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Sample records for cohort french smokers

  1. Evaluation of salivary catalase, vitamin C, and alpha-amylase in smokers and non-smokers: a retrospective cohort study.

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    Ahmadi-Motamayel, Fatemeh; Falsafi, Parisa; Goodarzi, Mohammad Taghi; Poorolajal, Jalal

    2017-05-01

    Saliva and its defence systems such as antioxidants and minerals are very important in the pathogenesis of different diseases. Cigarette smoking has many destructive effects. Oxidative stresses play an important role in the side effects of smoking. This study assessed the effect of cigarette smoking on salivary levels of catalase, vitamin C, and α-amylase. This retrospective cohort study was carried out in Hamadan, Iran, on 510 subjects; 259 subjects were smokers (the exposed group) and 251 were non-smokers (the unexposed group). Five microliters of unstimulated saliva was collected by spitting method. Catalase, vitamin C, and α-amylase salivary levels were determined by spectrophotometric assay. Data were analyzed with t-test using STATA 12. Vitamin C level in smokers was significantly lower than that in non-smokers. The salivary catalase levels were lower and α-amylase levels were higher in smokers, but the differences were not statistically significant (P = 0.416 and P = 0.265, respectively). Smokers were younger than non-smokers. Smoking resulted in a change in salivary antioxidant levels. Changes in antioxidant levels can influence the deleterious effects of smoking on oral mucosa; it might also indicate systemic changes and changes in the serum levels of oxidative agents. Further studies are necessary to understand the mechanisms and real effects of smoking, to determine the benefits of supplementary antioxidants for treatment and to reduce the dangerous side effects of smoking. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Mortality in the French TRACY cohort of uranium cycle workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolle-Mir, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    This first analysis of mortality in a new cohort of French uranium cycle workers observed a healthy worker effect, as shown by a large all-cause mortality deficit. The current reconstruction of exposure data (radiological, chemical, and physical) will make it possible to study the risks specific to internal uranium contamination in individuals exposed to multiple agents. (author)

  3. Ability of ecological deprivation indices to measure social inequalities in a French cohort.

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    Temam, Sofia; Varraso, Raphaëlle; Pornet, Carole; Sanchez, Margaux; Affret, Aurélie; Jacquemin, Bénédicte; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Rey, Grégoire; Rican, Stéphane; Le Moual, Nicole

    2017-12-15

    Despite the increasing interest in place effect to explain health inequalities, there is currently no consensus on which kind of area-based socioeconomic measures researchers should use to assess neighborhood socioeconomic position (SEP). The study aimed to evaluate the reliability of different area-based deprivation indices (DIs) in capturing socioeconomic residential conditions of French elderly women cohort. We assessed area-based SEP using 3 DIs: Townsend Index, French European Deprivation Index (FEDI) and French Deprivation index (FDep), among women from E3N (Etude épidémiologique auprès des femmes de la Mutuelle Générale de l'Education Nationale). DIs were derived from the 2009 French census at IRIS level (smallest geographical units in France). Educational level was used to evaluate individual-SEP. To evaluate external validity of the 3 DIs, associations between two well-established socially patterned outcomes among French elderly women (smoking and overweight) and SEP, were compared. Odd ratios were computed with generalized estimating equations to control for clustering effects from participants within the same IRIS. The analysis was performed among 63,888 women (aged 64, 47% ever smokers and 30% overweight). Substantial agreement was observed between the two French DIs (Kappa coefficient = 0.61) and between Townsend and FEDI (0.74) and fair agreement between Townsend and FDep (0.21). As expected among French elderly women, those with lower educational level were significantly less prone to be ever smoker (Low vs. High; OR [95% CI] = 0.43 [0.40-0.46]) and more prone to being overweight (1.89 [1.77-2.01]) than women higher educated. FDep showed expected associations at area-level for both smoking (most deprived vs. least deprived quintile; 0.77 [0.73-0.81]) and overweight (1.52 [1.44-1.62]). For FEDI opposite associations with smoking (1.13 [1.07-1.19]) and expected association with overweight (1.20 [1.13-1.28]) were observed. Townsend showed

  4. Characteristics and Prognosis of Never-Smokers and Smokers with Asthma in the Copenhagen General Population Study. A Prospective Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Çolak, Yunus; Afzal, Shoaib; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2015-01-01

    RATIONALE: Asthma is associated with complications, cardiovascular comorbidities, and higher mortality in some individuals. OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that, among individuals with asthma, never-smokers have different characteristics and a better prognosis than smokers. METHODS: We recruited...... 94,079 individuals aged 20-100 years from the Copenhagen General Population Study, a prospective cohort study. Among these individuals, 5,691 (6%) had self-reported asthma (2,304 never-smokers, 2,467 former smokers, and 920 current smokers). We examined respiratory symptoms, lung function, and levels......-up. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Compared with never-smokers without asthma, individuals with asthma had more respiratory symptoms and airflow limitation and higher levels of inflammatory and allergic biomarkers, which were most pronounced in smokers. Among individuals with asthma compared with never-smokers...

  5. Personalized Risk Assessment in Never, Light, and Heavy Smokers in a prospective cohort in Taiwan.

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    Wu, Xifeng; Wen, Chi Pang; Ye, Yuanqing; Tsai, MinKwang; Wen, Christopher; Roth, Jack A; Pu, Xia; Chow, Wong-Ho; Huff, Chad; Cunningham, Sonia; Huang, Maosheng; Wu, Shuanbei; Tsao, Chwen Keng; Gu, Jian; Lippman, Scott M

    2016-11-02

    The objective of this study was to develop markedly improved risk prediction models for lung cancer using a prospective cohort of 395,875 participants in Taiwan. Discriminatory accuracy was measured by generation of receiver operator curves and estimation of area under the curve (AUC). In multivariate Cox regression analysis, age, gender, smoking pack-years, family history of lung cancer, personal cancer history, BMI, lung function test, and serum biomarkers such as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), bilirubin, alpha fetoprotein (AFP), and c-reactive protein (CRP) were identified and included in an integrative risk prediction model. The AUC in overall population was 0.851 (95% CI = 0.840-0.862), with never smokers 0.806 (95% CI = 0.790-0.819), light smokers 0.847 (95% CI = 0.824-0.871), and heavy smokers 0.732 (95% CI = 0.708-0.752). By integrating risk factors such as family history of lung cancer, CEA and AFP for light smokers, and lung function test (Maximum Mid-Expiratory Flow, MMEF 25-75% ), AFP and CEA for never smokers, light and never smokers with cancer risks as high as those within heavy smokers could be identified. The risk model for heavy smokers can allow us to stratify heavy smokers into subgroups with distinct risks, which, if applied to low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening, may greatly reduce false positives.

  6. Impact of a negative emotional antitobacco mass media campaign on French smokers: a longitudinal study.

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    Guignard, Romain; Gallopel-Morvan, Karine; Mons, Ute; Hummel, Karin; Nguyen-Thanh, Viêt

    2018-01-13

    Mass media campaigns to encourage smoking cessation have been shown to be effective in a context of comprehensive tobacco control programme. The effectiveness of antismoking ads that evoke negative emotions remains unclear, in particular in countries with high smoking prevalence and among smokers with low perceived susceptibility, low self-efficacy or who are not users of smoking cessation services. To evaluate short-term and long-term effects of a 1-month French national highly emotional media campaign, with a focus on these specific targets. A 6-month longitudinal survey by Internet. A sample of 3000 smokers were interviewed before the media campaign (T0). They were contacted again just after (T1) and 6 months after the campaign (T2). Perceived susceptibility to the risks of smoking, self-efficacy to quit smoking, use of smoking cessation services (quitline and website) and 7-day quitting. The analysis was carried out on 2241 individuals who answered at T1 and T2. Multiple logistic regressions were computed to test the association between the change in each outcome at T1 and T2 and the level of exposure based on self-reported recall. Self-reported recall was associated with an increase in perceived susceptibility and with use of cessation services. Campaign recall was also associated with higher 7-day quitting immediately after the campaign (OR=1.8 (1.0 to 3.2), Pmedia campaigns can be effective in encouraging cessation among smokers in a country with high smoking prevalence (France), but should be accompanied by convincing self-efficacy messages. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Mortality analysis in the French cohort of uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacquier, B.

    2008-10-01

    The objective of this thesis is to contribute to the estimation of radiation-induced risks at low dose rates. This work is based on the cohort of uranium miners French presenting multiple exposures, contamination by internal (radon and uranium dust) and external exposure (gamma radiation). An analysis of the risk of death and the relationship risk exposure was carried out within the cohort of uranium miners after extension of the monitoring until 1999, for cancers diseases and non-cancers. In addition, an analysis taking into account multiple exposures to ionizing radiation was carried out within the framework of this thesis. This analysis has improved knowledge on the risk of mortality associated with low levels of exposure to radon. (author)

  8. Lung cancer risk comparison among male smokers between the "six-prefecture cohort" in Japan and the British physicians' cohort.

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    Mizuno, S; Akiba, S; Hirayama, T

    1989-12-01

    We estimated the effective duration of cigarette smoking using the data of lung cancer mortality among male smokers of a large-scale cohort study in Japan and evaluated its role in the lung cancer risk difference between male smokers of the Japanese cohort and the British physicians' cohort. By selecting male cohort members who answered that they had started smoking at ages 18-22 (average = 20.3), the subjects of our analysis, which numbered 49,013, were made relatively homogeneous in terms of age at which smoking was started. Assuming lung cancer mortality to be proportional to the 4.5th power of the effective duration of cigarette smoking, i.e., (age-theta)4.5, as was proposed on the basis of the British cohort study by Doll and Peto, the parameter theta was estimated to be 29.4 for male smokers aged 40-64 in 1966; therefore, the estimated duration of cigarette smoking was, on average, 9.1 years (95% confidence interval = 5.8-11.6) shorter than that calculated from the reported age at which smoking was started. Our findings suggested that the low lung cancer mortality relative to daily cigarette consumption in Japan resulted from the shorter duration of cigarette smoking in the Japanese cohort, possibly due to the severe shortage of cigarettes during and shortly after World War II. Once the effective duration of cigarette smoking was adjusted, lung cancer mortality in the range of 5-34 cigarettes per day was fairly comparable to that observed among the cohort of male British physicians.

  9. Comparison of Salivary pH, Buffering Capacity and Alkaline Phosphatase in Smokers and Healthy Non-Smokers: Retrospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmadi-Motamayel, Fatemeh; Falsafi, Parisa; Goodarzi, Mohammad T.; Poorolajal, Jalal

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Saliva contains alkaline phosphatase (ALP)—a key intracellular enzyme related to destructive processes and cellular damage—and has buffering capacity (BC) against acids due to the presence of bicarbonate and phosphate ions. Smoking may have deleterious effects on the oral environment due to pH changes which can affect ALP activity. This study aimed to evaluate the salivary pH, BC and ALP activity of male smokers and healthy non-smokers. Methods: This retrospective cohort study ...

  10. Comparison of Salivary pH, Buffering Capacity and Alkaline Phosphatase in Smokers and Healthy Non-Smokers: Retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi-Motamayel, Fatemeh; Falsafi, Parisa; Goodarzi, Mohammad T; Poorolajal, Jalal

    2016-08-01

    Saliva contains alkaline phosphatase (ALP)-a key intracellular enzyme related to destructive processes and cellular damage-and has buffering capacity (BC) against acids due to the presence of bicarbonate and phosphate ions. Smoking may have deleterious effects on the oral environment due to pH changes which can affect ALP activity. This study aimed to evaluate the salivary pH, BC and ALP activity of male smokers and healthy non-smokers. This retrospective cohort study took place between August 2012 and December 2013. A total of 251 healthy male non-smokers and 259 male smokers from Hamadan, Iran, were selected. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected from each participant and pH and BC were determined using a pH meter. Salivary enzymes were measured by spectrophotometric assay. Mean salivary pH (7.42 ± 0.48 and 7.52 ± 0.43, respectively; P = 0.018) and BC (3.41 ± 0.54 and 4.17 ± 0.71; P = 0.001) was significantly lower in smokers compared to non-smokers. Mean ALP levels were 49.58 ± 23.33 IU/L among smokers and 55.11 ± 27.85 IU/L among non-smokers (P = 0.015). Significantly lower pH, BC and ALP levels were observed among smokers in comparison to a healthy control group. These salivary alterations could potentially be utilised as biochemical markers for the evaluation of oral tissue function and side-effects among smokers. Further longitudinal studies are recommended to evaluate the effects of smoking on salivary components.

  11. Comparison of Salivary pH, Buffering Capacity and Alkaline Phosphatase in Smokers and Healthy Non-Smokers; Retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ahmadi-Motamayel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Saliva contains alkaline phosphatase (ALP—a key intracellular enzyme related to destructive processes and cellular damage—and has buffering capacity (BC against acids due to the presence of bicarbonate and phosphate ions. Smoking may have deleterious effects on the oral environment due to pH changes which can affect ALP activity. This study aimed to evaluate the salivary pH, BC and ALP activity of male smokers and healthy non-smokers. Methods: This retrospective cohort study took place between August 2012 and December 2013. A total of 251 healthy male non-smokers and 259 male smokers from Hamadan, Iran, were selected. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected from each participant and pH and BC were determined using a pH meter. Salivary enzymes were measured by spectrophotometric assay. Results: Mean salivary pH (7.42 ± 0.48 and 7.52 ± 0.43, respectively; P = 0.018 and BC (3.41 ± 0.54 and 4.17 ± 0.71; P = 0.001 was significantly lower in smokers compared to non-smokers. Mean ALP levels were 49.58 ± 23.33 IU/L among smokers and 55.11 ± 27.85 IU/L among non-smokers (P = 0.015. Conclusion: Significantly lower pH, BC and ALP levels were observed among smokers in comparison to a healthy control group. These salivary alterations could potentially be utilised as biochemical markers for the evaluation of oral tissue function and side-effects among smokers. Further longitudinal studies are recommended to evaluate the effects of smoking on salivary components.

  12. Characteristics and Prognosis of Never-Smokers and Smokers with Asthma in the Copenhagen General Population Study. A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çolak, Yunus; Afzal, Shoaib; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Lange, Peter

    2015-07-15

    Asthma is associated with complications, cardiovascular comorbidities, and higher mortality in some individuals. To test the hypothesis that, among individuals with asthma, never-smokers have different characteristics and a better prognosis than smokers. We recruited 94,079 individuals aged 20-100 years from the Copenhagen General Population Study, a prospective cohort study. Among these individuals, 5,691 (6%) had self-reported asthma (2,304 never-smokers, 2,467 former smokers, and 920 current smokers). We examined respiratory symptoms, lung function, and levels of inflammatory and allergic biomarkers in systemic circulation. Furthermore, we assessed prospectively the risk of asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations, pneumonias, lung cancer, ischemic heart disease, ischemic stroke, and all-cause mortality during 4.5 years of follow-up. Compared with never-smokers without asthma, individuals with asthma had more respiratory symptoms and airflow limitation and higher levels of inflammatory and allergic biomarkers, which were most pronounced in smokers. Among individuals with asthma compared with never-smokers without asthma, multivariable adjusted hazard ratios for asthma exacerbations were 11 (95% confidence interval: 5.8-22) in never-smokers, 13 (6.2-29) in former smokers, and 18 (8.2-39) in current smokers. The corresponding values for other endpoints were, respectively, 8.9 (2.1-38), 23 (8.8-58), and 36 (12-105) for COPD exacerbations; 1.5 (0.9-2.2), 1.6 (1.0-2.4), and 2.4 (1.6-3.7) for pneumonias; 0.6 (0.1-5.1), 4.0 (1.3-12), and 13 (4.3-41) for lung cancer; 1.2 (0.9-1.6), 1.5 (1.2-2.0), and 2.0 (1.4-2.9) for ischemic heart disease; 1.4 (0.9-2.1), 1.2 (0.8-1.9), and 3.0 (1.7-5.3) for ischemic stroke; and 0.9 (0.6-1.3), 1.5 (1.1-2.0), and 2.7 (1.9-3.7) for all-cause mortality. Never-smokers with asthma had an increased risk of asthma and COPD exacerbations, and possibly pneumonias. Importantly, the risks for lung cancer

  13. [Tobacco advertising and promotions: changes in reported exposure in a cohort of Mexican smokers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Hernández, Rosaura; Thrasher, James F; Rodríguez-Bolaños, Rosibel; Barrientos-Gutiérrez, Inti; Ibáñez-Hernández, Norma A

    2012-06-01

    To determine in a population-based sample of smokers the level exposure to tobacco industry marketing through different channels before and after their restriction through the General Tobacco Control Law of 2008. Data were analyzed from a cohort of adult smokers from four Mexican cities who were surveyed in 2007 and 2008. GEE models were estimated for each indicator of advertising and promotion exposure. Increases were found in report of receiving free samples of tobacco (3.7-8.1%), branded clothing (3.6-6.4%), noticing tobacco industry sponsored events (1.9-4.7%) and noticing ads in bars (21.4-28%). Noticing outdoor advertising decreased over this time (54.7 a 47.2%). Our findings confirm tobacco industry shifting of marketing efforts when advertising and promotion bans are not comprehensive. There is a need to monitor compliance with marketing bans while working to make them comprehensive.

  14. A Prospective Cohort Study of Cigarette Prices and Smoking Cessation in Older Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Victoria L; Diver, W Ryan; Stoklosa, Michal; Flanders, W Dana; Westmaas, J Lee; Jemal, Ahmedin; Drope, Jeffrey M; Gapstur, Susan M; Jacobs, Eric J

    2017-07-01

    Background: Cigarette price increases effectively prevent smoking initiation and reduce cigarette consumption among young smokers. However, the impact of cigarette prices on smoking cessation among older smokers is less clear, particularly for those aged 65 years and older, a group that is at highest risk of smoking-related disease and will almost double in the United States between 2012 and 2050. Methods: Biennial questionnaires administered between 1997 and 2013 assessed smoking status for 9,446 Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort participants who were ≥50 years old and lived in Washington, DC, and 48 states. For each interval between biennial questionnaires, change in price per pack and average price level per pack were calculated. The separate associations between these price variables and smoking cessation during the same time interval were determined. Results: In multivariable-adjusted models, each $1.00 price increase was associated with a 9% higher rate of quitting [rate ratio (RR) = 1.09; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.04-1.14). Each $1.00 increase in average price was associated with a 6% higher rate of quitting (RR = 1.06; 95% CI, 1.02-1.10). The association with average price was strongest among smokers aged 65 years and older (RR = 1.07; 95% CI, 1.04-1.11) and, for price change, for smokers with no major prevalent disease (RR = 1.13; 95% CI, 1.07-1.19). Conclusions: These results suggest that increasing cigarette prices will promote quitting even among smokers aged 65 years and older. Impact: Increasing cigarette prices through higher taxes could reduce smoking rates among older adults and decrease risk of smoking-related cancers and diseases in this high-risk group. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(7); 1071-7. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. Emphysema predicts hospitalisation and incident airflow obstruction among older smokers: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A McAllister

    Full Text Available Emphysema on CT is common in older smokers. We hypothesised that emphysema on CT predicts acute episodes of care for chronic lower respiratory disease among older smokers.Participants in a lung cancer screening study age ≥ 60 years were recruited into a prospective cohort study in 2001-02. Two radiologists independently visually assessed the severity of emphysema as absent, mild, moderate or severe. Percent emphysema was defined as the proportion of voxels ≤ -910 Hounsfield Units. Participants completed a median of 5 visits over a median of 6 years of follow-up. The primary outcome was hospitalization, emergency room or urgent office visit for chronic lower respiratory disease. Spirometry was performed following ATS/ERS guidelines. Airflow obstruction was defined as FEV1/FVC ratio <0.70 and FEV1<80% predicted.Of 521 participants, 4% had moderate or severe emphysema, which was associated with acute episodes of care (rate ratio 1.89; 95% CI: 1.01-3.52 adjusting for age, sex and race/ethnicity, as was percent emphysema, with similar associations for hospitalisation. Emphysema on visual assessment also predicted incident airflow obstruction (HR 5.14; 95% CI 2.19-21.1.Visually assessed emphysema and percent emphysema on CT predicted acute episodes of care for chronic lower respiratory disease, with the former predicting incident airflow obstruction among older smokers.

  16. Predictors of Smoking Reduction and Cessation in a Cohort of Danish Moderate and Heavy Smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godtfredsen, Nina; Prescott, E.; Osler, Merete

    2001-01-01

    daily tobacco consumption of 10 g or more. Using multivariate logistic regression, subjects who reported reduced smoking or who reported smoking cessation were compared with subjects who continued the habit unchanged. RESULTS: After 5 years 13% of the men and 9% of the women had reduced their tobacco...... function and a tobacco consumption of 15-24 g/day. Additional determinants of smoking reduction and cessation such as inhalation habits and sociodemographic variables differed by gender. CONCLUSIONS: Several predictors of smoking reduction and cessation were identified, indicating that these subgroups......BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine the extent and gender distribution of unassisted tobacco reduction and cessation in a cohort of moderate and heavy smokers and to identify possible predictor variables associated with these changes in smoking behavior. METHODS: This was a prospective...

  17. Smoking Trajectories during the Perinatal Period and Their Risk Factors: The Nationally Representative French ELFE (Etude Longitudinale Française Depuis l'Enfance) Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Khoury, Fabienne; Sutter-Dallay, Anne-Laure; Van Der Waerden, Judith; Surkan, Pamela; Martins, Silvia; Keyes, Katherine; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Charles, Marie-Aline; Melchior, Maria

    2017-01-01

    In France, rates of perinatal smoking are among the highest worldwide; however, perinatal smoking trajectories and associated factors have still not been adequately researched. Among women participating in the French nationally representative etude longitudinale française depuis l'enfance birth cohort (n = 15,540), perinatal smoking trajectories were estimated using group-based modelling. Associated characteristics were studied using multinomial logistic regression. Four trajectories were identified: non-smokers (59%), quitters (20%), persistent moderate (12%) and persistent heavy (9%) smokers. Older age, being native French, low socioeconomic position, persistent psychological difficulties and alcohol use in pregnancy, lack of social support, partner's smoking, mistimed pregnancy, and child formula feeding at birth were associated with persistent heavy smoking. Most of these factors were also associated, but to a lesser extent, with persistent moderate smoking, except for age and migrant status, which had opposite effects. Women who successfully lost weight prior to pregnancy had higher levels of quitting smoking. Women's long-term smoking trajectories vary in terms of initial tobacco consumption level but also in relation to socio-demographic, psychological, behavioral and partner characteristics. Health professionals in contact with pregnant smokers should address perceived risks and benefits of smoking, including partner's smoking and weight-gain concerns. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. The effects of higher cigarette prices on tar and nicotine consumption in a cohort of adult smokers.

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    Farrelly, M C; Nimsch, C T; Hyland, A; Cummings, M

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to estimate the demand for tar and nicotine in cigarettes as a function of cigarette prices in a cohort of cigarette 11,966 smokers followed for 5 years. Data for the analysis come from a longitudinal telephone survey of 11,966 smokers who were interviewed in 1988 and 1993 as part of the Community Intervention Trial for Smoking Cessation (COMMIT). Separate models are estimated for three age groups to account for differences in levels of addiction and brand loyalty across age. We found that smokers respond to higher cigarette prices by reducing the number of cigarettes smoked per day but also by switching to cigarettes that are higher in tar and nicotine per cigarette. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Mortality risk in the french cohort of uranium miners: extended follow-up 1946-1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blandine Vacquier; Dominique Laurier; Sylvaine Caer; Benoit Quesne

    2006-01-01

    Since the 1970's, exposure to radon and to its radioactive decay products has been studied in relation to lung cancer risk among cohorts of miners [1-3]. These studies concluded that cumulative exposure to radon was associated with an increased risk of death from lung cancer. In 1988, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified radon as a known pulmonary human carcinogen [4]. The French cohort of uranium miners has been established in order to assess the mortality risk of miners exposed to low levels of radon and its decay products as well as to other occupational hazards. The primary aim of the cohort study is the quantification of the relationship between cumulated radon exposure and risk of lung cancer death. The study has been conducted by the Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN) since 1982, in collaboration with the Occupational Medical Service of COGEMA. The French Data Protection Authority (CNIL) gave approval for this study. Previous analyses have demonstrated an excess of lung cancer death associated with radon exposure. These results regarding lung cancer have been presented in several publications and congress [5-11]. In 2004, the follow-up of this cohort was extended from 31 December 1994 through 31 December 1999. The extension of the follow-up increases the statistical power of the cohort. The present article describes the extended cohort and the analysis of mortality based on the follow-up of the cohort to end of 1999. (authors)

  20. TREM2 mutations are rare in a French cohort of patients with frontotemporal dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattante, Serena; Le Ber, Isabelle; Camuzat, Agnès; Dayan, Sarah; Godard, Chloé; Van Bortel, Inge; De Septenville, Anne; Ciura, Sorana; Brice, Alexis; Kabashi, Edor

    2013-10-01

    Homozygous mutations in TREM2 have been recently identified by exome sequencing in families presenting with frontotemporal dementia (FTD)-like phenotype. No study has evaluated the exact frequency of TREM2 mutations in cohorts of FTD patients so far. We sequenced TREM2 in 175 patients with pure FTD, mostly French, to test whether mutations could be implicated in the pathogenesis of the disease. No disease-causing mutation was identified in 175 individuals from the French cohort of FTD patients. We did not identify the polymorphism p.R47H (rs75932628), strongly associated with an increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease. We conclude that TREM2 mutations are extremely rare in patients with pure FTD, although further investigation in larger populations is needed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Exercise Facilitates Smoking Cessation Indirectly via Intention to Quit Smoking: Prospective Cohort Study Among a National Sample of Young Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frith, Emily; Loprinzi, Paul D

    2018-06-01

    We evaluated the specific association between exercise and smoking cessation via smoking-mediated intentions to quit smoking among a national sample of young daily smokers in the United States. Prospective cohort study over a 2-year period, with daily smokers assessed across all 50 states in the United States. Data from the 2003 to 2005 National Youth Smoking Cessation Survey were used. A total of 1175 young adult smokers aged between 18 and 24 years. Baseline exercise and intent to quit smoking were assessed via validated survey measures. Smoking status at the 2-year follow-up period was assessed via survey assessment. After adjustments, meeting exercise guidelines at baseline was associated with an increased baseline intent to quit smoking among this national sample of daily smokers (OR = 1.49; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.07-2.07; P = .01). After adjustments, those with a baseline intent to quit smoking had a 71% increased odds ratio (OR) of being a nonsmoker at the 2-year follow-up (OR = 1.71; 95% CI: 1.20-2.44; P = .003). Baseline exercise was not associated with 2-year follow-up smoking status (OR = 0.87; 95% CI: 0.60-1.28; P = .50). In this nationally representative sample of young daily smokers, there was a positive association between exercise participation and intention to quit smoking. Baseline intent to quit smoking was independently associated with nonsmoking status at a 2-year follow-up. Thus, this indirect link between exercise and smoking status may be partially explained by the influence of exercise engagement on smoking-specific intentions.

  2. The impact of neighborhood violence and social cohesion on smoking behaviors among a cohort of smokers in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Nancy L.; Lozano, Paula; Santillán, Edna Arillo; Shigematsu, Luz Myriam Reynales; Thrasher, James F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent increases in violent crime may impact a variety of health outcomes in Mexico. We examined relationships between neighborhood-level violence and smoking behaviors in a cohort of Mexican smokers from 2011–2012, and whether neighborhood-level social cohesion modified these relationships. Methods Data were analyzed from adult smokers and recent ex-smokers who participated in Waves 5–6 of the International Tobacco Control Mexico Survey. Self-reported neighborhood violence and social cohesion were asked of Wave 6 survey participants (n=2129 current and former smokers, n=150 neighborhoods). Neighborhood-level averages for violence and social cohesion (range 4–14 and 10–25, respectively) were assigned to individuals. We used generalized estimating equations to determine associations between neighborhood indicators and individual-level smoking intensity, quit behaviors, and relapse. Results Higher neighborhood violence was associated with higher smoking intensity (Risk Ratio (RR)=1.17, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.02–1.33), and fewer quit attempts (RR=0.72, 95% CI 0.61–0.85). Neighborhood violence was not associated with successful quitting or relapse. Higher neighborhood social cohesion was associated with more quit attempts and more successful quitting. Neighborhood social cohesion modified the association between neighborhood violence and smoking intensity: in neighborhoods with higher social cohesion, as violence increased, smoking intensity decreased and in neighborhoods with lower social cohesion, as violence increased, so did smoking intensity. Conclusion In the context of recent increased violence in Mexico, smokers living in neighborhoods with more violence may smoke more cigarettes per day and make fewer quit attempts than their counterparts in less violent neighborhoods. Neighborhood social cohesion may buffer the impact of violence on smoking intensity. PMID:26043898

  3. Price-Minimizing Behaviors in a Cohort of Smokers before and after a Cigarette Tax Increase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betzner, Anne; Boyle, Raymond G; St Claire, Ann W

    2016-06-17

    Cigarette tax increases result in a reduced demand for cigarettes and increased efforts by smokers to reduce their cost of smoking. Less is known about how smokers think about their expenditures for cigarettes and the possible mechanisms that underlie price-minimizing behaviors. In-depth longitudinal interviews were conducted with Minnesota smokers to explore the factors that influence smokers' decisions one month prior to a $1.75 cigarette tax increase and again one and three months after the increase. A total of 42 were sampled with 35 completed interviews at all three time points, resulting in 106 interviews across all participants at all time points. A qualitative descriptive approach examined smoking and buying habits, as well as reasons behind these decisions. A hierarchy of ways to save money on cigarettes included saving the most money by changing to roll your own pipe tobacco, changing to a cheaper brand, cutting down or quitting, changing to cigarillos, and buying online. Using coupons, shopping around, buying by the carton, changing the style of cigarette, and stocking up prior to the tax increase were described as less effective. Five factors emerged as impacting smokers' efforts to save money on cigarettes after the tax: brand loyalty, frugality, addiction, stress, and acclimation.

  4. Mortality in the cohort of nuclear workers of the French electricity company: 1968-2003 period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogel, A.; Joly, K.; Metz-Flamant, C.; Laurier, D.; Tirmarche, M.; Hubert, D.; Garcier, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Background: We conducted a mortality study on a cohort of French nuclear workers employed at Electricite de France (EDF). A first mortality analysis relied on the period 1968-1994. Present results consider an updated mortality analysis including 9 additional years of follow-up and rely on the period 1968-2003. Methods: The cohort includes 22,393 workers, 96% of them are males. Employment data were updated using Personnel EDF file. Vital status was ascertained using the French National Registry of individual identification, and further completed using EDF personnel and pension files. Causes of death were obtained through the National file of causes of death. The observed mortality was compared with national rates by indirect standardisation and expressed by Standardised Mortality Ratios (SMR). All causes, all cancers and external causes SMRs were detailed according to sex, age and calendar year. Variations according to date of entry into cohort, duration of employment and socio-economic status (SES) were studied. Comparison with the earlier follow-up is presented. Results: At the present study end point (31/12/2003), 74% of workers are still in active service. Only 0.3% of workers are lost to follow up. The total number of person-years is nearly 450,000. Causes were ascertained for 96 % of deaths. The total number of deaths is 874: 307 are cancer deaths, including 16 leukaemia. SMRs for all causes of death and all cancers show a significant deficit compared to the French national mortality. Significant variations of all causes and all cancers SMRs according to SES were observed. No significant excess compared to French national mortality was observed for any of the 30 different cancer sites studied. Borderline significant excess were observed however for pancreatic, pleural, kidney and brain cancer. SMR for leukaemia is equal to unity. Conclusion: There is a clear evidence for an effect of selection of healthy individuals into the workforce. Although 9

  5. Mortality analyses in the updated French cohort of uranium miners (1946-2007)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rage, E.; Caer-Lorho, S.; Drubay, D.; Ancelet, S.; Laurier, D. [Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). PRP-HOM, SRBE, LEPID; Laroche, P. [AREVA, Paris La Defense (France). Direction Sante

    2015-08-15

    The objectives are to analyze mortality risks in the extended follow-up of the French uranium miners' cohort and to examine their potential relation to occupational exposure to ionizing radiation (IR). The total cohort includes 5,086 uranium miners employed in the CEA-COGEMA group and followed up from 1946 to 2007. Vital status, causes of death, and cumulative radon exposures were recorded. The post-55 subcohort includes 3,377 miners first employed after 1955, for whom long-lived radionuclides (LLR) and external gamma-ray exposure were also recorded. External mortality analyses were performed by computing standardized mortality ratios (SMR). Excess relative risks (ERRs) due to IR exposures were estimated from Poisson regression models. The miners included in the total cohort were followed up for 35.4 years and exposed to 36.6 working level months (WLM) on average. There was no evidence of a difference in overall mortality between miners and the general French male population. Miners had a statistically significant excess mortality rate from lung cancer (SMR = 1.34 [95 % CI 1.16-1.53]) and from kidney cancer (SMR = 1.60 [1.03-2.39]). Cumulative radon exposure was significantly associated with lung cancer risk (ERR/100 WLM = 0.71 [0.31-1.30]) and cerebrovascular risk (ERR/100 WLM = 0.41 [0.04-1.03]). In the post-55 subcohort, this excess mortality from lung cancer remained associated with exposure to radon, and also with exposure to LLR and external gamma rays. Conclusions The analyses in the extended follow-up strengthen the results previously observed among French uranium miners about their excess risk of mortality and its association with their occupational IR exposure.

  6. Mortality analyses in the updated French cohort of uranium miners (1946-2007)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rage, E.; Caer-Lorho, S.; Drubay, D.; Ancelet, S.; Laurier, D.; Laroche, P.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives are to analyze mortality risks in the extended follow-up of the French uranium miners' cohort and to examine their potential relation to occupational exposure to ionizing radiation (IR). The total cohort includes 5,086 uranium miners employed in the CEA-COGEMA group and followed up from 1946 to 2007. Vital status, causes of death, and cumulative radon exposures were recorded. The post-55 subcohort includes 3,377 miners first employed after 1955, for whom long-lived radionuclides (LLR) and external gamma-ray exposure were also recorded. External mortality analyses were performed by computing standardized mortality ratios (SMR). Excess relative risks (ERRs) due to IR exposures were estimated from Poisson regression models. The miners included in the total cohort were followed up for 35.4 years and exposed to 36.6 working level months (WLM) on average. There was no evidence of a difference in overall mortality between miners and the general French male population. Miners had a statistically significant excess mortality rate from lung cancer (SMR = 1.34 [95 % CI 1.16-1.53]) and from kidney cancer (SMR = 1.60 [1.03-2.39]). Cumulative radon exposure was significantly associated with lung cancer risk (ERR/100 WLM = 0.71 [0.31-1.30]) and cerebrovascular risk (ERR/100 WLM = 0.41 [0.04-1.03]). In the post-55 subcohort, this excess mortality from lung cancer remained associated with exposure to radon, and also with exposure to LLR and external gamma rays. Conclusions The analyses in the extended follow-up strengthen the results previously observed among French uranium miners about their excess risk of mortality and its association with their occupational IR exposure.

  7. Radon exposure and mortality among the French cohort of uranium miners: 1946-1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacquier, B.; Tirmarche, M.; Laurier, D.; Caer, S.; Quesne, B.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The French cohort of uranium miners aims at evaluating the mortality risk of miners exposed to low levels of radon and its decay products and to other occupational hazards. Its primary aim is the quantification of the relationship between cumulated radon exposure and the risk of lung cancer death. However this study also allows to analyse risks for causes of death other than lung cancer. We present a new analysis of the mortality based on an extended follow-up of the cohort to end of 1999. Materials and methods: The French cohort of uranium miners has been followed by the Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (I.R.S.N.) since the 1980's, in collaboration with the Occupational Medical Service of Compagnie Generale des Matieres Nucleaires (Cogema). The cohort was recently enlarged and the follow-up extended up to 1999. It includes men employed as miners for at least 1 year since 1946 at the Commissariat a l Energie Atomique (Cea) or at the Cogema. Individual vital status was ascertained through a national database and causes of death were determined according to death certificates. For each miner, yearly radon exposures was reconstructed and expressed in working level month (W.L.M.). Risk of death was estimated relatively to external reference rates from the general French male population. The classical method of standardized mortality ratios (S.M.R.s) was used to adjust for age and calendar year. Exposure-risk relationships have been estimated by Poisson regression, using a linear excess relative risk (E.R.R.) model with a lag time of 5 years. Results: The cohort comprises 5,098 miners. The mean duration of follow -up is 30.1 years (total of 153,272 person-years). The number of radon exposed miners is 4,134 with an average cumulative radon exposure of 36.5 W.L.M.. Miners lost to follow-up represent 1.4% of the cohort. A total of 1,471 deaths before age 85 is observed up to 1999. The analysis shows no excess for all

  8. Impact of weight change after quitting cigarettes on all-cause and cause-specific mortality in middle-aged male smokers: national health screening cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Kyuwoong Kim; Seulggie Choi; Mi Hee Cho; Ji Hye Jun; Jooyoung Chang; Sung Min Kim; Kiheon Lee; Sang Min Park

    2018-01-01

    Background We aimed to investigate the association between weight change after smoking cessation and the risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality among middle-aged male smokers. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study using the National Health Insurance Service National Health Screening Cohort (NHIS-HealS) database. Male Participants (n=102,403) without critical conditions aged between 40 and 79 at baseline who underwent biennial health examination ...

  9. Self-reported tattoo reactions in a cohort of 448 French tattooists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluger, Nicolas

    2016-07-01

    Self-reported complaints in people having tattoos, including swelling, itch, and photosensitivity, are frequent. Tattooists are usually heavily tattooed with multiple extended colored tattoos and constitute a specific population of interest. To assess the prevalence of cutaneous complications on tattoos among a cohort of French tattooists. An observational self-reported internet survey was performed among the tattooists of the French Tattoo Union in November 2013 to report on complaints about their tattoos. Of the 448 respondents, 42.6% reported a "tattoo reaction" on a least one of their previous tattoos: transient itch (45.7%), wax-and-waning swelling (57%), and swelling after sun exposure (23%). A tattoo "allergy" on one color of the tattoo was found in 8%. Permanent itch, swelling, and cutaneous infection were rare. No skin cancer on tattoos was reported. The binary regression analysis revealed that the area of the tattooed body surface was the main driver of the risk of developing a tattoo reaction, mainly transient or permanent swelling triggered by sun exposure or not. The tattoo reaction, transient itch, and swelling on tattoos seemed to be associated with the sun protection habits of the tattooed individuals. Professional tattooists have a high prevalence of minor complaints (transient itch and swelling) and photosensitivity on their tattoos such as in the general tattooed population. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  10. All-cause mortality and radar exposure among french navy personnel: a 30 years cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabouis, V.; Arvers, P.; Debouzy, J.C.; Perrin, A.; Hours, M.

    2006-01-01

    To improve operational performance in a modern navy force, radiofrequency (RF) and microwaves emitting devices are widely used. It has been suggested that exposure to electromagnetic fields could be associated with greater health hazards and higher mortality. The all-cause mortality of 39488 militaries of the French navy forces was studied over the period 1975-2001 with a cohort epidemiological study. They served from 1975 until 1995. In a first step, the mortality of radar exposed militaries was compared to a control group formed by militaries who served during the same period in the same environment but without radar exposure. Administrative procedures for identifying militaries and their vital status were equivalent in the radar and the control groups. The age standardized mortality ratio in the radar navy personnel was 0.70 (95% CI: 0.54-0.90). In professional militaries, no difference in mortality ratio was found according to duration of estimated exposure. During a 30 years period of observation, we found no increase in all-cause mortality in the French navy personnel who were close to radar equipments

  11. Risk profile, quality of life and care of patients with moderate and advanced CKD : The French CKD-REIN Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengel, Bénédicte; Metzger, Marie; Combe, Christian; Jacquelinet, Christian; Briançon, Serge; Ayav, Carole; Fouque, Denis; Laville, Maurice; Frimat, Luc; Pascal, Christophe; Herpe, Yves-Edouard; Morel, Pascal; Deleuze, Jean-François; Schanstra, Joost P; Lange, Céline; Legrand, Karine; Speyer, Elodie; Liabeuf, Sophie; Robinson, Bruce M; Massy, Ziad A

    2018-04-09

    The French Chronic Kidney Disease-Renal Epidemiology and Information Network (CKD-REIN) cohort study was designed to investigate the determinants of prognosis and care of patients referred to nephrologists with moderate and advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD). We examined their baseline risk profile and experience. We collected bioclinical and patient-reported information from 3033 outpatients with CKD and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs) of 15-60 mL/min/1.73 m2 treated at 40 nationally representative public and private facilities. The patients' median age was 69 (60-76) years, 65% were men, their mean eGFR was 33 mL/min/1.73 m2, 43% had diabetes, 24% had a history of acute kidney injury (AKI) and 57% had uncontrolled blood pressure (BP; >140/90 mmHg). Men had worse risk profiles than women and were more likely to be past or current smokers (73% versus 34%) and have cardiovascular disease (59% versus 42%), albuminuria >30 mg/mmol (or proteinuria > 50) (40% versus 30%) (all P REIN study highlights high-risk profiles of cohort members and identifies several priorities, including improving BP control and dietary counselling and increasing doctors' awareness of AKI, polypharmacy and QoL. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03381950.

  12. Exposure to secondhand smoke and risk of peripheral arterial disease in southern Chinese non-smokers: The Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study-Cardiovascular Disease Sub-cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Liya; Jiang, Chaoqiang; Mackay, Danny F; Pell, Jill P; Cheng, Kar Keung; Lam, Tai Hing; Thomas, G Neil

    2017-06-01

    Objectives We studied the association between secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure and peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in Chinese non-smokers. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study using baseline data from the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study: Cardiovascular Disease Sub-cohort Study (GBCS-CVD). Guangzhou residents aged ≥ 50 years were recruited between 2003 and 2008. Baseline data included measurement of ankle brachial pressure index (ABPI) and self-reported smoking status and SHS exposure. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to analyze the association between SHS and PAD (defined as ABPI Exposure to SHS at home of ≥25 h per week was reported by 16.7% of PAD cases compared with 3.8% of those without PAD (χ2 test, p = 0.003). After adjustment for potential confounders, exposure to ≥25 h per week at home was still associated with PAD (adjusted OR 7.86, 95% CI 2.00-30.95, p = 0.003), with suggestion of a dose-response relationship. Conclusions Our results extend the US Surgeon General's 2006 report that SHS exposure is an independent risk factor for PAD. National smoke-free legislation is needed to protect all people from exposure.

  13. Cardiovascular risks in smokers treated with nicotine replacement therapy: a historical cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dollerup J

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Jens Dollerup,1 Jørgen Vestbo,2 Tarita Murray-Thomas,3 Alan Kaplan,4 Richard J Martin,5 Emilio Pizzichini,6 Marcia M M Pizzichini,6 Anne Burden,7 Jessica Martin,7 David B Price7,8 1Dollerup Medical Consultancy, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark; 2Division of Infection, Immunity and Respiratory Medicine, School of Biological Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK; 3Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency, London, UK; 4Family Physician Airways Group of Canada, Richmond Hill, ON, Canada; 5National Jewish Health, Denver, CO, USA; 6Federal University of Santa Catarina, Santa Catarina, Brazil; 7Observational and Pragmatic Research Institute Pte Ltd, Singapore; 8Centre for Academic Primary Care, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK Background: Previous research suggests exposure to nicotine replacement therapy (NRT may be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD.Methods: Using data from the United Kingdom’s Clinical Practice Research Datalink, this study aimed to evaluate CVD events and survival among individuals who attempted smoking cessation with the support of NRT compared with those aided by smoking cessation advice only. We studied CVD outcomes over 4 and 52 weeks in 50,214 smokers attempting to quit – 33,476 supported by smoking cessation advice and 16,738 with the support of NRT prescribed by their primary care physician. Patients were matched (2 smoking cessation advice patients:1 NRT patient on demographic and clinical characteristics during a baseline year preceding their quit attempt. Cox proportional hazard regression, conditional negative binomial regression model, and conditional logistic regression were used to analyze data.Results: Mean (standard deviation population age was 47 (11.2 years; 51% were females. Time to first diagnosis of ischemic heart disease (IHD among NRT and smoking cessation advice patients was similar within the first 4 weeks, but

  14. Prevalence and characteristics of metabolic syndrome in adults from the French childhood leukemia survivors’ cohort: a comparison with controls from the French population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudin, Claire; Berbis, Julie; Bertrand, Yves; Vercasson, Camille; Thomas, Frédérique; Chastagner, Pascal; Ducassou, Stéphane; Kanold, Justyna; Tabone, Marie-Dominique; Paillard, Catherine; Poirée, Marilyne; Plantaz, Dominique; Dalle, Jean-Hugues; Gandemer, Virginie; Thouvenin, Sandrine; Sirvent, Nicolas; Saultier, Paul; Béliard, Sophie; Leverger, Guy; Baruchel, André; Auquier, Pascal; Pannier, Bruno; Michel, Gérard

    2018-01-01

    The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among adults from the French LEA childhood acute leukemia survivors’ cohort was prospectively evaluated considering the type of anti-leukemic treatment received, and compared with that of controls. The metabolic profile of these patients was compared with that of controls. A total of 3203 patients from a French volunteer cohort were age- and sex-matched 3:1 to 1025 leukemia survivors (in both cohorts, mean age: 24.4 years; females: 51%). Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program’s Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Metabolic syndrome was found in 10.3% of patients (mean follow-up duration: 16.3±0.2 years) and 4.5% of controls, (OR=2.49; Pmetabolic syndrome displayed a unique profile compared with controls: smaller waist circumference (91 vs. 99.6 cm; P=0.01), and increased triglyceride levels (3.99 vs. 1.5 mmol/L; Pmetabolic syndrome had a larger waist circumference (109 vs. 99.6 cm; P=0.007) than controls. Regardless of the anti-leukemic treatment, metabolic syndrome risk was higher among childhood leukemia survivors. Its presentation differed depending on the treatment type, thus suggesting a divergent pathophysiology. This study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov identifier: 01756599. PMID:29351982

  15. Emergency IVF for embryo freezing to preserve female fertility: a French multicentre cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courbiere, B; Decanter, C; Bringer-Deutsch, S; Rives, N; Mirallié, S; Pech, J C; De Ziegler, D; Carré-Pigeon, F; May-Panloup, P; Sifer, C; Amice, V; Schweitzer, T; Porcu-Buisson, G; Poirot, C

    2013-09-01

    What are the outcomes of French emergency IVF procedures involving embryo freezing for fertility preservation before gonadotoxic treatment? Pregnancy rates after emergency IVF, cryopreservation of embryos, storage, thawing and embryo transfer (embryo transfer), in the specific context of the preservation of female fertility, seem to be similar to those reported for infertile couples undergoing ART. A French retrospective multicentre cohort study initiated by the GRECOT network-the French Study Group for Ovarian and Testicular Cryopreservation. We sent an e-mail survey to the 97 French centres performing the assisted reproduction technique in 2011, asking whether the centre performed emergency IVF and requesting information about the patients' characteristics, indications, IVF cycles and laboratory and follow-up data. The response rate was 53.6% (52/97). Fourteen French centres reported that they performed emergency IVF (56 cycles in total) before gonadotoxic treatment, between 1999 and July 2011, in 52 patients. The patients had a mean age of 28.9 ± 4.3 years, and a median length of relationship of 3 years (1 month-15 years). Emergency IVF was indicated for haematological cancer (42%), brain tumour (23%), sarcoma (3.8%), mesothelioma (n = 1) and bowel cancer (n = 1). Gynaecological problems accounted for 17% of indications. In 7.7% of cases, emergency IVF was performed for autoimmune diseases. Among the 52 patients concerned, 28% (n = 14) had undergone previous courses of chemotherapy before beginning controlled ovarian stimulation (COS). The initiation of gonadotoxic treatment had to be delayed in 34% of the patients (n = 19). In total, 56 cycles were initiated. The mean duration of stimulation was 11.2 ± 2.5 days, with a mean peak estradiol concentration on the day on which ovulation was triggered of 1640 ± 1028 pg/ml. Three cycles were cancelled due to ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (n = 1), poor response (n = 1) and treatment error (n = 1). A mean of 8

  16. Disentangling the roles of point-of-sale ban, tobacco retailer density and proximity on cessation and relapse among a cohort of smokers: findings from ITC Canada Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Nancy L; Lozano, Paula; Wu, Yun-Hsuan; Hardin, James W; Meng, Gang; Liese, Angela D; Fong, Geoffrey T; Thrasher, James F

    2018-03-08

    To examine how point-of-sale (POS) display bans, tobacco retailer density and tobacco retailer proximity were associated with smoking cessation and relapse in a cohort of smokers in Canada, where provincial POS bans were implemented differentially over time from 2004 to 2010. Data from the 2005 to 2011 administrations of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Canada Survey, a nationally representative cohort of adult smokers, were linked via residential geocoding with tobacco retailer data to derive for each smoker a measure of retailer density and proximity. An indicator variable identified whether the smoker's province banned POS displays at the time of the interview. Outcomes included cessation for at least 1 month at follow-up among smokers from the previous wave and relapse at follow-up among smokers who had quit at the previous wave. Logistic generalised estimating equation models were used to determine the relationship between living in a province with a POS display ban, tobacco retailer density and tobacco retailer proximity with cessation (n=4388) and relapse (n=866). Provincial POS display bans were not associated with cessation. In adjusted models, POS display bans were associated with lower odds of relapse which strengthened after adjusting for retailer density and proximity, although results were not statistically significant (OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.41 to 1.07, p=0.089). Neither tobacco retailer density nor proximity was associated with cessation or relapse. Banning POS retail displays shows promise as an additional tool to prevent relapse, although these results need to be confirmed in larger longitudinal studies. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Cigarette smokers' use of unconventional tobacco products and associations with quitting activity: findings from the ITC-4 U.S. cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasza, Karin A; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; O'Connor, Richard J; Compton, Wilson M; Kettermann, Anna; Borek, Nicolette; Fong, Geoffrey T; Cummings, K Michael; Hyland, Andrew J

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and correlates of use of nicotine-containing tobacco products such as cigars, pipe tobacco, and cigarettes that promise less exposure to toxins; e-cigarettes; and smokeless tobacco products among a cohort of conventional cigarette smokers followed over the past decade. We also evaluated associations between use of such products and cigarette quitting. Participants were 6,110 adult smokers in the United States, who were interviewed as part of the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey between 2002 and 2011. Respondents reported their concurrent use of other smoked tobacco products (including cigars, pipe tobacco, and cigarillos), smokeless tobacco products (including chewing tobacco, snus, and snuff), unconventional cigarettes (including Omni, Accord, and Eclipse), and electronic cigarettes. Prevalence and correlates of use and associations between use and cigarette quitting were assessed using regression analyses via generalized estimating equations. Most cigarette smokers did not use unconventional tobacco products, although use of any of these products started to rise at the end of the study period (2011). For each type of tobacco product evaluated, use was most prevalent among those aged 18-24 years. Smokers who did use unconventional tobacco products did not experience a clear cessation advantage. During the past decade, relatively few cigarette smokers reported also using other tobacco products. Those that did use such products were no more likely to stop using conventional cigarettes compared with those who did not use such products.

  18. Temporal asthma patterns using repeated questionnaires over 13 years in a large French cohort of women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaux Sanchez

    Full Text Available Variable expression is one aspect of the heterogeneity of asthma. We aimed to define a variable pattern, which is relevant in general health epidemiological cohorts. Our objectives were to assess whether: 1 asthma patterns defined using simple asthma questions through repeated measurements could reflect disease variability 2 these patterns may further be classified according to asthma severity/control. Among 70,428 French women, we used seven questionnaires (1992-2005 and a comprehensive reimbursement database (2004-2009 to define three reliable asthma patterns based on repeated positive answers to the ever asthma attack question: "never asthma" (n = 64,061; "inconsistent" ("yes" followed by "no", n = 3,514; "consistent" (fully consistent positive answers, n = 2,853. The "Inconsistent" pattern was related to both long-term (childhood-onset asthma with remission in adulthood and short-term (reported asthma attack in the last 12 months, associated with asthma medication asthma variability, showing that repeated questions are relevant markers of the variable expression of asthma. Furthermore, in this pattern, the number of positive responses (1992-2005 predicted asthma drug consumption in subsequent years, a marker of disease severity. The "Inconsistent" pattern is a phenotype that may capture the variable expression of asthma. Repeated answers, even to a simple question, are too often neglected.

  19. Factors modifying the risk of lung cancer associated to radon in the french cohort of uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacquier, B.; Rogel, A.; Laurier, D.; Caer, S.; Acker, A.

    2008-01-01

    The radon is classified lung carcinogen for man, but questions stay about the effects for low doses irradiation.The results of the analysis radon-lung cancer and the factors modifying on this relationship in the French cohort of miners followed until to 1999 is reported. This analysis confirms that the risk lung cancer is different according the period of exposure. A best precision in the measurement of exposure after 1956 could explain this difference. (N.C.)

  20. Does personality predict mortality? Results from the GAZEL French prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, Hermann; Kivimäki, Mika; Zins, Marie; Elovainio, Marko; Consoli, Silla M; Cordier, Sylvaine; Ducimetière, Pierre; Goldberg, Marcel; Singh-Manoux, Archana

    2008-04-01

    Majority of studies on personality and physical health have focused on one or two isolated personality traits. We aim to test the independent association of 10 personality traits, from three major conceptual models, with all-cause and cause-specific mortality in the French GAZEL cohort. A total of 14,445 participants, aged 39-54 in 1993, completed the personality questionnaires composed of the Bortner Type-A scale, the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory (for total, neurotic and reactive hostility) and the Grossarth-Maticek-Eysenck Personality Stress Inventory that assesses six personality types [cancer-prone, coronary heart disease (CHD)-prone, ambivalent, healthy, rational, anti-social]. The association between personality traits and mortality, during a mean follow-up of 12.7 years, was assessed using the Relative Index of Inequality (RII) in Cox regression. In models adjusted for age, sex, marital status and education, all-cause and cause-specific mortality were predicted by 'total hostility', its 'neurotic hostility' component as well as by 'CHD-prone', 'ambivalent' 'antisocial', and 'healthy' personality types. After mutually adjusting personality traits for each other, only high 'neurotic hostility' remained a robust predictor of excess mortality from all causes [RII = 2.62; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.68-4.09] and external causes (RII = 3.24; 95% CI = 1.03-10.18). 'CHD-prone' (RII = 2.23; 95% CI = 0.72-6.95) and 'anti-social' (RII = 2.13; 95% CI 0.61-6.58) personality types were associated with cardiovascular mortality and with mortality from external causes, respectively, but CIs were wider. Adjustment for potential behavioural mediators had only a modest effect on these associations. Neurotic hostility, CHD-prone personality and anti-social personality were all predictive of mortality outcomes. Further research is required to determine the precise mechanisms that contribute to these associations.

  1. Miglustat therapy in the French cohort of paediatric patients with Niemann-Pick disease type C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héron Bénédicte

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Niemann-Pick disease type C (NP-C is a rare neurovisceral lysosomal lipid storage disease characterized by progressive neurological deterioration. Published data on the use of miglustat in paediatric patients in clinical practice settings are limited. We report findings from a prospective open-label study in the French paediatric NP-C cohort. Methods Data on all paediatric NP-C patients treated with miglustat in France between October 2006 and December 2010 were compiled. All patients had a confirmed diagnosis of NP-C, and received miglustat therapy according to manufacturer’s recommendations. Pre-treatment and follow-up assessments were conducted according to a standardized protocol. Results Twenty children were enrolled; 19 had NPC1 gene mutations and 1 had NPC2 gene mutations. The median age at diagnosis was 1.5 years, and the median age at miglustat initiation was 6.0 years. Eight NPC1 patients had the early-infantile, eight had the late-infantile, and three had the juvenile-onset forms of NP-C. A history of hepatosplenomegaly and/or other cholestatic symptoms was recorded in all 8 early-infantile onset patients, 3/8 late-infantile patients, and 1/3 juvenile onset patients. Brain imaging indicated white matter abnormalities in most patients. The median (range duration of miglustat therapy was 1.3 (0.6–2.3 years in early-infantile, 1.0 (0.8–5.0 year in late-infantile, and 1.0 (0.6–2.5 year in juvenile onset patients. NP-C disability scale scores indicated either stabilization or improvement of neurological manifestations in 1/8, 6/8, and 1/3 NPC1 patients in these subgroups, respectively. There were no correlations between brain imaging findings and disease course. Mild-to-moderate gastrointestinal disturbances were frequent during the first 3 months of miglustat therapy, but were easily managed with dietary modifications and/or anti-propulsive medication. Conclusions Miglustat can improve or stabilize neurological

  2. Mortality (1968-2008) in a French cohort of uranium enrichment workers potentially exposed to rapidly soluble uranium compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhivin, Sergey; Guseva Canu, Irina; Samson, Eric; Laurent, Olivier; Grellier, James; Collomb, Philippe; Zablotska, Lydia B; Laurier, Dominique

    2016-03-01

    Until recently, enrichment of uranium for civil and military purposes in France was carried out by gaseous diffusion using rapidly soluble uranium compounds. We analysed the relationship between exposure to soluble uranium compounds and exposure to external γ-radiation and mortality in a cohort of 4688 French uranium enrichment workers who were employed between 1964 and 2006. Data on individual annual exposure to radiological and non-radiological hazards were collected for workers of the AREVA NC, CEA and Eurodif uranium enrichment plants from job-exposure matrixes and external dosimetry records, differentiating between natural, enriched and depleted uranium. Cause-specific mortality was compared with the French general population via standardised mortality ratios (SMR), and was analysed via Poisson regression using log-linear and linear excess relative risk models. Over the period of follow-up, 131 161 person-years at risk were accrued and 21% of the subjects had died. A strong healthy worker effect was observed: all causes SMR=0.69, 95% CI 0.65 to 0.74. SMR for pleural cancer was significantly increased (2.3, 95% CI 1.06 to 4.4), but was only based on nine cases. Internal uranium and external γ-radiation exposures were not significantly associated with any cause of mortality. This is the first study of French uranium enrichment workers. Although limited in statistical power, further follow-up of this cohort, estimation of internal uranium doses and pooling with similar cohorts should elucidate potential risks associated with exposure to soluble uranium compounds. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. Dietary patterns and risk of colorectal tumors: a cohort of French women of the National Education System (E3N)

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    Kesse, Emmanuelle; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about the dietary patterns associated with colorectal tumors along the adenoma-carcinoma sequence. Scores for dietary patterns were obtained by factor analysis in women from the French cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (1993-2000). Their association with colorectal tumors was investigated in 516 adenoma cases (175 high-risk adenomas) and 4,804 polyp-free women and in 172 colorectal cancer cases and 67,312 cancer-free women. The authors ...

  4. Mutation update and uncommon phenotypes in a French cohort of 96 patients with WFS1-related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaussenot, A; Rouzier, C; Quere, M; Plutino, M; Ait-El-Mkadem, S; Bannwarth, S; Barth, M; Dollfus, H; Charles, P; Nicolino, M; Chabrol, B; Vialettes, B; Paquis-Flucklinger, V

    2015-05-01

    WFS1 mutations are responsible for Wolfram syndrome (WS) characterized by juvenile-onset diabetes mellitus and optic atrophy, and for low-frequency sensorineural hearing loss (LFSNHL). Our aim was to analyze the French cohort of 96 patients with WFS1-related disorders in order (i) to update clinical and molecular data with 37 novel affected individuals, (ii) to describe uncommon phenotypes and, (iii) to precise the frequency of large-scale rearrangements in WFS1. We performed quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 13 patients, carrying only one heterozygous variant, to identify large-scale rearrangements in WFS1. Among the 37 novel patients, 15 carried 15 novel deleterious putative mutations, including one large deletion of 17,444 base pairs. The analysis of the cohort revealed unexpected phenotypes including (i) late-onset symptoms in 13.8% of patients with a probable autosomal recessive transmission; (ii) two siblings with recessive optic atrophy without diabetes mellitus and, (iii) six patients from four families with dominantly-inherited deafness and optic atrophy. We highlight the expanding spectrum of WFS1-related disorders and we show that, even if large deletions are rare events, they have to be searched in patients with classical WS carrying only one WFS1 mutation after sequencing. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency syndrome: clinical description in a French cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoine, N; Colas, C; Muleris, M; Bodo, S; Duval, A; Entz-Werle, N; Coulet, F; Cabaret, O; Andreiuolo, F; Charpy, C; Sebille, G; Wang, Q; Lejeune, S; Buisine, M P; Leroux, D; Couillault, G; Leverger, G; Fricker, J P; Guimbaud, R; Mathieu-Dramard, M; Jedraszak, G; Cohen-Hagenauer, O; Guerrini-Rousseau, L; Bourdeaut, F; Grill, J; Caron, O; Baert-Dusermont, S; Tinat, J; Bougeard, G; Frébourg, T; Brugières, L

    2015-11-01

    Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD) syndrome is a childhood cancer predisposition syndrome involving biallelic germline mutations of MMR genes, poorly recognised by clinicians so far. Retrospective review of all 31 patients with CMMRD diagnosed in French genetics laboratories in order to describe the characteristics, treatment and outcome of the malignancies and biological diagnostic data. 67 tumours were diagnosed in 31 patients, 25 (37%) Lynch syndrome-associated malignancies, 22 (33%) brain tumours, 17 (25%) haematological malignancies and 3 (5%) sarcomas. The median age of onset of the first tumour was 6.9 years (1.2-33.5). Overall, 22 patients died, 9 (41%) due to the primary tumour. Median survival after the diagnosis of the primary tumour was 27 months (0.26-213.2). Failure rate seemed to be higher than expected especially for T-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (progression/relapse in 6/12 patients). A familial history of Lynch syndrome was identified in 6/23 families, and consanguinity in 9/23 families. PMS2 mutations (n=18) were more frequent than other mutations (MSH6 (n=6), MLH1 (n=4) and MSH2 (n=3)). In conclusion, this unselected series of patients confirms the extreme severity of this syndrome with a high mortality rate mostly related to multiple childhood cancers, and highlights the need for its early detection in order to adapt treatment and surveillance. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. The French Chronic Kidney Disease-Renal Epidemiology and Information Network (CKD-REIN) cohort study.

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    Stengel, Bénédicte; Combe, Christian; Jacquelinet, Christian; Briançon, Serge; Fouque, Denis; Laville, Maurice; Frimat, Luc; Pascal, Christophe; Herpe, Yves-Edouard; Deleuze, Jean-François; Schanstra, Joost; Pisoni, Ron L; Robinson, Bruce M; Massy, Ziad A

    2014-08-01

    While much has been learned about the epidemiology and treatment of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the last 30 years, chronic kidney disease (CKD) before the end-stage has been less investigated. Not enough is known about factors associated with CKD progression and complications, as well as its transition to ESRD. We designed the CKD-renal epidemiology and information network (REIN) cohort to provide a research platform to address these key questions and to assess clinical practices and costs in patients with moderate or advanced CKD. A total of 46 clinic sites and 4 renal care networks participate in the cohort. A stratified selection of clinic sites yields a sample that represents a diversity of settings, e.g. geographic region, and public versus for-profit and non-for-profit private clinics. In each site, 60-90 patients with CKD are enrolled at a routine clinic visit during a 12-month enrolment phase: 3600 total, including 1800 with Stage 3 and 1800 with Stage 4 CKD. Follow-up will continue for 5 years, including after initiation of renal replacement therapy. Data will be collected from medical records at inclusion and at yearly intervals, as well as from self-administered patient questionnaires and provider-level questionnaires. Patients will also be interviewed at baseline, and at 1, 3 and 5 years. Healthcare costs will also be determined. Blood and urine samples will be collected and stored for future studies on all patients at enrolment and at study end, and at 1 and 3 years in a subsample of 1200. The CKD-REIN cohort will serve to improve our understanding of the biological, clinical and healthcare system determinants associated with CKD progression and adverse outcomes as well as of international variations in collaboration with the CKD Outcome and Practice Pattern Study (CKDopps). It will foster CKD epidemiology and outcomes research and provide evidence to improve the health and quality of life of patients with CKD and the performances of the

  7. Benzene Uptake and Glutathione S-transferase T1 Status as Determinants of S-Phenylmercapturic Acid in Cigarette Smokers in the Multiethnic Cohort.

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    Christopher A Haiman

    Full Text Available Research from the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC demonstrated that, for the same quantity of cigarette smoking, African Americans and Native Hawaiians have a higher lung cancer risk than Whites, while Latinos and Japanese Americans are less susceptible. We collected urine samples from 2,239 cigarette smokers from five different ethnic groups in the MEC and analyzed each sample for S-phenylmercapturic acid (SPMA, a specific biomarker of benzene uptake. African Americans had significantly higher (geometric mean [SE] 3.69 [0.2], p<0.005 SPMA/ml urine than Whites (2.67 [0.13] while Japanese Americans had significantly lower levels than Whites (1.65 [0.07], p<0.005. SPMA levels in Native Hawaiians and Latinos were not significantly different from those of Whites. We also conducted a genome-wide association study in search of genetic risk factors related to benzene exposure. The glutathione S-transferase T1 (GSTT1 deletion explained between 14.2-31.6% (p = 5.4x10-157 and the GSTM1 deletion explained between 0.2%-2.4% of the variance (p = 1.1x10-9 of SPMA levels in these populations. Ethnic differences in levels of SPMA remained strong even after controlling for the effects of these two deletions. These results demonstrate the powerful effect of GSTT1 status on SPMA levels in urine and show that uptake of benzene in African American, White, and Japanese American cigarette smokers is consistent with their lung cancer risk in the MEC. While benzene is not generally considered a cause of lung cancer, its metabolite SPMA could be a biomarker for other volatile lung carcinogens in cigarette smoke.

  8. Association between self-reported vegetarian diet and the irritable bowel syndrome in the French NutriNet cohort.

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    Camille Buscail

    Full Text Available There is growing interest in using diet counselling in the management of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. Among new emerging diets, vegetarian diets (VD seem to be experiencing an important popularity, partly because of their alleged health benefits. A recent study performed among a rural Indian population showed that predominant VD could be associated with IBS.This cross-sectional study aimed at assessing the association between the VD and IBS, among a large French cohort, the NutriNet-santé study.Subjects participating in the NutriNet-Santé cohort study completed a questionnaire based on Rome III criteria (N = 41,682. Anthropometrics, socio-demographical and lifestyle data, including VD, were collected prior to the completion of Rome III questionnaire via self-administered questionnaires. Association between VD and IBS and its subtypes was investigated through multivariate logistic regression.The included subjects were mainly women (78.0% and the mean age was 49.8±14.3 years. Among these individuals, 2,264 (5.4% presented an IBS, and 805 (1.9% reported a VD. Overall, VD was not associated with IBS or subtypes. A stable VD (i.e. self-declared at least three times was associated with IBS (aOR 2.60 95%CI [1.37-4.91], IBS mixed (aOR 2.97 95%CI [1.20-7.36] and IBS diarrhoea (aOR 2.77 95%CI [1.01-7.59].This study suggests that a long term VD could be associated with IBS. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to confirm these results, and investigate the multiple aspects of the vegetarian diet, possibly related to the IBS.

  9. Latitude and ultraviolet radiation dose in the birthplace in relation to menarcheal age in a large cohort of French women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossus, Laure; Kvaskoff, Marina; Bijon, Anne; Engel, Pierre; Verdebout, Jean; Fervers, Béatrice; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Mesrine, Sylvie

    2013-04-01

    Age at menarche is an important determinant of hormonal-related neoplasia and other chronic diseases. Spatial and temporal variations in age at menarche have been observed in industrialised countries and several environmental factors were reported to have an influence. We examined geographical variations in self-reported age at menarche and explored the effects of both latitude and ultraviolet radiation (UVR) dose on the onset of menarche in 88,278 women from the French E3N cohort (aged 40-65 years at inclusion). The mean age at menarche was 12.8 years. After adjustment for potential confounders (birth cohort, prematurity, birth weight and length, father's income index, body silhouette in childhood, food deprivation during World War II, population of birthplace, number of siblings, breastfeeding exposure and indoor exposure to passive smoking during childhood), latitude and UVR dose (annual or spring/summer) in county of birth were significantly associated with age at menarche (P(trend) < 0.0001). Women born at lower latitudes or in regions with higher annual or spring/summer UVR dose had a 3- to 4-month earlier menarche than women born at higher latitudes or in regions with lower UVR. On a continuous scale, a 1° increment in latitude resulted in a 0.04-year older age at menarche [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.03, 0.05], whereas a 1-kJ/m(2) increment in annual UVR dose resulted in a 0.42-year younger age at menarche (95% CI: -0.55, -0.29). These data further suggest that light exposure in childhood may influence sexual maturation in women.

  10. Estimated dietary dioxin exposure and breast cancer risk among women from the French E3N prospective cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danjou, Aurélie M N; Fervers, Béatrice; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Philip, Thierry; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Dossus, Laure

    2015-03-17

    Dioxins are environmental and persistent pollutants mostly emitted from combustion facilities (e.g. waste incinerators, metal and cement industries). Known to be endocrine disrupting chemicals, dioxins are suspected to increase breast cancer (BC) risk. Although diet is considered the primary source of dioxin exposure, no previous study has been published on dietary dioxin exposure in relation to BC risk. We aimed to assess dietary dioxin exposure among women from the E3N cohort and estimate BC risk associated with this exposure. The study included 63,830 women from the E3N cohort who completed a diet history questionnaire (DHQ) in 1993 and were followed until 2008. Dietary dioxin exposure was estimated by combining consumption data from the E3N DHQ and food dioxin contamination data from a French national monitoring program. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by Cox models adjusted for BC risk factors. Mean dietary dioxin exposure was estimated at 1.3 ± 0.4 pg/kg body weight (BW)/day. A 0.4 pg/kg BW/d increase in dioxin intake was not associated with overall BC risk (HR = 1.00; 95% CI: 0.96, 1.05). A significant decrease in risk of estrogen receptor negative (ER-)/progesterone receptor negative (PR-) tumors was observed among post-menopausal women in the upper quartile of estimated dioxin intake (HR for Q4 vs. Q1: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.45, 0.96; P for trend across quartiles = 0.0463). Overall, no association between estimated dietary dioxin exposure and BC risk was found among E3N women. Further studies should include both dietary and environmental exposures to determine whether low-dose dioxin exposure is associated with BC risk.

  11. Dietary patterns and risk of colorectal tumors: a cohort of French women of the National Education System (E3N).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesse, E; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Boutron-Ruault, M C

    2006-12-01

    Little is known about the dietary patterns associated with colorectal tumors along the adenoma-carcinoma sequence. Scores for dietary patterns were obtained by factor analysis in women from the French cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (1993-2000). Their association with colorectal tumors was investigated in 516 adenoma cases (175 high-risk adenomas) and 4,804 polyp-free women and in 172 colorectal cancer cases and 67,312 cancer-free women. The authors identified four dietary patterns: "healthy" (vegetables, fruit, yogurt, sea products, and olive oil); "Western" (potatoes, pizzas and pies, sandwiches, sweets, cakes, cheese, cereal products, processed meat, eggs, and butter); "drinker" (sandwiches, snacks, processed meat, and alcoholic beverages); and "meat eaters" (meat, poultry, and margarine). For quartile 4 versus quartile 1, an increased risk of adenoma was observed with high scores of the Western pattern (multivariate relative risk (RR) = 1.39, 95% confidence interval: 1.00, 1.94; p(trend) = 0.03) and the drinker pattern (RR = 1.42, 95% confidence interval: 1.10, 1.83; p(trend) = 0.01). The meat-eaters pattern was positively associated with colorectal cancer risk (for quartile 4 vs. quartile 1: RR = 1.58, 95% confidence interval: 0.98, 2.53; p(trend) = 0.02). Dietary patterns that reflect a Western way of life are associated with a higher risk of colorectal tumors.

  12. Evans syndrome in children. Long-term outcome in a prospective French national observational cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie eAladjidi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Evans syndrome (ES is a rare autoimmune disorder whose long-term follow-up characteristics are unknown. Patients under 18 at the time of diagnosis of a first autoimmune cytopenia have been included since 2004 in a national prospective observational cohort. In 2014, 156 children diagnosed between 1981 and 2014 with ES, were analyzed. The median age at initial cytopenia was 5.4 (0.2-17.2 years old. For 85 sequential cases, the median delay between the episodes of AIHA and ITP was 2.4 years (0.1–16.3. The median follow-up since ES diagnosis was 6.5 years (0.1-28.8. ES revealed underlying diseases in 10% of children; in 60% of patients, various associated immune manifestations were observed, and ES remained primary in 30%. Five-year ITP and AIHA relapse-free survival were respectively 25% and 61%. In all, 69% of children required one or more than one second-line immune treatment and 15 patients (10% died at a median age of 14.3 years (1.7-28.1.This national work provides the first consistent clinical description for ES and underscores the high percentage of associated immune manifestations, the long-term complications, and treatment toxicities. Current challenges include the identification of underlying genetic immune dysregulations and better characterization of subgroups of patients and of second-line therapy strategies.

  13. Trends in colorectal cancer incidence: a period and birth-cohort analysis in a well-defined French population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvenet, Marion; Cottet, Vanessa; Lepage, Côme; Jooste, Valérie; Faivre, Jean; Bouvier, Anne-Marie

    2011-06-30

    France stands among high-risk areas for colorectal cancer. Different trends in CRC incidence are reported around the world. The aim of this study was to provide temporal trends in CRC incidence over a 30-year period in a French well-defined population. Between 1976 and 2005, 17,028 new cases were registered by the Burgundy digestive cancer registry. The mean variations in age-standardized incidence rates were estimated using a Poisson regression adjusted for age for each gender and location. The cumulative risk by birth cohort of developing a cancer over the age range 0-74 years was estimated using an age-cohort model. Incidence rates for right and left colon cancers increased more rapidly in males (respectively +11.7% and +10.3% on average by 5-year period) than in females (respectively +5.9% and +6.1%). It remained stable for sigmoid cancers in males (-0.1%) and decreased in females (-5.2%). It also decreased for rectal cancers both in males (-2.7%) and in females (-2.0%). The cumulative risk increased from 3.9% for males born around 1900 to 4.9% for those born around 1930 and then slightly decreased (4.5% among those born around 1950). It remained at the same level for females born around 1900 (2.7%) as for those born around 1930 (2.7%) and then slightly increased (2.9%) for those born around 1950. For right colon cancers, the cumulative risk increased strikingly in successive birth cohorts from 0.53% to 1.2% in males and 0.55% to 0.77% in females. The corresponding cumulative risks for the left colon were 0.24% and 0.42% in males and 0.14% and 0.29% in females. For sigmoid cancer, they decreased from 1.59% to 1.08% in males, and 0.88% to 0.80% in females. Temporal variations in incidence rates of colorectal cancers differed according to subsite, suggesting different aetiological factors and implications for diagnosis and screening strategies. Total colonoscopy must be the preferred strategy in high-risk groups or after a positive faecal occult blood test.

  14. Trends in colorectal cancer incidence: a period and birth-cohort analysis in a well-defined French population

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    Faivre Jean

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background France stands among high-risk areas for colorectal cancer. Different trends in CRC incidence are reported around the world. The aim of this study was to provide temporal trends in CRC incidence over a 30-year period in a French well-defined population. Methods Between 1976 and 2005, 17,028 new cases were registered by the Burgundy digestive cancer registry. The mean variations in age-standardized incidence rates were estimated using a Poisson regression adjusted for age for each gender and location. The cumulative risk by birth cohort of developing a cancer over the age range 0-74 years was estimated using an age-cohort model. Results Incidence rates for right and left colon cancers increased more rapidly in males (respectively +11.7% and +10.3% on average by 5-year period than in females (respectively +5.9% and +6.1%. It remained stable for sigmoid cancers in males (-0.1% and decreased in females (-5.2%. It also decreased for rectal cancers both in males (-2.7% and in females (-2.0%. The cumulative risk increased from 3.9% for males born around 1900 to 4.9% for those born around 1930 and then slightly decreased (4.5% among those born around 1950. It remained at the same level for females born around 1900 (2.7% as for those born around 1930 (2.7% and then slightly increased (2.9% for those born around 1950. For right colon cancers, the cumulative risk increased strikingly in successive birth cohorts from 0.53% to 1.2% in males and 0.55% to 0.77% in females. The corresponding cumulative risks for the left colon were 0.24% and 0.42% in males and 0.14% and 0.29% in females. For sigmoid cancer, they decreased from 1.59% to 1.08% in males, and 0.88% to 0.80% in females. Conclusion Temporal variations in incidence rates of colorectal cancers differed according to subsite, suggesting different aetiological factors and implications for diagnosis and screening strategies. Total colonoscopy must be the preferred strategy in high

  15. Tumor characteristics and family history in relation to mammographic density and breast cancer: The French E3N cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskarinec, Gertraud; Dartois, Laureen; Delaloge, Suzette; Hopper, John; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Baglietto, Laura

    2017-08-01

    Mammographic density is a known heritable risk factor for breast cancer, but reports how tumor characteristics and family history may modify this association are inconsistent. Dense and total breast areas were assessed using Cumulus™ from pre-diagnostic mammograms for 820 invasive breast cancer cases and 820 matched controls nested within the French E3N cohort study. To allow comparisons across models, percent mammographic density (PMD) was standardized to the distribution of the controls. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of breast cancer risk for mammographic density were estimated by conditional logistic regression while adjusting for age and body mass index. Heterogeneity according to tumor characteristic and family history was assessed using stratified analyses. Overall, the OR per 1 SD for PMD was 1.50 (95% CI, 1.33-1.69). No evidence for significant heterogeneity by tumor size, lymph node status, grade, and hormone receptor status (estrogen, progesterone, and HER2) was detected. However, the association of PMD was stronger for women reporting a family history of breast cancer (OR 1SD =2.25; 95% CI, 1.67-3.04) than in women reporting none (OR 1SD =1.41; 95% CI, 1.24-1.60; p heterogeneity =0.002). Similarly, effect modification by FHBC was observed using categories of PMD (p heterogeneity =0.02) with respective ORs of 15.16 (95% CI, 4.23-54.28) vs. 3.14 (95% CI, 1.89-5.22) for ≥50% vs. breast cancer risk with a family history supports the hypothesis of shared genetic factors responsible for familial aggregation of breast cancer and the heritable component of mammographic density. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Observational Study of a French and Belgian Multicenter Cohort of 23 Patients Diagnosed in Adulthood With Mevalonate Kinase Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durel, Cécile-Audrey; Aouba, Achille; Bienvenu, Boris; Deshayes, Samuel; Coppéré, Brigitte; Gombert, Bruno; Acquaviva-Bourdain, Cécile; Hachulla, Eric; Lecomte, Frédéric; Touitou, Isabelle; Ninet, Jacques; Philit, Jean-Baptiste; Messer, Laurent; Brouillard, Marc; Girard-Madoux, Marie-Hélène; Moutschen, Michel; Raison-Peyron, Nadia; Hutin, Pascal; Duffau, Pierre; Trolliet, Pierre; Hatron, Pierre-Yves; Heudier, Philippe; Cevallos, Ramiro; Lequerré, Thierry; Brousse, Valentine; Lesire, Vincent; Audia, Sylvain; Maucort-Boulch, Delphine; Cuisset, Laurence; Hot, Arnaud

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the clinical and biological features of Mevalonate kinase deficiency (MKD) in patients diagnosed in adulthood. This is a French and Belgian observational retrospective study from 2000 to 2014. To constitute the cohort, we cross-check the genetic and biochemical databases. The clinical, enzymatic, and genetic data were gathered from medical records. Twenty-three patients were analyzed. The mean age at diagnosis was 40 years, with a mean age at onset of symptoms of 3 years. All symptomatic patients had fever. Febrile attacks were mostly associated with arthralgia (90.9%); lymphadenopathy, abdominal pain, and skin lesions (86.4%); pharyngitis (63.6%); cough (59.1%); diarrhea, and hepatosplenomegaly (50.0%). Seven patients had psychiatric symptoms (31.8%). One patient developed recurrent seizures. Three patients experienced renal involvement (13.6%). Two patients had angiomyolipoma (9.1%). All but one tested patients had elevated serum immunoglobulin (Ig) D level. Twenty-one patients had genetic diagnosis; most of them were compound heterozygote (76.2%). p.Val377Ile was the most prevalent mutation. Structural articular damages and systemic AA amyloidosis were the 2 most serious complications. More than 65% of patients displayed decrease in severity and frequency of attacks with increasing age, but only 35% achieved remission. MKD diagnosed in adulthood shared clinical and genetic features with classical pediatric disease. An elevated IgD concentration is a good marker for MKD in adults. Despite a decrease of severity and frequency of attacks with age, only one-third of patients achieved spontaneous remission.

  17. Anxious and depressive symptoms in the French Asbestos-Related Diseases Cohort: risk factors and self-perception of risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounchetrou Njoya, Ibrahim; Paris, Christophe; Dinet, Jerome; Luc, Amandine; Lighezzolo-Alnot, Joelle; Pairon, Jean-Claude; Thaon, Isabelle

    2017-04-01

    Asbestos is known to be an independent risk factor for lung and pleural cancers. However, to date, little attention has been paid to the psychological effects of asbestos exposure among exposed subjects. The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of anxious and depressive symptoms among >2000 French participants of the Asbestos-Related Diseases Cohort (ARDCO), 6 years after their inclusion, to identify the risk factors associated with those anxious and depressive symptoms and to evaluate the impact of the asbestos-risk perception. The ARDCO was constituted in four regions of France between October 2003 and December 2005, by including former asbestos workers. Between 2011 and 2012, participants of the ARDCO program were invited to undergo another chest CT scan 6 years after the previous scan. Participants were asked to complete questionnaires including asbestos exposure assessment, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), asbestos-risk perception and self-perception of asbestos-related diseases. Among the 2225 participants, 2210 fully completed questionnaires were collected and analyzed. The prevalence of symptoms of probable anxiety and probable depression was 19.7% and 9.9%, respectively. The risk of anxious and depressive symptoms was independently associated with self-perception of the intensity of asbestos exposure, asbestos-risk perception and self-perception of asbestos-related diseases. The results obtained in this large study confirm that previously asbestos-exposed subjects are likely to develop anxious and depressive symptoms. Finally, implications related to the prevention of anxiety and depression among asbestos-exposed workers is discussed. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  18. Starchy food consumption in French adults: a cross-sectional analysis of the profile of consumers and contribution to nutritional intake in a web-based prospective cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo de Edelenyi, Fabien; Julia, Chantal; Courtois, Frédéric; Méjean, Caroline; Péneau, Sandrine; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2014-01-01

    French Nutritional Guidelines recommend eating starchy foods at each meal, according to appetite, and advise to vary sources. However, the proportion of energy from carbohydrates is currently too low in many Western European countries. Consumption of the different types of starchy foods was assessed among 80,209 adult participants in the French NutriNet-Santé cohort (78% women, mean age 42.9 ± 14.5). Description of starchy food consumption according to sociodemographics was provided as well as the contribution of starchy food to nutritional intake. Determinants of adherence to starchy food nutritional guidelines were estimated using multivariable polytomous logistic regression. Starchy foods contributed approximately 22% of the energy intake, 75% of the complex carbohydrate intake and 36.1% of the fibre intake. About 43% of the subjects had intakes in line with the French Nutritional Guidelines concerning starchy foods. Men met the recommendation more frequently (55 vs. 33% for women), but were also more likely to exceed the recommendation (9.5 vs. 1.3%), even after adjustment for energy intake. According to our multivariable model, starchy food consumption increased also with age. A higher consumption of starchy foods should be promoted in the French population in order to increase the part of the energy intake coming from complex carbohydrates.

  19. Autorreporte de exposición a publicidad y promoción de tabaco en una cohorte de fumadores mexicanos Tobacco advertising and promotions: changes in reported exposure in a cohort of Mexican smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosaura Pérez-Hernández

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar en población fumadora el nivel de exposición a la mercadotecnia de la industria tabacalera (IT, a través de diferentes métodos de promocionar sus productos, antes y durante la publicación de la Ley General para el Control del Tabaco (LGCT en 2008. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio de cohorte en fumadores adultos (n=941 pre-LGCT y n=1 051 post-LGCT de cuatro ciudades mexicanas. Se realizaron análisis multivariados mediante modelos de ecuaciones de estimación generalizada (GEE. RESULTADOS: Se incrementó el autorreporte de recepción de muestras gratis de cigarros (3.7 a 8.1%, ropa o artículos con marcas o logos (3.6 a 6.4%, haber visto información sobre eventos especiales (1.9 a 4.7%, y publicidad en bares y discotecas para mayores de edad (21.4 a 28%. Se observaron decrementos de publicidad en exteriores (54.7 a 47.2%. CONCLUSIÓN: Es necesaria una política integral con prohibiciones totales de la publicidad y promoción de los productos de tabaco que integre mayor vigilancia y sanciones para lograr la disminución y prevención del consumo de tabaco.OBJECTIVE: To determine in a population-based sample of smokers the level exposure to tobacco industry marketing through different channels before and after their restriction through the General Tobacco Control Law of 2008. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were analyzed from a cohort of adult smokers from four Mexican cities who were surveyed in 2007 and 2008. GEE models were estimated for each indicator of advertising and promotion exposure. RESULTS: Increases were found in report of receiving free samples of tobacco (3.7-8.1%, branded clothing (3.6-6.4%, noticing tobacco industry sponsored events (1.9-4.7% and noticing ads in bars (21.4-28%. Noticing outdoor advertising decreased over this time (54.7 a 47.2%. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings confirm tobacco industry shifting of marketing efforts when advertising and promotion bans are not comprehensive. There is a need to monitor

  20. Important Variables When Screening for Students at Suicidal Risk: Findings from the French Cohort of the SEYLE Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Kahn

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to early detection of mental ill-health being an important suicide preventive strategy, the multi-centre EU funded “Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe” (SEYLE study compared three school-based mental health promotion programs to a control group. In France, 1007 students with a mean age of 15.2 years were recruited from 20 randomly assigned schools. This paper explores the French results of the SEYLE’s two-stage screening program (ProfScreen and of the cross-program suicidal emergency procedure. Two-hundred-thirty-five ProfScreen students were screened using 13 psychopathological and risk behaviour scales. Students considered at risk because of a positive finding on one or more scales were offered a clinical interview and, if necessary, referred for treatment. A procedure for suicidal students (emergency cases was set up to detect emergencies in the whole cohort (n = 1007. Emergency cases were offered the same clinical interview as the ProfScreen students. The interviewers documented their reasons for referrals in a short report. 16,2% of the ProfScreen students (38/235 were referred to treatment and 2,7% of the emergency cases (27/1007 were also referred to treatment due to high suicidal risk. Frequent symptoms in those students referred for evaluation were depression, alcohol misuse, non-suicidal self-injuries (NSSI, and suicidal behaviours. According to the multivariate regression analysis of ProfScreen, the results show that the best predictors for treatment referral were NSSI (OR 2.85, alcohol misuse (OR 2.80, and depressive symptoms (OR 1.13. Analysis of the proportion for each scale of students referred to treatment showed that poor social relationships (60%, anxiety (50%, and suicidal behaviours (50% generated the highest rate of referrals. Qualitative analysis of clinician’s motivations to refer a student to mental health services revealed that depressive symptoms (51%, anxiety (38%, suicidal behaviours (40%, and

  1. Important Variables When Screening for Students at Suicidal Risk: Findings from the French Cohort of the SEYLE Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Tubiana, Alexandra; Cohen, Renaud F.; Carli, Vladimir; Wasserman, Camilla; Hoven, Christina; Sarchiapone, Marco; Wasserman, Danuta

    2015-01-01

    Due to early detection of mental ill-health being an important suicide preventive strategy, the multi-centre EU funded “Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe” (SEYLE) study compared three school-based mental health promotion programs to a control group. In France, 1007 students with a mean age of 15.2 years were recruited from 20 randomly assigned schools. This paper explores the French results of the SEYLE’s two-stage screening program (ProfScreen) and of the cross-program suicidal emergency procedure. Two-hundred-thirty-five ProfScreen students were screened using 13 psychopathological and risk behaviour scales. Students considered at risk because of a positive finding on one or more scales were offered a clinical interview and, if necessary, referred for treatment. A procedure for suicidal students (emergency cases) was set up to detect emergencies in the whole cohort (n = 1007). Emergency cases were offered the same clinical interview as the ProfScreen students. The interviewers documented their reasons for referrals in a short report. 16,2% of the ProfScreen students (38/235) were referred to treatment and 2,7% of the emergency cases (27/1007) were also referred to treatment due to high suicidal risk. Frequent symptoms in those students referred for evaluation were depression, alcohol misuse, non-suicidal self-injuries (NSSI), and suicidal behaviours. According to the multivariate regression analysis of ProfScreen, the results show that the best predictors for treatment referral were NSSI (OR 2.85), alcohol misuse (OR 2.80), and depressive symptoms (OR 1.13). Analysis of the proportion for each scale of students referred to treatment showed that poor social relationships (60%), anxiety (50%), and suicidal behaviours (50%) generated the highest rate of referrals. Qualitative analysis of clinician’s motivations to refer a student to mental health services revealed that depressive symptoms (51%), anxiety (38%), suicidal behaviours (40%), and

  2. Important Variables When Screening for Students at Suicidal Risk: Findings from the French Cohort of the SEYLE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Tubiana, Alexandra; Cohen, Renaud F; Carli, Vladimir; Wasserman, Camilla; Hoven, Christina; Sarchiapone, Marco; Wasserman, Danuta

    2015-09-30

    Due to early detection of mental ill-health being an important suicide preventive strategy, the multi-centre EU funded "Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe" (SEYLE) study compared three school-based mental health promotion programs to a control group. In France, 1007 students with a mean age of 15.2 years were recruited from 20 randomly assigned schools. This paper explores the French results of the SEYLE's two-stage screening program (ProfScreen) and of the cross-program suicidal emergency procedure. Two-hundred-thirty-five ProfScreen students were screened using 13 psychopathological and risk behaviour scales. Students considered at risk because of a positive finding on one or more scales were offered a clinical interview and, if necessary, referred for treatment. A procedure for suicidal students (emergency cases) was set up to detect emergencies in the whole cohort (n = 1007). Emergency cases were offered the same clinical interview as the ProfScreen students. The interviewers documented their reasons for referrals in a short report. 16,2% of the ProfScreen students (38/235) were referred to treatment and 2,7% of the emergency cases (27/1007) were also referred to treatment due to high suicidal risk. Frequent symptoms in those students referred for evaluation were depression, alcohol misuse, non-suicidal self-injuries (NSSI), and suicidal behaviours. According to the multivariate regression analysis of ProfScreen, the results show that the best predictors for treatment referral were NSSI (OR 2.85), alcohol misuse (OR 2.80), and depressive symptoms (OR 1.13). Analysis of the proportion for each scale of students referred to treatment showed that poor social relationships (60%), anxiety (50%), and suicidal behaviours (50%) generated the highest rate of referrals. Qualitative analysis of clinician's motivations to refer a student to mental health services revealed that depressive symptoms (51%), anxiety (38%), suicidal behaviours (40%), and negative life

  3. Is There a Cardiotoxicity Associated With Metallic Head Hip Prostheses? A Cohort Study in the French National Health Insurance Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassalle, Marion; Colas, Sandrine; Rudnichi, Annie; Zureik, Mahmoud; Dray-Spira, Rosemary

    2018-05-09

    There are four distinguishable types of THA devices in wide use, as defined by the femoral and acetabular bearing surfaces: metal-on-polyethylene (MoP), ceramic-on-polyethylene (CoP), metal-on-metal (MoM), and ceramic-on-ceramic (CoC). Metallic head THAs (MoP and MoM) can potentially induce cardiac toxicity because cobalt species, generated at the head-neck trunnion, and in the case of MoM devices, at the articular surface as well, can be absorbed systemically. However, studies have provided inconsistent results. The purpose of this study was to assess the risk of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) or heart failure (HF) associated with metallic head THAs using data from the French national health insurance databases. Between 2008 and 2011 in France, 399,968 patients ≥ 55 years had a first THA. A total of 127,481 were excluded after we applied the exclusion criteria regarding arthroplasty and 17,137 as a result of a history of DCM/HF, recorded in the French national health insurance reimbursement databases, between January 1, 2006, and the date of inclusion. The final cohort included 255,350 individuals (43% men; mean age 72 ± 9 years). Of them, 93,581 (37%) had been implanted with MoP, 58,095 (23%) with CoP, 11,298 (4%) with MoM, and 92,376 (36%) with CoC THAs. Patients were followed until December 2015. Patients with incident DCM/HF were identified by a new entitlement to the long-term disease scheme or a first hospitalization with a diagnosis of DCM or HF. MoP and CoP THAs are generally implanted in old patients, whereas MoM and CoC are mostly indicated in young, active male patients. Thus, to consider the specific indications of the bearing couples, analyses were separately performed in two distinct subcohorts, one comprising patients with MoP or CoP and one comprising patients with MoM or CoC THA. In each subcohort, the DCM/HF risk was compared between patients with metallic head versus nonmetallic head THAs (MoP versus CoP, MoM versus CoC). Hazard ratios

  4. Consideration of measurement errors in the analysis of the risk related to the exposure to ionising radiation in an occupational cohort: application to the French cohort of uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allodji, Rodrigue Setcheou

    2011-01-01

    In epidemiological studies, measurement errors in exposure can substantially bias the estimation of the risk associated to exposure. A broad variety of methods for measurement error correction has been developed, but they have been rarely applied in practice, probably because their ability to correct measurement error effects and their implementation are poorly understood. Another important reason is that many of the proposed correction methods require to know measurement errors characteristics (size, nature, structure and distribution). The aim of this thesis is to take into account measurement error in the analysis of risk of lung cancer death associated to radon exposure based on the French cohort of uranium miners. The mains stages were (1) to assess the characteristics (size, nature, structure and distribution) of measurement error in the French uranium miners cohort, (2) to investigate the impact of measurement error in radon exposure on the estimated excess relative risk (ERR) of lung cancer death associated to radon exposure, and (3) to compare the performance of methods for correction of these measurement error effects. The French cohort of uranium miners includes more than 5000 miners chronically exposed to radon with a follow-up duration of 30 years. Measurement errors have been characterized taking into account the evolution of uranium extraction methods and of radiation protection measures over time. A simulation study based on the French cohort of uranium miners has been carried out to investigate the effects of these measurement errors on the estimated ERR and to assess the performance of different methods for correcting these effects. Measurement error associated to radon exposure decreased over time, from more than 45% in the early 70's to about 10% in the late 80's. Its nature also changed over time from mostly Berkson to classical type from 1983. Simulation results showed that measurement error leads to an attenuation of the ERR towards the null

  5. The impact of stressful life events on excessive alcohol consumption in the French population: findings from the GAZEL cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamers, Sara L; Okechukwu, Cassandra; Bohl, Alex A; Guéguen, Alice; Goldberg, Marcel; Zins, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Major life changes may play a causative role in health through lifestyle factors, such as alcohol. The objective was to examine the impact of stressful life events on heavy alcohol consumption among French adults. Trajectories of excessive alcohol consumption in 20,625 employees of the French national gas and electricity company for up to 5 years before and 5 years after an event, with annual measurements from 1992. We used repeated measures analysis of time series data indexed to events, employing generalized estimating equations. For women, excessive alcohol use increased before important purchase (p = 0.021), children leaving home (pdivorce, widowhood, and death of loved one (all pchildren leaving home and retirement, where we observed an increase (all pdivorce and increased after (all pimpact alcohol intake temporarily while others have longer-term implications. Research should disentangle women's and men's distinct perceptions of events over time.

  6. Study protocol: the JEU cohort study--transversal multiaxial evaluation and 5-year follow-up of a cohort of French gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challet-Bouju, Gaëlle; Hardouin, Jean-Benoit; Vénisse, Jean-Luc; Romo, Lucia; Valleur, Marc; Magalon, David; Fatséas, Mélina; Chéreau-Boudet, Isabelle; Gorsane, Mohamed-Ali; Grall-Bronnec, Marie

    2014-08-20

    There is abundant literature on how to distinguish problem gambling (PG) from social gambling, but there are very few studies of the long-term evolution of gambling practice. As a consequence, the correlates of key state changes in the gambling trajectory are still unknown. The objective of the JEU cohort study is to identify the determinants of key state changes in the gambling practice, such as the emergence of a gambling problem, natural recovery from a gambling problem, resolution of a gambling problem with intermediate care intervention, relapses or care recourse. The present study was designed to overcome the limitations of previous cohort study on PG. Indeed, this longitudinal case-control cohort is the first which plans to recruit enough participants from different initial gambling severity levels to observe these rare changes. In particular, we plan to recruit three groups of gamblers: non-problem gamblers, problem gamblers without treatment and problem gamblers seeking treatment.Recruitment takes place in various gambling places, through the press and in care centers. Cohort participants are gamblers of both sexes who reported gambling on at least one occasion in the previous year and who were aged between 18 and 65. They were assessed through a structured clinical interview and self-assessment questionnaires at baseline and then once a year for five years. Data collection comprises sociodemographic characteristics, gambling habits (including gambling trajectory), the PG section of the DSM-IV, the South Oaks Gambling Screen, the Gambling Attitudes and Beliefs Survey - 23, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the Wender-Utah Rating Scale-Child, the Adult ADHD Self-report Scale, somatic comorbidities (especially current treatment and Parkinson disease) and the Temperament and Character Inventory - 125. The JEU cohort study is the first study which proposes to identify the predictive factors of key state changes in gambling practice. This is

  7. Assessment of uncertainty associated with measuring exposure to radon and decay products in the French uranium miners cohort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allodji, Rodrigue S; Leuraud, Klervi; Laurier, Dominique; Bernhard, Sylvain; Henry, Stéphane; Bénichou, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    The reliability of exposure data directly affects the reliability of the risk estimates derived from epidemiological studies. Measurement uncertainty must be known and understood before it can be corrected. The literature on occupational exposure to radon ( 222 Rn) and its decay products reveals only a few epidemiological studies in which uncertainty has been accounted for explicitly. This work examined the sources, nature, distribution and magnitude of uncertainty of the exposure of French uranium miners to radon ( 222 Rn) and its decay products. We estimated the total size of uncertainty for this exposure with the root sum square (RSS) method, which may be an alternative when repeated measures are not available. As a result, we identified six main sources of uncertainty. The total size of the uncertainty decreased from about 47% in the period 1956–1974 to 10% after 1982, illustrating the improvement in the radiological monitoring system over time.

  8. Tobacco smoke exposure in public places and workplaces after smoke-free policy implementation: a longitudinal analysis of smoker cohorts in Mexico and Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, James F.; Nayeli Abad-Vivero, Erika; Sebrié, Ernesto M.; Barrientos-Gutierrez, Tonatiuh; Boado, Marcelo; Yong, Hua Hie; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Bianco, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence, correlates and changes in secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure over the period after comprehensive smoke-free policy implementation in two Latin American countries. Methods: Data were analysed from population-based representative samples of adult smokers and recent quitters from the 2008 and 2010 waves of the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Survey in Mexico (n = 1766 and 1840, respectively) and Uruguay (n = 1379 and 1411, respectively). Prevalence of SHS exposure was estimated for regulated venues, and generalized estimating equations were used to determine correlates of SHS exposure. Results: Workplace SHS exposure in the last month was similar within and across countries (range: Mexico 20–25%; Uruguay 14–29%). At the most recent restaurant visit, SHS exposure was lower where comprehensive smoke-free policies were implemented (range: Uruguay 6–9%; Mexico City 5–7%) compared with Mexican cities with weaker policies, where exposure remained higher but decreased over time (32–17%). At the most recent bar visit, SHS exposure was common (range: Uruguay 8–36%; Mexico City 23–31%), although highest in jurisdictions with weaker policies (range in other Mexican cities: 74–86%). In Uruguay, males were more likely than females to be exposed to SHS across venues, as were younger compared with older smokers in Mexico. Conclusions: Comprehensive smoke-free policies are more effective than weaker policies, although compliance in Mexico and Uruguay is not as high as desired. PMID:23172895

  9. Long-term outcomes in adolescents perinatally infected with HIV-1 and followed up since birth in the French perinatal cohort (EPF/ANRS CO10).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollfus, C; Le Chenadec, J; Faye, A; Blanche, S; Briand, N; Rouzioux, C; Warszawski, J

    2010-07-15

    BACKGROUND. Increasing numbers of children perinatally infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are reaching adolescence, largely because of advances in treatment over the past 10 years, but little is known about their current health status. We describe here the living conditions and clinical and immunovirologic outcomes at last evaluation among this pioneering generation of adolescents who were born before the introduction of prophylaxis for vertical transmission and whose infections were diagnosed at a time when treatment options were limited. METHODS. The eligible population consisted of HIV-1-infected children who were born before December 1993 and who were included at birth in the prospective national French Perinatal Cohort (EPF/ANRS CO10). RESULTS. Of the 348 eligible children, 210 (60%; median age, 15 years) were still alive and regularly followed up. Current treatment was highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in 77% and 2 nucleoside analogues in 5.0%; 16% had stopped treatment, and 2% had never been treated. The median CD4 cell count was 557 cells/microL, and 200 cells/microL was exceeded in 94% of patients. The median viral load was 200 copies/mL. Viral load was undetectable in 43% of the adolescents and in 54.5% of those receiving HAART. Median height, weight, and body mass index were similar to French reference values for age, and school achievement was similar to nationwide statistics. Better immunologic status was associated with being younger and with having begun HAART earlier. Undetectable viral load was associated with maternal geographic origin and current HAART. CONCLUSIONS. Given the limited therapeutic options available during the early years of these patients' lives and the challenge presented by treatment adherence during adolescence, the long-term outcomes among this population are encouraging.

  10. Predictors of rapid high weight gain in schizophrenia: Longitudinal analysis of the French FACE-SZ cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, O; Leboyer, M; Schürhoff, F; Boyer, L; Andrianarisoa, M; Brunel, L; Bulzacka, E; Aouizerate, B; Berna, F; Capdevielle, D; D'Amato, T; Denizot, H; Dubertret, C; Dubreucq, J; Faget, C; Gabayet, F; Llorca, P M; Mallet, J; Misdrahi, D; Passerieux, C; Rey, R; Richieri, R; Schandrin, A; Urbach, M; Vidailhet, P; Costagliola, D; Fond, G

    2017-11-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is highly prevalent in schizophrenia. However very little is known about the time course of MetS and its components. The few longitudinal studies that have been carried out had small sample sizes and a short follow-up. The aim of our study was to evaluate the prevalence of MetS and its components, at baseline and one year later, and to investigate predictors of weight gain (WG) in a cohort of individuals with schizophrenia. We followed 167 schizophrenia patients from the FACE-SZ cohort for one year. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) was used to confirm the diagnosis of schizophrenia. Data on socio-demographic and clinical characteristics, antipsychotic treatment, and comorbidities were collected, and a blood sample was drawn. We found that the prevalence of MetS increased from 21.0% to 26.6% after one year. Patients with baseline depressive symptoms had a 4.5-fold higher risk of WG at the one-year follow-up (p = 0.02) than those without depressive symptoms, after adjusting for confounding variables. WG also correlated with high levels of metabolic parameters and peripheral inflammation. These findings highlight the need to systematically diagnose depression in Schizophrenia. Future studies should determine whether specific pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions for depression in SZ subjects are effective in preventing rapid high weight gain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Short-term changes in quitting-related cognitions and behaviours after the implementation of plain packaging with larger health warnings: findings from a national cohort study with Australian adult smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkin, Sarah; Brennan, Emily; Coomber, Kerri; Zacher, Meghan; Scollo, Michelle; Wakefield, Melanie

    2015-04-01

    Plain packaging (PP) with larger graphic health warnings (GHWs) was implemented in Australia in late 2012. This study examined effects of these packaging changes on short-term changes in quitting-related cognitions and behaviours. We used a series of cohorts of Australian adult cigarette smokers originally sourced from a nationally representative cross-sectional tracking survey, followed up approximately 1 month after their baseline interview (n(weighted)=5441). Logistic regression analyses compared changes in seven quitting-related outcomes over this 1-month follow-up period for the cohorts surveyed before PP, over the period of transition to PP, and during the first year of PP, adjusting for baseline levels of the outcome and covariates. Compared to the referent group of smokers who completed their follow-up survey pre-PP, those who were followed-up in the early transition period showed significantly greater increases in rates of stopping themselves from smoking (OR=1.51, 95% CI (1.08 to 2.10)) and higher quit attempt rates (OR=1.43, 95% CI (1.00 to 2.03)), those followed-up in the late transition period showed greater increases in intentions to quit (OR=1.42, 95% CI (1.06 to 1.92)) and pack concealment (OR=1.55, 95% CI (1.05 to 2.31)), and those followed-up in the first year of PP showed higher levels of pack concealment (OR=1.65, 95% CI (1.01 to 2.72)), more premature stubbing out of cigarettes (OR=1.55, 95% CI (1.01 to 2.36)), and higher quit attempt rates (OR=1.52, 95% CI (1.01 to 2.30)). These findings provide some of the strongest evidence to date that implementation of PP with larger GHWs was associated with increased rates of quitting cognitions, microindicators of concern and quit attempts among adult cigarette smokers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. The Moment Study: protocol for a mixed method observational cohort study of the Alternative Nicotine Delivery Systems (ANDS) initiation process among adult cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Jennifer L; Smiley, Sabrina L; Rubin, Leslie F; Anesetti-Rothermel, Andrew; Elmasry, Hoda; Davis, Megan; DeAtley, Teresa; Harvey, Emily; Kirchner, Thomas; Abrams, David B

    2016-04-22

    Alternative Nicotine Delivery Systems (ANDS) such as e-cigarettes are battery-powered devices that aerosolize nicotine and other substances to simulate smoking without using tobacco. Little is known about the ANDS initiation process among adult smokers. The aims of this research are threefold to: (1) examine how ANDS use affects cigarette use; (2) examine how the immediate environmental and psychosocial contexts of cigarette and ANDS use vary within-and between-participants in general and by menthol preference and race; and, (3) examine participants' 'lived experience' of the subjective perceptions, meaning, influences and utility of cigarette and ANDS use. This study's mixed method, 6-week longitudinal design will produce a detailed description of the ANDS initiation process among adult smokers (N=100). Qualitative and quantitative data collection will include 3 weeks of: (1) ecological momentary assessment of patterns of cigarette/ANDS use, satisfaction, mood and craving; (2) geospatial assessment of participants' environment, including indoor and outdoor cigarette/ANDS norms and rules; (3) in-depth interviews about the meaning and utility of cigarette smoking and ANDS use; and, (4) saliva cotinine and exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) biomarkers. A diverse sample will be recruited with an equal number of menthol and non-menthol cigarette smokers. As the primary independent variable, we will investigate how ANDS use affects cigarette consumption. We will also examine how smoking-related and ANDS-related rules and norms surrounding product use influence cigarette and ANDS product use, and how the subjective effects of ANDS use affect ANDS perceptions, beliefs and use. This study was funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the US National Institutes of Health (1R21DA036472), registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02261363), and approved by the Chesapeake IRB (Pro00008526). Findings will be disseminated to the scientific and lay community through presentations

  13. Smokers' increased risk for disability pension: social confounding or health-mediated effects? Gender-specific analyses of the Hordaland Health Study cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haukenes, Inger; Riise, Trond; Haug, Kjell; Farbu, Erlend; Maeland, John Gunnar

    2013-09-01

    Studies indicate that cigarette smokers have an increased risk for disability pension, presumably mediated by adverse health effects. However, smoking is also related to socioeconomic status. The current study examined the association between smoking and subsequent disability pension, and whether the association is explained by social confounding and/or health-related mediation. A subsample of 7934 men and 8488 women, aged 40-46, from the Hordaland Health Study, Norway (1997-1999), provided baseline information on smoking status, self-reported health measures and socioeconomic status. Outcome was register-based disability pension from 12 months after baseline to end of 2004. Gender stratified Cox regression analyses were used adjusted for socioeconomic status, physical activity, self-reported health and musculoskeletal pain sites. A total of 155 (2%) men and 333 (3.9%) women were granted disability pension during follow-up. The unadjusted disability risk associated with heavy smoking versus non-smoking was 1.88 (95% CI 1.23 to 2.89) among men and 3.06 (95% CI 2.23 to 4.20) among women. In multivariate analyses, adjusting for socioeconomic status, HRs were 1.33 (95% CI 0.84 to 2.11) among men and 2.22 (95% CI 1.58 to 3.13) among women. Final adjustment for physical activity, self-reported health and musculoskeletal pain further reduced the effect of heavy smoking in women (HR=1.53, 95% CI 1.09 to 2.16). Socioeconomic status confounded the smoking-related risk for disability pension; for female heavy smokers, however, a significant increased risk persisted after adjustment. Women may be particularly vulnerable to heavy smoking and to its sociomedical consequences, such as disability pension.

  14. Clinical and psychometric characterization of depression in mixed mania: a report from the French National Cohort of 1090 manic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hantouche, E G; Akiskal, H S; Azorin, J M; Châtenet-Duchêne, L; Lancrenon, S

    2006-12-01

    Despite extensive research recently focused on mixed mania, it is uncertain as how best to define it clinically, psychometrically (which has major bearing on its prevalence), and the methodology needed for future research. This topic is also of historical interest, because Magnan (1890) [Magnan, V., 1890. La Folie Intermittente. G Masson, Paris.] suggested that "combined [mixed] states" linked Falret's "circular insanity" with Baillarger's "dual insanity" (both described in 1854). This work eventually led to the Kraepelinian synthesis of all manic, mixed, and depressive states into the unitary rubric of "manic-depressive insanity (1899/1921). EPIMAN-II Thousand" (EPIMAN-II MILLE) is a French national collaborative study, which involved training 317 psychiatrists working in different sites representative of psychiatric practice in France. We recruited 1090 patients hospitalized for acute DSM-IV mania. assessed at index admission by the following measures: the Mania Rating Scale (MRS), the Beigel-Murphy Scale (MSRS), a newly derived checklist of depressive symptoms least contaminated by mania, MADRS for severity of depression, and the SAPS for psychotic features. The rate of mixed mania, as defined by at least 2 depressive symptoms, was 30%. Even with this broad definition, we found significantly higher female representation. This clinical sub-type of mania was characterized by high frequency of past diagnostic errors, particularly those of anxiety and personality disorders. Refined definition of co-exiting depression was obtained from an abbreviated version of the MADRS (6 items), with distinct "emotional-cognitive" symptoms, and "psychomotor inhibition" factors, both of which were separable from an "irritable" factor linked to lability and poor judgment. Mixed mania was psychometrically best identified by a MADRS score of 6 (80% sensitivity, 94% specificity) and validated by a mixed polarity of first episodes, a higher rate of recurrence, psychotic features, and

  15. Search for RASA1 Variants in Capillary Malformations of the Legs in 113 Children: Results from the French National Paediatric Cohort CONAPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabel Maruani

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Patients with an inherited autosomal-dominant disorder, capillary malformation–arteriovenous malformation (CM-AVM, frequently have mutations in Ras P21 protein activator 1 (RASA1. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of germline RASA1 variants in a French multicentre national cohort of children, age range 2–12 years, with sporadic occurrence of capillary malformation (CM of the legs, whatever the associated abnormalities, and to identify genotype–phenotype correlates. DNA was extracted from leukocytes in blood samples, purified and amplified, and all exons of the RASA1 gene were analysed. Among 113 children analysed, 7 had heterozygous variants (6.1%. Four different variants were identified; 2 were new. In children with RASA1 variants, CMs were more frequently bilateral and multifocal. In conclusion, RASA1 variants are rarely found in children with sporadic CM of lower limbs without CM-AVM syndrome. CMs in this study were heterogeneous, and no disease-causing relationship could be proven.

  16. Dietary intakes and diet quality according to levels of organic food consumption by French adults: cross-sectional findings from the NutriNet-Santé Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudry, Julia; Allès, Benjamin; Péneau, Sandrine; Touvier, Mathilde; Méjean, Caroline; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Lairon, Denis; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2017-03-01

    We aimed to assess dietary profiles of adults from the NutriNet-Santé cohort according to different levels of organic food consumption using detailed self-reported data on organic food intakes. Food intakes were obtained using an organic food frequency questionnaire (Org-FFQ). The participants were ranked into five groups (quintiles, Q) according to the proportion of organic foods in their diet. To determine diet quality, two scores were computed reflecting adherence to food-based recommendations (mPNNS-GS) and the probability of adequate nutrient intake (PANDiet). Relationships between levels of organic food consumption and dietary characteristics were assessed using multivariable-adjusted ANCOVA models. The NutriNet-Santé Study. French adults from the NutriNet-Santé Study (n 28 245). Intakes of foods of plant origin increased along with the contribution of organic foods to the diet while a reverse trend was identified for dairy products, cookies and soda (P-trendfood consumers exhibited better diet quality, although intermediate organic food consumers showed better adherence to specific nutritional recommendations related to animal products. The study provides new insights into the understanding of organic food consumption as a part of a healthy diet and sheds some light on the dietary profiles of different categories of organic food consumers. These results underline strong dietary behaviour correlates associated with organic food consumption that should be controlled for in future aetiological studies on organic foods and health.

  17. Prevalence and risk factors of human papillomavirus infection types 16/18/45 in a cohort of French females aged 15–23 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Baudu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of the prevalence and risk factors of human papillomavirus (HPV infection is the basis for developing prophylactic strategies against cervical cancer, especially for young women. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and risk factors of HPV infection among a cohort of sexually active young French women eligible for catch-up vaccination. Between 1997 and 2007, 2163 women aged 15–23 years attending consultations at the department of gynecology in the Hospital of Besançon (France were screened for high risk HPV (HR HPV infection. Risk factors were investigated through a questionnaire sent to all participants in 2010. HPV DNA was detected by HC2 and Probe Set assays. The overall prevalence for HR HPV and HPV16, 18 and/or HPV45 was 44.6% (95% CI, 42.5–46.7% and 19% (95% CI, 17.3–20.7%, respectively. The response rate to the questionnaire was 22.6%. The prevalence of independent risk factors (age older than 19, smoking, and oral contraception for HPV 16/18/45 infection in this population was less than 20%. Based on this study, HPV vaccination should be offered not only to teenage girls, but also to young women, regardless of their sexual activity.

  18. Diagnostic accuracy of des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin for hepatocellular carcinoma in a French cohort using the Lumipulse® G600 analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultanik, P; Ginguay, A; Vandame, J; Popovici, T; Meritet, J-F; Cynober, L; Pol, S; Bories, P-N

    2017-01-01

    The increasing incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Western countries requests reliable tumour markers for preclinical diagnosis. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (DCP), in comparison with alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in a French cohort using a new analyser. One hundred and sixty-two patients with virus-related cirrhosis (46 HCC patients and 116 controls) were recruited in this retrospective proof-of-concept study. DCP was measured on new Lumipulse ® G600 analyzer and AFP on usual Cobas e602 analyzer in serum samples that were collected at the time of HCC diagnosis for HCC patients or during follow-up for controls. DCP and AFP levels were higher in HCC patients. The area under receiver operating characteristic curve was larger for DCP than for AFP (0.89 vs 0.77, P=.03). At the cut-off value of 128 mAU/mL, sensitivity and specificity for DCP were 74% and 92%. At the cut-off value of 20 μg/L, sensitivity and specificity for AFP were 63% and 82%. NRI >0 for the association of "AFP+DCP" were 101%, P<.0001, and 23%, P=.03, compared to "AFP" or "DCP" alone, respectively. We conclude that DCP outperformed AFP for the detection of HCC. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Differences in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease phenotypes between non-smokers and smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Wonjun; Lim, Myoung Nam; Bak, So Hyeon; Hong, Seok-Ho; Han, Seon-Sook; Lee, Seung-Joon; Kim, Woo Jin; Hong, Yoonki

    2018-02-01

    Although tobacco smoking is a major risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), more than one-fourth of COPD patients are non-smokers. In this cross-sectional study, the differences in COPD phenotypes between non-smokers and smokers in male subjects were investigated and were focused on structural lung changes using a quantitative assessment of computed tomography (CT) images. They divided male participants with COPD, from a Korean cohort near a cement plant, into non-smokers and smokers by a cutoff of a 5 pack-year smoking history. Clinical characteristics, including age, body mass index (BMI), spirometry results, history of biomass smoke exposure, and CT measurements, were compared between the two groups. Emphysema index (EI) and mean wall area percentage (MWA %) were used to evaluate the structural lung changes on volumetric CT scans. The non-smoker group (n = 49) had younger patients and had a greater BMI than the smoker group (n = 113) (P smokers had emphysema than non-smokers (EI 10.0 vs. 6.5, P smokers than in non-smokers (MWA 69.1 vs. 65.3, P = .03), while EI was not statistically different (EI 7.1 vs. 10.4, P = .52). Non-smoker males with COPD were younger and had a greater BMI than the smokers. Tobacco smoke exposure seemed to be associated with an emphysema-predominant phenotype, while biomass smoke exposure exhibited a significant interaction with tobacco smoking in an airway-predominant phenotype. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Excessive trading, a gambling disorder in its own right? A case study on a French disordered gamblers cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grall-Bronnec, Marie; Sauvaget, Anne; Boutin, Claude; Bulteau, Samuel; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Challet-Bouju, Gaëlle; Caillon, Julie

    2017-01-01

    Trading and gambling appear to share some similarities. Indeed, traders can get professionally involved in high-risk types of trading as if it were gambling. This research explores whether excessive trading can be conceptualized as a subset of gambling disorders. To better acknowledge the existence of an addictive-like trading behavior and to discuss its phenomenological similarities with gambling disorders. The data of 8 excessive traders out of a cohort of 221 outpatients seeking treatment in our Problem Gambling unit were analyzed. Our case series revealed important similarities with gambling disorders in terms of diagnosis, trajectory and comorbidities. Like many disordered gamblers, excessive traders of this study experienced a number of small early wins, chased their losses, and ended up losing control over the money they invested. All of them invested in very risky stocks associated with short-term trading leading to potential large gains, but also with very significant losses. The structure itself of the two activities (gambling and trading) is very close. Our results tended to support the idea of an addictive-like trading behavior as a subset of gambling disorders. Investing is not a form of gambling, but some people gamble with investments. Several observations and recommendations can be made: (i) conduct researches; (ii) build and validate specific assessment tools; (iii) develop strategies for prevention and treatment; and (iv) conduct more rigorous studies to clarify what we named an addictive-like trading behavior. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. [Prevalence of psychiatric and substance use disorders among three generations of migrants: Results from French population cohort].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardia, D; Salleron, J; Roelandt, J-L; Vaiva, G

    2017-10-01

    Mental health of migrant populations has become a major public health issue since these populations more often suffer from mental health problems than host populations. The influence of the migration process on the emergence of these disorders and its impact on future generations is uncertain. This study provides an estimate of the prevalence of mental disorders among three generations of migration. The study was conducted in the general population by the French Collaborating Center of the World Health Organization, in France, on a sample of 37,063 people aged 18 and older. The subjects interviewed were selected by a quota sampling method and, thus, were representative of the general population in the 47 study sites in France. This method develops a sample of subjects with the same characteristics as the general population on predefined issues, such as age, sex, educational level and socioprofessional category. The designation of migrant status was based on the country of birth of the subject, the subject's parents and the subject's grandparents. We defined a migrant as first generation (a subject born abroad; n=1911), second generation (at least one parent born abroad; n=4147), or third generation (at least one grandparent born abroad; n=3763) of migrants. The diagnostic tool used was the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). The MINI is a brief structured diagnostic interview developed by psychiatrists for ICD-10 and DSM-IVTR psychiatric disorders in the general population. The comparisons by generation of migrants were performed by chi-square test for qualitative variables and by an analysis of variance for quantitative variables. The same tests were used to compare the presence of mental disorders according to the characteristics of the population. Factors with a P-value less than 0.2 were entered in a multivariable logistic regression to assess the relationship between the generation of migrants and the presence of mental disorders, adjusting

  2. Pilot non dialysis chronic renal insufficiency study (P-ND-CRIS): a pilot study of an open prospective hospital-based French cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massol, Jacques; Janin, Gérard; Bachot, Camille; Gousset, Christophe; Deville, Geoffroy Sainte-Claire; Chalopin, Jean-Marc

    2017-02-01

    Before establishing a prospective cohort, an initial pilot study is recommended. However, there are no precise guidelines on this subject. This paper reports the findings of a French regional pilot study carried out in three nephrology departments, before realizing a major prospective Non Dialysis Chronic Renal Insufficiency study (ND-CRIS). We carried out an internal pilot study. The objectives of this pilot study were to validate the feasibility (regulatory approval, providing patients with information, availability of variables, refusal rate of eligible patients) and quality criteria (missing data, rate of patients lost to follow-up, characteristics of the patients included and non-included eligible patients, quality control of the data gathered) and estimate the human resources necessary (number of clinical research associates required). The authorizations obtained (CCTIRS - CNIL) and the contracts signed with hospitals have fulfilled the regulatory requirements. After validating the information on the study provided to patients, 1849 of them were included in three centres (university hospital, intercommunal hospital, town hospital) between April 2012 and September 2015. The low refusal rate (51 patients) and the characteristics of non-included patients have confirmed the benefit for patients of participating in the study and provide evidence of the feasibility and representativeness of the population studied. The lack of missing data on the variables studied, the quality of the data analyzed and the low number of patients lost to follow-up are evidence of the quality of the study. By taking into account the time spent by CRAs to enter data and to travel, as well as the annual patient numbers in each hospital, we estimate that five CRAs will be required in total. With no specific guidelines on how to realize a pilot study before implementing a major prospective cohort, we considered it pertinent to report our experience of P-ND-CRIS. This experience confirms

  3. Screening of ZnT8 autoantibodies in the diagnosis of autoimmune diabetes in a large French cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, Lorna; Marchand, Lucien; Benoit, Marine; Nicolino, Marc; Bendelac, Nathalie; Wright, Catherine; Moulin, Philippe; Lombard, Christine; Thivolet, Charles; Fabien, Nicole

    2018-03-01

    Evaluate the added value of screening anti-ZnT8 antibodies (ZnT8A) in addition to the classical anti-GAD (GADA) and anti-IA-2 (IA-2A) antibodies for the diagnosis of type-1 diabetes (T1D) within a large cohort of both children and adults. Retrospective 2-year study including 516 patients (215 children, 301 adults) who had blood tests at diabetes onset and/or for diabetes classification. ZnT8A, GADA, and IA-2A were analyzed in all samples. Among those individuals included, 142 (28%) were ZnT8A-positive. A total of 228/516 suffered from T1D, of whom 110 (48%) were ZnT8A-positive and 166 (73%) GADA and/or IA-2A positive. When adding ZnT8A to GADA/IA-2A, 184 (81%) patients were positive for ≥1 Ab. Regarding the 122 patients at T1D onset, 75 (61%) were positive for ZnT8A and the proportion of patients with T1D with ≥1 Ab reached 89%. The highest prevalence of ZnT8A was observed in children aged 6-10years. Fourteen of the 124 patients positive for ZnT8A with a known clinical diagnosis suffered from a disease other than T1D. ZnT8A should be included in routine evaluation at diabetes onset and is a valuable biological marker to classify newly-diagnosed diabetics. The predictive value in our high-risk subjects has to be confirmed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Exercise facilitates smoking cessation indirectly via improvements in smoking-specific self-efficacy: Prospective cohort study among a national sample of young smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Wolfe, Christy D; Walker, Jerome F

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether exercise is associated with 2-year follow-up smoking status through its influence on smoking-specific self-efficacy. Longitudinal data from the 2003-2005 National Youth Smoking Cessation Survey were used, including 1,228 participants (16-24 years). A questionnaire was used to examine baseline exercise levels, baseline smoking-specific self-efficacy, follow-up smoking status, and the covariates. Baseline exercise was associated with baseline self-efficacy (β=0.04, psmoking status (β=0.23, pexercise on 2-year smoking status (β=0.001, p=0.95); however, the adjusted indirect effect of baseline self-efficacy on the relationship between exercise and 2-year smoking status was significant (β=0.008, bootstrapped lower and upper CI: 0.002-0.02; psmoking-specific self-efficacy mediates 84% of the total effect of exercise on smoking status. Among daily smokers, exercise may help to facilitate smoking cessation via exercise-induced increases in smoking-specific self-efficacy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Validation of the psychometrics properties of a French quality of life questionnaire among a cohort of renal transplant recipients less than one year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauger, Davy; Fruit, Dorothée; Villeneuve, Claire; Laroche, Marie-Laure; Jouve, Elisabeth; Rousseau, Annick; Boyer, Laurent; Gentile, Stéphanie

    2016-09-01

    Renal transplantation is considered as the treatment of choice for patients with end-stage renal disease. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of renal transplant recipients (RTR) is very important to assess, especially during the first year after transplantation. To provide new evidence about the suitability of HRQoL measures in RTR during the first post-transplant year, we explored the internal structure, reliability and external validity of a French specific HRQoL instrument, the Renal Transplant Quality of life Questionnaire Second Version (RTQ V2). The data were issued from the French multicenter cohort of renal transplant patients followed during 4 years (EPIGREN). The HRQoL of RTR was assessed five times (at 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after transplantation) with the RTQ V2, a specific instrument consisting of 32 items describing five dimensions. Socio-demographic information, clinical characteristics and HRQoL (i.e., RTQ V2 and SF-36) were collected. For the five times, psychometric properties of the RTQ V2 were compared to those reported from the reference population assessed in the validation study. Three hundred and thirty-four patients were enrolled. The proportions of well-projected items, item-internal consistency, item-discriminant validity, floor and ceiling effects, Cronbach's alpha coefficients and item goodness-of-fit statistics were satisfactory for each dimension at the five times of the study. The suitability indices of construct validity were higher than 90 % for each time (minimum-maximum: 90.8-97.4 %). The external validity was less satisfactory, with a suitability indices ranged from 46.7 % at M1 to 66.7 % at M12. However, the discrepancies with the reference population (mainly for the gender) appeared logical considering the scientific literature on HRQoL of RTR during the first post-transplant year and may not compromise the external validity. These results support the validity and reliability of the RTQ V2 for evaluating HRQoL in

  6. Effect of dementia on receipt of influenza vaccine: a cohort study in French older adults using administrative data: 2007-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallini, Adeline; Coley, Nicola; Andrieu, Sandrine; Lapeyre-Mestre, Maryse; Gardette, Virginie

    2017-08-01

    Despite guidelines stating the vaccine benefit in this population, older adults with dementia may be less likely to receive influenza vaccine than cognitively intact older adults. But no study has yet reported on vaccine uptake in patients newly diagnosed with dementia or whether years since dementia diagnosis influences vaccine uptake. We conducted a cohort study in the French Health Insurance database (Echantillon Généraliste de Bénéficiaires) which contains hospital data and claims for a 1/97th random sample of the French population. Diseased subjects were ≥65 years and had a new record of dementia diagnosis between September 1, 2007, and August 31, 2008. Vaccine receipt was measured via influenza vaccine dispensing in community pharmacies. We described influenza vaccination rates up to 2011-2012 and estimated adjusted relative risks (aRR) for vaccine receipt each year using multivariate modified Poisson models controlling for sociodemographics, comorbidities, and health resources use. Four hundred and seven subjects with dementia (mean age 81.8 years, 69.3% females) and 4862 subjects (mean age 75.2 years, 61.3% females) without dementia were included. In 2008-2009, influenza vaccination prevalence was 70.0% (95% CI = [65.3-74.4]) and 70.2% (95% CI = [68.9-71.4]) in subjects with and without dementia, respectively (aRR = 0.93; 95% CI = [0.87-1.00]). In 2009-2010, the aRR was of the same magnitude (aRR = 0.96, 95% CI = [0.90-1.03]), but in 2010-2011 and 2011-2012, the aRR was 1.02 (95% CI = [0.94-1.11]) and 1.05 (95% CI = [0.96-1.14]), respectively. Subjects with dementia had a slightly nonsignificant lower receipt of influenza vaccine in the year following dementia diagnosis than subjects without dementia. In subsequent years, divergent trends were observed in vaccine uptake according to dementia status. © 2017 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  7. Low virulent oral Candida albicans strains isolated from smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azevedo Izidoro, Ana Claudia Santos; Semprebom, Andressa Marafon; Baboni, Fernanda Brasil; Rosa, Rosimeire Takaki; Machado, Maria Angela Naval; Samaranayake, Lakshman Perera; Rosa, Edvaldo Antonio Ribeiro

    2012-02-01

    It is widely accepted that tabagism is a predisposing factor to oral candidosis and cumulate data suggest that cigarette compounds may increase candidal virulence. To verify if enhanced virulence occurs in Candida albicans from chronic smokers, a cohort of 42 non-smokers and other of 58 smokers (all with excellent oral conditions and without signs of candidosis) were swabbed on tong dorsum and jugal mucosa. Results showed that oral candidal loads do not differ between smoker and non-smokers. Activities of secreted aspartyl-protease (Sap), phospholipase, chondroitinase, esterase-lipase, and haemolysin secretions were screened for thirty-two C. albicans isolates. There were detected significant increments in phospholipasic and chondroitinasic activities in isolates from non-smokers. For other virulence factors, no differences between both cohorts were achieved. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Serum Metabolite Biomarkers Discriminate Healthy Smokers from COPD Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiuying; Deeb, Ruba S.; Ma, Yuliang; Staudt, Michelle R.; Crystal, Ronald G.; Gross, Steven S.

    2015-01-01

    COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) is defined by a fixed expiratory airflow obstruction associated with disordered airways and alveolar destruction. COPD is caused by cigarette smoking and is the third greatest cause of mortality in the US. Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) is the only validated clinical marker of COPD, but it correlates poorly with clinical features and is not sensitive enough to predict the early onset of disease. Using LC/MS global untargeted metabolite profiling of serum samples from a well-defined cohort of healthy smokers (n = 37), COPD smokers (n = 41) and non-smokers (n = 37), we sought to discover serum metabolic markers with known and/or unknown molecular identities that are associated with early-onset COPD. A total of 1,181 distinct molecular ions were detected in 95% of sera from all study subjects and 23 were found to be differentially-expressed in COPD-smokers vs. healthy-smokers. These 23 putative biomarkers were differentially-correlated with lung function parameters and used to generate a COPD prediction model possessing 87.8% sensitivity and 86.5% specificity. In an independent validation set, this model correctly predicted COPD in 8/10 individuals. These serum biomarkers included myoinositol, glycerophopshoinositol, fumarate, cysteinesulfonic acid, a modified version of fibrinogen peptide B (mFBP), and three doubly-charged peptides with undefined sequence that significantly and positively correlate with mFBP levels. Together, elevated levels of serum mFBP and additional disease-associated biomarkers point to a role for chronic inflammation, thrombosis, and oxidative stress in remodeling of the COPD airways. Serum metabolite biomarkers offer a promising and accessible window for recognition of early-stage COPD. PMID:26674646

  9. Lung cancer in never-smokers - what are the differences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Margarida; Linhas, Rita; Campainha, Sérgio; Conde, Sara; Barroso, Ana

    2017-07-01

    Characteristics of never-smokers with lung cancer are still not fully clarified. The aim of this study was to compare never-smokers and ever-smokers with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) regarding patient and tumor characteristics. All consecutive newly NSCLC patients with known smoking status diagnosed between 2011 and 2015 were included in this retrospective cohort study. Clinical, histological, and molecular characteristics were compared between ever-smokers and never-smokers. Of the 558 included patients, 125 (22.4%) were never-smokers. These patients were more likely to be female (74% vs. 7%, p Never-smokers took longer to seek medical care after the symptoms onset (3 vs. 2 months, p never-smokers: pleural metastases were more frequent (OR: 2.1 [1.1-4.0]), regardless of the histological type and gender. Never-smokers had a higher prevalence of ALK translocations (26% vs. 4%, p Never-smokers with NSCLC present distinct demographic and clinical characteristics. The characteristics of tumor also differ between never-smokers and ever-smokers, which may suggest different carcinogenic pathways.

  10. Effectiveness of Front-Of-Pack Nutrition Labels in French Adults: Results from the NutriNet-Santé Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrot, Pauline; Méjean, Caroline; Julia, Chantal; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Touvier, Mathilde; Fezeu, Léopold; Hercberg, Serge; Péneau, Sandrine

    2015-01-01

    To date, no consensus has emerged on the most appropriate front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition label to help consumers in making informed choices. We aimed to compare the effectiveness of the label formats currently in use: nutrient-specific, graded and simple summary systems, in a large sample of adults. The FOP label effectiveness was assessed by measuring the label acceptability and understanding among 13,578 participants of the NutriNet-Santé cohort study, representative of the French adult population. Participants were exposed to five conditions, including four FOP labels: Guideline Daily Amounts (GDA), Multiple Traffic Lights (MTL), 5-Color Nutrition Label (5-CNL), Green Tick (Tick), and a "no label" condition. Acceptability was evaluated by several indicators: attractiveness, liking and perceived cognitive workload. Objective understanding was assessed by the percentage of correct answers when ranking three products according to their nutritional quality. Five different product categories were tested: prepared fish dishes, pizzas, dairy products, breakfast cereals, and appetizers. Differences among the label effectiveness were compared with chi-square tests. The 5-CNL was viewed as the easiest label to identify and as the one requiring the lowest amount of effort and time to understand. GDA was considered as the least easy to identify and to understand, despite being the most attractive and liked label. All FOP labels were found to be effective in ranking products according to their nutritional quality compared with the "no label" situation, although they showed differing levels of effectiveness (p<0.0001). Globally, the 5-CNL performed best, followed by MTL, GDA and Tick labels. The graded 5-CNL label was considered as easy to identify, simple and rapid to understand; it performed well when comparing the products' nutritional quality. Therefore, it is likely to present advantages in real shopping situations where choices are usually made quickly.

  11. Association Between Ultra-Processed Food Consumption and Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders: Results From the French NutriNet-Santé Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnabel, Laure; Buscail, Camille; Sabate, Jean-Marc; Bouchoucha, Michel; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Allès, Benjamin; Touvier, Mathilde; Monteiro, Carlos A; Hercberg, Serge; Benamouzig, Robert; Julia, Chantal

    2018-06-15

    Ultra-processed foods (UPF) consumption has increased over the last decades and is raising concerns about potential adverse health effects. Our objective was to assess the association between UPF consumption and four functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs): irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), functional constipation (FC), functional diarrhea (FDh), and functional dyspepsia (FDy), in a large sample of French adults. We analyzed dietary data of 33,343 participants from the web-based NutriNet-Santé cohort, who completed at least three 24 h food records, prior to a Rome III self-administered questionnaire. Proportion (in weight) of UPF in the diet (UPFp) was computed for each subject. The association between UPFp quartiles and FGIDs was estimated by multivariable logistic regression. Participants included in the analysis were mainly women (76.4%), and the mean age was 50.4 (SD = 14.0) years. UPF accounted for 16.0% of food consumed in weight, corresponding to 33.0% of total energy intake. UPF consumption was associated with younger age, living alone, lower incomes, higher BMI, and lower physical activity level (all p < 0.0001). A total of 3516 participants reported IBS (10.5%), 1785 FC (5.4%), 1303 FDy (3.9%), and 396 FDh (1.1%). After adjusting for confounding factors, an increase in UPFp was associated with a higher risk of IBS ( a OR Q4 vs. Q1 [95% CI]: 1.25 [1.12-1.39], p-trend < 0.0001). This study suggests an association between UPF and IBS. Further longitudinal studies are needed to confirm those results and understand the relative impact of the nutritional composition and specific characteristics of UPF in this relationship.

  12. Effectiveness of Front-Of-Pack Nutrition Labels in French Adults: Results from the NutriNet-Santé Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Ducrot

    Full Text Available To date, no consensus has emerged on the most appropriate front-of-pack (FOP nutrition label to help consumers in making informed choices. We aimed to compare the effectiveness of the label formats currently in use: nutrient-specific, graded and simple summary systems, in a large sample of adults.The FOP label effectiveness was assessed by measuring the label acceptability and understanding among 13,578 participants of the NutriNet-Santé cohort study, representative of the French adult population. Participants were exposed to five conditions, including four FOP labels: Guideline Daily Amounts (GDA, Multiple Traffic Lights (MTL, 5-Color Nutrition Label (5-CNL, Green Tick (Tick, and a "no label" condition. Acceptability was evaluated by several indicators: attractiveness, liking and perceived cognitive workload. Objective understanding was assessed by the percentage of correct answers when ranking three products according to their nutritional quality. Five different product categories were tested: prepared fish dishes, pizzas, dairy products, breakfast cereals, and appetizers. Differences among the label effectiveness were compared with chi-square tests.The 5-CNL was viewed as the easiest label to identify and as the one requiring the lowest amount of effort and time to understand. GDA was considered as the least easy to identify and to understand, despite being the most attractive and liked label. All FOP labels were found to be effective in ranking products according to their nutritional quality compared with the "no label" situation, although they showed differing levels of effectiveness (p<0.0001. Globally, the 5-CNL performed best, followed by MTL, GDA and Tick labels.The graded 5-CNL label was considered as easy to identify, simple and rapid to understand; it performed well when comparing the products' nutritional quality. Therefore, it is likely to present advantages in real shopping situations where choices are usually made quickly.

  13. Use of Fibrates Monotherapy in People with Diabetes and High Cardiovascular Risk in Primary Care: A French Nationwide Cohort Study Based on National Administrative Databases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronan Roussel

    Full Text Available According to guidelines, diabetic patients with high cardiovascular risk should receive a statin. Despite this consensus, fibrate monotherapy is commonly used in this population. We assessed the frequency and clinical consequences of the use of fibrates for primary prevention in patients with diabetes and high cardiovascular risk.Retrospective cohort study based on nationwide data from the medical and administrative databases of French national health insurance systems (07/01/08-12/31/09 with a follow-up of up to 30 months.Lipid-lowering drug-naive diabetic patients initiating fibrate or statin monotherapy were identified. Patients at high cardiovascular risk were then selected: patients with a diagnosis of diabetes and hypertension, and > 50 (men or 60 (women, but with no history of cardiovascular events. The composite endpoint comprised myocardial infarction, stroke, amputation, or death.Of the 31,652 patients enrolled, 4,058 (12.8% received a fibrate. Age- and gender-adjusted annual event rates were 2.42% (fibrates and 2.21% (statins. The proportionality assumption required for the Cox model was not met for the fibrate/statin variable. A multivariate model including all predictors was therefore calculated by dividing data into two time periods, allowing Hazard Ratios to be calculated before (HR 540 of follow-up. Multivariate analyses showed that fibrates were associated with an increased risk for the endpoint after 540 days: HR 540 = 1.73 (1.28-2.32.Fibrate monotherapy is commonly prescribed in diabetic patients with high cardiovascular risk and is associated with poorer outcomes compared to statin therapy.

  14. Multidimensionality of the relationship between social status and dietary patterns in early childhood: longitudinal results from the French EDEN mother-child cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camara, Soumaïla; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Heude, Barbara; Charles, Marie-Aline; Botton, Jérémie; Plancoulaine, Sabine; Forhan, Anne; Saurel-Cubizolles, Marie-Josèphe; Dargent-Molina, Patricia; Lioret, Sandrine

    2015-09-24

    The association between socioeconomic position and diet in early childhood has mainly been addressed based on maternal education and household income. We aimed to assess the influence of a variety of social factors from different socio-ecological levels (parents, household and child-care) on multi-time point dietary patterns identified from 2 to 5 y. This study included 974 children from the French EDEN mother-child cohort. Two multi-time point dietary patterns were derived in a previous study: they correspond to consistent exposures to either core- or non-core foods across 2, 3 and 5 y and were labelled "Guidelines" and "Processed, fast-foods". The associations of various social factors collected during pregnancy (age, education level) or at 2-y follow-up (mother's single status, occupation, work commitments, household financial disadvantage, presence of older siblings and child-care arrangements) with each of the two dietary patterns, were assessed by multivariable linear regression analysis. The adherence to a diet close to "Guidelines" was positively and independently associated with both maternal and paternal education levels. The adherence to a diet consistently composed of processed and fast-foods was essentially linked with maternal variables (younger age and lower education level), household financial disadvantage, the presence of older sibling (s) and being cared for at home by someone other than the mother. Multiple social factors operating at different levels (parents, household, and child-care) were found to be associated with the diet of young children. Different independent predictors were found for each of the two longitudinal dietary patterns, suggesting distinct pathways of influence. Our findings further suggest that interventions promoting healthier dietary choices for young children should involve both parents and take into account not only household financial disadvantage but also maternal age, family size and options for child-care.

  15. Urine cytology screening of French workers exposed to occupational urinary tract carcinogens: a prospective cohort study over a 20-year period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouanet, Lucile; Mulliez, Aurélien; Naughton, Geraldine; Fontana, Luc; Druet-Cabanac, Michel; Moustafa, Farès; Chamoux, Alain

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To demonstrate that urine cytology screening can provide relevant epidemiological data for earlier detection of urothelial cancer caused by occupational exposure. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Industries using urothelial carcinogens in France. Urine samples were collected on site, after a work week and were analysed at the University Hospital of Clermont-Ferrand, France. Participants Participants were workers exposed to urothelial carcinogens. Women and current smokers at time of study recruitment were exclusion criteria. Outcomes Urine cells atypia were ranged into three classes: negative/normal, atypical/suspicious/dysplasia or positive/malignant. Results We included 2020 workers over a period of 20 years from 1993 to 2013: 606 worked in rubber manufacturing, 692 from metal processing, 245 in chemical industry and 477 in roadwork and building industry. Workers had a mean exposure of 15.2±10.4 years before their first urine cytology screening. There was a mean of 3.4±4.3 urine cytology screenings per worker between 1993 and 2013. 6478 cytology were normal, 462 suspicious and 13 malignant. Suspicious and malignant cytology occurred in 4.8% of workers exposed for 1–10 years, 6.2% for 11–20 years of exposure, 7.6% for 21–30 years and 8.6% for >30 years (p30 years of exposure. Using metal processing as reference, the risk of pathological urine cytology results increased for rubber manufacturing (OR=1.32, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.65, p=0.02), with a trend for roadwork and building industry (OR=1.39, 95% CI 0.98 to 1.97, p=0.07) and for chemical industry (OR=1.34, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.93, p=0.11). Conclusions Urine cytology is a useful tool in occupational medicine. We promote new guidelines with an early screening of urothelial cancer by cytology, starting with beginning of exposure. PMID:28939575

  16. Differential gene expression patterns between smokers and non‐smokers: cause or consequence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Rick; Brooks, Andy; Willemsen, Gonneke; van Grootheest, Gerard; de Geus, Eco; Smit, Jan H.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The molecular mechanisms causing smoking‐induced health decline are largely unknown. To elucidate the molecular pathways involved in cause and consequences of smoking behavior, we conducted a genome‐wide gene expression study in peripheral blood samples targeting 18 238 genes. Data of 743 smokers, 1686 never smokers and 890 ex‐smokers were available from two population‐based cohorts from the Netherlands. In addition, data of 56 monozygotic twin pairs discordant for ever smoking were used. One hundred thirty‐two genes were differentially expressed between current smokers and never smokers (P smokers into account, expression of these 132 genes was classified into reversible (94 genes), slowly reversible (31 genes), irreversible (6 genes) or inconclusive (1 gene). Expression of 6 of the 132 genes (three reversible and three slowly reversible) was confirmed to be reactive to smoking as they were differentially expressed in monozygotic pairs discordant for smoking. Cis‐expression quantitative trait loci for GPR56 and RARRES3 (downregulated in smokers) were associated with increased number of cigarettes smoked per day in a large genome‐wide association meta‐analysis, suggesting a causative effect of GPR56 and RARRES3 expression on smoking behavior. In conclusion, differential gene expression patterns in smokers are extensive and cluster in several underlying disease pathways. Gene expression differences seem mainly direct consequences of smoking, and largely reversible after smoking cessation. However, we also identified DNA variants that may influence smoking behavior via the mediating gene expression. PMID:26594007

  17. Characteristics of past smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, I; Tominaga, S; Suzuki, T

    1989-06-01

    We studied characteristics of past smokers according to the duration of cessation of smoking based on data from a population-based survey. Lifestyle, prevalences of various symptoms and diseases and other factors were compared among current smokers (8507 males and 2012 females), past smokers (4423 males and 684 females) and non-smokers (2431 males and 12,859 females) aged 40 years and over. Compared to current smokers, past smokers consumed more bread, milk, vegetables, fruit and black tea, and less rice, pickles, instant noodles, coffee and alcohol, had lower prevalences of cough, sputum and anorexia, participated more in cancer screening tests, weighed more, included more professional and administrative workers and had more non-smoking spouses. These characteristics resembled those of non-smokers. But past smokers had high prevalences of several cardiovascular and respiratory diseases compared to current smokers. Daily intake of coffee was inversely associated and daily intakes of fruit and milk were positively associated with the duration of abstinence from smoking after adjusting for other factors in both sexes. These results suggest that lifestyle of past smokers may contribute to risk reduction for several diseases.

  18. Mother-to-child transmission of HIV-2 infection from 1986 to 2007 in the ANRS French Perinatal Cohort EPF-CO1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgard, M; Jasseron, C; Matheron, S; Damond, F; Hamrene, K; Blanche, S; Faye, A; Rouzioux, C; Warszawski, J; Mandelbro, L

    2010-10-01

    Management of pregnant women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 2 infection remains unclear because of its low prevalence and important differences from HIV-1. Pregnant women monoinfected with HIV-2 or HIV-1 and their infants enrolled in the prospective, national, multicenter French Perinatal Cohort between 1986 and 2007. Overall, 2.6% (223/8660) of mothers were infected with HIV-2, and they accounted for 3.1% (367/ 11841) of the total births. Most were born in sub-Saharan Africa. A higher proportion of HIV-2-infected mothers than HIV-1-infected mothers had no symptoms, had received no antiretroviral therapy at conception (85.9% vs 66.7%), and had received no antiretroviral therapy during pregnancy (42.8% vs 19.9%), particularly highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) (79.7% vs 46.1%), and they had higher CD4 cell counts near delivery (median, 574 vs 452 cells/mm3; P < .01). If antiretroviral therapy was used, it was started at a later gestational age for HIV- 2-infected mothers (median, 28 vs 25 weeks; P < .01). HIV-2-infected mothers were more likely to deliver vaginally (67.9% vs 49.3%) and to breastfeed (3.6% vs 0.6%; P < .01), and their infants less frequently received postexposure prophylaxis. In the period 2000-2007, the proportion with viral load <100 copies/mL at delivery was 90.5% of HIV-2-infected mothers, compared with 76.2% of HIV-1-infected mothers (P=.1). There were 2 cases of transmission: 1 case in 1993 occurred following maternal primary infection, and the other case occurred postnatally in 2002 and involved a mother with severe immune deficiency. The mother-to-child transmission rate for HIV-2 was 0.6% (95% confidence interval, 0.07%-2.2%). Care for HIV-2-infected pregnant women rests on expert opinion. The mother-to-child transmission residual rate (0.07%-2.2%) argues for systematic treatment: protease inhibitor-based HAART for women requiring antiretrov

  19. Sex-Specific Sociodemographic Correlates of Dietary Patterns in a Large Sample of French Elderly Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina A. Andreeva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional analysis provides up-to-date information about dietary patterns (DP and their sociodemographic correlates in European elderly individuals. We studied 6686 enrollees aged 65+ (55% women in the ongoing French population-based NutriNet-Santé e-cohort. Diet was assessed via three 24 h records. The sex-specific correlates of factor analysis derived DP were identified with multivariable linear regression. Using 22 pre-defined food groups, three DP were extracted. The “healthy” DP (fruit, vegetables, grains, nuts, fish was positively associated with education, living alone, and being a former smoker (women, and negatively associated with being overweight, current smoker (men, age 75+ years, having hypertension, and obesity (women. The “western” DP (meat, appetizers, cheese, alcohol was positively associated with BMI (men and being a former/current smoker; it was negatively associated with age 75+ years (women and living alone. The “traditional” DP (bread, potatoes, milk, vegetables, butter, stock was positively associated with age and negatively associated with being a former/current smoker, education (men, and residing in an urban/semi-urban area. The findings support the diversity of DP among the elderly, highlighting sex-specific differences. The “healthy” DP explained the largest amount of variance in intake. Future studies could replicate the models in longitudinal and international contexts.

  20. French Foodscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Liselotte

    By exploring how local and regional products and uses of food interact with the changes in the French cuisine over time, this paper seeks to retrace the history of the French meal through meanings of place and time, terroir and savoir-faire. The study will be based on sources from early modern/modern history...... the destructuralisation of eating habits have been raised since the 1980s, but numerous studies emphasise that the traditional French meal is still playing an important role in everyday life in France. Despite regional variations, the general view of the structure of a traditional French meal as based on the succession...... of flavours and the accordance with wines is widespread. Such a comprehension means giving precedence to gastronomic reasons for determining the order of dishes. However, the French meal has not always been composed in the way it is today and the reasons for the composition have not always been gastronomic...

  1. French Courses

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    General and Professional French Courses These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. The next session will take place from 28 January to 5 April 2013. Oral Expression This course is aimed for students with a good knowledge of French who want to enhance their speaking skills. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. The next session will take place from 28 January to 5 April 2013. Writing professional documents in French These courses are designed for non-French speakers with a very good standard of spoken French. The next session will take place from 28 January to 5 April 2013. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages or contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister.

  2. Accounting for Berkson and Classical Measurement Error in Radon Exposure Using a Bayesian Structural Approach in the Analysis of Lung Cancer Mortality in the French Cohort of Uranium Miners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Sabine; Rage, Estelle; Laurier, Dominique; Laroche, Pierre; Guihenneuc, Chantal; Ancelet, Sophie

    2017-02-01

    Many occupational cohort studies on underground miners have demonstrated that radon exposure is associated with an increased risk of lung cancer mortality. However, despite the deleterious consequences of exposure measurement error on statistical inference, these analyses traditionally do not account for exposure uncertainty. This might be due to the challenging nature of measurement error resulting from imperfect surrogate measures of radon exposure. Indeed, we are typically faced with exposure uncertainty in a time-varying exposure variable where both the type and the magnitude of error may depend on period of exposure. To address the challenge of accounting for multiplicative and heteroscedastic measurement error that may be of Berkson or classical nature, depending on the year of exposure, we opted for a Bayesian structural approach, which is arguably the most flexible method to account for uncertainty in exposure assessment. We assessed the association between occupational radon exposure and lung cancer mortality in the French cohort of uranium miners and found the impact of uncorrelated multiplicative measurement error to be of marginal importance. However, our findings indicate that the retrospective nature of exposure assessment that occurred in the earliest years of mining of this cohort as well as many other cohorts of underground miners might lead to an attenuation of the exposure-risk relationship. More research is needed to address further uncertainties in the calculation of lung dose, since this step will likely introduce important sources of shared uncertainty.

  3. The 2010 American college of rheumatology fibromyalgia survey diagnostic criteria and symptom severity scale is a valid and reliable tool in a French speaking fibromyalgia cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitzcharles Mary-Ann

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fibromyalgia (FM is a pain condition with associated symptoms contributing to distress. The Fibromyalgia Survey Diagnostic Criteria and Severity Scale (FSDC is a patient-administered questionnaire assessing diagnosis and symptom severity. Locations of body pain measured by the Widespread Pain Index (WPI, and the Symptom Severity scale (SS measuring fatigue, unrefreshing sleep, cognitive and somatic complaints provide a score (0–31, measuring a composite of polysymptomatic distress. The reliability and validity of the translated French version of the FSDC was evaluated. Methods The French FSDC was administered twice to 73 FM patients, and was correlated with measures of symptom status including: Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ, Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ, McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ, and a visual analogue scale (VAS for global severity and pain. Test-retest reliability, internal consistency, and construct validity were evaluated. Results Test-retest reliability was between .600 and .888 for the 25 single items of the FSDC, and .912 for the total FSDC, with all correlations significant (p  Conclusions The French FSDC is a valid instrument in French FM patients with reliability and construct validity. It is easily completed, simple to score, and has the potential to become the standard for measurement of polysymptomatic distress in FM.

  4. Mortality in nuclear workers of the French electricity company: period 1968-2003; Cohorte des travailleurs du nucleaire a Electricite de France: mortalite des agents statutaires sur la periode 1968-2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogel, A.; Joly, K.; Metz-Flamant, C.; Laurent, O.; Tirmarche, M.; Laurier, D. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Lab. d' Epidemiologie, DRPH/SRBE/LEPID, 92 - Fontenay-aux-roses (France); Hubert, D.; Garcier, Y. [Electricite de France (EDF), 93 - Saint-Denis (France)

    2009-08-15

    Background We conducted a mortality study on a cohort of French nuclear workers employed at Electricite de France (EDF). A first cancer mortality analysis had covered the period 1968-1994. This paper presents results from a mortality analysis including nine additional years of follow-up to cover workers employed from 1968 to 2003. Methods The cohort includes 22 393 workers, 97% of whom are males. Employment data were updated using the EDF personnel file. Vital status was ascertained using the French National Registry of Population, and further completed using EDF personnel and pension files. Causes of death were obtained from the National registry of causes of death. Standardised Mortality Ratios (S.M.R.) were computed using national rates as references. Variations of all causes and all cancers S.M.R.s were studied according to demographic and occupational characteristics. Results At the study end point (31/12/2003), 74% of workers are still in active employment. Only 0.3% of workers are lost to follow-up. The median duration of follow-up is 20 years. Causes are ascertained for 96% of deaths. The total number of deaths is 874, 307 of which are cancer deaths. S.M.R.s for all causes and cancers show a significant deficit compared to the French national mortality. No significant excess was observed for any of the cancer sites studied. Non-significant excesses are observed for pancreatic, pleural, kidney and brain cancer. Significant variations of all causes S.M.R.s according to age at study entry and attained age are observed. Significant variations of all causes and all cancers S.M.R.s according to diploma at employment are observed, with a reduced S.M.R. for a higher level of diploma. Conclusion There is a significant deficit of mortality compared to the general population, reflecting a strong Healthy Worker Effect. Although nine years of follow-up were added, this cohort is made up of young workers, most of whom are still in active service. Regular updating of the

  5. French Training

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2003-01-01

    General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place: from 13 October to 19 December 2003. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages or contact Mrs. Fontbonne: Tel. 72844. Writing Professional Documents in French This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for 8 students) For further information and registration, please consult our Web pages or contact Mrs. Fontbonne: Tel. 72844. Language Training Françoise Benz Tel.73127 language.training@cern.ch

  6. The Vilification of Smokers: Students' Perceptions of Current Smokers, Former Smokers, and Nonsmokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Kathleen; Katona, Chris; Brosh, Joanne; Shull, Mary; Chambliss, Catherine

    Smokers are increasingly stigmatized in our society. Pressures to limit public smoking have mounted, and there is evidence of discrimination against smokers in the workplace. This study examined how current smokers, former smokers, and nonsmokers were differentially characterized by students drawn from a suburban high school and college. Students…

  7. Comparison of native light daily smokers and light daily smokers who were former heavy smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Laura J; Pollak, Kathryn I; Scheuermann, Taneisha S; Cox, Lisa Sanderson; Mathur, Charu; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S

    2015-05-01

    An increasing proportion of daily smokers are light smokers (≤10 cigarettes per day). Some light smokers have never smoked more than 10 cigarettes per day (native light smokers) and others smoked at higher levels but have cut down (converted light smokers). It is important that we expand our understanding of these distinct subgroups of light smokers in order to develop effective interventions. Data for this report come from a larger sample of smokers who completed a cross-sectional survey administered through an online panel survey service. The sample of 522 light smokers included 256 native light smokers and 266 as converted light smokers. The goal of the analysis was to examine demographic, smoking, and psychosocial factors that differentiate between native and converted light smokers. Multivariable logistic regression results showed 4 variables that differentiated between native and converted light smokers. Native light smokers were more likely to be Black than White, smoke fewer cigarettes per day, smoked fewer total years, and had higher perceived risk of heart disease than converted light smokers. Native and converted light smokers are similar in many ways and also differ on some important characteristics. Further exploration of group difference is needed and could help to inform for cessation strategies for daily light smokers. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Lung Mass in Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washko, George R; Kinney, Gregory L; Ross, James C; San José Estépar, Raúl; Han, MeiLan K; Dransfield, Mark T; Kim, Victor; Hatabu, Hiroto; Come, Carolyn E; Bowler, Russell P; Silverman, Edwin K; Crapo, James; Lynch, David A; Hokanson, John; Diaz, Alejandro A

    2017-04-01

    Emphysema is characterized by airspace dilation, inflammation, and irregular deposition of elastin and collagen in the interstitium. Computed tomographic studies have reported that lung mass (LM) may be increased in smokers, a finding attributed to inflammatory and parenchymal remodeling processes observed on histopathology. We sought to examine the epidemiologic and clinical associations of LM in smokers. Baseline epidemiologic, clinical, and computed tomography (CT) data (n = 8156) from smokers enrolled into the COPDGene Study were analyzed. LM was calculated from the CT scan. Changes in lung function at 5 years' follow-up were available from 1623 subjects. Regression analysis was performed to assess for associations of LM with forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1 ) and FEV 1 decline. Subjects with Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) 1 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease had greater LM than either smokers with normal lung function or those with GOLD 2-4 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (P smokers: the presence of such nonlinearity must be accounted for in longitudinal computed tomographic studies. Baseline LM predicts the decline in lung function. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Classifying a smoker scale in adult daily and nondaily smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulvers, Kim; Scheuermann, Taneisha S; Romero, Devan R; Basora, Brittany; Luo, Xianghua; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S

    2014-05-01

    Smoker identity, or the strength of beliefs about oneself as a smoker, is a robust marker of smoking behavior. However, many nondaily smokers do not identify as smokers, underestimating their risk for tobacco-related disease and resulting in missed intervention opportunities. Assessing underlying beliefs about characteristics used to classify smokers may help explain the discrepancy between smoking behavior and smoker identity. This study examines the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Classifying a Smoker scale among a racially diverse sample of adult smokers. A cross-sectional survey was administered through an online panel survey service to 2,376 current smokers who were at least 25 years of age. The sample was stratified to obtain equal numbers of 3 racial/ethnic groups (African American, Latino, and White) across smoking level (nondaily and daily smoking). The Classifying a Smoker scale displayed a single factor structure and excellent internal consistency (α = .91). Classifying a Smoker scores significantly increased at each level of smoking, F(3,2375) = 23.68, p smoker identity, stronger dependence on cigarettes, greater health risk perceptions, more smoking friends, and were more likely to carry cigarettes. Classifying a Smoker scores explained unique variance in smoking variables above and beyond that explained by smoker identity. The present study supports the use of the Classifying a Smoker scale among diverse, experienced smokers. Stronger endorsement of characteristics used to classify a smoker (i.e., stricter criteria) was positively associated with heavier smoking and related characteristics. Prospective studies are needed to inform prevention and treatment efforts.

  10. French courses

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2012-01-01

    General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 2nd May to 6th July 2012. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages or contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister.   Oral Expression This course is aimed for students with a good knowledge of French who want to enhance their speaking skills. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. Suitable candidates should contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896) in order to arrange an appointment for a test. The next session will take place from 2nd May to 6th July 2012.   Writing professional documents in French These courses are designed for non-French speakers with a very good standard of spoken French. Suitable candidates should contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896) in order to arrange an appointment for a test. The next session will take place from 2nd May to ...

  11. French courses

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 29 April to 5 July 2013. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages or contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (kerstin.fuhrmeister@cern.ch). Oral Expression This course is aimed for students with a good knowledge of French who want to enhance their speaking skills. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. Suitable candidates should contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896) in order to arrange an appointment for a test. The next session will take place from 29 April to 5 July 2013. Writing professional documents in French These courses are designed for non-French speakers with a very good standard of spoken French. Suitable candidates should contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896) in order to arrange an appointment for a test. The next session will take place from 29 April to 5 July...

  12. Menopausal hormone therapy and new-onset diabetes in the French Etude Epidemiologique de Femmes de la Mutuelle Générale de l'Education Nationale (E3N) cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lauzon-Guillain, B; Fournier, A; Fabre, A; Simon, N; Mesrine, S; Boutron-Ruault, M-C; Balkau, B; Clavel-Chapelon, F

    2009-10-01

    Two US randomised trials found a lower incidence of type 2 diabetes in women treated by menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) with oral conjugated equine oestrogen combined with medroxyprogesterone acetate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of various MHTs, according to their formulation and route of administration, on new-onset diabetes in a cohort of postmenopausal French women. The association between MHT use and new-onset diabetes was investigated by Cox regression analysis in 63,624 postmenopausal women in the prospective French cohort of the Etude Epidemiologique de Femmes de la Mutuelle Générale de l'Education Nationale (E3N). Cases of diabetes were identified through self-reporting or drug-reimbursement record linkage, and further validated. 1,220 new-onset diabetes cases were validated. We observed a lower risk of new-onset diabetes among women who had ever used MHT (HR 0.82 [95% CI 0.72-0.93]), compared with those who had never used MHT. Adjustment for BMI during follow-up (rather than according to baseline BMI) did not substantially modify this association. An oral route of oestrogen administration was associated with a greater decrease in diabetes risk than a cutaneous route (HR 0.68 [95% CI 0.55-0.85] vs 0.87 [95% CI 0.75-1.00], p for homogeneity = 0.028). We were not able to show significant differences between the progestagens used in combined MHT. Use of MHT appeared to be associated with a lower risk of new-onset diabetes. This relationship was not mediated by changes in BMI. Further studies are needed to confirm the stronger effect of oral administration of oestrogen compared with cutaneous administration.

  13. Prevalence and incidence of COPD in smokers and non-smokers: the Rotterdam Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzikhan, Natalie; Verhamme, Katia M C; Hofman, Albert; Stricker, Bruno H; Brusselle, Guy G; Lahousse, Lies

    2016-08-01

    COPD is the third leading cause of death in the world and its global burden is predicted to increase further. Even though the prevalence of COPD is well studied, only few studies examined the incidence of COPD in a prospective and standardized manner. In a prospective population-based cohort study (Rotterdam Study) enrolling subjects aged ≥45, COPD was diagnosed based on a pre-bronchodilator obstructive spirometry (FEV1/FVC smokers. The proportion of female COPD participants without a history of smoking was 27.2 %, while this proportion was 7.3 % in males. The prevalence of COPD in the Rotterdam Study is 4.7 % and the overall incidence is approximately 9/1000 PY, with a higher incidence in males and in smokers. The proportion of never-smokers among female COPD cases is substantial.

  14. Comparative study of smokers, ex-smokers, and nonsmokers who have experienced myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nozawa Diogo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of smoking on in-hospital morbidity and mortality in patients who have experienced acute myocardial infarction and to assess the association between smoking and other cardiovascular risk factors and clinical data. METHODS: A prospective cohort study analyzed 121 patients, including 54 smokers, 35 ex-smokers, and 32 nonsmokers. RESULTS: Using the chi-square test (P<0.05, an association between smoking and the risk factors sex, age, and diabetes was documented. Among the morbidity and mortality variables, only acute pulmonary edema showed a statistically significant difference (OR=9.5; 95% CI, which was greater in the ex-smoker group than in the nonsmoker group. CONCLUSION: An association between smoking and some cardiovascular risk factors was observed, but no statistical difference in morbidity and mortality was observed in the groups studied, except for the variable acute pulmonary edema.

  15. Contribution of Organic Food to the Diet in a Large Sample of French Adults (the NutriNet-Santé Cohort Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudry, Julia; Méjean, Caroline; Allès, Benjamin; Péneau, Sandrine; Touvier, Mathilde; Hercberg, Serge; Lairon, Denis; Galan, Pilar; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2015-10-21

    In developed countries, the demand for organic products continues to substantially increase each year. However, little information is available regarding the level of consumption of organic food and its relative share of the whole diet. Our aim was to provide, using individual consumption data, a detailed description of organic food consumption among French adults. Conventional and organic intakes were assessed using an organic food frequency questionnaire administered to 28,245 French adults participating in the NutriNet-Santé study. P values of Student t-test or Chi-square for the difference between genders were reported. Less than 12% of the respondents reported never consuming organic food in the past year. Women consumed on average 20% organic food in their whole diet per day while men consumed an average of 18%. The proportion of vegetables consumed that came from organic sources was 31% among women and 28% among men. Overall, the estimate of the contribution of organic food from products of plant origin was higher than that from products of animal origin. Our study provides a framework for the exploration of organic consumption and its correlates and can serve as a basis for future studies investigating relationships between the level of organic food consumption and health outcomes.

  16. Access French

    CERN Document Server

    Grosz, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Access is the major new language series designed with the needs of today's generation of students firmly in mind. Whether learning for leisure or business purposes or working towards a curriculum qualification, Access French is specially designed for adults of all ages and gives students a thorough grounding in all the skills required to understand, speak, read and write contemporary French from scratch. The coursebook consists of 10 units covering different topic areas, each of which includes Language Focus panels explaining the structures covered and a comprehensive glossary. Learning tips

  17. Cigarette Mouth Insertion Depths Among Chinese Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Q

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vent blocking - where filter ventilation holes are intentionally or unintentionally, partly or completely covered by smokers’ lips during smoking - is an aspect of smoking behavior which can alter mainstream smoke yields. This study was designed to determine if, and to what extent ventilation holes were blocked by smokers’ lips in two cohorts of Chinese smokers. In this study, two groups of samples were collected. One group (1742 butts was collected randomly from public places in six chosen cities. Another (1037 butts was obtained by collecting the butts from identified smokers in Kunming. In this paper, the mouth insertion depth among Chinese smokers was studied for the first time by a staining method employing ninhydrin in ethanol. The results indicate that Chinese smokers exhibit a mouth insertion depth ranging from 1 to 17 mm with an average value of 7.5 AA± 2 mm. In this study, 95% of the ventilated filters examined showed that the vent zone was neither completely nor partially covered by smokers’ lips.

  18. Carboxyhemoglobin Levels Induced by Cigarette Smoking Outdoors in Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmel, Jonathan; George, Naomi; Schwarz, John; Yousif, Sami; Suner, Selim; Hack, Jason B

    2018-03-01

    Non-invasive screening of carboxyhemoglobin saturation (SpCO) in the emergency department to detect occult exposure is increasingly common. The SpCO threshold to consider exposure in smokers is up to 9%. The literature supporting this cutoff is inadequate, and the impact of active smoking on SpCO saturation remains unclear. The primary objective was to characterize baseline SpCO in a cohort of smokers outdoors. Secondary objectives were to explore the impact of active smoking on SpCO and to compare SpCO between smokers and non-smokers. This was a prospective cohort pilot study in two outdoor urban public areas in the USA, in a convenience sample of adult smokers. SpCO saturations were assessed non-invasively before, during, and 2 min after cigarette smoking with pulse CO-oximetry. Analyses included descriptive statistics, correlations, and a generalized estimating equation model. Eighty-five smokers had mean baseline SpCO of 2.7% (SD 2.6) and peak of 3.1% (SD 2.9), while 15 controls had SpCO 1.3% (SD 1.3). This was a significant difference. Time since last cigarette was associated with baseline SpCO, and active smoking increased mean SpCO. There was correlation among individual smokers' SpCO levels before, during, and 2 min after smoking, indicating smokers tended to maintain their baseline SpCO level. This study is the first to measure SpCO during active smoking in an uncontrolled environment. It suggests 80% of smokers have SpCO ≤ 5%, but potentially lends support for the current 9% as a threshold, depending on clinical context.

  19. Characteristics of COPD in never-smokers and ever-smokers in the general population: results from the CanCOLD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, W C; Sin, D D; Bourbeau, J; Hernandez, P; Chapman, K R; Cowie, R; FitzGerald, J M; Marciniuk, D D; Maltais, F; Buist, A S; Road, J; Hogg, J C; Kirby, M; Coxson, H; Hague, C; Leipsic, J; O'Donnell, D E; Aaron, S D

    2015-09-01

    There is limited data on the risk factors and phenotypical characteristics associated with spirometrically confirmed COPD in never-smokers in the general population. To compare the characteristics associated with COPD by gender and by severity of airway obstruction in never-smokers and in ever-smokers. We analysed the data from 5176 adults aged 40 years and older who participated in the initial cross-sectional phase of the population-based, prospective, multisite Canadian Cohort of Obstructive Lung Disease study. Never-smokers were defined as those with a lifetime exposure of never-smokers was 6.4%, constituting 27% of all COPD subjects. The common independent predictors of COPD in never-smokers and ever-smokers were older age, self reported asthma and lower education. In never-smokers a history of hospitalisation in childhood for respiratory illness was discriminative, while exposure to passive smoke and biomass fuel for heating were discriminative for women. COPD in never-smokers and ever-smokers was characterised by increased respiratory symptoms, 'respiratory exacerbation' events and increased residual volume/total lung capacity, but only smokers had reduced DLCO/Va and emphysema on chest CT scans. The study confirmed the substantial burden of COPD among never-smokers, defined the common and gender-specific risk factors for COPD in never-smokers and provided early insight into potential phenotypical differences in COPD between lifelong never-smokers and ever-smokers. NCT00920348 (ClinicalTrials.gov); study ID number: IRO-93326. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. French regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballereau, P.

    1998-01-01

    In this issue are given the new French regulations relative to radiation protection of temporary personnel, the licensing to release gaseous and liquid wastes and the licensing granted to thirty two laboratories using beta and gamma decay radioisotopes. (N.C.)

  1. Knowledge of risk tobacco in smokers, former-smokers and non-smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Ruiz Mori

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetive: Determine in a population of non-smokers, smokers and former-smokers, the level of knowledge of the health risks that smoking generate. Material and Methods: An epidemiological, observational, descriptive and cross-sectional research, was conducted in September 2015 in the city of Lima and Callao. Asurvey of over 18 was applied. Participants were divided into three groups, smokers, former-smokers and non-smokers. Results: The study included 2270 subjects, 744 were smokers, 752 former-smokers and 774 non-smokers. The group that mostly associated the tobacco to many diseases was the group of former-smokers, 53.8% of them mentioned to lung cancer as the most common disease related to tobacco. The non-smokers was the group that knows less often the risks of smoking. In all three groups, the most tobacco-related disease was the lung cancer, followed by myocardial infarction, while fertility was little associated. Television was the main means of dissemination about the dangers of smoking, while social networks do not have a leading role. For the former-smokers will hit more information about the risks of smoking (p<0.05. Conclusion: Former-smokers had more information on the risk of smoking. In the three groups the most tobacco-related disease was the lung cancer, and there was very little information about fertility and cigarette consumption. Formersmokers do the impacted more risk information cigarette. Television remains the main instrument to fight against smoking.

  2. Knowledge of risk tobacco in smokers, former-smokers and non-smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Ruiz Mori

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetive: Determine in a population of non-smokers, smokers and former-smokers, the level of knowledge of the health risks that smoking generate. Material and Methods: An epidemiological, observational, descriptive and cross-sectional research, was conducted in September 2015 in the city of Lima and Callao. Asurvey of over 18 was applied. Participants were divided into three groups, smokers, former-smokers and non-smokers. Results: The study included 2270 subjects, 744 were smokers, 752 former-smokers and 774 non-smokers. The group that mostly associated the tobacco to many diseases was the group of former-smokers, 53.8% of them mentioned to lung cancer as the most common disease related to tobacco. The non-smokers was the group that knows less often the risks of smoking. In all three groups, the most tobacco-related disease was the lung cancer, followed by myocardial infarction, while fertility was little associated. Television was the main means of dissemination about the dangers of smoking, while social networks do not have a leading role. For the former-smokers will hit more information about the risks of smoking (p<0.05. Conclusion: Former-smokers had more information on the risk of smoking. In the three groups the most tobacco-related disease was the lung cancer, and there was very little information about fertility and cigarette consumption. Formersmokers do the impacted more risk information cigarette. Television remains the main instrument to fight against smoking.

  3. Absence of bias against smokers in access to coronary revascularization after cardiac catheterization

    OpenAIRE

    Cornuz, Jacques; Faris, Peter D.; Galbraith, P. Diane; Knudtson, Merril L.; Ghali, William A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective. Many consider smoking to be a personal choice for which individuals should be held accountable. We assessed whether there is any evidence of bias against smokers in cardiac care decision-making by determining whether smokers were as likely as non-smokers to undergo revascularization procedures after cardiac catheterization. Design. Prospective cohort study. Subjects and setting. All patients undergoing cardiac catheterization in Alberta, Canada. Main measures. Patients were categor...

  4. Comparison of Salivary pH, Buffering Capacity and Alkaline Phosphatase in Smokers and Healthy Non-Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi-Motamayel, Fatemeh; Falsafi, Parisa; Goodarzi, Mohammad T.; Poorolajal, Jalal

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Saliva contains alkaline phosphatase (ALP)—a key intracellular enzyme related to destructive processes and cellular damage—and has buffering capacity (BC) against acids due to the presence of bicarbonate and phosphate ions. Smoking may have deleterious effects on the oral environment due to pH changes which can affect ALP activity. This study aimed to evaluate the salivary pH, BC and ALP activity of male smokers and healthy non-smokers. Methods: This retrospective cohort study took place between August 2012 and December 2013. A total of 251 healthy male non-smokers and 259 male smokers from Hamadan, Iran, were selected. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected from each participant and pH and BC were determined using a pH meter. Salivary enzymes were measured by spectrophotometric assay. Results: Mean salivary pH (7.42 ± 0.48 and 7.52 ± 0.43, respectively; P = 0.018) and BC (3.41 ± 0.54 and 4.17 ± 0.71; P = 0.001) was significantly lower in smokers compared to non-smokers. Mean ALP levels were 49.58 ± 23.33 IU/L among smokers and 55.11 ± 27.85 IU/L among non-smokers (P = 0.015). Conclusion: Significantly lower pH, BC and ALP levels were observed among smokers in comparison to a healthy control group. These salivary alterations could potentially be utilised as biochemical markers for the evaluation of oral tissue function and side-effects among smokers. Further longitudinal studies are recommended to evaluate the effects of smoking on salivary components. PMID:27606111

  5. French Customs

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    Please note that the French Customs (initially located in Building 904, Prévessin) are now located in Ferney-Voltaire (FR): Mrs Catherine NEUVILLE Douane de Ferney-Voltaire Rue de Genève F – 01210 Ferney-Voltaire Phone : 33 4 50 40 51 42 Email : catherine.neuville@douane.finances.gouv.fr Tom Wegelius Tel: 79947 Logistics and Site Services

  6. French visas

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs (hereinafter "MAE") has informed CERN of the following new regulations governing the visas required when submitting requests for French legitimation documents (cf. in particular paragraph b) below concerning the facilities recently granted to certain categories of persons who are not nationals of Switzerland or of a member state of the European Economic Area). This notification replaces that which appeared in Bulletin No.19/2006 (ref. CERN/DSU-DO/RH/13173/Rev.). 1. Special residence permit ("Titre de séjour special") To qualify for a special residence permit from the MAE, persons who are not nationals of Switzerland or of a member state of the European Economic Area (hereinafter "EEA") must present the following upon arrival at CERN: a)\teither a “D”-type (long-stay) French visa marked “carte PROMAE à solliciter à l’arrivée”, even if they are not subject to the requirement to obtain an entrance and short-stay visa in France...

  7. Health effects of low dose exposures to external ionizing radiation in the French cohort of nuclear workers CEA-AREVA-EDF - 5287

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leuraud, K.; Fournier, L.; Samson, E.; Caer-Lorho, S.; Laurier, D.; Laroche, P.; Le Guen, B.

    2015-01-01

    Populations of nuclear workers are particularly relevant to study health effects of low dose and low dose-rate exposures to ionizing radiation. In France, a cohort of nuclear workers employed by CEA, AREVA NC, or EDF, and badge-monitored for radiation exposure, has been followed-up. Annual exposure to penetrating photons was reconstructed for each worker. Standardized mortality ratios were calculated using national mortality rates as the reference. Estimates of radiation dose-mortality associations were obtained using a linear excess relative risk (ERR) model. A total of 59,004 workers were followed-up between 1968 and 2004, for an average of 25 years. The mean cumulative photons dose was 16.1 mSv. At the end of the follow-up, workers were 56 years old and 6,310 workers had died. A strong healthy worker effect was observed. Positive but imprecise estimates of ERR/Sv were observed for all solid cancers and leukemia excluding chronic lymphocytic leukemia. A significant ERR/Sv was found for myeloid leukemia. This cohort study is the most informative ever conducted in France among nuclear workers. Results confirmed a healthy worker effect due to selection at hiring and health monitoring from occupational medicine. Observed dose-risk relationships were consistent with risks estimated in other studies, even if they remained associated to a large uncertainty. (authors)

  8. Management and cost analysis of cancer patients treated with G-CSF: a cohort study based on the French national healthcare insurance database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilleul, Patrick; Jacot, William; Emery, Corinne; Lafuma, Antoine; Gourmelen, Julie

    2017-12-01

    To describe the management and costs associated with G-CSF therapy in cancer patients in France. This study analyzed a representative random population sample from the French national healthcare insurance database, focusing on 1,612 patients with hematological or solid malignancies who were reimbursed in 2013 or 2014 for at least one G-CSF treatment dispensed in a retail pharmacy. Patient characteristics and treatment costs were analyzed according to the type of cancer. Then the costs and characteristics of patients associated with the use of different G-CSF products were analyzed in the sub-set of breast cancer patients. The most frequent malignancies in the database population were breast cancer (23.3%), hematological malignancies (22.2%), and lung cancer (12.4%). The reimbursed G-CSF was pegfilgrastim in 34.1% of cases, lenograstim in 26.7%, and filgrastim in 17.9%. More than one G-CSF product was reimbursed to 21.3% of patients. The total annual reimbursed health expenses per patient, according to the type of G-CSF, were €27,001, €24,511, and €20,802 for patients treated with filgrastim, lenograstim, and pegfilgrastim, respectively. Ambulatory care accounted for, respectively, 35%, 38%, and 41% of those costs. In patients with breast cancer, ambulatory care cost was €7,915 with filgrastim, €7,750 with lenograstim, and €6,989 with pegfilgrastim, and the respective cost of G-CSF was €1,733, €1,559, and €3,668. All available G-CSF products have been shown to be effective in cancer patients, and both daily G-CSFs and pegylated G-CSF are recommended in international guidelines. Nevertheless, this analysis of G-CSF reimbursement indicates that the choice of product can markedly affect the total cost of ambulatory care.

  9. [The French Chronic Kidney Disease-Renal Epidemiology and Information Network (CKD-REIN) cohort study: To better understand chronic kidney disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengel, Bénédicte; Combe, Christian; Jacquelinet, Christian; Briançon, Serge; Fouque, Denis; Laville, Maurice; Frimat, Luc; Pascal, Christophe; Herpe, Yves-Édouard; Morel, Pascal; Deleuze, Jean-François; Schanstra, Joost P; Pisoni, Ron L; Robinson, Bruce M; Massy, Ziad A

    2016-04-01

    Preserving kidney function and improving the transition from chronic kidney disease to end stage is a research and healthcare challenge. The national Chronic Kidney Disease-Renal Epidemiology and Information Network (CKD-REIN) cohort was established to identify the determinants, biomarkers and practice patterns associated with chronic kidney disease outcomes. The study will include more than 3000 adult patients with moderate to advanced chronic kidney disease from a representative sample of 40 nephrology clinics with respect to regions and legal status, public or private. Patients are recruited during a routine visit and followed for 5 years, before and after starting renal replacement therapy. Patient-level clinical, biological, and lifestyle data are collected annually, as well as provider-level data on clinical practices, coordinated with the International Chronic Kidney Disease Outcomes and Practice Pattern Study. Blood and urine samples are stored in a biobank. Major studied outcomes include survival, patient-reported outcomes, disease progression and hospitalizations. More than 13,000 eligible patients with chronic kidney disease were identified, 60% with stage 3 and 40% with stage 4. Their median age is 72 years [interquartile range, 62-80 years], 60% are men and 38% have diabetes. By the end of December 2015, 2885 patients were included. The CKD-REIN cohort will serve to improve our understanding of chronic kidney disease and provide evidence to improve patient survival and quality of life as well as health care system performances. Copyright © 2016 Association Société de néphrologie. All rights reserved.

  10. The risk of arrhythmias following coronary artery bypass surgery: do smokers have a paradox effect?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Al-Sarraf, Nael

    2010-11-01

    Smoking is reported to increase the risk of arrhythmias. However, there are limited data on its effects on arrhythmias following coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). This is a retrospective review of a prospective database of all CABG patients over an eight-year period. Our cohort (n=2813) was subdivided into: current (n=1169), former (n=837), and non-smokers (n=807). Predictors of arrhythmias following CABG in relation to smoking status were analysed. Atrial arrhythmias occurred in 942 patients (33%). Ventricular arrhythmias occurred in 48 patients (2%) and high-grade atrioventricular block occurred in five patients (0.2%). Arrhythmias were lower in current smokers than former and non-smokers (29% vs. 40% vs. 39%, respectively P<0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed 30% arrhythmia risk reduction in smokers compared to non-smokers [odds ratio (OR) 0.7, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.5-0.8] and this effect persisted after accounting for potential confounders while former smokers had the same risk as non-smokers (OR 1.04, CI 0.9-1.3). There were no significant differences in mortality. Smokers are less prone to develop arrhythmias following CABG. This paradox effect is lost in former smokers. This effect is possibly due to a lower state of hyper adrenergic stimulation observed in smokers than non-smokers following the stress of surgery.

  11. French slanguage

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Michael

    2012-01-01

    With this fun visual guide, simply follow the illustrated prompts and read the English words out loud: soon you'll be speaking French! Ask how someone is doing: "Comet Haley View" or say thank you very much: "Mare See Bow Cool." The simple icons are easy to follow and this pocket-sized guide is easy to carry with you. It will give you the basic phrases you need to get around while traveling, whether asking directions, ordering food at a restaurant, or shopping. But most of all, it's just plain fun!

  12. French training

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The next session will take place from 29 January to 30 March 2007. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 29 January to 30 March 2007. This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for 8 students) For further information and registration, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in English The next session will take place from January to June 2007 (break at Easter). This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken English. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for 8 students) Timetable will be fixed after discussion with the students. For further information and registration, please consu...

  13. Profiles of organic food consumers in a large sample of French adults: results from the Nutrinet-Santé cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Péneau, Sandrine; Méjean, Caroline; Szabo de Edelenyi, Fabien; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Lairon, Denis

    2013-01-01

    Lifestyle, dietary patterns and nutritional status of organic food consumers have rarely been described, while interest for a sustainable diet is markedly increasing. Consumer attitude and frequency of use of 18 organic products were assessed in 54,311 adult participants in the Nutrinet-Santé cohort. Cluster analysis was performed to identify behaviors associated with organic product consumption. Socio-demographic characteristics, food consumption and nutrient intake across clusters are provided. Cross-sectional association with overweight/obesity was estimated using polytomous logistic regression. Five clusters were identified: 3 clusters of non-consumers whose reasons differed, occasional (OCOP, 51%) and regular (RCOP, 14%) organic product consumers. RCOP were more highly educated and physically active than other clusters. They also exhibited dietary patterns that included more plant foods and less sweet and alcoholic beverages, processed meat or milk. Their nutrient intake profiles (fatty acids, most minerals and vitamins, fibers) were healthier and they more closely adhered to dietary guidelines. In multivariate models (after accounting for confounders, including level of adherence to nutritional guidelines), compared to those not interested in organic products, RCOP participants showed a markedly lower probability of overweight (excluding obesity) (25 ≤ body mass indexfood intake and health markers.

  14. Racial Differences in Serum Cotinine Levels of Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa B. Signorello

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to estimate black/white differences in cotinine levels for current smokers of both sexes, and to explore the potential contribution of mentholated cigarettes to these differences. Sera from 255 current smokers sampled from Southern Community Cohort Study participants (65 black men, 65 black women, 63 white men, 62 white women were analyzed for cotinine, and linear regression was used to model the effect of race on cotinine level, adjusting for the number of cigarettes smoked within the last 24 hours, use of menthol vs. non-menthol cigarettes, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, and age. Black smokers smoked fewer cigarettes than white smokers, yet had crude mean cotinine levels nearly as high or higher than white smokers. After multivariate adjustment, cotinine levels were an average of 50 ng/ml higher among black than white women (p=0.008 and non-significantly 12 ng/ml higher among black than white men (p=0.52. We observed no increase in cotinine levels associated with menthol cigarette use. We conclude that differences in cotinine levels among smokers suggest racial variation in exposure to and/or metabolism of tobacco smoke constituents, but our findings do not support a role for menthol preference in this disparity.

  15. Racial differences in serum cotinine levels of smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorello, Lisa B; Cai, Qiuyin; Tarone, Robert E; McLaughlin, Joseph K; Blot, William J

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate black/white differences in cotinine levels for current smokers of both sexes, and to explore the potential contribution of mentholated cigarettes to these differences. Sera from 255 current smokers sampled from Southern Community Cohort Study participants (65 black men, 65 black women, 63 white men, 62 white women) were analyzed for cotinine, and linear regression was used to model the effect of race on cotinine level, adjusting for the number of cigarettes smoked within the last 24 hours, use of menthol vs. non-menthol cigarettes, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, and age. Black smokers smoked fewer cigarettes than white smokers, yet had crude mean cotinine levels nearly as high or higher than white smokers. After multivariate adjustment, cotinine levels were an average of 50 ng/ml higher among black than white women (p=0.008) and non-significantly 12 ng/ml higher among black than white men (p=0.52). We observed no increase in cotinine levels associated with menthol cigarette use. We conclude that differences in cotinine levels among smokers suggest racial variation in exposure to and/or metabolism of tobacco smoke constituents, but our findings do not support a role for menthol preference in this disparity.

  16. Profiles of organic food consumers in a large sample of French adults: results from the Nutrinet-Santé cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Kesse-Guyot

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lifestyle, dietary patterns and nutritional status of organic food consumers have rarely been described, while interest for a sustainable diet is markedly increasing. METHODS: Consumer attitude and frequency of use of 18 organic products were assessed in 54,311 adult participants in the Nutrinet-Santé cohort. Cluster analysis was performed to identify behaviors associated with organic product consumption. Socio-demographic characteristics, food consumption and nutrient intake across clusters are provided. Cross-sectional association with overweight/obesity was estimated using polytomous logistic regression. RESULTS: Five clusters were identified: 3 clusters of non-consumers whose reasons differed, occasional (OCOP, 51% and regular (RCOP, 14% organic product consumers. RCOP were more highly educated and physically active than other clusters. They also exhibited dietary patterns that included more plant foods and less sweet and alcoholic beverages, processed meat or milk. Their nutrient intake profiles (fatty acids, most minerals and vitamins, fibers were healthier and they more closely adhered to dietary guidelines. In multivariate models (after accounting for confounders, including level of adherence to nutritional guidelines, compared to those not interested in organic products, RCOP participants showed a markedly lower probability of overweight (excluding obesity (25 ≤ body mass index<30 and obesity (body mass index ≥ 30: -36% and -62% in men and -42% and -48% in women, respectively (P<0.0001. OCOP participants (% generally showed intermediate figures. CONCLUSIONS: Regular consumers of organic products, a sizeable group in our sample, exhibit specific socio-demographic characteristics, and an overall healthy profile which should be accounted for in further studies analyzing organic food intake and health markers.

  17. The value of specialist care-infectious disease specialist referrals-why and for whom? A retrospective cohort study in a French tertiary hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasikumar, M; Boyer, S; Remacle-Bonnet, A; Ventelou, B; Brouqui, P

    2017-04-01

    This study evaluated the impact of infectious disease (ID) specialist referrals on outcomes in a tertiary hospital in France. This study tackled methodological constraints (selection bias, endogeneity) using instrumental variables (IV) methods in order to obtain a quasi-experimental design. In addition, we investigated whether certain characteristics of patients have a bearing on the impact of the intervention. We used the payments database and ID department files to obtain data for adults admitted with an ID diagnosis in the North Hospital, Marseille from 2012 to 2014. Comparable cohorts were obtained using coarsened exact matching and analysed using IV models. Mortality, readmissions, cost (payer perspective) and length of stay (LoS) were analysed. We recorded 15,393 (85.97%) stays, of which 2,159 (14.03%) benefited from IDP consultations. The intervention was seen to significantly lower the risk of inpatient mortality (marginal effect (M.E) = -19.06%) and cost of stay (average treatment effect (ATE) = - €5,573.39). The intervention group was seen to have a longer LoS (ATE = +4.95 days). The intervention conferred a higher reduction in mortality and cost for stays that experienced ICU care (mortality: odds ratio (OR) =0.09, M.E cost = -8,328.84 €) or had a higher severity of illness (mortality: OR=0.35, M.E cost = -1,331.92 €) and for patients aged between 50 and 65 years (mortality: OR=0.28, M.E cost = -874.78 €). This study shows that ID referrals are associated with lower risk of inpatient mortality and cost of stay, especially when targeted to certain subgroups.

  18. Lung cancer risk, exposure to radon and tobacco consumption in a nested case-control study of French uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leuraud, K.; Billon, S.; Bergot, D.; Tirmarche, M.; Laurier, D.; Caer, S.; Quesne, B.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: A nested case-control study was conducted among the French uranium miners cohort in order to assess the effect of protract ed radon exposure on lung cancer risk taking into account tobacco consumption. Material and methods: One hundred uranium miners employed by the French company CEA-COGEMA and who died of a lung cancer between 1980 and 1994 were identified as cases among the cohort. For each case, five controls were randomly matched on birth period and attained age at the time of death of the corresponding case. Cumulated radon exposure during employment was reconstructed for each of these 100 cases and 500 controls. Smoking habits were retrospectively determined from three complementary sources: 1) medical files, 2) forms filled in by occupational physicians and 3) questionnaires applied in face-to-face interviews, phone calls or mailings. Analysis was performed by conditional logistic regression using a linear excess relative risk (ERR) model. A multiplicative model was fitted to assess the joint effect of radon exposure and smoking on lung cancer risk. Results: Smoking status was established for 62 cases and 320 controls and two categories ('ever smokers' vs. 'never smokers') were defined. Ninety percent of the cases and 73% of the controls were classified as 'ever smokers'. Mean five-year lagged cumulated radon exposures were 82.0 and 47.6 working level months (WLM) for the cases and the controls, respectively. The excess relative risk per WLM (ERR/WLM) was 1.1% with a 95%-confidence interval (CI) of 0.2-2.0%. When adjusting for smoking, radon exposure effect was little modified (ERR/WLM = 0.8%, 95% -CI = 0.1- 2.8%). The effect of smoking on lung cancer risk was comparable to results reported in previous miners cohorts (OR = 3.04, 95% -CI = 1.20-7.70). Discussion: A consequent effort was carried out to collect smoking status from three sources for the miners included in this nested case-control study. This analysis shows that, when adjusting on

  19. COPD: recognizing the susceptible smoker

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoonhorst, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Smoking is the main cause of COPD, a chronic non-curable lung disease. Not all smokers develop COPD and it is still unclear why COPD is only manifested in a small subset of smokers (15-20%). Probably their genetic background makes the difference. We investigated whether young individuals (18-40

  20. A Comparison of Mortality Rates in a Large Population of Smokers and Non-smokers: based on the Presence or Absence of Coronary Artery Calcification

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, John W; Blaha, Michael J; Rivera, Juan J; Budoff, Matthew J; Khan, Atif N; Shaw, Leslee J; Berman, Daniel S; Raggi, Paolo; Min, James K; Rumberger, John A; Callister, Tracy Q; Blumenthal, Roger S.; Nasir, Khurram

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To further study the interplay between smoking status, Coronary Artery Calcium (CAC) and all-cause mortality. Background Prior studies have not directly compared the relative prognostic impact of CAC in smokers versus non-smokers. In particular, while zero CAC is a known favorable prognostic-marker, whether smokers without CAC have as good a prognosis as non-smokers without CAC is unknown. Given computed tomography (CT) screening for lung cancer appears effective in smokers, the relative prognostic implications of visualizing any CAC versus no CAC on such screening also deserve study. Methods Our study cohort consisted of 44,042 asymptomatic individuals referred for non-contrast cardiac CT (age 54±11 years, 54% males). Subjects were followed for a mean of 5.6 years. The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality. Results Approximately 14% (n=6020) of subjects were active smokers at enrollment. There were 901 deaths (2.05%) overall, with increased mortality in smokers vs. non-smokers (4.3% vs. 1.7%, p400). In multivariable analysis within these strata, we found mortality hazard ratios (HRs) of 3.8 (95% CI, 2.8-5.2), 3.5 (2.6-4.9), and 2.7 (2.1-3.5), respectively, in smokers compared to nonsmokers. At each stratum of elevated CAC score, mortality in smokers was consistently higher than mortality in non-smokers from the CAC stratum above. However, among the 19,898 individuals with CAC=0, the mortality HR for smokers without CAC was 3.6 (95% CI, 2.3-5.7), compared to non-smokers without CAC. Conclusion Smoking is a risk factor for death across the entire spectrum of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis. Smokers with any coronary calcification are at significantly increased future mortality risk than smokers without CAC. However, the absence of CAC may not be as useful a “negative risk factor” in active smokers; as this group has mortality rates similar to non-smokers with mild to moderate atherosclerosis. PMID:23058072

  1. Non‐smokers seeking help for smokers: a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, S‐H; Nguyen, Q B; Cummins, S; Wong, S; Wightman, V

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To examine the phenomenon of non‐smokers spontaneously taking action to seek help for smokers; to provide profiles of non‐smoking helpers by language and ethnic groups. Setting A large, statewide tobacco quitline (California Smokers' Helpline) in operation since 1992 in California, providing free cessation services in English, Spanish, Mandarin, Cantonese, Korean, and Vietnamese. Subjects Callers between August 1992 and September 2005 who identified themselves as either white, black, Hispanic, American Indian, or Asian (n  =  349 110). A subset of these were “proxies”: callers seeking help for someone else. For more detailed analysis, n  =  2143 non‐smoking proxies calling from October 2004 through September 2005. Main outcome measures Proportions of proxies among all callers in each of seven language/ethnic groups; demographics of proxies; and proxies' relationships to smokers on whose behalf they called. Results Over 22 000 non‐smoking proxies called. Proportions differed dramatically across language/ethnic groups, from mean (±95% confidence interval) 2.7 (0.3)% among English‐speaking American Indians through 9.3 (0.3)% among English‐speaking Hispanics to 35.3 (0.7)% among Asian‐speaking Asians. Beyond the differences in proportion, however, remarkable similarities emerged across all groups. Proxies were primarily women (79.2 (1.7)%), living in the same household as the smokers (65.0 (2.1)%), and having either explicit or implicit understandings with the smokers that calling on their behalf was acceptable (90.0 (1.3)%). Conclusions The willingness of non‐smokers to seek help for smokers holds promise for tobacco cessation and may help address ethnic and language disparities. Non‐smoking women in smokers' households may be the first group to target. PMID:16565458

  2. Birth weight, body silhouette over the life course, and incident diabetes in 91,453 middle-aged women from the French Etude Epidemiologique de Femmes de la Mutuelle Generale de l'Education Nationale (E3N) Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Balkau, Beverley; Charles, Marie-Aline; Romieu, Isabelle; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise

    2010-02-01

    Obesity and increases in body weight in adults are considered to be among the most important risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Low birth weight is also associated with a higher diabetes incidence. We aimed to examine to what extent the evolution of body shape, from childhood to adulthood, is related to incident diabetes in late adulthood. Etude Epidemiologique de Femmes de la Mutuelle Générale de l'Education Nationale (E3N) is a cohort study of French women born in 1925-1950 and followed by questionnaire every 2 years. At baseline, in 1990, women were asked to report their current weight, height, and body silhouette at various ages. Birth weight was recorded in 2002. Cases of diabetes were self-reported or obtained by drug reimbursement record linkage and further validated. Of the 91,453 women who were nondiabetic at baseline, 2,534 developed diabetes over the 15 years of follow-up. Birth weight and body silhouette at 8 years, at menarche, and in young adulthood (20-25 years) were inversely associated with the risk of diabetes, independently of adult BMI during follow-up (all P(trend) < 0.001). In mid-adulthood (35-40 years), the association was reversed, with an increase in risk related to a larger body silhouette. An increase in body silhouette from childhood to mid-adulthood amplified the risk of diabetes. Low birth weight and thinness until young adulthood may increase the risk of diabetes, independently of adult BMI during follow-up. Young women who were lean children should be especially warned against weight gain.

  3. No significant effect of cannabis use on the count and percentage of circulating CD4 T-cells in HIV-HCV co-infected patients (ANRS CO13-HEPAVIH French cohort).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcellin, Fabienne; Lions, Caroline; Rosenthal, Eric; Roux, Perrine; Sogni, Philippe; Wittkop, Linda; Protopopescu, Camelia; Spire, Bruno; Salmon-Ceron, Dominique; Dabis, François; Carrieri, Maria Patrizia

    2017-03-01

    (ANRSCO13-HEPAVIH French cohort). Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:227-238]. © 2016 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  4. Association between tobacco industry denormalization beliefs, tobacco control community discontent and smokers' level of nicotine dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnir, Vladyslav; Selby, Peter; Cunningham, John A

    2013-07-01

    Tobacco industry denormalization (TID) informs the public about the tobacco industry's role in the tobacco epidemic and is an important component of a comprehensive tobacco control strategy. Although TID beliefs have been noted in adult smokers and associated with intent to quit, research has not evaluated whether they are affected by smokers' level of nicotine dependence. The present article sought to concurrently examine how attitudes towards the tobacco industry and tobacco control groups may differ among smokers of varying levels of nicotine dependence. In addition, it evaluated how these attitudes and beliefs may be associated with smokers' intentions to reduce or quit smoking. A random digit dialing telephone survey was conducted of 889 Canadian current daily smokers, 18 years and older. Attitudes towards the tobacco industry were mixed among the entire cohort and differences in beliefs towards the tobacco industry were not found among smokers of varying levels of nicotine dependence. However, smokers that held strong TID beliefs were 5 times more intent to quit smoking than those without such beliefs. Compared to smokers with low level of nicotine dependence, heavy smokers were more likely to report strong overall displeasure with the tobacco control community (OR=1.98, 95% CI=1.23-3.19, p=0.005), however there were no differences with regards to future intent to quit. The absence of strong negative sentiment toward the tobacco industry among smokers as a whole suggests that more targeted anti-industry messages are needed, raising greater awareness of tobacco industry practices within smokers and non-smokers alike. As heavier smokers' discontent with the tobacco control community highlights increasing social disapproval and pressure to quit smoking, future educational and media strategies used for smoking cessation purposes may benefit from emphasizing more of the positive attributes associated with quitting smoking, as opposed to the negative features of

  5. French Teaching Aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J. Dale

    Supplementary teaching materials for French language programs are presented in this text. Primarily intended for secondary school students, the study contains seven units of material. They include: (1) French gestures, (2) teaching the interrogative pronouns, (3) French cuisine, (4) recreational learning games, (5) French-English cognates, (6)…

  6. A Decade of Never-smokers Among Lung Cancer Patients-Increasing Trend and Improved Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Chee-Keong; Ong, Whee-Sze; Lim, Wan-Teck; Tan, Daniel Shao-Weng; Ng, Quan-Sing; Kanesvaran, Ravindran; Seow, Wei-Jie; Ang, Mei-Kim; Tan, Eng-Huat

    2018-03-17

    It is not known whether clinicopathologic characteristics, treatment, and survival of never-smokers among lung cancer incident cases have changed over time. We assessed the trend and overall survival (OS) of these patients within our institution during a 10-year period. We reviewed 2 cohorts of non-small-cell lung cancer patients with a diagnosis from 1999 to 2002 and from 2008 to 2011. The patient characteristics and OS were compared by smoking status within each cohort and between the 2 cohorts over time. Of the 992 patients in the 1999-2002 cohort and the 1318 patients in the 2008-2011 cohort, 902 and 1272 had a known smoking status, respectively. The proportion of never-smokers increased from 31% in 1999-2002 to 48% in 2008-2011 (P never-, former-, and current-smokers have remained largely constant over time. A greater proportion of never-smokers had Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0 to 1 and adenocarcinoma. The median OS increased from 15.5 months in 1999-2002 to 24.9 months in 2008-2011 (P = .001) for never-smokers, 12.3 to 15.9 months (P = .150) for former-smokers, and 10.5 to 13.9 months (P = .011) for current-smokers. The larger survival improvement among never-smokers was likely accounted for by the larger increase in never-smokers who were treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors and pemetrexed over time. We found an increasing trend of never-smokers among incident lung cancer cases and improved survival for these patients during a 10-year period. The documentation of smoking status in any national cancer registry is vital to estimate the true incidence of lung cancer among never-smokers over time. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Periodontal tissue damage in smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutojo Djajakusuma

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Dental plaque is the primary etiological factor in periodontal diseases. However, there are many factors that can modify how an individual periodontal tissue will respond to the accumulation of dental plaque. Among such risk factors, there is increasing evidence that smoking tobacco products alters the expression and rate of progression of periodontal diseases. The aim of this study was to find out the loss of periodontal tissue adhesion in smokers by measuring pocket depth using probe, and by measuring alveolar bone damage using Bone Loss Score (BLS radiographic methods on teeth 12, 11, 21, 22, 32, 31, 41, 42. Based on T Test statistical analysis, there were significant differences in pocket depth damage of alveolar bone in smokers and non smokers. In conclusion there were increasing pocket depth and alveolar bone damage in smokers.

  8. French grammar for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Mazet, Veronique

    2013-01-01

    The easy way to master French grammar French Grammar For Dummies is a logical extension and complement to the successful language learning book, French For Dummies. In plain English, it teaches you the grammatical rules of the French language, including parts of speech, sentence construction, pronouns, adjectives, punctuation, stress and verb tenses, and moods. Throughout the book, you get plenty of practice opportunities to help you on your goal of mastering basic French grammar and usage. Grasp the grammatical rules of French including parts of speech, sentenc

  9. Changes in Doppler flow velocity waveforms and fetal size at 20 weeks gestation among cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kho, E M; North, R A; Chan, E; Stone, P R; Dekker, G A; McCowan, L M E

    2009-09-01

    To compare umbilical and uterine artery Doppler waveforms and fetal size at 20 weeks between smokers and nonsmokers. Prospective cohort study. Auckland, New Zealand and Adelaide, Australia. Nulliparous participants in the Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE) study. Self-reported smoking status was determined at 15 +/- 1 weeks' gestation. At the 20 +/- 1 week anatomy scan, uterine and umbilical Doppler resistance indices (RI) and fetal measurements were compared between smokers and nonsmokers. Umbilical and mean uterine artery Doppler RI values, abnormal umbilical and uterine Doppler (RI > 90th centile) and fetal biometry. Among the 2459 women, 248 (10%) were smokers. Smokers had higher umbilical RI [0.75 (SD 0.06) versus 0.73 (0.06), P gestation, women who smoke have higher umbilical artery RI, a surrogate measure for an abnormal placental villous vascular tree. This may contribute to later fetal growth restriction among smokers. Further research is needed to explore the clinical significance of these findings.

  10. Lower subcortical gray matter volume in both younger smokers and established smokers relative to non-smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlon, Colleen A.; Owens, Max M.; Joseph, Jane E.; Zhu, Xun; George, Mark S.; Brady, Kathleen T.; Hartwell, Karen J.

    2014-01-01

    Although established adult smokers with long histories of nicotine dependence have lower neural tissue volume than non-smokers, it is not clear if lower regional brain volume is also observed in younger, less established smokers. The primary goal of this study was to investigate neural tissue volume in a large group of smokers and non-smokers, with a secondary goal of measuring the impact of age on these effects. We used voxel-based morphometry to compare regional gray matter volume in 118 individuals (59 smokers, 59 age- and gender-matched non-smokers). Younger smokers had significantly lower gray matter volume in the left thalamus and the left amygdala than their non-smoking peers (family-wise error-corrected clusters, P smokers. Established smokers had significantly lower gray matter volume than age-matched non-smokers in the insula, parahippocampal gyrus and pallidum. Medial prefrontal cortex gray matter volume was negatively correlated with pack-years of smoking among the established smokers, but not the younger smokers. These data reveal that regional tissue volume differences are not limited exclusively to established smokers. Deficits in young adults indicate that cigarette smoking may either be deleterious to the thalamus and amygdala at an earlier age than previously reported, or that pre-existing differences in these areas may predispose individuals to the development of nicotine dependence. PMID:25125263

  11. Oral candidal species among smokers and non-smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasool, S.; Siar, C.H.; Ng, K.P.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine the various oral Candidal species among healthy Malaysian adults. Design: Case-control study. Place and Duration of Study: This study was collaborated between the Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine and Department of Oral Pathology, Oral Medicine and Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, between September 2002 till January 2004. Patients and Methods: One hundred adults (50 smokers and 50 non-smokers), aged between 40 and 70 years were studied. Swabs and carbohydrate assimilation (Saboraud Dextrose Agar, Corn Meal Agar, API 20C AUX System) were performed. Specimens were collected from dorsum of the tongue, buccal mucosa and commissures (right and left each). Colony forms were established by positive colony forming units, on SDA medium (24-48 hours). Germ tube test for (true/pseudohyphae) growth was done on Corn Meal Agar Medium, candida biotypes were evaluated by API 20C AUX system, which had a numerical 7 digit profile, added to evaluate a definite candida species. Results: Thirty-five percent of Malaysian adults harbored Candida intraorally. Candida species identified among 100 subjects had C. albicans (27) 77%, C. glabrata (3) 8%, C. famata, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. lusitaniae and C. guillermondii (1) 3% each. Thirty-three positive cases comprised of 35 species i.e. two cases had two species each. Fifty-seven percent of these were smokers and 43% non-smokers. These included 40% Chinese, 36% Malays and 24% Indians. Species were, however, not specified according to intra-oral sites i.e. buccal, commissural mucosa and sorsum of tongue. Conclusion: On this series C. albicans is the most common specie found in the oral cavity of Malaysian adults. It is equally frequent in smokers and non-smokers, but showed a prediliection for the ethnic Chinese group. (author)

  12. Oral candidal species among smokers and non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasool, S; Siar, C H; Ng, K P

    2005-11-01

    To determine the various oral Candidal species among healthy Malaysian adults. Case-control study. This study was collaborated between the Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine and Department of Oral Pathology, Oral Medicine and Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, between September 2002 till January 2004. One hundred adults (50 smokers and 50 non-smokers), aged between 40 and 70 years were studied. Swabs and carbohydrate assimilation (Saboraud Dextrose Agar, Corn Meal Agar, API 20C AUX System) were performed. Specimens were collected from dorsum of the tongue, buccal mucosa and commissures (right and left each). Colony forms were established by positive colony forming units, on SDA medium (24-48 hours). Germ tube test for (true/pseudohyphae) growth was done on Corn Meal Agar Medium. Candida biotypes were evaluated by API 20C AUX system, which had a numerical 7 digit profile, added to evaluate a definite Candida species. Thirty-five percent of Malaysian adults harbored Candida intraorally. Candidal species identified among 100 subjects had C. albicans (27) 77%, C. glabrata (3) 8%, C. famata, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. lusitaniae and C. guilliermondii (1) 3% each. Thirty-three positive cases comprised of 35 species i.e. two cases had two species each. Fifty seven percent of these were smokers and 43% non-smokers. These included 40% Chinese, 36% Malays and 24% Indians. Species were, however, not specified according to intra-oral sites i.e. buccal, commissural mucosa and dorsum of tongue. On this series C. albicans is the most common species found in the oral cavity of Malaysian adults. It is equally frequent in smokers and non-smokers, but showed a predilection for the ethnic Chinese group.

  13. Social Smoking among Intermittent Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, Saul; Li, Xiaoxue; Dunbar, Michael S.; Ferguson, Stuart G.; Tindle, Hilary A.; Scholl, Sarah M.

    2015-01-01

    Background “Social smoking” - smoking mostly or even only with others – may be an important pattern that implies smoking motivated extrinsically by social influences. Non-daily smokers (intermittent smokers; ITS) are often assumed to be social smokers, with some authors even assuming that all ITS are social smokers (SS+). We sought to identify and characterize social smokers in a sample of ITS. Methods 204 adult ITS (smoking 4–27 days/month) recorded the circumstances of smoking in their natural settings using Ecological Momentary Assessment, while also recording their circumstances in nonsmoking moments. SS+ were defined as ITS who were with others when they smoked most of their cigarettes, and who were ≥ 50% more likely to be with others when smoking than when not. Results Only 13% of ITS were SS+. Although defined solely on the basis of presence of others, SS+ showed a distinct pattern of smoking across multiple dimensions: Compared to other ITS (who were significantly less likely to smoke when with others), SS+ smoking was more associated with socializing, being with friends and acquaintances, drinking alcohol, weekends, evening or nighttime, being in other people’s homes, but not their own home. SS+ smoking was low in the morning and increased in the evening. SS+ smoked fewer days/week and were less dependent, but did not differ demographically. Conclusions Social smoking does constitute a highly distinct smoking pattern, but is not common among adult ITS. PMID:26205313

  14. Kinetic Tremor: Differences Between Smokers and Non-smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Louis, Elan D.

    2006-01-01

    Tremor is among the acute effects of nicotine exposure. Published studies have focused on smoking-related postural (static) hand tremor rather than kinetic tremor (tremor during hand use), and gender differences in smoking-related tremor have not been examined. In a group of adults who were sampled from a population (mean ± SD = 65.7 ± 11.5 years, range = 18 - 92 years), the investigator assessed whether the severity of postural and kinetic tremors differed in smokers versus non-smokers, and ...

  15. The French experience

    CERN Document Server

    Bougard, Marie-Thérèse

    2003-01-01

    Developed for beginners, The French Experience 1 course book is designed to accompany the French Experience 1 CDs (9780563472582) but can also be used on its own to develop your reading and writing skills. You’ll gain valuable insights into French culture too.

  16. Computerised respiratory sounds can differentiate smokers and non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ana; Sen, Ipek; Kahya, Yasemin P; Afreixo, Vera; Marques, Alda

    2017-06-01

    Cigarette smoking is often associated with the development of several respiratory diseases however, if diagnosed early, the changes in the lung tissue caused by smoking may be reversible. Computerised respiratory sounds have shown to be sensitive to detect changes within the lung tissue before any other measure, however it is unknown if it is able to detect changes in the lungs of healthy smokers. This study investigated the differences between computerised respiratory sounds of healthy smokers and non-smokers. Healthy smokers and non-smokers were recruited from a university campus. Respiratory sounds were recorded simultaneously at 6 chest locations (right and left anterior, lateral and posterior) using air-coupled electret microphones. Airflow (1.0-1.5 l/s) was recorded with a pneumotachograph. Breathing phases were detected using airflow signals and respiratory sounds with validated algorithms. Forty-four participants were enrolled: 18 smokers (mean age 26.2, SD = 7 years; mean FEV 1 % predicted 104.7, SD = 9) and 26 non-smokers (mean age 25.9, SD = 3.7 years; mean FEV 1 % predicted 96.8, SD = 20.2). Smokers presented significantly higher frequency at maximum sound intensity during inspiration [(M = 117, SD = 16.2 Hz vs. M = 106.4, SD = 21.6 Hz; t(43) = -2.62, p = 0.0081, d z  = 0.55)], lower expiratory sound intensities (maximum intensity: [(M = 48.2, SD = 3.8 dB vs. M = 50.9, SD = 3.2 dB; t(43) = 2.68, p = 0.001, d z  = -0.78)]; mean intensity: [(M = 31.2, SD = 3.6 dB vs. M = 33.7,SD = 3 dB; t(43) = 2.42, p = 0.001, d z  = 0.75)] and higher number of inspiratory crackles (median [interquartile range] 2.2 [1.7-3.7] vs. 1.5 [1.2-2.2], p = 0.081, U = 110, r = -0.41) than non-smokers. Significant differences between computerised respiratory sounds of smokers and non-smokers have been found. Changes in respiratory sounds are often the earliest sign of disease. Thus, computerised respiratory sounds

  17. Cigarette smokers have exaggerated alveolar barrier disruption in response to lipopolysaccharide inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moazed, Farzad; Burnham, Ellen L; Vandivier, R William; O'Kane, Cecilia M; Shyamsundar, Murali; Hamid, Umar; Abbott, Jason; Thickett, David R; Matthay, Michael A; McAuley, Daniel F; Calfee, Carolyn S

    2016-12-01

    Cigarette smoke exposure is associated with an increased risk of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS); however, the mechanisms underlying this relationship remain largely unknown. To assess pathways of lung injury and inflammation in smokers and non-smokers with and without lipopolysaccharide (LPS) inhalation using established biomarkers. We measured plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) biomarkers of inflammation and lung injury in smokers and non-smokers in two distinct cohorts of healthy volunteers, one unstimulated (n=20) and one undergoing 50 μg LPS inhalation (n=30). After LPS inhalation, cigarette smokers had increased alveolar-capillary membrane permeability as measured by BAL total protein, compared with non-smokers (median 274 vs 208 μg/mL, p=0.04). Smokers had exaggerated inflammation compared with non-smokers, with increased BAL interleukin-1β (p=0.002), neutrophils (p=0.02), plasma interleukin-8 (p=0.003), and plasma matrix metalloproteinase-8 (p=0.006). Alveolar epithelial injury after LPS was more severe in smokers than non-smokers, with increased plasma (p=0.04) and decreased BAL (p=0.02) surfactant protein D. Finally, smokers had decreased BAL vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) (p<0.0001) with increased soluble VEGF receptor-1 (p=0.0001). Cigarette smoke exposure may predispose to ARDS through an abnormal response to a 'second hit,' with increased alveolar-capillary membrane permeability, exaggerated inflammation, increased epithelial injury and endothelial dysfunction. LPS inhalation may serve as a useful experimental model for evaluation of the acute pulmonary effects of existing and new tobacco products. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. Risk for COPD with Obstruction of Active Smokers with Normal Spirometry and Reduced Diffusion Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaner, Robert J.; Sanders, Abraham; Vincent, Thomas L.; Mezey, Jason G.; Crystal, Ronald G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Smokers are assessed for COPD using spirometry, with COPD defined by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) as airflow limitation not fully reversible with bronchodilators. There is a subset of smokers with normal spirometry (by GOLD criteria), who have a low diffusion capacity (DLCO), a parameter linked to emphysema and small airway disease. The natural history of these “normal spirometry/low DLCO” smokers is unknown. Methods From a cohort of 1570 smokers in the New York City metropolitian area, all of whom had normal spirometry, two groups were randomly selected for lung function follow-up: smokers with normal spirometry/normal DLCO (n=59) and smokers with normal spirometry/low DLCO (n=46). All had normal history, physical examination, CBC, urinalysis, HIV status, α1-antitrypsin level, chest X-ray, FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC ratio and total lung capacity (TLC). Throughout the study, all continued to be active smokers. Findings In the normal spirometry/normal DLCO group assessed over 45 ± 20 months, 3% developed GOLD-defined COPD. In contrast, in the normal spirometry/low DLCO group, followed over 41 ± 31 months, 22% developed GOLD-defined COPD. Interpretation Despite appearing “normal” by GOLD, smokers with normal spirometry but low DLCO are at significant risk for developing COPD with obstruction to airflow. PMID:26541521

  19. French grammar and usage

    CERN Document Server

    Hawkins, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Long trusted as the most comprehensive, up-to-date and user-friendly grammar available, French Grammar and Usage is a complete guide to French as it is written and spoken today. It includes clear descriptions of all the main grammatical phenomena of French, and their use, illustrated by numerous examples taken from contemporary French, and distinguishes the most common forms of usage, both formal and informal.Key features include:Comprehensive content, covering all the major structures of contemporary French User-friendly organisation offering easy-to-find sections with cross-referencing and i

  20. French For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Erotopoulos; Williams, Michelle M; Wenzel, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    The fast, informal way to learn to speak French French is known as perhaps the most beautiful of all languages. Listen to someone speak French-sure, you don't have a clue what they're saying, but aren't you enraptured by the sound of it? French is a beautiful language but quite difficult to learn. Whether you need to learn the language for a French class, or you travel overseas for business or leisure, this revised edition of French for Dummies can help. Written in an easy-to-follow format, it gives you just what you need for basic communication in FrenchExpanded coverage of necessary grammar,

  1. Smoker Identity Development among Adolescents who Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertel, Andrew W.; Mermelstein, Robin J.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents who smoke are more likely to escalate their smoking frequency if they believe smoking is self-defining. Knowing factors that are associated with development of a smoker identity among adolescents who smoke may help to identify who will become a regular smoker. We investigated whether smoker identity development is associated with internal and external motives for smoking. For comparison, we also investigated whether social smoker identity development is associated with internal and external motives for smoking. Adolescents who smoke (n = 292) completed measures of smoker and social smoker identity, internal motives for smoking (negative affect coping, positive affect enhancement), and external motives for smoking (social fit) at baseline, 6-, 15-, and 24-month assessments of an ongoing longitudinal study of smoking patterns. We examined whether change in smoker and social smoker identity from 6 to 24 months was associated with change in motives at earlier assessment waves. We also explored whether gender moderated these relationships. Increases in negative affect coping motives were associated with smoker identity development among both males and females. Increases in social motives were associated with smoker identity development among males, and increases in negative affect coping motives were associated with social smoker identity development among females. Smoker and social smoker identities are signaled by negative affect coping as well as social motives for smoking. PMID:27136374

  2. Determinants of Depression in the ECLIPSE COPD Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanania, Nicola A; Müllerova, Hana; Locantore, Nicholas W

    2010-01-01

    RATIONALE: Depression is prevalent in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); however, its etiology and relationship to the clinical features of COPD are not well understood. Using data from a large cohort, we explored prevalence and determinants of depression in subjects...... the Center for Epidemiologic Studies of Depression Scale (CES-D). For the purposes of this analysis, depression was defined as a CES-D score of 16 and higher which reflects a high load of depressive symptoms and has a good correspondence with a clinical diagnosis of major depression. RESULTS: The study...... cohort consisted of 2118 subjects with COPD, 335 smokers without COPD (smokers) and 243 non-smokers without COPD (non-smokers). Twenty-six percent, 12% and 7% of COPD, smokers and non-smokers, respectively, suffered from depression. In subjects with COPD, higher depression prevalence was seen in females...

  3. Difference in airflow obstruction between Hispanic and non-Hispanic White female smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Akshay; Stidley, Christine A; Picchi, Maria A; Celedón, Juan C; Gilliland, Frank; Crowell, Richard E; Belinsky, Steven A; Tesfaigzi, Yohannes

    2008-10-01

    Smoking-related respiratory diseases are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. However, the relationship between smoking and respiratory disease has not been well-studied among ethnic minorities in general and among women in particular. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the risk of airflow obstruction and to assess lung function among Hispanic and non-Hispanic White (NHW) female smokers in a New Mexico cohort. Participants completed a questionnaire detailing smoking history and underwent spirometry testing. Outcomes studied included airflow obstruction, selected lung function parameters, and chronic mucus hyper-secretion. Chi square, logistic, and linear regression techniques were utilized. Of the 1,433 eligible women participants, 248 (17.3%) were Hispanic; and 319 had airflow obstruction (22.3%). Hispanic smokers were more likely to be current smokers, and report lower pack-years of smoking, compared to NHW smokers (p smokers were at a reduced risk of airflow obstruction compared to NHW smokers, with an O.R. of 0.51, 95% C.I. 0.34, 0.78 (p = 0.002) after adjustment for age, BMI, pack-years and duration of smoking, and current smoking status. Following adjustment for covariates, Hispanic smokers also had a higher mean absolute and percent predicted post-bronchodilator FEV(1)/FVC ratio, as well as higher mean percent predicted FEV(1) (p smokers in this New Mexico-based cohort had lower risk of airflow obstruction and better lung function than NHW female smokers. Further, smoking history did not completely explain these associations.

  4. Periodontal Inflammatory Conditions Among Smokers and Never-Smokers With and Without Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Fawad; Al-Kheraif, Abdulaziz A; Salazar-Lazo, Karem; Yanez-Fontenla, Virginia; Aldosary, Khalid M; Alshehri, Mohammed; Malmstrom, Hans; Romanos, Georgios E

    2015-07-01

    There is a dearth of studies regarding the influence of cigarette smoking on periodontal inflammatory conditions among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aim of the present study is to assess periodontal inflammatory conditions among smokers and never-smokers with and without T2DM. One hundred individuals (50 patients with T2DM [25 smokers and 25 never-smokers] and 50 controls [25 smokers and 25 never-smokers]) were included. Information regarding age, sex, duration and daily frequency of smoking, duration and treatment of diabetes, and oral hygiene was recorded using a questionnaire. Periodontal parameters (plaque index [PI], bleeding on probing [BOP], probing depth [PD], clinical attachment loss [AL], and marginal bone loss [MBL]) were measured. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels were also recorded. Mean age, monthly income status, and education levels were comparable among smokers and never-smokers with and without T2DM. Mean HbA1c levels were significantly higher among patients with T2DM (8.2% ± 0.1%) compared with controls (4.4% ± 0.3%) (P Smokers in the control group were smoking significantly greater numbers of cigarettes (15.5 ± 2.5 cigarettes daily) compared with smokers with T2DM (6.2 ± 2.1 cigarettes daily) (P smokers and never-smokers with T2DM. Among controls, periodontal parameters (PI [P smokers than never-smokers. Never-smokers with T2DM had worse periodontal status than smokers and never-smokers in the control group (P smokers and never-smokers with T2DM. Among controls, periodontal inflammation is worse among smokers than never-smokers.

  5. Recruiting Diverse Smokers: Enrollment Yields and Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaitlyn E. Brodar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available To help tobacco control research better include vulnerable populations, we sought to identify effective ways to recruit diverse smokers. In 2014–2015, we recruited 2149 adult cigarette smokers in California and North Carolina, United States, to participate in a randomized trial of pictorial cigarette pack warnings. The most effective means of recruiting smokers were the classified advertising website Craigslist (28% of participants, word of mouth (23%, Facebook (16%, and flyers or postcards (14%. Low-income and African American smokers were more likely to respond to interpersonal contact (including staff in-person recruitment and word of mouth than were high-income and non-African American smokers (all p < 0.05. Hispanic and gay, lesbian, and bisexual smokers were more likely to be recruited by Craigslist than non-Hispanic and straight smokers (both p < 0.05. Of the recruitment methods requiring cost, the cheapest was Craigslist ($3–7 per smoker. The most expensive methods were newspaper ads in California ($375 per smoker and staff in-person recruiting in North Carolina ($180 per smoker. Successfully recruiting diverse smokers requires using multiple methods including interpersonal, online, and other media. Craigslist and word of mouth are especially useful and low-cost ways to recruit diverse smokers.

  6. Cough response to citric acid aerosol in occasional smokers.

    OpenAIRE

    Pounsford, J C; Saunders, K B

    1986-01-01

    Twenty two normal women volunteers underwent a standard cough provocation test by inhaling solutions of citric acid of progressively increasing concentration. Eight were non-smokers, eight moderate smokers, and six occasional smokers. All the non-smokers and moderate smokers coughed. Moderate smokers tended to cough more than non-smokers, but not significantly so. None of the occasional smokers coughed at all (p less than 0.001). Possibly the ability to smoke occasionally with enjoyment is a ...

  7. Behavior of Lung Health Parameters among Smokers and Secondhand Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Ghanem

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study on a pool of undergraduate smokers and nonsmokers (n=200 was randomly selected from Notre Dame University, Lebanon. The study design is based on a questionnaire about the students’ smoking record exposure, cotinine saliva levels, and ventilatory lung function parameters. Despite the nonsmoking policies that have been recently established by universities, diffused smoking stations in proximity to classes and offices still exist, at least in the MENA region. Such an environment still imposes a remarkable effect on certain lung health parameters of nonsmokers exhibiting similar exhaled air per second (FEV1 to smokers with a P value = 0.558 and normal flow of air (TV with a P value = 0.153. However, the maximum amount of air held in the lungs remained different with respect to sex and smoking status. These results imply a poor performance of nonsmokers mimicking partially the lung health parameters of smokers. It remains a pressing issue to increase awareness concerning the debilitating effects of secondhand smoking.

  8. A comprehensive French grammar

    CERN Document Server

    Price, Glanville

    2013-01-01

    Characterized by clear and accessible explanations, numerous examples and sample sentences, a new section on register and tone, and useful appendices covering topics including age and time, A Comprehensive French Grammar, Sixth Edition is an indispensable tool for advanced students of French language and literature.A revised edition of this established, bestselling French grammarIncludes a new section on register and medium and offers expanded treatment of French punctuationFeatures numerous examples and sample sentences, and useful appendices covering topics including age, time, and dimension

  9. French essentials for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Lawless, Laura K

    2011-01-01

    Just the core concepts you need to write and speak French correctly If you have some knowledge of French and want to polish your skills, French Essentials For Dummies focuses on just the core concepts you need to communicate effectively. From conjugating verbs to understanding tenses, this easy-to-follow guide lets you skip the suffering and score high at exam time. French 101 - get the lowdown on the basics, from expressing dates and times to identifying parts of speech Gender matters - see how a noun's gender determines the articles, adjectives, and pronouns y

  10. Impact of the Spanish smoking law in smoker hospitality workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Fernández, Esteve; Fu, Marcela; Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; López, María J; Ariza, Carles; Pascual, José A; Schiaffino, Anna; Pérez-Ortuño, Raúl; Saltó, Esteve; Nebot, Manel

    2009-09-01

    A smoke-free law went into effect in Spain on 1 January 2006, affecting all enclosed workplaces except hospitality venues, where only partial bans were implemented. The objective was to evaluate the impact of the law among hospitality workers who smoke. The study design is a before-and-after evaluation. We formed a cohort at baseline, during the 3 months before the law went into effect, with 431 hospitality workers (222 smokers). From them, 288 were successfully followed-up 12 months after the ban (118 were smokers at baseline). We analyzed the quit rate, the reduction in the number of cigarettes smoked per day, changes in the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) scores, and changes in salivary cotinine concentrations in smokers from baseline to 1 year after the ban. Among 118 smokers, six (5.1%) quit smoking. Among the 112 remaining smokers, the mean number of cigarettes smoked decreased by 8.9% after the ban (from 17.9 to 16.3 cigarettes/day, p 6) was reduced by half after the ban (19.5% vs. 9.7%, p = .03). Salivary cotinine decreased by 4.4% after the ban (geometric mean 104.3 vs. 99.7 ng/ml, p = .02). No meaningful differences were found in quit rates and the FTND scores according to type of regulation. The Spanish smoking law has had beneficial effects (reduction in number of cigarettes smoked, cotinine levels, and FTND score) among hospitality workers who smoke.

  11. A Possible Indicator of Oxidative Damage in Smokers: (13Z)-Lycopene?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Daniel L; Lorenz, Mario; Young, Andrew J; Lowe, Gordon M

    2017-09-13

    In vitro, the gaseous phase of cigarette smoke is known to induce both isomerization and degradation of dietary carotenoids, such as β-carotene and lycopene. However, the effects of cigarette smoke on the composition of circulating lycopene in vivo are not well understood. In this study, we examined the lycopene profiles of plasma from non-smokers and smokers. No oxidative intermediates of lycopene that have been observed previously in vitro were detected in the plasma, but evidence of isomerization of the carotenoid was seen. Four geometric forms of lycopene were detected in the plasma of both smokers and non-smokers, namely the (5 Z ), (9 Z ), (13 Z ) and (all- E ) forms. The relative amounts of these isomers differed between the two cohorts and there was a significant difference ( p lycopene, and in the relative amounts of (13 Z ) and (all- E )-lycopene. The ratio of (all- E ):(13 Z )-lycopene was 0.84:1.00 in smokers compared to 1.04:1.00 in non-smokers. In smokers, the (13 Z )-isomer was generated in preference to the more thermodynamically stable (5 Z ) and (9 Z )-isomers. This mirrors the scenario seen in vitro, in which the formation of (13 Z )-lycopene was the main isomer that accompanied the depletion of (all- E ) lycopene, when exposed to cigarette smoke. The results suggest that the relative amount of (13 Z )-lycopene could be used as an indicator of oxidative damage to lycopene in vivo.

  12. The new French Development aid towards French-speaking Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Konate, Sindou Michel

    2013-01-01

    This project is focused on French president François Hollande new policy initiation around French Development assistance issue, particularly to French speakingAfrica South of the Sahara. President Hollande wishes to distance himself from the practices of his predecessors on French Public Development Assistance toward its former African colonies This project is focused on French president François Hollande new policy initiation around French Development assistance issue, particularly to Fre...

  13. Sex Effects on Smoking Cue Perception in Non-Smokers, Smokers, and Ex-Smokers: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanchi, Davide; Brody, Arthur; Borgwardt, Stefan; Haller, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Recent neuroimaging research suggests sex-related brain differences in smoking addiction. In the present pilot study, we assessed gender-related differences in brain activation in response to cigarette-related video cues, investigating non-smokers, smokers, and ex-smokers. First, we compared 29 females (28.6 ± 5.3) vs. 23 males (31.5 ± 6.4), regardless of current smoking status to assess global gender-related effects. Second, we performed a post hoc analysis of non-smokers (9 females and 8 males), smokers (10 females and 8 males), and ex-smokers (10 females and 7 males). Participants performed a block-design functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm contrasting smoking with control cue video exposures. Data analyses included task-related general linear model, voxel-based morphometry of gray matter (GM), and tract-based spatial statistics of white matter (WM). First, the global effect regardless of current smoking status revealed higher activation in the bilateral superior frontal gyrus and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) for females compared to males. Second, the analysis according to current smoking status demonstrated higher activation in female vs. male smokers vs. non-smokers in the superior frontal gyrus, anterior and posterior cingulate cortex, and precuneus, and higher activation in female vs. male ex-smokers vs. non-smokers in the right precentral gyrus, in the right insula and ACC. No structural differences were found in GM or WM. The current study identifies gender-related brain functional differences in smokers and ex-smokers compared to non-smokers. The current work can be considered as a starting point for future investigations into gender differences in brain responses to cigarette-related cues.

  14. Sex-effects on smoking cue perception in non-smokers, smokers, and ex-smokers: a pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Zanchi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionRecent neuroimaging research suggests sex-related brain differences in smoking addiction. In the present pilot study, we assessed gender-related differences in brain activation in response to cigarette-related video cues, investigating non-smokers, smokers and ex-smokers. MethodsFirst, we compared 29 females (28.6±5.3 versus 23 males (31.5±6.4 regardless of current smoking status to assess global gender-related effects. Second, we performed a post-hoc analysis of non-smokers (9 F, 8M, smokers (10F, 8M and ex-smokers (10F, 7M. Participants performed a block-design functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI paradigm contrasting smoking with control cue video exposures. Data analyses included task-related general linear model, voxel-based morphometry (VBM of gray matter, and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS of white matter. ResultsFirst, the global effect regardless of current smoking status revealed higher activation in the bilateral superior frontal gyrus and anterior cingulate cortex for females compared to males. Second, the analysis according to current smoking status demonstrated higher activation in female vs. male smokers vs. non-smokers in the superior frontal gyrus, anterior and posterior cingulate cortex, and precuneus, and higher activation in female vs. male ex-smokers vs. non-smokers in the right precentral gyrus, in the right insula and anterior cingulate cortex. No structural differences were found in grey or white matter.ConclusionThe current study identifies gender-related brain functional differences in smokers and ex-smokers compared to non-smokers. The current work can be considered as a starting point for future investigations into gender differences in brain responses to cigarette-related cues.

  15. French PWR Safety Philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conte, M. M.

    1986-01-01

    The first 900 MWe units, built under the American Westinghouse licence and with reference to the U. S. regulation, were followed by 28 standardized units, C P1 and C P2 series. Increasing knowledge and lessons learned from starting and operating experience of French nuclear power plants, completed by the experience learned from the operation of foreign reactors, has contributed to the improvement of French PWR design and safety philosophy. As early as 1976, this experience was taken into account by French Safety organisms to discuss, with Electricite de France, the safety options for the planned 1300 MWe units, P4 and P4 series. In 1983, the new reactor scheduled, Ni4 series 1400 MWe, is a totally French design which satisfies the French regulations and other French standards and codes. Based on a deterministic approach, the French safety analysis was progressively completed by a probabilistic approach each of them having possibilities and limits. Increasing knowledge and lessons learned from operating experience have contributed to the French safety philosophy improvement. The methodology now applied to safety evaluation develops a new facet of the in depth defense concept by taking highly unlikely events into consideration, by developing the search of safety consistency of the design, and by completing the deterministic approach by the probabilistic one

  16. Routledge French technical dictionary

    CERN Document Server

    1994-01-01

    The French-English volume of this highly acclaimed set consists of some 100,000 keywords in both French and English, drawn from the whole range of modern applied science and technical terminology. Covers over 70 subject areas, from engineering and chemistry to packaging, transportation, data processing and much more.

  17. French nuclear organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naudet, G.

    1993-01-01

    The French nuclear organization is characterized by two main features: the small number of firms involved and the role of the Government. In this text we give the French organization for nuclear industry and the role of Government and public authorities. 7 figs

  18. Essential French grammar

    CERN Document Server

    Thacker, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Essential French Grammar is an innovative reference grammar and workbook for intermediate and advanced undergraduate students of French (CEFR levels B2 to C1). Its clear explanations of grammar are supported by contemporary examples and lively cartoon drawings.  Each chapter contains: * real-life language examples in French, with English translations * a 'key points' box and tables that summarise grammar concepts * a variety of exercises to reinforce learning * a contemporary primary source or literary extract to illustrate grammar in context. To aid your understanding, this book also contains a glossary of grammatical terms in French and English, useful verb tables and a key to the exercises. Together, these features all help you to grasp complex points of grammar and develop your French language skills.

  19. Nicotine Intake in Pregnant Smokers and a General Population of Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Ivan; Jacob, Nelly; Heishman, Stephen J

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether pregnant smokers have the same nicotine intake from cigarettes as a general population of smokers and whether the known lower daily cigarette consumption among pregnant smokers is associated with higher nicotine intake among pregnant smokers. The study was a cross-sectional comparison of pregnant smokers and a general population of smokers in smoking cessation clinics. Participants were treatment-seeking pregnant (n = 476), nonpregnant female (n = 116), and male (n = 195) smokers who participated in two independent smoking cessation trials. Nicotine intake was measured as saliva cotinine/ cigarette/kg body weight ratio. The mean saliva cotinine (μg/L)/ cigarette/kg body weight (0.21, SD = 0.15) of pregnant smokers was similar to that of nonpregnant female smokers (0.24, SD = 0.14) and higher than that of male smokers (0.18, SD = 0.12, p = .002) despite a substantially lower number of cigarettes per day (pregnant smokers: 12, SD = 6; nonpregnant female smokers: 26.6, SD = 11.7; male smokers: 23.5, SD = 9.5, p smokers, saliva cotinine, as expected, increased in parallel with the number of cigarettes per day, but nicotine intake (cotinine/cigarette/kg body weight) was inversely associated with daily cigarette consumption (p smokers (p = .43). This secondary analysis showed that pregnant smokers' nicotine intake was similar to that of a general population of smokers despite a lower cigarette consumption rate. Among pregnant smokers, lower daily cigarette consumption was associated with higher nicotine intake from cigarettes, suggesting compensatory smoking.

  20. Recruiting Diverse Smokers: Enrollment Yields and Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodar, Kaitlyn E.; Hall, Marissa G.; Butler, Eboneé N.; Parada, Humberto; Stein-Seroussi, Al; Hanley, Sean; Brewer, Noel T.

    2016-01-01

    To help tobacco control research better include vulnerable populations, we sought to identify effective ways to recruit diverse smokers. In 2014–2015, we recruited 2149 adult cigarette smokers in California and North Carolina, United States, to participate in a randomized trial of pictorial cigarette pack warnings. The most effective means of recruiting smokers were the classified advertising website Craigslist (28% of participants), word of mouth (23%), Facebook (16%), and flyers or postcards (14%). Low-income and African American smokers were more likely to respond to interpersonal contact (including staff in-person recruitment and word of mouth) than were high-income and non-African American smokers (all p cost, the cheapest was Craigslist ($3–7 per smoker). The most expensive methods were newspaper ads in California ($375 per smoker) and staff in-person recruiting in North Carolina ($180 per smoker). Successfully recruiting diverse smokers requires using multiple methods including interpersonal, online, and other media. Craigslist and word of mouth are especially useful and low-cost ways to recruit diverse smokers. PMID:27999280

  1. Differential Effect of Active Smoking on Gene Expression in Male and Female Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Sunirmal; Amundson, Sally A

    2015-01-01

    Smoking is the second leading cause of preventable death in the United States. Cohort epidemiological studies have demonstrated that women are more vulnerable to cigarette-smoking induced diseases than their male counterparts, however, the molecular basis of these differences has remained unknown. In this study, we explored if there were differences in the gene expression patterns between male and female smokers, and how these patterns might reflect different sex-specific responses to the stress of smoking. Using whole genome microarray gene expression profiling, we found that a substantial number of oxidant related genes were expressed in both male and female smokers, however, smoking-responsive genes did indeed differ greatly between male and female smokers. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) against reference oncogenic signature gene sets identified a large number of oncogenic pathway gene-sets that were significantly altered in female smokers compared to male smokers. In addition, functional annotation with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) identified smoking-correlated genes associated with biological functions in male and female smokers that are directly relevant to well-known smoking related pathologies. However, these relevant biological functions were strikingly overrepresented in female smokers compared to male smokers. IPA network analysis with the functional categories of immune and inflammatory response gene products suggested potential interactions between smoking response and female hormones. Our results demonstrate a striking dichotomy between male and female gene expression responses to smoking. This is the first genome-wide expression study to compare the sex-specific impacts of smoking at a molecular level and suggests a novel potential connection between sex hormone signaling and smoking-induced diseases in female smokers. PMID:25621181

  2. Comparison of HPRT mutant frequency in human peripheral blood lymphocytes of smokers and non-smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vivek Kumar, P.R.; Mary Mohankumar, N.; Chatterjee, Indranil; Jeevanram, R.K.

    2003-01-01

    The mutant frequency of hypoxanthine guanine phospho ribosyl transferase (HPRT) has been studied in peripheral blood lymphocytes of six non-smokers and six smokers. The mutant frequency was studied by following a Uniform Operating Protocol (UOP). The mean lymphocyte cloning efficiency of non-smokers and smokers was about 31 %. The mean mutant frequency obtained in smokers showed a marginal increase compared to that of non-smokers, but they were not significantly different (P= 0.1416). This paper discusses the methodology adopted and the results obtained with the preliminary finding. (author)

  3. Comparison of peak expiratory flow rate and lipid profile in asymptomatic smokers and non-smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatima, F.; Abbasi, M.A.; Jadoon, J.; Sohail, M.; Shah, J.; Afridi, U.; Noor, M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco is the major risk factor for chronic obstructive airway disease (COAD), other pulmonary diseases, cancer, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. The objective of study was to determine the mean Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) and serum lipid profile in apparently healthy male smokers and non-smokers. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad from 15th December, 2009 to 15th June, 2010. Apparently healthy smokers and non-smokers from population coming to Hospital as attendants of the patients or as employees of the hospital were inducted in the study. PEFR and lipid profile of all the subjects was accessed. Results: There were total of 300 male subjects, 150 smokers and 150 non-smokers. The mean age of study subjects was 26.60 ± 5.5 years. The mean PEFR of smokers was 450.62l/min and that of non-smokers was 494.81 L/min, the difference being statistically significant (p-value <0.05).The mean total cholesterol of smokers is 5.30 ± 0.86 mmol/l and it was 3.84 ± 0.54 mmol/l in non-smokers. Mean serum Triacyl Glycerols (TAGs) and Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL) cholesterol of smokers was 2.04 ± 0.38 and 3.5 ± 0.83 mmol/l whereas it was 1.44 ± 0.52 and 2.02 ± 0.66 mmol/l in non-smokers. Mean High Density Lipo-protein (HDL) of smokers was 0.86 ± 0.30 mmol/l and of non-smokers is 1.20 ± 0.41 mmo/l. There was statistically significant difference between serum lipid profile of smokers and non-smokers (p<0.05). the mean serum Total Cholesterol (TC), TAGs and LDL were significantly higher in smokers as compared to non-smokers. However HDL was significantly lower in smokers in comparison to non-smokers. Conclusion: There was statistically significant difference between PEFR of smokers and non-smokers. Higher and significant mean values of TC, TAG and LDL-C was observed in smokers as compared to non-smokers. (author)

  4. What French for Gabonese French Lexicography

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    administration, international relations, teaching, the media, trade, transport, tourism, .... The present study refutes such as reductive definition of what Gabonese .... language than French limits itself to public speeches and support to linguistics ...... sité Omar Bongo du Gabon: Série Lettres, Droit, Sciences et Médecine: 55-63.

  5. The effect of quitting smoking on costs and healthcare utilization in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a comparison of current smokers versus ex-smokers in routine clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicras-Mainar, Antoni; Rejas-Gutiérrez, Javier; Navarro-Artieda, Ruth; Ibáñez-Nolla, Jordi

    2014-08-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a prevalent condition mainly related to smoking, which is associated with a substantial economic burden. The purpose was to compare healthcare resource utilization and costs according to smoking status in patients with COPD in routine clinical practice. A retrospective cohort nested case-control study was designed. The cohort was composed of male and female COPD outpatients, 40 years or older, covered by the Badalona Serveis Assistencials (a health provider) health plan. Cases were current smokers with COPD and controls (two per case) were former smokers with COPD (at least 12 months without smoking), matched for age, sex, duration of COPD, and burden of comorbidity. The index date was the last visit recorded in the database, and the analysis was performed retrospectively on healthcare resource utilization data for the 12 months before the index date. A total of 930 COPD records were analyzed: 310 current and 620 former smokers [mean age 69.4 years (84.6 % male)]. Cases had more exacerbations, physician visits of any type, and drug therapies related to COPD were more common. As a consequence, current smokers had higher average annual healthcare costs: €3,784 (1,888) versus €2,302 (2,451), p use of healthcare resources, mainly COPD drugs and physician visits, compared with former smokers who had abstained for at least 12 months. As a consequence, current smokers had higher healthcare costs to the National Health System in Spain than ex-smokers.

  6. French in Culinary World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rila Hilma

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available More than million foods have been made by people from all over the world in the latest years. People now try to create new cooks and make some creativity on it. Then, cooking which the field is culinary has become an art because it needs an artistic value to decorate the food, a good taste and proper technique in processing delicious food in order to make it a masterpiece. French culinary is as famous as the Eiffel tower in the heart of the country, Paris. Most of fine dining international restaurants apply the French menu and cooking. This article presents an overview about the French element in culinary world; starts from its history, kitchen organization, French menu spelling, and French cooking vocabulary. The discussion proceeds library research to compile the data. Later, the art of culinary is interesting to be learned because it contains the classical history of world civilization, in this case French civilization. The issue of cooking trend “nouvelle cuisine” was a masterpiece of one of the greatest chef in his time, Escoffier. French culinary is widely well-known in all over the world because of innovation, creativity, and proud. Those are spirits that we must learn.   

  7. Recruiting Diverse Smokers: Enrollment Yields and Cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodar, Kaitlyn E; Hall, Marissa G; Butler, Eboneé N; Parada, Humberto; Stein-Seroussi, Al; Hanley, Sean; Brewer, Noel T

    2016-12-16

    To help tobacco control research better include vulnerable populations, we sought to identify effective ways to recruit diverse smokers. In 2014-2015, we recruited 2149 adult cigarette smokers in California and North Carolina, United States, to participate in a randomized trial of pictorial cigarette pack warnings. The most effective means of recruiting smokers were the classified advertising website Craigslist (28% of participants), word of mouth (23%), Facebook (16%), and flyers or postcards (14%). Low-income and African American smokers were more likely to respond to interpersonal contact (including staff in-person recruitment and word of mouth) than were high-income and non-African American smokers (all p word of mouth are especially useful and low-cost ways to recruit diverse smokers.

  8. The case against a smoker's license.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Collin

    Full Text Available Tobacco continues to kill millions of people around the world each year and its use is increasing in some countries, which makes the need for new, creative, and radical efforts to achieve the tobacco control endgame vitally important. One such effort is discussed in this PLOS Medicine Debate, where Simon Chapman presents his proposal for a "smoker's license" and Jeff Collin argues against. Chapman sets out a case for introducing a smart card license for smokers designed to limit access to tobacco products and encourage cessation. Key elements of the smoker's license include smokers setting daily limits, financial incentives for permanent license surrender, and a test of health risk knowledge for commencing smokers. Collin argues against the proposal, saying that it would shift focus away from the real vector of the epidemic--the tobacco industry--and that by focusing on individuals it would censure victims, increase stigmatization of smokers, and marginalize the poor.

  9. The case for a smoker's license.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Chapman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND TO THE DEBATE: Tobacco continues to kill millions of people around the world each year and its use is increasing in some countries, which makes the need for new, creative, and radical efforts to achieve the tobacco control endgame vitally important. One such effort is discussed in this PLOS Medicine Debate, where Simon Chapman presents his proposal for a "smoker's license" and Jeff Collin argues against. Chapman sets out a case for introducing a smart card license for smokers designed to limit access to tobacco products and encourage cessation. Key elements of the smoker's license include smokers setting daily limits, financial incentives for permanent license surrender, and a test of health risk knowledge for commencing smokers. Collin argues against the proposal, saying that it would shift focus away from the real vector of the epidemic--the tobacco industry--and that by focusing on individuals it would censure victims, increase stigmatization of smokers, and marginalize the poor.

  10. The case for a smoker's license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco continues to kill millions of people around the world each year and its use is increasing in some countries, which makes the need for new, creative, and radical efforts to achieve the tobacco control endgame vitally important. One such effort is discussed in this PLOS Medicine Debate, where Simon Chapman presents his proposal for a "smoker's license" and Jeff Collin argues against. Chapman sets out a case for introducing a smart card license for smokers designed to limit access to tobacco products and encourage cessation. Key elements of the smoker's license include smokers setting daily limits, financial incentives for permanent license surrender, and a test of health risk knowledge for commencing smokers. Collin argues against the proposal, saying that it would shift focus away from the real vector of the epidemic--the tobacco industry--and that by focusing on individuals it would censure victims, increase stigmatization of smokers, and marginalize the poor.

  11. The case against a smoker's license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco continues to kill millions of people around the world each year and its use is increasing in some countries, which makes the need for new, creative, and radical efforts to achieve the tobacco control endgame vitally important. One such effort is discussed in this PLOS Medicine Debate, where Simon Chapman presents his proposal for a "smoker's license" and Jeff Collin argues against. Chapman sets out a case for introducing a smart card license for smokers designed to limit access to tobacco products and encourage cessation. Key elements of the smoker's license include smokers setting daily limits, financial incentives for permanent license surrender, and a test of health risk knowledge for commencing smokers. Collin argues against the proposal, saying that it would shift focus away from the real vector of the epidemic--the tobacco industry--and that by focusing on individuals it would censure victims, increase stigmatization of smokers, and marginalize the poor.

  12. Eating pathology among Black and White smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Johnsen, Lisa A P; Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Spring, Bonnie J

    2005-02-01

    Among White smokers, many females use smoking as a weight control strategy. Little is known about the relationship between eating pathology and smoking among Black females, and whether smokers who enroll in treatment differ in eating pathology from smokers who decline treatment. We examined eating pathology among Black and White smokers who enrolled in a smoking cessation treatment and those who declined treatment. Participants were 100 Black and 100 White female smokers (ages 18-65) who completed three measures of eating pathology. After controlling for BMI, Whites reported greater levels of overall eating pathology than Blacks [F(1,195)=4.1; pWhite than Black smokers. However, once females seek smoking cessation treatment, these ethnic differences are not apparent.

  13. What French for Gabonese French lexicography? | Assam | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is a response to Mavoungou (2013a) who has pleaded for the production of a dictionary of Gabonese French as variant B of the French language. The paper intends to com-prehend the concept of "Gabonese French". It gives an outline of the situation of French within the language diversity of Gabon as a ...

  14. Use of French, Attitudes and Motivations of French Immersion Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Keilen, Marguerite

    1995-01-01

    Compares the degree to which pupils in the French immersion and regular English school programs speak French and initiate contact with French people. Attitudes and motivations were significantly more positive, and social tolerance and self-rated competency in French were much higher in the immersion than in English program subjects. (29…

  15. French PWR safety philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conte, M.

    1986-05-01

    Increasing knowledge and lessons learned from starting and operating experience of French nuclear power plants, completed by the experience learned from the operation of foreign reactors, has contributed to the improvement of French PWR design and safety philosophy. Based on a deterministic approach, the French safety analysis was progressively completed by a probabilistic approach, each of them having possibilities and limits. As a consequence of the global risk objective set in 1977 for nuclear reactors, safety analysis was extended to the evaluation of events more complex than the conventional ones, and later to the evaluation of the feasibility of the offsite emergency plans in case of severe accidents

  16. Flirting with French

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, William

    2015-01-01

    William Alexander is not just a Francophile, he wants to be French. It's not enough to explore the country, to enjoy the food and revel in the ambience, he wants to feel French from the inside. Among the things that stand in his way is the fact that he can't actually speak the language. Setting out to conquer the language he loves (but which, amusingly, does not seem to love him back), Alexander devotes himself to learning French, going beyond grammar lessons and memory techniques to delve into the history of the language, the science of linguistics, and the art of translation. Along

  17. The French and energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouquette, Celine; Moreau, Sylvain; Bottin, Anne; Reperant, Patricia

    2012-08-01

    In 2012, as in 2011, the French are favourable to renewable energy. If they could, around 60% of them would opt for solar, fuelwood or heat pumps for heating. Wind power is also viewed favourably. Aware of environmental issues, the French are prepared to change their habits in the face of climate change, and two-thirds are even prepared to make sacrifices. One-third declares having already taken action or intending to do so to reduce their energy consumption. The cost of energy remains a central issue: faced with higher prices, half of French people would reduce their consumption. However, information on the subject of energy needs to be improved. (authors)

  18. Evaluation of Vibration Response Imaging (VRI) Technique and Difference in VRI Indices Among Non-Smokers, Active Smokers, and Passive Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hongying; Chen, Jichao; Cao, Jinying; Mu, Lan; Hu, Zhenyu; He, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Background Vibration response imaging (VRI) is a new technology for lung imaging. Active smokers and non-smokers show differences in VRI findings, but no data are available for passive smokers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of VRI and to assess the differences in VRI findings among non-smokers, active smokers, and passive smokers. Material/Methods Healthy subjects (n=165: 63 non-smokers, 56 active smokers, and 46 passive smokers) with normal lung function were enrolled. Medical history, physical examination, lung function test, and VRI were performed for all subjects. Correlation between smoking index and VRI scores (VRIS) were performed. Results VRI images showed progressive and regressive stages representing the inspiratory and expiratory phases bilaterally in a vertical and synchronized manner in non-smokers. Vibration energy curves with low expiratory phase and plateau were present in 6.35% and 3.17%, respectively, of healthy non-smokers, 41.07% and 28.60% of smokers, and 39.13% and 30.43% of passive smokers, respectively. The massive energy peak in the non-smokers, smokers, and passive-smokers was 1.77±0.27, 1.57±0.29, and 1.66±0.33, respectively (all Psmokers and smokers. VRI revealed that passive smoking can also harm the lungs. VRI could be used to visually persuade smokers to give up smoking. PMID:26212715

  19. Tobacco withdrawal among opioid-dependent smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streck, Joanna M; Heil, Sarah H; Higgins, Stephen T; Bunn, Janice Y; Sigmon, Stacey C

    2018-04-01

    Prevalence of cigarette smoking among opioid-dependent individuals is 6-fold that of the general U.S. adult population and their quit rates are notoriously poor. One possible reason for the modest cessation outcomes in opioid-dependent smokers may be that they experience more severe tobacco withdrawal upon quitting. In this secondary analysis, we evaluated tobacco withdrawal in opioid-dependent (OD) smokers versus smokers without co-occurring substance use disorders (SUDs). Participants were 47 methadone- or buprenorphine-maintained smokers and 25 non-SUD smokers who completed 1 of several 2-week studies involving daily visits for biochemical monitoring, delivery of financial incentives contingent on smoking abstinence, and assessment of withdrawal via the Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale (MNWS). Prior to quitting smoking, OD smokers presented with higher baseline withdrawal scores than non-SUD smokers (1.7 ± 0.2 vs. 0.7 ± 0.2, respectively; F [1, 63] = 7.31, p non-SUD smokers, suggesting that elevated withdrawal severity following quitting may not be a major factor contributing to the poor cessation outcomes consistently observed among OD smokers. Further scientific efforts are needed to improve our understanding of the high smoking rates and modest cessation outcomes in this challenging population. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Impulsiveness and venturesomeness in German smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernow, Nina; Kruck, Bernadette; Pfeifer, Philippe; Lieb, Klaus; Tüscher, Oliver; Fehr, Christoph

    2011-08-01

    Cigarette smoking is a behavior, which is influenced by genetic, demographic, and psychological factors. A large body of research has examined the association of cigarette smoking variables with individual differences in personality traits. The aim of the current study was to replicate the findings of higher self-reported impulsivity in smokers compared with never-smokers in a German sample using Eysenck´s construct of impulsivity. Furthermore, it was intended to further the knowledge about associations between different self-reported impulsivity components and different smoking variables. We used the Impulsiveness-Venturesomeness-Empathy questionnaire (I7) to measure self-reported impulsiveness and venturesomeness and the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) to measure novelty seeking (NS) in a sample of 82 nicotine-dependent smokers and 119 never-smokers. Smokers scored higher on impulsiveness, venturesomeness, and NS than never-smokers independent of age, gender, and years of education. We found a significant association between venturesomeness, impulsiveness and smoking status in daily smokers. In summary, this study provides evidence that impulsiveness and venturesomeness as well as the novelty-seeking subscale extravagance are significantly associated with smoking status in a German sample of female and male smokers compared with never-smokers.

  1. E3N, a French cohort study on cancer risk factors. E3N Group. Etude Epidémiologique auprès de femmes de l'Education Nationale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavel-Chapelon, F; van Liere, M J; Giubout, C; Niravong, M Y; Goulard, H; Le Corre, C; Hoang, L A; Amoyel, J; Auquier, A; Duquesnel, E

    1997-10-01

    This paper describes the design of E3N, a prospective cohort study conducted in France on risk factors for female cancers. The cohort comprises 100,000 women, aged 40-65 years at baseline in 1990. Participants were asked to complete questionnaires every 18 months. The main hypotheses studied concern the relationship between diet and cancer and between hormonal treatments and cancer. All cancers diagnosed are registered, together with other diseases (cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, osteoporosis). The study population and the follow-up procedure are described.

  2. Difference in pulmonary absorption of inhaled terbutaline in healthy smokers and non-smokers.

    OpenAIRE

    Schmekel, B; Borgström, L; Wollmer, P

    1991-01-01

    Pathophysiological studies have shown that the alveolocapillary transfer of small solutes is much faster in healthy smokers than in non-smokers. The effects of smoking on the pulmonary absorption of inhaled terbutaline were examined in normal subjects. Nine healthy smokers and 13 healthy non-smokers inhaled nebulised terbutaline and dry terbutaline powder on two study days. Plasma concentrations of terbutaline were measured up to 240 minutes after the inhalation. The plasma concentration of t...

  3. French plutonium management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greneche, D.

    2002-01-01

    The French plutonium management program is summarized in this paper. The program considers nuclear generation as a major component of national electric power supply and includes the reprocessing of the spent fuel. (author)

  4. French Dictionaries. Series: Specialised Bibliographies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaar, R. M.

    This is a list of French monolingual, French-English and English-French dictionaries available in December 1975. Dictionaries of etymology, phonetics, place names, proper names, and slang are included, as well as dictionaries for children and dictionaries of Belgian, Canadian, and Swiss French. Most other specialized dictionaries, encyclopedias,…

  5. [The Confusion Assessment Method: Transcultural adaptation of a French version].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, V; Belmin, J; Blain, H; Bonin-Guillaume, S; Goldsmith, L; Guerin, O; Kergoat, M-J; Landais, P; Mahmoudi, R; Morais, J A; Rataboul, P; Saber, A; Sirvain, S; Wolfklein, G; de Wazieres, B

    2018-04-03

    The Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) is a validated key tool in clinical practice and research programs to diagnose delirium and assess its severity. There is no validated French version of the CAM training manual and coding guide (Inouye SK). The aim of this study was to establish a consensual French version of the CAM and its manual. Cross-cultural adaptation to achieve equivalence between the original version and a French adapted version of the CAM manual. A rigorous process was conducted including control of cultural adequacy of the tool's components, double forward and back translations, reconciliation, expert committee review (including bilingual translators with different nationalities, a linguist, highly qualified clinicians, methodologists) and pretesting. A consensual French version of the CAM was achieved. Implementation of the CAM French version in daily clinical practice will enable optimal diagnosis of delirium diagnosis and enhance communication between health professionals in French speaking countries. Validity and psychometric properties are being tested in a French multicenter cohort, opening up new perspectives for improved quality of care and research programs in French speaking countries. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. The French coal board and French society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladoucette, Ph. de

    2004-01-01

    On 19 April 1946 the French national assembly passed a law for nationalizing the mineral fuel industry by a vote of 516 against only 31. 'Charbonnages de France' (CDF), the French coal board, was created and prospects were promising. During the reconstruction period (1945 - 1960), coal industry was a pillar of the French economy, the production of coal had been steadily growing to reach its top in 1958 with 59 Mt. The sixties showed the beginning of the decline of coal to the benefit of oil, natural gas and later nuclear energy. As early as 1967 CDF had a policy of promoting new industries in regions of mines in order to break down the mono-industry scheme and to favor staff conversion massively. In 1947 the number of people on the payroll of CDF was 360.000, this number was decreasing steadily to reach 23.000 in 1990. In 2004 the last deep mine to work in France was closed down. This article tells the story of coal mining in France by describing its ups and downs and by assessing its social impact

  7. 500 French verbs for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Erotopoulos

    2013-01-01

    Vexed by French verbs? Fear no more! In 500 French Verbs For Dummies, beginning French language learners can find a quick reference for verbs in the basic present tenses. More advanced French speakers can utilize this book to learn more complex verb tenses and conjugations as well as advanced verbs with irregular endings. One page for each of the 500 most commonly used verbs in the French language -alphabetically arranged and numbered for easy referenceSpecial designation of the 50 most essential French verbsA summary of basic French grammar that incl

  8. English and French courses

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    If one of your New Year’s resolutions is to learn a language, there is no excuse anymore!   You can attend one of our English or French courses and you can practise the language with a tandem partner! General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 27 January to 4 April 2014. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. Oral Expression This course is aimed at students with a good knowledge of French who want to enhance their speaking skills. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. The next session will take place from 27 January to 4 April 2014. Writing professional documents in French These courses are designed for non-French speakers with a very good standard of spoken French. The next session will take place from 27 January to 4 April 2014. Cours d’anglais général et professionnel La prochaine session se déroulera du 3 mars a...

  9. Adolescents' perceptions about smokers in Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Devadasan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevalence of tobacco use among adolescents in India is very high. Despite many epidemiological studies exploring tobacco use among youth, there is no published data on adolescents' perceptions about smokers in Indian society and its implications on tobacco control. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a stratified random sampling with probability proportional to school-type (government or private owned. Data was collected using a pretested, self-administered, anonymous questionnaire with a mix of close and open-ended questions from a sample of 1087 students. Chi-square test was used to measure associations. Qualitative data was analysed through inductive coding. Results The response rate for the study was 82.5% and the sample population had a mean age of 16.9 years (SD = 1.9 with 57.8% male students. Majority of respondents (84.6% reported negative perceptions about smokers while 20.4% of respondents reported positive perceptions. Female students reported significantly higher disapproval rate (negative perceptions for smoking compared to male students (89.7% Vs 71.6% in case of male smoker; 81.2% Vs 67.3% in case of female smoker. Dominant themes defining perceptions about smokers included 'hatred/hostility/Intolerance', 'against family values/norms', 'not aware of tobacco harms' and 'under stress/emotional trauma'. Themes like 'culture', 'character' and 'power' specifically described negative social image of female smoker but projected a neutral or sometimes even a positive image of male smoker. There was a significant association between adolescents' positive perceptions of smokers and tobacco use by themselves as well as their close associates. Conclusions Adolescents' stereotypes of smokers, especially female smokers are largely negative. We suggest that tobacco control interventions targeting adolescents should be gender specific, should also involve their peers, family and school personnel, and should go

  10. Adolescents' perceptions about smokers in Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhojani, Upendra M; Elias, Maya A; Devadasan, N

    2011-07-14

    Prevalence of tobacco use among adolescents in India is very high. Despite many epidemiological studies exploring tobacco use among youth, there is no published data on adolescents' perceptions about smokers in Indian society and its implications on tobacco control. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a stratified random sampling with probability proportional to school-type (government or private owned). Data was collected using a pretested, self-administered, anonymous questionnaire with a mix of close and open-ended questions from a sample of 1087 students. Chi-square test was used to measure associations. Qualitative data was analysed through inductive coding. The response rate for the study was 82.5% and the sample population had a mean age of 16.9 years (SD = 1.9) with 57.8% male students. Majority of respondents (84.6%) reported negative perceptions about smokers while 20.4% of respondents reported positive perceptions. Female students reported significantly higher disapproval rate (negative perceptions) for smoking compared to male students (89.7% Vs 71.6% in case of male smoker; 81.2% Vs 67.3% in case of female smoker). Dominant themes defining perceptions about smokers included 'hatred/hostility/Intolerance', 'against family values/norms', 'not aware of tobacco harms' and 'under stress/emotional trauma'. Themes like 'culture', 'character' and 'power' specifically described negative social image of female smoker but projected a neutral or sometimes even a positive image of male smoker. There was a significant association between adolescents' positive perceptions of smokers and tobacco use by themselves as well as their close associates. Adolescents' stereotypes of smokers, especially female smokers are largely negative. We suggest that tobacco control interventions targeting adolescents should be gender specific, should also involve their peers, family and school personnel, and should go beyond providing knowledge on harmful effects of smoking to

  11. [Cardiovascular risk in Spanish smokers compared to non-smokers: RETRATOS study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández de Bobadilla, Jaime; Sanz de Burgoa, Verónica; Garrido Morales, Patricio; López de Sá, Esteban

    2011-11-01

    To evaluate the level of cardiovascular risk in smokers seenin Primary Care clinics. Epidemiologic, cross-sectional and multicentre study. Primary Care. Every investigator included 4 consecutive patients (3 smokers, 1 non-smoker) aged 35-50 years, who came to the clinic for any reason. A total of 2,184 patients were included; 2,124 (1,597 smokers; 527 non-smokers) were evaluated and 60 patients were excluded because they did not meet with selection criteria. The 10-year risk of suffering from a fatal cardiovascular disease (CVDR) was calculated according to the SCORE (Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation) model. The 10-year lethal CVR according SCORE model, was classified as: very high (> 15%), high (10-14%), slightly high (5-9%), average (3-4%), low (2%), very low (1%) and negligible (smokers (40±5.3) vs. non-smokers (1.9±2.5) (Pnon-smokers vs. 60.7% smokers (Pnon-smokers vs. 12.6% smokers (P 5%) [10.9% non-smokers vs. 26.7% smokers (Pnon-smokers vs. smokers had less probability of suffering myocardial infarction (OR 0.3; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.1-0.8; P<.0001), peripheral vascular disease (OR 0.6; 95% CI: 0.4-1.0; P=.0180) and chronic obstructive lung disease (OR 0.18; 95% CI: 0.1-0.2; P=.0507). Smoking is related to a high risk of fatal cardiovascular disease. Active promotion in Primary Care clinics of measures aimed at reducing the prevalence of the smoking habit would lead to a lowering of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  12. Electronic cigarette use behaviors and motivations among smokers and non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussan, Thomas E; Shahzad, Fatima G; Tabassum, Eefa; Cohen, Joanna E; Wise, Robert A; Blaha, Michael J; Holbrook, Janet T; Biswal, Shyam

    2017-09-08

    The use of electronic cigarettes (EC) has risen exponentially over the past decade, including among never smokers, and ECs are now the most popular tobacco product among teenagers in the US. While, EC manufacturers utilize numerous marketing strategies to target both smokers and non-smokers, it is unclear how perceptions and behaviors differ between these two groups. We conducted a survey of 320 adults either via online surveys or in Baltimore vape shops to determine demographics, behaviors, perceptions, and motivations underlying use of ECs. Our survey respondents were predominantly young, Caucasian males, 74% of whom identified themselves as former smokers, while 20% identified as current smokers and 6% were never smokers. Former smokers reported a longer history of EC use and higher nicotine concentrations than current smokers. For former and current smokers, the primary motivation for EC use was assistance to quit smoking, and nearly half indicated that they plan to reduce their nicotine concentration and eventually quit using ECs. Among former smokers, self-reports on use and measures of dependence were consistent with nicotine replacement as their primary motivation. The majority of former and current smokers also reported that their respiratory health had improved as a result of EC use, although this effect was stronger for former smokers. Never smokers reported less frequent EC use and dependence compared to former and current smokers. Their motivations for use were more commonly for enjoyment and popularity, and they displayed a reduced desire to eventually quit using ECs. These responses provide insight into the underlying thoughts and behaviors of smoking and non-smoking EC users and also suggest that never smoking EC users are an emerging demographic with different motivations and perceptions than those of current and former smokers.

  13. Electronic cigarette use behaviors and motivations among smokers and non-smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Sussan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of electronic cigarettes (EC has risen exponentially over the past decade, including among never smokers, and ECs are now the most popular tobacco product among teenagers in the US. While, EC manufacturers utilize numerous marketing strategies to target both smokers and non-smokers, it is unclear how perceptions and behaviors differ between these two groups. Methods We conducted a survey of 320 adults either via online surveys or in Baltimore vape shops to determine demographics, behaviors, perceptions, and motivations underlying use of ECs. Results Our survey respondents were predominantly young, Caucasian males, 74% of whom identified themselves as former smokers, while 20% identified as current smokers and 6% were never smokers. Former smokers reported a longer history of EC use and higher nicotine concentrations than current smokers. For former and current smokers, the primary motivation for EC use was assistance to quit smoking, and nearly half indicated that they plan to reduce their nicotine concentration and eventually quit using ECs. Among former smokers, self-reports on use and measures of dependence were consistent with nicotine replacement as their primary motivation. The majority of former and current smokers also reported that their respiratory health had improved as a result of EC use, although this effect was stronger for former smokers. Never smokers reported less frequent EC use and dependence compared to former and current smokers. Their motivations for use were more commonly for enjoyment and popularity, and they displayed a reduced desire to eventually quit using ECs. Conclusions These responses provide insight into the underlying thoughts and behaviors of smoking and non-smoking EC users and also suggest that never smoking EC users are an emerging demographic with different motivations and perceptions than those of current and former smokers.

  14. Risk of COPD with obstruction in active smokers with normal spirometry and reduced diffusion capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Ben-Gary; Strulovici-Barel, Yael; Kaner, Robert J; Sanders, Abraham; Vincent, Thomas L; Mezey, Jason G; Crystal, Ronald G

    2015-12-01

    Smokers are assessed for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) using spirometry, with COPD defined by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) as airflow limitation that is not fully reversible with bronchodilators. There is a subset of smokers with normal spirometry (by GOLD criteria), who have a low diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO), a parameter linked to emphysema and small airway disease. The natural history of these "normal spirometry/low DLCO" smokers is unknown.From a cohort of 1570 smokers in the New York City metropolitian area, all of whom had normal spirometry, two groups were randomly selected for lung function follow-up: smokers with normal spirometry/normal DLCO (n=59) and smokers with normal spirometry/low DLCO (n=46). All had normal history, physical examination, complete blood count, urinalysis, HIV status, α1-antitrypsin level, chest radiography, forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1/FVC ratio and total lung capacity. Throughout the study, all continued to be active smokers.In the normal spirometry/normal DLCO group assessed over 45±20 months, 3% developed GOLD-defined COPD. In contrast, in the normal spirometry/low DLCO group, followed over 41±31 months, 22% developed GOLD-defined COPD.Despite appearing "normal" according to GOLD, smokers with normal spirometry but low DLCO are at significant risk of developing COPD with obstruction to airflow. Copyright ©ERS 2015.

  15. Medicaid expenditures for children living with smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levy Douglas E

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children's exposure to secondhand smoke is associated with increased morbidity. We estimated Medicaid expenditures for children living with smokers compared to those living with no smokers in the United States. Methods Data were overall and service-specific (i.e., inpatient, ambulatory, emergency department, prescription drug, and dental annual Medicaid expenditures for children 0-11 years old from the 2000-2007 Medical Expenditures Panel Surveys. Smokers' presence in households was determined by adult respondents' self reports. There were 25,835 person-years of observation. We used multivariate analyses to adjust for child, parent, and geographic characteristics. Results Children with Medicaid expenditures were nearly twice as likely to live with a smoker as other children in the U.S. population. Adjusted analyses revealed no detectable differences in children's overall Medicaid expenditures by presence of smokers in the household. Medicaid children who lived with smokers on average had $10 (95% CI $3, $18 higher emergency department expenditures per year than those living with no smokers. Conclusions Living with at least one smoker (a proxy for secondhand smoke exposure is unrelated to children's overall short-term Medicaid expenditures, but has a modest impact on emergency department expenditures. Additional research is necessary to understand the relationship between secondhand smoke exposure and long-term health and economic outcomes.

  16. Working memory in cigarette smokers: Comparison to non-smokers and effects of abstinence☆

    OpenAIRE

    Mendrek, Adrianna; Monterosso, John; Simon, Sara L.; Jarvik, Murray; Brody, Arthur; Olmstead, Richard; Domier, Catherine P.; Cohen, Mark S.; Ernst, Monique; London, Edythe D.

    2005-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine the effect of cigarette smoking and withdrawal on working memory. Participants included 15 smokers and 22 matched non-smokers. For both groups the N-Back Task (of working memory) was administered in two test blocks on each of two days. On one day, smokers were tested after ≥13 h abstinence; on the other day, testing began ≤1 h after smoking. Smokers inhaled one cigarette between the blocks on each test day. Results indicated that performance of smoker...

  17. Exfoliative cytology of oral mucosa among smokers, opium addicts and non-smokers: a cytomorphometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemipour, Maryam Alsadat; Aghababaie, Mahbobeh; Mirshekari, Toraj Reza; Asadi-Shekaari, Majid; Tahmasbi-Arashlow, Mehrnaz; Tahmasbi-Arashlow, Farzad; Gandjalikhan Nassab, Sayed Amir Hossein

    2013-12-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate keratinization as well as nuclear and cytoplasmic changes of oral epithelial cells among smokers, opium addicts and non-smokers through exfoliative cytology technique. Smears of buccal mucosa and mouth floor were collected from 300 males (100 smokers, 100 opium addicts and 100 non-smokers). The nucleus and cytoplasm sizes were determined using image analysis software. Data was analyzed with Mann-Whitney test and Student's t-test on SPSS version 13 statistical software. Statistical significance was defined as P opium addicts and non-smokers in different age groups. The mean size of the nucleus compared to that of cytoplasm was significantly higher in smokers and opium addicts compared to non-smokers after correction for age. The results of this study indicate different rates of epithelial cell keratinization in oral cavity among smokers, opium addicts and non-smokers. Also, our results suggest a possible relationship between the number of cigarettes per day, daily opium consumption and an increase in the rate of cellular proliferation of oral mucosal cells. The present study indicated a decrease in cellular diameter as well as an increase in nuclear diameter and nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio in smears taken from both smokers and opium addicts compared to non-smokers.

  18. Health education pamphlets about smoking-their benefit to smokers and non-smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meillier, Lucette Kirsten; Osler, M; Sabroe, Svend

    1999-01-01

    in 1994. Of these 71% also participated in a telephone interview enquiring about the use of health education material, smoking status and socio-demographic variables, 39% of readers of household-delivered anti-smoking pamphlets reported having gained information from them and 22% reported having made...... health education materials from other places. Non-smokers received (3 49%) and read pamphlets about smoking as frequently as did smokers who did not intend to quit. In conclusion, written health education material was well received by readers, but, when distributed in a more open setting it needs...... to be targeted towards smokers who are considering stopping smoking. In general practice, smokers not thinking of stopping were open to health education, and pamphlets used in this setting should also target this group. Non-smokers contribute indirectly to smokers quitting by providing support to smokers...

  19. Impact of periodontitis on chemokines in smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haytural, O; Yaman, D; Ural, E C; Kantarci, A; Demirel, Korkud

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the chemokine expression profiles in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and serum in patients with advanced chronic periodontitis and to assess the impact of smoking on local and systemic levels of chemokines. Thirty patients with chronic periodontitis (CP; 20 smokers and 10 non-smokers) and 20 periodontally healthy subjects (10 smokers and 10 non-smokers) were recruited. Clinical parameters included the plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), and bleeding on probing (BOP). Macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1α), macrophage inflammatory protein-1 beta (MIP-1β), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted chemokine (RANTES) were measured in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and serum using a multiplex immunoassay. MIP-1α levels were significantly lower (10.15 ± 1.48; p = 0.039) while MIP-1β levels were significantly higher (42.05 ± 8.21; p = 0.005) in sera from non-smoker patients with CP compared to non-smoker healthy subjects. MCP-1 concentration in sera was significantly higher in smoker periodontitis patients (8.89 ± 1.65) compared to non-smoker patients with periodontitis (8.14 ± 0.97; p = 0.004). MIP-1α and RANTES were significantly higher in GCF of the patients with CP (p = 0.001) while there were no statistically significant correlations between the GCF levels of these analytes and the smoking status. Periodontal inflammation increases the chemokine concentrations in the GCF while smoking suppresses chemokine levels in serum suggesting that different local and systemic mechanisms are involved during the response to periodontitis in smokers. Understanding the local and systemic chemokine responses in smokers will enable the development of biologically-based treatment methods for chronic periodontitis.

  20. The French energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maillard, D.; Baulinet, Ch.; Lajoinie, A.

    2001-01-01

    France has to face strong energy challenges: a heavy energy bill, increasing supplies risk, no decreasing CO 2 emissions, deregulation of energy markets, nuclear controversy etc.. In consequence, the French government has defined a voluntaristic energy policy with a better balance between the development of renewable energies and the mastery of energy and without renouncing the advantages of nuclear energy. In parallel, the electric power and natural gas industries have to cope with the deregulation of energy markets and the resulting competition. This issue of 'Energies et Matieres Premieres' newsletter comprises 3 articles. The first one gives a general presentation of the French energy policy ('mobilizing our margins of manoeuvre without renouncing our stakes'): challenges of the energy policy (greenhouse effect, security of supplies, long-term worldwide energy context, European integration, nuclear contestation), stakes for France (evolution of production structure, advantages of the French energy status), renewable energies and energy saving, long-term view of the nuclear industry, managing together the dynamism of competition and the advantages of public utilities. The second article entitled 'energy for everybody: a challenge for the 21. century' is a reprint of the introduction of the information report registered on January 31, 2001 by the commission of production and exchanges of the French national assembly. The third article is a reprint of the summary of conclusions and recommendations of the IEA about the French energy policy. (J.S.)

  1. Sex Effects on Smoking Cue Perception in Non-Smokers, Smokers, and Ex-Smokers: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Zanchi, Davide; Brody, Arthur; Borgwardt, Stefan; Haller, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Recent neuroimaging research suggests sex-related brain differences in smoking addiction. In the present pilot study, we assessed gender-related differences in brain activation in response to cigarette-related video cues, investigating non-smokers, smokers, and ex-smokers. Methods First, we compared 29 females (28.6 ± 5.3) vs. 23 males (31.5 ± 6.4), regardless of current smoking status to assess global gender-related effects. Second, we performed a post hoc analysis of...

  2. Electronic Cigarettes Efficacy and Safety at 12 Months: Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamberto Manzoli

    Full Text Available To evaluate the safety and efficacy as a tool of smoking cessation of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes, directly comparing users of e-cigarettes only, smokers of tobacco cigarettes only, and smokers of both.Prospective cohort study. Final results are expected in 2019, but given the urgency of data to support policies on electronic smoking, we report the results of the 12-month follow-up.Direct contact and structured questionnaires by phone or via internet.Adults (30-75 years were included if they were smokers of ≥1 tobacco cigarette/day (tobacco smokers, users of any type of e-cigarettes, inhaling ≥50 puffs weekly (e-smokers, or smokers of both tobacco and e-cigarettes (dual smokers. Carbon monoxide levels were tested in a sample of those declaring tobacco smoking abstinence.Sustained smoking abstinence from tobacco smoking at 12 months, reduction in the number of tobacco cigarettes smoked daily.We used linear and logistic regression, with region as cluster unit.Follow-up data were available for 236 e-smokers, 491 tobacco smokers, and 232 dual smokers (overall response rate 70.8%. All e-smokers were tobacco ex-smokers. At 12 months, 61.9% of the e-smokers were still abstinent from tobacco smoking; 20.6% of the tobacco smokers and 22.0% of the dual smokers achieved tobacco abstinence. Adjusting for potential confounders, tobacco smoking abstinence or cessation remained significantly more likely among e-smokers (adjusted OR 5.19; 95% CI: 3.35-8.02, whereas adding e-cigarettes to tobacco smoking did not enhance the likelihood of quitting tobacco and did not reduce tobacco cigarette consumption. E-smokers showed a minimal but significantly higher increase in self-rated health than other smokers. Non significant differences were found in self-reported serious adverse events (eleven overall.Adding e-cigarettes to tobacco smoking did not facilitate smoking cessation or reduction. If e-cigarette safety will be confirmed, however, the use of e

  3. A Japanese cross-sectional multicentre study of biomarkers associated with cardiovascular disease in smokers and non-smokers

    OpenAIRE

    L?dicke, Frank; Magnette, John; Baker, Gizelle; Weitkunat, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We performed a cross-sectional, multicentre study in Japan to detect the differences in biomarkers of exposure and cardiovascular biomarkers between smokers and non-smokers. Several clinically relevant cardiovascular biomarkers differed significantly between smokers and non-smokers, including lipid metabolism (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations ? lower in smokers), inflammation (fibrinogen and white blood cell count ? both higher in smokers), oxidative stress (8-epi-...

  4. Language Training - French Training

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 January to 3rd April 2009. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Nathalie Dumeaux : Tel. 78144. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 January to 3rd April 2009. This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF For further information and registration, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Nathalie Dumeaux : Tel. 78144. Nathalie Dumeaux Tel. 78144 mailto:nathalie.dumeaux@cern.ch

  5. Language Training - French Training

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 January to 3rd April 2009. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Nathalie Dumeaux : Tel. 78144. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 January to 3rd April 2009. This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF For further information and registration, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Nathalie Dumeaux : Tel. 78144. Nathalie Dumeaux Tel. 78144 mailto:nathalie.dumeaux@cern.ch

  6. French nuclear experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, M.; Barre, B.

    1984-01-01

    The French nuclear attache at the French Embassy in Washington discusses his country's energy program and his role at the embassy as a representative of the French nuclear industry. He reviews the nuclear program's growth since it began in 1945, and the impetus of the OPEC oil embargo to accelerate the program since 1973. The success of France's nuclear program is due to a convergence of reasons that include incentive, the existence of a single utility that could design and manage a project of this magnitude, and the decision to focus on the pressurized water reactor (PWR) built by a single supplier and offering the benefits of standardization. Controlling the fuel cycle is the basic philosophy of both the PWR and the breeder program. Barre recommends policies of pre-approved sites, standardization, and licensing reform for the US

  7. French Antilles and Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-01

    This discussion of French Antilles and Guiana cover the following: the people, geography, history, government, political conditions, economy, and relations with the US. In 1983 the population totaled 303,000 with an annual growth rate of 0.09%. The infant mortality rate (1981) was 12.6/1000 and life expectancy 68 years. About 98% of the people of Martinique are of Afro European or Afro European Indian descent. The remainder are the old planter families and a sizable number of metropolitan French. Most of the work force are employed in agriculture or food processing and associated industries. Most permanent residents of Guadeloupe are of mixed Afro European descent. A few thousand Metropolitan French reside there. Most French Guianese live along the coast, about 1/2 of them in the capital. Martinique is the northernmost of the Windward Islands, which are part of the Lesser Antilles chain in the Caribbean Sea southeast of Puerto Rico. Guadeloupe comprises 2 of the Leeward Islands, which are also part of the Lesser Antilles chain. French Guiana is located on the northern coast of South America, a few degrees north of the Equator. Indians were the 1st known indigenous inhabitants of French Guiana and the French Antilles. Columbus sighted Guadeloupe in 1493, Martinique in 1493 or 1502, and the Guiana coast probably during his 3rd voyage in 1498. French Guiana, Guadeloupe, and Martinique, as overseas departments of France since 1946, are integral parts of the French Republic. Their relationship to Metropolitan France is somewhat similar to that of Alaska and Hawaii to the counterminous US. Each department has a general council composed of 1 representative elected by each canton. Guadeloupe and Martinique each elect 2 senators to the French Senate and 3 deputies to the National Assembly. French Guiana elects 1 senator and 1 deputy. In each of the 3 departments exist individuals and small political parties that advocate immediate independence, but their adherents form only

  8. The French energy programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohnen, U.

    1980-01-01

    The challenge of the oil crisis made French energy policy react chiefly by means of a programme for the rapid expansion of nuclear energy which has become unparalleled because of its systematic realization. The following article gives a survey of this programme and its political preconditions. The French energy programme deserves special attention as the utilization of nuclear energy in France including all related activities has reached a more advanced stage than in most other countries. The effects and requirements connected with such an extensive programme which can therefore be investigated with the help of the French example migth be of importance also for other countries in a similar way. (orig./UA) [de

  9. Infrequent and Frequent Nondaily Smokers and Daily Smokers: Their Characteristics and Other Tobacco Use Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingning; Sung, Hai-Yen; Yao, Tingting; Lightwood, James; Max, Wendy

    2018-05-03

    The proportion of smokers who do not smoke daily has increased over time, but nondaily smokers are a heterogeneous group. We compare characteristics and other tobacco product use of infrequent nondaily, frequent nondaily, and daily US adult smokers. We analyzed data from the 1998, 2000, 2005, and 2010 National Health Interview Surveys. Current smokers were categorized as daily, infrequent nondaily (smoked 1-12 days in the past 30 days), and frequent nondaily (smoked 13-29 days in the past 30 days) smokers. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the correlates of infrequent nondaily, frequent nondaily, and daily smoking. Among current smokers, 8.3% were infrequent nondaily, 8.1% were frequent nondaily, and 83.6% were daily smokers. The prevalence of infrequent versus daily smoking increased over time, with a smaller increase among non-Hispanic Blacks than non-Hispanic Whites. The adjusted odds of both infrequent and frequent smoking versus daily smoking differed by age, race/ethnicity, education, poverty status, marital status, region, quit attempts in the past 12 months, and binge drinking. Snuff users (vs. non-snuff users) were 2.4 times as likely to be infrequent than daily smokers. There were also differences in race/ethnicity, education, marital status, region, quit attempts, and snuff use between infrequent versus frequent smokers. Infrequent smokers differ from both frequent and daily smokers in socio-demographics, quit attempts, and snuff use. The heterogeneity of nondaily smokers should be considered in developing targeted tobacco control and smoking cessation programs. Infrequent and frequent nondaily smokers were found to differ from daily smokers in age, race/ethnicity, education, poverty status, marital status, region, and quit attempts and they were different from each other in race/ethnicity, education, marital status, region, and quit attempts. Binge drinkers were more likely to be infrequent smokers and frequent smokers versus

  10. French grammar in context

    CERN Document Server

    Jubb, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Instructors' edition without answer keysDiscount of 20% offered when 10 ebooks are sold- e.g. they will be sold for 263.60/ £151.90 instead of 329.50/£189.90French Grammar in Context presents a unique and exciting approach to learning grammar. Authentic texts from a rich variety of sources, literary and journalistic, are used as the starting point for the illustration and explanation of key areas of French grammar. Each point is consolidated with a wide range of written and spoken exercises. Grammar is presented not as an end in itself, but as a

  11. School of Economic French

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Franceva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic French at MGIMO-University is based on the teaching methods developed by talented Methodist practitioner assistant professor L.L. Potushanskoy. She and her colleagues G.M. Kotova, N. Kolesnikova, I.A. Yudina created well-known in our country methodical complex of three textbooks. This complex is built on clear guidelines to facilitate the natural development of language skills "from simple to complex" and represents the effective approach to language learning: Currently, the department is constantly expanding its boundaries of school teaching economic and business of the French language in accordance with the emerging new special courses on the economics faculties.

  12. Depression and smoking characteristics among HIV-positive smokers in Russia: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasser, Karen E; Lunze, Karsten; Cheng, Debbie M; Blokhina, Elena; Walley, Alexander Y; Tindle, Hilary A; Quinn, Emily; Gnatienko, Natalia; Krupitsky, Evgeny; Samet, Jeffrey H

    2018-01-01

    Globally, persons with HIV infection, depression and substance use disorders have a higher smoking prevalence and smoke more heavily than other populations. These associations have not been explored among Russian smokers with HIV infection and substance use disorders. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the presence of depressive symptoms and smoking outcomes in an HIV-positive cohort of Russian smokers with a history of substance use disorders (alcohol and/or drug use disorders). We performed a cross-sectional secondary data analysis of a cohort of HIV-positive regular smokers with a history of substance use disorders recruited in St. Petersburg, Russia in 2012-2015. The primary outcome was heavy smoking, defined as smoking > 20 cigarettes per day. Nicotine dependence (moderate-very high) was a secondary outcome. The main independent variable was a high level of depressive symptoms in the past 7 days (defined as CES-D > = 24). We used multivariable logistic regression to examine associations between depressive symptoms and the outcomes, controlling for age, sex, education, income, running out of money for housing/food, injection drug use, and alcohol use measured by the AUDIT. Among 309 regular smokers, 79 participants (25.6%) had high levels of depressive symptoms, and 65 participants (21.0%) were heavy smokers. High levels of depressive symptoms were not significantly associated with heavy smoking (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.50, 95% CI 0.78-2.89) or with moderate-very high levels of nicotine dependence (aOR 1.35, 95% CI 0.75-2.41). This study did not detect an association between depressive symptoms and smoking outcomes among HIV-positive regular smokers in Russia.

  13. Perceived Effectiveness of Antismoking Ads and Association with Quit Attempts Among Smokers: Evidence from the Tips From Former Smokers Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kevin C; Duke, Jennifer; Shafer, Paul; Patel, Deesha; Rodes, Robert; Beistle, Diane

    2017-08-01

    Measures of perceived effectiveness (PE) of ads have been validated to predict changes in cognitive precursors of quit attempts, but a relationship between PE and actual quit attempts has not been shown in population-based studies. We analyzed smokers' PE ratings of ads from the national Tips From Former Smokers (Tips) campaign to (1) establish the validity of PE in predicting quit attempts in a large, nationally representative sample of smokers; (2) identify behavioral and demographic correlates of PE among respondents; and (3) examine whether PE is influenced by matching the race/ethnicity of ad participants with that of the ad viewer. We used survey data from two waves (baseline and follow-up) of a longitudinal online cohort of adult U.S. cigarette smokers. Respondents were shown one or more of 14 Tips campaign ads and were asked to assess each ad in terms of PE. We used multivariate models to estimate the association between baseline PE and prospective quit attempts; cross-sectional associations between PE and various respondent characteristics, including race/ethnicity, desire to quit, and health conditions; and the association between race/ethnicity of respondents and Tips ad participants. Higher PE at baseline was associated with increased odds of a quit attempt at follow-up. Higher PE scores were associated with non-Hispanic black race, Hispanic ethnicity, higher desire to quit, presence of a chronic health condition, and presence of a mental health condition. There was no relationship between PE scores and matched race/ethnicity of the respondent and Tips ad participants. This is the first study to demonstrate an association between PE scores for antismoking ads and prospective quit attempts in a large, nationally representative sample of smokers. Our findings also provide strong evidence that racial/ethnic minority subpopulations, including non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics, react more favorably to Tips campaign ads irrespective of race/ethnicity of

  14. Comparing Written Competency in Core French and French Immersion Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappin-Fortin, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have compared the written competency of French immersion students and their core French peers, and research on these learners at a postsecondary level is even scarcer. My corpus consists of writing samples from 255 students from both backgrounds beginning a university course in French language. The writing proficiency of core French…

  15. Regret and rationalization among smokers in Thailand and Malaysia: findings from the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wonkyong B; Fong, Geoffrey T; Zanna, Mark P; Omar, Maizurah; Sirirassamee, Buppha; Borland, Ron

    2009-07-01

    To test whether differences of history and strength in tobacco control policies will influence social norms, which, in turn, will influence quit intentions, by influencing smokers' regret and rationalization. The data were from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Policy Evaluation Southeast Asia Survey, a cohort survey of representative samples of adult smokers in Thailand (N = 2,000) and Malaysia (N = 2,006). The survey used a stratified multistage sampling design. Measures included regret, rationalization, social norms, and quit intention. Thai smokers were more likely to have quit intentions than Malaysian smokers. This difference in quit intentions was, in part, explained by the country differences in social norms, regret, and rationalization. Reflecting Thailand's history of stronger tobacco control policies, Thai smokers, compared with Malaysian smokers, perceived more negative social norms toward smoking, were more likely to regret, and less likely to rationalize smoking. Mediational analyses revealed that these differences in social norms, accounted, in part, for the country-quit intention relation and that regret and rationalization accounted, in part, for the social norm-quit intention relation. The results suggest that social norms toward smoking, which are shaped by tobacco control policies, and smokers' regret and rationalization influence quit intentions.

  16. The French nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    The nuclear law had been out of the environmental law. The act on the transparency and the security of the nuclear matter was enacted in 2006 and set in the code of the environment in 2012. It means that the nuclear law is part of the environmental law and that it is advanced. I will report the French nuclear law. (author)

  17. The French Collection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergeest, Aukje

    2000-01-01

    'What's happening right now in Paris?' This must have been the question that preoccupied many a 19th-century art dealer and artist. For the modern artist who wanted to make it in that period, Paris was no doubt the place to be. And it's from here that considerable amounts of French art managed to

  18. Complete French Teach Yourself

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, Gaelle

    2010-01-01

    The best-selling complete course for a fun and effective way to learn French. This ISBN is for the paperback book. The corresponding audio support (ISBN: 9781444100068) is also available. The book and audio support can also be purchased as a pack (ISBN: 9781444100051).

  19. French Theory's American Adventures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusset, Francois

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how it is simply too late to be still speaking about French theory and its role in the intellectual life of the United States today. It seems to many observers that the gap between real-life politics and theory's guerrillas is much too wide already, after 30 years of academic fever, for the two worlds to even…

  20. I Can Speak French.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    The guide presents content and techniques for teaching conversational French in the elementary grades. It contains an introductory section and 20 units for classroom instruction. The introduction includes notes on the overall objectives of the course, general guidelines on classroom procedure, and specific techniques for use of the materials…

  1. Making hypertensive smokers motivated in quitting: developing 'blood pressure equivalence of smoking'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Chi Pang; Tsai, Min Kuang; Chan, Hui Ting; Tsai, Shan Pou; Cheng, Ting Yuan David; Chiang, Po Huang

    2008-04-01

    To express the increased risk from smoking in terms of 'blood pressure' so that hypertensive smokers are motivated into quitting. Mortality risks of smokers were compared with nonsmokers in a large worker cohort in Taiwan (n = 23755 with a 17-year follow-up) for all-cause and for cardiovascular diseases. The blood pressure equivalence of smoking was then identified by the difference in mortality risks between smokers and nonsmokers. Some interaction between hypertension and smoking was found to be synergistic. When hypertension and smoking co-existed, the all-cause mortality outcome [relative risk (RR) = 4.25] was larger than the sum or product of each individual risk for hypertension (RR = 2.16) or for smoking (RR = 1.97). The excess mortality risks of smoking for smokers were converted into a 'blood pressure equivalence'. The results demonstrate that the addition of smoking was similar to an increase of mortality risk approximately equivalent to an increase in blood pressure of 40 mmHg. Smoking cessation in hypertensive patients could provide a reduction of mortality risks similar to a permanent reduction of 40 mmHg in blood pressure, over and above any antihypertensive medications. Appreciating this relationship enables physicians to bridge the clinical disconnection and motivates hypertensive smokers to seek smoking cessation. The use of a 'blood pressure equivalence of smoking' can link the two separate risk factors and may lead to a paradigm shift in overcoming an existing clinical challenge.

  2. Electronic cigarette use behaviors and motivations among smokers and non-smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas E. Sussan; Fatima G. Shahzad; Eefa Tabassum; Joanna E. Cohen; Robert A. Wise; Michael J. Blaha; Janet T. Holbrook; Shyam Biswal

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background The use of electronic cigarettes (EC) has risen exponentially over the past decade, including among never smokers, and ECs are now the most popular tobacco product among teenagers in the US. While, EC manufacturers utilize numerous marketing strategies to target both smokers and non-smokers, it is unclear how perceptions and behaviors differ between these two groups. Methods We conducted a survey of 320 adults either via online surveys or in Baltimore vape shops to determi...

  3. French Wines on the Decline?:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Bodo

    2004-01-01

    French wines, differentiated by geographic origin, served for many decades as a basis for the French success in the British wine market. However in the early 1990s, market share began to decline. This article explores the values that market participants placed on labelling information on French...

  4. The Case against a Smoker's License

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, Simon

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND TO THE DEBATE: Tobacco continues to kill millions of people around the world each year and its use is increasing in some countries, which makes the need for new, creative, and radical efforts to achieve the tobacco control endgame vitally important. One such effort is discussed in this PLOS Medicine Debate, where Simon Chapman presents his proposal for a "smoker's license" and Jeff Collin argues against. Chapman sets out a case for introducing a smart card license for smokers desig...

  5. The Case against a Smoker's License

    OpenAIRE

    Collin, J.

    2012-01-01

    Background to the debate: Tobacco continues to kill millions of people around the world each year and its use is increasing in some countries, which makes the need for new, creative, and radical efforts to achieve the tobacco control endgame vitally important. One such effort is discussed in this PLOS Medicine Debate, where Simon Chapman presents his proposal for a "smoker's license" and Jeff Collin argues against. Chapman sets out a case for introducing a smart card license for smokers desig...

  6. Early supra- and subgingival plaque formation in experimental gingivitis in smokers and never-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Paula; Weidlich, Patricia; Oppermann, Rui Vicente; Rösing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate supragingival and subgingival plaque formation on the dentogingival area in smokers and never smokers using the experimental gingivitis model and a plaque scoring system that considers the presence of an area free of plaque between plaque and the gingival sulcus called the plaque free zone (PFZ). Male volunteers, 9 current smokers and 10 never-smokers, refrained from oral hygiene procedures in the maxillary incisors and canines (test teeth) for 25 days. Under conditions of clinically healthy gingiva (phase 1) and gingival inflammation (phase 2), the supragingival plaque formation pattern was observed for 4 days in the dentogingival area. Gingival crevicular fluid was also measured. Plaque was dyed with fucsine and its presence was recorded by a calibrated examiner based on a 3-criteria scoring system: 0 - absence of stained plaque; 1 - presence of stained plaque and supragingival PFZ; 2 - presence of stained plaque and absence of PFZ, indicating that subgingival plaque formation has taken place. In both phases, smokers presented a significantly lower relative frequency of sites with subgingival plaque compared to never-smokers (P smokers demonstrated a significantly lower frequency of gingival bleeding than did non-smokers (23.6% vs 66.1%; P Smokers presented significantly lower percentages of sites with subgingival plaque in all experimental periods and presented less gingival inflammation as shown by GBI and gingival crevicular fluid quantification.

  7. Smokers Show Lower Levels of Psychological Well-Being and Mindfulness than Non-Smokers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víviam Vargas Barros

    Full Text Available Mindfulness is defined as "paying attention in a particular way, on purpose, in the present moment, and nonjudgmentally". Mindfulness is associated with positive affect, life satisfaction, self-esteem, lower negative affect and rumination. Conversely, evidence suggests a relationship between nicotine dependence and psychiatric disorders. This study aimed to compare the levels of Mindfulness and Subjective Well-Being (SWB between smokers and non-smokers. Ninety seven smokers and eighty four non-smokers participated in the study (n = 181. The Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ-BR and the Subjective Well-Being Scale (SWBS were used. In all the factors of SWBS, the total scores in the FFMQ-BR and in the facets of Observing and Non-Reactivity, the non-smokers scored higher than the smokers. This study suggests that smokers present lower levels of Mindfulness and SWB than non-smokers. Consequently, we propose that Mindfulness-Based Interventions (MBI may help smokers deal with treatment and abstinence by increasing their level of SWB.

  8. Peak Expiratory Flow Rate In Cigarette Smokers | Ukoli | Highland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To compare lung function between smokers and non-smokers using Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR). Methods: This study examines the peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) of three hundred and forty cigarette smokers, age and sex-matched with PEFR of equal number of non-smokers. Results: The mean PEFR of ...

  9. Cytogenetical analysis in blood lymphocytes of cigarette smokers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comet assay showed increased percentage of abnormalities in smokers (light, medium and heavy) than non-smokers. Conclusion: The frequencies of MN in buccal epithelial and blood lymphocytes are high in smokers; particularly heavy smoker group showed significantly increased results. Among them, the lymphocytic ...

  10. Lung volumes and emphysema in smokers with interstitial lung abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washko, George R; Hunninghake, Gary M; Fernandez, Isis E; Nishino, Mizuki; Okajima, Yuka; Yamashiro, Tsuneo; Ross, James C; Estépar, Raúl San José; Lynch, David A; Brehm, John M; Andriole, Katherine P; Diaz, Alejandro A; Khorasani, Ramin; D'Aco, Katherine; Sciurba, Frank C; Silverman, Edwin K; Hatabu, Hiroto; Rosas, Ivan O

    2011-03-10

    Cigarette smoking is associated with emphysema and radiographic interstitial lung abnormalities. The degree to which interstitial lung abnormalities are associated with reduced total lung capacity and the extent of emphysema is not known. We looked for interstitial lung abnormalities in 2416 (96%) of 2508 high-resolution computed tomographic (HRCT) scans of the lung obtained from a cohort of smokers. We used linear and logistic regression to evaluate the associations between interstitial lung abnormalities and HRCT measurements of total lung capacity and emphysema. Interstitial lung abnormalities were present in 194 (8%) of the 2416 HRCT scans evaluated. In statistical models adjusting for relevant covariates, interstitial lung abnormalities were associated with reduced total lung capacity (-0.444 liters; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.596 to -0.292; Ppulmonary disease (COPD) (odds ratio, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.37 to 0.76; P<0.001). The effect of interstitial lung abnormalities on total lung capacity and emphysema was dependent on COPD status (P<0.02 for the interactions). Interstitial lung abnormalities were positively associated with both greater exposure to tobacco smoke and current smoking. In smokers, interstitial lung abnormalities--which were present on about 1 of every 12 HRCT scans--were associated with reduced total lung capacity and a lesser amount of emphysema. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and the Parker B. Francis Foundation; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00608764.).

  11. Assessment of Tobacco-Related Approach and Attentional Biases in Smokers, Cravers, Ex-Smokers, and Non-Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woud, Marcella L.; Maas, Joyce; Wiers, Reinout W.; Becker, Eni S.; Rinck, Mike

    2016-01-01

    According to theories of addictive behaviors, approach and attentional biases toward smoking-related cues play a crucial role in tobacco dependence. Several studies have investigated these biases by using various paradigms in different sample types. However, this heterogeneity makes it difficult to compare and evaluate the results. The present study aimed to address this problem, via (i) a structural comparison of different measures of approach-avoidance and a measure of smoking-related attentional biases, and (ii) using within one study different representative samples in the context of tobacco dependence. Three measures of approach-avoidance were employed: an Approach Avoidance Task (AAT), a Stimulus Response Compatibility Task (SRC), and a Single Target Implicit Association Test (ST-IAT). To assess attentional biases, a modified Stroop task including smoking-related words was administered. The study included four groups: n = 58 smokers, n = 57 non-smokers, n = 52 cravers, and n = 54 ex-smokers. We expected to find strong tobacco-related approach biases and attentional biases in smokers and cravers. However, the general pattern of results did not confirm these expectations. Approach responses assessed during the AAT and SRC did not differ between groups. Moreover, the Stroop did not show the expected interference effect. For the ST-IAT, cravers had stronger approach associations toward smoking-related cues, whereas non-smokers showed stronger avoidance associations. However, no such differences in approach-avoidance associations were found in smokers and ex-smokers. To conclude, these data do not provide evidence for a strong role of implicit approach and attentional biases toward smoking-related cues in tobacco dependency. PMID:26955359

  12. Variation in breast cancer risk associated with factors related to pregnancies according to truncating mutation location, in the French National BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations carrier cohort (GENEPSO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecarpentier, Julie; Noguès, Catherine; Mouret-Fourme, Emmanuelle; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Lasset, Christine; Fricker, Jean-Pierre; Caron, Olivier; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Berthet, Pascaline; Faivre, Laurence; Bonadona, Valérie; Buecher, Bruno; Coupier, Isabelle; Gladieff, Laurence; Gesta, Paul; Eisinger, François; Frénay, Marc; Luporsi, Elisabeth; Lortholary, Alain; Colas, Chrystelle; Dugast, Catherine; Longy, Michel; Pujol, Pascal; Tinat, Julie; Lidereau, Rosette; Andrieu, Nadine

    2012-07-03

    Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 confer a high risk of breast cancer (BC), but the magnitude of this risk seems to vary according to the study and various factors. Although controversial, there are data to support the hypothesis of allelic risk heterogeneity. We assessed variation in BC risk according to factors related to pregnancies by location of mutation in the homogeneous risk region of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in 990 women in the French study GENEPSO by using a weighted Cox regression model. Our results confirm the existence of the protective effect of an increasing number of full-term pregnancies (FTPs) toward BC among BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers (≥3 versus 0 FTPs: hazard ratio (HR) = 0.51, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.33 to 0.81). Additionally, the HR shows an association between incomplete pregnancies and a higher BC risk, which reached 2.39 (95% CI = 1.28 to 4.45) among women who had at least three incomplete pregnancies when compared with women with zero incomplete pregnancies. This increased risk appeared to be restricted to incomplete pregnancies occurring before the first FTP (HR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.19 to 2.63). We defined the TMAP score (defined as the Time of Breast Mitotic Activity during Pregnancies) to take into account simultaneously the opposite effect of full-term and interrupted pregnancies. Compared with women with a TMAP score of less than 0.35, an increasing TMAP score was associated with a statistically significant increase in the risk of BC (P trend = 0.02) which reached 1.97 (95% CI = 1.19 to 3.29) for a TMAP score >0.5 (versus TMAP ≤0.35). All these results appeared to be similar in BRCA1 and BRCA2. Nevertheless, our results suggest a variation in BC risk associated with parity according to the location of the mutation in BRCA1. Indeed, parity seems to be associated with a significantly decreased risk of BC only among women with a mutation in the central region of BRCA1 (low-risk region) (≥1 versus 0 FTP: HR = 0.27, 95% CI = 0.13 to

  13. Comparison of no-reflow phenomenon after percutaneous coronary intervention for acute myocardial infarction between smokers and nonsmokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Shemirani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: No-reflow phenomenon after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI in patients with acute ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI is relatively common and has therapeutic and prognostic implications. Cigarette smoking is known as deleterious in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD, but the effect of smoking on no-reflow phenomenon is less investigated. The aim of this study was to compare no-reflow phenomenon after percutneous coronary intervention for acute myocardial infarction, between smokers and non smokers. Materials and Methods: A total of 141 patients who were admitted to Chamran Hospital (Isfahan, Iran between March and September, 2012 with a diagnosis of STEMI, enrolled into our Cohort study. Patients were divided into current smoker and nonsmoker groups (based on patient′s information. All patients underwent primary PCI or rescue PCI within the first 12-h of chest pain. No-reflow phenomenon, thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (MI flow, and 24-h complications were assessed in both groups. Results: A total of 47 current smoker cases (32.9% and 94 (65.7% nonsmoker cases were evaluated. Smokers in comparison to nonsmokers were younger (53.47 ± 10.59 vs. 61.46 ± 10.55, P < 0.001 and they were less likely to be hypertensive (15.2% vs. 44.7%, P < 0.001, diabetic (17% vs. 36.2%, P < 0.05, and female gender (4.3% vs. 25.5%, P < 0.01. Angiographic and procedural characteristics of both groups were similar. 9 patients died during the first 24-h after PCI (4.3% of smokers and 6.4% of nonsmokers, P: 0.72. No-reflow phenomenon was observed in 29.8% of current smokers and 31.5% of nonsmokers (P = 0.77. Conclusion: No-reflow phenomenon or short-term complications were not significantly different between current smokers and non smokers.

  14. Comparison of no-reflow phenomenon after percutaneous coronary intervention for acute myocardial infarction between smokers and nonsmokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemirani, Hassan; Tafti, Faezeh Dehghani; Amirpour, Afshin

    2014-11-01

    No-reflow phenomenon after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with acute ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is relatively common and has therapeutic and prognostic implications. Cigarette smoking is known as deleterious in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), but the effect of smoking on no-reflow phenomenon is less investigated. The aim of this study was to compare no-reflow phenomenon after percutneous coronary intervention for acute myocardial infarction, between smokers and non smokers. A total of 141 patients who were admitted to Chamran Hospital (Isfahan, Iran) between March and September, 2012 with a diagnosis of STEMI, enrolled into our Cohort study. Patients were divided into current smoker and nonsmoker groups (based on patient's information). All patients underwent primary PCI or rescue PCI within the first 12-h of chest pain. No-reflow phenomenon, thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (MI) flow, and 24-h complications were assessed in both groups. A total of 47 current smoker cases (32.9%) and 94 (65.7%) nonsmoker cases were evaluated. Smokers in comparison to nonsmokers were younger (53.47 ± 10.59 vs. 61.46 ± 10.55, P vs. 44.7%, P vs. 36.2%, P vs. 25.5%, P smokers and 6.4% of nonsmokers, P: 0.72). No-reflow phenomenon was observed in 29.8% of current smokers and 31.5% of nonsmokers (P = 0.77). No-reflow phenomenon or short-term complications were not significantly different between current smokers and non smokers.

  15. The Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence in a Dutch sample of daily smokers and ex-smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, Jacqueline M.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Beem, A. Leo; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2005-01-01

    We explored the performance of the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) in a sample of 1378 daily smokers and 1058 ex-smokers who participated in a survey study of the Netherlands Twin Register. FTND scores were higher for smokers than for ex-smokers. Nicotine dependence level was not

  16. No intention to comply with influenza and pneumococcal vaccination : behavioural determinants among smokers and non-smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Looijmans-van den Akker, I; van den Heuvel, P.M.; Verheij, Th J M; van Delden, J J M; van Essen, G A; Hak, E

    OBJECTIVE: Smoking increases the risk for influenza and pneumococcal disease, but vaccination uptake is lower among smokers than non-smokers. We therefore aimed to determine reasons for not complying with vaccination among smokers and non-smokers. METHOD: In 2005 a self-administered questionnaire

  17. Reference values of fractional excretion of exhaled nitric oxide among non-smokers and current smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torén, Kjell; Murgia, Nicola; Schiöler, Linus; Bake, Björn; Olin, Anna-Carin

    2017-08-25

    Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FE NO ) is used to assess of airway inflammation; diagnose asthma and monitor adherence to advised therapy. Reliable and accurate reference values for FE NO are needed for both non-smoking and current smoking adults in the clinical setting. The present study was performed to establish reference adult FE NO values among never-smokers, former smokers and current smokers. FE NO was measured in 5265 subjects aged 25-75 years in a general-population study, using a chemiluminescence (Niox ™) analyser according to the guidelines of the American Thoracic Society and the European Respiratory Society. Atopy was based on the presence of immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies to common inhalant allergens (measured using Phadiatop® test). Spirometry without bronchodilation was performed and forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expired volume in 1 s (FEV 1 ) and the ratio of FEV 1 to FVC values were obtained. After excluding subjects with asthma, chronic bronchitis, spirometric airway obstruction and current cold, 3378 subjects remained. Equations for predictions of FE NO values were modelled using nonparametric regression models. FE NO levels were similar in never-smokers and former smokers, and these two groups were therefore merged into a group termed "non-smokers". Reference equations, including the 5th and 95th percentiles, were generated for female and male non-smokers, based on age, height and atopy. Regression models for current smokers were unstable. Hence, the proposed reference values for current smokers are based on the univariate distribution of FE NO and fixed cut-off limits. Reference values for FE NO among respiratory healthy non-smokers should be outlined stratified for gender using individual reference values. For current smokers separate cut-off limits are proposed.

  18. Impulsivity and Stress Response in Nondependent Smokers (Tobacco Chippers) in Comparison to Heavy Smokers and Nonsmokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carim-Todd, Laura; Mitchell, Suzanne H; Oken, Barry S

    2016-05-01

    Tobacco chippers are light smokers with stable patterns of smoking that exhibit lower nicotine dependence severity than heavy smokers. Chippers may provide valuable information about the factors influencing drug dependence. Impulsivity and stress are two factors known to influence smoking. By comparing nondependent smokers (tobacco chippers, n = 25) to dependent smokers (heavy smokers, n = 23) and nonsmokers (n = 25), this study examines the relationship between nicotine dependence, impulsivity, chronic stress, and stress reactivity. A total of 73 adult participants completed a study visit that included questionnaires to measure nicotine dependence, chronic stress, personality, affect, withdrawal, and craving. Impulsivity was measured with the delay discounting task and the flanker task. Stress reactivity was assessed by monitoring respiration, heart rate, and salivary cortisol during performance of a titrated Stroop task. Effects of acute stress on affect and craving were examined. Tobacco chippers were as impulsive as heavy smokers on the delay discounting task but no different from nonsmokers on the flanker task. Heavy smokers reported higher perceived stress than chippers and nonsmokers. Perceived stress was a significant predictor of discounting only in heavy smokers. Acute stress induced changes in respiration, heart rate, and heart rate variability. Craving and negative affect increased after stress in both smoking groups, but craving was associated with affect only in chippers. Tobacco chippers do not differ from heavy smokers in impulsivity, but do differ in perceived stress. One's perception and experience of stress might be associated to nicotine dependence resistance and could inform smoking cessation treatments. By examining impulsivity, chronic stress, and stress reactivity in nondependent smokers (tobacco chippers) compared to dependent smokers and nonsmokers, this study contributes to the understanding of nicotine addiction and informs smoking

  19. Five-year outcome of a stroke cohort in Martinique, French West Indies: Etude Réalisée en Martinique et Centrée sur l'Incidence des Accidents vasculaires cérebraux, Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chausson, Nicolas; Olindo, Stéphane; Cabre, Philippe; Saint-Vil, Martine; Smadja, Didier

    2010-04-01

    Limited information exists on stroke among black populations outside the United States and United Kingdom. Part 1 of the Etude Réalisée en Martinique et Centrée sur l'Incidence des Accidents vasculaires cérebraux (ERMANCIA) provided strong epidemiologic data on the incidence of first-ever stroke in a black Caribbean population and showed a 40% greater incidence of stroke in Martinique than in continental France. In ERMANCIA part 2, we evaluated the long-term outcomes of our cohort. Survivors of a first stroke from this prospective, community-based, stroke incidence study were reassessed at 5 years according to standardized procedures and criteria, including the modified Rankin scale, Barthel Index, Montgomery-Asberg Depression-Rating Scale, Mini-Mental State Examination, treatment compliance, and blood pressure control. Of the 293 survivors of the original 580 (50.5%) patients who were still alive 5 years after stroke, 262 (89.4%) were assessed. Among these survivors, 66.4% were functionally independent and 43% were completely autonomous for activities of daily living, but 25.8% were depressed and 58.9% were cognitively impaired. Only 50 of 170 (29.4%) of the hypertensive patients achieved their target blood pressure. These results highlight the very poor blood pressure control and the very high rate of cognitive impairment in Martinican patients after stroke. As a consequence, a poststroke prevention network was established in Martinique.

  20. The french energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This book describes french energy policy from 1973 oil crisis till 1992. In a first part, energy consumption, domestic primary energy production, trend of independence energy ratio and costs of petroleum imports in France are presented. In a second part, long-term energy prospects and new axis of energy policy are given: trends of french energy needs, progressive substitution of fossil fuels by nuclear energy and hydroelectric power, energy policy in Common Market and cooperation with eastern Europe. In a third part, energy demand and supply are studied: energy conservation policy in housing, transport and industrial sector is developed. Power generation policy is focused on two main stakes: the choice of investments and nuclear power plants programming, the quality of electric power and the development of efficient uses and exports. A diversification between coal petroleum and natural gas is led. After the fall of petroleum prices in 1986, renewable energies have lost their competitiveness, fire wood occupies a significant place

  1. French nuclear energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, A.; Bertel, E.

    1980-11-01

    The French energy policy is supported by a lucid view of the situation of our country and the constraints linked to the international context. This statement implies, the definition of a French policy or energy production essentially based on national resources, uranium, and especially for long term, technical know how which allows using plutonium in breeder reactors. This policy implies an effort in R and D, and industrial development of nuclear field, both in reactor construction and at all levels of fuel cycle. This coherent scientific and financial effort has been pursued since the beginning of years 60, and has placed France among the first nuclear countries in the world. Now this effort enables the mastership of a strong nuclear industry capable to assure the energy future of the country [fr

  2. Nasal mucociliary transportability of male and female smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzeloto, Juliana Souza; Ramos, Dionei; C F Freire, Ana Paula; G D Christofaro, Diego; Mara C Ramos, Ercy

    Female smoker's present increased susceptibility to several diseases when compared to the opposite gender. However, there are no studies showing differences in nasal mucociliary transport behavior between male and female smokers. To compare the nasal mucociliary transportability in male and female smokers and non-smokers, taking into consideration age, anthropometric data, smoking load and pulmonary function. The analysis included 139 individuals (33 men and 37 women smokers and 32 men and 37 women non-smokers). All participants answered an initial interview to obtain personal data and smoking load. Anthropometric data and carbon monoxide in the exhaled air were assessed. Individuals also performed pulmonary function test and Saccharin Transit Time test. To compare saccharin transit time values between men and women, smokers and non-smokers, stratification of all independent variables was performed (sociodemographic, smoking and respiratory variables) into two categories: below and above the median values. There was no difference between men and women, smokers and non-smokers, regarding nasal mucociliary transportability. Significant differences were only observed between non-smokers. Among those with less forced vital capacity values (smokers), FCV and FEV1 (men non-smokers) and FEF 25-75% (women non-smokers) on saccharin transit time values. Based on the findings of this study, nasal mucociliary transport in male and female adult smokers, apparently healthy, are similar. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. French courses for Beginners

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    French courses for beginners (level 0) will take place from 13 July to 27 August 2009. •\tTimetable: Mondays, Tuesdays, Wednesdays, Thursdays (11:00 to 13:00 or 13:30 to 15:30) •\tDuration: 56 hours (8 hours a week) •\tPrice: 728 CHF For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Dumeaux, tel. 78144.

  4. French courses for Beginners

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    French courses for beginners (level 0) will take place from 13 July to 27 August 2009. •\tTimetable: Mondays, Tuesdays, Wednesdays, Thursdays (11:00 to 13:00 or 13:30 to 15:30) •\tDuration: 56 hours (8 hours a week) •\tPrice: 728 CHF For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Dumeaux: Tel. 78144.

  5. French courses for Beginners

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    French courses for beginners (level 0) will take place from 13 July to 27 August 2009. •\tTimetable: Mondays, Tuesdays, Wednesdays, Thursdays (11.00 to 13.00 or 13.30 to 15.30) •\tDuration: 56 hours (8 hours a week) •\tPrice: 728 CHF For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Dumeaux : Tel. 78144.

  6. French experience with electropolishing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saurin, P.; Weber, C.; Brissaud, A.; Gouillardou, G.

    1989-01-01

    Among the various techniques to minimize corrosion products deposition on out of core areas, surface polishing has been researched. The attention of French partners was drawn to this technique and a test was conducted at Chinon B1 NPP in 1984 using six manway covers with various surface finishing (mechanical polishing, electropolishing, mechanical plus electropolishing/on reference). On the basis of the good results obtained and with beneficial cost considerations the electropolishing of SGCH has been decided for new EDF reactors. Once the decision was made feasibility and qualifications programs were developed. Taking into account the promising results obtained, EDF asked FRAMATOME to perform the first electropolishing operation on one steam generator channel head at Nogent 1 in 1987. Since 1988 the French experience consists of the electropolishing of 4SG at Nogent 2, 4SG at Cattenom 3, 4SG at Penly 1 and 4SG at Golfech 1 (NPP), and is perfectly satisfactory. The industrial operation provides excellent polishing and does not create undesired effects. The French partners are now thinking of a new device which could be realised at FRAMATOME especially for steam generator replacement. (author)

  7. Language Training: French

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt.General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 April to 02 July 2004. These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 April to 02 July 2004. This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for 8 students) For further information and registra...

  8. Science Diplomacy: French Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei V. Shestopal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the formulation in France in the early twenty-first century of a new kind of diplomacy - science diplomacy. It studies the reasons for this process and its problems. On the one hand, the French foreign policy doctrine presupposes an ability to exercise certain influence on its international partners. However, its goals in this area are reduced to mere survival under conditions dictated by other countries. Modern trends in the world of science, which lead to integration, force to reconsider the attitude towards staff training, to research itself, and to its place and role in politics and diplomacy. However, an achievement of the French political class is an understanding of the main aspects of what is happening. This understanding leads to the search for ways to adapt to the new situation. At the same time, diplomats can operate only with those resources that are available to them. Competition with the US, China and other countries for scientific personnel and achievements cannot be won by diplomatic means alone, without backing by appropriate legal, economic and other efforts which provide favorable conditions for winning the competition. The main causes of France's unfavorable position in the struggle for an independent science are economic and political. It is they that lead to conditions, which prohibit French scientists to live up to their potential at home.

  9. REPLACEMENT OF FRENCH CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs has informed the Organization that it is shortly to replace all diplomatic cards, special cards and employment permits ('attestations de fonctions') now held by members of the personnel and their families. Between 2 July and 31 December 2001, these cards are to be replaced by secure, computerized equivalents. A 'personnel office' stamped photocopy of the old cards may continue to be used until 31 December 2001. For the purposes of the handover, members of the personnel must go personally to the cards office (33/1-015), between 8:30 and 12:30, in order to fill a 'fiche individuelle' form (in black ink only), which has to be personally signed by themselves and another separately signed by members of their family, taking the following documents for themselves and members of their families already in possession of a French card : A recent identity photograph in 4.5 cm x 3.5 cm format (signed on the back) The French card in their possession an A4 photocopy of the same Fre...

  10. Language Training - French Training

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 29 January to 30 March 2007. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz : Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 29 January to 30 March 2007. This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for 8 students) For further information and registration, please consult our Web pages:   http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz : Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in English The next session will take place from January to June 2007 (break at Easter). This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken English. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for 8 students) Timetable will be fixed after discussion with the students. For registratio...

  11. Gingival recession in smokers and non-smokers with minimal periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Hans-Peter; Stadermann, Sabine; Heinecke, Achim

    2002-02-01

    Smoking is a major risk factor for destructive periodontal disease. There is limited information with regard to effects of smoking in subjects with minimal periodontal destruction. The aim of the present investigation was to assess the development of gingival recession in young adult smokers and non-smokers. 61 systemically healthy young adults, 19 to 30 years of age completed the final examination. 30 volunteers smoked at least 20 cigarettes per day, whereas 31 subjects were non-smokers. Clinical periodontal conditions were assessed 4x within a time period of 6 months. Site-specific analyses considering the correlated structure of data were performed. At the outset, 50% of subjects presented with gingival recession at 1 or more sites. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of gingival recession between non-smokers and smokers. Severe recession in excess of 2 mm affected about 23% non-smokers but only 7% smokers. Some further gingival recession developed during the 6-month observation period. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, the risk for recession development appeared not to be influenced by smoking status after adjusting for periodontal probing depth, recession at baseline, tooth brushing frequency, gender, jaw, tooth type and site. Present data did not support the hypothesis that smokers are at an increased risk for the development of gingival recession.

  12. Expression of collagen in ovular membranes of pregnant smokers and non-smokers: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrini, Romulo; Araujo Júnior, Edward; Piato, Sebastião; Chade, Milca Cezar; Rios, Adriana Ribeiro Santos; Silva, Maria Antonieta Galvão; Aldrighi, José Mendes

    2015-09-01

    Our study compared the amount of total collagen and type I collagen in ovular membranes of pregnant smokers and non-smokers. The study group consisted of 14 pregnant smokers at 24-36 weeks of gestation; 39 pregnant non-smokers between 24-36 weeks of gestation comprised the control group. The expressions of total collagen and type I collagen were analyzed using two histological sections of the fetal membranes. The assessment of total collagen was performed using the Picro-Cirius red stain, and type I collagen expression was determined by means of immunohistochemistry The Mann-Whitney test was applied to verify possible differences between the groups. The average area covered by total collagen was lower in smokers (20630.45 microm2) as compared to non-smokers (24058.61 microm2), although the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.454). Comparison involving collagen type I deemed similar results (20001.33 microm2 vs. 25328.29 microm2, p = 0.158). The amount of total collagen and type I collagen was lower in ovular membranes of pregnant smokers as compared to non-smokers, although the difference was not statistically significant.

  13. Cigarette Smokers, Never-Smokers, and Transitions: Implications for Successful Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruchno, Rachel; Hahn, Sarah; Wilson-Genderson, Maureen

    2012-01-01

    One of the social identities held by people is defined by whether or not they smoke cigarettes. Although this identity can and does change for many people over the course of their lives, most research has not examined the effects of transitioning from a smoker to a non-smoker. Using a life span perspective, our analyses contrasted the extent to…

  14. Stressful Life Events and Psychosomatic Symptoms among Students Smokers and Non-smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodaj, Arta; Simic, Natasa

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the rate of stressful life events and psychosomatic symptoms among students smokers and non-smokers and examine the predictive contribution of stress and smoking to subjective health status. Methods were conducted on a convenience sample of 200 students from the University of Mostar, with a median age of…

  15. The role of impulse oscillometry in assessment of airway obstruction in smokers and ex-smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taher El-Naggar

    2012-10-01

    Conclusion: IOS is an effective, easy to perform, and a non invasive method for the assessment of airway obstruction in obstructive pulmonary disorders. Although, there is no significant difference between impulse oscillometry and spirometry parameters in early detection of airway obstruction in smokers and ex-smokers groups.

  16. Identity change among smokers and ex-smokers: Findings from the ITC Netherlands survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, E.; van Laar, C.; Gebhardt, W.A.; Fokkema, M.; van den Putte, B.; Dijkstra, A.; Fong, G.T.; Willemsen, M.C.

    2017-01-01

    Successful smoking cessation appears to be facilitated by identity change, that is, when quitting or nonsmoking becomes part of smokers’ and ex-smokers’ self-concepts. The current longitudinal study is the first to examine how identity changes over time among smokers and ex-smokers and whether this

  17. Depression Among Non-Daily Smokers Compared to Daily Smokers and Never-Smokers in the United States: An Emerging Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Andrea H; Gbedemah, Misato; Wall, Melanie M; Hasin, Deborah S; Zvolensky, Michael J; Chaiton, Michael; Goodwin, Renee D

    2017-09-01

    Depression is strongly associated with daily smoking. Yet, little is known about the association between depression and non-daily smoking. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of past-year depression and changes in past-year depression over time among non-daily smokers, compared to daily smokers and never-smokers, overall and stratified by age, gender, income, nicotine dependence, and cigarettes per day. Data were drawn from the National Household Survey on Drug Use (NSDUH), an annual cross-sectional study of persons aged 12 and over (total study population N = 496 805). The prevalence of past-year depression was examined annually among non-daily smokers, daily smokers, and never-smokers from 2005 to 2013 using linear trend analyses. Past-year depression was common among 10.10% of non-daily smokers, common among 10.78% of daily smokers, and 5.51% of never-smokers in 2013. The prevalence of depression increased from 2005 to 2013 among non-daily smokers (9.06% vs. 10.10%; p = .034) while there was no significant change in depression over time among daily smokers. Increases in depression among non-daily smokers occurred for both men and women and appear most pronounced youth, those smoking fewer cigarettes, and those without nicotine dependence. The prevalence of depression among non-daily smokers was equivalent to daily smokers and nearly twice that among nonsmokers. Depression appears to be increasing over time in non-daily smokers especially among youth, those who smoke less, and those without nicotine dependence. More work on the mental health of non-daily smokers is needed as this is an increasing and understudied group. This is the first study to investigate changes in the prevalence of depression among non-daily smokers compared to daily smokers and never-smokers over the past decade in a nationally representative sample of the United States. The results suggest an increase in depression among non-daily smokers over time that did not

  18. Nicotine concentrations in urine and saliva of smokers and non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyerabend, C; Higenbottam, T; Russell, M A

    1982-01-01

    Nicotine concentrations were measured in saliva and urine samples collected from 82 smokers and 56 non-smokers after a morning at work. Each subject answered a series of questions related to their recent intentional or passive exposure to tobacco smoke. All non-smokers had measurable amounts of nicotine in both saliva and urine. Those non-smokers who reported recent exposure to tobacco smoke had significantly higher nicotine concentrations (p less than 0.001) than those who had not been exposed; their concentrations overlapped those of smokers who had smoked up to three cigarettes before sampling had the greatest influence on nicotine concentrations (r=0.62 for saliva and r=0.51 for urine). Neither the nicotine for yield of cigarettes nor the self-reported degree of inhalation had any significant effect on nicotine concentrations. PMID:6802384

  19. Cohort Coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Gustav

    2013-01-01

    Cohorts are the aggregate of individuals who experience the same event within the same time interval. Cohorts can be based on people born in a given year, for example in 1940 or within a span of years, e.g. born in 1940-1944. The year of birth is here the defining event for cohorts. The health di...... differs between cohorts. This article focuses on the protective and detrimental cohort effect in relation to the risk of death from apoplexy. A dummy variable method is recommended to describe the changing cohort effect over a century....

  20. Lower hypoxic ventilatory response in smokers compared to non-smokers during abstinence from cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Wulf; Sauer, Roland; Koehler, Ulrich; Bärtsch, Peter; Kinscherf, Ralf

    2016-11-24

    Carotid body O 2 -chemosensitivity determines the hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) as part of crucial regulatory reflex within oxygen homeostasis. Nicotine has been suggested to attenuate HVR in neonates of smoking mothers. However, whether smoking affects HVR in adulthood has remained unclear and probably blurred by acute ventilatory stimulation through cigarette smoke. We hypothesized that HVR is substantially reduced in smokers when studied after an overnight abstinence from cigarettes i.e. after nicotine elimination. We therefore determined the isocapnic HVR of 23 healthy male smokers (age 33.9 ± 2.0 years, BMI 24.2 ± 0.5 kg m -2 , mean ± SEM) with a smoking history of >8 years after 12 h of abstinence and compared it to that of 23 healthy male non-smokers matched for age and BMI. Smokers and non-smokers were comparable with regard to factors known to affect isocapnic HVR such as plasma levels of glucose and thiols as well as intracellular levels of glutathione in blood mononuclear cells. As a new finding, abstinent smokers had a significantly lower isocapnic HVR (0.024 ± 0.002 vs. 0.037 ± 0.003 l min -1 % -1 BMI -1 , P = 0.002) compared to non-smokers. However, upon re-exposure to cigarettes the smokers' HVR increased immediately to the non-smokers' level. This is the first report of a substantial HVR reduction in abstinent adult smokers which appears to be masked by daily smoking routine and may therefore have been previously overlooked. A low HVR may be suggested as a novel link between smoking and aggravated hypoxemia during sleep especially in relevant clinical conditions such as COPD.

  1. Non-smoker assertive behaviour against smoke exposure: Chinese and Korean American non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, Anne; Tang, Hao; Tsoh, Janice Y; Chen, Moon S; Tong, Elisa K

    2017-11-01

    Non-smokers' assertive behaviour towards smokers by asking them not to smoke is important in promoting smoke-free environments. Korean and Chinese Americans come from countries where most women are non-smokers and assertive behaviour may not be prevalent but may increase after migration because of social-ecological factors. This study assessed the extent to which Korean and Chinese American non-smokers ask someone not to smoke and associated factors. The 2003 California Chinese American and Korean American Tobacco Use Surveys were analysed. Multivariate logistic regression analyses examined factors related to non-smoker self-reports that they asked someone not to smoke within the past year. About 40% reported past-year assertive behaviour against smoking, with higher rates among Koreans than Chinese (60.4% vs. 34.5%), those living with smokers (63.5%), ever exposed with a smoke-free home rule (62.3%), recently exposed at work without a smoke-free work policy (67.6%) and regularly exposed at other locations (52.3%). In combined multivariate analyses of both ethnic groups, assertive behaviour was associated with individual factors (single vs. married; tobacco exposure knowledge), family factors (living with smokers, exposed at home despite a smoke-free rule), community factors (exposed at work with no smoke-free policy, exposed at other locations) and cultural factors (Korean vs. Chinese ethnicity; lower acculturation). Chinese and Korean American non-smokers report assertive behaviour against smoking, which is associated with social-ecological factors. Results help identify target groups and strategies for future intervention, including the need to implement or enforce smoke-free environments and promote empowerment. [Saw A, Tang H, Tsoh JY, Chen MS Jr, Tong EK. Non-smoker assertive behaviour against smoke exposure: Chinese and Korean American non-smokers. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  2. Effect of passive heat stress on arterial stiffness in smokers versus non-smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyen, N. E.; Ganio, M. S.; Burchfield, J. M.; Tucker, M. A.; Gonzalez, M. A.; Dougherty, E. K.; Robinson, F. B.; Ridings, C. B.; Veilleux, J. C.

    2016-04-01

    In non-smokers, passive heat stress increases shear stress and vasodilation, decreasing arterial stiffness. Smokers, who reportedly have arterial dysfunction, may have similar improvements in arterial stiffness with passive heat stress. Therefore, we examined the effects of an acute bout of whole-body passive heat stress on arterial stiffness in smokers vs. non-smokers. Thirteen smokers (8.8 ± 5.5 [median = 6] cigarettes per day for >4 years) and 13 non-smokers matched for age, mass, height, and exercise habits (27 ± 8 years; 78.8 ± 15.4 kg; 177.6 ± 6.7 cm) were passively heated to 1.5 °C core temperature ( T C) increase. At baseline and each 0.5 °C T C increase, peripheral (pPWV) and central pulse wave velocity (cPWV) were measured via Doppler ultrasound. No differences existed between smokers and non-smokers for any variables (all p > 0.05), except cPWV slightly increased from baseline (526.7 ± 81.7 cm · s-1) to 1.5 °C Δ T C (579.7 ± 69.8 cm · s-1; p 0.05). Changes in cPWV and pPWV during heating correlated ( p smokers (cPWV: r = -0.59; pPWV: r = -0.62) and non-smokers (cPWV: r = -0.45; pPWV: r = -0.77). Independent of smoking status, baseline stiffness appears to mediate the magnitude of heating-induced changes in arterial stiffness.

  3. Enhanced prolactin levels in opium smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshtaghi-Kashanian, Ghollam-Reza; Esmaeeli, Farzaneh; Dabiri, Shahriar

    2005-12-01

    In Iran, opium is smoked for pleasure or as a medication by some people. It is a complex mixture of 40 different alkaloids, including morphine and codeine along with many impurities. Although it is well established that opioids or tobacco affect many physiological functions in humans, to our knowledge there has been no specific study looking at these effects in opium smokers. To assess that, we investigated the circulating levels of prolactin, TSH, LH, FSH and testosterone in male opium smokers who also smoke cigarettes (n=23, aged 28.4+/- 4.1 years), and comparing this with the corresponding values for nicotine abusers (n=12, 15-25 cigarettes/day) or a healthy control group (n=20) of the same age. Our results showed that 86.96% of the opium-dependent and 41.67 % of the nicotine-dependent group displayed high prolactin values (popium and the plasma prolactin level of opium dependents (p=0.748, popium smokers and 50% of the cigarette smokers (popium smokers was also lower than that of the other two groups (popium and cigarette smoking may synergistically influence pituitary hormone production through the effects on neuropeptides produced either locally or systemic.

  4. Effect of smoking cessation on quantitative computed tomography in smokers at risk in a lung cancer screening population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jobst, Bertram J.; Eichinger, Monika; Wielpuetz, Mark O. [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Translational Lung Research Centre Heidelberg (TLRC), Member of the German Lung Research Centre (DZL), Heidelberg (Germany); Thoraxklinik at the University of Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology with Nuclear Medicine, Heidelberg (Germany); German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Department of Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Weinheimer, Oliver; Trauth, Mila; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Translational Lung Research Centre Heidelberg (TLRC), Member of the German Lung Research Centre (DZL), Heidelberg (Germany); Thoraxklinik at the University of Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology with Nuclear Medicine, Heidelberg (Germany); Becker, Nikolaus; Motsch, Erna; Gross, Marie-Luise; Eigentopf, Anke [German Cancer Research Centre (DKFZ Heidelberg), Division of Cancer Epidemiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Tremper, Jan; Delorme, Stefan [German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Department of Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2018-02-15

    To longitudinally evaluate effects of smoking cessation on quantitative CT in a lung cancer screening cohort of heavy smokers over 4 years. After 4 years, low-dose chest CT was available for 314 long-term ex-smokers (ES), 404 continuous smokers (CS) and 39 recent quitters (RQ) who quitted smoking within 2 years after baseline CT. CT acquired at baseline and after 3 and 4 years was subjected to well-evaluated densitometry software, computing mean lung density (MLD) and 15th percentile of the lung density histogram (15TH). At baseline, active smokers showed significantly higher MLD and 15TH (-822±35 and -936±25 HU, respectively) compared to ES (-831±31 and -947±22 HU, p<0.01-0.001). After 3 years, CS again had significantly higher MLD and 15TH (-801±29 and -896±23 HU) than ES (-808±27 and -906±20 HU, p<0.01-0.001) but also RQ (-813±20 and -909±15 HU, p<0.05-0.001). Quantitative CT parameters did not change significantly after 4 years. Importantly, smoking status independently predicted MLD at baseline and year 3 (p<0.001) in multivariate analysis. On quantitative CT, lung density is higher in active smokers than ex-smokers, and sustainably decreases after smoking cessation, reflecting smoking-induced inflammation. Interpretations of quantitative CT data within clinical trials should consider smoking status. (orig.)

  5. Effect of smoking cessation on quantitative computed tomography in smokers at risk in a lung cancer screening population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jobst, Bertram J.; Eichinger, Monika; Wielpuetz, Mark O.; Weinheimer, Oliver; Trauth, Mila; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Becker, Nikolaus; Motsch, Erna; Gross, Marie-Luise; Eigentopf, Anke; Tremper, Jan; Delorme, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    To longitudinally evaluate effects of smoking cessation on quantitative CT in a lung cancer screening cohort of heavy smokers over 4 years. After 4 years, low-dose chest CT was available for 314 long-term ex-smokers (ES), 404 continuous smokers (CS) and 39 recent quitters (RQ) who quitted smoking within 2 years after baseline CT. CT acquired at baseline and after 3 and 4 years was subjected to well-evaluated densitometry software, computing mean lung density (MLD) and 15th percentile of the lung density histogram (15TH). At baseline, active smokers showed significantly higher MLD and 15TH (-822±35 and -936±25 HU, respectively) compared to ES (-831±31 and -947±22 HU, p<0.01-0.001). After 3 years, CS again had significantly higher MLD and 15TH (-801±29 and -896±23 HU) than ES (-808±27 and -906±20 HU, p<0.01-0.001) but also RQ (-813±20 and -909±15 HU, p<0.05-0.001). Quantitative CT parameters did not change significantly after 4 years. Importantly, smoking status independently predicted MLD at baseline and year 3 (p<0.001) in multivariate analysis. On quantitative CT, lung density is higher in active smokers than ex-smokers, and sustainably decreases after smoking cessation, reflecting smoking-induced inflammation. Interpretations of quantitative CT data within clinical trials should consider smoking status. (orig.)

  6. French public finances at risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Creel Jérôme

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Using descriptive evidence, this paper contributes to the debate on French public finances’ consolidation by examining the long-term sustainability of France’s fiscal position. We trace the historical trends of government’s tax receipts and expenditures. We illustrate that while the level of public expenditure in France is larger than in the Euro Area, its trend is comparable to its neighbours. French net debt is comparable to Eurozone’s while French net wealth remains positive. However, the French tax system is not progressive with only 6% of compulsory levies raised that way, and too complex. The paper then acknowledges the efficient debt management of French authorities. As a conclusion, we see no risk of future unsustainability linked to the nature or the level of current French public finances.

  7. Cigarette smokers' classification of tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casseus, M; Garmon, J; Hrywna, M; Delnevo, C D

    2016-11-01

    Cigarette consumption has declined in the USA. However, cigar consumption has increased. This may be due in part to some cigarette smokers switching to filtered cigars as a less expensive substitute for cigarettes. Additionally, some cigarette smokers may perceive and consume little filtered cigars as cigarettes. The purpose of this study was to determine how cigarette smokers classify tobacco products when presented with photographs of those products. An online survey was conducted with a sample of 344 self-identified cigarette smokers. Respondents were presented with pictures of various types of tobacco products, both with and without packaging, and then asked to categorise them as either a cigarette, little cigar, cigarillo, cigar or machine-injected roll-your-own cigarette (RYO). Respondents were also asked about their tobacco use and purchasing behaviour. Overall, respondents had difficulty distinguishing between cigarettes, little cigars, cigarillos and RYO. When presented with images of the products without packaging, 93% of respondents identified RYO as a cigarette, while 42% identified a little cigar as a cigarette. Additionally, respondents stated that they would consider purchasing little cigars as substitutes for cigarettes because of the price advantage. The results of this survey suggest that when presented with photographs of tobacco products, large proportions of current smokers were unable to differentiate between cigarettes, little cigars, cigarillos, RYO and cigars. Findings have implications for existing public health efforts targeting cigarette smokers, and underscore the need to review current definitions of tobacco products and federal excise taxes on such products. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Social norms of cigarette and hookah smokers in Iranian universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roohafza, Hamidreza; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Shahnam, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: First experiences of tobacco use usually occur in adolescence. The recognition of social norms leading to youth smoking is hence necessary. We tried to assess the social norms among Iranian young cigarette and hookah smokers. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 451...... regression analysis was used to separately determine associations between hookah and cigarette smoking and the four social norm variables. RESULTS: CIGARETTE AND HOOKAH SMOKERS HAD SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES WITH NONSMOKERS IN TWO SOCIAL NORMS: "Perceived smoking by important characters" [odds ratio (OR) = 1.......35 in cigarette smokers and 1.58 in hookah smokers; P smokers and 6.16 in hookah smokers; P

  9. HIV-1 virological remission lasting more than 12 years after interruption of early antiretroviral therapy in a perinatally infected teenager enrolled in the French ANRS EPF-CO10 paediatric cohort: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frange, Pierre; Faye, Albert; Avettand-Fenoël, Véronique; Bellaton, Erianna; Descamps, Diane; Angin, Mathieu; David, Annie; Caillat-Zucman, Sophie; Peytavin, Gilles; Dollfus, Catherine; Le Chenadec, Jerome; Warszawski, Josiane; Rouzioux, Christine; Sáez-Cirión, Asier

    2016-01-01

    Durable HIV-1 remission after interruption of combined antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been reported in some adults who started treatment during primary infection; however, whether long-term remission in vertically infected children is possible was unknown. We report a case of a young adult perinatally infected with HIV-1 with viral remission despite long-term treatment interruption. The patient was identified in the ANRS EPF-CO10 paediatric cohort among 100 children infected with HIV perinatally who started ART before 6 months of age. HIV RNA viral load and CD4 cell counts were monitored from birth. Ultrasensitive HIV RNA, peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)-associated HIV DNA, HIV-specific T-cell responses (ie, production of cytokines and capacity to suppress HIV infection), reactivation of the CD4 cell reservoir (measured by p24 ELISA and HIV RNA in supernatants upon phytohaemagglutinin activation of purified CD4 cells), and plasma concentrations of antiretroviral drugs were assessed after 10 years of documented control off therapy. The infant was born in 1996 to a woman with uncontrolled HIV-1 viraemia and received zidovudine-based prophylaxis for 6 weeks. HIV RNA and DNA were not detected 3 days and 14 days after birth. HIV DNA was detected at 4 weeks of age. HIV RNA reached 2·17× 10(6) copies per mL at 3 months of age and ART was started. HIV RNA was undetectable 1 month later. ART was discontinued by the family at some point between 5·8 and 6·8 years of age. HIV RNA was undetectable at 6·8 years of age and ART was not resumed. HIV RNA has remained below 50 copies per mL and CD4 cell counts stable through to 18·6 years of age. After 11·5 years of control off treatment, HIV RNA was below 4 copies per mL and HIV DNA was 2·2 log10 copies per 10(6) PBMCs. The HLA genotype showed homozygosity at several loci (A*2301-, B*1503/4101, C*0210/0802, DRB1*1101-, and DQB1*0602-). HIV-specific CD8 T-cell responses and T-cell activation were weak. Findings

  10. Heart Rate Variability and Wavelet-based Studies on ECG Signals from Smokers and Non-smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, K.; Goel, R.; Champaty, B.; Samantray, S.; Tibarewala, D. N.

    2013-12-01

    The current study deals with the heart rate variability (HRV) and wavelet-based ECG signal analysis of smokers and non-smokers. The results of HRV indicated dominance towards the sympathetic nervous system activity in smokers. The heart rate was found to be higher in case of smokers as compared to non-smokers ( p smokers from the non-smokers. The results indicated that when RMSSD, SD1 and RR-mean features were used concurrently a classification efficiency of > 90 % was achieved. The wavelet decomposition of the ECG signal was done using the Daubechies (db 6) wavelet family. No difference was observed between the smokers and non-smokers which apparently suggested that smoking does not affect the conduction pathway of heart.

  11. Future of French refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvet, B.

    1993-01-01

    Over recent years, the refining industry has had to grapple with a growing burden of environmental and safety regulations concerning not only its plants and other facilities, but also its end products. At the same time, it has had to bear the effects of the reduction of the special status that used to apply to petroleum, and the consequences of economic freedom, to which we should add, as specifically concerns the French market, the impact of energy policy and the pro-nuclear option. The result is a drop in heavy fuel oil from 36 million tonnes per year in 1973 to 6.3 million in 1992, and in home-heating fuel from 37 to 18 million per year. This fast-moving market is highly competitive. The French market in particular is wide open to imports, but the refining companies are still heavy exporters for those products with high added-value, like lubricants, jet fuel, and lead-free gasolines. The competition has led the refining companies to commit themselves to quality, and to publicize their efforts in this direction. This is why the long-term perspectives for petroleum fuels are still wide open. This is supported by the probable expectation that the goal of economic efficiency is likely to soften the effects of the energy policy, which penalizes petroleum products, in that they have now become competitive again. In the European context, with the challenge of environmental protection and the decline in heavy fuel outlets, French refining has to keep on improving the quality of its products and plants, which means major investments. The industry absolutely must return to a more normal level of profitability, in order to sustain this financial effort, and generate the prosperity of its high-performance plants and equipment. 1 fig., 5 tabs

  12. [French immigration policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, P

    1994-01-01

    From the late nineteenth century through 1974, France permitted immigration to furnish workers and to compensate for the low level of fertility. Intense immigration from North Africa, the economic crisis of the 1970s, and other factors led to policy changes in 1974. French immigration policy since 1974 has fluctuated between guaranteeing foreigners equal rights regardless of their religion, race, culture, or national origin, and attempting to differentiate among immigrants depending on their degree of assimilability to French culture. From 1974 to 1988, France had five different policies regarding whether to permit new immigration and what to do about illegal immigrants. In July 1984, the four major political parties unanimously supported a measure in Parliament that definitively guaranteed the stay in France of legal immigrants, whose assimilation thus assumed priority. Aid for return to the homeland was no longer to be widely offered, and immigration of unskilled workers was to be terminated except for those originating in European Community countries. Major changes of government in 1988 and 1993 affected only the modalities of applying these principles. The number of immigrants has fluctuated since 1974. Unskilled workers, the only category whose entrance was specifically controlled by the 1984 measures, have declined from 174,000 in 1970 to 25,000 in the early 1990s. The number of requests for political asylum declined from 60,000 in 1989 to 27,000 in 1993, and in 1991, 15,467 persons were granted refugee status. The number of immigrants of all types permitted to remain in France declined from 250,000 or 3000 per year in the early 1970s to around 110,000 at present. Although the decline is significant, it appears insufficient to the government in power since 1993. Although migratory flows are often explained as the product of imbalance in the labor market or in demographic growth, the French experience suggests that government policies, both in the sending and

  13. [Wound healing complications in smokers, non-smokers and after abstinence from smoking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goertz, O; Kapalschinski, N; Skorzinski, T; Kolbenschlag, J; Daigeler, A; Hirsch, T; Homann, H H; Muehlberger, T

    2012-07-01

    The pulmonary and cardiovascular ramifications of smoking are well documented and this also applies to increased wound healing complications in smokers. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether preoperatively refraining from smoking would affect the incidence of wound healing disorders. Between 2006 and 2008 a total of 295 patients underwent aesthetic (n = 167) or reconstructive surgery (n = 128). They were divided into three groups: A (n = 98) non-smokers for at least 2 years, B (n = 99) patients who refrained from smoking 6 weeks prior to surgery and C (n = 98) smokers. Smoking abstinence was verified by cotinine tests. Wound healing complications were defined as dehiscent wounds, wound infections, atypical scar formation and adiponecrosis. Smokers developed wound healing complications in 48.2% of cases, non-smokers in 21.0% and patients who had stopped smoking for 6 weeks in 30.8% of cases (p = 0.006). Elective surgery should only be performed on non-smokers and smokers who had refrained from smoking for at least 6 weeks to reduce wound healing complications as far as possible.

  14. The French dosimetry protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutreix, A.

    1985-01-01

    After a general introduction the protocol is divided in five sections dealing with: determination of the quality of X-ray, γ-ray and electron beams; the measuring instrument; calibration of the reference instrument; determination of the reference absorbed dose in the user's beams; determination of the absorbed dose in water at other points, in other conditions. The French protocol is not essentially different from the Nordic protocol and it is based on the experience gained in using both the American and the Nordic protocols. Therefore, only the main difference with the published protocols are discussed. (Auth.)

  15. 1001 easy French phrases

    CERN Document Server

    McCoy, Heather

    2010-01-01

    The perfect companion for tourists and business travelers in France and other places where the French language is spoken, this book offers fast, effective communication. More than 1,000 basic words, phrases, and sentences cover everything from asking directions and renting a car to ordering dinner and finding a bank.Designed as a quick reference tool and an easy study guide, this inexpensive and easy-to-use book offers completely up-to-date terms for modern telecommunications, idioms, and slang. The contents are arranged for quick access to phrases related to greetings, transportation, shoppin

  16. The french criticality handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maubert, L.; Puit, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    The french criticality handbook, published in 1978 by the ''Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique'', is presented with the main targets aimed by the writer and the main choices taken relating to fissile mediums, reflection conditions, dilution curves. The validation of the critical values is presented as one of the most important aspects of this handbook which is mainly intended, in the mind of the author, to specialists well advertised in the field of criticality. The complements which have been introduced since 1978 and those which are foreseen in a near future are also detailed. (author)

  17. French in Culinary World

    OpenAIRE

    Rila Hilma

    2011-01-01

    More than million foods have been made by people from all over the world in the latest years. People now try to create new cooks and make some creativity on it. Then, cooking which the field is culinary has become an art because it needs an artistic value to decorate the food, a good taste and proper technique in processing delicious food in order to make it a masterpiece. French culinary is as famous as the Eiffel tower in the heart of the country, Paris. Most of fine dining international re...

  18. FRENCH PROTOCOL CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division du Personnel

    1999-01-01

    Senior officials, holders of FRENCH PROTOCOL cards (blue cards) due to expire on 31.12.1999, are requested to return these cards and those of family members, for extension to:Bureau des cartes, bâtiment 33.1-025Should the 3 spaces for authentication on the back of the card be full, please enclose 2 passport photographs for a new card.In the case of children aged 14 and over, an attestation of dependency and a school certificate should be returned with the card.Personnel DivisionTel. 79494/74683

  19. FRENCH PROTOCOL CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2000-01-01

    Senior officials, holders of FRENCH PROTOCOL cards (blue cards) due to expire on 31.12.2000, are requested to return these cards and those of family members, for extension to: Bureau des cartes, Bât 33.1-009/1-015 Should the three spaces for authentication on the back of the card be full, please enclose two passport photographs for a new card. In the case of children aged 14 and over, an attestation of dependency and a school certificate should be returned with the card.

  20. CLEANING OF FRENCH SITES

    CERN Multimedia

    Mauro Nonis

    2002-01-01

    In the last two weeks some cleaning problems have been remarked in several CERN buildings on the French part of CERN sites. This is mainly due to the start up of the new cleaning contract from the 1st July. These problems are not related to a budgetary reduction of the activity. We excuse for the malfunctions that have been created to CERN community and we assure you that we have taken all the needed measures to solve the problem in the shortest delay. Mauro Nonis (ST/FM)

  1. French electricity results 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    RTE, the manager of the French power system, announces a high increase in electricity exports to the other countries of the European Union in 2002. In France, the year 2002 was marked by stable power consumption, but a noteworthy increase in generation due to the rise of exports. In 2002, the RTE network conveyed 512.3 billion kWh (TWh) versus 503.1 billion kWh (TWh) in 2001, an increase of 1.8%. Overall French exports made considerable strides forward from 72.9 TWh in 2001 to 80.6 TWh in 2002, i.e. 10.6% more than in 2001. On the other hand, overall French imports fell substantially, from 4.4 TWh in 2001 to 3.8 TWh in 2002, or a drop of about 14%. In all, the export balance came to 76.8 TWh in 2002, versus 68.5 TWh in 2001, i.e. a rise of 12%. On Sunday, 22 December 2002, the historical record of the capacity export balance with a value of 13,277 MW, up 2.2%, was bettered. The particularly mild weather conditions in 2002 led to a drop in heating-related consumption, evaluated at 7 billion kWh compared with the prior year. A slight upturn in industrial consumption was to be noted, from 92.7 TWh in 2001 to 93.2 TWh in 2002, i.e. a growth of 0.5%. Total French consumption thus rose in 2002 to 448.7 TWh. Total consumption, adjusted for climate contingencies, showed a rise of 1.6% in 2002. French power producers showed an increase of nearly 2% and the first wind farm was connected to the power transmission network. French electricity output came to 532.9 TWh in 2002, a growth of 1.9%. This increase is divided up between nuclear generation, up 4%, and conventional thermal generation, on the rise by 15.3%. The substantial share of thermal generation can be explained by a correlative drop in hydro generation (less 16.6% compared with 2001) mainly due to extremely low water availability observed during the first months of the year. With 415.5 TWh in output, nuclear power plants provided 78% of French generation, fossil-fired power plants 9.9% with an output of 52.9 TWh

  2. The French nuclear context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havard, J.; Israel, M.

    1977-01-01

    The mean- and longer-range energy needs, that can be now forecasted in France, are analyzed, together with the special character of the French energy market. A resort to nuclear power is first shown to be necessary to limit the increase in the demand for imported fossil fuels, then this resort is shown to offer some real possibilities. The energy balance proves that the industrial stage of power plant construction is reached. The conditions of realization of the program have been settled with a set of provisions that render the risk and environmental impact as negligible as possible [fr

  3. CT screening for lung cancer: Importance of emphysema for never smokers and smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henschke, Claudia I; Yip, Rowena; Boffetta, Paolo; Markowitz, Steven; Miller, Albert; Hanaoka, Takaomi; Wu, Ning; Zulueta, Javier J; Yankelevitz, David F

    2015-04-01

    To address the prevalence of lung cancer in high and low-risk people according to their smoking history, age, and CT findings of emphysema. We reviewed the baseline low-dose CT scans of 62,124 current, former and never smokers, aged 40-90 to determine the prevalence of lung cancer. We performed logistic regression analysis of the prevalence of lung cancer to determine the odds ratio (OR) for emphysema, conditionally on age, female gender, and ethnicity. The prevalence of lung cancer was 1.4% (95% CI: 1.3-1.6) for current smokers, 1.1% (95% CI: 1.0-1.2) for former smokers, and 0.4% (95% CI: 0.3-0.6) for never smokers. Emphysema was identified in 28.5% (6,684), 20.6% (5,422), and 1.6% (194) of current, former, and never smokers, respectively. The prevalence of lung cancer among current smokers was 1.1% for those without emphysema vs. 2.3% for those with emphysema (odds ratio [OR] 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.4-2.2) and the corresponding difference for former smokers was 0.9% vs. 1.8% (OR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.3-2.2), and for never smokers, it was 0.4% vs. 2.6% (OR: 6.3; 95% CI: 2.4-16.9). Identification of emphysema in low-dose CT scans increases the risk of lung cancer and is important in determining follow-up of current, former, and never smokers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The determination of polonium in urine of Filipino non-smokers and smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juan, N.B.; Ballelos, E.

    1976-03-01

    Po 210 , a decay product of Ra 226 , is a pure alpha emitter with an energy of 5.3 MeV decaying with a half-life of 138.4 days. It is a natural containment of tobacco and hence a health hazard to smokers. Previous study on Philippine cigarettes revealed that the average Po 210 activity of local brands is 0.0071 pCi/g. while that of foreign brands is 0.0129 pCi/g. Other studies indicate that approximately 0.13% of the total Po 210 in the body is excreted in the urine daily. Po urinalysis can serve as a rough index of the body burden of Po 210 and Ra 226 or anyone of its daughters absorbed in case of exposures. In this study, the Po 210 content in urine of smokers is compared with that of non-smokers. Twenty samples from non-smokers and twenty samples from smokers were analyzed for Po 210 activity. The average Po content of the urine of smokers, 0.2673+-0.1077 pCi/24h appears to be higher than the mean Po activity in urine of non-smokers, 0.1877+-0.1200. The t-value obtained from the comparison of the means was 2.205. This exceeds the t-value at the 0.05 significance level (degrees of freedom equal 19) which is 1.725. Therefore, there exists a significant difference in the Po content in the urine of non-smokers to that of smokers

  5. Invitation Refusals in Cameroon French and Hexagonal French

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farenkia, Bernard Mulo

    2015-01-01

    Descriptions of regional pragmatic variation in French are lacking to date the focus has been on a limited range of speech acts, including apologies, requests, compliments and responses to compliments. The present paper, a systematic analysis of invitation refusals across regional varieties of French, is designed to add to the research on…

  6. Timing and risk factors associated with relapse among smokers attempting to quit in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasin, S M; Moy, F M; Retneswari, M; Isahak, M; Koh, D

    2012-07-01

    Many smokers attempt to quit smoking, but very few succeed. To identify the timing and risk factors involved in smoking relapse. We conducted a prospective cohort study among staff in two public universities in Malaysia. Behavioural therapy with free nicotine replacement therapy was given as treatment. Participants were followed up for 6 months. Relapse was defined as returning to smoking after having quit for at least 24 h. Of 185 smokers who volunteered to participate, 120 achieved at least 24-h abstinence, and 80% of these relapsed within 2 months. Compared to participants who attended a single smoking cessation session, participants who attended three sessions had a lower likelihood of relapse within 6 months of quitting. In contrast, smokers with a much longer exposure to cigarette smoking in the workplace (>3 h per week) had a greater chance of relapse compared to those with no exposure. Frequent attendance at clinic sessions and less exposure to other people smoking in the workplace can potentially reduce the likelihood of relapse among smokers who have recently quit.

  7. Fecal zonulin is elevated in Crohn's disease and in cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malíčková, Karin; Francová, Irena; Lukáš, Milan; Kolář, Martin; Králíková, Eva; Bortlík, Martin; Ďuricová, Dana; Štěpánková, Lenka; Zvolská, Kamila; Pánková, Alexandra; Zima, Tomáš

    2017-12-01

    Human zonulin is a protein that increases permeability in the epithelial layer of the small intestine by reversibly modulating the intercellular tight junctions. There is not sufficient information available about zonulin's participation in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). The aim of this study was therefore to investigate fecal and serum zonulin in IBD patients and its relation to the disease localization, behavior and smoking status. Forty IBD patients and forty healthy persons were examined for fecal and serum zonulin concentrations by competitive ELISA (DRG International Inc). Values were correlated to IBD type, localization and behavior, and smoking. Serum and fecal zonulin were significantly higher in patients with Crohn's disease compared to ulcerative colitis (p = 0.038 for fecal zonulin, and p = 0.041 for serum zonulin concentrations). No association of serum or fecal zonulin was found with respect to IBD localization and behavior. The only difference was found with respect to smoking. Both the IBD cohort and healthy smokers showed significantly higher fecal zonulin levels (median 203 ng/mL) compared to non-smokers (median 35.8 ng/mL), p zonulin levels are elevated in patients with active Crohn's disease but not with ulcerative colitis. High fecal zonulin levels in smokers irrespective of IBD point to the significant and undesirable up-regulation of gut permeability in cigarette smokers.

  8. Language Training: French Training

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 language.training@cern.ch General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 April to 02 July 2004. These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 April to 02 July 2004. This course is designed for people with a good level of s...

  9. Language Training: French Training

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 language.training@cern.ch General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 April to 02 July 2004. These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 April to 02 July 2004. This course is designed for people with a good level...

  10. Spotlight: French Polynesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, J F

    1988-01-01

    French Polynesia is a group of 4 archipelagos in the South Pacific with an estimated 1987 population of 176,600. Its people are mainly Tahitians, Polynesians, Chinese, Europeans, and persons of mixed heritage. More than half of the population live in the Society Islands. About half of the population is less than 20 years old and slightly more than 5% is older than 60. Due to a recent decline in fertility, the rate of natural increase is moderate--about 2.5% annually. In the early 1980s, about two thirds of women in Tahiti aged 15-49 used a modern method of contraception. It remains to be seen whether this pattern will spread to the entire area. Projections by the World Bank, assuming little decline in mortality, yield a total population of 400,000 by the year 2030. The major challenge for French Polynesia is to develop the many small islands spread across an ocean territory half the size of the contiguous 48 states of the U.S. Tourist-related activities have replaced traditional income-generating such as production of coconuts, mother-of-pearl, and vanilla. The value of exports from the area make up only 5% of the value of imports. To extract the potentially huge food and mineral resources from the ocean, enormous infusions of capital will be necessary.

  11. The French capacity mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The French capacity mechanism has been design to ensure security of supply in the context of the energy transition. This energy transition challenges the electricity market design with several features: peak load growth, the development of renewables, demand response,... To ensure security of supply in this context, a capacity mechanism is being implemented in France. It is a market wide capacity obligation on electricity suppliers, based on market principles. Suppliers are responsible for forecasting their obligation, which corresponds to their contribution to winter peak load, and must procure enough capacity certificates to meet their obligations. Capacity certificates are granted to capacities through a certification process, which assesses their contribution to security of supply on the basis of availability commitments. This certification process is technology neutral and performance based, associated with controls and penalties in case of non compliance. Demand Side is fully integrated in the market, either through the reduction of suppliers' capacity obligation or direct participation after certification. In addition to the expected benefits in terms of security of supply, the French capacity market will foster the development of demand response. The participation of foreign capacities will require adaptations which are scheduled in a road-map, and could pave the way for further European integration of energy policies. (authors)

  12. French intensive truck garden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, T D

    1983-01-01

    The French Intensive approach to truck gardening has the potential to provide substantially higher yields and lower per acre costs than do conventional farming techniques. It was the intent of this grant to show that there is the potential to accomplish the gains that the French Intensive method has to offer. It is obvious that locally grown food can greatly reduce transportation energy costs but when there is the consideration of higher efficiencies there will also be energy cost reductions due to lower fertilizer and pesticide useage. As with any farming technique, there is a substantial time interval for complete soil recovery after there have been made substantial soil modifications. There were major crop improvements even though there was such a short time since the soil had been greatly disturbed. It was also the intent of this grant to accomplish two other major objectives: first, the garden was managed under organic techniques which meant that there were no chemical fertilizers or synthetic pesticides to be used. Second, the garden was constructed so that a handicapped person in a wheelchair could manage and have a higher degree of self sufficiency with the garden. As an overall result, I would say that the garden has taken the first step of success and each year should become better.

  13. Wind: French revolutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.

    2006-01-01

    Despite having the second best wind resources in Europe after the UK, the wind industry in France lags behind its European counterparts with just 6 W of installed wind capacity per person. The electricity market in France is dominated by the state-owned Electricite de France (EdF) and its nuclear power stations. However, smaller renewable generators are now in theory allowed access to the market and France has transposed the EU renewables directive into national law. The French governement has set a target of generating 10,000 MW of renewable capacity by 2010. The announcement of an increased feed-in tariff and the introduction of 'development zones' (ZDEs) which could allow fast-tracking of planning for wind projects are also expected to boost wind projects. But grid access and adminstrative burdens remain major barriers. In addition, French politicians and local authorities remain committed to nuclear, though encouraged by the European Commission, wind is beginning to gain acceptance; some 325 wind farms (representing 1557 MW of capacity) were approved between February 2004 and January 2005. France is now regarded by the international wind energy sector as a target market. One of France's leading independent wind developers and its only listed wind company, Theolia, is expected to be one of the major beneficiaries of the acceleration of activity in France, though other companies are keen to maximise the opportunities for wind. France currently has only one indigenous manufacturer of wind turbines, but foreign suppliers are winning orders

  14. Smart grids - French Expertise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-11-01

    The adaptation of electrical systems is the focus of major work worldwide. Bringing electricity to new territories, modernizing existing electricity grids, implementing energy efficiency policies and deploying renewable energies, developing new uses for electricity, introducing electric vehicles - these are the challenges facing a multitude of regions and countries. Smart Grids are the result of the convergence of electrical systems technologies with information and communications technologies. They play a key role in addressing the above challenges. Smart Grid development is a major priority for both public and private-sector actors in France. The experience of French companies has grown with the current French electricity system, a system that already shows extensive levels of 'intelligence', efficiency and competitiveness. French expertise also leverages substantial competence in terms of 'systems engineering', and can provide a tailored response to meet all sorts of needs. French products and services span all the technical and commercial building blocks that make up the Smart Grid value chain. They address the following issues: Improving the use and valuation of renewable energies and decentralized means of production, by optimizing the balance between generation and consumption. Strengthening the intelligence of the transmission and distribution grids: developing 'Supergrid', digitizing substations in transmission networks, and automating the distribution grids are the focus of a great many projects designed to reinforce the 'self-healing' capacity of the grid. Improving the valuation of decentralized flexibilities: this involves, among others, deploying smart meters, reinforcing active energy efficiency measures, and boosting consumers' contribution to grid balancing, via practices such as demand response which implies the aggregation of flexibility among residential, business, and/or industrial sites. Addressing current technological challenges, in

  15. Risk factors for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among never-smokers in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee SJ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Seok Jeong Lee,1 Seo Woo Kim,1 Kyoung Ae Kong,2 Yon Ju Ryu,1 Jin Hwa Lee,1 Jung Hyun Chang1 1Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Clinical Trial Center, School of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Republic of Korea Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients include those who have never smoked. However, risk factors other than smoking in never-smokers have not been elucidated sufficiently. This study investigated the risk factors for COPD among never-smokers in Korea using population-based data. Methods: The data were retrieved from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey IV conducted from 2007 to 2009. Among subjects aged 40 years or older who underwent appropriate pulmonary function tests, never-smokers not diagnosed with asthma and not showing a restrictive pattern on pulmonary function tests were enrolled. Risk factors of COPD in never-smokers were analyzed using logistic regression models. Results: Among 24,871 participants in the representative Korean cohort, 3,473 never-smokers were enrolled. COPD patients accounted for 7.6% of the never-smokers. In the logistic regression analysis, low education status (odds ratio [OR]: 2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2–3.2, occupational exposure (OR: 2.6; 95% CI: 1.3–5.3, a history of tuberculosis (OR: 4.5; 95% CI: 2.3–8.7, bronchiectasis (OR: 6.0; 95% CI: 1.4–25.4, male sex (OR: 4.2; 95% CI: 2.6–6.7, advanced age (60–69 years vs 40–49 years; OR: 3.8; 95% CI: 2.0–7.0, and being underweight (body mass index <18.5 vs 18.0–24.9 kg/m2; OR: 3.1; 95% CI: 1.0–9.4 were associated with the development of COPD. Conclusion: Low education status, manual labor, a history of tuberculosis and bronchiectasis, as well as male sex, advanced age and being underweight were risk factors for COPD in Korean never-smokers. Keywords: socioeconomic status, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, never-smoker

  16. Prevalence characteristics of COPD in never smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadan M. Bakr

    2012-07-01

    Conclusions: This study revealed that never smokers constitute a significant proportion of the Egyptian COPD patients. When dealing with COPD management, clinicians must be oriented with the different risk factors, other than tobacco smoke, that play a key role in the development and pathogenesis of COPD, because despite smoking is the most important risk factor, its absence doesn’t exclude COPD diagnosis.

  17. Energy Drink Use Among Ohio Appalachian Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Genevieve; Shoben, Abigail; Pasch, Keryn E; Klein, Elizabeth G

    2016-10-01

    Caffeine-containing energy drinks have emerged as a public health concern due to their association with caffeine toxicity and alcohol use. Despite the fact that previous research has linked caffeine use in the form of coffee drinking to smoking, there is little research examining the association between energy drinks and smoking. The present study examines demographic and behavioral factors associated with energy drink use among a sample of rural Ohio Appalachian smokers. It was hypothesized that male gender, young age (21-30 years.) and alcohol use would be associated with energy drink use. A sample of adult smokers (n = 298) from Ohio Appalachian counties were interviewed regarding demographic and behavioral factors. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between these factors and energy drink use. Seventy percent of Ohio Appalachian smokers studied had ever used an energy drink and 40 % had used an energy drink in the past month. Young age, male gender, and single marital status were associated with higher odds of ever having used an energy drink. Young age, and binge drinking were associated with higher odds of past 30-day use while abstinence from drinking was associated with lower odds of past 30-day use. Ohio Appalachian adult smokers had higher rates of energy drink use compared to previous estimates of ever or past month use found in other studies. The combined use of caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol warrants attention due to potential for health risk.

  18. Markers of Oxidative stress in Smoker and Nonsmoker Athletes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahba, O.; Shalby, H.; Ashry, Kh.

    2009-01-01

    To Investigate the effect of smoking on oxidative stress in male athletes. Plasma levels of nitric oxide (NO), apoptosis % in circulating lymphocytes and inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA (iNOS mRNA) expression in neutrophils, erythrocytes antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were measured in the blood of 40 non smoker and 25 smoker athletes compared to age and socioeconomic class matching 20 smoker and 20 non-smoker non-athlete controls. Plasma levels NO, apoptosis % in circulating lymphocytes and inducible iNOS mRNA expression in neutrophils were significantly higher among athletes compared to non athletes and exhibited the highest levels in athlete smokers followed by control smokers. Concurrently, erythrocytes SOD was significantly higher among athletes compared to non athletes and exhibited highest levels in athlete smokers followed by control smokers. Conclusion: The results of this work demonstrate the impact of smoking on the health of athletes

  19. Perceptions of e-cigarettes: a comparison of adult smokers and non-smokers in a Mechanical Turk sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauhoff, Sebastian; Montero, Adrian; Scharf, Deborah

    2017-05-01

    Given plans to extend its regulatory authority to e-cigarettes, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) urgently needs to understand how e-cigarettes are perceived by the public. To examine how smoking status impacts adult perceptions and expectations of e-cigarettes. We used Mechanical Turk (MTurk), a "crowdsourcing" platform, to rapidly survey a large (n = 796; female = 381; male = 415), diverse sample of adult ever (44%) and never smokers (56%), including ever (28%) and never (72%) users of e-cigarettes. Smokers and non-smokers learned about e-cigarettes primarily through the internet and conversations with others. Ever smokers were more likely than never smokers, and female current smokers were more likely than female former smokers, to have learned about e-cigarettes from point of sale advertising (p's smokers quit (ps never users of e-cigarettes, current smokers were more likely than never smokers and former smokers to report that they would try e-cigarettes in the future (ps smokers' top reason for wanting to try e-cigarettes was to quit or reduce smoking (56%), while never and former smokers listed curiosity. In contrast, female current smokers' top reason for not trying e-cigarettes was health and safety concerns (44%) while males were deterred by expense (44%). Adult smokers and non-smokers have different perceptions and expectations of e-cigarettes. Public health messages regarding e-cigarettes may need to be tailored separately for persons with and without a history of using conventional cigarettes. Tailoring messages by gender within smoker groups may also improve their impact.

  20. Effects of nicotine gum on psychomotor performance in smokers and non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindmarch, I; Kerr, J S; Sherwood, N

    1990-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of nicotine on human performance. In the first study six smokers, who had been allowed to smoke normally prior to testing, completed a battery of psychometric tests (choice reaction time, memory scanning, tracking and flicker fusion threshold) at set points over 4 h after chewing 0, 2, or 4 mg nicotine polacrilex gum. A second study followed a similar design, but used five non-smoker volunteers who were required to chew only the 0 or 2 mg nicotine gum. Blood nicotine levels following the gum were measured in all subjects. The results indicate that additional nicotine improved both the speed and accuracy of motor activity among the smokers, but did not enhance central cognitive processes. No drug effects were found in the non-smoker study.

  1. Effects of Exercise on Hemorheological Parameters of Young Nigerian Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    AWODU, Omolade Augustina; FAMODU, Ademola Adekunle

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Regular physical exercise is associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases. In this study, the hypothesis that acute submaximal exercise has similar effects on rheological parameters of smokers and non-smokers was tested. Materials and Methods: Thirty-three male university undergraduates comprised of 18 smokers and 15 non-smokers were studied. All the subjects underwent submaximal exercise on cycloergometer for 30 minutes. Blood for hemorheological parameters was collected 30...

  2. Slower nicotine metabolism among postmenopausal Polish smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmider, Leon; Delijewski, Marcin; Koszowski, Bartosz; Sobczak, Andrzej; Benowitz, Neal L; Goniewicz, Maciej L

    2018-06-01

    A non-invasive phenotypic indicator of the rate of nicotine metabolism is nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR) defined as a ratio of two major metabolites of nicotine - trans-3'-hydroxycotinine/cotinine. The rate of nicotine metabolism has important clinical implications for the likelihood of successful quitting with nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). We conducted a study to measure NMR among Polish smokers. In a cross-sectional study of 180 daily cigarette smokers (42% men; average age 34.6±13.0), we collected spot urine samples and measured trans-3'-hydroxycotinine (3-HC) and cotinine levels with LC-MS/MS method. We calculated NMR (molar ratio) and analyzed variations in NMR among groups of smokers. In the whole study group, an average NMR was 4.8 (IQR 3.4-7.3). The group of women below 51 years had significantly greater NMR compared to the rest of the population (6.4; IQR 4.1-8.8 vs. 4.3; IQR 2.8-6.4). No differences were found among group ages of male smokers. This is a first study to describe variations in nicotine metabolism among Polish smokers. Our findings indicate that young women metabolize nicotine faster than the rest of population. This finding is consistent with the known effects of estrogen to induce CYP2A6 activity. Young women may require higher doses of NRT or non-nicotine medications for most effective smoking cessation treatment. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Development of the French Photovoltaic Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunet, M.

    1980-07-01

    The French photovoltaic research program is reviewed, listing companies involved. Projections of module and system costs are discussed. French industrial experience in photovoltaics is reviewed and several French systems operating in developing countries are mentioned. (MHR)

  4. Maternal bonding styles in smokers and non-smokers: a comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Csala, Iren; Elemery, Monika; Martinovszky, Fruzsina; Dome, Peter; Dome, Balazs; Faludi, Gabor; Sandor, Imola; Gyorffy, Zsuzsa; Birkas, Emma; Lazary, Judit

    2016-01-01

    Background Parental bonding has been implicated in smoking behavior, and the quality of maternal bonding (MB) has been associated with poor mental health and substance use. However, little is known about the association of MB and the smoking of the offspring. Methods In our study, 129 smokers and 610 non-smoker medical students completed the parental bonding instrument, which measures MB along two dimensions: care and overprotection. Four categories can be created by high and low scores on ca...

  5. Expression of cytochromes P450 1A1 and 1B1 in human lung from smokers, non-smokers, and ex-smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, James H.; Sherman, Mark E.; Curriero, Frank C.; Guengerich, F. Peter; Strickland, Paul T.; Sutter, Thomas R.

    2004-01-01

    Cytochromes P450 1A1 and 1B1 are known to bioactivate procarcinogens such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) found in cigarette smoke and are inducible via an Ah receptor-mediated mechanism. The aim of this study was to examine the levels of expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 in samples of lung from smokers (n = 18), non-smokers (n = 7), and ex-smokers (n = 7). Using immunoglobulin preparations of highly specific polyclonal antibodies and immunoblot analysis of microsomes from lung tissues, we determined the specific content for CYP1A1 and CYP1B1. For CYP1A1, we found median expression levels of 15.5 pmol/mg microsomal protein in smokers, 6.0 pmol/mg microsomal protein in non-smokers, and 19.0 pmol/mg microsomal protein in ex-smokers. The difference in median expression levels of smokers and ex-smokers compared to non-smokers was statistically significant. For CYP1B1, we found median expression levels of 1.8 pmol/mg microsomal protein in smokers, 1.0 pmol/mg microsomal protein in non-smokers, and 4.4 pmol/mg microsomal protein in ex-smokers. The difference in median expression levels between ex-smokers and non-smokers was statistically significant. These results suggest that levels of expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 protein in lung tissues from smokers and ex-smokers are quantitatively greater than in non-smokers. By immunohistochemical analysis, we demonstrated the expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 in normal human alveolar type I and II cells, ciliated columnar epithelial cells lining bronchoalveolar airways, and alveolar macrophages. These results confirm that CYP1A1 is expressed in normal human lung, appears to be induced in smokers, and show interindividual variation; the similar characteristics of CYP1B1 are demonstrated

  6. General and Professional French Courses

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2010-01-01

    The next session will take place from 11 October to 17 December 2010. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Nathalie Dumeaux, tel. 78144. NEW COURSES Specific French courses -Exam preparation/ We are now offering specific courses in English and French leading to a recognised external examination (e.g. DELF 1 and 2). If you are interested in following one of these courses and have at least an intermediate level of French, please enrol through the following link: French courses or contact: Lucette Fournier, tel.  73483 (French courses).

  7. A Critical Evaluation of Nicotine Replacement Therapy for Teenage Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, Christi A.

    2000-01-01

    Evaluates the appropriateness and feasibility of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in teenage smokers. Available forms of NRT, theoretical rationale and efficacy of NRT, ethical considerations, and the feasibility of NRT in teenage smokers are addressed. Several characteristics similar to adult nicotine dependent smokers have been found in teen…

  8. Subgingival dysbiosis in smoker and non‑smoker patients with chronic periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coretti, Lorena; Cuomo, Mariella; Florio, Ermanno; Palumbo, Domenico; Keller, Simona; Pero, Raffaela; Chiariotti, Lorenzo; Lembo, Francesca; Cafiero, Carlo

    2017-04-01

    Periodontitis is one of the most common oral inflammatory diseases, and results in connective tissue degradation and gradual tooth loss. It manifests with formation of periodontal pockets, in which anaerobic and Gram‑negative bacteria proliferate rapidly. Consequently, alteration of the subgingival microbiota is considered the primary etiologic agent of periodontitis. Previous studies have reported that smokers are at increased risk of periodontal disease, in both prevalence and severity, indicating that smoking is a risk factor for the onset and progression of the pathology. In the present study, 16S rRNA sequencing was employed to assess the subgingival microbiota in 6 smoker patients with chronic periodontitis, 6 non‑smoker patients with chronic periodontitis and 8 healthy controls. The results demonstrated significant alterations in the microbial structure of periodontitis patients. High relative abundance of Parvimonans, Desulfubulbus, Paludibacter, Haemophilus, and Sphaerochaeta genera characterized subgingival microbiota of periodontitis patients, both smokers and non‑smokers. Due to the high precision and sensitivity of the 16S rRNA sequencing method, analysis for low‑abundant genera (including Pedobacter, Granulicatella, Paracoccus, Atopobium, Bifidobacterium, Coprococcus, Oridobacteriu, Peptococcus, Oscillospira and Akkermansia) was feasible, and revealed novel phylotypes associated with periodontitis. Of note, a major microbial community alteration was evident in smoker patients, suggesting an association between smoking and severity of subgingival dysbiosis. The present study confirmed that chronic periodontitis is a polymicrobial disease where changes in the equilibrium of subgingival microbiota contribute to severity of pathology.

  9. Status of French reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballagny, A. [Commissariat a l`Energie Atomique, Saclay (France)

    1997-08-01

    The status of French reactors is reviewed. The ORPHEE and RHF reactors can not be operated with a LEU fuel which would be limited to 4.8 g U/cm{sup 3}. The OSIRIS reactor has already been converted to LEU. It will use U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} as soon as its present stock of UO{sub 2} fuel is used up, at the end of 1994. The decision to close down the SILOE reactor in the near future is not propitious for the start of a conversion process. The REX 2000 reactor, which is expected to be commissioned in 2005, will use LEU (except if the fast neutrons core option is selected). Concerning the end of the HEU fuel cycle, the best option is reprocessing followed by conversion of the reprocessed uranium to LEU.

  10. The French nuclear programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacher, Pierre

    1987-01-01

    France has a civil nuclear power generation programme second only to the USA with 49 nuclear units in operation and 13 under construction. The units in service are described. These include 33 PWR 900 MW and 9 PWR 1300 MW units. The electricity consumption and generation in France is illustrated. The absence of a powerful anti-nuclear lobby and two main technical options have contributed to the success of the French nuclear programme. These are the PWR design and the plant standardization policy which allows the setting up of an effective industrial complex (eg for analysis of operating conditions and of safety and reliability information). The programme and the reasons for its success are reviewed. Research programmes and future plans are also discussed. (UK)

  11. French courses for beginners

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2006-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please tell to your supervisor and apply electronically from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training'form available from your Departmental Secretariat or from your DTO (Departmental Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order in which they are received. French courses for beginners (level 0) From 17 July to 31 August 2006. Mondays, Tuesdays, Wednesdays and Thursdays(8 hours a week / between 11.00 and 15.30) Duration: 56 hours Price: 728 CHF For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: Tel. 73127.

  12. Status of French reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballagny, A.

    1997-01-01

    The status of French reactors is reviewed. The ORPHEE and RHF reactors can not be operated with a LEU fuel which would be limited to 4.8 g U/cm 3 . The OSIRIS reactor has already been converted to LEU. It will use U 3 Si 2 as soon as its present stock of UO 2 fuel is used up, at the end of 1994. The decision to close down the SILOE reactor in the near future is not propitious for the start of a conversion process. The REX 2000 reactor, which is expected to be commissioned in 2005, will use LEU (except if the fast neutrons core option is selected). Concerning the end of the HEU fuel cycle, the best option is reprocessing followed by conversion of the reprocessed uranium to LEU

  13. The Effects of 8-Weeks Aerobic Exercise Program on Blood Lipids and Cholesterol Profile of Smokers vs. Non Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taifour, Akef; AL-Shishani, Ahmad; Khasawneh, Aman; AL-Nawaiseh, Ali; Bakeer, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 8-week aerobic exercise program on blood lipids and cholesterol profile of smoker's vs. non-smokers. A total of 34 male subjects (18 non-smokers and 16 smokers) took part in this study. Both groups were pre- and post tested in their blood-lipids and cholesterol profile before and after the 8-week…

  14. Automatic associations with the sensory aspects of smoking: Positive in habitual smokers but negative in non-smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Huijding, Jorg; Jong, Peter

    2006-01-01

    textabstractTo test whether pictorial stimuli that focus on the sensory aspects of smoking elicit different automatic affective associations in smokers than in non-smokers, 31 smoking and 33 non-smoking students completed a single target IAT. Explicit attitudes were assessed using a semantic differential. Automatic affective associations were positive in smokers but negative in non-smokers. Only automatic affective associations but not self-reported attitudes were significantly correlated wit...

  15. Selective attention to smoking cues in former smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehme, Anne K; Bey, Katharina; Frommann, Ingo; Mogg, Karin; Bradley, Brendan P; Bludau, Julia; Block, Verena; Sträter, Birgitta; Schütz, Christian G; Wagner, Michael

    2018-02-01

    Repeated drug use modifies the emotional and cognitive processing of drug-associated cues. These changes are supposed to persist even after prolonged abstinence. Several studies demonstrated that smoking cues selectively attract the attention of smokers, but empirical evidence for such an attentional bias among successful quitters is inconclusive. Here, we investigated whether attentional biases persist after smoking cessation. Thirty-eight former smokers, 34 current smokers, and 29 non-smokers participated in a single experimental session. We used three measures of attentional bias for smoking stimuli: A visual probe task with short (500ms) and long (2000ms) picture stimulus durations, and a modified Stroop task with smoking-related and neutral words. Former smokers and current smokers, as compared to non-smokers, showed an attentional bias in visual orienting to smoking pictures in the 500ms condition of the visual probe task. The Stroop interference index of smoking words was negatively related to nicotine dependence in current smokers. Former smokers and mildly dependent smokers, as compared to non-smokers, showed increased interference by smoking words in the Stroop task. Neither current nor former smokers showed an attentional bias in maintained attention (2000ms visual probe task). In conclusion, even after prolonged abstinence smoking cues retain incentive salience in former smokers, who differed from non-smokers on two attentional bias indices. Attentional biases in former smokers operate mainly in early involuntary rather than in controlled processing, and may represent a vulnerability factor for relapse. Therefore, smoking cessation programs should strengthen self-control abilities to prevent relapses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  16. Disparity and Trends in Secondhand Smoke Exposure among Japanese Employees, Particularly Smokers vs. Non-Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabuchi, Takahiro; Colwell, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring disparities in secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is important for tailoring smoke-free policies to the needs of different groups. We examined disparity and trends in SHS exposure among both nonsmokers and smokers at Japanese workplaces between 2002 and 2012. A total of 32,940 employees in nationally representative, population-based, repeated cross-sectional surveys in 2002, 2007 and 2012 in Japan was analyzed. Adjusted rate ratios for workplace SHS exposure from other people ("everyday" and "everyday or sometimes") were calculated according to covariates, using log-binomial regression models with survey weights. In this survey, employees who do not smoke at workplace are defined as workplace-nonsmokers; and those smoke at workplace are used as workplace-smokers. SHS exposure for smokers does not involve their own SHS. While everyday SHS exposure prevalence in workplace-nonsmokers decreased markedly (33.2% to 11.4%), that in workplace-smokers decreased only slightly (63.3% to 55.6%). Workplace-smokers were significantly more likely to report everyday SHS exposure than workplace-nonsmokers, and the degree of association increased over time: compared with the nonsmokers (reference), covariates-adjusted rate ratio (95% confidence interval) for the smokers increased from 1.70 (1.62-1.77) in 2002 to 4.16 (3.79-4.56) in 2012. Similar results were observed for everyday or sometimes SHS exposure. Compared with complete workplace smoking bans, partial and no bans were consistently and significantly associated with high SHS exposure among both nonsmokers and smokers. We also observed disparities in SHS exposure by employee characteristics, such as age group and worksite scale. Although overall SHS exposure decreased among Japanese employees between 2002 and 2012, the SHS exposure disparity between nonsmokers and smokers widened. Because smokers reported more frequent SHS exposure than nonsmokers, subsequent mortality due to SHS exposure may be higher in smokers than

  17. An exploration of the Facebook social networks of smokers and non-smokers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luella Fu

    Full Text Available Social networks influence health behavior, including tobacco use and cessation. To date, little is known about whether and how the networks of online smokers and non-smokers may differ, or the potential implications of such differences with regards to intervention efforts. Understanding how social networks vary by smoking status could inform public health efforts to accelerate cessation or slow the adoption of tobacco use.These secondary analyses explore the structure of ego networks of both smokers and non-smokers collected as part of a randomized control trial conducted within Facebook.During the trial, a total of 14,010 individuals installed a Facebook smoking cessation app: 9,042 smokers who were randomized in the trial, an additional 2,881 smokers who did not meet full eligibility criteria, and 2,087 non-smokers. The ego network for all individuals was constructed out to second-degree connections. Four kinds of networks were constructed: friendship, family, photo, and group networks. From these networks we measured edges, isolates, density, mean betweenness, transitivity, and mean closeness. We also measured diameter, clustering, and modularity without ego and isolates. Logistic regressions were performed with smoking status as the response and network metrics as the primary independent variables and demographics and Facebook utilization metrics as covariates.The four networks had different characteristics, indicated by different multicollinearity issues and by logistic regression output. Among Friendship networks, the odds of smoking were higher in networks with lower betweenness (p = 0.00, lower transitivity (p = 0.00, and larger diameter (p = 0.00. Among Family networks, the odds of smoking were higher in networks with more vertices (p = .01, less transitivity (p = .04, and fewer isolates (p = .01. Among Photo networks, none of the network metrics were predictive of smoking status. Among Group networks, the odds of smoking were higher

  18. An exploration of the Facebook social networks of smokers and non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Luella; Jacobs, Megan A; Brookover, Jody; Valente, Thomas W; Cobb, Nathan K; Graham, Amanda L

    2017-01-01

    Social networks influence health behavior, including tobacco use and cessation. To date, little is known about whether and how the networks of online smokers and non-smokers may differ, or the potential implications of such differences with regards to intervention efforts. Understanding how social networks vary by smoking status could inform public health efforts to accelerate cessation or slow the adoption of tobacco use. These secondary analyses explore the structure of ego networks of both smokers and non-smokers collected as part of a randomized control trial conducted within Facebook. During the trial, a total of 14,010 individuals installed a Facebook smoking cessation app: 9,042 smokers who were randomized in the trial, an additional 2,881 smokers who did not meet full eligibility criteria, and 2,087 non-smokers. The ego network for all individuals was constructed out to second-degree connections. Four kinds of networks were constructed: friendship, family, photo, and group networks. From these networks we measured edges, isolates, density, mean betweenness, transitivity, and mean closeness. We also measured diameter, clustering, and modularity without ego and isolates. Logistic regressions were performed with smoking status as the response and network metrics as the primary independent variables and demographics and Facebook utilization metrics as covariates. The four networks had different characteristics, indicated by different multicollinearity issues and by logistic regression output. Among Friendship networks, the odds of smoking were higher in networks with lower betweenness (p = 0.00), lower transitivity (p = 0.00), and larger diameter (p = 0.00). Among Family networks, the odds of smoking were higher in networks with more vertices (p = .01), less transitivity (p = .04), and fewer isolates (p = .01). Among Photo networks, none of the network metrics were predictive of smoking status. Among Group networks, the odds of smoking were higher when diameter

  19. Intent to Quit among Daily and Non-Daily College Student Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsker, E. A.; Berg, C. J.; Nehl, E. J.; Prokhorov, A. V.; Buchanan, T. S.; Ahluwalia, J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Given the high prevalence of young adult smoking, we examined (i) psychosocial factors and substance use among college students representing five smoking patterns and histories [non-smokers, quitters, native non-daily smokers (i.e. never daily smokers), converted non-daily smokers (i.e. former daily smokers) and daily smokers] and (ii) smoking…

  20. Sex differences in emphysema and airway disease in smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Camp, Pat G; Coxson, Harvey O; Levy, Robert D

    2009-01-01

    -resolution CT (HRCT) scanning in male and female smokers with and without COPD. METHODS: All subjects completed spirometry and answered an epidemiologic respiratory questionnaire. Inspiratory HRCT scans were obtained on 688 smokers enrolled in a family-based study of COPD. Emphysema was assessed by using......-years of smoking, current smoking status, center of enrollment, and FEV(1) percent predicted; p = 0.0006). Women had a smaller SQRTWA and WA% after adjusting for covariates (p smokers have more emphysema than female smokers, but female smokers do not show increased wall thickness...

  1. Young Adult Smokers' and Prior-Smokers' Evaluations of Novel Tobacco Warning Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Benjamin; Hoek, Janet

    2016-01-01

    On-pack warning labels represent a very cost-effective means of communicating with smokers, who potentially see warnings each time they retrieve a cigarette. Warning labels have traditionally depicted graphic health consequences of smoking but emerging evidence suggests the distal consequences shown may prove less effective in prompting cessation among young adults. We used a novel micro-survey approach to compare novel and traditional warnings, and provide an empirical foundation for a larger study. We recruited 4649 male and 2993 female participants aged 18-34 from Google Consumer Survey's Australian panel of Android mobile phone users. A screening question resulted in a sample comprising 3183 daily, non-daily, and former smokers. Twenty images corresponding to social and health risks, tobacco industry denormalization, and secondhand smoke (SHS) were tested in paired comparisons where respondents selected the image they thought most likely to prompt cessation. Irrespective of smoking status, respondents rated messages featuring harm to children as most effective and industry denormalization messages and adult SHS warnings as least effective. Within smoker groups, daily smokers rated social concerns more highly; non-daily smokers were more responsive to SHS messages, and former smokers saw intimacy and cosmetic effects warnings as more effective than other groups. While preliminary, the findings support emerging evidence that more diverse warning images may be required to promote cessation among all smoker sub-groups. Warnings depicting harm to vulnerable others appear to hold high potential and merit further investigation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. The French E3N Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-18

    Breast Cancer; Colo-rectal Cancer; Parkinson Disease; Asthma; Diabetes; Inflammatory Bowel Diseases; Melanoma; Endometriosis; Thyroid Cancer; Hypertension; Endometrial Cancer; Crohn Disease; Depression; Cardiovascular Diseases

  3. Cohort profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tollånes, Mette C; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Forthun, Ingeborg

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of MOthers and BAbies in Norway and Denmark cerebral palsy (MOBAND-CP) was to study CP aetiology in a prospective design. PARTICIPANTS: MOBAND-CP is a cohort of more than 210 000 children, created as a collaboration between the world's two largest pregnancy cohorts-the Norweg......PURPOSE: The purpose of MOthers and BAbies in Norway and Denmark cerebral palsy (MOBAND-CP) was to study CP aetiology in a prospective design. PARTICIPANTS: MOBAND-CP is a cohort of more than 210 000 children, created as a collaboration between the world's two largest pregnancy cohorts......-the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort study (MoBa) and the Danish National Birth Cohort. MOBAND-CP includes maternal interview/questionnaire data collected during pregnancy and follow-up, plus linked information from national health registries. FINDINGS TO DATE: Initial harmonisation of data from the 2 cohorts...... has created 140 variables for children and their mothers. In the MOBAND-CP cohort, 438 children with CP have been identified through record linkage with validated national registries, providing by far the largest such sample with prospectively collected detailed pregnancy data. Several studies...

  4. Racial differences in hair nicotine concentrations among smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apelberg, Benjamin J; Hepp, Lisa M; Avila-Tang, Erika; Kim, Sungroul; Madsen, Camille; Ma, Jiemin; Samet, Jonathan M; Breysse, Patrick N

    2012-08-01

    In the United States, race/ethnicity is a strong determinant of tobacco use patterns, biomarkers of tobacco smoke components and metabolites, and likelihood of successful cessation. Although Black smokers tend to smoke fewer cigarettes than White smokers, they have higher cotinine levels and disease risk and lower cessation success. We examined racial differences in hair nicotine concentrations among daily tobacco smokers (n = 103) in Baltimore, Maryland. Participants completed a survey, and hair samples were collected and analyzed for nicotine concentration using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. After adjustment, hair nicotine concentrations among Black smokers were more than 5 times higher than among White smokers (95% CI 3.0, 10.5). Smokers reporting hair treatments other than coloring (bleaching, permanent, or straightening) in the past 12 months had 66% lower (95% CI 32%, 83%) hair nicotine concentrations. Smokers reporting smoking their first cigarette within 30 min of waking had twice the hair nicotine concentrations of those whose time to first cigarette was greater than 30 min after waking (95% CI 1.1, 4.2). For every additional cigarette smoked per day up to 20, mean hair nicotine concentration among all smokers increased by 4% (95% CI -1%, 9%). This study demonstrates that Black smokers have substantially higher hair nicotine levels than White smokers, after controlling for cigarettes smoked per day and other exposure sources. Time to first cigarette, cigarettes smoked per day, and use of hair treatments other than coloring were also associated with hair nicotine concentrations among smokers.

  5. Change of Taste Sensitivity of Clove Cigarette Smokers in Medan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlina Simamora

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Tongue has taste buds that contain taste receptor which affected by many factors, including smoking habit. Objective: To analyze the differences of sweet and bitter taste sensitivity in the pedicab driver clove cigarette smokers compared to non-smokers in Medan Padang Bulan. Methods: This study was conducted by placing the sweet taste strips and bitter taste strips on four taste receptors of the tongue, with increasing solution concentration in 74 subjects. This was a cross sectional study on pedicab driver population in Medan Padang Bulan. Results: There were differences between clove cigarette smokers and non-smokers on sweet taste examination (p<0.005. There was a difference between clove cigarette smokers and non-smokers on examination bitter taste receptors (p<0.005. On the clove cigarette smokers, there was no significant difference between sweet taste and bitter taste on the receptors itself. Conclusion: Non-smokers are more sensitive to sweet taste than the clove cigarette smokers. Bitter taste sensitivity is greater in cigarettes smokers than in non-smokers. Taste receptors on all location of the tongue could taste sweet and bitter substances, but a certain location of taste receptors were more sensitive compared to others.

  6. Withdrawal-oriented therapy for smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajek, P

    1989-06-01

    The treatment approach of the Maudsley Hospital Smokers Clinic is described. It stems from the notion that smokers seeking help are dependent on nicotine, and that withdrawal discomfort is a major block to their success in quitting. Accordingly, therapy focuses on helping clients overcome nicotine deprivation. It uses nicotine replacement and a special format of group treatment. Details are given of preparation of clients, use of nicotine chewing gum, use of group-oriented groupwork, use of information about withdrawal, and training in withdrawal-oriented therapy. Data are presented concerning characteristics of the clientele, treatment adherence, and treatment results. A number of controversial issues are addressed, such as the optimal duration of treatment, timing of the quit date, the value of educational input, and the value of individualization of treatment goals.

  7. Black smokers and the Tree of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linich, Michael

    The molecular biology revolution has turned the classification of life on its head. Is Whittaker's five-kingdom scheme for the classification of living things no longer relevant to life science education? Coupled with this is the discovery that most microscopic life cannot yet be brought into culture. One of the key organisms making this knowledge possible is Methanococcus jannishi a microorganism found in black smokers. This workshop presents the development of the Universal Tree of Life in a historical context and then links together major concepts in the New South Wales senior science programs of Earth and Environmental Science and Biology by examining the biological and geological aspects of changes to black smokers over geological time.

  8. Associations of maternal prenatal smoking with umbilical cord blood hormones: the Project Viva cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleisch, Abby F; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Rokoff, Lisa B; Hivert, Marie-France; Mantzoros, Christos S; Oken, Emily

    2017-07-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with low fetal growth and adverse cardiometabolic health in offspring. However, hormonal pathways underlying these associations are unclear. Therefore, we examined maternal smoking habits and umbilical cord blood hormone profiles in a large, prospective cohort. We studied 978 mother/infant pairs in Project Viva, a Boston-area cohort recruited 1999-2002. We categorized mothers as early pregnancy smokers, former smokers, or never smokers. Outcomes were cord blood concentrations of IGF-1, IGF-2, IGFBP-3, leptin, adiponectin, insulin, and C-peptide. We used linear regression models adjusted for maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), race/ethnicity, parity, education, and infant sex. We conducted analyses in the full cohort and stratified by infant sex. Thirteen percent of women were early pregnancy smokers, 20% former smokers, and 68% never smokers. Infants of early pregnancy smokers had lower IGF-1 adjusted for IGFBP-3 [-5.2ng/mL (95% CI: -8.6, -1.7)], with more pronounced associations in girls [-10.7ng/mL (95% CI: -18.5, -2.9) vs. -4.0ng/mL (95% CI: -8.4, 0.4) for boys]. Early pregnancy smoking was not associated with cord blood hormones other than IGF-1. Infants of former smokers had a cord blood hormone profile similar to infants of never smokers. As compared to mothers who never smoked, early pregnancy smokers had infants with lower cord blood IGF-1 which could prime adverse metabolic outcomes. This provides further reason to support smoking cessation programs in women of reproductive age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Inspiratory and expiratory HRCT findings in healthy smokers' lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyeon Seon; Kwak, Byung Kook; Choi, Chi Hoon; Yang, Keun Mung; Lee, Chang Joon; Joo, Dong Il; Kim, Yang Soo

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the lung changes in healthy smokers, as seen on inspiratory and expiratory high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Twenty-seven healthy smokers (light smokers, below 20 pack-years, n=16; heavy smokers, above 20 pack-years, n=11) and 25 nonsmokers underwent inspiratory and expiratory HRCT. All healthy smokers had normal pulmonary function and chest radiography. Parenchymal and subpleural micronodules, ground-glass attenuation, centrilobular and paraseptal emphysema, bronchial wall thickening, bronchiectasis and septal line were evaluated on inspiratory scan and by air-trapping on expiratory scan. According to the findings of HRCT, heavy smokers and higher frequency of parenchymal micronodules, ground-glass attenuation, centrilobular and paraseptal emphysema, and air-trapping than nonsmokers and light smokers. (author). 13 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  10. Practising French grammar a workbook

    CERN Document Server

    Dr Roger Hawkins; Towell, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This new edition of Practising French Grammar offers a set of varied and accessible exercises for developing a practical awareness of French as it is spoken and written today. The lively examples and authentic texts and cartoons have been updated to reflect current usage. A new companion website provides a wealth of additional interactive exercises to help consolidate challenging grammar points. Practising French Grammar provides concise summaries of key grammatical points at the beginning of each exercise, as well as model answers to the exercises and translations of difficult words, making i

  11. Systemic cytokine signaling via IL-17 in smokers with obstructive pulmonary disease: a link to bacterial colonization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andelid, Kristina; Tengvall, Sara; Andersson, Anders; Levänen, Bettina; Christenson, Karin; Jirholt, Pernilla; Åhrén, Christina; Qvarfordt, Ingemar; Ekberg-Jansson, Ann; Lindén, Anders

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether systemic cytokine signaling via interleukin (IL)-17 and growth-related oncogene-α (GRO-α) is impaired in smokers with obstructive pulmonary disease including chronic bronchitis (OPD-CB). We also examined how this systemic cytokine signaling relates to bacterial colonization in the airways of the smokers with OPD-CB. Currently smoking OPD-CB patients (n=60, corresponding to Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease [GOLD] stage I–IV) underwent recurrent blood and sputum sampling over 60 weeks, during stable conditions and at exacerbations. We characterized cytokine protein concentrations in blood and bacterial growth in sputum. Asymptomatic smokers (n=10) and never-smokers (n=10) were included as control groups. During stable clinical conditions, the protein concentrations of IL-17 and GRO-α were markedly lower among OPD-CB patients compared with never-smoker controls, whereas the asymptomatic smoker controls displayed intermediate concentrations. Notably, among OPD-CB patients, colonization by opportunistic pathogens was associated with markedly lower IL-17 and GRO-α, compared with colonization by common respiratory pathogens or oropharyngeal flora. During exacerbations in the OPD-CB patients, GRO-α and neutrophil concentrations were increased, whereas protein concentrations and messenger RNA for IL-17 were not detectable in a reproducible manner. In smokers with OPD-CB, systemic cytokine signaling via IL-17 and GRO-α is impaired and this alteration may be linked to colonization by opportunistic pathogens in the airways. Given the potential pathogenic and therapeutic implications, these findings deserve to be validated in new and larger patient cohorts. PMID:25848245

  12. Comparison of capability of dynamic O2-enhanced MRI and quantitative thin-section MDCT to assess COPD in smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Yoshiharu; Koyama, Hisanobu; Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Keiko; Aoyama, Nobukazu; Onishi, Yumiko; Takenaka, Daisuke; Matsumoto, Sumiaki; Nishimura, Yoshihiro; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to directly and prospectively compare the capability of dynamic O 2 -enhanced MRI and quantitatively assessed thin-section MDCT to assess smokers’ COPD in a large prospective cohort. Materials and methods: The GOLD criteria for smokers were used to classify 187 smokers into four clinical stage groups as follows: smokers without COPD (n = 56) and with mild (n = 54), moderate (n = 52) and severe or very severe COPD (n = 24). All smokers underwent dynamic O 2 -enhanced MRI, MDCT and pulmonary function tests. Mean relative enhancement ratio and mean wash-in time on MRI and CT-based functional lung volume (CT-based FLV) as well as the ratio of airway wall area to total airway area on MDCT were computationally calculated. Then, all indexes were significantly correlated with functional parameters. To determine the efficacy of all indexes for clinical stage classification, the indexes for the four clinical groups were statistically compared by using Tukey's honestly significant difference multiple comparison test. Results: All indexes had significant correlations with functional parameters (p 2 -enhanced MRI for assessment of COPD in smokers is potentially as efficacious as quantitatively assessed thin-section MDCT.

  13. Emphysema progression is visually detectable in low-dose CT in continuous but not in former smokers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler Wille, Mathilde Marie; Thomsen, Laura H.; Dirksen, Asger; Shaker, Saher B. [Gentofte Hospital, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Hellerup (Denmark); Petersen, Jens [Copenhagen University, Department of Computer Science, Copenhagen (Denmark); Pedersen, Jesper Holst [Copenhagen University Hospital, Department of Thoracic Surgery, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2014-11-15

    To evaluate interobserver agreement and time-trend in chest CT assessment of emphysema, airways, and interstitial abnormalities in a lung cancer screening cohort. Visual assessment of baseline and fifth-year examination of 1990 participants was performed independently by two observers. Results were standardised by means of an electronic score sheet; kappa and time-trend analyses were performed. Interobserver agreement was substantial in early emphysema diagnosis; highly significant (p < 0.001) time-trends in both emphysema presence and grading were found (higher prevalence and grade of emphysema in late CT examinations). Significant progression in emphysema was seen in continuous smokers, but not in former smokers. Agreement on centrilobular emphysema subtype was substantial; agreement on paraseptal subtype, moderate. Agreement on panlobular and mixed subtypes was only fair. Agreement was fair regarding airway analysis. Interstitial abnormalities were infrequent in the cohort, and agreement on these was fair to moderate. A highly significant time-trend was found regarding interstitial abnormalities, which were more frequent in late examinations. Visual scoring of chest CT is able to characterise the presence, pattern, and progression of early emphysema. Continuous smokers progress; former smokers do not. (orig.)

  14. Emphysema progression is visually detectable in low-dose CT in continuous but not in former smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler Wille, Mathilde Marie; Thomsen, Laura H.; Dirksen, Asger; Shaker, Saher B.; Petersen, Jens; Pedersen, Jesper Holst

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate interobserver agreement and time-trend in chest CT assessment of emphysema, airways, and interstitial abnormalities in a lung cancer screening cohort. Visual assessment of baseline and fifth-year examination of 1990 participants was performed independently by two observers. Results were standardised by means of an electronic score sheet; kappa and time-trend analyses were performed. Interobserver agreement was substantial in early emphysema diagnosis; highly significant (p < 0.001) time-trends in both emphysema presence and grading were found (higher prevalence and grade of emphysema in late CT examinations). Significant progression in emphysema was seen in continuous smokers, but not in former smokers. Agreement on centrilobular emphysema subtype was substantial; agreement on paraseptal subtype, moderate. Agreement on panlobular and mixed subtypes was only fair. Agreement was fair regarding airway analysis. Interstitial abnormalities were infrequent in the cohort, and agreement on these was fair to moderate. A highly significant time-trend was found regarding interstitial abnormalities, which were more frequent in late examinations. Visual scoring of chest CT is able to characterise the presence, pattern, and progression of early emphysema. Continuous smokers progress; former smokers do not. (orig.)

  15. Lung Cancer Risk and Demographic Characteristics of Current 20-29 Pack-year Smokers: Implications for Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsky, Paul F; Kramer, Barnett S

    2015-11-01

    Based on current recommendations, 30+ pack-years of smoking are required for eligibility for low-dose CT (LDCT) lung cancer screening; former smokers must have quit within 15 years. We investigated whether current smokers with 20 to 29 pack-years have similar lung cancer risks as eligible former smokers and also whether they have a different demographic profile. The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO) was a randomly assigned screening trial of subjects age 55 to 74 years with chest radiographs (CXR) used for lung cancer. Subjects completed a baseline questionnaire containing smoking history questions. Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for age and sex, were utilized to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for various smoking history groups. Next, we utilized the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), which inquired about smoking history and race/ethnicity, to analyze the demographic profiles of various high-risk smoking history categories. All statistical tests were two-sided. The PLCO cohort included 18 114 former and 12 243 current LDCT-eligible smokers, plus 2283 20- to 29-pack-year current smokers. The hazard ratio for 20- to 29-pack-year current smokers compared with eligible (30+ pack-year) former smokers was 1.07 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.75 to 1.5). Based on the NHIS, 10 million persons in the United States are currently LDCT eligible; an additional 1.6 million (16%, 95% CI = 13.6% to 19.0%) are 20- to 29-pack-year current smokers. The percentage increase in eligibles if 20- to 29-pack-year current smokers were included was substantially greater for women than men (22.2%, 95% CI = 17.9% to 26.7%; vs 12.2%, 95% CI = 9.3% to 15.3%, P non-Hispanic whites (30.0%, 95% CI = 24.2% to 36.0%; vs 14.1%, 95% CI = 11.1% to 17.0%, P smokers should be assessed. Published by Oxford University Press 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  16. Determination of a saliva cotinine cut-off to distinguish pregnant smokers from pregnant non-smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Møller, Lars F

    2007-01-01

    Objective validation of smoking status is necessary. Earlier studies have used saliva cotinine concentrations between 14.2 and 30 ng/ml as cut-off values to distinguish pregnant smokers from non-smokers. However, these cut-offs derive from studies including men and non-pregnant women....... This constitutes a problem, as recent studies have reported an accelerated metabolism in pregnant smokers. The aim of this study was to determine the optimum cut-off cotinine level distinguishing pregnant smokers from pregnant non-smokers....

  17. Multimodal Neuroimaging Differences in Nicotine Abstinent vs. Satiated Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaarani, Bader; Spechler, Philip A; Ivanciu, Alexandra; Snowe, Mitchell; Nickerson, Joshua P; Higgins, Stephen T; Garavan, Hugh

    2018-04-06

    Research on cigarette smokers suggests cognitive and behavioral impairments. However, much remains unclear how the functional neurobiology of smokers is influenced by nicotine state. Therefore, we sought to determine which state, be it acute nicotine abstinence or satiety, would yield the most robust differences compared to non-smokers when assessing neurobiological markers of nicotine dependence. Smokers(N=15) and sociodemographically matched non-smokers(N=15) were scanned twice using a repeated-measures design. Smokers were scanned after a 24-hour nicotine abstinence, and immediately after smoking their usual brand cigarette. The neuroimaging battery included a stop-signal task of response inhibition and pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF). Whole brain voxel-wise ANCOVAs were carried out on stop success and stop fail SST contrasts and CBF maps to assess differences among non-, abstinent and satiated smokers. Cluster-correction was performed using AFNI's 3dClustSim to achieve a significance of pSmokers exhibited higher brain activation in bilateral inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), a brain region known to be involved in inhibitory control, during successful response inhibitions relative to non-smokers. This effect was significantly higher during nicotine abstinence relative to satiety. Smokers also exhibited lower CBF in the bilateral IFG than non-smokers. These hypo-perfusions were not different between abstinence and satiety. These findings converge on alterations in smokers in prefrontal circuits known to be critical for inhibitory control. These effects are present, even when smokers are satiated, but the neural activity required to achieve performance equal to controls is increased when smokers are in acute abstinence. Our multi-modal neuroimaging study gives neurobiological insights into the cognitive demands of maintaining abstinence and suggest targets for assessing the efficacy of therapeutic interventions.

  18. Marginal bone loss and dental implant failure may be increased in smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veitz-Keenan, Analia

    2016-03-01

    difference in marginal bone loss favouring the non-smoking group (SMD 0.49, 95% CI 0.07-0.90). There was an increase in marginal bone loss in the maxillae of smokers compared to the mandible (SMD 0.40, 95% CI 0.24-0.55) and a statically significant difference in implant failure in favour of the non-smoking group OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.68-2.30. The risk of marginal bone loss and implant failure is increased in smokers compared to non-smokers, however, the results should be interpreted with caution since the data from the review are provided by retrospective and cohort studies.

  19. French Literature Abroad: Towards an Alternative History of French Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Gaunt

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available What would a history of medieval literature in French that is not focused on France and Paris look like? Taking as its starting point the key role played in the development of textual culture in French by geographical regions that are either at the periphery of French-speaking areas, or alternatively completely outside them, this article offers three case studies: first of a text composed in mid-twelfth century England; then of one from early thirteenth-century Flanders; and finally from late thirteenth-century Italy. What difference does it make if we do not read these texts, and the language in which they are written, in relation to French norms, but rather look at their cultural significance both at their point of production, and then in transmission? A picture emerges of a literary culture in French that is mobile and cosmopolitan, one that cannot be tied to the teleology of an emerging national identity, and one that is a bricolage of a range of influences that are moving towards France as well as being exported from it. French itself functions as a supralocal written language (even when it has specific local features and therefore may function more like Latin than a local vernacular.

  20. Effects of plain package branding and graphic health warnings on adolescent smokers in the USA, Spain and France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, J Craig; Netemeyer, Richard G; Burton, Scot; Kees, Jeremy

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide an experimental test of the effects of plain pack branding and graphic health warnings (GHWs) in three different countries for an important and vulnerable population, that is, adolescents who are experimenting with smoking. The effects of plain pack branding (logo present, logo absent), and graphic visual warning level (absent, low, medium, high) are studied experimentally for their impact on adolescent cigarette craving, evoked fear, pack feelings and thoughts of quitting in the USA, Spain and France. A total of 1066 adolescents who were experimenting with smoking served as participants in the study. A quota sample produced 375 respondents in the USA, 337 in Spain and 354 in France. Overall findings indicate that the GHWs were effective in impacting adolescent cigarette craving, evoked fear, pack feelings and thoughts of quitting. The plain pack effects were not as strong, yet reduced craving, increased fear, and decreased pack feelings for all three samples combined, and for US adolescent smokers individually, irrespective of the GHWs. For French adolescent smokers, plain pack effects for craving were limited to low/moderate GHW levels. For Spanish adolescent smokers, plain pack feeling effects were limited to the absence of the GHWs. The results show that plain packs can independently strengthen the more instantaneous, direct effects (short of quitting thoughts) found with the GHWs. Yet, the plain pack results were attenuated for Spanish and French adolescent smokers, who are currently exposed to GHWs. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  1. Maternal bonding styles in smokers and non-smokers: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csala, Iren; Elemery, Monika; Martinovszky, Fruzsina; Dome, Peter; Dome, Balazs; Faludi, Gabor; Sandor, Imola; Gyorffy, Zsuzsa; Birkas, Emma; Lazary, Judit

    2016-01-01

    Parental bonding has been implicated in smoking behavior, and the quality of maternal bonding (MB) has been associated with poor mental health and substance use. However, little is known about the association of MB and the smoking of the offspring. In our study, 129 smokers and 610 non-smoker medical students completed the parental bonding instrument, which measures MB along two dimensions: care and overprotection. Four categories can be created by high and low scores on care and overprotection: optimal parenting (OP; high care/low overprotection); affectionless control (ALC; low care/high overprotection); affectionate constraint (AC; high care/high overprotection), and neglectful parenting (NP; low care/low overprotection). Nicotine dependence was assessed by the Fagerstrom Nicotine Dependence Test, exhaled CO level, and daily cigarette consumption (CPD). Higher CPD was significantly associated with lower overprotection ( p  = 0.016) and higher care ( p  = 0.023) scores. The odds for being a smoker were significantly higher in the neglectful maternal bonding style compared to the other rearing styles ( p  = 0.022). Besides, smokers showed significantly higher care and lower overprotection scores with the Mann-Whitney U-test than non-smokers, although these associations did not remain significant in multiple regression models. Our results indicate that focusing on early life relationship between patient and mother can be important in psychotherapeutic interventions for smoking. Registration trials retrospectively registered.

  2. Simultaneous vitality and DNA-fragmentation measurement in spermatozoa of smokers and non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bantel, A; Fleury-Feith, J; Poirot, C; Berthaut, I; Garcin, C; Landais, P; Ravel, C

    2015-03-01

    Because cigarette smoke is a powerful ROS producer, we hypothesized that the spermatozoa of smokers would be more at risk of having increased DNA fragmentation than spermatozoa of non-smoking men. A cross-sectional study was performed on consenting smokers and non-smokers, consulting in an infertility clinic for routine sperm analysis. The application of a novel TUNEL assay coupled to a vitality marker, LIVE/DEAD®, allowed both DNA fragmentation and viability measurement within spermatozoa of participants to be analyzed by flow cytometry. The coupled vitality-DNA fragmentation analysis revealed that non-smokers and smokers, respectively presented medians of 3.6% [0.6-36.8] and 3.3% [0.9-9.6] DNA fragmented spermatozoa among the living spermatozoa population (P > 0.05). No deleterious effect of smoking on spermatozoa was found in our study. More studies concerning potential mutagenic capacities of cigarette smoke on spermatozoa are necessary. In addition, the coupled vitality-DNA fragmentation analysis may orient Assisted Reproductive Technology teams when confronted with patients having a high percentage of DNA-fragmented living spermatozoa. © 2014 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  3. Determination of the polonium-210 content in the urine of Filipino smokers and non-smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juan, N.B.; Ballelos, E.; Bartolome, Z.M.

    1975-01-01

    Presence of polonium in tobacco poses a health hazard to smokers. Polonium is a pure alpha emitter with an energy of 5.3 MeV decaying with a half-life 138.4 days to a stable isotope of lead. The polonium content in the urine of Filipino smokers was compared with that of non-smokers. The polonium was recovered from urine by centrifugation and deposition into silver discs. Quantitative results were obtained by counting the silver discs using a silicon surface-barrier detector. The average value obtained for smokers which was 0.5003+-0.2988 pCi/24h sample was significantly higher than the value obtained for non-smokers which was 0.2313+-0.1664 pCi/24h sample. The efficiency of the procedure employed encourages the use of urinalysis as a measure of the polonium body burden and also as a rough index of the dose absorbed from radium or any of its daughters

  4. Lymphocyte Apoptosis in Smokers and Non-Smokers Following Different Intensity of Exercises and Relation with Lactate

    Science.gov (United States)

    PARK, KYUNG-SHIN; LEE, YANG

    2011-01-01

    Purposes of this study were 1) to examine the exercise intensity where lymphocyte apoptosis index (AI) is significantly increased in smokers and non-smokers, 2) to find out whether AI is associated with level of lactate (L). Fourteen healthy untrained smokers (≤ 1 pack year, n=7) and non-smokers (n=7) aged 18 to 26 were recruited. Each subject conducted three treadmill runs at different intensities randomly. Running distance for all three runs was equivalent to 30 minute run at 70% VO2max. AI and L were analyzed at rest (Pre), immediately after (Post), and 1 h following (1 h post) each run. Data was analyzed using two way repeated measures ANOVA. Smokers showed higher AI than non-smokers at Post in 60% (12.5±0.62% vs. 9.97±0.51, psmokers and non-smokers. The strong positive relationship between AI and L was detected (r=.739, smokers vs. r=.793, non-smokers). Smokers tend to have higher AI than non-smokers following runs at 60% and 70% VO2max, but not following a run at 80% VO2max. An increase in AI following a run at 60% VO2max indicates that lymphocyte apoptosis can be increased following moderate intensity exercise. Since L and AI at post were increased in dose-dependent manner to exercise intensity, it is suggested that an increase in lactate production during exercise might contribute to the increase in lymphocyte apoptosis. PMID:27182363

  5. English and French courses

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    If one of your New Year’s resolutions is to learn a language, there is no excuse anymore!   You can attend one of our English or French courses and you can practise the language with a tandem partner! Cours d’anglais général et professionnel La prochaine session se déroulera du 3 mars au 27 juin 2014. Ces cours s’adressent à toute personne travaillant au CERN ainsi qu’à leur conjoint. Pour vous inscrire et voir tout le détail des cours proposés, consultez nos pages web : http://cern.ch/Training. Oral Expression The next session will take place from 3 March to 27 June 2014. This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to enhance their speaking skills. There will be an average of 8 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. depending on the needs of the students. Writing Profe...

  6. General and professionnal French courses

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The next session will take place from 27 January to 4 April 2014. These courses are open to everyone working on the CERN site and to their spouses.   Oral Expression This course is aimed at students with a good knowledge of French who want to enhance their oral communication skills. Activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays, etc. The next session will take place from 27 January to 4 April 2014. Writing professional documents in French These courses are designed for non-French speakers with a very good standard of spoken French. The next session will take place from 27 January to 4 April 2014. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our web site or contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896 - language.training@cern.ch).

  7. General and professionnal French courses

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The next session will take place from 27 January to 4 April 2014. These courses are open to everyone working on the CERN site and to their spouses.   Oral Expression This course is aimed at students with a good knowledge of French who want to enhance their speaking skills. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. The next session will take place from 27 January to 4 April 2014. Writing professional documents in French These courses are designed for non-French speakers with a very good standard of spoken French. The next session will take place from 27 January to 4 April 2014. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our web site or contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896 - language.training@cern.ch).

  8. French switch off in protest

    CERN Document Server

    McCabe, H

    1999-01-01

    French scientists have refused to restart two synchrotron machines after the summer vacation. They are protesting at the government decision to give money to the British synchrotron project Diamond, so ending hopes of the construction of the proposed

  9. Reshuffle lifts French synchrotron hopes

    CERN Multimedia

    McCabe, H

    2000-01-01

    The sacking of Claude Allegre as research minister has raised doubts over the level of France's promised participation in the construction of Diamond but reawakened French hopes that the synchrotron Soleil may now be built (1 page).

  10. 21 CFR 169.115 - French dressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false French dressing. 169.115 Section 169.115 Food and... § 169.115 French dressing. (a) Description. French dressing is the separable liquid food or the..., lecithin, or polyglycerol esters of fatty acids. (d) Nomenclature. The name of the food is “French dressing...

  11. Teaching for Content: Greek Mythology in French.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giauque, Gerald S.

    An intermediate-level university French course in Greek mythology was developed to (1) improve student skills in reading, writing, speaking, and comprehending French, (2) familiarize students with Greek mythology, and (3) prepare students to deal better with allusions to Greek mythology in French literature. The texts used are a French translation…

  12. 7 CFR 993.7 - French prunes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false French prunes. 993.7 Section 993.7 Agriculture... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 993.7 French prunes. French prunes means: (a) Prunes produced from plums of the following varieties of plums: French (Prune d'Agen, Petite Prune d'Agen), Coates (Cox...

  13. English Grammar for Students of French.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Jacqueline

    This grammar is a self-study manual intended to aid native speakers of English who are beginning the study of French. It is designed to supplement the French textbook, not to replace it. The common grammatical terms that are necessary for learning to speak and write French are explained in English and illustrated by examples in both French and…

  14. French days on stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    These first French days on stable isotopes took place in parallel with the 1. French days of environmental chemistry. Both conferences had common plenary sessions. The conference covers all aspects of the use of stable isotopes in the following domains: medicine, biology, environment, tracer techniques, agronomy, food industry, geology, petroleum geochemistry, cosmo-geochemistry, archaeology, bio-geochemistry, hydrology, climatology, nuclear and particle physics, astrophysics, isotope separations etc.. Abstracts available on CD-Rom only. (J.S.)

  15. French lessons in nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenti, M.

    1991-01-01

    In stark contrast to the American atomic power experience is that of the French. Even the disaster at Chernobyl in 1986, which chilled nuclear programs throughout Western Europe, did not slow the pace of the nuclear program of the state-owned Electricite de France (EDF), based in Paris. Another five units are under construction and are scheduled to be connected to the French national power grid before the end of 1993. In 1989, the EDF's 58 nuclear reactors supplied 73 percent of French electrical needs, a higher percentage than any other country. In the United States, for example, only about 18 percent of electrical power is derived from the atom. Underpinning the success of nuclear energy in France is its use of standardized plant design and technology. This has been an imperative for the French nuclear power industry since 1974, when an intensive program of nuclear power plant construction began. It was then, in the aftermath of the first oil embargo, that the French government decided to reduce its dependence on imported oil by substituting atomic power sources for hydrocarbons. Other pillars supporting French nuclear success include retrofitting older plants with technological or design advances, intensive training of personnel, using robotic and computer aids to reduce downtime, controlling the entire nuclear fuel cycle, and maintaining a comprehensive public information effort about the nuclear program

  16. Anglicism in the French language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoozeh Asghari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available There is no question nowadays as to the international and powerful status of English at a global scale and, consequently, as to its presence in non-English speaking countries at different levels.  It is the languages which have mostly influenced French after the Two World War. So that now Anglicism exists in all levels of French. In this paper, besides the phenomenon of Anglicism, we will mainly focus on the reasons of increasing French interest in using of this phenomenon and also on the reactions taken against it in France. The method used in this research is descriptive – analytical.   The Result of this study shows that there is no purely linguistic reason for “Anglicism” in a country like France. In fact this paper remarks that the strong impact of English on French rather than being influenced by linguistic reasons is influenced by the cultural & social reasons. Additionally, the finding shows that the French especially the youth like using English for several reasons which include “prestige”, “snobbery” and “superiority”. Amongst the mentioned reasons in this paper, what caused the French to worry about the spread of Anglicism is due to fear of the American cultural influence, what is changing in the American cultural hegemony.

  17. Comparison of cyanide exposure markers in the biofluids of smokers and non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinnakota, Chakravarthy V; Peetha, Naga S; Perrizo, Mitch G; Ferris, David G; Oda, Robert P; Rockwood, Gary A; Logue, Brian A

    2012-11-01

    Cyanide is highly toxic and is present in many foods, combustion products (e.g. cigarette smoke), industrial processes, and has been used as a terrorist weapon. In this study, cyanide and its major metabolites, thiocyanate and 2-amino-2-thiazoline-4-carboxylic acid (ATCA), were analyzed from various human biofluids of smokers (low-level chronic cyanide exposure group) and non-smokers to gain insight into the relationship of these biomarkers to cyanide exposure. The concentrations of each biomarker tested were elevated for smokers in each biofluid. Significant differences (p cyanide exposure, and other statistical methods were performed to better understand the relationship between cyanide and its metabolites. Of the markers studied, the results indicate plasma ATCA, in particular, showed excellent promise as a biomarker for chronic low-level cyanide exposure.

  18. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in childhood and incidence of cancer in adulthood in never smokers in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chuang, Shu-Chun; Gallo, Valentina; Michaud, Dominique; Overvad, Kim; Tjonneland, Anne; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Romieu, Isabelle; Straif, Kurt; Palli, Domenico; Pala, Valeria; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Panico, Salvatore; Peeters, Petra H.; Lund, Eiliv; Gram, Inger Torhild; Manjer, Jonas; Borgquist, Signe; Riboli, Elio; Vineis, Paolo

    The association between childhood environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure and adult cancer risk is controversial; we examined this relationship in never smokers within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Over an average of 10 years, 8,372 cases of

  19. Could a scheme for licensing smokers work in Australia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Roger S; Currow, David C

    2013-08-05

    In this article, we evaluate the possible advantages and disadvantages of a licensing scheme that would require adult smokers to verify their right to purchase tobacco products at point of sale using a smart-card licence. A survey of Australian secondary school students conducted in 2011 found that half of 17-2013-old smokers and one-fifth of 12-2013-old smokers believed it was "easy" or "very easy" to purchase cigarettes themselves. Reducing tobacco use by adolescents now is central to the future course of the current epidemic of tobacco-caused disease, since most current adult smokers began to smoke as adolescents--at a time when they were unable to purchase tobacco lawfully. The requirement for cigarette retailers to reconcile all stock purchased from wholesalers against a digital record of retail sales to licensed smokers would create a robust incentive for retailers to comply with laws that prohibit tobacco sales to children. Foreseeable objections to introducing a smokers licence need to be taken into account, but once we move beyond the "shock of the new", it is difficult to identify anything about a smokers licence that is particularly offensive or demeaning. A smoker licensing scheme deserves serious consideration for its potential to dramatically curtail retailers' violation of the law against selling tobacco to minors, to impose stricter accountability for sale of a uniquely harmful drug and to allow intelligent use of information about smokers' purchases to help smokers quit.

  20. Lung dosimetry for inhaled radon progeny in smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baias, P. F.; Hofmann, W.; Winkler-Heil, R.; Cosma, C.; Duliu, O. G.

    2010-01-01

    Cigarette smoking may change the morphological and physiological parameters of the lung. Thus the primary objective of the present study was to investigate to what extent these smoke-induced changes can modify deposition, clearance and resulting doses of inhaled radon progeny relative to healthy non-smokers (NSs). Doses to sensitive bronchial target cells were computed for four categories of smokers: (1) Light, short-term (LST) smokers, (2) light, long-term (LLT) smokers, (3) heavy, short-term (HST) smokers and (4) heavy, long-term (HLT) smokers. Because of only small changes of morphological and physiological parameters, doses for the LST smokers hardly differed from those for NSs. For LLT and HST smokers, even a protective effect could be observed, caused by a thicker mucus layer and increased mucus velocities. Only in the case of HLT smokers were doses higher by about a factor of 2 than those for NSs, caused primarily by impaired mucociliary clearance, higher breathing frequency, reduced lung volume and airway obstructions. These higher doses suggest that the contribution of inhaled radon progeny to the risk of lung cancer in smokers may be higher than currently assumed on the basis of NS doses. (authors)

  1. Divergent epidermal growth factor receptor mutation patterns between smokers and non-smokers with lung adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Jeng-Sen; Wang, Chih-Liang; Yang, Tsung-Ying; Chen, Chih-Yi; Yang, Cheng-Ta; Chen, Kun-Chieh; Hsu, Kuo-Hsuan; Tsai, Chi-Ren; Chang, Gee-Chen

    2015-12-01

    Smoking status is an important determinant of the prevalence of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations in lung cancer patients. However, it is unclear whether smoking status could also influence the spectrum of EGFR mutations. We enrolled patients with lung adenocarcinoma from three medical centers in Taiwan. EGFR mutations were assessed by Sanger direct sequencing. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of smoking status on both the frequency and patterns of EGFR mutations. From 2001 to 2013, a total of 1175 patients with lung adenocarcinoma were enrolled for EGFR mutation analysis. The overall EGFR mutation rate was 59.6%, which was significantly higher in females than males (69.1% vs. 49.8%) and in non-smokers than current/former smokers (73.8% vs. 29.8%) (both Psmokers expressed L858R mutation less frequently (35.2% vs. 50.2%, P=0.005) and exon 19 deletions more frequently (52.8% vs 38.8%, P=0.008) than non-smokers. Smokers and non-smokers also had divergent exon 19 deletions subtypes (Del E746-A750 82.5% vs. 57.6%, respectively, Psmokers were associated with a higher rate of complex mutations than non-smokers (34.2% vs. 8.4%, P<0.001). Our results suggested that smoking status could influence not only the frequency but also the spectrum of EGFR mutations. These findings provide a clue for further investigation of EGFR mutagenesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Diverging effects of nicotine on motor learning performance: Improvement in deprived smokers and attenuation in non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundey, J; Amu, R; Batsikadze, G; Paulus, W; Nitsche, M A

    2017-11-01

    Nicotine modulates cognition and neuroplasticity in smokers and non-smokers. A possible mechanism for its effect on learning and memory performance is its impact on long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD). As neuroplasticity is closely connected to learning processes, we aimed to explore the effect of nicotine in healthy, young smokers and non-smokers on performance of the serial reaction time task (SRTT), a sequential motor learning paradigm. 20 nicotine-deprived smokers and 20 non-smokers participated in the study and were exposed to nicotine or placebo medication. Deprived smokers under placebo medication displayed reduced performance in terms of reaction time and error rates compared to the non-smoking group. After application of nicotine, performance in smokers improved while it deteriorated in non-smokers. These results indicate a restituting effect of nicotine in smokers in terms of cognitive parameters. This sheds further light on the proposed mechanism of nicotine on learning processes, which might be linked to the addictive component of nicotine, the probability of relapse and thus needs also be addressed in cessation treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Fundamental frequency and voice perturbation measures in smokers and non-smokers: An acoustic and perceptual study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Allison

    This research examined the fundamental frequency and perturbation (jitter % and shimmer %) measures in young adult (20-30 year-old) and middle-aged adult (40-55 year-old) smokers and non-smokers; there were 36 smokers and 36 non-smokers. Acoustic analysis was carried out utilizing one task: production of sustained /a/. These voice samples were analyzed utilizing Multi-Dimensional Voice Program (MDVP) software, which provided values for fundamental frequency, jitter %, and shimmer %.These values were analyzed for trends regarding smoking status, age, and gender. Statistical significance was found regarding the fundamental frequency, jitter %, and shimmer % for smokers as compared to non-smokers; smokers were found to have significantly lower fundamental frequency values, and significantly higher jitter % and shimmer % values. Statistical significance was not found regarding fundamental frequency, jitter %, and shimmer % for age group comparisons. With regard to gender, statistical significance was found regarding fundamental frequency; females were found to have statistically higher fundamental frequencies as compared to males. However, the relationships between gender and jitter % and shimmer % lacked statistical significance. These results indicate that smoking negatively affects voice quality. This study also examined the ability of untrained listeners to identify smokers and non-smokers based on their voices. Results of this voice perception task suggest that listeners are not accurately able to identify smokers and non-smokers, as statistical significance was not reached. However, despite a lack of significance, trends in data suggest that listeners are able to utilize voice quality to identify smokers and non-smokers.

  4. Tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 as a possible marker of COPD in smokers and ex-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caram, Laura Miranda de Oliveira; Ferrari, R; Nogueira, D L; Oliveira, Mrm; Francisqueti, F V; Tanni, S E; Corrêa, C R; Godoy, I

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress and systemic inflammation are higher in smokers and patients with COPD; however, markers that may help differentiate between smokers and patients with COPD have not yet been identified. We hypothesized that tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptor (TNFR) and soluble form of the receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) can be indicators of COPD in asymptomatic patients. We evaluated 32 smokers (smoking history >10 pack-years), 32 patients with mild/moderate COPD (smokers and ex-smokers), and 32 never smokers. Concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)-6, TNFR1 and TNFR2, advanced glycation end products (AGEs), and the sRAGE were measured in serum. There were higher CRP and AGEs concentrations in smokers and in patients with COPD ( P smokers and patients with COPD. Concentrations of sRAGE, IL-6, and TNFR1 did not differ between study groups. TNFR2 was significantly higher in patients with COPD than in smokers ( P =0.004) and controls ( P =0.004), and the presence of COPD ( P =0.02) and CRP ( P =0.001) showed a positive association with TNFR2. Positive associations for smoking ( P =0.04), CRP ( P =0.03), and IL-6 ( P =0.03) with AGEs were also found. The interaction variable (smoking × COPD) showed a positive association with IL-6. Our data suggest that TNFR2 may be a possible marker of COPD in asymptomatic smokers and ex-smokers. Although smokers and patients with early COPD presented other increased systemic inflammation markers (eg, CRP) and oxidative stress (measured by AGEs), they did not differentiate smokers from COPD.

  5. Inhaling habits among smokers of different types of cigarette

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wald, N.J.; Idle, M.; Boreham, J.; Bailey, A.

    1980-12-01

    Inhaling habits were studied in 1316 men who freely smoked their usual brands of cigarette. An index of inhaling was calculated for each person by dividing the estimated increase in carboxyhaemoglobin level from a standard number of cigarettes by the carbon monoxide yield of the cigarette smoked. Smokers of ventilated filter cigarettes inhaled 82% more than smokers of plain cigarettes (p less than 0.001) and those who smoked unventilated filter cigarettes inhaled 36% more (p less than 0.001). Cigarette consumption was similar among smokers of each type of cigarette. Assuming that the intake of tar and nicotine is proportional to the inhaling index, the intake in either group of filter cigarette smokers would have been less than that in plain cigarette smokers. Among smokers of unventilated cigarettes, however, the intake would not have been much less.

  6. Tobacco radioactivity and cancer in smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martell, E.A.

    1975-01-01

    The recent finding that 210 Pb, which also is present in inhaled mainstream smoke, is highly concentrated in a small number of insoluble smoke particles changes the whole complexion of the problem of possible health effects of the inhaled radioactivity in cigarette smoke. Because 210 Pb has a radioactive half-life of 22 years, the body burden of the radioactive 210 Pb and its radioactive daughter products 210 Bi and 210 Po can continue to build up throughout the period of smoking. Alpha interactions with chromosomes of cells surrounding these insoluble radioactive smoke particles may cause cancer and contribute to early atherosclerosis development in cigarette smokers. (U.S.)

  7. Spontaneous Action Representation in Smokers when Watching Movie Characters Smoke

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Dylan D.; Cin, Sonya Dal; Sargent, James D.; Kelley, William M.; Heatherton, Todd F.

    2011-01-01

    Do smokers simulate smoking when they see someone else smoke? For regular smokers, smoking is such a highly practiced motor skill that it often occurs automatically, without conscious awareness. Research on the brain basis of action observation has delineated a frontopareital network that is commonly recruited when people observe, plan or imitate actions. Here, we investigated whether this action observation network would be preferentially recruited in smokers when viewing complex smoking cue...

  8. Young adult smokers' neural response to graphic cigarette warning labels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam E. Green

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: In this sample of young adult smokers, GWLs promoted neural activation in brain regions involved in cognitive and affective decision-making and memory formation and the effects of GWLs did not differ on branded or plain cigarette packaging. These findings complement other recent neuroimaging GWL studies conducted with older adult smokers and with adolescents by demonstrating similar patterns of neural activation in response to GWLs among young adult smokers.

  9. Nutrient intake in an elderly population in southern France (POLANUT): deficiency in some vitamins, minerals and omega-3 PUFA. : Nutrient deficiency in a French aged population.

    OpenAIRE

    Carrière, Isabelle; Delcourt, Cécile; Lacroux, Annie; Gerber, Mariette

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of the nutritional status of an elderly cohort from a French Mediterranean area. DESIGN: Cross-sectional nutritional assessment in the framework of the population-based POLA cohort. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: 832 subjects aged 70 years or older answered a 165-item, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Mean Nutritional Need (MNN) was defined as 77% of the French Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA). The risk for clinical deficiency (CD) was defined as intakes lower tha...

  10. Differential gene expression patterns between smokers and non-smokers : cause or consequence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, Jacqueline M; Jansen, Rick; Brooks, Andy; Willemsen, Gonneke; van Grootheest, Gerard; de Geus, Eco; Smit, Jan H; Penninx, Brenda W; Boomsma, Dorret I

    The molecular mechanisms causing smoking-induced health decline are largely unknown. To elucidate the molecular pathways involved in cause and consequences of smoking behavior, we conducted a genome-wide gene expression study in peripheral blood samples targeting 18 238 genes. Data of 743 smokers,

  11. Quantitative assessment of elemental carbon in the lungs of never smokers, cigarette smokers and coal miners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhalation exposure to particulates such as cigarette smoke and coal dust is known to contribute to the development of chronic lung disease. The purpose of this study was to estimate the amount of elemental carbon (EC) deposits from autopsied lung samples from cigarette smokers, ...

  12. Differential gene expression patterns between smokers and non-smokers: Cause or consequence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, J.M.; Jansen, R.; Brooks, A.I.; Willemsen, G.; Grootheest, G. van; Geus, E.J.C. de; Smit, J.H.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2017-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms causing smoking-induced health decline are largely unknown. To elucidate the molecular pathways involved in cause and consequences of smoking behavior, we conducted a genome-wide gene expression study in peripheral blood samples targeting 18 238 genes. Data of 743 smokers,

  13. Self-esteem, psychological distress, and coping styles in pregnant smokers and non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varescon, Isabelle; Leignel, Shirley; Gérard, Caroline; Aubourg, Frédérique; Detilleux, Michel

    2013-12-01

    The literature underscores that psychological factors could play an important role in smoking behavior, which is considered a coping mechanism. To study relations among measures of self-esteem, psychological distress, anxiety, depressive symptoms, and coping styles in pregnant smokers, a cross-sectional study was conducted. These factors were assessed in two groups of pregnant women (Smokers, n = 40; Non-smokers, n = 40) contacted at one University Hospital in Paris. All participants filled out the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, the General Health Questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale, and the Brief Cope Scale. Comparisons, correlations, and regression models were used to analyze the data. The results showed that the group of pregnant women who smoked had significantly lower mean self-esteem, elevated psychological distress and anxiety scores, and reported using more emotion-focused coping than the group of pregnant non-smokers. Self-esteem significantly predicted problem-focused coping. This study confirms the importance of assessing these psychological variables to offer women more specific support to quit smoking.

  14. Automatic approach bias towards smoking cues is present in smokers but not in ex-smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiers, C.E.; Kühn, S.; Javadi, A.H.; Korucuoglu, O.; Wiers, R.W.; Walter, H.; Gallinat, J.; Bermpohl, F.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale :Drug-addicted individuals show automatic approach tendencies towards drug-related cues, i.e., an approach bias (ApB). Nevertheless, little is known about ApB in tobacco smokers and about the presence of ApB after smoking abstinence. Objectives: We investigated ApB to smoking cues in heavy

  15. Predictors of COPD in symptomatic smokers and ex-smokers seen in primary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tupper, Oliver Djurhuus; Kjeldgaard, Peter; Løkke, Anders

    2018-01-01

    Even in subjects at high risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the diagnosis is often missed due to lack of awareness of symptoms and risk factors. The objective of this study was to identify predictors of a diagnosis of COPD in symptomatic current and ex-smokers seen in a primary....... Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that increasing age 50-59 years (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.8-3.3), 60-69 years (OR 4.1, 95% CI 3.1-5.5), ≥70 years (OR 5.7, 95% CI 4.2-7.8), BMI smoker (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.01-1.5), self-reported dyspnoea (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.......4-2.0), wheeze (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.5-2.3) and sputum (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.7) were associated with a significantly higher risk of being diagnosed with COPD. No association was found between gender, cough and recurrent respiratory tract infections and a diagnosis of COPD. Among symptomatic smokers and ex-smokers...

  16. Altered thalamo-cortical resting state functional connectivity in smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chaoyan; Bai, Jie; Wang, Caihong; von Deneen, Karen M; Yuan, Kai; Cheng, Jingliang

    2017-07-13

    The thalamus has widespread connections with the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and modulates communication between the striatum and PFC, which is crucial to the neural mechanisms of smoking. However, relatively few studies focused on the thalamic resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) patterns and their association with smoking behaviors in smokers. 24 young male smokers and 24 non-smokers were enrolled in our study. Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) was used to assess the nicotine dependence level. The bilateral thalamic RSFC patterns were compared between smokers and non-smokers. The relationship between neuroimaging findings and smoking behaviors (FTND and pack-years) were also investigated in smokers. Relative to nonsmokers, smokers showed reduced RSFC strength between the left thalamus and several brain regions, i.e. the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the bilateral caudate. In addition, the right thalamus showed reduced RSFC with the right dlPFC as well as the bilateral insula in smokers. Therefore, the findings in the current study revealed the reduced RSFC of the thalamus with the dlPFC, the ACC, the insula and the caudate in smokers, which provided new insights into the roles of the thalamus in nicotine addiction from a function integration perspective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of smoking on aerobic capacity in young adult smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdelmoniem Ibrahim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking is a worldwide public health challenge, ,Cigarette smoking is also a strong risk factor for musculoskeletal and cardiovascular disease, It is also well known that low and declining muscle strength is linked to increased smoking .[23]Aims of this study was to examine the chronic effects of smoking on cardiovascular fitness in young and healthy male smokers[13]. This study was carried out in university of hail ,physiotherapy lab, ,30male participant was recruited from university students of hail divided into two group 15 smoker (A ,15 nonsmoker (B .All subjects underwent a sub maximal Bruce treadmill test and their HR was recorded during, at peak, and after termination of exercise. Our study revealed that the resting HR was 5.3 bpm higher in smoker than in non smoker (P:0.0001., data indicated that there was a significant difference found between young smokers and non-smokers regarding their sub-maximal HR values (P:0.0063., where smokers had significantly higher HR values. also there was no difference between both groups regarding to recovery heart rate (P:0.56. Smoking was found to affect young smokers’ increasing HR at rest, slowing of HR increase during exercise, and impairing their ability to reach the age predicted HRmax., Also smoking was associated with an attenuated HR. . also Smokers had a higher resting HR and showed a higher HR response during sub-maximal exercise compared to Non smokers .

  18. Predictors of neutrophilic airway inflammation in young smokers with asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Christian Grabow; Munck, Christian; Helby, Jens

    2014-01-01

    by a higher degree of neutrophilic inflammation than in non-smokers. A state of neutrophilic inflammation may lead to increased steroid resistance and an accelerated loss of lung function owing to tissue destruction. The aim of this study was to elucidate predictors of neutrophilic inflammation in young...... asthmatic smokers not on steroid treatment, including analysis of tobacco history and bacterial colonization. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 52 steroid-free, current smokers with asthma were examined with induced sputum, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), lung function, ACQ6 score, mannitol...... smokers, neutrophilia may be induced when a certain threshold of tobacco consumption is reached....

  19. The acute tobacco withdrawal syndrome among black smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Cendrine D; Pickworth, Wallace B; Heishman, Stephen J; Waters, Andrew J

    2014-03-01

    Black smokers have greater difficulty quitting tobacco than White smokers, but the mechanisms underlying between-race differences in smoking cessation are not clear. One possibility is that Black smokers experience greater acute withdrawal than Whites. We investigated whether Black (n = 104) and White smokers (n = 99) differed in abstinence-induced changes in self-report, physiological, and cognitive performance measures. Smokers not wishing to quit completed two counterbalanced experimental sessions. Before one session, they abstained from smoking for at least 12 hr. They smoked normally before the other session. Black smokers reported smaller abstinence-induced changes on a number of subjective measures including the total score of the 10-item Questionnaire for Smoking Urges (QSU) and the total score of the Wisconsin Smoking Withdrawal Scale (WSWS). However, on most subjective measures, and on all objective measures, there were no between-race differences in abstinence-induced change scores. Moreover, Black participants did not report lower QSU and WSWS ratings at the abstinent session, but they did experience significantly higher QSU and WSWS ratings at the nonabstinent session. Abstinence-induced changes in subjective, physiological, and cognitive measures in White smokers were similar for smokers of nonflavored and menthol-flavored cigarettes. There was no evidence that Black smokers experienced greater acute tobacco withdrawal than Whites. To the contrary, Black participants experienced smaller abstinence-induced changes in self-reported craving and withdrawal on some measures. Racial differences in smoking cessation are unlikely to be explained by acute withdrawal.

  20. Blunted Striatal Responses to Favorite Food Cues in Smokers*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastreboff, Ania M.; Sinha, Rajita; Lacadie, Cheryl M.; Balodis, Iris M.; Sherwin, Robert; Potenza, Marc N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although tobacco-smoking is associated with relatively leaner body mass and smoking cessation with weight gain, the brain mechanisms underlying these relationships are not well understood. Smokers compared to non-smokers have shown diminished neural responses to non-tobacco rewarding stimuli (e.g., monetary rewards), but brain responses to favorite-food cues have not been investigated relative to smoking status. We hypothesized that smokers would exhibit diminished neural responses compared to non-smokers in response to favorite-food cues in motivation-reward and emotion-regulating regions of the brain. Methods Twenty-three smokers and 23 non-smokers matched based on body mass index (BMI), age, and gender listened to personalized favorite-food-cue, stress, and neutral-relaxing audiotapes during fMRI. Results During favorite-food-cue exposure, smokers versus non-smokers exhibited diminished activations in the caudate, putamen, insula, and thalamus. Neural responses during stress and neutral-relaxing conditions were similar across groups. Subjective food-craving ratings were similar across groups. Conclusions The relatively diminished neural responses to favorite-food cues in smokers may contribute to lower BMI. PMID:25444233

  1. Blunted striatal responses to favorite-food cues in smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastreboff, Ania M; Sinha, Rajita; Lacadie, Cheryl M; Balodis, Iris M; Sherwin, Robert; Potenza, Marc N

    2015-01-01

    Although tobacco-smoking is associated with relatively leaner body mass and smoking cessation with weight gain, the brain mechanisms underlying these relationships are not well understood. Smokers compared to non-smokers have shown diminished neural responses to non-tobacco rewarding stimuli (e.g., monetary rewards), but brain responses to favorite-food cues have not been investigated relative to smoking status. We hypothesized that smokers would exhibit diminished neural responses compared to non-smokers in response to favorite-food cues in motivation-reward and emotion-regulating regions of the brain. Twenty-three smokers and 23 non-smokers matched based on body mass index (BMI), age, and gender listened to personalized favorite-food cue, stress, and neutral-relaxing audiotapes during fMRI. During favorite-food cue exposure, smokers versus non-smokers exhibited diminished activations in the caudate, putamen, insula, and thalamus. Neural responses during stress and neutral-relaxing conditions were similar across groups. Subjective food-craving ratings were similar across groups. The relatively diminished neural responses to favorite-food cues in smokers may contribute to lower BMI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Job exposure to the public in relation with alcohol, tobacco and cannabis use: Findings from the CONSTANCES cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Airagnes

    Full Text Available To examine the associations between job exposure to the public (e.g., customers, guests, users of a public service, patients and alcohol, tobacco and cannabis use.From the French population-based CONSTANCES cohort, 16,566 men and 17,426 women currently working were included between 2012 and 2016. They reported their exposure to the public (daily versus no daily, and among the daily exposed participants (10,323 men and 13,318 women, the frequency of stressful exposure (often versus rarely. Dependent variables were: chronic alcohol consumption (42(28 drinks per week in men(women, heavy episodic drinking (never, at most once a month, more than once a month, alcohol use risk with Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (mild, dangerous, problematic or dependence, tobacco use (non-smoker, former smoker, 1-9, 10-19, >19 cigarettes per day and cannabis use (never, not in past year, less than once a month, once a month or more. Logistic regressions provided odds ratios of substance use, stratifying for gender and adjusting for sociodemographic confounders, depression, effort-reward imbalance and perceived health status.Exposed men had higher risks of alcohol (chronic alcohol consumption, heavy episodic drinking and alcohol use risk, tobacco and cannabis use. Exposed women had higher risks of tobacco and cannabis use. In men, stressful exposure was associated with increased risks of heavy episodic drinking, tobacco and cannabis use. In women, stressful exposure was associated with increased risks of chronic alcohol consumption, alcohol use risk, tobacco and cannabis use. All these findings remained significant in multivariable analyses, taking into account sociodemographic variables, depressive symptoms, perceived health status and effort-reward imbalance.Interventions to reduce emotional job demand should systematically integrate assessment and prevention measures of addictive behaviors. Vulnerable workers may be offered more specific interventions to

  3. Job exposure to the public in relation with alcohol, tobacco and cannabis use: Findings from the CONSTANCES cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airagnes, Guillaume; Lemogne, Cédric; Goldberg, Marcel; Hoertel, Nicolas; Roquelaure, Yves; Limosin, Frédéric; Zins, Marie

    2018-01-01

    To examine the associations between job exposure to the public (e.g., customers, guests, users of a public service, patients) and alcohol, tobacco and cannabis use. From the French population-based CONSTANCES cohort, 16,566 men and 17,426 women currently working were included between 2012 and 2016. They reported their exposure to the public (daily versus no daily), and among the daily exposed participants (10,323 men and 13,318 women), the frequency of stressful exposure (often versus rarely). Dependent variables were: chronic alcohol consumption (42(28) drinks per week in men(women)), heavy episodic drinking (never, at most once a month, more than once a month), alcohol use risk with Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (mild, dangerous, problematic or dependence), tobacco use (non-smoker, former smoker, 1-9, 10-19, >19 cigarettes per day) and cannabis use (never, not in past year, less than once a month, once a month or more). Logistic regressions provided odds ratios of substance use, stratifying for gender and adjusting for sociodemographic confounders, depression, effort-reward imbalance and perceived health status. Exposed men had higher risks of alcohol (chronic alcohol consumption, heavy episodic drinking and alcohol use risk), tobacco and cannabis use. Exposed women had higher risks of tobacco and cannabis use. In men, stressful exposure was associated with increased risks of heavy episodic drinking, tobacco and cannabis use. In women, stressful exposure was associated with increased risks of chronic alcohol consumption, alcohol use risk, tobacco and cannabis use. All these findings remained significant in multivariable analyses, taking into account sociodemographic variables, depressive symptoms, perceived health status and effort-reward imbalance. Interventions to reduce emotional job demand should systematically integrate assessment and prevention measures of addictive behaviors. Vulnerable workers may be offered more specific interventions to

  4. Higher lipid peroxidation in former-smokers vs. never-smokers - study in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagan, Dorota; Stępniak, Jan; Gesing, Adam; Lewinski, Andrzej; Karbownik-Lewinska, Malgorzata

    2015-12-01

    One of the most spectacular exogenous prooxidative agents is cigarette smoking, constituting a well documented risk factor for several diseases. In turn it is suggested that hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in postmenopausal women can contribute to oxidative status. The aim of the study was to evaluate the level of oxidative damage to membrane lipids in blood serum collected from never-smokers and former-smokers. The study was performed in postmenopausal women, who were or were not HRT users. Ninety (90) female volunteers, aged from 46 to 67 years, were enrolled. Two major groups were considered, i.e. never-smokers (n=44) and formersmokers (n=46), which were additionally subgrouped to HRT users (HRT+) and HRT non-users (HRT-). Anthropometric parameters related to obesity were also calculated. The main groups were well matched at baseline in terms of age. The level of malondialdehyde+4-hydroxyalkenals (MDA+4-HDA), as the index of LPO, was measured spectrophotometrically. The level of LPO was higher in former-smokers than in never-smokers, regardless of HRT use. The level of LPO did constitute the only independent factor associated with past smoking in the entire examined group, as well as after stratification to HRT users and HRT non-users. LPO level was not associated with HRT treatment. No positive correlations were found between LPO level and anthropometric parameters. Past smoking is independently associated with the increased damage to membrane lipids regardless of the use of HRT in postmenopausal women. Smoking cessation is not always associated with complete reversion of excessive oxidative damage to all biological macromolecules.

  5. Neighborhood deprivation and smoking and quit behavior among smokers in Mexico: Findings from the ITC Mexico Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Nancy L.; Thrasher, James F.; de Miera Juárez, Belén Sáenz; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Myriam; Santillán, Edna Arillo; Osman, Amira; Siahpush, Mohammad; Fong, Geoffrey T.

    2016-01-01

    Background In high-income countries (HICs), higher neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation is associated with higher levels of smoking. Few studies in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have investigated the role of the neighborhood environment on smoking behavior. Objective To determine whether neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation is related to smoking intensity, quit attempts, quit success, and smoking relapse among a cohort of smokers in Mexico from 2010–2012. Methods Data were analyzed from adult smokers and recent ex-smokers who participated in Waves 4–6 of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Mexico Survey. Data were linked to the Mexican government’s composite index of neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation, which is based on 2010 Mexican Census data. We used generalized estimating equations to determine associations between neighborhood deprivation and individual smoking behaviors. Findings Contrary to past findings in HICs, higher neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation was associated with lower smoking intensity. Quit attempts showed a U-shaped pattern whereby smokers living in high/very high deprivation neighborhoods and smokers living in very low deprivation neighborhoods were more likely to make a quit attempt than smokers living in other neighborhoods. We did not find significant differences in neighborhood deprivation on relapse or successful quitting, with the possible exception of people living in medium-deprivation neighborhoods having a higher likelihood of successful quitting than people living in very low deprivation neighborhoods (p=0.06). Conclusions Neighborhood socioeconomic environments in Mexico appear to operate in an opposing manner to those in HICs. Further research should investigate whether rapid implementation of strong tobacco control policies in LMICs, as occurred in Mexico during the follow-up period, avoids the concentration of tobacco-related disparities among socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. PMID:25170022

  6. Increased long-term recreational physical activity is associated with older age at natural menopause among heavy smokers: the California Teachers Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emaus, Aina; Dieli-Conwright, Christina; Xu, Xinxin; Lacey, James V; Ingles, Sue A; Reynolds, Peggy; Bernstein, Leslie; Henderson, Katherine D

    2013-03-01

    Although physical activity modulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis, the few studies that have investigated whether physical activity is associated with age at natural menopause have yielded mixed results. We set out to determine whether physical activity is associated with the timing of natural menopause in a large cohort of California women overall and by smoking history. We investigated the association between long-term physical activity (h/wk/y) and age at natural menopause among 97,945 women in the California Teachers Study. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression methods were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The impact of cigarette smoking (never smoker, former light smoker, former heavy smoker, current light smoker, and current heavy smoker) as an effect modifier was evaluated. In a multivariable model adjusted for body mass index at age 18 years, age at menarche, race/ethnicity, and age at first full-term pregnancy, increased physical activity was statistically significantly associated with older age at natural menopause (P(trend) = 0.005). Higher body mass index at age 18 years (P(trend) = 0.0003) and older age at menarche (P(trend) = 0.0003) were also associated with older age at natural menopause. Hispanic ethnicity (vs non-Hispanic whites; HR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.09-1.26), current smokers (vs never smokers; HR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.60-1.75 for current light smokers; HR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.33-1.44 for current heavy smokers), and older age at first full-term pregnancy (HR(≥29, 2+ full-term pregnancies) vs HR(menopause. Upon stratification by smoking history, increased physical activity was statistically significantly associated with older age at natural menopause among heavy smokers only (HR(highest quartile) vs HR(lowest quartile), 0.88; 95% CI, 0.81-0.97; P(trend) = 0.02 for former heavy smokers; HR(highest quartile) vs HR(lowest quartile), 0.89; 95% CI, 0.80-0.99; P(trend) = 0.04 for current heavy

  7. Community-acquired pneumonia among smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almirall, Jordi; Blanquer, José; Bello, Salvador

    2014-06-01

    Recent studies have left absolutely no doubt that tobacco increases susceptibility to bacterial lung infection, even in passive smokers. This relationship also shows a dose-response effect, since the risk reduces spectacularly 10 years after giving up smoking, returning to the level of non-smokers. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the causative microorganism responsible for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) most frequently associated with smoking, particularly in invasive pneumococcal disease and septic shock. It is not clear how it acts on the progress of pneumonia, but there is evidence to suggest that the prognosis for pneumococcal pneumonia is worse. In CAP caused by Legionella pneumophila, it has also been observed that smoking is the most important risk factor, with the risk rising 121% for each pack of cigarettes smoked a day. Tobacco use may also favor diseases that are also known risk factors for CAP, such as periodontal disease and upper respiratory viral infections. By way of prevention, while giving up smoking should always be proposed, the use of the pneumococcal vaccine is also recommended, regardless of the presence of other comorbidities. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Long-term smoking causes more advanced coronary endothelial dysfunction in middle-aged smokers compared to young smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naya, Masanao; Goto, Daisuke; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki; Morita, Koichi; Manabe, Osamu; Hirata, Kenji; Tamaki, Nagara; Yoshinaga, Keiichiro; Katoh, Chietsugu

    2011-01-01

    Smoking cessation has been shown to normalize the coronary endothelial dysfunction in healthy young smokers. However, its effect has not been explored in middle-aged smokers with a longer history of smoking. Therefore, we compared the effects of smoking cessation on coronary vasomotor response between both young and middle-aged smokers and identified the predictor for its improvement. This study investigated 14 young healthy smokers (age 25.2 ± 2.3 years), 13 middle-aged smokers (age 42.0 ± 6.5 years) and 10 non-smokers. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was measured by using 15 O-water positron emission tomography (PET). At baseline, the ratio of MBF during the cold pressor test (CPT) to that at rest (MBF CPT/rest ), the index of coronary endothelial function, was significantly decreased in both young and middle-aged smokers compared to non-smokers (1.24 ± 0.20 and 1.10 ± 0.39 vs 1.53 ± 0.18, p CPT/rest at 1 month after smoking cessation significantly increased in young smokers, but not in middle-aged smokers. By multivariate analysis, baseline serum malondialdehyde-modified low-density lipoprotein (MDA-LDL) was an independent predictor for the changes in MBF CPT/rest after smoking cessation (β = -0.45, p < 0.05). Coronary endothelial dysfunction was reversible by short-term smoking cessation in young smokers, but not in middle-aged smokers, which was associated with serum MDA-LDL levels. Long-term smoking exposure could lead to more advanced coronary endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis possibly via oxidative stress. (orig.)

  9. Lymphocyte Apoptosis in Smokers and Non-Smokers Following Different Intensity of Exercises and Relation with Lactate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyung-Shin; Lee, Yang

    Purposes of this study were 1) to examine the exercise intensity where lymphocyte apoptosis index (AI) is significantly increased in smokers and non-smokers, 2) to find out whether AI is associated with level of lactate (L). Fourteen healthy untrained smokers (≤ 1 pack year, n =7) and non-smokers ( n =7) aged 18 to 26 were recruited. Each subject conducted three treadmill runs at different intensities randomly. Running distance for all three runs was equivalent to 30 minute run at 70% VO 2max . AI and L were analyzed at rest (Pre), immediately after (Post), and 1 h following (1 h post) each run. Data was analyzed using two way repeated measures ANOVA. Smokers showed higher AI than non-smokers at Post in 60% (12.5±0.62% vs. 9.97±0.51, p vs. 15.6±0.41, p smokers and non-smokers. The strong positive relationship between AI and L was detected ( r =.739, smokers vs. r =.793, non-smokers). Smokers tend to have higher AI than non-smokers following runs at 60% and 70% VO 2max, but not following a run at 80% VO 2max . An increase in AI following a run at 60% VO 2max indicates that lymphocyte apoptosis can be increased following moderate intensity exercise. Since L and AI at post were increased in dose-dependent manner to exercise intensity, it is suggested that an increase in lactate production during exercise might contribute to the increase in lymphocyte apoptosis.

  10. Association between anxiety, obesity and periodontal disease in smokers and non-smokers: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhay P. Kolte

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Psychological stress is known to be a relevant risk factor for many inflammatory conditions, including periodontal disease. A few studies have probed the relationship between obesity and periodontal disease. Therefore this cross-sectional study was aimed to examine the relationship between psychological stress and obesity and periodontal disease in smokers and non-smokers. Methods. The participants included 90 patients, equally divided into three groups of non-smokers and periodontally healthy, non-smokers and smokers with untreated moderate-to-severe chronic periodontitis. Socioeconomic data, psychosocial measurements, physical parameters and clinical findings of PPD, CAL, PI and GI were recorded. Results. The clinical parameters were assessed for three groups in three different anxiety levels of mild, moderate and se-vere. Intra-group comparison of PPD and CAL in the three anxiety levels showed increased periodontal destruction with an increase in anxiety levels, the results being statistically highly significant for PPD differences in smokers (P < 0.0001. The mean differences in PPD and CAL in severe anxiety levels between smokers and non-smokers were 0.68 mm and 0.70 mm and both the findings were statistically significant. The mean PPD and CAL in smoker and non-smoker groups in obese patients was higher as compared to non-obese patients and the differences were highly significant (P < 0.001. Conclusion. The results of our study indicated a positive and strong correlation between anxiety, obesity and periodontal disease in smokers and non-smokers. Smoking appears to further attenuate this association.

  11. Screening for primary creatine deficiencies in French patients with unexplained neurological symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheillan, D.; Curt, M.J.; Briand, G.; Salomons, G.S.; Mention-Mulliez, K.; Dobbelaere, D.; Cuisset, J.M.; Lion-Francois, L.; Portes, V.D.; Chabli, A.; Valayannopoulos, V.; Benoist, J.F.; Pinard, J.M.; Simard, G.; Douay, O.; Deiva, K.; Afenjar, A.; Heron, D.; Rivier, F.; Chabrol, B.; Prieur, F.; Cartault, F.; Pitelet, G.; Goldenberg, A.; Bekri, S.; Gerard, M.; Delorme, R.; Tardieu, M.; Porchet, N.; Vianey-Saban, C.; Vamecq, J.

    2012-01-01

    A population of patients with unexplained neurological symptoms from six major French university hospitals was screened over a 28-month period for primary creatine disorder (PCD). Urine guanidinoacetate (GAA) and creatine:creatinine ratios were measured in a cohort of 6,353 subjects to identify PCD

  12. Supporting French Teachers for a Paradigm Shift in Grammar Education: A Teacher Trainer's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibeault, Joël

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a series of pedagogical workshops that was offered over two years to a cohort of 50 teachers practising in Ontarian French schools. Focusing on grammar teaching, the workshops' objectives were to: (a) contribute to the teachers' development of linguistic knowledge consistent with the grammar under new provincial standards and…

  13. A School-Based Phonological Awareness Intervention for Struggling Readers in Early French Immersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Nancy; D'Angelo, Nadia; Chen, Xi

    2016-01-01

    The current intervention study investigated the sustained effectiveness of phonological awareness training on the reading development of 16 children in French immersion who were identified as at-risk readers based on grade 1 English measures. The intervention program provided children from three cohorts with supplemental reading in small groups on…

  14. The Objective Identification and Quantification of Interstitial Lung Abnormalities in Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Samuel Y; Harmouche, Rola; Ross, James C; Diaz, Alejandro A; Hunninghake, Gary M; Putman, Rachel K; Onieva, Jorge; Martinez, Fernando J; Choi, Augustine M; Lynch, David A; Hatabu, Hiroto; Rosas, Ivan O; Estepar, Raul San Jose; Washko, George R

    2017-08-01

    Previous investigation suggests that visually detected interstitial changes in the lung parenchyma of smokers are highly clinically relevant and predict outcomes, including death. Visual subjective analysis to detect these changes is time-consuming, insensitive to subtle changes, and requires training to enhance reproducibility. Objective detection of such changes could provide a method of disease identification without these limitations. The goal of this study was to develop and test a fully automated image processing tool to objectively identify radiographic features associated with interstitial abnormalities in the computed tomography scans of a large cohort of smokers. An automated tool that uses local histogram analysis combined with distance from the pleural surface was used to detect radiographic features consistent with interstitial lung abnormalities in computed tomography scans from 2257 individuals from the Genetic Epidemiology of COPD study, a longitudinal observational study of smokers. The sensitivity and specificity of this tool was determined based on its ability to detect the visually identified presence of these abnormalities. The tool had a sensitivity of 87.8% and a specificity of 57.5% for the detection of interstitial lung abnormalities, with a c-statistic of 0.82, and was 100% sensitive and 56.7% specific for the detection of the visual subtype of interstitial abnormalities called fibrotic parenchymal abnormalities, with a c-statistic of 0.89. In smokers, a fully automated image processing tool is able to identify those individuals who have interstitial lung abnormalities with moderate sensitivity and specificity. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Fecal zonulin is elevated in Crohn’s disease and in cigarette smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Malíčková

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Human zonulin is a protein that increases permeability in the epithelial layer of the small intestine by reversibly modulating the intercellular tight junctions. There is not sufficient information available about zonulin's participation in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate fecal and serum zonulin in IBD patients and its relation to the disease localization, behavior and smoking status. Design and methods: Forty IBD patients and forty healthy persons were examined for fecal and serum zonulin concentrations by competitive ELISA (DRG International Inc. Values were correlated to IBD type, localization and behavior, and smoking. Results: Serum and fecal zonulin were significantly higher in patients with Crohn’s disease compared to ulcerative colitis (p = 0.038 for fecal zonulin, and p = 0.041 for serum zonulin concentrations. No association of serum or fecal zonulin was found with respect to IBD localization and behavior. The only difference was found with respect to smoking. Both the IBD cohort and healthy smokers showed significantly higher fecal zonulin levels (median 203 ng/mL compared to non-smokers (median 35.8 ng/mL, p < 0.001. Conclusions: Fecal and serum zonulin levels are elevated in patients with active Crohn’s disease but not with ulcerative colitis. High fecal zonulin levels in smokers irrespective of IBD point to the significant and undesirable up-regulation of gut permeability in cigarette smokers. Keywords: Zonulin, Inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn's disease, Ulcerative colitis, Smoking

  16. Cohort profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maret-Ouda, John; Wahlin, Karl; Artama, Miia

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To describe a newly created all-Nordic cohort of patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD), entitled the Nordic Antireflux Surgery Cohort (NordASCo), which will be used to compare participants having undergone antireflux surgery with those who have not regarding risk...... age at primary antireflux surgery ranged from 47 to 52 years in the different countries. The coding practices of GORD seem to have differed between the Nordic countries. Future plans: The NordASCo will initially be used to analyse the risk of developing known or potential GORD-related cancers, that is......, tumours of the oesophagus, stomach, larynx, pharynx and lung, and to evaluate the mortality in the short-term and long-term perspectives. Additionally, the cohort will be used to evaluate the risk of non-malignant respiratory conditions that might be caused by aspiration of gastric contents....

  17. The French electricity report 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    RTE is the company responsible for running the French electricity transmission system. It is a public service operator, tasked with operating, maintaining and developing the high and extra high voltage network. It guarantees the reliability and proper operation of the power network. These missions were entrusted to it by the Law of 10 February 2000. With 100,000 km of lines between 63,000 and 400,000 volts and 45 cross-border lines, the network operated by RTE is the biggest in Europe. In 2008, RTE posted turnover of euros 4,221 m and currently employs around 8,500 staff. RTE, by virtue of the missions entrusted to it by the Law of 10 February 2000, is the central player in the French power system. For the purpose of maintaining the real time balance between supply and demand, and managing contractual relations with customers connected to its network, RTE monitors all the electrical energy that enters and leaves the public transmission system. Through its management of the 45 interconnection lines linking France with its neighbours, RTE also tracks all import and export data, on behalf of players in the French and European electricity market. RTE constantly records and examines data provided by all market players. Using the data, monthly and annually, it publishes exhaustive figures for the French power system (demand, generation, imports and exports), which offer the only truly accurate reflection of the real state of the sector's economy. This report presents these figures for the year 2009. Contents: 1 - French electricity demand down by 1.6% on 2008; 2 - A drop in French electricity generation; 3 - The balance of cross-border exchanges falls, but remains positive; 4 - RTE continues to invest in a robust network capable of keeping up with developments in the electricity industry; 5 - Appendix 1: New infrastructures on the RTE network in 2009; 6 - Appendix 2: Electricity quality; 7 - Appendix 3: Mature market mechanisms

  18. Lymphocyte Apoptosis in Smokers and Non-Smokers Following Different Intensity of Exercises and Relation with Lactate

    OpenAIRE

    PARK, KYUNG-SHIN; LEE, YANG

    2011-01-01

    Purposes of this study were 1) to examine the exercise intensity where lymphocyte apoptosis index (AI) is significantly increased in smokers and non-smokers, 2) to find out whether AI is associated with level of lactate (L). Fourteen healthy untrained smokers (? 1 pack year, n=7) and non-smokers (n=7) aged 18 to 26 were recruited. Each subject conducted three treadmill runs at different intensities randomly. Running distance for all three runs was equivalent to 30 minute run at 70% VO2max. AI...

  19. Periodontal Status and Whole Salivary Cytokine Profile Among Smokers and Never-Smokers With and Without Prediabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Fawad; Al-Kheraif, Abdulaziz A; Al Amri, Mohammad D; Alshehri, Mohammed; Vohra, Fahim; Al-Askar, Mansour; Malmstrom, Hans; Romanos, Georgios E

    2015-07-01

    Whole salivary interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 in smokers and never-smokers with prediabetes remains uninvestigated. The aim of this study is to assess the periodontal status and whole salivary IL-1β and IL-6 levels among smokers and never-smokers with and without prediabetes (controls). Ninety-five males (45 with prediabetes and 50 systemically healthy controls) were included. Twenty-seven controls and 29 patients with prediabetes were smokers. Periodontal parameters (plaque index, bleeding on probing, probing depth, clinical attachment loss, and marginal bone loss) were measured, and the number of missing teeth were recorded. Fasting blood glucose (FBG) and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels were recorded. Unstimulated whole saliva samples were collected, unstimulated whole salivary flow rate (UWSFR) was determined, and IL-1β and IL-6 levels were measured. P values prediabetes than controls. All patients with prediabetes were hyperglycemic. UWSFR was significantly higher among controls than among patients with prediabetes (P prediabetes. Among controls, periodontal parameters and whole salivary IL-1β and IL-6 levels were higher among smokers than never-smokers (P prediabetes, periodontal inflammation and whole salivary IL-1β and IL-6 levels were comparable between smokers and never-smokers.

  20. Cohort Profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Sanne; Hønge, Bo Langhoff; Oliveira, Inés

    2014-01-01

    The West African country Guinea-Bissau is home to the world’s highest prevalence of HIV-2, and its HIV-1 prevalence is rising. Other chronic viral infections like human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and hepatitis B virus are common as well. The Bissau HIV Cohort was started in 2007 to gain...... new insights into the overall effect of introducing antiretroviral treatment in a treatment-naı ̈ve population with concomitant infection with three retroviruses (HIV-1, HIV-2 and HTLV-1) and tuberculosis. The cohort includes patients from the HIV clinic at Hospital Nacional Sima ̃ o Mendes, the main...

  1. Electronic cigarette: use and perceptions among French military nurses in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillet, Sébastien; Sicard, Sébastien; Meynard, Jean-Baptiste; Mayet, Aurélie

    2015-01-01

    Paramedical personnel are exposed to tobacco smoking. Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) may be considered as a lower-risk substitute for cigarettes. The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of e-cigarette use, the motives for use and the perceptions among French military nurses. A cross-sectional survey, using self-administered questionnaires, was conducted in 2013 among 300 students and instructors of the French school of military paramedical personnel. Prevalences of e-cigarette use among smokers and nonsmokers were compared using logistic regressions adjusted on age and gender. The prevalence of smoking was 40% among the 200 responders. E-cigarette current use prevalence was 25% (6% daily users), without significant difference according to gender and age. Tobacco smokers reported significantly more e-cigarette current use (51% vs7%). Motives for e-cigarette use reported by smokers were curiosity (48%), intention to reduce tobacco consumption (43%) or to quit smoking (8%). Among users of both tobacco and e-cigarettes, 48% reported a significant decrease in tobacco consumption following e-cigarette initiation (average decrease of 5-10 cigarettes smoked per day; p <0.001). Both tobacco smokers and nonsmokers (88%) estimated that e-cigarette use was potentially harmful for health, but it was perceived as less harmful than tobacco by 46%. E-cigarette use among military nurses follows the trends observed in the general population in terms of prevalence and motives. E-cigarettes, which are seen as an attractive alternative to cigarettes, may contribute to a reduction in tobacco use among healthcare workers.

  2. General and Professional French Courses

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Nathalie Dumeaux, tel. 78144. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 8 October to 14 December 2007. This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 30 hours (3 hours a week) Price: 660 CHF (for a minimum of 8 students). For registration and further information, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Nathalie Dumeaux, tel. 78144.

  3. French regulation and waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-08-01

    The organization and the role played by French safety authorities for waste management are described. The French policy for storage and conditioning: basic objectives and waste management optimization are specified. Safety requirements are based on the barrier principle, they are mentioned for packaging and storage. The ''Institut de Protection et Surete Nucleaire'' deals not only with safety analysis but also help the ''autorites ministerielles'' for the development of fundamental safety rules. Examples for spent fuel storage and radioactive materials transport are treated in appendixes [fr

  4. High Level of Tobacco Carcinogen-Derived DNA Damage in Oral Cells Is an Independent Predictor of Oral/Head and Neck Cancer Risk in Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khariwala, Samir S; Ma, Bin; Ruszczak, Chris; Carmella, Steven G; Lindgren, Bruce; Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Hecht, Stephen S; Stepanov, Irina

    2017-09-01

    Exposure to tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is recognized to play an important role in the development of oral/head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC). We recently reported higher levels of TSNA-associated DNA adducts in the oral cells of smokers with HNSCC as compared with cancer-free smokers. In this study, we further investigated the tobacco constituent exposures in the same smokers to better understand the potential causes for the elevated oral DNA damage in smokers with HNSCC. Subjects included cigarette smokers with HNSCC (cases, n = 30) and cancer-free smokers (controls, n = 35). At recruitment, tobacco/alcohol use questionnaires were completed, and urine and oral cell samples were obtained. Analysis of urinary 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) and N '-Nitrosonornicotine (NNN; TSNA biomarkers), 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HOP, a PAH), cotinine, 3'-hydroxycotinine, and the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR) were performed. Cases and controls differed in mean age, male preponderance, and frequency of alcohol consumption (but not total alcoholic drinks). Univariate analysis revealed similar levels of NNN, 1-HOP, and cotinine between groups but, as reported previously, significantly higher DNA adduct formation in the cases. Multiple regression adjusting for potential confounders showed persistent significant difference in DNA adduct levels between cases and controls [ratio of geometric means, 20.0; 95% CI, 2.7-148.6). Our cohort of smokers with HNSCC demonstrates higher levels of TSNA-derived oral DNA damage in the setting of similar exposure to nicotine and tobacco carcinogens. Among smokers, DNA adduct formation may act as a predictor of eventual development of HNSCC that is independent of carcinogen exposure indicators. Cancer Prev Res; 10(9); 507-13. ©2017 AACR See related editorial by Johnson and Bauman, p. 489 . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  5. Cohort profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiberg, Michael; Bandak, Mikkel; Lauritsen, Jakob

    2018-01-01

    The cohort was set up in order to analyze late effects in long-term testicular cancer survivors (TCS) and to contribute to the design of future follow-up programs addressing and potentially preventing late effects. Data for this cross-sectional study were collected between January 1, 2014, and De...

  6. The french electric power evaluation 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This document takes stock on the french electric power situation for the year 2005. It provides information on the consumption the trade, the production, the french market and the RTE (Electric power transport network) infrastructure. (A.L.B.)

  7. French how to speak and write it

    CERN Document Server

    Lemaître, Joseph

    1978-01-01

    Probably the most delightful, useful, and comprehensive elementary book available for learning spoken and written French, either with or without a teacher. Includes colloquial French conversations as well as grammar, vocabulary, and idiom studies.

  8. Directory of the French nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-10-01

    This directory includes data sheets on the French companies operating in the nuclear industry. It begins with an introduction containing information on the French nuclear industry: 1 - nuclear power development in France (national energy plan, history, organization, economic advantages, reactors); 2 - French operator: Electricite de France (EdF); 3 - the industry (Areva, Cogema, mining activities, uranium chemistry and enrichment, processing, recycling, engineering, services, Framatome ANP); 4 - R and D and knowledge dissemination: French atomic energy commission (CEA); 5 - nuclear safety, security, control and regulation: nuclear safety authority (ASN), general direction of nuclear safety and radioprotection (DGSNR), institute of radioprotection and nuclear safety (IRSN), radioactive wastes, ANDRA's role; 6 - associations: French atomic forum (FAF), French nuclear industry trade association (GIIN), French nuclear energy society (SFEN), French radiation protection society (SFRP). Then, the data sheets of the directory follows. (J.S.)

  9. Smokers' Willingness to Protect Children from Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.; Creighton, Stephanie; Vogel, Stephanie

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the effectiveness of a secondhand smoke media campaign on adult smokers' willingness to protect children from secondhand smoke. Methods: Following a series of community awareness ads, a random sample of 390 adult smokers was surveyed via telephone regarding their perceptions of secondhand smoke. Results: Seeing or hearing…

  10. Epidemiological profile of non-daily smokers in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    study suggests that as many as 39% of women smokers in Australia could be ND smokers.9 ... of others smoking at work, the presence of others smoking at home, socioeconomic status ..... subject to reporting bias. However, we have used ...

  11. Treating Depressed and Anxious Smokers in Smoking Cessation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, C. Steven; Cohen, Lee M.; Morrell, Holly E. R.; Watson, Noreen L.; Low, Blakely E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States. In addition, smoking rates among depressed and anxious smokers are higher than in the population at large. Furthermore, treating depressed and anxious smokers effectively is particularly challenging because of their significant negative affect,…

  12. Tracheobronchial and Alveolar Particle Surface Area Doses in Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Carmen Fuoco

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoke is the main cause of lung cancer events. Mainstream cigarette smoke (MSS is a direct concern for smokers, but also the secondhand smoke (SHS contributes to the smoker exposure. In addition, smoker exposure is affected by the “free-smoke” particle exposure (B, related to the micro-environments where smokers spend time. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the daily alveolar and tracheobronchial deposited fractions of airborne particles for smokers as the sum of these three contributions: MSS, SHS, and B. Measurements of particle surface area distributions in the MSS were performed through a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer, an Aerodynamic Particle Sizer, and a Thermo-dilution system on five types of conventional cigarettes. A Monte Carlo method was then applied to evaluate the most probable value of dose received during the inhalation of MSS by smokers. Measurements of particle concentrations in SHS and at the “free-smoke” particle background (B were performed through 24-h monitoring at a personal scale of adult smoker through hand-held devices. This paper found that the total daily deposited dose for typical smokers was 1.03 × 105 mm2·day−1. The main contribution of such a huge daily dose was addressable to the MSS (98% while SHS contributed 1.1%, increasing up to 2% for people smoking only while traveling in a car.

  13. Recruiting Unmotivated Smokers into a Smoking Induction Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Kari Jo; Bradley-Ewing, Andrea; Goggin, Kathy; Richter, Kimber P.; Patten, Christi; Williams, Karen; Lee, Hyoung S.; Staggs, Vincent S.; Catley, Delwyn

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about effective methods to recruit unmotivated smokers into cessation induction trials, the reasons unmotivated smokers agree to participate, and the impact of those reasons on study outcomes. A mixed-method approach was used to examine recruitment data from a randomized controlled cessation induction trial that enrolled 255 adult…

  14. Long-term smoking causes more advanced coronary endothelial dysfunction in middle-aged smokers compared to young smokers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naya, Masanao; Goto, Daisuke; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Morita, Koichi; Manabe, Osamu; Hirata, Kenji; Tamaki, Nagara [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Yoshinaga, Keiichiro [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Molecular Imaging, Sapporo (Japan); Katoh, Chietsugu [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Health Science, Sapporo (Japan)

    2011-03-15

    Smoking cessation has been shown to normalize the coronary endothelial dysfunction in healthy young smokers. However, its effect has not been explored in middle-aged smokers with a longer history of smoking. Therefore, we compared the effects of smoking cessation on coronary vasomotor response between both young and middle-aged smokers and identified the predictor for its improvement. This study investigated 14 young healthy smokers (age 25.2 {+-} 2.3 years), 13 middle-aged smokers (age 42.0 {+-} 6.5 years) and 10 non-smokers. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was measured by using {sup 15}O-water positron emission tomography (PET). At baseline, the ratio of MBF during the cold pressor test (CPT) to that at rest (MBF{sub CPT/rest}), the index of coronary endothelial function, was significantly decreased in both young and middle-aged smokers compared to non-smokers (1.24 {+-} 0.20 and 1.10 {+-} 0.39 vs 1.53 {+-} 0.18, p < 0.05 and p < 0.001, respectively). The ratio of MBF during adenosine triphosphate infusion to that at rest was significantly decreased in middle-aged smokers compared to young smokers and non-smokers (3.34 {+-} 1.52 vs 4.43 {+-} 0.92 and 4.69 {+-} 1.25, p < 0.05, respectively). MBF{sub CPT/rest} at 1 month after smoking cessation significantly increased in young smokers, but not in middle-aged smokers. By multivariate analysis, baseline serum malondialdehyde-modified low-density lipoprotein (MDA-LDL) was an independent predictor for the changes in MBF{sub CPT/rest} after smoking cessation ({beta} = -0.45, p < 0.05). Coronary endothelial dysfunction was reversible by short-term smoking cessation in young smokers, but not in middle-aged smokers, which was associated with serum MDA-LDL levels. Long-term smoking exposure could lead to more advanced coronary endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis possibly via oxidative stress. (orig.)

  15. Implications of Nine Risk Prediction Models for Selecting Ever-Smokers for Computed Tomography Lung Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katki, Hormuzd A; Kovalchik, Stephanie A; Petito, Lucia C; Cheung, Li C; Jacobs, Eric; Jemal, Ahmedin; Berg, Christine D; Chaturvedi, Anil K

    2018-05-15

    Lung cancer screening guidelines recommend using individualized risk models to refer ever-smokers for screening. However, different models select different screening populations. The performance of each model in selecting ever-smokers for screening is unknown. To compare the U.S. screening populations selected by 9 lung cancer risk models (the Bach model; the Spitz model; the Liverpool Lung Project [LLP] model; the LLP Incidence Risk Model [LLPi]; the Hoggart model; the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial Model 2012 [PLCOM2012]; the Pittsburgh Predictor; the Lung Cancer Risk Assessment Tool [LCRAT]; and the Lung Cancer Death Risk Assessment Tool [LCDRAT]) and to examine their predictive performance in 2 cohorts. Population-based prospective studies. United States. Models selected U.S. screening populations by using data from the National Health Interview Survey from 2010 to 2012. Model performance was evaluated using data from 337 388 ever-smokers in the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study and 72 338 ever-smokers in the CPS-II (Cancer Prevention Study II) Nutrition Survey cohort. Model calibration (ratio of model-predicted to observed cases [expected-observed ratio]) and discrimination (area under the curve [AUC]). At a 5-year risk threshold of 2.0%, the models chose U.S. screening populations ranging from 7.6 million to 26 million ever-smokers. These disagreements occurred because, in both validation cohorts, 4 models (the Bach model, PLCOM2012, LCRAT, and LCDRAT) were well-calibrated (expected-observed ratio range, 0.92 to 1.12) and had higher AUCs (range, 0.75 to 0.79) than 5 models that generally overestimated risk (expected-observed ratio range, 0.83 to 3.69) and had lower AUCs (range, 0.62 to 0.75). The 4 best-performing models also had the highest sensitivity at a fixed specificity (and vice versa) and similar discrimination at a fixed risk threshold. These models showed better agreement on size of the

  16. Impact of supragingival therapy on subgingival microbial profile in smokers versus non-smokers with severe chronic periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Meulman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess subgingival microbiological changes in smokers versus non-smokers presenting severe chronic periodontitis after supragingival periodontal therapy (ST.Non-smokers (n=10 and smokers (n=10 presenting at least nine teeth with probing pocket depth (PPD (≥5 mm, bleeding on probing (BoP, and no history of periodontal treatment in the last 6 months were selected. Clinical parameters assessed were plaque index (PI, BoP, PPD, relative gingival margin position (rGMP and relative clinical attachment level (rCAL. Subgingival biofilm was collected before and 21 days after ST. DNA was extracted and the 16S rRNA gene was amplified with the universal primer pair, 27F and 1492R. Amplified genes were cloned, sequenced, and identified by comparison with known 16S rRNA sequences. Statistical analysis was performed by Student's t and Chi-Square tests (α=5%.Clinically, ST promoted a significant reduction in PI and PPD, and gain of rCAL for both groups, with no significant intergroup difference. Microbiologically, at baseline, data analysis demonstrated that smokers harbored a higher proportion of Porphyromonas endodontalis, Bacteroidetes sp., Fusobacterium sp. and Tannerella forsythia and a lower number of cultivated phylotypes (p<0.05. Furthermore, non-smokers featured significant reductions in key phylotypes associated with periodontitis, whereas smokers presented more modest changes.Within the limits of the present study, ST promoted comparable clinical improvements in smokers and non-smokers with severe chronic periodontitis. However, in smokers, ST only slightly affected the subgingival biofilm biodiversity, as compared with non-smokers.

  17. Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Utility of Pulmonary Function Tests in Predicting Emphysema in Ever-Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrah Kheradmand

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Emphysema is largely an under-diagnosed medical condition that can exist in smokers in the absence of airway obstruction. We aimed to determine the sensitivity and specificity of pulmonary function tests (PFTs in assessing emphysema using quantitative CT scans as the reference standard. We enrolled 224 ever-smokers (current or former over the age of 40. CT of thorax was used to quantify the low attenuation area (% emphysema, and to measure the standardized airway wall thickness. PFTs were used individually and in combination to predict their ability to discriminate radiographic emphysema. Significant emphysema (>7% was detected in 122 (54% subjects. Twenty six (21% emphysema subjects had no evidence of airflow obstruction (FEV1/FVC ratio 23% emphysema showed airflow obstruction. The sensitivity and specificity of spirometry for detecting radiographic emphysema were 79% and 75%, respectively. Standardized airway wall thickness was increased in subjects with airflow obstruction, but did not correlate with emphysema severity. In this cohort of lifetime ever-smokers, PFTs alone were inadequate for diagnosing emphysema. Airway wall thickness quantified by CT morphometry was associated with airflow limitation, but not with emphysema indicating that the heterogeneous nature of lung disease in smokers may represent distinct phenotypes.

  18. Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Utility of Pulmonary Function Tests in Predicting Emphysema in Ever-Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselbacher, Sean E.; Ross, Robert; Schabath, Matthew B.; Smith, E. O’Brian; Perusich, Sarah; Barrow, Nadia; Smithwick, Pamela; Mammen, Manoj J.; Coxson, Harvey; Krowchuk, Natasha; Corry, David B.; Kheradmand, Farrah

    2011-01-01

    Emphysema is largely an under-diagnosed medical condition that can exist in smokers in the absence of airway obstruction. We aimed to determine the sensitivity and specificity of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in assessing emphysema using quantitative CT scans as the reference standard. We enrolled 224 ever-smokers (current or former) over the age of 40. CT of thorax was used to quantify the low attenuation area (% emphysema), and to measure the standardized airway wall thickness. PFTs were used individually and in combination to predict their ability to discriminate radiographic emphysema. Significant emphysema (>7%) was detected in 122 (54%) subjects. Twenty six (21%) emphysema subjects had no evidence of airflow obstruction (FEV1/FVC ratio 23% emphysema showed airflow obstruction. The sensitivity and specificity of spirometry for detecting radiographic emphysema were 79% and 75%, respectively. Standardized airway wall thickness was increased in subjects with airflow obstruction, but did not correlate with emphysema severity. In this cohort of lifetime ever-smokers, PFTs alone were inadequate for diagnosing emphysema. Airway wall thickness quantified by CT morphometry was associated with airflow limitation, but not with emphysema indicating that the heterogeneous nature of lung disease in smokers may represent distinct phenotypes. PMID:21655122

  19. The French emirs of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, N.

    1978-01-01

    The French energy plan is described under the following heads: structure of supply/use; nuclear energy; oil consumption; coal consumption; gas consumption; energy conservation; renewable resources. The section on nuclear energy covers: nuclear programmes, uranium supplies (mining and enrichment), fuel fabrication and reprocessing, finance and economics, political and administrative aspects, nuclear trade, development of fast breeder reactor. (U.K.)

  20. Progress of French nuclear programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierrard, J.-H.

    1981-02-01

    The aims of the French nuclear programme launched in 1974 are briefly recalled to mind, as are the projects completed at the end of 1980. The operating results mentioned, particularly concern the new PWR units brought into commercial service in 1980 [fr

  1. Hopes doomed for French photovoltaic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piro, P.

    2013-01-01

    The photovoltaic industry has lost 15000 jobs in 2 years in France and the emergency measures taken by French authorities seem to be not sufficient to curb the trend. Some measures have led to delay or even cancel some projects while what is the most important today is to generate enough activity in small and intermediate enterprises to safeguard jobs

  2. Two new French quality labels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bresler, Ines

    2012-07-01

    'Origine France Garantie' and 'AQPV' are the new product labels that were presented in France in 2011. While the first is aimed at the entire industry, the latter is an effort to strengthen the PV industry. By raising the enthusiasm for local products, the French government hopes to keep the flood of foreign imports at bay. (orig.)

  3. English-French Cognate Dictionary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Petra; Monod, Madeleine

    This dictionary contains a word list of 10,993 English-French cognates (words with the same or similar spelling and meaning in both languages), including some loan words from other languages. A systematic review of the Larousse "Dictionnaire Moderne Francais--Anglais" (1960) provided this list of cognates. Deceptive cognates, or words…

  4. Fair period in French solar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradel, P.

    1997-01-01

    The French solar industry decreased from 1992, but five years later, the situation changes and this industry is increasing again. The energy policy takes in account the renewable energies in a greater part, secondly, the technical reliability and a prices decreasing allow to this market to gain some ground. (N.C.)

  5. Revis(iting French palatalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Tifrit

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the diachrony of French and reconsiders the classical analysis of French palatalizations. It is widely admitted that the transition from Latin dorsal stops to French palatal fricatives is triggered by an external palatalizing object which affects the constitution of the targeted consonant. While this analysis can satisfyingly explain the palatalization of dorsals before /i/, it makes the palatalization before /a/, which occurred a few centuries later, completely opaque. Revising the internal structure and the melody used to describe segments (Government Phonology 2.0 – Pöchtrager 2006 allows us to give a unified analysis of both palatalizations: whether /i/ or /a/, the vocalic environment is indeed the trigger, as it interferes with the structure of dorsals and lead to internal changes. However, while /i/ adds palatality to the consonant, /a/, by its lack of melody (Pöchtrager & Živanović 2010, leads to an internal reconfiguration of the dorsal, which already contains . In other words, we face two kinds of palatalization: an external one and an internal one. Furthermore, our analysis takes the intermediate stages from Latin dorsals to French palatals into consideration and attested dialectal variations observed in Northern France.

  6. Accident management on french PWRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queniart, D.

    1990-06-01

    After a brief recall of French safety rationale, the reactor operation and severe accident management is given. The research and development aimed at developing accident management procedures and emergency organization in France for the case of a NPP accident are also given

  7. The Kyoto conference: French perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orliange Philippe

    1998-02-01

    The present article approaches the problem of the climate change from a French perspective, describing the process that let the topic acquire importance in the national government level. Also, they stand out the difficulties generated in the negotiations of the Kyoto Protocol, because the opposing positions have United States and the European block

  8. General and Professional French Courses

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    The next session will take place from 10th of October to 16th of December 2011. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://hr-training.web.cern.ch/hr-training/ or contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (kerstin.fuhrmeister@cern.ch) Oral Expression This course is aimed for students with a good knowledge of French who want to enhance their speaking skills. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. Suitable candidates should contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896) or Martine Zuffi (73483) in order to arrange an appointment for a test. The next session will take place from 10th of October to 16th of December 2011. Writing professional documents in French These courses are designed for non-French speakers with a very good standard of spoken French. Suitable candidates should contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896) or Martine Zuffi (73483) in order to arr...

  9. General and Professional French Courses

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    The next session will take place from 30th of January to 5th of April 2012. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://hr-training.web.cern.ch/hr-training/ or contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (kerstin.fuhrmeister@cern.ch) Oral Expression This course is aimed for students with a good knowledge of French who want to enhance their speaking skills. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. Suitable candidates should contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896) or Martine Zuffi (73483) in order to arrange an appointment for a test. The next session will take place from 30th of January to 5th of April 2012. Writing professional documents in French These courses are designed for non-French speakers with a very good standard of spoken French. Suitable candidates should contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister (70896) or Martine Zuffi (73483) in order to arrange an ...

  10. Lung cancer in never smokers Epidemiology and risk prediction models

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, William J.; Meza, Rafael; Jeon, Jihyoun; Moolgavkar, Suresh

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter we review the epidemiology of lung cancer incidence and mortality among never smokers/ nonsmokers and describe the never smoker lung cancer risk models used by CISNET modelers. Our review focuses on those influences likely to have measurable population impact on never smoker risk, such as secondhand smoke, even though the individual-level impact may be small. Occupational exposures may also contribute importantly to the population attributable risk of lung cancer. We examine the following risk factors in this chapter: age, environmental tobacco smoke, cooking fumes, ionizing radiation including radon gas, inherited genetic susceptibility, selected occupational exposures, preexisting lung disease, and oncogenic viruses. We also compare the prevalence of never smokers between the three CISNET smoking scenarios and present the corresponding lung cancer mortality estimates among never smokers as predicted by a typical CISNET model. PMID:22882894

  11. Recruiting women smokers: the engineering of consent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, A M

    1996-01-01

    A range of social forces contributed to the effective recruitment of women to cigarette smoking in the crucial period between 1900 and 1940. Cigarette advertisers and public relations experts recognized the significance of women's changing roles and the rising culture of consumption, and worked to create specific meanings for the cigarette to make it appeal to women. The cigarette was a flexible symbol, with a remarkably elastic set of meanings; for women, it represented rebellious independence, glamour, seduction, and sexual allure, and served as a symbol for both feminists and flappers. The industry, with the help of advertisers and public relations experts, effectively engineered consent for women as smokers. The "engineering of consent" has a role to play in smoking cessation, since negative meanings for the cigarette can be engineered as well.

  12. Radioactivity in French bottled waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loyen, J.; Brassac, A.; Augeray, C.; Fayolle, C.; Gleizes, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire - IRSN (France)

    2014-07-01

    As IRSN is considered as a reference laboratory for radioactivity measurements, French health ministry and French nuclear safety authority asked IRSN to carry out a study in order to get a fresh and complete status of radiological water quality of French bottled waters. The study was carried out during 12 months in 2012. A total of 142 bottled waters samples were analyzed (75 spring waters and 67 natural mineral waters). The laboratories of IRSN were in charge of: - systematic measurement of radioactivity following requirements of the French health ministry (Circulaire du 13/06/2007) regarding the monitoring and management of sanitary risk linked to the presence of radionuclides in drinking waters (natural mineral waters excepted). - systematic uranium mass concentration determination; - a few radon-222 gas measurements for waters in glass bottles. This study is a flash assessment of radiological characteristics of French bottled waters, at the analysis date for the sample received. It was done in informative way and was not done for regulatory control purposes.. This study has shown that: - all bottled waters analyzed have a tritium activity concentration lower than the quality reference value of 100 Bq/l of the French regulation; - More than 105 bottled waters analyzed (80% of the springs waters and 70% of natural mineral waters received) have a gross alpha activity concentration lower than the guideline value of 0,1 Bq/l of the French regulation; - All bottled waters analyzed have a residual gross beta activity concentration lower than the guideline value of 1 Bq/l of the French regulation; - All bottled waters analyzed have a uranium mass concentration lower than the provisory guideline value of 30 μg/l of the WHO for drinking waters; - radon-222 was only significantly measured once upon 6 glass bottled waters with a value far below the reference value of 100 Bq/l of the future European Directive on drinking waters. For 32 bottled waters with gross alpha

  13. The acquisition of French in multilingual contexts

    CERN Document Server

    Guijarro-Fuentes, Pedro; Müller, Natascha

    2015-01-01

    This volume brings together new research from different theoretical paradigms addressing the acquisition of French as a second language. It focuses on the acquisition of French in combination with different languages and enriches our understanding of the particularities of French and the role of language combinations in the acquisition process.

  14. Slang Usage of French by Young Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensz, Kathleen Y.

    1985-01-01

    Describes reactions of native French speakers to usage of French slang by young American students. French-speaking participants rated 30 tape-recorded slang expressions. Their reactions were evaluated in relation to the sex, profession, age, and residence of the respondents. Results show attitudes critical of the use of slang in general. (SED)

  15. TEACHING AND LEARNING OF FRENCH: IMPERATIVE FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof

    It is important to note that, the teaching of French was introduced into the ... subjects like English to the detriment of French language is a proof of that .... To encourage teachers to lead the learners to use French language as a tool for .... professionals, thereby placing Nigeria at a disadvantage in terms of job creation.

  16. Commercial French in a Liberal Arts Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrate, Jayne

    Drury College (Missouri) has developed a commercial French course that is practical, situation-oriented, and provides instruction in correspondence and translation. The course is considered part of the cultural segment of the French program. It enrolls majors in business, French, and a variety of other disciplines, and emphasizes contextual…

  17. Report: Immersion French at Meriden Junior School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Marie-Josee

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the French immersion program at Meriden Junior School, an Anglican school for girls from pre-Kindergarten to Year 12 in Sydney. Four teachers (one of whom is the coordinator) and three assistants are involved in the program. They include six French native speakers and one non-French-born teacher who speaks…

  18. Screening of oral premalignant lesions in smokers using toluidine blue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanti Leosari

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: A smoker is associated with the risk of developing oral premalignant lesions due to the cacinogenic contents in cigarette. Toluidine blue is a basic chromatic dye used in screening the presence of premalignant lesions due to its ability to detect acidic components in cells and tissues. Purpose: This study was purposed to observe the outcomes of toluidine blue staining on oral mucosa of smokers and non smokers and to find out whether quantity and duration of smoking affect the final results of toluidine blue staining. Methods: Forty male subjects, aged 20-60 years old were involved in this study, consisted of 10 heavy smokers, 10 moderate smokers, 10 light smokers and 10 non smokers. Subjects were instructed to rinse their mouths with mineral water for 20 seconds followed by acetic acid 1% for another 20 seconds. Toluidine blue stain was applied in excess and left on site for 1 minute. Subjects were instructed to rinse with acetic acid 1% and sufficient water consecutively for 20 seconds each. The areas of oral mucosa that stained blue were captured with intraoral camera and transferred to the computer unit. The staining procedure was repeated after 14 days. Results: Chi-square test showed that toluidine blue positive staining dominates the smokers group. Regression and correlation test indicate that Toluidine blue staining is more obvious in subjects who consume more cigarettes. Conclusion: It was concluded that oral mucosa of smokers absorbed more toluidine blue than that of non smokers and retention of toluidine blue is affected by quantity and duration of smoking.

  19. Dental health in smokers with and without COPD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Bergström

    Full Text Available The association between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and periodontal disease is sparsely studied. The aim was to describe the co-variation of periodontitis and lung function impairment in smokers. The hypothesis was that the destructive processes in the mouth and the lungs are interdependent due to a general individual susceptibility to detrimental effects of tobacco smoke. Smokers with COPD (n = 28 stage II and III according to GOLD guidelines and smokers without COPD (n = 29 and healthy non-smokers (n = 23 participated in the study. The groups of smokers were matched for cumulative exposure to tobacco smoke. Radiographic, general and dental clinical examination, lung function measurements and quality of life (SF-36 assessment were conducted. The relationship between respiratory and dental outcomes was analyzed. Dental health, assessed by plaque, gingival bleeding, periodontal pocket depth and loss of teeth was impaired in the smokers compared with non-smokers with no major differences between smokers with and without COPD. There was, however, a weak correlation between periodontitis and emphysema/impaired diffusion capacity. Impaired quality of life was associated with smoking and impaired lung function but not influenced by dental status. In conclusion periodontitis was strongly associated with smoking, weakly associated with lung tissue destruction and very weakly or even not at all associated with chronic airflow limitation. The results indicate that, although there was a co-variation between periodontitis and pathologic lung processes in smokers, the risk of developing COPD, as defined by spirometric outcomes, is not associated with the risk of impaired dental health in smokers.

  20. Black Cigarette Smokers Report More Attention to Smoking Cues Than White Smokers: Implications for Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Cendrine D; Pickworth, Wallace B; Heishman, Stephen J; Wetter, David W; Cinciripini, Paul M; Li, Yisheng; Rowell, Brigid; Waters, Andrew J

    2015-08-01

    Black cigarette smokers have lower rates of smoking cessation compared with Whites. However, the mechanisms underlying these differences are not clear. Many Blacks live in communities saturated by tobacco advertisements. These cue-rich environments may undermine cessation attempts by provoking smoking. Moreover, attentional bias to smoking cues (attention capture by smoking cues) has been linked to lower cessation outcomes. Cessation attempts among Blacks may be compromised by attentional bias to smoking cues and a cue-rich environment. Attention to smoking cues in Black and White smokers was examined in 2 studies. In both studies, assessments were completed during 2 laboratory visits: a nonabstinent session and an abstinent session. In study 1, nontreatment-seeking smokers (99 Whites, 104 Blacks) completed the Subjective Attentional Bias Questionnaire (SABQ; a self-report measure of attention to cues) and the Smoking Stroop task (a reaction time measure of attentional bias to smoking cues). In study 2, 110 White and 74 Black treatment-seeking smokers completed these assessments and attempted to quit. In study 1, Blacks reported higher ratings than Whites on the SABQ (p = .005). In study 2, Blacks also reported higher ratings than Whites on the SABQ (p = .003). In study 2, Blacks had lower biochemical-verified point prevalence abstinence than Whites, and the between-race difference in outcome was partially mediated by SABQ ratings. Blacks reported greater attention to smoking cues than Whites, possibly due to between-race differences in environments. Greater attention to smoking cues may undermine cessation attempts. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Lower gray matter density and functional connectivity in the anterior insula in smokers compared with never smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeckel, Luke E; Chai, Xiaoqian J; Zhang, Jiahe; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Evins, A Eden

    2016-07-01

    Although nicotine addiction is characterized by both structural and functional abnormalities in brain networks involved in salience and cognitive control, few studies have integrated these data to understand how these abnormalities may support addiction. This study aimed to (1) evaluate gray matter density and functional connectivity of the anterior insula in cigarette smokers and never smokers and (2) characterize how differences in these measures were related to smoking behavior. We compared structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (gray matter density via voxel-based morphometry) and seed-based functional connectivity MRI data in 16 minimally deprived smokers and 16 matched never smokers. Compared with controls, smokers had lower gray matter density in left anterior insula extending into inferior frontal and temporal cortex. Gray matter density in this region was inversely correlated with cigarettes smoked per day. Smokers exhibited negative functional connectivity (anti-correlation) between the anterior insula and regions involved in cognitive control (left lPFC) and semantic processing/emotion regulation (lateral temporal cortex), whereas controls exhibited positive connectivity between these regions. There were differences in the anterior insula, a central region in the brain's salience network, when comparing both volumetric and functional connectivity data between cigarette smokers and never smokers. Volumetric data, but not the functional connectivity data, were also associated with an aspect of smoking behavior (daily cigarettes smoked). © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  2. Lower grey matter density and functional connectivity in the anterior insula in smokers compared to never-smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeckel, Luke E.; Chai, Xiaoqian J.; Zhang, Jiahe; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Evins, A. Eden

    2015-01-01

    Rationale While nicotine addiction is characterized by both structural and functional abnormalities in brain networks involved in salience and cognitive control, few studies have integrated these data to understand how these abnormalities may support addiction. Objectives (1) To evaluate grey matter density and functional connectivity of the anterior insula in cigarette smokers and never-smokers and (2) characterize how differences in these measures related to smoking behavior. Methods We compared structural MRI (grey matter density via voxel-based morphometry) and seed-based functional connectivity MRI data in 16 minimally deprived smokers and 16 matched never-smokers. Results Compared to controls, smokers had lower grey matter density in left anterior insula extending into inferior frontal and temporal cortex. Grey matter density in this region was inversely correlated with cigarettes smoked per day. Smokers exhibited negative functional connectivity (anti-correlation) between the anterior insula and regions involved in cognitive control (left lateral prefrontal cortex) and semantic processing / emotion regulation (lateral temporal cortex), whereas controls exhibited positive connectivity between these regions. Conclusions There were differences in the anterior insula, a central region in the brain’s salience network, when comparing both volumetric and functional connectivity data between cigarette smokers and never smokers. Volumetric data, but not the functional connectivity data, was also associated with an aspect of smoking behavior (daily cigarettes smoked). PMID:25990865

  3. Automatic associations with the sensory aspects of smoking: Positive in habitual smokers but negative in non-smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Huijding (Jorg); P.J. de Jong (Peter)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractTo test whether pictorial stimuli that focus on the sensory aspects of smoking elicit different automatic affective associations in smokers than in non-smokers, 31 smoking and 33 non-smoking students completed a single target IAT. Explicit attitudes were assessed using a semantic

  4. Automatic associations with the sensory aspects of smoking : Positive in habitual smokers but negative in non-smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijding, J; de Jong, PJ

    To test whether pictorial stimuli that focus on the sensory aspects of smoking elicit different automatic affective associations in smokers than in non-smokers, 31 smoking and 33 non-smoking students completed a single target IAT. Explicit attitudes were assessed using a semantic differential.

  5. Determination of a saliva cotinine cut-off to distinguish pregnant smokers from pregnant non-smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Møller, Lars F

    2007-01-01

    Objective validation of smoking status is necessary. Earlier studies have used saliva cotinine concentrations between 14.2 and 30 ng/ml as cut-off values to distinguish pregnant smokers from non-smokers. However, these cut-offs derive from studies including men and non-pregnant women. This consti...

  6. "I Smoke but I Am Not a Smoker": Phantom Smokers and the Discrepancy between Self-Identity and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Youjin; Choi, Sejung Marina; Rifon, Nora

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This article presents the development of a new smoking status, the "phantom smokers," who do not view themselves as smokers but report smoking cigarettes. Participants: Students from 2 universities in Michigan (N = 899; October 2005) and Florida (N = 1,517; May 2006) participated in surveys. Methods: Respondents in Michigan…

  7. Association Between Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure and the Occurrence of EGFR Mutations and ALK Rearrangements in Never-smokers With Non-Small-cell Lung Cancer: Analyses From a Prospective Multinational ETS Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soo, Ross A; Kubo, Akihito; Ando, Masahiko; Kawaguchi, Tomoya; Ahn, Myung-Ju; Ou, Sai-Hong Ignatius

    2017-09-01

    Molecular studies have demonstrated actionable driver oncogene alterations are more frequent in never-smokers with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The etiology of these driver oncogenes in patients with NSCLC remains unknown, and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is a potential cause in these cases. We assembled clinical and genetic information for never-smoker patients with NSCLC accrued in Japan, Korea, Singapore, and the United States. To determine an association between cumulative ETS and activating EGFR mutations or ALK rearrangements, the Mantel extension test was used. Multivariate analysis on activating EGFR and ALK gene rearrangements was performed using the generalized linear mixed model with nations as a random effect. From July 2007 to December 2012, 498 never-smokers with pathologically proven NSCLC were registered and tested for the association between ETS and EGFR and ALK status. EGFR mutations were more frequent in the ever-ETS cohort (58.4%) compared with the never-ETS cohort (39.6%), and the incidence of EGFR mutations was significantly associated with the increment of cumulative ETS (cETS) in female never-smokers (P = .033), whereas the incidence of ALK rearrangements was not significantly different between the ever-ETS and never-ETS cohorts. Odds ratio for EGFR mutations for each 10-year increment in cETS was 1.091 and 0.89 for female and male never-smokers (P = .031 and P = .263, respectively). Increased ETS exposure was closely associated with EGFR mutations in female never-smokers with NSCLC in the expanded multinational cohort. However, the association of ETS and ALK rearrangements in never-smokers with NSCLC was not significant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Smokers and non-smokers talk about regulatory options in tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Stacy M; Chapman, Simon

    2006-10-01

    Community members are occasionally polled about tobacco control policies, but are rarely given opportunities to elaborate on their views. We examined laypeople's conversations to understand how 11 regulatory options were supported or opposed in interactions. Qualitative design; purposive quota sampling; data collection via focus groups. Three locations in Sydney, Australia. 63 smokers and 75 non-smokers, men and women, from three age groups (18-24, 35-44, 55-64 years), recruited primarily via telephone. Semi-structured question route; data managed in NVivo; responses compared between groups. Laypeople rejected some regulatory proposals and certain arguments about taxation and the cost of cessation treatments. Protecting children and hypothecating tobacco excise for health education and care were highly acceptable. Plain packaging, banning retail displays and youth smoking prevention received qualified support. Bans on political donations from tobacco corporations were popular in principle but considered logistically fraught. Smokers asked for better cessation assistance and were curious about cigarette ingredients. Justice was an important evaluative principle. Support was often conditional and unresolved arguments frequent. We present both sides of these conflicts and the ways in which policies were legitimised or de-legitimised in conversation. Simple measures of agreement used in polls may obscure the complexity of community responses to tobacco policy. Support was frequently present but contested; some arguments that seem self-evident to advocates were not so to participants. The detailed understanding of laypeople's responses provided through qualitative methods may help frame proposals and arguments to meet concerns about justice, effectiveness and feasibility.

  9. Decreased endothelium-dependent coronary vasomotion in healthy young smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwado, Yasuyoshi; Yoshinaga, Keiichiro; Furuyama, Hideto; Tsukamoto, Eriko; Tamaki, Nagara; Ito, Yoshinori; Noriyasu, Kazuyuki; Katoh, Chietsugu; Kuge, Yuji

    2002-01-01

    Chronic cigarette smoking alters coronary vascular endothelial response. To determine whether altered response also occurs in young individuals without manifest coronary disease we quantified coronary blood flow at rest, following adenosine vasodilator stress and during the cold pressor test in healthy young smokers. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was quantified by oxygen-15 labelled water positron emission tomography in 30 healthy men aged from 20 to 35 years (18 smokers and 12 non-smokers, aged 27.4±4.4 vs 26.3±3.3). The smokers had been smoking cigarettes for 9.4±4.9 pack-years. MBF was measured at rest, during intravenous adenosine triphosphate (ATP: 0.16 mg kg -1 min -1 ) infusion (hyperaemic response), and during cold pressor test (CPT) (endothelial vasodilator response). Rest MBF and hyperaemic MBF did not differ significantly between the smokers and the non-smokers (rest: 0.86±0.11 vs 0.92±0.14 and ATP: 3.20±1.12 vs 3.69±0.76 ml g -1 min -1 ; P=NS). Coronary flow reserve was similar between the two groups (smokers: 3.78±1.83; non-smokers: 4.03±0.68; P=NS). Although CPT induced a similar increase in rate-pressure product (RPP) in the smokers and the non-smokers (10,430±1,820 vs 9,236±1,356 beats min -1 mmHg -1 ), CPT MBF corrected by RPP was significantly decreased in the smokers (0.65±0.12 ml g -1 min -1 ) compared with the non-smokers (0.87±0.12 ml g -1 min -1 ) (P<0.05). In addition, the ratio of CPT MBF to resting MBF was inversely correlated with pack-years (r=-0.57, P=0.014). Endothelium-dependent coronary artery vasodilator function is impaired in apparently healthy young smokers. (orig.)

  10. Decreased endothelium-dependent coronary vasomotion in healthy young smokers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwado, Yasuyoshi; Yoshinaga, Keiichiro; Furuyama, Hideto; Tsukamoto, Eriko; Tamaki, Nagara [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Kita-Ku, Kita 15 Nishi 7, Sapporo, 060-8638 (Japan); Ito, Yoshinori; Noriyasu, Kazuyuki [Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Katoh, Chietsugu; Kuge, Yuji [Department of Tracer Kinetics, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan)

    2002-08-01

    Chronic cigarette smoking alters coronary vascular endothelial response. To determine whether altered response also occurs in young individuals without manifest coronary disease we quantified coronary blood flow at rest, following adenosine vasodilator stress and during the cold pressor test in healthy young smokers. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was quantified by oxygen-15 labelled water positron emission tomography in 30 healthy men aged from 20 to 35 years (18 smokers and 12 non-smokers, aged 27.4{+-}4.4 vs 26.3{+-}3.3). The smokers had been smoking cigarettes for 9.4{+-}4.9 pack-years. MBF was measured at rest, during intravenous adenosine triphosphate (ATP: 0.16 mg kg{sup -1} min{sup -1}) infusion (hyperaemic response), and during cold pressor test (CPT) (endothelial vasodilator response). Rest MBF and hyperaemic MBF did not differ significantly between the smokers and the non-smokers (rest: 0.86{+-}0.11 vs 0.92{+-}0.14 and ATP: 3.20{+-}1.12 vs 3.69{+-}0.76 ml g{sup -1} min{sup -1}; P=NS). Coronary flow reserve was similar between the two groups (smokers: 3.78{+-}1.83; non-smokers: 4.03{+-}0.68; P=NS). Although CPT induced a similar increase in rate-pressure product (RPP) in the smokers and the non-smokers (10,430{+-}1,820 vs 9,236{+-}1,356 beats min{sup -1} mmHg{sup -1}), CPT MBF corrected by RPP was significantly decreased in the smokers (0.65{+-}0.12 ml g{sup -1} min{sup -1}) compared with the non-smokers (0.87{+-}0.12 ml g{sup -1} min{sup -1}) (P<0.05). In addition, the ratio of CPT MBF to resting MBF was inversely correlated with pack-years (r=-0.57, P=0.014). Endothelium-dependent coronary artery vasodilator function is impaired in apparently healthy young smokers. (orig.)

  11. Double dissociation of working memory and attentional processes in smokers and non-smokers with and without nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundey, Jessica; Amu, Rosa; Ambrus, Géza Gergely; Batsikadze, Georgi; Paulus, Walter; Nitsche, Michael A

    2015-07-01

    Nicotine has been shown to affect cortical excitability measured using transcranial magnetic stimulation in smoking and non-smoking subjects in different ways. In tobacco-deprived smokers, administration of nicotine restores compromised cortical facilitation while in non-smokers, it enhances cortical inhibition. As cortical excitability and activity are closely linked to cognitive processes, we aimed to explore whether nicotine-induced physiological alterations in non-smokers and smokers are associated with cognitive changes. Specifically, we assessed the impact of nicotine on working memory performance (n-back letter task) and on attentional processes (Stroop interference test) in healthy smokers and non-smokers. Both tasks have been shown to rely on prefrontal areas, and nicotinic receptors are relevantly involved in prefrontal function. Sixteen smoking and 16 non-smoking subjects participated in the 3-back letter task and 21 smoking and 21 non-smoking subjects in the Stroop test after the respective application of placebo or nicotine patches. The results show that working memory and attentional processes are compromised in nicotine-deprived smokers compared to non-smoking individuals. After administration of nicotine, working memory performance in smokers improved, while non-smoking subjects displayed decreased accuracy with increased number of errors. The effects have been shown to be more apparent for working memory performance than attentional processes. In summary, cognitive functions can be restored by nicotine in deprived smokers, whereas non-smokers do not gain additional benefit. The respective changes are in accordance with related effects of nicotine on cortical excitability in both groups.

  12. A Comparison of Oral Sensory Effects of Three TRPA1 Agonists in Young Adult Smokers and Non-smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Eva Ø.; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Boudreau, Shellie A.

    2017-01-01

    This study profiled intra-oral somatosensory and vasomotor responses to three different transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, subfamily A, member 1 (TRPA1) agonists (menthol, nicotine, and cinnamaldehyde) in smoking and non-smoking young adults. Healthy non-smokers (N = 30) and otherwise healthy smokers (N = 25) participated in a randomized, double-blinded, cross-over study consisting of three experimental sessions in which they received menthol (30 mg), nicotine (4 mg), or cinnamaldehyde (25 mg) chewing gum. Throughout a standardized 10 min chewing regime, burning, cooling, and irritation intensities, and location were recorded. In addition, blood pressure, heart rate and intra-oral temperature were assessed before, during, and after chewing. Basal intra-oral temperature was lower in smokers (35.2°C ± 1.58) as compared to non-smokers (35.9°C ± 1.61) [F(1, 52) = 8.5, P = 0.005, post hoc, p = 0.005]. However, the increase in temperature, heart rate, and blood pressure in response to chewing menthol, nicotine, and cinnamaldehyde gums were similar between smokers and non-smokers. Although smoking status did not influence the intensity of burning, cooling, and irritation, smokers did report nicotine burn more often (92%) than non-smokers (63%) [χ(1, N=55)2 = 6.208, P = 0.013]. Reports of nicotine burn consistently occurred at the back of the throat and cinnamaldehyde burn on the tongue. The cooling sensation of menthol was more widely distributed in the mouth of non-smokers as compared to smokers. Smoking alters thermoregulation, somatosensory, and possibly TRPA1 receptor responsiveness and suggests that accumulated exposure of nicotine by way of cigarette smoke alters oral sensory and vasomotor sensitivity. PMID:28936178

  13. Comparison of proteomic and transcriptomic profiles in the bronchial airway epithelium of current and never smokers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina Steiling

    Full Text Available Although prior studies have demonstrated a smoking-induced field of molecular injury throughout the lung and airway, the impact of smoking on the airway epithelial proteome and its relationship to smoking-related changes in the airway transcriptome are unclear.Airway epithelial cells were obtained from never (n = 5 and current (n = 5 smokers by brushing the mainstem bronchus. Proteins were separated by one dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (1D-PAGE. After in-gel digestion, tryptic peptides were processed via liquid chromatography/ tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS and proteins identified. RNA from the same samples was hybridized to HG-U133A microarrays. Protein detection was compared to RNA expression in the current study and a previously published airway dataset. The functional properties of many of the 197 proteins detected in a majority of never smokers were similar to those observed in the never smoker airway transcriptome. LC-MS/MS identified 23 proteins that differed between never and current smokers. Western blotting confirmed the smoking-related changes of PLUNC, P4HB1, and uteroglobin protein levels. Many of the proteins differentially detected between never and current smokers were also altered at the level of gene expression in this cohort and the prior airway transcriptome study. There was a strong association between protein detection and expression of its corresponding transcript within the same sample, with 86% of the proteins detected by LC-MS/MS having a detectable corresponding probeset by microarray in the same sample. Forty-one proteins identified by LC-MS/MS lacked detectable expression of a corresponding transcript and were detected in

  14. Perceptions of plain packaging among young adult roll-your-own smokers in France: a naturalistic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallopel-Morvan, Karine; Moodie, Crawford; Eker, Figen; Beguinot, Emmanuelle; Martinet, Yves

    2015-03-01

    We explored, for the first time, young adult roll-your-own smokers' response to using plain packaging in real-world settings. Naturalistic research was employed, where 133 French young adult smokers (18-25 years of age) used plain roll-your-own packs for 10 days; the plain packs they were provided with contained their usual brand of rolling tobacco and displayed the name of their usual brand. Participants were recruited in five cities in France (Paris, Marseille, Metz, Nantes, Toulouse) and completed two questionnaires to measure their response to their own branded packs and the plain packs. Both questionnaires assessed pack perceptions, brand attachment, product perceptions (eg, taste, quality, natural), feelings about smoking (satisfying, pleasurable), feelings when using the pack in front of others (embarrassment, image), warning response (credibility, awareness of risks) and smoking-related behaviour (eg, consumption, quitting). Compared to their own fully branded packs, plain packs were associated with less positive pack and product perceptions, lower brand attachment and less positive feelings about smoking and feelings when using the pack in front of others. Participants were also more likely to report feeling like reducing consumption and quitting when using the plain packs, and more likely to feel like missing out on rolling a cigarette. No significant differences between the two pack types (plain and branded) were found in terms of credibility of warnings and perceptions of level of tar. The study suggests that the impacts of plain packaging for roll-your-own cigarette smokers are the same as for smokers of factory-made cigarettes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Motivating Smoking Cessation Text Messages: Perspectives from Pregnant Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler-Ruwisch, Jennifer M; Leavitt, Leah E; Macherelli, Laura E; Turner, Monique M; Abroms, Lorien C

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this research is to analyze cessation text-messages written by pregnant smokers to elucidate the target population's preferred content and message attributes. To achieve this goal, the objectives of this study are three-fold; to qualitatively code messages written by pregnant smokers for frame, type of appeal, and intended target. Study participants were recruited as part of a larger trial of pregnant smokers who were enrolled in a text-messaging program or control group and surveyed 1 month post-enrollment. Each participant was asked to write a brief message to another pregnant smoker and two independent coders qualitatively analyzed responses. User generated messages (N = 51) were equally loss and gain framed, and the most common appeals were: fear, guilt, cognitive, hope and empathy, in order of most to least frequent. The target of the majority of the messages was the baby. Allowing pregnant smokers to write cessation text-messages for other pregnant women can provide relevant insight into intervention content. Specifically, pregnant smokers appear to equally promote gain and loss frames, but may prefer messages that include components of fear and guilt related to the impact of smoking on their baby. Additional research is needed to systematically uncover perspectives of pregnant smokers to ensure interventions are optimally effective.

  16. Changes in smoking habits of smokers under bombing by rockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keinan-Boker, L; Enav, T; Rozentraub, T; Shohat, T

    2011-03-01

    Stress is known to impact smoking. This survey assessed changes in smoking behaviour of smokers in Southern Israel during a military operation (December 2008-January 2009) that exposed several civilian communities to intensive rocket bombing and acute stress. Households with an active land telephone line in Jewish Gaza vicinity communities were sampled. Inclusion criteria were age (18+ years) and being a daily or an occasional smoker. A telephone interview was carried out, focusing on socio-demographic characteristics and change in smoking behaviour during the military operation. Personal, demographic and circumstantial correlates of smoking behaviour were assessed using univariate and multivariate analyses. A total of 425 smokers took part in the survey. Most (85%) reported being daily smokers, and smoked, on average, 10-20 cigarettes/day before the operation. During the operation, 38% of the smokers changed their smoking habits and most (88%) reported higher than usual smoking rates. Correlates significantly associated with higher smoking during the operation were sex (female), education (lower) and not working due to the operation. Exposure to acute stress has an impact on smoking rates, especially in certain subgroups of smokers. Relevant smoking cessation interventions should address the special needs of smokers exposed to stressful circumstances.

  17. The relationship of French people with energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, Jean-Daniel; Potereau, Julien; Gautier, Antoine

    2017-12-01

    This Power Point document presents graphs and tables containing results of a survey performed on the relationship French people have with energy. After a presentation of the survey methodology, it addresses how France commitment in the struggle against climate change is perceived (French people think that their country could do better), which perceptions French people have of stakes and of the French energy policy (the management of the energy issue is perceived as perfectible, and French people have a positive view on energy transition and on the development of renewable energies), and which investments French people stand for (French people are in favour of a more important role of Europe and of citizen cooperatives in the field of energy)

  18. Prostate tissue metal levels and prostate cancer recurrence in smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Kandegedara, Ashoka; Kryvenko, Oleksandr N; Gupta, Nilesh; Rogers, Craig; Rybicki, Benjamin A; Dou, Q Ping; Mitra, Bharati

    2014-02-01

    Although smoking is not associated with prostate cancer risk overall, smoking is associated with prostate cancer recurrence and mortality. Increased cadmium (Cd) exposure from smoking may play a role in progression of the disease. In this study, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to determine Cd, arsenic (As), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) levels in formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tumor and tumor-adjacent non-neoplastic tissue of never- and ever-smokers with prostate cancer. In smokers, metal levels were also evaluated with regard to biochemical and distant recurrence of disease. Smokers (N = 25) had significantly higher Cd (median ppb, p = 0.03) and lower Zn (p = 0.002) in non-neoplastic tissue than never-smokers (N = 21). Metal levels were not significantly different in tumor tissue of smokers and non-smokers. Among smokers, Cd level did not differ by recurrence status. However, the ratio of Cd ppb to Pb ppb was significantly higher in both tumor and adjacent tissue of cases with distant recurrence when compared with cases without distant recurrence (tumor tissue Cd/Pb, 6.36 vs. 1.19, p = 0.009, adjacent non-neoplastic tissue Cd/Pb, 6.36 vs. 1.02, p = 0.038). Tissue Zn levels were also higher in smokers with distant recurrence (tumor, p = 0.039 and adjacent non-neoplastic, p = 0.028). These initial findings suggest that prostate tissue metal levels may differ in smokers with and without recurrence. If these findings are confirmed in larger studies, additional work will be needed to determine whether variations in metal levels are drivers of disease progression or are simply passengers of the disease process.

  19. Avoidance of cigarette pack health warnings among regular cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Olivia M; Attwood, Angela; O'Brien, Laura; Brooks, Sabrina; Hedge, Craig; Leonards, Ute; Munafò, Marcus R

    2014-03-01

    Previous research with adults and adolescents indicates that plain cigarette packs increase visual attention to health warnings among non-smokers and non-regular smokers, but not among regular smokers. This may be because regular smokers: (1) are familiar with the health warnings, (2) preferentially attend to branding, or (3) actively avoid health warnings. We sought to distinguish between these explanations using eye-tracking technology. A convenience sample of 30 adult dependent smokers participated in an eye-tracking study. Participants viewed branded, plain and blank packs of cigarettes with familiar and unfamiliar health warnings. The number of fixations to health warnings and branding on the different pack types were recorded. Analysis of variance indicated that regular smokers were biased towards fixating the branding rather than the health warning on all three pack types. This bias was smaller, but still evident, for blank packs, where smokers preferentially attended the blank region over the health warnings. Time-course analysis showed that for branded and plain packs, attention was preferentially directed to the branding location for the entire 10s of the stimulus presentation, while for blank packs this occurred for the last 8s of the stimulus presentation. Familiarity with health warnings had no effect on eye gaze location. Smokers actively avoid cigarette pack health warnings, and this remains the case even in the absence of salient branding information. Smokers may have learned to divert their attention away from cigarette pack health warnings. These findings have implications for cigarette packaging and health warning policy. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. The dynamics of smoking-related disturbed methylation: a two time-point study of methylation change in smokers, non-smokers and former smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Rory; Wahl, Simone; Pfeiffer, Liliane; Ward-Caviness, Cavin K; Kunze, Sonja; Kretschmer, Anja; Reischl, Eva; Peters, Annette; Gieger, Christian; Waldenberger, Melanie

    2017-10-18

    The evidence for epigenome-wide associations between smoking and DNA methylation continues to grow through cross-sectional studies. However, few large-scale investigations have explored the associations using observations for individuals at multiple time-points. Here, through the use of the Illumina 450K BeadChip and data collected at two time-points separated by approximately 7 years, we investigate changes in methylation over time associated with quitting smoking or remaining a former smoker, and those associated with continued smoking. Our results indicate that after quitting smoking the most rapid reversion of altered methylation occurs within the first two decades, with reversion rates related to the initial differences in methylation. For 52 CpG sites, the change in methylation from baseline to follow-up is significantly different for former smokers relative to the change for never smokers (lowest p-value 3.61 x 10 -39 for cg26703534, gene AHRR). Most of these sites' respective regions have been previously implicated in smoking-associated diseases. Despite the early rapid change, dynamism of methylation appears greater in former smokers vs never smokers even four decades after cessation. Furthermore, our study reveals the heterogeneous effect of continued smoking: the methylation levels of some loci further diverge between smokers and non-smokers, while others re-approach. Though intensity of smoking habit appears more significant than duration, results remain inconclusive. This study improves the understanding of the dynamic link between cigarette smoking and methylation, revealing the continued fluctuation of methylation levels decades after smoking cessation and demonstrating that continuing smoking can have an array of effects. The results can facilitate insights into the molecular mechanisms behind smoking-induced disturbed methylation, improving the possibility for development of biomarkers of past smoking behavior and increasing the understanding of

  1. French Prime Minister tours CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    On 30 July, Jean-Marc Ayrault, the Prime Minister of the French Republic, and Geneviève Fioraso, the Minister of Higher Education and Research, visited the Laboratory.   After being met by the Director-General at LHC Point 5, they visited the CMS control centre and experiment cavern, and got a glimpse of the LHC tunnel at Point 5. The visit ended with a round-table discussion with French and other international members of CERN’s scientific community. During the discussion, the Prime Minister reaffirmed that “support for fundamental research has to be maintained, and France must continue to invest in education, research and innovation.” He also paid tribute to CERN's role in international cooperation, which he qualified as “a fine example of science without borders.”

  2. French people and energy issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chesnais, L.

    2006-01-01

    An opinion poll made in France in 2006 shows that: - French people backs nuclear energy with a slight margin (45% versus 42%), - French people agrees with the electricity production policy led by the government, - about 4 people out of 10 expect a sharp increase in prices concerning car fuels, natural gas and heating fuels in a near future, on the other hand fewer people than in previous years are expecting a price rise for electricity. In this article some figures concerning the consumption of energy in France are given: - 230.000 jobs are directly or indirectly involved in the energy sector, this sector represents 5% of all investment, - a total bill of 24 milliard euros for the energy imports, and - energy spending represents 7.6% of the household budget. (A.C.)

  3. Venus transits - A French view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Débarbat, Suzanne

    2005-04-01

    After a careful study of Mars observations obtained by Tycho Brahé (1546-1601), Kepler (1571-1630) discovered the now-called Kepler's third law. In 1627 he published his famous Tabulae Rudolphinae, a homage to his protector Rudolph II (1552-1612), tables (Kepler 1609, 1627) from which he predicted Mercury and Venus transits over the Sun. In 1629 Kepler published his Admonitio ad Astronomos Advertisement to Astronomers (Kepler 1630), Avertissement aux Astronomes in French Au sujet de phénomènes rares et étonnants de l'an 1631: l'incursion de Vénus et de Mercure sur le Soleil. This was the beginning of the interest of French astronomers, among many others, in such transits, mostly for Venus, the subject of this paper in which dates are given in the Gregorian calendar.

  4. French people and nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Iribarne, Ph.

    2005-01-01

    On March 21, 2005, the French minister of industry gave to the author of this document, the mission to shade a sociological light on the radioactive wastes perception by French people. The objective of this study was to supply an additional information before the laying down in 2006 of the decisions about the management of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes. This inquiry, carried out between April 2004 and March 2005, stresses on the knowledge and doubts of the questioned people, on the vision they have of radioactive wastes and of their hazards, and on their opinion about the actors in concern (experts, nuclear companies, government, anti-nuclear groups, public). The last two parts of the report consider the different ways of waste management under study today, and the differences between the opinion of people living close to the Bure site and the opinion of people living in other regions. (J.S.)

  5. New french uranium mineral species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branche, G.; Chervet, J.; Guillemin, C.

    1952-01-01

    In this work, the authors study the french new uranium minerals: parsonsite and renardite, hydrated phosphates of lead and uranium; kasolite: silicate hydrated of uranium and lead uranopilite: sulphate of uranium hydrated; bayleyite: carbonate of uranium and of hydrated magnesium; β uranolite: silicate of uranium and of calcium hydrated. For all these minerals, the authors give the crystallographic, optic characters, and the quantitative chemical analyses. On the other hand, the following species, very rare in the french lodgings, didn't permit to do quantitative analyses. These are: the lanthinite: hydrated uranate oxide; the α uranotile: silicate of uranium and of calcium hydrated; the bassetite: uranium phosphate and of hydrated iron; the hosphuranylite: hydrated uranium phosphate; the becquerelite: hydrated uranium oxide; the curite: oxide of uranium and lead hydrated. Finally, the authors present at the end of this survey a primary mineral: the brannerite, complex of uranium titanate. (author) [fr

  6. French concepts of ''passive safety''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennielou, Y.; Serret, M.

    1990-01-01

    N 4 model, the French 1400 MW PWR of the 90's, exhibits many advanced features. As far as safety is concerned, the fully computerized control room design takes advantage of the operating experience feedback and largely improves the man machine interface. New post-accident procedures have been developed (the so-called ''physical states oriented procedures''). A complete consistent set of ''Fundamental Safety Rules'' have been issued. This however doesn't imply any significant modification of standard PWR with regard to the passive aspects of safety systems or functions. Nevertheless, traditional PWR safety systems largely use passive aspects: natural circulation, reactivity coefficients, gravity driven control rods, injection accumulators, so on. Moreover, probability calculations allow for comparison between the respective contributions of passive and of active failures. In the near future, eventual options of future French PWRs to be commissioned after 2000 will be evaluated; simplification, passive and forgiving aspects of safety systems will be thoroughly considered. (author)

  7. Reminder: Swiss and French cards

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Communication from the HR Department to members of personnel holding an employment or association contract, above 50% and for more than 3 months, with the Organization. The HR Department would like to remind all members of personnel concerned that they are obliged to: • hold a valid Swiss  Légitimation card AND a valid French card (“Titre de séjour spécial” or “attestation de fonctions”) at all times during the exercise of their functions in the Organization; • return these documents as soon as their functions in the Organization cease. Not following these rules could be prejudicial to the Organization and appropriate measures may be taken towards the member of personnel concerned. Information and procedures concerning Swiss and French cards (first application, renewal, theft/loss, etc.) are available in the Admin e-guide. Users and Unpaid Associates must contact the Users Office HR Department Tel.: 729...

  8. Swiss and French cards - Reminder

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    Communication from the HR Department to members of personnel holding an employment or association contract, above 50% and for more than 3 months, with the Organization. The HR Department would like to remind all members of the personnel concerned that they are obliged to: hold a valid Swiss Légitimation card AND a valid French card (“Titre de séjour spécial” or “attestation de fonctions”) at all times during the exercise of their functions in the Organization; return these documents as soon as their functions in the Organization cease. Not following these rules could be prejudicial to the Organization and appropriate measures may be taken with respect to the member of the personnel concerned. Information and procedures concerning Swiss and French cards (first application, renewal, theft/loss, etc.) are available in the Admin e-guide: https://cern.ch/admin-eguide/cartes/proc_cartes_home.asp Users and Unpaid Associates must ...

  9. PWR standardization: The French experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacher, P.E.

    1987-01-01

    After a short historical review of the French PWR programme with 45000 MWe in operation and 15000 MWe under construction, the paper first develops the objectives and limits of the standardizatoin policy. Implementation of standardization is described through successive reactor series and feedback of experience, together with its impact on safety and on codes and standards. Present benefits of standardization range from low engineering costs to low backfitting costs, via higher quality, reduction in construction times and start-up schedules and improved training of operators. The future of the French programme into the 1990's is again with an advanced standardized series, the N4-1400 MW plant. There is no doubt that the very positive experience with standardization is relevant to any country trying to achieve self-reliance in the nuclear power field. (author)

  10. Life events and disability in rheumatoid arthritis : A European cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leymarie, F; Jolly, D; Sanderman, R.; Briancon, S; Marchant, A.-C; Cuillemin, F; Eschard, J.-P; Suurmeijer, Th.P.B.M.; Pointrinal, P

    1997-01-01

    The objective was to study the relationship between life events (LE) and the clinical status of patients suffering from recently diagnosed rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in a 2 yr follow-up. As part of a multicentre European cohort study, 370 French and Dutch patients were questioned three times at I yr

  11. Real-time craving differences between black and white smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Brian L; Paris, Megan M; Lam, Cho Y; Robinson, Jason D; Traylor, Amy C; Waters, Andrew J; Wetter, David W; Cinciripini, Paul M

    2010-01-01

    Black and White smokers may experience aspects of nicotine dependence, including craving, differently. This study used a naturalistic technique, ecological momentary assessment (EMA), to explore differences in craving, mood, expectancy, and smoking enjoyment between Black and White smokers. Participants carried personal digital assistants (PDAs) programmed to obtain multiple daily assessments. Black smokers reported higher craving after smoking and at random assessment times and higher cigarette enjoyment. No differences were found in mood or expectancy. Racial differences in psychological factors related to smoking are explored in the contexts of genetic, sociological, and psychophysiological distinctions. Implications for practice and research are discussed. (Am J Addict 2010;00:1-5).

  12. New Abbreviations in Colloquial French

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Pogačnik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The author of the article treats the process of abbreviations, which he explored forty years ago in his master thesis. The article is based on the corpus created on the basis of Télématin broadcast on French television network TV5. According to the author, clipping is a widespread process that occurs primarily in various forms of oral communication.

  13. The French natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This little folder summarizes in few pages the main economical data of the French natural gas industry: supplies according to the country of origin, length of transport and distribution networks, LNG tanker ship fleet, underground storage capacity, population of LNG-fueled vehicles, cogeneration installations, consumption by sectors and by industrial activities, LPG consumption, supplies, distribution and sales, LPG-fuel for vehicles, CO 2 and NO x releases, equipment of households. (J.S.)

  14. Food studies in French History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Liselotte

    The overarching question of this paper is whether it is possible to identify concepts that define a specifically French tradition regarding food. Two themes seem central. The first theme is the relationship between food and place as it emerges in concepts such as authenticity and terroir....... The second theme is the "how" food is eaten and can be studied through concepts such as commensality, synchronisation and structure...

  15. The French deterrence from 1945

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchard, J.

    1997-01-01

    Here is presented a particular lighting of deterrence history, by sciences and technologies which have allowed their creation and development. Accompanying the historical evolution of the French deterrence forces during the first phase of these sciences constitution, these sciences and technologies are at the base of the nuclear weapons conception, but they also contributed to the realization of the industrial building and to a doctrine constitution. (N.C.)

  16. Differences in Health-Related Quality of Life Between New Mexican Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Alejandro A; Petersen, Hans; Meek, Paula; Sood, Akshay; Celli, Bartolome; Tesfaigzi, Yohannes

    2016-10-01

    Smoking is associated with impaired health-related quality of life (HRQL) across all populations. Because decline in lung function and risk for COPD are lower in New Mexican Hispanic smokers compared with their non-Hispanic white (NHW) counterparts, the goal of this study was to ascertain whether HRQL differs between these two racial/ethnic groups and determine the factors that contribute to this difference. We compared the score results of the Medical Outcomes Short-Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) and St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) in 378 Hispanic subjects and 1,597 NHW subjects enrolled in the Lovelace Smokers' Cohort (LSC) from New Mexico. The associations of race/ethnicity with SGRQ and SF-36 were assessed by using multivariable regression. Physical functioning (difference, -4.5; P = .0008) but not mental health or role emotional domains of the SF-36 was worse in Hispanic smokers than in their NWH counterparts in multivariable analysis. SGRQ total score and its activity and impact subscores were worse in Hispanic (vs NHW) smokers after adjustment for education level, current smoking, pack-years smoked, BMI, number of comorbidities, and FEV 1 % predicted (difference range, 2.9-5.0; all comparisons, P ≤ .001). Although the difference in the SGRQ activity domain was above the clinically important difference of four units, the total score was not. New Mexican Hispanic smokers have clinically relevant, lower HRQL than their NHW counterparts. A perception of diminished physical functioning and impairment in daily life activities contribute to the poorer HRQL among Hispanic subjects. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Native American Ancestry Affects the Risk for Gene Methylation in the Lungs of Hispanic Smokers from New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yushi; Thomas, Cynthia L.; Gauderman, W. James; Picchi, Maria A.; Bruse, Shannon E.; Zhang, Xiequn; Flores, Kristina G.; Van Den Berg, David; Stidley, Christine A.; Gilliland, Frank D.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Gene promoter methylation detected in sputum predicts lung cancer risk in smokers. Compared with non-Hispanic whites (NHW), Hispanics have a lower age-standardized incidence for lung cancer. Objectives: This study compared the methylation prevalence in sputum of NHWs with Hispanics using the Lovelace Smokers cohort (n = 1998) and evaluated the effect of Native American ancestry (NAA) and diet on biomarkers for lung cancer risk. Methods: Genetic ancestry was estimated using 48 ancestry markers. Diet was assessed by the Harvard University Dietary Assessment questionnaire. Methylation of 12 genes was measured in sputum using methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. The association between NAA and risk for methylation was assessed using generalized estimating equations. The ethnic difference in the association between pack-years and risk for lung cancer was assessed in the New Mexico lung cancer study. Measurements and Main Results: Overall Hispanics had a significantly increased risk for methylation across the 12 genes analyzed (odds ratio, 1.18; P = 0.007). However, the risk was reduced by 32% (P = 0.032) in Hispanics with high versus low NAA. In the New Mexico lung cancer study, Hispanic non–small cell lung cancer cases have significantly lower pack-years than NHW counterparts (P = 0.007). Furthermore, compared with NHW smokers, Hispanic smokers had a more rapidly increasing risk for lung cancer as a function of pack-years (P = 0.058). Conclusions: NAA may be an important risk modifier for methylation in Hispanic smokers. Smoking intensity may have a greater impact on risk for lung cancer in Hispanics compared with NHWs. PMID:24032348

  18. Joint associations of smoking and physical activity with disability retirement: a register-linked cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallukka, Tea; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero; Lahti, Jouni

    2015-07-29

    We examined the risk of disability retirement by smoking and physical activity, and particularly whether the risk due to smoking is affected by the level of physical activity. Additionally, the contribution of baseline health, sociodemographic and work-related factors to the joint associations of smoking and physical activity with disability retirement was considered. Cohort study. Helsinki, Finland. Employees of the City of Helsinki, aged 40-60 years at baseline in 2000-2002, were followed up using complete register data from the Finnish Centre of Pensions until the end of 2010 (n=6390, with a consent to register linkage from 74%). All-cause disability retirement (ICD-10). Altogether, 608 employees (9.5%) retired due to disability during the follow-up. Cox regression models were fitted to examine the joint associations of smoking and physical activity with subsequent disability retirement. Never-smokers, ex-smokers and moderate smokers who were inactive or moderately active had an increased risk of disability retirement, but if they were vigorously active, they had no excess risk. Instead, all heavy smokers (15 or more cigarettes per day among women, and 20 or more among men), irrespective of physical activity, had an increased risk of disability retirement. The examined associations attenuated but remained for ex-smokers and heavy smokers after adjustments for gender, age, socioeconomic position, mental and physical workload, problem drinking, body mass index and self-rated health. No gender interactions were found. Vigorous physical activity might help prevent disability retirement not only among never-smokers, but even among ex-smokers and moderate smokers. However, among heavy smokers, physical activity is not sufficient to eliminate the adverse effects of smoking on health and work ability. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. French opinion on Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucaille, A.

    2003-01-01

    Contrary to what many think or say, most French people do not have a clear-cut opinion about nuclear power. And until public opinion can be accurately assessed, we should be worried of speaking on its behalf. More than half the population of France believes that nuclear power is the cheapest option, but 40% of them have no idea what the situation really is. The French are keenly aware of the what is at stake at the international level, and the fact that energy is becoming a worldwide issue. What they are most concerned about is nuclear waste and the possibility of a catastrophe of the Chernobyl type occurring. Disquiet about the first is now dissipating, after having increased. But attitudes about the second are ambivalent. A quarter of the French are very ignorant about radioactivity. 20% of the population complain that not enough information is forthcoming, particularly as concerns advances in technology. As can be anticipated, awareness of the question of climate change is growing year by year, with increased reporting of storms, floods and heat waves

  20. Dietary nutrients associated with preservation of lung function in Hispanic and non-Hispanic white smokers from New Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)