamauchi, Hiroyuki; Kusano, Eiji; Fujimoto, Shouichi; Suzuki, Yoshiki; Okuda, Seiya; Kitagawa, Kiyoki; Iwata, Yasunori; Kaneko, Shuichi; Nishi, Shinichi; Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Ueda, Yoshihiko; Haneda, Masakazu; Makino, Hirofumi; Wada, Takashi

    2013-12-01

    Diabetic nephropathy, leading to end-stage renal disease, has a considerable impact on public health and the social economy. However, there are few national registries of diabetic nephropathy in Japan. The aims of this prospective cohort study are to obtain clinical data and urine samples for revising the clinical staging of diabetic nephropathy, and developing new diagnostic markers for early diabetic nephropathy. The Japanese Society of Nephrology established a nationwide, web-based, and prospective registry system. On the system, there are two basic registries; the Japan Renal Biopsy Registry (JRBR), and the Japan Kidney Disease Registry (JKDR). In addition to the two basic registries, we established a new prospective registry to the system; the Japan Diabetic Nephropathy Cohort Study (JDNCS), which collected physical and laboratory data. We analyzed the data of 321 participants (106 female, 215 male; average age 65 years) in the JDNCS. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was 130.1 and 72.3 mmHg, respectively. Median estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was 33.3 ml/min/1.73 m(2). Proteinuria was 1.8 g/gCr, and serum levels of albumin were 3.6 g/dl. The majority of the JDNCS patients presented with preserved eGFR and low albuminuria or low eGFR and advanced proteinuria. In the JRBR and JKDR registries, 484 and 125 participants, respectively, were enrolled as having diabetes mellitus. In comparison with the JRBR and JKDR registries, the JDNCS was characterized by diabetic patients presenting with low proteinuria with moderately preserved eGFR. There are few national registries of diabetic nephropathy to evaluate prognosis in Japan. Future analysis of the JDNCS will provide clinical insights into the epidemiology and renal and cardiovascular outcomes of type 2 diabetic patients in Japan.

  10. [Proposals for the study of the second victim phenomenon in Spanish Primary Care Centres and Hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, I; Ferrús, L; Silvestre, C; Pérez-Pérez, P; Torijano, M L; Iglesias-Alonso, F; Astier, P; Olivera, G; Maderuelo-Fernández, J A

    2016-07-01

    To identify the Spanish studies conducted since 2014 on second victims. Its main objective was to identify a global response to the second victim problem, assessing the impact of adverse events (AE) on caregivers and developing of a set of tools to reduce their impact. Descriptive studies in which a sample of managers and safety coordinators from Hospitals and Primary Care were surveyed to determine the activities being carried out as regards second victims, as well as a sample of health professionals to describe their experience as a second victims. Qualitative studies are included to design a guide of recommended actions following an AE, an online awareness program on this phenomenon, an application (app) with activities on safety that are the responsibility of the managers, and a web tool for the analysis of AEs. A total of 1,493 professionals (managers, safety coordinators and caregivers) from eight Spanish regions participated. The guide of recommendations, the online program, and the developed applications are accessible on the website: www.segundasvictimas.es, which has received more than 2,500 visits in one year. Study results represent a starting point in the study of the second victim phenomenon in Spain. The tools developed raise the awareness of the medical healthcare community about this problem, and provide professionals with basic skills to manage the impact of AEs. Copyright © 2016 SECA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. The role of birth cohorts in studies of adult health: the New York women's birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Mary Beth; Flom, Julie; Tehranifar, Parisa; Susser, Ezra

    2009-09-01

    Epidemiological studies investigating associations between early life factors and adult health are often limited to studying exposures that can be reliably recalled in adulthood or obtained from existing medical records. There are few US studies with detailed data on the pre- and postnatal environment whose study populations are now in adulthood; one exception is the Collaborative Perinatal Project (CPP). We contacted former female participants of the New York site of the CPP who were born from 1959 to 1963 and were prospectively followed for 7 years to examine whether the pre- and postnatal environment is associated with adult health in women 40 years after birth. The New York CPP cohort is particularly diverse; at enrolment, the race/ethnicity distribution of mothers was approximately 30% White, 40% Black and 30% Puerto Rican. Of the 841 eligible women, we successfully traced 375 women (45%) and enrolled 262 women (70% of those traced). Baseline data were available for all eligible women, and we compared those who participated with the remaining cohort (n = 579). Higher family socio-economic status at age 7, availability of maternal social security number, and White race/ethnicity were statistically significantly associated with a higher probability of tracing. Of those traced, race/ethnicity was associated with participation, with Blacks and Puerto Ricans less likely to participate than Whites (OR = 0.5, 95% CI 0.3, 0.8, and OR = 0.5, 95% CI 0.3, 1.0, respectively). In addition, higher weight at 7 years was associated with lower participation (OR = 0.95, 95% CI 0.92, 0.99), but this association was observed only among the non-White participants. None of the other maternal characteristics, infant or early childhood growth measures was associated with participation or with tracing, either overall or within each racial/ethnic subgroup. Daughters' recall of early life factors such as pre-eclampsia (sensitivity = 24%) and birthweight were generally poor, with the

  12. Inventory analysis and carbon footprint of coastland-hotel services: A Spanish case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, Rita; Kiliç, Eylem; Navarro, Alejandra; Albertí, Jaume; Chacón, Lorenzo; Fullana-I-Palmer, Pere

    2017-10-01

    Tourism is a key industry in the Spanish economy. Spain was in the World top three ranking by international tourist arrivals and by income in 2015. The development of the tourism industry is essential to maintain the established economic system. However, if the environmental requirements were not taken into account, the country would face a negative effect on depletion of local environmental resources from which tourism depends. This case study evaluates, through a life cycle perspective, the average carbon footprint of an overnight stay in a Spanish coastland hotel by analyzing 14 two-to-five-stars hotels. Inventory and impact data are analyzed and presented both for resource use and greenhouse gases emissions, with the intention of helping in the environmental decision-making process. The main identified potential hotspots are electricity and fuels consumption (6 to 30kWh/overnight stay and 24 to 127MJ/overnight stay respectively), which are proportional to the number of stars and unoccupancy rate and they produce more than 75% of the impact. It is also revealed that voluntary implementation of environmental monitoring systems (like EMAS regulation) promotes collection of more detailed and accurate data, which helps in a more efficient use of resources. A literature review on LCA and tourism is also discussed. Spanish hotels inventory data presented here for the first time will be useful for tourism related managers (destination managers, policy makers and hotel managers among others) to calculate sustainability key indicators, which can lead to achieve real sustainable-tourism goals. Further data collection will be needed in future projects to gather representative data from more hotels, other accommodation facilities and also other products/services offered by tourist sector in Spain (like transport of tourists, food and beverage, culture-sports & recreation and others). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. [Disclosure of sources of funding in biomedical journals. Descriptive study of four Spanish publications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig, F; Borrego, A

    2015-01-01

    The source of research funding can result in bias, and its disclosure is essential in the publication of results. The aim of the study is to identify the frequency and type of sources of funding in the articles published by four Spanish biomedical journals published in Spanish. The frequency and type of financial disclosures in the articles published during 2012 in the ordinary numbers of Atención Primaria, Medicina Clínica, Revista Clínica Española and Revista Española de Cardiología were analyzed. Articles described as "Editorial", "Original article", "Consensus Document", "Review" and "Special Article" were considered. It was decided in each case whether or not the article included any funding disclosure and the type of the declared funding (public or private). Four hundred and twelve publications were analyzed. In 32.5% there was disclosure of funding: 38% in Atención Primaria, 27% in Medicina Clínica, 15% in Revista Clínica Española and 45% in Revista Española de Cardiología. By type of articles, 47% of original articles, 44% of consensus documents, 21% of reviews, 14% of special articles and 8% of editorials had a funding source. In 51.5% of the cases, funding was exclusively public, in 36.5% exclusively private and in 10% mixed. There is considerable variability in the disclosure of funding sources in articles appearing in these four Spanish biomedical journals. It would be necessary to improve the disclosure requirements of sources of funding, making them uniform, clear and transparent.

  14. Baseline characteristics of patients with chronic kidney disease stage 3 and stage 4 in spain: the MERENA observational cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montes Rafael

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To obtain information on cardiovascular morbidity, hypertension control, anemia and mineral metabolism based on the analysis of the baseline characteristics of a large cohort of Spanish patients enrolled in an ongoing prospective, observational, multicenter study of patients with stages 3 and 4 chronic kidney diseases (CKD. Methods Multicenter study from Spanish government hospital-based Nephrology outpatient clinics involving 1129 patients with CKD stages 3 (n = 434 and 4 (n = 695 defined by GFR calculated by the MDRD formula. Additional analysis was performed with GFR calculated using the CKD-EPI and Cockcroft-Gault formula. Results In the cohort as a whole, median age 70.9 years, morbidity from all cardiovascular disease (CVD was very high (39.1%. In CKD stage 4, CVD prevalence was higher than in stage 3 (42.2 vs 35.6% p 300 mg/day was present in more than 60% of patients and there was no significant differences between stages 3 and 4 CKD (1.2 ± 1.8 and 1.3 ± 1.8 g/day, respectively. A majority of the patients had hemoglobin levels greater than 11 g/dL (91.1 and 85.5% in stages 3 and 4 CKD respectively p Conclusion This study provides an overview of key clinical parameters in patients with CKD Stages 3 and 4 where delivery or care was largely by nephrologists working in a network of hospital-based clinics of the Spanish National Healthcare System.

  15. Ultraprocessed food consumption and risk of overweight and obesity: the University of Navarra Follow-Up (SUN) cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Raquel de Deus; Pimenta, Adriano Marçal; Gea, Alfredo; de la Fuente-Arrillaga, Carmen; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel Angel; Lopes, Aline Cristine Souza; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira

    2016-11-01

    Ultraprocessed food consumption has increased in the past decade. Evidence suggests a positive association between ultraprocessed food consumption and the incidence of overweight and obesity. However, few prospective studies to our knowledge have investigated this potential relation in adults. We evaluated the association between ultraprocessed food consumption and the risk of overweight and obesity in a prospective Spanish cohort, the SUN (University of Navarra Follow-Up) study. We included 8451 middle-aged Spanish university graduates who were initially not overweight or obese and followed up for a median of 8.9 y. The consumption of ultraprocessed foods (defined as food and drink products ready to eat, drink, or heat and made predominantly or entirely from processed items extracted or refined from whole foods or synthesized in the laboratory) was assessed with the use of a validated semiquantitative 136-item food-frequency questionnaire. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate adjusted HRs and 95% CIs for incident overweight and obesity. A total of 1939 incident cases of overweight and obesity were identified during follow-up. After adjustment for potential confounders, participants in the highest quartile of ultraprocessed food consumption were at a higher risk of developing overweight or obesity (adjusted HR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.45; P-trend = 0.001) than those in the lowest quartile of consumption. Ultraprocessed food consumption was associated with a higher risk of overweight and obesity in a prospective cohort of Spanish middle-aged adult university graduates. Further longitudinal studies are needed to confirm our results. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02669602. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Investing in Prospective Cohorts for Etiologic Study of Occupational Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prospective cohorts have played a major role in understanding the role of diet, physical activity, medical conditions, and genes in the development of many diseases, but have not been widely used in the study of occupational exposures. Studies in agriculture are an exception. W...

  17. Dropout from exercise programs for seniors: A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stiggelbout, M.; Hopman-Rock, M.; Tak, E.; Lechner, L.; Mechelen, W. van

    2005-01-01

    This study examines dropout incidence, moment of dropout, and switching behavior in organized exercise programs for seniors in the Netherlands, as determined in a prospective cohort study (with baseline measurements at the start of the exercise program and follow-up after 6 months; N = 1,725,

  18. A predictive study of reading comprehension in third-grade Spanish students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Escribano, Carmen; Elosúa de Juan, María Rosa; Gómez-Veiga, Isabel; García-Madruga, Juan Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The study of the contribution of language and cognitive skills to reading comprehension is an important goal of current reading research. However, reading comprehension is not easily assessed by a single instrument, as different comprehension tests vary in the type of tasks used and in the cognitive demands required. This study examines the contribution of basic language and cognitive skills (decoding, word recognition, reading speed, verbal and nonverbal intelligence and working memory) to reading comprehension, assessed by two tests utilizing various tasks that require different skill sets in third-grade Spanish-speaking students. Linguistic and cognitive abilities predicted reading comprehension. A measure of reading speed (the reading time of pseudo-words) was the best predictor of reading comprehension when assessed by the PROLEC-R test. However, measures of word recognition (the orthographic choice task) and verbal working memory were the best predictors of reading comprehension when assessed by means of the DARC test. These results show, on the one hand, that reading speed and word recognition are better predictors of Spanish language comprehension than reading accuracy. On the other, the reading comprehension test applied here serves as a critical variable when analyzing and interpreting results regarding this topic.

  19. A preliminary study of the mini-mental state examination in a Spanish child population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubial-Alvarez, Sandra; Machado, María-Clara; Sintas, Elena; de Sola, Susana; Böhm, Peter; Peña-Casanova, Jordi

    2007-11-01

    The Mini-Mental State Examination is one of the most widely used screening tests for the adult population in daily neurologic practice. The aim of this study was to describe and to analyze the results of the Mini-Mental State Examination administered to Spanish children and to assess the relationship between Mini-Mental State Examination scores and the child's mental age/intelligence quotient. The study population included 181 children whose ages ranged between 4 and 12 years. The neuropsychologic battery consisted of the Mini-Mental State Examination and Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test. Percentiles were obtained for the Mini-Mental State Examination total score according to age ranges. Performance gradually increased from 4 to 10 years of age when a plateau in the total Mini-Mental State Examination score was reached. At the age of 6 years, results exceeded 24 on average. Pairwise mean comparisons showed statistically significant differences between the age groups (P Mini-Mental State Examination score correlated significantly with the child's chronologic (r = 0.80, P mental (r = 0.76, P Mini-Mental State Examination in a Spanish child population as well as a first step for the assessment of the usefulness of this instrument as a cognitive screening tool for children's development.

  20. Adaptation and Validation of the Spanish Version of the Nomophobia Questionnaire in Nursing Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Puertas, Lorena; Márquez-Hernández, Verónica V; Aguilera-Manrique, Gabriel

    2016-10-01

    Nomophobia is the uncontrollable fear of leaving your house without your mobile phone and is currently having a significant impact on the younger population. The aim of this study was first to translate the original version (written in English) of the Nomophobia questionnaire, culturally adapting it to the Spanish sociolinguistic context, and subsequently to analyze the psychometric properties of the Spanish version with a sample of nursing students. In the first stage, a process of translation-back translation was carried out, following standardized recommendations. In order to validate the content, the adapted and agreed version of the Nomophobia questionnaire, consisting of 20 items, was submitted to a panel of 20 experts. After the content analysis and subsequent debate, a third version of the scale was obtained. The results confirmed a four-dimensional structure, the same as the original questionnaire, with a Cronbach's α value of .928 for the questionnaire as a whole, thus showing good internal consistency. The results of this study mean a suitable tool can be offered to nursing professionals with the aim of facilitating the diagnosis of addictive behaviors in relation to mobile phone use.

  1. Spanish I

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez, Jill

    2001-01-01

    CliffsQuickReview course guides cover the essentials of your toughest classes. Get a firm grip on core concepts and key material, and test your newfound knowledge with review questions. CliffsQuickReview Spanish I is meant to provide all the foundations of basic Spanish pronunciation, spelling, and sentence construction. Spanish grammar is systematically explained in its most simplistic way, so there's no need for any prerequisite before beginning this ""review"" of the equivalent of two years of high school Spanish. As you work your way through this review, you'll be ready to tackle such conc

  2. Alcohol and Difficulty Conceiving in the SUN Cohort: A Nested Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-del Burgo, Cristina; Gea, Alfredo; de Irala, Jokin; Martínez-González, Miguel A; Chavarro, Jorge E; Toledo, Estefania

    2015-07-27

    The role of alcohol on fertility remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the association between alcohol and specific alcoholic beverages consumption and the risk of difficulty getting pregnant. We used a case-control study nested within the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) cohort, a prospective, dynamic and multipurpose cohort of 21,705 Spanish university graduates, followed biennially with mailed questionnaires. We identified 686 case-control pairs, matched for age and time in the cohort. Cases were women reporting difficulty getting pregnant. Controls did not consult due to difficulty conceiving and had at least one child during follow-up. After adjustment for potential confounders, we found no association between self-reported difficulty getting pregnant and the number of alcoholic beverages consumed per week, (Odds Ratio [OR] > 5 drinks/week vs. none = 1.04, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 0.72-1.51). No association between types of alcoholic beverage and difficulty conceiving (OR > 5 drinks of wine/week vs. none = 1.16, 95% CI = 0.72-1.88; OR > 5 drinks of beer/week vs. none = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.82-1.37; OR > 5 drinks of spirits/week vs. none = 1.24, 95% CI = 0.84-1.64) was observed. In conclusion, we found no association between alcohol intake and risk of consulting a physician due to difficulty conceiving. More studies are needed to clearly elucidate the effects of alcohol intake on women's fertility. In the meantime, recommendations about alcohol intake to couples trying to conceive have to be given cautiously.

  3. Alcohol and Difficulty Conceiving in the SUN Cohort: A Nested Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Lopez-del Burgo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The role of alcohol on fertility remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the association between alcohol and specific alcoholic beverages consumption and the risk of difficulty getting pregnant. We used a case-control study nested within the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN cohort, a prospective, dynamic and multipurpose cohort of 21,705 Spanish university graduates, followed biennially with mailed questionnaires. We identified 686 case-control pairs, matched for age and time in the cohort. Cases were women reporting difficulty getting pregnant. Controls did not consult due to difficulty conceiving and had at least one child during follow-up. After adjustment for potential confounders, we found no association between self-reported difficulty getting pregnant and the number of alcoholic beverages consumed per week, (Odds Ratio [OR] > 5 drinks/week vs. none = 1.04, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 0.72–1.51. No association between types of alcoholic beverage and difficulty conceiving (OR > 5 drinks of wine/week vs. none = 1.16, 95% CI = 0.72–1.88; OR > 5 drinks of beer/week vs. none = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.82–1.37; OR > 5 drinks of spirits/week vs. none = 1.24, 95% CI = 0.84–1.64 was observed. In conclusion, we found no association between alcohol intake and risk of consulting a physician due to difficulty conceiving. More studies are needed to clearly elucidate the effects of alcohol intake on women’s fertility. In the meantime, recommendations about alcohol intake to couples trying to conceive have to be given cautiously.

  4. Incense use and respiratory tract carcinomas: a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, J.M.; Wang, R.; Koh, W.P.

    2008-01-01

    of cancer and ages 45 to 74 years completed a comprehensive interview regarding living conditions and dietary and lifestyle factors. Through linkage to population-based registries, the cohort was followed through 2005 and cancer occurrence determined. The relative risk for these cancers associated......BACKGROUND: Incense use is an integral part of daily life in large parts of Asia. The burning of incense is a powerful producer of particulate matter and the smoke contains a multitude of well-characterized carcinogens. However, to the authors' knowledge, no convincing association has been reported...... between exposure to incense smoke and the development of cancer. Therefore, the relation between incense use and the risk of respiratory tract carcinomas was analyzed in a prospective cohort study. METHODS: Between 1993 and 1998, a population-based cohort of 61,320 Singapore Chinese who were free...

  5. A Cohort Study on Meniscal Lesions among Airport Baggage Handlers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Sigurd; Brauer, Charlotte; Pedersen, Ellen Bøtker

    2016-01-01

    socioeconomic background and less knee-straining work. Baggage handlers lifted suitcases with an average weight of approximately 15 kg, in total approximately five tonnes during a 9-hour workday. The cohort was followed in the National Patient Register and Civil Registration System. The outcome was a first time......Meniscal lesions are common and may contribute to the development of knee arthrosis. A few case-control and cross-sectional studies have identified knee-straining work as risk factors for meniscal lesions, but exposure-response relations and the role of specific exposures are uncertain...... of unskilled men employed at Copenhagen Airport or in other companies in the metropolitan Copenhagen area from 1990 to 2012 (the Copenhagen Airport Cohort). The cohort at risk included 3,307 airport baggage handlers with heavy lifting and kneeling or squatting work tasks and 63,934 referents with a similar...

  6. Macronutrient Distribution and Dietary Sources in the Spanish Population: Findings from the ANIBES Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Ruiz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to analyze dietary macronutrient intake and its main sources according to sex and age. Results were derived from the ANIBES (“Anthropometry, Intake and Energy Balance in Spain” cross-sectional study using a nationally-representative sample of the Spanish population (9–75 years old. Mean dietary protein intake was 74.5 ± 22.4 g/day, with meat and meat products as the main sources (33.0%. Mean carbohydrate intake was 185.4 ± 60.9 g/day and was higher in children and adolescents; grains (49%, mainly bread, were the main contributor. Milk and dairy products (23% ranked first for sugar intake. Mean lipid intake was 78.1 ± 26.1 g/day and was higher in younger age groups; contributions were mainly from oils and fats (32.5%; olive oil 25.6% and meat and meat products (22.0%. Lipid profiles showed relatively high monounsaturated fatty acid intake, of which olive oil contributed 38.8%. Saturated fatty acids were mainly (>70% combined from meat and meat products, milk and dairy products and oils and fats. Polyunsaturated fatty acids were mainly from oils and fats (31.5%. The macronutrient intake and distribution in the Spanish population is far from population reference intakes and nutritional goals, especially for children and adolescents.

  7. Clustering of Dietary Patterns, Lifestyles, and Overweight among Spanish Children and Adolescents in the ANIBES Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Pérez-Rodrigo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Weight gain has been associated with behaviors related to diet, sedentary lifestyle, and physical activity. We investigated dietary patterns and possible meaningful clustering of physical activity, sedentary behavior, and sleep time in Spanish children and adolescents and whether the identified clusters could be associated with overweight. Analysis was based on a subsample (n = 415 of the cross-sectional ANIBES study in Spain. We performed exploratory factor analysis and subsequent cluster analysis of dietary patterns, physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and sleep time. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore the association between the cluster solutions and overweight. Factor analysis identified four dietary patterns, one reflecting a profile closer to the traditional Mediterranean diet. Dietary patterns, physical activity behaviors, sedentary behaviors and sleep time on weekdays in Spanish children and adolescents clustered into two different groups. A low physical activity-poorer diet lifestyle pattern, which included a higher proportion of girls, and a high physical activity, low sedentary behavior, longer sleep duration, healthier diet lifestyle pattern. Although increased risk of being overweight was not significant, the Prevalence Ratios (PRs for the low physical activity-poorer diet lifestyle pattern were >1 in children and in adolescents. The healthier lifestyle pattern included lower proportions of children and adolescents from low socioeconomic status backgrounds.

  8. Clinical and genetic characterization of classical forms of familial adenomatous polyposis: a Spanish population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, B; González, S; Sánchez-Tomé, E; Blanco, I; Mercadillo, F; Letón, R; Benítez, J; Robledo, M; Capellá, G; Urioste, M

    2011-04-01

    Classical familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is characterized by the appearance of >100 colorectal adenomas. We screened the APC and MUTYH genes for mutations and evaluated the genotype-phenotype correlation in 136 Spanish classical FAP families. APC/MUTYH mutations were detected in 107 families. Sixty-four distinct APC point mutations were detected in 95 families of which all were truncating mutations. A significant proportion (39.6%) had not been previously reported. Mutations were spread over the entire coding region and great rearrangements were identified in six families. Another six families exhibited biallelic MUTYH mutations. No APC or MUTYH mutations were detected in 29 families. These APC/MUTYH-negative families showed clinical differences with the APC-positive families. A poor correlation between phenotype and mutation site was observed. Our results highlight that a broad approach in the genetic study must be considered for classical FAP due to involvement of both APC and MUTYH and the heterogeneous spectrum of APC mutations observed in this Spanish population. The scarcely consistent genotype-phenotype correlation does not allow making specific recommendations regarding screening and management. Differences observed in APC/MUTYH-negative families may reflect a genetic basis other than mutations in APC and MUTYH genes for FAP predisposition. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology.

  9. Spanish normative studies in young adults (NEURONORMA young adults project): norms for verbal fluency tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casals-Coll, M; Sánchez-Benavides, G; Quintana, M; Manero, R M; Rognoni, T; Calvo, L; Palomo, R; Aranciva, F; Tamayo, F; Peña-Casanova, J

    2013-01-01

    Lexical fluency tests are frequently used in clinical practice to assess language and executive function. As part of the Spanish normative studies project in young adults (NEURONORMA young adults project), we provide age- and education-adjusted normative data for 3 semantic fluency tasks (animals, fruits and vegetables, and kitchen tools), three formal lexical fluency tasks (words beginning with P, M and R), three excluded-letter fluency tasks (words excluding A, E and S) and a verb fluency task. The sample consisted of 179 participants who are cognitively normal and range in age from 18 to 49 years. Tables are provided to convert raw scores to scaled scores. Age- and education-adjusted scores are provided by applying linear regression techniques. The results show that education impacted most of the verbal fluency test scores, with no effects related to age and only minimal effects related to sex. The norms obtained will be extremely useful in the clinical evaluation of young Spanish adults. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Towards an Urban Resilience Index: A Case Study in 50 Spanish Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Suárez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization is a major driver of land use change and global environmental decline. With accelerated urbanization worldwide, it is essential to put in place new policies to conserve urban ecosystems, species and the services these provide in order to secure more sustainable, resilient and livable cities for the 21st century. In urban planning, the concept of resilience has broadly replaced the word sustainability. In recent years, resilience indicators have been gradually developed, but few address urban resilience from a social-ecological systems perspective. We develop a methodological framework to measure urban resilience, define an urban resilience index and apply it to Spanish province capitals as a case study. Results show that most Spanish province capitals are far from being resilient. We conclude that increased efforts to measure urban resilience should be in place, and we offer the urban resilience index as a theoretical framework for measuring resilience in urban social-ecological systems that can be gradually improved as more data become available.

  11. Distress among young adult cancer survivors: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanez, Betina; Garcia, Sofia F; Victorson, David; Salsman, John M

    2013-09-01

    Being diagnosed with cancer as a young adult can lead to significant psychological distress and impaired quality of life. Compared to children and older adults diagnosed with cancer, fewer studies have addressed psychological distress among young adult cancer survivors. This study sought to identify the prevalence of, and factors associated with, distress among young adult cancer survivors (ages 18-39). Young adult cancer survivors (N = 335, mean age = 31.8, women = 68.4%) were recruited from an online research panel and stratified by cohort (time postactive treatment: 0-12, 13-24, and 25-60 months). Participants completed measures assessing demographic and clinical characteristics, global impact of cancer, cancer-related education and work interruption, and cancer-specific distress using the impact of event scale (IES). The mean score on the IES (M = 31.0, range = 0-75) was above the cut point of 20, suggesting clinically elevated distress. Analysis of covariance revealed significant main effects for cohort, global impact and cancer-related education/work interruption, and an interaction between cohort and cancer-related education/work interruption on distress. Although there was no significant effect of education/work interruption on distress for those in the 0-12 month cohort (p = .88), survivors in the 13-24 and 25-60 month cohorts reporting education/work interruption were significantly more distressed than those not reporting education/work interruption in the respective cohorts (p cancer survivors face unique challenges. These data underscore the importance of attending to cancer-related distress beyond the completion of treatment and may help inform targeted interventions to prevent or reduce significant distress and related sequelae in this population.

  12. Toward validating the Italian version of the "Spanish Burnout Inventory": a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Viotti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractOBJECTIVEThe aim of this study was to develop the Italian version of the Spanish Burnout Inventory (SBI and to examine its psychometric properties within a sample of nursing staff.METHODThe study was cross-sectional and not randomized. The data were gathered using an anonymous, self-report questionnaire. The sample consisted of 391 staff nurses employed in three hospitals in the Northern Region of Italy To evaluate burnout, the SBI and the Maslach Burnout Inventory were administered.RESULTSAn Exploratory Factor Analysis showed a four-factor structure close to the expected one. All Cronbach's alpha values were satisfactory. Furthermore, correlations support the concurrent validity.CONCLUSIONOverall, the results of this study provided evidence that the SBI is an adequate instrument to study burnout in the Italian nursing sample and indicated the feeling of guilt as an important dimension to gauge the structure of this phenomenon.

  13. Diagnóstico tardío de la infección por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana en la Cohorte VACH (1997-2002 Delayed diagnosis of HIV infection in the Spanish VACH cohort (1997-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Teira Cobo

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Estudiar la prevalencia del diagnóstico tardío (DT de la infección por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH y sus factores asociados. Métodos: Estudio transversal sobre los pacientes incluidos en la cohorte VACH cuya infección por el VIH hubiese sido diagnosticada entre 1997 y 2002. Consideramos DT los casos diagnosticados de sida concomitantemente o dentro del primer mes desde la primera serología positiva, o con recuento de CD4+ Objective: To study the prevalence of delayed diagnosis of HIV infection and associated factors. Methods: A cross sectional study of patients included in the Spanish VACH cohort who had been diagnosed with HIV infection between 1997 and 2002 was performed. Delayed diagnosis was defined as patients diagnosed with HIV infection and AIDS simultaneously or within the first month after the first positive serologic test, or those with a first CD4+ cell count below 200/ml. The epidemiological characteristics of these patients were compared with those of the remaining patients. Results: Of 2,820 new cases of HIV infection, delayed diagnosis was found in 506 (18%. These patients differed from the remaining patients in their lower mean age and higher HIV viral load, as well as in their distribution by sex (higher proportion of males, occupational status, history of incarceration in prison, and HIV-risk transmission group. The median survival during follow-up was significantly lower among AIDS patients with a delayed diagnosis. Conclusions: Delayed diagnosis remains a cause for concern in our environment, due to its magnitude and its association with mortality. Some epidemiological characteristics provide clues to guide future programs directed at increasing information and improving prevention.

  14. [Consensus statement of the National AIDS Plan Secretariat, Spanish Society of Emergency Medicine and AIDS Study Group of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology on Emergency and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Supporting non-HIV specialist professionals in the treatment of patients with urgent diseases resulting from HIV infection. These recommendations have been agreed by an expert panel from the National AIDS Plan Secretariat, the Spanish Society of Emergency Medicine, and the AIDS Study Group. A review has been made of the safety and efficacy results of clinical trials and cohort studies published in biomedical journals (PubMed and Embase) or presented at conferences. The strength of each recommendation (A, B, C) and the level of supporting evidence (I, II, III) are based on a modification of the criteria of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. The data to be collected from the emergency medical history in order to recognize the patient at risk of HIV infection were specified. It stressed the basic knowledge of ART principles and its importance in terms of decline in morbidity and mortality of HIV+ patients and referring to the HIV specialist for follow-up, where appropriate, including drug interactions. Management of different emergency situations that may occur in patients with HIV infection is also mentioned. The non-HIV specialist professional, will find the necessary tools to approach HIV patients with an emergency disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  15. Representativeness of the LifeLines Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijs, B.; Scholtens, S.; Mandemakers, J.J.; Snieder, H.; Stolk, R.P.; Smidt, N.

    2015-01-01

    Background LifeLines is a large prospective population-based three generation cohort study in the north of the Netherlands. Different recruitment strategies were adopted: recruitment of an index population via general practitioners, subsequent inclusion of their family members, and online

  16. Cohort-Sequential Study of Conflict Inhibition during Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Leslie; Riggins, Tracy

    2017-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined developmental changes in conflict inhibition and error correction in three cohorts of children (5, 7, and 9 years of age). At each point of assessment, children completed three levels of Luria's tapping task (1980), which requires the inhibition of a dominant response and maintenance of task rules in working…

  17. A Phenomenological Study of an Indonesian Cohort Group's Transformative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiraharjo, Markus

    2013-01-01

    This study was set to investigate how a cohort of ten Indonesian teachers experienced transformations in their teaching professionalism upon receiving an assignment of instructional leadership training to other school leaders. These ten teachers, who came from three different Indonesian Jesuit high schools and one archdiocese-based educational…

  18. European birth cohort studies on asthma and atopic diseases I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keil, T; Kulig, M; Simpson, A

    2006-01-01

    , recruitment process and follow-up rates. A subsequent review (part II) will compare outcome and exposure parameters. METHODS: For each birth cohort, we collected detailed information regarding recruitment process, study setting, baseline data (pregnancy, birth, parents/siblings) as well as follow-up rates...

  19. Adult Second Language Learning of Spanish Vowels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Katherine; Simonet, Miquel

    2015-01-01

    The present study reports on the findings of a cross-sectional acoustic study of the production of Spanish vowels by three different groups of speakers: 1) native Spanish speakers; 2) native English intermediate learners of Spanish; and 3) native English advanced learners of Spanish. In particular, we examined the production of the five Spanish…

  20. Consumption symbols as carriers of culture: a study of Japanese and Spanish brand personality constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaker, J L; Benet-Martínez, V; Garolera, J

    2001-09-01

    This research argues that the meaning embedded in consumption symbols, such as commercial brands, can serve to represent and institutionalize the values and beliefs of a culture. Relying on a combined emic-etic approach, the authors conducted 4 studies to examine how symbolic and expressive attributes associated with commercial brands are structured and how this structure varies across 3 cultures. Studies 1 and 2 revealed a set of "brand personality" dimensions common to both Japan and the United States (Sincerity, Excitement, Competence, and Sophistication), as well as culture-specific Japanese (Peacefulness) and American (Ruggedness) dimensions. Studied 3 and 4, which extended this set of findings to Spain, yielded brand personality dimensions common to both Spain and the United States (Sincerity, Excitement, and Sophistication), plus nonshared Spanish (Passion) and American (Competence and Ruggedness) dimensions. The meaning of these brand personality dimensions is discussed in the context of cross-cultural research on values and affect, globalization issues, and cultural frame shifting.

  1. Comparative study of publications performed on psychosis in the Spanish psychology and psychiatry journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, L; Buela-Casal, G

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the article production on psychosis from the main spanish journals of psychology and psychiatry, as well as to make comparisons among them. 16 journals of psychology and 5 of psychiatry were selected and a period of revision of four years settled down (2003-2006). The sample was constituted by 183 articles. For the comparison of the journals four index were used: proportion of articles on psychosis in relation to the total of generated articles; used type of methodology; used type of sample; and aspect of the psychosis in whose investigation it is centered. The results show that little is investigated, that most of the studies is theoretical or ex- post facto, that more the frequently studied subjects are those with psychosis and that the taken care of aspects more are related to the etiology and the treatment of the disease.

  2. Analysis of psychosocial factors influencing the distribution and projection of Spanish scientific activity: report of the initial qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GESCIT (Grup d'Estudis Socials de la Ciència i la Tecnologia

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available In this first phase of a longer study, we identify a number of psycho-social factors which are affecting science in Spain: attitudes, stereotypes, prejudices, values, beliefs, and attribution processes. We also examine how these factors might help or hinder Spanish science's greater impact in the international scientific community. This study falls within the framework of the Social Psychology of Science, the main principle of which is to explain scientific work by appeal to psycho-social variables and processes. We use qualitative methods to analyse a wide sample of material gleaned from the Spanish scientific community, and report on those elements that construct and perpetuate the perceptions, images and representations of current Spanish science research.

  3. First epidemiological study of contact dermatitis in Spain - 1977. Spanish Contact Dermatitis Research Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarasa, J M

    1979-01-01

    The present work is the first epidemiological study carried out by the Spanish Contact Dermatitis Research Group during 1977. During this year 2806 patients were studied with patch test among 30873 dermatological patients. The 60-62% of the totality had reactivity to one or more patches. Four major groups of allergens were able to consider, following the incidence in their power of sensitize. First group with strong incidence include: Nickel, Chromate, Cobalt, T.M.T.D.,P.P.D.A., Mercapto mix., and Wood tars. Second and third groups with medium incidence contain: Caines, Carbonates, Neomycin, Balsam of Peru, Mercury, Lanolin, Naphtyl mix., Formaldehyde, Benzalkonium chloride, P. P. D. A. mix, and Turpentine. Four group show very low incidence substances, as: Epoxi, Sulfonamides, Etilendiamine, Parabens, Chinoform, Colophony and Cinnamon oil. Few comments about age and occupations are included.

  4. Television watching, videogames, and excess of body fat in Spanish adolescents: the AVENA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán; Rey-López, J Pablo; Martín-Matillas, Miguel; Moreno, Luis A; Wärnberg, Julia; Redondo, Carlos; Tercedor, Pablo; Delgado, Manuel; Marcos, Ascensión; Castillo, Manuel; Bueno, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    We assessed the individual association of sedentary behaviors with the risk of overweight and excess body fat (overfat) in adolescents. A representative sample (1960 subjects, 1012 males, age 13-18.5 y) of Spanish adolescents was studied within the framework of the Alimentación y Valoración del Estado Nutricional de los Adolescentes (AVENA) study. Television (TV) watching, videogame and computer usage, doing homework, and the way students got to school, physical activity, and socioeconomic status were analyzed. Anthropometrics were measured to describe overweight (International Obesity Task Force cutoffs for body mass index) and overfat (body fat percentage >85th percentile). When all subjects were considered as an entire group, the overweight risk increased by 15.8% (P videogame usage, respectively (both Ps videogame usage (P videogames during the weekend.

  5. The Challenges of Spanish Language Teaching in Multilingual India: A Case Study of Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Dhiraj Kumar

    2017-01-01

    The multilingual surrounding of Spanish Language Teaching (SLT) in India has presented a unique linguistic principle. This principle relies upon the application of English language instructions (as FL1) to combine several methods for teaching-learning Spanish language (as FL2). However, the effectiveness and appropriateness of this linguistic…

  6. Assessing the Double Phonemic Representation in Bilingual Speakers of Spanish and English: An Electrophysiological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Sierra, Adrian; Ramirez-Esparza, Nairan; Silva-Pereyra, Juan; Siard, Jennifer; Champlin, Craig A.

    2012-01-01

    Event Related Potentials (ERPs) were recorded from Spanish-English bilinguals (N = 10) to test pre-attentive speech discrimination in two language contexts. ERPs were recorded while participants silently read magazines in English or Spanish. Two speech contrast conditions were recorded in each language context. In the "phonemic in English"…

  7. Environmental monitoring study of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates and insoluble soap in Spanish sewage sludge samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantarero, Samuel; Zafra-Gómez, Alberto; Ballesteros, Oscar; Navalón, Alberto; Reis, Marco S; Saraiva, Pedro M; Vílchez, José L

    2011-01-01

    In this work we present a monitoring study of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) and insoluble soap performed on Spanish sewage sludge samples. This work focuses on finding statistical relations between LAS concentrations and insoluble soap in sewage sludge samples and variables related to wastewater treatment plants such as water hardness, population and treatment type. It is worth to mention that 38 samples, collected from different Spanish regions, were studied. The statistical tool we used was Principal Component Analysis (PC), in order to reduce the number of response variables. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) test and a non-parametric test such as the Kruskal-Wallis test were also studied through the estimation of the p-value (probability of obtaining a test statistic at least as extreme as the one that was actually observed, assuming that the null hypothesis is true) in order to study possible relations between the concentration of both analytes and the rest of variables. We also compared LAS and insoluble soap behaviors. In addition, the results obtained for LAS (mean value) were compared with the limit value proposed by the future Directive entitled "Working Document on Sludge". According to the results, the mean obtained for soap and LAS was 26.49 g kg(-1) and 6.15 g kg(-1) respectively. It is worth noting that LAS mean was significantly higher than the limit value (2.6 g kg(-1)). In addition, LAS and soap concentrations depend largely on water hardness. However, only LAS concentration depends on treatment type.

  8. Determinants of Research Productivity in Spanish Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Cecilia; Davia, María A.; Legazpe, Nuria

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to widen the empirical evidence about the determinants of Spanish academics' publication productivity across fields of study. We use the Spanish Survey on Human Resources in Science and Technology addressed to Spanish resident PhDs employed in Spanish universities as academics. Productivity is measured as the total number of…

  9. First Steps in the Development of the "Inventario de Comportamiento de Estudio": The Spanish Version of the "Study Behavior Inventory."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, Leonard B.; And Others

    The Inventario de Comportamiento de Estudio (ICE), a Spanish translation of the Study Behavior Inventory (SBI) was developed and tested using a group of 594 undergraduate students from randomly selected classes at a private comprehensive university in Mexico. Both instruments were designed to assess the study behaviors of students in institutions…

  10. Diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular clinical characteristics of Spanish women with stable ischaemic heart disease: Data from the SIRENA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gámez, José M; Masmiquel, Luis; Ripoll, Tomás; Barrios, Vivencio; Anguita, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between diabetes and the cardiovascular clinical characteristics of Spanish women with stable ischaemic heart disease was studied in a nationwide cross-sectional study. Diabetes was related to a higher burden of risk factors, comorbidity, multivessel disease and coronary surgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Food preservation by irradiation. V.- Economic study of the spanish potatoe market and preservation feasibility by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivas, A.; Garcia de Mateos, A.; Ortin Sune, N.; Val Cob, M. del

    1967-01-01

    A study of the spanish potatoe market is carried o nt in order to know the possibilities of preservation by irradiation. The study is initiated with a recompilation of statistical data on the production and consumption of potatoes by regions and seasons. Last years losses are then estimated. (Author) 9 refs

  12. The Congenital Heart Disease Genetic Network Study: Cohort description.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh T Hoang

    Full Text Available The Pediatric Cardiac Genomics Consortium (PCGC designed the Congenital Heart Disease Genetic Network Study to provide phenotype and genotype data for a large congenital heart defects (CHDs cohort. This article describes the PCGC cohort, overall and by major types of CHDs (e.g., conotruncal defects and subtypes of conotrucal heart defects (e.g., tetralogy of Fallot and left ventricular outflow tract obstructions (e.g., hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Cases with CHDs were recruited through ten sites, 2010-2014. Information on cases (N = 9,727 and their parents was collected through interviews and medical record abstraction. Four case characteristics, eleven parental characteristics, and thirteen parent-reported neurodevelopment outcomes were summarized using counts and frequencies and compared across CHD types and subtypes. Eleven percent of cases had a genetic diagnosis. Among cases without a genetic diagnosis, the majority had conotruncal heart defects (40% or left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (21%. Across CHD types, there were significant differences (p<0.05 in the distribution of all four case characteristics (e.g., sex, four parental characteristics (e.g., maternal pregestational diabetes, and five neurodevelopmental outcomes (e.g., learning disabilities. Several characteristics (e.g., sex were also significantly different across CHD subtypes. The PCGC cohort is one of the largest CHD cohorts available for the study of genetic determinants of risk and outcomes. The majority of cases do not have a genetic diagnosis. This description of the PCGC cohort, including differences across CHD types and subtypes, provides a reference work for investigators who are interested in collaborating with or using publically available resources from the PCGC.

  13. Metrological management evaluation based on ISO10012: an empirical study in ISO-14001-certified Spanish companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltran, Jaime; Rivas, Miguel; Munuzuri, Jesus; Gonzalez, Cristina

    2010-01-01

    Environmental management systems based on the ISO 14001 standard rely strongly on metrological measurement and confirmation processes to certify the extent to which organizations monitor and improve their environmental behavior. Nevertheless, the literature lacks in studies that assess the influence of these metrological processes on the performance of environmental management in organizations, even now that the international standard ISO 10012 is already available to establish requisites and guidelines for the development of a metrological management system that is compatible with any other standardized management system. This work seeks to assess that influence through the development of an evaluation model for metrological management, which is then validated through an experimental analysis of the results obtained from the application of an audit process in 11 Spanish companies, all ISO-14001-certified and operating in different industrial sectors. (author)

  14. The Spanish gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The spanish gas industry has become one of the major actors in the gas sector of the European Economic Community. This paper pictures the spanish gas industry on the basis of a study by Sedigas, the spanish member of the International Gas Union (IGU). The main subjects described are structure of gas companies, natural gas supply, transport and storage, natural gas distribution networks, statistical data on natural gas consumption, manufactured gas and Liquefied Petroleum Gases (LPG) production-consumption in Spain. 7 figs., 10 tabs

  15. The EORTC information questionnaire, EORTC QLQ-INFO25. Validation study for Spanish patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arraras, Juan Ignacio; Manterola, Ana; Hernández, Berta; Arias de la Vega, Fernando; Martínez, Maite; Vila, Meritxell; Eito, Clara; Vera, Ruth; Domínguez, Miguel Ángel

    2011-06-01

    The EORTC QLQ-INFO25 evaluates the information received by cancer patients. This study assesses the psychometric properties of the QLQ-INFO25 when applied to a sample of Spanish patients. A total of 169 patients with different cancers and stages of disease completed the EORTC QLQINFO25, the EORTC QLQ-C30 and the information scales of the inpatient satisfaction module EORTC IN-PATSAT32 on two occasions during the patients' treatment and follow- up period. Psychometric evaluation of the structure, reliability, validity and responsiveness to changes was conducted. Patient acceptability was assessed with a debriefing questionnaire. Multi-trait scaling confirmed the 4 multi-item scales (information about disease, medical tests, treatment and other services) and eight single items. All items met the standards for convergent validity and all except one met the standards of item discriminant validity. Internal consistency for all scales (α>0.70) and the whole questionnaire (α>0.90) was adequate in the three measurements, except information about the disease (0.67) and other services (0.68) in the first measurement, as was test-retest reliability (intraclass correlations >0.70). Correlations with related areas of IN-PATSAT32 (r>0.40) supported convergent validity. Divergent validity was confirmed through low correlations with EORTC QLQ-C30 scales (rinformation and satisfaction. One scale and an item showed changes over time. The EORTC QLQ-INFO 25 is a reliable and valid instrument when applied to a sample of Spanish cancer patients. These results are in line with those of the EORTC validation study.

  16. [Spanish collaborative study: Description of usual clinical practice in infant obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechuga Sancho, Alfonso; Palomo Atance, Enrique; Rivero Martin, María José; Gil-Campos, Mercedes; Leis Trabazo, Rosaura; Bahíllo Curieses, María Pilar; Bueno Lozano, Gloria

    2018-06-01

    Childhood obesity is a high prevalence health problem. Although there are clinical guidelines for its management, there is variability in its clinical approach. The aim of this study is to describe the usual clinical practice in Paediatric Endocrinology Units in Spain and to evaluate if it resembles the recommended guidelines. An observational, cross-sectional and descriptive study was carried out by means of a questionnaire sent to paediatric endocrinologists of the Spanish Society of Paediatric Endocrinology. The questions were formulated based on the recommendations of "Clinical Practice Guidelines on the Prevention and Treatment of Childhood Obesity" issued by the Spanish Ministry of Health. A total of 125 completed questionnaires were obtained from all Autonomous Communities. Variability was observed both in the number of patients attended and in the frequency of the visits. The majority (70%) of the paediatricians who responded did not have a dietitian, psychologist or psychiatrist, in their centre to share the treatment for obese children. As regards treatment, dietary advice is the most used, and 69% have never prescribed weight-loss drugs. Of those who have prescribed them, 52.6% did not use informed consent as a prior step to them being used. There are few centres that comply with the recommendations of the clinical practice guidelines on prevention and treatment of childhood obesity as an established quality plan. Clinical practice differs widely among the paediatric endocrinologists surveyed. There are no uniform protocols of action, and in general there is limited availability of resources for the multidisciplinary treatment required by this condition. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Rationale, design, and methods for Canadian alliance for healthy hearts and minds cohort study (CAHHM) - a Pan Canadian cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Sonia S; Tu, Jack V; Awadalla, Philip; Black, Sandra; Boileau, Catherine; Busseuil, David; Desai, Dipika; Després, Jean-Pierre; de Souza, Russell J; Dummer, Trevor; Jacquemont, Sébastien; Knoppers, Bartha; Larose, Eric; Lear, Scott A; Marcotte, Francois; Moody, Alan R; Parker, Louise; Poirier, Paul; Robson, Paula J; Smith, Eric E; Spinelli, John J; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Teo, Koon K; Tusevljak, Natasa; Friedrich, Matthias G

    2016-07-27

    The Canadian Alliance for Healthy Hearts and Minds (CAHHM) is a pan-Canadian, prospective, multi-ethnic cohort study being conducted in Canada. The overarching objective of the CAHHM is to understand the association of socio-environmental and contextual factors (such as societal structure, activity, nutrition, social and tobacco environments, and access to health services) with cardiovascular risk factors, subclinical vascular disease, and cardiovascular and other chronic disease outcomes. Participants between 35 and 69 years of age are being recruited from existing cohorts and a new First Nations Cohort to undergo a detailed assessment of health behaviours (including diet and physical activity), cognitive function, assessment of their local home and workplace environments, and their health services access and utilization. Physical measures including weight, height, waist/hip circumference, body fat percentage, and blood pressure are collected. In addition, eligible participants undergo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain, heart, carotid artery and abdomen to detect early subclinical vascular disease and ectopic fat deposition. CAHHM is a prospective cohort study designed to investigate the impact of community level factors, individual health behaviours, and access to health services, on cognitive function, subclinical vascular disease, fat distribution, and the development of chronic diseases among adults living in Canada.

  18. Diagnosis features of pediatric Gaucher disease patients in the era of enzymatic therapy, a national-base study from the Spanish Registry of Gaucher Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Campos, Marcio; Alfonso, Pilar; Irun, Pilar; Armstrong, Judith; Calvo, Carmen; Dalmau, Jaime; Domingo, Maria-Rosario; Barbera, Jose-Luis; Cano, Horacio; Fernandez-Galán, Maria-Angeles; Franco, Rafael; Gracia, Inmaculada; Gracia-Antequera, Miguel; Ibañez, Angela; Lendinez, Francisco; Madruga, Marcos; Martin-Hernández, Elena; O'Callaghan, Maria Del Mar; Del Soto, Alberto Pérez; Del Prado, Yolanda Ruiz; Sancho-Val, Ignacio; Sanjurjo, Pablo; Pocovi, Miguel; Giraldo, Pilar

    2017-05-03

    The enzymatic replacement therapy (ERT) availability for Gaucher disease (GD) has changed the landscape of the disease, several countries have screening programs. These actions have promoted the early diagnosis and avoided many complications in pediatric patients. In Spain ERT has been available since 1993 and 386 patients have been included in the Spanish Registry of Gaucher Disease (SpRGD). The aim of this study is to analyze the impact of ERT on the characteristics at time of diagnosis and initial complications in pediatric Gaucher disease patients. To analyze the impact of ERT on the characteristics at time of diagnosis and initial complications in pediatric Gaucher disease patients. A review of data in SpRGD from patients' diagnosed before 18 years old was performed. The cohort was split according the year of diagnosis (≤1994, cohort A; ≥1995, cohort B). A total of 98 pediatric patients were included, GD1: 80, GD3: 18; mean age: 7.2 (0.17-16.5) years, 58 (59.2%) males and 40 (40.8%) females. Forty-five were diagnosed ≤ 1994 and 53 ≥ 1995. Genotype: N370S/N370S: 2 (2.0%), N370S/L444P: 27 (27.5%), N370S/other: 47 (48%), L444P/L444P: 7 (7.1%), L444P/D409H: 2 (2.0%), L444P/other: 3 (6.2%), other/other: 10 (10.2%). The mean age at diagnosis was earlier in patients diagnosed after 1995 (p Gaucher disease in the era of ERT availability has permitted to reduce the incidence of severe and irreversible initial complication in pediatric patients, and this has permitted better development of these patients. This is the largest pediatric cohort from a national registry.

  19. Adoption of the Spanish eco design standard UNE 150301. A case study; Adopcion de la norma UNE 150301 de ecodeseno. Un estudio de casos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arana-Landin, G.; Heras-Saizarbitoria, I.

    2010-07-01

    This article analyses the implementation of the Spanish National Standard UNE 150301 launched by AENOR in 2003. After studying the framework of this standard, its objectives and potential impact, for the first time the actual process of its implementation is examined using three Spanish industrial companies as case studies, all of which are pioneers in the adoption of this environmental standard. (Author)

  20. THE ACQUISITION OF ENGLISH SYLLABLE TIMING BY NATIVE SPANISH SPEAKERS LEARNERS OF ENGLISH. AN EMPIRICAL STUDY'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Gutierrez Diez

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article we present part of the results of an empirical research on contrastive rhythm (English-Spanish. Of the several points dealt with in such a research (syllable compression, foot timing, syllable timing and isochrony of rhythmic units, we refer here to syllable duration in English and Spanish as well as the leaming of syllable duration by a group of advanced leamers of English whose first language is Spanish. Regarding the issue of syllable timing, a striking result is the equal duration of unstressed syllables in both languages, which challenges an opposite view underlying a teaching practice common among Spanish teachers of English to Spanish learners of that language. As for the interlanguage of the group of Spanish leamers of English, we comment on the presence of an interference error represented by a stressed/unstressed durational ratio mid way between the ratios for Spanish and English; we have also detected a developmental error related to the tempo employed by the leamers in their syllable timing, which is slower than the tempo produced by native speakers of English.

  1. Incorporating Lean Construction agent into the Building Standards Act: the Spanish case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brioso Xavier

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a demand for lean construction in Europe; even though lean construction is still an emerging field and there is growing interest, there are no regulations on this topic. The main objective of this research is to regulate this role when in a project and to define and develop a building agent structure, according to the Building Standards Act (LOE by its acronym in Spanish, to be able to incorporate it into the Spanish law, protecting it from civil liabilities. In Spain, there is jurisprudence in civil jurisdiction based on the LOE to acquit or convict building agents, who are defined in the courts as “constructive managers” or similar. For this reason, courts could establish in the future several liabilities for the lean construction specialist and other agents of the project, depending on their actions and based on the implementation of the lean project delivery system, the target value design and the integrated project delivery. Conversely, it is possible that the level of action of the lean construction specialist may comprise design management, construction management and contract management. Accordingly, one or more building agents should be appropriately incorporated into the LOE according to their functions and responsibilities and based on the levels of action of the lean construction specialist. The creation of the following agents is proposed: design manager, construction manager and contract manager, definitions that are developed in this study. These agents are loosely defined, because any project manager, building information modeling manager or similar may act as one or as more-than-one of them. Finally, the creation of the lean construction manager is also proposed, as the agent who takes on the role of the design manager, construction manager and contract manager, but focused on the lean production principles.

  2. Use of Visuals for Food Safety Education of Spanish-Speaking Foodservice Workers: A Case Study in Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, Lakshman

    2012-01-01

    Providing food safety training to an audience whose native language is not English is always a challenge. In the study reported here, minimal-text visuals in Spanish were used to train Hispanic foodservice workers about proper handwashing technique and glove use based on the 2005 Food Code requirements. Overall, results indicated that visuals…

  3. First Steps in the Development of the Inventario de Comportamiento de Estudio: The Spanish Version of the Study Behavior Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, Leonard B.; Vinay, Diana Maria Alejandra

    2004-01-01

    The Inventario de Comportamiento de Estudio (ICE), a Spanish version of the Study Behavior Inventory (SBI), was developed and tested using 594 undergraduate students at la Universidad de las Americas, in the state of Puebla, Mexico. A team of bilingual specialists was assembled to produce a translation that might be generic enough to be understood…

  4. Gesture, Play, and Language Development of Spanish-Speaking Toddlers with Developmental Language Disorders: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiberson, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study was to (a) examine relationships between the symbolic and language skills of a mixed (developmental language disordered [DLD] and typical language [TL]) Spanish-speaking sample; (b) describe gesture, play, and language skills of DLD and TL groups; (c) compare the development between groups; and (d) explore…

  5. Do We All Apologize the Same?--An Empirical Study on the Act of Apologizing by Spanish Speakers Learning English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Montserrat

    1992-01-01

    A study examined the production of English apology strategies by Spanish speakers learning English, by analyzing the remedial move in native and non-native social interactions. To restore harmony when an offensive act has been committed, remedial exchanges are performed according to the rules of speaking and the social norms of the speech…

  6. Personal and Interpersonal Value System, Self-Perception and Identity of Spanish Nurses: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losa Iglesias, Marta Elena; de Bengoa Vallejo, Ricardo Becerro

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research is to identify the predominant values system among a sample of Spanish nurses, to identify how values are tied to professional nursing identity and determine differences in values and identity between socio-demographic variables as a gender, citizenship and/or nursing service. Cross-sectional study was performed with a…

  7. Life-course pathways to psychological distress: A cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Von Stumm, S.; Deary, I. J.; Hagger-Johnson, G.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Objectives: Early life factors, like intelligence and socioeconomic status (SES), are associated with health outcomes in adulthood. Fitting comprehensive life-course models, we tested (1) the effect of childhood intelligence and SES, education and adulthood SES on psychological distress at midlife, and (2) compared alternative measurement specifications (reflective and formative) of SES. Design: Prospective cohort study (the Aberdeen Children of the 1950s). Setting: Aberdeen, Scotla...

  8. Data linkage in an established longitudinal cohort: the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountain, Jenny A; Nyaradi, Anett; Oddy, Wendy H; Glauert, Rebecca A; de Klerk, Nick H; Straker, Leon M; Stanley, Fiona J

    2016-07-15

    The Western Australian Data Linkage System is one of a few comprehensive, population-based data linkage systems worldwide, creating links between information from different sources relating to the same individual, family, place or event, while maintaining privacy. The Raine Study is an established cohort study with more than 2000 currently active participants. Individual consent was obtained from participants for information in publicly held databases to be linked to their study data. A waiver of consent was granted where it was impracticable to obtain consent. Approvals to link the datasets were obtained from relevant ethics committees and data custodians. The Raine Study dataset was subsequently linked to academic testing data collected by the Western Australian Department of Education. Examination of diet and academic performance showed that children who were predominantly breastfed for at least 6 months scored higher academically at age 10 than children who were breastfed for less than 6 months. A further study found that better diet quality at ages 1, 2 and 3 years was associated with higher academic scores at ages 10 and 12 years. Examination of nutritional intake at 14 years of age found that a better dietary pattern was associated with higher academic performance. The detailed longitudinal data collected in the Raine Study allowed for adjustment for multiple covariates and confounders. Data linkage reduces the burden on cohort participants by providing additional information without the need to contact participants. It can give information on participants who have been lost to follow-up; provide or complement missing data; give the opportunity for validation studies comparing recall of participants with administrative records; increase the population sample of studies by adding control participants from the general population; and allow for the adjustment of multiple covariates and confounders. The Raine Study dataset is extensive and detailed, and can be

  9. Counselling for burnout in Norwegian doctors: one year cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rø, Karin E Isaksson; Gude, Tore; Tyssen, Reidar; Aasland, Olaf G

    2008-11-11

    To investigate levels and predictors of change in dimensions of burnout after an intervention for stressed doctors. Cohort study followed by self reported assessment at one year. Norwegian resource centre. 227 doctors participating in counselling intervention, 2003-5. Counselling (lasting one day (individual) or one week (group based)) aimed at motivating reflection on and acknowledgement of the doctors' situation and personal needs. Levels of burnout (Maslach burnout inventory) and predictors of reduction in emotional exhaustion investigated by linear regression. 185 doctors (81%, 88 men, 97 women) completed one year follow-up. The mean level of emotional exhaustion (scale 1-5) was significantly reduced from 3.00 (SD 0.94) to 2.53 (SD 0.76) (t=6.76, Ppsychotherapy, from 20% (36/182) to 53% (97/182). In the whole cohort, reduction in emotional exhaustion was independently associated with reduced number of work hours/week (beta=0.17, P=0.03), adjusted for sex, age, and personality dimensions. Among men "satisfaction with the intervention" (beta=0.25, P=0.04) independently predicted reduction in emotional exhaustion. A short term counselling intervention could contribute to reduction in emotional exhaustion in doctors. This was associated with reduced working hours for the whole cohort and, in men, was predicted by satisfaction with the intervention.

  10. FTA Corpus: a parallel corpus of English and Spanish Free Trade Agreements for the study of specialized collocations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Patiño García

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the Corpus of Free Trade Agreements (henceforth FTA, a specialized parallel corpus in English and Spanish from Europe and America and a smaller subcorpus in English-Norwegian and Spanish-Norwegian that was prepared and then aligned with Translation Corpus Aligner 2 (Hofland & Johansson, 1998. The data was taken from Free Trade Agreements. These agreements are specialized texts officially signed and ratified by several countries and blocks of countries in the last twenty years. Thus, FTAs are a rich repository for terminology and phraseology that is used in different fields of business activity throughout the world. The corpus contains around 1.37 million words in the English section and 1.48 million words in its Spanish counterpart, plus 60,000 words each in the Spanish-Norwegian and English-Norwegian subcorpus. The corpus is being used primarily to study the terms and specialized collocations that include these terms in this kind of specialized texts.Keywords: specialized collocation, specialized parallel corpus, corpus linguistics, Free Trade Agreement

  11. Noninitiation and Noncompletion of HPV Vaccine Among English- and Spanish-Speaking Parents of Adolescent Girls: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Karen; Barnard, Juliana; O'Leary, Sean T; Lockhart, Steven; Jimenez-Zambrano, Andrea; Stokley, Shannon; Dempsey, Amanda; Kempe, Allison

    The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends routine human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination for female adolescents aged 11 to 12 years, yet vaccination rates remain low. We conducted a qualitative study to understand English- and Spanish-speaking parents' reasons for noninitiation or noncompletion of the HPV vaccine series for their daughters. Parents of female adolescents aged 12 to 15 years who had not initiated or not completed the HPV vaccine series were identified through administrative data in 2 large urban safety net health care systems in Colorado. Focus groups and in-depth interviews were conducted with English-speaking parents and in-depth interviews were conducted with Spanish-speaking parents. All data were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed for thematic content by experienced analysts using established qualitative content analysis techniques. Forty-one parents participated in the study. Thirty parents participated in individual interviews and 11 parents participated in 1 of 2 focus groups. The most common reasons for noninitiation and noncompletion among English-speaking parents included a low perceived risk of HPV infection, vaccine safety concerns, and distrust of government and/or medicine. In contrast, Spanish-speaking parents most often reported that providers had either not encouraged initiation of the HPV vaccine series or had not explained the necessity of completing the series. Some noninitiating parents, particularly Spanish-speaking ones, also cited concerns that vaccination would encourage sexual activity. The reasons for noninitiation and noncompletion of the HPV vaccine series differed substantially between English- and Spanish-speaking parents. To maximize uptake of HPV vaccine, varying approaches might be needed to effectively target specific populations. Copyright © 2017 Academic Pediatric Association. All rights reserved.

  12. Hyperemesis gravidarum and pregnancy outcomes in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort - a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikanes, Åse V; Støer, Nathalie C; Magnus, Per; Grjibovski, Andrej M

    2013-09-03

    Hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) characterized by excessive nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy, is reported to be associated with increased risks for low birthweight (LBW), preterm birth (PTB), small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and perinatal death. Conflicting results in previous studies underline the necessity to study HG's potential effect on pregnancy outcomes using large cohorts with valid data on exposure and outcome measures, as well as potential confounders. This study aims to investigate associations between HG and adverse pregnancy outcomes using the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). All singleton pregnancies in MoBa from 1998 to 2008 were included. Multivariable regression was used to estimate relative risks, approximated by odds ratios, for PTB, LBW, SGA and perinatal death. Linear regression was applied to assess differences in birthweight and gestational age for children born to women with and without HG. Potential confounders were adjusted for. Altogether, 814 out of 71,468 women (or 1.1%) had HG. In MoBa HG was not associated with PTB, LBW or SGA. Babies born to women with HG were born on average 1 day earlier than those born to women without HG; (-0.97 day (95% confidence intervals (CI): -1.80 - -0.15). There was no difference in birthweight when maternal weight gain was adjusted for; (23.42 grams (95% CI: -56.71 - 9.86). Babies born by women with HG had lower risk for having Apgar score < 7 after 1 minute (crude odds ratio was 0.64 (95% CI: 0.43 - 0.95)). No differences between the groups for Apgar score < 7 after 5 minutes were observed. Time-point for hospitalisation slightly increased differences in gestational age according to maternal HG status. HG was not associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Pregnancies complicated with HG had a slightly shorter gestational length. There was no difference in birth weight according to maternal HG-status. HG was associated with an almost 40% reduced risk for having Apgar score

  13. Energy Intake, Profile, and Dietary Sources in the Spanish Population: Findings of the ANIBES Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Ruiz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Energy intake, and the foods and beverages contributing to that, are considered key to understanding the high obesity prevalence worldwide. The relative contributions of energy intake and expenditure to the obesity epidemic, however, remain poorly defined in Spain. The purpose of this study was to contribute to updating data of dietary energy intake and its main sources from food and beverages, according to gender and age. These data were derived from the ANIBES (“Anthropometry, Intake, and Energy Balance in Spain” study, a cross-sectional study of a nationally representative sample of the Spanish population (from 9–75 years old. A three-day dietary record, collected by means of a tablet device, was used to obtain information about food and beverage consumption and leftovers. The final sample comprised 2009 individuals (1,013 men, 996 women. The observed mean dietary energy intake was 7.6 ± 2.11 MJ/day (8.2 ± 2.22 MJ/day for men and 6.9 ± 1.79 MJ/day for women. The highest intakes were observed among adolescents aged 13–17 years (8.4 MJ/day, followed by children 9–12 years (8.2 ± 1.80 MJ/day, adults aged 18–64 (7.6 ± 2.14 MJ/day and older adults aged 65–75 years (6.8 ± 1.88 MJ/day. Cereals or grains (27.4%, meats and derivatives (15.2%, oils and fats (12.3%, and milk and dairy products (11.8% contributed most to daily energy intake. Energy contributions from non-alcoholic beverages (3.9%, fish and shellfish (3.6%, sugars and sweets (3.3% and alcoholic beverages (2.6% were moderate to minor. Contributions to caloric profile were 16.8%E from proteins; 41.1%E from carbohydrates, including 1.4%E from fiber; 38.5%E from fats; and 1.9%E from alcohol intake. We can conclude that energy intake is decreasing in the Spanish population. A variety of food and beverage groups contribute to energy intake; however, it is necessary to reinforce efforts for better adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet.

  14. Energy Intake, Profile, and Dietary Sources in the Spanish Population: Findings of the ANIBES Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Emma; Ávila, José Manuel; Valero, Teresa; del Pozo, Susana; Rodriguez, Paula; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Ortega, Rosa M; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2015-06-12

    Energy intake, and the foods and beverages contributing to that, are considered key to understanding the high obesity prevalence worldwide. The relative contributions of energy intake and expenditure to the obesity epidemic, however, remain poorly defined in Spain. The purpose of this study was to contribute to updating data of dietary energy intake and its main sources from food and beverages, according to gender and age. These data were derived from the ANIBES ("Anthropometry, Intake, and Energy Balance in Spain") study, a cross-sectional study of a nationally representative sample of the Spanish population (from 9-75 years old). A three-day dietary record, collected by means of a tablet device, was used to obtain information about food and beverage consumption and leftovers. The final sample comprised 2009 individuals (1,013 men, 996 women). The observed mean dietary energy intake was 7.6 ± 2.11 MJ/day (8.2 ± 2.22 MJ/day for men and 6.9 ± 1.79 MJ/day for women). The highest intakes were observed among adolescents aged 13-17 years (8.4 MJ/day), followed by children 9-12 years (8.2 ± 1.80 MJ/day), adults aged 18-64 (7.6 ± 2.14 MJ/day) and older adults aged 65-75 years (6.8 ± 1.88 MJ/day). Cereals or grains (27.4%), meats and derivatives (15.2%), oils and fats (12.3%), and milk and dairy products (11.8%) contributed most to daily energy intake. Energy contributions from non-alcoholic beverages (3.9%), fish and shellfish (3.6%), sugars and sweets (3.3%) and alcoholic beverages (2.6%) were moderate to minor. Contributions to caloric profile were 16.8%E from proteins; 41.1%E from carbohydrates, including 1.4%E from fiber; 38.5%E from fats; and 1.9%E from alcohol intake. We can conclude that energy intake is decreasing in the Spanish population. A variety of food and beverage groups contribute to energy intake; however, it is necessary to reinforce efforts for better adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet.

  15. Age, time period, and birth cohort differences in self-esteem: Reexamining a cohort-sequential longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenge, Jean M; Carter, Nathan T; Campbell, W Keith

    2017-05-01

    Orth, Trzesniewski, and Robins (2010) concluded that the nationally representative Americans' Changing Lives (ACL) cohort-sequential study demonstrated moderate to large age differences in self-esteem, and no birth cohort (generational) differences in the age trajectory. In a reanalysis of these data using 2 different statistical techniques, we find significant increases in self-esteem that could be attributed to birth cohort or time period. First, hierarchical linear modeling analyses with birth cohort as a continuous variable (vs. the multiple group formulation used by Orth et al.) find that birth cohort has a measurable influence on self-esteem through its interaction with age. Participants born in later years (e.g., 1960) were higher in self-esteem and were more likely to increase in self-esteem as they aged than participants born in earlier years (e.g., 1920). However, the estimated age trajectory up to age 60 is similar in Orth et al.'s results and in the results from our analyses including cohort. Second, comparing ACL respondents of the same age in 1986 versus 2002 (a time-lag design) yields significant birth cohort differences in self-esteem, with 2002 participants of the same age higher in self-esteem than those in 1986. Combined with some previous studies finding significant increases in self-esteem and positive self-views over time, these results suggest that cultural change in the form of cohort and time period cannot be ignored as influences in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Calcium Intake and Nutritional Adequacy in Spanish Children: The ANIVA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Rubio-López

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Calcium is an important nutrient for child development. The main objective of this study was to assess calcium intake and its adequacy with dietary reference intake (DRI in Spanish children. The ANIVA (Antropometría y Nutrición Infantil de Valencia study is a descriptive cross-sectional study. During two academic years 2013–2014 and 2014–2015, 1176 schoolchildren aged 6–9 years were selected from 14 primary schools in Valencia (Spain. Three-day food records were used to assess dietary intake, completed by parents/guardian. Anthropometric data (weight and height were evaluated in all subjects. Nutritional intake was compared to estimated average requirements (EARs and adequate intake (AI values to determine nutritional adequacy. A percentage of 25.77% had inadequate calcium intake, and a significantly higher prevalence was observed in girls (p = 0.006. Adequate calcium intake showed a positive association with the height z-score (p = 0.032. When assessing dietary patterns, schoolchildren with adequate calcium intakes had better nutritional adequacy in all nutrients, except cholesterol (p = 0.086 and fluorine (p = 0.503. These results suggest a public health problem that must be addressed through nutrition education programs to increase intake of calcium-rich food and to correct the associated dietary pattern.

  17. Spanish Is Foreign: Heritage Speakers' Interpretations of the Introductory Spanish Language Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFeo, Dayna Jean

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a case study of the perceptions of Spanish heritage speakers enrolled in introductory-level Spanish foreign language courses. Despite their own identities that were linked to the United States and Spanish of the Borderlands, the participants felt that the curriculum acknowledged the Spanish of Spain and foreign countries but…

  18. Validation of Spanish versions of the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory (PFDI) and Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire (PFIQ): a multicenter validation randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omotosho, Tola B; Hardart, Anne; Rogers, Rebecca G; Schaffer, Joseph I; Kobak, William H; Romero, Audrey A

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to validate Spanish versions of the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory (PFDI) and Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire (PFIQ). Spanish versions were developed using back translation and validation was performed by randomizing bilingual women to complete the Spanish or English versions of the questionnaires first. Weighted kappa statistics assessed agreement for individual questions; interclass correlation coefficients (ICC) compared primary and subscale scores. Cronbach's alpha assessed internal consistency of Spanish versions. To detect a 2.7 point difference in scores with 80% power and alpha of 0.05, 44 bilingual subjects were required. Individual questions showed good to excellent agreement (kappa > 0.6) for all but eight questions on the PFIQ. ICCs of primary and subscale scores for both questionnaires showed excellent agreement. (All ICC > 0.79). All Cronbach's alpha values were excellent (>0.84) for the primary scales of both questionnaires. Valid and reliable Spanish versions of the PFIQ and PFDI have been developed.

  19. Study of boron behaviour in two Spanish coal combustion power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-González, Raquel; Cuesta, Aida Fuente; Córdoba, Patricia; Díaz-Somoano, Mercedes; Font, Oriol; López-Antón, M Antonia; Querol, Xavier; Martínez-Tarazona, M Rosa; Giménez, Antonio

    2011-10-01

    A full-scale field study was carried out at two Spanish coal-fired power plants equipped with electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and wet flue gas desulfurisation (FGD) systems to investigate the distribution of boron in coals, solid by-products, wastewater streams and flue gases. The results were obtained from the simultaneous sampling of solid, liquid and gaseous streams and their subsequent analysis in two different laboratories for purposes of comparison. Although the final aim of this study was to evaluate the partitioning of boron in a (co-)combustion power plant, special attention was paid to the analytical procedure for boron determination. A sample preparation procedure was optimised for coal and combustion by-products to overcome some specific shortcomings of the currently used acid digestion methods. In addition boron mass balances and removal efficiencies in ESP and FGD devices were calculated. Mass balance closures between 83 and 149% were obtained. During coal combustion, 95% of the incoming boron was collected in the fly ashes. The use of petroleum coke as co-combustible produced a decrease in the removal efficiency of the ESP (87%). Nevertheless, more than 90% of the remaining gaseous boron was eliminated via the FGD in the wastewater discharged from the scrubber, thereby causing environmental problems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Broadening the trans-contextual model of motivation: A study with Spanish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Cutre, D; Sicilia, Á; Beas-Jiménez, M; Hagger, M S

    2014-08-01

    The original trans-contextual model of motivation proposed that autonomy support from teachers develops students' autonomous motivation in physical education (PE), and that autonomous motivation is transferred from PE contexts to physical activity leisure-time contexts, and predicts attitudes, perceived behavioral control and subjective norms, and forming intentions to participate in future physical activity behavior. The purpose of this study was to test an extended trans-contextual model of motivation including autonomy support from peers and parents and basic psychological needs in a Spanish sample. School students (n = 400) aged between 12 and 18 years completed measures of perceived autonomy support from three sources, autonomous motivation and constructs from the theory of planned behavior at three different points in time and in two contexts, PE and leisure-time. A path analysis controlling for past physical activity behavior supported the main postulates of the model. Autonomous motivation in a PE context predicted autonomous motivation in a leisure-time physical activity context, perceived autonomy support from teachers predicted satisfaction of basic psychological needs in PE, and perceived autonomy support from peers and parents predicted need satisfaction in leisure-time. This study provides a cross-cultural replication of the trans-contextual model of motivation and broadens it to encompass basic psychological needs. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. The “Recasting capitalism”: Terminology study in the French and Spanish newspaper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luna-Alonso

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Terminology is defined in relation to other subjects from which a set of concepts have been borrowed. Its scope of study is both interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary since it provides a set of terms for communicating and transmitting specialised knowledge in a study area (Cabré, 1998, p. 70. This paper focuses on a concrete meaning of terminology, known as vocabulary in a specialised field. Our research model is based on the specialised domain, i.e., it focuses on the set of terms used within an ordered domain of concepts and terms which in this case are related to the world economic crisis of capitalism experienced towards the end of the first decade of the 21st century. Therefore six general and specialised newspapers taken from the newspaper and periodicals library (2008-2015 were consulted to look into the use and translation (FR-ES of the phraseology unit: “refondation du capitalisme”, which in Spanish is translated as “refundación del capitalismo”, in order to obtain data to establish a definition of the said unit unavailable in dictionaries.

  2. Coping, stress, and personality in Spanish nursing students: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornés-Vives, Joana; Garcia-Banda, Gloria; Frias-Navarro, Dolores; Rosales-Viladrich, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the dominant stress coping style in nursing students, its relationships with stressful life events and personality traits, and the students' changes during their academic training. A non-experimental two-wave longitudinal design was carried out in 199 nursing students recruited from three Spanish nursing schools. The Stressful Life Events Scale, NEO-FFI, and COPE questionnaire were administered at the beginning (T1) and end (T2) of their nursing studies. Descriptive statistics, Anova(s), NPar tests, and Pearson correlations were carried out. Results show that nursing students' dominant coping style was emotion-focused coping, both at T1 and T2. Highly significant correlations between emotional coping and the neuroticism trait were found. Coping, stress, and personality changed positively during the training program. At T2, the use of problem-focused strategies increased, and participants became more extroverted, agreeable, and conscientious. Coping and personality changes experienced by nursing students throughout their degree program seem to mirror the professional competences needed by future licensed nurses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Possibilities and considerations when merging dietary data from the world's two largest pregnancy cohorts: the Danish National Birth Cohort and the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Sjurdur F; Birgisdottir, Bryndis Eva; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Brantsaeter, Anne Lise; Haugen, Margaretha; Torjusen, Hanne; Petersen, Sesilje B; Strøm, Marin; Meltzer, Helle Margrete

    2014-11-01

    To elucidate the research possibilities when merging data on maternal diet from the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) and the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa), through comparison of (i) the methodology used for dietary assessment and (ii) the estimated intake of selected food groups in the two cohorts. Qualitative and quantitative comparison of the two dietary databases. Two national prospective pregnancy cohorts. Denmark, Norway. Comparison of food intake using food frequency questionnaires (FFQs). The FFQs had overlapping time windows and a majority of the questions in the two FFQs were comparable. Calculation principles shared similar features, including the software used and use of global questions to calibrate intakes of different food groups. A total of 63 food groups were defined that could be compared across the two cohorts; these were further aggregated down to 31 broader groups. A comparison of food intakes (grams/d) showed 39, 74 and 141% lower daily intakes of fish, potatoes and rice, respectively, in DNBC vs. MoBa and 39, 54 and 65% higher daily intakes of milk, butter and potatoes in DNBC vs. MoBa. For most other food groups, differences in consumption data were below 20%. The two FFQs are to a large extent compatible and substantial differences in dietary habits were observed between the two cohorts. This may strengthen studies using pooled analysis to examine diet-disease relations. This is a conclusion of great importance given the colossal and costly task involved to establish each of these two cohorts. © 2014 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  4. Epidemiological study of venous thromboembolism in a big Danish cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Severinsen, Marianne Tang; Kristensen, Søren Risom; Overvad, Kim

    Introduction: Epidemiological data on venous thromboembolism (VT), i.e. pulmonary emboli (PE) and deep venous thrombosis (DVT) are sparse. We have examined VT-diagnoses registered in a big Danish Cohort study.  Methods: All first-time VT diagnoses in The Danish National Patient Register were...... were probable cases (1.7%) whereas for 449 (41.6%) the diagnosis could be excluded. The incidence rate was 1 per 1000 personyears. Out of the 632 cases 60% were DVT and 40% PE. 315 VT were considered idiopathic (49.8%), 311 were secondary (49.2%) and 15 were unclassifiable. 122 patients had cancer, 87...

  5. Serum YKL-40 and gestational diabetes - an observational cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gybel-Brask, Dorte; Johansen, Julia S; Christiansen, Ib J

    2016-01-01

    To examine serum YKL-40 in women developing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). In the present large observational cohort study of 1179 pregnant women, we determined serum YKL-40 four times during pregnancy (at gestational age 12, 20, 25, and 32 weeks). Pregnancy outcome was obtained from medical...... records. Sixty-eight women (5.8%) developed GDM. Serum YKL-40 increased from gestational age (GA) 12 weeks and the following weeks in the women who developed GDM and was independent of BMI, parity, and maternal age (OR = 2.69, 95% CI: 1.45-5.00, p = 0.002). No association was found between serum YKL-40...

  6. The Spanish Language in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Barnwell, David

    2008-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the situation of Spanish in the Irish educational system and in wider society. Spain enjoys positive attitudes among Irish people, helped by the considerable amount of property in that country purchased by Irish during the past few years. The Spanish language has over the years experienced mixed fortunes as regards its place in Irish education. Recently, however, there has been a moderate increase in the numbers studying Spanish across all sectors...

  7. Cohort Profile: the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children: ALSPAC mothers cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Abigail; Macdonald-Wallis, Corrie; Tilling, Kate; Boyd, Andy; Golding, Jean; Davey Smith, George; Henderson, John; Macleod, John; Molloy, Lynn; Ness, Andy; Ring, Susan; Nelson, Scott M; Lawlor, Debbie A

    2013-02-01

    Summary The Avon Longitudinal Study of Children and Parents (ALSPAC) was established to understand how genetic and environmental characteristics influence health and development in parents and children. All pregnant women resident in a defined area in the South West of England, with an expected date of delivery between 1st April 1991 and 31st December 1992, were eligible and 13761 women (contributing 13867 pregnancies) were recruited. These women have been followed over the last 19-22 years and have completed up to 20 questionnaires, have had detailed data abstracted from their medical records and have information on any cancer diagnoses and deaths through record linkage. A follow-up assessment was completed 17-18 years postnatal at which anthropometry, blood pressure, fat, lean and bone mass and carotid intima media thickness were assessed, and a fasting blood sample taken. The second follow-up clinic, which additionally measures cognitive function, physical capability, physical activity (with accelerometer) and wrist bone architecture, is underway and two further assessments with similar measurements will take place over the next 5 years. There is a detailed biobank that includes DNA, with genome-wide data available on >10000, stored serum and plasma taken repeatedly since pregnancy and other samples; a wide range of data on completed biospecimen assays are available. Details of how to access these data are provided in this cohort profile.

  8. Study design of DIACORE (DIAbetes COhoRtE – a cohort study of patients with diabetes mellitus type 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dörhöfer Lena

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2 is highly associated with increased risk for chronic kidney disease (CKD, end stage renal disease (ESRD and cardiovascular morbidity. Epidemiological and genetic studies generate hypotheses for innovative strategies in DM2 management by unravelling novel mechanisms of diabetes complications, which is essential for future intervention trials. We have thus initiated the DIAbetes COhoRtE study (DIACORE. Methods DIACORE is a prospective cohort study aiming to recruit 6000 patients of self-reported Caucasian ethnicity with prevalent DM2 for at least 10 years of follow-up. Study visits are performed in University-based recruiting clinics in Germany using standard operating procedures. All prevalent DM2 patients in outpatient clinics surrounding the recruiting centers are invited to participate. At baseline and at each 2-year follow-up examination, patients are subjected to a core phenotyping protocol. This includes a standardized online questionnaire and physical examination to determine incident micro- and macrovascular DM2 complications, malignancy and hospitalization, with a primary focus on renal events. Confirmatory outcome information is requested from patient records. Blood samples are obtained for a centrally analyzed standard laboratory panel and for biobanking of aliquots of serum, plasma, urine, mRNA and DNA for future scientific use. A subset of the cohort is subjected to extended phenotyping, e.g. sleep apnea screening, skin autofluorescence measurement, non-mydriatic retinal photography and non-invasive determination of arterial stiffness. Discussion DIACORE will enable the prospective evaluation of factors involved in DM2 complication pathogenesis using high-throughput technologies in biosamples and genetic epidemiological studies.

  9. Acrylamide content in French fries prepared in households: A pilot study in Spanish homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesias, Marta; Delgado-Andrade, Cristina; Holgado, Francisca; Morales, Francisco J

    2018-09-15

    An observational cross-sectional pilot study in 73 Spanish households was conducted to evaluate the impact of consumer practices on the formation of acrylamide during the preparation of French fries from fresh potatoes applying one stage frying. 45.2% of samples presented acrylamide concentrations above the benchmark level for French fries (500 µg/kg). 6.9% of samples exceeded 2000 µg/kg and the 95th percentile was 2028 µg/kg. The median and average values were significantly higher than the EFSA report for this food category, suggesting that the total exposure to acrylamide by the population could be underestimated. In this randomised scenario of cooking practices, the content of reducing sugar and asparagine did not explain the acrylamide levels. However, the chromatic parameter a ∗ of the fried potato was a powerful tool to classify the samples according to the acrylamide benchmark level regardless of the agronomical characteristics of the potato or the consumer practices. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A comparative study of general intelligence in Spanish and Moroccan samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Amelia; Sellami, Khadija; Infanzón, Eugenia; Lanzón, Teresa; Lynn, Richard

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study is to fill a gap in intelligence research by presenting data for the average IQ in Morocco and for a comparable sample in Spain. Adult samples were administered the Raven Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM) (Raven, Court, & Raven, 2001) and scored for the total test and for the three sub-factors of gestalt continuation, verbal-analytical reasoning and visuospatial ability identified by Lynn, Allik, and Irwing (2004). The total test and the three factors have shown satisfactory reliability. Our results for the Moroccan sample show significant relationship between general intelligence factor, gestalt continuation and visuospatial ability with education level and income. Conversely, these variables have been shown to be independent for the Spanish sample. This sample obtained significantly higher scores for the four factors assessed than the Moroccan one. These differences have been found also comparing samples with the same education levels. Finally, the errors percentage for Moroccans has been higher than for Spaniards in all the items, suggesting that the level of difficulty was higher for the Moroccan sample.

  11. Cooperative Study of the Spanish Pancreas Transplant Group (GETP): Surgical Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya-Herraiz, Angel; Muñoz-Bellvis, Luis; Ferrer-Fábrega, Joana; Manrique Municio, Alejandro; Pérez-Daga, José Antonio; Muñoz-Casares, Cristóbal; Alarcó-Hernández, Antonio; Gómez-Gutiérrez, Manuel; Casanova-Rituerto, Daniel; Sanchez-Bueno, Francisco; Jimenez-Romero, Carlos; Fernández-Cruz Pérez, Laureano

    2015-05-01

    Technical failure in pancreas transplant has been the main cause of the loss of grafts. In the last few years, the number of complications has reduced, and therefore the proportion of this problem. The Spanish Pancreas Transplant Group wanted to analyze the current situation with regard to surgical complications and their severity. A retrospective and multicenter study was performed. 10 centers participated, with a total of 410 pancreas transplant recipients between January and December 2013. A total of 316 transplants were simultaneous with kidney, 66 after kidney, pancreas-only 10, 7 multivisceral and 11 retrasplants. Surgical complication rates were 39% (n=161). A total of 7% vascular thrombosis, 13% bleeding, 6% the graft pancreatitis, 12% surgical infections and others to a lesser extent. Relaparotomy rate was 25%. The severity of complications were of type IIIb (13%), type II (12%) and type IVa (8.5%). Graft loss was 8%. Early mortality was 0.5%. The percentage of operations for late complications was 17%. The number of surgical complications after transplantation is not negligible, affecting one in 3 patients. They are severe in one out of 5 and, in one of every 10 patients graft loss occurs. Therefore, there is still a significant percentage of surgical complications in this type of activity, as shown in our country. Copyright © 2014 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Study of the Spanish R and D and I Plan 2004-2007 in energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero-Lemus, Ricardo; Diaz-Herrera, Bruno; Martinez-Duart, Jose Manuel

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to analyze the public funds transferred to energy projects granted by the Department of Research in the frame of the Spanish Scientific Research, Development and Technological Innovation (R and D and I) Plan 2004-2007. The subjects of the projects granted for R and D activities in incipient technologies and the thematic priorities in energy research covered by the annual calls for proposals are analyzed. In addition, the amount of funds transferred to R and D in energy compared to the rest of research activities promoted by the Spanish Government, the territorial distribution of the research centres granted, the distribution of funds in relation to the technologies granted and the Spanish research centres more active in the diverse energy research areas are presented.

  13. Descriptive epidemiology of the Multicenter ACL Revision Study (MARS) cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Rick W; Huston, Laura J; Spindler, Kurt P; Dunn, Warren R; Haas, Amanda K; Allen, Christina R; Cooper, Daniel E; DeBerardino, Thomas M; Lantz, Brett Brick A; Mann, Barton J; Stuart, Michael J

    2010-10-01

    Revision anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction has worse outcomes than primary reconstructions. Predictors for these worse outcomes are not known. The Multicenter ACL Revision Study (MARS) Group was developed to perform a multisurgeon, multicenter prospective longitudinal study to obtain sufficient subjects to allow multivariable analysis to determine predictors of clinical outcome. To describe the formation of MARS and provide descriptive analysis of patient demographics and clinical features for the initial 460 enrolled patients to date in this prospective cohort. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 2. After training and institutional review board approval, surgeons began enrolling patients undergoing revision ACL reconstruction, recording patient demographics, previous ACL reconstruction methods, intra-articular injuries, and current revision techniques. Enrolled subjects completed a questionnaire consisting of validated patient-based outcome measures. As of April 1, 2009, 87 surgeons have enrolled a total of 460 patients (57% men; median age, 26 years). For 89%, the reconstruction was the first revision. Mode of failure as deemed by the revising surgeon was traumatic (32%), technical (24%), biologic (7%), combination (37%), infection (MARS Group has been able to quickly accumulate the largest revision ACL reconstruction cohort reported to date. Traumatic reinjury is deemed by surgeons to be the most common single mode of failure, but a combination of factors represents the most common mode of failure. Allograft graft choice is more common in the revision setting than autograft. Concomitant knee injury is extremely common in this population.

  14. Vegetarianism, low meat consumption and the risk of colorectal cancer in a population based cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilsing, A.M.J.; Schouten, L.J.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Dagnelie, P.C.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Weijenberg, M.P.

    2015-01-01

    To study how a vegetarian or low meat diet influences the risk of colorectal cancer compared to a high meat diet, and to assess the explanatory role of factors associated with these diets. In the Netherlands Cohort Study – Meat Investigation Cohort (NLCS-MIC) (cohort of 10,210 individuals including

  15. Las uniones conjuntivas en espanol (Conjunctive Correspondences in Spanish)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Botero, Luis

    1977-01-01

    This study of the medieval Spanish concept of order examines uses made of the word "y" ("and") in Spanish medieval writing to join words and phrases connoting social, natural and human order. (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)

  16. Comparative study of the base activity levels of the Spanish continental nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregorides de los Santos y Perez-Minguez, A.M.

    1980-01-01

    In this work the pre-operational activity levels of the sites of some Spanish nuclear power stations are discussed. These power stations are located near the Tagus and Ebro river basins. A report of the communities investigated is made. The total alpha and beta activity as well as the long half life activity has been researched there. The importance of this question is obvious for it gives a regional average of the base activity in the basins of these two big Spanish rivers [fr

  17. [Extrapyramidal toxicity caused by metoclopramide and clebopride: study of voluntary notifications of adverse effects to the Spanish Drug Surveillance System].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuena Boy, R; Maciá Martínez, M A

    1998-03-31

    To clarify if there is any basis for the hypothesis that Clebopride leads to more extrapyramidal reactions than Metoclopramide. Observational, longitudinal, retrospective and comparative study of two series of cases. The entire Spanish healthcare system. Those notified to the Spanish Drug watch system as possibly having suffered an adverse reaction to Metoclopramide (n = 98) or Clebopride (n = 123) between 1/1/1990 and 10/6/1997. None. 84.3% of suspected adverse reactions to Clebopride and 51.6% of those to Metoclopramide had a non-hospital precedence (P Clebopride, there was extrapyramidal toxicity (P = 0.021). There is a basis for the hypothesis that Clebopride causes more extrapyramidal reactions than Metoclopramide. It was reasonable to realize a study based on this hypothesis.

  18. Antithyroid Drugs and Congenital Malformations: A Nationwide Korean Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Gi Hyeon; Kim, Tae Hyuk; Chung, Jae Hoon

    2018-03-20

    Untreated or insufficiently treated Graves disease in pregnancy may pose risks to both mother and fetus. Antithyroid drugs (ATDs) are the treatment mainstay, but the potential teratogenic effect of these drugs has prompted clinicians to question the safe management of this vulnerable population. To examine the association between maternal prescriptions for ATDs and congenital malformations in live births. Nationwide cohort study. Korean National Health Insurance database. A cohort of 2 886 970 completed pregnancies linked to live-born infants in 2 210 253 women between 2008 and 2014. Maternal prescriptions for ATDs in the first trimester. The risk for overall and organ-specific congenital malformations in offspring, with logistic regression models used to control for potential confounders. 12 891 pregnancies (0.45%) were exposed to ATDs during the first trimester. The prevalence of malformations in exposed offspring was 7.27%, compared with 5.94% in offspring of women who were not prescribed ATDs during pregnancy (P 495 mg) during the first trimester was associated with an increased risk for malformations compared with a low dose (1 to 126 mg) (adjusted odds ratio, 1.87 [CI, 1.06 to 3.30]). The study used a prescription claims database to assess ATD exposure. Exposure to ATDs during the first trimester was associated with increased risk for congenital malformations, particularly for pregnancies in which women received prescriptions for MMI or both ATDs. None.

  19. Nutrient Intake and Depression Symptoms in Spanish Children: The ANIVA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-López, Nuria; Morales-Suárez-Varela, María; Pico, Yolanda; Livianos-Aldana, Lorenzo; Llopis-González, Agustín

    2016-03-22

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between nutritional intake and depressive symptoms in Valencian schoolchildren. The ANIVA (Antropometria y Nutricion Infantil de Valencia) study is a descriptive cross-sectional study. During academic year 2013-2014, 710 schoolchildren aged 6-9 years were selected from eleven primary schools in Valencia (Spain). Children's dietary intake was measured on three-day food records, completed by parents/guardians; children completed the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC) Questionnaire to measure depressive symptoms. Weight, height, and body mass index (BMI), and z-scores were evaluated in all subjects. Nutrient adequacy was assessed using Spanish dietary recommended intakes (DRIs); 20.70% of the sample presented depressive symptoms. We identified a positive association between children with depressive symptoms and non-depressive symptoms for thiamin, vitamin K, and bromine (p < 0.05), and a negative association for protein, carbohydrates, pantothenic acid, biotin, vitamin B12 and E, zinc, manganese, cobalt, and aluminum (p < 0.05). Statistically significant differences were found between both groups according to the DRIs for intakes of total energy (p = 0.026), fiber (p < 0.001), vitamin C (p < 0.001), vitamin E (p = 0.004), magnesium (p = 0.018), and iron (p = 0.013). Our results demonstrated that carbohydrates were the most closely associated factor with depressive symptoms, and highlight the potential significant public health implications of inadequate nutritional intake on schoolchildren's mental health.

  20. Nutrient Intake and Depression Symptoms in Spanish Children: The ANIVA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Rubio-López

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between nutritional intake and depressive symptoms in Valencian schoolchildren. The ANIVA (Antropometria y Nutricion Infantil de Valencia study is a descriptive cross-sectional study. During academic year 2013–2014, 710 schoolchildren aged 6–9 years were selected from eleven primary schools in Valencia (Spain. Children’s dietary intake was measured on three-day food records, completed by parents/guardians; children completed the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC Questionnaire to measure depressive symptoms. Weight, height, and body mass index (BMI, and z-scores were evaluated in all subjects. Nutrient adequacy was assessed using Spanish dietary recommended intakes (DRIs; 20.70% of the sample presented depressive symptoms. We identified a positive association between children with depressive symptoms and non-depressive symptoms for thiamin, vitamin K, and bromine (p < 0.05, and a negative association for protein, carbohydrates, pantothenic acid, biotin, vitamin B12 and E, zinc, manganese, cobalt, and aluminum (p < 0.05. Statistically significant differences were found between both groups according to the DRIs for intakes of total energy (p = 0.026, fiber (p < 0.001, vitamin C (p < 0.001, vitamin E (p = 0.004, magnesium (p = 0.018, and iron (p = 0.013. Our results demonstrated that carbohydrates were the most closely associated factor with depressive symptoms, and highlight the potential significant public health implications of inadequate nutritional intake on schoolchildren’s mental health.

  1. Anti-Cra: family study and survival of chromium-labeled incompatible red cells in a Spanish-American patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, K.J.; Coonce, L.S.; South, S.F.; Troup, G.M.

    1983-01-01

    A 22-year-old Spanish-American woman with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis developed anti-Cra after transfusion during colectomy. No Cra negative family members were found among 13 relatives, including four siblings and both parents. Chromium-labeled red cell survival studies showed a T1/2 of 14 days with Cra positive cells. Two units of Cra positive blood were transfused uneventfully for bleeding after ileorectal anastomosis

  2. Integrating ecosystem services into risk management decisions: case study with Spanish citrus and the insecticide chlorpyrifos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacon, Samantha; Norman, Steve; Nicolette, Joseph; Reub, Gregory; Greene, Gretchen; Osborn, Rachel; Andrews, Paul

    2015-02-01

    The European regulatory system for the approval of pesticides includes a thorough evaluation of risks to the environment and is designed to be protective of ecosystems. However, a decision to ban an agrochemical could also potentially have a negative impact on the value of ecosystem services, if resulting changes in crop management are damaging to ecosystems or result in negative socio-economic impacts. To support regulatory decision-making, consideration of ecosystem services to identify best environmental management options could be a way forward. There is generally a growing trend for the consideration of ecosystem services in decision making. Ecosystems provide the conditions for growing food, regulate water and provide wildlife habitats; these, amongst others, are known as ecosystem services. The objectives of this case study were to bring a holistic approach to decision making by valuing the environmental, social and economic benefits derived from the use of chlorpyrifos in Valencian citrus production. Spanish growers harvest between 5 and 6 milliont of citrus annually, worth an estimated €5 to 7 billion in food markets throughout Europe. The approach highlighted the potential for unintended negative consequences of regulatory decisions if the full context is not considered. In this study, rather than a regulatory restriction, the best option was the continued use of chlorpyrifos together with vegetated conservation patches as refuges for non-target insects. The conservation patches offset potential insecticidal impacts to insects whilst maintaining citrus production, farm income and the amenity value of the citrus landscape of Valencia. This was an initial proof-of-concept study and illustrates the importance of a wider perspective; other cases may have different outcomes depending on policies, the pesticide, crop scenarios, farm economics and the region. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Birth order and mortality: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Kieron; Kolk, Martin

    2015-04-01

    This study uses Swedish population register data to investigate the relationship between birth order and mortality at ages 30 to 69 for Swedish cohorts born between 1938 and 1960, using a within-family comparison. The main analyses are conducted with discrete-time survival analysis using a within-family comparison, and the estimates are adjusted for age, mother's age at the time of birth, and cohort. Focusing on sibships ranging in size from two to six, we find that mortality risk in adulthood increases with later birth order. The results show that the relative effect of birth order is greater among women than among men. This pattern is consistent for all the major causes of death but is particularly pronounced for mortality attributable to cancers of the respiratory system and to external causes. Further analyses in which we adjust for adult socioeconomic status and adult educational attainment suggest that social pathways only mediate the relationship between birth order and mortality risk in adulthood to a limited degree.

  4. Harmonising measures of knee and hip osteoarthritis in population-based cohort studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leyland, K M; Gates, L S; Nevitt, M

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Population-based osteoarthritis (OA) cohorts provide vital data on risk factors and outcomes of OA, however the methods to define OA vary between cohorts. We aimed to provide recommendations for combining knee and hip OA data in extant and future population cohort studies, in order to ...

  5. Systematically missing confounders in individual participant data meta-analysis of observational cohort studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jackson, D.; White, I.; Kostis, J.B.; Wilson, A.C.; Folsom, A.R.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    One difficulty in performing meta-analyses of observational cohort studies is that the availability of confounders may vary between cohorts, so that some cohorts provide fully adjusted analyses while others only provide partially adjusted analyses. Commonly, analyses of the association between an

  6. Systematically missing confounders in individual participant data meta-analysis of observational cohort studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jackson, D.; White, I.; Kostis, J.B.

    2009-01-01

    One difficulty in performing meta-analyses of observational cohort studies is that the availability of confounders may vary between cohorts, so that some cohorts provide fully adjusted analyses while others only provide partially adjusted analyses. Commonly, analyses of the association between an...

  7. A Comparative Study of Self-Esteem Among Young Black, Spanish, and White Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Mary Louise Hirsh

    This dissertation compared the self-esteem of low socioeconomic black, Spanish, and white males and females in kindergarten, first, and second grades. The subjects used were 416 primary children from two suburban communities adjoining Chicago to whom the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory was given in a revised form. The schools used in the study…

  8. A Contrastive Study of the Rhetorical Organisation of English and Spanish PhD Thesis Introductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler-Monreal, Carmen; Carbonell-Olivares, Maria; Gil-Salom, Luz

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the introductory sections of a corpus of 20 doctoral theses on computing written in Spanish and in English. Our aim was to ascertain whether the theses, produced within the same scientific-technological area but by authors from different cultural and linguistic backgrounds, employed the same rhetorical strategies…

  9. Spanish Speakers Apologizing in English: A Cross-Cultural Pragmatic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordella, Marisa

    1991-01-01

    The speech act of apologizing in English between Chileans and Australians is examined in terms of the frequency, distribution, and function of apology-strategies. It is argued that positive politeness strategies are more frequently used in Spanish than English, and the sex of the apologizer and recipient must be considered. (41 references)…

  10. A Comparative Study of Breakfast Habits of Romanian and Spanish Adolescents Enrolled in Southern Spain Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano-Ayala, Encarnación; Cala, Verónica C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Globalization has favored intra-European Commission (EC) and extra-EC migration to Spain. One of the most numerous cultural groups that have settled in the southern Spain is from Romania. Coexistence, especially in schools, has made us become interested in knowing the eating habits at breakfast of Romanian and Spanish populations.…

  11. Nominalizations in Spanish. Studies in Linguistics and Language Learning, Volume V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Julia Sableski

    Using methods developed in transformational generative grammar, three types of nominal constructions in Spanish are treated in this paper: Fact nominalizations ("[El] Escribir es agradable"), Manner nominalizations ("El tocar [de la mujer] es agradable"), and Abstract noun nominalizations ("La construccion rapida de esta escuela es dudosa"). While…

  12. Dietary Calcium Intake and Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet in Spanish Children: The ANIVA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Rubio-López

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of dietary calcium intake with anthropometric measures, physical activity and adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet in 1176 Spanish children aged 6–9 years. Data were obtained from “Antropometría y Nutrición Infantil de Valencia” (ANIVA, a cross-sectional study of a representative sample. Dietary calcium intake assessed from three-day food records was compared to recommended daily intakes in Spain. Anthropometric measures (weight and height were measured according to international standards and adherence to the MedDiet was evaluated using the Mediterranean Diet Quality Index (KIDMED test. For the total sample of children, 25.8% had inadequate calcium intake, a significantly higher prevalence in girls (p = 0.006 and inadequate calcium intake was associated with lower height z-score (p = 0.001 for both sexes. In girls, there was an inverse relationship between calcium intake and body mass index (p = 0.001 and waist/hip ratio (p = 0.018. Boys presented a polarization in physical activity, reporting a greater level of both physical and sedentary activity in comparison with girls (p = 0.001. Children with poor adherence to MedDiet, even if they consume two yogurts or cheese (40 g daily, adjusted by gender, age, total energy intake, physical activity and father’s level of education, are at risk of inadequate total calcium intake (odds ratio adjusted [ORa]: 3.36, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.13–9.94, p = 0.001. The intake of these dairy products was insufficient to cover calcium intake recommendations in this age group (6–9 years. It is important to prioritize health strategies that promote the MedDiet and to increase calcium intake in this age group.

  13. Web Localization of Spanish SMEs: The Case of Study in Chemical Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juncal Gutiérrez-Artacho

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Constant changes in the economic environment, where globalization and the development of the knowledge economy act as drivers, are systematically pushing companies towards the challenge of accessing external markets. Web localization constitutes a new field of study and professional intervention. From the translation perspective, localization equates to the website being adjusted to the typological, discursive and genre conventions of the target culture, adapting that website to a different language and culture. This entails much more than simply translating the content of the pages. The content of a webpage is made up of text, images and other multimedia elements, all of which have to be translated and subjected to cultural adaptation. A case study has been carried out to analyze the current presence of localization within Spanish SMEs from the chemical sector. Two types of indicator have been established for evaluating the sample: indicators for evaluating company websites (with a Likert scale from 0-4 and indicators for evaluating web localization (0-2 scale. The results show overall website quality is acceptable (2.5 points out of 4. The higher rating has been obtained by the system quality (with 2.9, followed by information quality (2.7 points and, lastly, service quality (1.9 points. In the web localization evaluation, the contact information aspects obtain 1.4 points, the visual aspect 1.04, and the navigation aspect was the worse considered (0.37. These types of analysis facilitate the establishment of practical recommendations aimed at SMEs in order to increase their international presence through the localization of their websites.

  14. A Spanish multicenter study to estimate the prevalence and incidence of chronic pancreatitis and its complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Enrique Domínguez-Muñoz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: No nation-wide epidemiological study on the incidence and prevalence of chronic pancreatitis (CP had been thus far carried out in Spain. Our goal is to estimate the prevalence and incidence of CP, as well as to determine the diagnostic and therapeutic criteria used in Spanish pancreas units. Methods: An observarional, descriptive study of hospital pancreas units in Spain. CP-related epidemiology, etiology, manifestations, diagnostic tests, functional complications, and treatments were all assessed using a structured questionnaire. Overall results were estimated by weighting cases in each site. Results: Information was collected from six pancreas units with a sample frame of 1,900,751 inhabitants. Overall prevalence was 49.3 cases per 10(5 population (95 % CI, 46 to 52 and incidence was 5.5 cases per 10(5 inhabitant-years (95 % CI, 5.4 to 5.6. Most common etiologies included tobacco and alcoholism, which were associated with three in every four cases. The most prevalent symptoms were recurring pain (48.8 % and chronic abdominal pain (30.6 %. The most widely used diagnostic method was echoendoscopy (79.8 %, CT (computerized tomography (58.7 %, and MRI (magnetic resonance imaging/MRCP (magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (55.9 %. Most prevalent morphologic findings included calcifications (35 % and pseudocysts (27 %. Exocrine (38.8 % and endocrine (35.2 % pancreatic insufficiency had both a similar frequency. Treatments used were rather heterogeneous among sites, with enzyme replacement therapy (40.7 % and insulin (30.9 % being most commonly used. Conclusions: Pancreas units amass a significant number of both prevalent and incident CP cases. Patients seen in these units share a similar typology, and differences between units are greater regarding diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.

  15. Environmental assessment of alternative municipal solid waste management strategies. A Spanish case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovea, M D; Ibáñez-Forés, V; Gallardo, A; Colomer-Mendoza, F J

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study is to compare, from an environmental point of view, different alternatives for the management of municipal solid waste generated in the town of Castellón de la Plana (Spain). This town currently produces 207 ton of waste per day and the waste management system employed today involves the collection of paper/cardboard, glass and light packaging from materials banks and of rest waste at street-side containers. The proposed alternative scenarios were based on a combination of the following elements: selective collection targets to be accomplished by the year 2015 as specified in the Spanish National Waste Plan (assuming they are reached to an extent of 50% and 100%), different collection models implemented nationally, and diverse treatments of both the separated biodegradable fraction and the rest waste to be disposed of on landfills. This resulted in 24 scenarios, whose environmental behaviour was studied by applying the life cycle assessment methodology. In accordance with the ISO 14040-44 (2006) standard, an inventory model was developed for the following stages of the waste management life cycle: pre-collection (bags and containers), collection, transport, pre-treatment (waste separation) and treatment/disposal (recycling, composting, biogasification+composting, landfill with/without energy recovery). Environmental indicators were obtained for different impact categories, which made it possible to identify the key variables in the waste management system and the scenario that offers the best environmental behaviour. Finally, a sensitivity analysis was used to test some of the assumptions made in the initial life cycle inventory model. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Predictive factors of occupational noise-induced hearing loss in Spanish workers: A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelegrin, Armando Carballo; Canuet, Leonides; Rodríguez, Ángeles Arias; Morales, Maria Pilar Arévalo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to identify the main factors associated with objective noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), as indicated by abnormal audiometric testing, in Spanish workers exposed to occupational noise in the construction industry. We carried out a prospective study in Tenerife, Spain, using 150 employees exposed to occupational noise and 150 age-matched controls who were not working in noisy environments. The variables analyzed included sociodemographic data, noise-related factors, types of hearing protection, self-report hearing loss, and auditory-related symptoms (e.g., tinnitus, vertigo). Workers with pathological audiograms had significantly longer noise-exposure duration (16.2 ± 11.4 years) relative to those with normal audiograms (10.2 ± 7.0 years; t = 3.99, P hearing protection measures had audiometric abnormalities (94.1%). Additionally, workers using at least one of the protection devices (earplugs or earmuffs) had significantly more audiometric abnormalities than those using both protection measures simultaneously (Chi square = 16.07; P hearing protection measures [odds ratio (OR) = 12.30, confidence interval (CI) = 4.36-13.81, P hearing protection measures, in particular earplugs and earmuffs, associates with a lower rate of audiometric abnormalities in subjects with high occupational noise exposure. The use of hearing protection measures at work and noise-exposure duration are best predictive factors of NIHL. Auditory-related symptoms and self-report hearing loss do not represent good indicators of objective NIHL. Routine monitoring of noise levels and hearing status are of great importance as part of effective hearing conservation programs.

  17. Opium use and mortality in Golestan Cohort Study: prospective cohort study of 50,000 adults in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khademi, Hooman; Malekzadeh, Reza; Pourshams, Akram; Jafari, Elham; Salahi, Rasool; Semnani, Shahryar; Abaie, Behrooz; Islami, Farhad; Nasseri-Moghaddam, Siavosh; Etemadi, Arash; Byrnes, Graham; Abnet, Christian C; Dawsey, Sanford M; Day, Nicholas E; Pharoah, Paul D; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul; Kamangar, Farin

    2012-04-17

    To investigate the association between opium use and subsequent risk of death. Prospective cohort study. The Golestan Cohort Study in north-eastern Iran collected detailed validated data on opium use and other exposures at baseline. Participants were enrolled between January 2004 and June 2008 and were followed to May 2011, with a follow-up success rate of over 99%. 50,045 participants aged 40-75 at baseline. Mortality, all cause and major subcategories. 17% (n = 8487) of the participants reported opium use, with a mean duration of 12.7 years. During the follow-up period 2145 deaths were reported. The adjusted hazard ratio for all cause mortality associated with ever use of opium was 1.86 (95% confidence interval 1.68 to 2.06). Opium consumption was significantly associated with increased risks of deaths from several causes including circulatory diseases (hazard ratio 1.81) and cancer (1.61). The strongest associations were seen with deaths from asthma, tuberculosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (11.0, 6.22, and 5.44, respectively). After exclusion of people who self prescribed opium after the onset of major chronic illnesses, the associations remained strong with a dose-response relation. Opium users have an increased risk of death from multiple causes compared with non-users. Increased risks were also seen in people who used low amounts of opium for a long period and those who had no major illness before use.

  18. Weight at birth and subsequent fecundability: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathrine Wildenschild

    Full Text Available To examine the association between a woman's birth weight and her subsequent fecundability.In this prospective cohort study, we included 2,773 Danish pregnancy planners enrolled in the internet-based cohort study "Snart-Gravid", conducted during 2007-2012. Participants were 18-40 years old at study entry, attempting to conceive, and were not receiving fertility treatment. Data on weight at birth were obtained from the Danish Medical Birth Registry and categorized as <2,500 grams, 2,500-2,999 grams, 3,000-3,999 grams, and ≥ 4,000 grams. In additional analyses, birth weight was categorized according to z-scores for each gestational week at birth. Time-to-pregnancy measured in cycles was used to compute fecundability ratios (FR and 95% confidence intervals (CI, using a proportional probabilities regression model.Relative to women with a birth weight of 3,000-3,999 grams, FRs adjusted for gestational age, year of birth, and maternal socio-demographic and medical factors were 0.99 (95% CI: 0.73;1.34, 0.99 (95% CI: 0.87;1.12, and 1.08 (95% CI: 0.94;1.24 for birth weight <2,500 grams, 2,500-2,999 grams, and ≥ 4,000 grams, respectively. Estimates remained unchanged after further adjustment for markers of the participant's mother's fecundability. We obtained similar results when we restricted to women who were born at term, and to women who had attempted to conceive for a maximum of 6 cycles before study entry. Results remained similar when we estimated FRs according to z-scores of birth weight.Our results indicate that birth weight appears not to be an important determinant of fecundability.

  19. Hours of television viewing and sleep duration in children: a multicenter birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinelli, Marcella; Sunyer, Jordi; Alvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Iñiguez, Carmen; Torrent, Maties; Vioque, Jesús; Turner, Michelle C; Julvez, Jordi

    2014-05-01

    This study used longitudinal data to examine potential associations between hours of television viewing and sleep duration in children. To examine the association between hours of television viewing and sleep duration in preschool and school-aged children. Longitudinal, multicenter study among birth cohorts in Menorca, Sabadell, and Valencia from the Spanish Infancia y Medio Ambiente (environment and childhood) project. The study sample included 1713 children (468 from Menorca, 560 from Sabadell, and 685 from Valencia). Parent-reported child television viewing duration measured in hours per day at 2 and 4 years of age in Sabadell and Valencia and at 6 and 9 years of age in Menorca. Parent-reported child sleep duration measured in hours per day at 2 and 4 years of age in Sabadell and Valencia and at 6 and 9 years of age in Menorca. In cross-sectional analysis, children with longer periods of television viewing reported at baseline (≥ 1.5 hours per day) had shorter sleep duration. Longitudinally, children with reported increases in television viewing duration over time (from <1.5 to ≥ 1.5 hours per day) had a reduction in sleep duration at follow-up visits. Results were similar when examining television viewing duration as a continuous variable, with each 1 hour per day of increased viewing decreasing sleep duration at follow-up visits (β = -0.11; 95% CI, -0.18 to -0.05). Associations were similar when television viewing duration was assessed during weekends and after adjusting for potential intermediate factors (child executive function and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms) and confounders (child physical activity level, parental mental health status, maternal IQ, and maternal marital status). Children spending longer periods watching television had shorter sleep duration. Changes in television viewing duration were inversely associated with changes in sleep duration in longitudinal analysis. Parents should consider avoiding long periods of

  20. Self-perceived level of competitiveness, tension, and dependency and lifestyles in the 'Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra' cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unzueta, C R; Lahortiga-Ramos, F; Santiago, S; Zazpe, I; Molero, P; Sánchez-Villegas, A; Martínez-González, M A

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the differences in lifestyles according to levels of self-perceived competitiveness, psychological tension, and dependency in a Mediterranean cohort of university graduates. Levels of personality traits, food consumption, nutrient intake, eating attitudes, physical activity, sedentary lifestyle, and alcohol and tobacco consumption were assessed through a questionnaire administered at baseline. This was a cross-sectional study in the context of the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra cohort. Participants are 15,346 Spanish adults. Participants with a high level of self-perceived competitiveness consumed more vegetables and fish but less refined grains; they had higher protein intake and healthier eating attitudes. They were more physically active and less likely to be smokers. Participants with a high level of tension or dependency were less physically active, and participants more dependent also had poorer adherence to the Mediterranean diet. Self-perceived personality traits, especially the trait of competitiveness, are likely to be associated with healthier dietary patterns, better nutrient profile, better eating attitudes, physical activity, and less exposure to smoking. The use of short questions about self-perceived levels of competitiveness, psychological tension, and dependency can contribute to add additional information when assessing lifestyles and diet in adults. Copyright © 2018 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. perinatal depression in a cohort study of Iranian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Reza Kheirabadi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Childbearing years in the women’s life are associated with the highest risk of depression. Despite the results of some studies that suggested, depression during pregnancy has been associated with poor prenatal care, substance abuse, low birth weight, and preterm delivery and introduced antenatal depression and anxiety as predictors of postnatal depression, researches during past 25 years have focused mostly on postpartum depression so depression during pregnancy is relatively neglected. Materials and methods: We studied depression during third trimester of pregnancy and after delivery, using prospectively gathered data from a cohort of 1898 women. We compared depressive symptom score and the proportion of mothers above a threshold, to indicate probable depressive disorder at each stage. Results: Point prevalence of depressed pregnant women (clinical depression based on BDI score greater than 20 in last trimester of pregnancy, was 22.8% and postnatal rate of depression based on EPD score greater than 12 between 6 to 8 weeks after delivery, was 26.3%. Incidence of PPD in 6 to 8 weeks after delivery in those who were not clinically depressed during pregnancy was, 20.1%. Discussion: We found that history of depression, unplanned pregnancy; being housewife and having 3 or more children were variables with significant relation to ante partum depression. Two main risk factors for post partum depression in this cohort study, were previous history of depression and depression during current pregnancy that highlight the importance of these two variables assessment during pregnancy in order to facilitate timely identification of women at risk.

  2. Study of the influence of socio-economic factors in the international expansion of Spanish franchisors to Latin American countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M Ramírez-Hurtado

    Full Text Available The saturation of the domestic market is one of the factors which drive firms to expand their business to other markets. Franchising is one of the formats adopted by companies when establishing their internationalization strategy. Spain is a country where franchising is strongly consolidated. This degree of maturity means that many chains seek other countries in which to operate. This work's specific aims are, on the one hand, to offer a general view of the current situation of Spanish franchisors in Latin American countries and, on the other hand, to analyze which the socio-economic or external factors are that determine the presence of Spanish franchisors in this market. Canonical-correlation analysis is used to do so. The results show that Spanish franchisors focus on the market's potential and size, and the per capita income, while they do not take into account its unemployment level, the country risk or the competitiveness there. This work shows that there is a series of socio-economic factors which influence the final choice of the destination country. However, this decision is not solely based on this country's socio-economic aspects, but also on the structure of the franchising firm itself and on its export experience in other markets. This study therefore complements other research and helps franchisors in their difficult decision of choosing the destination for their internationalization.

  3. Impact of smoking cessation on estimated cardiovascular risk in Spanish type 2 diabetes mellitus patients: The DIABETES study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque-Ramírez, M; Sanz de Burgoa, V

    2018-06-08

    To assess the cardiovascular risk according to the UKPDS risk engine; Framingham function and score comparing clinical characteristics of diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) patients according to their habits status. A descriptive analysis was performed. A total of 890 Spanish patients with DM2 (444 smokers and 446 former-smokers) were included in a cross-sectional, observational, epidemiological multicenter nationwide study. Coronary heart disease risk at 10 years was calculated using the UKPDS risk score in both patient subgroups. Results were also compared with the Spanish calibrated (REGICOR) and updated Framingham risk scores. The estimated likelihood of coronary heart disease risk at 10 years according to the UKPDS score was significantly greater in smokers compared with former-smokers. This increased risk was greater in subjects with poorer blood glucose control, and was attenuated in women ≥60 years-old. The Framingham and UKPDS scores conferred a greater estimated risk than the REGICOR equation in Spanish diabetics. Quitting smoke in patients with DM2 is accompanied by a significant decrease in the estimated risk of coronary events as assessed by UKPDS. Our findings support the importance of quitting smoking among diabetic patients in order to reduce cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  4. Study of the influence of socio-economic factors in the international expansion of Spanish franchisors to Latin American countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    The saturation of the domestic market is one of the factors which drive firms to expand their business to other markets. Franchising is one of the formats adopted by companies when establishing their internationalization strategy. Spain is a country where franchising is strongly consolidated. This degree of maturity means that many chains seek other countries in which to operate. This work’s specific aims are, on the one hand, to offer a general view of the current situation of Spanish franchisors in Latin American countries and, on the other hand, to analyze which the socio-economic or external factors are that determine the presence of Spanish franchisors in this market. Canonical-correlation analysis is used to do so. The results show that Spanish franchisors focus on the market’s potential and size, and the per capita income, while they do not take into account its unemployment level, the country risk or the competitiveness there. This work shows that there is a series of socio-economic factors which influence the final choice of the destination country. However, this decision is not solely based on this country’s socio-economic aspects, but also on the structure of the franchising firm itself and on its export experience in other markets. This study therefore complements other research and helps franchisors in their difficult decision of choosing the destination for their internationalization. PMID:29293596

  5. Study of the influence of socio-economic factors in the international expansion of Spanish franchisors to Latin American countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Hurtado, José M; Berbel-Pineda, Juan M; Palacios-Florencio, Beatriz

    2018-01-01

    The saturation of the domestic market is one of the factors which drive firms to expand their business to other markets. Franchising is one of the formats adopted by companies when establishing their internationalization strategy. Spain is a country where franchising is strongly consolidated. This degree of maturity means that many chains seek other countries in which to operate. This work's specific aims are, on the one hand, to offer a general view of the current situation of Spanish franchisors in Latin American countries and, on the other hand, to analyze which the socio-economic or external factors are that determine the presence of Spanish franchisors in this market. Canonical-correlation analysis is used to do so. The results show that Spanish franchisors focus on the market's potential and size, and the per capita income, while they do not take into account its unemployment level, the country risk or the competitiveness there. This work shows that there is a series of socio-economic factors which influence the final choice of the destination country. However, this decision is not solely based on this country's socio-economic aspects, but also on the structure of the franchising firm itself and on its export experience in other markets. This study therefore complements other research and helps franchisors in their difficult decision of choosing the destination for their internationalization.

  6. Perceived age as clinically useful biomarker of ageing: cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kaare; Thinggaard, Mikael; McGue, Matt

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether perceived age correlates with survival and important age related phenotypes. DESIGN: Follow-up study, with survival of twins determined up to January 2008, by which time 675 (37%) had died. SETTING: Population based twin cohort in Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: 20 nurses, 10...... young men, and 11 older women (assessors); 1826 twins aged >or=70. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Assessors: perceived age of twins from photographs. Twins: physical and cognitive tests and molecular biomarker of ageing (leucocyte telomere length). RESULTS: For all three groups of assessors, perceived age...... increased with increasing discordance in perceived age within the twin pair-that is, the bigger the difference in perceived age within the pair, the more likely that the older looking twin died first. Twin analyses suggested that common genetic factors influence both perceived age and survival. Perceived...

  7. Investigating the psychological impact of bank robbery: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Maj; Armour, Cherie; Shevlin, Mark; Elklit, Ask

    2014-06-01

    Despite numerous annual bank robberies worldwide, research in the psychological sequelae of bank robberies is sparse and characterized by several limitations. To overcome these limitations we investigated the psychological impact of bank robbery in a cohort study by comparing general levels of traumatization and somatization in employees never exposed to robbery and employees exposed to robbery at different degrees and time-points, while controlling for selected risk factors of posttraumatic distress. Multivariate regression analyses showed that only the acute directly exposed robbery group which had a significantly higher score on general traumatization and somatization compared to the control group whilst controlling for other factors. In conclusion, bank robbery exposure appears to be especially associated with psychological distress in the acute phase and in victims present during the robbery. After the acute phase, other factors appear more important in predicting general traumatization and somatization in bank employees compared to exposure to robbery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Psychosocial work environment and antidepressant medication: a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Jens Peter; Munch-Hansen, T.; Wieclaw, J.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adverse psychosocial work environments may lead to impaired mental health, but it is still a matter of conjecture if demonstrated associations are causal or biased. We aimed at verifying whether poor psychosocial working climate is related to increase of redeemed subscription...... alone. None of the measured psychosocial work environment factors were consistently related to prescription of antidepressant drugs during the follow-up period. CONCLUSION: The study does not indicate that a poor psychosocial work environment among public service employees is related to prescription...... of antidepressant medication. METHODS: Information on all antidepressant drugs (AD) purchased at pharmacies from 1995 through 2006 was obtained for a cohort of 21,129 Danish public service workers that participated in work climate surveys carried out during the period 2002-2005. Individual self...

  9. Deep phenotyping of the unselected COPSAC2010 birth cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans Flinker; Vissing, Nadja Hawwa; Carson, C. G.

    2013-01-01

    for acute lung symptoms was conducted in the children with recurrent wheeze. Seven hundred and thirty‐eight mothers were recruited from week 24 of gestation, and 700 of their children were included in the birth cohort. The cohort has an over‐representation of atopic parents. The participant satisfaction...

  10. Spanish Visit

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    On 23 January, CERN welcomed a visit by Pedro Morenés Eulate, Spanish Secretary of State for Scientific and Technological Policy. He was taken on a tour of the LHC Superconducting test facility, the CMS magnet assembly hall and the civil engineering works at Point 5. After a brief presentation on the AMS (Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer) experiment, delivered by Sam Ting, and lunch hosted by Director General Robert Aymar, he continued his tour of the ATLAS assembly hall and the ISOLDE experimental hall. Pedro Morenés finished his visit by meeting with the Spanish scientific community working at CERN. From left to right: Juan-Antonio Rubio, CERN, Responsible for the Education & Communication, Technology transfer and Scientific Information groups; Gonzalo León, General Secretary of the Spanish Ministry; Joaquín Pérez-Villanueva y Tovar, Ambassador, Permanent Representative of Spain to the United Nations Office; Robert Aymar, CERN Director General; Maria-José Garcia-Borge, ISOLDE and NTOF, CSIC Madrid Tea...

  11. Cohort Differences in Cognitive Aging in the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brailean, Anamaria; Huisman, Martijn; Prince, Martin; Prina, A Matthew; Deeg, Dorly J H; Comijs, Hannie

    2016-09-30

    This study aims to examine cohort differences in cognitive performance and rates of change in episodic memory, processing speed, inductive reasoning, and general cognitive performance and to investigate whether these cohort effects may be accounted for by education attainment. The first cohort (N = 705) was born between 1920 and 1930, whereas the second cohort (N = 646) was born between 1931 and 1941. Both birth cohorts were aged 65 to 75 years at baseline and were followed up 3 and 6 years later. Data were analyzed using linear mixed models. The later born cohort had better general cognitive performance, inductive reasoning, and processing speed at baseline, but cohort differences in inductive reasoning and general cognitive performance disappeared after adjusting for education. The later born cohort showed steeper decline in processing speed. Memory decline was steeper in the earlier born cohort but only from Time 1 to Time 3 when the same memory test was administered. Education did not account for cohort differences in cognitive decline. The later born cohort showed better initial performance in certain cognitive abilities, but no better preservation of cognitive abilities overtime compared with the earlier born cohort. These findings carry implications for healthy cognitive aging. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America.

  12. A comparison of Cox and logistic regression for use in genome-wide association studies of cohort and case-cohort design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, James R; Jones, Edmund; Kaptoge, Stephen; Butterworth, Adam S; Sweeting, Michael J; Wood, Angela M; Howson, Joanna M M

    2017-06-01

    Logistic regression is often used instead of Cox regression to analyse genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and disease outcomes with cohort and case-cohort designs, as it is less computationally expensive. Although Cox and logistic regression models have been compared previously in cohort studies, this work does not completely cover the GWAS setting nor extend to the case-cohort study design. Here, we evaluated Cox and logistic regression applied to cohort and case-cohort genetic association studies using simulated data and genetic data from the EPIC-CVD study. In the cohort setting, there was a modest improvement in power to detect SNP-disease associations using Cox regression compared with logistic regression, which increased as the disease incidence increased. In contrast, logistic regression had more power than (Prentice weighted) Cox regression in the case-cohort setting. Logistic regression yielded inflated effect estimates (assuming the hazard ratio is the underlying measure of association) for both study designs, especially for SNPs with greater effect on disease. Given logistic regression is substantially more computationally efficient than Cox regression in both settings, we propose a two-step approach to GWAS in cohort and case-cohort studies. First to analyse all SNPs with logistic regression to identify associated variants below a pre-defined P-value threshold, and second to fit Cox regression (appropriately weighted in case-cohort studies) to those identified SNPs to ensure accurate estimation of association with disease.

  13. Processing ser and estar to locate objects and events: An ERP study with L2 speakers of Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussias, Paola E; Contemori, Carla; Román, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    In Spanish locative constructions, a different form of the copula is selected in relation to the semantic properties of the grammatical subject: sentences that locate objects require estar while those that locate events require ser (both translated in English as 'to be'). In an ERP study, we examined whether second language (L2) speakers of Spanish are sensitive to the selectional restrictions that the different types of subjects impose on the choice of the two copulas. Twenty-four native speakers of Spanish and two groups of L2 Spanish speakers (24 beginners and 18 advanced speakers) were recruited to investigate the processing of 'object/event + estar/ser ' permutations. Participants provided grammaticality judgments on correct (object + estar ; event + ser ) and incorrect (object + ser ; event + estar ) sentences while their brain activity was recorded. In line with previous studies (Leone-Fernández, Molinaro, Carreiras, & Barber, 2012; Sera, Gathje, & Pintado, 1999), the results of the grammaticality judgment for the native speakers showed that participants correctly accepted object + estar and event + ser constructions. In addition, while 'object + ser ' constructions were considered grossly ungrammatical, 'event + estar ' combinations were perceived as unacceptable to a lesser degree. For these same participants, ERP recording time-locked to the onset of the critical word ' en ' showed a larger P600 for the ser predicates when the subject was an object than when it was an event (*La silla es en la cocina vs. La fiesta es en la cocina). This P600 effect is consistent with syntactic repair of the defining predicate when it does not fit with the adequate semantic properties of the subject. For estar predicates (La silla está en la cocina vs. *La fiesta está en la cocina), the findings showed a central-frontal negativity between 500-700 ms. Grammaticality judgment data for the L2 speakers of Spanish showed that beginners were significantly less accurate than

  14. Health status of UK care home residents: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Adam Lee; Franklin, Matthew; Bradshaw, Lucy; Logan, Pip; Elliott, Rachel; Gladman, John R F

    2014-01-01

    UK care home residents are often poorly served by existing healthcare arrangements. Published descriptions of residents' health status have been limited by lack of detail and use of data derived from surveys drawn from social, rather than health, care records. to describe in detail the health status and healthcare resource use of UK care home residents a 180-day longitudinal cohort study of 227 residents across 11 UK care homes, 5 nursing and 6 residential, selected to be representative for nursing/residential status and dementia registration. Barthel index (BI), Mini-mental state examination (MMSE), Neuropsychiatric index (NPI), Mini-nutritional index (MNA), EuroQoL-5D (EQ-5D), 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), diagnoses and medications were recorded at baseline and BI, NPI, GHQ-12 and EQ-5D at follow-up after 180 days. National Health Service (NHS) resource use data were collected from databases of local healthcare providers. out of a total of 323, 227 residents were recruited. The median BI was 9 (IQR: 2.5-15.5), MMSE 13 (4-22) and number of medications 8 (5.5-10.5). The mean number of diagnoses per resident was 6.2 (SD: 4). Thirty per cent were malnourished, 66% had evidence of behavioural disturbance. Residents had contact with the NHS on average once per month. residents from both residential and nursing settings are dependent, cognitively impaired, have mild frequent behavioural symptoms, multimorbidity, polypharmacy and frequently use NHS resources. Effective care for such a cohort requires broad expertise from multiple disciplines delivered in a co-ordinated and managed way.

  15. Study of Use of Products and Exposure-Related Behaviors (SUPERB: study design, methods, and demographic characteristics of cohorts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hertz-Picciotto Irva

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to toxic chemicals in the home is a growing concern. This report presents an overview of the recruitment, methods for data collection, instruments used to collect data, and participant demographics for a study examining behaviors that influence exposure to environmental toxins in the home environment, also known as SUPERB (Study of Use of Products and Exposure Related Behaviors. Methods The methods involved three different platforms: telephone interviews, internet-based surveys, and home-based monitoring. The purposes of SUPERB were: first, to compare data collection platforms with regard to feasibility, acceptability and reliability; and second, to provide longitudinal population-based data characterizing seasonal and long-term changes in exposure-related behaviors including food consumption, temporal-spatial activity, and household product use. Results Two cohorts of households were enrolled: families (one parent and one child from northern California and older individuals (age 55+ from central California. Parents (n = 499 in Northern California families were on average 36 years of age, 47.1% were Latino or nonwhite, and 10.2% took the survey in Spanish. Most of the children enrolled (n = 566 were under 6 years (82.7%. The older adults enrolled (n = 156 were, on average, 66 years of age and 23.7% were Latino or nonwhite, but only 2.6% completed the survey in Spanish. Conclusions We found that oversampling was successful in improving recruitment of under-represented subgroups, such as those with low education, thereby increasing diversity of our study sample. Protocols that minimize participant time, e.g., use of bar scanners and scales rather than questionnaires regarding use of household products, and the implementation of these protocols by staff who built relationships of trust, resulted in high retention over a longitudinal data collection scheme. A relatively small fraction of those who volunteer for

  16. The Spanish version of the Emotional Labour Scale (ELS): a validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picardo, Juan M; López-Fernández, Consuelo; Hervás, María José Abellán

    2013-10-01

    To validate the Spanish version of the Emotional Labour Scale (ELS), an instrument widely used to understand how professionals working with people face emotional labor in their daily job. An observational, cross-sectional and multicenter survey was used. Nursing students and their clinical tutors (n=211) completed the self-reported ELS when the clinical practice period was over. First order and second order Confirmatory Factor Analyses (CFA) were estimated in order to test the factor structure of the scale. The results of the CFA confirm a factor structure of the scale with six first order factors (duration, frequency, intensity, variety, surface acting and deep acting) and two larger second order factors named Demands (duration, frequency, intensity and variety) and Acting (surface acting and deep acting) establishing the validity of the Spanish version of the ELS. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessing the adaptation and implementation fidelity of an Online Tobacco Cessation Training Program for Healthcare Professionals in three Spanish-speaking Latin American countries: The Fruitful Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Martínez

    2017-05-01

    This study has been funded by Global Bridges Mayo Clinic (Pfizer Medical Group; GB-13520139: Development and Dissemination of a Tobacco Cessation Training Program for Healthcare Professionals in Spanish-speaking Countries. Moreover, CM and EF are also funded by the Spanish Government (Instituto de Salut Carlos III, grant PI15-00875 and the Catalan Government (Xarxa Catalana d’Hospitals sense fum, Agència de Salut Pública de Catalunya, contracte Nº 2015VAR171

  18. Adequacy of Usual Vitamin and Mineral Intake in Spanish Children and Adolescents: ENALIA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. López-Sobaler

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The National Dietary Survey on the Child and Adolescent Population in Spain (ENALIA provides data to assess the usual micronutrient intake among Spanish infants, children, and adolescents. Methods: Cross-sectional survey (November 2012–July 2014 of a representative sample of Spanish children and adolescents (six months–17 years (n = 1862. Dietary information was collected using two non-consecutive one-day food diaries (six months–10 years old or two 24 h dietary recalls (11 years and older separated by at least 14 days. Estimates were calculated using the Iowa State University method and PC-SIDE software (version 1.0, department of statistics, center for agricultural and rural development, Ames, IA, USA to account for within- and between-person variation. Results: Usual intake of vitamin D was insufficient in practically all individuals. Vitamin E, folate, and calcium were insufficient, especially from nine years of age, and magnesium and iodine from 14 years of age. The percentage of subjects with insufficient intakes was higher among females. Sodium intake was excessive in a considerable percentage of the population, especially in males, and it increased with age. Finally, over half of children under four years of age had zinc usual intakes that exceeded the Tolerable Upper Level. Conclusion: Vitamin and mineral intake in Spain should be improved, especially in late childhood and adolescence. Nutritional intervention and educational strategies are needed to promote healthy eating habits and correct micronutrient inadequacies in Spanish children and adolescents.

  19. International Network of Chronic Kidney Disease cohort studies (iNET-CKD): a global network of chronic kidney disease cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dienemann, Thomas; Fujii, Naohiko; Orlandi, Paula; Nessel, Lisa; Furth, Susan L; Hoy, Wendy E; Matsuo, Seiichi; Mayer, Gert; Methven, Shona; Schaefer, Franz; Schaeffner, Elke S; Solá, Laura; Stengel, Bénédicte; Wanner, Christoph; Zhang, Luxia; Levin, Adeera; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Feldman, Harold I

    2016-09-02

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global health burden, yet it is still underrepresented within public health agendas in many countries. Studies focusing on the natural history of CKD are challenging to design and conduct, because of the long time-course of disease progression, a wide variation in etiologies, and a large amount of clinical variability among individuals with CKD. With the difference in health-related behaviors, healthcare delivery, genetics, and environmental exposures, this variability is greater across countries than within one locale and may not be captured effectively in a single study. Studies were invited to join the network. Prerequisites for membership included: 1) observational designs with a priori hypotheses and defined study objectives, patient-level information, prospective data acquisition and collection of bio-samples, all focused on predialysis CKD patients; 2) target sample sizes of 1,000 patients for adult cohorts and 300 for pediatric cohorts; and 3) minimum follow-up of three years. Participating studies were surveyed regarding design, data, and biosample resources. Twelve prospective cohort studies and two registries covering 21 countries were included. Participants age ranges from >2 to >70 years at inclusion, CKD severity ranges from stage 2 to stage 5. Patient data and biosamples (not available in the registry studies) are measured yearly or biennially. Many studies included multiple ethnicities; cohort size ranges from 400 to more than 13,000 participants. Studies' areas of emphasis all include but are not limited to renal outcomes, such as progression to ESRD and death. iNET-CKD (International Network of CKD cohort studies) was established, to promote collaborative research, foster exchange of expertise, and create opportunities for research training. Participating studies have many commonalities that will facilitate comparative research; however, we also observed substantial differences. The diversity we observed across

  20. Cohorts based on decade of death: no evidence for secular trends favoring later cohorts in cognitive aging and terminal decline in the AHEAD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hülür, Gizem; Infurna, Frank J; Ram, Nilam; Gerstorf, Denis

    2013-03-01

    Studies of birth-year cohorts examined over the same age range often report secular trends favoring later-born cohorts, who are cognitively fitter and show less steep cognitive declines than earlier-born cohorts. However, there is initial evidence that those advantages of later-born cohorts do not carry into the last years of life, suggesting that pervasive mortality-related processes minimize differences that were apparent earlier in life. Elaborating this work from an alternative perspective on cohort differences, we compared rates of cognitive aging and terminal decline in episodic memory between cohorts based on the year participants had died, earlier (between 1993 and 1999) or later in historical time (between 2000 and 2010). Specifically, we compared trajectories of cognitive decline in 2 death-year cohorts of participants in the Asset and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest Old study that were matched on age at death and education and controlled for a variety of additional covariates. Results revealed little evidence of secular trends favoring later cohorts. To the contrary, the cohort that died in the 2000s showed a less favorable trajectory of age-related memory decline than the cohort that died in the 1990s. In examinations of change in relation to time to death, the cohort dying in the 2000s experienced even steeper terminal declines than the cohort dying in the 1990s. We suggest that secular increases in "manufacturing" survival may exacerbate age- and mortality-related cognitive declines among the oldest old.

  1. Use of the Stanford Brief Activity Survey for physical activity assessment in postpartum Latinas: a validation study of a linguistically translated Spanish version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Rodney P; Ainsworth, Barbara E; Vega-López, Sonia; Keller, Colleen S

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the concurrent validity of the English and a linguistic Spanish translation of the Stanford Brief Activity Survey (SBAS) with pedometer-measured physical activity (PA) among postpartum Latinas. Latinas (n 97) completed the SBAS in either English (n 47) or Spanish (n 50) and wore pedometers 7 days at three different assessment periods. The English version demonstrated significant trends (p .01) for differentiating aerobic walking steps (AWS) and aerobic walking time (AWT) across SBAS intensity categories at two of the three assessment periods. The Spanish version showed marginally significant trends for differentiating AWS (p .048) and AWT (p .052) across SBAS intensity categories at only one assessment period. The English version of the SBAS is effective in assessing PA status among Latinas; however, the Spanish version indicates a need for research to further explore cultural and linguistic adaptations of the SBAS.

  2. Reproducibility of data-driven dietary patterns in two groups of adult Spanish women from different studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelló, Adela; Lope, Virginia; Vioque, Jesús; Santamariña, Carmen; Pedraz-Pingarrón, Carmen; Abad, Soledad; Ederra, Maria; Salas-Trejo, Dolores; Vidal, Carmen; Sánchez-Contador, Carmen; Aragonés, Nuria; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Pollán, Marina

    2016-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the reproducibility of data-driven dietary patterns in different samples extracted from similar populations. Dietary patterns were extracted by applying principal component analyses to the dietary information collected from a sample of 3550 women recruited from seven screening centres belonging to the Spanish breast cancer (BC) screening network (Determinants of Mammographic Density in Spain (DDM-Spain) study). The resulting patterns were compared with three dietary patterns obtained from a previous Spanish case-control study on female BC (Epidemiological study of the Spanish group for breast cancer research (GEICAM: grupo Español de investigación en cáncer de mama)) using the dietary intake data of 973 healthy participants. The level of agreement between patterns was determined using both the congruence coefficient (CC) between the pattern loadings (considering patterns with a CC≥0·85 as fairly similar) and the linear correlation between patterns scores (considering as fairly similar those patterns with a statistically significant correlation). The conclusions reached with both methods were compared. This is the first study exploring the reproducibility of data-driven patterns from two studies and the first using the CC to determine pattern similarity. We were able to reproduce the EpiGEICAM Western pattern in the DDM-Spain sample (CC=0·90). However, the reproducibility of the Prudent (CC=0·76) and Mediterranean (CC=0·77) patterns was not as good. The linear correlation between pattern scores was statistically significant in all cases, highlighting its arbitrariness for determining pattern similarity. We conclude that the reproducibility of widely prevalent dietary patterns is better than the reproducibility of more population-specific patterns. More methodological studies are needed to establish an objective measurement and threshold to determine pattern similarity.

  3. Opium use and mortality in Golestan Cohort Study: prospective cohort study of 50 000 adults in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khademi, Hooman; Pourshams, Akram; Jafari, Elham; Salahi, Rasool; Semnani, Shahryar; Abaie, Behrooz; Islami, Farhad; Nasseri-Moghaddam, Siavosh; Etemadi, Arash; Byrnes, Graham; Abnet, Christian C; Dawsey, Sanford M; Day, Nicholas E; Pharoah, Paul D; Boffetta, Paolo; Kamangar, Farin

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the association between opium use and subsequent risk of death. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting The Golestan Cohort Study in north-eastern Iran collected detailed validated data on opium use and other exposures at baseline. Participants were enrolled between January 2004 and June 2008 and were followed to May 2011, with a follow-up success rate of over 99%. Participants 50 045 participants aged 40-75 at baseline. Main outcomes Mortality, all cause and major subcategories. Results 17% (n=8487) of the participants reported opium use, with a mean duration of 12.7 years. During the follow-up period 2145 deaths were reported. The adjusted hazard ratio for all cause mortality associated with ever use of opium was 1.86 (95% confidence interval 1.68 to 2.06). Opium consumption was significantly associated with increased risks of deaths from several causes including circulatory diseases (hazard ratio 1.81) and cancer (1.61). The strongest associations were seen with deaths from asthma, tuberculosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (11.0, 6.22, and 5.44, respectively). After exclusion of people who self prescribed opium after the onset of major chronic illnesses, the associations remained strong with a dose-response relation. Conclusion Opium users have an increased risk of death from multiple causes compared with non-users. Increased risks were also seen in people who used low amounts of opium for a long period and those who had no major illness before use. PMID:22511302

  4. Age and fecundability in a North American preconception cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesselink, Amelia K; Rothman, Kenneth J; Hatch, Elizabeth E; Mikkelsen, Ellen M; Sørensen, Henrik T; Wise, Lauren A

    2017-12-01

    There is a well-documented decline in fertility treatment success with increasing female age; however, there are few preconception cohort studies that have examined female age and natural fertility. In addition, data on male age and fertility are inconsistent. Given the increasing number of couples who are attempting conception at older ages, a more detailed characterization of age-related fecundability in the general population is of great clinical utility. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between female and male age with fecundability. We conducted a web-based preconception cohort study of pregnancy planners from the United States and Canada. Participants were enrolled between June 2013 and July 2017. Eligible participants were 21-45 years old (female) or ≥21 years old (male) and had not been using fertility treatments. Couples were followed until pregnancy or for up to 12 menstrual cycles. We analyzed data from 2962 couples who had been trying to conceive for ≤3 cycles at study entry and reported no history of infertility. We used life-table methods to estimate the unadjusted cumulative pregnancy proportion at 6 and 12 cycles by female and male age. We used proportional probabilities regression models to estimate fecundability ratios, the per-cycle probability of conception for each age category relative to the referent (21-24 years old), and 95% confidence intervals. Among female patients, the unadjusted cumulative pregnancy proportion at 6 cycles of attempt time ranged from 62.0% (age 28-30 years) to 27.6% (age 40-45 years); the cumulative pregnancy proportion at 12 cycles of attempt time ranged from 79.3% (age 25-27 years old) to 55.5% (age 40-45 years old). Similar patterns were observed among male patients, although differences between age groups were smaller. After adjusting for potential confounders, we observed a nearly monotonic decline in fecundability with increasing female age, with the exception of 28-33 years, at which

  5. Warfarin and fibrinolysis - a challenging combination: an observational cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luurila Harri

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients presenting with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI frequently use warfarin. Fibrinolytic agents and warfarin both increase bleeding risk, but only a few studies have been published concerning the bleeding risk of warfarin-prescribed patients receiving fibrinolysis. The objective of this study was to define the prevalence for intracranial haemorrhage (ICH or major bleeding in patients on warfarin treatment receiving pre-hospital fibrinolysis. Methods This was an observational cohort study. Data for this retrospective case series were collected in Helsinki Emergency Medical Service catchment area from 1.1.1997 to 30.6.2010. All warfarin patients with suspected ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI, who received pre-hospital fibrinolysis, were included. Bleeding complications were detected from Medical Records and classified as ICH, major or minor bleeding. Results Thirty-six warfarin patients received fibrinolysis during the study period. Fourteen patients had bleeding complications. One (3%, 95% CI 0-15% patient had ICH, six (17%, 95% CI 7-32% had major and seven (19%, 95% CI 9-35% had minor bleeding. The only fatal bleeding occurred in a patient with ICH. Patients' age, fibrinolytic agent used or aspirin use did not predispose to bleeding complications. High International Normalized Ratio (INR seemed to predispose to bleedings with values over 3, but no statistically significant difference was found. Conclusions Bleedings occur frequently in warfarin patients treated with fibrinolysis in the real world setting, but they are rarely fatal.

  6. Cohort description: The Danish study of Functional Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dantoft TM

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Meinertz Dantoft,1 Jeanette Frost Ebstrup,1 Allan Linneberg,1–3 Sine Skovbjerg,1 Anja Lykke Madsen,1 Jesper Mehlsen,4 Louise Brinth,4 Lene Falgaard Eplov,5 Tina Wisbech Carstensen,6,7 Andreas Schroder,6,7 Per Klausen Fink,6,7 Erik Lykke Mortensen,8 Torben Hansen,9 Oluf Pedersen,9 Torben Jørgensen1,10,11 1Research Centre for Prevention and Health, The Capital Region of Denmark, Glostrup, 2Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, 3Department of Clinical Experimental Research, Rigshospitalet, Glostrup, 4Coordinating Research Centre, Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg Hospital, Frederiksberg, 5Mental Health Centre Copenhagen, Research Unit, Mental Health Services, Capital Region of Denmark, Copenhagen, 6The Research Clinic for Functional Disorders and Psychosomatics, Aarhus University Hospital, 7Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Aarhus, Aarhus, 8Department of Public Health and Center for Healthy Aging, 9Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research, 10Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, 11Faculty of Medicine, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark Abstract: The Danish study of Functional Disorders (DanFunD cohort was initiated to outline the epidemiology of functional somatic syndromes (FSS and is the first larger coordinated epidemiological study focusing exclusively on FSS. FSS are prevalent in all medical settings and can be defined as syndromes that, after appropriate medical assessment, cannot be explained in terms of a conventional medical or surgical disease. FSS are frequent and the clinical importance varies from vague symptoms to extreme disability. No well-described medical explanations exist for FSS, and how to delimit FSS remains a controversial topic. The specific aims with the cohort were to test delimitations of FSS, estimate prevalence and incidence rates, identify risk factors

  7. Complex regional pain syndrome 1 – the Swiss cohort study

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    Perez Roberto SGM

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the course of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome 1 and potential factors influencing the course of this disorder over time. The goal of this study is a to set up a database with patients suffering from suspected CRPS 1 in an initial stadium, b to perform investigations on epidemiology, diagnosis, prognosis, and socioeconomics within the database and c to develop a prognostic risk assessment tool for patients with CRPS 1 taking into account symptomatology and specific therapies. Methods/design Prospective cohort study. Patients suffering from a painful swelling of the hand or foot which appeared within 8 weeks after a trauma or a surgery and which cannot be explained by conditions that would otherwise account for the degree of pain and dysfunction will be included. In accordance with the recommendations of International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF model, standardised and validated questionnaires will be used. Patients will be monitored over a period of 2 years at 6 scheduled visits (0 and 6 weeks, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. Each visit involves a physical examination, registration of therapeutic interventions, and completion of the various study questionnaires. Outcomes involve changes in health status, quality of life and costs/utility. Discussion This paper describes the rationale and design of patients with CRPS 1. Ideally, potential risk factors may be identified at an early stage in order to initiate an early and adequate treatment in patients with increased risk for delayed recovery. Trial registration Not applicable

  8. Low organisational justice and heavy drinking: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouvonen, Anne; Kivimäki, Mika; Elovainio, Marko; Väänänen, Ari; De Vogli, Roberto; Heponiemi, Tarja; Linna, Anne; Pentti, Jaana; Vahtera, Jussi

    2008-01-01

    To investigate whether low perceived organisational injustice predicts heavy drinking among employees. Data from a prospective occupational cohort study, the 10-Town Study, on 15 290 Finnish public sector local government employees nested in 2432 work units, were used. Non-drinkers were excluded. Procedural, interactional and total organisational justice, heavy drinking (>/=210 g of absolute alcohol per week) and other psychosocial factors were determined by means of questionnaire in 2000-2001 (phase 1) and 2004 (phase 2). Multilevel logistic regression analyses taking into account the hierarchical structure of the data were conducted and adjustments were made for sex, age, socio-economic status, marital status, baseline heavy drinking, psychological distress and other psychosocial risk factors such as job strain and effort/reward imbalance. After adjustments, participants who reported low procedural justice at phase 1 were approximately 1.2 times more likely to be heavy drinkers at phase 2 compared with their counterparts reporting high justice. Low perceived justice in interpersonal treatment and low perceived total organisational justice were associated with increased prevalence of heavy drinking only in the model adjusted for sociodemographics. This is the first longitudinal study to show that low procedural justice is weakly associated with an increased likelihood of heavy drinking.

  9. Methadone and perinatal outcomes: a retrospective cohort study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cleary, Brian J

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among methadone maintenance treatment, perinatal outcomes, and neonatal abstinence syndrome. STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective cohort study of 61,030 singleton births at a large maternity hospital from 2000-2007. RESULTS: There were 618 (1%) women on methadone at delivery. Methadone-exposed women were more likely to be younger, to book late for antenatal care, and to be smokers. Methadone exposure was associated with an increased risk of very preterm birth <32 weeks of gestation (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.40-4.34), being small for gestational age <10th percentile (aOR, 3.27; 95% CI, 2.49-4.28), admission to the neonatal unit (aOR, 9.14; 95% CI, 7.21-11.57), and diagnosis of a major congenital anomaly (aOR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.10-3.43). There was a dose-response relationship between methadone and neonatal abstinence syndrome. CONCLUSION: Methadone exposure is associated with an increased risk of adverse perinatal outcomes, even when known adverse sociodemographic factors have been accounted for. Methadone dose at delivery is 1 of the determinants of neonatal abstinence syndrome.

  10. STAT4 gene influences genetic predisposition to ulcerative colitis but not Crohn's disease in the Spanish population: a replication study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Gallo, Lina Marcela; Palomino-Morales, Rogelio J; Gómez-García, María; Cardeña, Carlos; Rodrigo, Luis; Nieto, Antonio; Alcain, Guillermo; Cueto, Ignacio; López-Nevot, Miguel A; Martin, Javier

    2010-05-01

    Recently, the signal transducer and activator of transcription 4 (STAT4) gene has been associated with multiple autoimmune diseases. Interestingly, a recent work showed that the T allele of the rs7574865 STAT4 SNP was associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in a Spanish population. The aim of the present study was to reevaluate the role of the STAT4 rs7574865 polymorphism on IBD. The present case-control study included 498 Crohn's disease (CD) patients, 402 ulcerative colitis (UC) patients, and 1296 healthy matched controls. Genotyping was performed using a PCR system with a pre-developed TaqMan allelic discrimination assay for the rs7574865 STAT4 SNP. Moreover, a meta-analysis was performed with the previous work in a Spanish population and the current study, including a final sample size of 1574 IBD patients (820 with CD and 754 with UC) and 2012 healthy controls. No evidence of association was found for the current case-control study (CD: p = 0.23, OR = 0.9, 95% CI = 0.75-1.1; UC: p = 0.17, OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 0.95-1.38). However, the meta-analysis showed that the STAT4 rs7574865 T allele was significantly associated with susceptibility to UC (p = 0.012 pooled; OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.04-1.39) but not CD (p = 0.71 pooled; OR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.65-1.34). Our data suggest that the rs7574865 STAT4 SNP is a genetic susceptibility variant for UC but not CD in the Spanish population. Copyright 2010 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Qingdao Port Cardiovascular Health Study: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatz, Erica S; Jiang, Xianyan; Lu, Jiapeng; Masoudi, Frederick A; Spertus, John A; Wang, Yongfei; Li, Xi; Downing, Nicholas S; Nasir, Khurram; Du, Xue; Li, Jing; Krumholz, Harlan M; Liu, Xiancheng; Jiang, Lixin

    2015-12-09

    In China, efforts are underway to respond to rapidly increasing rates of heart disease and stroke. Yet the epidemiology of cardiovascular disease in China may be different from that of other populations. Thus, there is a critical need for population-based studies that provide insight into the risk factors, incidence and outcomes of cardiovascular disease in China. The Qingdao Port Cardiovascular Health Study is designed to investigate the burden of cardiovascular disease and the sociodemographic, biological, environmental and clinical risk factors associated with disease onset and outcomes. For this study, from 2000 through 2013, 32,404 employees aged 18 years or older were recruited from the Qingdao Port Group in China, contributing 221,923 annual health assessments. The mean age at recruitment was 43.4 (SD=12.9); 79% were male. In this ongoing study, annual health assessments, governed by extensive quality control mechanisms, include a questionnaire (capturing demographic and employment information, medical history, medication use, health behaviours and health outcomes), physical examination, ECG, and blood and urine analysis. Additional non-annual assessments include an X-ray, echocardiogram and carotid ultrasound; bio-samples will be collected for future genetic and proteomic analyses. Cardiovascular outcomes are accessed via self-report and are actively being verified with medical insurance claims; efforts are underway to adjudicate outcomes with hospital medical records. Early findings reveal a significant increase in cardiovascular risk factors from 2000 to 2010 (hypertension: 26.4-39.4%; diabetes: 3.3-8.9%; hyperlipidaemia: 5.0-33.6%; body mass index >28 m/kg(2): 14.1-18.6%). We aim to generate novel insights about the epidemiology and outcomes of cardiovascular disease in China, with specific emphasis on the potentially unique risk factor profiles of this Chinese population. Knowledge generated will be disseminated in the peer-reviewed literature, and will

  12. Qingdao Port Cardiovascular Health Study: a prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatz, Erica S; Jiang, Xianyan; Lu, Jiapeng; Masoudi, Frederick A; Spertus, John A; Wang, Yongfei; Li, Xi; Downing, Nicholas S; Nasir, Khurram; Du, Xue; Li, Jing; Krumholz, Harlan M; Liu, Xiancheng; Jiang, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In China, efforts are underway to respond to rapidly increasing rates of heart disease and stroke. Yet the epidemiology of cardiovascular disease in China may be different from that of other populations. Thus, there is a critical need for population-based studies that provide insight into the risk factors, incidence and outcomes of cardiovascular disease in China. The Qingdao Port Cardiovascular Health Study is designed to investigate the burden of cardiovascular disease and the sociodemographic, biological, environmental and clinical risk factors associated with disease onset and outcomes. Participants For this study, from 2000 through 2013, 32 404 employees aged 18 years or older were recruited from the Qingdao Port Group in China, contributing 221 923 annual health assessments. The mean age at recruitment was 43.4 (SD=12.9); 79% were male. In this ongoing study, annual health assessments, governed by extensive quality control mechanisms, include a questionnaire (capturing demographic and employment information, medical history, medication use, health behaviours and health outcomes), physical examination, ECG, and blood and urine analysis. Additional non-annual assessments include an X-ray, echocardiogram and carotid ultrasound; bio-samples will be collected for future genetic and proteomic analyses. Cardiovascular outcomes are accessed via self-report and are actively being verified with medical insurance claims; efforts are underway to adjudicate outcomes with hospital medical records. Findings to date Early findings reveal a significant increase in cardiovascular risk factors from 2000 to 2010 (hypertension: 26.4–39.4%; diabetes: 3.3–8.9%; hyperlipidaemia: 5.0–33.6%; body mass index >28 m/kg2: 14.1–18.6%). Future Plans We aim to generate novel insights about the epidemiology and outcomes of cardiovascular disease in China, with specific emphasis on the potentially unique risk factor profiles of this Chinese population. Knowledge

  13. Maternal thyroid function and child educational attainment: prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Scott M; Haig, Caroline; McConnachie, Alex; Sattar, Naveed; Ring, Susan M; Smith, George D; Lawlor, Debbie A; Lindsay, Robert S

    2018-02-20

    To determine if first trimester maternal thyroid dysfunction is a critical determinant of child scholastic performance and overall educational attainment. Prospective cohort study. Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children cohort in the UK. 4615 mother-child pairs with an available first trimester sample (median 10 weeks gestation, interquartile range 8-12). Free thyroxine, thyroid stimulating hormone, and thyroid peroxidase antibodies assessed as continuous measures and the seven clinical categories of maternal thyroid function. Five age-specific national curriculum assessments in 3580 children at entry stage assessment at 54 months, increasing up to 4461 children at their final school assessment at age 15. No strong evidence of clinically meaningful associations of first trimester free thyroxine and thyroid stimulating hormone levels with entry stage assessment score or Standard Assessment Test scores at any of the key stages was found. Associations of maternal free thyroxine or thyroid stimulating hormone with the total number of General Certificates of Secondary Education (GCSEs) passed (range 0-16) were all close to the null: free thyroxine, rate ratio per pmol/L 1.00 (95% confidence interval 1.00 to 1.01); and thyroid stimulating hormone, rate ratio 0.98 (0.94 to 1.02). No important relationship was observed when more detailed capped scores of GCSEs allowing for both the number and grade of pass or when language, mathematics, and science performance were examined individually or when all educational assessments undertaken by an individual from school entry to leaving were considered. 200 (4.3%) mothers were newly identified as having hypothyroidism or subclinical hypothyroidism and 97 (2.1%) subclinical hyperthyroidism or hyperthyroidism. Children of mothers with thyroid dysfunction attained an equivalent number of GCSEs and equivalent grades as children of mothers with euthyroidism. Maternal thyroid dysfunction in early pregnancy does not have a

  14. Herbal Medicines and Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athar Rasekhjahromi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study was to assess the association between herbal medication and OHSS. Methods. This retrospective cohort study was conducted with 101 polycystic ovary syndrome patients. 66 patients took conventional pharmacological medications and 35 took herbal medications. Data were analyzed by statistical test including Fisher’s Exact and binominal logistic regression. P<0.05 was considered significant. Results. Of the 101 females, 53 were married and 48 were single. There was no significant association between the groups in marriage. No significant association was found in mean age between the two groups (23.9 ± 5.8 years in the control group versus 26.3 ± 6.7 years in the case group. There was a significant difference between the two groups .After adding the dependent (OHSS prevalence and independent (marriage and group variables into the model, the Hosmer-Lemeshow test showed suitability. Variances analyzed with this model ranged between 29.4% and 40.7%. Conclusion. The indiscriminate use of herbs is correlated with OHSS. Because patients increasingly consume herbs, they should be aware of potential side effects. However, appropriate dosages of herbs could be obtained for use instead of conventional treatments, which often have side effects.

  15. Reclassification and treatment of odontogenic keratocysts: A cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ophir Ribeiro-Júnior

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The odontogenic keratocyst (OKC is a recurrent cyst that has been recently reclassified from an odontogenic tumor to an odontogenic cyst. The aim of the present study was to investigate its treatment and address issues related to its association with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS. Lesions from the cohort of patients included in the present study consisted of 40 OKCs, of which 27 lesions were treated by enucleation (GE and 13 underwent decompression (GD. Complementary treatment occurred in 38 (95% lesions, of which 10 underwent isolated peripheral ostectomy (GO and 28 underwent peripheral ostectomy combined with Carnoy's solution (GC. Thirteen lesions were associated with NBCCS (GS, while the others (n=27 were non-syndromic lesions (GnS. The recurrence-free periods (RFP in the sample groups were compared using the Kaplan-Meier function and log-rank test at a significance level of 5% (p 0.05 or increased CRR for the decompression (15.4% over five years. Application of Carnoy's solution did not increase the efficacy of the peripheral ostectomy, but was related to a CRR of 0% for the syndromic lesions over five years. Therefore, 1 decompression did not increase the recurrence risk; 2 peripheral ostectomy demonstrated a similar efficacy as the combination with Carnoy's solution; 3 the association of NBCCS did not seem to significantly influence OKC recurrence; and 4 syndromic lesions seem to behave in the same manner as non-syndromic lesions when submitted to complementary treatments.

  16. Moisture damage and asthma: a birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvonen, Anne M; Hyvärinen, Anne; Korppi, Matti; Haverinen-Shaughnessy, Ulla; Renz, Harald; Pfefferle, Petra I; Remes, Sami; Genuneit, Jon; Pekkanen, Juha

    2015-03-01

    Excess moisture and visible mold are associated with increased risk of asthma. Only a few studies have performed detailed home visits to characterize the extent and location of moisture damage and mold growth. Structured home inspections were performed in a birth cohort study when the children were 5 months old (on average). Children (N = 398) were followed up to the age of 6 years. Specific immunoglobulin E concentrations were determined at 6 years. Moisture damage and mold at an early age in the child's main living areas (but not in bathrooms or other interior spaces) were associated with the risk of developing physician-diagnosed asthma ever, persistent asthma, and respiratory symptoms during the first 6 years. Associations with asthma ever were strongest for moisture damage with visible mold in the child's bedroom (adjusted odds ratio: 4.82 [95% confidence interval: 1.29-18.02]) and in the living room (adjusted odds ratio: 7.51 [95% confidence interval: 1.49-37.83]). Associations with asthma ever were stronger in the earlier part of the follow-up and among atopic children. No consistent associations were found between moisture damage with or without visible mold and atopic sensitization. Moisture damage and mold in early infancy in the child's main living areas were associated with asthma development. Atopic children may be more susceptible to the effects of moisture damage and mold. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. Prehospital tidal volume influences hospital tidal volume: A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltze, Andrew J; Wong, Terrence S; Harland, Karisa K; Ahmed, Azeemuddin; Fuller, Brian M; Mohr, Nicholas M

    2015-06-01

    The purposes of the study are to describe current practice of ventilation in a modern air medical system and to measure the association of ventilation strategy with subsequent ventilator care and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Retrospective observational cohort study of intubated adult patients (n = 235) transported by a university-affiliated air medical transport service to a 711-bed tertiary academic center between July 2011 and May 2013. Low tidal volume ventilation was defined as tidal volumes less than or equal to 8 mL/kg predicted body weight. Multivariable regression was used to measure the association between prehospital tidal volume, hospital ventilation strategy, and ARDS. Most patients (57%) were ventilated solely with bag valve ventilation during transport. Mean tidal volume of mechanically ventilated patients was 8.6 mL/kg predicted body weight (SD, 0.2 mL/kg). Low tidal volume ventilation was used in 13% of patients. Patients receiving low tidal volume ventilation during air medical transport were more likely to receive low tidal volume ventilation in the emergency department (P tidal volume (P = .840). Low tidal volume ventilation was rare during air medical transport. Air transport ventilation strategy influenced subsequent ventilation but was not associated with ARDS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Biomarkers in differentiating clinical dengue cases: A prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Kim Kuan Low

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate five biomarkers (neopterin, vascular endothelial growth factor-A, thrombomodulin, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 and pentraxin 3 in differentiating clinical dengue cases. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted whereby the blood samples were obtained at day of presentation and the final diagnosis were obtained at the end of patients’ follow-up. All patients included in the study were 15 years old or older, not pregnant, not infected by dengue previously and did not have cancer, autoimmune or haematological disorder. Median test was performed to compare the biomarker levels. A subgroup Mann-Whitney U test was analysed between severe dengue and non-severe dengue cases. Monte Carlo method was used to estimate the 2-tailed probability (P value for independent variables with unequal number of patients. Results: All biomarkers except thrombomodulin has P value < 0.001 in differentiating among the healthy subjects, non-dengue fever, dengue without warning signs and dengue with warning signs/severe dengue. Subgroup analysis for all the biomarkers between severe dengue and non-severe dengue cases was not statistically significant except vascular endothelial growth factor-A (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Certain biomarkers were able to differentiate the clinical dengue cases. This could be potentially useful in classifying and determining the severity of dengue infected patients in the hospital.

  19. Optimization of Inflammatory Bowel Disease Cohort Studies in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Wai K

    2015-07-01

    With the incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) increasing rapidly in many Asian countries, including Hong Kong, it is important that patient characteristics are better understood. For example, are the phenotypes, behaviors, complications, and even treatment responses found in Asian patients similar to those of their Western counterparts? To formally address these questions, a properly designed local cohort study is needed. Whilst IBD is still relatively uncommon in Asia, the establishment of a local IBD registry will significantly contribute to the answering of these questions. The Hong Kong IBD registry was established to fill the gap in the understanding of IBD patients, and to foster research into IBD in Hong Kong. The Hong Kong IBD registry is a territory-wide registry that includes all public hospitals in Hong Kong. We included all IBD patients who were currently receiving medical care at these hospitals. With the help of the central computer medical record system of the Hospital Authority of Hong Kong, all clinical events, medications usage, endoscopy records, and laboratory results of patients in the registry were captured. Apart from data collection, the registry is also establishing a bio-specimen bank of blood and stool samples of IBD patients for future research. The IBD registry is a very useful platform for population-based studies on IBD in Asia.

  20. Parental separation and pediatric cancer: a Danish cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Sally; Carlsen, Kathrine; Bidstrup, Pernille Envold; Bastian, Gro Samsø; Lund, Lasse Wegener; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Johansen, Christoffer

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the risk for separation (ending cohabitation) of the parents of a child with a diagnosis of cancer. In a nationwide cohort, we compared the risk for ending cohabitation of the parents of 2450 children (aged 0-20 years) given a diagnosis of cancer with the risk of parents of 44 853 randomly selected, gender- and age-matched cancer-free children. We adjusted for socioeconomic position and demographic factors. Rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals for separation were estimated in a Cox proportional hazards model. The parents of children with cancer did not have a higher risk for separation than the general population (rate ratio: 1.00 [95% confidence interval: 0.91-1.10]). Separate analyses according to type of cancer and survival of the child similarly yielded null results. Experiencing cancer in a child does not seem to be a risk factor for separation. Our study will allow clinicians to reassure parents and to support them in facing the trauma of cancer in their child.

  1. Feasibility of a cohort study on health risks caused by occupational exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breckenkamp, Jürgen; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele; Münster, Eva

    2009-01-01

    , in addition, a cohort of amateur radio operators were considered. Based on expert ratings, literature reviews and our set of predefined criteria, three of the cohorts were identified as promising for further evaluation: the personnel (technicians) of medium/short wave broadcasting stations, amateur radio......BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of performing a cohort study on health risks from occupational exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) in Germany. METHODS: A set of criteria was developed to evaluate the feasibility of such a cohort study...... and mixture of exposures, e.g. plastic vapours), although exposure was highest in this occupational setting. The advantage of the cohort of amateur radio operators was the large number of persons it includes, while the advantage of the cohort of personnel working at broadcasting stations was the quality...

  2. Injury incidence in a Spanish sub-elite professional football team: A prospective study during four consecutive seasons

    OpenAIRE

    Mallo Sainz, Javier; González Frutos, Pablo; Veiga Fernandez, Santiago; Navarro Cabello, Enrique

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the injury incidence and injury characteristics of a Spanish sub-elite professional football team during four consecutive seasons. A team was followed prospectively from the season 2003-2004 to 2006-2007 and individual player exposure and time loss injuries were recorded during all club training sessions and matches. A total of 313 time-loss injuries were recorded. The mean injury incidence was 10.9 injuries/1000 hours (5.2 injuries/1000 training hours...

  3. Representativeness of the LifeLines Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Klijs

    Full Text Available LifeLines is a large prospective population-based three generation cohort study in the north of the Netherlands. Different recruitment strategies were adopted: recruitment of an index population via general practitioners, subsequent inclusion of their family members, and online self-registration. Our aim was to investigate the representativeness of the adult study population at baseline and to evaluate differences in the study population according to recruitment strategy.Demographic characteristics of the LifeLines study population, recruited between 2006-2013, were compared with the total adult population in the north of the Netherlands as registered in the Dutch population register. Socioeconomic characteristics, lifestyle, chronic diseases, and general health were further compared with participants of the Permanent Survey of Living Conditions within the region (2005-2011, N = 6,093. Differences according to recruitment strategy were assessed.Compared with the population of the north of the Netherlands, LifeLines participants were more often female, middle aged, married, living in a semi-urban place and Dutch native. Adjusted for differences in demographic composition, in LifeLines a smaller proportion had a low educational attainment (5% versus 14% or had ever smoked (54% versus 66%. Differences in the prevalence of various chronic diseases and low general health scores were mostly smaller than 3%. The age profiles of the three recruitment groups differed due to age related inclusion criteria of the recruitment groups. Other differences according to recruitment strategy were small.Our results suggest that, adjusted for differences in demographic composition, the LifeLines adult study population is broadly representative for the adult population of the north of the Netherlands. The recruitment strategy had a minor effect on the level of representativeness. These findings indicate that the risk of selection bias is low and that risk estimates

  4. Dioxins and endometriosis: cohort study of women in West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diliberto, J.; Birnbaum, L. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, NHEERL, ETD, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Staats, D.A. [West Virginia Dept. of Environmental Protection, Charleston, WV (United States); Staats, D.A.; Becker, J.; Jude, D.; Chouinard, S.C.; Smith, T. [Marshall Univ. Medical Center, Huntington, WV (United States); Sirinek, L. [West Virginia Dept. of Environmental Protection, Wheeling, WV (United States); Clark, G. [Xenobiotic Detection Systems Inc., Durham, NC (United States); Landy, R. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 3, ESC, Ft. Meade, MD (United States)

    2004-09-15

    The women in this endometriosis/dioxin health study reside in the Kanawha/Ohio River Valley area of West Virginia and comprise a potential cluster (cohort) of individuals who have been exposed to dioxins (dioxin and dioxin-like chemicals) at background levels higher than those seen in other areas of the United States. The emissions from an unique constellation of chemical industries appear to have led to high levels of environmental dioxin contaminants. In addition, this area has a high incidence of endometriosis. Previous animal studies, both in nonhuman primates and rodents, have demonstrated a correlation between dioxin exposure and endometriosis. Human epidemiology studies have suggested an association but have not demonstrated a statistically significant correlation, possibly due to limitations in study design such as insufficient numbers, measurement of only TCDD rather than total equivalents to TCDD (TEQs), and/or lack of surgical ascertainment of endometriosis. The present study is addressing these issues. Thus, we have the unusual congruence of identified emission sources and high background levels of dioxins and a potentially related elevation of endometriosis. Endometriosis is a condition suffered by women in which the endometrial tissue, that usually lines the uterus, migrates to other areas. Most commonly it is found in the abdomen, bladder, ovaries or bowel. Patients with endometriosis experience pelvic pain, irregular bleeding, infertility and other problems. Immune suppression has been associated with severe endometriosis. This debilitating condition is a poorly understood disease. In the United States, this condition affects millions of women in their reproductive years and is showing up more frequently in very young women. Endometriosis will seriously impact future fertility and health care utilization. Data suggest that the rate of endometriosis in the Kanawha and Ohio River valleys is higher than is seen in other regions of the United States.

  5. The Netherlands Cohort Study – Meat Investigation Cohort; a population-based cohort over-represented with vegetarians, pescetarians and low meat consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Vegetarian diets have been associated with lower risk of chronic disease, but little is known about the health effects of low meat diets and the reliability of self-reported vegetarian status. We aimed to establish an analytical cohort over-represented with vegetarians, pescetarians and 1 day/week meat consumers, and to describe their lifestyle and dietary characteristics. In addition, we were able to compare self-reported vegetarians with vegetarians whose status has been confirmed by their response on the extensive food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Study methods Embedded within the Netherlands Cohort Study (n = 120,852; including 1150 self-reported vegetarians), the NLCS-Meat Investigation Cohort (NLCS-MIC) was defined by combining all FFQ-confirmed-vegetarians (n = 702), pescetarians (n = 394), and 1 day/week meat consumers (n = 1,396) from the total cohort with a random sample of 2–5 days/week- and 6–7 days/week meat consumers (n = 2,965 and 5,648, respectively). Results Vegetarians, pescetarians, and 1 day/week meat consumers had more favorable dietary intakes (e.g. higher fiber/vegetables) and lifestyle characteristics (e.g. lower smoking rates) compared to regular meat consumers in both sexes. Vegetarians adhered to their diet longer than pescetarians and 1 day/week meat consumers. 75% of vegetarians with a prevalent cancer at baseline had changed to this diet after diagnosis. 50% of self-reported vegetarians reported meat or fish consumption on the FFQ. Although the misclassification that occurred in terms of diet and lifestyle when merely relying on self-reporting was relatively small, the impact on associations with disease risk remains to be studied. Conclusion We established an analytical cohort over-represented with persons at the lower end of the meat consumption spectrum which should facilitate prospective studies of major cancers and causes of death using ≥20.3 years of follow-up. PMID:24289207

  6. Fertility Treatment and Childhood Epilepsy - a Nationwide Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kettner, Laura Ozer; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fertility treatment includes hormonal stimulation of the woman and in vitro manipulation of gametes and embryos that may influence prenatal brain development. We aimed to investigate the association between fertility treatment and childhood epilepsy, including specific types of treatm......BACKGROUND: Fertility treatment includes hormonal stimulation of the woman and in vitro manipulation of gametes and embryos that may influence prenatal brain development. We aimed to investigate the association between fertility treatment and childhood epilepsy, including specific types...... of treatment and indications, as well as subtypes of epilepsy. METHODS: In this nationwide birth cohort study, we included all pregnancies in Denmark resulting in live-born singletons, 1995-2003. Children conceived by fertility treatment and children developing epilepsy (until 2013) were identified from Danish...... national registers. RESULTS: A total of 565,116 pregnancies were included; 8,071 children (1.4%) developed epilepsy. Children conceived after ovulation induction or intrauterine insemination had a slightly higher risk of childhood epilepsy (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.15; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.00, 1...

  7. Life-course pathways to psychological distress: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Stumm, Sophie; Deary, Ian J; Hagger-Johnson, Gareth

    2013-05-09

    Early life factors, like intelligence and socioeconomic status (SES), are associated with health outcomes in adulthood. Fitting comprehensive life-course models, we tested (1) the effect of childhood intelligence and SES, education and adulthood SES on psychological distress at midlife, and (2) compared alternative measurement specifications (reflective and formative) of SES. Prospective cohort study (the Aberdeen Children of the 1950s). Aberdeen, Scotland. 12 500 live-births (6282 boys) between 1950 and 1956, who were followed up in the years 2001-2003 at age 46-51 with a postal questionnaire achieving a response rate of 64% (7183). Psychological distress at age 46-51 (questionnaire). Childhood intelligence and SES and education had indirect effects on psychological distress at midlife, mediated by adult SES. Adult SES was the only variable to have a significant direct effect on psychological distress at midlife; the effect was stronger in men than in women. Alternative measurement specifications of SES (reflective and formative) resulted in greatly different model parameters and fits. Even though formative operationalisations of SES are theoretically appropriate, SES is better specified as reflective than as a formative latent variable in the context of life-course modelling.

  8. Carbon monoxide poisoning from waterpipe smoking: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhorn, Lars; Michaelis, Dirk; Kemmerer, Michael; Jüttner, Björn; Tetzlaff, Kay

    2018-04-01

    Waterpipe smoking may increasingly account for unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning, a serious health hazard with high morbidity and mortality. We aimed at identifying waterpipe smoking as a cause for carbon monoxide poisoning in a large critical care database of a specialty care referral center. This retrospective cohort study included patients with a history of exposure to waterpipe smoking and carbon monoxide blood gas levels >10% or presence of clinical symptoms compatible with CO poisoning admitted between January 2013 and December 2016. Patients' initial symptoms and carbon monoxide blood levels were retrieved from records and neurologic status was assessed before and after hyperbaric oxygen treatment. Sixty-one subjects with carbon monoxide poisoning were included [41 males, 20 females; mean age 23 (SD ± 6) years; range 13-45] with an initial mean carboxyhemoglobin of 26.93% (SD ± 9.72). Most common symptoms included syncope, dizziness, headache, and nausea; 75% had temporary syncope. Symptoms were not closely associated with blood COHb levels. CO poisoning after waterpipe smoking may present in young adults with a wide variability of symptoms from none to unconsciousness. Therefore diagnosis should be suspected even in the absence of symptoms.

  9. Predicting pulmonary tuberculosis in immigrants: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffernan, Courtney; Doroshenko, Alexander; Egedahl, Mary Lou; Barrie, James; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan; Long, Richard

    2018-04-01

    Our objective was to investigate whether pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) can be predicted from features of a targeted medical history and basic laboratory investigations in immigrants. A retrospective cohort of 391 foreign-born adults referred to the Edmonton Tuberculosis Clinic (Edmonton, AB, Canada) was studied using multiple logistic regression analysis to predict PTB. Seven characteristics of disease were used as explanatory variables. Cross-validation assessed performance. Each predictor was tested on two outcomes: "culture-positive" and "smear-positive". Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was quantified. Symptoms, subacute duration of symptoms, risk factors for reactivation of latent TB infection and anaemia were all associated with a positive culture (adjusted OR 1.79, 2.24, 1.72 and 2.28, respectively; p<0.05). Symptoms, inappropriate prescription of broad-spectrum antibiotics and a "typical" chest radiograph were associated with smear-positive PTB (adjusted OR 2.91, 1.55 and 12.34, respectively; p<0.05). ROC curve analysis was used to test e ach model, yielding AUC=0.91 for the outcome "culture-positive" disease and AUC=0.94 for the outcome "smear-positive" disease. PTB among the foreign-born can be predicted from a targeted medical history and basic laboratory investigations, raising the threshold of suspicion in settings where the disease is relatively rare.

  10. The use of new technologies in Cohort studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antonio Bruno da Silva

    2010-03-01

    élites de posicionamento (GPS para a localização de residências, o uso de coletas de DNA para comparações futuras, as bases de dados institucionais e governamentais são fontes de informações que abreviam, minimizam gastos e dão maior confiabilidade aos estudos de muito longa duração.Tem-se visto antigos trabalhos realizados há décadas sendo submetidos a novas avaliações estatísticas com o desenvolvimento de novas teorias e descobertas. Neste número da revista brasileira em promoção da saúde, acompanhamos o nascimento de uma nova coorte(14, que acompanhará a evolução dos determinantes de saúde de população de uma grande comunidade do Nordeste do Brasil.REFERÊNCIAS1. Morabia A, Guthold R. Wilhelm Weinberg’s 1913Large Retrospective Cohort Study: a rediscovery. Am JEpidemiol. 2007;165(7:727-33.2. Doll R. Cohort studies: history of the method. II.Retrospective cohort studies. Soz Praventivmed.2001;46(3:152-60. Erratum in: Soz Praventivmed2002;47(2:90.3. Dawber TR, Meadors GF, Moore Jr. FE. Epidemiologicalapproaches to heart disease: the Framingham Study.Am J Public Health Nations Health. 1951;41(3:279-81.4. Fonseca MGU, Peres F, Firmo JOA, Uchoa E.,Percepção de risco: maneiras de pensar e agirno manejo de agrotóxicos. Ciênc saúde coletiva[periódico na Internet]. 2007 Mar [acesso em 2010Maio 26]; 12(1:39-50. Disponível em: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-81232007000100009&lng=en&nrm=iso. doi: 10.1590/S1413-81232007000100009.5. Victora CG, Barros FC. Cohort profile: the 1982Pelotas (Brazil birth cohort study. Int J Epidemiol.2006;35(2:237-42.6. Armenian HK (editor. Applications of the case-controlmethod. Epidemiol Rev. 1994;16:1-164.7. Samet JM, Muñoz A. Evolution of the cohort study.Epidemiol Rev. 1998;20(1:1-14.8. Doll R. Cohort studies: history of the method. II.Retrospective cohort studies. Soz Praventivmed.2001;46(3:152-60. Erratum in: Soz Praventivmed2002;47(2:909. Lima-Costa MF, Barreto SM. Tipos de

  11. Regression analysis for secondary response variable in a case-cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yinghao; Cai, Jianwen; Kim, Sangmi; Zhou, Haibo

    2017-12-29

    Case-cohort study design has been widely used for its cost-effectiveness. In any real study, there are always other important outcomes of interest beside the failure time that the original case-cohort study is based on. How to utilize the available case-cohort data to study the relationship of a secondary outcome with the primary exposure obtained through the case-cohort study is not well studied. In this article, we propose a non-parametric estimated likelihood approach for analyzing a secondary outcome in a case-cohort study. The estimation is based on maximizing a semiparametric likelihood function that is built jointly on both time-to-failure outcome and the secondary outcome. The proposed estimator is shown to be consistent, efficient, and asymptotically normal. Finite sample performance is evaluated via simulation studies. Data from the Sister Study is analyzed to illustrate our method. © 2017, The International Biometric Society.

  12. Perinatal depression in a cohort study on Iranian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Reza Kheirabadi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childbearing years in the women′s life are associated with the highest risk of depression. In this study depression in third trimester of pregnancy and after delivery was studied. Depressive symptom score and the proportion of mothers above a threshold were compared to indicate probable depressive disorder at each stage. Methods: This prospective cohort study was conducted in rural areas of Isfahan province of Iran from September 2007 to January 2008. Subjects were all in their third trimester and followed up from the beginning of the study to 6- 8 weeks postpartum. At all, 2156 pregnant women completed the self report questionnaires but 258 were excluded because they were incomplete and final analysis was done with 1898 samples. At the final stage the sample size was decreased to 1291. Results: The prevalence of depression based on BDI score greater than 20 in last trimester of pregnancy, was 22.8% and rate of depression based on EPD score greater than 12 between 6 to 8 weeks after delivery, was 26.3%. Incidence of Post Partum Depression (PPD in 6 to 8 weeks after delivery in those who were not clinically depressed during preg-nancy was 20.1%. Results showed that history of depression, unplanned pregnancy, being housewife and having 3 or more children had significant relation with ante partum depression. Conclusions: Two main risk factors for post partum depression are previous history of depression and depression during current pregnancy. It is important to assess these variables during pregnancy in order to facilitate timely identifi-cation of women at risk.

  13. Psychological characteristics of chronic depression: a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiersma, Jenneke E; van Oppen, Patricia; van Schaik, Digna J F; van der Does, A J Willem; Beekman, Aartjan T F; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2011-03-01

    Few studies have investigated the importance of psychological characteristics for chronicity of depression. Knowledge about psychological differences between chronically depressed persons and nonchronically depressed persons may help to improve treatment of chronic depression. This is the first study to simultaneously compare in large samples various psychological characteristics between chronically depressed and nonchronically depressed adults. Baseline data were drawn from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA), an ongoing longitudinal cohort study aimed at examining the long-term course of depressive and anxiety disorders in different health care settings and phases of illness. Participants were aged 18 to 65 years at the baseline assessment in 2004-2007 and had a current diagnosis of DSM-IV major depressive disorder (N = 1,002). Chronicity of depression was defined as being depressed for 24 months or more in the past 4 to 5 years. The chronicity criterion was fulfilled by 31% (n = 312). The NEO Five-Factor Inventory measured the 5 personality domains, the Leiden Index of Depression Sensitivity-Revised was used to measure cognitive reactivity (eg, hopelessness, rumination), and the Mastery Scale measured external locus of control. Compared to the nonchronically depressed persons, the chronically depressed persons reported significantly higher levels of neuroticism (OR = 1.81; 95% CI, 1.55-2.12; P testing these variables multivariably, the odds of chronic depression were significantly increased among those with low extraversion (OR = 0.73; 95% CI, 0.61-0.88; P = .001), high rumination (OR = 1.24; 95% CI, 1.01-1.53; P = .04), and high external locus of control (OR = 1.48; 95% CI, 1.21-1.80; P psychological characteristics for chronicity of depression. These findings provide suggestions for more specific interventions, focused on extraversion, rumination, and external locus of control, in the treatment of chronic depression. © Copyright 2011

  14. Alcohol and ovarian cancer risk: Results from the Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, L.J.; Zeegers, M.P.A.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study alcohol consumption in relation to ovarian cancer risk in a prospective cohort study. Methods: The Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer was initiated in 1986. A self-administered questionnaire on dietary habits and other risk factors for cancer was completed by 62,573

  15. Screening for bipolar disorders in Spanish-speaking populations: sensitivity and specificity of the Bipolar Spectrum Diagnostic Scale-Spanish Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Gustavo Héctor; Romero, Ester; Fabregues, Fernando; Pies, Ronald; Ghaemi, Nassir; Mota-Castillo, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is commonly misdiagnosed, perhaps more so in Latin American and Spanish-speaking populations than in the United States. The Bipolar Spectrum Diagnostic Scale (BSDS) is a 19-item screening instrument designed to assist in screening for all types of bipolar disorder. The authors investigated the sensitivity of a Spanish-language version of the BSDS in a cohort of 65 outpatients with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder, based on a semi-structured interview and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision criteria. To determine specificity, we assessed a control group of 36 outpatients with diagnosis of unipolar major depressive disorder. The overall sensitivity of the BSDS Spanish version with bipolar disorders types I, II, and NOS was 0.70, which was slightly lower than the sensitivity in the study using the English version of the BSDS (0.76). The specificity was 0.89. When the threshold was decreased from 13 to 12, the sensitivity of the Spanish BSDS increased to 0.76 and specificity dropped to 0.81. The Spanish version of the BSDS is promising as a screening instrument in Spanish-speaking populations. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Development, equivalence study, and normative data of version B of the Spanish-language Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau-Guinea, L; Pérez-Enríquez, C; García-Escobar, G; Arrondo-Elizarán, C; Pereira-Cutiño, B; Florido-Santiago, M; Piqué-Candini, J; Planas, A; Paez, M; Peña-Casanova, J; Sánchez-Benavides, G

    2018-05-08

    The Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT) is widely used for the assessment of verbal episodic memory, mainly in patients with Alzheimer disease. A Spanish version of the FCSRT and normative data were developed within the NEURONORMA project. Availability of alternative, equivalent versions is useful for following patients up in clinical settings. This study aimed to develop an alternative version of the original FCSRT (version B) and to study its equivalence to the original Spanish test (version A), and its performance in a sample of healthy individuals, in order to develop reference data. We evaluated 232 healthy participants of the NEURONORMA-Plus project, aged between 18 and 90. Thirty-three participants were assessed with both versions using a counterbalanced design. High intra-class correlation coefficients (between 0.8 and 0.9) were observed in the equivalence study. While no significant differences in performance were observed in total recall scores, free recall scores were significantly lower for version B. These preliminary results suggest that the newly developed FCSRT version B is equivalent to version A in the main variables tested. Further studies are necessary to ensure interchangeability between versions. We provide normative data for the new version. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Isolated optic nerve gliomas: a multicenter historical cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shofty, Ben; Ben-Sira, Liat; Kesler, Anat; Jallo, George; Groves, Mari L; Iyer, Rajiv R; Lassaletta, Alvaro; Tabori, Uri; Bouffet, Eric; Thomale, Ulrich-Wilhelm; Hernáiz Driever, Pablo; Constantini, Shlomi

    2017-12-01

    OBJECTIVE Isolated optic nerve gliomas (IONGs) constitute a rare subgroup of optic pathway gliomas (OPGs). Due to the rarity of this condition and the difficulty in differentiating IONGs from other types of OPGs in most clinical series, little is known about these tumors. Currently, due to lack of evidence, they are managed the same as any other OPG. METHODS The authors conducted a multicenter retrospective cohort study aimed at determining the natural history of IONGs. Included were patients with clear-cut glioma of the optic nerve without posterior (chiasmatic/hypothalamic) involvement. At least 1 year of follow-up, 2 MRI studies, and 2 neuro-ophthalmological examinations were required for inclusion. RESULTS Thirty-six patients with 39 tumors were included in this study. Age at diagnosis ranged between 6 months and 16 years (average 6 years). The mean follow-up time was 5.6 years. Twenty-five patients had neurofibromatosis Type 1. During the follow-up period, 59% of the tumors progressed, 23% remained stable, and 18% (all with neurofibromatosis Type 1) displayed some degree of spontaneous regression. Fifty-one percent of the patients presented with visual decline, of whom 90% experienced further deterioration. Nine patients were treated with chemotherapy, 5 of whom improved visually. Ten patients underwent operation, and no local or distal recurrence was noted. CONCLUSIONS Isolated optic nerve gliomas are highly dynamic tumors. Radiological progression and visual deterioration occur in greater percentages than in the general population of patients with OPGs. Response to chemotherapy may be better in this group, and its use should be considered early in the course of the disease.

  18. Depression and incident diabetic foot ulcers: a prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lisa H.; Rutter, Carolyn M.; Katon, Wayne J.; Reiber, Gayle E.; Ciechanowski, Paul; Heckbert, Susan R.; Lin, Elizabeth H.B.; Ludman, Evette J.; Oliver, Malia M.; Young, Bessie A.; Von Korff, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Objective To test whether depression is associated with an increased risk of incident diabetic foot ulcers. Methods The Pathways Epidemiologic Study is a population-based prospective cohort study of 4839 patients with diabetes in 2000–2007. The present analysis included 3474 adults with type 2 diabetes and no prior diabetic foot ulcers or amputations. Mean follow-up was 4.1 years. Major and minor depression assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) were the exposures of interest. The outcome of interest was incident diabetic foot ulcers. We computed the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% CI for incident diabetic foot ulcers, comparing patients with major and minor depression to those without depression and adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, medical comorbidity, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), diabetes duration, insulin use, number of diabetes complications, body mass index, smoking status, and foot self-care. Sensitivity analyses also adjusted for peripheral neuropathy and peripheral arterial disease as defined by diagnosis codes. Results Compared to patients without depression, patients with major depression by PHQ-9 had a two-fold increase in the risk of incident diabetic foot ulcers (adjusted HR 2.00, 95% CI: 1.24, 3.25). There was no statistically significant association between minor depression by PHQ-9 and incident diabetic foot ulcers (adjusted HR 1.37, 95% CI: 0.77, 2.44). Conclusion Major depression by PHQ-9 is associated with a two-fold higher risk of incident diabetic foot ulcers. Future studies of this association should include better measures of peripheral neuropathy and peripheral arterial disease, which are possible confounders and/or mediators. PMID:20670730

  19. Mortality in patients with psoriasis. A retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Walter; Rossi, Emiliano; Galimberti, María Laura; Krauss, Juan; Navarro Estrada, José; Galimberti, Ricardo; Cagide, Arturo

    2017-06-07

    The immune and inflammatory pathways involved in psoriasis could favor the development of atherosclerosis, consequently increasing mortality. The objectives of this study were: 1) to assess the mortality of a population with psoriasis compared to a control group, and 2) to assess the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors. A retrospective cohort was analyzed from a secondary database (electronic medical record). All patients with a diagnosis of psoriasis at 1-01-2010 were included in the study and compared to a control group of the same health system, selected randomly (1:1). Subjects with a history of cardiovascular disease were excluded from the study. A survival analysis was performed considering death from any cause as an event. Follow-up was extended until 30-06-2015. We included 1,481 subjects with psoriasis and 1,500 controls. Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors was higher in the group with psoriasis. The average follow-up time was 4.6±1.7 years. Mortality was higher in psoriasis patients compared to controls (15.1 vs. 9.6 events per 1,000 person-year, PPsoriasis was seen to be significantly associated with increased mortality rates compared to the control group in the univariate analysis (HR 1.58, 95% CI 1.16-2.15, P=.004) and after adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors (HR 1.48, 95% CI 1.08-2.3, P=.014). In this population, patients with psoriasis showed a higher prevalence for the onset of cardiovascular risk factors as well as higher mortality rates during follow-up. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. The Health Literacy and ESL study: a community-based intervention for Spanish-speaking adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto Mas, Francisco; Ji, Ming; Fuentes, Brenda O; Tinajero, Josefina

    2015-04-01

    Although Hispanics have a documented high risk of limited health literacy, there is a scarcity of research with this population group, and particularly with Hispanic immigrants who generally confront language barriers that have been related to low health literacy. The National Action Plan to Improve Health Literacy identified community-based English-language instruction as a strategy that can facilitate a health literate society. However, the literature lacks discussion on this type of intervention. This randomized control trial aimed to test the feasibility of using conventional English-as-a-second-language (ESL) instruction for improving health literacy among Spanish-speaking adults. Objectives included the development, implementation, and evaluation of a health literacy/ESL curriculum. The Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (TOFHLA) in English was used to assess health literacy levels. Analyses included independent sample t test, chi-square, and multiple linear regression. A total of 155 people participated. Results showed a significantly higher increase in the TOFHLA posttest score in the intervention group (p = .01), and noticeable differences in health literacy levels between groups. Results indicate that ESL constitutes a promising venue for improving health literacy among Spanish-speaking adults. Incorporating health literacy-related content may provide additional benefits.

  1. The Health Literacy and ESL Study: A Community-Based Intervention for Spanish-Speaking Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    MAS, FRANCISCO SOTO; JI, MING; FUENTES, BRENDA O.; TINAJERO, JOSEFINA

    2015-01-01

    Although Hispanics have a documented high risk of limited health literacy, there is a scarcity of research with this population group, and particularly with Hispanic immigrants who generally confront language barriers that have been related to low health literacy. The National Action Plan to Improve Health Literacy identified community-based English-language instruction as a strategy that can facilitate a health literate society. However, the literature lacks discussion on this type of intervention. This randomized control trial aimed to test the feasibility of using conventional English-as-a-second-language (ESL) instruction for improving health literacy among Spanish-speaking adults. Objectives included the development, implementation, and evaluation of a health literacy/ESL curriculum. The Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (TOFHLA) in English was used to assess health literacy levels. Analyses included independent sample t test, chi-square, and multiple linear regression. A total of 155 people participated. Results showed a significantly higher increase in the TOFHLA posttest score in the intervention group (p = .01), and noticeable differences in health literacy levels between groups. Results indicate that ESL constitutes a promising venue for improving health literacy among Spanish-speaking adults. Incorporating health literacy-related content may provide additional benefits. PMID:25602615

  2. STATUS REPORT, BEGIN TO DEVELOP COMPLETE OPERATIONS MANUALS FOR THE COHORT: PREPARE TO IMPLEMENT A COHORT STUDY OF CHILDREN'S ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a precursor to the National Children's Study (NCS), the North Carolina Cohort Study (NC Cohort Study) will provide the opportunity to field test procedures to better inform the implementation of the NCS. In order to test some of the study hypotheses, it will be important to ob...

  3. Listening to middle-school Spanish-speaking English language learners: A qualitative study of their perspectives of science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Ferrao, Julio E.

    The purpose of this study is to contribute to the understanding and explanation of the science achievement gap between Spanish-speaking English language learners (ELLs) and their mainstream peers. The sample of purposefully selected participants (N = 23) included students representing eight Spanish-speaking countries who attended three middle schools (grades 6th-8th), 11 boys and 12 girls, with different years of schooling in the United States, English proficiency levels, and science achievement levels. Data gathering strategies included individual interviews with participants, classroom observations, and analysis of secondary data sources on students' English language proficiency and science achievement. Data interpretation strategies using a critical-interpretive perspective consisted of coding and narrative analysis, including analyses of excerpts and case studies. Two major findings emerge from the study: (1) An inverse relation between participants' number of years of exposure to science learning in an English-only learning environment and their science achievement levels; and (2) specific participant-identified problems, such as learning the science vocabulary, writing in science, the use of mathematics in science, and the lack of sense making in the science classroom. Key recommendations comprise: (1) Acknowledging the value of dual language education; (2) supporting the science-literacy connection; (3) ensuring high-quality science through research-informed instructional strategies; and (4) assessing ELLs' science achievement.

  4. Prospective cohort study of impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastiaens, Jesse; Dorfman, Benjamin J; Christos, Paul J; Nirenberg, Melissa J

    2013-03-01

    Impulse control disorders (ICDs) are potentially serious side effects of dopamine agonist therapy in Parkinson's disease (PD), but prospective data are lacking about their incidence, time course, and risk factors. This work was a 4-year, prospective cohort study of outpatients with PD and no previous ICDs (N = 164). All subjects treated with a dopamine agonist during the study were followed longitudinally for new-onset ICDs. Baseline characteristics were compared in groups with (ICD+) and without (ICD-) subsequent ICDs. Forty-six subjects were treated with a dopamine agonist, including 25 who were newly treated and 21 who received ongoing dopamine agonist therapy. Of these 46 subjects, 18 (39.1%) developed new-onset ICDs. The timing of ICD onset varied from 3.0 to 114.0 months (median, 23.0) after initiation of dopamine agonist therapy. Baseline demographic characteristics were similar in ICD+ and ICD- groups. At baseline, ICD+ subjects had a greater prevalence of motor complications (61.1% versus 25.0%; P = 0.01) than ICD- subjects, despite comparable total dopaminergic medication usage in both groups (median, 150.0 versus 150.0 levodopa equivalents; P = 0.61). Compared with ICD- subjects, ICD+ subjects had a greater baseline prevalence of caffeine use (100% versus 66.7%; P = 0.007) and higher lifetime prevalence of cigarette smoking (44.4% versus 14.3%; P = 0.04). Peak dopamine agonist doses were higher in ICD+ than ICD- subjects (median 300.0 versus 165.0 L-dopa equivalents; P = 0.03), but cumulative dopamine agonist exposure was similar in both groups. In summary, the timing of new-onset ICDs in PD is highly variable. Risk factors include cigarette smoking, caffeine use, motor complications, and higher peak dopamine agonist dosage. Copyright © 2013 Movement Disorders Society.

  5. Injury among adolescents with intellectual disability: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, David; McPherson, Lyn; Lennox, Nicholas; Ware, Robert S

    2018-04-12

    Injury is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in adolescents worldwide, and injury rates have been shown to be higher among youth with intellectual disability. Despite this, injury among adolescents with intellectual disability remains poorly investigated. This study aimed to identify characteristics associated with injury among adolescents with intellectual disability living in the community. A cohort of adolescents with intellectual disability living in southern Queensland, Australia was investigated prospectively between January 2006 and June 2010. Personal characteristics were collected via postal questionnaire. Injury information, including mechanism and location of injury, was extracted from general practitioner records. The association between demographic, social and clinical characteristics of participants and episodes of injury was investigated using negative binomial regression. A total of 289 injuries were recorded from 432 participants over 1627.3 years of study-time. The overall annual injury incidence was 17.5 (95%CI 14.7, 20.9) per 100 person years. Presence of ADHD and less severe disability was associated with increased risk of injury. Down syndrome and reduced verbal communication capacity were associated with decreased risk of injury. Falls accounted for the highest single mechanism of injury (19.0%) with the majority (73.2%) of injuries involving either upper or lower limbs. ADHD is a co-morbidity that increases risk of injury among adolescents with intellectual disability. A critical component of injury prevention is avoidance of the great variety of environmental risk factors for injury relevant to this population. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Abandonment of nicotine dependence treatment: A cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Muzzi Cardozo Pawlina

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Non-adherence to treatment is one of the hindering factors in the process of smoking cessation. This study aimed to compare sociodemographic characteristics, smoking status and motivation among smokers who maintained or abandoned treatment to stop smoking, and to analyze associations between sociodemographic factors and smoking. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cohort study on 216 smokers who were attended at healthcare units in Cuiabá, Mato Grosso. METHODS: The instruments used were the Fagerström, URICA and CAGE questionnaires. Data from the initial evaluation was analyzed using the two-proportion test (α < 0.05. The patients were monitored for six months and those who abandoned treatment were accounted for. Bivariate analysis was conducted, using crude prevalence ratios and 5% significance level (P < 0.05, with abandonment of treatment as the outcome variable. Associations with P < 0.20 were selected for multiple robust Poisson regression (RPa. RESULTS: The abandonment rate was 34.26%. Males and individuals in the 20-39 age group, in employment, with low motivation, with shorter time smoking and lower tobacco intake predominated in the dropout group. In the final model, gender (RPa 1.47; 95% CI: 1.03-2.10 and age group (RPa 3.77; 95% CI: 1.47-9.67 remained associated with abandonment. CONCLUSION: Males and individuals in the 20-39 age group, in employment, with low motivation, with shorter time smoking and lower tobacco intake more frequently abandoned the treatment. Male gender and younger age group were associated with abandonment of nicotine dependence treatment.

  7. Maternal Caffeine Consumption and Infant Nighttime Waking: Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Iná S.; Matijasevich, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Coffee and other caffeinated beverages are commonly consumed in pregnancy. In adults, caffeine may interfere with sleep onset and have a dose-response effect similar to those seen during insomnia. In infancy, nighttime waking is a common event. With this study, we aimed to investigate if maternal caffeine consumption during pregnancy and lactation leads to frequent nocturnal awakening among infants at 3 months of age. METHODS: All children born in the city of Pelotas, Brazil, during 2004 were enrolled on a cohort study. Mothers were interviewed at delivery and after 3 months to obtain information on caffeine drinking consumption, sociodemographic, reproductive, and behavioral characteristics. Infant sleeping pattern in the previous 15 days was obtained from a subsample. Night waking was defined as an episode of infant arousal that woke the parents during nighttime. Multivariable analysis was performed by using Poisson regression. RESULTS: The subsample included 885 of the 4231 infants born in 2004. All but 1 mother consumed caffeine in pregnancy. Nearly 20% were heavy consumers (≥300 mg/day) during pregnancy and 14.3% at 3 months postpartum. Prevalence of frequent nighttime awakeners (>3 episodes per night) was 13.8% (95% confidence interval: 11.5%–16.0%). The highest prevalence ratio was observed among breastfed infants from mothers consuming ≥300 mg/day during the whole pregnancy and in the postpartum period (1.65; 95% confidence interval: 0.86–3.17) but at a nonsignificant level. CONCLUSIONS: Caffeine consumption during pregnancy and by nursing mothers seems not to have consequences on sleep of infants at the age of 3 months. PMID:22473365

  8. Influence of Handheld Mobiles on Parotid: A Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gracelin E Ranjitha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mobile phones generate heat and radiofrequency radiation. The parotid gland is one potential target, because mobile phones are pressed against the side of the face where the gland is located. Aims and Objectives: To compare the effect of mobile phone radiation on parotid gland volume, systolic velocity, salivary flow rate, and protein concentration between the dominant and the nondominant side of mobile phone usage among heavy mobile phone users. Materials and Methods: Ultrasonography of the superior lobe of parotid was performed bilaterally to measure gland volume. Systolic velocity of the external carotid artery in gland was calculated bilaterally using color Doppler imaging. Saliva flow rate was measured bilaterally with modified Schrimer strip. Carlson-Crittenden device was used to collect 0.5 ml saliva sample from the duct and biuret assay was done to determine the protein concentration. Settings and Design: A cohort study was conducted with 50 undergraduate students of a dental college based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Statistical Analysis Used: Pearson correlation test was used to correlate and compare changes in the parameters of parotid gland and analyzed to a significant level of 0.05. Results: The volume, systolic velocity of blood flow of the external carotid artery, the salivary flow rate, and protein concentration of the parotid gland were significantly more by 11.9, 18, 23, and 8%, respectively, on the dominant side than the nondominant side of mobile phone usage. Conclusion: The study emphasized that prolonged mobile phone usage causes biological changes in parotid gland.

  9. Factors Influencing Hospital Stay for Pulmonary Embolism. A Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Núñez, Nuria; Ruano-Raviña, Alberto; Abelleira, Romina; Ferreiro, Lucía; Lama, Adriana; González-Barcala, Francisco J; Golpe, Antonio; Toubes, María E; Álvarez-Dobaño, José M; Valdés, Luis

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors influencing hospital stay due to pulmonary embolism. We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients hospitalized between 2010 and 2015. Patients were identified using information recorded in hospital discharge reports (ICD-9-CM codes 415.11 and 415.19). We included 965 patients with a median stay of 8 days (IQR 6-13 days). Higher scores on the simplified Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index (sPESI) were associated with increased probability of longer hospital stay. The probability of a hospital stay longer than the median was 8.65 (95% CI 5.42-13.79) for patients referred to the Internal Medicine Department and 1.54 (95% CI 1.07-2.24) for patients hospitalized in other departments, compared to those referred to the Pneumology Department. Patients with grade 3 on the modified Medical Research Council dyspnea scale had an odds ratio of 1.63 (95% CI: 1.07-2.49). The likelihood of a longer than median hospital stay was 1.72 (95% CI: 0.85-3.48) when oral anticoagulation (OAC) was initiated 2-3 days after admission, and 2.43 (95% CI: 1.16-5.07) when initiated at 4-5 days, compared to OAC initiation at 0-1 days. sPESI grade, the department of referral from the Emergency Department, the grade of dyspnea and the time of initiating OAC were associated with a longer hospital stay. Copyright © 2017 SEPAR. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Chest wall syndrome among primary care patients: a cohort study

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    Verdon François

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The epidemiology of chest pain differs strongly between outpatient and emergency settings. In general practice, the most frequent cause is the chest wall pain. However, there is a lack of information about the characteristics of this syndrome. The aims of the study are to describe the clinical aspects of chest wall syndrome (CWS. Methods Prospective, observational, cohort study of patients attending 58 private practices over a five-week period from March to May 2001 with undifferentiated chest pain. During a one-year follow-up, questionnaires including detailed history and physical exam, were filled out at initial consultation, 3 and 12 months. The outcomes were: clinical characteristics associated with the CWS diagnosis and clinical evolution of the syndrome. Results Among 24 620 consultations, we observed 672 cases of chest pain and 300 (44.6% patients had a diagnosis of chest wall syndrome. It affected all ages with a sex ratio of 1:1. History and sensibility to palpation were the keys for diagnosis. Pain was generally moderate, well localised, continuous or intermittent over a number of hours to days or weeks, and amplified by position or movement. The pain however, may be acute. Eighty-eight patients were affected at several painful sites, and 210 patients at a single site, most frequently in the midline or a left-sided site. Pain was a cause of anxiety and cardiac concern, especially when acute. CWS coexisted with coronary disease in 19 and neoplasm in 6. Outcome at one year was favourable even though CWS recurred in half of patients. Conclusion CWS is common and benign, but leads to anxiety and recurred frequently. Because the majority of chest wall pain is left-sided, the possibility of coexistence with coronary disease needs careful consideration.

  11. Chest wall syndrome among primary care patients: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdon, François; Burnand, Bernard; Herzig, Lilli; Junod, Michel; Pécoud, Alain; Favrat, Bernard

    2007-09-12

    The epidemiology of chest pain differs strongly between outpatient and emergency settings. In general practice, the most frequent cause is the chest wall pain. However, there is a lack of information about the characteristics of this syndrome. The aims of the study are to describe the clinical aspects of chest wall syndrome (CWS). Prospective, observational, cohort study of patients attending 58 private practices over a five-week period from March to May 2001 with undifferentiated chest pain. During a one-year follow-up, questionnaires including detailed history and physical exam, were filled out at initial consultation, 3 and 12 months. The outcomes were: clinical characteristics associated with the CWS diagnosis and clinical evolution of the syndrome. Among 24 620 consultations, we observed 672 cases of chest pain and 300 (44.6%) patients had a diagnosis of chest wall syndrome. It affected all ages with a sex ratio of 1:1. History and sensibility to palpation were the keys for diagnosis. Pain was generally moderate, well localised, continuous or intermittent over a number of hours to days or weeks, and amplified by position or movement. The pain however, may be acute. Eighty-eight patients were affected at several painful sites, and 210 patients at a single site, most frequently in the midline or a left-sided site. Pain was a cause of anxiety and cardiac concern, especially when acute. CWS coexisted with coronary disease in 19 and neoplasm in 6. Outcome at one year was favourable even though CWS recurred in half of patients. CWS is common and benign, but leads to anxiety and recurred frequently. Because the majority of chest wall pain is left-sided, the possibility of coexistence with coronary disease needs careful consideration.

  12. Chest wall syndrome among primary care patients: a cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdon, François; Burnand, Bernard; Herzig, Lilli; Junod, Michel; Pécoud, Alain; Favrat, Bernard

    2007-01-01

    Background The epidemiology of chest pain differs strongly between outpatient and emergency settings. In general practice, the most frequent cause is the chest wall pain. However, there is a lack of information about the characteristics of this syndrome. The aims of the study are to describe the clinical aspects of chest wall syndrome (CWS). Methods Prospective, observational, cohort study of patients attending 58 private practices over a five-week period from March to May 2001 with undifferentiated chest pain. During a one-year follow-up, questionnaires including detailed history and physical exam, were filled out at initial consultation, 3 and 12 months. The outcomes were: clinical characteristics associated with the CWS diagnosis and clinical evolution of the syndrome. Results Among 24 620 consultations, we observed 672 cases of chest pain and 300 (44.6%) patients had a diagnosis of chest wall syndrome. It affected all ages with a sex ratio of 1:1. History and sensibility to palpation were the keys for diagnosis. Pain was generally moderate, well localised, continuous or intermittent over a number of hours to days or weeks, and amplified by position or movement. The pain however, may be acute. Eighty-eight patients were affected at several painful sites, and 210 patients at a single site, most frequently in the midline or a left-sided site. Pain was a cause of anxiety and cardiac concern, especially when acute. CWS coexisted with coronary disease in 19 and neoplasm in 6. Outcome at one year was favourable even though CWS recurred in half of patients. Conclusion CWS is common and benign, but leads to anxiety and recurred frequently. Because the majority of chest wall pain is left-sided, the possibility of coexistence with coronary disease needs careful consideration. PMID:17850647

  13. Menstrual Pattern following Tubal Ligation: A Historical Cohort Study

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    Shahideh Jahanian Sadatmahalleh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tubal ligation (TL is recommended for women who have completed their family planning. The existence of the menstrual disorders following this procedure has been the subject of debate for decades. This study was conducted to identify the relationship between tubal ligation and menstrual disorders. Materials and Methods: A historical cohort study was carried out on 140 women undergoing tubal ligation (TL group and on 140 women using condom as the main contraceptive method (Non-TL group. They aged between 20 and 40 years and were selected from a health care center in Rudsar, Guilan Province, Iran, during 2013-2014. The two groups were comparable in demographic characteristics, obstetrical features and menstrual bleeding pattern using a routine questionnaire. A validated pictorial blood loss assessment chart (PBLAC was also used to measure the menstrual blood loss. Results: Women with TL had more menstrual irregularity than those without TL (24.3 vs. 10%, P=0.002. Women with TL had more polymenorrhea (9.3 vs. 1.4%, P=0.006, hypermenorrhea (12.1 vs. 2.1%, P=0.002, menorrhagia (62.9 vs. 22.1%, P<0.0001 and menometrorrhagia (15.7 vs. 3.6%, P=0.001 than those without TL. There is a significant difference in the PBLAC score between women with and without TL (P<0.0001. According to logistic regression, age odds ratio [(OR=1.08, confidence interval (CI:1.07-1.17, P=0.03], TL (OR=5.95, CI:3.45-10.26, P<0.0001 and cesarean section (OR=2.72, CI:1.49-4.97, P=0.001 were significantly associated with menorrhagia. Conclusion: We found significant differences in menstrual disorders between women with and without TL. Therefore, women should be informed by the health providers regarding the advantages and disadvantages of TL before the procedures.

  14. Adaptation During a Great Economic Recession: A Cohort Study of Greek and Immigrant Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motti-Stefanidi, Frosso; Asendorpf, Jens B

    2017-07-01

    This study examined how Greek and immigrant youth adapted to school life during the economic recession in Greece. Two cohorts of adolescents (M age  = 12.6 years) were compared, one assessed before the crisis and the other during the crisis (N = 1,057 and 1,052, respectively). Cohort findings were disaggregated by immigrant status, generation, and ethnic group. Crisis-cohort youth experienced more economic problems, displayed worse conduct, higher levels of absenteeism, and lower self-efficacy than precrisis youth. The cohorts did not differ in well-being, school engagement, and academic achievement. Most crisis-cohort groups showed a pervasive increase in conduct problems compared to the precrisis cohort. However, some of these groups also showed an increase in academic achievement. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  15. Sensor, a population-based cohort study on gastroenteritis in the Netherlands: incidence and etiology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, M.A.S. de; Koopmans, M.P.G.; Kortbeek, L.M.; Wannet, W.J.B.; Vinje, J; Leusden, F. van; Bartelds, A.I.M.; Duynhoven, Y.T.H.P. van

    2001-01-01

    A prospective population-based cohort study with a nested case- control study was conducted to estimate the incidence of gastroenteritis and the associated pathogens in the general Dutch population. Follow-up of two consecutive cohorts was performed by weekly reporting cards from december 1998 to

  16. Toenail selenium status and the risk of Barrett's esophagus: The Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steevens, J.; Schouten, L.J.; Driessen, A.L.C.; Huysentruyt, C.J.R.; Keulemans, Y.C.A.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association between selenium and the risk of Barrett's esophagus (BE), the precursor lesion of esophageal adenocarcinoma. Methods: Data from the prospective Netherlands Cohort Study were used. This cohort study was initiated in 1986, when 120,852 subjects aged 55-69

  17. Anthropometry, physical activity, and endometrial cancer risk: Results from the Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, L.J.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2004-01-01

    Although obesity is an established risk factor for endometrial cancer, evidence linking risk to height, weight change since age 20, and physical activity is limited. In this case-cohort study, 62 573 women from The Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer were followed up from 1986 to 1995, and

  18. Cross-cultural study of idioms of distress among Spanish nationals and Hispanic American migrants: susto, nervios and ataque de nervios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durà-Vilà, Glòria; Hodes, Matthew

    2012-10-01

    Susto (fright), nervios (nerves) and ataque de nervios (attack of nerves) are idioms of distress widely experienced amongst Hispanic Americans, often associated with psychiatric disorders. This study explores understanding of these idioms of distress and attitudes to help seeking amongst indigenous Spanish and Hispanic American residents in Spain. A population survey was undertaken in four adult education centres in Spain. Hypothetical case vignettes of individuals suffering from the idioms of distress were used to investigate understanding and help seeking by a Spanish sample compared with Hispanic American migrants to Spain. 350 questionnaires were obtained (94.6% response rate). The idioms ataque de nervios and nervios were recognised by the majority of the Spanish group but by significantly more of the Hispanic American migrants. However, susto was infrequently recognised by the Spanish group but it was recognised by half of the Hispanic Americans. Hispanic Americans were also more likely to recommend consultation with a psychiatrist/psychologist than Spanish respondents for ataque de nervios and nervios. The Spanish group were more likely to recommend non-medical sources of support such as relatives and priest than Hispanic Americans. Hispanic Americans, more recently arrived, did not show greater recognition of the three idioms than those who have been in Spain longer. Regression analysis showed that being Hispanic American and having lower educational attainment was associated with greater use of susto. The study suggests that people hold multiple models of distress and disorder. This may influence clinical presentations and help seeking behaviour in Spanish as well as Hispanic American populations.

  19. Comparative Study of Lifestyle: Eating Habits, Sedentary Lifestyle and Anthropometric Development in Spanish 5- To 15-yr-Olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Suárez-Varela, María; Ruso Julve, Candelaria; Llopis González, Agustín

    2015-04-01

    The infant-juvenile period is one of high vulnerability during the lifestyles chosen become determining factors for future health status. This study aimed to evaluate lifestyle, specifically eating habits and physical activity, in 5-15-year-olds in Spain and their health status (anthropometry). This cross-sectional population study with two time points (2006 and 2013) was conducted by compiling data from the Spanish National Health Survey. We used the minor survey, specifically the data from the Health Determinants module, which included 5-15-year-olds. Compiled information was obtained from parents or guardians. The overall overweight and obesity prevalence in Spain (2013) in 5- to 15-year-olds is 24.3%. A drop of 8.2% in meat consumption was found, while overall intake was high. Daily intake of plant-based food (fruit, vegetables, pulses) was low, especially vegetables (32.9%). Increased sedentary lifestyle was observed, probably because the use of communication technologies has increased in recent years (P<0.001). Moreover, watching TV rose to 19.3% for 1 hour/day watching TV on weekdays and to 23.5% at weekends. When comparing the two time points (2006 and 2013), we observed that lifestyle, eating habits and physical activity strongly associated with the Spanish infant-juvenile population's anthropometry. Mediterranean diet patterns seem to be abandoned and physical activity is practiced less, which will have a negative impact on future quality of life.

  20. Cohort profile: LIFEWORK, a prospective cohort study on occupational and environmental risk factors and health in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reedijk, Marije; Lenters, Virissa; Slottje, Pauline; Pijpe, Anouk; Peeters, Petra H; Korevaar, Joke C; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Verschuren, W M Monique; Verheij, Robert A; Pieterson, Inka; van Leeuwen, Flora E; Rookus, Matti A; Kromhout, Hans; Vermeulen, Roel C H

    2018-02-03

    LIFEWORK is a large federated prospective cohort established in the Netherlands to quantify the health effects of occupational and environmental exposures. This cohort is also the Dutch contribution to the international Cohort Study of Mobile Phone Use and Health (COSMOS). In this paper, we describe the study design, ongoing data collection, baseline characteristics of participants and the repeatability of key questionnaire items. 88 466 participants were enrolled in three cohort studies in 2011-2012. Exposure information was collected by a harmonised core questionnaire, or modelled based on occupational and residential histories; domains include air pollution (eg, nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), particulate matter with diameter ≤2.5 µm (PM 2.5 )), noise, electromagnetic fields (EMF), mobile phone use, shift work and occupational chemical exposures. Chronic and subacute health outcomes are assessed by self-report and through linkage with health registries. Participants had a median age of 51 years at baseline (range 19-87), and the majority are female (90%), with nurses being over-represented. Median exposure levels of NO 2 , PM 2.5 , EMF from base stations and noise at the participants' home addresses at baseline were 22.9 µg/m 3 , 16.6 µg/m 3 , 0.003 mWm 2 and 53.1 dB, respectively. Twenty-two per cent of participants reported to have started using a mobile phone more than 10 years prior to baseline. Repeatability for self-reported exposures was moderate to high (weighted kappa range: 0.69-1) for a subset of participants (n=237) who completed the questionnaire twice. We are actively and passively observing participants; we plan to administer a follow-up questionnaire every 4-5 years-the first follow-up will be completed in 2018-and linkage to cause-of-death and cancer registries occurs on a (bi)annual basis. This prospective cohort offers a unique, large and rich resource for research on contemporary occupational and environmental health risks and will

  1. Psychosocial work environment and antidepressant medication: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westergaard-Nielsen Niels

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adverse psychosocial work environments may lead to impaired mental health, but it is still a matter of conjecture if demonstrated associations are causal or biased. We aimed at verifying whether poor psychosocial working climate is related to increase of redeemed subscription of antidepressant medication. Methods Information on all antidepressant drugs (AD purchased at pharmacies from 1995 through 2006 was obtained for a cohort of 21,129 Danish public service workers that participated in work climate surveys carried out during the period 2002–2005. Individual self-reports of psychosocial factors at work including satisfaction with the work climate and dimensions of the job strain model were obtained by self-administered questionnaires (response rate 77,2%. Each employee was assigned the average score value for all employees at his/her managerial work unit [1094 units with an average of 18 employees (range 3–120]. The risk of first-time AD prescription during follow-up was examined according to level of satisfaction and psychosocial strain by Cox regression with adjustment for gender, age, marital status, occupational status and calendar year of the survey. Results The proportion of employees that received at least one prescription of ADs from 1995 through 2006 was 11.9% and prescriptions rose steadily from 1.50% in 1996 to the highest level 6.47% in 2006. ADs were prescribed more frequent among women, middle aged, employees with low occupational status and those living alone. None of the measured psychosocial work environment factors were consistently related to prescription of antidepressant drugs during the follow-up period. Conclusion The study does not indicate that a poor psychosocial work environment among public service employees is related to prescription of antidepressant pharmaceuticals. These findings need cautious interpretation because of lacking individual exposure assessments.

  2. Organisational justice and health of employees: prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivimäki, M; Elovainio, M; Vahtera, J; Ferrie, J E

    2003-01-01

    To examine the association between components of organisational justice (that is, justice of decision making procedures and interpersonal treatment) and health of employees. The Poisson regression analyses of recorded all-cause sickness absences with medical certificate and the logistic regression analyses of minor psychiatric morbidity, as assessed by the General Health Questionnaire, and poor self rated health status were based on a cohort of 416 male and 3357 female employees working during 1998-2000 in 10 hospitals in Finland. Low versus high justice of decision making procedures was associated with a 41% higher risk of sickness absence in men (rate ratio (RR) 1.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1 to 1.8), and a 12% higher risk in women (RR 1.1, 95% CI 1.0 to 1.2) after adjustment for baseline characteristics. The corresponding odds ratios (OR) for minor psychiatric morbidity were 1.6 (95% CI 1.0 to 2.6) in men and 1.4 (95% CI 1.2 to 1.7) in women, and for self rated health 1.4 in both sexes. In interpersonal treatment, low justice increased the risk of sickness absence (RR 1.3 (95% CI 1.0 to 1.6) and RR 1.2 (95% CI 1.2 to 1.3) in men and women respectively), and minor psychiatric morbidity (OR 1.2 in both sexes). These figures largely persisted after control for other risk factors (for example, job control, workload, social support, and hostility) and they were replicated in initially healthy subcohorts. No evidence was found to support the hypothesis that organisational justice would represent a consequence of health (reversed causality). This is the first longitudinal study to show that the extent to which people are treated with justice in workplaces independently predicts their health.

  3. Exercise in Thoroughbred yearlings during sales preparation: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolwell, C F; Rogers, C W; French, N P; Firth, E C

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing evidence suggesting that early exercise in Thoroughbred racehorses may be beneficial to the development of the musculoskeletal system. At present, information on the exercise programmes and health problems of individual yearlings during a sales preparation is scant. To describe the exercise and health problems of Thoroughbred yearlings during preparation for sales, and to identify variations in exercise between and within farms. A prospective cohort study was used to collect exercise and health information from 18 farms across New Zealand. Daily exercise records for individual horses were recorded during the studfarms' preparation for the annual national yearling sales in January 2009. Data were collected from 319 yearlings, of which 283 (88.7%) were exercised (hand walking, mechanical walker and lungeing) during their preparations. Sales preparation lasted a median of 69 days (interquartile range 61-78) and differed significantly between farms (Psale (P = 0.14) or category of sales price (P = 0.12). Within certain farms, daily exercise differed between horses as did total exercise by gender and the number of days spent in the sales preparation. Lameness was the most common condition affecting yearlings and the overall incidence rate of lameness was 0.08 per 100 horse days (95% confidence interval 0.05-0.13). Incidence rates of lameness varied significantly between farms (P = 0.02), but not by age (P = 0.77), sales type (P = 0.58) or month of the preparation (P = 0.53). Yearling exercise programmes varied between and within farms. Since exercise is already being tailored for each individual horse, there may be an opportunity to allow for modifications to sales preparation with the future career in mind. © 2011 EVJ Ltd.

  4. Prevalence of cough throughout childhood: A cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Jurca

    Full Text Available Cough in children is a common reason for medical consultations and affects quality of life. There are little population-based data on the epidemiology of recurrent cough in children and how this varies by age and sex, or between children with and without wheeze. We determined the prevalence of cough throughout childhood, comparing several standardised cough questions. We did this for the entire population and separately for girls and boys, and for children with and without wheeze.In a population-based prospective cohort from Leicestershire, UK, we assessed prevalence of cough with repeated questionnaires from early childhood to adolescence. We asked whether the child usually coughed more than other children, with or without colds, had night-time cough or cough triggered by various factors (triggers, related to increased breathing effort, allergic or food triggers. We calculated prevalence from age 1 to 18 years using generalised estimating equations for all children, and for children with and without wheeze.Of 7670 children, 10% (95% CI 10-11% coughed more than other children, 69% (69-70% coughed usually with a cold, 34% to 55% age-dependently coughed without colds, and 25% (25-26% had night-time cough. Prevalence of coughing more than peers, with colds, at night, and triggered by laughter varied little throughout childhood, while cough without colds and cough triggered by exercise, house dust or pollen became more frequent with age. Cough was more common in boys than in girls in the first decade of life, differences got smaller in early teens and reversed after the age of 14 years. All symptoms were more frequent in children with wheeze.Prevalence of cough in children varies with age, sex and with the questions used to assess it, suggesting that comparisons between studies are only valid for similar questions and age groups.

  5. Comorbid Depression and Heart Failure: A Community Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhautesh Dinesh Jani

    Full Text Available To examine the association between depression and clinical outcomes in heart failure (HF in a community cohort.HF patients in Minnesota, United States completed depression screening using the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9 between 1st Oct 2007 and 1st Dec 2011; patients with PHQ-9≥5 were labelled "depressed". We calculated the risk of death and first hospitalization within 2 years using Cox regression. Results were adjusted for 10 commonly used prognostic factors (age, sex, systolic blood pressure, estimated glomerular filtration rate, serum sodium, ejection fraction, blood urea nitrogen, brain natriuretic peptide, presence of diabetes and ischaemic aetiology. Area under the curve (AUC, integrated discrimination improvement (IDI and net reclassification improvement (NRI compared depression as a predictor against the aforementioned factors.425 patients (mean age 74, 57.6% males were included in the study; 179 (42.1% had PHQ-9≥5. The adjusted hazard ratio of death was 2.02 (95% CI 1.34-3.04 and of hospitalization was 1.42 (95% CI 1.13-1.80 for those with compared to those without depression. Adding depression to the models did not appreciably change the AUC but led to statistically significant improvements in both the IDI (p = 0.001 and p = 0.005 for death and hospitalization, respectively and NRI (for death and hospitalization, 35% (p = 0.002 and 27% (p = 0.007 were reclassified correctly, respectively.Depression is frequent among community patients with HF and associated with increased risk of hospitalizations and death. Risk prediction for death and hospitalizations in HF patients can be improved by considering depression.

  6. Gender preference and perinatal depression in Turkey: A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senturk Cankorur, Vesile; Duman, Berker; Taylor, Clare; Stewart, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Child gender preference is important in some cultures and has been found to modify risk for antenatal and postnatal depression. We investigated discrepancies in the child gender preference between participating women and other key family members and the extent to which these predicted perinatal depression. In a large cohort study of perinatal depression in urban and rural Turkey, participants had been asked about child gender preferences: their own, and those of their husband, parents, and parents in-law. Of 730 participants recruited in their third trimester (94.6% participation), 578 (79.2%) were reassessed at a mean (SD) 4.1 (3.3) months after childbirth, and 488 (66.8%) were reassessed at 13.7 (2.9) months. No associations were found between any gender preference reported in the antenatal period and depression at any examination. On the other hand, we found associations of antenatal depression with differences in participant-reported gender preference and that reported for their mother-in-law (OR 1.81, 1.08-3.04). This non-agreement also predicted depression at the 4 month (OR 2.24, 1.24-4.03) and 14 month (OR 2.07, 1.05-4.04) post-natal examinations. These associations with postnatal depression persisted after adjustment for a range of covariates (ORs 3.19 (1.54-6.59) and 3.30 (1.49-7.33) respectively). Reported disagreement in child gender preferences between a woman and her mother-in-law was a predictor of post-natal depression and may reflect wider family disharmony as an underlying factor.

  7. Gender preference and perinatal depression in Turkey: A cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesile Senturk Cankorur

    Full Text Available Child gender preference is important in some cultures and has been found to modify risk for antenatal and postnatal depression. We investigated discrepancies in the child gender preference between participating women and other key family members and the extent to which these predicted perinatal depression.In a large cohort study of perinatal depression in urban and rural Turkey, participants had been asked about child gender preferences: their own, and those of their husband, parents, and parents in-law. Of 730 participants recruited in their third trimester (94.6% participation, 578 (79.2% were reassessed at a mean (SD 4.1 (3.3 months after childbirth, and 488 (66.8% were reassessed at 13.7 (2.9 months.No associations were found between any gender preference reported in the antenatal period and depression at any examination. On the other hand, we found associations of antenatal depression with differences in participant-reported gender preference and that reported for their mother-in-law (OR 1.81, 1.08-3.04. This non-agreement also predicted depression at the 4 month (OR 2.24, 1.24-4.03 and 14 month (OR 2.07, 1.05-4.04 post-natal examinations. These associations with postnatal depression persisted after adjustment for a range of covariates (ORs 3.19 (1.54-6.59 and 3.30 (1.49-7.33 respectively.Reported disagreement in child gender preferences between a woman and her mother-in-law was a predictor of post-natal depression and may reflect wider family disharmony as an underlying factor.

  8. Predictors of fibromyalgia: a population-based twin cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markkula, Ritva A; Kalso, Eija A; Kaprio, Jaakko A

    2016-01-15

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a pain syndrome, the mechanisms and predictors of which are still unclear. We have earlier validated a set of FM-symptom questions for detecting possible FM in an epidemiological survey and thereby identified a cluster with "possible FM". This study explores prospectively predictors for membership of that FM-symptom cluster. A population-based sample of 8343 subjects of the older Finnish Twin Cohort replied to health questionnaires in 1975, 1981, and 1990. Their answers to the set of FM-symptom questions in 1990 classified them in three latent classes (LC): LC1 with no or few symptoms, LC2 with some symptoms, and LC3 with many FM symptoms. We analysed putative predictors for these symptom classes using baseline (1975 and 1981) data on regional pain, headache, migraine, sleeping, body mass index (BMI), physical activity, smoking, and zygosity, adjusted for age, gender, and education. Those with a high likelihood of having fibromyalgia at baseline were excluded from the analysis. In the final multivariate regression model, regional pain, sleeping problems, and overweight were all predictors for membership in the class with many FM symptoms. The strongest non-genetic predictor was frequent headache (OR 8.6, CI 95% 3.8-19.2), followed by persistent back pain (OR 4.7, CI 95% 3.3-6.7) and persistent neck pain (OR 3.3, CI 95% 1.8-6.0). Regional pain, frequent headache, and persistent back or neck pain, sleeping problems, and overweight are predictors for having a cluster of symptoms consistent with fibromyalgia.

  9. New architectural design of delivery room reduces morbidity in preterm neonates: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrin, Gianluca; Conte, Francesca; Scipione, Antonella; Aleandri, Vincenzo; Di Chiara, Maria; Bacchio, Erica; Messina, Francesco; De Curtis, Mario

    2016-03-23

    A multidisciplinary committee composed of a panel of experts, including a member of the American Academy of Pediatrics and American Institute of Architects, has suggested that the delivery room (DR) and the neonatal intensive care units (NICU) room should be directly interconnected. We aimed to investigate the impact of the architectural design of the DR and the NICU on neonatal outcome. Two cohorts of preterm neonates born at architectural renovation of the DR realized in accordance with specific standards (Cohort 2: "new concept of DR"). In Cohort 1, neonates were initially cared for a conventional resuscitation area, situated in the DR, and then transferred to the NICU, located on a separate floor of the same hospital. In Cohort 2 neonates were assisted at birth directly in the NICU room, which was directly connected to the DR via a pass-through door. The primary outcome of the study was morbidity, defined by the proportion of neonates with at least one complication of prematurity (i.e., late-onset sepsis, patent ductus arteriosus, intraventricular hemorrhage, periventricular leukomalacia, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, retinopathy of prematurity and necrotizing enterocolitis). Secondary outcomes were mortality and duration of hospitalization. Statistical analysis was performed using standard methods by SPSS software. We enrolled 106 neonates (56 in Cohort 1 and 50 in Cohort 2). The main clinical and demographic characteristics of the 2 cohorts were similar. Moderate hypothermia (body temperature ≤ 35.9 °C) was more frequent in Cohort 1 (57%) compared with Cohort 2 (24%, p = 0.001). Morbidity was increased in Cohort 1 (73%) compared with Cohort 2 (44%, p = 0.002). No statistically significant differences in mortality and median duration of hospitalization were observed between the 2 cohorts of the study. If realized according to the proposed architectural standards, renovation of DR and NICU may represent an opportunity to reduce morbidity in preterm neonates.

  10. Small bowel angiodysplasia and novel disease associations: a cohort study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Holleran, Grainne

    2013-04-01

    Gastrointestinal angiodysplasias recurrently bleed, accounting for 3-5% of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. The advent of small bowel capsule endoscopy (SBCE) has led to an increased recognition of small bowel angiodysplasias (SBAs) but little is known about their etiology. Previous small cohorts and case reports suggest an equal gender incidence and associations with cardiovascular disease, renal impairment, and coagulopathies.

  11. Overview of ongoing cohort and dietary studies in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weihe, Pál; Bjerregaard, Peter; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva

    2016-01-01

    in an article in this journal, whereas another paper describes the effects associated with contaminant exposure in the Arctic. The cohort descriptions have been arranged geographically, beginning in Norway and moving east to Finland, Sweden, Russia and the other Arctic countries and ultimately to the Faroe...

  12. Implementation of the Spanish ERAS program in bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Tovar, Jaime; Muñoz, José Luis; Royo, Pablo; Duran, Manuel; Redondo, Elisabeth; Ramirez, Jose Manuel

    2018-03-08

    The essence of Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) programs is the multimodal approach, and many authors have demonstrated safety and feasibility in fast track bariatric surgery. According to this concept, a multidisciplinary ERAS program for bariatric surgery has been developed by the Spanish Fast Track Group (ERAS Spain). The aim of this study was to analyze the initial implementation of this Spanish National ERAS protocol in bariatric surgery, comparing it with a historical cohort receiving standard care. A multi-centric prospective study was performed, including 233 consecutive patients undergoing bariatric surgery during 2015 and following ERAS protocol. It was compared with a historical cohort of 286 patients, who underwent bariatric surgery at the same institutions between 2013 and 2014 and following standard care. Compliance with the protocol, morbidity, mortality, hospital stay and readmission were evaluated. Bariatric techniques performed were Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy. There were no significant differences in complications, mortality and readmission. Postoperative pain and hospital stay were significantly lower in the ERAS group. The total compliance to protocol was 80%. The Spanish National ERAS protocol is a safe issue, obtaining similar results to standard care in terms of complications, reoperations, mortality and readmissions. It is associated with less postoperative pain and earlier hospital discharge.

  13. The Impact of a Systematic and Explicit Vocabulary Intervention in Spanish with Spanish-Speaking English Learners in First Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cena, Johanna; Baker, Doris Luft; Kame'enui, Edward J.; Baker, Scott K.; Park, Yonghan; Smolkowski, Keith

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the impact of a 15-min daily explicit vocabulary intervention in Spanish on expressive and receptive vocabulary knowledge and oral reading fluency in Spanish, and on language proficiency in English. Fifty Spanish-speaking English learners who received 90 min of Spanish reading instruction in an early transition model were…

  14. Epilepsy in adults with mitochondrial disease: A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Roger G; Devine, Helen E; Gorman, Grainne S; Schaefer, Andrew M; Horvath, Rita; Ng, Yi; Nesbitt, Victoria; Lax, Nichola Z; McFarland, Robert; Cunningham, Mark O; Taylor, Robert W; Turnbull, Douglass M

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the prevalence and progression of epilepsy in adult patients with mitochondrial disease. We prospectively recruited a cohort of 182 consecutive adult patients attending a specialized mitochondrial disease clinic in Newcastle upon Tyne between January 1, 2005 and January 1, 2008. We then followed this cohort over a 7-year period, recording primary outcome measures of occurrence of first seizure, status epilepticus, stroke-like episode, and death. Overall prevalence of epilepsy in the cohort was 23.1%. Mean age of epilepsy onset was 29.4 years. Prevalence varied widely between genotypes, with several genotypes having no cases of epilepsy, a prevalence of 34.9% in the most common genotype (m.3243A>G mutation), and 92.3% in the m.8344A>G mutation. Among the cohort as a whole, focal seizures, with or without progression to bilateral convulsive seizures, was the most common seizure type. Conversely, all of the patients with the m.8344A>G mutation and epilepsy experienced myoclonic seizures. Patients with the m.3243A>G mutation remain at high risk of developing stroke-like episodes (1.16% per year). However, although the standardized mortality ratio for the entire cohort was high (2.86), this ratio did not differ significantly between patients with epilepsy (2.96) and those without (2.83). Epilepsy is a common manifestation of mitochondrial disease. It develops early in the disease and, in the case of the m.3243A>G mutation, often presents in the context of a stroke-like episode or status epilepticus. However, epilepsy does not itself appear to contribute to the increased mortality in mitochondrial disease. © 2015 The Authors. Annals of Neurology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Neurological Association.

  15. Follow-up methods for retrospective cohort studies in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawcett, Jackie; Garrett, Nick; Bates, Michael N

    2002-01-01

    To define a general methodology for maximising the success of follow-up processes for retrospective cohort studies in New Zealand, and to illustrate an approach to developing country-specific follow-up methodologies. We recently conducted a cohort study of mortality and cancer incidence in New Zealand professional fire fighters. A number of methods were used to trace vital status, including matching with records of the New Zealand Health Information Service (NZHIS), pension records of Work and Income New Zealand (WINZ), and electronic electoral rolls. Non-electronic methods included use of paper electoral rolls and the records of the Registrar of Births Deaths and Marriages. 95% of the theoretical person-years of follow-up of the cohort were traced using these methods. In terms of numbers of cohort members traced to end of follow-up, the most useful tracing methods were fire fighter employment records, the NZHIS, WINZ, and the electronic electoral rolls. The follow-up process used for the cohort study was highly successful. On the basis of this experience, we propose a generic, but flexible, model for follow-up of retrospective cohort studies in New Zealand. Similar models could be constructed for other countries. Successful follow-up of cohort studies is possible in New Zealand using established methods. This should encourage the use of cohort studies for the investigation of epidemiological issues. Similar models for follow-up processes could be constructed for other countries.

  16. pilot studies to test the feasibility of a birth cohort study investigating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-04-20

    Apr 20, 1991 ... of a birth cohort study investigating the effects of urbanisation in South Africa. S. FONN, M. DE ... is to determine the biological, environmental, economic and psychological factors that are associated with ... the South African Medical Research Council, Parowvallei,. CP. S. FONN, M.B. B.CH., D.O.H., D.EPL, ...

  17. English, Spanish and Ethno-Racial Receptivity in a New Destination: A Case Study of Dominican Immigrants in Reading, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oropesa, R.S.

    2015-01-01

    Scant information is available on experiences with language among immigrant populations in new destinations. This study provides a multi-dimensional portrait of the linguistic incorporation of Dominican immigrants in the “majority-minority” city of Reading, Pennsylvania. The results show that daily life for most largely occurs in a Spanish-language milieu, but English proficiency and use in social networks is primarily a function of exposure to the United States. This is consistent with the standard narrative of assimilation models. At the same time, negative experiences with the use of both English and Spanish suggest that the linguistic context of reception is inhospitable for a substantial share of this population. Negative experiences with English are particularly likely to be mentioned by those with dark skin and greater cumulative exposure. Lastly, language plays an important role in experiences with ethno-racial enmity more broadly. Nonetheless, the persistent effect of skin tone indicates that such experiences are not reducible to language per se. PMID:26004453

  18. English, Spanish and ethno-racial receptivity in a new destination: A case study of Dominican immigrants in Reading, PA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oropesa, R S

    2015-07-01

    Scant information is available on experiences with language among immigrant populations in new destinations. This study provides a multi-dimensional portrait of the linguistic incorporation of Dominican immigrants in the "majority-minority" city of Reading, Pennsylvania. The results show that daily life for most largely occurs in a Spanish-language milieu, but English proficiency and use in social networks is primarily a function of exposure to the United States. This is consistent with the standard narrative of assimilation models. At the same time, negative experiences with the use of both English and Spanish suggest that the linguistic context of reception is inhospitable for a substantial share of this population. Negative experiences with English are particularly likely to be mentioned by those with dark skin and greater cumulative exposure. Lastly, language plays an important role in experiences with ethno-racial enmity more broadly. Nonetheless, the persistent effect of skin tone indicates that such experiences are not reducible to language per se. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessing the Communication Quality of CSR Reports. A Case Study on Four Spanish Food Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amparo Baviera-Puig

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability reports are tools for disseminating information to stakeholders and the public, serving the organizations in the dual purpose of communicating CSR and being accountable. The production of these reports has recently become more prevalent in the food industry, despite the fact this practice has received heavy criticism on two fronts: The quality of the tool for communication, and the extent of accountability. In addition to these criticisms, organizations must overcome the additional challenge of publishing sustainability reports that successfully meet the demands of a multi-stakeholder audience. In light of the importance of this practice, this paper presents a method to assess the communication and accountability characteristics of Spanish food companies’ sustainability reports. This method is based on the method Analytic Network Process (ANP and adopts a multi-stakeholder approach. This research, therefore, provides a reference model for improving sustainability reports, with the aim of successfully meeting their communication objectives and the demands of all stakeholders.

  20. Discursive representation and language of Spanish youtubers: Case Study of the more popular gamers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Rego Rey

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Youtubers have become mass idols and influencers of millions of people who follow their channels every day. This exploratory research analyzes speech, depending on the typology of language used by The RubiusOMG, The WIllyRex and Vegetta77- three Spanish Youtubers with the highest number of subscribers. It has made a content analysis of interpretive base concerning a selection of the first and last videos about the three vloggers’ channels most popular, it specifies which kind of language is often used and the discursive opposing changes of tone. The results are obtained by the repetition of violent, offensive language, discriminatory words which vloggers use and it qualifies in trees networks and word clouds organized across the labelling of the video games called PEGI. One of the highlighted results is that these three young content creators use violent vocabulary frequently while they play videogames.

  1. THE SPANISH AND LATIN AMERICAN CONTRIBUTION TO THE STUDY OF WORK LIFE BALANCE: KEYS FOR INTERVENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Romeo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current global economic crisis has led us to ask how to generate competitive advantages that have an impact on organizational effectiveness without jeopardizing the employees’ quality of life. The importance of the development of health and safety policies (Montero, Araque, & Rey, 2009, and within these, family-friendly policies promoting the work-life balance (WLB of employees (Leon & Chinchilla, 2010; Urcelay, 2005 has been pointed out by various authors in our country. This article reviews the main Spanish and Latin American contributions on work-life balance (WLB published in the last eight years, and presents the research work of the ASH-PsicoSAO Group (University of Barcelona related to this topic. The objective of our work is to contribute to both the scientific and the occupational fields, with particular attention to the role of supervisor.

  2. Doctoral theses in diagnostic imaging: a study of Spanish production between 1976 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machan, K; Sendra Portero, F

    2018-05-15

    To analyze the production of doctoral theses in diagnostic imaging in Spain in the period comprising 1976 through 2011 with the aim of a) determining the number of theses and their distribution over time, b) describing the production in terms of universities and directors, and c) analyzing the content of the theses according to the imaging technique, anatomic site, and type of research used. The TESEO database was searched for "radiología" and/or "diagnóstico por imagen" and for terms related to diagnostic imaging in the title of the thesis. A total of 1036 theses related to diagnostic imaging were produced in 37 Spanish universities (mean, 29.6 theses/year; range, 4-59). A total of 963 thesis directors were identified; 10 of these supervised 10 or more theses. Most candidates and directors were men, although since the 2000-2001 academic year the number of male and female candidates has been similar. The anatomic regions most often included in diagnostic imaging theses were the abdomen (22.5%), musculoskeletal system (21.8%), central nervous system (16.4%), and neck and face (15.6%). The imaging techniques most often included were ultrasonography in the entire period (25.5%) and magnetic resonance imaging in the last 5 years. Most theses (63.8%) were related to clinical research. Despite certain limitations, the TESEO database makes it possible to analyze the production of doctoral theses in Spain effectively. The annual mean production of theses in diagnostic imaging is higher than in other medical specialties. This analysis reflects the historic evolution of imaging techniques and research in radiology as well as the development of Spanish universities. Copyright © 2018 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Feasibility of a cohort study on health risks caused by occupational exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of performing a cohort study on health risks from occupational exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) in Germany. Methods A set of criteria was developed to evaluate the feasibility of such a cohort study. The criteria aimed at conditions of exposure and exposure assessment (level, duration, preferably on an individual basis), the possibility to assemble a cohort and the feasibility of ascertaining various disease endpoints. Results Twenty occupational settings with workers potentially exposed to RF-EMF and, in addition, a cohort of amateur radio operators were considered. Based on expert ratings, literature reviews and our set of predefined criteria, three of the cohorts were identified as promising for further evaluation: the personnel (technicians) of medium/short wave broadcasting stations, amateur radio operators, and workers on dielectric heat sealers. After further analyses, the cohort of workers on dielectric heat sealers seems not to be feasible due to the small number of exposed workers available and to the difficulty of assessing exposure (exposure depends heavily on the respective working process and mixture of exposures, e.g. plastic vapours), although exposure was highest in this occupational setting. The advantage of the cohort of amateur radio operators was the large number of persons it includes, while the advantage of the cohort of personnel working at broadcasting stations was the quality of retrospective exposure assessment. However, in the cohort of amateur radio operators the exposure assessment was limited, and the cohort of technicians was hampered by the small number of persons working in this profession. Conclusion The majority of occupational groups exposed to RF-EMF are not practicable for setting up an occupational cohort study due to the small numbers of exposed subjects or due to exposure levels being only marginally higher than those of the general

  4. Feasibility of a cohort study on health risks caused by occupational exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahrendorf Jürgen

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of performing a cohort study on health risks from occupational exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF in Germany. Methods A set of criteria was developed to evaluate the feasibility of such a cohort study. The criteria aimed at conditions of exposure and exposure assessment (level, duration, preferably on an individual basis, the possibility to assemble a cohort and the feasibility of ascertaining various disease endpoints. Results Twenty occupational settings with workers potentially exposed to RF-EMF and, in addition, a cohort of amateur radio operators were considered. Based on expert ratings, literature reviews and our set of predefined criteria, three of the cohorts were identified as promising for further evaluation: the personnel (technicians of medium/short wave broadcasting stations, amateur radio operators, and workers on dielectric heat sealers. After further analyses, the cohort of workers on dielectric heat sealers seems not to be feasible due to the small number of exposed workers available and to the difficulty of assessing exposure (exposure depends heavily on the respective working process and mixture of exposures, e.g. plastic vapours, although exposure was highest in this occupational setting. The advantage of the cohort of amateur radio operators was the large number of persons it includes, while the advantage of the cohort of personnel working at broadcasting stations was the quality of retrospective exposure assessment. However, in the cohort of amateur radio operators the exposure assessment was limited, and the cohort of technicians was hampered by the small number of persons working in this profession. Conclusion The majority of occupational groups exposed to RF-EMF are not practicable for setting up an occupational cohort study due to the small numbers of exposed subjects or due to exposure levels being only marginally higher

  5. An Investigation of Anglicized Spanish as a Communication Strategy in the Beginning Spanish Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobeck, Ashley Brianne

    2013-01-01

    Considering the recent increase in Spanish use in the United States, particularly as reflected in the media, beginning Spanish students are entering their classrooms with knowledge of phrases such as "hasta la vista" and "numero uno," regardless of their amount of previous formal Spanish study. The present research focuses on…

  6. High School Spanish Teachers' Attitudes and Practices toward Spanish Heritage Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Brittany D.; Kuriscak, Lisa M.

    2015-01-01

    This case study uses survey data to examine the attitudes and pedagogical practices of preservice and current high school Spanish teachers toward Spanish heritage language learners (HLLs). The research questions addressed were (1) the extent to which participants were aware of the challenges facing Spanish HLLs who are enrolled in traditional…

  7. COPD and occupation: a retrospective cohort study of industrial workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazitova, Nailya N; Saveliev, Anatoly A; Berheeva, Zuhra M; Amirov, Nail Kh

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this paper was to ascertain chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) prevalence among industrial workers in the Russian Federation and determine relative contribution of smoking and occupational factors to COPD. We recruited 1,375 workers aged 30 or over. Six hundred and twenty-four of them were occupationally exposed to vapours, gases, dust, and fumes (VGDF). Physical examination and baseline spirometry were performed for all the participants of the study. Those with airfl ow limitation of FEV1/FVC<0.70 were considered having COPD and those with presence of cough and sputum production for at least three months in each of two consecutive years were considered having chronic bronchitis (CB), with no overlapping between these 2 groups. Data on occupational history and VGDF levels in the working area were collected from all participants. In total, 105 cases of COPD and 170 cases of CB were diagnosed in the cohort of examined workers. Occupational exposure to VGDF was twice as often present among COPD patients than among both patients with CB and the control group of healthy workers (p<0.05). More than 40 % of COPD patients were occupationally exposed to VGDF above the value of 3.0 of the occupational exposure limit (OEL) and more than 20 % to 6.0 OEL and higher. Overall odds ratio for COPD development due to occupational VGDF exposure was 5.9 (95 % CI=3.6 to 9.8, p=0.0001). Both smoking and VGDF seem to be important for the development of COPD. Analysis of the combined effect of tobacco smoking and occupational noxious particles and gases on COPD development has shown the following order of risk factors based on the strength of their infl uence: VGDF levels, smoking index, age, and heating microclimate. There is a statistically signifi cant level of relationship and "dose-effect" dependence between occupational exposures to VGDF and the development of COPD. The effect of VGDF composition on the probability of COPD development was not found in the study

  8. Bevacizumab Exacerbates Paclitaxel-Induced Neuropathy: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayumu Matsuoka

    Full Text Available Bevacizumab (BEV, a humanized anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF monoclonal antibody, enhances the antitumor effectiveness of paclitaxel (PTX-based chemotherapy in many metastatic cancers. A recent study in mice showed that VEGF receptor inhibitors can interfere with the neuroprotective effects of endogenous VEGF, potentially triggering the exacerbation of PTX-induced neuropathy. In clinical trials, exacerbation of neuropathy in patients who received PTX combined with BEV (PTX+BEV has generally been explained by increased exposure to PTX owing to the extended duration of chemotherapy. We investigated whether the concurrent use of BEV is associated with the exacerbation of PTX-induced neuropathy.Female patients with breast cancer who had received weekly PTX or PTX+BEV from September 2011 through May 2016 were studied retrospectively. PTX-induced neuropathy was evaluated at the same time points (at the 6th and 12th courses of chemotherapy in both cohorts. A multivariate Cox proportional-hazards model was used to assess the independent effect of BEV on the time to the onset of neuropathy.A total of 107 patients (median age, 55 years; range, 32-83 were studied. Sixty-one patients received PTX as adjuvant chemotherapy, 23 received PTX for metastatic disease, and 23 received PTX+BEV for metastatic disease. Peripheral sensory neuropathy was worse in patients who received PTX+BEV than in those who received PTX alone: at the 6th course, Grade 0/1/2/3 = 4/13/4/0 vs. 25/42/6/0 (P = 0.095; at the 12th course, 2/3/11/3 vs. 7/30/23/2 (P = 0.016. At the 12th course, the incidence of Grade 2 or higher neuropathy was significantly higher in patients treated with PTX+BEV than in those treated with PTX alone (74% vs. 40%; P = 0.017. In multivariate analysis, BEV was significantly associated with an increased risk of neuropathy (HR 2.32, 95% CI 1.21-4.44, P = 0.012.The concurrent use of BEV could worsen PTX-induced neuropathy in patients with breast

  9. Clinical impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease on non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. A study on 1,790 patients from the Spanish Bronchiectasis Historical Registry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David De la Rosa

    Full Text Available Few studies have evaluated the coexistence of bronchiectasis (BE and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD in series of patients diagnosed primarily with BE. The aim of this study was to analyse the characteristics of patients with BE associated with COPD included in the Spanish Bronchiectasis Historical Registry and compare them to the remaining patients with non-cystic fibrosis BE.We conducted a multicentre observational study of historical cohorts, analysing the characteristics of 1,790 patients who had been included in the registry between 2002 and 2011. Of these, 158 (8.8% were registered as BE related to COPD and were compared to the remaining patients with BE of other aetiologies.Patients with COPD were mostly male, older, had a poorer respiratory function and more frequent exacerbations. There were no differences in the proportion of patients with chronic bronchial colonisation or in the isolated microorganisms. A significantly larger proportion of patients with COPD received treatment with bronchodilators, inhaled steroids and intravenous antibiotics, but there was no difference in the use of long term oral or inhaled antibiotherapy. During a follow-up period of 3.36 years, the overall proportion of deaths was 13.8%. When compared to the remaining aetiologies, patients with BE associated with COPD presented the highest mortality rate. The multivariate analysis showed that the diagnosis of COPD in a patient with BE as a primary diagnosis increased the risk of death by 1.77.Patients with BE related to COPD have the same microbiological characteristics as patients with BE due to other aetiologies. They receive treatment with long term oral and inhaled antibiotics aimed at controlling chronic bronchial colonisation, even though the current COPD treatment guidelines do not envisage this type of therapy. These patients' mortality is notably higher than that of remaining patients with non-cystic fibrosis BE.

  10. Neurological recovery in obstetric brachial plexus injuries: an historical cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeksma, Agnes F.; ter Steeg, Anne Marie; Nelissen, Rob G. H. H.; van Ouwerkerk, Willem J. R.; Lankhorst, Gustaaf J.; de Jong, Bareld A.

    2004-01-01

    An historical cohort study was conducted to investigate the rate and extent of neurological recovery in obstetric brachial plexus injury (OBPI) and to identify possible prognostic factors in a cohort of children with OBPI from birth to 7 years. All children (n=56; 31 females, 25 males) with OBPI

  11. Childhood and adolescent energy restriction and subsequent colorectal cancer risk: Results from The Netherlands cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hughes, L.A.E.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Goldbohm, R.A.; Goeij, A.F.P.M. d; Bruïne, A.P. de; Engeland, M. van; Weijenberg, M.P.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Energy restriction during childhood and adolescence is suggested to lower colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. We investigated this in the Netherlands Cohort Study. Methods: Information on diet and other risk factors was collected by a baseline questionnaire in 1986 when cohort members were

  12. Sleep-disordered breathing and mortality: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh M Punjabi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Sleep-disordered breathing is a common condition associated with adverse health outcomes including hypertension and cardiovascular disease. The overall objective of this study was to determine whether sleep-disordered breathing and its sequelae of intermittent hypoxemia and recurrent arousals are associated with mortality in a community sample of adults aged 40 years or older.We prospectively examined whether sleep-disordered breathing was associated with an increased risk of death from any cause in 6,441 men and women participating in the Sleep Heart Health Study. Sleep-disordered breathing was assessed with the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI based on an in-home polysomnogram. Survival analysis and proportional hazards regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios for mortality after adjusting for age, sex, race, smoking status, body mass index, and prevalent medical conditions. The average follow-up period for the cohort was 8.2 y during which 1,047 participants (587 men and 460 women died. Compared to those without sleep-disordered breathing (AHI: or=30.0 events/h sleep-disordered breathing were 0.93 (95% CI: 0.80-1.08, 1.17 (95% CI: 0.97-1.42, and 1.46 (95% CI: 1.14-1.86, respectively. Stratified analyses by sex and age showed that the increased risk of death associated with severe sleep-disordered breathing was statistically significant in men aged 40-70 y (hazard ratio: 2.09; 95% CI: 1.31-3.33. Measures of sleep-related intermittent hypoxemia, but not sleep fragmentation, were independently associated with all-cause mortality. Coronary artery disease-related mortality associated with sleep-disordered breathing showed a pattern of association similar to all-cause mortality.Sleep-disordered breathing is associated with all-cause mortality and specifically that due to coronary artery disease, particularly in men aged 40-70 y with severe sleep-disordered breathing. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  13. Prevention of adolescent depression in the Spanish-speaking world

    OpenAIRE

    Horn, Andrea B; Canizares, Catalina; Gomez, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims at presenting programs targeted at the prevention of adolescent depression applied with Spanish-speaking populations that have been developed in Spanish-speaking countries and are mostly published in Spanish. These programs have been developed under different cultural contexts in Spain and Latin-America. The main goal of this paper is to make the studies and movements of the Spanish-speaking literature in this field accessible to the non-Spanish-speaking part of the research c...

  14. The Shozu Herpes Zoster (SHEZ) Study: Rationale, Design, and Description of a Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takao, Yukiko; Miyazaki, Yoshiyuki; Onishi, Fumitake; Kumihashi, Hideaki; Gomi, Yasuyuki; Ishikawa, Toyokazu; Okuno, Yoshinobu; Mori, Yasuko; Asada, Hideo; Yamanishi, Koichi; Iso, Hiroyasu

    2012-01-01

    Background The incidence and risk factors for herpes zoster have been studied in cross-sectional and cohort studies, although most such studies have been conducted in Western countries. Evidence from Asian populations is limited, and no cohort study has been conducted in Asia. We are conducting a 3-year prospective cohort study in Shozu County in Kagawa Prefecture, Japan to determine the incidence and predictive and immunologic factors for herpes zoster among Japanese. Methods The participants are followed for 3 years, and a telephone survey is conducted every 4 weeks. The participants were assigned to 1 of 3 studies. Participants in study A gave information on past history of herpes zoster and completed health questionnaires. Study B participants additionally underwent varicella-zoster virus (VZV) skin testing, and study C participants additionally underwent blood testing. If the participants develop herpes zoster, we evaluate clinical symptoms, measure cell-mediated immunity and humoral immunity using venous blood sampling, photograph skin areas with rash, conduct virus identification testing by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and virus isolation from crust sampling, and evaluate postherpetic pain. Results We recruited 12 522 participants aged 50 years or older in Shozu County from December 2009 through November 2010. The participation rate was 65.7% of the target population. Conclusions The present study is likely to provide valuable data on the incidence and predictive and immunologic factors for herpes zoster in a defined community-based population of Japanese. PMID:22343323

  15. Delayed Diagnoses in Children with Constipation: Multicenter Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Stephen B; Rodean, Jonathan; Hall, Matthew; Alpern, Elizabeth R; Aronson, Paul L; Simon, Harold K; Shah, Samir S; Marin, Jennifer R; Cohen, Eyal; Morse, Rustin B; Katsogridakis, Yiannis; Berry, Jay G; Neuman, Mark I

    2017-07-01

    The use of abdominal radiographs contributes to increased healthcare costs, radiation exposure, and potentially to misdiagnoses. We evaluated the association between abdominal radiograph performance and emergency department (ED) revisits with important alternate diagnosis among children with constipation. Retrospective cohort study of children aged constipation at one of 23 EDs from 2004 to 2015. The primary exposure was abdominal radiograph performance. The primary outcome was a 3-day ED revisit with a clinically important alternate diagnosis. RAND/University of California, Los Angeles methodology was used to define whether the revisit was related to the index visit and due to a clinically important condition other than constipation. Regression analysis was performed to identify exposures independently related to the primary outcome. A total of 65.7% (185 439/282 225) of children with constipation had an index ED visit abdominal radiograph performed. Three-day revisits occurred in 3.7% (10 566/282 225) of children, and 0.28% (784/282 225) returned with a clinically important alternate related diagnosis. Appendicitis was the most common such revisit, accounting for 34.1% of all 3-day clinically important related revisits. Children who had an abdominal radiograph performed were more likely to have a 3-day revisit with a clinically important alternate related diagnosis (0.33% vs 0.17%; difference 0.17%; 95% CI 0.13-0.20). Following adjustment for covariates, abdominal radiograph performance was associated with a 3-day revisit with a clinically important alternate diagnosis (aOR: 1.39; 95% CI 1.15-1.67). Additional characteristics associated with the primary outcome included narcotic (aOR: 2.63) and antiemetic (aOR: 2.35) administration and underlying comorbidities (aOR: 2.52). Among children diagnosed with constipation, abdominal radiograph performance is associated with an increased risk of a revisit with a clinically important alternate related diagnosis

  16. Electronic Cigarettes Efficacy and Safety at 12 Months: Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamberto Manzoli

    Full Text Available To evaluate the safety and efficacy as a tool of smoking cessation of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes, directly comparing users of e-cigarettes only, smokers of tobacco cigarettes only, and smokers of both.Prospective cohort study. Final results are expected in 2019, but given the urgency of data to support policies on electronic smoking, we report the results of the 12-month follow-up.Direct contact and structured questionnaires by phone or via internet.Adults (30-75 years were included if they were smokers of ≥1 tobacco cigarette/day (tobacco smokers, users of any type of e-cigarettes, inhaling ≥50 puffs weekly (e-smokers, or smokers of both tobacco and e-cigarettes (dual smokers. Carbon monoxide levels were tested in a sample of those declaring tobacco smoking abstinence.Sustained smoking abstinence from tobacco smoking at 12 months, reduction in the number of tobacco cigarettes smoked daily.We used linear and logistic regression, with region as cluster unit.Follow-up data were available for 236 e-smokers, 491 tobacco smokers, and 232 dual smokers (overall response rate 70.8%. All e-smokers were tobacco ex-smokers. At 12 months, 61.9% of the e-smokers were still abstinent from tobacco smoking; 20.6% of the tobacco smokers and 22.0% of the dual smokers achieved tobacco abstinence. Adjusting for potential confounders, tobacco smoking abstinence or cessation remained significantly more likely among e-smokers (adjusted OR 5.19; 95% CI: 3.35-8.02, whereas adding e-cigarettes to tobacco smoking did not enhance the likelihood of quitting tobacco and did not reduce tobacco cigarette consumption. E-smokers showed a minimal but significantly higher increase in self-rated health than other smokers. Non significant differences were found in self-reported serious adverse events (eleven overall.Adding e-cigarettes to tobacco smoking did not facilitate smoking cessation or reduction. If e-cigarette safety will be confirmed, however, the use of e

  17. Circulatory disease mortality in the Massachusetts tuberculosis fluoroscopy cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, Mark P.; Zablotska, Lydia B.; Brenner, Alina V.; Lipshultz, Steven E.

    2016-01-01

    High-dose ionizing radiation is associated with circulatory disease. Risks from lower-dose fractionated exposures, such as from diagnostic radiation procedures, remain unclear. In this study we aimed to ascertain the relationship between fractionated low-to-medium dose radiation exposure and circulatory disease mortality in a cohort of 13,568 tuberculosis patients in Massachusetts, some with fluoroscopy screenings, between 1916 and 1961 and follow-up until the end of 2002. Analysis of mortality was in relation to cumulative thyroid (cerebrovascular) or lung (all other circulatory disease) radiation dose via Poisson regression. Over the full dose range, there was no overall radiation-related excess risk of death from circulatory disease (n = 3221; excess relative risk/Gy −0.023; 95 % CI −0.067, 0.028; p = 0.3574). Risk was somewhat elevated in hypertensive heart disease (n = 89; excess relative risk/Gy 0.357; 95 % CI −0.043, 1.030, p = 0.0907) and slightly decreased in ischemic heart disease (n = 1950; excess relative risk/Gy −0.077; 95 % CI −0.130, −0.012; p = 0.0211). However, under 0.5 Gy, there was a borderline significant increasing trend for all circulatory disease (excess relative risk/Gy 0.345; 95 % CI −0.032, 0.764; p = 0.0743) and for ischemic heart disease (excess relative risk/Gy 0.465; 95 % CI, −0.032, 1.034, p = 0.0682). Pneumolobectomy increased radiation–associated risk (excess relative risk/Gy 0.252; 95 % CI 0.024, 0.579). Fractionation of dose did not modify excess risk. In summary, we found no evidence of radiation-associated excess circulatory death risk overall, but there are indications of excess circulatory death risk at lower doses (<0.5 Gy). Although consistent with other radiation-exposed groups, the indications of higher risk at lower doses are unusual and should be confirmed against other data.

  18. Intergenerational teen pregnancy: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Vigod, Simone N; Farrugia, M Michèle; Urquia, Marcelo L; Ray, Joel G

    2018-05-22

    To estimate the intergenerational association in teenage pregnancy, and whether there is a coupling tendency between a mother and daughter in how their teen pregnancies end, such as an induced abortion (IA) vs. a livebirth. Population-based cohort study. Ontario, Canada. 15,097 mothers and their 16,177 daughters. Generalized estimating equations generated adjusted odds ratios (aOR) of a daughter experiencing a teen pregnancy in relation to the number of teen pregnancies her mother had. Multinomial logistic regression estimated the odds that a teen pregnancy ended with IA among both mother and daughter. All models were adjusted for maternal age and world region of origin, the daughter's socio-demographic characteristics and comorbidities, mother-daughter cohabitation, and neighborhood-level teen pregnancy rate. Teen pregnancy in the daughter, between ages 15-19 years, and also the nature of the daughter's teen pregnancy, categorized as i) no teen pregnancy, ii) at least one teen pregnancy, all exclusively ending with a livebirth, and iii) at least one teen pregnancy, with at least one teen pregnancy ending with an IA. The proportion of daughters having a teen pregnancy among those whose mother had 0, 1, 2, or ≥ 3 teen pregnancies was 16.3%, 24.9%, 33.5% and 36.3%, respectively. The aOR of a daughter having a teen pregnancy was 1.42 (95% CI 1.25-1.61) if her mother had 1, 1.97 (95% CI 1.71-2.26) if she had 2, and 2.17 (95% CI 1.84-2.56) if her mother had ≥ 3 teen pregnancies, relative to none. If a mother had ≥ 1 teen pregnancy ending with IA, then her daughter had an aOR of 2.12 (95% CI 1.76-2.56) for having a teen pregnancy also ending with IA; whereas, if a mother had ≥ 1 teen pregnancy, all ending with a livebirth, then her daughter had an aOR of 1.73 (95% CI 1.46-2.05) for that same outcome. There is a strong intergenerational occurrence of teenage pregnancy between a mother and daughter, including a coupling tendency in how the pregnancy ends. This

  19. Measuring Early Communication in Spanish Speaking Children: The Communication Complexity Scale in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Erin; Brady, Nancy C; Esplund, Amy

    There is a great need in the United States to develop presymbolic evaluation tools that are widely available and accurate for individuals that come from a bilingual and/or multicultural setting. The Communication Complexity Scale (CCS) is a measure that evaluates expressive presymbolic communication including gestures, vocalizations and eye gaze. Studying the effectiveness of this tool in a Spanish speaking environment was undertaken to determine the applicability of the CCS with Spanish speaking children. Methods & Procedures: In 2011-2012, researchers from the University of Kansas and Centro Ann Sullivan del Perú (CASP) investigated communication in a cohort of 71 young Spanish speaking children with developmental disabilities and a documented history of self-injurious, stereotyped and aggressive behaviors. Communication was assessed first by parental report with translated versions of the Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales (CSBS), a well-known assessment of early communication, and then eleven months later with the CCS. We hypothesized that the CCS and the CSBS measures would be significantly correlated in this population of Spanish speaking children. The CSBS scores from time 1 with a mean participant age of 41 months were determined to have a strong positive relationship to the CCS scores obtained at time 2 with a mean participant age of 52 months. The CCS is strongly correlated to a widely accepted measure of early communication. These findings support the validity of the Spanish version of the CCS and demonstrate its usefulness for children from another culture and for children in a Spanish speaking environment.

  20. External validation of prognostic models to predict risk of gestational diabetes mellitus in one Dutch cohort: prospective multicentre cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamain-de Ruiter, Marije; Kwee, Anneke; Naaktgeboren, Christiana A; de Groot, Inge; Evers, Inge M; Groenendaal, Floris; Hering, Yolanda R; Huisjes, Anjoke J M; Kirpestein, Cornel; Monincx, Wilma M; Siljee, Jacqueline E; Van 't Zelfde, Annewil; van Oirschot, Charlotte M; Vankan-Buitelaar, Simone A; Vonk, Mariska A A W; Wiegers, Therese A; Zwart, Joost J; Franx, Arie; Moons, Karel G M; Koster, Maria P H

    2016-08-30

     To perform an external validation and direct comparison of published prognostic models for early prediction of the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus, including predictors applicable in the first trimester of pregnancy.  External validation of all published prognostic models in large scale, prospective, multicentre cohort study.  31 independent midwifery practices and six hospitals in the Netherlands.  Women recruited in their first trimester (diabetes mellitus of any type were excluded.  Discrimination of the prognostic models was assessed by the C statistic, and calibration assessed by calibration plots.  3723 women were included for analysis, of whom 181 (4.9%) developed gestational diabetes mellitus in pregnancy. 12 prognostic models for the disorder could be validated in the cohort. C statistics ranged from 0.67 to 0.78. Calibration plots showed that eight of the 12 models were well calibrated. The four models with the highest C statistics included almost all of the following predictors: maternal age, maternal body mass index, history of gestational diabetes mellitus, ethnicity, and family history of diabetes. Prognostic models had a similar performance in a subgroup of nulliparous women only. Decision curve analysis showed that the use of these four models always had a positive net benefit.  In this external validation study, most of the published prognostic models for gestational diabetes mellitus show acceptable discrimination and calibration. The four models with the highest discriminative abilities in this study cohort, which also perform well in a subgroup of nulliparous women, are easy models to apply in clinical practice and therefore deserve further evaluation regarding their clinical impact. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Cohort changes in cognitive function among Danish centenarians. A comparative study of 2 birth cohorts born in 1895 and 1905

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Henriette; Christensen, Kaare; Andersen-Ranberg, Karen

    2008-01-01

    of 276 persons participated (75%). The Danish 1905 Cohort Survey includes all individuals born in 1905. In total, 225 out of 364 persons who reached the age of 100 in the cohort participated in the most recent 2005 follow-up (62%). In both cohorts, cognitive function was assessed using the Mini-Mental...

  2. Selective reporting bias of harm outcomes within studies: findings from a cohort of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Pooja; Loke, Yoon K; Gamble, Carrol; Altman, Douglas G; Williamson, Paula R; Kirkham, Jamie J

    2014-11-21

    To determine the extent and nature of selective non-reporting of harm outcomes in clinical studies that were eligible for inclusion in a cohort of systematic reviews. Cohort study of systematic reviews from two databases. Outcome reporting bias in trials for harm outcomes (ORBIT II) in systematic reviews from the Cochrane Library and a separate cohort of systematic reviews of adverse events. 92 systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials and non-randomised studies published in the Cochrane Library between issue 9, 2012 and issue 2, 2013 (Cochrane cohort) and 230 systematic reviews published between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 2011 in other publications, synthesising data on harm outcomes (adverse event cohort). A 13 point classification system for missing outcome data on harm was developed and applied to the studies. 86% (79/92) of reviews in the Cochrane cohort did not include full data from the main harm outcome of interest of each review for all of the eligible studies included within that review; 76% (173/230) for the adverse event cohort. Overall, the single primary harm outcome was inadequately reported in 76% (705/931) of the studies included in the 92 reviews from the Cochrane cohort and not reported in 47% (4159/8837) of the 230 reviews in the adverse event cohort. In a sample of primary studies not reporting on the single primary harm outcome in the review, scrutiny of the study publication revealed that outcome reporting bias was suspected in nearly two thirds (63%, 248/393). The number of reviews suspected of outcome reporting bias as a result of missing or partially reported harm related outcomes from at least one eligible study is high. The declaration of important harms and the quality of the reporting of harm outcomes must be improved in both primary studies and systematic reviews. © Saini et al 2014.

  3. The Effects of Work Values and Work Centrality on Job Satisfaction. A study with older spanish workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Orgambídez-Ramos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Since workforces are ageing throughout Europe, interest in the role of age in the workplace is increasing. Older workers with high work centrality are more likely to negotiate a relational contract and express higher levels of job satisfaction than older workers with low work centrality (Armstrong-Stassen and Schlosser, 2008. This study examines the role of work centrality and valued work outcomes as antecedents of job satisfaction. A cross sectional study using questionnaires was conducted. The sample consisted of 203 Spanish employees (M age = 55.78, SD = 3.01. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses have revealed that job satisfaction was significantly predicted by needed income and work centrality. When work is not an important part of older workers’ lives, they will prefer extrinsic outcomes and will not invest in the relationship with their organization (Grant & Wade-Benzoni, 2009. Implications for research and theory are explored in the conclusion.

  4. Differences in kinetic variables between injured and noninjured novice runners : A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bredeweg, Steef W.; Kluitenberg, Bas; Bessem, Bram; Buist, Ida

    Objectives: This prospective study examined differences in kinetic variables between injured and noninjured novice female and male runners and their potential contribution to RRIs. Design: A prospective cohort study. Methods: At baseline vertical ground reaction forces were assessed with an

  5. Perinatal complications in patients with unisutural craniosynostosis: An international multicentre retrospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, Martijn J.; Softeland, Madiha; Apon, Inge; Ladfors, Lars; Mathijssen, Irene M. J.; Cohen-Overbeek, Titia E.; Bonsel, Gouke J.; Kolby, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Craniosynostosis may lead to hampered fetal head molding and birth complications. To study the interaction between single suture craniosynostosis and delivery complications, an international, multicentre, retrospective cohort study was performed. Materials and methods All infants born

  6. Nursing Staff Factors Contributing to Seclusion in Acute Mental Health Care : An Explorative Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    prof Berno van Meijel; Paul Doedens

    2017-01-01

    been demonstrated, and seclusion is only justified for preventing safety hazards. Previous studies indicate that nursing staff factors may be predictors for seclusion, although methodological issues may have led to equivocal results. Objective: To perform a prospective cohort study to

  7. New Zealand Diabetes Cohort Study cardiovascular risk score for people with Type 2 diabetes: validation in the PREDICT cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Tom; Elley, C Raina; Wells, Sue; Robinson, Elizabeth; Kenealy, Tim; Pylypchuk, Romana; Bramley, Dale; Arroll, Bruce; Crengle, Sue; Riddell, Tania; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Metcalf, Patricia; Drury, Paul L

    2012-09-01

    New Zealand (NZ) guidelines recommend treating people for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk on the basis of five-year absolute risk using a NZ adaptation of the Framingham risk equation. A diabetes-specific Diabetes Cohort Study (DCS) CVD predictive risk model has been developed and validated using NZ Get Checked data. To revalidate the DCS model with an independent cohort of people routinely assessed using PREDICT, a web-based CVD risk assessment and management programme. People with Type 2 diabetes without pre-existing CVD were identified amongst people who had a PREDICT risk assessment between 2002 and 2005. From this group we identified those with sufficient data to allow estimation of CVD risk with the DCS models. We compared the DCS models with the NZ Framingham risk equation in terms of discrimination, calibration, and reclassification implications. Of 3044 people in our study cohort, 1829 people had complete data and therefore had CVD risks calculated. Of this group, 12.8% (235) had a cardiovascular event during the five-year follow-up. The DCS models had better discrimination than the currently used equation, with C-statistics being 0.68 for the two DCS models and 0.65 for the NZ Framingham model. The DCS models were superior to the NZ Framingham equation at discriminating people with diabetes who will have a cardiovascular event. The adoption of a DCS model would lead to a small increase in the number of people with diabetes who are treated with medication, but potentially more CVD events would be avoided.

  8. La Aplicacion de las Bases de Datos al Estudio Historico del Espanol (The Application of Databases to the Historical Study of Spanish).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal, Gloria Claveria; Lancis, Carlos Sanchez

    1997-01-01

    Notes that the employment of databases to the study of the history of a language is a method that allows for substantial improvement in investigative quality. Illustrates this with the example of the application of this method to two studies of the history of Spanish developed in the Language and Information Seminary of the Independent University…

  9. Alterations of the Subgingival Microbiota in Pediatric Crohn's Disease Studied Longitudinally in Discovery and Validation Cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsen, Judith; Bittinger, Kyle; Pauly-Hubbard, Helen; Posivak, Leah; Grunberg, Stephanie; Baldassano, Robert; Lewis, James D; Wu, Gary D; Bushman, Frederic D

    2015-12-01

    Oral manifestations are common in Crohn's disease (CD). Here we characterized the subgingival microbiota in pediatric patients with CD initiating therapy and after 8 weeks to identify microbial community features associated with CD and therapy. Pediatric patients with CD were recruited from The Children's Hospital of Pennsylvania. Healthy control subjects were recruited from primary care or orthopedics clinic. Subgingival plaque samples were collected at initiation of therapy and after 8 weeks. Treatment exposures included 5-ASAs, immunomodulators, steroids, and infliximab. The microbiota was characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The study was repeated in separate discovery (35 CD, 43 healthy) and validation cohorts (43 CD, 31 healthy). Most subjects in both cohorts demonstrated clinical response after 8 weeks of therapy (discovery cohort 88%, validation cohort 79%). At week 0, both antibiotic exposure and disease state were associated with differences in bacterial community composition. Seventeen genera were identified in the discovery cohort as candidate biomarkers, of which 11 were confirmed in the validation cohort. Capnocytophaga, Rothia, and TM7 were more abundant in CD relative to healthy controls. Other bacteria were reduced in abundance with antibiotic exposure among CD subjects. CD-associated genera were not enriched compared with healthy controls after 8 weeks of therapy. Subgingival microbial community structure differed with CD and antibiotic use. Results in the discovery cohort were replicated in a separate validation cohort. Several potentially pathogenic bacterial lineages were associated with CD but were not diminished in abundance by antibiotic treatment, suggesting targets for additional surveillance.

  10. Present Food Shopping Habits in the Spanish Adult Population: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Achón

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Information on grocery shopping patterns is one key to understanding dietary changes in recent years in Spain. This report presents an overview of Spanish food shopping patterns in the adult population. A cross-sectional, nationally representative telephone survey was conducted in Spain. Individuals were asked about food shopping responsibility roles, types of visited food stores, time spent, additional behaviors while shopping, the influence of marketing/advertising and, in particular, fresh produce shopping profile. Binary logistic regression models were developed. The final random sample included 2026 respondents aged ≥18 years, of which 1223 were women and 803 were men. Women reported being in charge of most of the food shopping activities. Looking for best prices, more than looking for healthy or sustainable foods, seemed to be a general behavior. Supermarkets were the preferred retail spaces for food price consideration, convenience, variety and availability. Fresh produce shopping was associated with traditional markets and neighborhood stores in terms of reliance and personalized service. It is essential to highlight the importance of the role played by women. They are the main supporters concerned in preserving adequate dietary habits. Economic factors, more than health or food sustainability, are commonly considered by the population. Traditional markets may play an important role in preserving some healthy dietary habits of the Mediterranean food culture in Spain.

  11. Present Food Shopping Habits in the Spanish Adult Population: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achón, María; Serrano, María; García-González, Ángela; Alonso-Aperte, Elena; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2017-05-18

    Information on grocery shopping patterns is one key to understanding dietary changes in recent years in Spain. This report presents an overview of Spanish food shopping patterns in the adult population. A cross-sectional, nationally representative telephone survey was conducted in Spain. Individuals were asked about food shopping responsibility roles, types of visited food stores, time spent, additional behaviors while shopping, the influence of marketing/advertising and, in particular, fresh produce shopping profile. Binary logistic regression models were developed. The final random sample included 2026 respondents aged ≥18 years, of which 1223 were women and 803 were men. Women reported being in charge of most of the food shopping activities. Looking for best prices, more than looking for healthy or sustainable foods, seemed to be a general behavior. Supermarkets were the preferred retail spaces for food price consideration, convenience, variety and availability. Fresh produce shopping was associated with traditional markets and neighborhood stores in terms of reliance and personalized service. It is essential to highlight the importance of the role played by women. They are the main supporters concerned in preserving adequate dietary habits. Economic factors, more than health or food sustainability, are commonly considered by the population. Traditional markets may play an important role in preserving some healthy dietary habits of the Mediterranean food culture in Spain.

  12. Ingested Nitrate and Breast Cancer in the Spanish Multicase-Control Study on Cancer (MCC-Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espejo-Herrera, Nadia; Gracia-Lavedan, Esther; Pollan, Marina; Aragonés, Nuria; Boldo, Elena; Perez-Gomez, Beatriz; Altzibar, Jone M.; Amiano, Pilar; Zabala, Ana Jiménez; Ardanaz, Eva; Guevara, Marcela; Molina, Antonio J.; Barrio, Juan Pablo; Gómez-Acebo, Ines; Tardón, Adonina; Peiró, Rosana; Chirlaque, Maria Dolores; Palau, Margarita; Muñoz, Montse; Font-Ribera, Laia; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Kogevinas, Manolis; Villanueva, Cristina M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ingested nitrate leads to endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds that are breast carcinogens in animals, but human evidence is limited. Objective: We evaluated ingested nitrate as a risk factor for breast cancer (BC) in a multicase–control study. Methods: Hospital-based incident BC cases and population-based controls were recruited in eight Spanish regions in 2008–2013; participants provided residential and water consumption from 18 years of age and information on known BC risk factors. Long-term nitrate levels (1940–2010) were estimated and linked with residential histories and water consumption to calculate waterborne ingested nitrate (milligrams/day). Dietary ingested nitrate (milligrams/day) was calculated using food frequency questionnaires and published dietary nitrate contents. Interactions with endogenous nitrosation factors and other variables were evaluated. A total of 1,245 cases and 1,520 controls were included in the statistical analysis. Results: Among the study regions, average ± SD waterborne ingested nitrate ranged from 2.9 ± 1.9 to 13.5 ± 7.5 mg/day, and dietary ingested nitrate ranged from 88.5 ± 48.7 to 154 ± 87.8 mg/day. Waterborne ingested nitrate was not associated with BC overall, but among postmenopausal women, those with both high nitrate (> 6 vs. Zabala AJ, Ardanaz E, Guevara M, Molina AJ, Barrio JP, Gómez-Acebo I, Tardón A, Peiró R, Chirlaque MD, Palau M, Muñoz M, Font-Ribera L, Castaño-Vinyals G, Kogevinas M, Villanueva CM. 2016. Ingested nitrate and breast cancer in the Spanish Multicase-Control Study on Cancer (MCC-Spain). Environ Health Perspect 124:1042–1049; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1510334 PMID:26942716

  13. Abdominal Cystic Echinococcosis Treated with Albendazole. A Pediatric Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samanta Moroni

    Full Text Available Cystic echinococcosis is endemic in Argentina. The standard pharmacological treatment for the disease is albendazole, but surgery is a common alternative. Even though primary infection occurs mainly in the pediatric population, the optimal therapeutic option in pediatrics is not clearly defined and few pediatric cohorts with cystic echinococcosis treated with albendazole have been described to date.To describe therapeutic response to albendazole in a cohort of pediatric patients with abdominal cystic echinococcosis.Patients (0-18 years old with abdominal cystic echinococcosis who were treated with albendazole between January 1998 and August 2013. Diagnosis of abdominal cystic echinococcosis was made by ultrasound. All patients received albendazole, 10-15 mg/kg/day. Epidemiological data, symptoms, number, location and outcome of the cysts, serology and treatment received were analyzed. The parameter used to assess treatment response was cyst changes evaluated by ultrasound follow up using the WHO-IWGE classification.A total of 28 patients (with 46 abdominal cysts were included in the cohort. Mean age at enrolment was 9.4 years and mean duration of follow-up, 23.8 months. All patients resided in rural areas and had had contact with dogs. The asymptomatic form of the disease was the most common presentation. All patients received albendazole (mean duration: 142.5 days, with low incidence of adverse events. Albendazole had a positive effect on most of the cysts. Surgery was performed in 13 patients.Treatment with albendazole for uncomplicated cystic echinococcosis cysts is safe and effective, and can potentially reduce the need for surgical intervention.

  14. Abdominal Cystic Echinococcosis Treated with Albendazole. A Pediatric Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroni, Samanta; Moscatelli, Guillermo; Bournissen, Facundo García; González, Nicolás; Ballering, Griselda; Freilij, Héctor; Salgueiro, Fabián; Altcheh, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis is endemic in Argentina. The standard pharmacological treatment for the disease is albendazole, but surgery is a common alternative. Even though primary infection occurs mainly in the pediatric population, the optimal therapeutic option in pediatrics is not clearly defined and few pediatric cohorts with cystic echinococcosis treated with albendazole have been described to date. To describe therapeutic response to albendazole in a cohort of pediatric patients with abdominal cystic echinococcosis. Patients (0-18 years old) with abdominal cystic echinococcosis who were treated with albendazole between January 1998 and August 2013. Diagnosis of abdominal cystic echinococcosis was made by ultrasound. All patients received albendazole, 10-15 mg/kg/day. Epidemiological data, symptoms, number, location and outcome of the cysts, serology and treatment received were analyzed. The parameter used to assess treatment response was cyst changes evaluated by ultrasound follow up using the WHO-IWGE classification. A total of 28 patients (with 46 abdominal cysts) were included in the cohort. Mean age at enrolment was 9.4 years and mean duration of follow-up, 23.8 months. All patients resided in rural areas and had had contact with dogs. The asymptomatic form of the disease was the most common presentation. All patients received albendazole (mean duration: 142.5 days), with low incidence of adverse events. Albendazole had a positive effect on most of the cysts. Surgery was performed in 13 patients. Treatment with albendazole for uncomplicated cystic echinococcosis cysts is safe and effective, and can potentially reduce the need for surgical intervention.

  15. Career choices for cardiology: cohort studies of UK medical graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Cardiology is one of the most popular of the hospital medical specialties in the UK. It is also a highly competitive specialty in respect of the availability of higher specialty training posts. Our aims are to describe doctors’ early intentions about seeking careers in cardiology, to report on when decisions about seeking a career in cardiology are made, to compare differences between men and women doctors in the choice of cardiology, and to compare early career choices with later specialty destinations. Methods Questionnaire surveys were sent to all UK medical graduates in selected qualification years from 1974–2009, at 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 years after graduation. Results One year after graduation, the percentage of doctors specifying cardiology as their first choice of long-term career rose from the mid-1990s from 2.4% (1993 cohort) to 4.2% (2005 cohort) but then fell back to 2.7% (2009 cohort). Men were more likely to give cardiology as their first choice than women (eg 4.1% of men and 1.9% of women in the 2009 cohort). The percentage of doctors who gave cardiology as their first choice of career declined between years one and five after qualification: the fall was more marked for women. 34% of respondents who specified cardiology as their sole first choice of career one year post-graduation were later working in cardiology. 24% of doctors practising as cardiologists several years after qualification had given cardiology as their sole first choice in year one. The doctors’ ‘domestic circumstances’ were a relatively unimportant influence on specialty choice for aspiring cardiologists, while ‘enthusiasm/commitment’, ‘financial prospects’, ‘experiences of the job so far’ and ‘a particular teacher/department’ were important. Conclusions Cardiology grew as a first preference one year after graduation to 2005 but is now falling. It consistently attracts a higher percentage of men than women doctors. The correspondence between early

  16. Sociodemographic factors and vestibular schwannoma: a Danish nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schüz, Joachim; Steding-Jessen, Marianne; Hansen, Søren

    2010-01-01

    Vestibular schwannoma (VS) (or acoustic neuroma) accounts for about 5%-6% of all intracranial tumors; little is known about the etiology. We investigated the association between various sociodemographic indicators and VS in a cohort of 3.26 million Danish residents, with 1087 cases identified in 35...... 308 974 person-years under risk, with data accrued from 1993 to 2006. Complete ascertainment of cases was ensured by using population-based and clinical cancer registries. Information on sociodemographic indicators was obtained on an annually updated individual level from Statistics Denmark. Log...

  17. Risk for unemployment of cancer survivors: A Danish cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Kathrine; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Diderichsen, Finn

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether cancer survivors are at an increased risk for unemployment after cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cohort of 65,510 patients who were part of the workforce in the year before diagnosis and a random sample of 316,925 age and gender-matched controls were followed for up...... that the risk for unemployment was highest amongst persons aged 50-60 years at time of diagnosis. Risk factors for unemployment were found to be manual work, medium income and vocational education. CONCLUSION: Generally, cancer patients were at a small increased risk for unemployment and low socioeconomic...

  18. Study Design and Cohort Description of DEFIB-WOMEN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne S.; Nielsen, Jens Cosedis; Riahi, Sam

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little systematic evidence is available on potential gender differences in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) from a real-world cohort. We designed the DEFIB-WOMEN (The Utilization of Implantable Cardioverter DEFIBrillator Therapy in the Treatment of Heart......-converting enzyme inhibitors, and psychotropic agents. Although women generally had a healthier clinical profile, they reported significantly more symptoms of anxiety and depression and ICD concerns (fear of shock) as compared to men. These differences were not only statistically significant but also clinically...

  19. The Effects of Technology Entrepreneurship on Customers and Society: A Case Study of a Spanish Pharmaceutical Distribution Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Rosa M.; Sánchez de Pablo, Jesús D.; Peña, Isidro; Salinero, Yolanda

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to provide an understanding, within the field of corporate entrepreneurship, of the various factors that enable technology entrepreneurship in established firms and its principal effects on customers and society. The paper reports on a case study regarding technology entrepreneurship in a Spanish company whose activity is pharmaceutical distribution. This company has been able to overcome the consequences of the worldwide crisis and start an innovative process which includes the installation of new information technology (IT) and an investment of 6 million Euros. It is, in this respect, a model to imitate and the objective of this paper is therefore to discover the managers’ entrepreneurial orientation (EO) characteristics which have made this possible, along with the organizational and social effects resulting from the process. We verify that EO is present in this company and that the development of new IT has important effects on customers and the population. PMID:27445938

  20. The Effects of Technology Entrepreneurship on Customers and Society: A Case Study of a Spanish Pharmaceutical Distribution Company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Rosa M; Sánchez de Pablo, Jesús D; Peña, Isidro; Salinero, Yolanda

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to provide an understanding, within the field of corporate entrepreneurship, of the various factors that enable technology entrepreneurship in established firms and its principal effects on customers and society. The paper reports on a case study regarding technology entrepreneurship in a Spanish company whose activity is pharmaceutical distribution. This company has been able to overcome the consequences of the worldwide crisis and start an innovative process which includes the installation of new information technology (IT) and an investment of 6 million Euros. It is, in this respect, a model to imitate and the objective of this paper is therefore to discover the managers' entrepreneurial orientation (EO) characteristics which have made this possible, along with the organizational and social effects resulting from the process. We verify that EO is present in this company and that the development of new IT has important effects on customers and the population.

  1. Post-Partum Depression, Personality, and Cognitive-Emotional Factors: A Longitudinal Study on Spanish Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñacoba-Puente, Cecilia; Marín-Morales, Dolores; Carmona-Monge, Francisco Javier; Velasco Furlong, Lilian

    2016-01-01

    In this study, our purpose was to examine whether personality and cognitive factors could be related to post-partum depression (PPD), mediated by anxiety, in Spanish women. Women were evaluated for personality and cognitive factors after the first trimester, for anxiety in the third trimester, and for PPD 4 months after childbirth. A structural equation model revealed that personality and cognitive factors were associated with anxiety and PPD as predictors. Neuroticism and extroversion proved to be the most relevant factors. Conscientiousness was associated with pregnancy anxiety. Pregnancy anxiety appeared as an independent predictor of PPD. The model presented here includes personality and cognitive and emotional factors as predictors of PPD. Comprehensive care for pregnant women should contemplate assessment and intervention on all these aspects. Special focus should be on cognitive factors and emotional regulation strategies, so as to minimize the risk of later development of emotional disorders during puerperal phases.

  2. Sleep patterns, sleep disorders and mammographic density in spanish women: The DDM-Spain/Var-DDM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedraza-Flechas, Ana María; Lope, Virginia; Moreo, Pilar; Ascunce, Nieves; Miranda-García, Josefa; Vidal, Carmen; Sánchez-Contador, Carmen; Santamariña, Carmen; Pedraz-Pingarrón, Carmen; Llobet, Rafael; Aragonés, Nuria; Salas-Trejo, Dolores; Pollán, Marina; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz

    2017-05-01

    We explored the relationship between sleep patterns and sleep disorders and mammographic density (MD), a marker of breast cancer risk. Participants in the DDM-Spain/var-DDM study, which included 2878 middle-aged Spanish women, were interviewed via telephone and asked questions on sleep characteristics. Two radiologists assessed MD in their left craneo-caudal mammogram, assisted by a validated semiautomatic-computer tool (DM-scan). We used log-transformed percentage MD as the dependent variable and fitted mixed linear regression models, including known confounding variables. Our results showed that neither sleeping patterns nor sleep disorders were associated with MD. However, women with frequent changes in their bedtime due to anxiety or depression had higher MD (e β :1.53;95%CI:1.04-2.26). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Injury Incidence in a Spanish Sub-Elite Professional Football Team: A Prospective Study During Four Consecutive Seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallo, Javier; González, Pablo; Veiga, Santiago; Navarro, Enrique

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the injury incidence and injury characteristics of a Spanish sub-elite professional football team during four consecutive seasons. A team was followed prospectively from the season 2003-2004 to 2006-2007 and individual player exposure and time loss injuries were recorded during all club training sessions and matches. A total of 313 time-loss injuries were recorded. The mean injury incidence was 10.9 injuries/1000 hours (5.2 injuries/1000 training hours and 44.1 injuries/1000 match hours). The injury incidence during competitive matches was higher (p 28 days absence) was 0.4 injuries/1000 hours. The thigh was the most commonly (35%) injured region and caused 29% of all competitive match absence. Muscle injuries in the four main groups of the lower limbs (hamstrings, adductors, quadriceps and calf muscles) caused 43% of competitive match unavailability. The results of this study show that the risk to sustain a major injury in the course of the season was low for sub- elite footballers in comparison to elite players. Thigh strains were the first cause of absence in competition due to injury. Key points The incidence of major injuries (absence greater than 4 weeks) was lower in a Spanish sub-elite football team than in elite European teams. The risk of sustaining an injury was 2.5 fold higher (p < 0.001) in official than in friendly matches. Lower limb muscular (hamstrings, quadriceps, hip adductors and calf muscles) and joint (knee and ankle) injuries were the main causes of match unavailability. PMID:24149566

  4. Adequacy of the dietary intake of total and added sugars in the Spanish diet to the recommendations: ANIBES study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Enma; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2017-10-15

    The WHO published in 2015 its recommendations for added sugars intake: sugar intake, mainly focused on added, and food and beverage sources. To analize fulfillment with WHO recommendations. The ANIBES Study of a representative sample of the Spanish population (9-75 yr) was used. Food and beverage records were obtained by a three-day dietary record by using a tablet device. The median total sugar intake was 17% Total TE: 7.3% for added, and 9.6% for the intrinsic sugar intake. Differences were observed for added sugar which was much higher in children and adolescents. For the intrinsic sugar, however, a higher contribution to TE was observed in the elderly. A 58.2% of children fullfill WHO recommndations (sugar were milk and dairy products (23.2%), non-alcoholic beverages (18.6%), fruits (16.8%) and sugars and sweets (15.1%) and grains (12.0%). The major sources of intrinsic sugars were fruits (31.8%), milks (19.6%), juices and nectars (11.1%), vegetables (9.89%), yogurt and fermented milk (7.18%), low-alcohol-content beverages (4.94%), bread (2.91%), and sugar soft drinks (2.24%). As for free sugars, sources were sugars and sweets (34.1%), non-alcoholic beverages (30.8%, mainly as sugar soft drinks, 25.5%) and grains (19.1%, principally as bakery and pastry, 15.2%). The present study demonstrates that only a moderate percentage of the Spanish population adhered to the present recommendations for total and added sugar intake, and urgent efforts are needed to improve diet quality in the youngest populations.

  5. Transcranial direct-current stimulation induced in stroke patients with aphasia: a prospective experimental cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Santos,Michele Devido; Gagliardi,Rubens José; Mac-Kay,Ana Paula Machado Goyano; Boggio,Paulo Sergio; Lianza,Roberta; Fregni,Felipe

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Previous animal and human studies have shown that transcranial direct current stimulation can induce significant and lasting neuroplasticity and may improve language recovery in patients with aphasia. The objective of the study was to describe a cohort of patients with aphasia after stroke who were treated with transcranial direct current stimulation. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective cohort study developed in a public university hospital. METHODS: Nineteen patients with ...

  6. Updated mortality study of a cohort of asbestos textile workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pira, Enrico; Romano, Canzio; Violante, Francesco S; Farioli, Andrea; Spatari, Giovanna; La Vecchia, Carlo; Boffetta, Paolo

    2016-09-01

    Limited information is available on risk of peritoneal mesothelioma after asbestos exposure, and in general on the risk of cancer after cessation of asbestos exposure. We updated to 2013 the follow-up of a cohort of 1083 female and 894 male textile workers with heavy asbestos exposure (up to 100 fb/mL), often for short periods. A total of 1019 deaths were observed, corresponding to a standardized mortality ratio (SMR) of 1.68 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.57-1.78). SMRs were 29.1 (95% CI: 21.5-38.6) for peritoneal cancer, 2.96 (95% CI: 2.50-3.49) for lung cancer, 33.7 (95% CI: 25.7-43.4) for pleural cancer, and 3.03 (95% CI: 1.69-4.99) for ovarian cancer. For pleural and peritoneal cancer, there was no consistent pattern of risk in relation to time since last exposure, whereas for lung cancer there was an indication of a decline in risk after 25 years since last exposure. The findings of this unique cohort provide novel data for peritoneal cancer, indicating that - as for pleural cancer - the excess risk does not decline up to several decades after cessation of exposure. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Birth cohort differences in cardiovascular risk factors in a Brazilian population of older elderly: the Bambuí cohort study of aging (1997 and 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Polo Dias Freitas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether cohort differences exist in the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among older elderly from the Bambuí Cohort Study of Aging. Participants were those aged 71-81 years at two points in time a decade apart: 457 in 1997 (earlier cohort and 553 in 2008 (recent cohort. The prevalence of hypertension (PR = 1.27; 95%CI: 1.19-1.36 and of diabetes mellitus (PR = 1.39; 95%CI: 1.06-1.83 was higher in the recent cohort compared to the earlier one, regardless of sex. The recent cohort had a lower prevalence of smoking (PR = 0.58; 95%CI: 0.42-0.80, and lower total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio level (PR = 0.85; 95%CI: 0.80-0.89. There was a 136% increase in the pharmacologic treatment of diabetes and a 56% increase in pharmacologic management of hypertension in 2008 in comparison with 1997. Overall, the number of cardiovascular risk factors in the recent cohort remained similar to that of the early cohort.

  8. Study protocol of psychometric properties of the Spanish translation of a competence test in evidence based practice: The Fresno test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villafafila-Ferrero Rosa

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are few high-quality instruments for evaluating the effectiveness of Evidence-Based Practice (EBP curricula with objective outcomes measures. The Fresno test is an instrument that evaluates most of EBP steps with a high reliability and validity in the English original version. The present study has the aims to translate the Fresno questionnaire into Spanish and its subsequent validation to ensure the equivalence of the Spanish version against the English original. Methods and design The questionnaire will be translated with the back translation technique and tested in Primary Care Teaching Units in Catalonia (PCTU. Participants will be: (a tutors of Family Medicine residents (expert group; (b Family Medicine residents in their second year of the Family Medicine training program (novice group, and (c Family Medicine physicians (intermediate group. The questionnaire will be administered before and after an educational intervention. The educational intervention will be an interactive four half-day sessions designed to develop the knowledge and skills required to EBP. Responsiveness statistics used in the analysis will be the effect size, the standardised response mean and Guyatt's method. For internal consistency reliability, two measures will be used: corrected item-total correlations and Cronbach's alpha. Inter-rater reliability will be tested using Kappa coefficient for qualitative items and intra-class correlation coefficient for quantitative items and the overall score. Construct validity, item difficulty, item discrimination and feasibility will be determined. Discussion The validation of the Fresno questionnaire into different languages will enable the expansion of the questionnaire, as well as allowing comparison between countries and the evaluation of different teaching models.

  9. The Spanish tourist sector facing extreme climate events: a case study of domestic tourism in the heat wave of 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Martín, M. Belén; Armesto-López, Xosé A.; Martínez-Ibarra, Emilio

    2014-07-01

    This research explores, by means of a questionnaire-based survey, public knowledge and perception as well as the behaviour of young Spanish tourists before, during and after the summer holiday period affected by an episode of extreme heat in 2003. The survey was administered between November and December 2004. The extraordinary heat wave of the summer of 2003 can be seen as an example of a normal episode in terms of the predicted intensity and duration of European summers towards the end of the twenty-first century. It can therefore be used as the laboratory setting for this study. In this context, the use of the climate analogue approach allows us to obtain novel perspectives regarding the future impact that this type of event could have on tourist demand, based on a real experience. Likewise, such an approach allows the strategies of adaptation implemented by the different elements in the tourist system in order to cope with the atmospheric episode to be evaluated. Such strategies could prove useful in reducing vulnerability when faced with similar episodes in the future. The main results indicate that Spanish tourists (young segment market) are flexible in adapting to episodes of extremely high temperatures. Their personal perception of the phenomenon, their behaviour and the adaptation measures implemented to a greater or lesser extent before that time, reduce the vulnerability of the sector when faced with this type of event, at least from the point of view of this young segment of the internal national market. In Spain, the episode of extreme heat of 2003 has led to the implementation or improvement of some adaptive measures after the event, especially in the fields of management, policy and education.

  10. Study protocol of psychometric properties of the Spanish translation of a competence test in evidence based practice: the Fresno test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argimon-Pallàs, Josep M; Flores-Mateo, Gemma; Jiménez-Villa, Josep; Pujol-Ribera, Enriqueta; Foz, Gonçal; Bundó-Vidiella, Magda; Juncosa, Sebastià; Fuentes-Bellido, Cruz M; Pérez-Rodríguez, Belén; Margalef-Pallarès, Francesc; Villafafila-Ferrero, Rosa; Forès-Garcia, Dolors; Roman-Martínez, Josep; Vilert-Garroga, Esther

    2009-02-24

    There are few high-quality instruments for evaluating the effectiveness of Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) curricula with objective outcomes measures. The Fresno test is an instrument that evaluates most of EBP steps with a high reliability and validity in the English original version. The present study has the aims to translate the Fresno questionnaire into Spanish and its subsequent validation to ensure the equivalence of the Spanish version against the English original. The questionnaire will be translated with the back translation technique and tested in Primary Care Teaching Units in Catalonia (PCTU). Participants will be: (a) tutors of Family Medicine residents (expert group); (b) Family Medicine residents in their second year of the Family Medicine training program (novice group), and (c) Family Medicine physicians (intermediate group). The questionnaire will be administered before and after an educational intervention. The educational intervention will be an interactive four half-day sessions designed to develop the knowledge and skills required to EBP. Responsiveness statistics used in the analysis will be the effect size, the standardised response mean and Guyatt's method. For internal consistency reliability, two measures will be used: corrected item-total correlations and Cronbach's alpha. Inter-rater reliability will be tested using Kappa coefficient for qualitative items and intra-class correlation coefficient for quantitative items and the overall score. Construct validity, item difficulty, item discrimination and feasibility will be determined. The validation of the Fresno questionnaire into different languages will enable the expansion of the questionnaire, as well as allowing comparison between countries and the evaluation of different teaching models.

  11. Providing a Spanish interpreter using low-cost videoconferencing in a community study computers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James L Wofford

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background The advent of more mobile, more reliable, and more affordable videoconferencing technology finally makes it realistic to offer remote foreign language interpretation in the office setting. Still, such technologies deserve proof of acceptability to clinicians and patients before there is widespread acceptance and routine use.Objective We sought to examine: (1 the audio and video technical fidelity of iPad/Facetime software, (2 the acceptability of videoconferencing to patients and clinicians.Methods The convenience sample included Spanish-speaking adult patients at a community health care medicine clinic in 2011. Videoconferencing was conducted using two iPads connecting patient/physician located in the clinic examination room, and the interpreter in a remote/separate office in the same building. A five-item survey was used to solicit opinions on overall quality of the videoconferencing device, audio/video integrity/fidelity, perception of encounter duration, and attitude toward future use.Results Twenty-five patients, 18 clinicians and 5 interpreters participated in the project. Most patients (24/25 rated overall quality of videoconferencing as good/excellent with only 1 ‘fair’ rating. Eleven patients rated the amount of time as no longer than in-person, and nine reported it as shorter than in person. Most patients, 94.0% (24/25, favoured using videoconferencing during future visits. For the 18 clinicians, the results were similar.Conclusions Based on our experience at a single-site community health centre, the videoconferencing technology appeared to be flawless, and both patients and clinicians were satisfied. Expansion of videoconferencing to other off-site healthcare professionals should be considered in the search for more cost-effective healthcare.

  12. Prevalence of psychoactive substances, alcohol and illicit drugs, in Spanish drivers: A roadside study in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo-Salvany, Antonia; Herrero, M Jesús; Fernandez, Beatriz; Perez, Julio; Del Real, Pilar; González-Luque, Juan Carlos; de la Torre, Rafael

    2017-09-01

    A survey was conducted during 2015 to monitor psychoactive substance use in a sample of drivers in Spanish roads and cities. Traffic police officers recruited drivers at sites carefully chosen to achieve representativeness of the driver population. A brief questionnaire included the date, time, and personal and driving patterns data. Alcohol use was ascertained through ethanol breath test at the roadside and considered positive if concentrations >0.05mg alcohol/L were detected. Four drug classes were assessed on-site through an oral fluid screening test that, if positive, was confirmed through a second oral fluid sample at a reference laboratory. Laboratory confirmation analyses screened for 26 psychoactive substances. To evaluate the association between drug findings and age, sex, road type (urban/interurban), and period of the week (weekdays, weeknights, weekend days, weekend nights), logistic regression analyses were done (overall, and separately for alcohol, cannabis and cocaine). A total of 2744 drivers, mean age of 37.5 years, 77.8% men, were included. Overall, 11.6% of the drivers had at least one positive finding to the substances assessed. Substances more frequently testing positive were cannabis (7.5%), cocaine (4.7%) and alcohol (2.6%). More than one substance was detected in 4% of the subjects. The proportion of positive results decreased with age, and was more likely among men and on urban roads. The pattern for alcohol use was similar but did not change with age and increased among drivers recruited at night. Cannabis was more likely to be detected at younger ages and cocaine was associated with night driving. Alcohol use before driving has decreased over the last decade; however, the consumption of other illegal drugs seems to have increased. The pattern of illegal psychoactive substance observed is similar to that declared in surveys of the general population of adults. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Symptomatic venous thromboembolism in orthognathic surgery and distraction osteogenesis: a retrospective cohort study of 4127 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlinden, C.R.A.; Tuinzing, D.B.; Forouzanfar, T.

    2014-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism is a common postoperative complication, and orthopaedic procedures are particularly at risk. We designed a retrospective, single centre, observational, cohort study of 4127 patients (mean (SD) age 27 (11) years) who had elective orthognathic operations or distraction

  14. Development and validation of outcome prediction models for aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage : The SAHIT multinational cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaja, Blessing N R; Saposnik, Gustavo; Lingsma, Hester F.; Macdonald, Erin; Thorpe, Kevin E.; Mamdani, Muhammed; Steyerberg, Ewout W.; Molyneux, Andrew; Manoel, Airton Leonardo De Oliveira; Schatlo, Bawarjan; Hanggi, Daniel; Hasan, David M.; Wong, George K C; Etminan, Nima; Fukuda, Hitoshi; Torner, James C.; Schaller, Karl L.; Suarez, Jose I.; Stienen, Martin N.; Vergouwen, Mervyn D.I.; Rinkel, Gabriel J.E.; Spears, Julian; Cusimano, Michael D.; Todd, Michael; Le Roux, Peter; Kirkpatrick, Peter J.; Pickard, John; Van Den Bergh, Walter M.; Murray, Gordon D; Johnston, S. Claiborne; Yamagata, Sen; Mayer, Stephan A.; Schweizer, Tom A.; Macdonald, R. Loch

    2018-01-01

    Objective To develop and validate a set of practical prediction tools that reliably estimate the outcome of subarachnoid haemorrhage from ruptured intracranial aneurysms (SAH). Design Cohort study with logistic regression analysis to combine predictors and treatment modality. Setting Subarachnoid

  15. Coffee drinking and mortality in 10 European countries : A multinational cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunter, Marc J.; Murphy, Neil; Cross, Amanda J.; Dossus, Laure; Dartois, Laureen; Fagherazzi, Guy; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kühn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Larsen, Sofus Christian; Cornejo, Maria Luisa Redondo; Agudo, Antonio; Pérez, María José Sánchez; Altzibar, Jone M.; Navarro, Carmen; Ardanaz, Eva; Khaw, Kay Tee; Butterworth, Adam; Bradbury, Kathryn E.; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Grioni, Sara; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Bueno-De-Mesquita, Bas; Siersema, Peter; Leenders, Max; Beulens, Joline W.J.; Uiterwaal, Cuno U.; Wallström, Peter; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Landberg, Rikard; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Braaten, Tonje; Brennan, Paul; Licaj, Idlir; Muller, David C.; Sinha, Rashmi; Wareham, Nick; Riboli, Elio

    2017-01-01

    Background: The relationship between coffee consumption and mortality in diverse European populations with variable coffee preparation methods is unclear. Objective: To examine whether coffee consumption is associated with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Design: Prospective cohort study.

  16. Egg consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes in a Mediterranean cohort: the SUN project

    OpenAIRE

    Zazpe, I. (Itziar); Beunza, J.J. (Juan José); Bes-Rastrollo, M. (Maira); Basterra-Gortari, F.J. (Francisco Javier); Mari-Sanchis, A. (Amelia); Martinez-Gonzalez, M.A. (Miguel Ángel)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction & Aim: The prevalence of diabetes is increasing at an alarming rate in nearly all countries. Some studies from non-Mediterranean populations suggest that higher egg consumption is associated with an increased risk of diabetes. The aim of our study was to prospectively assess the association between egg consumption and the incidence of type 2 diabetes in a large cohort of Spanish university graduates. Methods: In this prospective cohort including 15,956 participants (mean age: 38....

  17. Making the Invisible Visible: A Responsive Evaluation Study of ESL and Spanish Language Services for Immigrants in a Small Rural County in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawan, Faridah; Thomalla, Therese Groff

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a responsive evaluation study of ESL services and Spanish language services for immigrants in a rural county in Indiana. An ESL specialist led the evaluation of language services in the county from the perspectives of language providers and recipients. The responsive evaluation--a form of action research that uses…

  18. Reconstructing the Life Histories of Spanish Primary School Teachers: A Novel Approach for the Study of the Teaching Profession and School Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahamud, Kira; Martínez Ruiz-Funes, María José

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a study dealing with the reconstruction of the lives of two Spanish primary school teachers during the Franco dictatorship (1939-1975), in order to learn to what extent such a field of research can contribute to the history of education. Two family archives provide extraordinary and unique documentation to track down their…

  19. Using Rasch Measurement To Investigate the Cross-form Equivalence and Clinical Utility of Spanish and English Versions of a Diabetes Questionnaire: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Ben; Smith, Everett V., Jr.; Girotti, Mariela; Pelaez, Lourdes; Lawless, Kimberly; Smolin, Louanne; Brodsky, Irwin; Eiser, Arnold

    2002-01-01

    Used Rasch measurement to study the psychometric properties of data obtained from a newly developed Diabetes Questionnaire designed to measure diabetes knowledge, attitudes, and self-care. Responses of 26 diabetes patients to the English version of the questionnaire and 24 patients to the Spanish version support the cross-form equivalence and…

  20. A Study of the Spanish Translation of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised with Puerto Rican Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Maria D.; And Others

    Two studies were performed with Puerto Rican children and adolescents in Puerto Rico and Connecticut to determine the reliability and predictive validity of the Spanish translation of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised, the Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler para Ninos-Revisada (EIWN-R). Results suggest that the EIWN-R is a reliable…

  1. La enseñanza del español en las universidades de Corea del Sur: handicaps y propuestas didácticas para Hankuk University of foreign studies (Seúl / The teaching of Spanish as a second language at the South Korea universities: handicaps and didactic proposals for Hankuk University of foreign studies (Seoul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Lucas Onieva López

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of Spanish instructors that are being demanded abroad is increasing every day, especially in the Asian countries. From our experience as Spanish instructors in South Korea, concretely in the Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, in this article we want to highlight how to teach Spanish at the university level in the country. To help in the improvement of the language teaching, we will recommend the Spanish Department reform or change certain habits

  2. Family Structure and Childhood Obesity, Early Childhood Longitudinal Study ? Kindergarten Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Alex Y.; Escarce, Jos? J.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Little is known about the effect of family structure on childhood obesity among US children. This study examines the effect of number of parents and number of siblings on children's body mass index and risk of obesity. Methods We conducted a secondary data analysis of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study ? Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K), which consists of a nationally representative cohort of children who entered kindergarten during 1998-1999. Our analyses included 2 cross-sectio...

  3. A patient cohort on long-term sequelae of sepsis survivors: study protocol of the Mid-German Sepsis Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherag, André; Hartog, Christiane S; Fleischmann, Carolin; Ouart, Dominique; Hoffmann, Franziska; König, Christian; Kesselmeier, Miriam; Fiedler, Sandra; Philipp, Monique; Braune, Anke; Eichhorn, Cornelia; Gampe, Christin; Romeike, Heike; Reinhart, Konrad

    2017-08-23

    An increasing number of patients survive sepsis; however, we lack valid data on the long-term impact on morbidity from prospective observational studies. Therefore, we designed an observational cohort to quantify mid-term and long-term functional disabilities after intensive care unit (ICU)-treated sepsis. Ultimately, findings for the Mid-German Sepsis Cohort (MSC) will serve as basis for the implementation of follow-up structures for patients with sepsis and help to increase quality of care for sepsis survivors. All patients surviving ICU-treated sepsis are eligible and are recruited from five study centres in Germany (acute care hospital setting in Jena, Halle/Saale, Leipzig, Bad Berka, Erfurt; large long-term acute care hospital and rehabilitation setting in Klinik Bavaria Kreischa). Screening is performed by trained study nurses. Data are collected on ICU management of sepsis. On written informed consent provided by patients or proxies, follow-up is carried out by trained research staff at 3, 6 and 12 months and yearly thereafter. The primary outcome is functional disability as assessed by (instrumental) activities of daily living. Other outcomes cover domains like mortality, cognitive, emotional and physical impairment, and resource use. The estimated sample size of 3000 ICU survivors is calculated to allow detection of relevant changes in the primary outcome in sepsis survivors longitudinally. The study is conducted according to the current version of the Declaration of Helsinki and has been approved by four local/federal responsible institutional ethics committees and by the respective federal data protection commissioners. Results of MSC will be fed back to the patients and published in peer-reviewed journals. German Clinical Trials Registry DRKS00010050. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Non-cancer morbidity among Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers: a register-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahu, Kaja; Bromet, Evelyn J; Hakulinen, Timo; Auvinen, Anssi; Uusküla, Anneli; Rahu, Mati

    2014-05-14

    To examine non-cancer morbidity in the Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers cohort compared with the population sample with special attention to radiation-related diseases and mental health disorders. Register-based cohort study. Estonia. An exposed cohort of 3680 men (cleanup workers) and an unexposed cohort of 7631 men (population sample) were followed from 2004 to 2012 through the Population Registry and Health Insurance Fund database. Morbidity in the exposed cohort compared with the unexposed controls was estimated in terms of rate ratio (RR) with 95% CIs using Poisson regression models. Elevated morbidity in the exposed cohort was found for diseases of the nervous system, digestive system, musculoskeletal system, ischaemic heart disease and for external causes. The most salient excess risk was observed for thyroid diseases (RR=1.69; 95% CI 1.38 to 2.07), intentional self-harm (RR=1.47; 95% CI 1.04 to 2.09) and selected alcohol-related diagnoses (RR=1.25; 95% CI 1.12 to 1.39). No increase in morbidity for stress reactions, depression, headaches or sleep disorders was detected. No obvious excess morbidity consistent with biological effects of radiation was seen in the exposed cohort, with the possible exception of benign thyroid diseases. Increased alcohol-induced morbidity may reflect alcohol abuse, and could underlie some of the higher morbidity rates. Mental disorders in the exposed cohort were probably under-reported. The future challenge will be to study mental and physical comorbidities in the Chernobyl cleanup workers cohort. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Chocolate consumption and risk of atrial fibrillation: Two cohort studies and a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Susanna C; Drca, Nikola; Jensen-Urstad, Mats; Wolk, Alicja

    2018-01-01

    Chocolate consumption has been inconsistently associated with risk of atrial fibrillation (AF). We investigated the association between chocolate consumption and risk of AF in Swedish adults from two cohort studies and conducted a meta-analysis to summarize available evidence from cohort studies on this topic. Our study population comprised 40,009 men from the Cohort of Swedish Men and 32,486 women from the Swedish Mammography Cohort. Incident AF cases were ascertained through linkage with the Swedish National Patient Register. Published cohort studies of chocolate consumption in relation to risk of AF were identified by a PubMed search through September 14, 2017. During a mean follow-up of 14.6 years, AF was diagnosed in 9978 Swedish men and women. Compared with non-consumers, the multivariable hazard ratio of AF for those in the highest category of chocolate consumption (≥3-4 servings/week) was 0.96 (95% CI 0.88-1.04). In a random-effects meta-analysis of 5 cohort studies, including 180,454 participants and 16,356 AF cases, the hazard ratios of AF were 0.97 (95% CI 0.94-1.01) per 2 servings/week increase in chocolate consumption and 0.96 (95% CI 0.90-1.03) for the highest versus lowest category of chocolate consumption. Available data provide no evidence of an association of chocolate consumption with risk of AF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Clinician-related factors behind the decision to extract an asymptomatic lower third molar. A cross-sectional study based on Spanish and Portuguese dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves-Pereira, D; Pereira-Silva, D; Figueiredo, R; Gay-Escoda, C; Valmaseda-Castellón, E

    2017-09-01

    Scientific literature estimates that around 18 to 40 % of asymptomatic third molars are extracted. The aims of the present study were to determine the indications for extraction of asymptomatic lower third molars in a sample of Spanish and Portuguese dentists, and to relate these indications to the clinicians' training and professional experience. A survey consisting of 15 cases of asymptomatic lower third molars was emailed to Portuguese and Spanish dentists. The clinicians were asked to assess the level of difficulty of the extractions and to make a reasoned recommendation based on the panoramic radiographs, gender and age of the patients. 381 clinicians filled in the questionnaires. Most of the professionals had over 13 years of clinical experience. The number of Spanish clinicians with postgraduate degrees in Oral Surgery was significantly higher. On average, 42% of respondents recommended extraction of asymptomatic third molars. The indication for extraction was significantly higher among Portuguese dentists. Clinical experience was negatively correlated with the perceived extraction difficulty (pPortuguese dentists were more in favour of removing asymptomatic lower third molars than the Spanish dentists, although the latter had a higher proportion of professionals with postgraduate studies in Oral Surgery.

  7. Social selection in cohort studies and later representation of childhood psychiatric diagnoses: The Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kathrine Bang; Hohwü, Lena; Zhu, Jin Liang

    2017-01-01

    AIM: This study aimed to estimate the relative representation of childhood psychiatric diagnoses and use of psychotropic medication in the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) compared to the general population. METHODS: The general population was identified as all childbirths in Denmark during 1998......) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated for each psychiatric diagnosis and by sex. Age at first diagnosis presented as means were compared using the one-sample t-test. RESULTS: In the DNBC, the selected childhood psychiatric diagnoses were underrepresented by 3% (PR=0.97, 95% CI 0.......94-0.99), ranging from a 20% underrepresentation for schizophrenia (PR=0.80, 95% CI 0.59-1.09) to a 6% over-representation for anxiety disorder or obsessive-compulsive disorder (PR=1.06, 95% CI 0.97-1.17). The majority of the specific diagnoses were modestly underrepresented in the DNBC compared to the general...

  8. Spanish nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    In this book published to commemorate the twentieth anniversary of the Spanish Nuclear Society, it is included a report on the Spanish Nuclear Industry. The Spanish Companies and Organizations in nuclear world are: CIEMAT, Empresarios Agrupados, ENRESA, ENUSA, ENDESA, Grupo Iberdrola, LAINSA, INITEC AND TECNATOM. Activities, history and research programs of each of them are included

  9. The WISTAH hand study: A prospective cohort study of distal upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garg Arun

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few prospective cohort studies of distal upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders have been performed. Past studies have provided somewhat conflicting evidence for occupational risk factors and have largely reported data without adjustments for many personal and psychosocial factors. Methods/design A multi-center prospective cohort study was incepted to quantify risk factors for distal upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders and potentially develop improved methods for analyzing jobs. Disorders to analyze included carpal tunnel syndrome, lateral epicondylalgia, medial epicondylalgia, trigger digit, deQuervain’s stenosing tenosynovitis and other tendinoses. Workers have thus far been enrolled from 17 different employment settings in 3 diverse US states and performed widely varying work. At baseline, workers undergo laptop administered questionnaires, structured interviews, two standardized physical examinations and nerve conduction studies to ascertain demographic, medical history, psychosocial factors and current musculoskeletal disorders. All workers’ jobs are individually measured for physical factors and are videotaped. Workers are followed monthly for the development of musculoskeletal disorders. Repeat nerve conduction studies are performed for those with symptoms of tingling and numbness in the prior six months. Changes in jobs necessitate re-measure and re-videotaping of job physical factors. Case definitions have been established. Point prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome is a combination of paraesthesias in at least two median nerve-served digits plus an abnormal nerve conduction study at baseline. The lifetime cumulative incidence of carpal tunnel syndrome will also include those with a past history of carpal tunnel syndrome. Incident cases will exclude those with either a past history or prevalent cases at baseline. Statistical methods planned include survival analyses and logistic regression. Discussion A

  10. Rationale, design, and methods for Canadian alliance for healthy hearts and minds cohort study (CAHHM – a Pan Canadian cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia S. Anand

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Canadian Alliance for Healthy Hearts and Minds (CAHHM is a pan-Canadian, prospective, multi-ethnic cohort study being conducted in Canada. The overarching objective of the CAHHM is to understand the association of socio-environmental and contextual factors (such as societal structure, activity, nutrition, social and tobacco environments, and access to health services with cardiovascular risk factors, subclinical vascular disease, and cardiovascular and other chronic disease outcomes. Methods/Design Participants between 35 and 69 years of age are being recruited from existing cohorts and a new First Nations Cohort to undergo a detailed assessment of health behaviours (including diet and physical activity, cognitive function, assessment of their local home and workplace environments, and their health services access and utilization. Physical measures including weight, height, waist/hip circumference, body fat percentage, and blood pressure are collected. In addition, eligible participants undergo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the brain, heart, carotid artery and abdomen to detect early subclinical vascular disease and ectopic fat deposition. Discussion CAHHM is a prospective cohort study designed to investigate the impact of community level factors, individual health behaviours, and access to health services, on cognitive function, subclinical vascular disease, fat distribution, and the development of chronic diseases among adults living in Canada.

  11. Predictors of medication use during pregnancy: a cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Pisa

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Sociodemographic characteristics and health behaviours are associated with medication use in pregnancy, but it is unclear if they are independent predictors because women´s health status has hardly been accounted for. We aimed to identify predictors of use of medications and of iron/folic acid. Methods This cohort included pregnant women recruited in a prenatal clinic in Trieste, Italy, from 2007 to 2009. Dispensations were obtained from the regional outpatient dispensation database through record linkage. We calculated the Odds Ratio (OR, with 95% confidence interval (95%CI, of ≥ 1 dispensation of (a any medication and (b iron/folic acid, using unconditional logistic regression. The final model adjusted for age, partner education, housing size, comorbidities.   Findings Of 767 women, 70.5% had ≥ 1 dispensation of any medication and 46.1% of iron/folic acid. Use of any medication was predicted by immigrant status of the woman (OR 1.21; 95%CI 0.57–2.53 or of her partner (1.51; 0.67–3.40, ≤ high school degree of the woman (1.11; 0.61–2.03 or of her partner (1.21; 0.75–1.95, unemployment (1.47; 0.72–2.98, smoking (1.25; 0.65–2.40, alcohol consumption (≥5 drinks/week: 2.78; 1.78–4.34, and obesity (1.33; 0.59–2.99. Use of iron and/or folic acid was predicted by ≤ high school degree (0.65; 0.40–1.08, smoking (0.80: 0.47–1.37, and obesity (0.62; 0.31–1.25. Discussion In this cohort, characteristics including education, immigrant and employment status, smoking, alcohol consumption, and obesity independently predicted medication use. Interventions to promote safe use of medications should carefully consider women´s characteristics.

  12. Milk intake and risk of mortality and fractures in women and men : cohort studies

    OpenAIRE

    Michaëlsson, Karl; Wolk, Alicja; Langenskiöld, Sophie; Basu, Samar; Warensjö Lemming, Eva; Melhus, Håkan; Byberg, Liisa

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether high milk consumption is associated with mortality and fractures in women and men. DESIGN: Cohort studies. SETTING: Three counties in central Sweden. PARTICIPANTS: Two large Swedish cohorts, one with 61 433 women (39-74 years at baseline 1987-90) and one with 45 339 men (45-79 years at baseline 1997), were administered food frequency questionnaires. The women responded to a second food frequency questionnaire in 1997. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Multivariable survival ...

  13. Risk of respiratory morbidity in term infants delivered by elective caesarean section: cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Kirkeby; Wisborg, Kirsten; Uldbjerg, Niels

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between elective caesarean sections and neonatal respiratory morbidity and the importance of timing of elective caesarean sections. DESIGN: Cohort study with prospectively collected data from the Aarhus birth cohort, Denmark. SETTING: Obstetric department...... and neonatal department of a university hospital in Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: All liveborn babies without malformations, with gestational ages between 37 and 41 weeks, and delivered between 1 January 1998 and 31 December 2006 (34 458 babies). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Respiratory morbidity (transitory tachypnoea...

  14. Analysis of 1:1 Matched Cohort Studies and Twin Studies, with Binary Exposures and Binary Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Sjölander, Arvid; Johansson, Anna L. V.; Lundholm, Cecilia; Altman, Daniel; Almqvist, Catarina; Pawitan, Yudi

    2012-01-01

    To improve confounder adjustments, observational studies are often matched on potential confounders. While matched case-control studies are common and well covered in the literature, our focus here is on matched cohort studies, which are less common and sparsely discussed in the literature. Matched data also arise naturally in twin studies, as a cohort of exposure–discordant twins can be viewed as being matched on a large number of potential confounders. The analysis of twin studies will be g...

  15. The Pelotas birth cohort study, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 1982-2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victora Cesar G.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the growing recognition of the importance of the life course approach for the determination of chronic diseases, birth cohort studies are becoming increasingly important. This paper describes the methods used in the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil birth cohort study, one of the largest and longest studies of this type in developing countries. All 5,914 hospital births occurring in Pelotas in 1982 (over 99% of all deliveries were studied prospectively. The main stages of the study took place in 1983, 1984, 1986, 1995, 1997, 2000, and 2001. More than two thousand variables are available for each subject who participated in all stages of the study. Recent phases of the study included the examination of 2,250 males when presenting for the army recruitment exam in 2000, the study of a 27% sample of men and women in 2001 through household visits, and the study of over 400 children born to the cohort women. Follow-up rates in the recent stages of the cohort were 78.9% for the army examination and 69.0% for the household visits. Ethnographic and oral health studies were conducted in sub-samples. Some recent results on blood pressure, adolescent pregnancy, and asthma are presented as examples of utilization of the data. Suggestions on lessons learned for other cohort studies are proposed.

  16. The Pelotas Birth Cohort Study, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 1982-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Given the growing recognition of the importance of the life course approach for the determination of chronic diseases, birth cohort studies are becoming increasingly important. This paper describes the methods used in the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study, one of the largest and longest studies of this type in developing countries. All 5,914 hospital births occurring in Pelotas in 1982 (over 99% of all deliveries) were studied prospectively. The main stages of the study took place in 1983, 1984, 1986, 1995, 1997, 2000, and 2001. More than two thousand variables are available for each subject who participated in all stages of the study. Recent phases of the study included the examination of 2,250 males when presenting for the army recruitment exam in 2000, the study of a 27% sample of men and women in 2001 through household visits, and the study of over 400 children born to the cohort women. Follow-up rates in the recent stages of the cohort were 78.9% for the army examination and 69.0% for the household visits. Ethnographic and oral health studies were conducted in sub-samples. Some recent results on blood pressure, adolescent pregnancy, and asthma are presented as examples of utilization of the data. Suggestions on lessons learned for other cohort studies are proposed. PMID:14666206

  17. Specialist Cohort Event Monitoring studies: a new study method for risk management in pharmacovigilance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Deborah; Shakir, Saad A W

    2015-02-01

    The evolving regulatory landscape has heightened the need for innovative, proactive, efficient and more meaningful solutions for 'real-world' post-authorization safety studies (PASS) that not only align with risk management objectives to gather additional safety monitoring information or assess a pattern of drug utilization, but also satisfy key regulatory requirements for marketing authorization holder risk management planning and execution needs. There is a need for data capture across the primary care and secondary care interface, or for exploring use of new medicines in secondary care to support conducting PASS. To fulfil this need, event monitoring has evolved. The Specialist Cohort Event Monitoring (SCEM) study is a new application that enables a cohort of patients prescribed a medicine in the hospital and secondary care settings to be monitored. The method also permits the inclusion of a comparator cohort of patients receiving standard care, or another counterfactual comparator group, to be monitored concurrently, depending on the study question. The approach has been developed in parallel with the new legislative requirement for pharmaceutical companies to undertake a risk management plan as part of post-authorization safety monitoring. SCEM studies recognize that the study population comprises those patients who may have treatment initiated under the care of specialist health care professionals and who are more complex in terms of underlying disease, co-morbidities and concomitant medications than the general disease population treated in primary care. The aims of this paper are to discuss the SCEM new-user study design, rationale and features that aim to address possible bias (such as selection bias) and current applications.

  18. [The Spanish AIDS Study Group and Spanish National AIDS Plan (GESIDA/Secretaría del Plan Nacional sobre el Sida) recommendations for the treatment of tuberculosis in HIV-infected individuals (Updated January 2013)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero, Antonio; Pulido, Federico; Caylá, Joan; Iribarren, José A; Miró, José M; Moreno, Santiago; Pérez-Camacho, Inés

    2013-12-01

    This consensus document was prepared by an expert panel of the Grupo de Estudio de Sida (GESIDA [Spanish AIDS Study Group]) and the Plan Nacional sobre el Sida (PNS [Spanish National AIDS Plan]). The document updates current guidelines on the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) in HIV-infected individuals contained in the guidelines on the treatment of opportunistic infections published by GESIDA and PNS in 2008. The document aims to facilitate the management and treatment of HIV-infected patients with TB in Spain, and includes specific sections and recommendations on the treatment of drug-sensitive TB, multidrug-resistant TB, and extensively drug-resistant TB, in this population. The consensus guidelines also make recommendations on the treatment of HIV-infected patients with TB in special situations, such as chronic liver disease, pregnancy, kidney failure, and transplantation. Recommendations are made on the timing and initial regimens of antiretroviral therapy in patients with TB, and on immune reconstitution syndrome in HIV-infected patients with TB who are receiving antiretroviral therapy. The document does not cover the diagnosis of TB, diagnosis/treatment of latent TB, or treatment of TB in children. The quality of the evidence was evaluated and the recommendations graded using the approach of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation Working Group. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  19. Betel quid use and mortality in Bangladesh: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fen; Parvez, Faruque; Islam, Tariqul; Ahmed, Alauddin; Rakibuz-Zaman, Muhammad; Hasan, Rabiul; Argos, Maria; Levy, Diane; Sarwar, Golam; Ahsan, Habibul; Chen, Yu

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the potential effects of betel quid chewing on mortality. (A quid consists of betel nut, wrapped in betel leaves; tobacco is added to the quid by some users). Prospective data were available on 20 033 individuals aged 18-75 years, living in Araihazar, Bangladesh. Demographic and exposure data were collected at baseline using a standardized questionnaire. Cause of death was defined by verbal autopsy questionnaires administered to next of kin. We estimated hazard ratios (HR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) for associations between betel use and mortality from all causes and from specific causes, using Cox proportional hazards models. We adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, educational attainment and tobacco smoking history. There were 1072 deaths during an average of 10 years of follow-up. Participants who had ever used betel were significantly more likely to die from all causes (HR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.09-1.44) and cancer (HR: 1.55; 95% CI: 1.09-2.22); but not cardiovascular disease (HR: 1.16; 95% CI: 0.93-1.43). These findings were robust to adjustment for potential confounders. There was a dose-response relationship between mortality from all causes and both the duration and the intensity of betel use. The population attributable fraction for betel use was 14.1% for deaths from all causes and 24.2% for cancer. Betel quid use was associated with mortality from all causes and from cancer in this cohort.

  20. Teaching Low-Income Spanish-Speaking Caregivers to Implement EMT en Español With Their Young Children With Language Impairment: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peredo, Tatiana Nogueira; Zelaya, Maria Isabel; Kaiser, Ann P

    2018-02-06

    This study examined the effectiveness of teaching low-income Spanish-speaking caregivers of young children with language impairment a naturalistic language intervention, EMT en Español. A single-case, multiple-baseline, across-behaviors design replicated across 3 caregiver-child dyads was used to examine the effects of teaching core EMT en Español strategies. The training program utilized the Teach-Model-Coach-Review instructional approach to teach strategies to support children's language development in Spanish. All sessions were at home and in Spanish. Caregivers increased their use of matched turns, target talk, expansions, and a communication elicitation procedure following training on each specific skill. Additionally, caregivers generalized increased use of matched turns and target talk to an untrained activity during the intervention period and maintained their behavior 1 month after completing intervention. Two of 3 caregivers generalized their use of expansions, and 1 caregiver generalized her use of a communication elicitation procedure. Modest effects on the child's number of different words were observed for 2 of the 3 target children over the course of the intervention sessions. All 3 children demonstrated increases in total spontaneous words. Spanish-speaking caregivers were able to implement naturalistic language teaching strategies with their young children with language impairment in a relatively short-term intervention.

  1. Using an iPad for Basic Communication Between Spanish-Speaking Families and Nurses in Pediatric Acute Care: A Feasibility Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Kylie H; Mixer, Sandra J

    2017-08-01

    The growing number of Spanish speakers in the United States poses communication challenges for healthcare providers. Language barriers in pediatric acute care have been associated with an increased risk for adverse events, longer hospital stays, and decreased quality of care. In addition, clinicians' usage of interpreter services is inconsistent. In fact, nurses often lack interpreter support during daily bedside care. Nursing staff at a pediatric children's hospital in the southeastern United States identified bedside communication with Spanish-speaking patients and families as a clinical challenge. To address this challenge, a basic communication interface, UTalk version 1.0 (the author is the owner and proprietor), supported by an Apple iPad, was developed by the researcher with input from nursing staff, a certified medical interpreter, and Spanish-speaking community members. A feasibility pilot study of the interface's usability and engagement was conducted on the hospital's pediatric medical-surgical unit through qualitative interviews with nurse-family dyads. Three themes emerged from the data: UTalk-facilitated communication, UTalk needs improvement, and interpreter miscommunication. These findings indicate that a mobile digital device interface is a feasible method for augmenting bedside communication with Spanish-speaking patients and families. These results also may serve as a reference for the development of similar mobile device interfaces. Further research with a larger sample size is needed.

  2. Trends in Dementia Incidence in a Birth Cohort Analysis of the Einstein Aging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derby, Carol A; Katz, Mindy J; Lipton, Richard B; Hall, Charles B

    2017-11-01

    Trends in dementia incidence rates have important implications for planning and prevention. To better understand incidence trends over time requires separation of age and cohort effects, and few prior studies have used this approach. To examine trends in dementia incidence and concomitant trends in cardiovascular comorbidities among individuals aged 70 years or older who were enrolled in the Einstein Aging Study between 1993 and 2015. In this birth cohort analysis of all-cause dementia incidence in persons enrolled in the Einstein Aging Study from October 20, 1993, through November 17, 2015, a systematically recruited, population-based sample of 1348 participants from Bronx County, New York, who were 70 years or older without dementia at enrollment and at least one annual follow-up was studied. Poisson regression was used to model dementia incidence as a function of age, sex, educational level, race, and birth cohort, with profile likelihood used to identify the timing of significant increases or decreases in incidence. Birth year and age. Incident dementia defined by consensus case conference based on annual, standardized neuropsychological and neurologic examination findings, using criteria from the DSM-IV. Among 1348 individuals (mean [SD] baseline age, 78.5 [5.4] years; 830 [61.6%] female; 915 [67.9%] non-Hispanic white), 150 incident dementia cases developed during 5932 person-years (mean [SD] follow-up, 4.4 [3.4] years). Dementia incidence decreased in successive birth cohorts. Incidence per 100 person-years was 5.09 in birth cohorts before 1920, 3.11 in the 1920 through 1924 birth cohorts, 1.73 in the 1925 through 1929 birth cohorts, and 0.23 in cohorts born after 1929. Change point analyses identified a significant decrease in dementia incidence among those born after July 1929 (95% CI, June 1929 to January 1930). The relative rate for birth cohorts before July 1929 vs after was 0.13 (95% CI, 0.04-0.41). Prevalence of stroke and myocardial infarction

  3. Identification and distribution of COPD phenotypes in clinical practice according to Spanish COPD Guidelines: the FENEPOC study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calle Rubio M

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Myriam Calle Rubio,1,2 Ricard Casamor,3 Marc Miravitlles4 On behalf of the FENEPOC study group1Pulmonary Department, Hospital Clínico San Carlos, 2Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University Complutense of Madrid, Research Institute of Hospital Clínico San Carlos (IdISSC, Madrid, 3Medical Department, Novartis Farmaceutica, Barcelona, 4Pneumology Department, University Hospital Vall d’Hebron, CIBER de Enfermedades Respiratorias (CIBERES, Barcelona, SpainBackground: The Spanish Guidelines for COPD (GesEPOC describe four clinical phenotypes: non-exacerbator (NE, asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACO, frequent exacerbator with emphysema (EE, and exacerbator with chronic bronchitis (ECB. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of COPD phenotypes, their clinical characteristics, and the availability of diagnostic tools to classify COPD phenotypes in clinical practice.Materials and methods: This study was an epidemiological, cross-sectional, and multicentered study. Patients ≥40 years old with a post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1/forced vital capacity ratio of <0.7 and who were smokers or former smokers (with at least 10 pack-years were included. The availability of diagnostic tools to classify COPD phenotypes was assessed by an ad hoc questionnaire.Results: A total of 647 patients (294 primary care [PC], 353 pulmonology centers were included. Most patients were male (80.8%, with a mean age (SD of 68.2 (9.2 years, mean post-bronchodilator FEV1 was 53.2% (18.9% and they suffered a mean of 2.2 (2.1 exacerbations in the last year. NE was the most frequent phenotype (47.5% found, followed by ECB (29.1%, EE (17.0%, and ACO (6.5%. Significant differences between the four phenotypes were found regarding age; sex; body mass index; FEV1; body mass index, airflow obstruction, dyspnea, and exercise capacity (BODE/body mass index, airflow obstruction, dyspnea and exacerbations (BODEx index; modified Medical

  4. Clinical disorders in a post war British cohort reaching retirement: evidence from the First National Birth Cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary B Pierce

    Full Text Available The medical needs of older people are growing because the proportion of the older population is increasing and disease boundaries are widening. This study describes the distribution and clustering of 15 common clinical disorders requiring medical treatment or supervision in a representative British cohort approaching retirement, and how health tracked across adulthood.The data come from a cohort of 2661 men and women, 84% of the target sample, followed since birth in England, Scotland and Wales in 1946, and assessed at 60-64 years for: cardio and cerebro-vascular disease, hypertension, raised cholesterol, renal impairment, diabetes, obesity, hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, anaemia, respiratory disease, liver disease, psychiatric problems, cancers, atrial fibrillation on ECG and osteoporosis. We calculated the proportions disorder-free, with one or more disorders, and the level of undiagnosed disorders; and how these disorders cluster into latent classes and relate to health assessed at 36 years. Participants had, on average, two disorders (range 0-9; only 15% were disorder-free. The commonest disorders were hypertension (54.3%, 95% CI 51.8%-56.7%, obesity (31.1%, 28.8%-33.5%, raised cholesterol (25.6%, 23.1-28.26%, and diabetes or impaired fasting glucose (25.0%, 22.6-27.5%. A cluster of one in five individuals had a high probability of cardio-metabolic disorders and were twice as likely than others to have been in the poorest health at 36 years. The main limitations are that the native born sample is entirely white, and a combination of clinical assessments and self reports were used.Most British people reaching retirement already have clinical disorders requiring medical supervision. Widening disease definitions and the move from a disease-based to a risk-based medical model will increase pressure on health services. The promotion of healthy ageing should start earlier in life and consider the individual's ability to adapt to and self manage

  5. Dietary Intake of Individual (Free and Intrinsic) Sugars and Food Sources in the Spanish Population: Findings from the ANIBES Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Emma; Rodriguez, Paula; Valero, Teresa; Ávila, José M.; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Ortega, Rosa M.; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2017-01-01

    The consumption of total and individual sugars is controversial and little is known about consumption and dietary sources in Spain. The purpose was to examine free and intrinsic sugar intake and food and beverage sources. The ANIBES Study (Anthropometry, Intake and Energy Balance in Spain), a cross-sectional study of a representative sample of the Spanish population (9–75 years old; n = 2009) carried out in 2013, was used. Food and beverage records were obtained by a three-day dietary record by using a tablet device. The median total sugar intake was 71.5 g/day (17% Total Energy, TE), the intrinsic sugar intake was 38.3 g/day (9.6% TE), and the free sugar was 28.8 g/day (7.3% TE). Total sugar intake (free and intrinsic) was higher in men than in women for all age groups, although in terms of the contribution to total energy intake, the opposite was observed. Differences were observed for free sugar consumption dependent on age and marked differences (up to two-fold) were observed when considering the percent TE, which was much higher in children and adolescents. For the intrinsic sugar, however, a higher contribution to TE was observed in the elderly. The major sources of intrinsic sugars were fruits (31.8%), milks (19.6%), juices and nectars (11.1%), vegetables (9.89%), yogurt and fermented milk (7.18%), low-alcohol-content beverages (4,94%), bread (2.91%), and sugar soft drinks (2.24%), greater than 90% from diet contribution. As for free sugars, sources were sugar soft drinks (25.5%), sugar (17.8%), bakery and pastry items (15.2%), chocolates (11.4%), yogurt and fermented milk (6.44%), other dairy products (5.99%), jams (3.58%), juices and nectars (2.91%), and breakfast cereals and cereal bars (2.78%), summing up to 90% of the contribution. The present study demonstrates that only a moderate percentage of the Spanish population adhered to the present recommendations for total sugar intake, and urgent efforts are needed to improve diet quality in the youngest

  6. Dietary Intake of Individual (Free and Intrinsic Sugars and Food Sources in the Spanish Population: Findings from the ANIBES Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Ruiz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of total and individual sugars is controversial and little is known about consumption and dietary sources in Spain. The purpose was to examine free and intrinsic sugar intake and food and beverage sources. The ANIBES Study (Anthropometry, Intake and Energy Balance in Spain, a cross-sectional study of a representative sample of the Spanish population (9–75 years old; n = 2009 carried out in 2013, was used. Food and beverage records were obtained by a three-day dietary record by using a tablet device. The median total sugar intake was 71.5 g/day (17% Total Energy, TE, the intrinsic sugar intake was 38.3 g/day (9.6% TE, and the free sugar was 28.8 g/day (7.3% TE. Total sugar intake (free and intrinsic was higher in men than in women for all age groups, although in terms of the contribution to total energy intake, the opposite was observed. Differences were observed for free sugar consumption dependent on age and marked differences (up to two-fold were observed when considering the percent TE, which was much higher in children and adolescents. For the intrinsic sugar, however, a higher contribution to TE was observed in the elderly. The major sources of intrinsic sugars were fruits (31.8%, milks (19.6%, juices and nectars (11.1%, vegetables (9.89%, yogurt and fermented milk (7.18%, low-alcohol-content beverages (4,94%, bread (2.91%, and sugar soft drinks (2.24%, greater than 90% from diet contribution. As for free sugars, sources were sugar soft drinks (25.5%, sugar (17.8%, bakery and pastry items (15.2%, chocolates (11.4%, yogurt and fermented milk (6.44%, other dairy products (5.99%, jams (3.58%, juices and nectars (2.91%, and breakfast cereals and cereal bars (2.78%, summing up to 90% of the contribution. The present study demonstrates that only a moderate percentage of the Spanish population adhered to the present recommendations for total sugar intake, and urgent efforts are needed to improve diet quality in the youngest

  7. Ingested Nitrate and Breast Cancer in the Spanish Multicase-Control Study on Cancer (MCC-Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espejo-Herrera, Nadia; Gracia-Lavedan, Esther; Pollan, Marina; Aragonés, Nuria; Boldo, Elena; Perez-Gomez, Beatriz; Altzibar, Jone M; Amiano, Pilar; Zabala, Ana Jiménez; Ardanaz, Eva; Guevara, Marcela; Molina, Antonio J; Barrio, Juan Pablo; Gómez-Acebo, Ines; Tardón, Adonina; Peiró, Rosana; Chirlaque, Maria Dolores; Palau, Margarita; Muñoz, Montse; Font-Ribera, Laia; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Kogevinas, Manolis; Villanueva, Cristina M

    2016-07-01

    Ingested nitrate leads to endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds that are breast carcinogens in animals, but human evidence is limited. We evaluated ingested nitrate as a risk factor for breast cancer (BC) in a multicase-control study. Hospital-based incident BC cases and population-based controls were recruited in eight Spanish regions in 2008-2013; participants provided residential and water consumption from 18 years of age and information on known BC risk factors. Long-term nitrate levels (1940-2010) were estimated and linked with residential histories and water consumption to calculate waterborne ingested nitrate (milligrams/day). Dietary ingested nitrate (milligrams/day) was calculated using food frequency questionnaires and published dietary nitrate contents. Interactions with endogenous nitrosation factors and other variables were evaluated. A total of 1,245 cases and 1,520 controls were included in the statistical analysis. Among the study regions, average ± SD waterborne ingested nitrate ranged from 2.9 ± 1.9 to 13.5 ± 7.5 mg/day, and dietary ingested nitrate ranged from 88.5 ± 48.7 to 154 ± 87.8 mg/day. Waterborne ingested nitrate was not associated with BC overall, but among postmenopausal women, those with both high nitrate (> 6 vs. nitrate and low red meat intake (adjusted odds ratio = 1.64; 95% confidence interval: 1.08, 2.49; overall interaction p-value = 0.17). No association was found with dietary nitrate. Waterborne ingested nitrate was associated with BC only among postmenopausal women with high red meat consumption. Dietary nitrate was not associated with BC regardless of the animal or vegetable source or of menopausal status. Espejo-Herrera N, Gracia-Lavedan E, Pollan M, Aragonés N, Boldo E, Perez-Gomez B, Altzibar JM, Amiano P, Zabala AJ, Ardanaz E, Guevara M, Molina AJ, Barrio JP, Gómez-Acebo I, Tardón A, Peiró R, Chirlaque MD, Palau M, Muñoz M, Font-Ribera L, Castaño-Vinyals G, Kogevinas M, Villanueva CM. 2016. Ingested

  8. The effect of gender medicine education in GP training: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dielissen, Patrick; Verdonk, Petra; Waard, Magreet Wieringa-de; Bottema, Ben; Lagro-Janssen, Toine

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the change in general practitioner (GP) trainees' gender awareness following a modular gender medicine programme or a mainstream gender medicine programme. In 2007, a prospective study was conducted in three cohorts of in total 207 GP trainees who entered GP training in the Netherlands. The outcome measure was the Nijmegen Gender Awareness in Medicine Scale and a 16-item gender knowledge questionnaire. Two gender medicine teaching methods were compared: a modular approach (n = 75) versus a mainstream approach (n = 72). Both strategies were compared with a control cohort (n = 60). Statistical analysis included analysis of variance and t-tests. The overall response rates for the modular, mainstream and control cohort were 78, 72 and 82 %, respectively. There was a significant difference in change in gender knowledge scores between the modular cohort compared with the mainstream and control cohort (p = 0.049). There were no statistical differences between the cohorts on gender sensitivity and gender role ideology. At entry and end, female GP trainees demonstrated significantly higher gender awareness than male GP trainees. A modular teaching method is not a more favourable educational method to teach gender medicine in GP training. Female GP trainees are more gender aware, but male GP trainees are not unaware of gender-related issues.

  9. Spinal injuries in professional rugby union: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Colin W; Brooks, John H M; Kemp, Simon P T

    2007-01-01

    To determine the incidence, severity, nature, and causes of cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine injuries sustained during competition and training in professional rugby union. A 2 season prospective cohort design. Twelve English Premiership rugby union clubs. Five hundred and forty-six male rugby union players of whom 296 were involved in both seasons. Location, diagnosis, severity (number of days unavailable for training and matches), and cause of injury: incidence of match and training injuries (injuries/1000 player-hours). Player age, body mass, stature, playing position, use of headgear, and activity and period of season. The incidences of spinal injuries were 10.90 (9.43 to 12.60) per 1000 player match-hours and 0.37 (0.29 to 0.47) per 1000 player training-hours. No player sustained a catastrophic spinal injury, but 3 players sustained career-ending injuries. Overall, players were more likely to sustain a cervical injury during matches and a lumbar injury during training. Forwards were significantly more likely to sustain a spinal injury than backs during both matches (P accounting for 926 days (23%) and cervical nerve root injuries sustained during matches for 621 days (15%). During matches, more injuries were caused by tackles (37%), and during training more injuries were caused by weight-training (33%). The results showed that rugby union players were exposed to a high risk of noncatastrophic spinal injury during tackling, scrummaging, and weight-training activities; injury prevention strategies, therefore, should be focused on these activities.

  10. Cohort profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tollånes, Mette C; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Forthun, Ingeborg

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of MOthers and BAbies in Norway and Denmark cerebral palsy (MOBAND-CP) was to study CP aetiology in a prospective design. PARTICIPANTS: MOBAND-CP is a cohort of more than 210 000 children, created as a collaboration between the world's two largest pregnancy cohorts-the Norweg......PURPOSE: The purpose of MOthers and BAbies in Norway and Denmark cerebral palsy (MOBAND-CP) was to study CP aetiology in a prospective design. PARTICIPANTS: MOBAND-CP is a cohort of more than 210 000 children, created as a collaboration between the world's two largest pregnancy cohorts......-the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort study (MoBa) and the Danish National Birth Cohort. MOBAND-CP includes maternal interview/questionnaire data collected during pregnancy and follow-up, plus linked information from national health registries. FINDINGS TO DATE: Initial harmonisation of data from the 2 cohorts...... has created 140 variables for children and their mothers. In the MOBAND-CP cohort, 438 children with CP have been identified through record linkage with validated national registries, providing by far the largest such sample with prospectively collected detailed pregnancy data. Several studies...

  11. Study protocol: the JEU cohort study--transversal multiaxial evaluation and 5-year follow-up of a cohort of French gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challet-Bouju, Gaëlle; Hardouin, Jean-Benoit; Vénisse, Jean-Luc; Romo, Lucia; Valleur, Marc; Magalon, David; Fatséas, Mélina; Chéreau-Boudet, Isabelle; Gorsane, Mohamed-Ali; Grall-Bronnec, Marie

    2014-08-20

    There is abundant literature on how to distinguish problem gambling (PG) from social gambling, but there are very few studies of the long-term evolution of gambling practice. As a consequence, the correlates of key state changes in the gambling trajectory are still unknown. The objective of the JEU cohort study is to identify the determinants of key state changes in the gambling practice, such as the emergence of a gambling problem, natural recovery from a gambling problem, resolution of a gambling problem with intermediate care intervention, relapses or care recourse. The present study was designed to overcome the limitations of previous cohort study on PG. Indeed, this longitudinal case-control cohort is the first which plans to recruit enough participants from different initial gambling severity levels to observe these rare changes. In particular, we plan to recruit three groups of gamblers: non-problem gamblers, problem gamblers without treatment and problem gamblers seeking treatment.Recruitment takes place in various gambling places, through the press and in care centers. Cohort participants are gamblers of both sexes who reported gambling on at least one occasion in the previous year and who were aged between 18 and 65. They were assessed through a structured clinical interview and self-assessment questionnaires at baseline and then once a year for five years. Data collection comprises sociodemographic characteristics, gambling habits (including gambling trajectory), the PG section of the DSM-IV, the South Oaks Gambling Screen, the Gambling Attitudes and Beliefs Survey - 23, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the Wender-Utah Rating Scale-Child, the Adult ADHD Self-report Scale, somatic comorbidities (especially current treatment and Parkinson disease) and the Temperament and Character Inventory - 125. The JEU cohort study is the first study which proposes to identify the predictive factors of key state changes in gambling practice. This is

  12. Rethinking Spanish: Understanding Spanish Speakers Motivations and Reasons to Opt for Either an English Only or a Dual English-Spanish Educational Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Adrienne C.

    2017-01-01

    Spanish-speaking parents choose to enroll their children in either an English only or English-Spanish dual immersion program when presented with both choices. This ethnographic study explored parent's perceptions of the purpose, advantages, and disadvantages of learning in school in English only or in a dual English-Spanish. Through focus group…

  13. [Comparison of differentiated thyroid carcinoma staging systems in a Spanish population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andía Melero, Víctor Manuel; Martín de Santa-Olalla Llanes, María; Sambo Salas, Marcel; Percovich Hualpa, Juan Carlos; Motilla de la Cámara, Marta; Collado Yurrita, Luis

    2015-04-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma staging is increasingly important due to the current trends to a less intensive therapy in low-risk patients. The TNM system is most widely used, but other systems based on follow-up of several patient cohorts have been developed. When these systems have been applied to other populations, results have been discordant. Our study evaluates the suitability of several differentiated thyroid carcinoma staging systems in a Spanish population. 729 patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma and staging data available were enrolled. Mean follow-up time was 10.8 years. The TNM, EORTC, AMES, Clinical class, MACIS, Ohio, NTCTCS, and Spanish systems were applied to all histological types. The Kaplan-Meier survival curves for each system were analyzed, and compared using the proportion of explained variation (PEV). The demographic and clinical characteristics of our population were similar to those of other Spanish and international cohorts reported. The best systems were NTCTCS, with 74.7% PEV, and TNM (68.3%), followed by the Ohio, MACIS, EORTC, and AMES systems with minimal differences between them, while the least adequate were the Spanish (55.2%) and Clinical class (47.1%) systems. The NTCTCS staging system was found to be better than TNM in our population but, because of its simplicity and greater dissemination, the TNM appears to be recommended for staging of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Copyright © 2014 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Didactics of Spanish Language and its Literature teaching, the main integrative discipline: view from Study Plan E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marialina Ana García Escobio

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The main integrative discipline, a typical term to the Cuban Higher Education, is today object of study, in the new study plan E, of a reconceptualization to achieve more efficiently the integration of the academic, the researching, the working, and the extensional fields. The article aims at analyzing the main theoretical elements that are considered in the national literature on this issue, and the importance of this discipline for the professionals education from the Spanish and Literature studies. The main methods used were documental analysis and systematization, and survey was administered with the technique of focal groups. This all led to show the need of the discipline for permanent attention in the Curriculum for it to constitute the backbone of the formation process of the pedagogical and professional competence. The conclusion is that this discipline allows the integration of the student’s education in a coherent and systematic way, from the care of the language and the appreciation of literature as part of the professional identity and authority.

  15. Between chemistry, medicine and leisure: Antonio Casares and the study of mineral waters and Spanish spas in the nineteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suay-Matallana, Ignacio

    2016-07-01

    This article considers how chemical analyses were employed not only to study and describe mineral waters, but also to promote new spas, and to reinforce the scientific authority of experts. Scientists, jointly with bath owners, visitors and local authorities, created a significant spa market by transforming rural spaces into social and economic sites. The paper analyses the role developed by the chemist Antonio Casares in the commodification of mineral water in mid-19(th) century Spain. His scientific publications and water analyses put a new economic value on some Spanish mineral waters and rural springs. First the paper explores the relationship between geographic factors, regulation, and spa development in 19(th) century Spain, and considers how scientific work improved the economy of some rural areas. Then the transformation of numerous country springs into spas, and the commodification of baths as places between science and leisure is examined. Finally the location of spas across the borders of medicine and chemistry is shown, together with the complex field operations required to study mineral waters. This paper reveals an intense circulation of knowledge between the field, laboratories and scientific publications, as well as the essential role developed by experts like Casares, who not only contributed to the study of rural springs but also to their economic transformation.

  16. Assessment of participation bias in cohort studies: systematic review and meta-regression analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Henrique Almeida da Silva Junior

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The proportion of non-participation in cohort studies, if associated with both the exposure and the probability of occurrence of the event, can introduce bias in the estimates of interest. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of participation and its characteristics in longitudinal studies. A systematic review (MEDLINE, Scopus and Web of Science for articles describing the proportion of participation in the baseline of cohort studies was performed. Among the 2,964 initially identified, 50 were selected. The average proportion of participation was 64.7%. Using a meta-regression model with mixed effects, only age, year of baseline contact and study region (borderline were associated with participation. Considering the decrease in participation in recent years, and the cost of cohort studies, it is essential to gather information to assess the potential for non-participation, before committing resources. Finally, journals should require the presentation of this information in the papers.

  17. Lexical Borrowings in Spanish: Function, Length, Genealogy and Chronology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, William T.

    1986-01-01

    A study reveals that lexical borrowing in Spanish, from a variety of languages including Latin, French, Italian, Greek, Arabic, Provencal, and Catalan, accounts for 41 percent of the basic Spanish vocabulary, with variation in source according to historical period. (MSE)

  18. Intrapreneurship in the Spanish context : a regional analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turro Sol, A.; Alvarez, Claudia; Urbano, David

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this article is to examine the influence of internal and external (environmental) factors on intrapreneurship in the Spanish context, considering differences among regions. Methodologically, the study applies logistic regression and uses data from the Spanish Global Entrepreneurship

  19. Development and validation of a predictive model for excessive postpartum blood loss: A retrospective, cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Álvarez, Ana; Molina-Alarcón, Milagros; Arias-Arias, Ángel; Hernández-Martínez, Antonio

    2018-03-01

    postpartum haemorrhage is one of the leading causes of maternal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite the use of uterotonics agents as preventive measure, it remains a challenge to identify those women who are at increased risk of postpartum bleeding. to develop and to validate a predictive model to assess the risk of excessive bleeding in women with vaginal birth. retrospective cohorts study. "Mancha-Centro Hospital" (Spain). the elaboration of the predictive model was based on a derivation cohort consisting of 2336 women between 2009 and 2011. For validation purposes, a prospective cohort of 953 women between 2013 and 2014 were employed. Women with antenatal fetal demise, multiple pregnancies and gestations under 35 weeks were excluded METHODS: we used a multivariate analysis with binary logistic regression, Ridge Regression and areas under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curves to determine the predictive ability of the proposed model. there was 197 (8.43%) women with excessive bleeding in the derivation cohort and 63 (6.61%) women in the validation cohort. Predictive factors in the final model were: maternal age, primiparity, duration of the first and second stages of labour, neonatal birth weight and antepartum haemoglobin levels. Accordingly, the predictive ability of this model in the derivation cohort was 0.90 (95% CI: 0.85-0.93), while it remained 0.83 (95% CI: 0.74-0.92) in the validation cohort. this predictive model is proved to have an excellent predictive ability in the derivation cohort, and its validation in a latter population equally shows a good ability for prediction. This model can be employed to identify women with a higher risk of postpartum haemorrhage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Sardasht-Iran cohort study of chemical warfare victims: design and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazanfari, Tooba; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat; Aragizadeh, Hassan; Soroush, Mohammad-Reza; Yaraee, Roya; Mohammad Hassan, Zuhair; Foroutan, Abbas; Vaez-Mahdavi, Mohammad-Reza; Javadi, Mohammad-Ali; Moaiedmohseni, Sakine; Azizi, Fereidoun; Panahi, Yunes; Mostafaie, Ali; Ghasemi, Hassan; Shams, Jalaleddin; Pourfarzam, Shahryar; Jalali-Nadoushan, Mohammad-Reza; Fallahi, Faramarz; Ebtekar, Massoumeh; Davoudi, Seyyed-Masoud; Ghazanfari, Zeinab; Ardestani, Sussan K; Shariat-Panahi, Shamsa; Moin, Athar; Rezaei, Abbas; Kariminia, Amina; Ajdary, Soheila; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Roshan, Rasoul; Ghaderi, Sulayman; Babai, Mahmoud; Naghizadeh, Mohammad-Mehdi; Ghanei, Mohammad-Mostafa

    2009-01-01

    Insights into long-term clinical