WorldWideScience

Sample records for cohort sampling schemes

  1. Sampling scheme optimization from hyperspectral data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debba, P.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents statistical sampling scheme optimization for geo-environ-menta] purposes on the basis of hyperspectral data. It integrates derived products of the hyperspectral remote sensing data into individual sampling schemes. Five different issues are being dealt with.First, the optimized

  2. Designing optimal sampling schemes for field visits

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This is a presentation of a statistical method for deriving optimal spatial sampling schemes. The research focuses on ground verification of minerals derived from hyperspectral data. Spectral angle mapper (SAM) and spectral feature fitting (SFF...

  3. Why sampling scheme matters: the effect of sampling scheme on landscape genetic results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael K. Schwartz; Kevin S. McKelvey

    2008-01-01

    There has been a recent trend in genetic studies of wild populations where researchers have changed their sampling schemes from sampling pre-defined populations to sampling individuals uniformly across landscapes. This reflects the fact that many species under study are continuously distributed rather than clumped into obvious "populations". Once individual...

  4. Weighted polynomial models and weighted sampling schemes for finite population

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Sean X.

    1998-01-01

    This paper outlines a theoretical framework for finite population models with unequal sample probabilities, along with sampling schemes for drawing random samples from these models. We first present four exact weighted sampling schemes that can be used for any finite population model to satisfy such requirements as ordered/ unordered samples, with/without replacement, and fixed/nonfixed sample size. We then introduce a new class of finite population models called weighted po...

  5. Field sampling scheme optimization using simulated annealing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available (1993); Salisbury et al. (1991); Van der Meer (2004). Various mapping of minerals using hyperspectral data can be found in Crósta et al. (1998); Kruse & Boardman (1997); Rowan et al. (2000); Sabins (1999); Vaughan et al. (2003). Surface sampling... features of these minerals. Thorough discussions on absorption features of hy- drothermal alteration minerals can be found in Clark (1999); Hapke (1993); Salisbury et al. (1991); Van der Meer (2004). Various mapping of minerals using hyperspectral data...

  6. Optimal sampling schemes for vegetation and geological field visits

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The presentation made to Wits Statistics Department was on common classification methods used in the field of remote sensing, and the use of remote sensing to design optimal sampling schemes for field visits with applications in vegetation...

  7. Comparison of kriging interpolation precision between grid sampling scheme and simple random sampling scheme for precision agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Houlong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sampling methods are important factors that can potentially limit the accuracy of predictions of spatial distribution patterns. A 10 ha tobacco-planted field was selected to compared the accuracy in predicting the spatial distribution of soil properties by using ordinary kriging and cross validation methods between grid sampling and simple random sampling scheme (SRS. To achieve this objective, we collected soil samples from the topsoil (0-20 cm in March 2012. Sample numbers of grid sampling and SRS were both 115 points each. Accuracies of spatial interpolation using the two sampling schemes were then evaluated based on validation samples (36 points and deviations of the estimates. The results suggested that soil pH and nitrate-N (NO3-N had low variation, whereas all other soil properties exhibited medium variation. Soil pH, organic matter (OM, total nitrogen (TN, cation exchange capacity (CEC, total phosphorus (TP and available phosphorus (AP matched the spherical model, whereas the remaining variables fit an exponential model with both sampling methods. The interpolation error of soil pH, TP, and AP was the lowest in SRS. The errors of interpolation for OM, CEC, TN, available potassium (AK and total potassium (TK were the lowest for grid sampling. The interpolation precisions of the soil NO3-N showed no significant differences between the two sampling schemes. Considering our data on interpolation precision and the importance of minerals for cultivation of flue-cured tobacco, the grid-sampling scheme should be used in tobacco-planted fields to determine the spatial distribution of soil properties. The grid-sampling method can be applied in a practical and cost-effective manner to facilitate soil sampling in tobacco-planted field.

  8. An Adaptive Transmitting Scheme for Interrupted Sampling Repeater Jamming Suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Zhou

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The interrupted sampling repeater jamming (ISRJ based on a digital radio frequency memory (DRFM device is a new type of coherent jamming. This kind of jamming usually occurs as main-lobe jamming and has the advantages of low power requirements and easy parameter adjustment, posing a serious threat to the modern radar systems. In order to suppress the ISRJ, this paper proposes an adaptive transmitting scheme based on a phase-coded signal. The scheme firstly performs jamming perception to estimate the jamming parameters, then, on this basis, optimizes the waveform with genetic algorithm. With the optimized waveform, the jamming signal is orthogonal to the target echo, thus it can be easily suppressed with pulse compression. Simulation experiments are performed to verify the effectiveness of the scheme and the results suggest that the peak-to-side-lobe ratio (PSR and integrated side-lobe level (ISL of the pulse compression can be improved by about 16 dB and 15 dB, respectively, for the case where the jamming-to-signal ratio (JSR is 13 dB.

  9. An Adaptive Transmitting Scheme for Interrupted Sampling Repeater Jamming Suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chao; Liu, Feifeng; Liu, Quanhua

    2017-10-29

    The interrupted sampling repeater jamming (ISRJ) based on a digital radio frequency memory (DRFM) device is a new type of coherent jamming. This kind of jamming usually occurs as main-lobe jamming and has the advantages of low power requirements and easy parameter adjustment, posing a serious threat to the modern radar systems. In order to suppress the ISRJ, this paper proposes an adaptive transmitting scheme based on a phase-coded signal. The scheme firstly performs jamming perception to estimate the jamming parameters, then, on this basis, optimizes the waveform with genetic algorithm. With the optimized waveform, the jamming signal is orthogonal to the target echo, thus it can be easily suppressed with pulse compression. Simulation experiments are performed to verify the effectiveness of the scheme and the results suggest that the peak-to-side-lobe ratio (PSR) and integrated side-lobe level (ISL) of the pulse compression can be improved by about 16 dB and 15 dB, respectively, for the case where the jamming-to-signal ratio (JSR) is 13 dB.

  10. Impact of invitation schemes on breast cancer screening coverage: A cohort study from Copenhagen, Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Katja Kemp; von Euler Chelpin, My; Vejborg, Ilse; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2017-03-01

    Background The purpose of mammography screening is to decrease breast cancer mortality. To achieve this a high coverage by examination is needed. Within an organized screening programme, we examined the impact of changes in the invitation schedule on the interplay between coverage and participation. Method We studied nine cohorts aged 50-51 when first targeted by mammography screening in Copenhagen, Denmark. Population data were retrieved from the Danish Civil Registration System; invitation and attendance data from the screening programme database. Data were linked using unique personal identification numbers. Coverage by invitation was defined as (number of invited women/number of targeted women), coverage by examination as (number of screened women/number of targeted women), and participation rate as (number of screened women/number of invited women). Results Coverage by invitation was close to or above 95% for all newly recruited cohorts. In subsequent invitation rounds, both technical errors and changes in the invitation scheme affected the coverage by invitation. Coverage by examination at first invitation was 72.5% for the first cohort, but dropped to 64.2% for the latest cohort. Furthermore, coverage by examination dropped by increasing invitation number and with omission of re-invitation of previous non-attenders. Participation rate closely reflected changes in the invitation scheme. Conclusion Changes in the invitation schemes influenced coverage by invitation, coverage by examination, and participation rate. We observed a considerable gap between coverage by examination and participation rate, strongly indicating that the latter cannot without reservations, be taken as an indicator of the first.

  11. Control charts for location based on different sampling schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehmood, R.; Riaz, M.; Does, R.J.M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Control charts are the most important statistical process control tool for monitoring variations in a process. A number of articles are available in the literature for the X̄ control chart based on simple random sampling, ranked set sampling, median-ranked set sampling (MRSS), extreme-ranked set

  12. An Optimal Dimensionality Sampling Scheme on the Sphere for Antipodal Signals In Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Bates, Alice P; Kennedy, Rodney A

    2015-01-01

    We propose a sampling scheme on the sphere and develop a corresponding spherical harmonic transform (SHT) for the accurate reconstruction of the diffusion signal in diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI). By exploiting the antipodal symmetry, we design a sampling scheme that requires the optimal number of samples on the sphere, equal to the degrees of freedom required to represent the antipodally symmetric band-limited diffusion signal in the spectral (spherical harmonic) domain. Compared with existing sampling schemes on the sphere that allow for the accurate reconstruction of the diffusion signal, the proposed sampling scheme reduces the number of samples required by a factor of two or more. We analyse the numerical accuracy of the proposed SHT and show through experiments that the proposed sampling allows for the accurate and rotationally invariant computation of the SHT to near machine precision accuracy.

  13. The iPSYCH2012 case-cohort sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C B; Bybjerg-Grauholm, J; Pedersen, M G

    2017-01-01

    The Integrative Psychiatric Research (iPSYCH) consortium has established a large Danish population-based Case-Cohort sample (iPSYCH2012) aimed at unravelling the genetic and environmental architecture of severe mental disorders. The iPSYCH2012 sample is nested within the entire Danish population ...

  14. The iPSYCH2012 case-cohort sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C B; Bybjerg-Grauholm, J; Pedersen, M G

    2018-01-01

    The Integrative Psychiatric Research (iPSYCH) consortium has established a large Danish population-based Case-Cohort sample (iPSYCH2012) aimed at unravelling the genetic and environmental architecture of severe mental disorders. The iPSYCH2012 sample is nested within the entire Danish population ...

  15. Rare-event simulation for tandem queues: A simple and efficient importance sampling scheme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miretskiy, D.; Scheinhardt, W.; Mandjes, M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on estimating the rare event of overflow in the downstream queue of a tandem Jackson queue, relying on importance sampling. It is known that in this setting ‘traditional’ state-independent schemes perform poorly. More sophisticated state-dependent schemes yield asymptotic

  16. [Modeling and simulation activities to design sampling scheme for population pharmacokinetic study on amlodipine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Xiao-Cong; Yuan, Hong; Zhang, Bi-Kui; Ng, Chee M; Barrett, Jeff S; Yang, Guo-Ping; Huang, Zhi-Jun; Pei, Qi; Guo, Ren; Zhou, Ya-Nan; Jing, Ning-Ning; Di, Wu

    2012-07-01

    Reasonable sampling scheme is the important basis for establishing reliable population pharmacokinetic model. It is an effective method for estimation of population pharmacokinetic parameters with sparse data to perform population pharmacokinetic analysis using the nonlinear mixed-effects models. We designed the sampling scheme for amlodipine based on D-optimal sampling strategy and Bayesian estimation method. First, optimized sample scenarios were designed using WinPOPT software according to the aim, dosage regimen and visit schedule of the clinical study protocol, and the amlodipine population model reported by Rohatagi et al. Second, we created a NONMEM-formatted dataset (n = 400) for each sample scenario via Monte Carlo simulation. Third, the estimation of amlodipine pharmacokinetic parameters (clearance (CL/F), volume (V/F) and Ka) was based on the simulation results. All modeling and simulation exercises were conducted with NONMEM version 7.2. Finally, the accuracy and precision of the estimated parameters were evaluated using the mean prediction error (MPE) and the mean absolute error (MAPE), respectively. Among the 6 schemes, schemes 6 and 3 have good accuracy and precision. MPE is 0.1% for scheme 6 and -0.6% for scheme 3, respectively. MAPE is 0.7% for both schemes. There is no significant difference in MPE and MAPE of volume among them. Therefore, we select scheme 3 as the final sample scenario because it has good accuracy and precision and less sample points. This research aims to provide scientific and effective sampling scheme for population pharmacokinetic (PK) study of amlodipine in patients with renal impairment and hypertension, provide a scientific method for an optimum design in clinical population PK/PD (pharmacodynamics) research.

  17. Using remote sensing images to design optimal field sampling schemes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available in the alteration zones was chosen as the target mineral. Sampling points are distributed more intensely in regions of high probable alunite as classified by both SAM and SFF, thus representing the purest of pixels. This method leads to an efficient distribution...

  18. Sampling scheme for pyrethroids on multiple surfaces on commercial aircrafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    MOHAN, KRISHNAN R.; WEISEL, CLIFFORD P.

    2015-01-01

    A wipe sampler for the collection of permethrin from soft and hard surfaces has been developed for use in aircraft. “Disinsection” or application of pesticides, predominantly pyrethrods, inside commercial aircraft is routinely required by some countries and is done on an as-needed basis by airlines resulting in potential pesticide dermal and inhalation exposures to the crew and passengers. A wipe method using filter paper and water was evaluated for both soft and hard aircraft surfaces. Permethrin was analyzed by GC/MS after its ultrasonication extraction from the sampling medium into hexane and volume reduction. Recoveries, based on spraying known levels of permethrin, were 80–100% from table trays, seat handles and rugs; and 40–50% from seat cushions. The wipe sampler is easy to use, requires minimum training, is compatible with the regulations on what can be brought through security for use on commercial aircraft, and readily adaptable for use in residential and other settings. PMID:19756041

  19. A new sampling scheme for tropical forest monitoring using satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederic Achard; Tim Richards; Javier Gallego

    2000-01-01

    At the global level, a sampling scheme for tropical forest change assessment, using high resolution satellite images, has been defined using sampling units independent of any particular satellite sensor. For this purpose, a sampling frame has been chosen a hexagonal tessellation of 3,600 km².

  20. Evaluation of alternative macroinvertebrate sampling techniques for use in a new tropical freshwater bioassessment scheme

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Isabel Eleanor; Murphy, Kevin Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The study aimed to determine the effectiveness of benthic macroinvertebrate dredge net sampling procedures as an alternative method to kick net sampling in tropical freshwater systems, specifically as an evaluation of sampling methods used in the Zambian Invertebrate Scoring System (ZISS) river bioassessment scheme. Tropical freshwater ecosystems are sometimes dangerous or inaccessible to sampling teams using traditional kick-sampling methods, so identifying an alternative procedure that...

  1. The iPSYCH2012 case-cohort sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C B; Bybjerg-Grauholm, J; Pedersen, M G

    2017-01-01

    The Integrative Psychiatric Research (iPSYCH) consortium has established a large Danish population-based Case-Cohort sample (iPSYCH2012) aimed at unravelling the genetic and environmental architecture of severe mental disorders. The iPSYCH2012 sample is nested within the entire Danish population...... born between 1981 and 2005, including 1 472 762 persons. This paper introduces the iPSYCH2012 sample and outlines key future research directions. Cases were identified as persons with schizophrenia (N=3540), autism (N=16 146), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (N=18 726) and affective disorder...... (N=26 380), of which 1928 had bipolar affective disorder. Controls were randomly sampled individuals (N=30 000). Within the sample of 86 189 individuals, a total of 57 377 individuals had at least one major mental disorder. DNA was extracted from the neonatal dried blood spot samples obtained from...

  2. The iPSYCH2012 case-cohort sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C B; Bybjerg-Grauholm, J; Pedersen, M G

    2017-01-01

    The Integrative Psychiatric Research (iPSYCH) consortium has established a large Danish population-based Case-Cohort sample (iPSYCH2012) aimed at unravelling the genetic and environmental architecture of severe mental disorders. The iPSYCH2012 sample is nested within the entire Danish population...... (N=26 380), of which 1928 had bipolar affective disorder. Controls were randomly sampled individuals (N=30 000). Within the sample of 86 189 individuals, a total of 57 377 individuals had at least one major mental disorder. DNA was extracted from the neonatal dried blood spot samples obtained from...... the Danish Neonatal Screening Biobank and genotyped using the Illumina PsychChip. Genotyping was successful for 90% of the sample. The assessments of exome sequencing, methylation profiling, metabolome profiling, vitamin-D, inflammatory and neurotrophic factors are in progress. For each individual, the i...

  3. Designing sampling schemes for effect monitoring of nutrient leaching from agricultural soils.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.; Noij, I.G.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    A general methodology for designing sampling schemes for monitoring is illustrated with a case study aimed at estimating the temporal change of the spatial mean P concentration in the topsoil of an agricultural field after implementation of the remediation measure. A before-after control-impact

  4. Multistatic Array Sampling Scheme for Fast Near-Field Image Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    subjects in high foot traffic environments, such as mass transit systems, stadiums , and large public events. In order to handle a potentially constant...in [4], however, a key difference in this work is the sampling scheme. As will be discussed, the presented design samples the scene on a uniform phase...elementary unit of the design is the Boundary Array (BA) [6], a sparse array topology first used in ultrasonic sensing. This design employs four linear

  5. Development of a particle-settling tolerant transmission Raman scheme for analysis of suspension samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kayeong; Duy, Pham Khac; Park, Sijun; Woo, Young-Ah; Chung, Hoeil

    2014-06-07

    We have demonstrated a simple and effective strategy, the so-called axial illumination scheme, that is able to obtain representative Raman spectra of suspension samples with minimal influence from internal particle settling. In a partially settled suspension sample, since particle concentrations at given points throughout the sample differ, the acquisition of Raman spectra representative of the entire sample composition is critically important for accurate quantitative analysis. The proposed scheme used axially irradiated laser radiation in the same or opposite direction of settling, thus allowing laser photons to migrate through the settling-induced particle-density gradient formed in the suspension and to widely interact with particles regardless of their settled locations. Therefore, transmitted Raman signals gathered opposite to the illumination could be more representative of the overall suspension composition even with partial settling. In this study, the performance of axial illumination schemes (TB (Top-to-Bottom) and BT (Bottom-to-Top) illumination) was evaluated for the determination of the aceclofenac (a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug) concentration in suspensions. Although the spectral features exhibited minute variations during settling, settling did not significantly degrade the accuracy of the concentration determination, thereby indicating effective acquisition of settling-tolerant Raman spectra. In addition, the characteristics of photon migration in a partially settled suspension sample were studied using a simulation based on Monte-Carlo method.

  6. Comparison of rainfall sampling schemes using a calibrated stochastic rainfall generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welles, E.

    1994-12-31

    Accurate rainfall measurements are critical to river flow predictions. Areal and gauge rainfall measurements create different descriptions of the same storms. The purpose of this study is to characterize those differences. A stochastic rainfall generator was calibrated using an automatic search algorithm. Statistics describing several rainfall characteristics of interest were used in the error function. The calibrated model was then used to generate storms which were exhaustively sampled, sparsely sampled and sampled areally with 4 x 4 km grids. The sparsely sampled rainfall was also kriged to 4 x 4 km blocks. The differences between the four schemes were characterized by comparing statistics computed from each of the sampling methods. The possibility of predicting areal statistics from gauge statistics was explored. It was found that areally measured storms appeared to move more slowly, appeared larger, appeared less intense and have shallower intensity gradients.

  7. Evaluation of alternative macroinvertebrate sampling techniques for use in a new tropical freshwater bioassessment scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Eleanor Moore

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study aimed to determine the effectiveness of benthic macroinvertebrate dredge net sampling procedures as an alternative method to kick net sampling in tropical freshwater systems, specifically as an evaluation of sampling methods used in the Zambian Invertebrate Scoring System (ZISS river bioassessment scheme. Tropical freshwater ecosystems are sometimes dangerous or inaccessible to sampling teams using traditional kick-sampling methods, so identifying an alternative procedure that produces similar results is necessary in order to collect data from a wide variety of habitats.MethodsBoth kick and dredge nets were used to collect macroinvertebrate samples at 16 riverine sites in Zambia, ranging from backwaters and floodplain lagoons to fast flowing streams and rivers. The data were used to calculate ZISS, diversity (S: number of taxa present, and Average Score Per Taxon (ASPT scores per site, using the two sampling methods to compare their sampling effectiveness. Environmental parameters, namely pH, conductivity, underwater photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, temperature, alkalinity, flow, and altitude, were also recorded and used in statistical analysis. Invertebrate communities present at the sample sites were determined using multivariate procedures.ResultsAnalysis of the invertebrate community and environmental data suggested that the testing exercise was undertaken in four distinct macroinvertebrate community types, supporting at least two quite different macroinvertebrate assemblages, and showing significant differences in habitat conditions. Significant correlations were found for all three bioassessment score variables between results acquired using the two methods, with dredge-sampling normally producing lower scores than did the kick net procedures. Linear regression models were produced in order to correct each biological variable score collected by a dredge net to a score similar to that of one collected by kick net

  8. The effect of sampling scheme in the survey of atmospheric deposition of heavy metals in Albania by using moss biomonitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qarri, Flora; Lazo, Pranvera; Bekteshi, Lirim; Stafilov, Trajce; Frontasyeva, Marina; Harmens, Harry

    2015-02-01

    The atmospheric deposition of heavy metals in Albania was investigated by using a carpet-forming moss species (Hypnum cupressiforme) as bioindicator. Sampling was done in the dry seasons of autumn 2010 and summer 2011. Two different sampling schemes are discussed in this paper: a random sampling scheme with 62 sampling sites distributed over the whole territory of Albania and systematic sampling scheme with 44 sampling sites distributed over the same territory. Unwashed, dried samples were totally digested by using microwave digestion, and the concentrations of metal elements were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and AAS (Cd and As). Twelve elements, such as conservative and trace elements (Al and Fe and As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Mn, Pb, V, Zn, and Li), were measured in moss samples. Li as typical lithogenic element is also included. The results reflect local emission points. The median concentrations and statistical parameters of elements were discussed by comparing two sampling schemes. The results of both sampling schemes are compared with the results of other European countries. Different levels of the contamination valuated by the respective contamination factor (CF) of each element are obtained for both sampling schemes, while the local emitters identified like iron-chromium metallurgy and cement industry, oil refinery, mining industry, and transport have been the same for both sampling schemes. In addition, the natural sources, from the accumulation of these metals in mosses caused by metal-enriched soil, associated with wind blowing soils were pointed as another possibility of local emitting factors.

  9. A coupled well-balanced and random sampling scheme for computing bubble oscillations*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Jonathan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We propose a finite volume scheme to study the oscillations of a spherical bubble of gas in a liquid phase. Spherical symmetry implies a geometric source term in the Euler equations. Our scheme satisfies the well-balanced property. It is based on the VFRoe approach. In order to avoid spurious pressure oscillations, the well-balanced approach is coupled with an ALE (Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian technique at the interface and a random sampling remap. Nous proposons un schéma de volumes finis pour étudier les oscillations d’une bulle sphérique de gaz dans l’eau. La symétrie sphérique fait apparaitre un terme source géométrique dans les équations d’Euler. Notre schéma est basé sur une approche VFRoe et préserve les états stationnaires. Pour éviter les oscillations de pression, l’approche well-balanced est couplée avec une approche ALE (Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian, et une étape de projection basée sur un échantillonage aléatoire.

  10. Bleeding risk in 'real world' patients with atrial fibrillation: comparison of two established bleeding prediction schemes in a nationwide cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesen, J B; Lip, G Y H; Hansen, P R; Lindhardsen, J; Ahlehoff, O; Andersson, C; Weeke, P; Hansen, M L; Gislason, G H; Torp-Pedersen, C

    2011-08-01

    Oral anticoagulation (OAC) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) is a double-edged sword, because it decreases the risk of stroke at the cost of an increased risk of bleeding. We compared the performance of a new bleeding prediction scheme, HAS-BLED, with an older bleeding prediction scheme, HEMORR(2)HAGES, in a cohort of 'real-world' AF patients. By individual-level-linkage of nationwide registers, we identified all patients (n = 118,584) discharged with non-valvular AF in Denmark during the period 1997-2006, with and without OAC. Major bleeding rates during 1 year of follow-up were determined, and the predictive capabilities of the two schemes were compared by c-statistics. The risk of bleeding associated with individual risk factors composing HAS-BLED was estimated using Cox proportional-hazard analyses. Of AF patients receiving OAC (n = 44,771), 34.8% and 47.3% were categorized as 'low bleeding risk' by HAS-BLED and HEMORR(2)HAGES, respectively, and the bleeding rates per 100 person-years were 2.66 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.40-2.94) and 3.06 (2.83-3.32), respectively. C-statistics for the two schemes were 0.795 (0.759-0.829) and 0.771 (0.733-0.806), respectively. The risk factors composing HAS-BLED were associated with varying risks, with a history of bleeding (hazard ratio [HR] 2.98; 95% CI 2.68-3.31) and being elderly (HR 1.93; 95% CI 1.71-2.18) being associated with the highest risks. Comparable results were found in AF patients not receiving OAC (n = 77,813). In an unselected nationwide cohort of hospitalized patients with atrial fibrillation, the HAS-BLED score performs similarly to HEMORR(2)HAGES in predicting bleeding risk but HAS-BLED is much simpler and easier to use in everyday clinical practise. © 2011 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  11. An Extended Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST Scheme for Rapid Direct Typing of Leptospira from Clinical Samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Weiss

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Rapid typing of Leptospira is currently impaired by requiring time consuming culture of leptospires. The objective of this study was to develop an assay that provides multilocus sequence typing (MLST data direct from patient specimens while minimising costs for subsequent sequencing.An existing PCR based MLST scheme was modified by designing nested primers including anchors for facilitated subsequent sequencing. The assay was applied to various specimen types from patients diagnosed with leptospirosis between 2014 and 2015 in the United Kingdom (UK and the Lao Peoples Democratic Republic (Lao PDR. Of 44 clinical samples (23 serum, 6 whole blood, 3 buffy coat, 12 urine PCR positive for pathogenic Leptospira spp. at least one allele was amplified in 22 samples (50% and used for phylogenetic inference. Full allelic profiles were obtained from ten specimens, representing all sample types (23%. No nonspecific amplicons were observed in any of the samples. Of twelve PCR positive urine specimens three gave full allelic profiles (25% and two a partial profile. Phylogenetic analysis allowed for species assignment. The predominant species detected was L. interrogans (10/14 and 7/8 from UK and Lao PDR, respectively. All other species were detected in samples from only one country (Lao PDR: L. borgpetersenii [1/8]; UK: L. kirschneri [1/14], L. santarosai [1/14], L. weilii [2/14].Typing information of pathogenic Leptospira spp. was obtained directly from a variety of clinical samples using a modified MLST assay. This assay negates the need for time-consuming culture of Leptospira prior to typing and will be of use both in surveillance, as single alleles enable species determination, and outbreaks for the rapid identification of clusters.

  12. Use of public pension scheme and industrial statistics data for supplement of company records in Denmark and influence on cohort mortality pattern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, E; Juel, K

    1987-01-01

    statistics questionnaires are of equal value in Denmark. The authors report on a cohort study from a chemical plant, where cohort members were identified from company records, which were checked against ATP and industrial statistics data. The mortality analysis shows employees known only from the ATP data......Completeness of company records is a crucial point in interpretation of follow-up studies of industrial cohorts. The Employers Quarterly Reports on Earnings (EQRE) are valuable for control of company records in the United States. The public Supplementary Pension Scheme (ATP) and the industrial...

  13. A whole-path importance-sampling scheme for Feynman path integral calculations of absolute partition functions and free energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, Steven L; Truhlar, Donald G

    2016-01-21

    Using Feynman path integrals, a molecular partition function can be written as a double integral with the inner integral involving all closed paths centered at a given molecular configuration, and the outer integral involving all possible molecular configurations. In previous work employing Monte Carlo methods to evaluate such partition functions, we presented schemes for importance sampling and stratification in the molecular configurations that constitute the path centroids, but we relied on free-particle paths for sampling the path integrals. At low temperatures, the path sampling is expensive because the paths can travel far from the centroid configuration. We now present a scheme for importance sampling of whole Feynman paths based on harmonic information from an instantaneous normal mode calculation at the centroid configuration, which we refer to as harmonically guided whole-path importance sampling (WPIS). We obtain paths conforming to our chosen importance function by rejection sampling from a distribution of free-particle paths. Sample calculations on CH4 demonstrate that at a temperature of 200 K, about 99.9% of the free-particle paths can be rejected without integration, and at 300 K, about 98% can be rejected. We also show that it is typically possible to reduce the overhead associated with the WPIS scheme by sampling the paths using a significantly lower-order path discretization than that which is needed to converge the partition function.

  14. Unified Importance Sampling Schemes for Efficient Simulation of Outage Capacity over Generalized Fading Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Rached, Nadhir B.

    2015-11-13

    The outage capacity (OC) is among the most important performance metrics of communication systems operating over fading channels. Of interest in the present paper is the evaluation of the OC at the output of the Equal Gain Combining (EGC) and the Maximum Ratio Combining (MRC) receivers. In this case, it can be seen that this problem turns out to be that of computing the Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF) for the sum of independent random variables. Since finding a closedform expression for the CDF of the sum distribution is out of reach for a wide class of commonly used distributions, methods based on Monte Carlo (MC) simulations take pride of price. In order to allow for the estimation of the operating range of small outage probabilities, it is of paramount importance to develop fast and efficient estimation methods as naive Monte Carlo (MC) simulations would require high computational complexity. In this line, we propose in this work two unified, yet efficient, hazard rate twisting Importance Sampling (IS) based approaches that efficiently estimate the OC of MRC or EGC diversity techniques over generalized independent fading channels. The first estimator is shown to possess the asymptotic optimality criterion and applies for arbitrary fading models, whereas the second one achieves the well-desired bounded relative error property for the majority of the well-known fading variates. Moreover, the second estimator is shown to achieve the asymptotic optimality property under the particular Log-normal environment. Some selected simulation results are finally provided in order to illustrate the substantial computational gain achieved by the proposed IS schemes over naive MC simulations.

  15. Estimating effect of environmental contaminants on women's subfecundity for the MoBa study data with an outcome-dependent sampling scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jieli; Zhou, Haibo; Liu, Yanyan; Cai, Jianwen; Longnecker, Matthew P

    2014-10-01

    Motivated by the need from our on-going environmental study in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort (MoBa) study, we consider an outcome-dependent sampling (ODS) scheme for failure-time data with censoring. Like the case-cohort design, the ODS design enriches the observed sample by selectively including certain failure subjects. We present an estimated maximum semiparametric empirical likelihood estimation (EMSELE) under the proportional hazards model framework. The asymptotic properties of the proposed estimator were derived. Simulation studies were conducted to evaluate the small-sample performance of our proposed method. Our analyses show that the proposed estimator and design is more efficient than the current default approach and other competing approaches. Applying the proposed approach with the data set from the MoBa study, we found a significant effect of an environmental contaminant on fecundability. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Sampling scheme on genetic structure of tree species in fragmented tropical dry forest: an evaluation from landscape genetic simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yessica Rico; Marie-Stephanie. Samain

    2017-01-01

    Investigating how genetic variation is distributed across the landscape is fundamental to inform forest conservation and restoration. Detecting spatial genetic discontinuities has value for defining management units, germplasm collection, and target sites for reforestation; however, inappropriate sampling schemes can misidentify patterns of genetic structure....

  17. Peer groups splitting in Croatian EQA scheme: a trade-off between homogeneity and sample size number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlašić Tanasković, Jelena; Coucke, Wim; Leniček Krleža, Jasna; Vuković Rodriguez, Jadranka

    2017-03-01

    Laboratory evaluation through external quality assessment (EQA) schemes is often performed as 'peer group' comparison under the assumption that matrix effects influence the comparisons between results of different methods, for analytes where no commutable materials with reference value assignment are available. With EQA schemes that are not large but have many available instruments and reagent options for same analyte, homogenous peer groups must be created with adequate number of results to enable satisfactory statistical evaluation. We proposed a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA)-based test to evaluate heterogeneity of peer groups within the Croatian EQA biochemistry scheme and identify groups where further splitting might improve laboratory evaluation. EQA biochemistry results were divided according to instruments used per analyte and the MANOVA test was used to verify statistically significant differences between subgroups. The number of samples was determined by sample size calculation ensuring a power of 90% and allowing the false flagging rate to increase not more than 5%. When statistically significant differences between subgroups were found, clear improvement of laboratory evaluation was assessed before splitting groups. After evaluating 29 peer groups, we found strong evidence for further splitting of six groups. Overall improvement of 6% reported results were observed, with the percentage being as high as 27.4% for one particular method. Defining maximal allowable differences between subgroups based on flagging rate change, followed by sample size planning and MANOVA, identifies heterogeneous peer groups where further splitting improves laboratory evaluation and enables continuous monitoring for peer group heterogeneity within EQA schemes.

  18. Analysis of family- and population-based samples in cohort genome-wide association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manichaikul, Ani; Chen, Wei-Min; Williams, Kayleen; Wong, Quenna; Sale, Michèle M; Pankow, James S; Tsai, Michael Y; Rotter, Jerome I; Rich, Stephen S; Mychaleckyj, Josyf C

    2012-02-01

    Cohort studies typically sample unrelated individuals from a population, although family members of index cases may also be recruited to investigate shared familial risk factors. Recruitment of family members may be incomplete or ancillary to the main cohort, resulting in a mixed sample of independent family units, including unrelated singletons and multiplex families. Multiple methods are available to perform genome-wide association (GWA) analysis of binary or continuous traits in families, but it is unclear whether methods known to perform well on ascertained pedigrees, sibships, or trios are appropriate in analysis of a mixed unrelated cohort and family sample. We present simulation studies based on Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) pedigree structures to compare the performance of several popular methods of GWA analysis for both quantitative and dichotomous traits in cohort studies. We evaluate approaches suitable for analysis of families, and combined the best performing methods with population-based samples either by meta-analysis, or by pooled analysis of family- and population-based samples (mega-analysis), comparing type 1 error and power. We further assess practical considerations, such as availability of software and ability to incorporate covariates in statistical modeling, and demonstrate our recommended approaches through quantitative and binary trait analysis of HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) in 2,553 MESA family- and population-based African-American samples. Our results suggest linear modeling approaches that accommodate family-induced phenotypic correlation (e.g., variance-component model for quantitative traits or generalized estimating equations for dichotomous traits) perform best in the context of combined family- and population-based cohort GWAS.

  19. Geochemical sampling scheme optimization on mine wastes based on hyperspectral data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Zhao, T

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Spatial sampling optimization is an important issue for both geo-chemists and geo-statisticians. Many spatial sampling optimization methods have been previously developed. In this paper, we present a spatial simulated annealing method is presented...

  20. Bleeding risk in 'real world' patients with atrial fibrillation: comparison of two established bleeding prediction schemes in a nationwide cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, J B; Lip, G Y H; Hansen, P R

    2011-01-01

    Oral anticoagulation (OAC) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) is a double-edged sword, because it decreases the risk of stroke at the cost of an increased risk of bleeding. We compared the performance of a new bleeding prediction scheme, HAS-BLED, with an older bleeding prediction scheme...

  1. Validation of a composite scoring scheme in the diagnosis of folate deficiency in a pediatric and adolescent dialysis cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaskel, Fredrick J; Bamgbola, Oluwatoyin F

    2008-09-01

    Laboratory indices are often poorly diagnostic of folate deficiency (FD). Compared with iron depletion in hemodialysis (HD) populations, the impact of FD is less appreciated. The composite scoring of hematologic indices of FD may facilitate a prompt and accurate diagnosis, and enhance operational research on folic acid therapy. Our objectives were to (1) validate composite scores of folate diagnostic indices, and (2) determine the reliability index of the diagnostic tool. A cohort of 30 subjects, with a mean age of 16 (SD +/- 3.2 years), on HD and erythropoietin (EPO) for a minimum of 3 months was studied. After a baseline hematologic assessment, routine folates were administered for 6 months. Composite FD scores (FDS) of baseline mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), random distribution width (RDW), and hemoglobin were determined. Validation and reliability statistics were then analyzed, using the quantitative change in red blood cell folate/plasma homocysteine, or EPO requirement after 6 months of folate use, as diagnostic criteria. The mean FDS for FD and non-FD subsets were 3.0 +/- 1.3 and 1.4 +/- 0.9, respectively (analysis of variance; P = .0001). The correlation coefficient, r(2), between FD total and FDS was 0.61 (P = .001), and the coefficient between 2 (weekly) values of RDW, MCV, MCH, and MCHC was >0.84 (P = .0001). Scoring tools derived from the first (P = .002) and second (P = .01) halves of the laboratory indices remained discriminatory for the FD and non-FD groups. Baseline serum folate is poorly specific for FD, whereas FD score >or=3 had sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values close to 90%. Composite scoring of erythrocyte indices was predictive of the FD diagnosis, as defined by the quantitative response of red blood cell folate, homocysteine, and EPO dose to folate therapeutic intervention. The diagnostic items yielded a high reliability

  2. 40 CFR 761.316 - Interpreting PCB concentration measurements resulting from this sampling scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interpreting PCB concentration... § 761.79(b)(3) § 761.316 Interpreting PCB concentration measurements resulting from this sampling... concentration measured in that sample. If the sample surface concentration is not equal to or lower than the...

  3. An optimum allocation sampling based feature extraction scheme for distinguishing seizure and seizure-free EEG signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taran, Sachin; Bajaj, Varun; Siuly, Siuly

    2017-12-01

    Epileptic seizure is the common neurological disorder, which is generally identified by electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. In this paper, a new feature extraction methodology based on optimum allocation sampling (OAS) and Teager energy operator (TEO) is proposed for detection of seizure EEG signals. The OAS scheme selects the finite length homogeneous sequence from non-homogeneous recorded EEG signal. The trend of selected sequence by OAS is still non-linear, which is analyzed by non-linear operator TEO. The TEO convert non-linear but homogenous EEG sequence into amplitude-frequency modulated (AM-FM) components. The statistical measures of AM-FM components used as input features to least squares support vector machine classifier for classification of seizure and seizure-free EEG signals. The proposed methodology is evaluated on a benchmark epileptic seizure EEG database. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed scheme has capability to effectively distinguish seizure and seizure-free EEG signals.

  4. Investigation of elastomer rheological properties based on multi-circuit scheme synthesis of the experimental sample substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatevosyan, A. A.; Tatevosyan, A. S.

    2017-08-01

    The paper is to describe the method for studying the rheological characteristics of elastomers using a multi-circuit electrical scheme of substitution, the synthesis of which is performed on the basis of experimental data obtained during the mechanical relaxation of loaded test samples at a fixed value of the relative deformation. In analyzing the fast and slow stages of the stress relaxation process in elastomer test specimens with significantly different viscoelastic properties, it is established that the number of relaxation mechanisms in the decomposition of the time dependence into exponentials does not exceed 6 (six).

  5. Analysis of Clinical Cohort Data Using Nested Case-control and Case-cohort Sampling Designs. A Powerful and Economical Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohneberg, K; Wolkewitz, M; Beyersmann, J; Palomar-Martinez, M; Olaechea-Astigarraga, P; Alvarez-Lerma, F; Schumacher, M

    2015-01-01

    Sampling from a large cohort in order to derive a subsample that would be sufficient for statistical analysis is a frequently used method for handling large data sets in epidemiological studies with limited resources for exposure measurement. For clinical studies however, when interest is in the influence of a potential risk factor, cohort studies are often the first choice with all individuals entering the analysis. Our aim is to close the gap between epidemiological and clinical studies with respect to design and power considerations. Schoenfeld's formula for the number of events required for a Cox' proportional hazards model is fundamental. Our objective is to compare the power of analyzing the full cohort and the power of a nested case-control and a case-cohort design. We compare formulas for power for sampling designs and cohort studies. In our data example we simultaneously apply a nested case-control design with a varying number of controls matched to each case, a case cohort design with varying subcohort size, a random subsample and a full cohort analysis. For each design we calculate the standard error for estimated regression coefficients and the mean number of distinct persons, for whom covariate information is required. The formula for the power of a nested case-control design and the power of a case-cohort design is directly connected to the power of a cohort study using the well known Schoenfeld formula. The loss in precision of parameter estimates is relatively small compared to the saving in resources. Nested case-control and case-cohort studies, but not random subsamples yield an attractive alternative for analyzing clinical studies in the situation of a low event rate. Power calculations can be conducted straightforwardly to quantify the loss of power compared to the savings in the num-ber of patients using a sampling design instead of analyzing the full cohort.

  6. Continuous quality control of the blood sampling procedure using a structured observation scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seemann, Tine Lindberg; Nybo, Mads

    2016-01-01

    blood drawings by 39 phlebotomists were observed in the pilot study, while 84 blood drawings by 34 phlebotomists were observed in the follow-up study. In the pilot study, the three major error items were hand hygiene (42% error), mixing of samples (22%), and order of draw (21%). Minor significant...

  7. Simple and efficient importance sampling scheme for a tandem queue with server slow-down

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miretskiy, D.I.; Scheinhardt, W.R.W.; Mandjes, M.R.H.

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers importance sampling as a tool for rare-event simulation. The system at hand is a so-called tandem queue with slow-down, which essentially means that the server of the first queue (or: upstream queue) switches to a lower speed when the second queue (downstream queue) exceeds some

  8. A practical scheme for quantum oblivious transfer and private database sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattal, David; Fiorentino, Marco; Beausoleil, Raymond G.

    2008-08-01

    We present an unconditionally secure Oblivious Transfer protocol relying on two rounds of entanglement-free quantum communication. When played honestly, the protocol only requires the ability to measure a single qubit in a fixed basis, and to perform a coherent bit-flip (Pauli X) operation. We present a generalization to a "Private Data Sampling" protocol, where a player (Bob) can obtain a random sample of fixed size from a classical database of size N, while the database owner (Alice) remains oblivious as to which bits were accessed. The protocol is efficient in the sense that the communication complexity per query scales at most linearly with the size of the database. It does not violate Lo's "no-go" theorem for one-sided two-party secure computation, since a given joint input by Alice and Bob can result in randomly different protocol outcomes. Finally it could be used to implement a practical bit string commitment protocol, among other applications.

  9. A Control Chart for Gamma Distributed Variables Using Repetitive Sampling Scheme

    OpenAIRE

    Nasrullah Khan; Muhammad Aslam; Liaquat Ahmad; Chi-Hyuck Jun

    2017-01-01

    In this manuscript, a control chart is designed when the quality characteristic of interest follows a gamma distribution using repetitive sampling. The Wilson-Hilferty approximation is used to transform the gamma distributed characteristic to a normal random variable. Two pairs of control limits are established and their control constants are determined by considering the specified in-control average run length (ARL). The out-of-control ARL is derived when the process is shifted in terms of t...

  10. Designing a sampling scheme to reveal correlations between weeds and soil properties at multiple spatial scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, H; Milne, A E; Webster, R; Lark, R M; Murdoch, A J; Storkey, J

    2016-02-01

    Weeds tend to aggregate in patches within fields, and there is evidence that this is partly owing to variation in soil properties. Because the processes driving soil heterogeneity operate at various scales, the strength of the relations between soil properties and weed density would also be expected to be scale-dependent. Quantifying these effects of scale on weed patch dynamics is essential to guide the design of discrete sampling protocols for mapping weed distribution. We developed a general method that uses novel within-field nested sampling and residual maximum-likelihood (reml) estimation to explore scale-dependent relations between weeds and soil properties. We validated the method using a case study of Alopecurus myosuroides in winter wheat. Using reml, we partitioned the variance and covariance into scale-specific components and estimated the correlations between the weed counts and soil properties at each scale. We used variograms to quantify the spatial structure in the data and to map variables by kriging. Our methodology successfully captured the effect of scale on a number of edaphic drivers of weed patchiness. The overall Pearson correlations between A. myosuroides and soil organic matter and clay content were weak and masked the stronger correlations at >50 m. Knowing how the variance was partitioned across the spatial scales, we optimised the sampling design to focus sampling effort at those scales that contributed most to the total variance. The methods have the potential to guide patch spraying of weeds by identifying areas of the field that are vulnerable to weed establishment.

  11. Randomized controlled trials 5: Determining the sample size and power for clinical trials and cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Performing well-powered randomized controlled trials is of fundamental importance in clinical research. The goal of sample size calculations is to assure that statistical power is acceptable while maintaining a small probability of a type I error. This chapter overviews the fundamentals of sample size calculation for standard types of outcomes for two-group studies. It considers (1) the problems of determining the size of the treatment effect that the studies will be designed to detect, (2) the modifications to sample size calculations to account for loss to follow-up and nonadherence, (3) the options when initial calculations indicate that the feasible sample size is insufficient to provide adequate power, and (4) the implication of using multiple primary endpoints. Sample size estimates for longitudinal cohort studies must take account of confounding by baseline factors.

  12. Multistatic Array Sampling Scheme for Fast Near-Field Image Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    frequency response of the scene is sampled on a regularly spaced two-dimensional grid. Following collection of all measurements, the image can be...images were formed with 18-26.5 GHz stimulus , using 160 frequency points. The 3D images were realized with 21 depth slices, spaced by 0.015m. Fig. 7...McMakin, and T. E. Hall, “Three-dimensional millimeter-wave imaging for concealed weapon detection,” IEEE Trans- actions on Microwave Theory and

  13. A Control Chart for Gamma Distributed Variables Using Repetitive Sampling Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrullah Khan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this manuscript, a control chart is designed when the quality characteristic of interest follows a gamma distribution using repetitive sampling. The Wilson-Hilferty approximation is used to transform the gamma distributed characteristic to a normal random variable. Two pairs of control limits are established and their control constants are determined by considering the specified in-control average run length (ARL. The out-of-control ARL is derived when the process is shifted in terms of the scale parameter of the Gamma distribution. The ARLs are presented for various values of the shape parameter according to process shift parameters. A simulated example is given to illustrate the proposed control chart.

  14. Fuzzy logic scheme for tip-sample distance control for a low cost near field optical microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Márquez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The control of the distance between the surface and the tip-sample of a Scanning Near Field Optical Microscope (SNOM is essential for a reliable surface mapping. The control algorithm should be able to maintain the system in a constant distance between the tip and the surface. In this system, nanometric adjustments should be made in order to sense topographies at the same scale with an appropriate resolution. These kinds of devices varies its properties through short periods of time, and it is required a control algorithm capable of handle these changes. In this work a fuzzy logic control scheme is proposed in order to manage the changes the device might have through the time, and to counter the effects of the non-linearity as well. Two inputs are used to program the rules inside the fuzzy logic controller, the difference between the reference signal and the sample signal (error, and the speed in which it decreases or increases. A lock-in amplifier is used as data acquisition hardware to sample the high frequency signals used to produce the tuning fork oscillations. Once these variables are read the control algorithm calculate a voltage output to move the piezoelectric device, approaching or removing the tip-probe from the sample analyzed.

  15. A risk-scoring scheme for suicide attempts among patients with bipolar disorder in a Thai patient cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patumanond J

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Chidchanok Ruengorn1,2, Kittipong Sanichwankul3, Wirat Niwatananun2, Suwat Mahatnirunkul3, Wanida Pumpaisalchai3, Jayanton Patumanond11Clinical Epidemiology Program, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand; 2Department of Pharmaceutical Care, Faculty of Pharmacy, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand; 3Suanprung Psychiatric Hospital, Chiang Mai, ThailandBackground: In Thailand, risk factors associated with suicide attempts in bipolar disorder (BD are rarely investigated, nor has a specific risk-scoring scheme to assist in the identification of BD patients at risk for attempting suicide been proposed.Objective: To develop a simple risk-scoring scheme to identify patients with BD who may be at risk for attempting suicide.Methods: Medical files of 489 patients diagnosed with BD at Suanprung Psychiatric Hospital between October 2006 and May 2009 were reviewed. Cases included BD patients hospitalized due to attempted suicide (n = 58, and seven controls were selected (per suicide case among BD in- and out-patients who did not attempt suicide, with patients being visited the same day or within 1 week of case study (n = 431. Broad sociodemographic and clinical factors were gathered and analyzed using multivariate logistic regression, to obtain a set of risk factors. Scores for each indicator were weighted, assigned, and summed to create a total risk score, which was divided into low, moderate, and high-risk suicide attempt groups.Results: Six statistically significant indicators associated with suicide attempts were included in the risk-scoring scheme: depression, psychotic symptom(s, number of previous suicide attempts, stressful life event(s, medication adherence, and BD treatment years. A total risk score (possible range -1.5 to 11.5 explained an 88.6% probability of suicide attempts based on the receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis. Likelihood ratios of suicide attempts with low risk scores (below 2

  16. Systolic MOLLI T1 mapping with heart-rate-dependent pulse sequence sampling scheme is feasible in patients with atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Li, Songnan; Ma, Xiaohai; Greiser, Andreas; Zhang, Tianjing; An, Jing; Bai, Rong; Dong, Jianzeng; Fan, Zhanming

    2016-03-15

    T1 mapping enables assessment of myocardial characteristics. As the most common type of arrhythmia, atrial fibrillation (AF) is often accompanied by a variety of cardiac pathologies, whereby the irregular and usually rapid ventricle rate of AF may cause inaccurate T1 estimation due to mis-triggering and inadequate magnetization recovery. We hypothesized that systolic T1 mapping with a heart-rate-dependent (HRD) pulse sequence scheme may overcome this issue. 30 patients with AF and 13 healthy volunteers were enrolled and underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) at 3 T. CMR was repeated for 3 patients after electric cardioversion and for 2 volunteers after lowering heart rate (HR). A Modified Look-Locker Inversion Recovery (MOLLI) sequence was acquired before and 15 min after administration of 0.1 mmol/kg gadopentetate dimeglumine. For AF patients, both the fixed 5(3)3/4(1)3(1)2 and the HRD sampling scheme were performed at diastole and systole, respectively. The HRD pulse sequence sampling scheme was 5(n)3/4(n)3(n)2, where n was determined by the heart rate to ensure adequate magnetization recovery. Image quality of T1 maps was assessed. T1 times were measured in myocardium and blood. Extracellular volume fraction (ECV) was calculated. In volunteers with repeated T1 mapping, the myocardial native T1 and ECV generated from the 1st fixed sampling scheme were smaller than from the 1st HRD and 2nd fixed sampling scheme. In healthy volunteers, the overall native T1 times and ECV of the left ventricle (LV) in diastolic T1 maps were greater than in systolic T1 maps (P T1 times and ECV generated from the fixed sampling scheme were smaller than in the 1st and 2nd HRD sampling scheme (all P T1 maps with artifact were found in diastole than in systole (P T1 times and ECV of the left ventricle (LV) in diastolic T1 maps were greater than systolic T1 maps, either with fixed or HRD sampling scheme (all P T1 mapping with heart-rate-dependent pulse sequence scheme

  17. Cerberus, an Access Control Scheme for Enforcing Least Privilege in Patient Cohort Study Platforms : A Comprehensive Access Control Scheme Applied to the GENIDA Project - Study of Genetic Forms of Intellectual Disabilities and Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrend, Pierre; Mazzucotelli, Timothée; Colin, Florent; Collet, Pierre; Mandel, Jean-Louis

    2017-11-16

    Cohort Study Platforms (CSP) are emerging as a key tool for collecting patient information, providing new research data, and supporting family and patient associations. However they pose new ethics and regulatory challenges since they cross the gap between patients and medical practitioners. One of the critical issues for CSP is to enforce a strict control on access privileges whilst allowing the users to take advantage of the breadth of the available data. We propose Cerberus, a new access control scheme spanning the whole life-cycle of access right management: design, implementation, deployment and maintenance, operations. Cerberus enables switching from a dual world, where CSP data can be accessed either from the users who entered it or fully de-identified, to an access-when-required world, where patients, practitioners and researchers can access focused medical data through explicit authorisation by the data owner. Efficient access control requires application-specific access rights, as well as the ability to restrict these rights when they are not used. Cerberus is implemented and evaluated in the context of the GENIDA project, an international CSP for Genetically determined Intellectual Disabilities and Autism Spectrum Disorders. As a result of this study, the software is made available for the community, and validated specifications for CSPs are given.

  18. Zoonoses research in the German National Cohort : feasibility of parallel sampling of pets and owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hille, Katja; Möbius, Nadine; Akmatov, Manas K; Verspohl, Jutta; Rabold, Denise; Hartmann, Maria; Günther, Kathrin; Obi, Nadia; Kreienbrock, Lothar

    2014-11-01

    Cats and dogs live in more than 20 % of German households and the contact between these pets and their owners can be very close. Therefore, a transmission of zoonotic pathogens may occur. To investigate whether zoonotic research questions can be examined in the context of population-based studies like the German National Cohort (GNC), two studies on different study populations were conducted as part of the feasibility tests of the GNC. The aim of the first study was to quantify the actual exposure of participants of the GNC to cats and dogs. In the second study summarised here the feasibility of the sampling of cats and dogs by their owners was tested. To quantify the exposure of participants of the GNC to cats and dogs 744 study participants of the Pretests of the GNC were asked whether they had contact with animals. Currently 10 % have a dog and 14 % have a cat in their household. These figures confirm that a large proportion of the German population has contact with pets and that there is a need for further zoonoses research. To establish the collection of biological samples from cats and dogs in the context of large-scale population-based studies feasible methods are needed. Therefore, a study was conducted to test whether pet owners can take samples from their cats and dogs and whether the quality of these samples is comparable to samples taken by a qualified veterinarian. A total of 82 dog and 18 cat owners were recruited in two veterinary practices in Hannover and the Clinic for Small Animals at the University of Veterinary Medicine in Hannover. Sampling instructions and sample material for nasal and buccal swabs, faecal samples and, in the case of cat owners, a brush for fur samples, were given to the pet owners. The pet owners were asked to take the samples from their pets at home and to send the samples by surface mail. Swab samples were cultured and bacterial growth was quantified independent of bacterial species. The growth of Gram-positive and

  19. Femur Fractures in Parkinsonism: Analysis of a National Sample Cohort in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Soo Jeong; Lee, Seo-Young; Kwon, Jae-Woo; Lee, Seung-Joon; Kim, Young-Ju

    2017-01-01

    Background and Purpose Falling with a femur fracture is a serious event that negatively affects the quality of life of elderly individuals as well as patients with parkinsonism. This study investigated the association between parkinsonism and femur fracture and compared the risk of femur fracture between subjects with and without parkinsonism. Methods This study examined a population-based matched cohort constructed using the National Sample Cohort data set, which comprises approximately one million subscribers to medical insurance and aid in South Korea. Subjects with parkinsonism during 2003–2013 were identified as the exposed group, and up to five individuals matched for age, sex, and index years were identified as the controls for each parkinsonism subject. The risk of femur fracture for parkinsonism was evaluated using Cox regression. Results The incidence of femur fracture according to age, sex, and body mass index varied significantly between subjects with parkinsonism and controls (pfemur fractures for males [hazard ratio (HR)=2.85, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.87–4.34], subjects younger than 65 years (HR=2.89, 95% CI=1.64–5.11), and underweight subjects (HR=3.90, 95% CI=1.82–8.35). The adjusted HR for femur fracture with parkinsonism was highest within 2 years of the disease diagnosis (HR=3.10, 95% CI=2.12–4.53). Conclusions Our study found that the presence of parkinsonism is more strongly related to femur fracture in males, and increases the influence of traditional risk factors on femur fracture. It is necessary to consider how factors associated with the amount of ambulatory activity–even in an early diagnosed state–can play an important role in femur fracture in subjects with parkinsonism. PMID:29057630

  20. Risk of ischemic stroke after atrial fibrillation diagnosis: A national sample cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Kyoung Son

    Full Text Available Atrial fibrillation (AF is a major risk factor for ischemic stroke and associated with a 5-fold higher risk of stroke. In this retrospective cohort study, the incidence of and risk factors for ischemic stroke in patients with AF were identified. All patients (≥30 years old without previous stroke who were diagnosed with AF in 2007-2013 were selected from the National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort. To identify factors that influenced ischemic stroke risk, Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was conducted. During a mean follow-up duration of 3.2 years, 1022 (9.6% patients were diagnosed with ischemic stroke. The overall incidence rate of ischemic stroke was 30.8/1000 person-years. Of all the ischemic stroke that occurred during the follow-up period, 61.0% occurred within 1-year after AF diagnosis. Of the patients with CHA2DS2-VASc score of ≥2, only 13.6% were receiving warfarin therapy within 30 days after AF diagnosis. Relative to no antithrombotic therapy, warfarin treatment for >90 days before the index event (ischemic stroke in stroke patients and death/study end in non-stroke patients associated with decreased ischemic stroke risk (Hazard Ratio = 0.41, 95%confidence intervals = 0.32-0.53. Heart failure, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus associated with greater ischemic stroke risk. AF patients in Korea had a higher ischemic stroke incidence rate than patients in other countries and ischemic stroke commonly occurred at early phase after AF diagnosis. Long-term (>90 days continuous warfarin treatment may be beneficial for AF patients. However, warfarin treatment rates were very low. To prevent stroke, programs that actively detect AF and provide anticoagulation therapy are needed.

  1. Comparison of sample characteristics in two pregnancy cohorts: community-based versus population-based recruitment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Brenda My; McDonald, Sheila W; Kaplan, Bonnie J; Giesbrecht, Gerald F; Tough, Suzanne C

    2013-12-06

    One of the biggest challenges for population health studies is the recruitment of participants. Questions that investigators have asked are "who volunteers for studies?" and "does recruitment method influence characteristics of the samples?" The purpose of this paper was to compare sample characteristics of two unrelated pregnancy cohort studies taking place in the same city, in the same time period, that employed different recruitment strategies, as well as to compare the characteristics of both cohorts to provincial and national statistics derived from the Maternity Experiences Survey (MES). One pregnancy cohort used community-based recruitment (e.g. posters, pamphlets, interviews with community media and face-to-face recruitment in maternity clinics); the second pregnancy cohort used both community-based and population-based (a centralized system identifying pregnant women undergoing routine laboratory testing) strategies. The pregnancy cohorts differed in education, income, ethnicity, and foreign-born status (p recruitment of participants will not necessarily result in samples that reflect the general population, but can reflect the target population of interest. Attracting and retaining young, low resource women into urban studies about pregnancy may require alternate and innovative approaches.

  2. Prediction of BMI at age 11 in a longitudinal sample of the Ulm Birth Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Viola; Wabitsch, Martin; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Brenner, Hermann; Schimmelmann, Benno G.

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is one of the greatest public health challenges in the world with childhood prevalence rates between 20–26% and numerous associated health risks. The aim of the current study was to analyze the 11-year follow-up data of the Ulm Birth Cohort Study (UBCS), to identify whether abnormal eating behavior patterns, especially restrained eating, predict body mass index (BMI) at 11 years of age and to explore other factors known to be longitudinally associated with it. Of the original UBCS, n = 422 children (~ 40% of the original sample) and their parents participated in the 11-year follow-up. BMI at age 8 and 11 as well as information on restrained eating, psychological problems, depressive symptoms, lifestyle, and IQ at age 8 were assessed. Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) was used to predict children’s BMI scores at age 11. PLS-SEM explained 68% of the variance of BMI at age 11, with BMI at age 8 being the most important predictor. Restrained eating, via BMI at age 8 as well as parental BMI, had further weak associations with BMI at age 11; no other predictor was statistically significant. Since established overweight at age 8 already predicts BMI scores at age 11 longitudinally, obesity interventions should be implemented in early childhood. PMID:28832593

  3. Prediction of BMI at age 11 in a longitudinal sample of the Ulm Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Hanna; Brandt, Stephanie; Walter, Viola; Wabitsch, Martin; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Brenner, Hermann; Schimmelmann, Benno G; Hirsch, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is one of the greatest public health challenges in the world with childhood prevalence rates between 20-26% and numerous associated health risks. The aim of the current study was to analyze the 11-year follow-up data of the Ulm Birth Cohort Study (UBCS), to identify whether abnormal eating behavior patterns, especially restrained eating, predict body mass index (BMI) at 11 years of age and to explore other factors known to be longitudinally associated with it. Of the original UBCS, n = 422 children (~ 40% of the original sample) and their parents participated in the 11-year follow-up. BMI at age 8 and 11 as well as information on restrained eating, psychological problems, depressive symptoms, lifestyle, and IQ at age 8 were assessed. Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) was used to predict children's BMI scores at age 11. PLS-SEM explained 68% of the variance of BMI at age 11, with BMI at age 8 being the most important predictor. Restrained eating, via BMI at age 8 as well as parental BMI, had further weak associations with BMI at age 11; no other predictor was statistically significant. Since established overweight at age 8 already predicts BMI scores at age 11 longitudinally, obesity interventions should be implemented in early childhood.

  4. Comparison of sample characteristics in two pregnancy cohorts: community-based versus population-based recruitment methods

    OpenAIRE

    Leung, Brenda MY; Sheila W McDonald; Kaplan, Bonnie J; Giesbrecht, Gerald F.; Tough, Suzanne C.

    2013-01-01

    Background One of the biggest challenges for population health studies is the recruitment of participants. Questions that investigators have asked are “who volunteers for studies?” and “does recruitment method influence characteristics of the samples?” The purpose of this paper was to compare sample characteristics of two unrelated pregnancy cohort studies taking place in the same city, in the same time period, that employed different recruitment strategies, as well as to compare the characte...

  5. Importance Sampling Based Decision Trees for Security Assessment and the Corresponding Preventive Control Schemes: the Danish Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Leo; Rather, Zakir Hussain; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    Decision Trees (DT) based security assessment helps Power System Operators (PSO) by providing them with the most significant system attributes and guiding them in implementing the corresponding emergency control actions to prevent system insecurity and blackouts. DT is obtained offline from time......-domain simulation and the process of data mining, which is then implemented online as guidelines for preventive control schemes. An algorithm named Classification and Regression Trees (CART) is used to train the DT and key to this approach lies on the accuracy of DT. This paper proposes contingency oriented DT...

  6. A shared frailty model for case-cohort samples: parent and offspring relations in an adoption study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Liselotte; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2010-01-01

    probability weighting to account for the sampling in a conditional, shared frailty Poisson model and to use the robust variance estimator proposed by Moger et al. (Statist. Med. 2008; 27:1062-1074).To explore the performance of the estimation procedure, a simulation study was conducted. We studied situations......The Danish adoption register contains data on the 12 301 Danish nonfamilial adoptions during 1924-1947. From that register a case-cohort sample was selected consisting of all case adoptees, that is those adoptees dying before age 70 years, and a random sample of 1683 adoptees. The survival data...

  7. Integrated separation scheme for measuring a suite of fission and activation products from a fresh mixed fission and activation product sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morley, Shannon M.; Seiner, Brienne N.; Finn, Erin C.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Smith, Steven C.; Gregory, Stephanie J.; Haney, Morgan M.; Lucas, Dawn D.; Arrigo, Leah M.; Beacham, Tere A.; Swearingen, Kevin J.; Friese, Judah I.; Douglas, Matthew; Metz, Lori A.

    2015-05-01

    Mixed fission and activation materials resulting from various nuclear processes and events contain a wide range of isotopes for analysis spanning almost the entire periodic table. In some applications such as environmental monitoring, nuclear waste management, and national security a very limited amount of material is available for analysis and characterization so an integrated analysis scheme is needed to measure multiple radionuclides from one sample. This work describes the production of a complex synthetic sample containing fission products, activation products, and irradiated soil and determines the percent recovery of select isotopes through the integrated chemical separation scheme. Results were determined using gamma energy analysis of separated fractions and demonstrate high yields of Ag (76 ± 6%), Au (94 ± 7%), Cd (59 ± 2%), Co (93 ± 5%), Cs (88 ± 3%), Fe (62 ± 1%), Mn (70 ± 7%), Np (65 ± 5%), Sr (73 ± 2%) and Zn (72 ± 3%). Lower yields (< 25%) were measured for Ga, Ir, Sc, and W. Based on the results of this experiment, a complex synthetic sample can be prepared with low atom/fission ratios and isotopes of interest accurately and precisely measured following an integrated chemical separation method.

  8. On-line sample-pre-treatment schemes for trace-level determinations of metals by coupling flow injection or sequential injection with ICP-MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jianhua; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2003-01-01

    for on-line matrix separation and pre-concentration of trace levels of metals with detection by ICP-MS. It highlights some of the frequently applied on-line, sample-pre-treatment schemes, including solid phase extraction (SPE), on-wall molecular sorption and precipitate/(co)-precipitate retention using...... a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) knotted reactor (KR), solvent extraction-back extraction and hydride/vapor generation. It also addresses a novel, robust approach, whereby the protocol of SI-LOV-bead injection (BI) on-line separation and pre-concentration of ultra-trace levels of metals by a renewable microcolumn...

  9. High Incidence of Tuberculosis, Low Sensitivity of Current Diagnostic Scheme and Prolonged Culture Positivity in Four Colombian Prisons. A Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, Zulma Vanessa; López, Lucelly; Vélez, Lázaro A.; Marín, Diana; Giraldo, Margarita Rosa; Pulido, Henry; Orozco, Luis Carlos; Montes, Fernando; Arbeláez, María Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in inmates, factors associated with TB, and the time to sputum smear and culture conversion during TB treatment. Methods Prospective cohort study. All prisoners with respiratory symptoms (RS) of any duration were evaluated. After participants signed consent forms, we collected three spontaneous sputum samples on consecutive days. We performed auramine-rhodamine staining, culturing with the thin-layer agar method, Löwestein-Jensen medium and MGIT, susceptibility testing for first-line drugs; and HIV testing. TB cases were followed, and the times to smear and culture conversion to negative were evaluated. Results Of 9,507 prisoners held in four prisons between April/30/2010 and April/30/2012, among them 4,463 were screened, 1,305 were evaluated for TB because of the lower RS of any duration, and 72 were diagnosed with TB. The annual incidence was 505 cases/100,000 prisoners. Among TB cases, the median age was 30 years, 25% had prisons is 20 times higher than in the general Colombian population. TB should be considered in inmates with lower RS of any duration. Our data demonstrate that patients receiving adequate anti-TB treatment remain infectious for prolonged periods. These findings suggest that current recommendations regarding isolation of prisoners with TB should be reconsidered, and suggest the need for mycobacterial cultures during follow-up. PMID:24278293

  10. A resting box for outdoor sampling of adult Anopheles arabiensis in rice irrigation schemes of lower Moshi, northern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Msangi Shandala

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria vector sampling is the best method for understanding the vector dynamics and infectivity; thus, disease transmission seasonality can be established. There is a need to protecting humans involved in the sampling of disease vectors during surveillance or in control programmes. In this study, human landing catch, two cow odour baited resting boxes and an unbaited resting box were evaluated as vector sampling tools in an area with a high proportion of Anopheles arabiensis, as the major malaria vector. Methods Three resting boxes were evaluated against human landing catch. Two were baited with cow odour, while the third was unbaited. The inner parts of the boxes were covered with black cloth materials. Experiments were arranged in latin-square design. Boxes were set in the evening and left undisturbed; mosquitoes were collected at 06:00 am the next morning, while human landing catch was done overnight. Results A total of 9,558 An. arabiensis mosquitoes were collected. 17.5% (N = 1668 were collected in resting box baited with cow body odour, 42.5% (N = 4060 in resting box baited with cow urine, 15.1% (N = 1444 in unbaited resting box and 24.9% (N = 2386 were collected by human landing catch technique. In analysis, the house positions had no effect on the density of mosquitoes caught (DF = 3, F = 0.753, P = 0.387; the sampling technique had significant impact on the caught mosquitoes densities (DF = 3, F 37. 944, P Conclusion Odour-baited resting boxes have shown the possibility of replacing the existing traditional method (human landing catch for sampling malaria vectors in areas with a high proportion of An. arabiensis as malaria vectors. Further evaluations of fermented urine and longevity of the urine odour still need to be investigated.

  11. Trends and perspectives of flow injection/sequential injection on-line sample-pretreatment schemes coupled to ETAAS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jianhua; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2005-01-01

    Flow injection (FI) analysis, the first generation of this technique, became in the 1990s supplemented by its second generation, sequential injection (SI), and most recently by the third generation (i.e.,Lab-on-Valve). The dominant role played by FI in automatic, on-line, sample pretreatments in ......-review is thus to illustrate the state-of-the-art progress in implementing miniaturised FI/SI systems for on-line separation and preconcentration of trace metals with detection by ETAAS since 2000. We also discuss future perspectives in this field....

  12. High incidence of tuberculosis, low sensitivity of current diagnostic scheme and prolonged culture positivity in four colombian prisons. A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, Zulma Vanessa; López, Lucelly; Vélez, Lázaro A; Marín, Diana; Giraldo, Margarita Rosa; Pulido, Henry; Orozco, Luis Carlos; Montes, Fernando; Arbeláez, María Patricia

    2013-01-01

    To determine the incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in inmates, factors associated with TB, and the time to sputum smear and culture conversion during TB treatment. Prospective cohort study. All prisoners with respiratory symptoms (RS) of any duration were evaluated. After participants signed consent forms, we collected three spontaneous sputum samples on consecutive days. We performed auramine-rhodamine staining, culturing with the thin-layer agar method, Löwestein-Jensen medium and MGIT, susceptibility testing for first-line drugs; and HIV testing. TB cases were followed, and the times to smear and culture conversion to negative were evaluated. Of 9,507 prisoners held in four prisons between April/30/2010 and April/30/2012, among them 4,463 were screened, 1,305 were evaluated for TB because of the lower RS of any duration, and 72 were diagnosed with TB. The annual incidence was 505 cases/100,000 prisoners. Among TB cases, the median age was 30 years, 25% had HIV coinfection was diagnosed in three cases. History of prior TB, contact with a TB case, and being underweight were risk factors associated with TB. Overweight was a protective factor. Almost a quarter of TB cases were detected only by culture; three cases were isoniazid resistant, and two resistant to streptomycin. The median times to culture conversion was 59 days, and smear conversion was 33. The TB incidence in prisons is 20 times higher than in the general Colombian population. TB should be considered in inmates with lower RS of any duration. Our data demonstrate that patients receiving adequate anti-TB treatment remain infectious for prolonged periods. These findings suggest that current recommendations regarding isolation of prisoners with TB should be reconsidered, and suggest the need for mycobacterial cultures during follow-up.

  13. Determinants of manganese levels in house dust samples from the CHAMACOS cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunier, R B; Jerrett, M; Smith, D R; Jursa, T; Yousefi, P; Camacho, J; Hubbard, A; Eskenazi, B; Bradman, A

    2014-11-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential nutrient, but at high exposure levels Mn is a neurotoxicant. The fungicides maneb and mancozeb are approximately 21% Mn by weight and more than 150,000 kg are applied each year to crops in the Salinas Valley, California. It is not clear, however, whether agricultural use of these fungicides increases Mn levels in homes. We collected house dust samples from 378 residences enrolled in the Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS) study with a second sample collected approximately nine months later from 90 of the residences. House dust samples were analyzed for Mn using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. Information from interviews, home inspections, and pesticide use reports was used to identify potential predictors of Mn dust concentrations and loadings. Mn was detectable in all dust samples. The median Mn concentration was 171 μg/g and median Mn loading was 1,910 μg/m(2) at first visit. In multivariable models, Mn dust concentrations and loadings increased with the number of farmworkers in the home and the amount of agricultural Mn fungicides applied within three kilometers of the residence during the month prior to dust sample collection. Dust concentrations of Mn and other metals (lead, cadmium and chromium) were higher in residences located in the southern Salinas Valley compared those located in other areas of the Salinas Valley. Dust loadings of Mn and other metals were also higher in residences located on Antioch Loam soil than other soil types, and in homes with poor or average housekeeping practices. Agricultural use of Mn containing fungicides was associated with Mn dust concentrations and loadings in nearby residences and farmworker homes. Housekeeping practices and soil type at residence were also important factors related to dust metal concentrations and loadings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. High incidence of tuberculosis, low sensitivity of current diagnostic scheme and prolonged culture positivity in four colombian prisons. A cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulma Vanessa Rueda

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB in inmates, factors associated with TB, and the time to sputum smear and culture conversion during TB treatment. METHODS: Prospective cohort study. All prisoners with respiratory symptoms (RS of any duration were evaluated. After participants signed consent forms, we collected three spontaneous sputum samples on consecutive days. We performed auramine-rhodamine staining, culturing with the thin-layer agar method, Löwestein-Jensen medium and MGIT, susceptibility testing for first-line drugs; and HIV testing. TB cases were followed, and the times to smear and culture conversion to negative were evaluated. RESULTS: Of 9,507 prisoners held in four prisons between April/30/2010 and April/30/2012, among them 4,463 were screened, 1,305 were evaluated for TB because of the lower RS of any duration, and 72 were diagnosed with TB. The annual incidence was 505 cases/100,000 prisoners. Among TB cases, the median age was 30 years, 25% had <15 days of cough, 12.5% had a history of prior TB, and 40.3% had prior contact with a TB case. TB-HIV coinfection was diagnosed in three cases. History of prior TB, contact with a TB case, and being underweight were risk factors associated with TB. Overweight was a protective factor. Almost a quarter of TB cases were detected only by culture; three cases were isoniazid resistant, and two resistant to streptomycin. The median times to culture conversion was 59 days, and smear conversion was 33. CONCLUSIONS: The TB incidence in prisons is 20 times higher than in the general Colombian population. TB should be considered in inmates with lower RS of any duration. Our data demonstrate that patients receiving adequate anti-TB treatment remain infectious for prolonged periods. These findings suggest that current recommendations regarding isolation of prisoners with TB should be reconsidered, and suggest the need for mycobacterial cultures during follow-up.

  15. Accuracy of intrapartum fetal blood gas analysis by scalp sampling: A retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilal, Ziad; Mrkvicka, Jennifer; Rezniczek, Günther A; Dogan, Askin; Tempfer, Clemens B

    2017-12-01

    Fetal blood gas analysis (FBGA) using scalp blood is commonly used to identify serious fetal distress. However, there is a lack of data regarding its accuracy and reliability. The aim of this study was to determine the positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of FBGA for predicting postpartum acidosis in case of nonreassuring fetal heart rate tracings (NRFHRT). To this end, we conducted a retrospective cohort study of singleton term deliveries with NRFHRT according to Fédération Internationale de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique and Fisher cardiotocography scores undergoing FBGA in a university hospital. The PPV and NPV of FBGA regarding neonatal acidosis (defined as a pH value ≤ 7.15 in arterial or venous umbilical cord blood) and Apgar scores indicating neonatal depression (defined as a 5-min Apgar score ≤5) were evaluated. Multivariate analysis was used to determine the influence of cardiotocography variations and the time delay between FBGA and delivery on the accuracy of FBGA. We analyzed 343 deliveries with NRFHRT. In 32 (9%) of these cases, fetal acidosis was confirmed by a postpartum umbilical cord blood pH value ≤ 7.15. In 308/343 (90%) cases, FBGA identified NRFHRT as false positive (as confirmed by nonacidotic postpartum pH values) and thus avoided unnecessary interventions such as operative delivery. The overall test accuracy of FBGA was 91%. FBGA accurately predicted postpartum cord blood pH values with a margin of ±0.2 in 319/343 (93%) cases. On the other hand, the false negative rate of FBGA was 8% (29/343). The PPV and NPV of FBGA for predicting postpartum acidosis were 50% and 91%, respectively. The sensitivity was 9% and the specificity was 99%. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, maternal body mass index (odds ratio [OR] 1.1; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.17; P = .029) and cardiotocography variations (OR 0.80; 95% CI 0.66-0.98; P = .029) independently affected the predictive value of

  16. Determinants of manganese levels in house dust samples from the CHAMACOS cohort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunier, R.B., E-mail: gunier@berkeley.edu [Center for Environmental Research and Children’s Health (CERCH), School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Jerrett, M. [Center for Environmental Research and Children’s Health (CERCH), School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Smith, D.R.; Jursa, T. [Microbiology and Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Yousefi, P.; Camacho, J.; Hubbard, A.; Eskenazi, B.; Bradman, A. [Center for Environmental Research and Children’s Health (CERCH), School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Introduction: Manganese (Mn) is an essential nutrient, but at high exposure levels Mn is a neurotoxicant. The fungicides maneb and mancozeb are approximately 21% Mn by weight and more than 150,000 kg are applied each year to crops in the Salinas Valley, California. It is not clear, however, whether agricultural use of these fungicides increases Mn levels in homes. Materials and methods: We collected house dust samples from 378 residences enrolled in the Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS) study with a second sample collected approximately nine months later from 90 of the residences. House dust samples were analyzed for Mn using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. Information from interviews, home inspections, and pesticide use reports was used to identify potential predictors of Mn dust concentrations and loadings. Results: Mn was detectable in all dust samples. The median Mn concentration was 171 μg/g and median Mn loading was 1,910 μg/m{sup 2} at first visit. In multivariable models, Mn dust concentrations and loadings increased with the number of farmworkers in the home and the amount of agricultural Mn fungicides applied within three kilometers of the residence during the month prior to dust sample collection. Dust concentrations of Mn and other metals (lead, cadmium and chromium) were higher in residences located in the southern Salinas Valley compared those located in other areas of the Salinas Valley. Dust loadings of Mn and other metals were also higher in residences located on Antioch Loam soil than other soil types, and in homes with poor or average housekeeping practices. Conclusions: Agricultural use of Mn containing fungicides was associated with Mn dust concentrations and loadings in nearby residences and farmworker homes. Housekeeping practices and soil type at residence were also important factors related to dust metal concentrations and loadings. - Highlights: • Manganese dust

  17. Colour schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Leeuwen, Theo

    2013-01-01

    This chapter presents a framework for analysing colour schemes based on a parametric approach that includes not only hue, value and saturation, but also purity, transparency, luminosity, luminescence, lustre, modulation and differentiation.......This chapter presents a framework for analysing colour schemes based on a parametric approach that includes not only hue, value and saturation, but also purity, transparency, luminosity, luminescence, lustre, modulation and differentiation....

  18. Hemodialysis outcomes in a global sample of children and young adult hemodialysis patients: the PICCOLO MONDO cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Maria; Gibson, Keisha; Plattner, Brett; Gipson, Debbie S; Kotanko, Peter; Marcelli, Daniele; Marelli, Cristina; Etter, Michael; Carioni, Paola; von Gersdorff, Gero; Xu, Xiaoqi; Kooman, Jeroen P; Xiao, Qingqing; van der Sande, Frank M; Power, Albert; Picoits-Filho, Roberto; Sylvestre, Lucimary; Westreich, Katherine; Usvyat, Len

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the experience of pediatric and young adult hemodialysis (HD) patients from a global cohort. The Pediatric Investigation and Close Collaborative Consortium for Ongoing Life Outcomes for MONitoring Dialysis Outcomes (PICCOLO MONDO) study provided de-identified electronic information of 3244 patients, ages 0-30 years from 2000 to 2012 in four regions: Asia, Europe, North America and South America. The study sample was categorized into pediatric (≤18 years old) and young adult (19-30 years old) groups based on the age at dialysis initiation. For those with known end-stage renal disease etiology, glomerular disease was the most common diagnosis in children and young adults. Using Europe as a reference group, North America [odds ratio (OR) 2.69; CI 1.29, 5.63] and South America (OR 4.21; CI 2.32, 7.63) had the greatest mortality among young adults. North America also had higher rates of overweight, obesity, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, hospitalizations and secondary diabetes compared with all other regions. Initial catheter use was greater for North American (86.4% in pediatric patients and 75.2% in young adults) and South America (80.6% in pediatric patients and 75.9% in young adults). Catheter use at 1-year follow-up was most common in North American children (77.3%) and young adults (62.9%). Asia had the lowest rate of catheter use. For both age groups, dialysis adequacy (equilibrated Kt/V) ranged between 1.4 and 1.5. In Asia, patients in both age groups had significantly longer treatment times than in any other region. The PICCOLO MONDO study has provided unique baseline and 1-year follow-up information on children and young adults receiving HD around the globe. This cohort has brought to light aspects of care in these age groups that warrant further investigation.

  19. Body Dissatisfaction in a Diverse Sample of Young Men Who Have Sex With Men: The P18 Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siconolfi, Daniel E; Kapadia, Farzana; Moeller, Robert W; Eddy, Jessica A; Kupprat, Sandra A; Kingdon, Molly J; Halkitis, Perry N

    2016-07-01

    Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) may be at greater risk for body dissatisfaction, compared to their heterosexual peers. However, differences within YMSM populations are understudied, precluding the identification of YMSM who are at greatest risk. This study examined body dissatisfaction in a racially/ethnically diverse sample of YMSM ages 18-19 in New York City. Using cross-sectional data from the baseline visit of a longitudinal cohort study of YMSM (N = 591), body dissatisfaction was assessed using the Male Body Attitudes Scale. Three outcomes were modeled using linear regression: (1) overall body dissatisfaction, (2) muscularity dissatisfaction, and (3) body fat dissatisfaction. Covariates in the models included race/ethnicity, sexual orientation, BMI, gay community affiliation, and internalized homonegativity. White YMSM experienced greater body dissatisfaction across the three models. Internalized homonegativity was a statistically significant predictor of dissatisfaction across the three models, though its association with body dissatisfaction was relatively small. The findings point to future avenues of research, particularly qualitative research to explore demographic and cultural nuances in body attitudes among YMSM.

  20. Translation of Korean Medicine Use to ICD-Codes Using National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye-Seul Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Korean medicine was incorporated into the Korean Classification of Diseases (KCD 6 through the development of U codes (U20–U99. Studies of the burden of disease have used summary measures such as disability-adjusted life years. Although Korean medicine is included in the official health care system, studies of the burden of disease that include Korean medicine are lacking. Methods. A data-based approach was used with National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort data for the year 2012. U code diagnoses for patients covered by National Health Insurance were collected. Using the main disease and subdisease codes, the proportion of U codes was redistributed into the related KCD 6 codes and visualized. U code and KCD code relevance was appraised prior to the analysis by consultation with medical professionals and from the beta draft version of the International Classification of Diseases-11 traditional medicine chapter. Results. This approach enabled redistribution of U codes into KCD 6 codes. Musculoskeletal diseases had the greatest increase in the burden of disease through this approach. Conclusion. This study provides a possible method of incorporating Korean medicine into burden of disease analyses through a data-based approach. Further studies should analyze potential yearly differences.

  1. Characteristics of individuals receiving disability benefits in the Netherlands and predictors of leaving the disability benefit scheme: a retrospective cohort study with five-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louwerse, Ilse; Huysmans, Maaike A; van Rijssen, H Jolanda; van der Beek, Allard J; Anema, Johannes R

    2018-01-18

    Today, work disability is one of the greatest social and labour market challenges for policy makers in most OECD countries, where on average, about 6% of the working-age population relies on disability benefits. Understanding of factors associated with long-term work disability may be helpful to identify groups of individuals at risk for disability benefit entitlement or continuing eligibility, and to develop effective interventions for these groups. The purpose of this study is to provide insight into the main diagnoses of workers who qualify for disability benefits and how these diagnoses differ in age, gender and education. Using a five-year follow-up, we examined the duration of disability benefits and how durations differ among individuals with various characteristics. We performed a cohort study of 31,733 individuals receiving disability benefits from the Dutch Social Security Institute (SSI) with a five-year follow-up. Data were collected from SSI databases. Information about disorders was assessed by an insurance physician upon benefit application. These data were used to test for significant relationships among socio-demographics, main diagnoses and comorbidity, and disability benefit entitlement and continuing eligibility. Mental disorders were the most frequent diagnosis for individuals claiming work disability. Diagnoses differed among age groups and education categories. Mental disorders were the main diagnosis for work disability for younger and more highly educated individuals, and physical disorders (generally musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and cancer) were the main diagnosis for older and less educated individuals. In 82% of the claims, the duration of disability benefit was five years or more after approval. Outflow was lowest for individuals with (multiple) mental disorders and those with comorbidity of mental and physical disorders, and highest for individuals with (multiple) physical disorders. The main diagnosis for persons entitled to

  2. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of interferon beta and glatiramer acetate in the UK Multiple Sclerosis Risk Sharing Scheme at 6 years: a clinical cohort study with natural history comparator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palace, Jacqueline; Duddy, Martin; Bregenzer, Thomas; Lawton, Michael; Zhu, Feng; Boggild, Mike; Piske, Benjamin; Robertson, Neil P; Oger, Joel; Tremlett, Helen; Tilling, Kate; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Dobson, Charles

    2015-05-01

    In 2002, the UK's National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) concluded that interferon beta and glatiramer acetate would be cost effective as disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) for multiple sclerosis only if the short-term disability benefits reported in clinical trials were maintained. The UK Multiple Sclerosis Risk Sharing Scheme (RSS) was established to assess whether disability progression was consistent with a cost-effectiveness target of £36 000 per quality-adjusted life-year projected over 20 years. We aimed to evaluate the long-term effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of these DMTs by comparing a cohort of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis enrolled in the UK RSS with a natural history cohort from British Columbia, Canada. In our clinical cohort we included patients starting a DMT who were enrolled in the UK RSS who had relapsing multiple sclerosis at baseline and had at least one further clinical assessment. In our control cohort we included patients in the British Columbia multiple sclerosis database (BCMS; data collection 1980-96) who met the same eligibility criteria as for the RSS cohort. We compared disability progression at 6 years for RSS patients with untreated progression modelled from BCMS patients using continuous Markov and multilevel models. The primary outcomes were the progression ratio (treated vs untreated) measured both in Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score and utility. A ratio of less than 100% for EDSS implied slower than expected progression on treatment compared with off treatment; a utility ratio of 62% or less implied that the DMTs were cost effective. 5610 patients starting a DMT were enrolled in the UK RSS between Jan 14, 2002, and July 13, 2005 (72 sites), of whom 4137 were included in our clinical cohort. We included 898 BCMS patients in the control cohort who met the RSS inclusion criteria and had at least one EDSS score after baseline. RSS patients had a mean follow-up of 5·1 years (SD 1

  3. Cardiovascular Diseases and Life Expectancy in Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: A Korean National Sample Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yu Mi; Cho, Yun Kyung; Lee, Seung Eun; Park, Joong-Yeol; Lee, Woo Je; Kim, Ye-Jee; Jung, Chang Hee

    2017-09-01

    Although type 2 diabetes is a strong risk factor for cardiovascular disease and mortality, information on its association with mortality and life expectancy according to cardiovascular comorbidities is limited, especially in Asia. Thus, this study assessed mortality and reductions in life expectancy associated with cardiometabolic multimorbidity. A total of 569,831 participants older than 30 years from Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort were enrolled between 2002 and 2006 and followed for a median of 12.0 years. They were categorized into five mutually exclusive groups according to baseline disease status, as follows: none (reference group); diabetes only; diabetes and stroke; diabetes and myocardial infarction (MI); and diabetes, stroke, and MI. Mortality rates and hazard ratios (HRs), reductions of life expectancy, and age-specific contributions to life expectancy were calculated by constructing life tables. The mortality rates per 1000 person-years were 6.85, 19.86, 67.17, 66.34, and 115.52 in the reference, diabetes only; diabetes and stroke; diabetes and MI; and diabetes, stroke, and MI groups, respectively. The corresponding HRs for all-cause mortality were 1.70 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.66 to 1.75], 3.66 (95% CI, 3.32 to 4.03), 3.56 (95% CI, 3.06 to 4.14), and 4.79 (95% CI, 3.05 to 7.50) compared with the reference group. The estimated reductions in life expectancy were greater at younger ages and markedly increased with more cardiometabolic comorbidities. Young Asians with type 2 diabetes, especially those with cardiovascular comorbidity, did not live as long than their nondiabetic equivalents. Thus, these individuals require special attention to prevent further reductions in life expectancy.

  4. Cohort profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tollånes, Mette C; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Forthun, Ingeborg

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of MOthers and BAbies in Norway and Denmark cerebral palsy (MOBAND-CP) was to study CP aetiology in a prospective design. PARTICIPANTS: MOBAND-CP is a cohort of more than 210 000 children, created as a collaboration between the world's two largest pregnancy cohorts......-the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort study (MoBa) and the Danish National Birth Cohort. MOBAND-CP includes maternal interview/questionnaire data collected during pregnancy and follow-up, plus linked information from national health registries. FINDINGS TO DATE: Initial harmonisation of data from the 2 cohorts...... has created 140 variables for children and their mothers. In the MOBAND-CP cohort, 438 children with CP have been identified through record linkage with validated national registries, providing by far the largest such sample with prospectively collected detailed pregnancy data. Several studies...

  5. Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Steven K

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Second Edition "This book has never had a competitor. It is the only book that takes a broad approach to sampling . . . any good personal statistics library should include a copy of this book." —Technometrics "Well-written . . . an excellent book on an important subject. Highly recommended." —Choice "An ideal reference for scientific researchers and other professionals who use sampling." —Zentralblatt Math Features new developments in the field combined with all aspects of obtaining, interpreting, and using sample data Sampling provides an up-to-date treat

  6. Comparison of linkage disequilibrium patterns between the HapMap CEPH samples and a family-based cohort of Northern European descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E M; Wang, X; Littrell, J; Eckert, J; Cole, R; Kissebah, A H; Olivier, M

    2006-10-01

    The International HapMap Consortium has determined the linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns of four major human populations. The aim of our investigation was to compare the LD patterns of the HapMap CEPH (Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain) samples with a family-based cohort of similar ancestry to determine its usefulness as a reference population for disease association studies. We examined four genomic regions on chromosomes 7q, 12p, and 14q totaling 14.3 Mb, initially identified in our linkage study of obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Near identical patterns of LD were detected in both populations. Furthermore, tagSNPs selected based on the HapMap CEPH cohort data capture over 98% of the variants at an r2 > 0.8 in the disease cohort. This confirms the usefulness of the CEPH cohort of the HapMap as a reference sample for further investigations into the genomic variation of populations of Northern European descent.

  7. Additive operator-difference schemes splitting schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Vabishchevich, Petr N

    2013-01-01

    Applied mathematical modeling isconcerned with solving unsteady problems. This bookshows how toconstruct additive difference schemes to solve approximately unsteady multi-dimensional problems for PDEs. Two classes of schemes are highlighted: methods of splitting with respect to spatial variables (alternating direction methods) and schemes of splitting into physical processes. Also regionally additive schemes (domain decomposition methods)and unconditionally stable additive schemes of multi-component splitting are considered for evolutionary equations of first and second order as well as for sy

  8. Evaluation of spot and passive sampling for monitoring, flux estimation and risk assessment of pesticides within the constraints of a typical regulatory monitoring scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zulin; Troldborg, Mads; Yates, Kyari; Osprey, Mark; Kerr, Christine; Hallett, Paul D; Baggaley, Nikki; Rhind, Stewart M; Dawson, Julian J C; Hough, Rupert L

    2016-11-01

    In many agricultural catchments of Europe and North America, pesticides occur at generally low concentrations with significant temporal variation. This poses several challenges for both monitoring and understanding ecological risks/impacts of these chemicals. This study aimed to compare the performance of passive and spot sampling strategies given the constraints of typical regulatory monitoring. Nine pesticides were investigated in a river currently undergoing regulatory monitoring (River Ugie, Scotland). Within this regulatory framework, spot and passive sampling were undertaken to understand spatiotemporal occurrence, mass loads and ecological risks. All the target pesticides were detected in water by both sampling strategies. Chlorotoluron was observed to be the dominant pesticide by both spot (maximum: 111.8ng/l, mean: 9.35ng/l) and passive sampling (maximum: 39.24ng/l, mean: 4.76ng/l). The annual pesticide loads were estimated to be 2735g and 1837g based on the spot and passive sampling data, respectively. The spatiotemporal trend suggested that agricultural activities were the primary source of the compounds with variability in loads explained in large by timing of pesticide applications and rainfall. The risk assessment showed chlorotoluron and chlorpyrifos posed the highest ecological risks with 23% of the chlorotoluron spot samples and 36% of the chlorpyrifos passive samples resulting in a Risk Quotient greater than 0.1. This suggests that mitigation measures might need to be taken to reduce the input of pesticides into the river. The overall comparison of the two sampling strategies supported the hypothesis that passive sampling tends to integrate the contaminants over a period of exposure and allows quantification of contamination at low concentration. The results suggested that within a regulatory monitoring context passive sampling was more suitable for flux estimation and risk assessment of trace contaminants which cannot be diagnosed by spot

  9. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in paired samples of maternal and umbilical cord blood plasma and associations with house dust in a Danish cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Marie; Thomsen, Cathrine; Frøshaug, May

    2010-01-01

    objectives of this study were to investigate the maternal and fetal exposure to PBDEs on the basis of maternal and umbilical cord plasma samples and to study the extent of placental transfer for different PBDE congeners. The findings were also compared with previously observed PBDE levels and patterns...... determined in placental tissue from the same individuals, and the relationship with the external exposure from house dust from the participants' homes was explored. Samples of maternal and umbilical cord plasma from a cohort of 51 pregnant women from the Copenhagen area were collected. Paired maternal...... and umbilical cord plasma were analysed for BDE-28, 37, 47, 85, 99, 100, 119, 138, 153, 154, 183, 209 and the brominated biphenyl BB-153 using automated SPE extraction and GC-HRMS for the tri- to hepta-BDEs and GC-LRMS (ECNI) for BDE-209. PBDEs were detected in all maternal and umbilical cord plasma samples...

  10. Scheme Program Documentation Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørmark, Kurt

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes and discusses two different Scheme documentation tools. The first is SchemeDoc, which is intended for documentation of the interfaces of Scheme libraries (APIs). The second is the Scheme Elucidator, which is for internal documentation of Scheme programs. Although the tools...

  11. Quality improvement in determination of chemical oxygen demand in samples considered difficult to analyze, through participation in proficiency-testing schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raposo, Francisco; Fernández-Cegrí, V.; De la Rubia, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    Chemical oxygen demand (COD) is a critical analytical parameter in waste and wastewater treatment, more specifically in anaerobic digestion, although little is known about the quality of measuring COD of anaerobic digestion samples. Proficiency testing (PT) is a powerful tool that can be used...

  12. Cohort description

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dantoft, Thomas Meinertz; Ebstrup, Jeanette Frost; Linneberg, Allan

    2017-01-01

    a controversial topic. The specific aims with the cohort were to test delimitations of FSS, estimate prevalence and incidence rates, identify risk factors, delimitate the pathogenic pathways, and explore the consequences of FSS. The study population comprises a random sample of 9,656 men and women aged 18...

  13. A robust and efficient statistical method for genetic association studies using case and control samples from multiple cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minghui; Wang, Lin; Jiang, Ning; Jia, Tianye; Luo, Zewei

    2013-02-08

    The theoretical basis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) is statistical inference of linkage disequilibrium (LD) between any polymorphic marker and a putative disease locus. Most methods widely implemented for such analyses are vulnerable to several key demographic factors and deliver a poor statistical power for detecting genuine associations and also a high false positive rate. Here, we present a likelihood-based statistical approach that accounts properly for non-random nature of case-control samples in regard of genotypic distribution at the loci in populations under study and confers flexibility to test for genetic association in presence of different confounding factors such as population structure, non-randomness of samples etc. We implemented this novel method together with several popular methods in the literature of GWAS, to re-analyze recently published Parkinson's disease (PD) case-control samples. The real data analysis and computer simulation show that the new method confers not only significantly improved statistical power for detecting the associations but also robustness to the difficulties stemmed from non-randomly sampling and genetic structures when compared to its rivals. In particular, the new method detected 44 significant SNPs within 25 chromosomal regions of size methods. It discovered two SNPs located 1.18 Mb and 0.18 Mb from the PD candidates, FGF20 and PARK8, without invoking false positive risk. We developed a novel likelihood-based method which provides adequate estimation of LD and other population model parameters by using case and control samples, the ease in integration of these samples from multiple genetically divergent populations and thus confers statistically robust and powerful analyses of GWAS. On basis of simulation studies and analysis of real datasets, we demonstrated significant improvement of the new method over the non-parametric trend test, which is the most popularly implemented in the literature of GWAS.

  14. The Lausanne-Geneva cohort study of offspring of parents with mood disorders: methodology, findings, current sample characteristics, and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandeleur, Caroline L; Strippoli, Marie-Pierre F; Castelao, Enrique; Gholam-Rezaee, Mehdi; Ferrero, François; Marquet, Pierre; Aubry, Jean-Michel; Preisig, Martin

    2017-08-01

    Studies focusing on the offspring of affected parents utilize the well-established familial aggregation of mood disorders as a powerful tool for the identification of risk factors, early clinical manifestations, and prodromes of mood disorders in these offspring. The major goals of the Lausanne-Geneva mood cohort study are to: (1) assess the familial aggregation of bipolar and unipolar mood disorders; (2) prospectively identify risk factors for mood disorders as well as their early signs and prodromes; (3) identify their endophenotypes including cognitive features, alterations in brain structure, HPA-axis dysregulation, and abnormalities of the circadian rhythm of activity. Probands with bipolar disorders, major depressive disorder, and controls with at least one child aged from 4 to 17.9 years at study intake, their offspring, as well as their spouses are invited to take part in follow-up assessments at predetermined ages of the offspring. Direct semi-structured diagnostic interviews have been used for all participants. Probands, spouses, and adult offspring also undergo neurocognitive testing, anthropomorphic measures and biochemical exams, structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging, as well as objective assessments of physical activity using accelerometers in combination with ecological momentary assessments. Currently, our study has up to seven follow-up assessments extending over a period of 20 years. There are 214 probands and 389 offspring with one direct interview before age 18 as well as a second assessment over follow-up. Data on 236 co-parents are also available from whom 55% have been directly interviewed. First publications support the specificity of the familial aggregation of BPD and the strong influence of an early onset of the parental BPD, which amplifies the risk of developing this disorder in offspring. Information from clinical, biological, cognitive, and behavioral measures, based on contemporary knowledge, should further enhance our understanding

  15. Psychometric evaluation and predictive validity of Ryff's psychological well-being items in a UK birth cohort sample of women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wadsworth Michael EJ

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Investigations of the structure of psychological well-being items are useful for advancing knowledge of what dimensions define psychological well-being in practice. Ryff has proposed a multidimensional model of psychological well-being and her questionnaire items are widely used but their latent structure and factorial validity remains contentious. Methods We applied latent variable models for factor analysis of ordinal/categorical data to a 42-item version of Ryff's psychological well-being scales administered to women aged 52 in a UK birth cohort study (n = 1,179. Construct (predictive validity was examined against a measure of mental health recorded one year later. Results Inter-factor correlations among four of the first-order psychological well-being constructs were sufficiently high (> 0.80 to warrant a parsimonious representation as a second-order general well-being dimension. Method factors for questions reflecting positive and negative item content, orthogonal to the construct factors and assumed independent of each other, improved model fit by removing nuisance variance. Predictive validity correlations between psychological well-being and a multidimensional measure of psychological distress were dominated by the contribution of environmental mastery, in keeping with earlier findings from cross-sectional studies that have correlated well-being and severity of depression. Conclusion Our preferred model included a single second-order factor, loaded by four of the six first-order factors, two method factors, and two more distinct first-order factors. Psychological well-being is negatively associated with dimensions of mental health. Further investigation of precision of measurement across the health continuum is required.

  16. Analysis of ASPM in an ethnically diverse cohort of 400 patient samples: perspectives of the molecular diagnostic laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, C A; del Gaudio, D; Dempsey, M A; Arndt, K; Botes, S; Reeder, A; Das, S

    2014-04-01

    Primary Autosomal Recessive Microcephaly (MCPH) is characterized by congenital microcephaly usually without additional clinical findings. The most common gene implicated in MCPH is ASPM and a large percentage of mutations described have been homozygous and in consanguineous families primarily of East Asian and Middle Eastern origin. ASPM sequencing was performed on 400 patients between the years 2009 and 2012. Seventy of the patient samples were also analyzed for copy number changes in the ASPM gene. Forty protein truncating mutations, including 29 novel mutations, were identified in 39 patients with MCPH. Approximately one third of patients were compound heterozygotes, indicative of non-consanguinity in these patients. In addition, 46 non-synonymous variants were identified and interpreted as variants of uncertain significance. No deletion/duplication in ASPM was identified in the patients analyzed. A wide ethnic distribution was observed, including the first reported patients with ASPM-related MCPH of Hispanic descent. Clinical information was collected for 26 of the ASPM-positive patients and 41 of the ASPM-negative patients. As more individuals are identified with MCPH, we anticipate that we will continue to identify ASPM mutation-positive patients from all ethnic origins supporting the occurrence of this genetic condition beyond that of consanguineous families of certain ethnic populations. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Comparing three cohorts of MSM sampled via sex parties, bars/clubs, and Craigslist.org: implications for researchers and providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grov, Christian; Rendina, H Jonathon; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2014-08-01

    With limited exceptions, few studies have systematically reported on psychosocial and demographic characteristic differences in samples of men who have sex with men (MSM) based on where they were recruited. This study compared three sexually active cohorts of MSM recruited via Craigslist.org (recruited via modified time-space sampling), gay bars and clubs (recruited via time-space sampling), and private sex parties (identified via passive recruitment and listserves), finding mixed results with regard to differences in demographic characteristics, STI history, and psychosocial measures. Men recruited from sex parties were significantly older, reported more symptoms of sexual compulsivity, more likely to be HIV-positive, more likely to report a history of STIs, and more likely to self-identify as a barebacker, than men recruited from the other two venues. In contrast, men from Craigslist.org reported the lowest levels of attachment to the gay and bisexual community and were the least likely to self-identify as gay. Men from bars and clubs were significantly younger, and were more likely to report use of hallucinogens and crack or cocaine. Our findings highlight that the venues in which MSM are recruited have meaningful consequences in terms of the types of individuals who are reached.

  18. Automated sequential injection-microcolumn approach with on-line flame atomic absorption spectrometric detection for implementing metal fractionation schemes of homogeneous and non-homogeneous solid samples of environmental interest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chomchoei, Roongrat; Miró, Manuel; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2005-01-01

    , and Testing sequential extraction method have been also performed in a dynamic fashion and critically compared with the conventional batch-wise protocols. The ecotoxicological relevance of the data provided by both methods with different operationally defined conditions is thoroughly discussed. As compared...... reagents into the flow network and the minute, well-defined injection of the desired leachate volume into the detector. Moreover, a highly time-resolved information on the ongoing extraction is given, which is particular relevant for monitoring fast leaching kinetics, such as those involving strong...... chelating agents. On-line and off-line (for Cu, Pb and Zn) single extraction schemes are also proven to constitute attractive alternatives for fast screening of metal pollution in solid samples, and for predicting the current, rather than the potential, element bioavailability by the assessment...

  19. Antenatal Risk Factors of Postpartum Depression at 20 Weeks Gestation in a Japanese Sample: Psychosocial Perspectives from a Cohort Study in Tokyo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Tachibana

    Full Text Available Prevalence of postnatal depression (PND is high (Western countries, 10-15%; Japan, 17%. PND can cause parenting impairment and affect family health (e.g. child behaviors, cognitive development and physical health. This study aimed to reveal the risk factors of PND during the pregnancy period in a Japanese sample, and to identify the psychosocial risk factors of PND that should be appended to existing obstetric interview sheets. A cohort study with a Japanese sample was conducted.All 14 obstetrics hospitals in the Setagaya ward, Tokyo, Japan, participated in this study. Pregnant women who booked their delivery between December 2012 and May 2013 were enrolled. Data used for this study were collected at 20 weeks gestation, a few days and one month postnatal. The questionnaires consisted of psychosocial factors and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS. To identify PND risk factors, multivariate analyses were performed.A total of 1,775 women participated in this study. Eventually, the data of 1,133 women were used for the multivariate analyses. The demonstrated significant risk factors include EPDS score, primipara, "a perceived lack of family cohesion", "current physical illness treatment" and "current psychiatric illness treatment".This study highlights the importance of mental health screening using psychological measures during the pregnancy period. In addition, family environment, parity, physical and psychiatric illness should be paid attention by professionals in maternal and child health. The results also suggest that mothers' feelings of developing their families should be supported.

  20. Prevalence of marijuana and other substance use before and after Washington State's change from legal medical marijuana to legal medical and nonmedical marijuana: Cohort comparisons in a sample of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, W Alex; Fleming, Charles B; Ringle, Jay L; Hanson, Koren; Gross, Thomas J; Haggerty, Kevin P

    2016-01-01

    A growing number of states have new legislation extending prior legalization of medical marijuana by allowing nonmedical marijuana use for adults. The potential influence of this change in legislation on adolescent marijuana and other substance use (e.g., spillover or substitution effects) is uncertain. We capitalize on an ongoing study to explore the prevalence of marijuana and other substance use in 2 cohorts of adolescents who experienced the nonmedical marijuana law change in Washington State at different ages. Participants were 8th graders enrolled in targeted Tacoma, Washington public schools and recruited in 2 consecutive annual cohorts. The analysis sample was 238 students who completed a baseline survey in the 8th grade and a follow-up survey after the 9th grade. Between the 2 assessments, the second cohort experienced the Washington State nonmedical marijuana law change, whereas the first cohort did not. Self-report survey data on lifetime and past-month marijuana, cigarette, and alcohol use were collected. Multivariate multilevel modeling showed that cohort differences in the likelihood of marijuana use were significantly different from those for cigarette and alcohol use at follow-up (adjusting for baseline substance initiation). Marijuana use was higher for the second cohort than the first cohort, but this difference was not statistically significant. Rates of cigarette and alcohol use were slightly lower in the second cohort than in the first cohort. This exploratory study found that marijuana use was more prevalent among teens shortly after the transition from medical marijuana legalization only to medical and nonmedical marijuana legalization, although the difference between cohorts was not statistically significant. The findings also provided some evidence of substitution effects. The analytic technique used here may be useful for examining potential long-term effects of nonmedical marijuana laws on adolescent marijuana use and substitution or

  1. Optimal sampling schemes applied in geology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available the noise [16]. Both figures clearly show the presence/absence of chlorophyll absorption near 680 nm in the healthy and dead lodge- pole pine spectra, respectively. Although the red edge [13, 16], the steep spectral transition zone between... that are under stress and ultimately die. Imaging spectrometry yields important information on tree conditions and on the presence of dead vegetative material. The spatial and temporal extent of the dead and stressed tree areas were mapped using AVIRIS data...

  2. Perry's Intellectual Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Patrick G.; Guthrie, Victoria L.

    1999-01-01

    Summarizes William Perry's intellectual scheme and places it in the context of the 1990's. Perry's scheme of cognitive development, though more than thirty years old, is still being used by practitioners today to enhance practice in and out of the classroom. It laid a foundation for new research to extend, challenge, and build onto the scheme.…

  3. Finite Boltzmann schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sman, van der R.G.M.

    2006-01-01

    In the special case of relaxation parameter = 1 lattice Boltzmann schemes for (convection) diffusion and fluid flow are equivalent to finite difference/volume (FD) schemes, and are thus coined finite Boltzmann (FB) schemes. We show that the equivalence is inherent to the homology of the

  4. Profiles of organic food consumers in a large sample of French adults: results from the Nutrinet-Santé cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Péneau, Sandrine; Méjean, Caroline; Szabo de Edelenyi, Fabien; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Lairon, Denis

    2013-01-01

    Lifestyle, dietary patterns and nutritional status of organic food consumers have rarely been described, while interest for a sustainable diet is markedly increasing. Consumer attitude and frequency of use of 18 organic products were assessed in 54,311 adult participants in the Nutrinet-Santé cohort. Cluster analysis was performed to identify behaviors associated with organic product consumption. Socio-demographic characteristics, food consumption and nutrient intake across clusters are provided. Cross-sectional association with overweight/obesity was estimated using polytomous logistic regression. Five clusters were identified: 3 clusters of non-consumers whose reasons differed, occasional (OCOP, 51%) and regular (RCOP, 14%) organic product consumers. RCOP were more highly educated and physically active than other clusters. They also exhibited dietary patterns that included more plant foods and less sweet and alcoholic beverages, processed meat or milk. Their nutrient intake profiles (fatty acids, most minerals and vitamins, fibers) were healthier and they more closely adhered to dietary guidelines. In multivariate models (after accounting for confounders, including level of adherence to nutritional guidelines), compared to those not interested in organic products, RCOP participants showed a markedly lower probability of overweight (excluding obesity) (25 ≤ body mass indexorganic products, a sizeable group in our sample, exhibit specific socio-demographic characteristics, and an overall healthy profile which should be accounted for in further studies analyzing organic food intake and health markers.

  5. The risk of herpes zoster in patients with ankylosing spondylitis: Analysis of the Korean National Health Insurance Service - Sample cohort database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Doo-Ho; Kim, Ye-Jee; Kim, Seon Ok; Hong, Seokchan; Lee, Chang-Keun; Yoo, Bin; Kim, Yong-Gil

    2018-01-01

    The aims of our study were to determine whether the use of conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (cDMARDs) or tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) inhibitors increase the risk of herpes zoster (HZ) in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). We searched the South Korean National Health Insurance Service - National Sample Cohort Database for relevant patient records between 2002 and 2013. We evaluated the incidence of HZ by categorizing patients into in three treatment groups: disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) nonusers, cDMARD users and TNFα inhibitor users. Incidence rates of HZ was 11.0 per 1000 person-years in patients with AS. The adjusted hazard ratio of HZ was higher in cDMARD and TNFα inhibitor users than in DMARD nonusers. In subgroup analyses, current treatment with a TNFα inhibitor increased the risk of HZ significantly both in female patients and in patients aged 50 years or older, but not in patients taking steroids, compared to DMARD nonusers. Treatment with either TNFα inhibitors or cDMARDs is associated with a higher risk of HZ, especially in female patients and older patients, and these two patient groups could therefore benefit from HZ vaccination.

  6. Profiles of Organic Food Consumers in a Large Sample of French Adults: Results from the Nutrinet-Santé Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Péneau, Sandrine; Méjean, Caroline; Szabo de Edelenyi, Fabien; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Lairon, Denis

    2013-01-01

    Background Lifestyle, dietary patterns and nutritional status of organic food consumers have rarely been described, while interest for a sustainable diet is markedly increasing. Methods Consumer attitude and frequency of use of 18 organic products were assessed in 54,311 adult participants in the Nutrinet-Santé cohort. Cluster analysis was performed to identify behaviors associated with organic product consumption. Socio-demographic characteristics, food consumption and nutrient intake across clusters are provided. Cross-sectional association with overweight/obesity was estimated using polytomous logistic regression. Results Five clusters were identified: 3 clusters of non-consumers whose reasons differed, occasional (OCOP, 51%) and regular (RCOP, 14%) organic product consumers. RCOP were more highly educated and physically active than other clusters. They also exhibited dietary patterns that included more plant foods and less sweet and alcoholic beverages, processed meat or milk. Their nutrient intake profiles (fatty acids, most minerals and vitamins, fibers) were healthier and they more closely adhered to dietary guidelines. In multivariate models (after accounting for confounders, including level of adherence to nutritional guidelines), compared to those not interested in organic products, RCOP participants showed a markedly lower probability of overweight (excluding obesity) (25≤body mass indexorganic products, a sizeable group in our sample, exhibit specific socio-demographic characteristics, and an overall healthy profile which should be accounted for in further studies analyzing organic food intake and health markers. PMID:24204721

  7. Personal and psychosocial predictors of psychological abuse by partners during and after pregnancy: a longitudinal cohort study in a community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribà-Agüir, V; Royo-Marqués, M; Artazcoz, L; Romito, P; Ruiz-Pérez, I; Martín-Baena, D

    2013-04-01

    To describe the incidence and risk factors of psychological intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy and the first year after childbirth. Longitudinal cohort study. Nine primary care centers in the Valencia Region (Spain). A consecutive sample of 1400 women in the first trimester of pregnancy, attending the prenatal programme in the Valencia Region of Spain in 2008, with follow-up in the third trimester of pregnancy, and at 5 and 12 months postpartum. A total of 888 women (66.5%) participated in all four phases. A logistic regression model was fitted using generalised estimating equations to assess the effects of previous partner violence, consumption of alcohol or illicit drugs and social support on subsequent psychological partner violence. Psychological IPV during follow-up. We observed an increase in the incidence of psychological IPV after birth, particularly at 5 months postpartum. The strongest predictor of psychological IPV was having experienced abuse 12 months before pregnancy (OR 10.46, 95%CI 2.40-45.61). Other predictors were consumption of alcohol or illicit drugs by the partner or a family member (OR3.50, 95%CI 1.38-8.85) and lack of affective social support (OR2.83, 95%CI 1.31-6.11). Previous abuse and psychosocial risk factors predict partner psychological abuse after birth. Monitoring psychological IPV and effective interventions are needed not only during pregnancy but also during the postpartum period. © 2012 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2012 RCOG.

  8. Antenatal Risk Factors of Postpartum Depression at 20 Weeks Gestation in a Japanese Sample: Psychosocial Perspectives from a Cohort Study in Tokyo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Yoshiyuki; Koizumi, Tomoe; Takehara, Kenji; Kakee, Naoko; Tsujii, Hiromi; Mori, Rintaro; Inoue, Eisuke; Ota, Erika; Yoshida, Keiko; Kasai, Keiko; Okuyama, Makiko; Kubo, Takahiko

    2015-01-01

    Background Prevalence of postnatal depression (PND) is high (Western countries, 10–15%; Japan, 17%). PND can cause parenting impairment and affect family health (e.g. child behaviors, cognitive development and physical health). This study aimed to reveal the risk factors of PND during the pregnancy period in a Japanese sample, and to identify the psychosocial risk factors of PND that should be appended to existing obstetric interview sheets. A cohort study with a Japanese sample was conducted. Methods All 14 obstetrics hospitals in the Setagaya ward, Tokyo, Japan, participated in this study. Pregnant women who booked their delivery between December 2012 and May 2013 were enrolled. Data used for this study were collected at 20 weeks gestation, a few days and one month postnatal. The questionnaires consisted of psychosocial factors and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). To identify PND risk factors, multivariate analyses were performed. Results A total of 1,775 women participated in this study. Eventually, the data of 1,133 women were used for the multivariate analyses. The demonstrated significant risk factors include EPDS score, primipara, “a perceived lack of family cohesion”, “current physical illness treatment” and “current psychiatric illness treatment”. Conclusion This study highlights the importance of mental health screening using psychological measures during the pregnancy period. In addition, family environment, parity, physical and psychiatric illness should be paid attention by professionals in maternal and child health. The results also suggest that mothers’ feelings of developing their families should be supported. PMID:26625132

  9. Evaluation of the Xpert HCV Viral Load point-of-care assay from venepuncture-collected and finger-stick capillary whole-blood samples: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebely, Jason; Lamoury, Francois M J; Hajarizadeh, Behzad; Mowat, Yasmin; Marshall, Alison D; Bajis, Sahar; Marks, Philippa; Amin, Janaki; Smith, Julie; Edwards, Michael; Gorton, Carla; Ezard, Nadine; Persing, David; Kleman, Marika; Cunningham, Philip; Catlett, Beth; Dore, Gregory J; Applegate, Tanya L

    2017-07-01

    Point-of-care hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA testing offers an advantage over antibody testing (which only indicates previous exposure), enabling diagnosis of active infection in a single visit. In this study, we evaluated the performance of the Xpert HCV Viral Load assay with venepuncture and finger-stick capillary whole-blood samples. Plasma and finger-stick capillary whole-blood samples were collected from participants in an observational cohort enrolled at five sites in Australia (three drug and alcohol clinics, one homelessness service, and one needle and syringe programme). We compared the sensitivity and specificity of the Xpert HCV Viral Load test for HCV RNA detection by venepuncture and finger-stick collection with the Abbott RealTime HCV Viral Load assay (gold standard). Of 210 participants enrolled between Feb 8, 2016, and July 27, 2016, 150 participants had viral load testing results for the three assays tested. HCV RNA was detected in 45 (30% [95% CI 23-38]) of 150 participants based on Abbott RealTime. Sensitivity of the Xpert HCV Viral Load assay for HCV RNA detection in plasma collected by venepuncture was 100·0% (95% CI 92·0-100·0) and specificity was 99·1% (95% CI 94·9-100·0). Sensitivity of the Xpert HCV Viral Load assay for HCV RNA detection in samples collected by finger-stick was 95·5% (95% CI 84·5-99·4) and specificity was 98·1% (95% CI 93·4-99·8). No adverse events caused by the index test or the reference standard were observed. The Xpert HCV Viral Load test can detect active infection from a finger-stick sample, which represents an advance over antibody-based tests that only indicate past or previous exposure. National Health and Medical Research Council (Australia), Cepheid, South Eastern Sydney Local Health District (Australia), and Merck Sharp & Dohme (Australia). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in paired samples of maternal and umbilical cord blood plasma and associations with house dust in a Danish cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederiksen, Marie; Thomsen, Cathrine; Frøshaug, May; Vorkamp, Katrin; Thomsen, Marianne; Becher, Georg; Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2010-07-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs), in particular the polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), have been used in consumer products for many years to increase fire resistance. Recently, developmental neurotoxicity at very low levels has increased the concern about these compounds. The major objectives of this study were to investigate the maternal and fetal exposure to PBDEs on the basis of maternal and umbilical cord plasma samples and to study the extent of placental transfer for different PBDE congeners. The findings were also compared with previously observed PBDE levels and patterns determined in placental tissue from the same individuals, and the relationship with the external exposure from house dust from the participants' homes was explored. Samples of maternal and umbilical cord plasma from a cohort of 51 pregnant women from the Copenhagen area were collected. Paired maternal and umbilical cord plasma were analysed for BDE-28, 37, 47, 85, 99, 100, 119, 138, 153, 154, 183, 209 and the brominated biphenyl BB-153 using automated SPE extraction and GC-HRMS for the tri- to hepta-BDEs and GC-LRMS (ECNI) for BDE-209. PBDEs were detected in all maternal and umbilical cord plasma samples. The sum of tri- to hexa-BDEs (SigmaPBDE) in maternal plasma varied between 640 and 51,946 pg/g lipid weight (lw) with a median level of 1765 pg/g lw. In the umbilical cord samples SigmaPBDE varied between 213 and 54,346 pg/g lw with a median of 958 pg/g lw. The levels observed in fetal and maternal plasma were highly correlated, but the placental transport of PBDE congeners was found to decrease with increasing diphenyl ether bromination. Maternal concentrations were significantly correlated (pplasma and house dust as well as for SigmaPBDE in umbilical cord plasma and house dust. The positive correlations for PBDEs for both maternal and umbilical cord plasma with house dust showed that domestic house dust is a significant source of human exposure to PBDEs in Denmark including in

  11. The Mawala irrigation scheme

    OpenAIRE

    de Bont, Chris

    2018-01-01

    This booklet was written to share research results with farmers and practitioners in Tanzania. It gives a summary of the empirical material collected during three months of field work in the Mawala irrigation scheme (Kilimanjaro Region), and includes maps, tables and photos. It describes the history of the irrigation scheme, as well current irrigation and farming practices. It especially focuses on the different kinds of infrastructural improvement in the scheme (by farmers and the government...

  12. Trends and correlates of overweight and obesity among adolescents from 2002 to 2010: a three-cohort study based on a representative sample of Portuguese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Adilson; Gaspar De Matos, Margarida

    2014-01-01

    To report the prevalence and factors associated with overweight/obesity in a representative sample of Portuguese adolescents, from three different cohorts. Data on 8,610 adolescents aged 11-17, who participated in the 2002, 2006, and 2010 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey (HBSC/WHO) were analyzed. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated based on self-reported weight/height. Factors investigated as potential correlates of overweight/obesity were as follows: physical activity, screen time, life satisfaction, and perception of health. The prevalence of overweight/obesity was around 20% for boys and 17% for girls between 2002 and 2010. Among boys, the prevalence of overweight/obesity was negatively associated with age in 2002 (odds ratio, OR = 0.89, P < 0.01), 2006 (OR = 0.92, P < 0.05), and 2010 (OR = 0.91, P < 0.05). Those who engaged in physical activity were less likely to be classified as overweight/obese in 2006 (OR = 0.89, P < 0.01) and 2010 (OR = 0.92, P < 0.05). Among girls, as age increased, the likelihood of being overweight/obese significantly decreased in all years. Results from 2002 (OR = 0.69, P < 0.001) and 2010 (OR = 0.88, P < 0.01) varied by almost 20%. The prevalence of overweight/obesity is still high, but seems to have stabilized. Physical activity, for boys, and perception of health, for girls, are factors associated with a lower likelihood of being overweight or obese. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The interpretability of family history reports of alcoholism in general community samples: findings in a midwestern U.S. twin birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Mary; Madden, Pamela A F; Nelson, Elliot C; Knopik, Valerie S; Glowinski, Anne L; Grant, Julia D; Lynskey, Michael T; Jacob, Theodore; Sher, Kenneth J; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Heath, Andrew C

    2012-06-01

    Although there is a long tradition in alcoholism research of using family history ratings, the interpretability of family history reports of alcoholism from general community samples has yet to be established. Telephone interview data obtained from a large cohort of female like-sex twins (N = 3,787, median age 22) and their biological parents (N = 2,928, assessed at twins' median age 15) were analyzed to determine agreement between parent self-report, parent ratings of coparent, and twin narrow (alcohol problems) and broad (problem or excessive drinking) ratings of each parent. In European ancestry (EA) families, high tetrachoric correlations were observed between twin and cotwin ratings of parental alcohol problems, between twin and parent ratings of coparent alcohol problems using symptom-based and single-item assessments, as well as moderately high correlations between twin and both mother and father self-reports. In African American (AA) families, inter-rater agreement was substantially lower than for EA families, with no cases where father ratings of maternal alcohol problems agreed with either twin ratings or mother self-report, and both cotwin agreement and mother-twin agreement were reduced. Differences between EA and AA families were not explained by differences in years of cohabitation with father or mother's education; however, underreporting of problems by AA parents may have contributed. Results support the use of family history ratings of parental alcoholism in general community surveys for EA families, but suggest that family history assessment in AA families requires improved methods. Copyright © 2012 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  14. Implementation of suitable flow injection/sequential-sample separation/preconcentration schemes for determination of trace metal concentrations using detection by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elo Harald; Wang, Jianhua

    2002-01-01

    Various preconditioning procedures encomprising appropriate separation/preconcentration schemes in order to obtain optimal sensitivity and selectivity characteristics when using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS...

  15. Towards Symbolic Encryption Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Naveed; Jensen, Christian D.; Zenner, Erik

    2012-01-01

    , namely an authenticated encryption scheme that is secure under chosen ciphertext attack. Therefore, many reasonable encryption schemes, such as AES in the CBC or CFB mode, are not among the implementation options. In this paper, we report new attacks on CBC and CFB based implementations of the well...

  16. Multiresolution signal decomposition schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Goutsias (John); H.J.A.M. Heijmans (Henk)

    1998-01-01

    textabstract[PNA-R9810] Interest in multiresolution techniques for signal processing and analysis is increasing steadily. An important instance of such a technique is the so-called pyramid decomposition scheme. This report proposes a general axiomatic pyramid decomposition scheme for signal analysis

  17. Adaptive protection scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sitharthan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at modelling an electronically coupled distributed energy resource with an adaptive protection scheme. The electronically coupled distributed energy resource is a microgrid framework formed by coupling the renewable energy source electronically. Further, the proposed adaptive protection scheme provides a suitable protection to the microgrid for various fault conditions irrespective of the operating mode of the microgrid: namely, grid connected mode and islanded mode. The outstanding aspect of the developed adaptive protection scheme is that it monitors the microgrid and instantly updates relay fault current according to the variations that occur in the system. The proposed adaptive protection scheme also employs auto reclosures, through which the proposed adaptive protection scheme recovers faster from the fault and thereby increases the consistency of the microgrid. The effectiveness of the proposed adaptive protection is studied through the time domain simulations carried out in the PSCAD⧹EMTDC software environment.

  18. Diagnostic accuracy of a standardized scheme for identification of Streptococcus uberis in quarter milk samples: A comparison between conventional bacteriological examination, modified Rambach agar medium culturing, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, Regina; Baumgartner, Martina; Urbantke, Verena; Stessl, Beatrix; Wittek, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    Bacteriological examination of milk samples is a prerequisite for pathogen-specific therapy and aids in limiting antimicrobial resistance. The aims of this study were to establish a standardized scheme for reliable Streptococcus uberis identification in routine diagnosis and to evaluate the accuracy of conventional tests and growing patterns of Strep. uberis on a selective medium (modified Rambach agar medium, MRAM) using 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis as a reference method. We obtained isolates of presumptive Strep. uberis (n = 336) from quarter milk samples of dairy cows with intramammary infections and classified the isolates into 2 clusters using biochemical characterization. In cluster 1 (n = 280), cocci grew as non-hemolytic colonies, hydrolyzing esculin, carrying no Lancefield antigen (A/B/C/D/G) or Christie Atkins Munch-Petersen factor, and their growth was inhibited on an Enterococcus agar. Production of β-d-galactosidase on MRAM was shown by 257 of the cluster 1 isolates (91.79%), and 16S rRNA gene sequencing verified 271 (96.79%) of the isolates to be Strep. uberis. In 264 isolates (94.29%), MRAM agreed with the sequencing results. In cluster 2 (n = 56), isolates showed different characteristics: 37 (66.07%) were β-d-galactosidase-positive, and based on 16S sequencing results, 36 (64.29%) were identified correctly as Strep. uberis using biochemical methods. Identification success in this group differed significantly between routine diagnosis and MRAM application: MRAM agreed with sequencing results in 47 isolates (83.93%). To identify Strep. uberis and differentiate it from other lactic acid bacteria in routine diagnosis, we suggest using catalase reaction, hemolysis, esculin hydrolysis, and growth on enterococci agar. Isolates that show a typical biochemical profile can be identified satisfactorily with these tests. For Strep. uberis isolates with divergent patterns, application of MRAM as a follow-up test increased the diagnostic accuracy to 94

  19. Which factors determine our quality of life, health and ability? Results from a Danish population sample and the Copenhagen perinatal cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventegodt, Søren; Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Andersen, Niels Jørgen; Merrick, Joav

    2008-07-01

    To examine the statistical associations between Global Quality of Life (QOL) and a series of indicators representing health, ability, philosophy of life, sexuality, quality of working life and other medically relevant aspects of life. Cross-sectional comparative study using the self-administered SEQOL questionnaire. The Quality of Life Research Center, the University Hospital Copenhagen, Denmark. (1) A representative sample of 2,500 Danes (18-88 years) randomly selected from the CPR register, (2) Follow-up survey of members of the Copenhagen Perinatal Birth Cohort, 4,648 Danes (31-33 years). The associations were measured qualitatively as well as quantitatively calculating the difference in percentage and using the method of weight modified linear regression. QOL, measured by SEQOL (self-evaluation of quality of life), containing eight global QOL measures: well-being, life-satisfaction, happiness, fulfillment of needs, experience of temporal and spatial domains, expression of life's potentials and objective factors. Strongest was the association between QOL, overall view of life (41.5% / 59.1%), relationship to self (39.3% / 56.8%), partner (32.2% / 31.7%) and friends (33.3% / 42.7%). Different aspects of physical as well as psychological health were also strongly correlated with QOL: self-perceived physical health (33.2% /29.4%), satisfaction with own health (27.3% / 29.0%), self-perceived mental health (38.4/51.0), number of severe health problems (29.8% / 35.3%). Objective factors such as income, age, sex, weight and social group did not have any noteworthy relationship to QOL, and neither did lifestyle factors such as tobacco and alcohol consumption, drug use, exercise, and diet. It seems that the factors important for present QOL and health is derived from good relations, with the close as well as the distant world, and overall view of life. What one possesses in objective terms--money, status, work--does not seem to be important to global quality of life and

  20. Decreased Risk of Preeclampsia After the Introduction of Universal Voucher Scheme for Antenatal Care and Birth Services in the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Seung-Ah; Min, Hye Sook; Cho, Sung-Il

    2017-01-01

    Objectives A number of interventions to reduce disparities in maternal health have been introduced and implemented without concrete evidence to support them. In Korea, a universal voucher scheme for antenatal care and birth services was initiated in December 2008 to improve Korea's fertility rate. This study explores the risk of preeclampsia after the introduction of a universal voucher scheme. Methods Population-based cohort data from the National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort (NHIS-NSC) covering 2002-2013 were analysed. A generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) was used to estimate the relationship between the risk of preeclampsia and voucher scheme introduction. Results The annual age-adjusted incidence of preeclampsia showed no significant unidirectional change during the study period. In the GLMM analysis, the introduction of a voucher scheme was associated with a reduced risk of preeclampsia, controlling for potential confounding factors. The interaction between household income level and voucher scheme was not significant. Conclusions for Practice This finding suggests that the introduction of a voucher scheme for mothers is related to a reduced risk of preeclampsia even under universal health coverage.

  1. Succesful labelling schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Stacey, Julia

    2001-01-01

    It is usual practice to evaluate the success of a labelling scheme by looking at the awareness percentage, but in many cases this is not sufficient. The awareness percentage gives no indication of which of the consumer segments that are aware of and use labelling schemes and which do not....... In the spring of 2001 MAPP carried out an extensive consumer study with special emphasis on the Nordic environmentally friendly label 'the swan'. The purpose was to find out how much consumers actually know and use various labelling schemes. 869 households were contacted and asked to fill in a questionnaire....... 664 households returned a completed questionnaire. There were five answering categories for each label in the questionnaire: * have not seen the label before. * I have seen the label before but I do not know the precise contents of the labelling scheme. * I have seen the label before, I do not know...

  2. Tabled Execution in Scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willcock, J J; Lumsdaine, A; Quinlan, D J

    2008-08-19

    Tabled execution is a generalization of memorization developed by the logic programming community. It not only saves results from tabled predicates, but also stores the set of currently active calls to them; tabled execution can thus provide meaningful semantics for programs that seemingly contain infinite recursions with the same arguments. In logic programming, tabled execution is used for many purposes, both for improving the efficiency of programs, and making tasks simpler and more direct to express than with normal logic programs. However, tabled execution is only infrequently applied in mainstream functional languages such as Scheme. We demonstrate an elegant implementation of tabled execution in Scheme, using a mix of continuation-passing style and mutable data. We also show the use of tabled execution in Scheme for a problem in formal language and automata theory, demonstrating that tabled execution can be a valuable tool for Scheme users.

  3. Readout scheme of the upgraded ALICE TPC

    CERN Document Server

    Appelshaeuser, Harald; Ivanov, Marian; Lippmann, Christian; Wiechula, Jens

    2016-01-01

    In this document, we present the updated readout scheme for the ALICE TPC Upgrade. Two major design changes are implemented with respect to the concept that was presented in the TPC Upgrade Technical Design Report: – The SAMPA front-end ASIC will be used in direct readout mode. – The ADC sampling frequency will be reduced from 10 to 5 MHz. The main results from simulations and a description of the new readout scheme is outlined.

  4. Compact Spreader Schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placidi, M.; Jung, J. -Y.; Ratti, A.; Sun, C.

    2014-07-25

    This paper describes beam distribution schemes adopting a novel implementation based on low amplitude vertical deflections combined with horizontal ones generated by Lambertson-type septum magnets. This scheme offers substantial compactness in the longitudinal layouts of the beam lines and increased flexibility for beam delivery of multiple beam lines on a shot-to-shot basis. Fast kickers (FK) or transverse electric field RF Deflectors (RFD) provide the low amplitude deflections. Initially proposed at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) as tools for beam diagnostics and more recently adopted for multiline beam pattern schemes, RFDs offer repetition capabilities and a likely better amplitude reproducibility when compared to FKs, which, in turn, offer more modest financial involvements both in construction and operation. Both solutions represent an ideal approach for the design of compact beam distribution systems resulting in space and cost savings while preserving flexibility and beam quality.

  5. Ageing in people with Prader-Willi syndrome: mortality in the UK population cohort and morbidity in an older sample of adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, J E; Holland, A J; Webb, T

    2015-02-01

    The past two decades have seen a great improvement in the care of people with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), particularly with regard to control of diet and behaviour management. Has this affected mortality rates or thrown up new issues regarding premature ageing or dementia? We investigated two aspects of ageing in people with PWS: (1) an estimate of mortality over 9 years in a cohort of people with PWS, originally recruited in 1998-2000; and (2) premature ageing or dementia in people aged ⩾40 years. (1) A follow-up of the population-based 1998-2000 cohort to investigate the subsequent mortality rate; and (2) the recruitment and structured assessment of all members of the Prader-Willi Syndrome Association UK (PWSA-UK) aged ⩾40 years who agreed to participate. Follow-up of the population-based 1998-2000 cohort gave a mortality rate of at least 7/62 over 9 years (1.25% per annum; 20 untraced), age at death was between 13 and 59 years. Twenty-six members of the PWSA-UK aged ⩾40 years were recruited, 18 of whom had a genetic diagnosis (gd) of PWS. Twenty-two (14 gd) showed no evidence of dementia. Four, with possible symptoms, are described in more detail; all are female, of maternal uniparental disomy (mUPD) genetic subtype, or have a disomic region, and all have a long history of psychotic illness. The mortality rate in people with PWS seems to be declining. The subgroup of people with PWS due to UPD or disomic region with female gender and a history of psychosis may be at risk of early onset dementia.

  6. Prevalence of xenotropic murine leukaemia virus-related virus in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome in the Netherlands: retrospective analysis of samples from an established cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kuppeveld, Frank J M; de Jong, Arjan S; Lanke, Kjerstin H; Verhaegh, Gerald W; Melchers, Willem J G; Swanink, Caroline M A; Bleijenberg, Gijs; Netea, Mihai G; Galama, Jochem M D; van der Meer, Jos W M

    2010-02-25

    The presence of the retrovirus xenotropic murine leukaemia virus-related virus (XMRV) has been reported in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. Considering the potentially great medical and social relevance of such a discovery, we investigated whether this finding could be confirmed in an independent European cohort of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. Analysis of a well defined cohort of patients and matched neighbourhood controls by polymerase chain reaction. Certified (ISO 15189) laboratory of clinical virology in a university hospital in the Netherlands. Population Between December 1991 and April 1992, peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from 76 patients and 69 matched neighbourhood controls. In this study we tested cells from 32 patients and 43 controls from whom original cryopreserved phials were still available. Detection of XMRV in peripheral blood mononuclear cells by real time polymerase chain reaction assay targeting the XMRV integrase gene and/or a nested polymerase chain reaction assay targeting the XMRV gag gene. We detected no XMRV sequences in any of the patients or controls in either of the assays, in which relevant positive and negative isolation controls and polymerase chain reaction controls were included. Spiking experiments showed that we were able to detect at least 10 copies of XMRV sequences per 10(5) peripheral blood mononuclear cells by real time as well as by nested polymerase chain reaction, demonstrating high sensitivity of both assays. This study failed to show the presence of XMRV in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome from a Dutch cohort. These data cast doubt on the claim that XMRV is associated with chronic fatigue syndrome in the majority of patients.

  7. Diagnostic validity of early-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder in the Danish Psychiatric Central Register: findings from a cohort sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Judith; Powell, Shelagh; Koch, Susanne V

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Employing national registers for research purposes depends on a high diagnostic validity. The aim of the present study was to examine the diagnostic validity of recorded diagnoses of early-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in the Danish Psychiatric Central Register (DPCR......). DESIGN: Review of patient journals selected randomly through the DPCR. METHOD: One hundred cases of OCD were randomly selected from DPCR. Using a predefined coding scheme based on the Children's Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CYBOCS), experienced research nurse or child and adolescent...... increased the PPV for the OCD diagnosis altogether and for the subcode DF42.2. CONCLUSION: The validity and reliability of International Classification of Disease 10th revision codes for OCD in the DPCR is generally high. The subcodes for predominant obsessions/predominant compulsions are less certain...

  8. 4. Payment Schemes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 2. Electronic Commerce - Payment Schemes. V Rajaraman. Series Article Volume 6 Issue 2 February 2001 pp 6-13. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/02/0006-0013 ...

  9. Alternative health insurance schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans; Hansen, Bodil O.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we present a simple model of health insurance with asymmetric information, where we compare two alternative ways of organizing the insurance market. Either as a competitive insurance market, where some risks remain uninsured, or as a compulsory scheme, where however, the level...... competitive insurance; this situation turns out to be at least as good as either of the alternatives...

  10. MIT Scheme Reference Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    their Butterfly Scheme Reference, and to Margaret O’Connell for translating it from BBN’s text-formatting language to ours. Special thanks to Richard ... Stallman , Bob Chassell, and Brian Fox, all of the Free Software Foundation, for creating and maintaining the Texinfo formatting language in which this

  11. Cohort Profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordahl, Helene; Hvidtfeldt, Ulla Arthur; Diderichsen, Finn

    2014-01-01

    The Social Inequality in Cancer (SIC) cohort study was established to determine pathways through which socioeconomic position affects morbidity and mortality, in particular common subtypes of cancer. Data from seven well-established cohort studies from Denmark were pooled. Combining these cohorts...... provided a unique opportunity to generate a large study population with long follow-up and sufficient statistical power to develop and apply new methods for quantification of the two basic mechanisms underlying social inequalities in cancer-mediation and interaction. The SIC cohort included 83 006...

  12. Construct validity of the mini mental state examination across time in a sample with low-education levels: 10-year follow-up of the Bambuí Cohort Study of Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Costa, Erico; Dewey, Michael E; Uchôa, Elizabeth; Firmo, Josélia O A; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda; Stewart, Robert

    2014-12-01

    The study aims to investigate whether longitudinal data on the structure of the mini mental state examination (MMSE) collected in an older Brazilian cohort support factorial invariance over time. Analysis of 10-year data from a community-based cohort study was performed. The study took place in Bambuí, Brazil. The study sample comprised 1558 (89.4%) of all eligible 1742 elderly residents. A standard Brazilian version of the MMSE was used. A five-factor solution (developed on the baseline of the cohort) either with no constraints or with loadings constrained to equality across time provided a reasonable fit for the MMSE. A comparison between both models suggested that the model with no constraints was superior. However, the five absolute goodness-of-fit indices suggest that the fully constrained model was also adequate and did not differ substantively from the model without any restriction. The structure of the MMSE remained relatively unchanged across the 10 measurement times, thus providing evidence for the good construct validity of the scale across time. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Physical activity and sedentary behavior across 12 months in cohort samples of couples without children, expecting their first child, and expecting their second child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Ryan E; Blanchard, Chris M; Benoit, Cecilia; Levy-Milne, Ryna; Naylor, Patti Jean; Symons Downs, Danielle; Warburton, Darren E R

    2014-06-01

    The onset of parenthood has been reported as a reason for steep declines in moderate-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA), but also increases in light activity rather than sedentary behavior. We examined the activity profiles of three cohorts of couples (couples without children, and first-time parents and second time parents) across 12 months. Participants were 314 adults (102 not expecting a child, 136 expecting first-child, 76 expecting second child) who completed baseline demographics and 7-day accelerometry, followed by assessments at 6 and 12 months. Hierarchical linear modeling showed that parents who were expecting their second child had lower MVPA; yet were less sedentary/had higher light intensity activity compared to other couples at baseline. First-time mothers' physical activity pattern changed to match the profiles of parents who were now parenting two children across the first 12 months of child-rearing. Findings support MVPA interventions targeting new mothers.

  14. Selectively strippable paint schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, R.; Thumm, D.; Blackford, Roger W.

    1993-03-01

    In order to meet the requirements of more environmentally acceptable paint stripping processes many different removal methods are under evaluation. These new processes can be divided into mechanical and chemical methods. ICI has developed a paint scheme with intermediate coat and fluid resistant polyurethane topcoat which can be stripped chemically in a short period of time with methylene chloride free and phenol free paint strippers.

  15. Smoking in pregnancy, adolescent mental health and cognitive performance in young adult offspring: results from a matched sample within a Finnish cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Hugh; Barnett, Jennifer H; Murray, Graham K; Mäki, Pirjo; Hurtig, Tuula; Nordström, Tanja; Miettunen, Jouko; Kiviniemi, Vesa; Niemelä, Solja; Pausova, Zdenka; Paus, Tomas; Veijola, Juha

    2016-12-01

    The association between prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking (PEMCS) and adult cognition is debated, including if there are differences according to sex. We aimed to determine if there are associations between PEMCS and cognition in early adulthood in men and women and examine if observed associations were mediated by adolescent mental health factors that are associated with cognition, namely psychotic-like experiences (PLEs), inattention and hyperactivity, and other externalizing behaviors. Participants were 471 individuals drawn from the general population-based Northern Finland 1986 Birth Cohort (NFBC 1986) followed up from pregnancy and birth to early adulthood; individuals with PEMCS were matched with those without PEMCS by socioeconomic and demographic factors. Cognitive performance in adulthood was assessed with a range of tests and their association with PEMCS was measured by sex using hierarchical linear regression, unadjusted and then controlling for potential confounders, mediators and moderators, including adolescent mental health factors. There were no associations between PEMCS and cognitive scores in females. In males, there were associations with vocabulary (beta = -0.444, 95% CI: -0.783, -0.104) and matrix reasoning (beta = -0.379, 95% CI: -0.711, -0.047). While associations between PEMCS and cognition were limited, observed findings with measures of general intelligence in males contribute to suggestions of differences in response to PEMCS by sex. Furthermore, observed associations may be partly mediated by earlier inattention and hyperactivity. Findings add support to efforts aimed to eliminate smoking in pregnancy.

  16. CANONICAL BACKWARD DIFFERENTIATION SCHEMES FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CANONICAL BACKWARD DIFFERENTIATION SCHEMES FOR SOLUTION OF NONLINEAR INITIAL VALUE PROBLEMS OF FIRST ORDER ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS. ... Global Journal of Mathematical Sciences ... KEY WORDS: backward differentiation scheme, collocation, initial value problems. Global Jnl ...

  17. Bonus Schemes and Trading Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pikulina, E.S.; Renneboog, L.D.R.; Ter Horst, J.R.; Tobler, P.N.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Little is known about how different bonus schemes affect traders’ propensity to trade and which bonus schemes improve traders’ performance. We study the effects of linear versus threshold (convex) bonus schemes on traders’ behavior. Traders purchase and sell shares in an experimental stock

  18. Bonus schemes and trading activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pikulina, E.S.; Renneboog, L.D.R.; ter Horst, J.R.; Tobler, P.N.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about how different bonus schemes affect traders' propensity to trade and which bonus schemes improve traders' performance. We study the effects of linear versus threshold bonus schemes on traders' behavior. Traders buy and sell shares in an experimental stock market on the basis of

  19. Diagnostic validity of early-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder in the Danish Psychiatric Central Register: findings from a cohort sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Shelagh; Koch, Susanne V; Crowley, James J; Matthiesen, Manuel; Grice, Dorothy E; Thomsen, Per H; Parner, E

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Employing national registers for research purposes depends on a high diagnostic validity. The aim of the present study was to examine the diagnostic validity of recorded diagnoses of early-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in the Danish Psychiatric Central Register (DPCR). Design Review of patient journals selected randomly through the DPCR. Method One hundred cases of OCD were randomly selected from DPCR. Using a predefined coding scheme based on the Children’s Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CYBOCS), experienced research nurse or child and adolescent psychiatrists assessed each journal to determine the presence/absence of OCD diagnostic criteria. The detailed assessments were reviewed by two senior child and adolescent psychiatrists to determine if diagnostic criteria were met. Primary outcome measurements Positive predictive value (PPV) was used as the primary outcome measurement. Results A total of 3462 children/adolescents received an OCD diagnosis as the main diagnosis between 1 January 1995 and 31 December 2015. The average age at diagnosis was 13.21±2.89 years. The most frequent registered OCD subcode was the combined diagnosis DF42.2. Of the 100 cases we examined, 35 had at least one registered comorbidity. For OCD, the PPV was good (PPV 0.85). Excluding journals with insufficient information, the PPV was 0.96. For the subcode F42.2 the PPV was 0.77. The inter-rater reliability was 0.94. The presence of the CYBOCS in the journal significantly increased the PPV for the OCD diagnosis altogether and for the subcode DF42.2. Conclusion The validity and reliability of International Classification of Disease 10th revision codes for OCD in the DPCR is generally high. The subcodes for predominant obsessions/predominant compulsions are less certain and should be used with caution. The results apply for both children and adolescents and for both older and more recent cases. Altogether, the study suggests that there is a high validity of

  20. Diagnostic validity of early-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder in the Danish Psychiatric Central Register: findings from a cohort sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissen, Judith; Powell, Shelagh; Koch, Susanne V; Crowley, James J; Matthiesen, Manuel; Grice, Dorothy E; Thomsen, Per H; Parner, E

    2017-09-18

    Employing national registers for research purposes depends on a high diagnostic validity. The aim of the present study was to examine the diagnostic validity of recorded diagnoses of early-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in the Danish Psychiatric Central Register (DPCR). Review of patient journals selected randomly through the DPCR. One hundred cases of OCD were randomly selected from DPCR. Using a predefined coding scheme based on the Children's Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CYBOCS), experienced research nurse or child and adolescent psychiatrists assessed each journal to determine the presence/absence of OCD diagnostic criteria. The detailed assessments were reviewed by two senior child and adolescent psychiatrists to determine if diagnostic criteria were met. Positive predictive value (PPV) was used as the primary outcome measurement. A total of 3462 children/adolescents received an OCD diagnosis as the main diagnosis between 1 January 1995 and 31 December 2015. The average age at diagnosis was 13.21±2.89 years. The most frequent registered OCD subcode was the combined diagnosis DF42.2. Of the 100 cases we examined, 35 had at least one registered comorbidity. For OCD, the PPV was good (PPV 0.85). Excluding journals with insufficient information, the PPV was 0.96. For the subcode F42.2 the PPV was 0.77. The inter-rater reliability was 0.94. The presence of the CYBOCS in the journal significantly increased the PPV for the OCD diagnosis altogether and for the subcode DF42.2. The validity and reliability of International Classification of Disease 10th revision codes for OCD in the DPCR is generally high. The subcodes for predominant obsessions/predominant compulsions are less certain and should be used with caution. The results apply for both children and adolescents and for both older and more recent cases. Altogether, the study suggests that there is a high validity of the OCD diagnosis in the Danish National Registers. © Article author(s) (or

  1. SG-ADVISER mtDNA: a web server for mitochondrial DNA annotation with data from 200 samples of a healthy aging cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, Manuel; Torkamani, Ali

    2017-08-18

    Whole genome and exome sequencing usually include reads containing mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Yet, state-of-the-art pipelines and services for human nuclear genome variant calling and annotation do not handle mitochondrial genome data appropriately. As a consequence, any researcher desiring to add mtDNA variant analysis to their investigations is forced to explore the literature for mtDNA pipelines, evaluate them, and implement their own instance of the desired tool. This task is far from trivial, and can be prohibitive for non-bioinformaticians. We have developed SG-ADVISER mtDNA, a web server to facilitate the analysis and interpretation of mtDNA genomic data coming from next generation sequencing (NGS) experiments. The server was built in the context of our SG-ADVISER framework and on top of the MtoolBox platform (Calabrese et al., Bioinformatics 30(21):3115-3117, 2014), and includes most of its functionalities (i.e., assembly of mitochondrial genomes, heteroplasmic fractions, haplogroup assignment, functional and prioritization analysis of mitochondrial variants) as well as a back-end and a front-end interface. The server has been tested with unpublished data from 200 individuals of a healthy aging cohort (Erikson et al., Cell 165(4):1002-1011, 2016) and their data is made publicly available here along with a preliminary analysis of the variants. We observed that individuals over ~90 years old carried low levels of heteroplasmic variants in their genomes. SG-ADVISER mtDNA is a fast and functional tool that allows for variant calling and annotation of human mtDNA data coming from NGS experiments. The server was built with simplicity in mind, and builds on our own experience in interpreting mtDNA variants in the context of sudden death and rare diseases. Our objective is to provide an interface for non-bioinformaticians aiming to acquire (or contrast) mtDNA annotations via MToolBox. SG-ADVISER web server is freely available to all users at https://genomics.scripps.edu/mtdna .

  2. The comparability of men who have sex with men recruited from venue-time-space sampling and facebook: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Romieu, Alfonso C; Sullivan, Patrick S; Sanchez, Travis H; Kelley, Colleen F; Peterson, John L; Del Rio, Carlos; Salazar, Laura F; Frew, Paula M; Rosenberg, Eli S

    2014-07-17

    Recruiting valid samples of men who have sex with men (MSM) is a key component of the US human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) surveillance and of research studies seeking to improve HIV prevention for MSM. Social media, such as Facebook, may present an opportunity to reach broad samples of MSM, but the extent to which those samples are comparable with men recruited from venue-based, time-space sampling (VBTS) is unknown. The objective of this study was to assess the comparability of MSM recruited via VBTS and Facebook. HIV-negative and HIV-positive black and white MSM were recruited from June 2010 to December 2012 using VBTS and Facebook in Atlanta, GA. We compared the self-reported venue attendance, demographic characteristics, sexual and risk behaviors, history of HIV-testing, and HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence between Facebook- and VTBS-recruited MSM overall and by race. Multivariate logistic and negative binomial models estimated age/race adjusted ratios. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to assess 24-month retention. We recruited 803 MSM, of whom 110 (34/110, 30.9% black MSM, 76/110, 69.1% white MSM) were recruited via Facebook and 693 (420/693, 60.6% black MSM, 273/693, 39.4% white MSM) were recruited through VTBS. Facebook recruits had high rates of venue attendance in the previous month (26/34, 77% among black and 71/76, 93% among white MSM; between-race P=.01). MSM recruited on Facebook were generally older, with significant age differences among black MSM (P=.02), but not white MSM (P=.14). In adjusted multivariate models, VBTS-recruited MSM had fewer total partners (risk ratio [RR]=0.78, 95% CI 0.64-0.95; P=.01) and unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) partners (RR=0.54, 95% CI 0.40-0.72; PFacebook, to 77% for black and 78% for white MSM recruited at venues. There was no statistically significant differences in retention between the four groups (log-rank P=.64). VBTS and Facebook recruitment methods yielded similar samples of MSM in

  3. First steps towards a generic sample preparation scheme for inorganic engineered nanoparticles in a complex matrix for detection, characterization, and quantification by asymmetric flow-field flow fractionation coupled to multi-angle light scattering and ICP-MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Stephan; Legros, Samuel; Löschner, Katrin

    2015-01-01

    The applicability of a multi-step generic procedure to systematically develop sample preparation methods for the detection, characterization, and quantification of inorganic engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) in a complex matrix was successfully demonstrated. The research focused on the optimization...... content by asymmetric flow-field flow fractionation coupled to a multi-angle light scattering detector and an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Following the proposed generic procedure SiO2-ENPs were separated from a tomato soup. Two potential sample preparation methods were tested these being...... of the sample preparation, aiming to achieve a complete separation of ENPs from a complex matrix without altering the ENP size distribution and with minimal loss of ENPs. The separated ENPs were detected and further characterized in terms of particle size distribution and quantified in terms of elemental mass...

  4. Monitoring by Parents and Hypothesized Male-Female Differences in Evidence from a Nationally Representative Cohort Re-sampled from Age 12 to 17 Years: An Exploratory Study Using a "Mutoscope" Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seedall, Ryan B; Anthony, James C

    2015-07-01

    The link between adept parental monitoring (PM) and later positive behavioral and health outcomes already has motivated intervention trials, but questions remain about which specific facets and mechanisms of PM make a difference. Our current research questions concern fundamental male-female differences in PM facets as manifest in a US cohort, re-sampled each year at age 12 through 17 years during an interval from 2004 to 2009. We hypothesized emergence, by mid-adolescence, of a specific male-female difference in a "limit time with friends" (LTF) facet of adept PM, with overall PM levels held constant. The data, arranged using a "mutoscope" approach, are from six successive nationally representative independent cross-sectional sample surveys of the cohort, with each adolescent measured only once, via a multi-item PM module nested within the larger survey. Estimates and tests of male-female differences are from a "multiple indicators, multiple causes" latent structure model appropriate for complex survey data. In evidence consistent with the advance hypothesis and with PM level held constant via the model, the LTF facet generally was more relaxed for boys as compared to girls, in a difference that emerged by mid-adolescence, possibly due to greater LTF constraints for girls at mid-adolescence. This research adds to the knowledge base about male-female similarities and differences in facets of PM. As a specific PM facet, LTF might function as a mechanism suitable for deliberate intervention and as a possible specific target in "micro-trials" of new prevention research. We acknowledge limitations such as omitted variables, including social media effects, not measured in this investigation's national surveys, but of potential importance in future research on peer influence as might have more distal parenting determinants.

  5. Cohort migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taeuber, K E

    1966-06-01

    Most migration analyses focus on net migration and are concerned with areal redistributions of population. Migration may also be studied as an event in the life-cycle of an individual, and migration rates may be defined as properties of cohorts. A number of efforts to examine migration as a cohort process has been hampered by the character of available data [or the United States. Rather than await the development of a registration system-either directly or via social security and tax records-the collection of residence histories is suggested as the most feasible approach to obtaining suitable data. A schematic representation of residence histories clarifies their relation to other types of migration data and illustrates the need to design such surveys with specific research purposes in mind. Exploratory work with the 1958 Residence History Supplement to the Current Population Survey (by Beale, Shryock, myself, and various colleagues) demonstrates the utility of this approach.Local studies have made fruitful use of residence histories but typically are unable to delineate birth cohorts or other appropriate base populations exposed to risk. Development of cohort migration techniques analogous to the life table approach to mortality or cohort Jertility analysis requires national data. But migration, unlike Jertility and mortality, involves events that are reversible and repeatable. Hence the demographer's stock of analytic tools requires expansion. To the sociologist-demographer, experimentation with cohort migration models seems to be getting at one of the crucial methodological problems of sociology, the analysis of social mobility. A mutually profitable interchange with students of social mobility is envisaged.

  6. Small-scale classification schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten

    2004-01-01

    Small-scale classification schemes are used extensively in the coordination of cooperative work. This study investigates the creation and use of a classification scheme for handling the system requirements during the redevelopment of a nation-wide information system. This requirements classificat....... This difference between the written requirements specification and the oral discussions at the meetings may help explain software engineers’ general preference for people, rather than documents, as their information sources.......Small-scale classification schemes are used extensively in the coordination of cooperative work. This study investigates the creation and use of a classification scheme for handling the system requirements during the redevelopment of a nation-wide information system. This requirements....... While coordination mechanisms focus on how classification schemes enable cooperation among people pursuing a common goal, boundary objects embrace the implicit consequences of classification schemes in situations involving conflicting goals. Moreover, the requirements specification focused on functional...

  7. Two notes about Ponzi schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Honohan, Patrick

    1987-01-01

    A Ponzi scheme is an arrangement whereby a promoter offers an investment opportunity with attractive dividends, but where the only basis for the dividends is the future receipts from new investors. The first of these two notes explores some of the analytical properties of a Ponzi scheme, addressing in particular the question whether it is possible for a Ponzi scheme to exist if all the participants are rational. The second note briefly examines the collapse of the PMPA insurance company whos...

  8. Remarks on quantum duopoly schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraçkiewicz, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss in some detail the two different quantum schemes for duopoly problems. We investigate under what conditions one of the schemes is more reasonable than the other one. Using the Cournot's duopoly example, we show that the current quantum schemes require a slight refinement so that they output the classical game in a particular case. Then, we show how the amendment changes the way of studying the quantum games with respect to Nash equilibria. Finally, we define another scheme for the Cournot's duopoly in terms of quantum computation.

  9. New Ideas on Labeling Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rotbart, Noy Galil

    times, effectively eliminating the second penalty mentioned. We continue this theoretical study in several ways. First, we dedicate a large part of the thesis to the graph family of trees, for which we provide an overview of labeling schemes supporting several important functions such as ancestry......, routing and especially adjacency. The survey is complemented by novel contributions to this study, among which are the first asymptotically optimal adjacency labeling scheme for bounded degree trees, improved bounds on ancestry labeling schemes, dynamic multifunctional labeling schemes and an experimental...

  10. Characteristics of systemic lupus erythematosus in a sample of the Egyptian population: a retrospective cohort of 1109 patients from a single center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hadidi, K T; Medhat, B M; Abdel Baki, N M; Abdel Kafy, H; Abdelrahaman, W; Yousri, A Y; Attia, D H; Eissa, M; El Dessouki, D; Elgazzar, I; Elgengehy, F T; El Ghobashy, N; El Hadary, H; El Mardenly, G; El Naggar, H; El Nahas, A M; El Refai, R M; El Rwiny, H Allah; Elsman, R M; Galal, M; Ghoniem, S; Maged, L A; Sally, S M; Naji, H; Saad, S; Shaaban, M; Sharaf, M; Sobhy, N; Soliman, R M; El Hadidi, T S

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem autoimmune disease that can vary among different ethnic and racial groups. Objective The objective of this paper is to study the prevalence of various manifestations of SLE in a sample of the Egyptian population. Patients and methods Information in this study was derived from the medical records of SLE patients who sought medical advice at a private clinic in Cairo from January 1980 to June 2016. Results This study included 1109 SLE patients, of whom 114 (10.3%) were males and 995 were females (89.7%). Mean age of onset was 25.89 ± 10.81 years, while the median of disease duration from the onset of the disease till the last recorded visit was 26 months. The most common cumulative manifestations were arthritis (76.7%), malar rash (48.5%), leukopenia (45.7%), and photosensitivity (45.6%). A total of 33.1% of the patients had nephritis, and neuropsychiatric lupus was present in 6.4% of the patients. Secondary antiphospholipid syndrome was present in 11.5% of the patients. Antinuclear antibody and anti-double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid were present in 1060/1094 (96.9%) and 842/1062 (79.3%) of the patients, respectively. Antiphospholipid antibodies were present in 266/636 (41.8%) of the patients, anti-Smith in 54/240 (22.5%), anti-SSA/Ro in 61/229 (20.4%), and anti-SSB/La in 32/277 (11.6%) of the patients. Male patients had a statistically higher prevalence of nephritis ( p = 0.01), whereas arthritis and alopecia were statistically higher in females ( p = 0.012 and p = 0.006, respectively). Patients with juvenile onset had a statistically higher prevalence of nephritis and seizures ( p exceptionally low, which is contradictory to several reports from the Middle East and across the globe.

  11. Optimal design of sampling and mapping schemes in the radiometric exploration of Chipilapa, El Salvador (Geo-statistics); Diseno optimo de esquemas de muestreo y mapeo en la exploracion radiometrica de Chipilapa, El Salvador (Geo-estadistica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balcazar G, M.; Flores R, J.H

    1992-01-15

    As part of the knowledge about the radiometric surface exploration, carried out in the geothermal field of Chipilapa, El Salvador, its were considered the geo-statistical parameters starting from the calculated variogram of the field data, being that the maxim distance of correlation of the samples in 'radon' in the different observation addresses (N-S, E-W, N W-S E, N E-S W), it was of 121 mts for the monitoring grill in future prospectus in the same area. Being derived of it an optimization (minimum cost) in the spacing of the field samples by means of geo-statistical techniques, without losing the detection of the anomaly. (Author)

  12. High resolution satellite remote sensing used in a stratified random sampling scheme to quantify the constituent land cover components of the shifting cultivation mosaic of the Democratic Republic of Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinario, G.; Hansen, M.; Potapov, P.

    2016-12-01

    High resolution satellite imagery obtained from the National Geospatial Intelligence Agency through NASA was used to photo-interpret sample areas within the DRC. The area sampled is a stratifcation of the forest cover loss from circa 2014 that either occurred completely within the previosly mapped homogenous area of the Rural Complex, at it's interface with primary forest, or in isolated forest perforations. Previous research resulted in a map of these areas that contextualizes forest loss depending on where it occurs and with what spatial density, leading to a better understading of the real impacts on forest degradation of livelihood shifting cultivation. The stratified random sampling approach of these areas allows the characterization of the constituent land cover types within these areas, and their variability throughout the DRC. Shifting cultivation has a variable forest degradation footprint in the DRC depending on many factors that drive it, but it's role in forest degradation and deforestation had been disputed, leading us to investigate and quantify the clearing and reuse rates within the strata throughout the country.

  13. Cohort Profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Sanne; Hønge, Bo Langhoff; Oliveira, Inés

    2014-01-01

    The West African country Guinea-Bissau is home to the world’s highest prevalence of HIV-2, and its HIV-1 prevalence is rising. Other chronic viral infections like human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and hepatitis B virus are common as well. The Bissau HIV Cohort was started in 2007 to gain...

  14. A real helper data scheme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shao, X.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2013-01-01

    The helper data scheme utilizes a secret key to protect biometric templates. The current helper data scheme requires binary feature representations that introduce quantization error and thus reduce the capacity of biometric channels. For spectral-minutiae based fingerprint recognition systems,

  15. CANONICAL BACKWARD DIFFERENTIATION SCHEMES FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes a new nonlinear backward differentiation schemes for the numerical solution of nonlinear initial value problems of first order ordinary differential equations. The schemes are based on rational interpolation obtained from canonical polynomials. They are A-stable. The test problems show that they give ...

  16. External quality assessment schemes for toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John

    2002-08-14

    A variety of external quality assurance (EQA) schemes monitor quantitative performance for routine biochemical analysis of agents such as paracetamol, salicylate, ethanol and carboxyhaemoglobin. Their usefulness for toxicologists can be lessened where the concentrations monitored do not extend fully into the toxic range or where the matrix is synthetic, of animal origin or serum as opposed to whole human blood. A scheme for quantitative determinations of a wider range of toxicological analytes such as opioids, benzodiazepines and tricyclics in human blood has been piloted by the United Kingdom National External Quality Assessment Scheme (UKNEQAS). Specialist schemes are available for drugs of abuse testing in urine and for hair analysis. Whilst these programmes provide much useful information on the performance of analytical techniques, they fail to monitor the integrated processes that are needed in investigation of toxicological cases. In practice, both qualitative and quantitative tests are used in combination with case information to guide the evaluation of the samples and to develop an interpretation of the analytical findings that is used to provide clinical or forensic advice. EQA programs that combine the analytical and interpretative aspects of case studies are available from EQA providers such as UKNEQAS and the Dutch KKGT program (Stichting Kwaliteitsbewaking Klinische Geneesmiddelanalyse en Toxicologie).

  17. Multiuser Switched Diversity Scheduling Schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Shaqfeh, Mohammad; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2012-01-01

    Multiuser switched-diversity scheduling schemes were recently proposed in order to overcome the heavy feedback requirements of conventional opportunistic scheduling schemes by applying a threshold-based, distributed, and ordered scheduling mechanism. The main idea behind these schemes is that slight reduction in the prospected multiuser diversity gains is an acceptable trade-off for great savings in terms of required channel-state-information feedback messages. In this work, we characterize the achievable rate region of multiuser switched diversity systems and compare it with the rate region of full feedback multiuser diversity systems. We propose also a novel proportional fair multiuser switched-based scheduling scheme and we demonstrate that it can be optimized using a practical and distributed method to obtain the feedback thresholds. We finally demonstrate by numerical examples that switched-diversity scheduling schemes operate within 0.3 bits/sec/Hz from the ultimate network capacity of full feedback sys...

  18. Implementation of suitable flow injection/sequential injection on-line sample pretreatment schemes. Separation and preconcentration procedures for the determination of trace metal concentrations by ETAAS and/or ICPMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elo Harald; Wang, Jianhua

    Despite their excellent analytical chemical capacities, ETAAS and ICPMS, nevertheless, often require suitable pretreatment of the sample material in order to obtain the necessary sensitivity and selectivity. Either in order to separate/preconcentrate the analyte material, or because of the presence...... of potentially interfering matrix constituents. Such pretreatments are advantageously performed in flow injection (FI) or sequential injection (SI) manifolds, where all appropriate unit operations can be effected under enclosed and strictly controlled conditions. Various separation/preconcentration procedures......, the ICPMS has potentially a larger volumetric capacity yet cannot accept organic solvents as these adversely will impair its performance. In the lecture, selected examples of separation/preconcentration FI/SI-procedures will be presented, with particular emphasis on the use of the novel “lab...

  19. Modern survey sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhuri, Arijit

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to SamplingAbstract Introduction Concepts of Population, Sample, and SamplingInitial RamificationsAbstract Introduction Sampling Design, Sampling SchemeRandom Numbers and Their Uses in Simple RandomSampling (SRS)Drawing Simple Random Samples with and withoutReplacementEstimation of Mean, Total, Ratio of Totals/Means:Variance and Variance EstimationDetermination of Sample SizesA.2 Appendix to Chapter 2 A.More on Equal Probability Sampling A.Horvitz-Thompson EstimatorA.SufficiencyA.LikelihoodA.Non-Existence Theorem More Intricacies Abstract Introduction Unequal Probability Sampling StrategiesPPS Sampling Exploring Improved WaysAbstract Introduction Stratified Sampling Cluster SamplingMulti-Stage SamplingMulti-Phase Sampling: Ratio and RegressionEstimationviiviii ContentsControlled SamplingModeling Introduction Super-Population ModelingPrediction Approach Model-Assisted Approach Bayesian Methods Spatial SmoothingSampling on Successive Occasions: Panel Rotation Non-Response and Not-at-Homes Weighting Adj...

  20. Y Chromosome DNA in Women's Vaginal Samples as a Biomarker of Recent Vaginal Sex and Condom Use With Male Partners in the HPV Infection and Transmission Among Couples Through Heterosexual Activity Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malagón, Talía; Burchell, Ann; El-Zein, Mariam; Guénoun, Julie; Tellier, Pierre-Paul; Coutlée, François; Franco, Eduardo L

    2017-08-04

    Y chromosome DNA from male epithelial and sperm cells was detected in vaginal samples after unprotected sex in experimental studies. We assessed the strength of this association in an observational setting to examine the utility of Y chromosome DNA as a biomarker of recent sexual behaviors in epidemiological studies. The HPV (human papillomavirus) Infection and Transmission Among Couples Through Heterosexual Activity cohort study enrolled 502 women attending a university or college in Montréal, Canada, and their male partners from 2005 to 2010. Participants completed self-administered questionnaires. We used real-time polymerase chain reaction to test women's baseline vaginal samples for Y chromosome DNA and assessed which sexual behaviors were independent predictors of Y chromosome DNA positivity and quantity with logistic and negative binomial regression. Y chromosome DNA positivity decreased from 77% in women in partnerships reporting vaginal sex 0 to 1 day ago to 13% in women in partnerships reporting last vaginal sex of 15 or more days ago (adjusted odds ratio, 0.09; 95% confidence interval, 0.02-0.36). The mean proportion of exfoliated vaginal sample cells with Y chromosome DNA was much lower for women who reported always using condoms (0.01%) than for women who reported never using condoms (2.07%) (adjusted ratio, 26.8; 95% confidence interval, 8.9-80.5). No association was found with reported oral/digital sex frequency or concurrency of partnerships. Y chromosome DNA quantity is strongly associated with days since last vaginal sex and lack of condom use in observational settings. Y chromosome DNA quantity may prove useful as a correlate of recent vaginal sex in observational studies lacking data on sexual behavior, such as surveillance studies of human papillomavirus infection prevalence.

  1. Coordinated renewable energy support schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morthorst, P.E.; Jensen, S.G.

    2006-01-01

    This paper illustrates the effect that can be observed when support schemes for renewable energy are regionalised. Two theoretical examples are used to explain interactive effects on, e.g., the price of power, conditions for conventional power producers, and changes in import and export of power...... RES-E support schemes already has a common liberalised power market. In this case the introduction of a common support scheme for renewable technologies will lead to more efficient sitings of renewable plants, improving economic and environmental performance of the total power system...

  2. Optimizing multiplexing scheme in interferometric microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayebi, Behnam; Jaferzadeh, Keyvan; Sharif, Farnaz; Han, Jae-Ho

    2016-08-01

    In single exposure off-axis interferometry, multiple information can be recorded by spatial frequency multiplexing. We investigate optimum conditions for designing 2D sampling schemes to record larger field of view in off-axis interferometry multiplexing. The spatial resolution of the recorded image is related to the numerical aperture of the system and sensor pixel size. The spatial resolution should preserve by avoiding crosstalk in the frequency domain. Furthermore, the field of view depends on the sensor size and magnification of the imaging system. In order to preserve resolution and have a larger field of view, the frequency domain should be designed correctly. The experimental results demonstrate that selecting the wrong geometrical scheme in frequency domain decrease the recorded image area.

  3. An Assessment of the Kwabre District Mutual Health Insurance Scheme in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    D. Adei; V. Osei Kwadwo; S.K. Diko

    2012-01-01

    The National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in Ghana has been in operation since 2005 as a nationwide health financing option in the form of District Mutual Health Insurance Schemes. With the Kwabre District Mutual Health Insurance Scheme as a case study the study sought to assess; households level of satisfaction, challenges affecting the scheme, the scheme’s sustainability prospects and make recommendations to inform policy. Primary data were obtained through a household sample of 203, whic...

  4. Long-term effects on adult attachment in German occupation children born after World War II in comparison with a birth-cohort-matched representative sample of the German general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Marie; Kuwert, Philipp; Braehler, Elmar; Glaesmer, Heide

    2016-10-28

    Children born of war are a phenomenon of every conflict. At the end of World War II and thereafter, approximately 400,000 children were fathered by foreign soldiers and born to local women in Germany. Quantitative research on psychosocial consequences of growing up as German occupation child (GOC) has been missing so far. This study examines adult attachment and its association with current depression in GOC (N = 146) using self-report instruments: Adult Attachment Scale, Patient Health Questionnaire. Data were compared to a birth-cohort-matched representative sample of the German population (BCMS; N = 786). GOC differ in both attachment dimensions (less comfortable with closeness/intimacy, lowered ability to depend on others) and adult attachment (more dismissive and fearful) compared to BCMS. Insecure adult attachment is associated with current depression. GOC grew up under difficult circumstances (e.g. poverty, adverse events, and stigmatization). Even decades later they display more insecure attachment in current relationships. Findings underline the complex and long-term impact of their developmental conditions on attachment and current mental health.

  5. A Novel Iris Segmentation Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Chung Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the key steps in the iris recognition system is the accurate iris segmentation from its surrounding noises including pupil, sclera, eyelashes, and eyebrows of a captured eye-image. This paper presents a novel iris segmentation scheme which utilizes the orientation matching transform to outline the outer and inner iris boundaries initially. It then employs Delogne-Kåsa circle fitting (instead of the traditional Hough transform to further eliminate the outlier points to extract a more precise iris area from an eye-image. In the extracted iris region, the proposed scheme further utilizes the differences in the intensity and positional characteristics of the iris, eyelid, and eyelashes to detect and delete these noises. The scheme is then applied on iris image database, UBIRIS.v1. The experimental results show that the presented scheme provides a more effective and efficient iris segmentation than other conventional methods.

  6. Good governance for pension schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Thornton, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Regulatory and market developments have transformed the way in which UK private sector pension schemes operate. This has increased demands on trustees and advisors and the trusteeship governance model must evolve in order to remain fit for purpose. This volume brings together leading practitioners to provide an overview of what today constitutes good governance for pension schemes, from both a legal and a practical perspective. It provides the reader with an appreciation of the distinctive characteristics of UK occupational pension schemes, how they sit within the capital markets and their social and fiduciary responsibilities. Providing a holistic analysis of pension risk, both from the trustee and the corporate perspective, the essays cover the crucial role of the employer covenant, financing and investment risk, developments in longevity risk hedging and insurance de-risking, and best practice scheme administration.

  7. Breeding schemes in reindeer husbandry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Rönnegård

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper was to investigate annual genetic gain from selection (G, and the influence of selection on the inbreeding effective population size (Ne, for different possible breeding schemes within a reindeer herding district. The breeding schemes were analysed for different proportions of the population within a herding district included in the selection programme. Two different breeding schemes were analysed: an open nucleus scheme where males mix and mate between owner flocks, and a closed nucleus scheme where the males in non-selected owner flocks are culled to maximise G in the whole population. The theory of expected long-term genetic contributions was used and maternal effects were included in the analyses. Realistic parameter values were used for the population, modelled with 5000 reindeer in the population and a sex ratio of 14 adult females per male. The standard deviation of calf weights was 4.1 kg. Four different situations were explored and the results showed: 1. When the population was randomly culled, Ne equalled 2400. 2. When the whole population was selected on calf weights, Ne equalled 1700 and the total annual genetic gain (direct + maternal in calf weight was 0.42 kg. 3. For the open nucleus scheme, G increased monotonically from 0 to 0.42 kg as the proportion of the population included in the selection programme increased from 0 to 1.0, and Ne decreased correspondingly from 2400 to 1700. 4. In the closed nucleus scheme the lowest value of Ne was 1300. For a given proportion of the population included in the selection programme, the difference in G between a closed nucleus scheme and an open one was up to 0.13 kg. We conclude that for mass selection based on calf weights in herding districts with 2000 animals or more, there are no risks of inbreeding effects caused by selection.

  8. A Novel, Simplified Scheme for Plastics Identification: "JCE" Classroom Activity 104

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Mary E.; Walker, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    In this Activity, students identify samples of seven types of recyclable plastic by using a flowchart scheme. The flowchart procedure includes making density comparisons of the plastic samples in water and alcohol and observing physical changes of plastic samples subjected to boiling water temperatures and exposure to acetone. This scheme is…

  9. Stochastic thermostats: comparison of local and global schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Bussi, Giovanni

    2008-01-01

    We show that a recently introduced stochastic thermostat [J. Chem. Phys. 126 (2007) 014101] can be considered as a global version of the Langevin thermostat. We compare the global scheme and the local one (Langevin) from a formal point of view and through practical calculations on a model Lennard-Jones liquid. At variance with the local scheme, the global thermostat preserves the dynamical properties for a wide range of coupling parameters, and allows for a faster sampling of the phase-space.

  10. Comparing the Effect of Radiative Transfer Schemes on Convection Simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Tanner, Joel D.; Basu, Sarbani; Demarque, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    We examine the effect of different radiative transfer schemes on the properties of 3D simulations of near-surface stellar convection in the superadiabatic layer, where energy transport transitions from fully convective to fully radiative. We employ two radiative transfer schemes that fundamentally differ in the way they cover the 3D domain. The first solver approximates domain coverage with moments, while the second solver samples the 3D domain with ray integrations. By comparing simulations ...

  11. Properties of realized variance under alternative sampling schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomen, R.C.A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the statistical properties of the realized variance estimator in the presence of market microstructure noise. Different from the existing literature, the analysis relies on a pure jump process for high frequency security prices and explicitly distinguishes among alternative

  12. Optimal spatial sampling scheme to characterize mine tailings

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available to Characterize Mine Tailings Pravesh Debba1; Emmanuel John M. Carranza2; Alfred Stein2; Freek D. van der Meer2 1CSIR, Built Environment, Logisitics and Quantitative Methods, PO Box 395, Pretoria, 0001, South Africa. 2International Institute for Geo...-Information Science and Earth Observation (ITC), Hengelosestraat 99, PO Box 6, 7500 AA, Enschede, The Netherlands. E-mail: pdebba@csir.co.za; carranza@itc.nl; stein@itc.nl; vdmeer@itc.nl INTRODUCTION Geochemical characterization of mine waste impoundments...

  13. Optimum sampling scheme for characterization of mine tailings

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available FOR CHARACTERIZATION OF MINE TAILINGS P. Debba The Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) CSIR Built Environment P. O. Box 395, 0001, South Africa email: pdebba@csir.co.za E.J.M. Carranza, A. Stein, F.D. van der Meer International Institute...: Exploration, Environment, Anal- ysis, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 219–228, 2003. [3] P. Debba, E. J. M. Carranza, F. D. van der Meer, and A. Stein, “Abundance estimation of spectrally similar materials by using derivatives in simulated annealing,” IEEE Geoscience...

  14. Cohort profile: the Lothian Birth Cohorts of 1921 and 1936.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deary, Ian J; Gow, Alan J; Pattie, Alison; Starr, John M

    2012-12-01

    This cohort profile describes the origins, tracing, recruitment, testing and follow-up of the University of Edinburgh-based Lothian Birth Cohorts of 1921 (LBC1921; N = 550) and 1936 (LBC1936; N = 1091). The participants undertook a general intelligence test at age 11 years and were recruited for these cohorts at mean ages of 79 (LBC1921) and 70 (LBC1936). The LBC1921 have been examined at mean ages of 79, 83, 87 and 90 years. The LBC1936 have been examined at mean ages of 70 and 73 years, and are being seen at 76 years. Both samples have an emphasis on the ageing of cognitive functions as outcomes. As they have childhood intelligence test scores, the cohorts' data have been used to search for determinants of lifetime cognitive changes, and also cognitive change within old age. The cohorts' outcomes also include a range of physical and psycho-social aspects of well-being in old age. Both cohorts have a wide range of variables: genome-wide genotyping, demographics, psycho-social and lifestyle factors, cognitive functions, medical history and examination, and biomarkers (from blood and urine). The LBC1936 participants also have a detailed structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain scan. A range of scientific findings is described, to illustrate the possible uses of the cohorts.

  15. Multiuser switched diversity scheduling schemes

    KAUST Repository

    Shaqfeh, Mohammad

    2012-09-01

    Multiuser switched-diversity scheduling schemes were recently proposed in order to overcome the heavy feedback requirements of conventional opportunistic scheduling schemes by applying a threshold-based, distributed, and ordered scheduling mechanism. The main idea behind these schemes is that slight reduction in the prospected multiuser diversity gains is an acceptable trade-off for great savings in terms of required channel-state-information feedback messages. In this work, we characterize the achievable rate region of multiuser switched diversity systems and compare it with the rate region of full feedback multiuser diversity systems. We propose also a novel proportional fair multiuser switched-based scheduling scheme and we demonstrate that it can be optimized using a practical and distributed method to obtain the feedback thresholds. We finally demonstrate by numerical examples that switched-diversity scheduling schemes operate within 0.3 bits/sec/Hz from the ultimate network capacity of full feedback systems in Rayleigh fading conditions. © 2012 IEEE.

  16. The human milk study, HUMIS. Presentation of a birth cohort study which aims to collect milk samples from 6000 mothers, for the assessment of persistent organic pollutants (POPS), relating it to exposure factors and health outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggesboe, M.; Stigum, H.; Becher, G.; Magnus, P. [Norwegian Inst. of Public Health, Oslo (Norway); Polder, A.; Skaare, J.U. [The Norwegian School of Veterinay Science, Oslo (Norway); Lindstroem, G. [Orebro Univ., Orebro (Sweden)

    2004-09-15

    Although PCB has been forbidden for more than 20 years now, and its levels in human milk is declining, it remains among the chemicals in human milk causing most concern with regard to its possible detrimental effects on the fetus and the breastfed child. Due to our industry, amongst others, the Norwegian population has been rather heavily exposed to PCB. Furthermore, new environmental toxicants are steadily entering the scene, such as the Brominated flame retardants. The level of Brominated flame retardants in human milk has shown an exponential increase during the last ten years, and this group of chemicals, are causing increasingly more concern. Studies from Sweden has shown that the levels differ greatly between individuals, however, for reasons yet unknown. In Norway, the highest levels of Brominated flame retardants ever measured in the world was reported from fish in Mjoesa. Surprisingly few attempts has been made to identify dietary habits or other life style factors that are associated with the levels of these toxicants in human milk. Such knowledge is needed in order for accurate prophylactic measures to be taken by the population and of special importance to women before and during child bearing age, in order to keep the levels in human milk as low as possible. Furthermore, there is great need for more knowledge of the effects of these toxicants on child health. The need for more research in this field, especially the need for prospective exposure data and the need for interdisciplinary approaches has been specifically targeted. Therefore a research initiative was taken in Norway to establish a prospective birth cohort which aims to recruit 6000 mother/child pairs, in whom human milk samples are collected in infancy and information on health outcomes are collected throughout the child's first seven years of life. The aim of this presentation is to describe this project in more detail and to give some preliminary results.

  17. Modulation Schemes for Wireless Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Vejrazka

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Four modulation schemes, namely minimum shift keying (MSK, Gaussianminimum shift keying (GMSK, multiamplitude minimum shift keying(MAMSK and π/4 differential quadrature phase shift keying (π/4-QPSKare described and their applicability to wireless access is discussedin the paper. Low complexity receiver structures based on differentialdetection are analysed to estimate the performance of the modulationschemes in the additive Gaussian noise and the Rayleigh and Riceenvelope fast fading channel. The bandwidth efficiency is calculated toevaluate the modulation schemes. The results show that the MAMSK schemegives the greatest bandwidth efficiency, but its performance in theRayleigh channel is rather poor. In contrast, the MSK scheme is lessbandwidth efficient, but it is more resistant to Rayleigh fading. Theperformance of π/4-QPSK signal is considerably improved by appropriateprefiltering.

  18. The best prostate biopsy scheme is dictated by the gland volume: a monocentric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Atti, L

    2015-08-01

    Accuracy of biopsy scheme depends on different parameters. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level and digital rectal examination (DRE) influenced the detection rate and suggested the biopsy scheme to approach each patient. Another parameter is the prostate volume. Sampling accuracy tends to decrease progressively with an increasing prostate volume. We prospectively observed detection cancer rate in suspicious prostate cancer (PCa) and improved by applying a protocol biopsy according to prostate volume (PV). Clinical data and pathological features of these 1356 patients were analysed and included in this study. This protocol is a combined scheme that includes transrectal (TR) 12-core PBx (TR12PBx) for PV ≤ 30 cc, TR 14-core PBx (TR14PBx) for PV > 30 cc but scheme, in 198 (14.6%) through TR14PBx scheme and in 253 (18.6%) through TR18PBx scheme. The PCa detection rate was increased by 44% by adding two TZ cores (TR14PBx scheme). The TR18PBx scheme increased this rate by 21.7% vs. TR14PBx scheme. The diagnostic yield offered by TR18PBx was statistically significant compared to the detection rate offered by the TR14PBx scheme (p scheme diagnostic yield and those detected by the TR18PBx scheme (p = 0.362). The only PV parameter, in our opinion, can be significant in choosing the best biopsy scheme to approach in a first setting of biopsies increasing PCa detection rate.

  19. Electrical Injection Schemes for Nanolasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lupi, Alexandra; Chung, Il-Sug; Yvind, Kresten

    2014-01-01

    Three electrical injection schemes based on recently demonstrated electrically pumped photonic crystal nanolasers have been numerically investigated: 1) a vertical p-i-n junction through a post structure; 2) a lateral p-i-n junction with a homostructure; and 3) a lateral p-i-n junction....... For this analysis, the properties of different schemes, i.e., electrical resistance, threshold voltage, threshold current, and internal efficiency as energy requirements for optical interconnects are compared and the physics behind the differences is discussed....

  20. Time-and-ID-Based Proxy Reencryption Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambombo Mtonga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Time- and ID-based proxy reencryption scheme is proposed in this paper in which a type-based proxy reencryption enables the delegator to implement fine-grained policies with one key pair without any additional trust on the proxy. However, in some applications, the time within which the data was sampled or collected is very critical. In such applications, for example, healthcare and criminal investigations, the delegatee may be interested in only some of the messages with some types sampled within some time bound instead of the entire subset. Hence, in order to carter for such situations, in this paper, we propose a time-and-identity-based proxy reencryption scheme that takes into account the time within which the data was collected as a factor to consider when categorizing data in addition to its type. Our scheme is based on Boneh and Boyen identity-based scheme (BB-IBE and Matsuo’s proxy reencryption scheme for identity-based encryption (IBE to IBE. We prove that our scheme is semantically secure in the standard model.

  1. Distance labeling schemes for trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Stephen; Gørtz, Inge Li; Bistrup Halvorsen, Esben

    2016-01-01

    We consider distance labeling schemes for trees: given a tree with n nodes, label the nodes with binary strings such that, given the labels of any two nodes, one can determine, by looking only at the labels, the distance in the tree between the two nodes. A lower bound by Gavoille et al. [Gavoill...

  2. Distance labeling schemes for trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Stephen; Gørtz, Inge Li; Bistrup Halvorsen, Esben

    2016-01-01

    (log(n)) bits for constant ε> 0. (1 + ε)-stretch labeling schemes with polylogarithmic label size have previously been established for doubling dimension graphs by Talwar [Talwar, STOC, 2004]. In addition, we present matching upper and lower bounds for distance labeling for caterpillars, showing that labels...

  3. Homogenization scheme for acoustic metamaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Min

    2014-02-26

    We present a homogenization scheme for acoustic metamaterials that is based on reproducing the lowest orders of scattering amplitudes from a finite volume of metamaterials. This approach is noted to differ significantly from that of coherent potential approximation, which is based on adjusting the effective-medium parameters to minimize scatterings in the long-wavelength limit. With the aid of metamaterials’ eigenstates, the effective parameters, such as mass density and elastic modulus can be obtained by matching the surface responses of a metamaterial\\'s structural unit cell with a piece of homogenized material. From the Green\\'s theorem applied to the exterior domain problem, matching the surface responses is noted to be the same as reproducing the scattering amplitudes. We verify our scheme by applying it to three different examples: a layered lattice, a two-dimensional hexagonal lattice, and a decorated-membrane system. It is shown that the predicted characteristics and wave fields agree almost exactly with numerical simulations and experiments and the scheme\\'s validity is constrained by the number of dominant surface multipoles instead of the usual long-wavelength assumption. In particular, the validity extends to the full band in one dimension and to regimes near the boundaries of the Brillouin zone in two dimensions.

  4. Improved testing of recent HIV-1 infections with the BioRad avidity assay compared to the limiting antigen avidity assay and BED Capture enzyme immunoassay: evaluation using reference sample panels from the German Seroconverter Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Andrea; Santos-Hoevener, Claudia; Meixenberger, Karolin; Zimmermann, Ruth; Somogyi, Sybille; Fiedler, Stefan; Hofmann, Alexandra; Bartmeyer, Barbara; Jansen, Klaus; Hamouda, Osamah; Bannert, Norbert; Kuecherer, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    The variety and limitations of current laboratory methods for estimating HIV-incidence has driven attempts to improve and standardize the performance of serological 'Tests for Recent HIV-Infections' (TRI). Primary and follow-up HIV-1 positive plasma samples from individuals with well-defined dates of infection collected as part of the German Seroconverter Cohort provided specimens highly suitable for use in comparing the performance of three TRIs: the AWARE™ BED™ EIA HIV-1 Incidence test (BED-CEIA), Genetic systems HIV-1/HIV-2 Plus O EIA antibody avidity-based assay (BioRad Avidity) and Sedia™ HIV-1 LAg Avidity EIA (LAg Avidity). The evaluation panel included 180 specimens: 44 from antiretroviral (ARV)-naïve individuals with recently acquired HIV-infection (≤ 130 days; 25 B and 19 non-B subtypes) and 136 from long-term (>12 months) infected individuals [101 ARV-naïve subtype B, 16 non-B subtypes, 14 ARV-treated individuals, 5 slow progressors (SLP)]. For long-term infected, ARV-naïve individuals the false recent rates (FRR) of both the BioRad and LAg Avidity assays were 2% (2/101 for subtype B) and 6% (1/16 for subtype 'non-B'), while the FRR of the BED-CEIA was 7% (7/101 for subtype B) and 25% (4/16 for subtype 'non-B') (all p>0.05). Misclassification of ARV-treated individuals and SLP was rare by LAg (1/14, 0/5) and BioRad Avidity assays (2/14, 1/5) but more frequent by BED-CEIA (5/14, 3/5). Among recently-infected individuals (subtype B), 60% (15/25) were correctly classified by BED-CEIA, 88% (22/25) by BioRad Avidity and significantly fewer by LAg (48%, 12/25) compared to BioRad Avidity (p = 0.005) with a higher true-recency rate among non-B infections for all assays. This study using well-characterized specimens demonstrated lower FRRs for both avidity methods than with the BED-CEIA. For recently infected individuals the BioRad Avidity assay was shown to give the most accurate results.

  5. Improved testing of recent HIV-1 infections with the BioRad avidity assay compared to the limiting antigen avidity assay and BED Capture enzyme immunoassay: evaluation using reference sample panels from the German Seroconverter Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Hauser

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The variety and limitations of current laboratory methods for estimating HIV-incidence has driven attempts to improve and standardize the performance of serological 'Tests for Recent HIV-Infections' (TRI. Primary and follow-up HIV-1 positive plasma samples from individuals with well-defined dates of infection collected as part of the German Seroconverter Cohort provided specimens highly suitable for use in comparing the performance of three TRIs: the AWARE™ BED™ EIA HIV-1 Incidence test (BED-CEIA, Genetic systems HIV-1/HIV-2 Plus O EIA antibody avidity-based assay (BioRad Avidity and Sedia™ HIV-1 LAg Avidity EIA (LAg Avidity. METHODS: The evaluation panel included 180 specimens: 44 from antiretroviral (ARV-naïve individuals with recently acquired HIV-infection (≤ 130 days; 25 B and 19 non-B subtypes and 136 from long-term (>12 months infected individuals [101 ARV-naïve subtype B, 16 non-B subtypes, 14 ARV-treated individuals, 5 slow progressors (SLP]. RESULTS: For long-term infected, ARV-naïve individuals the false recent rates (FRR of both the BioRad and LAg Avidity assays were 2% (2/101 for subtype B and 6% (1/16 for subtype 'non-B', while the FRR of the BED-CEIA was 7% (7/101 for subtype B and 25% (4/16 for subtype 'non-B' (all p>0.05. Misclassification of ARV-treated individuals and SLP was rare by LAg (1/14, 0/5 and BioRad Avidity assays (2/14, 1/5 but more frequent by BED-CEIA (5/14, 3/5. Among recently-infected individuals (subtype B, 60% (15/25 were correctly classified by BED-CEIA, 88% (22/25 by BioRad Avidity and significantly fewer by LAg (48%, 12/25 compared to BioRad Avidity (p = 0.005 with a higher true-recency rate among non-B infections for all assays. CONCLUSIONS: This study using well-characterized specimens demonstrated lower FRRs for both avidity methods than with the BED-CEIA. For recently infected individuals the BioRad Avidity assay was shown to give the most accurate results.

  6. Support Schemes and Ownership Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ropenus, Stephanie; Schröder, Sascha Thorsten; Costa, Ana

    for promoting combined heat and power and energy from renewable sources. These Directives are to be implemented at the national level by the Member States. Section 3 conceptually presents the spectrum of national support schemes, ranging from investment support to market‐based operational support. The choice...... an introduction to the policy context for mCHP. Section 1 describes the rationale for the promotion of mCHP by explaining its potential contribution to European energy policy goals. Section 2 addresses the policy context at the supranational European level by outlining relevant EU Directives on support schemes......In recent years, fuel cell based micro‐combined heat and power has received increasing attention due to its potential contribution to energy savings, efficiency gains, customer proximity and flexibility in operation and capacity size. The FC4Home project assesses technical and economic aspects...

  7. Network Regulation and Support Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ropenus, Stephanie; Schröder, Sascha Thorsten; Jacobsen, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    -in tariffs to market-based quota systems, and network regulation approaches, comprising rate-of-return and incentive regulation. National regulation and the vertical structure of the electricity sector shape the incentives of market agents, notably of distributed generators and network operators....... This article seeks to investigate the interactions between the policy dimensions of support schemes and network regulation and how they affect the deployment of distributed generation. Firstly, a conceptual analysis examines how the incentives of the different market agents are affected. In particular......At present, there exists no explicit European policy framework on distributed generation. Various Directives encompass distributed generation; inherently, their implementation is to the discretion of the Member States. The latter have adopted different kinds of support schemes, ranging from feed...

  8. Subranging scheme for SQUID sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penanen, Konstantin I. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A readout scheme for measuring the output from a SQUID-based sensor-array using an improved subranging architecture that includes multiple resolution channels (such as a coarse resolution channel and a fine resolution channel). The scheme employs a flux sensing circuit with a sensing coil connected in series to multiple input coils, each input coil being coupled to a corresponding SQUID detection circuit having a high-resolution SQUID device with independent linearizing feedback. A two-resolution configuration (course and fine) is illustrated with a primary SQUID detection circuit for generating a fine readout, and a secondary SQUID detection circuit for generating a course readout, both having feedback current coupled to the respective SQUID devices via feedback/modulation coils. The primary and secondary SQUID detection circuits function and derive independent feedback. Thus, the SQUID devices may be monitored independently of each other (and read simultaneously) to dramatically increase slew rates and dynamic range.

  9. The Contribution of Early Language Development to Children's Emotional and Behavioural Functioning at 6 Years: An Analysis of Data from the Children in Focus Sample from the ALSPAC Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, Judy; Law, James; Rush, Robert; Peters, Tim J.; Roulstone, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Background: An association between children's early language development and their emotional and behavioural functioning is reported in the literature. The nature of the association remains unclear and it has not been established if such an association is found in a population-based cohort in addition to clinical populations. Methods: This study…

  10. Supporting Argumentation Schemes in Argumentative Dialogue Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wells Simon

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports preliminary work into the exploitation of argumentation schemes within dialogue games. We identify a property of dialogue games that we call “scheme awareness” that captures the relationship between dialogue game systems and argumentation schemes. Scheme awareness is used to examine the ways in which existing dialogue games utilise argumentation schemes and consequently the degree with which a dialogue game can be used to construct argument structures. The aim is to develop a set of guidelines for dialogue game design, which feed into a set of Dialogue Game Description Language (DGDL extensions in turn enabling dialogue games to better exploit argumentation schemes.

  11. An Arbitrated Quantum Signature Scheme without Entanglement*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui-Ran; Luo, Ming-Xing; Peng, Dai-Yuan; Wang, Xiao-Jun

    2017-09-01

    Several quantum signature schemes are recently proposed to realize secure signatures of quantum or classical messages. Arbitrated quantum signature as one nontrivial scheme has attracted great interests because of its usefulness and efficiency. Unfortunately, previous schemes cannot against Trojan horse attack and DoS attack and lack of the unforgeability and the non-repudiation. In this paper, we propose an improved arbitrated quantum signature to address these secure issues with the honesty arbitrator. Our scheme takes use of qubit states not entanglements. More importantly, the qubit scheme can achieve the unforgeability and the non-repudiation. Our scheme is also secure for other known quantum attacks.

  12. A biometric signcryption scheme without bilinear pairing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingwen; Ren, Zhiyuan; Cai, Jun; Zheng, Wentao

    2013-03-01

    How to apply the entropy in biometrics into the encryption and remote authentication schemes to simplify the management of keys is a hot research area. Utilizing Dodis's fuzzy extractor method and Liu's original signcryption scheme, a biometric identity based signcryption scheme is proposed in this paper. The proposed scheme is more efficient than most of the previous proposed biometric signcryption schemes for that it does not need bilinear pairing computation and modular exponentiation computation which is time consuming largely. The analysis results show that under the CDH and DL hard problem assumption, the proposed scheme has the features of confidentiality and unforgeability simultaneously.

  13. Cambridge community Optometry Glaucoma Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Jonathan; Shahid, Humma; Bourne, Rupert R; White, Andrew J; Martin, Keith R

    2015-04-01

    With a higher life expectancy, there is an increased demand for hospital glaucoma services in the United Kingdom. The Cambridge community Optometry Glaucoma Scheme (COGS) was initiated in 2010, where new referrals for suspected glaucoma are evaluated by community optometrists with a special interest in glaucoma, with virtual electronic review and validation by a consultant ophthalmologist with special interest in glaucoma. 1733 patients were evaluated by this scheme between 2010 and 2013. Clinical assessment is performed by the optometrist at a remote site. Goldmann applanation tonometry, pachymetry, monoscopic colour optic disc photographs and automated Humphrey visual field testing are performed. A clinical decision is made as to whether a patient has glaucoma or is a suspect, and referred on or discharged as a false positive referral. The clinical findings, optic disc photographs and visual field test results are transmitted electronically for virtual review by a consultant ophthalmologist. The number of false positive referrals from initial referral into the scheme. Of the patients, 46.6% were discharged at assessment and a further 5.7% were discharged following virtual review. Of the patients initially discharged, 2.8% were recalled following virtual review. Following assessment at the hospital, a further 10.5% were discharged after a single visit. The COGS community-based glaucoma screening programme is a safe and effective way of evaluating glaucoma referrals in the community and reducing false-positive referrals for glaucoma into the hospital system. © 2014 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  14. Two phase sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmad, Zahoor; Hanif, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    The development of estimators of population parameters based on two-phase sampling schemes has seen a dramatic increase in the past decade. Various authors have developed estimators of population using either one or two auxiliary variables. The present volume is a comprehensive collection of estimators available in single and two phase sampling. The book covers estimators which utilize information on single, two and multiple auxiliary variables of both quantitative and qualitative nature. Th...

  15. The Perception of the Contributory Pension Scheme Administration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    info

    Abstract. This paper x-ray the perception of the staff of University of Benin on the contributory pension scheme administration. The research instruments used in the data collection were structured questionnaire and face to face interview. A sample size of 250 made up of both the academic and non-academic staff were ...

  16. Trial of car-sharing scheme at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2010-01-01

    On 6 July, a sample group of approximately 500 users started a six-month trial of a new car-sharing scheme. The project is an initiative of the General Infrastructure Services Department (GS), in collaboration with the Physics Department (PH) and Hertz car rentals.

  17. An Analysis Of Loko Flood Disaster Resettlement Scheme, In Song ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examines the socio-economic and political impediments to the planned resettlement scheme for Loko flood disaster victims. A simple random sampling technique was employed to interview 280 household heads by administering to each a questionnaire schedule. Furthermore, purposeful interviews with the ...

  18. The British American Tobacco out growers scheme: Determinants of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study analyzed the operation and performance of Tobacco Out grower Scheme in Oyo State, Nigeria. The data for the analysis came from a random sample survey of the area of study. The treatment effect model was adopted in analyzing the data. Evidence from the probit analysis indicates that membership of the ...

  19. Enrolment on Health Insurance Scheme in Ghana: Evidence from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multistage sampling procedure was used to select the respondents. Binary logit model was used to estimate the determinants of enrolment to the scheme. The findings show that factors such as age, occupation, place of residence, income and wealth, play an important role in shaping individuals' and households' decision ...

  20. The perception of the contributory pension scheme administration by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper x-ray the perception of the staff of University of Benin on the contributory pension scheme administration. The research instruments used in the data collection were structured questionnaire and face to face interview. A sample size of 250 made up of both the academic and non-academic staff were selected from ...

  1. METAPHORIC MECHANISMS IN IMAGE SCHEME DEVELOPMENT

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pankratova, S.A

    2017-01-01

    .... In the summary the author underscores that both ways of image scheme development are of importance to cognitive science, both heuristic epiphora and image-based diaphora play a significant role in the explication of image scheme development.

  2. [Comparison of two gastric cancer screening schemes in a high-risk population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Yan-li; Li, Yi; Liu, Guang-shun; Wu, Qi; Liu, Wei-dong; Li, Shi-jie; Cao, Chang-qi; Wu, Xiu-zhen; Liu, Dong-mei; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Lan-fu; Ma, Jun-ling; Pan, Kai-feng; Zhang, Lian; You, Wei-cheng

    2013-05-01

    To evaluate the effects of two gastric cancer screening schemes for early detection of gastric cancer in a high-risk population. A cluster random sampling method was used to select local residents aged 40-69 years from Linqu County, Shandong Province. "Serum pepsinogen initial screening combined with further endoscopic examination (PG scheme)" and "direct endoscopic examination (endoscopy scheme)" were conducted. The associations between screening schemes and detection rates of gastric cancer, and early gastric cancer/high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia were evaluated by unconditional logistic regression analysis. Overall, 3654 and 2290 participants completed PG and endoscopy schemes, respectively. A total of 11 (0.30%) cases of gastric cancer and 10 (0.27%) cases of high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia were detected by PG scheme, of which 7 (0.19%) cases were early gastric cancer. While, 19 (0.83%) cases of gastric cancer and 10 (0.44%) cases of high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia were detected by endoscopy scheme, with 12 (0.52%) cases of early gastric cancer. Compared with the PG scheme, the endoscopy scheme had a significantly higher detection rates of gastric cancer (OR = 2.83, 95%CI 1.34-5.98), and early gastric cancer/high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (OR = 2.12, 95%CI 1.12-4.02). The endoscopy scheme is more effective in the detection of gastric cancer in a high-risk population, particularly for early gastric cancer/high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia than the PG scheme.

  3. 'Just another incentive scheme': a qualitative interview study of a local pay-for-performance scheme for primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Julia; Glidewell, Liz; West, Robert; Carder, Paul; Doran, Tim; Foy, Robbie

    2014-10-25

    A range of policy initiatives have addressed inequalities in healthcare and health outcomes. Local pay-for-performance schemes for primary care have been advocated as means of enhancing clinical ownership of the quality agenda and better targeting local need compared with national schemes such as the UK Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF). We investigated whether professionals' experience of a local scheme in one English National Health Service (NHS) former primary care trust (PCT) differed from that of the national QOF in relation to the goal of reducing inequalities. We conducted retrospective semi-structured interviews with primary care professionals implementing the scheme and those involved in its development. We purposively sampled practices with varying levels of population socio-economic deprivation and achievement. Interviews explored perceptions of the scheme and indicators, likely mechanisms of influence on practice, perceived benefits and harms, and how future schemes could be improved. We used a framework approach to analysis. Thirty-eight professionals from 16 general practices and six professionals involved in developing local indicators participated. Our findings cover four themes: ownership, credibility of the indicators, influences on behaviour, and exacerbated tensions. We found little evidence that the scheme engendered any distinctive sense of ownership or experiences different from the national scheme. Although the indicators and their evidence base were seldom actively questioned, doubts were expressed about their focus on health promotion given that eventual benefits relied upon patient action and availability of local resources. Whilst practices serving more affluent populations reported status and patient benefit as motivators for participating in the scheme, those serving more deprived populations highlighted financial reward. The scheme exacerbated tensions between patient and professional consultation agendas, general practitioners

  4. The Ubiquity of Smooth Hilbert Schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Staal, Andrew P.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the geography of Hilbert schemes that parametrize closed subschemes of projective space with a specified Hilbert polynomial. We classify Hilbert schemes with unique Borel-fixed points via combinatorial expressions for their Hilbert polynomials. We realize the set of all nonempty Hilbert schemes as a probability space and prove that Hilbert schemes are irreducible and nonsingular with probability greater than $0.5$.

  5. MIRD radionuclide data and decay schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Eckerman, Keith F

    2007-01-01

    For all physicians, scientists, and physicists working in the nuclear medicine field, the MIRD: Radionuclide Data and Decay Schemes updated edition is an essential sourcebook for radiation dosimetry and understanding the properties of radionuclides. Includes CD Table of Contents Decay schemes listed by atomic number Radioactive decay processes Serial decay schemes Decay schemes and decay tables This essential reference for nuclear medicine physicians, scientists and physicists also includes a CD with tabulations of the radionuclide data necessary for dosimetry calculations.

  6. THROUGHPUT ANALYSIS OF EXTENDED ARQ SCHEMES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PUBLICATIONS1

    and Wait (SW), Selective Repeat (SR), Stutter. (ST) and Go-Back-N (GBN) (Lin and Costello,. 2003). Combinations of these schemes lead to mixed mode schemes which include the SR-. GBN, SR-ST1 and SR-ST2. In the mixed mode schemes, when a prescribed number of failures occur in the SR mode, the GBN or ST ...

  7. Design of Infusion Schemes for Neuroreceptor Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ling; Svarer, Claus; Madsen, Karine

    2016-01-01

    for bolus infusion (BI) or programmed infusion (PI) experiments. Steady-state quantitative measurements can be made with one short scan and venous blood samples. The GABAA receptor ligand [(11)C]Flumazenil (FMZ) was chosen for this purpose, as it lacks a suitable reference region. Methods. Five bolus [(11)C...... state was attained within 40 min, which was 8 min earlier than the optimal BI (B/I ratio = 55 min). Conclusions. The system can design both BI and PI schemes to attain steady state rapidly. For example, subjects can be [(11)C]FMZ-PET scanned after 40 min of tracer infusion for 40 min with venous...

  8. The Original Management Incentive Schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Richard T. Holden

    2005-01-01

    During the 1990s, the structure of pay for top corporate executives shifted markedly as the use of stock options greatly expanded. By the early 2000s, as the dot-com boom ended and the Nasdaq stock index melted down, these modern executive incentive schemes were being sharply questioned on many grounds—for encouraging excessive risk-taking and a short-run orientation, for being an overly costly and inefficient method of providing incentives, and even for tempting managers of firms like Enron,...

  9. Adaptive Optics Metrics & QC Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Julien H.

    2017-09-01

    "There are many Adaptive Optics (AO) fed instruments on Paranal and more to come. To monitor their performances and assess the quality of the scientific data, we have developed a scheme and a set of tools and metrics adapted to each flavour of AO and each data product. Our decisions to repeat observations or not depends heavily on this immediate quality control "zero" (QC0). Atmospheric parameters monitoring can also help predict performances . At the end of the chain, the user must be able to find the data that correspond to his/her needs. In Particular, we address the special case of SPHERE."

  10. The mathematics of Ponzi schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Artzrouni, Marc

    2009-01-01

    A first order linear differential equation is used to describe the dynamics of an investment fund that promises more than it can deliver, also known as a Ponzi scheme. The model is based on a promised, unrealistic interest rate; on the actual, realized nominal interest rate; on the rate at which new deposits are accumulated and on the withdrawal rate. Conditions on these parameters are given for the fund to be solvent or to collapse. The model is fitted to data available on Charles...

  11. Superposition Enhanced Nested Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martiniani, Stefano; Stevenson, Jacob D.; Wales, David J.; Frenkel, Daan

    2014-07-01

    The theoretical analysis of many problems in physics, astronomy, and applied mathematics requires an efficient numerical exploration of multimodal parameter spaces that exhibit broken ergodicity. Monte Carlo methods are widely used to deal with these classes of problems, but such simulations suffer from a ubiquitous sampling problem: The probability of sampling a particular state is proportional to its entropic weight. Devising an algorithm capable of sampling efficiently the full phase space is a long-standing problem. Here, we report a new hybrid method for the exploration of multimodal parameter spaces exhibiting broken ergodicity. Superposition enhanced nested sampling combines the strengths of global optimization with the unbiased or athermal sampling of nested sampling, greatly enhancing its efficiency with no additional parameters. We report extensive tests of this new approach for atomic clusters that are known to have energy landscapes for which conventional sampling schemes suffer from broken ergodicity. We also introduce a novel parallelization algorithm for nested sampling.

  12. Superposition Enhanced Nested Sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Martiniani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical analysis of many problems in physics, astronomy, and applied mathematics requires an efficient numerical exploration of multimodal parameter spaces that exhibit broken ergodicity. Monte Carlo methods are widely used to deal with these classes of problems, but such simulations suffer from a ubiquitous sampling problem: The probability of sampling a particular state is proportional to its entropic weight. Devising an algorithm capable of sampling efficiently the full phase space is a long-standing problem. Here, we report a new hybrid method for the exploration of multimodal parameter spaces exhibiting broken ergodicity. Superposition enhanced nested sampling combines the strengths of global optimization with the unbiased or athermal sampling of nested sampling, greatly enhancing its efficiency with no additional parameters. We report extensive tests of this new approach for atomic clusters that are known to have energy landscapes for which conventional sampling schemes suffer from broken ergodicity. We also introduce a novel parallelization algorithm for nested sampling.

  13. REMINDER: Saved Leave Scheme (SLS)

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Transfer of leave to saved leave accounts Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'* annual and compensatory leave (excluding saved leave accumulated in accordance with the provisions of Administrative Circular No 22B) can be transferred to the saved leave account at the end of the leave year (30 September). We remind you that unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of the leave year accounts is transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. Therefore, staff members have no administrative steps to take. In addition, the transfer, which eliminates the risk of omitting to request leave transfers and rules out calculation errors in transfer requests, will be clearly shown in the list of leave transactions that can be consulted in EDH from October 2003 onwards. Furthermore, this automatic leave transfer optimizes staff members' chances of benefiting from a saved leave bonus provided that they ar...

  14. Delivery of a national home safety equipment scheme in England: a survey of local scheme leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvaney, C A; Watson, M C; Hamilton, T; Errington, G

    2013-11-01

    Unintentional home injuries sustained by preschool children are a major cause of morbidity in the UK. Home safety equipment schemes may reduce home injury rates. In 2009, the Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents was appointed as central coordinator of a two-year, £18m national home safety equipment scheme in England. This paper reports the findings from a national survey of all scheme leaders responsible for local scheme delivery. A questionnaire mailed to all local scheme leaders sought details of how the schemes were operated locally; barriers and facilitators to scheme implementation; evaluation of the local scheme and its sustainability. A response rate of 73% was achieved. Health visitors and family support workers played a key role in both the identification of eligible families and performing home safety checks. The majority of local scheme leaders (94.6%) reported that they thought their local scheme had been successful in including those families considered 'harder to engage'. Many scheme leaders (72.4%) reported that they had evaluated the provision of safety equipment in their scheme and over half (56.6%) stated that they would not be able to continue the scheme once funding ceased. Local schemes need support to effectively evaluate their scheme and to seek sustainability funding to ensure the future of the scheme. There remains a lack of evidence of whether the provision of home safety equipment reduces injuries in preschool children.

  15. The Odense Child Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyhl, Henriette Boye; Jensen, Tina Kold; Barington, Torben

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The importance of the environment on the development of the fetus and infant throughout early life is increasingly recognised. To study such effects, biological samples and accurate data records are required. Based on multiple data collection from a healthy pregnant population......, the Odense Childhood Cohort (OCC) study aims to provide new information about the environmental impact on child health by sequential follow-up to 18 years of age among children born between 2010 and 2012. METHODS: A total of 2874 of 6707 pregnancies (43%) were recruited between January 2010 and December 2012...... provides material for in-depth analysis of environmental and genetic factors that are important for child health and disease. Registry data from non-participating women and infants are available which ensures a high degree of comparable data....

  16. Channel Aggregation Schemes for Cognitive Radio Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jongheon; So, Jaewoo

    This paper proposed three channel aggregation schemes for cognitive radio networks, a constant channel aggregation scheme, a probability distribution-based variable channel aggregation scheme, and a residual channel-based variable channel aggregation scheme. A cognitive radio network can have a wide bandwidth if unused channels in the primary networks are aggregated. Channel aggregation schemes involve either constant channel aggregation or variable channel aggregation. In this paper, a Markov chain is used to develop an analytical model of channel aggregation schemes; and the performance of the model is evaluated in terms of the average sojourn time, the average throughput, the forced termination probability, and the blocking probability. Simulation results show that channel aggregation schemes can reduce the average sojourn time of cognitive users by increasing the channel occupation rate of unused channels in a primary network.

  17. Hybrid scheme for Brownian semistationary processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Mikkel; Lunde, Asger; Pakkanen, Mikko S.

    is to approximate the kernel function by a power function near zero and by a step function elsewhere. The resulting approximation of the process is a combination of Wiener integrals of the power function and a Riemann sum, which is why we call this method a hybrid scheme. Our main theoretical result describes...... the asymptotics of the mean square error of the hybrid scheme and we observe that the scheme leads to a substantial improvement of accuracy compared to the ordinary forward Riemann-sum scheme, while having the same computational complexity. We exemplify the use of the hybrid scheme by two numerical experiments......We introduce a simulation scheme for Brownian semistationary processes, which is based on discretizing the stochastic integral representation of the process in the time domain. We assume that the kernel function of the process is regularly varying at zero. The novel feature of the scheme...

  18. Sample Proficiency Test exercise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcaraz, A; Gregg, H; Koester, C

    2006-02-05

    The current format of the OPCW proficiency tests has multiple sets of 2 samples sent to an analysis laboratory. In each sample set, one is identified as a sample, the other as a blank. This method of conducting proficiency tests differs from how an OPCW designated laboratory would receive authentic samples (a set of three containers, each not identified, consisting of the authentic sample, a control sample, and a blank sample). This exercise was designed to test the reporting if the proficiency tests were to be conducted. As such, this is not an official OPCW proficiency test, and the attached report is one method by which LLNL might report their analyses under a more realistic testing scheme. Therefore, the title on the report ''Report of the Umpteenth Official OPCW Proficiency Test'' is meaningless, and provides a bit of whimsy for the analyses and readers of the report.

  19. Scheme of thinking quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukalov, V. I.; Sornette, D.

    2009-11-01

    A general approach describing quantum decision procedures is developed. The approach can be applied to quantum information processing, quantum computing, creation of artificial quantum intelligence, as well as to analyzing decision processes of human decision makers. Our basic point is to consider an active quantum system possessing its own strategic state. Processing information by such a system is analogous to the cognitive processes associated to decision making by humans. The algebra of probability operators, associated with the possible options available to the decision maker, plays the role of the algebra of observables in quantum theory of measurements. A scheme is advanced for a practical realization of decision procedures by thinking quantum systems. Such thinking quantum systems can be realized by using spin lattices, systems of magnetic molecules, cold atoms trapped in optical lattices, ensembles of quantum dots, or multilevel atomic systems interacting with electromagnetic field.

  20. Fragment separator momentum compression schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandura, Laura, E-mail: bandura@anl.gov [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab, Michigan State University, 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); Erdelyi, Bela [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL 60115 (United States); Hausmann, Marc [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); Kubo, Toshiyuki [RIKEN Nishina Center, RIKEN, Wako (Japan); Nolen, Jerry [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Portillo, Mauricio [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); Sherrill, Bradley M. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab, Michigan State University, 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States)

    2011-07-21

    We present a scheme to use a fragment separator and profiled energy degraders to transfer longitudinal phase space into transverse phase space while maintaining achromatic beam transport. The first order beam optics theory of the method is presented and the consequent enlargement of the transverse phase space is discussed. An interesting consequence of the technique is that the first order mass resolving power of the system is determined by the first dispersive section up to the energy degrader, independent of whether or not momentum compression is used. The fragment separator at the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams is a specific application of this technique and is described along with simulations by the code COSY INFINITY.

  1. Fragment separator momentum compression schemes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandura, L.; Erdelyi, B.; Hausmann, M.; Kubo, T.; Nolen, J.; Portillo, M.; Sherrill, B.M. (Physics); (MSU); (Northern Illinois Univ.); (RIKEN)

    2011-07-21

    We present a scheme to use a fragment separator and profiled energy degraders to transfer longitudinal phase space into transverse phase space while maintaining achromatic beam transport. The first order beam optics theory of the method is presented and the consequent enlargement of the transverse phase space is discussed. An interesting consequence of the technique is that the first order mass resolving power of the system is determined by the first dispersive section up to the energy degrader, independent of whether or not momentum compression is used. The fragment separator at the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams is a specific application of this technique and is described along with simulations by the code COSY INFINITY.

  2. Fragment separator momentum compression schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandura, Laura; Erdelyi, Bela; Hausmann, Marc; Kubo, Toshiyuki; Nolen, Jerry; Portillo, Mauricio; Sherrill, Bradley M.

    2011-07-01

    We present a scheme to use a fragment separator and profiled energy degraders to transfer longitudinal phase space into transverse phase space while maintaining achromatic beam transport. The first order beam optics theory of the method is presented and the consequent enlargement of the transverse phase space is discussed. An interesting consequence of the technique is that the first order mass resolving power of the system is determined by the first dispersive section up to the energy degrader, independent of whether or not momentum compression is used. The fragment separator at the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams is a specific application of this technique and is described along with simulations by the code COSY INFINITY.

  3. Electrical injection schemes for nanolasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lupi, Alexandra; Chung, Il-Sug; Yvind, Kresten

    2013-01-01

    threshold current has been achieved with the lateral electrical injection through the BH; while the lowest resistance has been obtained from the current post structure even though this model shows a higher current threshold because of the lack of carrier confinement. Final scope of the simulations......The performance of injection schemes among recently demonstrated electrically pumped photonic crystal nanolasers has been investigated numerically. The computation has been carried out at room temperature using a commercial semiconductor simulation software. For the simulations two electrical...... of 3 InGaAsP QWs on an InP substrate has been chosen for the modeling. In the simulations the main focus is on the electrical and optical properties of the nanolasers i.e. electrical resistance, threshold voltage, threshold current and wallplug efficiency. In the current flow evaluation the lowest...

  4. Staggered Schemes for Fluctuating Hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Balboa, F; Delgado-Buscalioni, R; Donev, A; Fai, T; Griffith, B; Peskin, C S

    2011-01-01

    We develop numerical schemes for solving the isothermal compressible and incompressible equations of fluctuating hydrodynamics on a grid with staggered momenta. We develop a second-order accurate spatial discretization of the diffusive, advective and stochastic fluxes that satisfies a discrete fluctuation-dissipation balance, and construct temporal discretizations that are at least second-order accurate in time deterministically and in a weak sense. Specifically, the methods reproduce the correct equilibrium covariances of the fluctuating fields to third (compressible) and second (incompressible) order in the time step, as we verify numerically. We apply our techniques to model recent experimental measurements of giant fluctuations in diffusively mixing fluids in a micro-gravity environment [A. Vailati et. al., Nature Communications 2:290, 2011]. Numerical results for the static spectrum of non-equilibrium concentration fluctuations are in excellent agreement between the compressible and incompressible simula...

  5. Cohort profile: the Social Inequality in Cancer (SIC) cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordahl, Helene; Hvidtfeldt, Ulla Arthur; Diderichsen, Finn; Rod, Naja Hulvej; Osler, Merete; Frederiksen, Birgitte Lidegaard; Prescott, Eva; Tjønneland, Anne; Lange, Theis; Keiding, Niels; Andersen, Per Kragh; Andersen, Ingelise

    2014-12-01

    The Social Inequality in Cancer (SIC) cohort study was established to determine pathways through which socioeconomic position affects morbidity and mortality, in particular common subtypes of cancer. Data from seven well-established cohort studies from Denmark were pooled. Combining these cohorts provided a unique opportunity to generate a large study population with long follow-up and sufficient statistical power to develop and apply new methods for quantification of the two basic mechanisms underlying social inequalities in cancer-mediation and interaction. The SIC cohort included 83 006 participants aged 20-98 years at baseline. A wide range of behavioural and biological risk factors such as smoking, physical inactivity, alcohol intake, hormone replacement therapy, body mass index, blood pressure and serum cholesterol were assessed by self-administered questionnaires, physical examinations and blood samples. All participants were followed up in nationwide demographic and healthcare registries. For those interested in collaboration, further details can be obtained by contacting the Steering Committee at the Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, at inan@sund.ku.dk. © The Author 2014; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  6. On Optimal Designs of Some Censoring Schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Adnan Mohammad Awad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper  is to explore suitability of some entropy-information measures for introducing a new optimality censoring criterion and to apply it to some censoring schemes from some underlying life-time models.  In addition, the  paper investigates four related issues namely; the  effect of the parameter of parent distribution on optimal scheme, equivalence of schemes based on Shannon and Awad sup-entropy measures, the conjecture that the optimal scheme is one stage scheme, and  a conjecture by Cramer and Bagh (2011 about Shannon minimum and maximum schemes when parent distribution is reflected power. Guidelines for designing an optimal censoring plane are reported together with theoretical and numerical results and illustrations.

  7. Improved Load Shedding Scheme considering Distributed Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Kaushik; Nitsas, Antonios; Altin, Müfit

    2017-01-01

    With high penetration of distributed generation (DG), the conventional under-frequency load shedding (UFLS) face many challenges and may not perform as expected. This article proposes new UFLS schemes, which are designed to overcome the shortcomings of traditional load shedding scheme. These sche......With high penetration of distributed generation (DG), the conventional under-frequency load shedding (UFLS) face many challenges and may not perform as expected. This article proposes new UFLS schemes, which are designed to overcome the shortcomings of traditional load shedding scheme....... These schemes utilize directional relays, power flow through feeders, wind and PV measurements to optimally select the feeders to be disconnected during load shedding such that DG disconnection is minimized while disconnecting required amount of consumption. These different UFLS schemes are compared in terms...

  8. Resonance ionization scheme development for europium

    CERN Document Server

    Chrysalidis, K; Fedosseev, V N; Marsh, B A; Naubereit, P; Rothe, S; Seiffert, C; Kron, T; Wendt, K

    2017-01-01

    Odd-parity autoionizing states of europium have been investigated by resonance ionization spectroscopy via two-step, two-resonance excitations. The aim of this work was to establish ionization schemes specifically suited for europium ion beam production using the ISOLDE Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Source (RILIS). 13 new RILIS-compatible ionization schemes are proposed. The scheme development was the first application of the Photo Ionization Spectroscopy Apparatus (PISA) which has recently been integrated into the RILIS setup.

  9. Resonance ionization scheme development for europium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chrysalidis, K., E-mail: katerina.chrysalidis@cern.ch; Goodacre, T. Day; Fedosseev, V. N.; Marsh, B. A. [CERN (Switzerland); Naubereit, P. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, Institiut für Physik (Germany); Rothe, S.; Seiffert, C. [CERN (Switzerland); Kron, T.; Wendt, K. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, Institiut für Physik (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    Odd-parity autoionizing states of europium have been investigated by resonance ionization spectroscopy via two-step, two-resonance excitations. The aim of this work was to establish ionization schemes specifically suited for europium ion beam production using the ISOLDE Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Source (RILIS). 13 new RILIS-compatible ionization schemes are proposed. The scheme development was the first application of the Photo Ionization Spectroscopy Apparatus (PISA) which has recently been integrated into the RILIS setup.

  10. SIGNCRYPTION BASED ON DIFFERENT DIGITAL SIGNATURE SCHEMES

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian Atanasiu; Laura Savu

    2012-01-01

    This article presents two new signcryption schemes. The first one is based on Schnorr digital signature algorithm and the second one is using Proxy Signature scheme introduced by Mambo. Schnorr Signcryption has been implemented in a program and here are provided the steps of the algorithm, the results and some examples. The Mambo’s Proxy Signature is adapted for Shortened Digital Signature Standard, being part of a new Proxy Signcryption scheme.

  11. Optics design for CEPC double ring scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiwei; Su, Feng; Bai, Sha; Yu, Chenghui; Gao, Jie

    2017-12-01

    The CEPC is a future Circular Electron and Positron Collider proposed by China to mainly study the Higgs boson. Its baseline design is a double ring scheme and an alternative design is a partial double ring scheme. This paper will present the optics design for the main ring of the double ring scheme. The CEPC will also work as a W and Z factory. Compatible optics designs for a W and a Z modes will be presented as well.

  12. Wavelet Denoising within the Lifting Scheme Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Paskaš

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider an example of the lifting scheme and present the results of the simple lifting scheme implementation using lazy transform. The paper is tutorial-oriented. The results are obtained by testing several common test signals for the signal denoising problem and using different threshold values. The lifting scheme represents an effective and flexible tool that can be used for introducing signal dependence into the problem by improving the wavelet properties.

  13. The prognostic value of long-term visit-to-visit blood pressure variability on stroke in real-world practice: a dynamic cohort study in a large representative sample of Chinese hypertensive population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jin-ming; Kong, Qun-yu; Schoenhagen, Paul; Shen, Tian; He, Yu-song; Wang, Ji-wei; Zhao, Yan-ping; Shi, Dan-ni; Zhong, Bao-liang

    2014-12-20

    The prognostic significance of long-term visit-to-visit blood pressure variability (BPV) has not yet been validated in "real world" hypertensive patients. The aim of the current study is to explore the prognostic value of BPV on stroke in hypertensive patients. This was a dynamic prospective cohort study based on electronic medical records in Shanghai, China. Hypertensive patients (N=122,636) without history of stroke at baseline, were followed up from 2005 to 2011. The cohort comprised of 4522 stroke patients and 118,114 non-stroke patients during a mean follow-up duration of 48 months. BPV was measured by standard deviation (SD) and the coefficient of variation (CV) of blood pressure. The visit-to-visit variability of both systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was independently associated with the occurrence of stroke [SD: the hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of SBP and DBP were 1.042 (1.021 to 1.064) and 1.052 (1.040 to 1.065); CV: the hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of SBP and DBP were 1.183 (1.010 to 1.356) and 1.151 (1.005 to 1.317), respectively]. The hazard ratio values increased along with an increase of the BPV levels of SBP and DBP. The increment effect remained significant after controlling the blood pressure control status of subjects. Increased BPV of both SBP and DBP, independent of the average blood pressure, is a predictor of stroke among community hypertensive patients in real-world clinical practice. The risk of stroke increased along with increased BPV. Stabilizing BPV might be a therapeutic target in hypertension. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Mixed ultrasoft/norm-conserved pseudopotential scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokbro, Kurt

    1996-01-01

    A variant of the Vanderbilt ultrasoft pseudopotential scheme, where the norm conservation is released for only one or a few angular channels, is presented. Within this scheme some difficulties of the truly ultrasoft pseudopotentials are overcome without sacrificing the pseudopotential softness. (i......) Ghost states are easily avoided without including semicore shells. (ii) The ultrasoft pseudo-charge-augmentation functions can be made softer. (iii) The number of nonlocal operators is reduced. The scheme will be most useful for transition metals, and the feasibility and accuracy of the scheme...

  15. Central schemes for open-channel flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottardi, Guido; Venutelli, Maurizio

    2003-03-01

    The resolution of the Saint-Venant equations for modelling shock phenomena in open-channel flow by using the second-order central schemes of Nessyahu and Tadmor (NT) and Kurganov and Tadmor (KT) is presented. The performances of the two schemes that we have extended to the non-homogeneous case and that of the classical first-order Lax-Friedrichs (LF) scheme in predicting dam-break and hydraulic jumps in rectangular open channels are investigated on the basis of different numerical and physical conditions. The efficiency and robustness of the schemes are tested by comparing model results with analytical or experimental solutions.

  16. Kernel machine testing for risk prediction with stratified case cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Rebecca; Neykov, Matey; Jensen, Majken Karoline; Cai, Tianxi

    2016-06-01

    Large assembled cohorts with banked biospecimens offer valuable opportunities to identify novel markers for risk prediction. When the outcome of interest is rare, an effective strategy to conserve limited biological resources while maintaining reasonable statistical power is the case cohort (CCH) sampling design, in which expensive markers are measured on a subset of cases and controls. However, the CCH design introduces significant analytical complexity due to outcome-dependent, finite-population sampling. Current methods for analyzing CCH studies focus primarily on the estimation of simple survival models with linear effects; testing and estimation procedures that can efficiently capture complex non-linear marker effects for CCH data remain elusive. In this article, we propose inverse probability weighted (IPW) variance component type tests for identifying important marker sets through a Cox proportional hazards kernel machine (CoxKM) regression framework previously considered for full cohort studies (Cai et al., 2011). The optimal choice of kernel, while vitally important to attain high power, is typically unknown for a given dataset. Thus, we also develop robust testing procedures that adaptively combine information from multiple kernels. The proposed IPW test statistics have complex null distributions that cannot easily be approximated explicitly. Furthermore, due to the correlation induced by CCH sampling, standard resampling methods such as the bootstrap fail to approximate the distribution correctly. We, therefore, propose a novel perturbation resampling scheme that can effectively recover the induced correlation structure. Results from extensive simulation studies suggest that the proposed IPW CoxKM testing procedures work well in finite samples. The proposed methods are further illustrated by application to a Danish CCH study of Apolipoprotein C-III markers on the risk of coronary heart disease. © 2015, The International Biometric Society.

  17. [Study on optimal model of hypothetical work injury insurance scheme].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Chi-yu; Dong, Heng-jin; Wu, Yuan; Duan, Sheng-nan; Liu, Xiao-fang; You, Hua; Hu, Hui-mei; Wang, Lin-hao; Zhang, Xing; Wang, Jing

    2013-12-01

    To explore an optimal model of hypothetical work injury insurance scheme, which is in line with the wishes of workers, based on the problems in the implementation of work injury insurance in China and to provide useful information for relevant policy makers. Multistage cluster sampling was used to select subjects: first, 9 small, medium, and large enterprises were selected from three cities (counties) in Zhejiang Province, China according to the economic development, transportation, and cooperation; then, 31 workshops were randomly selected from the 9 enterprises. Face-to-face interviews were conducted by trained interviewers using a pre-designed questionnaire among all workers in the 31 workshops. After optimization of hypothetical work injury insurance scheme, the willingness to participate in the scheme increased from 73.87%to 80.96%; the average willingness to pay for the scheme increased from 2.21% (51.77 yuan) to 2.38% of monthly wage (54.93 Yuan); the median willingness to pay for the scheme increased from 1% to 1.2% of monthly wage, but decreased from 35 yuan to 30 yuan. The optimal model of hypothetical work injury insurance scheme covers all national and provincial statutory occupational diseases and work accidents, as well as consultations about occupational diseases. The scheme is supposed to be implemented worldwide by the National Social Security Department, without regional differences. The premium is borne by the state, enterprises, and individuals, and an independent insurance fund is kept in the lifetime personal account for each of insured individuals. The premium is not refunded in any event. Compensation for occupational diseases or work accidents is unrelated to the enterprises of the insured workers but related to the length of insurance. The insurance becomes effective one year after enrollment, while it is put into effect immediately after the occupational disease or accident occurs. The optimal model of hypothetical work injury insurance

  18. An Early Morning Sputum Sample Is Necessary for the Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis, Even with More Sensitive Techniques: A Prospective Cohort Study among Adolescent TB-Suspects in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willy Ssengooba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization (WHO recommends collection of two sputum samples for tuberculosis (TB diagnosis, with at least one being an early morning (EM using smear microscopy. It remains unclear whether this is necessary even when sputum culture is employed. Here, we determined the diagnostic yield from spot and the incremental yield from the EM sputum sample cultures among TB-suspected adolescents from rural Uganda. Sputum samples (both spot and early-morning from 1862 adolescents were cultured by the Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ and Mycobacterium Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT methods. For spot samples, the diagnostic yields for TB were 19.0% and 57.1% with LJ and MGIT, respectively, whereas the incremental yields (not totals of the early-morning sample were 9.5% and 42.9% (P<0.001 with LJ and MGIT, respectively. Among TB-suspected adolescents in rural Uganda, the EM sputum culture has a high incremental diagnostic yield. Therefore, EM sputum in addition to spot sample culture is necessary for improved TB case detection.

  19. Cohort Profile Update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Lars Haukali; Ahlström, Magnus Glindvad; Obel, Niels

    2014-01-01

    The DHCS is a cohort of all HIV-infected individuals seen in one of the eight Danish HIV centres after 31 December 1994. Here we update the 2009 cohort profile emphasizing the development of the cohort. Every 12-24 months, DHCS is linked with the Danish Civil Registration System (CRS) in order to...... the Danish Data Protection Agency. Potential collaborators can contact the study director, Niels Obel (e-mail: niels.obel@regionh.dk)....

  20. Nonstandard finite difference schemes for differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdizadeh Khalsaraei

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the reorganization of the denominator of the discrete derivative and nonlocal approximation of nonlinear terms are used in the design of nonstandard finite difference schemes (NSFDs. Numerical examples confirming then efficiency of schemes, for some differential equations are provided. In order to illustrate the accuracy of the new NSFDs, the numerical results are compared with standard methods.

  1. Privacy Preserving Mapping Schemes Supporting Comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Qiang

    2010-01-01

    To cater to the privacy requirements in cloud computing, we introduce a new primitive, namely Privacy Preserving Mapping (PPM) schemes supporting comparison. An PPM scheme enables a user to map data items into images in such a way that, with a set of images, any entity can determine the <, =, >

  2. Consolidation of the health insurance scheme

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2009-01-01

    In the last issue of Echo, we highlighted CERN’s obligation to guarantee a social security scheme for all employees, pensioners and their families. In that issue we talked about the first component: pensions. This time we shall discuss the other component: the CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS).

  3. A hierarchical classification scheme of psoriasis images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maletti, Gabriela Mariel; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2003-01-01

    A two-stage hierarchical classification scheme of psoriasis lesion images is proposed. These images are basically composed of three classes: normal skin, lesion and background. The scheme combines conventional tools to separate the skin from the background in the first stage, and the lesion from...

  4. Mobile Machine for E-payment Scheme

    OpenAIRE

    Sattar J Aboud

    2010-01-01

    In this article e-payment scheme by mobile machine is considered. The requirements for a mobile machine in e-payment are presented, particularly when merchant employing accounts for payments and when using advertising. In the proposed scheme we will use the public key infrastructure and certificate for authenticate purchaser and merchant and to secure the communication between them.

  5. THROUGHPUT ANALYSIS OF EXTENDED ARQ SCHEMES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PUBLICATIONS1

    formation transmitted in digital communication systems. Such schemes ... Department of Electronics and Telecommunications Engineering,. University of Dar es ...... (2): 165-176. Kundaeli, H. N. (2013). Throughput-Delay. Analysis of the SR-ST-GBN ARQ Scheme. Mediterranean Journal of Electronics and. Communication.

  6. Psychosis Incident Cohort Outcome Study (PICOS). A multisite study of clinical, social and biological characteristics, patterns of care and predictors of outcome in first-episode psychosis. Background, methodology and overview of the patient sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasalvia, A; Tosato, S; Brambilla, P; Bertani, M; Bonetto, C; Cristofalo, D; Bissoli, S; De Santi, K; Lazzarotto, L; Zanatta, G; Marrella, G; Mazzoncini, R; Zanoni, M; Garzotto, N; Dolce, C; Nicolau, S; Ramon, L; Perlini, C; Rambaldelli, G; Bellani, M; Tansella, M; Ruggeri, M

    2012-09-01

    This paper aims at providing an overview of the background, design and initial findings of Psychosis Incident Cohort Outcome Study (PICOS). PICOS is a large multi-site population-based study on first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients attending public mental health services in the Veneto region (Italy) over a 3-year period. PICOS has a naturalistic longitudinal design and it includes three different modules addressing, respectively, clinical and social variables, genetics and brain imaging. Its primary aims are to characterize FEP patients in terms of clinical, psychological and social presentation, and to investigate the relative weight of clinical, environmental and biological factors (i.e. genetics and brain structure/functioning) in predicting the outcome of FEP. An in-depth description of the research methodology is given first. Details on recruitment phase and baseline and follow-up evaluations are then provided. Initial findings relating to patients' baseline assessments are also presented. Future planned analyses are outlined. Both strengths and limitations of PICOS are discussed in the light of issues not addressed in the current literature on FEP. This study aims at making a substantial contribution to research on FEP patients. It is hoped that the research strategies adopted in PICOS will enhance the convergence of methodologies in ongoing and future studies on FEP.

  7. Consumer cohorts and demand elasticities

    OpenAIRE

    Geir Wæhler Gustavsen

    2015-01-01

    A mixed effects model is used to estimate intercepts, price and expenditure elasticities for vegetables, meat and fish in different cohorts. Results from Wald tests reveal that intercepts for fish are higher for older cohorts than for younger cohorts, and expenditure elasticities for meat are higher for older cohorts than for younger cohorts. The implication is that over time, when younger cohorts replace older cohorts, the total expenditure share for fish is likely to decrease contributing t...

  8. Early parent-child relationships and risk of mood disorder in a Canadian sample of offspring of a parent with bipolar disorder: findings from a 16-year prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucette, Sarah; Levy, Adrian; Flowerdew, Gordon; Horrocks, Julie; Grof, Paul; Ellenbogen, Mark; Duffy, Anne

    2016-10-01

    Exposure to parental bipolar disorder (BD) early in life may increase the risk of developing a mood disorder. However, the impact of early parent-child relationships when a parent is affected and how this impacts an offspring's risk remains unclear. The primary objective of this study was to determine the association between parent-child relationships and risk of mood disorder in offspring of parents with BD and, secondly, to determine the interaction of temperament and life stress on this association. Two hundred and thirty-three offspring completed annual clinical assessments following Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders (KSADS) format interviews as part of an ongoing Canadian prospective cohort study conducted from 1996 to 2013. Offspring completed measures of early adversity, life stress and temperament. Clinical data from the affected parents were prospectively collected over the first decade of their offspring's life using SADS format interviews. Higher perceived neglect from mother and offspring emotionality were significantly associated with the hazard of mood disorder (hazard ratio (HR): 1.1, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.0-1.2 and HR: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.0-3.1, respectively). Duration of exposure to parental BD significantly interacted with offspring emotionality to predict mood disorder (P = 0.01). Further, perceived neglect from mother was associated with offspring high emotionality (P = 0.02). Neglect from mother is a significant early predictor of mood disorder in offspring at familial risk for BD and may increase emotional sensitivity. Psychosocial support and interventions for high-risk families could be beneficial in reducing early adversity, maternal neglect and the risk of subsequent mood disorders in offspring. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. Selecting registration schemes in case of interstitial lung disease follow-up in CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlachopoulos, Georgios; Korfiatis, Panayiotis; Skiadopoulos, Spyros; Kazantzi, Alexandra [Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine,University of Patras, Patras 26504 (Greece); Kalogeropoulou, Christina [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of Patras, Patras 26504 (Greece); Pratikakis, Ioannis [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, Xanthi 67100 (Greece); Costaridou, Lena, E-mail: costarid@upatras.gr [Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, University of Patras, Patras 26504 (Greece)

    2015-08-15

    Purpose: Primary goal of this study is to select optimal registration schemes in the framework of interstitial lung disease (ILD) follow-up analysis in CT. Methods: A set of 128 multiresolution schemes composed of multiresolution nonrigid and combinations of rigid and nonrigid registration schemes are evaluated, utilizing ten artificially warped ILD follow-up volumes, originating from ten clinical volumetric CT scans of ILD affected patients, to select candidate optimal schemes. Specifically, all combinations of four transformation models (three rigid: rigid, similarity, affine and one nonrigid: third order B-spline), four cost functions (sum-of-square distances, normalized correlation coefficient, mutual information, and normalized mutual information), four gradient descent optimizers (standard, regular step, adaptive stochastic, and finite difference), and two types of pyramids (recursive and Gaussian-smoothing) were considered. The selection process involves two stages. The first stage involves identification of schemes with deformation field singularities, according to the determinant of the Jacobian matrix. In the second stage, evaluation methodology is based on distance between corresponding landmark points in both normal lung parenchyma (NLP) and ILD affected regions. Statistical analysis was performed in order to select near optimal registration schemes per evaluation metric. Performance of the candidate registration schemes was verified on a case sample of ten clinical follow-up CT scans to obtain the selected registration schemes. Results: By considering near optimal schemes common to all ranking lists, 16 out of 128 registration schemes were initially selected. These schemes obtained submillimeter registration accuracies in terms of average distance errors 0.18 ± 0.01 mm for NLP and 0.20 ± 0.01 mm for ILD, in case of artificially generated follow-up data. Registration accuracy in terms of average distance error in clinical follow-up data was in the

  10. Cohort in Mozambique

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ministry of Health, the Medical Faculty at. Eduardo Mondlane University in Maputo, and. Karolinska Institutet. Results. The mean age in the cohort was 23.4 years and the age distribution is presented in Table 1. Maternal mean weight at the first antenatal visit was 58.6kg. Of retrieved women in this cohort, 9% gained less.

  11. Optimal Face-Iris Multimodal Fusion Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Sharifi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Multimodal biometric systems are considered a way to minimize the limitations raised by single traits. This paper proposes new schemes based on score level, feature level and decision level fusion to efficiently fuse face and iris modalities. Log-Gabor transformation is applied as the feature extraction method on face and iris modalities. At each level of fusion, different schemes are proposed to improve the recognition performance and, finally, a combination of schemes at different fusion levels constructs an optimized and robust scheme. In this study, CASIA Iris Distance database is used to examine the robustness of all unimodal and multimodal schemes. In addition, Backtracking Search Algorithm (BSA, a novel population-based iterative evolutionary algorithm, is applied to improve the recognition accuracy of schemes by reducing the number of features and selecting the optimized weights for feature level and score level fusion, respectively. Experimental results on verification rates demonstrate a significant improvement of proposed fusion schemes over unimodal and multimodal fusion methods.

  12. Towards an "All Speed" Unstructured Upwind Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Ching Y.; Jorgenson, Philip C.E.

    2009-01-01

    In the authors previous studies [1], a time-accurate, upwind finite volume method (ETAU scheme) for computing compressible flows on unstructured grids was proposed. The scheme is second order accurate in space and time and yields high resolution in the presence of discontinuities. The scheme features a multidimensional limiter and multidimensional numerical dissipation. These help to stabilize the numerical process and to overcome the annoying pathological behaviors of upwind schemes. In the present paper, it will be further shown that such multidimensional treatments also lead to a nearly all-speed or Mach number insensitive upwind scheme. For flows at very high Mach number, e.g., 10, local numerical instabilities or the pathological behaviors are suppressed, while for flows at very low Mach number, e.g., 0.02, computation can be directly carried out without invoking preconditioning. For flows in different Mach number regimes, i.e., low, medium, and high Mach numbers, one only needs to adjust one or two parameters in the scheme. Several examples with low and high Mach numbers are demonstrated in this paper. Thus, the ETAU scheme is applicable to a broad spectrum of flow regimes ranging from high supersonic to low subsonic, appropriate for both CFD (computational fluid dynamics) and CAA (computational aeroacoustics).

  13. Ponzi scheme diffusion in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Anding; Fu, Peihua; Zhang, Qinghe; Chen, Zhenyue

    2017-08-01

    Ponzi schemes taking the form of Internet-based financial schemes have been negatively affecting China's economy for the last two years. Because there is currently a lack of modeling research on Ponzi scheme diffusion within social networks yet, we develop a potential-investor-divestor (PID) model to investigate the diffusion dynamics of Ponzi scheme in both homogeneous and inhomogeneous networks. Our simulation study of artificial and real Facebook social networks shows that the structure of investor networks does indeed affect the characteristics of dynamics. Both the average degree of distribution and the power-law degree of distribution will reduce the spreading critical threshold and will speed up the rate of diffusion. A high speed of diffusion is the key to alleviating the interest burden and improving the financial outcomes for the Ponzi scheme operator. The zero-crossing point of fund flux function we introduce proves to be a feasible index for reflecting the fast-worsening situation of fiscal instability and predicting the forthcoming collapse. The faster the scheme diffuses, the higher a peak it will reach and the sooner it will collapse. We should keep a vigilant eye on the harm of Ponzi scheme diffusion through modern social networks.

  14. Secure Electronic Cash Scheme with Anonymity Revocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoyuan Kang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In a popular electronic cash scheme, there are three participants: the bank, the customer, and the merchant. First, a customer opens an account in a bank. Then, he withdraws an e-cash from his account and pays it to a merchant. After checking the electronic cash’s validity, the merchant accepts it and deposits it to the bank. There are a number of requirements for an electronic cash scheme, such as, anonymity, unforgeability, unreusability, divisibility, transferability, and portability. Anonymity property of electronic cash schemes can ensure the privacy of payers. However, this anonymity property is easily abused by criminals. In 2011, Chen et al. proposed a novel electronic cash system with trustee-based anonymity revocation from pairing. On demand, the trustee can disclose the identity for e-cash. But, in this paper we point out that Chen et al.’s scheme is subjected to some drawbacks. To contribute secure electronic cash schemes, we propose a new offline electronic cash scheme with anonymity revocation. We also provide the formally security proofs of the unlinkability and unforgeability. Furthermore, the proposed scheme ensures the property of avoiding merchant frauds.

  15. An efficient multi-scale Green's function reaction dynamics scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbailò, Luigi; Noé, Frank

    2017-11-14

    Molecular Dynamics-Green's Function Reaction Dynamics (MD-GFRD) is a multiscale simulation method for particle dynamics or particle-based reaction-diffusion dynamics that is suited for systems involving low particle densities. Particles in a low-density region are just diffusing and not interacting. In this case, one can avoid the costly integration of microscopic equations of motion, such as molecular dynamics (MD), and instead turn to an event-based scheme in which the times to the next particle interaction and the new particle positions at that time can be sampled. At high (local) concentrations, however, e.g., when particles are interacting in a nontrivial way, particle positions must still be updated with small time steps of the microscopic dynamical equations. The efficiency of a multi-scale simulation that uses these two schemes largely depends on the coupling between them and the decisions when to switch between the two scales. Here we present an efficient scheme for multi-scale MD-GFRD simulations. It has been shown that MD-GFRD schemes are more efficient than brute-force molecular dynamics simulations up to a molar concentration of 102 μM. In this paper, we show that the choice of the propagation domains has a relevant impact on the computational performance. Domains are constructed using a local optimization of their sizes and a minimal domain size is proposed. The algorithm is shown to be more efficient than brute-force Brownian dynamics simulations up to a molar concentration of 103 μM and is up to an order of magnitude more efficient compared with previous MD-GFRD schemes.

  16. An efficient multi-scale Green's function reaction dynamics scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbailò, Luigi; Noé, Frank

    2017-11-01

    Molecular Dynamics-Green's Function Reaction Dynamics (MD-GFRD) is a multiscale simulation method for particle dynamics or particle-based reaction-diffusion dynamics that is suited for systems involving low particle densities. Particles in a low-density region are just diffusing and not interacting. In this case, one can avoid the costly integration of microscopic equations of motion, such as molecular dynamics (MD), and instead turn to an event-based scheme in which the times to the next particle interaction and the new particle positions at that time can be sampled. At high (local) concentrations, however, e.g., when particles are interacting in a nontrivial way, particle positions must still be updated with small time steps of the microscopic dynamical equations. The efficiency of a multi-scale simulation that uses these two schemes largely depends on the coupling between them and the decisions when to switch between the two scales. Here we present an efficient scheme for multi-scale MD-GFRD simulations. It has been shown that MD-GFRD schemes are more efficient than brute-force molecular dynamics simulations up to a molar concentration of 102 μM. In this paper, we show that the choice of the propagation domains has a relevant impact on the computational performance. Domains are constructed using a local optimization of their sizes and a minimal domain size is proposed. The algorithm is shown to be more efficient than brute-force Brownian dynamics simulations up to a molar concentration of 103 μM and is up to an order of magnitude more efficient compared with previous MD-GFRD schemes.

  17. Copenhagen Airport Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Karina Lauenborg; Brauer, Charlotte; Mikkelsen, Sigurd

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Copenhagen Airport Cohort 1990-2012 presents a unique data source for studies of health effects of occupational exposure to air pollution (ultrafine particles) and manual baggage handling among airport employees. We describe the extent of information in the cohort and in the follow...... covers 69 175 men in unskilled positions. The exposed cohort includes men in unskilled jobs employed at Copenhagen Airport in the period 1990-2012 either as baggage handlers or in other outdoor work. The reference cohort includes men in unskilled jobs working in the greater Copenhagen area. FINDINGS...... TO DATE: The cohort includes environmental Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements in Copenhagen Airport, information on job function/task for each calendar year of employment between 1990 and 2012, exposure to air pollution at residence, average weight of baggage lifted per day and lifestyle...

  18. Deitmar schemes, graphs and zeta functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mérida-Angulo, Manuel; Thas, Koen

    2017-07-01

    In Thas (2014) it was explained how one can naturally associate a Deitmar scheme (which is a scheme defined over the field with one element, F1) to a so-called ;loose graph; (which is a generalization of a graph). Several properties of the Deitmar scheme can be proven easily from the combinatorics of the (loose) graph, and known realizations of objects over F1 such as combinatorial F1-projective and F1-affine spaces exactly depict the loose graph which corresponds to the associated Deitmar scheme. In this paper, we first modify the construction of loc. cit., and show that Deitmar schemes which are defined by finite trees (with possible end points) are ;defined over F1; in Kurokawa's sense; we then derive a precise formula for the Kurokawa zeta function for such schemes (and so also for the counting polynomial of all associated Fq-schemes). As a corollary, we find a zeta function for all such trees which contains information such as the number of inner points and the spectrum of degrees, and which is thus very different than Ihara's zeta function (which is trivial in this case). Using a process called ;surgery,; we show that one can determine the zeta function of a general loose graph and its associated {Deitmar, Grothendieck}-schemes in a number of steps, eventually reducing the calculation essentially to trees. We study a number of classes of examples of loose graphs, and introduce the Grothendieck ring ofF1-schemes along the way in order to perform the calculations. Finally, we include a computer program for performing more tedious calculations, and compare the new zeta function to Ihara's zeta function for graphs in a number of examples.

  19. Vector domain decomposition schemes for parabolic equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vabishchevich, P. N.

    2017-09-01

    A new class of domain decomposition schemes for finding approximate solutions of timedependent problems for partial differential equations is proposed and studied. A boundary value problem for a second-order parabolic equation is used as a model problem. The general approach to the construction of domain decomposition schemes is based on partition of unity. Specifically, a vector problem is set up for solving problems in individual subdomains. Stability conditions for vector regionally additive schemes of first- and second-order accuracy are obtained.

  20. Algebraic K-theory of generalized schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anevski, Stella Victoria Desiree

    and geometry over the field with one element. It also permits the construction of important Arakelov theoretical objects, such as the completion \\Spec Z of Spec Z. In this thesis, we prove a projective bundle theorem for the eld with one element and compute the Chow rings of the generalized schemes Sp\\ec ZN......Nikolai Durov has developed a generalization of conventional scheme theory in which commutative algebraic monads replace commutative unital rings as the basic algebraic objects. The resulting geometry is expressive enough to encompass conventional scheme theory, tropical algebraic geometry......, appearing in the construction of \\Spec Z....

  1. Galilean invariant resummation schemes of cosmological perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peloso, Marco; Pietroni, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    Many of the methods proposed so far to go beyond Standard Perturbation Theory break invariance under time-dependent boosts (denoted here as extended Galilean Invariance, or GI). This gives rise to spurious large scale effects which spoil the small scale predictions of these approximation schemes. By using consistency relations we derive fully non-perturbative constraints that GI imposes on correlation functions. We then introduce a method to quantify the amount of GI breaking of a given scheme, and to correct it by properly tailored counterterms. Finally, we formulate resummation schemes which are manifestly GI, discuss their general features, and implement them in the so called Time-Flow, or TRG, equations.

  2. Finite-volume scheme for anisotropic diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Es, Bram van, E-mail: bramiozo@gmail.com [Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica, P.O. Box 94079, 1090GB Amsterdam (Netherlands); FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, The Netherlands" 1 (Netherlands); Koren, Barry [Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands); Blank, Hugo J. de [FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, The Netherlands" 1 (Netherlands)

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we apply a special finite-volume scheme, limited to smooth temperature distributions and Cartesian grids, to test the importance of connectivity of the finite volumes. The area of application is nuclear fusion plasma with field line aligned temperature gradients and extreme anisotropy. We apply the scheme to the anisotropic heat-conduction equation, and compare its results with those of existing finite-volume schemes for anisotropic diffusion. Also, we introduce a general model adaptation of the steady diffusion equation for extremely anisotropic diffusion problems with closed field lines.

  3. Cognitive radio networks dynamic resource allocation schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Shaowei

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief presents a survey of dynamic resource allocation schemes in Cognitive Radio (CR) Systems, focusing on the spectral-efficiency and energy-efficiency in wireless networks. It also introduces a variety of dynamic resource allocation schemes for CR networks and provides a concise introduction of the landscape of CR technology. The author covers in detail the dynamic resource allocation problem for the motivations and challenges in CR systems. The Spectral- and Energy-Efficient resource allocation schemes are comprehensively investigated, including new insights into the trade-off

  4. Graph state-based quantum authentication scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Longxia; Peng, Xiaoqi; Shi, Jinjing; Guo, Ying

    2017-04-01

    Inspired by the special properties of the graph state, a quantum authentication scheme is proposed in this paper, which is implemented with the utilization of the graph state. Two entities, a reliable party, Trent, as a verifier and Alice as prover are included. Trent is responsible for registering Alice in the beginning and confirming Alice in the end. The proposed scheme is simple in structure and convenient to realize in the realistic physical system due to the use of the graph state in a one-way quantum channel. In addition, the security of the scheme is extensively analyzed and accordingly can resist the general individual attack strategies.

  5. Autonomous Droop Scheme With Reduced Generation Cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nutkani, Inam Ullah; Loh, Poh Chiang; Wang, Peng

    2014-01-01

    . This objective might, however, not suit microgrids well since DGs are usually of different types, unlike synchronous generators. Other factors like cost, efficiency, and emission penalty of each DG at different loading must be considered since they contribute directly to the total generation cost (TGC......) of the microgrid. To reduce this TGC without relying on fast communication links, an autonomous droop scheme is proposed here, whose resulting power sharing is decided by the individual DG generation costs. Comparing it with the traditional scheme, the proposed scheme retains its simplicity and it is hence more...

  6. Performance Characteristics of FilmArray Respiratory Panel v1.7 for Detection of Adenovirus in a Large Cohort of Pediatric Nasopharyngeal Samples: One Test May Not Fit All.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Eunkyung; Wang, Huanyu; Salamon, Doug; Jaggi, Preeti; Leber, Amy

    2016-06-01

    The FilmArray Respiratory Panel (RP) v1.7 assay has improved sensitivity for detection of human adenovirus (HAdV), compared to an earlier version (RP v1.6). RP v1.7 was designed for detection of species B, C, and E but may show variable detection of species A, D, and F. We sought to evaluate the clinical and analytical performance of RP v1.7 for detection of HAdV in a large pediatric cohort. Respiratory specimens obtained from a tertiary care children's hospital between February 2014 and February 2015 were tested for HAdV by RP v1.7. If the RP v1.7 results were negative for HAdV, then the specimens were reflexed to a HAdV-specific laboratory-developed PCR (LD-PCR) assay for confirmation. A subset of specimens underwent secondary confirmatory testing using another commercially available HAdV PCR assay and a molecular typing assay for species identification. Among 4,750 specimens, a total of 146 specimens (3.1%) were HAdV positive by RP v1.7. HAdV was detected by LD-PCR in an additional 220 specimens that were negative by RP v1.7. Overall, a nearly 5% increase in HAdV detection was observed when RP v1.7-negative specimens were reflexed to LD-PCR testing. RP v1.7 did not detect HAdV with either low viral burden (threshold cycle values of >30) or nonrespiratory species (species A, D, and F), as shown in both clinical and analytic data. While the level of sensitivity of RP v1.7 may be adequate for testing among otherwise healthy children, the decreased sensitivity may be problematic for immunocompromised patients, in whom low levels of HAdV in the respiratory tract may precede systemic infection and require early intervention. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Password authentication scheme based on the quadratic residue problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Muhammad Helmi; Ismail, Eddie Shahril

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a new password-authentication scheme based on quadratic residue problem with the following advantages: the scheme does not require a verification file, and the scheme can withstand replay attacks and resist from the guessing and impersonation attacks. We next discuss the advantages of our designated scheme over other schemes in terms of security and efficiency.

  8. A survey of Strong Convergent Schemes for the Simulation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We considered strong convergent stochastic schemes for the simulation of stochastic differential equations. The stochastic Taylor's expansion, which is the main tool used for the derivation of strong convergent schemes; the Euler Maruyama, Milstein scheme, stochastic multistep schemes, Implicit and Explicit schemes were ...

  9. A Climate Classification Scheme for Habitable Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, J. F.

    2017-11-01

    This presentation will include an exploration of the internal/external forcings and variability associated with climate using Earth as a reference model in addition to a classification scheme consisting of five categories.

  10. Secure Wake-Up Scheme for WBANs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing-Wei; Ameen, Moshaddique Al; Kwak, Kyung-Sup

    Network life time and hence device life time is one of the fundamental metrics in wireless body area networks (WBAN). To prolong it, especially those of implanted sensors, each node must conserve its energy as much as possible. While a variety of wake-up/sleep mechanisms have been proposed, the wake-up radio potentially serves as a vehicle to introduce vulnerabilities and attacks to WBAN, eventually resulting in its malfunctions. In this paper, we propose a novel secure wake-up scheme, in which a wake-up authentication code (WAC) is employed to ensure that a BAN Node (BN) is woken up by the correct BAN Network Controller (BNC) rather than unintended users or malicious attackers. The scheme is thus particularly implemented by a two-radio architecture. We show that our scheme provides higher security while consuming less energy than the existing schemes.

  11. Renormalization scheme dependence with renormalization group summation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeon, D. G. C.

    2015-08-01

    We consider all perturbative radiative corrections to the total e+e- annihilation cross section Re+e- showing how the renormalization group (RG) equation associated with the radiatively induced mass scale μ can be used to sum the logarithmic contributions in two ways. First of all, one can sum leading-log, next-to-leading-log, etc., contributions to Re+e- using in turn the one-loop, two-loop, etc., contributions to the RG function β . A second summation shows how all logarithmic corrections to Re+e- can be expressed entirely in terms of the log-independent contributions when one employs the full β -function. Next, using Stevenson's characterization of any choice of renormalization scheme by the use of the contributions to the β -function arising beyond two-loop order, we examine the RG scheme dependence in Re+e- when using the second way of summing logarithms. The renormalization scheme invariants that arise are then related to the renormalization scheme invariants found by Stevenson. We next consider two choices of the renormalization scheme, one which can be used to express Re+e- solely in terms of two powers of a running coupling, and the second which can be used to express Re+e- as an infinite series in the two-loop running coupling (i.e., a Lambert W -function). In both cases, Re+e- is expressed solely in terms of renormalization scheme invariant parameters that are to be computed by a perturbative evaluation of Re+e-. We then establish how in general the coupling constant arising in one renormalization scheme can be expressed as a power series of the coupling arising in any other scheme. We then establish how, by using a different renormalization mass scale at each order of perturbation theory, all renormalization scheme dependence can be absorbed into these mass scales when one uses the second way of summing logarithmic corrections to Re+e-. We then employ the approach to renormalization scheme dependency that we have applied to Re+e- to a RG summed

  12. Asynchronous Communication Scheme For Hypercube Computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Herb S.

    1988-01-01

    Scheme devised for asynchronous-message communication system for Mark III hypercube concurrent-processor network. Network consists of up to 1,024 processing elements connected electrically as though were at corners of 10-dimensional cube. Each node contains two Motorola 68020 processors along with Motorola 68881 floating-point processor utilizing up to 4 megabytes of shared dynamic random-access memory. Scheme intended to support applications requiring passage of both polled or solicited and unsolicited messages.

  13. Navigators’ Behavior in Traffic Separation Schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Pietrzykowski

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the areas of decision support in the navigational ship conduct process is a Traffic Separation Scheme. TSSs are established in areas with high traffic density, often near the shore and in port approaches. The main purpose of these schemes is to improve maritime safety by channeling vessel traffic into streams. Traffic regulations as well as ships behavior in real conditions in chosen TSSs have been analyzed in order to develop decision support algorithms.

  14. Dynamic Restarting Schemes for Eigenvalue Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Kesheng; Simon, Horst D.

    1999-03-10

    In studies of restarted Davidson method, a dynamic thick-restart scheme was found to be excellent in improving the overall effectiveness of the eigen value method. This paper extends the study of the dynamic thick-restart scheme to the Lanczos method for symmetric eigen value problems and systematically explore a range of heuristics and strategies. We conduct a series of numerical tests to determine their relative strength and weakness on a class of electronic structure calculation problems.

  15. Designing quantum-dot cellular automata circuits using a robust one layer crossover scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Hashemi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA is a novel nanotechnology which is considered as a solution to the scaling problems in complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology. In this Letter, a robust one layer crossover scheme is introduced. It uses only 90° QCA cells and works based on a proper clock assignment. The application of this new scheme is shown in designing a sample QCA circuit. Simulation results demonstrate that using this new scheme, significant improvements in terms of area and complexity can be achieved.

  16. Cancer Epidemiology Cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohort studies are fundamental for epidemiological research by helping researchers better understand the etiology of cancer and provide insights into the key determinants of this disease and its outcomes.

  17. Sampling strategies for efficient estimation of tree foliage biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailemariam Temesgen; Vicente Monleon; Aaron Weiskittel; Duncan Wilson

    2011-01-01

    Conifer crowns can be highly variable both within and between trees, particularly with respect to foliage biomass and leaf area. A variety of sampling schemes have been used to estimate biomass and leaf area at the individual tree and stand scales. Rarely has the effectiveness of these sampling schemes been compared across stands or even across species. In addition,...

  18. 1970 British Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Brown

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70 is one of Britain’s world famous national longitudinal birth cohort studies, three of which are run by the Centre for Longitudinal Studies at the Institute of Education, University of London.  BCS70 follows the lives of more than 17,000 people born in England, Scotland and Wales in a single week of 1970. Over the course of cohort members lives, the BCS70 has collected information on health, physical, educational and social development, and economic circumstances among other factors. Since the birth survey in 1970, there have been nine ‘sweeps’ of all cohort members at ages 5, 10, 16, 26, 30, 34, 38 and most recently at 42. Data has been collected from a number of different sources (the midwife present at birth, parents of the cohort members, head and class teachers, school health service personnel and the cohort members themselves. The data has been collected in a variety of ways including via paper and electronic questionnaires, clinical records, medical examinations, physical measurements, tests of ability, educational assessments and diaries. The majority of BCS70 survey data can be accessed by bona fide researchers through the UK Data Service at the University of Essex.

  19. Combining image-processing and image compression schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenspan, H.; Lee, M.-C.

    1995-01-01

    An investigation into the combining of image-processing schemes, specifically an image enhancement scheme, with existing compression schemes is discussed. Results are presented on the pyramid coding scheme, the subband coding scheme, and progressive transmission. Encouraging results are demonstrated for the combination of image enhancement and pyramid image coding schemes, especially at low bit rates. Adding the enhancement scheme to progressive image transmission allows enhanced visual perception at low resolutions. In addition, further progressing of the transmitted images, such as edge detection schemes, can gain from the added image resolution via the enhancement.

  20. Confirming theoretical pay constructs of a variable pay scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibangilizwe Ncube

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Return on the investment in variable pay programmes remains controversial because their cost versus contribution cannot be empirically justified. Research purpose: This study validates the findings of the model developed by De Swardt on the factors related to successful variable pay programmes.Motivation for the study: Many organisations blindly implement variable pay programmes without any means to assess the impact these programmes have on the company’s performance. This study was necessary to validate the findings of an existing instrument that validates the contribution of variable pay schemes.Research design, approach and method: The study was conducted using quantitative research. A total of 300 completed questionnaires from a non-purposive sample of 3000 participants in schemes across all South African industries were returned and analysed.Main findings: Using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, it was found that the validation instrument developed by De Swardt is still largely valid in evaluating variable pay schemes. The differences between the study and the model were reported.Practical/managerial implications: The study confirmed the robustness of an existing model that enables practitioners to empirically validate the use of variable pay plans. This model assists in the design and implementation of variable pay programmes that meet critical success factors.Contribution/value-add: The study contributed to the development of a measurement instrument that will assess whether a variable pay plan contributes to an organisation’s success.

  1. Statistical challenges in observational cohort studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hof, M.H.P.

    2015-01-01

    For over a century observational cohort studies have been used to study determinants of health and disease. Within a sample from the population, we can determine the relation between health outcomes (e.g. death) and a broad range of factors as genetic markers, environmental exposures, and lifestyle

  2. Cross-level interaction between individual socioeconomic status and regional deprivation on overall survival after onset of ischemic stroke: National health insurance cohort sample data from 2002 to 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeyong Shin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The literature on stroke mortality and neighborhood effect is characterized by studies that are often Western society-oriented, with a lack of racial and cultural diversity. We estimated the effect of cross-level interaction between individual and regional socioeconomic status on the survival after onset of ischemic stroke. Methods: We selected newly diagnosed ischemic stroke patients from 2002 to 2013 using stratified representative sampling data of 1,025,340 subjects. A total of 37,044 patients over the 10 years from 2004 to 2013 had newly diagnosed stroke. We calculated hazard ratios (HR of 12- and 36-month mortality using the Cox proportional hazard model, with the reference group as stroke patients with high income in advantaged regions. Results: For the middle income level, the patients in advantaged regions showed low HRs for overall mortality (12-month HR 1.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13–1.44; 36-month HR 1.25; 95% CI, 1.14–1.37 compared to the others in disadvantaged regions (12-month HR 1.36; 95% CI, 1.19–1.56; 36-month HR 1.30; 95% CI, 1.17–1.44. Interestingly, for the low income level, the patients in advantaged regions showed high HRs for overall mortality (12-month HR 1.27; 95% CI, 1.13–1.44; 36-month HR 1.33; 95% CI, 1.22–1.46 compared to the others in disadvantaged regions (12-month HR 1.25; 95% CI, 1.09–1.43; 36-month HR 1.30; 95% CI, 1.18–1.44. Conclusion: Although we need to perform further investigations to determine the exact mechanisms, regional deprivation, as well as medical factors, might be associated with survival after onset of ischemic stroke in low-income patients.

  3. CLSI-based transference of the CALIPER database of pediatric reference intervals from Abbott to Beckman, Ortho, Roche and Siemens Clinical Chemistry Assays: direct validation using reference samples from the CALIPER cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estey, Mathew P; Cohen, Ashley H; Colantonio, David A; Chan, Man Khun; Marvasti, Tina Binesh; Randell, Edward; Delvin, Edgard; Cousineau, Jocelyne; Grey, Vijaylaxmi; Greenway, Donald; Meng, Qing H; Jung, Benjamin; Bhuiyan, Jalaluddin; Seccombe, David; Adeli, Khosrow

    2013-09-01

    The CALIPER program recently established a comprehensive database of age- and sex-stratified pediatric reference intervals for 40 biochemical markers. However, this database was only directly applicable for Abbott ARCHITECT assays. We therefore sought to expand the scope of this database to biochemical assays from other major manufacturers, allowing for a much wider application of the CALIPER database. Based on CLSI C28-A3 and EP9-A2 guidelines, CALIPER reference intervals were transferred (using specific statistical criteria) to assays performed on four other commonly used clinical chemistry platforms including Beckman Coulter DxC800, Ortho Vitros 5600, Roche Cobas 6000, and Siemens Vista 1500. The resulting reference intervals were subjected to a thorough validation using 100 reference specimens (healthy community children and adolescents) from the CALIPER bio-bank, and all testing centers participated in an external quality assessment (EQA) evaluation. In general, the transferred pediatric reference intervals were similar to those established in our previous study. However, assay-specific differences in reference limits were observed for many analytes, and in some instances were considerable. The results of the EQA evaluation generally mimicked the similarities and differences in reference limits among the five manufacturers' assays. In addition, the majority of transferred reference intervals were validated through the analysis of CALIPER reference samples. This study greatly extends the utility of the CALIPER reference interval database which is now directly applicable for assays performed on five major analytical platforms in clinical use, and should permit the worldwide application of CALIPER pediatric reference intervals. Copyright © 2013 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Low-sampling-rate ultra-wideband digital receiver using equivalent-time sampling

    KAUST Repository

    Ballal, Tarig

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we propose an all-digital scheme for ultra-wideband symbol detection. In the proposed scheme, the received symbols are sampled many times below the Nyquist rate. It is shown that when the number of symbol repetitions, P, is co-prime with the symbol duration given in Nyquist samples, the receiver can sample the received data P times below the Nyquist rate, without loss of fidelity. The proposed scheme is applied to perform channel estimation and binary pulse position modulation (BPPM) detection. Results are presented for two receivers operating at two different sampling rates that are 10 and 20 times below the Nyquist rate. The feasibility of the proposed scheme is demonstrated in different scenarios, with reasonable bit error rates obtained in most of the cases.

  5. Balanced sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    In balanced sampling a linear relation between the soil property of interest and one or more covariates with known means is exploited in selecting the sampling locations. Recent developments make this sampling design attractive for statistical soil surveys. This paper introduces balanced sampling

  6. Short-Term Saved Leave Scheme

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    As announced at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) on 26 June 2007 and in http://Bulletin No. 28/2007, the existing Saved Leave Scheme will be discontinued as of 31 December 2007. Staff participating in the Scheme will shortly receive a contract amendment stipulating the end of financial contributions compensated by save leave. Leave already accumulated on saved leave accounts can continue to be taken in accordance with the rules applicable to the current scheme. A new system of saved leave will enter into force on 1 January 2008 and will be the subject of a new im-plementation procedure entitled "Short-term saved leave scheme" dated 1 January 2008. At its meeting on 4 December 2007, the SCC agreed to recommend the Director-General to approve this procedure, which can be consulted on the HR Department’s website at the following address: https://cern.ch/hr-services/services-Ben/sls_shortterm.asp All staff wishing to participate in the new scheme ...

  7. Short-Term Saved Leave Scheme

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    As announced at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) on 26 June 2007 and in http://Bulletin No. 28/2007, the existing Saved Leave Scheme will be discontinued as of 31 December 2007. Staff participating in the Scheme will shortly receive a contract amendment stipulating the end of financial contributions compensated by save leave. Leave already accumulated on saved leave accounts can continue to be taken in accordance with the rules applicable to the current scheme. A new system of saved leave will enter into force on 1 January 2008 and will be the subject of a new implementation procedure entitled "Short-term saved leave scheme" dated 1 January 2008. At its meeting on 4 December 2007, the SCC agreed to recommend the Director-General to approve this procedure, which can be consulted on the HR Department’s website at the following address: https://cern.ch/hr-services/services-Ben/sls_shortterm.asp All staff wishing to participate in the new scheme a...

  8. Financial incentive schemes in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillam S

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Stephen Gillam Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Institute of Public Health, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK Abstract: Pay-for-performance (P4P schemes have become increasingly common in primary care, and this article reviews their impact. It is based primarily on existing systematic reviews. The evidence suggests that P4P schemes can change health professionals' behavior and improve recorded disease management of those clinical processes that are incentivized. P4P may narrow inequalities in performance comparing deprived with nondeprived areas. However, such schemes have unintended consequences. Whether P4P improves the patient experience, the outcomes of care or population health is less clear. These practical uncertainties mirror the ethical concerns of many clinicians that a reductionist approach to managing markers of chronic disease runs counter to the humanitarian values of family practice. The variation in P4P schemes between countries reflects different historical and organizational contexts. With so much uncertainty regarding the effects of P4P, policy makers are well advised to proceed carefully with the implementation of such schemes until and unless clearer evidence for their cost–benefit emerges. Keywords: financial incentives, pay for performance, quality improvement, primary care

  9. Using full-cohort data in nested case-control and case-cohort studies by multiple imputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Ruth H; White, Ian R

    2013-10-15

    In many large prospective cohorts, expensive exposure measurements cannot be obtained for all individuals. Exposure-disease association studies are therefore often based on nested case-control or case-cohort studies in which complete information is obtained only for sampled individuals. However, in the full cohort, there may be a large amount of information on cheaply available covariates and possibly a surrogate of the main exposure(s), which typically goes unused. We view the nested case-control or case-cohort study plus the remainder of the cohort as a full-cohort study with missing data. Hence, we propose using multiple imputation (MI) to utilise information in the full cohort when data from the sub-studies are analysed. We use the fully observed data to fit the imputation models. We consider using approximate imputation models and also using rejection sampling to draw imputed values from the true distribution of the missing values given the observed data. Simulation studies show that using MI to utilise full-cohort information in the analysis of nested case-control and case-cohort studies can result in important gains in efficiency, particularly when a surrogate of the main exposure is available in the full cohort. In simulations, this method outperforms counter-matching in nested case-control studies and a weighted analysis for case-cohort studies, both of which use some full-cohort information. Approximate imputation models perform well except when there are interactions or non-linear terms in the outcome model, where imputation using rejection sampling works well. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. METAPHORIC MECHANISMS IN IMAGE SCHEME DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankratova, S.A.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Problems of knowledge representation by means of images are still cognitively significant and invariably modern. The article deals with the image heuristic potential of a bookish sphere as a donor of meanings, aiding metaphoric scheme development of another modern sphere of cinematography. The key factor here is the differentiation between two basically different metaphor types – heuristic epiphora and image diaphora. The author had offered a unique methodology of counting of quantitative parameters of heuristic potential which opens the possibility of modeling the mechanisms of metaphoric meaning development. In the summary the author underscores that both ways of image scheme development are of importance to cognitive science, both heuristic epiphora and image-based diaphora play a significant role in the explication of image scheme development.

  11. IPCT: A scheme for mobile authentication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishnu Shankar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mobile is becoming a part of everyone's life and as their power of computation and storage is rising and cost is coming down. Most of mobile phone users have a lot of private data which they want to protect from others (La Polla et al., 2013. It means user must be authenticated properly for accessing the mobile resources. Normally user is authenticated using text passwords, PIN, face recognition or patterns etc. All these methods are used but they have some shortcomings. In this paper we have seen various existing methods of mobile authentications and proposed our improved mobile authentication IPCT scheme. We have compared our Image Pass Code with tapping scheme with existing techniques and shown that our scheme is better than existing techniques.

  12. Tradable white certificate schemes : what can we learn from tradable green certificate schemes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oikonomou, Vlasis; Mundaca, Luis

    In this paper, we analyze the experiences gained from tradable green certificate (TGC) schemes and extract some policy lessons that can lead to a successful design of a market-based approach for energy efficiency improvement, alias tradable white certificate schemes. We use tradable green

  13. A simple angular transmit diversity scheme using a single RF frontend for PSK modulation schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrabadi, Osama Nafeth Saleem; Papadias, Constantinos B.; Kalis, Antonis

    2009-01-01

    array (SPA) with a single transceiver, and an array area of 0.0625 square wavelengths. The scheme which requires no channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter, provides mainly a diversity gain to combat against multipath fading. The performance/capacity of the proposed diversity scheme...

  14. Carbon trading: Current schemes and future developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perdan, Slobodan, E-mail: slobodan.perdan@manchester.ac.uk [School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science, Room F30, The Mill, University of Manchester, Sackville Street, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Azapagic, Adisa [School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science, Room F30, The Mill, University of Manchester, Sackville Street, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-15

    This paper looks at the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions trading schemes and examines the prospects of carbon trading. The first part of the paper gives an overview of several mandatory GHG trading schemes around the world. The second part focuses on the future trends in carbon trading. It argues that the emergence of new schemes, a gradual enlargement of the current ones, and willingness to link existing and planned schemes seem to point towards geographical, temporal and sectoral expansion of emissions trading. However, such expansion would need to overcome some considerable technical and non-technical obstacles. Linking of the current and emerging trading schemes requires not only considerable technical fixes and harmonisation of different trading systems, but also necessitates clear regulatory and policy signals, continuing political support and a more stable economic environment. Currently, the latter factors are missing. The global economic turmoil and its repercussions for the carbon market, a lack of the international deal on climate change defining the Post-Kyoto commitments, and unfavourable policy shifts in some countries, cast serious doubts on the expansion of emissions trading and indicate that carbon trading enters an uncertain period. - Highlights: > The paper provides an extensive overview of mandatory emissions trading schemes around the world. > Geographical, temporal and sectoral expansion of emissions trading are identified as future trends. > The expansion requires considerable technical fixes and harmonisation of different trading systems. > Clear policy signals, political support and a stable economic environment are needed for the expansion. > A lack of the post-Kyoto commitments and unfavourable policy shifts indicate an uncertain future for carbon trading.

  15. Clocking Scheme for Switched-Capacitor Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensgaard-Madsen, Jesper

    1998-01-01

    A novel clocking scheme for switched-capacitor (SC) circuits is presented. It can enhance the understanding of SC circuits and the errors caused by MOSFET (MOS) switches. Charge errors, and techniques to make SC circuits less sensitive to them are discussed.......A novel clocking scheme for switched-capacitor (SC) circuits is presented. It can enhance the understanding of SC circuits and the errors caused by MOSFET (MOS) switches. Charge errors, and techniques to make SC circuits less sensitive to them are discussed....

  16. An Elaborate Secure Quantum Voting Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia-Lei; Xie, Shu-Cui; Zhang, Jian-Zhong

    2017-10-01

    An elaborate secure quantum voting scheme is presented in this paper. It is based on quantum proxy blind signature. The eligible voter's voting information can be transmitted to the tallyman Bob with the help of the scrutineer Charlie. Charlie's supervision in the whole voting process can make the protocol satisfy fairness and un-repeatability so as to avoid Bob's dishonest behaviour. Our scheme uses the physical characteristics of quantum mechanics to achieve voting, counting and immediate supervision. In addition, the program also uses quantum key distribution protocol and quantum one-time pad to guarantee its unconditional security.

  17. A COMPLETE SCHEME FOR A MUON COLLIDER.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PALMER,R.B.; BERG, J.S.; FERNOW, R.C.; GALLARDO, J.C.; KIRK, H.G.; ALEXAHIN, Y.; NEUFFER, D.; KAHN, S.A.; SUMMERS, D.

    2007-09-01

    A complete scheme for production, cooling, acceleration, and ring for a 1.5 TeV center of mass muon collider is presented, together with parameters for two higher energy machines. The schemes starts with the front end of a proposed neutrino factory that yields bunch trains of both muon signs. Six dimensional cooling in long-period helical lattices reduces the longitudinal emittance until it becomes possible to merge the trains into single bunches, one of each sign. Further cooling in all dimensions is applied to the single bunches in further helical lattices. Final transverse cooling to the required parameters is achieved in 50 T solenoids.

  18. Autonomous droop scheme with reduced generation cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nutkani, Inam Ullah; Loh, Poh Chiang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    Droop scheme has been widely applied to the control of Distributed Generators (DGs) in microgrids for proportional power sharing based on their ratings. For standalone microgrid, where centralized management system is not viable, the proportional power sharing based droop might not suit well since...... DGs are usually of different types unlike synchronous generators. This paper presents an autonomous droop scheme that takes into consideration the operating cost, efficiency and emission penalty of each DG since all these factors directly or indirectly contributes to the Total Generation Cost (TGC...

  19. Security problem on arbitrated quantum signature schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jeong Woon [Emerging Technology R and D Center, SK Telecom, Kyunggi 463-784 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Ku-Young; Hong, Dowon [Cryptography Research Team, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    Many arbitrated quantum signature schemes implemented with the help of a trusted third party have been developed up to now. In order to guarantee unconditional security, most of them take advantage of the optimal quantum one-time encryption based on Pauli operators. However, in this paper we point out that the previous schemes provide security only against a total break attack and show in fact that there exists an existential forgery attack that can validly modify the transmitted pair of message and signature. In addition, we also provide a simple method to recover security against the proposed attack.

  20. Droop Scheme With Consideration of Operating Costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nutkani, I. U.; Loh, Poh Chiang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    considered even though they are different for different types of DGs. This letter thus proposes an alternative droop scheme, which can better distinguish the different operating characteristics and objectives of the DGs grouped together in a weighted droop expression. The power sharing arrived in the steady......Although many droop schemes have been proposed for distributed generator (DG) control in a microgrid, they mainly focus on achieving proportional power sharing based on the DG kVA ratings. Other factors like generation costs, efficiencies, and emission penalties at different loads have not been...

  1. Experimental validation of convection-diffusion discretisation scheme employed for computational modelling of biological mass transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ku David N

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The finite volume solver Fluent (Lebanon, NH, USA is a computational fluid dynamics software employed to analyse biological mass-transport in the vasculature. A principal consideration for computational modelling of blood-side mass-transport is convection-diffusion discretisation scheme selection. Due to numerous discretisation schemes available when developing a mass-transport numerical model, the results obtained should either be validated against benchmark theoretical solutions or experimentally obtained results. Methods An idealised aneurysm model was selected for the experimental and computational mass-transport analysis of species concentration due to its well-defined recirculation region within the aneurysmal sac, allowing species concentration to vary slowly with time. The experimental results were obtained from fluid samples extracted from a glass aneurysm model, using the direct spectrophometric concentration measurement technique. The computational analysis was conducted using the four convection-diffusion discretisation schemes available to the Fluent user, including the First-Order Upwind, the Power Law, the Second-Order Upwind and the Quadratic Upstream Interpolation for Convective Kinetics (QUICK schemes. The fluid has a diffusivity of 3.125 × 10-10 m2/s in water, resulting in a Peclet number of 2,560,000, indicating strongly convection-dominated flow. Results The discretisation scheme applied to the solution of the convection-diffusion equation, for blood-side mass-transport within the vasculature, has a significant influence on the resultant species concentration field. The First-Order Upwind and the Power Law schemes produce similar results. The Second-Order Upwind and QUICK schemes also correlate well but differ considerably from the concentration contour plots of the First-Order Upwind and Power Law schemes. The computational results were then compared to the experimental findings. An average error of 140

  2. Corrections to the General (2,4) and (4,4) FDTD Schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meierbachtol, Collin S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Smith, William S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Shao, Xuan-Min [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-01-29

    The sampling weights associated with two general higher order FDTD schemes were derived by Smith, et al. and published in a IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation article in 2012. Inconsistencies between governing equations and their resulting solutions were discovered within the article. In an effort to track down the root cause of these inconsistencies, the full three-dimensional, higher order FDTD dispersion relation was re-derived using MathematicaTM. During this process, two errors were identi ed in the article. Both errors are highlighted in this document. The corrected sampling weights are also provided. Finally, the original stability limits provided for both schemes are corrected, and presented in a more precise form. It is recommended any future implementations of the two general higher order schemes provided in the Smith, et al. 2012 article should instead use the sampling weights and stability conditions listed in this document.

  3. A survey of Strong Convergent Schemes for the Simulation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. OLIVER OSUAGWA

    2014-12-01

    Dec 1, 2014 ... Abstract. We considered strong convergent stochastic schemes for the simulation of stochastic differential equations. The stochastic Taylor's expansion, which is the main tool used for the derivation of strong convergent schemes; the Euler Maruyama, Milstein scheme, stochastic multistep schemes, Implicit ...

  4. Estimating the occupancy of spotted owl habitat areas by sampling and adjusting for bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Azuma; James A. Baldwin; Barry R. Noon

    1990-01-01

    A basic sampling scheme is proposed to estimate the proportion of sampled units (Spotted Owl Habitat Areas (SOHAs) or randomly sampled 1000-acre polygon areas (RSAs)) occupied by spotted owl pairs. A bias adjustment for the possibility of missing a pair given its presence on a SOHA or RSA is suggested. The sampling scheme is based on a fixed number of visits to a...

  5. Creating Culturally Sustainable Agri-Environmental Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Rob J. F.; Paragahawewa, Upananda Herath

    2011-01-01

    Evidence is emerging from across Europe that contemporary agri-environmental schemes are having only limited, if any, influence on farmers' long-term attitudes towards the environment. In this theoretical paper we argue that these approaches are not "culturally sustainable," i.e. the actions are not becoming embedded within farming…

  6. Pay-what-you-want pricing schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahsay, Goytom Abraha; Samahita, Margaret

    Pay-What-You-Want (PWYW) pricing schemes are becoming increasingly popular in a wide range of industries. We develop a model incorporating self-image into the buyer's utility function and introduce heterogeneity in consumption utility and image-sensitivity, which generates different purchase...

  7. Enhancing Cooperative Loan Scheme Through Automated Loan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enhancing Cooperative Loan Scheme Through Automated Loan Management System. ... Financial transactions through manual system of operation are prone to errors and unimagined complexities, making it so difficult a task maintaining all entries of users account, search records of activities, handle loan deduction errors ...

  8. Geometrical and frequential watermarking scheme using similarities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bas, Patrick; Chassery, Jean-Marc; Davoine, Franck

    1999-04-01

    Watermarking schemes are more and more robust to classical degradations. The NEC system developed by Cox, using both original and marked images, can detect the mark with a JPEG compression ratio of 30. Nevertheless a very simple geometric attack done by the program Stirmark can remove the watermark. Most of the present watermarking schemes only map a mark on the image without geometric reference and therefore are not robust to geometric transformation. We present a scheme based on the modification of a collage map (issued from a fractal code used in fractal compression). We add a mark introducing similarities in the image. The embedding of the mark is done by selection of points of interest supporting blocks on which similarities are hided. This selection is done by the Stephens-Harris detector. The similarity is embedded locally to be robust to cropping. Contrary to many schemes, the reference mark used for the detection comes from the marked image and thus undergoes geometrical distortions. The detection of the mark is done by searching interest blocks and their similarities. It does not use the original image and the robustness is guaranteed by a key. Our first results show that the similarities-based watermarking is quite robust to geometric transformation such as translations, rotations and cropping.

  9. The Partners in Flight species prioritization scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    William C. Hunter; Michael F. Carter; David N. Pashley; Keith Barker

    1993-01-01

    The prioritization scheme identifies those birds at any locality on several geographic scales most in need of conservation action. Further, it suggests some of those actions that ought to be taken. Ranking criteria used to set priorities for Neotropical migratory landbirds measure characteristics of species that make them vulnerable to local and global extinction....

  10. Shanghai : Developing a Green Electricity Scheme

    OpenAIRE

    Heijndermans, Enno; Berrah, Noureddine; Crowdis, Mark D.

    2006-01-01

    This report documents the experience of developing a green electricity scheme in Shanghai, China. It is intended to be a resource when replicating this effort in another city or country. The study consists of two parts. In Part 1, the general characteristics of both the framework for green electricity products and the market for green electricity products are presented. It also presents a ...

  11. EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF LIDAR DATA VISUALIZATION SCHEMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ghosh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging has attained the status of an industry standard method of data collection for gathering three dimensional topographic information. Datasets captured through LiDAR are dense, redundant and are perceivable from multiple directions, which is unlike other geospatial datasets collected through conventional methods. This three dimensional information has triggered an interest in the scientific community to develop methods for visualizing LiDAR datasets and value added products. Elementary schemes of visualization use point clouds with intensity or colour, triangulation and tetrahedralization based terrain models draped with texture. Newer methods use feature extraction either through the process of classification or segmentation. In this paper, the authors have conducted a visualization experience survey where 60 participants respond to a questionnaire. The questionnaire poses six different questions on the qualities of feature perception and depth for 12 visualization schemes. The answers to these questions are obtained on a scale of 1 to 10. Results are thus presented using the non-parametric Friedman's test, using post-hoc analysis for hypothetically ranking the visualization schemes based on the rating received and finally confirming the rankings through the Page's trend test. Results show that a heuristic based visualization scheme, which has been developed by Ghosh and Lohani (2011 performs the best in terms of feature and depth perception.

  12. The data cyclotron query processing scheme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A. Goncalves (Romulo); M.L. Kersten (Martin)

    2010-01-01

    htmlabstractDistributed database systems exploit static workload characteristics to steer data fragmentation and data allocation schemes. However, the grand challenge of distributed query processing is to come up with a self-organizing architecture, which exploits all resources to manage the hot

  13. Value constraints in the CLP scheme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H. van Emden

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThis paper addresses the question of how to incorporate constraint propagation into logic programming. A likely candidate is the CLP scheme, which allows one to exploit algorithmic opportunities while staying within logic programming semantics. CLP($cal R$) is an example: it combines

  14. Benefit Reentitlement Conditions in Unemployment Insurance Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.; Christoffersen, Mark Strøm; Svarer, Michael

    Unemployment insurance schemes include conditions on past employment history as part of the eligibility conditions. This aspect is often neglected in the literature which primarily focuses on benefit levels and benefit duration. In a search-matching framework we show that benefit duration and emp...

  15. Labeling schemes for bounded degree graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adjiashvili, David; Rotbart, Noy Galil

    2014-01-01

    graphs. Our results complement a similar bound recently obtained for bounded depth trees [Fraigniaud and Korman, SODA 2010], and may provide new insights for closing the long standing gap for adjacency in trees [Alstrup and Rauhe, FOCS 2002]. We also provide improved labeling schemes for bounded degree...

  16. Voluntary Certification Schemes and Legal Minimum Standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herzfeld, T.; Jongeneel, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    EU farmers face increasing requests to comply with legal as well as private agribusiness and retail standards. Both requests potentially raise farmer’s administrative burden. This paper discusses the potential synergies between cross-compliance and third-party certification schemes. In selected

  17. Traffic calming schemes : opportunities and implementation strategies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schagen, I.N.L.G. van (ed.)

    2003-01-01

    Commissioned by the Swedish National Road Authority, this report aims to provide a concise overview of knowledge of and experiences with traffic calming schemes in urban areas, both on a technical level and on a policy level. Traffic calming refers to a combination of network planning and

  18. A Presuppositional Approach to Conceptual Schemes | Wang ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ; for they have been focused too much on the truth-conditional notions of meaning/concepts and translation/interpretation in Tarski's style. It is exactly due to such a Quinean interpretation of the notion of conceptual schemes that the very notion ...

  19. Observations and comments on the classification schemes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reviews of the classification schemes proposed by various geologists are basically similar. However, general discrepancies, inconsistencies and contradictions in the stratigraphic positions of some of the rock units have been observed, as well as terminologies to describe rock units which are inconsistent with stratigraphic ...

  20. Energy decomposition scheme based on the generalized Kohn-Sham scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Peifeng; Jiang, Zhen; Chen, Zuochang; Wu, Wei

    2014-04-03

    In this paper, a new energy decomposition analysis scheme based on the generalized Kohn-Sham (GKS) and the localized molecular orbital energy decomposition analysis (LMO-EDA) scheme, named GKS-EDA, is proposed. The GKS-EDA scheme has a wide range of DFT functional adaptability compared to LMO-EDA. In the GKS-EDA scheme, the exchange, repulsion, and polarization terms are determined by DFT orbitals; the correlation term is defined as the difference of the GKS correlation energy from monomers to supermolecule. Using the new definition, the GKS-EDA scheme avoids the error of LMO-EDA which comes from the separated treatment of EX and EC functionals. The scheme can perform analysis both in the gas and in the condensed phases with most of the popular DFT functionals, including LDA, GGA, meta-GGA, hybrid GGA/meta-GGA, double hybrid, range-separated (long-range correction), and dispersion correction. By the GKS-EDA scheme, the DFT functionals assessment for hydrogen bonding, vdW interaction, symmetric radical cation, charge-transfer, and metal-ligand interaction is performed.

  1. LevelScheme: A level scheme drawing and scientific figure preparation system for Mathematica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprio, M. A.

    2005-09-01

    LevelScheme is a scientific figure preparation system for Mathematica. The main emphasis is upon the construction of level schemes, or level energy diagrams, as used in nuclear, atomic, molecular, and hadronic physics. LevelScheme also provides a general infrastructure for the preparation of publication-quality figures, including support for multipanel and inset plotting, customizable tick mark generation, and various drawing and labeling tasks. Coupled with Mathematica's plotting functions and powerful programming language, LevelScheme provides a flexible system for the creation of figures combining diagrams, mathematical plots, and data plots. Program summaryTitle of program:LevelScheme Catalogue identifier:ADVZ Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADVZ Operating systems:Any which supports Mathematica; tested under Microsoft Windows XP, Macintosh OS X, and Linux Programming language used:Mathematica 4 Number of bytes in distributed program, including test and documentation:3 051 807 Distribution format:tar.gz Nature of problem:Creation of level scheme diagrams. Creation of publication-quality multipart figures incorporating diagrams and plots. Method of solution:A set of Mathematica packages has been developed, providing a library of level scheme drawing objects, tools for figure construction and labeling, and control code for producing the graphics.

  2. The Ponzi Scheme: An exploratory study of the victim.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Parejo-Pizarro

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The general aim of this study was to explore the victimization process of the so-called “pyramid scheme fraud”. Specifically the causal agents of this fraud and the consequent damage were analyzed as well as the victims’ different responses. Method: The sample comprised 14 victims of the fraud (12 direct victims and 2 indirect victims aged 47-87 years old. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in depth, comprising a total of 36 questions. Results: The factors involved in the fraud appear simultaneously, these factors being economic and trust elements. Considering the reactions to this type of scam, the bipolar factor of earning vs. losing money seems to play a basic role in those victims who decide to invest. This way two different behaviors may emerge: on the one hand, the legitimation of this “business” and, on the other hand, the rejection of it. Conclusions: There were no significant differences between the factors that influence people to invest and maintain their investment in the pyramid scheme fraud. However, some differences have been observed with respect to the reactions against the scam. Future studies should be based on bigger samples, which could lead to the acquisition of a personality profile of the victims. In addition, two subgroups might be considered: Those who make money and those who lose money.

  3. Electricity storage using a thermal storage scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The increasing use of renewable energy technologies for electricity generation, many of which have an unpredictably intermittent nature, will inevitably lead to a greater demand for large-scale electricity storage schemes. For example, the expanding fraction of electricity produced by wind turbines will require either backup or storage capacity to cover extended periods of wind lull. This paper describes a recently proposed storage scheme, referred to here as Pumped Thermal Storage (PTS), and which is based on "sensible heat" storage in large thermal reservoirs. During the charging phase, the system effectively operates as a high temperature-ratio heat pump, extracting heat from a cold reservoir and delivering heat to a hot one. In the discharge phase the processes are reversed and it operates as a heat engine. The round-trip efficiency is limited only by process irreversibilities (as opposed to Second Law limitations on the coefficient of performance and the thermal efficiency of the heat pump and heat engine respectively). PTS is currently being developed in both France and England. In both cases, the schemes operate on the Joule-Brayton (gas turbine) cycle, using argon as the working fluid. However, the French scheme proposes the use of turbomachinery for compression and expansion, whereas for that being developed in England reciprocating devices are proposed. The current paper focuses on the impact of the various process irreversibilities on the thermodynamic round-trip efficiency of the scheme. Consideration is given to compression and expansion losses and pressure losses (in pipe-work, valves and thermal reservoirs); heat transfer related irreversibility in the thermal reservoirs is discussed but not included in the analysis. Results are presented demonstrating how the various loss parameters and operating conditions influence the overall performance.

  4. Cohort Profile: The Mexican American Mano a Mano Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Wong-Ho; Chrisman, Matthew; Daniel, Carrie R; Ye, Yuanqing; Gomez, Henry; Dong, Qiong; Anderson, Chelsea E; Chang, Shine; Strom, Sara; Zhao, Hua; Wu, Xifeng

    2017-04-01

    Hispanic Americans comprise the largest and fastest-growing ethnic minority in the USA. In Houston, Texas, 44% of the population is of Hispanic descent, with the majority being Mexican Americans (78%). This population is under-represented in health-related research despite their high prevalence of obesity and diabetes, which may predispose them to cancer and other chronic conditions. Recognizing the need for a greater research effort into the health risks of Hispanic Americans, the population-based Mexican American (Mano a Mano) Cohort study was launched in 2001. This is an open cohort with enrolment ongoing to 2019, and as of 30 June 2014, 23 606 adult participants from over 16 600 households were enrolled. Bilingual interviewers elicit information in person on demographics, acculturation, lifestyle, occupation, medical history, family cancer history, self-reported and measured height and weight, and other exposures. Urine, blood and saliva samples have been collected at baseline from 43%, 56% and 63% of participants, respectively. DNA samples are available for about 90% of participants. Incident cancers and other chronic diseases are ascertained through annual telephone re-contact and linkage to the Texas Cancer Registry and/or medical records. Molecular data such as genetic ancestry markers, blood telomere length and HbA1c, a marker of impaired glucose tolerance, are available for a substantial proportion of the participants. Data access is provided on request [manoamano@mdanderson.org]. For further information please visit [www.mano-mano.us]. © The Author 2015; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  5. National health insurance scheme: How receptive are the private healthcare practitioners in a local government area of Lagos state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christina, Campbell Princess; Latifat, Taiwo Toyin; Collins, Nnaji Feziechukwu; Olatunbosun, Abolarin Thaddeus

    2014-11-01

    National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) is one of the health financing options adopted by Nigeria for improved healthcare access especially to the low income earners. One of the key operators of the scheme is the health care providers, thus their uptake of the scheme is fundamental to the survival of the scheme. The study reviewed the uptake of the NHIS by private health care providers in a Local Government Area in Lagos State. To assess the uptake of the NHIS by private healthcare practitioners. This descriptive cross-sectional study recruited 180 private healthcare providers selected by multistage sampling technique with a response rate of 88.9%. Awareness, knowledge and uptake of NHIS were 156 (97.5%), 110 (66.8%) and 97 (60.6%), respectively. Half of the respondents 82 (51.3%) were dissatisfied with the operations of the scheme. Major reasons were failure of entitlement payment by Health Maintenance Organisations 13 (81.3%) and their incurring losses in participating in the scheme 8(50%). There was a significant association between awareness, level of education, knowledge of NHIS and registration into scheme by the respondents P-value scheme and 83 (57.2%) regretted participating in the scheme. There is need to improve payment modalities and ensure strict adherence to laid down policies.

  6. Simplified two-dimensional microwave imaging scheme using metamaterial-loaded Vivaldi antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johari, Esha; Akhter, Zubair; Bhaskar, Manoj; Akhtar, M. Jaleel

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, a highly efficient, low-cost scheme for two-dimensional microwave imaging is proposed. To this end, the AZIM (anisotropic zero index metamaterial) cell-loaded Vivaldi antenna is designed and tested as effective electromagnetic radiation beam source required in the microwave imaging scheme. The designed antenna is first individually tested in the anechoic chamber, and its directivity along with the radiation pattern is obtained. The measurement setup for the imaging here involves a vector network analyzer, the AZIM cell-loaded ultra-wideband Vivaldi antenna, and other associated microwave components. The potential of the designed antenna for the microwave imaging is tested by first obtaining the two-dimensional reflectivity images of metallic samples of different shapes placed in front of the antenna, using the proposed scheme. In the next step, these sets of samples are hidden behind wooden blocks of different thicknesses and the reflectivity image of the test media is reconstructed by using the proposed scheme. Finally, the reflectivity images of various dielectric samples (Teflon, Plexiglas, permanent magnet moving coil) along with the copper sheet placed on a piece of cardboard are reconstructed by using the proposed setup. The images obtained for each case are plotted and compared with the actual objects, and a close match is observed which shows the applicability of the proposed scheme for through-wall imaging and the detection of concealed objects.

  7. Implementation of a cryo-electron tomography tilt-scheme optimized for high resolution subtomogram averaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Wim J H; Wan, William; Briggs, John A G

    2017-02-01

    Cryo-electron tomography (cryoET) allows 3D structural information to be obtained from cells and other biological samples in their close-to-native state. In combination with subtomogram averaging, detailed structures of repeating features can be resolved. CryoET data is collected as a series of images of the sample from different tilt angles; this is performed by physically rotating the sample in the microscope between each image. The angles at which the images are collected, and the order in which they are collected, together are called the tilt-scheme. Here we describe a "dose-symmetric tilt-scheme" that begins at low tilt and then alternates between increasingly positive and negative tilts. This tilt-scheme maximizes the amount of high-resolution information maintained in the tomogram for subsequent subtomogram averaging, and may also be advantageous for other applications. We describe implementation of the tilt-scheme in combination with further data-collection refinements including setting thresholds on acceptable drift and improving focus accuracy. Requirements for microscope set-up are introduced, and a macro is provided which automates the application of the tilt-scheme within SerialEM. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Prostate cancer detection rates in different biopsy schemes. Which cores for which patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormio, Luigi; Scattoni, Vincenzo; Lorusso, Fabrizio; Perrone, Antonia; Di Fino, Giuseppe; Selvaggio, Oscar; Sanguedolce, Francesca; Bufo, Pantaleo; Montorsi, Francesco; Carrieri, Giuseppe

    2014-04-01

    To determine whether the addition of four paramedian peripheral and four lateral peripheral cores improves the cancer detection rate (CDR) of the extended 10-core biopsy scheme and which patients benefit most from such additional samples. One thousand and ninety-one consecutive patients scheduled for first ultrasound-guided transrectal prostate biopsy prospectively underwent a 18-core biopsy scheme, including the traditional sextant (6-core), 4 lateral peripheral (10-core), 4 paramedian peripheral (14-core) and additional 4 lateral peripheral cores (18-core). The CDR of the 6-, 10-, 14- and 18-core schemes was 33.1, 39.2, 41.6 and 41.8 %, respectively; the difference between the 10- and 6-core scheme reached significance (p 7.2 ng/ml: 12.1 vs. 1.8 %; p < 0.0001), large prostate volume (≥ 50 vs. <50 cc: 3.4 vs. 9.1 %; p = 0.011) and particularly low PSA density (<0.15 vs. ≥ 0.15: 15.9 vs. 1 %; p < 0.0001). The 18-core scheme did not provide diagnostic advantages in any patients' population. The addition of 4 lateral peripheral samples did not increase the CDR of the 10-core biopsy scheme. The addition of four paramedian peripheral samples was beneficial only in patients with PSA density <0.15, in whom the 10-core scheme would have miss almost 16 % of tumors. Since more than half of our patients had low (<0.15) PSA density, these findings seem to be of great clinical relevance.

  9. A classification scheme for risk assessment methods.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamp, Jason Edwin; Campbell, Philip LaRoche

    2004-08-01

    This report presents a classification scheme for risk assessment methods. This scheme, like all classification schemes, provides meaning by imposing a structure that identifies relationships. Our scheme is based on two orthogonal aspects--level of detail, and approach. The resulting structure is shown in Table 1 and is explained in the body of the report. Each cell in the Table represent a different arrangement of strengths and weaknesses. Those arrangements shift gradually as one moves through the table, each cell optimal for a particular situation. The intention of this report is to enable informed use of the methods so that a method chosen is optimal for a situation given. This report imposes structure on the set of risk assessment methods in order to reveal their relationships and thus optimize their usage.We present a two-dimensional structure in the form of a matrix, using three abstraction levels for the rows and three approaches for the columns. For each of the nine cells in the matrix we identify the method type by name and example. The matrix helps the user understand: (1) what to expect from a given method, (2) how it relates to other methods, and (3) how best to use it. Each cell in the matrix represent a different arrangement of strengths and weaknesses. Those arrangements shift gradually as one moves through the table, each cell optimal for a particular situation. The intention of this report is to enable informed use of the methods so that a method chosen is optimal for a situation given. The matrix, with type names in the cells, is introduced in Table 2 on page 13 below. Unless otherwise stated we use the word 'method' in this report to refer to a 'risk assessment method', though often times we use the full phrase. The use of the terms 'risk assessment' and 'risk management' are close enough that we do not attempt to distinguish them in this report. The remainder of this report is organized as follows. In

  10. Language sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan; Bakker, Dik

    1998-01-01

    This article has two aims: [1] to present a revised version of the sampling method that was originally proposed in 1993 by Rijkhoff, Bakker, Hengeveld and Kahrel, and [2] to discuss a number of other approaches to language sampling in the light of our own method. We will also demonstrate how our...... sampling method is used with different genetic classifications (Voegelin & Voegelin 1977, Ruhlen 1987, Grimes ed. 1997) and argue that —on the whole— our sampling technique compares favourably with other methods, especially in the case of exploratory research....

  11. Scheme for Quantum Computing Immune to Decoherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Colin; Vatan, Farrokh

    2008-01-01

    A constructive scheme has been devised to enable mapping of any quantum computation into a spintronic circuit in which the computation is encoded in a basis that is, in principle, immune to quantum decoherence. The scheme is implemented by an algorithm that utilizes multiple physical spins to encode each logical bit in such a way that collective errors affecting all the physical spins do not disturb the logical bit. The scheme is expected to be of use to experimenters working on spintronic implementations of quantum logic. Spintronic computing devices use quantum-mechanical spins (typically, electron spins) to encode logical bits. Bits thus encoded (denoted qubits) are potentially susceptible to errors caused by noise and decoherence. The traditional model of quantum computation is based partly on the assumption that each qubit is implemented by use of a single two-state quantum system, such as an electron or other spin-1.2 particle. It can be surprisingly difficult to achieve certain gate operations . most notably, those of arbitrary 1-qubit gates . in spintronic hardware according to this model. However, ironically, certain 2-qubit interactions (in particular, spin-spin exchange interactions) can be achieved relatively easily in spintronic hardware. Therefore, it would be fortunate if it were possible to implement any 1-qubit gate by use of a spin-spin exchange interaction. While such a direct representation is not possible, it is possible to achieve an arbitrary 1-qubit gate indirectly by means of a sequence of four spin-spin exchange interactions, which could be implemented by use of four exchange gates. Accordingly, the present scheme provides for mapping any 1-qubit gate in the logical basis into an equivalent sequence of at most four spin-spin exchange interactions in the physical (encoded) basis. The complexity of the mathematical derivation of the scheme from basic quantum principles precludes a description within this article; it must suffice to report

  12. Simple and High-Accurate Schemes for Hyperbolic Conservation Laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renzhong Feng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper constructs a class of simple high-accurate schemes (SHA schemes with third order approximation accuracy in both space and time to solve linear hyperbolic equations, using linear data reconstruction and Lax-Wendroff scheme. The schemes can be made even fourth order accurate with special choice of parameter. In order to avoid spurious oscillations in the vicinity of strong gradients, we make the SHA schemes total variation diminishing ones (TVD schemes for short by setting flux limiter in their numerical fluxes and then extend these schemes to solve nonlinear Burgers’ equation and Euler equations. The numerical examples show that these schemes give high order of accuracy and high resolution results. The advantages of these schemes are their simplicity and high order of accuracy.

  13. Venous Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... neck to help locate abnormally functioning glands or pituitary adenoma . This test is most often used after an unsuccessful neck exploration. Inferior petrosal sinus sampling , in which blood samples are taken from veins that drain the pituitary gland to study disorders related to pituitary hormone ...

  14. Sampling Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolph, Karen E.; Robinson, Scott R.

    2011-01-01

    Research in developmental psychology requires sampling at different time points. Accurate depictions of developmental change provide a foundation for further empirical studies and theories about developmental mechanisms. However, overreliance on widely spaced sampling intervals in cross-sectional and longitudinal designs threatens the validity of…

  15. Language sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan; Bakker, Dik

    1998-01-01

    This article has two aims: [1] to present a revised version of the sampling method that was originally proposed in 1993 by Rijkhoff, Bakker, Hengeveld and Kahrel, and [2] to discuss a number of other approaches to language sampling in the light of our own method. We will also demonstrate how our...

  16. Environmental sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puckett, J.M.

    1998-12-31

    Environmental Sampling (ES) is a technology option that can have application in transparency in nuclear nonproliferation. The basic process is to take a sample from the environment, e.g., soil, water, vegetation, or dust and debris from a surface, and through very careful sample preparation and analysis, determine the types, elemental concentration, and isotopic composition of actinides in the sample. The sample is prepared and the analysis performed in a clean chemistry laboratory (CCL). This ES capability is part of the IAEA Strengthened Safeguards System. Such a Laboratory is planned to be built by JAERI at Tokai and will give Japan an intrinsic ES capability. This paper presents options for the use of ES as a transparency measure for nuclear nonproliferation.

  17. Statistical inferences for data from studies conducted with an aggregated multivariate outcome-dependent sample design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tsui-Shan; Longnecker, Matthew P; Zhou, Haibo

    2017-03-15

    Outcome-dependent sampling (ODS) scheme is a cost-effective sampling scheme where one observes the exposure with a probability that depends on the outcome. The well-known such design is the case-control design for binary response, the case-cohort design for the failure time data, and the general ODS design for a continuous response. While substantial work has been carried out for the univariate response case, statistical inference and design for the ODS with multivariate cases remain under-developed. Motivated by the need in biological studies for taking the advantage of the available responses for subjects in a cluster, we propose a multivariate outcome-dependent sampling (multivariate-ODS) design that is based on a general selection of the continuous responses within a cluster. The proposed inference procedure for the multivariate-ODS design is semiparametric where all the underlying distributions of covariates are modeled nonparametrically using the empirical likelihood methods. We show that the proposed estimator is consistent and developed the asymptotically normality properties. Simulation studies show that the proposed estimator is more efficient than the estimator obtained using only the simple-random-sample portion of the multivariate-ODS or the estimator from a simple random sample with the same sample size. The multivariate-ODS design together with the proposed estimator provides an approach to further improve study efficiency for a given fixed study budget. We illustrate the proposed design and estimator with an analysis of association of polychlorinated biphenyl exposure to hearing loss in children born to the Collaborative Perinatal Study. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Transverse Hilbert schemes and completely integrable systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donin Niccolò Lora Lamia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider a special class of completely integrable systems that arise as transverse Hilbert schemes of d points of a complex symplectic surface S projecting onto ℂ via a surjective map p which is a submersion outside a discrete subset of S. We explicitly endow the transverse Hilbert scheme Sp[d] with a symplectic form and an endomorphism A of its tangent space with 2-dimensional eigenspaces and such that its characteristic polynomial is the square of its minimum polynomial and show it has the maximal number of commuting Hamiltonians.We then provide the inverse construction, starting from a 2ddimensional holomorphic integrable system W which has an endomorphism A: TW → TW satisfying the above properties and recover our initial surface S with W ≌ Sp[d].

  19. A hybrid Lagrangian Voronoi-SPH scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Gutierrez, D.; Souto-Iglesias, A.; Zohdi, T. I.

    2017-11-01

    A hybrid Lagrangian Voronoi-SPH scheme, with an explicit weakly compressible formulation for both the Voronoi and SPH sub-domains, has been developed. The SPH discretization is substituted by Voronoi elements close to solid boundaries, where SPH consistency and boundary conditions implementation become problematic. A buffer zone to couple the dynamics of both sub-domains is used. This zone is formed by a set of particles where fields are interpolated taking into account SPH particles and Voronoi elements. A particle may move in or out of the buffer zone depending on its proximity to a solid boundary. The accuracy of the coupled scheme is discussed by means of a set of well-known verification benchmarks.

  20. Cryptanalysis of Two Fault Countermeasure Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banik, Subhadeep; Bogdanov, Andrey

    2015-01-01

    is meant for the protection of block ciphers like AES. The second countermeasure was proposed in IEEE-HOST 2015 and protects the Grain-128 stream cipher. The design divides the output function used in Grain-128 into two components. The first called the masking function, masks the input bits to the output...... use the internally generated random bits which make these designs vulnerable. We will outline attacks that cryptanalyze the above schemes using 66 and 512 faults respectively....... function with some additional randomness and computes the value of the function. The second called the unmasking function, is computed securely using a different register and undoes the effect of the masking with random bits. We will show that there exists a weakness in the way in which both these schemes...

  1. Fixed Wordsize Implementation of Lifting Schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Karp

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a reversible nonlinear discrete wavelet transform with predefined fixed wordsize based on lifting schemes. Restricting the dynamic range of the wavelet domain coefficients due to a fixed wordsize may result in overflow. We show how this overflow has to be handled in order to maintain reversibility of the transform. We also perform an analysis on how large a wordsize of the wavelet coefficients is needed to perform optimal lossless and lossy compressions of images. The scheme is advantageous to well-known integer-to-integer transforms since the wordsize of adders and multipliers can be predefined and does not increase steadily. This also results in significant gains in hardware implementations.

  2. New communication schemes based on adaptive synchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenwu; Cao, Jinde; Wong, Kwok-Wo; Lü, Jinhu

    2007-09-01

    In this paper, adaptive synchronization with unknown parameters is discussed for a unified chaotic system by using the Lyapunov method and the adaptive control approach. Some communication schemes, including chaotic masking, chaotic modulation, and chaotic shift key strategies, are then proposed based on the modified adaptive method. The transmitted signal is masked by chaotic signal or modulated into the system, which effectively blurs the constructed return map and can resist this return map attack. The driving system with unknown parameters and functions is almost completely unknown to the attackers, so it is more secure to apply this method into the communication. Finally, some simulation examples based on the proposed communication schemes and some cryptanalysis works are also given to verify the theoretical analysis in this paper.

  3. Optimization of Train Trip Package Operation Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Tong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Train trip package transportation is an advanced form of railway freight transportation, realized by a specialized train which has fixed stations, fixed time, and fixed path. Train trip package transportation has lots of advantages, such as large volume, long distance, high speed, simple forms of organization, and high margin, so it has become the main way of railway freight transportation. This paper firstly analyzes the related factors of train trip package transportation from its organizational forms and characteristics. Then an optimization model for train trip package transportation is established to provide optimum operation schemes. The proposed model is solved by the genetic algorithm. At last, the paper tests the model on the basis of the data of 8 regions. The results show that the proposed method is feasible for solving operation scheme issues of train trip package.

  4. A numerical relativity scheme for cosmological simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daverio, David; Dirian, Yves; Mitsou, Ermis

    2017-12-01

    Cosmological simulations involving the fully covariant gravitational dynamics may prove relevant in understanding relativistic/non-linear features and, therefore, in taking better advantage of the upcoming large scale structure survey data. We propose a new 3  +  1 integration scheme for general relativity in the case where the matter sector contains a minimally-coupled perfect fluid field. The original feature is that we completely eliminate the fluid components through the constraint equations, thus remaining with a set of unconstrained evolution equations for the rest of the fields. This procedure does not constrain the lapse function and shift vector, so it holds in arbitrary gauge and also works for arbitrary equation of state. An important advantage of this scheme is that it allows one to define and pass an adaptation of the robustness test to the cosmological context, at least in the case of pressureless perfect fluid matter, which is the relevant one for late-time cosmology.

  5. Exclusion from the Health Insurance Scheme

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    A CERN pensioner, member of the Organization's Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS), recently provided fake documents in support of claims for medical expenses, in order to receive unjustified reimbursement from the CHIS. The Administrator of the CHIS, UNIQA, suspected a case of fraud: Accordingly, an investigation and interview of the person concerned was carried out and brought the Organization to the conclusion that fraud had actually taken place. Consequently and in accordance with Article VIII 3.12 of the CHIS Rules, it was decided to exclude this member permanently from the CHIS. The Organization takes the opportunity to remind Scheme members that any fraud or attempt to fraud established within the framework of the CHIS exposes them to: - disciplinary action, according to the Staff Rules and Regulations, for CERN members of the personnel; - definitive exclusion from the CHIS for members affiliated on a voluntary basis. Human Resources Division Tel. 73635

  6. Active versus Passive Sample Attrition: The Health and Retirement Study

    OpenAIRE

    Honggao Cao; Daniel H. Hill

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates sample attrition in the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). We compare attrition behavior in two of the HRS cohorts: original HRS cohort and AHEAD cohort. We distinguish attrition due to death (passive attrition) from attrition due to other causes (active attrition), examining potential effects of different attrition modes on the representativeness of the remaining samples. This distinction is justified based on a specification test on a multinomial logistic regression ...

  7. Estimation of Error Components in Cohort Studies: A Cross-Cohort Analysis of Dutch Mathematics Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keuning, Jos; Hemker, Bas

    2014-01-01

    The data collection of a cohort study requires making many decisions. Each decision may introduce error in the statistical analyses conducted later on. In the present study, a procedure was developed for estimation of the error made due to the composition of the sample, the item selection procedure, and the test equating process. The math results…

  8. Short-term incentive schemes for hospital managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Malambe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Short-term incentives, considered to be an extrinsic motivation, are commonly used to motivate performance. This study explored hospital managers’ perceptions of short term incentives in maximising performance and retention.Research purpose: The study explored the experiences, views and perceptions of private hospital managers in South Africa regarding the use of short-term incentives to maximise performance and retention, as well as the applicability of the findings to public hospitals.Motivation for the study: Whilst there is an established link between performance reward schemes and organisational performance, there is little understanding of the effects of short term incentives on the performance and retention of hospital managers within the South African context.Research design, approach, and method: The study used a qualitative research design: interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 19 hospital managers, and a thematic content analysis was performed.Main findings: Short-term incentives may not be the primary motivator for hospital managers, but they do play a critical role in sustaining motivation. Participants indicated that these schemes could also be applicable to public hospitals.Practical/managerial implications: Hospital managers are inclined to be more motivated by intrinsic than extrinsic factors. However, hospital managers (as middle managers also seem to be motivated by short-term incentives. A combination of intrinsic and extrinsic motivators should thus be used to maximise performance and retention.Contribution/value-add: Whilst the study sought to explore hospital managers’ perceptions of short-term incentives, it also found that an adequate balance between internal and external motivators is key to implementing an effective short-term incentive scheme.

  9. METAPHORIC MECHANISMS IN IMAGE SCHEME DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Pankratova, S.A.

    2017-01-01

    Problems of knowledge representation by means of images are still cognitively significant and invariably modern. The article deals with the image heuristic potential of a bookish sphere as a donor of meanings, aiding metaphoric scheme development of another modern sphere of cinematography. The key factor here is the differentiation between two basically different metaphor types – heuristic epiphora and image diaphora. The author had offered a unique methodology of counting of quantitative par...

  10. [A scheme to support teenagers in care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldera, David

    In some family situations, the placement of a teenager, even in the case of a court decision, proves ineffective. The accumulation of all kinds of difficulties requires a different type of support, based on responsiveness, attention and above all time to come together. A dedicated scheme helps to prevent situations of waywardness or marginalisation among these teenagers and to support the families. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. The Emergent Universe scheme and tunneling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labraña, Pedro [Departamento de Física, Universidad del Bío-Bío, Avenida Collao 1202, Casilla 5-C, Concepción, Chile and Departament d' Estructura i Constituents de la Matèria and Institut de Ciències del Cosmos, Universitat (Spain)

    2014-07-23

    We present an alternative scheme for an Emergent Universe scenario, developed previously in Phys. Rev. D 86, 083524 (2012), where the universe is initially in a static state supported by a scalar field located in a false vacuum. The universe begins to evolve when, by quantum tunneling, the scalar field decays into a state of true vacuum. The Emergent Universe models are interesting since they provide specific examples of non-singular inflationary universes.

  12. Failure of a proposed superluminal scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, K.; Milonni, P. W.; Steinberg, A. M.; Wolinsky, M.

    1999-02-01

    We consider a “superluminal quantum Morse telegraph”, recently proposed by Garuccio, involving a polarization-correlated photon pair and a Michelson interferometer in which one of the mirrors is replaced by a phase-conjugating mirror (PCM). Superluminal information transfer in this scheme is precluded by the impossibility of distinguishing between unpolarized photons prepared by mixing linear polarization states or by mixing circular polarization states.

  13. Efficient Scheme for Chemical Flooding Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braconnier Benjamin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate an efficient implicit scheme for the numerical simulation of chemical enhanced oil recovery technique for oil fields. For the sake of brevity, we only focus on flows with polymer to describe the physical and numerical models. In this framework, we consider a black oil model upgraded with the polymer modeling. We assume the polymer only transported in the water phase or adsorbed on the rock following a Langmuir isotherm. The polymer reduces the water phase mobility which can change drastically the behavior of water oil interfaces. Then, we propose a fractional step technique to resolve implicitly the system. The first step is devoted to the resolution of the black oil subsystem and the second to the polymer mass conservation. In such a way, jacobian matrices coming from the implicit formulation have a moderate size and preserve solvers efficiency. Nevertheless, the coupling between the black-oil subsystem and the polymer is not fully resolved. For efficiency and accuracy comparison, we propose an explicit scheme for the polymer for which large time step is prohibited due to its CFL (Courant-Friedrichs-Levy criterion and consequently approximates accurately the coupling. Numerical experiments with polymer are simulated : a core flood, a 5-spot reservoir with surfactant and ions and a 3D real case. Comparisons are performed between the polymer explicit and implicit scheme. They prove that our polymer implicit scheme is efficient, robust and resolves accurately the coupling physics. The development and the simulations have been performed with the software PumaFlow [PumaFlow (2013 Reference manual, release V600, Beicip Franlab].

  14. A Scatter Storage Scheme for Dictionary Lookups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Murray

    1970-09-01

    Full Text Available Scatter storage schemes are examined with respect to their applicability to dictionary lookup procedures. Of particular interest are virtual scatter methods which combine the advantages of rapid search speed and reasonable storage requirements. The theoretical aspects of computing hash addresses are developed, and several algorithms are evaluated. Finally, experiments with an actual text lookup process are described, and a possible library application is discussed.

  15. Cost Comparison Among Provable Data Possession Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    one more than the total number of blocks or one more than `, whichever is less. min ( f s/bs, `) + 1 (4.10) 4.3.1 MAC-PDP For local data experiments, we...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS COST COMPARISON AMONG PROVABLE DATA POSSESSION SCHEMES by Stephen J. Bremer March 2016 Thesis...response, including the time for reviewing instruction, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and

  16. A rational function based scheme for solving advection equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Feng [Gunma Univ., Kiryu (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Yabe, Takashi

    1995-07-01

    A numerical scheme for solving advection equations is presented. The scheme is derived from a rational interpolation function. Some properties of the scheme with respect to convex-concave preserving and monotone preserving are discussed. We find that the scheme is attractive in surpressinging overshoots and undershoots even in the vicinities of discontinuity. The scheme can also be easily swicthed as the CIP (Cubic interpolated Pseudo-Particle) method to get a third-order accuracy in smooth region. Numbers of numerical tests are carried out to show the non-oscillatory and less diffusive nature of the scheme. (author).

  17. Cryptanalytic Performance Appraisal of Improved CCH2 Proxy Multisignature Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many of the signature schemes are proposed in which the t out of n threshold schemes are deployed, but they still lack the property of security. In this paper, we have discussed implementation of improved CCH1 and improved CCH2 proxy multisignature scheme based on elliptic curve cryptosystem. We have represented time complexity, space complexity, and computational overhead of improved CCH1 and CCH2 proxy multisignature schemes. We have presented cryptanalysis of improved CCH2 proxy multisignature scheme and showed that improved CCH2 scheme suffered from various attacks, that is, forgery attack and framing attack.

  18. A weak blind signature scheme based on quantum cryptography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xiaojun; Niu, Xiamu; Ji, Liping; Tian, Yuan

    2009-02-01

    In this paper, we present a weak blind signature scheme based on the correlation of EPR (Einstein-Padolsky-Rosen) pairs. Different from classical blind signature schemes and current quantum signature schemes, our quantum blind signature scheme could guarantee not only the unconditionally security but also the anonymity of the message owner. To achieve that, quantum key distribution and one-time pad are adopted in our scheme. Experimental analysis proved that our scheme have the characteristics of non-counterfeit, non-disavowal, blindness and traceability. It has a wide application to E-payment system, E-government, E-business, and etc.

  19. Fractal-based image sequence compression scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haibo; Novak, Mirek; Forchheimer, Robert

    1993-07-01

    The dominant image transformation used in the existing fractal coding schemes is the affine function. Although an affine transformation is easy to compute and understand, its linear approximation ability limits the employment of larger range blocks, that is, it limits further improvement in compression efficiency. We generalize the image transformation from the usual affine form to the more general quadratic form, and provide theoretical requirements for the generalized transformation to be contractive. Based on the self-transformation system (STS) model, an image sequence coding scheme--fractal-based image sequence coding--is proposed. In this coding scheme, our generalized transformation is used to model the self- transformation is used to model the self-transformation from the domain block to its range blocks. Experimental results on a real image sequence show that for the same size of blocks, the SNR can be improved by 10 dB, or, for the same SNR of the decoded image sequence, the compression ratio is raised twofold when the new generalized transformation is used to replace the usual affine transformation. In addition, due to the utilization of the STS model, the computational complexity is only linearly related to the size of the 3-D blocks. This provides for fast encoding and decoding.

  20. Doppler Shift Compensation Schemes in VANETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nyongesa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V communication has received a lot of attention as it is a crucial issue in intravehicle communication as well as in Intelligent Transportation System (ITS. In ITS the focus is placed on integration of communication between mobile and fixed infrastructure to execute road safety as well as nonsafety information dissemination. The safety application such as emergence alerts lays emphasis on low-latency packet delivery rate (PDR, whereas multimedia and infotainment call for high data rates at low bit error rate (BER. The nonsafety information includes multimedia streaming for traffic information and infotainment applications such as playing audio content, utilizing navigation for driving, and accessing Internet. A lot of vehicular ad hoc network (VANET research has focused on specific areas including channel multiplexing, antenna diversity, and Doppler shift compensation schemes in an attempt to optimize BER performance. Despite this effort few surveys have been conducted to highlight the state-of-the-art collection on Doppler shift compensation schemes. Driven by this cause we survey some of the recent research activities in Doppler shift compensation schemes and highlight challenges and solutions as a stock-taking exercise. Moreover, we present open issues to be further investigated in order to address the challenges of Doppler shift in VANETs.

  1. Progress on Implementing Additional Physics Schemes into ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has a team of scientists developing a next generation air quality modeling system employing the Model for Prediction Across Scales – Atmosphere (MPAS-A) as its meteorological foundation. Several preferred physics schemes and options available in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model are regularly used by the USEPA with the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to conduct retrospective air quality simulations. These include the Pleim surface layer, the Pleim-Xiu (PX) land surface model with fractional land use for a 40-class National Land Cover Database (NLCD40), the Asymmetric Convective Model 2 (ACM2) planetary boundary layer scheme, the Kain-Fritsch (KF) convective parameterization with subgrid-scale cloud feedback to the radiation schemes and a scale-aware convective time scale, and analysis nudging four-dimensional data assimilation (FDDA). All of these physics modules and options have already been implemented by the USEPA into MPAS-A v4.0, tested, and evaluated (please see the presentations of R. Gilliam and R. Bullock at this workshop). Since the release of MPAS v5.1 in May 2017, work has been under way to implement these preferred physics options into the MPAS-A v5.1 code. Test simulations of a summer month are being conducted on a global variable resolution mesh with the higher resolution cells centered over the contiguous United States. Driving fields for the FDDA and soil nudging are

  2. INFORMATION FROM THE CERN HEALTH INSURANCE SCHEME

    CERN Multimedia

    Tel : 7-3635

    2002-01-01

    Please note that, from 1 July 2002, the tariff agreement between CERN and the Hôpital de la Tour will no longer be in force. As a result the members of the CERN Health Insurance Scheme will no longer obtain a 5% discount for quick payment of bills. More information on the termination of the agreement and the implications for our Health Insurance Scheme will be provided in the next issue of the CHIS Bull', due for publication in the first half of July. It will be sent to your home address, so, if you have moved recently, please check that your divisional secretariat has your current address. Tel.: 73635 The Organization's Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS) has launched its own Web pages, located on the Website of the Social & Statutory Conditions Group of HR Division (HR-SOC). The address is short and easy-to-remember www.cern.ch/chis The pages currently available concentrate on providing basic information. Over the coming months it is planned to fill out the details and introduce new topics. Please give us ...

  3. Dynamical decoupling schemes derived from Hamilton cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rötteler, Martin

    2008-04-01

    We address the problem of decoupling the interactions in a spin network governed by a pair-interaction Hamiltonian. Combinatorial schemes for decoupling and for manipulating the couplings of Hamiltonians have been developed, which use selective pulses. In this paper, we consider an additional requirement on these pulse sequences: as few different control operations as possible should be used. This requirement is motivated by the fact that to find an optimal implementation of each individual selective pulse will be expensive since it requires to solve a pulse shaping problem. Hence, it is desirable to use as few different selective pulses as possible. As a first result, we show that for d-dimensional systems, where d ⩾2, the ability to implement only two control operations is sufficient to turn off the time evolution. Next, we address the case of a bipartite system with local control and show that four different control operations are sufficient. Finally, turning to networks consisting of several d-dimensional nodes, we show that decoupling can be achieved if one is able to control a number of different control operations, which is logarithmic in the number of nodes. We give an explicit family of efficient decoupling schemes with logarithmic number of different pulses based on the classic Hamming codes. We also provide a table of the best known decoupling schemes for small networks of qubits.

  4. New Delhi Birth Cohort

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. New Delhi Birth Cohort. In childhood Less than 1% were obese (IOTF 30 kg/m2). Mean BMI SD ranged from –0.4 to –1.0 (CDC). At 26-32 years 10% were obese (BMI >30 kg/m2). ~50% overweight (BMI > 25 kg/m2);. ~65% overweight (BMI > 23 kg/m2). 10% had IGT.

  5. Elevating sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labuz, Joseph M.; Takayama, Shuichi

    2014-01-01

    Sampling – the process of collecting, preparing, and introducing an appropriate volume element (voxel) into a system – is often under appreciated and pushed behind the scenes in lab-on-a-chip research. What often stands in the way between proof-of-principle demonstrations of potentially exciting technology and its broader dissemination and actual use, however, is the effectiveness of sample collection and preparation. The power of micro- and nanofluidics to improve reactions, sensing, separation, and cell culture cannot be accessed if sampling is not equally efficient and reliable. This perspective will highlight recent successes as well as assess current challenges and opportunities in this area. PMID:24781100

  6. The genomic psychiatry cohort: partners in discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pato, Michele T; Sobell, Janet L; Medeiros, Helena; Abbott, Colony; Sklar, Brooke M; Buckley, Peter F; Bromet, Evelyn J; Escamilla, Michael A; Fanous, Ayman H; Lehrer, Douglas S; Macciardi, Fabio; Malaspina, Dolores; McCarroll, Steve A; Marder, Stephen R; Moran, Jennifer; Morley, Christopher P; Nicolini, Humberto; Perkins, Diana O; Purcell, Shaun M; Rapaport, Mark H; Sklar, Pamela; Smoller, Jordan W; Knowles, James A; Pato, Carlos N

    2013-06-01

    The Genomic Psychiatry Cohort (GPC) is a longitudinal resource designed to provide the necessary population-based sample for large-scale genomic studies, studies focusing on Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) and/or other alternate phenotype constructs, clinical and interventional studies, nested case-control studies, long-term disease course studies, and genomic variant-to-phenotype studies. We provide and will continue to encourage access to the GPC as an international resource. DNA and other biological samples and diagnostic data are available through the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) Repository. After appropriate review and approval by an advisory board, investigators are able to collaborate in, propose, and co-lead studies involving cohort participants. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Uncertainty of Microphysics Schemes in CRMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, W. K.; van den Heever, S. C.; Wu, D.; Saleeby, S. M.; Lang, S. E.

    2015-12-01

    Microphysics is the framework through which to understand the links between interactive aerosol, cloud and precipitation processes. These processes play a critical role in the water and energy cycle. CRMs with advanced microphysics schemes have been used to study the interaction between aerosol, cloud and precipitation processes at high resolution. But, there are still many uncertainties associated with these microphysics schemes. This has arisen, in part, from the fact microphysical processes cannot be measured directly; instead, cloud properties, which can be measured, are and have been used to validate model results. The utilization of current and future global high-resolution models is rapidly increasing and are at what has been traditional CRM resolutions and are using microphysics schemes that were developed in traditional CRMs. A potential NASA satellite mission called the Cloud and Precipitation Processes Mission (CaPPM) is currently being planned for submission to the NASA Earth Science Decadal Survey. This mission could provide the necessary global estimates of cloud and precipitation properties with which to evaluate and improve dynamical and microphysical parameterizations and the feedbacks. In order to facilitate the development of this mission, CRM simulations have been conducted to identify microphysical processes responsible for the greatest uncertainties in CRMs. In this talk, we will present results from numerical simulations conducted using two CRMs (NU-WRF and RAMS) with different dynamics, radiation, land surface and microphysics schemes. Specifically, we will conduct sensitivity tests to examine the uncertainty of the some of the key ice processes (i.e. riming, melting, freezing and shedding) in these two-microphysics schemes. The idea is to quantify how these two different models' respond (surface rainfall and its intensity, strength of cloud drafts, LWP/IWP, convective-stratiform-anvil area distribution) to changes of these key ice

  8. The effects of HIV/AIDS on medical schemes in South Africa | Da ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This sample is however not necessarily representative of the medical-scheme population. The intention is therefore to develop a methodology for producing indicative results to inform management decisions. The opportunity to lower costs related to HIV/AIDS through proactive risk management is investigated. South African ...

  9. Analysis of lunar samples for carbon compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvenvolden, K. A.

    1971-01-01

    Description of one approach to the analysis for carbon compounds in lunar materials from the Apollo 11 mission. The sequential scheme followed generally accepted organic geochemical practices, but was unusual in its application to a single sample. The procedures of the scheme were designed to minimize handling of the solids and extracts or hydrolysates. The solid lunar sample was retained in all steps of the sequential analysis in the vessel in which it was originally placed. Centrifugation was used to separate solid and liquid phases after extraction or refluxing. Liquids were recovered from solids by decantation.

  10. Certificateless Key-Insulated Generalized Signcryption Scheme without Bilinear Pairings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caixue Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Generalized signcryption (GSC can be applied as an encryption scheme, a signature scheme, or a signcryption scheme with only one algorithm and one key pair. A key-insulated mechanism can resolve the private key exposure problem. To ensure the security of cloud storage, we introduce the key-insulated mechanism into GSC and propose a concrete scheme without bilinear pairings in the certificateless cryptosystem setting. We provide a formal definition and a security model of certificateless key-insulated GSC. Then, we prove that our scheme is confidential under the computational Diffie-Hellman (CDH assumption and unforgeable under the elliptic curve discrete logarithm (EC-DL assumption. Our scheme also supports both random-access key update and secure key update. Finally, we evaluate the efficiency of our scheme and demonstrate that it is highly efficient. Thus, our scheme is more suitable for users who communicate with the cloud using mobile devices.

  11. A New Adaptive Hungarian Mating Scheme in Genetic Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanju Jung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In genetic algorithms, selection or mating scheme is one of the important operations. In this paper, we suggest an adaptive mating scheme using previously suggested Hungarian mating schemes. Hungarian mating schemes consist of maximizing the sum of mating distances, minimizing the sum, and random matching. We propose an algorithm to elect one of these Hungarian mating schemes. Every mated pair of solutions has to vote for the next generation mating scheme. The distance between parents and the distance between parent and offspring are considered when they vote. Well-known combinatorial optimization problems, the traveling salesperson problem, and the graph bisection problem are used for the test bed of our method. Our adaptive strategy showed better results than not only pure and previous hybrid schemes but also existing distance-based mating schemes.

  12. 7 CFR 400.458 - Scheme or device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Administrative Remedies for Non-Compliance § 400.458 Scheme or... material scheme or device to obtain catastrophic risk protection, other plans of insurance coverage, or...

  13. Scanning schemes in white light photoelasticity - Part II: Novel fringe resolution guided scanning scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Vivek; Ramesh, K.

    2017-05-01

    Varied spatial resolution of isochromatic fringes over the domain influences the accuracy of fringe order estimation using TFP/RGB photoelasticity. This has been brought out in the first part of the work. The existing scanning schemes do not take this into account, which leads to the propagation of noise from the low spatial resolution zones. In this paper, a method is proposed for creating a whole field map which represents the spatial resolution of the isochromatic fringe pattern. A novel scanning scheme is then proposed whose progression is guided by the spatial resolution of the fringes in the isochromatic image. The efficacy of the scanning scheme is demonstrated using three problems - an inclined crack under bi-axial loading, a thick ring subjected to internal pressure and a stress frozen specimen of an aerospace component. The proposed scheme has use in a range of applications. The scanning scheme is effective even if the model has random zones of noise which is demonstrated using a plate subjected to concentrated load. This aspect is well utilised to extract fringe data from thin slices cut from a stereo-lithographic model that has characteristic random noise due to layered manufacturing.

  14. A Fuzzy Commitment Scheme with McEliece's Cipher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deo Brat Ojha

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an attempt has been made to explain a fuzzy commitment scheme with McEliece scheme. The efficiency and security of this cryptosystem is comparatively better than any other cryptosystem. This scheme is one of the interesting candidates for post quantum cryptography. Hence our interest to deal with this system with fuzzy commitment scheme. The concept itself is illustrated with the help of a simple situation and the validation of mathematical experimental verification is provided.

  15. Setting aside transactions from pyramid schemes as impeachable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The point of contention in this case was whether the illegality of the business of the scheme was a relevant consideration in determining whether the pay-outs were made in the ordinary course of business of the scheme. This paper discusses pyramid schemes in the context of impeachable dispositions in terms of the ...

  16. a comparative study of prioritized handoff schemes with guard

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PRIORITIZED HANDOFF SCHEMES WITH GUARD CHANNELS IN WIRELESS NETWORKS. D. U. Onyishi. D. U. Onyishi, et al. Nigerian Journal of Technology. Vol. 34, No. 3, July 2015 600 application of resource allocation schemes.This gives precedence to handoff calls. Such schemes ...

  17. Matters of Coercion-Resistance in Cryptographic Voting Schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Kempka, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    This work addresses coercion-resistance in cryptographic voting schemes. It focuses on three particularly challenging cases: write-in candidates, internet elections and delegated voting. Furthermore, this work presents a taxonomy for analyzing and comparing a huge variety of voting schemes, and presents practical experiences with the voting scheme Bingo Voting.

  18. Efficient rate control scheme using modified inter-layer dependency ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, a spatial-resolutionratio-based MB mode decision scheme is proposed for spatially enhanced layers. The scheme uses the motion estimated at the base layer, to encode the respective MBs in the enhancement layers. The spatial–temporalsearch schemes at the enhancement layers are used to derive motion ...

  19. 7 CFR 623.21 - Scheme and device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scheme and device. 623.21 Section 623.21 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES EMERGENCY WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 623.21 Scheme and device. (a) If it is determined by NRCS that a landowner has employed a scheme or device to defeat the purposes of this part, any...

  20. 7 CFR 1421.305 - Misrepresentation and scheme or device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Misrepresentation and scheme or device. 1421.305... scheme or device. (a) A producer shall be ineligible to receive payments under this subpart if it is determined by DAFP, the State committee, or the county committee to have: (1) Adopted any scheme or device...

  1. 7 CFR 1430.310 - Misrepresentation and scheme or device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Misrepresentation and scheme or device. 1430.310... Disaster Assistance Payment Program § 1430.310 Misrepresentation and scheme or device. (a) In addition to... assistance under this program if the producer is determined by FSA or CCC to have: (1) Adopted any scheme or...

  2. 7 CFR 795.17 - Scheme or device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scheme or device. 795.17 Section 795.17 Agriculture... PROVISIONS COMMON TO MORE THAN ONE PROGRAM PAYMENT LIMITATION General § 795.17 Scheme or device. All or any... person adopts or participates in adopting any scheme or device designed to evade or which has the effect...

  3. 7 CFR 760.819 - Misrepresentation, scheme, or device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Misrepresentation, scheme, or device. 760.819 Section....819 Misrepresentation, scheme, or device. (a) A person is ineligible to receive assistance under this part if it is determined that such person has: (1) Adopted any scheme or device that tends to defeat...

  4. 7 CFR 784.9 - Misrepresentation and scheme or device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Misrepresentation and scheme or device. 784.9 Section... Misrepresentation and scheme or device. (a) A sheep and lamb operation shall be ineligible to receive assistance...) Adopted any scheme or device that tends to defeat the purpose of this program; (2) Made any fraudulent...

  5. 7 CFR 636.14 - Misrepresentation and scheme or device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Misrepresentation and scheme or device. 636.14 Section....14 Misrepresentation and scheme or device. (a) A participant who is determined to have erroneously... they are determined to have knowingly: (1) Adopted any scheme or device that tends to defeat the...

  6. Developing and Rewarding Excellent Teachers: The Scottish Chartered Teacher Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingvarson, Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    The Scottish Chartered Teacher Scheme was designed to recognise and reward teachers who attained high standards of practice. The scheme emerged in 2001 as part of an agreement between government, local employing authorities and teacher organisations. Policies such as the chartered teacher scheme aim to benefit students in two main ways: by…

  7. 7 CFR 1470.36 - Misrepresentation and scheme or device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Misrepresentation and scheme or device. 1470.36... General Administration § 1470.36 Misrepresentation and scheme or device. (a) If NRCS determines that an... to have: (1) Adopted any scheme or device that tends to defeat the purpose of the program; (2) Made...

  8. 7 CFR 1430.610 - Misrepresentation and scheme or device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Misrepresentation and scheme or device. 1430.610... Disaster Assistance Payment Program II (DDAP-II) § 1430.610 Misrepresentation and scheme or device. (a) In... receive assistance under this program if the producer is determined by CCC to have: (1) Adopted any scheme...

  9. 7 CFR 786.110 - Misrepresentation, scheme, or device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Misrepresentation, scheme, or device. 786.110 Section... Misrepresentation, scheme, or device. (a) In addition to other penalties, sanctions, or remedies that may apply, a... FSA to have: (1) Adopted any scheme or device that tends to defeat the purpose of this program, (2...

  10. 7 CFR 1430.220 - Misrepresentation and scheme or device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Misrepresentation and scheme or device. 1430.220... Contract Program § 1430.220 Misrepresentation and scheme or device. (a) A dairy operation shall be ineligible for the MILC program if FSA determines that it knowingly: (1) Adopted a scheme or device that...

  11. 7 CFR 1415.20 - Scheme or device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scheme or device. 1415.20 Section 1415.20 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS GRASSLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 1415.20 Scheme or device. (a) If it is determined by USDA that a participant has employed a scheme or device to defeat the purposes...

  12. 7 CFR 760.109 - Misrepresentation and scheme or device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Misrepresentation and scheme or device. 760.109... Agricultural Disaster Assistance Programs § 760.109 Misrepresentation and scheme or device. (a) A participant... in accordance with this part, or otherwise used a scheme or device with the intent to receive...

  13. 7 CFR 1463.110 - Misrepresentation and scheme or device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Misrepresentation and scheme or device. 1463.110... PROGRAM Tobacco Transition Payment Program § 1463.110 Misrepresentation and scheme or device. A person... program determination made in accordance with this subpart; (b) Adopted any scheme or device that tends to...

  14. 7 CFR 633.18 - Scheme and device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scheme and device. 633.18 Section 633.18 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WATER BANK PROGRAM § 633.18 Scheme and device. (a) If it is determined by the NRCS that a person has employed a scheme or device to defeat the purposes of this part, any part...

  15. 7 CFR 1430.507 - Misrepresentation and scheme or device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Misrepresentation and scheme or device. 1430.507... Assistance Program § 1430.507 Misrepresentation and scheme or device. (a) A dairy operation shall be... committee to have: (1) Adopted any scheme or device which tends to defeat the purpose of this program; (2...

  16. 7 CFR 1469.36 - Misrepresentation and scheme or device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Misrepresentation and scheme or device. 1469.36... General Administration § 1469.36 Misrepresentation and scheme or device. (a) If the Department determines... who is determined to have knowingly: (1) Adopted any scheme or device that tends to defeat the purpose...

  17. 7 CFR 760.1310 - Misrepresentation and scheme or device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Misrepresentation and scheme or device. 760.1310... Program § 760.1310 Misrepresentation and scheme or device. (a) In addition to other penalties, sanctions... this subpart if the producer or operation is determined by FSA to have: (1) Adopted any scheme or...

  18. 7 CFR 625.19 - Scheme and device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scheme and device. 625.19 Section 625.19 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES HEALTHY FORESTS RESERVE PROGRAM § 625.19 Scheme and device. (a) If it is determined by NRCS that a person has employed a scheme or device to defeat the purposes of this part, any...

  19. 7 CFR 1465.35 - Misrepresentation and scheme or device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Misrepresentation and scheme or device. 1465.35... ASSISTANCE General Administration § 1465.35 Misrepresentation and scheme or device. (a) A participant who is... they are determined to have knowingly: (1) Adopted any scheme or device that tends to defeat the...

  20. 7 CFR 1467.19 - Scheme and device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scheme and device. 1467.19 Section 1467.19... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 1467.19 Scheme and device. (a) If it is determined by the NRCS that a participant has employed a scheme or device to defeat...

  1. 7 CFR 1468.35 - Misrepresentation and scheme or device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Misrepresentation and scheme or device. 1468.35... Administration § 1468.35 Misrepresentation and scheme or device. (a) A participant who is determined to have... knowingly adopted any scheme or device that tends to defeat the purpose of the program; made any fraudulent...

  2. 7 CFR 1410.60 - Scheme or device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scheme or device. 1410.60 Section 1410.60 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CONSERVATION RESERVE PROGRAM § 1410.60 Scheme or device. (a) If CCC determines that a person has employed a scheme or device to defeat the purposes of this part...

  3. 7 CFR 1424.13 - Misrepresentation and scheme or device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Misrepresentation and scheme or device. 1424.13... Misrepresentation and scheme or device. (a) A producer shall be ineligible to receive payments under this program if CCC determines the producer: (1) Adopted any scheme or device that tends to defeat the purpose of the...

  4. 7 CFR 1466.35 - Misrepresentation and scheme or device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Misrepresentation and scheme or device. 1466.35... PROGRAM General Administration § 1466.35 Misrepresentation and scheme or device. (a) A person, joint.... (b) A producer who is determined to have knowingly: (1) Adopted any scheme or device that tends to...

  5. 7 CFR 1491.32 - Scheme or device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scheme or device. 1491.32 Section 1491.32 Agriculture... Administration § 1491.32 Scheme or device. (a) If it is determined by the NRCS that a cooperating entity has employed a scheme or device to defeat the purposes of this part, any part of any program payment otherwise...

  6. Nigeria's National Health Insurance Scheme: a critical reappraisal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For well over four decades, the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) remained on the drawing board. It is now a little over half a decade since the actual commencement of the implementation of the scheme. This review, therefore, chronicles the historical background to the introduction of the scheme, highlighting the ...

  7. On the strong monotonicity of the CABARET scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostapenko, V. V.

    2012-03-01

    The strong monotonicity of the CABARET scheme with single flux correction is analyzed as applied to the linear advection equation. It is shown that the scheme is strongly monotone (has the NED property) at Courant numbers r ∈ (0,0,5), for which it is monotone. Test computations illustrating this property of the CABARET scheme are presented.

  8. A dynamic digital signature scheme without third parties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Elsas, M.; Van der Lubbe, J.C.A.; Weber, J.H.

    2015-01-01

    We propose a digital signature scheme for dynamic coalitions. Particularly, we enable members to join and leave. Our scheme does not need trusted or oblivious third parties (TTPs or OTPs). In this distributed scheme there is a changing secret group key dependent on the members in the group. Each

  9. An Annotation Scheme for Social Interaction in Digital Playgrounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno Celleri, Alejandro Manuel; van Delden, Robertus Wilhelmus; Reidsma, Dennis; Poppe, Ronald Walter; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Herrlich, Marc; Malaka, Rainer; Masuch, Maic

    This paper introduces a new annotation scheme, designed specifically to study children's social interactions during play in digital playgrounds. The scheme is motivated by analyzing relevant literature, combined with observations from recordings of play sessions. The scheme allows us to analyze how

  10. Fissioned Triangular Schemes Via the Cross-Ratio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, E.R.; de Caen, D.

    1999-01-01

    A construction of association schemes is presented; these are fission schemes of the triangular schemes T(n) where n=q + 1with q any prime power. The key observation is quite elementary, being that the natural action of PGL(2,q) on the 2-element subsets of the projective line PG(1,q) is generously

  11. A combined spectrum sensing and OFDM demodulation scheme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heskamp, M.; Slump, Cornelis H.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we propose a combined signaling and spectrum sensing scheme for cognitive radio that can detect in-band primary users while the networks own signal is active. The signaling scheme uses OFDM with phase shift keying modulated sub-carriers, and the detection scheme measures the deviation

  12. throughput analysis of arq schemes using state transition diagrams

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    ST2) scheme having variable selective repeat mode retransmissions and the Selective Repeat-Stutter-Go Back N (SR-ST-GBN) scheme having variable stutter mode retransmissions. Using the SR-ST-GBN scheme, it is also shown that it is pos-.

  13. Throughput Analysis of Arq Schemes Using State Transition Diagrams

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ST2) scheme having variable selective repeat mode retransmissions and the Selective Repeat-Stutter-Go Back N (SR-ST-GBN) scheme having variable stutter mode retransmissions. Using the SR-ST-GBN scheme, it is also shown that it is ...

  14. Forgery attack to Kang-Tang digital signature scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jie; Guo, Yongning; Liu, Chenglian

    2014-10-01

    In 2006, Kang and Tang proposed a digital signature scheme without hash functions and message redundancy. They claimed their scheme are more efficient in computation and communication for small device. In this paper, we will point out an new attack to certain the Kang-Tang scheme is insecure.

  15. Conditional selectivity performance of Indian mutual fund schemes: An empirical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subrata Roy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study seeks to examine the stock-selection performance of the sample open-ended equity mutual fund schemes of Birla Sun Life Mutual Fund Company based on traditional and conditional performance measures. It is generally expected that inclusion of some relevant predetermined public information variables in the conditional CAPM provides better performance estimates as compared to the traditional measures. The study reports that after inclusion of conditioning public information variables, the selectivity performances of the schemes have dramatically improved relative to the traditional measure and also found that conditional measure is superior to traditional measure in statistical test.

  16. Dynamics of iterative schemes for quadratic polynomial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Komal; Prasad, Bhagwati

    2017-10-01

    Most of the fractals are generated by applying a map recursively to an initial point or a set of the space such as complex plane. An orbit of a point is a sequence of iteratively obtained points from it and the orbit is said to be diverging when its points grow unbounded. A set of all the points whose orbits are not diverging may be termed as a fractal. The fractal dynamics of the orbits depends on the rule of iteration also. In this paper, we study the dynamics of iterations for a number of iterative schemes. The results regarding the escape criteria for quadratic complex polynomials under various iteration procedures are established.

  17. Rural poverty reduction through centrally sponsored schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, N C

    2007-10-01

    This paper discusses the evolving profile of poverty in India and reviews the national performance of selected anti-poverty programmes between 1997-1998 and 2005. For each programme, it outlines the budgetary allocation principle used for the States and districts and analyzes budgetary performance over the period. The main objective is to explore the extent to which the anti-poverty programmes are reaching their target groups effectively. Finally, it identifies the specific factors responsible for under-performance and provides a set of recommendations for policy makers and programme implementers which could help improve the outcomes of the schemes.

  18. New Financing Schemes of Public Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio de la Riva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Public works procurements and concessions are traditional legal techniques used to shape the financing of public infrastructure. Fiscal constraints faced by public administrations at the end of the 20th century, and the subsequent increase of private participation in the provision of public goods and services, encouraged the development of new legal schemes allowing a higher degree of private investment in public infrastructure; such as Public Private Partnerships, project finance, securitizations, the shadow toll, turn-key agreements, public leasing and public trusts.

  19. A Ponzi scheme exposed to volatile markets

    OpenAIRE

    Parodi, Bernhard R.

    2014-01-01

    The PGBM model for a couple of counteracting, exponentially growing capital flows is presented: the available capital stock X(t) evolves according to a variant of inhomogeneous geometric Brownian motion (GBM) with time-dependent drift, in particular, to the stochastic differential equation dX(t)=[pX(t) + rho1*exp(q1*t)+rho2*exp(q2*t)]dt + sigma*X(t)*dW(t), where W(t) is a Wiener process. As a paragon, we study a continuous-time model for a nine-parameter Ponzi scheme with an exponentially gro...

  20. Pay-what-you-want pricing schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahsay, Goytom Abraha; Samahita, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Pay-What-You-Want (PWYW) pricing schemes are becoming increasingly popular. We develop a model incorporating self-image into the buyer’s utility function and introduce heterogeneity in consumption utility and image-sensitivity, generating different purchase decisions and optimal prices across...... individuals. When a good’s fixed price is lower than a threshold fair value, PWYW can lead to a lower utility. This may result in a lower purchase rate and higher average price, accounting for previously unexplained field experimental evidence. An increase in the threshold value decreases the buyer’s utility...... and may further lower the purchase rate, resulting in a further increase in purchase price....

  1. A Distributed Quaternary Turbo Coded Cooperative Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BALDINI FILHO, R.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative communications achieve MIMO-like diversity gains by introducing a relay that creates an independent faded path between the source and the destination. Coded cooperation integrates cooperation with channel coding in order to increase the bit error rate (BER performance of cooperative communications. Turbo codewords can be built efficiently at the destination using encoded portions of the information sent by the source and the relay. This paper presents a distributed turbo cooperative coding scheme that utilizes convolutional codes defined over the finite ring of integers Z4 that performs better than its equivalent binary counterparts.

  2. ATLAS PhD Grant Scheme

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    In this #CERNandSociety video, the 3 PhD students, awarded the ATLAS PhD Grant in 2015, talk about their research work within the ATLAS Collaboration and how this experience has shaped their future. Find out more about the ATLAS PhD Grant Scheme: cern.ch/ATLASPhDGrant This programme is just one of the many #CERNandSociety projects at CERN. Find out more and how you can be involved: http://cern.ch/go/pBt7

  3. The Odense Child Cohort: aims, design, and cohort profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyhl, Henriette Boye; Jensen, Tina Kold; Barington, Torben; Buhl, Susanne; Norberg, Lene Annette; Jørgensen, Jan Stener; Jensen, Ditlev Frank Granhøj; Christesen, Henrik Thybo; Lamont, Ronald F; Husby, Steffen

    2015-05-01

    The importance of the environment on the development of the fetus and infant throughout early life is increasingly recognised. To study such effects, biological samples and accurate data records are required. Based on multiple data collection from a healthy pregnant population, the Odense Childhood Cohort (OCC) study aims to provide new information about the environmental impact on child health by sequential follow-up to 18 years of age among children born between 2010 and 2012. A total of 2874 of 6707 pregnancies (43%) were recruited between January 2010 and December 2012. Three hundred seventy-four have since left the study, leaving 2500 active families. The non-participants act as controls contributing data through local registries. Biological material, questionnaires, and registry data were compiled. Anthropometric data and other physical data were collected. Two thousand five hundred families actively participated in the study with 2549 children. Sixty-four per cent of the fathers and 60% and 58% of the mothers, respectively, donated a blood sample at 10 and 28 weeks of gestation. On average, 69% completed questionnaires, 78% of the children were regularly examined, and had a blood sample taken (46%). The participating pregnant women differed from the non-participants in several respects: age, body mass index, smoking, parity, education, and ethnicity. The infants were comparable with respect to gender and mode of delivery. The OCC provides material for in-depth analysis of environmental and genetic factors that are important for child health and disease. Registry data from non-participating women and infants are available which ensures a high degree of comparable data. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. The CONSTANCES cohort: an open epidemiological laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zins Marie

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prospective cohorts represent an essential design for epidemiological studies and allow for the study of the combined effects of lifestyle, environment, genetic predisposition, and other risk factors on a large variety of disease endpoints. The CONSTANCES cohort is intended to provide public health information and to serve as an "open epidemiologic laboratory" accessible to the epidemiologic research community. Although designed as a "general-purpose" cohort with very broad coverage, it will particularly focus on occupational and social determinants of health, and on aging. Methods/Design The CONSTANCES cohort is designed as a randomly selected representative sample of French adults aged 18-69 years at inception; 200,000 subjects will be included over a five-year period. At inclusion, the selected subjects will be invited to fill a questionnaire and to attend a Health Screening Center (HSC for a comprehensive health examination: weight, height, blood pressure, electrocardiogram, vision, auditory, spirometry, and biological parameters; for those aged 45 years and older, a specific work-up of functional, physical, and cognitive capacities will be performed. A biobank will be set up. The follow-up includes a yearly self-administered questionnaire, and a periodic visit to an HSC. Social and work-related events and health data will be collected from the French national retirement, health and death databases. The data that will be collected include social and demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, life events, behaviors, and occupational factors. The health data will cover a wide spectrum: self-reported health scales, reported prevalent and incident diseases, long-term chronic diseases and hospitalizations, sick-leaves, handicaps, limitations, disabilities and injuries, healthcare utilization and services provided, and causes of death. To take into account non-participation at inclusion and attrition throughout the

  5. Cohort profile update: the Danish HIV Cohort Study (DHCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omland, Lars Haukali; Ahlström, Magnus Glindvad; Obel, Niels

    2014-12-01

    The DHCS is a cohort of all HIV-infected individuals seen in one of the eight Danish HIV centres after 31 December 1994. Here we update the 2009 cohort profile emphasizing the development of the cohort. Every 12-24 months, DHCS is linked with the Danish Civil Registration System (CRS) in order to extract an age- and sex-matched comparison cohort from the general population, as well as cohorts of family members of the HIV-infected patients and of the comparison cohort. The combined cohort is linked with CRS, the Danish Cancer Registry, the Danish National Hospital Registry, the Danish Registry of Causes of Death, the Danish National Prescription Registry, the Attainment Register and the Integrated Database for Labour Market Research to get information on vital status, migration, cancer, hospital contacts, causes of death, dispensed prescriptions, education and employment. Using this design, rates of a range of outcomes have been compared between HIV-infected patients and the comparison cohort, as well as between families of these two cohorts in order to disaggregate the effects of HIV infection and familial/environmental factors. Data can be shared with foreign institutions following approval from the Danish Data Protection Agency. Potential collaborators can contact the study director, Niels Obel (e-mail: niels.obel@regionh.dk). © The Author 2014; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  6. Summary Report for Evaluation of Compost Sample Drying Methods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frye, Russell

    1994-01-01

    .... Previous work in Support of these efforts developed a compost sample preparation scheme, consisting of air drying followed by milling, to reduce analytical variability in the heterogeneous compost matrix...

  7. Importance Sampling Simulations of Markovian Reliability Systems using Cross Entropy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder, Ad

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports simulation experiments, applying the cross entropy method suchas the importance sampling algorithm for efficient estimation of rare event probabilities in Markovian reliability systems. The method is compared to various failurebiasing schemes that have been proved to give

  8. A simple data compression scheme for binary images of bacteria compared with commonly used image data compression schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilkinson, M.H.F.

    A run length code compression scheme of extreme simplicity, used for image storage in an automated bacterial morphometry system, is compared with more common compression schemes, such as are used in the tag image file format. These schemes are Lempel-Ziv and Welch (LZW), Macintosh Packbits, and

  9. CHA2DS2-VASc Score (Congestive Heart Failure, Hypertension, Age ≥75 [Doubled], Diabetes Mellitus, Prior Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack [Doubled], Vascular Disease, Age 65-74, Female) for Stroke in Asian Patients With Atrial Fibrillation: A Korean Nationwide Sample Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Hoon; Yang, Pil-Sung; Uhm, Jae-Sun; Kim, Jong-Youn; Pak, Hui-Nam; Lee, Moon-Hyoung; Joung, Boyoung; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2017-06-01

    The CHA2DS2-VASc stroke score (congestive heart failure, hypertension, age ≥75 (doubled), diabetes mellitus, prior stroke or transient ischemic attack (doubled), vascular disease, age 65-74, female) is used in most guidelines for risk stratification in atrial fibrillation (AF), but most data for this score have been derived in Western populations. Ethnic differences in stroke risk may be present. Our objective was to investigate risk factors for stroke in AF and application of the CHA2DS2-VASc score in an Asian AF population from Korea. A total of 5855 oral anticoagulant-naive nonvalvular AF patients aged ≥20 years were enrolled from Korea National Health Insurance Service Sample cohort from 2002 to 2008 and were followed up until December 2013. The incidence rates (per 100 person-years) of ischemic stroke were 3.32 in the total population, being 0.23 in low-risk (CHA2DS2-VASc score 0 [male] or 1 [female]) and 4.59 in high-risk patients (CHA2DS2-VASc ≥2). Incidence rates of ischemic stroke or the composite thromboembolism end point showed a clear increase with increasing CHA2DS2-VASc score. On multivariable analysis, significant associations between CHA2DS2-VASc risk factors and ischemic stroke were observed; however, the significance of vascular disease or diabetes mellitus was attenuated after multivariate adjustment, and female sex (hazard ratio, 0.73; 95% confidence interval, 0.64-0.84) had a lower risk of ischemic stroke than males. Patients who were categorized as low risk consistently had an event rate Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Knowledge and uptake of community-based health insurance scheme among residents of Olowora, Lagos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O A Ibukun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: The informal sector population in developing nations has low health coverage from Community Based Health Insurance (CBHI and problems such as limited awareness about the potential impact of prepayment health financing and the limited resources to finance health care can impede success. This study assessed the community based health insurance scheme uptake and determinants in Olowora, Lagos State. Methods: This was a descriptive cross sectional study carried out in July 2010 in all households of 12 out of 41 streets in Olowora,by multistage sampling. Four hundred and sixteen interviewer-administered questionnaires were completed and returned. Analysis was by Epi- info version 3.5.1 software. Results: Although 75.5% of respondents were aware of the Community Health Insurance scheme at Olowora, just about half (49.5% of them had good knowledge of the scheme. A substantial proportion (44.2% of respondents did not believe in contributing money for illness yet to come, and majority (72.3% of such respondents prefers payment for health care when ill. While about half (53% of respondentshad enrolled into the community health insurance scheme, 45.6% of those who had not enrolled were not aware of the scheme. Lack of money was the main reason (51.5% why some enrollees had defaulted. Conclusion: The study identified information gaps and poor understanding of the scheme as well as poverty as factors that have negatively affected uptake. The scheme management has to re-evaluate its sensitization programmes, and also strengthen marketing strategies with special emphasis on the poor.

  11. Computational evaluation of convection schemes in fluid dynamics problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Laerte Natti

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a computational evaluation of the popular high resolution upwind WACEB, CUBISTA and ADBQUICKEST schemes for solving non-linear fluid dynamics problems. By using the finite difference methodology, the schemes are analyzed and implemented in the context of normalized variables of Leonard. In order to access the performance of the schemes, Riemann problems for 1D Burgers, Euler and shallow water equations are considered. From the numerical results, the schemes are ranked according to their performance in solving these non-linear equations. The best scheme is then applied in the numerical simulation of tridimensional incompressible moving free surface flows.

  12. On the monotonicity of multidimensional finite difference schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovyrkina, O.; Ostapenko, V.

    2016-10-01

    The classical concept of monotonicity, introduced by Godunov for linear one-dimensional difference schemes, is extended to multidimensional case. Necessary and sufficient conditions of monotonicity are obtained for linear multidimensional difference schemes of first order. The constraints on the numerical viscosity are given that ensure the monotonicity of a difference scheme in the multidimensional case. It is proposed a modification of the second order multidimensional CABARET scheme that preserves the monotonicity of one-dimensional discrete solutions and, as a result, ensures higher smoothness in the computation of multidimensional discontinuous solutions. The results of two-dimensional test computations illustrating the advantages of the modified CABARET scheme are presented.

  13. Scheme Transformations in the Vicinity of an Infrared Fixed Point

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryttov, Thomas; Shrock, Robert

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the effect of scheme transformations in the vicinity of an exact or approximate infrared fixed point in an asymptotically free gauge theory with fermions. We show that there is far less freedom in carrying out such scheme transformations in this case than at an ultraviolet fixed point....... We construct a transformation from the $\\bar{MS}$ scheme to a scheme with a vanishing three-loop term in the $\\beta$ function and use this to assess the scheme dependence of an infrared fixed point in SU($N$) theories with fermions. Implications for the anomalous dimension of the fermion bilinear...

  14. A group signature scheme based on quantum teleportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xiaojun; Tian, Yuan; Ji, Liping; Niu, Xiamu

    2010-05-01

    In this paper, we present a group signature scheme using quantum teleportation. Different from classical group signature and current quantum signature schemes, which could only deliver either group signature or unconditional security, our scheme guarantees both by adopting quantum key preparation, quantum encryption algorithm and quantum teleportation. Security analysis proved that our scheme has the characteristics of group signature, non-counterfeit, non-disavowal, blindness and traceability. Our quantum group signature scheme has a foreseeable application in the e-payment system, e-government, e-business, etc.

  15. A subgrid parameterization scheme for precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Turner

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available With increasing computing power, the horizontal resolution of numerical weather prediction (NWP models is improving and today reaches 1 to 5 km. Nevertheless, clouds and precipitation formation are still subgrid scale processes for most cloud types, such as cumulus and stratocumulus. Subgrid scale parameterizations for water vapor condensation have been in use for many years and are based on a prescribed probability density function (PDF of relative humidity spatial variability within the model grid box, thus providing a diagnosis of the cloud fraction. A similar scheme is developed and tested here. It is based on a prescribed PDF of cloud water variability and a threshold value of liquid water content for droplet collection to derive a rain fraction within the model grid. Precipitation of rainwater raises additional concerns relative to the overlap of cloud and rain fractions, however. The scheme is developed following an analysis of data collected during field campaigns in stratocumulus (DYCOMS-II and fair weather cumulus (RICO and tested in a 1-D framework against large eddy simulations of these observed cases. The new parameterization is then implemented in a 3-D NWP model with a horizontal resolution of 2.5 km to simulate real cases of precipitating cloud systems over France.

  16. Password Authentication Based on Fractal Coding Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia M. G. Al-Saidi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Password authentication is a mechanism used to authenticate user identity over insecure communication channel. In this paper, a new method to improve the security of password authentication is proposed. It is based on the compression capability of the fractal image coding to provide an authorized user a secure access to registration and login process. In the proposed scheme, a hashed password string is generated and encrypted to be captured together with the user identity using text to image mechanisms. The advantage of fractal image coding is to be used to securely send the compressed image data through a nonsecured communication channel to the server. The verification of client information with the database system is achieved in the server to authenticate the legal user. The encrypted hashed password in the decoded fractal image is recognized using optical character recognition. The authentication process is performed after a successful verification of the client identity by comparing the decrypted hashed password with those which was stored in the database system. The system is analyzed and discussed from the attacker’s viewpoint. A security comparison is performed to show that the proposed scheme provides an essential security requirement, while their efficiency makes it easier to be applied alone or in hybrid with other security methods. Computer simulation and statistical analysis are presented.

  17. IMPLEMENTATION OF THE NEW CAREER STRUCTURE SCHEME

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    CERN's new Merit Advancement and Promotion Scheme, MAPS, comes into force on 1 September, and all members of staff will soon be receiving the official letter of notification of their assimilation into the new scheme. In this announcement, we take a look at where you can learn about the new system. There will also be an article in the Weekly Bulletin at the end of the month, which will summarise the main changes. During the early summer, HR Division presented the new structure to the staff in the Laboratory via Divisional Information Meetings. The transparencies used in these meetings, along with a list of the most relevant questions and answers, a Career Path Guide as well as a general overview document are available on the HR Division web site http://cern.ch/CERN/Divisions/PE/. Hard copies of the latter document are also available from the Divisional secretariats. The first question most staff members will ask is how they will fit into the new career path structure. Via the same web page, they can type in th...

  18. Extended lattice Boltzmann scheme for droplet combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashna, Mostafa; Rahimian, Mohammad Hassan; Fakhari, Abbas

    2017-05-01

    The available lattice Boltzmann (LB) models for combustion or phase change are focused on either single-phase flow combustion or two-phase flow with evaporation assuming a constant density for both liquid and gas phases. To pave the way towards simulation of spray combustion, we propose a two-phase LB method for modeling combustion of liquid fuel droplets. We develop an LB scheme to model phase change and combustion by taking into account the density variation in the gas phase and accounting for the chemical reaction based on the Cahn-Hilliard free-energy approach. Evaporation of liquid fuel is modeled by adding a source term, which is due to the divergence of the velocity field being nontrivial, in the continuity equation. The low-Mach-number approximation in the governing Navier-Stokes and energy equations is used to incorporate source terms due to heat release from chemical reactions, density variation, and nonluminous radiative heat loss. Additionally, the conservation equation for chemical species is formulated by including a source term due to chemical reaction. To validate the model, we consider the combustion of n-heptane and n-butanol droplets in stagnant air using overall single-step reactions. The diameter history and flame standoff ratio obtained from the proposed LB method are found to be in good agreement with available numerical and experimental data. The present LB scheme is believed to be a promising approach for modeling spray combustion.

  19. Dynamic balancing scheme for motor armatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Chyuan-Yow; Shih, Ting-Wei; Lin, Jun-Tsun

    2007-07-01

    This paper presents a novel approach based on an adaptive parameter estimation technique for the dynamic balancing of the armature in an automobile starting motor. The proposed scheme is implemented on an experimental system comprising an unbalance measurement machine and a milling machine. Applying the influence coefficient method, two matrices, namely the unbalance calculation matrix and the milling vector calculation matrix, are constructed. The unbalance calculation matrix computes the armature unbalance based on vibration measurements, while the milling vector calculation matrix establishes the position and magnitude of the required unbalance correction. To compensate for the wear of the milling cutter following repeated machining operations, an algorithm is formulated to generate on-line estimates of the parameter settings required in the milling vector calculation matrix. A series of balancing experiments are performed to evaluate the feasibility and performance of the proposed scheme. The results show that the balancing system achieves a better balancing performance than a system based on the conventional influence coefficient method.

  20. Multiplexing schemes for quantum repeater networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Luciano; Van Meter, Rodney

    2011-08-01

    When built, quantum repeaters will allow the distribution of entangled quantum states across large distances, playing a vital part in many proposed quantum technologies. Enabling multiple users to connect through the same network will be key to their real-world deployment. Previous work on repeater technologies has focussed only on simple entanglment production, without considering the issues of resource scarcity and competition that necessarily arise in a network setting. In this paper we simulated a thirteen-node network with up to five flows sharing different parts of the network, measuring the total throughput and fairness for each case. Our results suggest that the Internet-like approach of statistical multiplexing use of a congested link gives the highest aggregate throughput. Time division multiplexing and buffer space multiplexing were slightly less effective, but all three schemes allow the sum of multiple flows to substantially exceed that of any one flow, improving over circuit switching by taking advantage of resources that are forced to remain idle in circuit switching. All three schemes proved to have excellent fairness. The high performance, fairness and simplicity of implementation support a recommendation of statistical multiplexing for shared quantum repeater networks.

  1. Finite-difference schemes for anisotropic diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Es, Bram van, E-mail: es@cwi.nl [Centrum Wiskunde and Informatica, P.O. Box 94079, 1090GB Amsterdam (Netherlands); FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Association EURATOM-FOM (Netherlands); Koren, Barry [Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands); Blank, Hugo J. de [FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Association EURATOM-FOM (Netherlands)

    2014-09-01

    In fusion plasmas diffusion tensors are extremely anisotropic due to the high temperature and large magnetic field strength. This causes diffusion, heat conduction, and viscous momentum loss, to effectively be aligned with the magnetic field lines. This alignment leads to different values for the respective diffusive coefficients in the magnetic field direction and in the perpendicular direction, to the extent that heat diffusion coefficients can be up to 10{sup 12} times larger in the parallel direction than in the perpendicular direction. This anisotropy puts stringent requirements on the numerical methods used to approximate the MHD-equations since any misalignment of the grid may cause the perpendicular diffusion to be polluted by the numerical error in approximating the parallel diffusion. Currently the common approach is to apply magnetic field-aligned coordinates, an approach that automatically takes care of the directionality of the diffusive coefficients. This approach runs into problems at x-points and at points where there is magnetic re-connection, since this causes local non-alignment. It is therefore useful to consider numerical schemes that are tolerant to the misalignment of the grid with the magnetic field lines, both to improve existing methods and to help open the possibility of applying regular non-aligned grids. To investigate this, in this paper several discretization schemes are developed and applied to the anisotropic heat diffusion equation on a non-aligned grid.

  2. Privacy protection schemes for fingerprint recognition systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marasco, Emanuela; Cukic, Bojan

    2015-05-01

    The deployment of fingerprint recognition systems has always raised concerns related to personal privacy. A fingerprint is permanently associated with an individual and, generally, it cannot be reset if compromised in one application. Given that fingerprints are not a secret, potential misuses besides personal recognition represent privacy threats and may lead to public distrust. Privacy mechanisms control access to personal information and limit the likelihood of intrusions. In this paper, image- and feature-level schemes for privacy protection in fingerprint recognition systems are reviewed. Storing only key features of a biometric signature can reduce the likelihood of biometric data being used for unintended purposes. In biometric cryptosystems and biometric-based key release, the biometric component verifies the identity of the user, while the cryptographic key protects the communication channel. Transformation-based approaches only a transformed version of the original biometric signature is stored. Different applications can use different transforms. Matching is performed in the transformed domain which enable the preservation of low error rates. Since such templates do not reveal information about individuals, they are referred to as cancelable templates. A compromised template can be re-issued using a different transform. At image-level, de-identification schemes can remove identifiers disclosed for objectives unrelated to the original purpose, while permitting other authorized uses of personal information. Fingerprint images can be de-identified by, for example, mixing fingerprints or removing gender signature. In both cases, degradation of matching performance is minimized.

  3. Improved Spatial Differencing Scheme for 2-D DOA Estimation of Coherent Signals with Uniform Rectangular Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Junpeng; Hu, Guoping; Sun, Fenggang; Zong, Binfeng; Wang, Xin

    2017-08-24

    This paper proposes an improved spatial differencing (ISD) scheme for two-dimensional direction of arrival (2-D DOA) estimation of coherent signals with uniform rectangular arrays (URAs). We first divide the URA into a number of row rectangular subarrays. Then, by extracting all the data information of each subarray, we only perform difference-operation on the auto-correlations, while the cross-correlations are kept unchanged. Using the reconstructed submatrices, both the forward only ISD (FO-ISD) and forward backward ISD (FB-ISD) methods are developed under the proposed scheme. Compared with the existing spatial smoothing techniques, the proposed scheme can use more data information of the sample covariance matrix and also suppress the effect of additive noise more effectively. Simulation results show that both FO-ISD and FB-ISD can improve the estimation performance largely as compared to the others, in white or colored noise conditions.

  4. Dynamic demonstration of diffractive optic analog-to-digital converter scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galt, Sheila; Magnusson, Anders; Hård, Sverker

    2003-01-10

    Dynamic behavior of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) based on diffractive optical element(s) (DOE)(s) was studied and found to be in agreement with predictions. The analog signal was translated to an angular deflection of a laser beam by means of an acousto-optic (AO) cell. The number of bits in this experimental demonstration was three, using an eight-element DOE array. The maximum sample rate was found to be 2.5 MS/s, the limiting factor being the transit time for the acoustic wave across the width of the laser beam in the AO cell. The study is intended as a first dynamic demonstration of a proposed ADC scheme previously demonstrated in a quasi-static version. The full potential of the ADC scheme will require the use of a fast tunable diode laser to replace the AO deflection scheme used here.

  5. Spatial dimming scheme for optical OFDM based visible light communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Zeng, Zhimin; Cheng, Julian; Guo, Caili

    2016-12-26

    A new dimming control scheme termed spatial dimming orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (SD-OFDM) is proposed for multiple-input and multiple output OFDM based visible light communication. The basic idea of SD-OFDM is that the illumination can be represented by the number of glared light emitting diodes (LEDs) in an LED lamp. As the biasing level of LEDs does not adjust to represent the required illumination level, the proposed scheme can significantly mitigate the clipping noise compared to analogue dimming schemes. Furthermore, unlike digital dimming schemes that control illumination levels by setting different duty cycles of pulse width modulation, the proposed scheme is always in the "on-state" for varied illumination levels. Both analytical and simulation results indicate that the proposed scheme is an efficient and feasible dimmable scheme.

  6. A numerical scheme for the generalized Burgers–Huxley equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brajesh K. Singh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a numerical solution of generalized Burgers–Huxley (gBH equation is approximated by using a new scheme: modified cubic B-spline differential quadrature method (MCB-DQM. The scheme is based on differential quadrature method in which the weighting coefficients are obtained by using modified cubic B-splines as a set of basis functions. This scheme reduces the equation into a system of first-order ordinary differential equation (ODE which is solved by adopting SSP-RK43 scheme. Further, it is shown that the proposed scheme is stable. The efficiency of the proposed method is illustrated by four numerical experiments, which confirm that obtained results are in good agreement with earlier studies. This scheme is an easy, economical and efficient technique for finding numerical solutions for various kinds of (nonlinear physical models as compared to the earlier schemes.

  7. An evaluation of a collaborative bibliotherapy scheme delivered via a library service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, J; Vallance, D; McGrath, M

    2013-12-01

    This paper reports on the evaluation of a bibliotherapy scheme delivered via a local library service, in conjunction with General Practice (GP) practices, local social welfare agencies and through self-referral. The Read Yourself Well (RYW) scheme was based on principles established from other similar schemes and as a way of delivering support for adults experiencing mild to moderate mental health problems for whom clinical treatments are not appropriate. The intervention consisted of initial referral and evaluation by the scheme bibliotherapist, a one-hour session at the beginning and end of the intervention where a purpose-designed questionnaire and two mental health assessments were carried out (the General Health Questionnaire and the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation questionnaire). Contact and support from the bibliotherapist was provided during the intervention period. One hundred and fifty-seven participants were recruited to the evaluation of whom 114 provided full data. Statistical analyses of the mental health scores showed significant improvements post treatment, for, both male and female participants, for all three referral routes, and for participants who were previously library users, and those who joined the library service to participate in the RYW scheme. The results of this large sample evaluation support the proposal that library-based bibliotherapy can be effective in the treatment of mental health problems. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. How to conduct External Quality Assessment Schemes for the pre-analytical phase?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Gunn B.B.; Aakre, Kristin Moberg; Kristoffersen, Ann Helen; Sandberg, Sverre

    2014-01-01

    In laboratory medicine, several studies have described the most frequent errors in the different phases of the total testing process, and a large proportion of these errors occur in the pre-analytical phase. Schemes for registration of errors and subsequent feedback to the participants have been conducted for decades concerning the analytical phase by External Quality Assessment (EQA) organizations operating in most countries. The aim of the paper is to present an overview of different types of EQA schemes for the pre-analytical phase, and give examples of some existing schemes. So far, very few EQA organizations have focused on the pre-analytical phase, and most EQA organizations do not offer pre-analytical EQA schemes (EQAS). It is more difficult to perform and standardize pre-analytical EQAS and also, accreditation bodies do not ask the laboratories for results from such schemes. However, some ongoing EQA programs for the pre-analytical phase do exist, and some examples are given in this paper. The methods used can be divided into three different types; collecting information about pre-analytical laboratory procedures, circulating real samples to collect information about interferences that might affect the measurement procedure, or register actual laboratory errors and relate these to quality indicators. These three types have different focus and different challenges regarding implementation, and a combination of the three is probably necessary to be able to detect and monitor the wide range of errors occurring in the pre-analytical phase. PMID:24627720

  9. [Study on optimizing the reimbursement scheme under the New Rural Cooperative Medical System, based on Monte Carlo simulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xuehui; Huang, Yixiang; Wu, Shaolong; Liu, Qing

    2014-06-01

    To explore the application of Monte Carlo simulation in optimizing and adjusting the reimbursement scheme with regard to the New Rural Cooperative Medical System (NCMS) to scientific steering practice. Optimization of the reimbursement scheme in rural areas of China was also studied. A multi-stage sampling household survey was conducted in Sihui county, with 4 433 rural residents from 1 179 households from 13 towns in Guangdong province surveyed by self-designed questionnaire. Probit Regression Model was applied in fitting data and then estimating the own-price elasticity and cross elasticity of healthcare demand for both outpatients and inpatients. Monte Carlo simulation model was constructed to estimate the reimbursement effects of various alternative reimbursement schemes, by replicated simulation for one thousand times and each sampling on five hundred households. In this way, optimization of the implemented reimbursement scheme in Sihui county was conducted. Own-priced elasticity of demands for outpatient visit, inpatient visit in the township hospital center, secondary hospital and tertiary hospital were -0.174, -0.264, -0.675 and -0.429, respectively. Outpatient demand was affected by the per-visit price of township hospital center and secondary hospital. The cross-priced elasticity of demands for outpatient visit appeared to be 0.125 and 0.150. The reimbursement effects of Scheme B7 showed that the efficiency of NCMS fund was 17.85% , the reimbursement ratio for healthcare was 25.63%, and the decreased percentages of poverty caused by illness was 18.25%, more than 9.37%, from the implemented scheme A. So the implemented scheme was in need for optimization. Monte Carlo simulation technique was applicable to simulate the effects of the optimized alternative reimbursement scheme of NCMS and it provided a new idea and method to optimize and adjust the reimbursement scheme.

  10. The Performance-based Funding Scheme of Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha KETTUNEN

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyse the effectiveness of the performance-based funding scheme of the Finnish universities that was adopted at the beginning of 2013. The political decision-makers expect that the funding scheme will create incentives for the universities to improve performance, but these funding schemes have largely failed in many other countries, primarily because public funding is only a small share of the total funding of universities. This study is interesting because Finnish universities have no tuition fees, unlike in many other countries, and the state allocates funding based on the objectives achieved. The empirical evidence of the graduation rates indicates that graduation rates increased when a new scheme was adopted, especially among male students, who have more room for improvement than female students. The new performance-based funding scheme allocates the funding according to the output-based indicators and limits the scope of strategic planning and the autonomy of the university. The performance-based funding scheme is transformed to the strategy map of the balanced scorecard. The new funding scheme steers universities in many respects but leaves the research and teaching skills to the discretion of the universities. The new scheme has also diminished the importance of the performance agreements between the university and the Ministry. The scheme increases the incentives for universities to improve the processes and structures in order to attain as much public funding as possible. It is optimal for the central administration of the university to allocate resources to faculties and other organisational units following the criteria of the performance-based funding scheme. The new funding scheme has made the universities compete with each other, because the total funding to the universities is allocated to each university according to the funding scheme. There is a tendency that the funding schemes are occasionally

  11. Collective agri-environment schemes: How can regionalenvironmental cooperatives enhance farmers’ intentions foragri-environment schemes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van W.F.A.; Lokhorst, A.M.; Berendse, F.; Snoo, de G.R.

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of agri-environment schemes (AES) in enhancing biodiversity on farmland and creating a long-lasting change in farmers’ motivation towards a more environmental-friendly practice is still strongly debated. Applying a regional approach has been advocated widely to make AES more

  12. A simple language to script and simulate breeding schemes: the breeding scheme language

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is difficult for plant breeders to determine an optimal breeding strategy given that the problem involves many factors, such as target trait genetic architecture and breeding resource availability. There are many possible breeding schemes for each breeding program. Although simulation study may b...

  13. SCHEME PLANTING OF SWEET PEPPER IN SUMMER TERM OF CULTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. F. Rasulov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The sweet pepper varieties ‘Dar Tashkenta’ and ‘Tong’ were included in the State Register of Breeding Achievements in 1980 and 2005 respectively, and recommended for cultivation in the territory of the Republic of Uzbekistan. The planting schemes 70x30 (control, 70x20, 70x40, 70x40/2, 70x50 and 70x50/2 for these varieties were studied. The control variety was ‘Dar Tashkenta’. The feeding area and the number of plants per hectare embodiment was 0.21mІ2 and 47.6 thousand plants; 0.14 mІ2 and 71.4; 0.28 mІ2 and 35.7; 0.28 mІ2 and 71.4; 0.35 and 28.5 mІ2 and 0.35 mІ2 and 57.1 thousand plants. Studies were carried out in summer after harvesting early vegetable crops. During the spring period of the sweet pepper seedlings were planted in the second decade of April, they were planted in the second half of the month of June. It was shown that the planting samples and the density of plant standing had a different effect on the phenological phase of the varieties studied. In the variety of thickened ‘Dar Tashkenta’ (70x20 cm to rarefied (70x50 cm planting duration of about a period of from germination to 10% weight of technical maturity of the fruit was increased up to 8-10 days and amounted to 92-99 per day. The ‘Tong’ variety grew for 90-95 days. The phase of 75% of the technical ripeness of fruits in variety ‘Dar Tashkenta’ was for 108-114 days, in Tong for 104-110 days. The planting scheme has an influence on the following measurement parameters: the weight of the roots, the weight of the bush per plant, the number of leaves per plant, the area of the leaf blade, the number of stems of the first and second order, the length and diameter of the fruit, the number of fruits per one fruit set, the mass of fruit and yield. The number of plants from the first planting scheme to the last one was different and ranged from 28.5 to 71.4 thousand per ha. Therefore, the productivity of all varieties is estimated by the number of

  14. An efficient compression scheme for bitmap indices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Kesheng; Otoo, Ekow J.; Shoshani, Arie

    2004-04-13

    When using an out-of-core indexing method to answer a query, it is generally assumed that the I/O cost dominates the overall query response time. Because of this, most research on indexing methods concentrate on reducing the sizes of indices. For bitmap indices, compression has been used for this purpose. However, in most cases, operations on these compressed bitmaps, mostly bitwise logical operations such as AND, OR, and NOT, spend more time in CPU than in I/O. To speedup these operations, a number of specialized bitmap compression schemes have been developed; the best known of which is the byte-aligned bitmap code (BBC). They are usually faster in performing logical operations than the general purpose compression schemes, but, the time spent in CPU still dominates the total query response time. To reduce the query response time, we designed a CPU-friendly scheme named the word-aligned hybrid (WAH) code. In this paper, we prove that the sizes of WAH compressed bitmap indices are about two words per row for large range of attributes. This size is smaller than typical sizes of commonly used indices, such as a B-tree. Therefore, WAH compressed indices are not only appropriate for low cardinality attributes but also for high cardinality attributes.In the worst case, the time to operate on compressed bitmaps is proportional to the total size of the bitmaps involved. The total size of the bitmaps required to answer a query on one attribute is proportional to the number of hits. These indicate that WAH compressed bitmap indices are optimal. To verify their effectiveness, we generated bitmap indices for four different datasets and measured the response time of many range queries. Tests confirm that sizes of compressed bitmap indices are indeed smaller than B-tree indices, and query processing with WAH compressed indices is much faster than with BBC compressed indices, projection indices and B-tree indices. In addition, we also verified that the average query response time

  15. The IDEFICS Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrens, Wolfgang; Bammann, Karin; Siani, Alfonso

    2011-01-01

    included anthropometry, blood pressure, fitness, accelerometry, DNA from saliva and physiological markers in blood and urine. The built environment, sensory taste perception and other mechanisms of children's food choices and consumer behaviour were studied in subgroups. Results: Between 1507 and 2567...... one 24-h dietary recall was obtained for two-thirds of the children. Blood pressure and anthropometry were assessed in more than 90%. A 3-day accelerometry was performed in 46%, motor fitness was assessed in 41%, cardiorespiratory fitness in 35% and ~11% participated in taste perception tests....... The proportion of children donating venous blood, urine and saliva was 57, 86 and 88%, respectively. Conclusion: The IDEFICS cohort provides valuable data to investigate the interplay of social, environmental, genetic, physiological and behavioural factors in the development of major diet- and lifestyle...

  16. UK multiple sclerosis risk-sharing scheme: a new natural history dataset and an improved Markov model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palace, Jacqueline; Bregenzer, Thomas; Tremlett, Helen; Oger, Joel; Zhu, Feng; Zhu, Fheng; Boggild, Mike; Duddy, Martin; Dobson, Charles

    2014-01-17

    In 2002, the UK's National Institute for Health and Care Excellence concluded that the multiple sclerosis (MS) disease modifying therapies; interferon-β and glatiramer acetate, were not cost effective over the short term but recognised that reducing disability over the longer term might dramatically improve the cost effectiveness. The UK Risk-sharing Scheme (RSS) was established to ensure cost-effective provision by prospectively collecting disability-related data from UK-treated patients with MS and comparing findings to a natural history (untreated) cohort. However, deficiencies were found in the originally selected untreated cohort and the resulting analytical approach. This study aims to identify a more suitable natural history cohort and to develop a robust analytical approach using the new cohort. The Scientific Advisory Group, recommended the British Columbia Multiple Sclerosis (BCMS) database, Canada, as providing a more suitable natural history comparator cohort. Transition probabilities were derived and different Markov models (discrete and continuous) with and without baseline covariates were applied. MS clinics in Canada and the UK. From the BCMS database, 898 'untreated' patients with MS considered eligible for drug treatment based on the UK's Association of British Neurologists criteria. The predicted Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score was collected and assessed for goodness of fit when compared with actual outcome. The BCMS untreated cohort contributed 7335 EDSS scores over a median 6.4 years (6357 EDSS 'transitions' recorded at consecutive visits) during the period 1980-1995. A continuous Markov model with 'onset age' as a binary covariate was deemed the most suitable model for future RSS analysis. A new untreated MS cohort from British Columbia has been selected and will be modelled using a continuous Markov model with onset age as a baseline covariate. This approach will now be applied to the treated UK RSS MS cohort for future price

  17. Combined Control Scheme for Monitoring Quality Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adekeye K.S.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the literature, the Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (EWMA and Exponentially Weighted Moving Variance (EMWV control schemes have been used separately to monitor the process average and process variability respectively. Here the two are combined and applied on simulated process with different level of variation. The control limit interval (CLI and the average run length (ARL were evaluated for the combined chart. The combined chart performed better than the two independently. Furthermore, an algorithm was developed for the two control charts and implemented on visual basic VB6.0. The obtained results show that the combined EWMA and EWMV control chart is very sensitive in detecting shift in production process and every shift in the process mean is always preceded by shift in the process variability.

  18. Parasitology: United Kingdom National Quality Assessment Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, M.; Chiodini, P. L.; Snell, J. J.; Moody, A. H.; Ramsay, A.

    1992-01-01

    AIMS: To assess the results from parasitology laboratories taking part in a quality assessment scheme between 1986 and 1991; and to compare performance with repeat specimens. METHODS: Quality assessment of blood parasitology, including tissue parasites (n = 444; 358 UK, 86 overseas), and faecal parasitology, including extra-intestinal parasites (n = 205; 141 UK, 64 overseas), was performed. RESULTS: Overall, the standard of performance was poor. A questionnaire distributed to participants showed that a wide range of methods was used, some of which were considered inadequate to achieve reliable results. Teaching material was distributed to participants from time to time in an attempt to improve standards. CONCLUSIONS: Since the closure of the IMLS fellowship course in 1972, fewer opportunities for specialised training in parasitology are available: more training is needed. Poor performance in the detection of malarial parasites is mainly attributable to incorrect speciation, misidentification, and lack of equipment such as an eyepiece graticule. PMID:1452791

  19. Auction dynamics: A volume constrained MBO scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Matt; Merkurjev, Ekaterina; Esedoǧlu, Selim

    2018-02-01

    We show how auction algorithms, originally developed for the assignment problem, can be utilized in Merriman, Bence, and Osher's threshold dynamics scheme to simulate multi-phase motion by mean curvature in the presence of equality and inequality volume constraints on the individual phases. The resulting algorithms are highly efficient and robust, and can be used in simulations ranging from minimal partition problems in Euclidean space to semi-supervised machine learning via clustering on graphs. In the case of the latter application, numerous experimental results on benchmark machine learning datasets show that our approach exceeds the performance of current state-of-the-art methods, while requiring a fraction of the computation time.

  20. Efficient Conservative Reformulation Schemes for Lithium Intercalation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urisanga, PC; Rife, D; De, S; Subramanian, VR

    2015-02-18

    Porous electrode theory coupled with transport and reaction mechanisms is a widely used technique to model Li-ion batteries employing an appropriate discretization or approximation for solid phase diffusion with electrode particles. One of the major difficulties in simulating Li-ion battery models is the need to account for solid phase diffusion in a second radial dimension r, which increases the computation time/cost to a great extent. Various methods that reduce the computational cost have been introduced to treat this phenomenon, but most of them do not guarantee mass conservation. The aim of this paper is to introduce an inherently mass conserving yet computationally efficient method for solid phase diffusion based on Lobatto III A quadrature. This paper also presents coupling of the new solid phase reformulation scheme with a macro-homogeneous porous electrode theory based pseudo 20 model for Li-ion battery. (C) The Author(s) 2015. Published by ECS. All rights reserved.

  1. Foil Bearing Stiffness Estimation with Pseudospectral Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankar Balaji

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Compliant foil gas lubricated bearings are used for the support of light loads in the order of few kilograms at high speeds, in the order of 50,000 RPM. The stiffness of the foil bearings depends both on the stiffness of the compliant foil and on the lubricating gas film. The stiffness of the bearings plays a crucial role in the stable operation of the supported rotor over a range of speeds. This paper describes a numerical approach to estimate the stiffness of the bearings using pseudo spectral scheme. Methodology to obtain the stiffness of the foil bearing as a function of weight of the shaft is given and the results are presented.

  2. State Of Art in Homomorphic Encryption Schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sobitha Ahila

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The demand for privacy of digital data and of algorithms for handling more complex structures have increased exponentially over the last decade. However, the critical problem arises when there is a requirement for publicly computing with private data or to modify functions or algorithms in such a way that they are still executable while their privacy is ensured. This is where homomorphic cryptosystems can be used since these systems enable computations with encrypted data. A fully homomorphic encryption scheme enables computation of arbitrary functions on encrypted data.. This enables a customer to generate a program that can be executed by a third party, without revealing the underlying algorithm or the processed data. We will take the reader through a journey of these developments and provide a glimpse of the exciting research directions that lie ahead. In this paper, we propose a selection of the most important available solutions, discussing their properties and limitations.

  3. New CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS) forms

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2015-01-01

    New versions of the following forms for claims and requests to the CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS) have been released:   form for claiming reimbursement of medical expenses,   form for requesting advance reimbursement, and   dental estimate form (for treatments foreseen to exceed 800 CHF).   The new forms are available in French and English. They can either be completed electronically before being printed and signed, or completed in paper form. New detailed instructions can be found at the back of the claim form; CHIS members are invited to read them carefully. The electronic versions (PDF) of all the forms are available on the CHIS website and on the UNIQA Member Portal. CHIS Members are requested to use these new forms forthwith and to discard any previous version. Questions regarding the above should be addressed directly to UNIQA (72730 or 022.718 63 00 or uniqa.assurances@cern.ch).

  4. New scheme for braiding Majorana fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Long-Hua; Liang, Qi-Feng; Hu, Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Non-Abelian statistics can be achieved by exchanging two vortices in topological superconductors with each grabbing a Majorana fermion (MF) as zero-energy quasi-particle at the cores. However, in experiments it is difficult to manipulate vortices. In the present work, we propose a way to braid MFs without moving vortices. The only operation required in the present scheme is to turn on and off local gate voltages, which liberates a MF from its original host vortex and transports it along the prepared track. We solve the time-dependent Bogoliubov–de Gennes equation numerically, and confirm that the MFs are protected provided the switching of gate voltages for exchanging MFs are adiabatic, which takes only several nano seconds given reasonable material parameters. By monitoring the time evolution of MF wave-functions, we show that non-Abelian statistics is achieved. PMID:27877725

  5. An efficient training scheme for supermodels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schevenhoven, Francine J.; Selten, Frank M.

    2017-06-01

    Weather and climate models have improved steadily over time as witnessed by objective skill scores, although significant model errors remain. Given these imperfect models, predictions might be improved by combining them dynamically into a so-called supermodel. In this paper a new training scheme to construct such a supermodel is explored using a technique called cross pollination in time (CPT). In the CPT approach the models exchange states during the prediction. The number of possible predictions grows quickly with time, and a strategy to retain only a small number of predictions, called pruning, needs to be developed. The method is explored using low-order dynamical systems and applied to a global atmospheric model. The results indicate that the CPT training is efficient and leads to a supermodel with improved forecast quality as compared to the individual models. Due to its computational efficiency, the technique is suited for application to state-of-the art high-dimensional weather and climate models.

  6. European Influenza Surveillance Scheme on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snacken, R; Manuguerra, J C; Taylor, P

    1998-09-01

    In 1995, The European Influenza Surveillance Scheme was created with the participation of eight networks from seven countries. The main objectives were to continue the previous CARE Telematics Network and to adapt the project to the Internet environment as well as to improve substantially the quality of the surveillance according to new epidemiological requirements. Clinical and virological data from the general population and hospitals are collected in an interactive real-time database which can then be used for data entry, queries and consultations. Research programmes have been undertaken in various fields such as standardisation of clinical data and comparability between countries. Validation and security processes guarantee the quality assurance as well as regular assessment by the steering committee. Two additional countries will participate during the next influenza season (1997-98). This will represent an early warning system in a region of approximately 264 million inhabitants.

  7. Efficient and Anonymous Authentication Scheme for Wireless Body Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Libing; Zhang, Yubo; Li, Li; Shen, Jian

    2016-06-01

    As a significant part of the Internet of Things (IoT), Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) has attract much attention in this years. In WBANs, sensors placed in or around the human body collect the sensitive data of the body and transmit it through an open wireless channel in which the messages may be intercepted, modified, etc. Recently, Wang et al. presented a new anonymous authentication scheme for WBANs and claimed that their scheme can solve the security problems in the previous schemes. Unfortunately, we demonstrate that their scheme cannot withstand impersonation attack. Either an adversary or a malicious legal client could impersonate another legal client to the application provider. In this paper, we give the detailed weakness analysis of Wang et al.'s scheme at first. Then we present a novel anonymous authentication scheme for WBANs and prove that it's secure under a random oracle model. At last, we demonstrate that our presented anonymous authentication scheme for WBANs is more suitable for practical application than Wang et al.'s scheme due to better security and performance. Compared with Wang et al.'s scheme, the computation cost of our scheme in WBANs has reduced by about 31.58%.

  8. MIMO transmit scheme based on morphological perceptron with competitive learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Raul Ambrozio; Abrão, Taufik

    2016-08-01

    This paper proposes a new multi-input multi-output (MIMO) transmit scheme aided by artificial neural network (ANN). The morphological perceptron with competitive learning (MP/CL) concept is deployed as a decision rule in the MIMO detection stage. The proposed MIMO transmission scheme is able to achieve double spectral efficiency; hence, in each time-slot the receiver decodes two symbols at a time instead one as Alamouti scheme. Other advantage of the proposed transmit scheme with MP/CL-aided detector is its polynomial complexity according to modulation order, while it becomes linear when the data stream length is greater than modulation order. The performance of the proposed scheme is compared to the traditional MIMO schemes, namely Alamouti scheme and maximum-likelihood MIMO (ML-MIMO) detector. Also, the proposed scheme is evaluated in a scenario with variable channel information along the frame. Numerical results have shown that the diversity gain under space-time coding Alamouti scheme is partially lost, which slightly reduces the bit-error rate (BER) performance of the proposed MP/CL-NN MIMO scheme. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Security analysis and improvements of arbitrated quantum signature schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiangfu; Qiu, Daowen

    2010-10-01

    A digital signature is a mathematical scheme for demonstrating the authenticity of a digital message or document. For signing quantum messages, some arbitrated quantum signature (AQS) schemes have been proposed. It was claimed that these AQS schemes could guarantee unconditional security. However, we show that they can be repudiated by the receiver Bob. To conquer this shortcoming, we construct an AQS scheme using a public board. The AQS scheme not only avoids being disavowed by the receiver but also preserves all merits in the existing schemes. Furthermore, we discover that entanglement is not necessary while all these existing AQS schemes depend on entanglement. Therefore, we present another AQS scheme without utilizing entangled states in the signing phase and the verifying phase. This scheme has three advantages: it does not utilize entangled states and it preserves all merits in the existing schemes; the signature can avoid being disavowed by the receiver; and it provides a higher efficiency in transmission and reduces the complexity of implementation.

  10. Quantum attack-resistent certificateless multi-receiver signcryption scheme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huixian Li

    Full Text Available The existing certificateless signcryption schemes were designed mainly based on the traditional public key cryptography, in which the security relies on the hard problems, such as factor decomposition and discrete logarithm. However, these problems will be easily solved by the quantum computing. So the existing certificateless signcryption schemes are vulnerable to the quantum attack. Multivariate public key cryptography (MPKC, which can resist the quantum attack, is one of the alternative solutions to guarantee the security of communications in the post-quantum age. Motivated by these concerns, we proposed a new construction of the certificateless multi-receiver signcryption scheme (CLMSC based on MPKC. The new scheme inherits the security of MPKC, which can withstand the quantum attack. Multivariate quadratic polynomial operations, which have lower computation complexity than bilinear pairing operations, are employed in signcrypting a message for a certain number of receivers in our scheme. Security analysis shows that our scheme is a secure MPKC-based scheme. We proved its security under the hardness of the Multivariate Quadratic (MQ problem and its unforgeability under the Isomorphism of Polynomials (IP assumption in the random oracle model. The analysis results show that our scheme also has the security properties of non-repudiation, perfect forward secrecy, perfect backward secrecy and public verifiability. Compared with the existing schemes in terms of computation complexity and ciphertext length, our scheme is more efficient, which makes it suitable for terminals with low computation capacity like smart cards.

  11. Low-sampling-rate ultra-wideband channel estimation using equivalent-time sampling

    KAUST Repository

    Ballal, Tarig

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, a low-sampling-rate scheme for ultra-wideband channel estimation is proposed. The scheme exploits multiple observations generated by transmitting multiple pulses. In the proposed scheme, P pulses are transmitted to produce channel impulse response estimates at a desired sampling rate, while the ADC samples at a rate that is P times slower. To avoid loss of fidelity, the number of sampling periods (based on the desired rate) in the inter-pulse interval is restricted to be co-prime with P. This condition is affected when clock drift is present and the transmitted pulse locations change. To handle this case, and to achieve an overall good channel estimation performance, without using prior information, we derive an improved estimator based on the bounded data uncertainty (BDU) model. It is shown that this estimator is related to the Bayesian linear minimum mean squared error (LMMSE) estimator. Channel estimation performance of the proposed sub-sampling scheme combined with the new estimator is assessed in simulation. The results show that high reduction in sampling rate can be achieved. The proposed estimator outperforms the least squares estimator in almost all cases, while in the high SNR regime it also outperforms the LMMSE estimator. In addition to channel estimation, a synchronization method is also proposed that utilizes the same pulse sequence used for channel estimation. © 2014 IEEE.

  12. PN Sequence Preestimator Scheme for DS-SS Signal Acquisition Using Block Sequence Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Kyu Park

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available An m-sequence (PN sequence preestimator scheme for direct-sequence spread spectrum (DS-SS signal acquisition by using block sequence estimation (BSE is proposed and analyzed. The proposed scheme consists of an estimator and a verifier which work according to the PN sequence chip clock, and provides not only the enhanced chip estimates with a threshold decision logic and one-chip error correction among the first m received chips, but also the reliability check of the estimates with additional decision logic. The probabilities of the estimator and verifier operations are calculated. With these results, the detection, the false alarm, and the missing probabilities of the proposed scheme are derived. In addition, using a signal flow graph, the average acquisition time is calculated. The proposed scheme can be used as a preestimator and easily implemented by changing the internal signal path of a generally used digital matched filter (DMF correlator or any other correlator that has a lot of sampling data memories for sampled PN sequence. The numerical results show rapid acquisition performance in a relatively good CNR.

  13. Smartphone-Based Patients' Activity Recognition by Using a Self-Learning Scheme for Medical Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Junqi; Zhou, Xi; Sun, Yunchuan; Ping, Gong; Zhao, Guoxing; Li, Zhuorong

    2016-06-01

    Smartphone based activity recognition has recently received remarkable attention in various applications of mobile health such as safety monitoring, fitness tracking, and disease prediction. To achieve more accurate and simplified medical monitoring, this paper proposes a self-learning scheme for patients' activity recognition, in which a patient only needs to carry an ordinary smartphone that contains common motion sensors. After the real-time data collection though this smartphone, we preprocess the data using coordinate system transformation to eliminate phone orientation influence. A set of robust and effective features are then extracted from the preprocessed data. Because a patient may inevitably perform various unpredictable activities that have no apriori knowledge in the training dataset, we propose a self-learning activity recognition scheme. The scheme determines whether there are apriori training samples and labeled categories in training pools that well match with unpredictable activity data. If not, it automatically assembles these unpredictable samples into different clusters and gives them new category labels. These clustered samples combined with the acquired new category labels are then merged into the training dataset to reinforce recognition ability of the self-learning model. In experiments, we evaluate our scheme using the data collected from two postoperative patient volunteers, including six labeled daily activities as the initial apriori categories in the training pool. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed self-learning scheme for activity recognition works very well for most cases. When there exist several types of unseen activities without any apriori information, the accuracy reaches above 80 % after the self-learning process converges.

  14. The Multiple Sclerosis Risk Sharing Scheme Monitoring Study – early results and lessons for the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chilcott James B

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Risk sharing schemes represent an innovative and important approach to the problems of rationing and achieving cost-effectiveness in high cost or controversial health interventions. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of risk sharing schemes, looking at long term clinical outcomes, to determine the price at which high cost treatments would be acceptable to the NHS. Methods This case study of the first NHS risk sharing scheme, a long term prospective cohort study of beta interferon and glatiramer acetate in multiple sclerosis (MS patients in 71 specialist MS centres in UK NHS hospitals, recruited adults with relapsing forms of MS, meeting Association of British Neurologists (ABN criteria for disease modifying therapy. Outcome measures were: success of recruitment and follow up over the first three years, analysis of baseline and initial follow up data and the prospect of estimating the long term cost-effectiveness of these treatments. Results Centres consented 5560 patients. Of the 4240 patients who had been in the study for a least one year, annual review data were available for 3730 (88.0%. Of the patients who had been in the study for at least two years and three years, subsequent annual review data were available for 2055 (78.5% and 265 (71.8% patients respectively. Baseline characteristics and a small but statistically significant progression of disease were similar to those reported in previous pivotal studies. Conclusion Successful recruitment, follow up and early data analysis suggest that risk sharing schemes should be able to deliver their objectives. However, important issues of analysis, and political and commercial conflicts of interest still need to be addressed.

  15. A novel quantum group signature scheme without using entangled states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guang-Bao; Zhang, Ke-Jia

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel quantum group signature scheme. It can make the signer sign a message on behalf of the group without the help of group manager (the arbitrator), which is different from the previous schemes. In addition, a signature can be verified again when its signer disavows she has ever generated it. We analyze the validity and the security of the proposed signature scheme. Moreover, we discuss the advantages and the disadvantages of the new scheme and the existing ones. The results show that our scheme satisfies all the characteristics of a group signature and has more advantages than the previous ones. Like its classic counterpart, our scheme can be used in many application scenarios, such as e-government and e-business.

  16. An Efficient Remote Authentication Scheme for Wireless Body Area Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omala, Anyembe Andrew; Kibiwott, Kittur P; Li, Fagen

    2017-02-01

    Wireless body area network (WBAN) provide a mechanism of transmitting a persons physiological data to application providers e.g. hospital. Given the limited range of connectivity associated with WBAN, an intermediate portable device e.g. smartphone, placed within WBAN's connectivity, forwards the data to a remote server. This data, if not protected from an unauthorized access and modification may be lead to poor diagnosis. In order to ensure security and privacy between WBAN and a server at the application provider, several authentication schemes have been proposed. Recently, Wang and Zhang proposed an authentication scheme for WBAN using bilinear pairing. However, in their scheme, an application provider could easily impersonate a client. In order to overcome this weakness, we propose an efficient remote authentication scheme for WBAN. In terms of performance, our scheme can not only provide a malicious insider security, but also reduce running time of WBAN (client) by 51 % as compared to Wang and Zhang scheme.

  17. International proposal for an acoustic classification scheme for dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    Acoustic classification schemes specify different quality levels for acoustic conditions. Regulations and classification schemes for dwellings typically include criteria for airborne and impact sound insulation, façade sound insulation and service equipment noise. However, although important...... European countries have introduced classification schemes. The schemes typically include four classes. Comparative studies have shown significant discrepancies between countries due to national development of schemes. The diversity is an obstacle for exchange of construction experience for different...... classes, implying also trade barriers. Thus, a harmonized classification scheme would be useful, and the European COST Action TU0901 "Integrating and Harmonizing Sound Insulation Aspects in Sustainable Urban Housing Constructions", running 2009-2013 with members from 32 countries, including three overseas...

  18. Impact of invitation schemes on screening coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Katja Kemp; von Euler Chelpin, My; Vejborg, Ilse

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The porpuse of mammography screening is to decrease breast cancer mortality. To achieve this a high coverage by examination is needed. Within an organized screening programme, we examined the impact of changes in the invitation schedule on the interplay between coverage...... and participation. METHOD: We studied nine cohorts aged 50-51 when first targeted by mammography screening in Copenhagen, Denmark. Population data were retrieved from the Danish Civil Registration System; invitation and attendance data from the screening programme database. Data were linked using unique personal...... identification numbers. Coverage by invitation was defined as (number of invited women/number of targeted women), coverage by examination as (number of screened women/number of targeted women), and participation rate as (number of screened women/number of invited women). RESULTS: Coverage by invitation was close...

  19. Decentralized Economic Dispatch Scheme With Online Power Reserve for Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nutkani, I. U.; Loh, Poh Chiang; Wang, P.

    2017-01-01

    Decentralized economic operation schemes have several advantages when compared with the traditional centralized management system for microgrids. Specifically, decentralized schemes are more flexible, less computationally intensive, and easier to implement without relying on communication...... costs, their power ratings, and other necessary constraints, before deciding the DG dispatch priorities and droop characteristics. The proposed scheme also allows online power reserve to be set and regulated within the microgrid. This, together with the generation cost saved, has been verified...

  20. A stable fast marching scheme for computational fluid mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnia, M.; de Vahl Davis, G.; Wolfshtein, M.

    1990-04-01

    A stable fast marching scheme has been developed for the solution of coupled parabolic partial differential equations such as the Navier-Stokes equations. The scheme was developed with the aid of a stability analysis. The implementation of the method in standard alternating direction implicit algorithms is straightforward. The scheme was tested on the problem of natural convection in a square cavity. The number of iterations required for convergence was significantly reduced compared to conventional methods.

  1. 7 CFR 12.10 - Scheme or device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scheme or device. 12.10 Section 12.10 Agriculture... § 12.10 Scheme or device. All or any part of the benefits listed in § 12.4 otherwise due a person from... scheme or device designed to evade, or which has the effect of evading, the provisions of this part. Such...

  2. A repeat-until-success quantum computing scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beige, A [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Lim, Y L [DSO National Laboratories, 20 Science Park Drive, Singapore 118230, Singapore (Singapore); Kwek, L C [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542, Singapore (Singapore)

    2007-06-15

    Recently we proposed a hybrid architecture for quantum computing based on stationary and flying qubits: the repeat-until-success (RUS) quantum computing scheme. The scheme is largely implementation independent. Despite the incompleteness theorem for optical Bell-state measurements in any linear optics set-up, it allows for the implementation of a deterministic entangling gate between distant qubits. Here we review this distributed quantum computation scheme, which is ideally suited for integrated quantum computation and communication purposes.

  3. A Comparative Analysis of Schemes for Correlated Branch Prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Cliff; Gloy, Nicolas; Smith, Michael D.

    1995-01-01

    Modern high-performance architectures require extremely accurate branch prediction to overcome the performance limitations of conditional branches. We present a framework that categorizes branch prediction schemes by the way in which they partition dynamic branches and by the kind of predictor that they use. The framework allows us to compare and contrast branch prediction schemes, and to analyze why they work. We use the framework to show how a static correlated branch prediction scheme incr...

  4. An ASI Suppression Scheme Based on Array Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jinhua; Liu, Peixi; Luo, Wu

    2017-10-01

    An adjacent satellite interference (ASI) suppression scheme based on transmitting antennas array synthesis is proposed in this paper. The scheme ensures the ASI under the upper bound specified by international regulations, and simultaneously maximize the main-axis radiated power. Specifically, the interference suppression problem is converted into a uniform linear array (ULA) synthesis problem, and then solved by two algorithms. Numerical results are presented to illustrate the performance of the scheme.

  5. Two Conservative Difference Schemes for Rosenau-Kawahara Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinsong Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two conservative finite difference schemes for the numerical solution of the initialboundary value problem of Rosenau-Kawahara equation are proposed. The difference schemes simulate two conservative quantities of the problem well. The existence and uniqueness of the difference solution are proved. It is shown that the finite difference schemes are of second-order convergence and unconditionally stable. Numerical experiments verify the theoretical results.

  6. Developing and supporting coordinators of structured mentoring schemes in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penny Abbott

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Mentoring is considered to be such an important contributor to accelerated people development in South Africa that structured mentoring schemes are often used by organisations. There are at present few sources of development and support for coordinators of such schemes.Research purpose: The aim of this research is to discover what the characteristics of coordinators of structured mentoring schemes in South Africa are, what is required of such coordinators and how they feel about their role, with a view to improving development and support for them.Motivation for the study: The limited amount of information about role requirements for coordinators which is available in the literature is not based on empirical research. This study aims to supply the empirical basis for improved development and support for coordinators.Research design and method: A purposive sample of 25 schemes was identified and both quantitative and qualitative data, obtained through questionnaires and interviews, were analysed using descriptive statistics and thematic analysis.Main findings: Functions of coordinators tend to be similar across different types of mentoring schemes. A passion for mentoring is important, as the role involves many frustrations. There is little formalised development and support for coordinators.Practical/managerial implications: The study clarifies the functions of the coordinator, offers a job description and profile and makes suggestions on how to improve the development of the coordinator’s skills.Contribution/value-add: An understanding of what is required from a coordinator, how the necessary knowledge and skills can be developed and how the coordinator can be supported,adds value to an organisation setting up or reviewing its structured mentoring schemes.

  7. Scalable implementation of boson sampling with trapped ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, C; Zhang, Z; Duan, L-M

    2014-02-07

    Boson sampling solves a classically intractable problem by sampling from a probability distribution given by matrix permanents. We propose a scalable implementation of boson sampling using local transverse phonon modes of trapped ions to encode the bosons. The proposed scheme allows deterministic preparation and high-efficiency readout of the bosons in the Fock states and universal mode mixing. With the state-of-the-art trapped ion technology, it is feasible to realize boson sampling with tens of bosons by this scheme, which would outperform the most powerful classical computers and constitute an effective disproof of the famous extended Church-Turing thesis.

  8. Prospective and retrospective spatial sampling scheme to characterize geochemicals in a mine tailings area

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available (n = 44): Element Min Max Mean SD Skew Skew (loge) As 196.3 2789.3 625.9 452.0 3.05 0.73 Cd (ppb) 140.0 720.0 275.7 121.8 2.42 1.19 Cu 303.0 2064.7 889.9 476.2 1.12 0.09 Fe (%) 1.4 3.2 2.3 0.4 0.40 −0.06 Mn 15.1 207.6 52.6 34.8 2.40 0.33 Ni...

  9. Continuous quality control of the blood sampling procedure using a structured observation scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seemann, T. L.; Nybo, M.

    2015-01-01

    . All observations were performed by the same person (TLS). Results: Already after three months critical issues can be pinpointed, where correction or educational steps are necessary, for example hand hygiene. However, at the meeting we will be able to present results from a six-month observation period...

  10. An Investigation of Coding Schemes for Sample Entropy Analysis of Communications Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-21

    friendly fighters. Teams completed missions by interacting with the simulation environment and through verbal radio communications, which were recorded...distinctions of semantic categorization or through the additions of a speaker-content interaction . The results also suggest the way semantic categories are...finer distinctions of semantic categorization or through the additions of a speaker-content interaction . The results also suggest the way semantic

  11. Scheme for achieving coherent perfect absorption by anisotropic metamaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiujuan

    2017-02-22

    We propose a unified scheme to achieve coherent perfect absorption of electromagnetic waves by anisotropic metamaterials. The scheme describes the condition on perfect absorption and offers an inverse design route based on effective medium theory in conjunction with retrieval method to determine practical metamaterial absorbers. The scheme is scalable to frequencies and applicable to various incident angles. Numerical simulations show that perfect absorption is achieved in the designed absorbers over a wide range of incident angles, verifying the scheme. By integrating these absorbers, we further propose an absorber to absorb energy from two coherent point sources.

  12. Nested Hilbert schemes on surfaces: Virtual fundamental class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gholampour, Amin; Sheshmani, Artan; Yau, Shing-Tung

    We construct natural virtual fundamental classes for nested Hilbert schemes on a nonsingular projective surface S. This allows us to define new invariants of S that recover some of the known important cases such as Poincare invariants of Durr-Kabanov-Okonek and the stable pair invariants of Kool......-Thomas. In the case of the nested Hilbert scheme of points, we can express these invariants in terms of integrals over the products of Hilbert scheme of points on S, and relate them to the vertex operator formulas found by Carlsson-Okounkov. The virtual fundamental classes of the nested Hilbert schemes play a crucial...

  13. A chaos secure communication scheme based on multiplication modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahi, Kia; Leung, Henry

    2010-02-01

    A secure spread spectrum communication scheme using multiplication modulation is proposed. The proposed system multiplies the message by chaotic signal. The scheme does not need to know the initial condition of the chaotic signals and the receiver is based on an extended Kalman filter (EKF). This signal encryption scheme lends itself to cheap implementation and can therefore be used effectively for ensuring security and privacy in commercial consumer electronics products. To illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme, a numerical example based on Genesio-Tesi system and also Chen dynamical system is presented and the results are compared.

  14. A Digital Signature Scheme Based on MST3 Cryptosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibo Hong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As special types of factorization of finite groups, logarithmic signature and cover have been used as the main components of cryptographic keys for secret key cryptosystems such as PGM and public key cryptosystems like MST1, MST2, and MST3. Recently, Svaba et. al proposed a revised MST3 encryption scheme with greater security. Meanwhile, they put forward an idea of constructing signature schemes on the basis of logarithmic signatures and random covers. In this paper, we firstly design a secure digital signature scheme based on logarithmic signatures and random covers. In order to complete the task, we devise a new encryption scheme based on MST3 cryptosystems.

  15. Comparison of two SVD-based color image compression schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Wei, Musheng; Zhang, Fengxia; Zhao, Jianli

    2017-01-01

    Color image compression is a commonly used process to represent image data as few bits as possible, which removes redundancy in the data while maintaining an appropriate level of quality for the user. Color image compression algorithms based on quaternion are very common in recent years. In this paper, we propose a color image compression scheme, based on the real SVD, named real compression scheme. First, we form a new real rectangular matrix C according to the red, green and blue components of the original color image and perform the real SVD for C. Then we select several largest singular values and the corresponding vectors in the left and right unitary matrices to compress the color image. We compare the real compression scheme with quaternion compression scheme by performing quaternion SVD using the real structure-preserving algorithm. We compare the two schemes in terms of operation amount, assignment number, operation speed, PSNR and CR. The experimental results show that with the same numbers of selected singular values, the real compression scheme offers higher CR, much less operation time, but a little bit smaller PSNR than the quaternion compression scheme. When these two schemes have the same CR, the real compression scheme shows more prominent advantages both on the operation time and PSNR.

  16. Adaptive transmission schemes for MISO spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Bouida, Zied

    2013-06-01

    We propose three adaptive transmission techniques aiming to maximize the capacity of a multiple-input-single-output (MISO) secondary system under the scenario of an underlay cognitive radio network. In the first scheme, namely the best antenna selection (BAS) scheme, the antenna maximizing the capacity of the secondary link is used for transmission. We then propose an orthogonal space time bloc code (OSTBC) transmission scheme using the Alamouti scheme with transmit antenna selection (TAS), namely the TAS/STBC scheme. The performance improvement offered by this scheme comes at the expense of an increased complexity and delay when compared to the BAS scheme. As a compromise between these schemes, we propose a hybrid scheme using BAS when only one antenna verifies the interference condition and TAS/STBC when two or more antennas are illegible for communication. We first derive closed-form expressions of the statistics of the received signal-to-interference-and-noise ratio (SINR) at the secondary receiver (SR). These results are then used to analyze the performance of the proposed techniques in terms of the average spectral efficiency, the average number of transmit antennas, and the average bit error rate (BER). This performance is then illustrated via selected numerical examples. © 2013 IEEE.

  17. Error function attack of chaos synchronization based encryption schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingang; Zhan, Meng; Lai, C-H; Gang, Hu

    2004-03-01

    Different chaos synchronization based encryption schemes are reviewed and compared from the practical point of view. As an efficient cryptanalysis tool for chaos encryption, a proposal based on the error function attack is presented systematically and used to evaluate system security. We define a quantitative measure (quality factor) of the effective applicability of a chaos encryption scheme, which takes into account the security, the encryption speed, and the robustness against channel noise. A comparison is made of several encryption schemes and it is found that a scheme based on one-way coupled chaotic map lattices performs outstandingly well, as judged from quality factor. Copyright 2004 American Institute of Physics.

  18. Factors influencing social and health outcomes after motor vehicle crash injury: an inception cohort study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagnoor, Jagnoor; Blyth, Fiona; Gabbe, Belinda; Derrett, Sarah; Boufous, Soufiane; Dinh, Michael; Day, Robert; Button, Gregory; Gillett, Mark; Joseph, Tony; Nicholas, Michael; Ivers, Rebecca; Maher, Chris G; Willcock, Simon; Kenardy, Justin; Collie, Alex; Cameron, Ian D

    2014-02-25

    There is growing evidence that health and social outcomes following motor vehicle crash injury are related to cognitive and emotional responses of the injured individual, as well as relationships between the injured individual and the compensation systems with which they interact. As most of this evidence comes from other states in Australia or overseas, investigation is therefore warranted to identify the key determinants of health and social outcomes following injury in the context of the New South Wales motor accident insurance scheme. In this inception cohort study, 2400 participants, aged 17 years or more, injured in a motor vehicle crash in New South Wales will be identified though hospital emergency departments, general and physiotherapy practitioners, police records and a government insurance regulator database. Participants will be initially contacted through mail. Baseline interviews will be conducted by telephone within 28 days of the injury and participants will be followed up with interviews at 6, 12 and 24 months post-injury. Health insurance and pharmaceutical prescription data will also be collected. The study results will report short and long term health and social outcomes in the study sample. Identification of factors associated with health and social outcomes following injury, including related compensation factors will provide evidence for improved service delivery, post-injury management, and inform policy development and reforms. Australia New Zealand Clinical trial registry identification number--ACTRN12613000889752. Available at: ANZCTR Registered FISH Study.

  19. Reconstruction of Frequency Hopping Signals From Multi-Coset Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Chia Wei; Wakin, Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    Multi-Coset (MC) sampling is a well established, practically feasible scheme for sampling multiband analog signals below the Nyquist rate. MC sampling has gained renewed interest in the Compressive Sensing (CS) community, due partly to the fact that in the frequency domain, MC sampling bears a strong resemblance to other sub-Nyquist CS acquisition protocols. In this paper, we consider MC sampling of analog frequency hopping signals, which can be viewed as multiband signals with changing band ...

  20. Date Attachable Offline Electronic Cash Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-I Fan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronic cash (e-cash is definitely one of the most popular research topics in the e-commerce field. It is very important that e-cash be able to hold the anonymity and accuracy in order to preserve the privacy and rights of customers. There are two types of e-cash in general, which are online e-cash and offline e-cash. Both systems have their own pros and cons and they can be used to construct various applications. In this paper, we pioneer to propose a provably secure and efficient offline e-cash scheme with date attachability based on the blind signature technique, where expiration date and deposit date can be embedded in an e-cash simultaneously. With the help of expiration date, the bank can manage the huge database much more easily against unlimited growth, and the deposit date cannot be forged so that users are able to calculate the amount of interests they can receive in the future correctly. Furthermore, we offer security analysis and formal proofs for all essential properties of offline e-cash, which are anonymity control, unforgeability, conditional-traceability, and no-swindling.