Coherence control of pulse trains by spectral phase modulation
Ding, Chaoliang; Koivurova, Matias; Turunen, Jari; Setälä, Tero; Friberg, Ari T.
2017-09-01
We propose a technique to control the spectral and temporal coherence properties of pulsed beams of light via time-dependent manipulation of the spectral phase. Modulation schemes for the generation of partially coherent pulse trains from a train of fully coherent pulses are presented. The feasibility of experimental realization of the method is confirmed by numerical estimates.
Phase-controlled coherent population trapping in superconducting quantum circuits
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
程广玲; 王一平; 陈爱喜
2015-01-01
We investigate the influences of the-applied-field phases and amplitudes on the coherent population trapping behavior in superconducting quantum circuits. Based on the interactions of the microwave fields with a single∆-type three-level fluxonium qubit, the coherent population trapping could be obtainable and it is very sensitive to the relative phase and amplitudes of the applied fields. When the relative phase is tuned to 0 orπ, the maximal atomic coherence is present and coherent population trapping occurs. While for the choice ofπ/2, the atomic coherence becomes weak. Meanwhile, for the fixed relative phaseπ/2, the value of coherence would decrease with the increase of Rabi frequency of the external field coupled with two lower levels. The responsible physical mechanism is quantum interference induced by the control fields, which is indicated in the dressed-state representation. The microwave coherent phenomenon is present in our scheme, which will have potential applications in optical communication and nonlinear optics in solid-state devices.
Coherent phase control of excitation of atoms by bichromatic laser radiation in an electric field
Astapenko, VA
A new method for coherent phase control of excitation of atoms in a discrete spectrum under the action of bichromatic laser radiation with the frequency ratio 1 : 2 is analysed. An important feature of this control method is the presence of a electrostatic field, which removes the parity selection
Coherent phase control of internal conversion in pyrazine
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gordon, Robert J., E-mail: rjgordon@uic.edu; Singha, Sima; Zhao, Youbo [Department of Chemistry (m/c 111), University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60680-7061 (United States); Hu, Zhan [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130021 (China); Seideman, Tamar [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Sukharev, Maxim [Science and Mathematics Faculty, College of Letters and Sciences, Arizona State University, Mesa, Arizona 85212 (United States)
2015-04-14
Shaped ultrafast laser pulses were used to study and control the ionization dynamics of electronically excited pyrazine in a pump and probe experiment. For pump pulses created without feedback from the product signal, the ion growth curve (the parent ion signal as a function of pump/probe delay) was described quantitatively by the classical rate equations for internal conversion of the S{sub 2} and S{sub 1} states. Very different, non-classical behavior was observed when a genetic algorithm (GA) employing phase-only modulation was used to minimize the ion signal at some pre-determined target time, T. Two qualitatively different control mechanisms were identified for early (T < 1.5 ps) and late (T > 1.5 ps) target times. In the former case, the ion signal was largely suppressed for t < T, while for t ≫ T, the ion signal produced by the GA-optimized pulse and a transform limited (TL) pulse coalesced. In contrast, for T > 1.5 ps, the ion growth curve followed the classical rate equations for t < T, while for t ≫ T, the quantum yield for the GA-optimized pulse was much smaller than for a TL pulse. We interpret the first type of behavior as an indication that the wave packet produced by the pump laser is localized in a region of the S{sub 2} potential energy surface where the vertical ionization energy exceeds the probe photon energy, whereas the second type of behavior may be described by a reduced absorption cross section for S{sub 0} → S{sub 2} followed by incoherent decay of the excited molecules. Amplitude modulation observed in the spectrum of the shaped pulse may have contributed to the control mechanism, although this possibility is mitigated by the very small focal volume of the probe laser.
Coherent phase control of internal conversion in pyrazine
Gordon, Robert J.; Hu, Zhan; Seideman, Tamar; Singha, Sima; Sukharev, Maxim; Zhao, Youbo
2015-04-01
Shaped ultrafast laser pulses were used to study and control the ionization dynamics of electronically excited pyrazine in a pump and probe experiment. For pump pulses created without feedback from the product signal, the ion growth curve (the parent ion signal as a function of pump/probe delay) was described quantitatively by the classical rate equations for internal conversion of the S2 and S1 states. Very different, non-classical behavior was observed when a genetic algorithm (GA) employing phase-only modulation was used to minimize the ion signal at some pre-determined target time, T. Two qualitatively different control mechanisms were identified for early (T 1.5 ps) target times. In the former case, the ion signal was largely suppressed for t 1.5 ps, the ion growth curve followed the classical rate equations for t quantum yield for the GA-optimized pulse was much smaller than for a TL pulse. We interpret the first type of behavior as an indication that the wave packet produced by the pump laser is localized in a region of the S2 potential energy surface where the vertical ionization energy exceeds the probe photon energy, whereas the second type of behavior may be described by a reduced absorption cross section for S0 → S2 followed by incoherent decay of the excited molecules. Amplitude modulation observed in the spectrum of the shaped pulse may have contributed to the control mechanism, although this possibility is mitigated by the very small focal volume of the probe laser.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marcos Dantus
2008-09-23
Controlling laser-molecule interactions has become an integral part of developing devices and applications in spectroscopy, microscopy, optical switching, micromachining and photochemistry. Coherent control of multiphoton transitions could bring a significant improvement of these methods. In microscopy, multi-photon transitions are used to activate different contrast agents and suppress background fluorescence; coherent control could generate selective probe excitation. In photochemistry, different dissociative states are accessed through two, three, or more photon transitions; coherent control could be used to select the reaction pathway and therefore the yield-specific products. For micromachining and processing a wide variety of materials, femtosecond lasers are now used routinely. Understanding the interactions between the intense femtosecond pulse and the material could lead to technologically important advances. Pulse shaping could then be used to optimize the desired outcome. The scope of our research program is to develop robust and efficient strategies to control nonlinear laser-matter interactions using ultrashort shaped pulses in gas and condensed phases. Our systematic research has led to significant developments in a number of areas relevant to the AMO Physics group at DOE, among them: generation of ultrashort phase shaped pulses, coherent control and manipulation of quantum mechanical states in gas and condensed phases, behavior of isolated molecules under intense laser fields, behavior of condensed phase matter under intense laser field and implications on micromachining with ultrashort pulses, coherent control of nanoparticles their surface plasmon waves and their nonlinear optical behavior, and observation of coherent Coulomb explosion processes at 10^16 W/cm^2. In all, the research has resulted in 36 publications (five journal covers) and nine invention disclosures, five of which have continued on to patenting
Phase Control of HF Chemical Lasers for Coherent Recombination
2007-11-02
space vacuum and radiation effects on materials, lubrication and surface phenomena, photo- sensitive materials and sensors, high precision...3. PERFORMANCE INDEX .t£ J = 4 / (xTAx + uTBu)dt "’to 4. RICCATI EQUATION S = -SF - FTS - A + SGB -iGTs 5. OPTIMAL CONTROL GAINS C
Coherent Phase Control of Internal Conversion in Pyrazine
Gordon, Robert J; Seideman, Tamar; Singha, Sima; Sukharev, Maxim; Zhao, Youbo
2014-01-01
Shaped ultrafast laser pulses were used to study and control the ionization dynamics of electronically excited pyrazine in a pump and probe experiment. For pump pulses created without feedback from the product signal, the ion growth curve (the parent ion signal as a function of pump/probe delay) was described quantitatively by the classical rate equations for internal conversion of the $S_2$ and $S_1$ states. Very different, non-classical behavior was observed when a genetic algorithm (GA) was used to minimize the ion signal at some pre-determined target time, T. Two qualitatively different control mechanisms were identified for early (T$1.5$ ps) target times. In the former case, the ion signal was largely suppressed for $t1.5$ ps the ion growth curve followed the classical rate equations for $t
Coherent Phase Control of Ultrafast Polarization Beats in Reverse V-Type Three-Level System
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Ling; NIE Zhi-Qiang; JIANG Tong; ZHANG Yan-Peng; LI Pei-Zhe; GAN Chen-Li; SONG Jian-Ping; LI Yuan-Yuan
2007-01-01
We investigate the third-order nonlinear absorption and dispersion of femto- and atto-second polarization beats between the one-photon degenerate four-wave mixing process and the two-photon nondegenerate four-wave mixing process in the pure homogeneously-broadened reverse V-three-level using twin noisy Gelds. The third-order nonlinear response can be controlled and modified by the colour-locked correlation of twin noisy fields. Most importantly, the coherent phase control in optical heterodyne detection for studying the phase dispersion of the third-order susceptibility is demonstrated. The radiation-matter detuning oscillation is also considered in the frequency domain.
Coherent control using kinetic energy and the geometric phase of a conical intersection
Liekhus-Schmaltz, Chelsea; Kaldun, Andreas; Cryan, James P; Bucksbaum, Philip H
2016-01-01
Conical intersections (CI) between molecular potential energy surfaces with non-vanishing non-adiabatic couplings generally occur in any molecule consisting of at least three atoms. They play a fundamental role in describing the molecular dynamics beyond the Born-Oppenheimer approximation and have been used to understand a large variety of effects, from photofragmentation and isomerization to more exotic applications such as exciton fission in semiconductors. However, few studies have used the features of a CI as a tool for coherent control. Here we demonstrate two modes of control around a conical intersection. The first uses a continuous light field to control the population on the two intersecting electronic states in the vicinity of a CI. The second uses a pulsed light field to control wavepackets that are subjected to the geometric phase shift in transit around a CI. This second technique is likely to be useful for studying the role of nuclear dynamics in electronic coherence phenomena.
Coherent control using kinetic energy and the geometric phase of a conical intersection
Liekhus-Schmaltz, Chelsea; McCracken, Gregory A.; Kaldun, Andreas; Cryan, James P.; Bucksbaum, Philip H.
2016-10-01
Conical intersections (CIs) between molecular potential energy surfaces with non-vanishing non-adiabatic couplings generally occur in any molecule consisting of at least three atoms. They play a fundamental role in describing the molecular dynamics beyond the Born-Oppenheimer approximation and have been used to understand a large variety of effects, from photofragmentation and isomerization to more exotic applications such as exciton fission in semiconductors. However, few studies have used the features of a CI as a tool for coherent control. Here we demonstrate two modes of control around a conical intersection. The first uses a continuous light field to control the population on the two intersecting electronic states in the vicinity of a CI. The second uses a pulsed light field to control wavepackets that are subjected to the geometric phase shift in transit around a CI. This second technique is likely to be useful for studying the role of nuclear dynamics in electronic coherence phenomena.
Coherent imaging without phases
Moscoso, Miguel; Papanicolaou, George
2015-01-01
In this paper we consider narrow band, active array imaging of weak localized scatterers when only the intensities are recorded at an array with N transducers. We consider that the medium is homogeneous and, hence, wave propagation is fully coherent. This work is an extension of our previous paper, where we showed that using linear combinations of intensity-only measurements imaging of localized scatterers can be carried out efficiently using MUSIC or sparsity promoting optimization. Here we show the same strategy can be accomplished with only 3N-2 illuminations, therefore reducing enormously the data acquisition process. Furthermore, we show that in the paraxial regime one can form the images by using six illuminations only. In particular, this paraxial regime includes Fresnel and Fraunhofer diffraction. The key point of this work is that if one controls the illuminations, imaging with intensity-only can be easily reduced to a imaging with phases and, therefore, one can apply standard imaging techniques. Det...
Electrodynamics analysis on coherent perfect absorber and phase-controlled optical switch.
Chen, Tianjie; Duan, Shaoguang; Chen, Y C
2012-05-01
A coherent perfect absorber is essentially a specially designed Fabry-Perot interferometer, which completely extinguishes the incident coherent light. The one- and two-beam coherent perfect absorbers have been analyzed using classical electrodynamics by considering index matching in layered structures to totally suppress reflections. This approach presents a clear and physically intuitive picture for the principle of operation of a perfect absorber. The results show that the incident beam(s) must have correct phases and amplitudes, and the real and imaginary parts of the refractive indices of the media in the interferometer must satisfy a well-defined relation. Our results are in agreement with those obtained using the S-matrix analysis. However, the results were obtained solely based on the superposition of waves from multiple reflections without invoking the concept of time reversal as does the S-matrix approach. Further analysis shows that the two-beam device can be configured to function as a phase-controlled three-state switch.
Phase control of Goos-Hänchen shift via biexciton coherence in a multiple quantum well
Asadpour, Seyyed Hossein; Nasehi, Rajab; Soleimani, H. Rahimpour; Mahmoudi, M.
2015-09-01
The behavior of the Goos-Hänchen (GH) shifts of the reflected and transmitted probe and signal pulses through a cavity containing four-level GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum wells with 15 periods of 17.5 nm GaAs wells and 15-nm Al0.3Ga0.7As barriers is theoretically discussed. The biexciton coherence set up by two coupling fields can induce the destructive interference to control the absorption and gain properties of probe field under appropriate conditions. It is realized that for the specific values of the intensities and the relative phase of applied fields, the simultaneous negative or positive GH shift in the transmitted and reflected light beam can be obtained via amplification in a probe light. It is found that by adjusting the controllable parameters, the GH shifts can be switched between the large positive and negative values in the medium. Moreover, the effect of exciton spin relaxation on the GH shift has also been discussed. We find that the exciton spin relaxation can manipulate the behavior of GH shift in the reflected and transmitted probe beam through the cavity. We show that by controlling the incident angles of probe beam and under certain conditions, the GH shifts in the reflected and transmitted probe beams can become either negative or positive corresponding to the superluminal or subluminal light propagation. Our proposed model may supply a new prospect in technological applications for the light amplification in optical sensors working on quantum coherence impacts in solid-state systems.
Lostak, M.; Chmelik, R.
2016-03-01
Curiously, the coherence-controlled holographic microscopy (CCHM) was brought into the world owing to the endeavor of Chmelik's team at Brno University of Technology (BUT) to avoid scanning in confocal microscopy. As coherence gating seemed to be the way, the Leith & Upatnieks proposal of incoherent holography had been considered attractive. Their method made interference system free from strict dependence on both spatial and temporal coherence. Off axis holographic system proposed on such basis has been proved capable of coherence based depth discrimination in single wide-field shot in reflected-light arrangement. Consequently, extremely low-coherence holographic imaging had been found highly contributive also to the image quality depriving it from coherence artefacts and improving its transversal resolution. This is why CCHM promised high precision of quantitative phase imaging (QPI) in transmitted light set up that was realized for cell biology. However the cost of necessarily complicated optical design and need of very precise mechanics forced the team of prof Chmelik at BUT to search for a company capable of mastering the instrument. It was TESCAN ORSAY the highly successful scanning electron microscopes producer that finally took charge of the commercial design. Long-term collaboration of the company with BUT made possible both the CCHM technology successful transfer up to Q-PHASE microscope production as well as the company Light microscopy division reinforcement. This contribution merges views of CCHM technology author and the TESCAN development team.
Hong, Peilong; Li, Liming; Liu, Jianji; Zhang, Guoquan
2016-03-29
Young's double-slit or two-beam interference is of fundamental importance to understand various interference effects, in which the stationary phase difference between two beams plays the key role in the first-order coherence. Different from the case of first-order coherence, in the high-order optical coherence the statistic behavior of the optical phase will play the key role. In this article, by employing a fundamental interfering configuration with two classical point sources, we showed that the high- order optical coherence between two classical point sources can be actively designed by controlling the statistic behavior of the relative phase difference between two point sources. Synchronous position Nth-order subwavelength interference with an effective wavelength of λ/M was demonstrated, in which λ is the wavelength of point sources and M is an integer not larger than N. Interestingly, we found that the synchronous position Nth-order interference fringe fingerprints the statistic trace of random phase fluctuation of two classical point sources, therefore, it provides an effective way to characterize the statistic properties of phase fluctuation for incoherent light sources.
Coherent Control of Bond Making
Levin, Liat; Rybak, Leonid; Kosloff, Ronnie; Koch, Christiane P; Amitay, Zohar
2014-01-01
We demonstrate for the first time coherent control of bond making, a milestone on the way to coherent control of photo-induced bimolecular chemical reactions. In strong-field multiphoton femtosecond photoassociation experiments, we find the yield of detected magnesium dimer molecules to be enhanced for positively chirped pulses and suppressed for negatively chirped pulses. Our ab initio model shows that control is achieved by purification via Franck-Condon filtering combined with chirp-dependent Raman transitions. Experimental closed-loop phase optimization using a learning algorithm yields an improved pulse that utilizes vibrational coherent dynamics in addition to chirp-dependent Raman transitions. Our results show that coherent control of binary photo-reactions is feasible even under thermal conditions.
Classical-Wigner Phase Space Approximation to Cumulative Matrix Elements in Coherent Control
McQuarrie, B. R.; Abrashkevich, Dmitri G.; Brumer, Paul
2003-01-01
The classical limit of the Wigner-Weyl representation is used to approximate products of bound-continuum matrix elements that are fundamental to many coherent control computations. The range of utility of the method is quantified through an examination of model problems, single-channel Na_2 dissociation and multi-arrangement channel photodissociation of CH_2IBr. Very good agreement with the exact quantum results is found for a wide range of system parameters.
Bourdon, P.; Durécu, A.; Canat, G.; Le Gouët, J.; Goular, D.; Lombard, L.
2015-03-01
Coherent beam combining (CBC) by active phase control could be useful for power scaling fiber-laser-pumped optical frequency converters like OPOs. However, a phase modulator operating at the frequency-converted wavelength is needed, which is non standard component. Fortunately, nonlinear conversion processes rely on a phase-matching condition correlating, not only the wave vectors of the coupled waves, but also their phases. This paper demonstrates that, using this phase correlation for indirect control of the phase, coherent combining of optical frequency converters is feasible using standard all-fibered electro-optic modulators. For the sake of demonstration, this new technique is experimentally applied twice for continuous wave second-harmonic-generator (SHG) combination: i) combining 2 SHG of 1.55-μm erbium-doped fiber amplifiers in PPLN crystals generating 775-nm beams; ii) combining 2 SHG of 1.064-μm ytterbium-doped fiber amplifiers in LBO crystals generating 532-nm beams. Excellent CBC efficiency is achieved on the harmonic waves in both these experiments, with λ/20 and λ/30 residual phase error respectively. In the second experiment, I/Q phase detection is added on fundamental and harmonic waves to measure their phase variations simultaneously. These measurements confirm the theoretical expectations and formulae of correlation between the phases of the fundamental and harmonic waves. Unexpectedly, in both experiments, when harmonic waves are phase-locked, a residual phase difference remains between the fundamen tal waves. Measurements of the spectrum of these residual phase differences locate them above 50 Hz, revealing that they most probably originate in fast-varying optical path differences induced by turbulence and acoustic-waves on the experimental breadboard.
Optical coherent control in semiconductors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Østergaard, John Erland; Vadim, Lyssenko; Hvam, Jørn Märcher
2001-01-01
of quantum control including the recent applications to semiconductors and nanostructures. We study the influence of inhomogeneous broadening in semiconductors on CC results. Photoluminescence (PL) and the coherent emission in four-wave mixing (FWM) is recorded after resonant excitation with phase...
Coherent control near metallic nanostructures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Efimov, Ilya [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Efimov, Anatoly [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2008-01-01
We study coherent control in the vicinity of metallic nanostructures. Unlike in the case of control in gas or liquid phase, the collective response of electrons in a metallic nanostructure can significantly enhance different frequency components of the control field. This enhancement strongly depends on the geometry of the nanostructure and can substantially modify the temporal profile of the local control field. The changes in the amplitude and phase of the control field near the nanostructure are studied using linear response theory. The inverse problem of finding the external electromagnetic field to generate the desired local control field is considered and solved.
Coherent beam combination of adaptive fiber laser array with tilt-tip and phase-locking control
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wang Xiong; Wang Xiao-Lin; Zhou Pu; Su Rong-Tao; Geng Chao; Li Xin-Yang; Xu Xiao-Jun
2013-01-01
We present an experimental study on tilt-tip (TT) and phase-locking (PL) control in a coherent beam combination (CBC) system of adaptive fiber laser array.The TT control is performed using the adaptive fiber-optics collimator (AFOC),and the PL control is realized by the phase modulator (PM).Cascaded and simultaneous controls of TT and PL using stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD) algorithm are investigated in this paper.Two-fiber-laser-,four-fiber-laser-,and six-fiber-laser-arrays are employed to study the TT and PL control.In the cascaded control system,only one high-speed CMOS camera is used to collect beam data and a computer is used as the controller.In a simultaneous control system one high-speed CMOS camera and one photonic detector (PD) are employed,and a computer and a control circuit based on field programmable gate array (FPGA) are used as the controllers.Experimental results reveal that both cascaded and simultaneous controls of TT using AFOC and PL using PM in fiber laser array are feasible and effective.Cascaded control is more effective in static control situation and simultaneous control can be applied to the dynamic control system directly.The control signals of simultaneous PL and TT disturb each other obviously and TT and PL control may compete with each other,so the control effect is limited.
Coherent Control of Photofragment Distributions Using Laser Phase Modulation in the Weak-Field Limit
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Garcia-Vela, Alberto; Henriksen, Niels Engholm
2015-01-01
The possibility of quantum interference control of the final state distributions of photodissociation fragments by means of pure phase modulation of the pump laser pulse in the weak-field regime is demonstrated theoretically for the first time. The specific application involves realistic wave pac...
Coherent Phase Control of Multiphoton Ionization in Three-Level Ladder-Type System
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Shi-An; CHEN Yu-Ting; WANG Zu-Geng; SUN Zhen-Rong
2009-01-01
We present the theoretical investigation of photoelectron spectroscopy resulting from the strong field induced multiphoton ionization in a typical three-level ladder-style system.Our theoretical results show that the photoelectron spectral structure can be alternatively steered by spectral phase modulation.This physical mechanism for strong field quantum control is explicitly exploited by the time-dependent dressed state population.It is concluded that the phase-shaped laser pulses can be used to selectively manipulate the multiphoton ionization process in complicated quantum systems.
Coherent phase argument for inflation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Scott Dodelson
2004-03-17
Cosmologists have developed a phenomenally successful picture of structure in the universe based on the idea that the universe expanded exponentially in its earliest moments. There are three pieces of evidence for this exponential expansion--inflation--from observations of anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background. First, the shape of the primordial spectrum is very similar to that predicted by generic inflation models. Second, the angular scale at which the first acoustic peak appears is consistent with the flat universe predicted by inflation. Here the author describes the third piece of evidence, perhaps the most convincing of all: the phase coherence needed to account for the clear peak/trough structure observed by the WMAP satellite and its predecessors. The author also discusses alternatives to inflation that have been proposed recently and explain how they produce coherent phases.
Volitional Control of Neuromagnetic Coherence
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Matthew D Sacchet
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Coherence of neural activity between circumscribed brain regions has been implicated as an indicator of intracerebral communication in various cognitive processes. While neural activity can be volitionally controlled with neurofeedback, the volitional control of coherence has not yet been explored. Learned volitional control of coherence could elucidate mechanisms of associations between cortical areas and its cognitive correlates and may have clinical implications. Neural coherence may also provide a signal for brain-computer interfaces (BCI. In the present study we used the Weighted Overlapping Segment Averaging (WOSA method to assess coherence between bilateral magnetoencephalograph (MEG sensors during voluntary digit movement as a basis for BCI control. Participants controlled an onscreen cursor, with a success rate of 124 of 180 (68.9%, sign-test p < 0.001 and 84 out of 100 (84%, sign-test p < 0.001. The present findings suggest that neural coherence may be volitionally controlled and may have specific behavioral correlates.
International workshop on phase retrieval and coherent scattering. Coherence 2005
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nugent, K.A.; Fienup, J.R.; Van Dyck, D.; Van Aert, S.; Weitkamp, T.; Diaz, A.; Pfeiffer, F.; Cloetens, P.; Stampanoni, M.; Bunk, O.; David, C.; Bronnikov, A.V.; Shen, Q.; Xiao, X.; Gureyev, T.E.; Nesterets, Ya.I.; Paganin, D.M.; Wilkins, S.W.; Mokso, R.; Cloetens, P.; Ludwig, W.; Hignette, O.; Maire, E.; Faulkner, H.M.L.; Rodenburg, J.M.; Wu, X.; Liu, H.; Grubel, G.; Ludwig, K.F.; Livet, F.; Bley, F.; Simon, J.P.; Caudron, R.; Le Bolloc' h, D.; Moussaid, A.; Gutt, C.; Sprung, M.; Madsen, A.; Tolan, M.; Sinha, S.K.; Scheffold, F.; Schurtenberger, P.; Robert, A.; Madsen, A.; Falus, P.; Borthwick, M.A.; Mochrie, S.G.J.; Livet, F.; Sutton, M.D.; Ehrburger-Dolle, F.; Bley, F.; Geissler, E.; Sikharulidze, I.; Jeu, W.H. de; Lurio, L.B.; Hu, X.; Jiao, X.; Jiang, Z.; Lurio, L.B.; Hu, X.; Jiao, X.; Jiang, Z.; Naryanan, S.; Sinha, S.K.; Lal, J.; Naryanan, S.; Sinha, S.K.; Lal, J.; Robinson, I.K.; Chapman, H.N.; Barty, A.; Beetz, T.; Cui, C.; Hajdu, J.; Hau-Riege, S.P.; He, H.; Stadler, L.M.; Sepiol, B.; Harder, R.; Robinson, I.K.; Zontone, F.; Vogl, G.; Howells, M.; London, R.; Marchesini, S.; Shapiro, D.; Spence, J.C.H.; Weierstall, U.; Eisebitt, S.; Shapiro, D.; Lima, E.; Elser, V.; Howells, M.R.; Huang, X.; Jacobsen, C.; Kirz, J.; Miao, H.; Neiman, A.; Sayre, D.; Thibault, P.; Vartanyants, I.A.; Robinson, I.K.; Onken, J.D.; Pfeifer, M.A.; Williams, G.J.; Pfeiffer, F.; Metzger, H.; Zhong, Z.; Bauer, G.; Nishino, Y.; Miao, J.; Kohmura, Y.; Yamamoto, M.; Takahashi, Y.; Koike, K.; Ebisuzaki, T.; Ishikawa, T.; Spence, J.C.H.; Doak, B
2005-07-01
The contributions of the participants have been organized into 3 topics: 1) phase retrieval methods, 2) X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy, and 3) coherent diffraction imaging. This document gathers the abstracts of the presentations and of the posters.
Coherent control of quantum transport: modulation-enhanced phase detection and band spectroscopy
Tarallo, Marco G; Wang, F Y; Tino, Guglielmo M
2012-01-01
Amplitude modulation of a tilted optical lattice can be used to steer the quantum transport of matter wave packets in a very flexible way. This allows the experimental study of the phase sensitivity in a multimode interferometer based on delocalization-enhanced Bloch oscillations and to probe the band structure modified by a constant force.
Ma, Xiaoping; Sun, Jianfeng; Hou, Peipei; Lu, Wei; Xu, Qian; Liu, Liren
2015-09-01
The technique of differential phase shift keying(DPSK) modulation is applied into demodulating phase information in the coherent optical receiver. The dual rate free-space receiving structure on the base of Mach-Zehnder delay interferometer with the lens is used suitably for differential delay which is equal to the one bit corresponding to a certain data rate. Delay distance at the interference receiver is varied with transmission rata from satellite to ground. Differential information is obtained by the subtraction of the two successive wave-front phases when made to interfere. The phase demodulation is extremely sensitive to phase fluctuation. Because of the incident light through atmospheric turbulence, the wave-front of optical signal became jittered in the temporal and spatial domain rapidly. In the paper, the dual rate free-space laser communication receiver for phase lock to stable signal light phase is proposed, increasing the homodyne efficiency and decreasing the bit error rate.
Wang, Lei; Wang, Meng; Yang, Mingchao; Shi, Li-Jie; Deng, Luogen; Yang, Huai
2016-09-01
In this paper, we investigate the bichromatic coherent random lasing actions from the dye-doped polymer stabilized blue phase liquid crystals. Two groups of lasing peaks, of which the full widith at half maximum is about 0.3 nm, are clearly observed. The shorter- and longer-wavelength modes are associated with the excitation of the single laser dye (DCM) monomers and dimers respectively. The experimental results show that the competition between the two groups of the lasing peaks can be controlled by varying the polarization of the pump light. When the polarization of the pump light is rotated from 0° to 90°, the intensity of the shorter-wavelength lasing peak group reduces while the intensity of the longer-wavelength lasing peak group increases. In addition, a red shift of the longer-wavelength modes is also observed and the physical mechanisms behind the red-shift phenomenon are discussed. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11474021 and 51333001), the Key Program for International S&T Cooperation Projects of China (Grant No. 2013DFB50340), the Issues of Priority Development Areas of the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20120001130005), and the Key (Key Grant) Project of Chinese Ministry of Education (Grant No. 313002).
Fuentes-Edfuf, Yasser; Garcia-Lechuga, Mario; Puerto, Daniel; Florian, Camilo; Garcia-Leis, Adianez; Sanchez-Cortes, Santiago; Solis, Javier; Siegel, Jan
2017-07-04
Periodic structures of alternating amorphous-crystalline fringes have been fabricated in silicon using repetitive femtosecond laser exposure (800 nm wavelength and 120 fs duration). The method is based on the interference of the incident laser light with far- and near-field scattered light, leading to local melting at the interference maxima, as demonstrated by femtosecond microscopy. Exploiting this strategy, lines of highly regular amorphous fringes can be written. The fringes have been characterized in detail using optical microscopy combined modelling, which enables a determination of the three-dimensional shape of individual fringes. 2D micro-Raman spectroscopy reveals that the space between amorphous fringes remains crystalline. We demonstrate that the fringe period can be tuned over a range of 410 nm - 13 µm by changing the angle of incidence and inverting the beam scan direction. Fine control over the lateral dimensions, thickness, surface depression and optical contrast of the fringes is obtained via adjustment of pulse number, fluence and spot size. Large-area, highly homogeneous gratings composed of amorphous fringes with micrometer width and millimeter length can readily be fabricated. The here presented fabrication technique is expected to have applications in the fields of optics, nanoelectronics, and mechatronics and should be applicable to other materials.
Optical coherent control in semiconductors: Fringe contrast and inhomogeneous broadening
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Østergaard, John Erland; Vadim, Lyssenko; Hvam, Jørn Märcher
2001-01-01
Optical coherent control experiments in semiconductors reveal how inhomogeneous broadening must be taken into account in contrast to previous coherent control experiments in atomic and molecular systems. With spectral resolution elf the coherent control signal, the optical phases involved...... is observed in the four-wave mixing spectra as a function of phase-delay representing coherent control in the spectral domain. The spectral phase change of this modulation provides a spectroscopic tool to analyze contributions of inhomogeneous broadening to electronic resonances in semiconductor structures....
Phase retrieval by coherent modulation imaging
Zhang, Fucai; Chen, Bo; Morrison, Graeme R.; Vila-Comamala, Joan; Guizar-Sicairos, Manuel; Robinson, Ian K.
2016-11-01
Phase retrieval is a long-standing problem in imaging when only the intensity of the wavefield can be recorded. Coherent diffraction imaging is a lensless technique that uses iterative algorithms to recover amplitude and phase contrast images from diffraction intensity data. For general samples, phase retrieval from a single-diffraction pattern has been an algorithmic and experimental challenge. Here we report a method of phase retrieval that uses a known modulation of the sample exit wave. This coherent modulation imaging method removes inherent ambiguities of coherent diffraction imaging and uses a reliable, rapidly converging iterative algorithm involving three planes. It works for extended samples, does not require tight support for convergence and relaxes dynamic range requirements on the detector. Coherent modulation imaging provides a robust method for imaging in materials and biological science, while its single-shot capability will benefit the investigation of dynamical processes with pulsed sources, such as X-ray free-electron lasers.
Phase retrieval by coherent modulation imaging
Zhang, Fucai; Chen, Bo; Morrison, Graeme R.; Vila-Comamala, Joan; Guizar-Sicairos, Manuel; Robinson, Ian K.
2016-01-01
Phase retrieval is a long-standing problem in imaging when only the intensity of the wavefield can be recorded. Coherent diffraction imaging is a lensless technique that uses iterative algorithms to recover amplitude and phase contrast images from diffraction intensity data. For general samples, phase retrieval from a single-diffraction pattern has been an algorithmic and experimental challenge. Here we report a method of phase retrieval that uses a known modulation of the sample exit wave. This coherent modulation imaging method removes inherent ambiguities of coherent diffraction imaging and uses a reliable, rapidly converging iterative algorithm involving three planes. It works for extended samples, does not require tight support for convergence and relaxes dynamic range requirements on the detector. Coherent modulation imaging provides a robust method for imaging in materials and biological science, while its single-shot capability will benefit the investigation of dynamical processes with pulsed sources, such as X-ray free-electron lasers. PMID:27857061
The role of phase coherence in seeded supercontinuum generation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Simon Toft; Larsen, Casper; Møller, Uffe
2012-01-01
The noise properties of a supercontinuum can be controlled by modulating the pump with a seed pulse. In this paper, we numerically investigate the influence of seeding with a partially phase coherent weak pulse or continuous wave. We demonstrate that the noise properties of the generated...... supercontinuum are highly sensitive to the degree of phase noise of the seed and that a nearly coherent seed pulse is needed to achieve a coherent pulse break-up and low noise supercontinuum. The specific maximum allowable linewidth of the seed laser is found to decrease with increasing pump power....
Interferometric phase reconstruction using simplified coherence network
Zhang, Kui; Song, Ruiqing; Wang, Hui; Wu, Di; Wang, Hua
2016-09-01
Interferometric time-series analysis techniques, which extend the traditional differential radar interferometry, have demonstrated a strong capability for monitoring ground surface displacement. Such techniques are able to obtain the temporal evolution of ground deformation within millimeter accuracy by using a stack of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. In order to minimize decorrelation between stacked SAR images, the phase reconstruction technique has been developed recently. The main idea of this technique is to reform phase observations along a SAR stack by taking advantage of a maximum likelihood estimator which is defined on the coherence matrix estimated from each target. However, the phase value of a coherence matrix element might be considerably biased when its corresponding coherence is low. In this case, it will turn to an outlying sample affecting the corresponding phase reconstruction process. In order to avoid this problem, a new approach is developed in this paper. This approach considers a coherence matrix element to be an arc in a network. A so-called simplified coherence network (SCN) is constructed to decrease the negative impact of outlying samples. Moreover, a pointed iterative strategy is designed to resolve the transformed phase reconstruction problem defined on a SCN. For validation purposes, the proposed method is applied to 29 real SAR images. The results demonstrate that the proposed method has an excellent computational efficiency and could obtain more reliable phase reconstruction solutions compared to the traditional method using phase triangulation algorithm.
Coherent controlization using superconducting qubits.
Friis, Nicolai; Melnikov, Alexey A; Kirchmair, Gerhard; Briegel, Hans J
2015-01-01
Coherent controlization, i.e., coherent conditioning of arbitrary single- or multi-qubit operations on the state of one or more control qubits, is an important ingredient for the flexible implementation of many algorithms in quantum computation. This is of particular significance when certain subroutines are changing over time or when they are frequently modified, such as in decision-making algorithms for learning agents. We propose a scheme to realize coherent controlization for any number of superconducting qubits coupled to a microwave resonator. For two and three qubits, we present an explicit construction that is of high relevance for quantum learning agents. We demonstrate the feasibility of our proposal, taking into account loss, dephasing, and the cavity self-Kerr effect.
Quantum Phase Liquids-Fermionic Superfluid without Phase Coherence
Wu, Ya-Jie; Zhou, Jiang; Kou, Su-Peng
2014-01-01
We investigate the two dimensional generalized attractive Hubbard model in a bipartite lattice, and and a "quantum phase liquid" phase, in which the fermions are paired but don't have phase coherence at zero temperature, in analogy to quantum spin liquid phase. Then, two types of topological quantum phase liquids with a small external magnetic field-Z2 quantum phase liquids and chiral quantum phase liquids-are discussed.
Towards coherent control of energetic material initiation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Greenfield, Margo T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mcgrane, Shawn D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Scharff, R Jason [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Moore, David S [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2009-01-01
Direct optical initiation (DOI) of energetic materials using coherent control of localized energy deposition requires depositing energy into the material to produce a critical size hot spot, which allows propagation of the reaction and thereby initiation, The hot spot characteristics needed for growth to initiation can be studied using quantum controlled initiation (QCI). Achieving direct quantum controlled initiation (QCI) in condensed phase systems requires optimally shaped ultrafast laser pulses to coherently guide the energy flow along the desired paths. As a test of our quantum control capabilities we have successfully demonstrated our ability to control the reaction pathway of the chemical system stilbene. An acousto-optical modulator based pulse shaper was used at 266 nm, in a shaped pump/supercontinuum probe technique, to enhance and suppress th relative yields of the cis- to trans-stilbene isomerization. The quantum control techniques tested in the stilbene experiments are currently being used to investigate QCI of the explosive hexanitroazobenzene (HNAB).
Emergence of coherence and the dynamics of quantum phase transitions
Braun, Simon; Friesdorf, Mathis; Hodgman, Sean S.; Schreiber, Michael; Ronzheimer, Jens Philipp; Riera, Arnau; del Rey, Marco; Bloch, Immanuel; Eisert, Jens
2015-01-01
The dynamics of quantum phase transitions pose one of the most challenging problems in modern many-body physics. Here, we study a prototypical example in a clean and well-controlled ultracold atom setup by observing the emergence of coherence when crossing the Mott insulator to superfluid quantum phase transition. In the 1D Bose–Hubbard model, we find perfect agreement between experimental observations and numerical simulations for the resulting coherence length. We, thereby, perform a largely certified analog quantum simulation of this strongly correlated system reaching beyond the regime of free quasiparticles. Experimentally, we additionally explore the emergence of coherence in higher dimensions, where no classical simulations are available, as well as for negative temperatures. For intermediate quench velocities, we observe a power-law behavior of the coherence length, reminiscent of the Kibble–Zurek mechanism. However, we find nonuniversal exponents that cannot be captured by this mechanism or any other known model. PMID:25775515
Rodrigo, Peter John; Pedersen, Christian
2010-03-01
Optimization of signal-to-noise ratio is an important aspect in the design of optical heterodyne detection systems such as a coherent Doppler lidar (CDL). In a CDL, optimal performance is achieved when the noise in the detector signal is dominated by local oscillator shot-noise. Most modern CDL systems are built using rugged and cost-efficient fiber optic components. Unfortunately, leakage signals such as residual reflections inherent within fiber components (e.g. circulator) can introduce phase-induced intensity noise (PIIN) to the Doppler spectrum in a CDL. Such excess noise may be a few orders of magnitude above the shot-noise level within the relevant CDL frequency bandwidth--corrupting the measurement of typically weak backscattered signals. In this study, observation of PIIN in a fiber-based CDL with a master-oscillator power-amplifier tapered semiconductor laser source is reported. Furthermore, we experimentally demonstrate what we believe is a newly proposed method using a simple polarization scheme to reduce PIIN by more than an order of magnitude.
Long Term Sunspot Cycle Phase Coherence with Periodic Phase Disruptions
Pease, Gerald E
2016-01-01
In 1965 Paul D. Jose published his discovery that both the motion of the Sun about the center of mass of the solar system and periods comprised of eight Hale magnetic sunspot cycles with a mean period of ~22.375 years have a matching periodicity of ~179 years. We have investigated the implied link between solar barycentric torque cycles and sunspot cycles and have found that the unsigned solar torque values from 1610 to 2058 are consistently phase and magnitude coherent in ~179 year Jose Cycles. We are able to show that there is also a surprisingly high degree of sunspot cycle phase coherence for times of minima in addition to magnitude correlation of peaks between the nine Schwabe sunspot cycles of 1878 through 1976 (SC12 through SC20) and those of 1699 through 1797 (SC[-5] through SC4). We further identify subsequent subcycles of predominantly non-coherent sunspot cycle phase. In addition we have analyzed the empirical solar motion triggers of both sunspot cycle phase coherence and phase coherence disruptio...
Measurement of Phase Coherence in Space Turbulence
Belmont, G.; Panis, J.; Rezeau, L.; Sahraoui, F.
2008-12-01
In many space plasmas such as Magnetosheath, intense magnetic fluctuations are permanently observed, with power law spectra. Assuming these fluctuations belong to some kind of turbulence, which can legitimately be suspected, spectra are clearly not sufficient to characterize it. Is this turbulence made of non linear "phase-coherent" structures, like in the classical Kolmogorov image, or is it made of incoherent waves as in weak turbulence? Is it homogeneous in space and scales or is it intermittent? " Many methods allow analyzing the statistical properties of turbulence, and the results obtained by tools such as structure functions or wavelets are of course influenced by all these properties, such providing indirect information about them. But few of them are specifically dedicated to the study of phase coherence so that the consequences that can be inferred from them are generally not univocal for this point of view. We will review those few tools existing in the literature that allow measuring more directly the phase coherence and present a new method, called "phase gradient analysis", which we are presently developing for this analysis. Preliminary results of this new tool will be presented.
Phase Coherence Analysis of Insect Flight
Shchekinova, E Y
2009-01-01
During insect flight a high--frequency wing oscillatory motion is generated. Here we present analysis of kinematic data of tethered Drosophila melanogaster flight. For a reliable detection of specific regimes of frequency variation we propose phase coherence method. The approach is generic and can be applied to nonstationary biological signals that feature multi- scale frequency variations. Our analysis reveals existence of distinct oscillatory modes.
Towards phase-coherent caloritronics in superconducting circuits.
Fornieri, Antonio; Giazotto, Francesco
2017-10-06
The emerging field of phase-coherent caloritronics (from the Latin word calor, heat) is based on the possibility of controlling heat currents by using the phase difference of the superconducting order parameter. The goal is to design and implement thermal devices that can control energy transfer with a degree of accuracy approaching that reached for charge transport by contemporary electronic components. This can be done by making use of the macroscopic quantum coherence intrinsic to superconducting condensates, which manifests itself through the Josephson effect and the proximity effect. Here, we review recent experimental results obtained in the realization of heat interferometers and thermal rectifiers, and discuss a few proposals for exotic nonlinear phase-coherent caloritronic devices, such as thermal transistors, solid-state memories, phase-coherent heat splitters, microwave refrigerators, thermal engines and heat valves. Besides being attractive from the fundamental physics point of view, these systems are expected to have a vast impact on many cryogenic microcircuits requiring energy management, and possibly lay the first stone for the foundation of electronic thermal logic.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rodrigo, Peter John; Pedersen, Christian
2010-01-01
Optimization of signal-to-noise ratio is an important aspect in the design of optical heterodyne detection systems such as a coherent Doppler lidar (CDL). In a CDL, optimal performance is achieved when the noise in the detector signal is dominated by local oscillator shot-noise. Most modern CDL...... systems are built using rugged and cost-efficient fiber optic components. Unfortunately, leakage signals such as residual reflections inherent within fiber components (e.g. circulator) can introduce phaseinduced intensity noise (PIIN) to the Doppler spectrum in a CDL. Such excess noise may be a few orders...... of magnitude above the shot-noise level within the relevant CDL frequency bandwidth – corrupting the measurement of typically weak backscattered signals. In this study, observation of PIIN in a fiber-based CDL with a master-oscillator poweramplifier tapered semiconductor laser source is reported. Furthermore...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHOU Bin; LI Shu-Min
2010-01-01
@@ We study the elastic scattering of atomic argon by an electron in the presence of a bichromatic laser field in the second Born approximation.The target atom is approximated by a simple screening potential.We explore the dependences of the differential cross sections on the relative phase (φ) between the two components of the radiation field and discuss the influence of the number of photons exchanged on the phase-dependence effect.Moreover,for different scattering angles and incident electron energies,the differential cross sections are notably different.
The Phase Coherence of Interstellar Density Fluctuations
Burkhart, Blakesley
2015-01-01
Studies of MHD turbulence often investigate the Fourier power spectrum to provide information on the nature of the turbulence cascade. However, the Fourier power spectrum only contains the Fourier amplitudes and rejects all information regarding the Fourier phases. Here we investigate the utility of two statistical diagnostics for recovering information on Fourier phases in ISM density data: the averaged amplitudes of the bispectrum and the phase coherence index (PCI), a new phase technique for the ISM. We create 3D density and 2D column density maps using a set of simulations of isothermal ideal MHD turbulence with a wide range of sonic and Alfv\\'enic Mach numbers. We find that the bispectrum averaged along different angles with respect to either the $k_1$ or $k_2$ axis is primarily sensitive to the sonic Mach number while averaging the bispectral amplitudes over different annuli is sensitive to both the sonic and Alfv\\'enic Mach numbers. The PCI of density suggests that the most correlated phases occur in s...
Two Phases of Coherent Structure Motions in Turbulent Boundary Layer
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Jian-Hua; JIANG Nan
2007-01-01
Two phases of coherent structure motion are acquired after obtaining conditional phase-averaged waveforms for longitudinal velocity of coherent structures in turbulent boundary layer based on Harr wavelet transfer. The correspondences of the two phases to the two processes (i.e. ejection and sweep) during a burst are determined.
Coherent control of quantum dots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Johansen, Jeppe; Lodahl, Peter; Hvam, Jørn Märcher
In recent years much effort has been devoted to the use of semiconductor quantum dotsystems as building blocks for solid-state-based quantum logic devices. One importantparameter for such devices is the coherence time, which determines the number ofpossible quantum operations. From earlier...... measurements the coherence time of the selfassembledquantum dots (QDs) has been reported to be limited by the spontaneousemission rate at cryogenic temperatures1.In this project we propose to alter the coherence time of QDs by taking advantage of arecent technique on modifying spontaneous emission rates...
Coherent control of quantum dots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Johansen, Jeppe; Lodahl, Peter; Hvam, Jørn Märcher
In recent years much effort has been devoted to the use of semiconductor quantum dotsystems as building blocks for solid-state-based quantum logic devices. One importantparameter for such devices is the coherence time, which determines the number ofpossible quantum operations. From earlier...... measurements the coherence time of the selfassembledquantum dots (QDs) has been reported to be limited by the spontaneousemission rate at cryogenic temperatures1.In this project we propose to alter the coherence time of QDs by taking advantage of arecent technique on modifying spontaneous emission rates...
Coherent control of photoelectron wavepacket angular interferograms
Hockett, P.; Wollenhaupt, M.; Baumert, T.
2015-11-01
Coherent control over photoelectron wavepackets, via the use of polarization-shaped laser pulses, can be understood as a time and polarization-multiplexed process, where the final (time-integrated) observable coherently samples all instantaneous states of the light-matter interaction. In this work, we investigate this multiplexing via computation of the observable photoelectron angular interferograms resulting from multi-photon atomic ionization with polarization-shaped laser pulses. We consider the polarization sensitivity of both the instantaneous and cumulative continuum wavefunction; the nature of the coherent control over the resultant photoelectron interferogram is thus explored in detail. Based on this understanding, the use of coherent control with polarization-shaped pulses as a methodology for a highly multiplexed coherent quantum metrology is also investigated, and defined in terms of the information content of the observable.
Wavefront manipulation with a dipolar metasurface under coherent control
Kang, Ming; Wang, Hui-Tian; Zhu, Weiren
2017-07-01
Full phase manipulation with equal amplitude is critical for optical wavefront engineering in various systems. Here we theoretically explore a general approach for optical wavefront manipulation using dipolar metasurfaces under the coherent control. From the microscopic perspective, we theoretically show that the dispersion of a dipolar metasurface under the coherent control can provide the phase manipulation within a full range of [0, 2π] and retain an equal amplitude simultaneously. As an example, such a dipolar metasurface can be constructed by compensatory H-shaped unit resonators to avoid polarization conversion. Specifically, we confirm the feasibility of designed metasurfaces for achieving the beam bending and the vortex-phase beam by the full-wave simulation. The proposed approach enriches the well-established wavefront engineering for extending the functionality of metasurface under the coherent control.
Adiabatic Quantum Computation: Coherent Control Back Action
Goswami, Debabrata
2013-01-01
Though attractive from scalability aspects, optical approaches to quantum computing are highly prone to decoherence and rapid population loss due to nonradiative processes such as vibrational redistribution. We show that such effects can be reduced by adiabatic coherent control, in which quantum interference between multiple excitation pathways is used to cancel coupling to the unwanted, non-radiative channels. We focus on experimentally demonstrated adiabatic controlled population transfer experiments wherein the details on the coherence aspects are yet to be explored theoretically but are important for quantum computation. Such quantum computing schemes also form a back-action connection to coherent control developments. PMID:23788822
Resting-state EEG power and coherence vary between migraine phases
2016-01-01
Background: Migraine is characterized by a series of phases (inter-ictal, pre-ictal, ictal, and post-ictal). It is of great interest whether resting-state electroencephalography (EEG) is differentiable between these phases. Methods: We compared resting-state EEG energy intensity and effective connectivity in different migraine phases using EEG power and coherence analyses in patients with migraine without aura as compared with healthy controls (HCs). EEG power and isolated effective coherence...
Resting-state EEG power and coherence vary between migraine phases
2016-01-01
Background Migraine is characterized by a series of phases (inter-ictal, pre-ictal, ictal, and post-ictal). It is of great interest whether resting-state electroencephalography (EEG) is differentiable between these phases. Methods We compared resting-state EEG energy intensity and effective connectivity in different migraine phases using EEG power and coherence analyses in patients with migraine without aura as compared with healthy controls (HCs). EEG power and isolated effective coherence o...
Coherent Control of Photoelectron Wavepacket Angular Interferograms
Hockett, Paul; Baumert, Thomas
2015-01-01
Coherent control over photoelectron wavepackets, via the use of polarization-shaped laser pulses, can be understood as a time and polarization-multiplexed process. In this work, we investigate this multiplexing via computation of the observable photoelectron angular interferograms resulting from multi-photon atomic ionization with polarization-shaped laser pulses. We consider the polarization sensitivity of both the instantaneous and cumulative continuum wavefunction; the nature of the coherent control over the resultant photoelectron interferogram is thus explored in detail. Based on this understanding, the use of coherent control with polarization-shaped pulses as a methodology for a highly multiplexed coherent quantum metrology is also investigated, and defined in terms of the information content of the observable.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Xiao-Lin; ZHOU Pu; MA Hao-Tong; CHEN Zi-Lun; LI Xiao; XU Xiao-Jun; LIU Ze-Jin
2009-01-01
We demonstrate a scalable architecture for coherent combining of pulsed fiber ring lasers based on mutual injection and direct phase modulation. By direct phase modulation in the common arm of two ring lasers, synchronous pulsed lasers can be generated and coherent combining of the two synchronous lasers is obtained. Two pulsed fiber ring lasers are coherently combined with 0.55 μJ pulse energy and 10μs pulse duration at a repetition rate of 27.5 kHz. Experimental results show that the two fiber ring lasers are phase locked with an invariable phase difference of π and have good temporal synchronization and spatial coherence. The combining efficiency of the two pulsed fiber laser reaches 90% and the fringe contrast is larger than 40%. Neither active phase control nor polarization control is used in our experiment and this method can be extended to combine more beams and higher repetition rate scaling up to higher power.
Coherent-Phase Monitoring Of Cavitation In Turbomachines
Jong, Jen-Yi
1996-01-01
Digital electronic signal-processing system analyzes outputs of accelerometers mounted on turbomachine to detect vibrations characteristic of cavitation. Designed to overcome limitation imposed by interference from discrete components. System digitally implements technique called "coherent-phase wide-band demodulation" (CPWBD), using phase-only (PO) filtering along envelope detection to search for unique coherent-phase relationship associated with cavitation and to minimize influence of large-amplitude discrete components.
Coherent Control of Photoelectron Wavepacket Angular Interferograms
Hockett, Paul; Wollenhaupt, Matthias; Baumert, Thomas
2015-01-01
Coherent control over photoelectron wavepackets, via the use of polarization-shaped laser pulses, can be understood as a time and polarization-multiplexed process. In this work, we investigate this multiplexing via computation of the observable photoelectron angular interferograms resulting from multi-photon atomic ionization with polarization-shaped laser pulses. We consider the polarization sensitivity of both the instantaneous and cumulative continuum wavefunction; the nature of the cohere...
Coherent Control of Photoelectron Wavepacket Angular Interferograms
Hockett, Paul; Wollenhaupt, Matthias; Baumert, Thomas
2015-01-01
Coherent control over photoelectron wavepackets, via the use of polarization-shaped laser pulses, can be understood as a time and polarization-multiplexed process. In this work, we investigate this multiplexing via computation of the observable photoelectron angular interferograms resulting from multi-photon atomic ionization with polarization-shaped laser pulses. We consider the polarization sensitivity of both the instantaneous and cumulative continuum wavefunction; the nature of the cohere...
Measuring finite-range phase coherence in an optical lattice using Talbot interferometry
Santra, Bodhaditya; Baals, Christian; Labouvie, Ralf; Bhattacherjee, Aranya B.; Pelster, Axel; Ott, Herwig
2017-06-01
One of the important goals of present research is to control and manipulate coherence in a broad variety of systems, such as semiconductor spintronics, biological photosynthetic systems, superconducting qubits and complex atomic networks. Over the past decades, interferometry of atoms and molecules has proven to be a powerful tool to explore coherence. Here we demonstrate a near-field interferometer based on the Talbot effect, which allows us to measure finite-range phase coherence of ultracold atoms in an optical lattice. We apply this interferometer to study the build-up of phase coherence after a quantum quench of a Bose-Einstein condensate residing in a one-dimensional optical lattice. Our technique of measuring finite-range phase coherence is generic, easy to adopt and can be applied in practically all lattice experiments without further modifications.
Study of phase retrieval algorithm from partially coherent light
Yan, Liu; Hong, Cheng; Wei, Sui; Wei, Zhang
2014-11-01
The goal of phase retrieval is to recover the phase information from intensity distribution which is an important topic in optics and image processing. The algorithm based on the transport of intensity equation only need to measure the spatial intensity of the center plane and adjacent light field plane, and reconstruct the phase object by solving second order differential equations. The algorithm is derived in the coherent light field. And the partially coherent light field is described more complex. The field at any point in the space experiences statistical fluctuations over time. Therefore, traditional TIE algorithms cannot be applied in calculating the phase of partially coherent light field. In this thesis, the phase retrieval algorithm is proposed for partially coherent light field. First, the description and propagation equation of partially coherent light field is established. Then, the phase is retrieved by TIE Fourier transform. Experimental results with simulated uniform and non-uniform illumination demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in phase retrieval for partially coherent light field.
Goniometer Control System for Coherent Bremsstrahlung Production
Acousta, V. M.
2002-08-01
A system for the generation of a high-intensity, quasi-monochromatic photon beam is discussed. The theory behind coherent bremsstrahlung photon beam production is analyzed and developed. The mechanics of a goniometer control system are presented. The software developed for remote control of the goniometer is also discussed. Finally, the results from various performance measurements are included.
Coherent Population Trapping Induced by Phase Modulated and Fluctuating Fields
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Jian; HU Xiang-Ming
2007-01-01
We examine the effects of cross correlated phase fluctuations on the coherent population trapping (CPT) induced by a pair of phase-modulated fields with equal modulation frequencies in a three-level A system. The maximal coherence of -0.5, which appears when CPT occurs for equal modulation indices, is preserved in the presence of the critically cross-correlated fluctuations. Unexpectedly, the non-maximal coherence, which is established when CPT is obtained for different modulation indices, is significantly enhanced due to the critically cross-correlated fluctuations.
Fourier phase in Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography.
Uttam, Shikhar; Liu, Yang
2015-12-01
Phase of an electromagnetic wave propagating through a sample-of-interest is well understood in the context of quantitative phase imaging in transmission-mode microscopy. In the past decade, Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography has been used to extend quantitative phase imaging to the reflection-mode. Unlike transmission-mode electromagnetic phase, however, the origin and characteristics of reflection-mode Fourier phase are poorly understood, especially in samples with a slowly varying refractive index. In this paper, the general theory of Fourier phase from first principles is presented, and it is shown that Fourier phase is a joint estimate of subresolution offset and mean spatial frequency of the coherence-gated sample refractive index. It is also shown that both spectral-domain phase microscopy and depth-resolved spatial-domain low-coherence quantitative phase microscopy are special cases of this general theory. Analytical expressions are provided for both, and simulations are presented to explain and support the theoretical results. These results are further used to show how Fourier phase allows the estimation of an axial mean spatial frequency profile of the sample, along with depth-resolved characterization of localized optical density change and sample heterogeneity. Finally, a Fourier phase-based explanation of Doppler optical coherence tomography is also provided.
Influence of Phase Coherence on Seeded Supercontinuum Generation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Simon Toft; Larsen, Casper; Møller, Uffe Visbech
2013-01-01
The noise properties of supercontinuum (SC) generation have attracted a lot of attention due to a large application demand for low noise SC sources and in the more fundamental context of clarifying links with instabilities in other systems. In typical commercial SC sources the pulse break......-up is initiated by noise-driven modulational instability (MI). The resulting large spectral shot-to-shot fluctuations can be significantly reduced by modulating the pump with a phase coherent seed [1-2], which leads to a coherent pulse break-up through the amplification of a cascade of four-wave mixing (FWM) side......-bands. We demonstrate that the noise properties of the generated SC are highly sensitive to the degree of phase noise of the seed and that a nearly coherent seed pulse is needed to achieve a coherent pulse break-up and low noise SC [3]. This limits the mechanisms that can be used to generate the seed, which...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
LONG Jiangping
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The complex coherence of polarimetric synthetic aperture radar interferometry (PolInSAR includes the magnitude and phase. The magnitude of coherence is used to measure the quality of the interference phase, and phase center represents the position of the scattering. So, how to improve the accuracy of the coherence magnitude and phase is very important for the forest parameters inversion. Maximum difference of the coherence magnitude or maximum separation of the phase, based on the coherence region, is considered partial information of the complex coherence. In this paper, a new method of coherence optimization, combined with the coherence magnitude and phase information, is established with relational degree. Applied the new approach to estimate the optimal coherence, the optimal polarimetric state of the scattering can be obtained to estimate the optimization coherence. Experimental results show that the optimal coherence criterion, jointed coherence magnitude and phase, can effectively distinguish the phase center of surface scattering and the forest canopy, and improve the reliability of the forest height inversion.
Influence of Phase Coherence on Seeded Supercontinuum Generation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Simon Toft; Larsen, Casper; Møller, Uffe Visbech
2013-01-01
). In the absence of a seed the spectral broadening is initiated by noise-induced MI, where a single set of MI sidebands evolves into solitons and dispersive waves (DWs) with low spectral coherence. By introducing a coherent seed near the pump, the spectral broadening is initiated by the coherent amplification......-up is initiated by noise-driven modulational instability (MI). The resulting large spectral shot-to-shot fluctuations can be significantly reduced by modulating the pump with a phase coherent seed [1-2], which leads to a coherent pulse break-up through the amplification of a cascade of four-wave mixing (FWM) side......-bands. We demonstrate that the noise properties of the generated SC are highly sensitive to the degree of phase noise of the seed and that a nearly coherent seed pulse is needed to achieve a coherent pulse break-up and low noise SC [3]. This limits the mechanisms that can be used to generate the seed, which...
Semiclassical Approximations in Phase Space with Coherent States
Baranger, Michel; de Aguiar, Marcus A. M.; Keck, Frank; Korsch, Hans-Jürgen; Schellhaaß, Bernd
2001-01-01
We present a complete derivation of the semiclassical limit of the coherent state propagator in one dimension, starting from path integrals in phase space. We show that the arbitrariness in the path integral representation, which follows from the overcompleteness of the coherent states, results in many different semiclassical limits. We explicitly derive two possible semiclassical formulae for the propagator, we suggest a third one, and we discuss their relationships. We also derive an initia...
Phase space representation of spatially partially coherent imaging.
Castaneda, Roman
2008-08-01
The phase space representation of imaging with optical fields in any state of spatial coherence is developed by using spatial coherence wavelets. It leads to new functions for describing the optical transfer and response of imaging systems when the field is represented by Wigner distribution functions. Specific imaging cases are analyzed in this context, and special attention is devoted to the imaging of two point sources.
Phase-coherent all-optical frequency division by three
Lee, Dong-Hoon; Klein, M.E.; Meyn, Jan-Peter; Wallenstein, Richard; Gross, P.; Boller, Klaus J.
2003-01-01
The properties of all-optical phase-coherent frequency division by 3, based on a self-phase-locked continuous-wave (cw) optical parametric oscillator (OPO), are investigated theoretically and experimentally. The frequency to be divided is provided by a diode laser master-oscillator power-amplifier
Phase-locked laser coherent interference
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jingjing Wang; Xiaobo Wang; Bo He; Liantuan Mao; Suotang Jia
2011-01-01
A method of locking the relative phase to provide stable constructive or destructive interference between the phase-modulated sidebands from a pair of phase modulators is demonstrated. It is discussed theoretically for optimal fringe visibility related to the phase noise from faulty system. After phase locking using the phase modulating and lock-in technique, the drift of the relative phase is focalized around ±0.0016 rad and the fringe visibility is restricted to 2×l0-4.%@@ A method of locking the relative phase to provide stable constructive or destructive interference between the phase-modulated sidebands from a pair of phase modulators is demonstrated.It is discussed theoretically for optimal fringe visibility related to the phase noise from faulty system.After phase locking using the vhase modulating and lock-in technique.the drift of the relative phase is focalized around±0.0016 rad and the fringe visibility is restricted to 2×10-4.
Room temperature coherent control of coupled single spins in solid
Gaebel, T; Popa, I; Wittmann, C; Neumann, P; Jelezko, F; Rabeau, J R; Stavrias, N; Greentree, A D; Prawer, S; Meijer, J; Twamley, J; Hemmer, P R; Wrachtrup, J
2006-01-01
Coherent coupling between single quantum objects is at the heart of modern quantum physics. When coupling is strong enough to prevail over decoherence, it can be used for the engineering of correlated quantum states. Especially for solid-state systems, control of quantum correlations has attracted widespread attention because of applications in quantum computing. Such coherent coupling has been demonstrated in a variety of systems at low temperature1, 2. Of all quantum systems, spins are potentially the most important, because they offer very long phase memories, sometimes even at room temperature. Although precise control of spins is well established in conventional magnetic resonance3, 4, existing techniques usually do not allow the readout of single spins because of limited sensitivity. In this paper, we explore dipolar magnetic coupling between two single defects in diamond (nitrogen-vacancy and nitrogen) using optical readout of the single nitrogen-vacancy spin states. Long phase memory combined with a d...
Attosecond VUV Coherent Control of Molecular Dynamics
Ranitovic, P; Riviere, P; Palacios, A; Tong, X M; Toshima, N; Gonzalez-Castrillo, A; Martin, L; Martin, F; Murnane, M M; Kapteyn, H C
2014-01-01
High harmonic light sources make it possible to access attosecond time-scales, thus opening up the prospect of manipulating electronic wave packets for steering molecular dynamics. However, two decades after the birth of attosecond physics, the concept of attosecond chemistry has not yet been realized. This is because excitation and manipulation of molecular orbitals requires precisely controlled attosecond waveforms in the deep ultraviolet, which have not yet been synthesized. Here, we present a novel approach using attosecond vacuum ultraviolet pulse-trains to coherently excite and control the outcome of a simple chemical reaction in a deuterium molecule in a non-Born Oppenheimer regime. By controlling the interfering pathways of electron wave packets in the excited neutral and singly-ionized molecule, we unambiguously show that we can switch the excited electronic state on attosecond timescales, coherently guide the nuclear wave packets to dictate the way a neutral molecule vibrates, and steer and manipula...
Classical geometric phase of gyro-motion is a coherent quantum Berry phase
Zhu, Hongxuan
2016-01-01
We show that the geometric phase of the gyro-motion of a classical charged particle in a uniform time-dependent magnetic field described by Newton's equation is a coherent quantum Berry phase for the coherent states of the Schr\\"odinger equation or the Dirac equation. This equivalence is established by constructing coherent states for a particle using the energy eigenstates on the Landau levels and proving that the coherent states can maintain their status of coherent states during the slow varying of the magnetic field. It is discovered that orbital Berry phases of the eigenstates interfere coherently such that a coherent Berry phase for the coherent states can be naturally defined, which is exactly the geometric phase of the classical gyro-motion. This technique works for particles with and without spin. For particles with spin, on each of the eigenstates that makes up the coherent states, the Berry phase consists of two parts that can be identified as those due to the orbital and the spin motion. It is the...
Phase-sensitive fluorescent imaging with coherent reconstruction
Field, Jeffrey J; Bartels, Randy A
2015-01-01
Optical imaging plays a critical role in advancing our understanding of three dimensional dynamics of biological systems. Coherent imaging (CI) methods exploit spatial phase information, encoded through propagation of coherent signal light emerging from a specimen, to extract a three-dimensional representation of the object from a single high-speed measurement. Until now, CI methods could not be applied to incoherent light, severely limiting their ability to image the most powerful biological probes available - fluorescent molecules - with sufficient speed and volume to observe important processes, such as neural processing in live specimens. We introduce a new imaging technique that transfers the spatial propagation phase of coherent illumination light to incoherent fluorescent light emission. The transfer of propagation phase allows CI techniques to be applied to fluorescent light imaging, and leads to large increases in imaging speed and depth of field. With this advance, biological imaging of fluorescent ...
Nonlinear phase noise in coherent optical OFDM transmission systems.
Zhu, Xianming; Kumar, Shiva
2010-03-29
We derive an analytical formula to estimate the variance of nonlinear phase noise caused by the interaction of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise with fiber nonlinearity such as self-phase modulation (SPM), cross-phase modulation (XPM), and four-wave mixing (FWM) in coherent orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. The analytical results agree very well with numerical simulations, enabling the study of the nonlinear penalties in long-haul coherent OFDM systems without extensive numerical simulation. Our results show that the nonlinear phase noise induced by FWM is significantly larger than that induced by SPM and XPM, which is in contrast to traditional WDM systems where ASE-FWM interaction is negligible in quasi-linear systems. We also found that fiber chromatic dispersion can reduce the nonlinear phase noise. The variance of the total phase noise increases linearly with the bit rate, and does not depend significantly on the number of subcarriers for systems with moderate fiber chromatic dispersion.
Phase Coherence Zones in Flight Simulation
Jonik, P.M.; Valente Pais, A.R.; Van Paassen, M.M.; Mulder, M.
2011-01-01
In flight simulation detailed knowledge of human motion perception is crucial. Phase differences between inertial and visual motion introduced by motion filters might have negative effects on the fidelity of flight simulation. This study investigated human visual- vestibular phase-error detection. A
Reducing phase singularities in speckle interferometry by coherence tailoring
Mantel, Klaus
2016-01-01
Speckle interferometry is an established optical metrology tool for the characterization of rough objects. The raw phase, however, is impaired by the presence of phase singularities, making the unwrapping procedure ambiguous. In a Michelson setup, we tailor the spatial coherence of the light source, achieving a physical averaging of independent, mutually incoherent speckle fields. In the resulting raw phase, the systematic phase is preserved while the number of phase singularities is greatly reduced. Both interferometer arms are affected by the averaging. The reduction is sufficient to even allow the use of a standard unwrapping algorithm originally developed for smooth surfaces only.
Coherent Control of Four-Wave Mixing
Zhang, Yanpeng; Xiao, Min
2011-01-01
"Coherent Control of Four-Wave Mixing" discusses the frequency, temporal and spatial domain interplays of four-wave mixing (FWM) processes induced by atomic coherence in multi-level atomic systems. It covers topics in five major areas: the ultrafast FWM polarization beats due to interactions between multi-color laser beams and multi-level media; coexisting Raman-Rayleigh-Brillouin-enhanced polarization beats due to color-locking noisy field correlations; FWM processes with different kinds of dual-dressed schemes in ultra-thin, micrometer and long atomic cells; temporal and spatial interference between FWM and six-wave mixing (SWM) signals in multi-level electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) media; spatial displacements and splitting of the probe and generated FWM beams, as well as the observations of gap soliton trains, vortex solitons, and stable multicomponent vector solitons in the FWM signals. The book is intended for scientists, researchers, advanced undergraduate and graduate students in Nonlin...
Coherent optical control of polarization with a critical metasurface
Kang, Ming
2015-01-01
We describe the mechanism by which a metamaterial surface can act as an ideal phase-controlled rotatable linear polarizer. With equal-power linearly polarized beams incident on each side of the surface, varying the relative phase rotates the polarization angles of the output beams, while keeping the polarization exactly linear. The explanation is based on coupled-mode theory and the idea of coherent perfect absorption into auxiliary polarization channels. The polarization-rotating behavior occurs at a critical point of the coupled-mode theory, which can be associated with the exceptional point of a parity-time (PT) symmetric effective Hamiltonian.
Controllable coherent population transfers in superconducting qubits for quantum computing.
Wei, L F; Johansson, J R; Cen, L X; Ashhab, S; Nori, Franco
2008-03-21
We propose an approach to coherently transfer populations between selected quantum states in one- and two-qubit systems by using controllable Stark-chirped rapid adiabatic passages. These evolution-time insensitive transfers, assisted by easily implementable single-qubit phase-shift operations, could serve as elementary logic gates for quantum computing. Specifically, this proposal could be conveniently demonstrated with existing Josephson phase qubits. Our proposal can find an immediate application in the readout of these qubits. Indeed, the broken parity symmetries of the bound states in these artificial atoms provide an efficient approach to design the required adiabatic pulses.
Optical phase estimation via coherent state and displaced photon counting
Izumi, Shuro; Wakui, Kentaro; Fujiwara, Mikio; Ema, Kazuhiro; Sasaki, Masahide
2016-01-01
We consider the phase sensing via weak optical coherent state at quantum limit precision. A new detection scheme for the phase estimation is proposed which is inspired by the suboptimal quantum measurement in coherent optical communication. We theoretically analyze a performance of our detection scheme, which we call the displaced-photon counting, for phase sensing in terms of the Fisher information and show that the displaced-photon counting outperforms the static homodyne and heterodyne detections in wide range of the target phase. The proof-of-principle experiment is performed with linear optics and a superconducting nanowire single photon detector. The result shows that our scheme overcomes the limit of the ideal homodyne measurement even under practical imperfections.
Phase-referenced Doppler optical coherence tomography in scattering media.
Pedersen, Cameron J; Yazdanfar, Siavash; Westphal, Volker; Rollins, Andrew M
2005-08-15
We present a fiber-based, low-coherence interferometer that significantly reduces phase noise by incorporating a second, narrowband, continuous-wave light source as a phase reference. By incorporating this interferometer into a Doppler OCT system, we demonstrate significant velocity noise reduction in reflective and scattering samples using processing techniques amenable to real-time implementation. We also demonstrate 90% suppression of velocity noise in a flow phantom.
Jia, Yanbing; Gu, Huaguang
2015-12-01
The effect of phase noise on the coherence dynamics of a neuronal network composed of FitzHugh-Nagumo (FHN) neurons is investigated. Phase noise can induce dissimilar coherence resonance (CR) effects for different coupling strength regimes. When the coupling strength is small, phase noise can induce double CRs. One corresponds to the average frequency of phase noise, and the other corresponds to the intrinsic firing frequency of the FHN neuron. When the coupling strength is large enough, phase noise can only induce single CR, and the CR corresponds to the intrinsic firing frequency of the FHN neuron. The results show a transition from double CRs to single CR with the increase in the coupling strength. The transition can be well interpreted based on the dynamics of a single neuron stimulated by both phase noise and the coupling current. When the coupling strength is small, the coupling current is weak, and phase noise mainly determines the dynamics of the neuron. Moreover, the phase-noise-induced double CRs in the neuronal network are similar to the phase-noise-induced double CRs in an isolated FHN neuron. When the coupling strength is large enough, the coupling current is strong and plays a key role in the occurrence of the single CR in the network. The results provide a novel phenomenon and may have important implications in understanding the dynamics of neuronal networks.
Quantum Codes for Controlling Coherent Evolution
Sharf, Y; Cory, D G; Sharf, Yehuda; Havel, Timothy F.; Cory, David G.
2000-01-01
Control over spin dynamics has been obtained in NMR via coherent averaging, which is implemented through a sequence of RF pulses, and via quantum codes which can protect against incoherent evolution. Here, we discuss the design and implementation of quantum codes to protect against coherent evolution. A detailed example is given of a quantum code for protecting two data qubits from evolution under a weak coupling (Ising) term in the Hamiltonian, using an ``isolated'' ancilla which does not evolve on the experimental time scale. The code is realized in a three-spin system by liquid-state NMR spectroscopy on 13C-labelled alanine, and tested for two initial states. It is also shown that for coherent evolution and isolated ancillae, codes exist that do not require the ancillae to initially be in a (pseudo-)pure state. Finally, it is shown that even with non-isolated ancillae quantum codes exist which can protect against evolution under weak coupling. An example is presented for a six qubit code that protects two ...
Proposal for a phase-coherent thermoelectric transistor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Giazotto, F., E-mail: giazotto@sns.it [NEST, Instituto Nanoscienze-CNR and Scuola Normale Superiore, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Robinson, J. W. A., E-mail: jjr33@cam.ac.uk [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom); Moodera, J. S. [Department of Physics and Francis Bitter Magnet Lab, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Bergeret, F. S., E-mail: sebastian-bergeret@ehu.es [Centro de Física de Materiales (CFM-MPC), Centro Mixto CSIC-UPV/EHU, Manuel de Lardizabal 4, E-20018 San Sebastián (Spain); Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), Manuel de Lardizabal 5, E-20018 San Sebastián (Spain)
2014-08-11
Identifying materials and devices which offer efficient thermoelectric effects at low temperature is a major obstacle for the development of thermal management strategies for low-temperature electronic systems. Superconductors cannot offer a solution since their near perfect electron-hole symmetry leads to a negligible thermoelectric response; however, here we demonstrate theoretically a superconducting thermoelectric transistor which offers unparalleled figures of merit of up to ∼45 and Seebeck coefficients as large as a few mV/K at sub-Kelvin temperatures. The device is also phase-tunable meaning its thermoelectric response for power generation can be precisely controlled with a small magnetic field. Our concept is based on a superconductor-normal metal-superconductor interferometer in which the normal metal weak-link is tunnel coupled to a ferromagnetic insulator and a Zeeman split superconductor. Upon application of an external magnetic flux, the interferometer enables phase-coherent manipulation of thermoelectric properties whilst offering efficiencies which approach the Carnot limit.
Coherent feedback control of multipartite quantum entanglement for optical fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yan, Zhihui; Jia, Xiaojun; Xie, Changde; Peng, Kunchi [State Key Laboratory of Quantum Optics and Quantum Optics Devices, Institute of Opto-Electronics, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, 030006 (China)
2011-12-15
Coherent feedback control (CFC) of multipartite optical entangled states produced by a nondegenerate optical parametric amplifier is theoretically studied. The features of the quantum correlations of amplitude and phase quadratures among more than two entangled optical modes can be controlled by tuning the transmissivity of the optical beam splitter in the CFC loop. The physical conditions to enhance continuous variable multipartite entanglement of optical fields utilizing the CFC loop are obtained. The numeric calculations based on feasible physical parameters of realistic systems provide direct references for the design of experimental devices.
Semiclassical approximations in phase space with coherent states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baranger, M. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Laboratory for Nuclear Science and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); De Aguiar, M.A.M. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Laboratory for Nuclear Science and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Instituto de Fisica ' Gleb Wataghin' , Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas (Brazil); Keck, F.; Korsch, H.J.; Schellhaass, B. [FB Physik, Universitaet Kaiserslautern, Kaiserslautern (Germany)
2001-09-14
We present a complete derivation of the semiclassical limit of the coherent-state propagator in one dimension, starting from path integrals in phase space. We show that the arbitrariness in the path integral representation, which follows from the overcompleteness of the coherent states, results in many different semiclassical limits. We explicitly derive two possible semiclassical formulae for the propagator, we suggest a third one, and we discuss their relationships. We also derive an initial-value representation for the semiclassical propagator, based on an initial Gaussian wavepacket. It turns out to be related to, but different from, Heller's thawed Gaussian approximation. It is very different from the Herman-Kluk formula, which is not a correct semiclassical limit. We point out errors in two derivations of the latter. Finally we show how the semiclassical coherent-state propagators lead to WKB-type quantization rules and to approximations for the Husimi distributions of stationary states. (author)
Semiclassical approximations in phase space with coherent states
Baranger, M.; de Aguiar, M. A. M.; Keck, F.; Korsch, H. J.; Schellhaaß, B.
2001-09-01
We present a complete derivation of the semiclassical limit of the coherent-state propagator in one dimension, starting from path integrals in phase space. We show that the arbitrariness in the path integral representation, which follows from the overcompleteness of the coherent states, results in many different semiclassical limits. We explicitly derive two possible semiclassical formulae for the propagator, we suggest a third one, and we discuss their relationships. We also derive an initial-value representation for the semiclassical propagator, based on an initial Gaussian wavepacket. It turns out to be related to, but different from, Heller's thawed Gaussian approximation. It is very different from the Herman-Kluk formula, which is not a correct semiclassical limit. We point out errors in two derivations of the latter. Finally we show how the semiclassical coherent-state propagators lead to WKB-type quantization rules and to approximations for the Husimi distributions of stationary states.
Phase locking a clock oscillator to a coherent atomic ensemble
Kohlhaas, R; Cantin, E; Aspect, A; Landragin, A; Bouyer, P
2015-01-01
The sensitivity of an atomic interferometer increases when the phase evolution of its quantum superposition state is measured over a longer interrogation interval. In practice, a limit is set by the measurement process, which returns not the phase, but its projection in terms of population difference on two energetic levels. The phase interval over which the relation can be inverted is thus limited to the interval $[-\\pi/2,\\pi/2]$; going beyond it introduces an ambiguity in the read out, hence a sensitivity loss. Here, we extend the unambiguous interval to probe the phase evolution of an atomic ensemble using coherence preserving measurements and phase corrections, and demonstrate the phase lock of the clock oscillator to an atomic superposition state. We propose a protocol based on the phase lock to improve atomic clocks under local oscillator noise, and foresee the application to other atomic interferometers such as inertial sensors.
Probabilistic cloning of coherent states without a phase reference
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Müller, Christian R.; Wittmann, Christoffer; Marek, Petr
2012-01-01
We present a probabilistic cloning scheme operating independently of any phase reference. The scheme is based solely on a phase-randomized displacement and photon counting, omitting the need for nonclassical resources and nonlinear materials. In an experimental implementation, we employ the scheme...... to clone coherent states from a phase covariant alphabet and demonstrate that the cloner is capable of outperforming the hitherto best-performing deterministic scheme. An analysis of the covariances between the output states shows that uncorrelated clones can be approached asymptotically...
Coherent quantum squeezing due to the phase space noncommutativity
Bernardini, Alex E
2015-01-01
The effect of phase space general noncommutativity on producing deformed coherent squeezed states is examined. A two-dimensional noncommutative quantum system supported by a deformed mathematical structure similar to that of Hadamard billiards is obtained and their components behavior are monitored in time. It is assumed that the independent degrees of freedom are two \\emph{free} 1D harmonic oscillators (HO's), so the system Hamiltonian does not contain interaction terms. Through the noncommutative deformation parameterized by a Seiberg-Witten transform on the original canonical variables, one gets the standard commutation relations for the new ones, such that the obtained Hamiltonian represents then two \\emph{interacting} 1D HO's. By assuming that one HO is inverted relatively to the other, we show that their effective interaction induces a squeezing dynamics for initial coherent states imaged in the phase space. A suitable pattern of logarithmic spirals is obtained and some relevant properties are discussed...
Application of phase coherent transform to cloud clutter suppression
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ng, L.C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)
1994-11-15
This paper describes a tracking algorithm using frame-to-frame correlation with frequency domain clutter suppression. Clutter suppression was mechanized via a `Phase Coherent Transform` (PCT) approach. This approach was applied to explore the feasibility of tracking a post-boost rocket from a low earth orbit satellite with real cloud background data. Simulation results show that the PCT/correlation tracking algorithm can perform satisfactorily at signal-to-clutter ratio (SCR) as low as 5 or 7 dB.
Experimental demonstration of coherent feedback control on optical field squeezing
Iida, Sanae; Yonezawa, Hidehiro; Yamamoto, Naoki; Furusawa, Akira
2011-01-01
Coherent feedback is a non-measurement based, hence a back-action free, method of control for quantum systems. A typical application of this control scheme is squeezing enhancement, a purely non-classical effect in quantum optics. In this paper we report its first experimental demonstration that well agrees with the theory taking into account time delays and losses in the coherent feedback loop. The results clarify both the benefit and the limitation of coherent feedback control in a practical situation.
An Extra Phase for Two-Mode Coherent States Displaced in Noncommutative Phase Space
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YAN Long; FENG Xun-Li; ZHANG Zhi-Ming; LIU Song-Hao
2012-01-01
Using deformed boson algebra,we study the property of two-mode coherent states in noncommutative phase space.When a two-mode field evolves in the noncommutative phase space,it can acquire an extra θ-dependent phase compared to the case of commutative space.This phase is detectable and may be used to test noncommutativity.%Using deformed boson algebra, we study the property of two-mode coherent states in noncommutative phase space. When a two-mode field evolves in the noncommutative phase space, it can acquire an extra 9-dependent phase compared to the case of commutative space. This phase is detectable and may be used to test noncommutativity.
Coherent control of the optical absorption in a plasmonic lattice coupled to a luminescent layer
Pirruccio, Giuseppe; Rodriguez, Said Rahimzadeh-Kalaleh; Rivas, Jaime Gomez
2016-01-01
We experimentally demonstrate the coherent control, i.e., phase-dependent enhancement and suppression, of the optical absorption in an array of metallic nanoantennas covered by a thin lu- minescent layer. The coherent control is achieved by using two collinear, counter-propagating and phase-controlled incident waves with wavelength matching the absorption spectrum of dye molecules coupled to the array. Symmetry arguments shed light on the relation between the relative phase of the incident waves and the excitation efficiency of the optical resonances of the system. This coherent control is associated with a phase-dependent distribution of the electromagnetic near-fields in the structure which enables a significant reduction of the unwanted dissipation in the metallic structures.
Imaging of Phase Objects using Partially Coherent Illumination
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ravizza, F. L. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)
2013-01-01
Screening high-power laser optics for light intensifying phase objects that cause laserinduced damage on downstream optics is critical to sustaining laser operation. Identifying such flaws on large-apertures is quite challenging since they are relatively small and invisible to conventional inspection methods. A Linescan Phase Differential Imaging (LPDI) system was developed to rapidly identify these flaws on large-aperture optics within a single full-aperture dark-field image. We describe a two-step production phase object screening process consisting of LPDI mapping and image analysis, followed by high-resolution interferometry and propagation based evaluation of the downstream damage potential of identified flaws. An image simulation code capable of modeling the LPDI partially coherent illumination was used to optimize its phase object sensitivity.
Coherent chirped pulse laser network with Mickelson phase-conjugator
Okulov, A Yu
2013-01-01
The mechanisms of nonlinear phase-locking of a large fiber amplifier array are analyzed. The preference is given to configuration most suitable for a coherent coupling of a thousands of a fundamental spatial mode fiber beams into a single smooth beam ready for chirped pulse compression. It is shown that Michelson phase conjugating configuration with double passage through array of fiber amplifiers have the definite advantages compared to one-way fiber array coupled in a Mach-Zehnder configuration. Regardless to amount of synchronized fiber amplifiers Michelson phase-conjugating interferometer is expected to do a perfect compensation of the phase-piston errors and collimation of backwardly amplified fiber beams on entrance/output beamsplitter. In both configurations the nonlinear transformation of the stretched pulse envelope due to gain saturation is capable to randomize the position of chirp inside envelope thus it may reduce the visibility of interference pattern at output beamsplitter. A certain advantages...
Certifying the quantumness of a generalized coherent control scenario.
Scholak, Torsten; Brumer, Paul
2014-11-28
We consider the role of quantum mechanics in a specific coherent control scenario, designing a "coherent control interferometer" as the essential tool that links coherent control to quantum fundamentals. Building upon this allows us to rigorously display the genuinely quantum nature of a generalized weak-field coherent control scenario (utilizing 1 vs. 2 photon excitation) via a Bell-CHSH test. Specifically, we propose an implementation of "quantum delayed-choice" in a bichromatic alkali atom photoionization experiment. The experimenter can choose between two complementary situations, which are characterized by a random photoelectron spin polarization with particle-like behavior on the one hand, and by spin controllability and wave-like nature on the other. Because these two choices are conditioned coherently on states of the driving fields, it becomes physically unknowable, prior to measurement, whether there is control over the spin or not.
Optical generation and control of quantum coherence in semiconductor nanostructures
Slavcheva, Gabriela
2010-01-01
The unprecedented control of coherence that can be exercised in quantum optics of atoms and molecules has stimulated increasing efforts in extending it to solid-state systems. One motivation to exploit the coherent phenomena comes from the emergence of the quantum information paradigm, however many more potential device applications ranging from novel lasers to spintronics are all bound up with issues in coherence. The book focuses on recent advances in the optical control of coherence in excitonic and polaritonic systems as model systems for the complex semiconductor dynamics towards the goal
Coherent optical control of polarization with a critical metasurface
Kang, Ming; Chong, Y. D.
2015-10-01
We present a mechanism by which a metamaterial surface, or metasurface, can act as an ideal phase-controlled rotatable linear polarizer. Using coupled-mode theory and the idea of coherent perfect absorption into auxiliary polarization channels, we show how the losses and near-field couplings on the metasurface can be balanced so that, with equal-power linearly polarized beams incident on each side, varying the relative phase rotates the polarization angles of the output beams while maintaining zero ellipticity. The system can be described by a non-Hermitian effective Hamiltonian which is parity-time (P T ) symmetric, although there is no actual gain present; perfect polarization conversion occurs at the eigenfrequencies of this Hamiltonian, and the polarization rotating behavior occurs at the critical point of its P T -breaking transition.
In-situ STM and XRD studies on Nb–H films: Coherent and incoherent phase transitions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Burlaka, Vladimir, E-mail: vburlaka@material.physik.uni-goettingen.de; Wagner, Stefan; Pundt, Astrid
2015-10-05
Highlights: • Hydride formation found in 25 nm Nb–H films. • Critical film thickness for coherent-to-incoherent phase transition confirmed. • Size and spatial distribution of hydrides controlled by the coherency state. • Invisibility of small coherent hydrides in XRD pattern. - Abstract: Hydride precipitation in 25 nm and 40 nm epitaxial Nb-films was studied by Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy (STM) supported by X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. In combination, these methods yield information about the phase transition, the coherency state, the hydride precipitates’ density and size as well as their lateral distribution, at 293 K. For both film thicknesses, hydride formation was detected with STM; it can be easily missed by XRD. While the 25 nm film showed a coherent phase transition, the phase transition was incoherent for the 40 nm film. This is in good accordance with theory. The phase transition features are found to strongly depend on the coherency state: a large number of small hydrides appear in the coherent regime while a small number of large hydrides evolve in the incoherent regime.
Speckle phase noise in coherent laser ranging: fundamental precision limitations.
Baumann, Esther; Deschênes, Jean-Daniel; Giorgetta, Fabrizio R; Swann, William C; Coddington, Ian; Newbury, Nathan R
2014-08-15
Frequency-modulated continuous-wave laser detection and ranging (FMCW LADAR) measures the range to a surface through coherent detection of the backscattered light from a frequency-swept laser source. The ultimate limit to the range precision of FMCW LADAR, or any coherent LADAR, to a diffusely scattering surface will be determined by the unavoidable speckle phase noise. Here, we demonstrate the two main manifestations of this limit. First, frequency-dependent speckle phase noise leads to a non-Gaussian range distribution having outliers that approach the system range resolution, regardless of the signal-to-noise ratio. These outliers are reduced only through improved range resolution (i.e., higher optical bandwidths). Second, if the range is measured during a continuous lateral scan across a surface, the spatial pattern of speckle phase is converted to frequency noise, which leads to additional excess range uncertainty. We explore these two effects and show that laboratory results agree with analytical expressions and numerical simulations. We also show that at 1 THz optical bandwidth, range precisions below 10 μm are achievable regardless of these effects.
Properties of the Measurement Phase Operator in Dual-Mode Entangle Coherent States
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HOU Shen-Yong; YANG Kuo
2011-01-01
@@ A class of measurement phase operators of dual-mode is defined and their properties in a class of entangle coherent states are investigated.Numerical results indicate that the entangle coherent states display some non-classical squeezed effects.%A class of measurement phase operators of dual-mode is defined and their properties in a class of entangle coherent states are investigated. Numerical results indicate that the entangle coherent states display some non-classical squeezed effects.
Coherent storage and phase modulation of single hard-x-ray photons using nuclear excitons.
Liao, Wen-Te; Pálffy, Adriana; Keitel, Christoph H
2012-11-09
The coherent storage and phase modulation of x-ray single-photon wave packets in the resonant scattering of light off nuclei is theoretically investigated. We show that by switching off and on again the magnetic field in the nuclear sample, phase-sensitive storage of photons in the keV regime can be achieved. Corresponding π phase modulation of the stored photon can be accomplished if the retrieving magnetic field is rotated by 180°. The development of such x-ray single-photon control techniques is a first step towards forwarding quantum optics and quantum information to shorter wavelengths and more compact photonic devices.
Influence of perturbative phase noise on active coherent polarization beam combining system.
Ma, Pengfei; Zhou, Pu; Wang, Xiaolin; Ma, Yanxing; Su, Rongtao; Liu, Zejin
2013-12-02
In this manuscript, the influence of perturbative phase noise on active coherent polarization beam combining (CPBC) system is studied theoretically and experimentally. By employing a photo-detector to obtain phase error signal for feedback loop, actively coherent polarization beam combining of two 20 W-level single mode polarization-maintained (PM) fiber amplifiers are demonstrated with more than 94% combining efficiency. Then the influence of perturbative phase noise on active CPBC system is illustrated by incorporating a simulated phase noise signal in one of the two amplifiers. Experimental results show that the combining efficiency of the CPBC system is susceptible to the frequency or amplitude of the perturbative phase noise. In order to ensure the combining efficiency of the unit of CPBC system higher than 90%, the competence of our active phase control module for high power operation is discussed, which suggests that it could be worked at 100s W power level. The relationship between residual phase noise of the active controller and the normalized voltage signal of the photo-detector is developed and validated experimentally. Experimental results correspond exactly with the theoretically analyzed combining efficiency. Our method offers a useful approach to estimate the influence of phase noise on CPBC system.
Ultrafast X-Ray Coherent Control
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Reis, David
2009-05-01
This main purpose of this grant was to develop the nascent eld of ultrafast x-ray science using accelerator-based sources, and originally developed from an idea that a laser could modulate the di racting properties of a x-ray di racting crystal on a fast enough time scale to switch out in time a shorter slice from the already short x-ray pulses from a synchrotron. The research was carried out primarily at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) sector 7 at Argonne National Laboratory and the Sub-Picosecond Pulse Source (SPPS) at SLAC; in anticipation of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) x-ray free electron laser that became operational in 2009 at SLAC (all National User Facilities operated by BES). The research centered on the generation, control and measurement of atomic-scale dynamics in atomic, molecular optical and condensed matter systems with temporal and spatial resolution . It helped develop the ultrafast physics, techniques and scienti c case for using the unprecedented characteristics of the LCLS. The project has been very successful with results have been disseminated widely and in top journals, have been well cited in the eld, and have laid the foundation for many experiments being performed on the LCLS, the world's rst hard x-ray free electron laser.
Phase-Locked Fibre Array for Coherent Combination and Atmosphere Aberration Compensation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HOU Jing; XIAO Rui
2006-01-01
We report a fibre amplifier array that not only achieves coherent beam combination by compensation of phase noises of fibre amplifier, but also accomplishes correction of atmosphere aberration. It is of master-oscillatormultiple-amplifier (MOPA) configuration, which can be phase-locked by the multidither principle or heterodyne detection principle. First laboratory experiments of atmosphere aberration compensation of a three-element fibre amplifier array are reported. The atmosphere aberration is created by a phase screen in the experiment. The phase changes of the beam, which are introduced by the fibre amplifier and the phase screen, are both detected by the heterodyne detection method. Phase modulators are controlled to compensate for the phase in the three paths. No matter whether there is a phase screen producing atmosphere aberration or not, the dim dynamic interference fringes in the far field turn to a clear and stable pattern, and the peak intensity is maximized. It is indicated that the fibre amplifier array is phase-locked, and coherent combination of the three beams is achieved.It can be used not only to obtain high power fibre laser array but also in laser space communication.
Controlling quantum coherence of atom laser by light with strong strength
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
JING; Hui(景辉); GE; Molin(葛墨林); GE; Molin(葛墨林)
2002-01-01
A new method for controlling the quantum coherence of atom laser by applying input light with strong strength is presented within the framework of quantum dynamical theory. Unlike the case of rotating wave approximation(RWA), we show that the non-classical properties, such as sub-Poisson distribution and quadrature squeezed effect, can appear in the output atom laser beam with time. By choosing suitable initial RF phase, a steady and brighter output of squeezed coherent atom laser is also available.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hui, Ning-Ju [Department of Applied Physics, Xi' an University of Technology, Xi' an 710054 (China); Xu, Yang-Yang; Wang, Jicheng; Zhang, Yixin [Jiangsu Provincial Research Center of Light Industrial Optoelectronic Engineering and Technology, School of Science, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Hu, Zheng-Da, E-mail: huyuanda1112@jiangnan.edu.cn [Jiangsu Provincial Research Center of Light Industrial Optoelectronic Engineering and Technology, School of Science, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China)
2017-04-01
We investigate the properties of geometric quantum coherence in the XY spin-1/2 chain with staggered Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction via the quantum renormalization-group approach. It is shown that the geometric quantum coherence and its coherence susceptibility are effective to detect the quantum phase transition. In the thermodynamic limit, the geometric quantum coherence exhibits a sudden jump. The coherence susceptibilities versus the anisotropy parameter and the Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction are infinite and vanishing, respectively, illustrating the distinct roles of the anisotropy parameter and the Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction in quantum phase transition. Moreover, we also explore the finite-size scaling behaviors of the coherence susceptibilities. For a finite-size chain, the coherence susceptibility versus the phase-transition parameter is always maximal at the critical point, indicating the dramatic quantum fluctuation. Besides, we show that the correlation length can be revealed by the scaling exponent for the coherence susceptibility versus the Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction.
Hui, Ning-Ju; Xu, Yang-Yang; Wang, Jicheng; Zhang, Yixin; Hu, Zheng-Da
2017-04-01
We investigate the properties of geometric quantum coherence in the XY spin-1/2 chain with staggered Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction via the quantum renormalization-group approach. It is shown that the geometric quantum coherence and its coherence susceptibility are effective to detect the quantum phase transition. In the thermodynamic limit, the geometric quantum coherence exhibits a sudden jump. The coherence susceptibilities versus the anisotropy parameter and the Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction are infinite and vanishing, respectively, illustrating the distinct roles of the anisotropy parameter and the Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction in quantum phase transition. Moreover, we also explore the finite-size scaling behaviors of the coherence susceptibilities. For a finite-size chain, the coherence susceptibility versus the phase-transition parameter is always maximal at the critical point, indicating the dramatic quantum fluctuation. Besides, we show that the correlation length can be revealed by the scaling exponent for the coherence susceptibility versus the Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction.
Reducing coherent noise in interference systems using the phase modulation technique.
Cui, Ji-Wen; Tao, Zhang; Liu, Zhao-Bo; Tan, Jiu-Bin
2015-08-20
The phase modulation technique is adopted to reduce the coherent noise that arises from spurious interference. By choosing an appropriate driving signal, the method can reduce the coherent function of coherent noise to a great degree while keeping the coherent function of a coherent signal nearly unchanged. Simulation results show that for the grating interferometer, the phase error caused by coherent noise is reduced by 81.53% on average. For the Twyman interferometer, the fringe quality and contrast deteriorated by coherent noise are significantly improved. Furthermore, an experiment is set up in the phase-modulated Twyman interferometer to verify the feasibility of the principle. It is concluded that the method is effective to reduce the coherent noise in interference systems.
Coherent quantum squeezing due to the phase space noncommutativity
Bernardini, Alex E.; Mizrahi, Salomon S.
2015-06-01
The effects of general noncommutativity of operators on producing deformed coherent squeezed states is examined in phase space. A two-dimensional noncommutative (NC) quantum system supported by a deformed mathematical structure, similar to that of Hadamard billiard, is obtained and the components behaviour is monitored in time. It is assumed that the independent degrees of freedom are two free 1D harmonic oscillators (HOs), so the system Hamiltonian does not contain interaction terms. Through the NC deformation parameterized by a Seiberg-Witten transform on the original canonical variables, one gets the standard commutation relations for the new ones, such that the obtained, new, Hamiltonian represents two interacting 1D HOs. By admitting that one HO is inverted relatively to the other, we show that their effective interaction induces a squeezing dynamics for initial coherent states imaged in the phase space. A suitable pattern of logarithmic spirals is obtained and some relevant properties are discussed in terms of Wigner functions, which are essential to put in evidence the effects of the noncommutativity.
Realistic and verifiable coherent control of excitonic states in a light harvesting complex
Hoyer, Stephan; Montangero, Simone; Sarovar, Mohan; Calarco, Tommaso; Plenio, Martin B; Whaley, K Birgitta
2013-01-01
We explore the feasibility of coherent control of excitonic dynamics in light harvesting complexes despite the open nature of these quantum systems. We establish feasible targets for phase and phase/amplitude control of the electronically excited state populations in the Fenna-Mathews-Olson (FMO) complex and analyze the robustness of this control. We further present two possible routes to verification of the control target, with simulations for the FMO complex showing that steering of the excited state is experimentally verifiable either by extending excitonic coherence or by producing novel states in a pump-probe setup. Our results provide a first step toward coherent control of these systems in an ultrafast spectroscopy setup.
Automated alignment method for coherence-controlled holographic microscope
Dostal, Zbynek; Slaby, Tomas; Kvasnica, Lukas; Lostak, Martin; Krizova, Aneta; Chmelik, Radim
2015-11-01
A coherence-controlled holographic microscope (CCHM) was developed particularly for quantitative phase imaging and measurement of live cell dynamics, which is the proper subject of digital holographic microscopy (DHM). CCHM in low-coherence mode extends DHM in the study of living cells. However, this advantage is compensated by sensitivity of the system to easily become misaligned, which is a serious hindrance to wanted performance. Therefore, it became clear that introduction of a self-correcting system is inevitable. Accordingly, we had to devise a theory of a suitable control and design an automated alignment system for CCHM. The modulus of the reconstructed holographic signal was identified as a significant variable for guiding the alignment procedures. From this, we derived the original basic realignment three-dimensional algorithm, which encompasses a unique set of procedures for automated alignment that contains processes for initial and advanced alignment as well as long-term maintenance of microscope tuning. All of these procedures were applied to a functioning microscope and the tested processes were successfully validated. Finally, in such a way, CCHM is enabled to substantially contribute to study of biology, particularly of cancer cells in vitro.
Coherent control of double deflected anomalous modes in ultrathin trapezoid-shaped slit metasurface
Zhu, Z.; Liu, H.; Wang, D.; Li, Y. X.; Guan, C. Y.; Zhang, H.; Shi, J. H.
2016-11-01
Coherent light-matter interaction in ultrathin metamaterials has been demonstrated to dynamically modulate intensity, polarization and propagation direction of light. The gradient metasurface with a transverse phase variation usually exhibits an anomalous refracted beam of light dictated by so-called generalized Snell’s law. However, less attention has been paid to coherent control of the metasurface with multiple anomalous refracted beams. Here we propose an ultrathin gradient metasurface with single trapezoid-shaped slot antenna as its building block that allows one normal and two deflected transmitted beams. It is numerically demonstrated that such metasurface with multiple scattering modes can be coherently controlled to modulate output intensities by changing the relative phase difference between two counterpropagating coherent beams. Each mode can be coherently switched on/off and two deflected anomalous beams can be synchronously dictated by the phase difference. The coherent control effect in the trapezoid-shaped slit metasurface will offer a promising opportunity for multichannel signals modulation, multichannel sensing and wave front shaping.
Phase contrast imaging with coherent high energy X-rays
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Snigireva, I. [ESRF, Grenoble (France)
1997-02-01
X-ray imaging concern high energy domain (>6 keV) like a contact radiography, projection microscopy and tomography is used for many years to discern the features of the internal structure non destructively in material science, medicine and biology. In so doing the main contrast formation is absorption that makes some limitations for imaging of the light density materials and what is more the resolution of these techniques is not better than 10-100 {mu}m. It was turned out that there is now way in which to overcome 1{mu}m or even sub-{mu}m resolution limit except phase contrast imaging. It is well known in optics that the phase contrast is realised when interference between reference wave front and transmitted through the sample take place. Examples of this imaging are: phase contrast microscopy suggested by Zernike and Gabor (in-line) holography. Both of this techniques: phase contrast x-ray microscopy and holography are successfully progressing now in soft x-ray region. For imaging in the hard X-rays to enhance the contrast and to be able to resolve phase variations across the beam the high degree of the time and more importantly spatial coherence is needed. Because of this it was reasonable that the perfect crystal optics was involved like Bonse-Hart interferometry, double-crystal and even triple-crystal set-up using Laue and Bragg geometry with asymmetrically cut crystals.
Tailoring of XUV supercontinua through coherent control of high-order harmonic generation
Holgado, W; Alonso, B; Miranda, M; Silva, F; Plaja, L; Crespo, H; Sola, I J
2016-01-01
We present observations of the emission of XUV supercontinua in the 20-37 eV region by high harmonic generation (HHG) with 4-7 fs pulses focused onto a Kr gas jet. The underlying mechanism relies on coherent control of the relative delays and phases between individually generated attosecond pulses, achievable by adjusting the chirp of the driving pulses and the interaction geometry. Under adequate chirp and phase matching conditions the resulting interference will yield a supercontinuum XUV spectrum. This technique opens the route for modifying the phase of individual attosecond pulses and for the coherent synthesis of XUV supercontinua without the need of an isolated attosecond burst.
Atomic coherence control on the entanglement of two atoms in two-photon processes
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Hu Yao-Hua; Fang Mao-Fa; Wu Qin
2007-01-01
Considering two identical two-level atoms interacting with a single-mode thermal field through two-photon processes, this paper studies the atomic coherence control on the entanglement between two two-level atoms, and finds that the entanglement is greatly enhanced due to the initial atomic coherence. The results show that the entanglement can be manipulated by changing the initial parameters of the system, such as the superposition coefficients and the relative phases of the initial atomic coherent state and the mean photon number of the cavity field.
Automatic phase control in solar power satellite systems
Lindsey, W. C.; Kantak, A. V.
1978-01-01
Various approaches to the problem of generating, maintaining and distributing a coherent, reference phase signal over a large area are suggested, mathematically modeled and analyzed with respect to their ability to minimize: phase build-up, beam diffusion and beam steering phase jitter, cable length, and maximize power transfer efficiency. In addition, phase control configurations are suggested which alleviate the need for layout symmetry.
Coherent chirped pulse laser network with Mickelson phase conjugator.
Okulov, A Yu
2014-04-10
The mechanisms of nonlinear phase-locking of a large fiber amplifier array are analyzed. The preference is given to the most suitable configuration for a coherent coupling of thousands of fundamental spatial mode fiber beams into a single smooth beam ready for chirped pulse compression. It is shown that a Michelson phase-conjugating configuration with double passage through an array of fiber amplifiers has the definite advantage compared to a one-way fiber array coupled in a Mach-Zehnder configuration. Regardless of the amount of synchronized fiber amplifiers, the Michelson phase-conjugating interferometer is expected to do a perfect compensation of the phase-piston errors and collimation of backwardly amplified fiber beams on an entrance/output beam splitter. In both configurations, the nonlinear transformation of the stretched pulse envelope, due to gain saturation, is capable of randomizing the position of chirp inside an envelope; thus it may reduce the visibility of the interference pattern at an output beam splitter. Certain advantages are inherent to the sech-form temporal envelope because of the exponential precursor and self-similar propagation in gain medium. The Gaussian envelope is significantly compressed in a deep gain saturation regime, and the frequency chirp position inside pulse envelope is more deformed.
Use of coherence and phase data between two receivers in evaluation of noise environments
Piersol, A. G.
1978-01-01
For certain types of noise control problems, where transducers cannot be mounted on suspected sources, valuable information can often be obtained by comparing the coherence and phase data measured between two closely spaced microphones with analytical models deduced from the physics of the problem. However, the application of such analysis techniques must be pursued with care, particularly when the measurements are made in a reverberant area. A simple illustration is presented where the acoustic field in the test section of a wind tunnel is evaluated by modelling the field as a combination of diffuse noise due to the boundary layer turbulence in the test section and propagating noise generated by the tunnel fan and possible flow disturbances outside the test section. The coherence and phase between two closely spaced microphones in the tunnel test section are predicted for various ratios of diffuse to propagating noise contributions and compared to actual measurements under several different tunnel operating conditions.
Coherent Control of Vibrational State Population in a Nonpolar Molecule
Picón, A; Jaron-Becker, A; Becker, A; 10.1103/PhysRevA.83.023412
2011-01-01
A coherent control scheme for the population distribution in the vibrational states of nonpolar molecules is proposed. Our theoretical analysis and results of numerical simulations for the interaction of the hydrogen molecular ion in its electronic ground state with an infrared laser pulse reveal a selective two-photon transition between the vibrational states via a coupling with the first excited dissociative state. We demonstrate that for a given temporal intensity profile the population transfer between vibrational states, or a superposition of vibrational states, can be made complete for a single chirped pulse or a train of chirped pulses, which accounts for the accumulated phase difference due to the AC Stark effect. Effects of a spatial intensity (or, focal) averaging are discussed.
Coherent control of High-harmonic generation
Barreaux, J.L.P.
2012-01-01
High-harmonic generation (HHG) is a non-linear optical process that can convert laser light with standard wavelengths, such as infrared light, into coherent radiation at much shorter wavelengths in the XUV (extreme ultraviolet) or soft X-ray regime. As opposed to low-order nonlinear frequency
Comparison of Phase Synchronizability of Several Regular Networks for Non-Phase-Coherent Attractors
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHAO Jun-Chan; LU Jun-An; DING Chun
2008-01-01
Though applying master stability function method to analyse network complete synchronization has been well studied in chaotic dynamical systems,it does not work well for phase synchronization.Moreover,it is difficult to identify phase synchronization with the angle of rotation for non-phase-coherent attractors.We employ the recurrences plot method to detect phase synchronization for several regular networks with non-phase-coherent attractors.It is found that the coupling strength μ is different for different coupled networks.The coupling strength μ is reduced as completed coupled network scale enlarges,the coupling strength μ of star coupled network is irrelevant to network scale,and these two regular networks are easier to achieve phase synchronization.However,for ring and chain coupled networks,the larger the phase synchronization couple strength μ is,the larger the network scale is,and it is more difficult to achieve phase synchronization.For same scale network,once ring coupled structure becomes a chain coupled structure,phase synchronization becomes much more difficuit.
Zaitsev, Vladimir Y.; Matveyev, Alexander L.; Matveev, Lev A.; Gelikonov, Grigory V.; Sovetsky, Aleksandr A.; Vitkin, Alex
2016-11-01
In compressional optical coherence elastography, phase-variation gradients are used for estimating quasistatic strains created in tissue. Using reference and deformed optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans, one typically compares phases from pixels with the same coordinates in both scans. Usually, this limits the allowable strains to fairly small values measurement noises. Here, we extend the OCT phase-resolved elastographic methodology by (1) showing that an order of magnitude greater strains can significantly increase the accuracy of derived phase-gradient differences, while also avoiding error-phone phase-unwrapping procedures and minimizing the influence of decorrelation noise caused by suprapixel displacements, (2) discussing the appearance of artifactual stiff inclusions in resultant OCT elastograms in the vicinity of bright scatterers due to the amplitude-phase interplay in phase-variation measurements, and (3) deriving/evaluating methods of phase-gradient estimation that can outperform conventionally used least-square gradient fitting. We present analytical arguments, numerical simulations, and experimental examples to demonstrate the advantages of the proposed optimized phase-variation methodology.
Coherent Polarization Control of THz Waves Generated from Asymmetrically Ionized Gases
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dai Jianming; Zhang, X-C [Center for Terahertz Research, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Karpowicz, Nicholas, E-mail: zhangxc@rpi.edu [Max-Planck Institute for Quantum Optics, Garching (Germany)
2011-02-01
Unlike polarization control of optical waves, lossless control over the polarization of broadband terahertz waves remained challenging. We recently found that the polarization of terahertz waves generated from gas plasma excited by femtosecond fundamental pulse ({omega}) and its second harmonic (2{omega}) could be coherently controlled by changing the relative phase between the {omega} and 2{omega} pulses. In particular, when the {omega} and 2{omega} pulses are both circularly polarized (or close to it), the photo-excited electrons exhibit different trajectories as the relative phase between the two optical pulses changes, and subsequently terahertz polarization angle can be controlled arbitrarily through the relative phase while the intensity of the emitted terahertz wave is kept constant. This new finding may enable fast terahertz wave modulation and coherent control of nonlinear responses excited by intense terahertz waves with controllable polarization.
Coherent control of quantum systems as a resource theory
Matera, J. M.; Egloff, D.; Killoran, N.; Plenio, M. B.
2016-08-01
Control at the interface between the classical and the quantum world is fundamental in quantum physics. In particular, how classical control is enhanced by coherence effects is an important question both from a theoretical as well as from a technological point of view. In this work, we establish a resource theory describing this setting and explore relations to the theory of coherence, entanglement and information processing. Specifically, for the coherent control of quantum systems, the relevant resources of entanglement and coherence are found to be equivalent and closely related to a measure of discord. The results are then applied to the DQC1 protocol and the precision of the final measurement is expressed in terms of the available resources.
A note on the relationship between turbulent coherent structures and phase correlation
Kang, Yanfei; Belušić, Danijel; Smith-Miles, Kate
2014-06-01
Various definitions of coherent structures exist in turbulence research, but a common assumption is that coherent structures have correlated spectral phases. As a result, randomization of phases is believed, generally, to remove coherent structures from the measured data. Here, we reexamine these assumptions using atmospheric turbulence measurements. Small-scale coherent structures are detected in the usual way using the wavelet transform. A considerable percentage of the detected structures are not phase correlated, although some of them are clearly organized in space and time. At larger scales, structures have even higher degree of spatiotemporal coherence but are also associated with weak phase correlation. A series of specific examples are shown to demonstrate this. These results warn about the vague terminology and assumptions around coherent structures, particularly for complex real-world turbulence.
A note on the relationship between turbulent coherent structures and phase correlation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kang, Yanfei; Belušić, Danijel, E-mail: danijel.belusic@monash.edu; Smith-Miles, Kate [School of Mathematical Sciences, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia)
2014-06-15
Various definitions of coherent structures exist in turbulence research, but a common assumption is that coherent structures have correlated spectral phases. As a result, randomization of phases is believed, generally, to remove coherent structures from the measured data. Here, we reexamine these assumptions using atmospheric turbulence measurements. Small-scale coherent structures are detected in the usual way using the wavelet transform. A considerable percentage of the detected structures are not phase correlated, although some of them are clearly organized in space and time. At larger scales, structures have even higher degree of spatiotemporal coherence but are also associated with weak phase correlation. A series of specific examples are shown to demonstrate this. These results warn about the vague terminology and assumptions around coherent structures, particularly for complex real-world turbulence.
Xie, Hongxian; Song, Xiaoyan; Yin, Fuxing; Zhang, Yongguang
2016-08-03
The effect of coherency WC/Co phase boundaries on the fracture toughness of the nanocrystalline WC-Co cemented carbides is studied by MD simulation method. The simulation results show that the nanocrystalline WC-Co cemented carbides with coherency WC/Co phase boundaries has higher fracture toughness than that without coherency WC/Co phase boundaries. Moreover, the mechanism of why coherency WC/Co phase boundaries can improve the fracture toughness of the nanocrystalline cemented carbides is also investigated. It is found the fact that the separation energy of the coherent WC/Co phase boundary is larger than that of the incoherent WC/Co phase boundaries is the main reason for this excellent mechanical property.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shu, Chuan-Cun; Henriksen, Niels Engholm
2011-01-01
We demonstrate theoretically that laser-induced coherent quantum interference control of asymptotic states of dissociating molecules is possible - even in the (one-photon) weak-field limit starting from a single vibrational eigenstate - when resonances are in play. This is illustrated for the Na......I molecule, where it is shown that the probability of observing atomic fragments as well as the distribution of their relative momenta can be changed by a phase modulated pulse with a fixed bandwidth. This type of control is restricted to finite times during the indirect fragmentation. (C) 2011 American...
Controllable coherent perfect absorption in a composite film
Dutta-Gupta, Shourya; Gupta, S Dutta; Agarwal, G S
2011-01-01
We exploit the versatility provided by metal--dielectric composites to demonstrate controllable coherent perfect absorption (CPA) in a slab of heterogeneous medium. The slab is illuminated by coherent light from both sides, at the same angle of incidence and the conditions required for CPA are investigated as a function of the different geometrical parameters. The simultaneous realization of CPA at two distinct frequencies is also shown. Finally, our calculations clearly elucidate the role of absorption as a necessary prerequisite for CPA.
All-optical coherent control of vacuum Rabi oscillations
Bose, Ranojoy; Choudhury, Kaushik Roy; Solomon, Glenn S; Waks, Edo
2014-01-01
When an atom strongly couples to a cavity, it can undergo coherent vacuum Rabi oscillations. Controlling these oscillatory dynamics quickly relative to the vacuum Rabi frequency enables remarkable capabilities such as Fock state generation and deterministic synthesis of quantum states of light, as demonstrated using microwave frequency devices. At optical frequencies, however, dynamical control of single-atom vacuum Rabi oscillations remains challenging. Here, we demonstrate coherent transfer of optical frequency excitation between a single quantum dot and a cavity by controlling vacuum Rabi oscillations. We utilize a photonic molecule to simultaneously attain strong coupling and a cavity-enhanced AC Stark shift. The Stark shift modulates the detuning between the two systems on picosecond timescales, faster than the vacuum Rabi frequency. We demonstrate the ability to add and remove excitation from the cavity, and perform coherent control of light-matter states. These results enable ultra-fast control of atom...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sheppard, L W; McClintock, P V E; Stefanovska, A [Department of Physics, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YB (United Kingdom); Vuksanovic, V, E-mail: aneta@lancaster.ac.uk [Institute of Biophysics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia)
2011-06-21
We apply wavelet-based time-localized phase coherence to investigate the relationship between blood flow and skin temperature, and between blood flow and instantaneous heart rate (IHR), during vasoconstriction and vasodilation provoked by local cooling or heating of the skin. A temperature-controlled metal plate ({approx}10 cm{sup 2}) placed on the volar side of the left arm was used to provide the heating and cooling. Beneath the plate, the blood flow was measured by laser Doppler flowmetry and the adjacent skin temperature by a thermistor. Two 1 h datasets were collected from each of the ten subjects. In each case a 30 min basal recording was followed by a step change in plate temperature, to either 24 deg. C or 42 deg. C. The IHR was derived from simultaneously recorded ECG. We confirm the changes in the energy and frequency of blood flow oscillations during cooling and heating reported earlier. That is, during cooling, there was a significant decrease in the average frequency of myogenic blood flow oscillations (p < 0.05) and the myogenic spectral peak became more prominent. During heating, there was a significant (p < 0.05) general increase in spectral energy, associated with vasodilation, except in the myogenic interval. Weak phase coherence between temperature and blood flow was observed for unperturbed skin, but it increased in all frequency intervals as a result of heating. It was not significantly affected by cooling. We also show that significant (p < 0.05) phase coherence exists between blood flow and IHR in the respiratory and myogenic frequency intervals. Cooling did not affect this phase coherence in any of the frequency intervals, whereas heating enhanced the phase coherence in the respiratory and myogenic intervals. This can be explained by the reduction in vascular resistance produced by heating, a process where myogenic mechanisms play a key role. We conclude that the mechanisms of vasodilation and vasoconstriction, in response to temperature
Coherent Detection of Optical Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying Signals With Carrier Phase Estimation
Ly-Gagnon, Dany-Sebastien; Tsukamoto, Satoshi; Katoh, Kazuhiro; Kikuchi, Kazuro
2006-01-01
This paper describes a coherent optical receiver for demodulating optical quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) signals. At the receiver, a phase-diversity homodyne detection scheme is employed without locking the phase of the local oscillator (LO). To handle the carrier phase drift, the carrier phase is estimated with digital signal processing (DSP) on the homodyne-detected signal. Such a scheme presents the following major advantages over the conventional optical differential detection. First, its bit error rate (BER) performance is better than that of differential detection. This higher sensitivity can extend the reach of unrepeated transmission systems and reduce crosstalk between multiwavelength channels. Second, the optoelectronic conversion process is linear, so that the whole optical signal information can be postprocessed in the electrical domain. Third, this scheme is applicable to multilevel modulation formats such as M-array PSK and quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM). The performance of the receiver is evaluated through various simulations and experiments. As a result, an unrepeated transmission over 210 km with a 20-Gb/s optical QPSK signal is achieved. Moreover, in wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) environment, coherent detection allows the filtering of a desired wavelength channel to reside entirely in the electrical domain, taking advantage of the sharp cutoff characteristics of electrical filters. The experiments show the feasibility to transmit polarization-multiplexed 40-Gb/s QPSK signals over 200 km with channel spacing of 16 GHz, leading to a spectral efficiency as high as 2.5 b/s/Hz.
Electronic phase coherence in InAs nanowires
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bloemers, Christian; Lepsa, Mihail Ion; Lenk, Steffi; Lueth, Hans; Schaepers, Thomas; Gruetzmacher, Detlev [Institute of Bio- and Nanosystems (IBN-1) and JARA - Fundamentals of Future Information Technology, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany)
2010-07-01
We report on magnetotransport measurements on InAs nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Among the III-V semiconductor materials, InAs is particularly interesting because of its low direct band gap and its low effective mass. Additionally InAs is known to show a strong quantum confinement in devices of mesoscopic dimensions. A well known quantum effect revealed by magnetotransport measurements at low temperatures are the universal conductance fluctuations (UCF), resulting from electron interference. By analyzing the UCFs it is possible to draw conclusions about the phase coherence length of the electrons in the device. In the special case of a magnetic field in parallel to the wire, Altshuler-Aronov-Spivak oscillations were found in lithographically defined InAs columns. These oscillations are known to result from the surface 2DEG, which is present in those columns. In contrast the present InAs wires do not show this behavior. The explanation is given in terms of the high density of stacking faults, which were observed in transmission electron microscopy. The stacking faults are due to transitions between wurtzite and zincblende structure. The wurtzite segments are origins of polarization charges which most probably mask the effect of surface states, being the reason for the surface 2DEG.
Coherent control of optical activity and optical anisotropy of thin metamaterials
Mousavi, Seyedmohammad A; Shi, Jinhui; Zheludev, Nikolay I
2013-01-01
The future fibre optic communications network will rely on photons as carriers of information, which may be stored in intensity, polarization or phase of light. However, processing of such optical information usually relies on electronics. Aiming to avoid the conversion between optical and electronic signals, modulation of light with light based on optical nonlinearity has become a major research field, but real integrated all-optical systems face thermal management and energy challenges. On the other hand, it has recently been demonstrated that the interaction of two coherent light beams on a thin, lossy, linear material can lead to large and ultrafast intensity modulation at arbitrarily low power resulting from coherent absorption. Here we demonstrate that birefringence and optical activity (linear and circular birefringence and dichroism) of functional materials can be coherently controlled by placing a thin material slab into a standing wave formed by the signal and control waves. Efficient control of the...
Coherent control of optical polarization effects in metamaterials
Mousavi, Seyedmohammad A.; Plum, Eric; Shi, Jinhui; Zheludev, Nikolay I.
2015-01-01
Processing of photonic information usually relies on electronics. Aiming to avoid the conversion between photonic and electronic signals, modulation of light with light based on optical nonlinearity has become a major research field and coherent optical effects on the nanoscale are emerging as new means of handling and distributing signals. Here we demonstrate that in slabs of linear material of sub-wavelength thickness optical manifestations of birefringence and optical activity (linear and circular birefringence and dichroism) can be controlled by a wave coherent with the wave probing the polarization effect. We demonstrate this in proof-of-principle experiments for chiral and anisotropic microwave metamaterials, where we show that the large parameter space of polarization characteristics may be accessed at will by coherent control. Such control can be exerted at arbitrarily low intensities, thus arguably allowing for fast handling of electromagnetic signals without facing thermal management and energy challenges. PMID:25755071
The density matrix picture of laser coherent control current
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SHOU Qian; ZHANG Haichao; LIU Luning; LIN Weizhu
2004-01-01
The physical substance of the coherent control current and the optical rectification have been analyzed based on density matrix perturbation theory. The analytical results demonstrate that they arise from the real and virtual manifestations of the same nonlinear process associated with diagonal and non-diagonal density matrix.And in terms of polarization, they respectively arise from the intraband and interband polarizations. Both the evolution of the coherent control current exited by ultrafast laser pulse and its dependence on frequency have been studied in time and frequency domains. In order to get an explicit knowledge of intraband polarization and the origination of the coherent control current, we have investigated the initial photo-carriers momentum distribution. The ultrafast decay of the polar momentum population in order of tens of femtosends is given to illustrate its instantaneous optical response.
Geometric phase low-coherence interference microscopy at high numerical apertures
Roy, Maitreyee; Svahn, Peter; Sheppard, Colin J. R.
2001-09-01
A low-coherence Linnik interference microscope using high numerical aperture optics has been constructed. The system uses a tungsten halogen lamp and a Koehler illumination, with separate control over field and aperture stops, so that experiments can be conducted with a range of different geometric phase which is achieved by using a polarizing beam splitter, a quarter wave plate and a rotating polarizer. Image information is extracted from the visibility of the fringes, and the position of the visibility peak along the scanning axis, yielding the height of the test surface at the corresponding points.
Tóth, Gy; Tibai, Z; Nagy-Csiha, Zs; Márton, Zs; Almási, G; Hebling, J
2015-09-15
In this Letter, we present a new method for generation of circularly polarized attosecond pulses. According to our calculations, shape-controlled, carrier-envelope-phase stable pulses of several hundred nanojoule energy could be produced by exploitation of the coherent undulator radiation of an electron bunch. Our calculations are based on an existing particle accelerator system (FLASH II in DESY, Germany). We investigated the energy dependence of the attosecond pulses on the energy of electrons and the parameters of the radiator undulator, which generate the electromagnetic radiation.
Optimal phase synchronization in networks of phase-coherent chaotic oscillators
Skardal, P. S.; Sevilla-Escoboza, R.; Vera-Ávila, V. P.; Buldú, J. M.
2017-01-01
We investigate the existence of an optimal interplay between the natural frequencies of a group of chaotic oscillators and the topological properties of the network they are embedded in. We identify the conditions for achieving phase synchronization in the most effective way, i.e., with the lowest possible coupling strength. Specifically, we show by means of numerical and experimental results that it is possible to define a synchrony alignment function J (ω ,L ) linking the natural frequencies ωi of a set of non-identical phase-coherent chaotic oscillators with the topology of the Laplacian matrix L, the latter accounting for the specific organization of the network of interactions between oscillators. We use the classical Rössler system to show that the synchrony alignment function obtained for phase oscillators can be extended to phase-coherent chaotic systems. Finally, we carry out a series of experiments with nonlinear electronic circuits to show the robustness of the theoretical predictions despite the intrinsic noise and parameter mismatch of the electronic components.
Generating polarization controllable FELs at Dalian coherent light source
Zhang, T; Wang, D; Zhao, Z T; Zhang, W Q; Wu, G R; Dai, D X; Yang, X M
2013-01-01
The property of the FEL polarization is of great importance to the user community. FEL pulses with ultra-high intensity and flexible polarization control ability will absolutely open up new scientific realms. In this paper, several polarization control approaches are presented to investigate the great potential on Dalian coherent light source, which is a government-approved novel FEL user facility with the capability of wavelength continuously tunable in the EUV regime of 50-150 nm. The numerical simulations show that both circularly polarized FELs with highly modulating frequency and 100 microjoule level pulse energy could be generated at Dalian coherent light source.
Doria, A; Gallerano, G P; Giovenale, E; Messina, G; Spassovsky, I
2004-12-31
We report the first observation of enhanced coherent emission of terahertz radiation in a compact free electron laser. A radio-frequency (rf) modulated electron beam is passed through a magnetic undulator emitting coherent radiation at harmonics of the rf with a phase which depends on the electron drift velocity. A proper correlation between the energy and phase distributions of the electrons in the bunch has been exploited to lock in phase the radiated field, resulting in over 1 order of magnitude enhancement of the coherent emission.
Coherent Control of Ground State NaK Molecules
Yan, Zoe; Park, Jee Woo; Loh, Huanqian; Will, Sebastian; Zwierlein, Martin
2016-05-01
Ultracold dipolar molecules exhibit anisotropic, tunable, long-range interactions, making them attractive for the study of novel states of matter and quantum information processing. We demonstrate the creation and control of 23 Na40 K molecules in their rovibronic and hyperfine ground state. By applying microwaves, we drive coherent Rabi oscillations of spin-polarized molecules between the rotational ground state (J=0) and J=1. The control afforded by microwave manipulation allows us to pursue engineered dipolar interactions via microwave dressing. By driving a two-photon transition, we are also able to observe Ramsey fringes between different J=0 hyperfine states, with coherence times as long as 0.5s. The realization of long coherence times between different molecular states is crucial for applications in quantum information processing. NSF, AFOSR- MURI, Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, DARPA-OLE
Effects of laser phase noise on the performance of optical coherent receivers
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Ji-hong; LI Zhao-lin; LIANG Meng
2012-01-01
Laser phase noise (LPN) plays an important role in optical coherent systems.Based on the algorithm of Viterbi-Viterbi carrier phase estimation (CPE),the effects of LPN imposed on the coherent receivers are investigated for quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK),8 phase shift keying (8PSK) and 16-quadrature amplitude modulation (16-QAM) optical coherent systems,respectively.The simulation results show that the optimal block length in the phase estimation algorithm is a tradeoff between LPN and additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN),and depends on the level of modulation formats.The resolution requirements of analog to digital converter (ADC) in the coherent receivers are independent of LPN or the level of modulation formats.For the bit error rate (BER) of 10-3,the required bit number of ADC is 6,and the gain is marginal for the higher resolution.
Complete Coherent Control of a Quantum Dot Strongly Coupled to a Nanocavity
Dory, Constantin; Fischer, Kevin A.; Müller, Kai; Lagoudakis, Konstantinos G.; Sarmiento, Tomas; Rundquist, Armand; Zhang, Jingyuan L.; Kelaita, Yousif; Vučković, Jelena
2016-01-01
Strongly coupled quantum dot-cavity systems provide a non-linear configuration of hybridized light-matter states with promising quantum-optical applications. Here, we investigate the coherent interaction between strong laser pulses and quantum dot-cavity polaritons. Resonant excitation of polaritonic states and their interaction with phonons allow us to observe coherent Rabi oscillations and Ramsey fringes. Furthermore, we demonstrate complete coherent control of a quantum dot-photonic crystal cavity based quantum-bit. By controlling the excitation power and phase in a two-pulse excitation scheme we achieve access to the full Bloch sphere. Quantum-optical simulations are in good agreement with our experiments and provide insight into the decoherence mechanisms. PMID:27112420
Phase-locking and coherent power combining of broadband linearly chirped optical waves.
Satyan, Naresh; Vasilyev, Arseny; Rakuljic, George; White, Jeffrey O; Yariv, Amnon
2012-11-05
We propose, analyze and demonstrate the optoelectronic phase-locking of optical waves whose frequencies are chirped continuously and rapidly with time. The optical waves are derived from a common optoelectronic swept-frequency laser based on a semiconductor laser in a negative feedback loop, with a precisely linear frequency chirp of 400 GHz in 2 ms. In contrast to monochromatic waves, a differential delay between two linearly chirped optical waves results in a mutual frequency difference, and an acoustooptic frequency shifter is therefore used to phase-lock the two waves. We demonstrate and characterize homodyne and heterodyne optical phase-locked loops with rapidly chirped waves, and show the ability to precisely control the phase of the chirped optical waveform using a digital electronic oscillator. A loop bandwidth of ~ 60 kHz, and a residual phase error variance of locking of two optical paths to a common master waveform, and the ability to electronically control the resultant two-element optical phased array. The results of this work enable coherent power combining of high-power fiber amplifiers-where a rapidly chirping seed laser reduces stimulated Brillouin scattering-and electronic beam steering of chirped optical waves.
Fundamental Principles of Coherent-Feedback Quantum Control
2014-12-08
AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2015-0009 FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF COHERENT-FEEDBACK QUANTUM CONTROL Hideo Mabuchi LELAND STANFORD JUNIOR UNIV CA Final Report 12/08...robustness in autonomous quantum memories" we have continued our group’s long-term research program in the architectural principles of autonomous
Coherent-feedback Quantum Control with Cold Atomic Spins
2012-08-27
Coherent Feedback Control," GRC on Physics Research and Education, Mt. Holyoke College, August 2011 H. Mabuchi, "Design and analysis of autonomous...technique for compensation of tensor coupling effects in polarization spectroscopy of dense Cesium clouds , based on dual-wavelength probing with
Efficient method for controlling the spatial coherence of a laser
Nixon, Micha; Friesem, Asher; Cao, Hui; Davidson, Nir
2013-01-01
An efficient method to tune the spatial coherence of a degenerate laser over a broad range with minimum variation in the total output power is presented. It is based on varying the diameter of a spatial filter inside the laser cavity. The number of lasing modes supported by the degenerate laser can be controlled from 1 to 320,000, with less than a 50% change in the total output power. We show that a degenerate laser designed for low spatial coherence can be used as an illumination source for speckle-free microscopy that is 9 orders of magnitude brighter than conventional thermal light.
Coherent control in strongly driven multi-level systems: quantum vs classical features
Ivanov, Misha; Bartram, David; Smirnova, Olga
2012-08-01
We look at wavepacket dynamics in multi-level systems driven by resonant two-colour fields. We show that control of this dynamics, performed by controlling the relative phase between the driving fields, can be mapped on a problem of molecular alignment and orientation on a plane. Changing the relative phase between the two colours corresponds to changing the angle between aligning and orienting fields. This map offers physically transparent qualitative and quantitative insight into the seemingly complex dynamics, including the analysis of quantum versus classical features of the two-colour coherent control.
Coherent control of meta-device (Conference Presentation)
Tseng, Ming Lun; Fang, Xu; Chu, Cheng Hung; Wu, Hui Jun; Huang, Yao-Wei; Tsai, Wei-Yi; Chen, Mu-Ku; Wang, Hsiang-Chu; Chen, Ching-Fu; Zheludev, Nikolay I.; Tsai, Din Ping
2016-09-01
Selective excitation of specific multipolar resonances in matter can be of great utility in understanding the internal make-up of the underlying material and, as a result, in developing novel nanophotonic devices. Many efforts have been addressed on this topic. For example, the emission spectra related to the different multipolar transitions of trivalent europium can be modulated by changing the thickness of the dielectric spacer between the gold mirror and the fluorescent layer. In this talk, we reported the results about active control of the multipolar resonance in metadevices using the coherent control technique. In the coherent control spectroscopy system, the optical standing wave constructed from two counterpart propagation coherent beams is utilized as the excitation. By controlling the time delay between two ultrafast pulses to decide the location of metadivce as the electromagnetic field node or antinode node of standing wave, the absorption related to the specific multipolar resonance can be controlled. Using this technique, with the 30-nm-thick metadevice, the broadband controlling light with light without nonlinearity can be realized. The switching contrast ratios can be as high as 3:1 with a modulation bandwidth in excess of 2 THz. The active control of the high order and complex optical resonance related to the magnetic dipole, electric quadrupole, and toroidal dipole in the metamaterial is reported as well. This research can be applied in the all ultrafast all-optical data processing and the active control of the resonances of metadevice with high order multipolar resonance.
DSP based coherent receiver for phase-modulated radio-over-fiber optical links
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zibar, Darko; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso; Peucheret, Christophe
2008-01-01
A novel DSP based coherent receiver for phase modulated radio-over-fiber optical links is reported. Using the proposed digital receiver, signal demodulation of 1.25 Gb/s ASK-modulated 10 GHz RF carrier is experimentally demonstrated.......A novel DSP based coherent receiver for phase modulated radio-over-fiber optical links is reported. Using the proposed digital receiver, signal demodulation of 1.25 Gb/s ASK-modulated 10 GHz RF carrier is experimentally demonstrated....
Coherent Detection of Wavelength Division Multiplexed Phase-Modulated Radio-over-Fibre Signals
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zibar, Darko; Yu, Xianbin; Peucheret, Christophe
2008-01-01
A WDM phase-modulated Radio-over-Fibre link using digital coherent detection is experimentally demonstrated. 3 times 50 Mb/s WDM transmission of a BPSK modulated 5 GHz RF carrier is achieved over 25 km.......A WDM phase-modulated Radio-over-Fibre link using digital coherent detection is experimentally demonstrated. 3 times 50 Mb/s WDM transmission of a BPSK modulated 5 GHz RF carrier is achieved over 25 km....
Phase sensitive properties and coherent manipulation of a photonic crystal microcavity.
Quiring, Wadim; Jonas, Björn; Förstner, Jens; Rai, Ashish K; Reuter, Dirk; Wieck, Andreas D; Zrenner, Artur
2016-09-05
We present phase sensitive cavity field measurements on photonic crystal microcavities. The experiments have been performed as autocorrelation measurements with ps double pulse laser excitation for resonant and detuned conditions. Measured E-field autocorrelation functions reveal a very strong detuning dependence of the phase shift between laser and cavity field and of the autocorrelation amplitude of the cavity field. The fully resolved phase information allows for a precise frequency discrimination and hence for a precise measurement of the detuning between laser and cavity. The behavior of the autocorrelation amplitude and phase and their detuning dependence can be fully described by an analytic model. Furthermore, coherent control of the cavity field is demonstrated by tailored laser excitation with phase and amplitude controlled pulses. The experimental proof and verification of the above described phenomena became possible by an electric detection scheme, which employs planar photonic crystal microcavity photo diodes with metallic Schottky contacts in the defect region of the resonator. The applied photo current detection was shown to work also efficiently at room temperature, which make electrically contacted microcavities attractive for real world applications.
Design of phase plates for shaping partially coherent beams by simulated annealing
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Li Jian-Long; Lü Bai-Da
2008-01-01
Taking the Gaussian Schell-model beam as a typical example of partially coherent beams,this paper applies the simulated annealing (SA) algorithm to the design of phase plates for shaping partially coherent beams.A flow diagram is presented to illustrate the procedure of phase optimization by the SA algorithm.Numerical examples demonstrate the advantages of the SA algorithm in shaping partially coherent beams.An uniform flat-topped beam profile with maximum reconstruction error RE < 1.74% is achieved.A further extension of the approach is discussed.
Coherent perfect absorption mediated enhancement and optical bistability in phase conjugation
Reddy, K Nireekshan; Gupta, S Dutta
2016-01-01
We study phase conjugation in a nonlinear composite slab when the counter propagating pump waves are completely absorbed by means of coherent perfect absorption. Under the undepleted pump approximation the coupling constant and the phase conjugated reflectivity are shown to undergo a substantial increase and multivalued response. The effect can be used for efficient switching of the phase conjugated reflectivity in photonic circuits.
Coherent feedback control of a single qubit in diamond
Hirose, Masashi; Cappellaro, Paola
2016-04-01
Engineering desired operations on qubits subjected to the deleterious effects of their environment is a critical task in quantum information processing, quantum simulation and sensing. The most common approach relies on open-loop quantum control techniques, including optimal-control algorithms based on analytical or numerical solutions, Lyapunov design and Hamiltonian engineering. An alternative strategy, inspired by the success of classical control, is feedback control. Because of the complications introduced by quantum measurement, closed-loop control is less pervasive in the quantum setting and, with exceptions, its experimental implementations have been mainly limited to quantum optics experiments. Here we implement a feedback-control algorithm using a solid-state spin qubit system associated with the nitrogen vacancy centre in diamond, using coherent feedback to overcome the limitations of measurement-based feedback, and show that it can protect the qubit against intrinsic dephasing noise for milliseconds. In coherent feedback, the quantum system is connected to an auxiliary quantum controller (ancilla) that acquires information about the output state of the system (by an entangling operation) and performs an appropriate feedback action (by a conditional gate). In contrast to open-loop dynamical decoupling techniques, feedback control can protect the qubit even against Markovian noise and for an arbitrary period of time (limited only by the coherence time of the ancilla), while allowing gate operations. It is thus more closely related to quantum error-correction schemes, although these require larger and increasing qubit overheads. Increasing the number of fresh ancillas enables protection beyond their coherence time. We further evaluate the robustness of the feedback protocol, which could be applied to quantum computation and sensing, by exploring a trade-off between information gain and decoherence protection, as measurement of the ancilla-qubit correlation
Sheppard, L. W.; Vuksanović, V.; McClintock, P. V. E.; Stefanovska, A.
2011-06-01
We apply wavelet-based time-localized phase coherence to investigate the relationship between blood flow and skin temperature, and between blood flow and instantaneous heart rate (IHR), during vasoconstriction and vasodilation provoked by local cooling or heating of the skin. A temperature-controlled metal plate (≈10 cm2) placed on the volar side of the left arm was used to provide the heating and cooling. Beneath the plate, the blood flow was measured by laser Doppler flowmetry and the adjacent skin temperature by a thermistor. Two 1 h datasets were collected from each of the ten subjects. In each case a 30 min basal recording was followed by a step change in plate temperature, to either 24 °C or 42 °C. The IHR was derived from simultaneously recorded ECG. We confirm the changes in the energy and frequency of blood flow oscillations during cooling and heating reported earlier. That is, during cooling, there was a significant decrease in the average frequency of myogenic blood flow oscillations (p vasodilation, except in the myogenic interval. Weak phase coherence between temperature and blood flow was observed for unperturbed skin, but it increased in all frequency intervals as a result of heating. It was not significantly affected by cooling. We also show that significant (p vasodilation and vasoconstriction, in response to temperature change, are oscillatory in nature and are independent of central sources of variability.
Phase-coherent microwave-to-optical link with a self-referenced microcomb
Del'Haye, Pascal; Coillet, Aurélien; Fortier, Tara; Beha, Katja; Cole, Daniel C.; Yang, Ki Youl; Lee, Hansuek; Vahala, Kerry J.; Papp, Scott B.; Diddams, Scott A.
2016-08-01
Precise measurements of the frequencies of light waves have become common with mode-locked laser frequency combs. Despite their huge success, optical frequency combs currently remain bulky and expensive laboratory devices. Integrated photonic microresonators are promising candidates for comb generators in out-of-the-lab applications, with the potential for reductions in cost, power consumption and size. Such advances will significantly impact fields ranging from spectroscopy and trace gas sensing to astronomy, communications and atomic time-keeping. Yet, in spite of the remarkable progress shown over recent years, microresonator frequency combs (‘microcombs’) have been without the key function of direct f-2f self-referencing, which enables precise determination of the absolute frequency of each comb line. Here, we realize this missing element using a 16.4 GHz microcomb that is coherently broadened to an octave-spanning spectrum and subsequently fully phase-stabilized to an atomic clock. We show phase-coherent control of the comb and demonstrate its low-noise operation.
Coherent control of optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in metasurface
Zhang, Huifang; Zhang, Xueqian; Guo, Wengao; Lu, Changgui; Li, Yanfeng; Zhang, Weili; Han, Jiaguang
2016-01-01
We propose and experimentally demonstrate that a metasurface consisting of Pancharatnam-Berry phase optical elements can enable the full control of optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion. Our approach relies on the critical interference between the transmission and reflection upon the metasurfaceto create actively tunable and controllable conversion with a high output via coherent control of the two incident beams. The introduced control methodology is general and could be an important step toward the development of functional optical devices for practical applications.
Control of coherent excitation of neon in the extreme ultraviolet regime.
Plenge, Jürgen; Wirsing, Andreas; Raschpichler, Christopher; Wassermann, Bernhard; Rühl, Eckart
2011-01-01
Coherent excitation of a superposition of Rydberg states in neon by the 13th harmonic of an intense 804 nm pulse and the formation of a wave packet is reported. Pump-probe experiments are performed, where the 3d-manifold of the 2p6-->2p5 (2P3/2) 3d [1/2]1- and 2p6-->2p5 (2P3/2) 3d [3/2]1-transitions are excited by an extreme ultraviolet (XUV) radiation pulse, which is centered at 20.05 eV photon energy. The temporal evolution of the excited state population is probed by ionization with a time-delayed 804 nm pulse. Control of coherent transient excitation and wave packet dynamics in the XUV-regime is demonstrated, where the spectral phase of the 13th harmonic is used as a control parameter. Modulation of the phase is achieved by propagation of the XUV-pulse through neon of variable gas density. The experimental results indicate that phase-shaped high-order harmonics can be used to control fundamental coherent excitation processes in the XUV-regime.
Phase Coherent Link of an Atomic Clock to a Self-Referenced Microresonator Frequency Comb
Del'Haye, Pascal; Fortier, Tara; Beha, Katja; Cole, Daniel C; Yang, Ki Youl; Lee, Hansuek; Vahala, Kerry J; Papp, Scott B; Diddams, Scott A
2015-01-01
The counting and control of optical cycles of light has become common with modelocked laser frequency combs. But even with advances in laser technology, modelocked laser combs remain bulk-component devices that are hand-assembled. In contrast, a frequency comb based on the Kerr-nonlinearity in a dielectric microresonator will enable frequency comb functionality in a micro-fabricated and chip-integrated package suitable for use in a wide-range of environments. Such an advance will significantly impact fields ranging from spectroscopy and trace gas sensing, to astronomy, communications, atomic time keeping and photonic data processing. Yet in spite of the remarkable progress shown over the past years, microresonator frequency combs ("microcombs") have still been without the key function of direct f-2f self-referencing and phase-coherent frequency control that will be critical for enabling their full potential. Here we realize these missing elements using a low-noise 16.4 GHz silicon chip microcomb that is coher...
Control of coherent backscattering by breaking optical reciprocity
Bromberg, Y; Popoff, S M; Cao, H
2015-01-01
Reciprocity is a universal principle that has a profound impact on many areas of physics. A fundamental phenomenon in condensed-matter physics, optical physics and acoustics, arising from reciprocity, is the constructive interference of quantum or classical waves which propagate along time-reversed paths in disordered media, leading to, for example, weak localization and metal-insulator transition. Previous studies have shown that such coherent effects are suppressed when reciprocity is broken. Here we show that by breaking reciprocity in a controlled manner, we can tune, rather than simply suppress, these phenomena. In particular, we manipulate coherent backscattering of light, also known as weak localization. By utilizing a non-reciprocal magneto-optical effect, we control the interference between time-reversed paths inside a multimode fiber with strong mode mixing, and realize a continuous transition from the well-known peak to a dip in the backscattered intensity. Our results may open new possibilities fo...
Coherent control of photocurrent in a disordered photovoltaic system
Liew, Seng Fatt; Sheehan, Stafford W; Goetschy, Arthur; Schmuttenmaer, Charles A; Stone, A Douglas; Cao, Hui
2015-01-01
Optical absorption is commonly considered an intrinsic property of a medium, independent of the details of the illumination source. However, for a spatially coherent illumination of a disordered medium, interference effects can modify the spatial distribution of light inside the medium, allowing the global or local absorption to be tuned by adjusting an input beam's spatial characteristics. Here we demonstrate the coherent control of absorption by using the wavefront shaping technique to modulate photocurrent in a dye-sensitized solar cell. The incident wavefront of a laser beam is optimized to concentrate light near the front side of the porous photoanode where the collection efficiency of photo-generated electrons is highest. Destructive interference reduces light leakage through open boundaries, facilitating light absorption and conversion to current. This technique provides a powerful tool for probing and controlling photochemical processes inside nominally opaque media by manipulating the internal spatia...
Controlling the electromagnetically induced grating via spontaneously generated coherence
Bozorgzadeh, Forough; Sahrai, Mostafa; Khoshsima, Habib
2016-09-01
A new arrangement of an electromagnetically induced grating in a three-level Ladder-type atomic system with indirect incoherent pumping field is proposed. It is found that the diffraction intensity can efficiently be controlled by the spontaneously generated coherence (SGC). In addition, the diffraction intensity spectrum can dramatically be tuned by manipulating the coupling field intensity, resonance conditions, the rate of an indirect incoherent pumping field, and interaction length.
Viola, Lorenza; Tannor, David
2011-08-01
Precisely characterizing and controlling the dynamics of realistic open quantum systems has emerged in recent years as a key challenge across contemporary quantum sciences and technologies, with implications ranging from physics, chemistry and applied mathematics to quantum information processing (QIP) and quantum engineering. Quantum control theory aims to provide both a general dynamical-system framework and a constructive toolbox to meet this challenge. The purpose of this special issue of Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics is to present a state-of-the-art account of recent advances and current trends in the field, as reflected in two international meetings that were held on the subject over the last summer and which motivated in part the compilation of this volume—the Topical Group: Frontiers in Open Quantum Systems and Quantum Control Theory, held at the Institute for Theoretical Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics (ITAMP) in Cambridge, Massachusetts (USA), from 1-14 August 2010, and the Safed Workshop on Quantum Decoherence and Thermodynamics Control, held in Safed (Israel), from 22-27 August 2010. Initial developments in quantum control theory date back to (at least) the early 1980s, and have been largely inspired by the well-established mathematical framework for classical dynamical systems. As the above-mentioned meetings made clear, and as the burgeoning body of literature on the subject testifies, quantum control has grown since then well beyond its original boundaries, and has by now evolved into a highly cross-disciplinary field which, while still fast-moving, is also entering a new phase of maturity, sophistication, and integration. Two trends deserve special attention: on the one hand, a growing emphasis on control tasks and methodologies that are specifically motivated by QIP, in addition and in parallel to applications in more traditional areas where quantum coherence is nevertheless vital (such as, for instance
Phase-locked coherent modes in a patterned metal-organic microcavity
Brückner, R.; Zakhidov, A. A.; Scholz, R.; Sudzius, M.; Hintschich, S. I.; Fröb, H.; Lyssenko, V. G.; Leo, K.
2012-05-01
Organic microcavities offer tantalizing prospects for studying the interactions of light and matter. For electrical excitation of these processes, electrodes must be integrated. However, the large absorption properties of metals are generally considered fatal for optical coherence. With this in mind, we embedded a thin silver grating into an organic microcavity to generate periodic arrays of localized cavity modes and metal-based Tamm plasmon polaritons. These excited states are capable of phase coupling across the grating. At room temperature and under non-resonant pumping, we selectively stimulated coherent emission from in- and out-of-phase locked arrays. We show that an absorptive metal inside an optical cavity is compatible with coherent emission. Most importantly, the inherently low residual absorption of the organic layer enables coherence to spread over macroscopic distances, even at room temperature. Our strategy of embedding metal patterns into an organic microcavity yields a viable route towards electrically driven organic solid-state lasers.
Study on the fine control of atoms by coherent interaction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Han, Jae Min; Rho, S. P.; Park, H. M.; Lee, K. S.; Rhee, Y. J.; Yi, J. H.; Jeong, D. Y.; Jung, E. C.; Choe, A. S.; Lee, J. M
1998-01-01
The basic research on the control of atoms using the coherent interaction, such as the development of the generator of the thermal atomic beam with high directionality, the photodeflection of atomic beam and the coherent excitation of atoms, has been performed. Yb atomic beam with small divergence was generated and the deflection mechanism of the atomic beam was studied by using a broad band dye laser and a narrow band laser. It has been proved that the single mode dye laser with narrow bandwidth was suitable for deflection of atoms but the frequency locking system was indispensable. And the apparatus for intermodulated optogalvanic (IMOG) experiment was developed and the high resolution optogalvanic spectroscopy was studied for laser frequency stabilization. (author). 74 refs., 1 tab., 26 figs
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GUO Hua; HAN Shen-Sheng
2006-01-01
The theoretical model of direct diffraction phase-contrast imaging with partially coherent x-ray source is expressedby an operator of multiple integral. It is presented that the integral operator is linear. The problem of its phaseretrieval is described by solving an operator equation of multiple integral. It is demonstrated that the solution ofthe phase retrieval is unstable. The numerical simulation is performed and the result validates that the solutionof the phase retrieval is unstable.
Varghese, Babu; Rajan, Vinayakrishnan; Leeuwen, van Ton G.; Steenbergen, Wiendelt
2008-01-01
We describe an improved method for coherence domain path length resolved measurements of multiply scattered photons in turbid media. An electro-optic phase modulator sinusoidally modulates the phase in the reference arm of a low coherence fiber optic Mach–Zehnder interferometer, at a high phase modu
The voltage limitation for phase coherence experiments: non-equilibrium effects versus Joule heating
Linke, H.; Omling, P.; Xu, Hongqi; Lindelof, P. E.
1996-12-01
The breaking of phase coherence of electrons by a finite bias voltage is studied in a quasi-one-dimensional electron gas. Although the wire is longer than the energy relaxation length we find that Joule heating in the wire is not important for dephasing of non-equilibrium electrons. Instead, phase breaking occurs by electron-electron interaction due to the excess energy of the injected electrons with respect to the Fermi energy. The relevant limiting parameter for phase coherence is, therefore, the bias voltage, rather than the dissipated power. A model calculation suggests that our results are of general relevance for coherence experiments in one-dimensional geometry on length scales of the same order of magnitude as the energy relaxation length.
Pseudospin solitons in the coherent stripe phase of a bilayer quantum Hall system
Doiron, C. B.; Côté, R.; Fertig, H. A.
2006-08-01
In the Hartree-Fock approximation and at total filling factor ν=4N+1, the ground state of the two-dimensional electron gas in a double quantum well system in a quantizing magnetic field is, in some range of interlayer distances, a coherent striped phase. This stripe phase has one-dimensional coherent channels that support charged excitations in the form of pseudospin solitons. In this work, we compute the transport gap of the coherent striped phase due to the creation of soliton-antisoliton pairs using a supercell microscopic unrestricted Hartree-Fock approach. We study the energy gap as a function of interlayer distance and tunneling amplitude. Our calculations confirm that the soliton-antisoliton excitation energy is lower than the corresponding Hartree-Fock electron-hole pair energy.
Bahr, Christopher J.; Cattafesta, Louis N.
2016-11-01
Deconvolution of aeroacoustic data acquired with microphone phased arrays is a computationally challenging task for distributed sources with arbitrary coherence. A new technique for performing such deconvolution is proposed. This technique relies on analysis of the array data in the wavenumber-frequency domain, allowing for fast convolution and reduced storage requirements when compared to traditional coherent deconvolution. A positive semidefinite constraint for the iterative deconvolution procedure is implemented and shows improved behavior in terms of quantifiable convergence metrics when compared to a standalone covariance inequality constraint. A series of simulations validates the method's ability to resolve coherence and phase angle relationships between partially coherent sources, as well as determines convergence criteria for deconvolution analysis. Simulations for point sources near the microphone phased array show potential for handling such data in the wavenumber-frequency domain. In particular, a physics-based integration boundary calculation is described, and can successfully isolate sources and track the appropriate integration bounds with and without the presence of flow. Magnitude and phase relationships between multiple sources are successfully extracted. Limitations of the deconvolution technique are determined from the simulations, particularly in the context of a simulated acoustic field in a closed test section wind tunnel with strong boundary layer contamination. A final application to a trailing edge noise experiment conducted in an open-jet wind tunnel matches best estimates of acoustic levels from traditional calculation methods and qualitatively assesses the coherence characteristics of the trailing edge noise source.
Hoffman, David P; Mathies, Richard A
2016-04-19
Femtosecond spectroscopy has revealed coherent wave packet motion time and time again, but the question as to whether these coherences are necessary for reactivity or merely a consequence of the experiment has remained open. For diatomic systems in the gas phase, such as sodium iodide, the dimensionality of the system requires coordinated atomic motion along the reaction coordinate. Coherent dynamics are also readily observed in condensed-phase multidimensional systems such as chromophores in proteins and solvated charge transfer dimers. Is precisely choreographed nuclear motion (i.e., coherence) required for reactivity in these systems? Can this coherence reveal anything about the reaction coordinate? In this Account, we describe our efforts to tackle these questions using femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy (FSRS). Results of four exemplary systems are summarized to illustrate the role coherence can play in condensed-phase reactivity, the exploitation of vibrational coherence to measure vibrational anharmonicities, and the development of two-dimensional FSRS (2D-FSRS). We begin with rhodopsin, the protein responsible for vertebrate vision. The rhodopsin photoreaction is preternaturally fast: ground-state photoproduct is formed in less than 200 fs. However, the reactively important hydrogen out-of-plane motions as well as various torsions and stretches remain vibrationally coherent long after the reaction is complete, indicating that vibrational coherence can and does survive reactive internal conversion. Both the ultrashort time scale of the reaction and the observed vibrational coherence indicate that the reaction in rhodopsin is a vibrationally coherent process. Next we examine the functional excited-state proton transfer (ESPT) reaction of green fluorescent protein. Oscillations in the phenoxy C-O and imidazolinone C═N stretches in the FSRS spectrum indicated strong anharmonic coupling to a low-frequency phenyl wagging mode that gates the ESPT reaction
Phase-Sensitive Coherence and the Classical-Quantum Boundary in Ghost Imaging
Erkmen, Baris I.; Hardy, Nicholas D.; Venkatraman, Dheera; Wong, Franco N. C.; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.
2011-01-01
The theory of partial coherence has a long and storied history in classical statistical optics. the vast majority of this work addresses fields that are statistically stationary in time, hence their complex envelopes only have phase-insensitive correlations. The quantum optics of squeezed-state generation, however, depends on nonlinear interactions producing baseband field operators with phase-insensitive and phase-sensitive correlations. Utilizing quantum light to enhance imaging has been a topic of considerable current interest, much of it involving biphotons, i.e., streams of entangled-photon pairs. Biphotons have been employed for quantum versions of optical coherence tomography, ghost imaging, holography, and lithography. However, their seemingly quantum features have been mimicked with classical-sate light, questioning wherein lies the classical-quantum boundary. We have shown, for the case of Gaussian-state light, that this boundary is intimately connected to the theory of phase-sensitive partial coherence. Here we present that theory, contrasting it with the familiar case of phase-insensitive partial coherence, and use it to elucidate the classical-quantum boundary of ghost imaging. We show, both theoretically and experimentally, that classical phase-sensitive light produces ghost imaging most closely mimicking those obtained in biphotons, and we derived the spatial resolution, image contrast, and signal-to-noise ratio of a standoff-sensing ghost imager, taking into account target-induced speckle.
Phase-Sensitive Coherence and the Classical-Quantum Boundary in Ghost Imaging
Erkmen, Baris I.; Hardy, Nicholas D.; Venkatraman, Dheera; Wong, Franco N. C.; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.
2011-01-01
The theory of partial coherence has a long and storied history in classical statistical optics. the vast majority of this work addresses fields that are statistically stationary in time, hence their complex envelopes only have phase-insensitive correlations. The quantum optics of squeezed-state generation, however, depends on nonlinear interactions producing baseband field operators with phase-insensitive and phase-sensitive correlations. Utilizing quantum light to enhance imaging has been a topic of considerable current interest, much of it involving biphotons, i.e., streams of entangled-photon pairs. Biphotons have been employed for quantum versions of optical coherence tomography, ghost imaging, holography, and lithography. However, their seemingly quantum features have been mimicked with classical-sate light, questioning wherein lies the classical-quantum boundary. We have shown, for the case of Gaussian-state light, that this boundary is intimately connected to the theory of phase-sensitive partial coherence. Here we present that theory, contrasting it with the familiar case of phase-insensitive partial coherence, and use it to elucidate the classical-quantum boundary of ghost imaging. We show, both theoretically and experimentally, that classical phase-sensitive light produces ghost imaging most closely mimicking those obtained in biphotons, and we derived the spatial resolution, image contrast, and signal-to-noise ratio of a standoff-sensing ghost imager, taking into account target-induced speckle.
Asymptotic key generation rates with phase-randomized coherent light by decoy method
Hayashi, M
2007-01-01
The asymptotic key generation (AKG) rates of quantum key distribution (QKD) with the decoy method are discussed in both the forward error correction and the reverse error correction cases when the QKD system is equipped with phase-randomized coherent light with arbitrary number of intensities. For this purpose, we derive a useful convex expansion of the phase-randomized coherent state. We also derive upper bounds of AKG rates on a natural and concrete channel model. Using these upper bounds, we numerically check that the AKG rates are almost saturated when the number of intensities is three.
Precipitation of Nanosized MX at Coherent Cu-Rich Phases in Super304H Austenitic Steel
Ou, Ping; Xing, Hui; Sun, Jian
2015-01-01
The present investigation of transmission electron microscopy reports the precipitation of nanosized and cubical-shaped incoherent Nb-rich MX at the coherent Cu-rich phases in the austenitic matrix of the Super304H steel. In addition, the nanosized Nb-rich MX phases were often observed to precipitate on dislocations during creep. It is concluded that the dense incoherent Nb-rich MX and coherent Cu-rich precipitates with a nanosized diameter contribute excellent creep resistance in the steel.
Task-and phase-related changes in cortico-muscular coherence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Masakado, Yoshihisa; Nielsen, Jens Bo
2008-01-01
Cortico-muscular coherence was compared during ramp-and-hold isometric and quasi-isotonic contraction of the ankle joint in human subjects. EEG was recorded from the leg area of the motor cortex. EMG was recorded from the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle. The subjects were requested to maintain...... reappeared quickly and had the same size as at the low level of contraction. However, a significantly larger level of coherence was found during quasi-isotonic than during the isometric contraction. This demonstrates that cortico-muscular coherence in the 15-35 Hz frequency band is phase- and task...... a steady low level of dorsiflexion and at intervals of 10 s to increase the contraction level within 1 s, maintain this level for 4 s and then decrease the level of contraction again within another 1 s. In seven subjects coherence in the 15-35 Hz frequency band was seen between EEG and TA EMG during low...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Applegate, Brian E.; Park, Jesung; Carbajal, Esteban [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, Texas (United States); Oghalai, John S. [Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States)
2015-12-31
Phase-sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography (PhOCT) is an emerging tool for in vivo investigation of the vibratory function of the intact middle and inner ear. PhOCT is able to resolve micron scale tissue morphology in three dimensions as well as measure picometer scale motion at each spatial position. Most PhOCT systems to date have relied upon the phase stability offered by spectrometer detection. On the other hand swept laser source based PhOCT offers a number of advantages including balanced detection, long imaging depths, and high imaging speeds. Unfortunately the inherent phase instability of traditional swept laser sources has necessitated complex user developed hardware/software solutions to restore phase sensitivity. Here we present recent results using a prototype swept laser that overcomes these issues. The akinetic swept laser is electronically tuned and precisely controls sweeps without any mechanical movement, which results in high phase stability. We have developed an optical fiber based PhOCT system around the akinetic laser source that had a 1550 nm center wavelength and a sweep rate of 140 kHz. The stability of the system was measured to be 4.4 pm with a calibrated reflector, thus demonstrating near shot noise limited performance. Using this PhOCT system, we have acquired structural and vibratory measurements of the middle ear in a mouse model, post mortem. The quality of the results suggest that the akinetic laser source is a superior laser source for PhOCT with many advantages that greatly reduces the required complexity of the imaging system.
All-electrical coherent control of the exciton states in a single quantum dot
de la Giroday, A Boyer; Pooley, M A; Stevenson, R M; Skold, N; Patel, R B; Farrer, I; Ritchie, D A; Shields, A J
2010-01-01
We demonstrate high-fidelity reversible transfer of quantum information from the polarisation of photons into the spin-state of an electron-hole pair in a semiconductor quantum dot. Moreover, spins are electrically manipulated on a sub-nanosecond timescale, allowing us to coherently control their evolution. By varying the area of the electrical pulse, we demonstrate phase-shift and spin-flip gate operations with near-unity fidelities. Our system constitutes a controllable quantum interface between flying and stationary qubits, an enabling technology for quantum logic in the solid-state.
Influence of amplification on pulse shaping for coherent control applications
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Du Plessis, A
2011-07-01
Full Text Available of using low seed laser powers for amplification of shaped pulses in a typical setup for coherent control experiments. An acousto-optic programmable dispersive filter (Dazzler from FastLite) is used to shape 130 fs pulses before amplification... measured as such) for low and high seed powers. Clearly, at lower seed powers as in (a), the measured trace corresponds to approximately the 4:1 ratio expected, but at high seed powers this ratio changes towards 2:1, indicating the smaller of the two...
Direct observation of Kramers-Kronig self-phasing in coherently combined fiber lasers.
Chiang, Hung-Sheng; Leger, James R; Nilsson, Johan; Sahu, Jayanta
2013-10-15
A highly stable coherent beam-combining system has been designed to measure self-phasing in fiber lasers due to nonlinear effects. Whereas self-phasing in previous coherent combination experiments has been principally attributed to wavelength shifting, these wavelength effects have been efficiently suppressed in our experiment by using a dual-core fiber with closely balanced optical path lengths. The self-phasing from nonlinear effects could then be measured independently and directly by common-path interferometry with a probe laser. The Kramers-Kronig effect in the fiber gain media was observed to induce a phase shift that effectively canceled the applied path length errors, resulting in efficient lasing under all phase conditions. This process was demonstrated to result in robust lasing over a large range of pump conditions.
Two-dimensional phase unwrapping in Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography.
Wang, Yimin; Huang, David; Su, Ya; Yao, X Steve
2016-11-14
For phase-related imaging modalities using interferometric techniques, it is important to develop effective method to recover phase information that is mathematically wrapped. In this paper, we propose and demonstrate a two-dimensional (2D) method to achieve effective phase unwrapping in Doppler Fourier-domain (FD) optical coherence tomography (OCT), and recover the discontinuous phase distribution in retinal blood flow successfully for the first time in Doppler OCT studies. The proposed method is based on phase gradient approach in the axial dimension, with phase denoising performed through 2D window moving average in the sampled phase image using complex Doppler OCT data. The 2D unwrapping is carried out to correct phase discontinuities in the wrapped Doppler phase map, and the abrupt phase changes can be identified and corrected accurately. The proposed algorithm is computationally efficient and easy to be implemented.
Grégoire, Pascal; Srimath Kandada, Ajay Ram; Vella, Eleonora; Tao, Chen; Leonelli, Richard; Silva, Carlos
2017-09-01
We present theoretical and experimental results showing the effects of incoherent population mixing on two-dimensional (2D) coherent excitation spectra that are measured via a time-integrated population and phase-sensitive detection. The technique uses four collinear ultrashort pulses and phase modulation to acquire two-dimensional spectra by isolating specific nonlinear contributions to the photoluminescence or photocurrent excitation signal. We demonstrate that an incoherent contribution to the measured line shape, arising from nonlinear population dynamics over the entire photoexcitation lifetime, generates a similar line shape to the expected 2D coherent spectra in condensed-phase systems. In those systems, photoexcitations are mobile such that inter-particle interactions are important on any time scale, including those long compared with the 2D coherent experiment. Measurements on a semicrystalline polymeric semiconductor film at low temperatures show that, in some conditions in which multi-exciton interactions are suppressed, the technique predominantly detects coherent signals and can be used, in our example, to extract homogeneous line widths. The same method used on a lead-halide perovskite photovoltaic cell shows that incoherent population mixing of mobile photocarriers can dominate the measured signal since carrier-carrier bimolecular scattering is active even at low excitation densities, which hides the coherent contribution to the spectral line shape. In this example, the intensity dependence of the signal matches the theoretical predictions over more than two orders of magnitude, confirming the incoherent nature of the signal. While these effects are typically not significant in dilute solution environments, we demonstrate the necessity to characterize, in condensed-phase materials systems, the extent of nonlinear population dynamics of photoexcitations (excitons, charge carriers, etc.) in the execution of this powerful population-detected coherent
Bell's inequality for systems with quadrature phase coherence
Tan, S. M.; Holland, M. J.; Walls, D. F.
1990-07-01
We show that a violation of Bell's inequalities by quadrature phase measurements is not due to the interference of the two photons in a photon pair state. Rather the violation predicted by Grangier et al. for a parametric down-converter is due to the interference of the photon pair state with the vacuum. We propose new sources which violate the quadrature phase Bell's inequalities, including one which employs squeezed light and another which demonstrates the non-local properties of a single photon state.
Rate Equation-Based Phase Recovery for Semiconductor Laser Coherent Transmitters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Piels, Molly; Iglesias Olmedo, Miguel; Pang, Xiaodan;
2015-01-01
We present a novel carrier recovery technique for coherent systems with semiconductor lasers that incorporates the laser dynamics. A sensitivity improvement of 8dB over a decision-directed phase-locked loop is achieved experimentally for 28GBd DP-16QAM....
Quantum displacement receiver for M-ary phase-shift-keyed coherent states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Izumi, Shuro [National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, 4-2-1 Nukui-kita, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8795, Japan and Sophia University, 7-1 Kioicho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-8554 (Japan); Takeoka, Masahiro; Fujiwara, Mikio; Sasaki, Masahide [National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, 4-2-1 Nukui-kita, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8795 (Japan); Pozza, Nicola Dalla; Assalini, Antonio [Department of Information Engineering, University of Padua, Via Gradenigo 6/B, 35131, Padova (Italy); Ema, Kazuhiro [Sophia University, 7-1 Kioicho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-8554 (Japan)
2014-12-04
We propose quantum receivers for 3- and 4-ary phase-shift-keyed (PSK) coherent state signals to overcome the standard quantum limit (SQL). Our receiver, consisting of a displacement operation and on-off detectors with or without feedforward, provides an error probability performance beyond the SQL. We show feedforward operations can tolerate the requirement for the detector specifications.
Coherent imaging of a pure phase object with classical incoherent light
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bache, Morten; Magatti, D.; Gatti, A.
2007-01-01
A ghost imaging scheme is used to observe the diffraction pattern of a pure phase object . It is observed that when increasing the spatial coherence the diffraction pattern disappeared from the cross-correlation, while it appeared in the autocorrelation. The cross-correlation contains information...
Digital coherent receiver for subcarrier multiplexed phase modulated radio-over-fibre signals
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zibar, Darko; Larsen, Knud J.; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso
2009-01-01
Digital coherent detection of multi-channel subcarrier multiplexed optically phase-modulated radio-over-fibre signals is experimentally demonstrated. Successful detection after transmission over a 40 km long fibre link of four or five 25 Mbaud BPSK/QPSK subcarrier channels in 5 GHz bandwidth...... is demonstrated using offline digital signal processing....
Coherent states of a time-dependent forced harmomc oscillator and their Aharonov-Anandan phase
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘宇峰; 雷奕安; 曾谨言
2000-01-01
A new method to construct coherent states of a time-dependent forced harmonic oscillator was given. The close relation to the classical forced oscillator and the minimum uncertainty relation were investigated. The applied periodic force (off-resonance case), in general, will attenuate the AA phase.
Very low-phase noise, coherent 94GHz radar for micro-Doppler and vibrometry studies
Robertson, Duncan A.; Brooker, Graham M.; Beasley, Patrick D. L.
2014-05-01
Micro-Doppler and vibrometry measurements require coherent radars with low phase noise. We report the development of a novel, very low phase noise 94 GHz radar, called T-220, which offers superior performance for micro-Doppler and vibrometry studies compared with our previous work. The radar uses a combination of direct digital synthesis (DDS) chirp generation, frequency upconversion and frequency multiplication to yield very low phase noise and rapid, contiguous chirps, necessary for Doppler studies and other coherent processing applications. Dual fan beam antennas are used to achieve negligible transmit-receive leakage, with fine azimuth resolution and modest elevation coverage. The resulting PPI imagery is very high fidelity with little or no evidence of phase noise effects.
Digital coherent receiver for phase modulated radio-over-fibre optical links
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zibar, Darko; Yu, Xianbin; Peucheret, Christophe
2009-01-01
A novel digital signal processing-based coherent receiver for phase-modulated radio-over-fiber (RoF) optical links is presented and demonstrated experimentally. Error-free demodulation of 50-Mbaud binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) and quadrature phase-shift keying data signal modulated on a 5-GHz...... radio-frequency (RF) carrier is experimentally demonstrated using the proposed digital coherent receiver. Additionally, a wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) phase-modulated RoF optical link is experimentally demonstrated. A 3 x50 Mb/s WDM transmission of a BPSK modulated 5-GHz RF carrier is achieved...... over 25 km for the WDM channel spacing of 12.5 and 25 GHz, respectively....
Propagation source wavelet phase extraction using multi-taper method coherence estimation
Hariri Naghadeh, Diako; Morley, Christopher Keith
2017-02-01
It is possible to use statistical methods to extract the propagation source wavelet phase from seismic data without getting information from a well log. Using kurtosis as a high-order statistics can preserve the phase of the signal but it is highly sensitive to outliers. A new method is introduced here called the multi-taper method coherence estimation. Two steps are required: first, a cosine function that includes the dominant frequency and maximum amplitude of signal is chosen. Secondly, the maximum coherence in the frequency band of the signal, which shows the best phase matching between the time series is determined. To validate this new method real data sets were chosen and the extracted wavelet phases for noise free and noisy data sets were compared with data extracted from a well log. Extracted wavelets using Kurtosis were also generated for comparison, and demonstrate the improved results using the new method.
Jeux, François; Desfarges-Berthelemot, Agnès; Kermène, Vincent; Barthelemy, Alain
2012-12-17
We report experiments on a new laser architecture involving phase contrast filtering to coherently combine an array of fiber lasers. We demonstrate that the new technique yields a more stable phase-locking than standard methods using only amplitude filtering. A spectral analysis of the output beams shows that the new scheme generates more resonant frequencies common to the coupled lasers. This property can enhance the combining efficiency when the number of lasers to be coupled is large.
Coherent confocal microscope with a phase-only filter in its extended source
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YANG Chu-ping
2006-01-01
The phase information of an extended source is reconstructed by use of a two-zone (annular) phase-only filter in a coherent confocal scanning optical microscope.The dependence of its resolution on its source size is investigated theoretically by its three-dimensional optical transfer function (3D OTF).The results show that the resolution is improved, even though the source size is enlarged.
A phase coherence approach to identifying co-located earthquakes and tremor
Hawthorne, J. C.; Ampuero, J.-P.
2017-01-01
We present and use a phase coherence approach to identify seismic signals that have similar path effects but different source time functions: co-located earthquakes and tremor. The method used is a phase coherence-based implementation of empirical matched field processing, modified to suit tremor analysis. It works by comparing the frequency-domain phases of waveforms generated by two sources recorded at multiple stations. We first cross-correlate the records of the two sources at a single station. If the sources are co-located, this cross-correlation eliminates the phases of the Green's function. It leaves the relative phases of the source time functions, which should be the same across all stations so long as the spatial extent of the sources are small compared with the seismic wavelength. We therefore search for cross-correlation phases that are consistent across stations as an indication of co-located sources. We also introduce a method to obtain relative locations between the two sources, based on back-projection of inter-station phase coherence. We apply this technique to analyze two tremor-like signals that are thought to be composed of a number of earthquakes. First, we analyze a 20-second-long seismic precursor to a M 3.9 earthquake in central Alaska. The analysis locates the precursor to within 2 km of the mainshock, and it identifies several bursts of energy-potentially foreshocks or groups of foreshocks-within the precursor. Second, we examine several minutes of volcanic tremor prior to an eruption at Redoubt Volcano. We confirm that the tremor source is located close to repeating earthquakes identified earlier in the tremor sequence. The amplitude of the tremor diminishes about 30 seconds before the eruption, but the phase coherence results suggest that the tremor may persist at some level through this final interval.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Caballero Jambrina, Antonio; Zibar, Darko; Schäffer, Christian G.
2011-01-01
A digital coherent receiver employing photonic downconversion is presented and experimentally demonstrated for phase-modulated radio-over-fiber optical links. Photonic downconversion adds additional advantages to optical phase modulated links by allowing demodulation of signals with RF carrier...
Generation of Vector Partially Coherent Optical Sources Using Phase-Only Spatial Light Modulators
Hyde, Milo W.; Bose-Pillai, Santasri; Voelz, David G.; Xiao, Xifeng
2016-12-01
A simple and flexible optical system for generating electromagnetic or vector partially coherent sources or beams is presented. The alternative design controls field amplitude (beam shape), coherence, and polarization using only spatial light modulators. This improvement makes the apparatus simpler to construct and significantly increases the flexibility of vector partially coherent source generators by allowing many different types of sources to be produced without changing the physical setup. The system's layout and theoretical foundations are thoroughly discussed. The utility and flexibility of the proposed system are demonstrated by producing a vector Schell-model and non-Schell-model source. The experimental results are compared to theoretical predictions to validate the design. Lastly, design aspects, which must be considered when building a vector partially coherent source generator for a specific application, are discussed.
Coherent control of non-resonant two-photon transition in molecular system
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhang Hui; Zhang Shi-An; Wang Zu-Geng; Sun Zhen-Rong
2010-01-01
In this paper,we study theoretically and experimentally the coherent control of non-resonant two-photon transition in a molecular system (Perylene dissolved in chloroform solution) by shaping the femtosecond pulses with simple phase patterns (cosinusoidal and π phase step-function shape).The control efficiency of the two-photon transition probability is correlated with both the laser field and the molecular absorption bandwidth.Our results demonstrate that,the two-photon transition probability in a molecular system can be reduced but not completely eliminated by manipulating the laser field,and the control efficiency is minimal when the molecular absorption bandwidth is larger than twice the laser spectral bandwidth.
Wavefront sensing based on phase contrast theory and coherent optical processing
Lei, Huang; Qi, Bian; Chenlu, Zhou; Tenghao, Li; Mali, Gong
2016-07-01
A novel wavefront sensing method based on phase contrast theory and coherent optical processing is proposed. The wavefront gradient field in the object plane is modulated into intensity distribution in a gang of patterns, making high-density detection available. By applying the method, we have also designed a wavefront sensor. It consists of a classical coherent optical processing system, a CCD detector array, two pieces of orthogonal composite sinusoidal gratings, and a mechanical structure that can perform real-time linear positioning. The simulation results prove and demonstrate the validity of the method and the sensor in high-precision measurement of the wavefront gradient field.
Dynamical nonlocality of the entangled coherent state in the phase damping model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Lu Huai-Xin; Li Ying-De
2009-01-01
This paper studies the dynamics of nonlocality for a bosonic entangled coherent state in a phase damping model. The density operator of the system is solved by using a superoperator method. The dynamics of nonlocality for the bosonic entangled coherent state is uncovered by the Bell operator based on the pseudospin operator of a light field. The dynamics of the nonlocality for this state has also been studied by other Bell operators. The result of the numerical calculations of the Bell function shows that the quantum nonlocality heavily depends on the chosen Bell operator.
Angular Momentum-Phase Coherent State for an Electron in Uniform Magnetic Field
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
FAN Hong-Yi; FAN Yue
2001-01-01
Based on the newly constructed state ｜l, r》 [Fan et al., Chin. Phys. Lett. 16(1999)706], where l is the angular momentum quantum number and r denotes the electron's orbit radius in a uniform magnetic field, we propose a new angular momentum-phase coherent state by introducing a new operator A. A and A+ are annihilation and creation operators in the ｜l, r》 space, respectively. The coherent state is A's eigenket and possesses non-orthonormal and overcomplete properties. It is constructed on the certain superposition of zero-angular momentum states along the radius direction.
A simple coherent attack and practical security of differential phase shift quantum cryptography
Kronberg, D. A.
2014-02-01
The differential phase shift quantum key distribution protocol reveals good security against such powerful attacks as unambiguous state discrimination and beam splitting attacks. Its complete security analysis is complex due to high dimensions of the supposed spaces and density operators. In this paper, we consider a particular and conceptually simple coherent attack, available in practical implementations. The main condition for this attack is the length of used coherent state tuples of order 8-12. We show that under this condition, no high level of practical distance between legitimate users can be achieved.
Study on the fine control of atoms by coherent interaction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Han, Jae Min; Rho, S. P.; Park, H. M.; Lee, K. S.; Rhee, Y. J.; Yi, J. H.; Jeong, D. Y.; Ko, K. H.; Lee, J. M.; Kim, M.K
2000-01-01
Study on one dimensional atom cooling and trapping process which is basic to the development of atom manipulation technology has been performed. A Zeeman slower has been designed and manufactured for efficient cooling of atoms. The speed of atoms finally achieved is as slow as 15 m/s with proper cooling conditions. By six circularly-polarized laser beams and quadrupole magnetic field, the atoms which have been slowed down by zeeman slower have been trapped in a small spatial region inside MOT. The higher the intensity of the slowing laser is the more is the number of atoms slowed and the maximum number of atoms trapped has been 10{sup 8}. The atoms of several tens of {mu}K degree have been trapped by controlling the intensity of trapping laser and intensity gradient of magnetic field. EIT phenomena caused by atomic coherent interaction has been studied for the development of atom optical elements. For the investigation of the focusing phenomena induced by the coherent interaction, experimental measurements and theoretical analysis have been performed. Spatial dependency of spectrum and double distribution signal of coupling laser have been obtained. The deflection of laser beams utilizing the EIT effects has also been considered. (author)
Two-Color Coherent Control of Femtosecond Above-Threshold Photoemission from a Tungsten Nanotip
Förster, Michael; Paschen, Timo; Krüger, Michael; Lemell, Christoph; Wachter, Georg; Libisch, Florian; Madlener, Thomas; Burgdörfer, Joachim; Hommelhoff, Peter
2016-11-01
We demonstrate coherent control of multiphoton and above-threshold photoemission from a single solid-state nanoemitter driven by a fundamental and a weak second harmonic laser pulse. Depending on the relative phase of the two pulses, electron emission is modulated with a contrast of the oscillating current signal of up to 94%. Electron spectra reveal that all observed photon orders are affected simultaneously and similarly. We confirm that photoemission takes place within 10 fs. Accompanying simulations indicate that the current modulation with its large contrast results from two interfering quantum pathways leading to electron emission.
Two-color coherent control of femtosecond above-threshold photoemission from a tungsten nanotip
Förster, Michael; Krüger, Michael; Lemell, Christoph; Wachter, Georg; Libisch, Florian; Madlener, Thomas; Burgdörfer, Joachim; Hommelhoff, Peter
2016-01-01
We demonstrate coherent control of multiphoton and above-threshold photoemission from a single solid-state nanoemitter driven by a fundamental and a weak second harmonic laser pulse. Depending on the relative phase of the two pulses, electron emission is modulated with a visibility of up to 94%. Electron spectra reveal that all observed photon orders are affected simultaneously and similarly. We confirm that photoemission takes place within 10 fs. Accompanying simulations indicate that the current modulation with its large contrast results from two interfering quantum pathways leading to electron emission.
Local Probing of Phase Coherence in a Strongly Interacting 2D Quantum Gas
Luick, Niclas; Siegl, Jonas; Hueck, Klaus; Morgener, Kai; Lompe, Thomas; Weimer, Wolf; Moritz, Henning
2016-05-01
The dimensionality of a quantum system has a profound impact on its coherence and superfluid properties. In 3D superfluids, bosonic atoms or Cooper pairs condense into a macroscopic wave function exhibiting long-range phase coherence. Meanwhile, 2D superfluids show a strikingly different behavior: True long-range coherence is precluded by thermal fluctuations, nevertheless Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) theory predicts that 2D systems can still become superfluid. The superfluid state is characterized by an algebraic decay of phase correlations g1(r) ~r - τ / 4 , where the decay exponent τ is directly related to the superfluid density ns according to τ = 4 /(nsλdB2) . I will present local coherence measurements in a strongly interacting 2D gas of diatomic 6 Li molecules. A self-interference technique allows us to locally extract the algebraic decay exponent and to reconstruct the superfluid density. We determine the scaling of the decay exponent with phase space density to provide a benchmark for studies of 2D superfluids in the strongly interacting regime.
Quasi-Coherent Noise Jamming to LFM Radar Based on Pseudo-random Sequence Phase-modulation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. Tai
2015-12-01
Full Text Available A novel quasi-coherent noise jamming method is proposed against linear frequency modulation (LFM signal and pulse compression radar. Based on the structure of digital radio frequency memory (DRFM, the jamming signal is acquired by the pseudo-random sequence phase-modulation of sampled radar signal. The characteristic of jamming signal in time domain and frequency domain is analyzed in detail. Results of ambiguity function indicate that the blanket jamming effect along the range direction will be formed when jamming signal passes through the matched filter. By flexible controlling the parameters of interrupted-sampling pulse and pseudo-random sequence, different covering distances and jamming effects will be achieved. When the jamming power is equivalent, this jamming obtains higher process gain compared with non-coherent jamming. The jamming signal enhances the detection threshold and the real target avoids being detected. Simulation results and circuit engineering implementation validate that the jamming signal covers real target effectively.
Pulse Phase-coherent Timing and Spectroscopy of CXOU J164710.2-45521 Outbursts
Castillo, Guillermo A Rodríguez; Esposito, Paolo; Pons, José A; Rea, Nanda; Turolla, Roberto; Viganò, Daniele; Zane, Silvia
2014-01-01
We present a long-term phase-coherent timing analysis and pulse-phase resolved spectroscopy for the two outbursts observed from the transient anomalous X-ray pulsar CXOU J164710.2-45521. For the first outburst we used 11 Chandra and XMM-Newton observations between September 2006 to August 2009, the longest baseline yet for this source. We obtain a coherent timing solution with $P=10.61065583(4)$ s, $\\dot{P} = 9.72(1) \\times 10^{-13}\\;$s s$^{-1}$ and $\\ddot{P} = -1.05(5)\\times10^{-20}\\; $s s$^{-2}$. Under the standard assumptions this implies a surface dipolar magnetic field of $\\sim 10^{14}$ G, confirming this source as a standard-$B$ magnetar. We also study the evolution of the pulse profile (shape, intensity and pulsed fraction) as a function of time and energy. Using the phase-coherent timing solution we perform a phase-resolved spectroscopy analysis, following the spectral evolution of pulse-phase features, which hints at the physical processes taking place on the star. The results are discussed from the ...
Van der Ven, A.; Garikipati, K.; Kim, S.; Wagemaker, M.
2009-01-01
We investigate the role of coherency strains on the thermodynamics of two-phase coexistence during Li (de)intercalation of LixFePO4. We explicitly account for the anisotropy of the elastic moduli and analytically derive coupled chemical and mechanical equilibrium criteria for two-phase morphologies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ishino, Y.; Kojima, T.; Oiwa, N.; Yamaguchi, S. (Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan))
1993-11-25
The acoustic excitation of a plane diffusion flame enhances the periodicity of organized eddy controlled combustion. In this study, to clarify an effectiveness of application of active combustion control, phase characteristics of the excited eddy flames with high periodicity have been examined. A computer-aided phase-locked averaging method was employed to obtain graphical two-dimensional contour maps of the instantaneous profiles of temperature and CH emission. Both maps consisting of eight consecutive phases indicated clearly not only the periodic behavior of the organized eddy flame, but also the gas dynamic properties peculiar to those flames with coherent structure. In addition, the profiles of local contribution of the sound field to the combustion process were examined by calculating the two-dimensional distribution of the local Rayleigh index. Calculation results of the two-dimensional distribution of the local Rayleigh index indicated that the organized eddy flames have high sensitivity to sound, and play an important role in an interaction of sound and flame. 6 refs., 9 figs.
Controlling coherence via tuning of the population imbalance in a bipartite optical lattice
di Liberto, Marco Fedele
2015-03-01
The control of transport properties is a key tool at the basis of many technologically relevant effects in condensed matter. The clean and precisely controlled environment of ultracold atoms in optical lattices allows one to prepare simplified but instructive models, which can help to better understand the underlying physical mechanisms. Here we show that by tuning a structural deformation of the unit cell in a bipartite optical lattice, one can induce a phase transition from a superfluid into various Mott insulating phases forming a shell structure in the superimposed harmonic trap. The Mott shells are identified via characteristic features in the visibility of Bragg maxima in momentum spectra. The experimental findings are explained by Gutzwiller mean-field and quantum Monte Carlo calculations. Our system bears similarities with the loss of coherence in cuprate superconductors, known to be associated with the doping induced buckling of the oxygen octahedra surrounding the copper sites.
Phase-sensitive multiple reference optical coherence tomography (Conference Presentation)
Dsouza, Roshan I.; Subhash, Hrebesh; Neuhaus, Kai; Hogan, Josh; Wilson, Carol; Leahy, Martin
2016-03-01
Multiple reference OCT (MR-OCT) is a recently developed novel time-domain OCT platform based on a miniature reference arm optical delay, which utilizes a single miniature actuator and a partial mirror to generate recirculating optical delay for extended axial-scan range. MR-OCT technology promises to fit into a robust and cost-effective design, compatible with integration into consumer-level devices for addressing wide applications in mobile healthcare and biometry applications. Using conventional intensity based OCT processing techniques, the high-resolution structural imaging capability of MR-OCT has been recently demonstrated for various applications including in vivo human samples. In this study, we demonstrate the feasibility of implementing phase based processing with MR-OCT for various functional applications such as Doppler imaging and sensing of blood vessels, and for tissue vibrography applications. The MR-OCT system operates at 1310nm with a spatial resolution of ~26 µm and an axial scan rate of 600Hz. Initial studies show a displacement-sensitivity of ~20 nm to ~120 nm for the first 1 to 9 orders of reflections, respectively with a mirror as test-sample. The corresponding minimum resolvable velocity for these orders are ~2.3 µm/sec and ~15 µm/sec respectively. Data from a chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model will be shown to demonstrate the feasibility of MR-OCT for imaging in-vivo blood flow.
Pagnanelli, Christopher J.; Cashin, William F.
1992-01-01
The characterization of precision frequency standard phase noise and spurious outputs is addressed, using the two-oscillator coherent downconversion technique. Focus is on techniques for making accurate measurements of phase noise and spurious outputs within 100 KHz of a carrier. Significant sources of measurement error related to hardware design problems and inadequate measurement procedures are discussed: measurement errors resulting from system noise sources, phase-locked loop effects, and system bandwidth limitations. In addition, methods and design considerations for minimizing the effects of such errors are presented. Analytic discussions and results are supplemented with actual test data and measurements made using measurement hardware developed at the Ball Corporation, Efratom Division.
Dimensioning BCH codes for coherent DQPSK systems with laser phase noise and cycle slips
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Leong, Miu Yoong; Larsen, Knud J.; Jacobsen, Gunnar
2014-01-01
Forward error correction (FEC) plays a vital role in coherent optical systems employing multi-level modulation. However, much of coding theory assumes that additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) is dominant, whereas coherent optical systems have significant phase noise (PN) in addition to AWGN. Thi...... approach for a target post-FEC BER of 10-5. Codes dimensioned with our bivariate binomial model meet the target within 0.2-dB signal-to-noise ratio....... these statistics to parameterize a bivariate binomial model that describes the distribution of bit errors. In this way, we relate pre-FEC statistics to post-FEC BER and BCH codes. Our method is applicable to pre-FEC BER around 10-3 and any post-FEC BER. Using numerical simulations, we evaluate the accuracy of our......Forward error correction (FEC) plays a vital role in coherent optical systems employing multi-level modulation. However, much of coding theory assumes that additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) is dominant, whereas coherent optical systems have significant phase noise (PN) in addition to AWGN...
Facing the phase problem in Coherent Diffractive Imaging via Memetic Algorithms
Colombo, Alessandro; Galli, Davide Emilio; de Caro, Liberato; Scattarella, Francesco; Carlino, Elvio
2017-02-01
Coherent Diffractive Imaging is a lensless technique that allows imaging of matter at a spatial resolution not limited by lens aberrations. This technique exploits the measured diffraction pattern of a coherent beam scattered by periodic and non–periodic objects to retrieve spatial information. The diffracted intensity, for weak–scattering objects, is proportional to the modulus of the Fourier Transform of the object scattering function. Any phase information, needed to retrieve its scattering function, has to be retrieved by means of suitable algorithms. Here we present a new approach, based on a memetic algorithm, i.e. a hybrid genetic algorithm, to face the phase problem, which exploits the synergy of deterministic and stochastic optimization methods. The new approach has been tested on simulated data and applied to the phasing of transmission electron microscopy coherent electron diffraction data of a SrTiO3 sample. We have been able to quantitatively retrieve the projected atomic potential, and also image the oxygen columns, which are not directly visible in the relevant high-resolution transmission electron microscopy images. Our approach proves to be a new powerful tool for the study of matter at atomic resolution and opens new perspectives in those applications in which effective phase retrieval is necessary.
Short-range order types in binary alloys: A reflection of coherent phase stability
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
W. Wolverton; V. Ozolins; Alex Zunger
1999-11-23
The short-range order (SRO) present in disordered solid solutions is classified according to three characteristic system-dependent energies: (1) formation enthalpies of ordered compounds, (2) enthalpies of mixing of disordered alloys, and (3) the energy of coherent phase separation, (the composition-weighted energy of the constituents each constrained to maintain a common lattice constant along an A/B interface). These energies are all compared against a common reference, the energy of incoherent phase separation (the composition-weighted energy of the constituents each at their own equilibrium volumes). Unlike long-range order (LRO), short-range order is determined by energetic competition between phases at a fixed composition, and hence only coherent phase-separated states are of relevance for SRO. The authors find five distinct SRO types, and show examples of each of these five types, including Cu-Au, Al-Mg, GaP-InP, Ni-Au, and Cu-Ag. The SRO is calculated from first-principles using the mixed-space cluster expansion approach combined with Monte Carlo simulations. Additionally, they examine the effect of inclusion of coherency strain in the calculation of SRO, and specifically examine the appropriate functional form for accurate SRO calculations.
Entanglement Swapping of Pair Coherent States with Phase Decoherence
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Taishi Okita; Toshiyuki Takagi
2009-01-01
We study the relation between the magnetic field structure and the induced electric-current distribution based on a cylindrical model composed of a uniform electrically conductive medium. When the time-varying magnetic fields are axisymmetrically applied in the axial direction of the model, the electric fields are induced around the central axis in accordance with Faradays law. We examine the eddy-current distributions generated by loop-coils with various geometries carrying an alternating electric current. It is shown that the radial structure of the induced fields can significantly be controlled by the loop coil geometry, which will be suitable for practical use especially in magnetic nerve stimulation on bioelectromagnetics, if we appropriately place the exciting coil with optimum geometry.
Self-coherent phase reference sharing for continuous-variable quantum key distribution
Marie, Adrien; Alléaume, Romain
2017-01-01
We develop a comprehensive framework to model and optimize the performance of continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CV-QKD) with a local local oscillator (LLO), when phase reference sharing and QKD are jointly implemented. We first analyze the limitations of the only existing approach, called LLO-sequential, and show that it requires high modulation dynamics and can only tolerate small phase noise. Our main contribution is to introduce two designs to perform LLO CV-QKD, respectively called LLO-delayline and LLO-displacement, and to study their performance. Both designs rely on a self-coherent approach, in which phase reference information and quantum information are coherently obtained from a single optical wavefront. We show that these designs can lift some limitations of the existing LLO-sequential approach. The LLO-delayline design can in particular tolerate much stronger phase noise and thus appears to be an appealing alternative to LLO-sequential in terms of network integrability. We also investigate, with the LLO-displacement design, how phase reference information and quantum information can be multiplexed within a single optical pulse. By studying the trade-off between phase reference recovery and phase noise induced by displacement, we, however, demonstrate that this design can only tolerate low phase noise. On the other hand, the LLO-displacement design has the advantage of minimal hardware requirements and provides a simple approach to multiplex classical and quantum communications, opening a practical path towards the development of ubiquitous coherent classical-quantum communications systems compatible with next-generation network requirements.
Coherent control of mesoscopic superpositions in a diatomic molecule
Ghosh, Suranjana
2011-01-01
A phase controlled wave packet, recently used in experiment of wave packet interferometry of a diatomic molecule, is investigated to obtain mesoscopic superposition structures, useful in quantum metrology. This analysis provides a new way of obtaining sub-Planck scale structures at smaller time scale of revival dynamics. We study a number of situations for delineating the smallest interference structures and their control by tailoring the relative phase between two subsidiary wave packets. We also find the most appropriate state, so far, for high precision parameter estimation in a system of diatomic molecule.
Phase control of excitable systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zambrano, S; Seoane, J M; Marino, I P; Sanjuan, M A F [Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos Group, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Tulipan s/n, 28933 Mostoles, Madrid (Spain); Euzzor, S; Meucci, R; Arecchi, F T [CNR-Istituto Nazionale di Ottica Applicata, Largo E. Fermi, 6 50125 Firenze (Italy)], E-mail: samuel.zambrano@urjc.es, E-mail: jesus.seoane@urjc.es, E-mail: ines.perez@urjc.es
2008-07-15
Here we study how to control the dynamics of excitable systems by using the phase control technique. Excitable systems are relevant in neuronal dynamics and therefore this method might have important applications. We use the periodically driven FitzHugh-Nagumo (FHN) model, which displays both spiking and non-spiking behaviours in chaotic or periodic regimes. The phase control technique consists of applying a harmonic perturbation with a suitable phase {phi} that we adjust in search of different behaviours of the FHN dynamics. We compare our numerical results with experimental measurements performed on an electronic circuit and find good agreement between them. This method might be useful for a better understanding of excitable systems and different phenomena in neuronal dynamics.
Vanin, Evgeny; Jacobsen, Gunnar
2010-03-01
The Bit-Error-Ratio (BER) floor caused by the laser phase noise in the optical fiber communication system with differential quadrature phase shift keying (DQPSK) and coherent detection followed by digital signal processing (DSP) is analytically evaluated. An in-phase and quadrature (I&Q) receiver with a carrier phase recovery using DSP is considered. The carrier phase recovery is based on a phase estimation of a finite sum (block) of the signal samples raised to the power of four and the phase unwrapping at transitions between blocks. It is demonstrated that errors generated at block transitions cause the dominating contribution to the system BER floor when the impact of the additive noise is negligibly small in comparison with the effect of the laser phase noise. Even the BER floor in the case when the phase unwrapping is omitted is analytically derived and applied to emphasize the crucial importance of this signal processing operation. The analytical results are verified by full Monte Carlo simulations. The BER for another type of DQPSK receiver operation, which is based on differential phase detection, is also obtained in the analytical form using the principle of conditional probability. The principle of conditional probability is justified in the case of differential phase detection due to statistical independency of the laser phase noise induced signal phase error and the additive noise contributions. Based on the achieved analytical results the laser linewidth tolerance is calculated for different system cases.
Robust numerical phase stabilization for long-range swept-source optical coherence tomography.
Song, Shaozhen; Xu, Jingjiang; Men, Shaojie; Shen, Tueng T; Wang, Ruikang K
2017-05-09
A novel phase stabilization technique is demonstrated with significant improvement in the phase stability of a micro-electromechanical (MEMS) vertical cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) based swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) system. Without any requirements of hardware modifications, the new fully numerical phase stabilization technique features high tolerance to acquisition jitter, and significantly reduced budget in computational effort. We demonstrate that when measured with biological tissue, this technique enables a phase sensitivity of 89 mrad in highly scattering tissue, with image ranging distance of up to 12.5 mm at A-line scan rate of 100.3 kHz. We further compare the performances delivered by the phase-stabilization approach with conventional numerical approach for accuracy and computational efficiency. Imaging result of complex signal-based optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and Doppler OCTA indicate that the proposed phase stabilization technique is robust, and efficient in improving the image contrast-to-noise ratio and extending OCTA depth range. The proposed technique can be universally applied to improve phase-stability in generic SS-OCT with different scale of scan rates without a need for special treatment. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Scale bridging description of coherent phase equilibria in the presence of surfaces and interfaces
Spatschek, R.; Gobbi, G.; Hüter, C.; Chakrabarty, A.; Aydin, U.; Brinckmann, S.; Neugebauer, J.
2016-10-01
We investigate phase separation including elastic coherency effects in the bulk and at surfaces and find a reduction of the solubility limit in the presence of free surfaces. This mechanism favors phase separation near free surfaces even in the absence of external stresses. We apply the theory to hydride formation in nickel, iron, and niobium and obtain a reduction of the solubility limit by up to two orders of magnitude at room temperature in the presence of free surfaces. We develop in particular a scale bridging description of the solubility limit in the low-temperature regime, where the long-ranged elastic effects are expressed through a geometrical solubility modification factor, which expresses the difference to bulk systems. This expression allows to include elastic coherency effects near surfaces, e.g., in ab initio simulations.
Coherent x-ray diffraction imaging of paint pigmentparticles by scanning a phase plate modulator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chu Y. S.; Chen B.; Zhang F.; Berenguer F.; Bean R.; Kewish C.; Vila-Comamala J.; Rodenburg J.; Robinson I.
2011-10-19
We have implemented a coherent x-ray diffraction imaging technique that scans a phase plate to modulate wave-fronts of the x-ray beam transmitted by samples. The method was applied to measure a decorative alkyd paint containing iron oxide red pigment particles. By employing an iterative algorithm for wave-front modulation phase retrieval, we obtained an image of the paint sample that shows the distribution of the pigment particles and is consistent with the result obtained from a transmission x-ray microscope. The technique has been experimentally proven to be a feasible coherent x-ray imaging method with about 120 nm spatial resolution and was shown to work well with industrially relevant specimens.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zibar, Darko; Caballero Jambrina, Antonio; Guerrero Gonzalez, Neil
2009-01-01
A digital coherent receiver employing photonic downconversion is presented and experimentally demonstrated for phase-modulated radio-over-fibre optical links. The receiver is capable of operating at frequencies exceeding the bandwidth of electrical analog-to-digital converter by using photonic...... downconversion to translate the high-frequency input RF signal to the operating frequency range of the analog-to-digital converter. First, using linear digital demodulation scheme we measure SFDR of the link at microwave frequency of 5 GHz. Thereafter, successful signal demodulation of 50 Mbit/s binary phase...... shift keying (BPSK) modulated data signal at 5 GHz RF carrier frequency is experimentally demonstrated by using an analog-to-digital converter with only 1 GHz bandwidth. We successfully demonstrate signal demodulation, using the proposed digital coherent receiver with photonic downconversion, after 40...
Photonic aided bandpass sampling in coherent phase modulated radio-over-fiber links
Cao, Minghua; Li, Jianqiang; Dai, Jian; Dai, Yitang; Yin, Feifei; Zhou, Yue; Xu, Kun
2016-06-01
We have experimentally presented a digital coherent receiver employing photonic aided bandpass sampling technology for phase-modulated radio-over-fiber (RoF) links. An optical intensity modulator (IM) is utilized as the bandpass sampler which performs encoded on-off keyed pulse sequence on the optical local oscillator. Quaternary Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) modulated data signal with 20 MHz bandwidth at 5.2 GHz, 10.2 GHz and 15.2 GHz RF carrier frequency is experimentally demonstrated to be successfully detected by using balanced photodiodes (BPDs) with only 800 MHz analog bandwidth. It demonstrates that the required analog bandwidth of BPDs and ADCs can be dramatically reduced in a direct sampled coherent RoF communications system.
Efficient Handling of Lock Hand-off in DSM Multiprocessors with Buffering Coherence Controllers
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Benjamín Sahelices; Agustín de Dios; Pablo Ibá(n)ez; Víctor Vi(n)als-Yúfera; José María Llabería
2012-01-01
Synchronization in parallel programs is a major performance bottleneck in multiprocessor systems.Shared data is protected by locks and a lot of time is spent on the competition arising at the lock hand-off.In order to be serialized,requests to the same cache line can either be bounced (NACKed) or buffered in the coherence controller.In this paper,we focus mainly on systems whose coherence controllers buffer requests.In a lock hand-off,a burst of requests to the same line arrive at the coherence controller.During lock hand-off only the requests from the winning processor contribute to progress of the computation,since the winning processor is the only one that will advance the work.This key observation leads us to propose a hardware mechanism we call request bypassing,which allows requests from the winning processor to bypass the requests buffered in the coherence controller keeping the lock line.We present an inexpensive implementation of request bypassing that reduces the time spent on all the execution phases of a critical section (acquiring the lock,accessing shared data,and releasing the lock) and which,as a consequence,speeds up the whole parallel computation.This mechanism requires neither compiler or programmer support nor ISA or coherence protocol changes.By simulating a 32-processor system,we show that using request bypassing does not degrade but rather improves performance in three applications with low synchronization rates,while in those having a large amount of synchronization activity (the remaining four),we see reductions in execution time and in lock stall time ranging from 14％ to 39％ and from 52％ to 71％,respectively.We compare request bypassing with a previously proposed technique called read combining and with a system that bounces requests,observing a significantly lower execution time with the bypassing scheme.Finally,we analyze the sensitivity of our results to some key hardware and software parameters.
EEG phase coherence, pure consciousness, creativity, and TM--Sidhi experiences.
Orme-Johnson, D W; Haynes, C T
1981-01-01
Males (n = 12, M age 25.6 yrs) with clear experiences (CE) of both "pure consciousness" (unbounded inner awareness without thoughts) and the TM--Sidhi techniques (mental procedures derived from Vedic Science to enhance cognitive, perceptual and other abilities) were compared with unclear experience (UE) males (n = 10, M age 25.5 yrs) on creativity (ideational fluency, Torrance, Novel Uses, Verbal) and EEG coherence, a measure of phase stability derived from Fourier series analysis. Multivariate analysis of variance of coherence between four pairs of EEG derivations (F3F4, F3C3, F4C4, C3C4) and a t-test on the creativity variable showed that CE subjects had higher alpha (8--12 Hz) coherence (p = 0.052) and higher creativity (p = 0.011) than UE subjects. Several of the alpha coherence variables were positively correlated with creativity: Bilateral Frontal (F3F4), r = 0.65, p = 0.001; Homolateral Right, r = 0.50, p = 0 .011; mean of the four alpha variables, r = 0.66, p = 0.001; Dominant Alpha (area of highest alpha coherence for each subject) r = 0.64, p = 0.001. It is concluded that: (1) information processing, at least to the extent measured by ideational fluency, is enhanced in those with clear experiences of pure consciousness and the TM--Sidhi techniques, (2) that EEG coherence is a psychophysiological correlate of this subject variable and (3) that the results may be generalizable to the field of information processing and "peak experiences" described in Humanistic psychology.
Sengupta, Ranit; Shah, Shalin; Gore, Katie; Loucks, Torrey; Nasir, Sazzad M
2016-12-01
Despite advances in our understanding of the human speech system, the neurophysiological basis of stuttering remains largely unknown. Here, it is hypothesized that the speech of adults who stutter (AWS) is susceptible to disruptions in sensorimotor integration caused by neural miscommunication within the speech motor system. Human speech unfolds over rapid timescales and relies on a distributed system of brain regions working in a parallel and synchronized manner, and a breakdown in neural communication between the putative brain regions could increase susceptibility to dysfluency. Using a speech motor adaptation paradigm under altered auditory feedback with simultaneous recording of EEG, the oscillatory cortical dynamics was investigated in stuttering and fluent adults (FA). Auditory feedback perturbation involved the shifting of the formant frequencies of the target vowel sound. Reduced adaptation in response to the feedback error was observed in AWS and was accompanied by differences in EEG spectral powers and anomalies in phase coherence evolving over the course of speech motor training. It is understood that phase coherence possibly captures neural communication within speech motor networks. Thus, the phase coherence network of the two groups exhibited differences involving the EEG frequency bands. These findings in anomalous neural synchrony provide novel evidence for compromised neuronal communication at short time scales within the speech motor network of AWS.
Controllable generation of partially coherent light pulses with direct space-to-time pulse shaper.
Torres-Company, Víctor; Mínguez-Vega, Gladys; Lancis, Jesús; Friberg, Ari T
2007-06-15
We demonstrate the possibility of creating user-defined partially coherent light pulses by means of a slight modification of the direct space-to-time pulse shaper. Specifically, we generate a mutual coherence function that corresponds to the independent-elementary-pulse representation model. The theoretical limits in the parameter of global coherence and the efficiency of the system are studied. Our result opens the door to a new way of quantum control in laser-assisted chemical reactions, namely, control by partial coherence.
Phase noise estimation and mitigation for DCT-based coherent optical OFDM systems.
Yang, Chuanchuan; Yang, Feng; Wang, Ziyu
2009-09-14
In this paper, as an attractive alternative to the conventional discrete Fourier transform (DFT) based orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), discrete cosine transform (DCT) based OFDM which has certain advantages over its counterpart is studied for optical fiber communications. As is known, laser phase noise is a major impairment to the performance of coherent optical OFDM (CO-OFDM) systems. However, to our knowledge, detailed analysis of phase noise and the corresponding mitigation methods for DCT-based CO-OFDM systems have not been reported yet. To address these issues, we analyze the laser phase noise in the DCT-based CO-OFDM systems, and propose phase noise estimation and mitigation schemes. Numerical results show that the proposal is very effective in suppressing phase noise and could significantly improve the performance of DCT-based CO-OFDM systems.
Self-Mixing Demodulation for Coherent Phase-Sensitive OTDR System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Haijun He
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Phase-sensitive optical time domain reflectometry (Ф-OTDR attracts much attention due to its capability of telling the type and position of an intrusion simultaneously. In recent decades, coherent Ф-OTDR has been demonstrated to realize long-distance detection. For coherent Ф-OTDR, there are three typical demodulation schemes in the reported studies. However, they still cannot realize real-time monitoring to satisfy practical demands. A simple and effective demodulation method based on self-mixing has been put forward to demodulate the beat signal in coherent Ф-OTDR. It not only saves a local electrical oscillator and frequency locked loop, but also demodulates the beat signal without residual frequency. Several vibrations with different frequency were separately applied at the same location of a 42.5 km fiber. The spatial resolution of 10 m and frequency response range from 8 Hz to 980 Hz have been achieved. The precise location with signal-to-noise ratio of 21.4 dB and broadband measurement demonstrate the self-mixing scheme can demodulate the coherent Ф-OTDR signal effectively.
Coherent quantum state storage and transfer between two phase qubits via a resonant cavity.
Sillanpää, Mika A; Park, Jae I; Simmonds, Raymond W
2007-09-27
As with classical information processing, a quantum information processor requires bits (qubits) that can be independently addressed and read out, long-term memory elements to store arbitrary quantum states, and the ability to transfer quantum information through a coherent communication bus accessible to a large number of qubits. Superconducting qubits made with scalable microfabrication techniques are a promising candidate for the realization of a large-scale quantum information processor. Although these systems have successfully passed tests of coherent coupling for up to four qubits, communication of individual quantum states between superconducting qubits via a quantum bus has not yet been realized. Here, we perform an experiment demonstrating the ability to coherently transfer quantum states between two superconducting Josephson phase qubits through a quantum bus. This quantum bus is a resonant cavity formed by an open-ended superconducting transmission line of length 7 mm. After preparing an initial quantum state with the first qubit, this quantum information is transferred and stored as a nonclassical photon state of the resonant cavity, then retrieved later by the second qubit connected to the opposite end of the cavity. Beyond simple state transfer, these results suggest that a high-quality-factor superconducting cavity could also function as a useful short-term memory element. The basic architecture presented here can be expanded, offering the possibility for the coherent interaction of a large number of superconducting qubits.
In-vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography using an RSOD-based phase modulator
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ling WANG; Zhi-hua DING; Guo-hua SHI; Yu-dong ZHANG
2009-01-01
Fourier-domain rapid scanning optical delay line (RSOD) was introduced for phase modulation and depth scanning in a time-domain optical coherence tomography (TD-OCT) system. Investigation of parameter optimization of RSOD was conducted.Experiments for RSOD characterization at different parameters of the groove pitch, focal length, galvomirror size, etc. were performed. By implementing the optimized RSOD in our established TD-OCT system with a broadband light source centered at 840 nm with 50 nm bandwidth, in vivo retina imaging of a rabbit was presented, demonstrating the feasibility of high-quality TD-OCT imaging using an RSOD-based phase modulator.
A Flexible Phase Retrieval Framework for Flux-limited Coherent X-Ray Imaging
Shi, Liang; Lane, Thomas J
2016-01-01
Coherent X-ray diffraction imaging~(CXDI) experiments are intrinsically limited by shot noise, a lack of prior knowledge about the sample's support, and missing measurements due to the experimental geometry. We propose a flexible, iterative phase retrieval framework that allows for accurate modeling of Gaussian or Poissonian noise statistics, modified support updates, regularization of reconstructed signals, and handling of missing data in the observations. The proposed method is efficiently solved using alternating direction method of multipliers~(ADMM) and is demonstrated to consistently outperform state-of-the-art algorithms for low-photon phase retrieval from CXDI experiments, both for simulated diffraction patterns and for experimental measurements.
Coherent control of plasmonic Spin Hall effect (Conference Presentation)
Xiao, Shiyi; Zhong, Fan; Liu, Hui; Zhu, Shining; Li, Jensen
2016-10-01
We demonstrate spin-induced manipulation of surface-plasmon polariton (SPP) by exploiting the plasmonic spin Hall effect. By constructing metasurfaces with plasmonic atoms and varying spin-dependent geometric phase, we establish a holographic interface between an incident plane wave and the SPP on an optical chip. It allows us to gain spin-splitting and flexible control of the shapes and phases of the local SPP orbitals. Furthermore, a linearly polarized incident light with rotating polarization angle can be used to play a motion picture of the orbitals. These investigations provide a feasible route to many applications, including spin-enabled imaging, data storage and integrated optics.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jin, Zuanming; Mics, Zoltán; Ma, Guohong;
2013-01-01
We report on the coherent control of terahertz (THz) spin waves in a canted antiferromagnet yttrium orthoferrite, YFeO3, associated with a quasiferromagnetic (quasi-FM) spin resonance at a frequency of 0.3 THz, using a single-incident THz pulse. The spin resonance is excited impulsively...... by the magnetic field component of the THz pulse. The intrinsic dielectric anisotropy of YFeO3 in the THz range allows for coherent control of both the amplitude and the phase of the excited spin wave. The coherent control is based on simultaneous generation of two interfering phase-shifted spin waves whose...... amplitudes and relative phase, dictated by the dielectric anisotropy of the YFeO3 crystal, can be controlled by varying the polarization of the incident THz pulse with respect to the crystal axes. The spatially anisotropic decay of the THz-excited FM spin resonance in YFeO3, leading to an increasingly linear...
A linear coherent integrated receiver based on a broadband optical phase-locked loop
Ramaswamy, Anand
Optical Phase-Locked Loops (OPLL) have diverse applications in future communication systems. They can be used in high sensitivity homodyne phase-shift keying receivers for phase noise reduction, provided sufficient loop bandwidth is maintained. Alternative phase-locked loop applications include coherent synchronization of laser arrays and frequency synthesis by offset locking. In this work, a broadband OPLL based coherent receiver is used for linear phase demodulation. Phase modulated (PM) analog optical links have the potential to outperform conventional direct detection links. However, their progress has been stymied by the lack of a linear phase demodulator. We describe how feedback can be used to suppress non-linearities arising from the phase demodulation process. The receiver concept is demonstrated at low frequencies and is found to improve the Spurious Free Dynamic Range (SFDR) of an experimental analog link by over 20dB. In order to extend the operation of the receiver to microwave frequencies, latencies arising from physical delays in the feedback path need to be dramatically reduced. To facilitate this, monolithic and hybrid versions of the receiver based on compact integration of InP photonic integrated circuits (PIC) with InP and SiGe electronic integrated circuits (EIC) have been developed at UCSB. In this work, we develop novel measurement techniques to characterize the linearity of the individual components of the PIC, namely, the semiconductor photodiodes and optical phase modulators. We then demonstrate the operation of the receiver in a high power analog link. The OPLL based receiver has a bandwidth of 1.5GHz. The link gain and shot-noise limited SFDR at 300MHz are -2dB and 125dB-Hz2/3, respectively. Further, optical sampling downconversion is demonstrated as a viable technique to increase the operating frequency of the receiver beyond the baseband range.
A Simplified Theory of Coupled Oscillator Array Phase Control
Pogorzelski, R. J.; York, R. A.
1997-01-01
Linear and planar arrays of coupled oscillators have been proposed as means of achieving high power rf sources through coherent spatial power combining. In such - applications, a uniform phase distribution over the aperture is desired. However, it has been shown that by detuning some of the oscillators away from the oscillation frequency of the ensemble of oscillators, one may achieve other useful aperture phase distributions. Notable among these are linear phase distributions resulting in steering of the output rf beam away from the broadside direction. The theory describing the operation of such arrays of coupled oscillators is quite complicated since the phenomena involved are inherently nonlinear. This has made it difficult to develop an intuitive understanding of the impact of oscillator tuning on phase control and has thus impeded practical application. In this work a simpl!fied theory is developed which facilitates intuitive understanding by establishing an analog of the phase control problem in terms of electrostatics.
Coherent Beam Combination of Two Polarization Maintaining Ytterbium Fibre Amplifiers
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HOU Jing; XIAO Rui; JIANG Zong-Fu; CHENG Xiang-Ai; SHU Bai-Hong; CHEN Jin-Bao; LIU Ze-Jin
2005-01-01
@@ We investigate coherent beam combination of fibre laser beams by phase locking. Phase noise of a polarization maintaining ytterbium fibre amplifier is inspected with a fibre interferometer. In a feed back control loop, two fibre polarization maintaining ytterbium amplifiers are phase locked and coherent combined when the phase noise is properly controlled by a LiNO3 phase modulator.
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Herselman, PL
2006-02-01
Full Text Available In this research, the critical implications of the phase response of a Digital Radio Frequency Memory (DRFM) based repeater system on the Doppler spectrum of a modern, coherently processing radar system (for example pulsed Doppler radar...
Liu, Yue; Yang, Chuanchuan; Yang, Feng; Li, Hongbin
2014-03-24
Digital coherent passive optical network (PON), especially the coherent orthogonal frequency division multiplexing PON (OFDM-PON), is a strong candidate for the 2nd-stage-next-generation PON (NG-PON2). As is known, OFDM is very sensitive to the laser phase noise which severely limits the application of the cost-effective distributed feedback (DFB) lasers and more energy-efficient vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSEL) in the coherent OFDM-PON. The current long-reach coherent OFDM-PON experiments always choose the expensive external cavity laser (ECL) as the optical source for its narrow linewidth (usuallyOFDM-PON and study the possibility of the application of the DFB lasers and VCSEL in coherent OFDM-PON. A typical long-reach coherent ultra dense wavelength division multiplexing (UDWDM) OFDM-PON has been set up. The numerical results prove that the OBE method can stand severe phase noise of the lasers in this architecture and the DFB lasers as well as VCSEL can be used in coherent OFDM-PON. In this paper, we have also analyzed the performance of the RF-pilot-aided (RFP) phase noise suppression method in coherent OFDM-PON.
Ultrafast Coherent Control and Characterization of Surface Reactions using FELs
Ogasawara, Hirohito; Nordlund, Dennis
2005-01-01
The microscopic understanding of surface chemistry requires a detailed understanding of the dynamics of elementary processes at surfaces. The ultrashort electron pulse obtained in the linear accelerator to feed the FEL can be used for generation of coherent synchrotron radiation in the low energy THz regime. With the current parameters for LCLS this corresponds to radiation with energy corresponding to excitations of low-energy vibrational modes of molecules on surfaces or phonons in substrates. The coherent radiation can coherently manipulate atoms or molecules on surfaces. In this respect a chemical reaction can be initiated by coherent atomic motion along a specific reaction coordinate. Since the THz radiation is generated from the same source as the FEL radiation full-time synchronization for pump-probe experiments will be possible. The possibility to perform time-resolved X-ray Emission Spectroscopy (XES) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) measurements as a probe of chemical dynamics is an exciti...
Phase conjugator with two coherent beams in a BaTiO3: Ce crystal
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
武建劳; 谢平; 戴建华; 张洪钧
2000-01-01
A phase conjugator which includes two coherent beams that are incident upon one of a-faces of a BaTiO3: Ce crystal without internal reflection is performed experimentally. Based on the four-wave mixing, the mechanism of this conjugator is investigated numerically. in comparison with the cor-responding self-pumped phase conjugator, the phase-conjugate behavior of this conjugator is estab-lished much more quickly, its phase conjugate reflectivity is greater in some cases and the intensity threshold is lower by over two orders of magnitude. The configuration of this conjugator is easy to per-form because the output response exists over a wide range of angular and lateral positions of the two incident beams on the crystal.
Yi, Xingwen; Chen, Xuemei; Sharma, Dinesh; Li, Chao; Luo, Ming; Yang, Qi; Li, Zhaohui; Qiu, Kun
2014-06-02
Digital coherent superposition (DCS) provides an approach to combat fiber nonlinearities by trading off the spectrum efficiency. In analogy, we extend the concept of DCS to the optical OFDM subcarrier pairs with Hermitian symmetry to combat the linear and nonlinear phase noise. At the transmitter, we simply use a real-valued OFDM signal to drive a Mach-Zehnder (MZ) intensity modulator biased at the null point and the so-generated OFDM signal is Hermitian in the frequency domain. At receiver, after the conventional OFDM signal processing, we conduct DCS of the optical OFDM subcarrier pairs, which requires only conjugation and summation. We show that the inter-carrier-interference (ICI) due to phase noise can be reduced because of the Hermitain symmetry. In a simulation, this method improves the tolerance to the laser phase noise. In a nonlinear WDM transmission experiment, this method also achieves better performance under the influence of cross phase modulation (XPM).
Macroscopic manipulation of high-order-harmonic generation through bound-state coherent control.
Hadas, Itai; Bahabad, Alon
2014-12-19
We propose a paradigm for macroscopic control of high-order harmonic generation by modulating the bound-state population of the medium atoms. A unique result of this scheme is that apart from regular spatial quasi-phase-matching (QPM), also purely temporal QPM of the emitted radiation can be established. Our simulations demonstrate temporal QPM by inducing homogenous Rabi oscillations in the medium and also spatial QPM by creating a grating of population inversion using the process of rapid adiabatic passage. In the simulations a scaled version of high-order harmonic generation is used: a far off-resonance 2.6 μm source generates UV-visible high-order harmonics from alkali-metal-atom vapor, while a resonant near IR source is used to coherently control the medium.
Coherent control of injection currents in high-quality films of Bi2Se3
Bas, D A; Babakiray, S; Johnson, T A; Borisov, P; Stanescu, T D; Lederman, D; Bristow, A D
2014-01-01
Films of the topological insulator Bi2Se3 are grown by molecular beam epitaxy with in-situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction. The films are shown to be high-quality by X-ray reflectivity and diffraction and atomic-force microscopy. Quantum interference control of photocurrents is observed by excitation with harmonically related pulses and detected by terahertz radiation. The injection current obeys the expected excitation irradiance dependence, showing linear dependence on the fundamental pulse irradiance and square-root irradiance dependence of the frequency-doubled optical pulses. The injection current also follows a sinusoidal relative-phase dependence between the two excitation pulses. These results confirm the third-order nonlinear optical origins of the coherently controlled injection current. Experiments are compared to a tight-binding band structure to illustrate the possible optical transitions that occur in the creating the injection current.
Blumrich, Matthias A.; Salapura, Valentina
2010-11-02
An apparatus and method are disclosed for single-stepping coherence events in a multiprocessor system under software control in order to monitor the behavior of a memory coherence mechanism. Single-stepping coherence events in a multiprocessor system is made possible by adding one or more step registers. By accessing these step registers, one or more coherence requests are processed by the multiprocessor system. The step registers determine if the snoop unit will operate by proceeding in a normal execution mode, or operate in a single-step mode.
The self-coherent camera as a focal plane phasing sensor
Janin-Potiron, P.; Martinez, P.; Baudoz, P.; Carbillet, M.
2016-09-01
Exoplanets imaging requires very high angular resolution that will be reached with the forthcoming generation of extremely large telescopes. In order to achieve the high performance required for the astronomical science programs, the errors due to segment misalignment must be reduced to tens of nm. Therefore the development of new co-phasing techniques is of critical importance for ground-based telescopes, and to a large extent for future space-based missions. We propose a new co-phasing method directly exploiting the scientific image delivered by the self coherent camera (SCC) by adequately combining segment misalignment estimators (piston and tip/tilt) and image processing. The extension of the SCC concept towards a co-phasing sensor is presented and its parameter space and performance for phasing a segmented telescope are studied by means of intensive numerical simulations. The self-coherent camera phasing sensor (SCC-PS) is shown to be capable of estimating accurately and simultaneously piston and tip/tilt misalignments and to correct them in close-loop operation in a few iterations. The final residual RMS values over the pupil obtained with the SCC-PS are compared to similar simulations of another co-phasing sensor and we show that the SCC-PS gives the same or even better results by requiring less iterations. By contrast to several phasing sensor concepts the SCC-PS does not require any a priori knowledge on the signal at the segment boundaries, or a dedicated optical path. The SCC-PS is a non-invasive concept that works directly on the scientific image of the instrument, either in a coronagrahic or a non-coronagraphic observing mode. The primary results obtained in this study are very promising and demonstrate that the SCC-PS is a serious candidate for segment co-phasing at the instrument level or at the telescope level for both ground- and space-based applications.
Kraft, Manuel; Hein, Sven M.; Lehnert, Judith; Schöll, Eckehard; Hughes, Stephen; Knorr, Andreas
2016-08-01
Quantum coherent feedback control is a measurement-free control method fully preserving quantum coherence. In this paper we show how time-delayed quantum coherent feedback can be used to control the degree of squeezing in the output field of a cavity containing a degenerate parametric oscillator. We focus on the specific situation of Pyragas-type feedback control where time-delayed signals are fed back directly into the quantum system. Our results show how time-delayed feedback can enhance or decrease the degree of squeezing as a function of time delay and feedback strength.
Ultra-fast line-field low coherence holographic elastography using spatial phase shifting
Liu, Chih-Hao; Schill, Alexander; Raghunathan, Raksha; Wu, Chen; Singh, Manmohan; Han, Zhaolong; Nair, Achuth; Larin, Kirill V.
2017-01-01
Optical coherence elastography (OCE) is an emerging technique for quantifying tissue biomechanical properties. Generally, OCE relies on point-by-point scanning. However, long acquisition times make point-by-point scanning unfeasible for clinical use. Here we demonstrate a noncontact single shot line-field low coherence holography system utilizing an automatic Hilbert transform analysis based on a spatial phase shifting technique. Spatio-temporal maps of elastic wave propagation were acquired with only one air-pulse excitation and used to quantify wave velocity and sample mechanical properties at a line rate of 200 kHz. Results obtained on phantoms were correlated with data from mechanical testing. Finally, the stiffness of porcine cornea at different intraocular pressures was also quantified in situ.
Coherent hybrid electromagnetic field imaging
Cooke, Bradly J.; Guenther, David C.
2008-08-26
An apparatus and corresponding method for coherent hybrid electromagnetic field imaging of a target, where an energy source is used to generate a propagating electromagnetic beam, an electromagnetic beam splitting means to split the beam into two or more coherently matched beams of about equal amplitude, and where the spatial and temporal self-coherence between each two or more coherently matched beams is preserved. Two or more differential modulation means are employed to modulate each two or more coherently matched beams with a time-varying polarization, frequency, phase, and amplitude signal. An electromagnetic beam combining means is used to coherently combine said two or more coherently matched beams into a coherent electromagnetic beam. One or more electromagnetic beam controlling means are used for collimating, guiding, or focusing the coherent electromagnetic beam. One or more apertures are used for transmitting and receiving the coherent electromagnetic beam to and from the target. A receiver is used that is capable of square-law detection of the coherent electromagnetic beam. A waveform generator is used that is capable of generation and control of time-varying polarization, frequency, phase, or amplitude modulation waveforms and sequences. A means of synchronizing time varying waveform is used between the energy source and the receiver. Finally, a means of displaying the images created by the interaction of the coherent electromagnetic beam with target is employed.
Hasegawa, Hideyuki
2016-01-01
Spatial resolution is one of the important factors that determines ultrasound image quality. In the present study, methods using the phase variance of ultrasonic echoes received by individual transducer elements have been examined for improvement of spatial resolution. An imaging method, i.e., phase coherence imaging, which uses the phase coherence factor (PCF) obtained from the phase variance of received ultrasonic echoes, was recently proposed. Spatial resolution is improved by weighting ultrasonic RF signals obtained by delay-and-sum (DAS) beam forming using PCF. In the present study, alternative PCFs, i.e., exponential PCF, harmonic PCF, and Gaussian PCF, have been proposed and examined for further improvement of spatial resolution. Spatial resolutions realized by the proposed PCFs were evaluated by an experiment using a phantom. The full widths at half maxima of the lateral profiles of an echo from a string phantom were 2.61 mm (DAS only), 1.46 mm (conventional PCF), and 0.48-0.62 mm (proposed PCFs). The PCFs newly proposed in the present study showed better spatial resolutions than the conventional PCF. The proposed PCFs also realized better visualization of echoes from a diffuse scattering medium than the conventional PCF.
Turbulent phase noise on asymmetric two-way ground-satellite coherent optical links
Robert, Clélia; Conan, Jean-Marc; Wolf, Peter
2015-10-01
Bidirectional ground-satellite laser links suffer from turbulence-induced scintillation and phase distortion. We study how turbulence impacts on coherent detection capacity and on the associated phase noise that restricts clock transfer precision. We evaluate the capacity to obtain a two-way cancellation of atmospheric effects despite the asymmetry between up and down link that limits the link reciprocity. For ground-satellite links, the asymmetry is induced by point-ahead angle and possibly the use, for the ground terminal, of different transceiver diameters, in reception and emission. The quantitative analysis is obtained thanks to refined end-to-end simulations under realistic turbulence and wind conditions as well as satellite cinematic. Simulations make use of the reciprocity principle to estimate both down and up link performance from wave-optics propagation of descending plane waves. These temporally resolved simulations allow characterising the coherent detection in terms of time series of heterodyne efficiency for different system parameters. We show Tip/Tilt correction on ground is mandatory at reception for the down link and as a pre-compensation of the up link. Good correlation between up and down phase noise is obtained even with asymmetric apertures of the ground transceiver and in spite of pointing ahead angle. The reduction to less than 1 rad2 of the two-way differential phase noise is very promising for clock transfer.
Ramsey-type phase control of free electron beams
Echternkamp, Katharina E; Schäfer, Sascha; Ropers, Claus
2016-01-01
Interference between multiple distinct paths is a defining property of quantum physics, where "paths" may involve actual physical trajectories, as in interferometry, or transitions between different internal (e.g. spin) states, or both. A hallmark of quantum coherent evolution is the possibility to interact with a system multiple times in a phase-preserving manner. This principle underpins powerful multi-dimensional optical and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopies and related techniques, including Ramsey's method of separated oscillatory fields used in atomic clocks. Previously established for atomic, molecular and quantum dot systems, recent developments in the optical quantum state preparation of free electron beams suggest a transfer of such concepts to the realm of ultrafast electron imaging and spectroscopy. Here, we demonstrate the sequential coherent interaction of free electron states with two spatially separated, phase-controlled optical near-fields. Ultrashort electron pulses are acted upon in ...
Modulation Format Independent Joint Polarization and Phase Tracking for Coherent Receivers
Czegledi, Cristian B; Karlsson, Magnus; Johannisson, Pontus
2016-01-01
The state of polarization and the carrier phase drift dynamically during transmission in a random fashion in coherent optical fiber communications. The typical digital signal processing solution to mitigate these impairments consists of two separate blocks that track each phenomenon independently. Such algorithms have been developed without taking into account mathematical models describing the impairments. We study a blind, model-based tracking algorithm to compensate for these impairments. The algorithm dynamically recovers the carrier phase and state of polarization jointly for an arbitrary modulation format. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, having a fast convergence rate and an excellent tolerance to phase noise and dynamic drift of the polarization. The computational complexity of the algorithm is lower compared to state-of-the-art algorithms at similar or better performance, which makes it a strong candidate for future optical systems.
Xia, Shaoyan; Huang, Yong; Peng, Shizhao; Wu, Yanfeng; Tan, Xiaodi
2016-08-01
Phase image in Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography offers additional flow information of investigated samples, which provides valuable evidence towards accurate medical diagnosis. High quality phase images are thus desirable. We propose a noise reduction method for phase images by combining a synthetic noise estimation criteria based on local noise estimator (LNE) and distance median value (DMV) with anisotropic diffusion model. By identifying noise and signal pixels accurately and diffusing them with different coefficients respectively and adaptive iteration steps, we demonstrated the effectiveness of our proposed method in both phantom and mouse artery images. Comparison with other methods such as filtering method (mean, median filtering), wavelet method, probabilistic method and partial differential equation based methods in terms of peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), equivalent number of looks (ENL) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) showed the advantages of our method in reserving image energy and removing noise.
Formation and interaction of multiple coherent phase space structures in plasma
Kakad, Amar; Kakad, Bharati; Omura, Yoshiharu
2017-06-01
The head-on collision of multiple counter-propagating coherent phase space structures associated with the ion acoustic solitary waves (IASWs) in plasmas composed of hot electrons and cold ions is studied here by using one-dimensional Particle-in-Cell simulation. The chains of counter-propagating IASWs are generated in the plasma by injecting the Gaussian perturbations in the equilibrium electron and ion densities. The head-on collisions of the counter-propagating electron and ion phase space structures associated with IASWs are allowed by considering the periodic boundary condition in the simulation. Our simulation shows that the phase space structures are less significantly affected by their collision with each other. They emerge out from each other by retaining their characteristics, so that they follow soliton type behavior. We also find that the electrons trapped within these IASW potentials are accelerated, while the ions are decelerated during the course of their collisions.
Coherent control of a strongly driven silicon vacancy optical transition in diamond
Zhou, Yu; Li, Ke; Xiong, Qihua; Aharonovich, Igor; Gao, Wei-bo
2016-01-01
The ability to prepare, optically read out and coherently control single quantum states is a key requirement for quantum information processing. Optically active solid state emitters have emerged as promising candidates with their prospects for on chip integration as quantum nodes and sources of coherent photons for connecting these nodes. Under strongly driving resonant laser field, such quantum emitter can exhibit quantum behavior such as Autler-Townes splitting and Mollow triplet spectrum. Here we demonstrate coherent control of a strongly driven optical transition in silicon vacancy (SiV) center in diamond. Rapid optical detection of photons enabled the observation of time resolved coherent Rabi oscillations and the Mollow triplet from an optical transition of a single SiV defect. Detection with a probing transition further confirmed Autler-Townes splitting generated by a strong laser field. Coherence time of the emitted photons is shown to be comparable to its lifetime and robust under very strong drivin...
Phase control system for SSRF linac
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YIN Chongxian; YU Luyang; LIU Dekang
2008-01-01
The design of phase control system in Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) linac is presented in this paper. And digital phase detecting algorithm, the key for phase control system, is fully described. The testing results for phase control system in 100MeV linac are discussed in detail.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alessandro Barardi
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Synchronization between neuronal populations plays an important role in information transmission between brain areas. In particular, collective oscillations emerging from the synchronized activity of thousands of neurons can increase the functional connectivity between neural assemblies by coherently coordinating their phases. This synchrony of neuronal activity can take place within a cortical patch or between different cortical regions. While short-range interactions between neurons involve just a few milliseconds, communication through long-range projections between different regions could take up to tens of milliseconds. How these heterogeneous transmission delays affect communication between neuronal populations is not well known. To address this question, we have studied the dynamics of two bidirectionally delayed-coupled neuronal populations using conductance-based spiking models, examining how different synaptic delays give rise to in-phase/anti-phase transitions at particular frequencies within the gamma range, and how this behavior is related to the phase coherence between the two populations at different frequencies. We have used spectral analysis and information theory to quantify the information exchanged between the two networks. For different transmission delays between the two coupled populations, we analyze how the local field potential and multi-unit activity calculated from one population convey information in response to a set of external inputs applied to the other population. The results confirm that zero-lag synchronization maximizes information transmission, although out-of-phase synchronization allows for efficient communication provided the coupling delay, the phase lag between the populations, and the frequency of the oscillations are properly matched.
Experimental Studies of Two-Phase Round Turbulent Jet Coherent Structures
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2000-01-01
Coherent structures of a two-phase round turbulent jet have been studied experimentally. The flow profiles at different Reynold's numbers and various positions from the jet exit are visualized using a sheet laser source. The jets include two types,an air jet laden with incense smoke and an air jet laden with two kinds of solid particles, glass beads and catalytic cracking beads. The developments of both the large eddy structures of the round turbulent jet and the local particle dispersion in the vortex structures were recorded with a high-speed movie camera. Free and excited jet conditions were tested. Analysis of the video pictures suggests a critical intrinsic frequency exists in the helical coherent structures of the air phase. In the spectral space the clockwise and counter-clockwise helical structures occupy different positions. Large scale structures exsit in the two-phase jet. The patterns are similar to those of the air jet with the Stokes numbers in the range of 1-8.32.
Fourier optics analysis of phase-mask-based path-length-multiplexed optical coherence tomography.
Yin, Biwei; Dwelle, Jordan; Wang, Bingqing; Wang, Tianyi; Feldman, Marc D; Rylander, Henry G; Milner, Thomas E
2015-11-01
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an imaging technique that constructs a depth-resolved image by measuring the optical path-length difference between broadband light backscattered from a sample and a reference surface. For many OCT sample arm optical configurations, sample illumination and backscattered light detection share a common path. When a phase mask is placed in the sample path, features in the detected signal are observed, which suggests that an analysis of a generic common path OCT imaging system is warranted. In this study, we present a Fourier optics analysis using a Fresnel diffraction approximation of an OCT system with a path-length-multiplexing element (PME) inserted in the sample arm optics. The analysis may be generalized for most phase-mask-based OCT systems. A radial-angle-diverse PME is analyzed in detail, and the point spread function, coherent transfer function, sensitivity of backscattering angular diversity detection, and signal formation in terms of sample spatial frequency are simulated and discussed. The analysis reveals important imaging features and application limitations of OCT imaging systems with a phase mask in the sample path optics.
Fifth-Order Harmonic Generation using a Coherent Controlled Two-Pulsed Optical Field
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘婷婷; 王大威; 陆伟新; 孙泉; 杨宏; 蒋红兵; 龚旗煌
2002-01-01
We have experimentally studied the characteristics of fifth-order harmonic radiation produced by two coherent femtosecond laser pulses with a changeable relative phase. The intensities of harmonic generation are found to increase vith the coherent degree. In one optical period, the temporal variation of harmonics exhibits an asymmetric characteristic, vhich is interpreted in terms of ionization theory and the deformation of the wave packets of fundamental field contribution to harmonic generation.
Yamauchi, Toyohiko; Fukami, Tadashi; Iwai, Hidenao; Yamashita, Yutaka
2012-03-01
Embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells, which are cell lines derived from teratocarcinomas, have characteristics in common with stem cells and differentiate into many kinds of functional cells. Similar to embryonic stem (ES) cells, undifferentiated EC cells form multi-layered spheroids. In order to visualize the three-dimensional structure of multilayered EC cells without labeling, we employed full-field interference microscopy with the aid of a low-coherence quantitative phase microscope, which is a reflection-type interference microscope employing the digital holographic technique with a low-coherent light source. Owing to the low-coherency of the light-source (halogen lamp), only the light reflected from reflective surface at a specific sectioning height generates an interference image on the CCD camera. P19CL6 EC cells, derived from mouse teratocarcinomas, formed spheroids that are about 50 to 200 micrometers in diameter. Since the height of each cell is around 10 micrometers, it is assumed that each spheroid has 5 to 20 cell layers. The P19CL6 spheroids were imaged in an upright configuration and the horizontally sectioned reflection images of the sample were obtained by sequentially and vertically scanning the zero-path-length height. Our results show the threedimensional structure of the spheroids, in which plasma and nuclear membranes were distinguishably imaged. The results imply that our technique is further capable of imaging induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells for the assessment of cell properties including their pluripotency.
Performance Evaluation of Digital Coherent Receivers for Phase-Modulated Radio-Over-Fiber Links
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Caballero Jambrina, Antonio; Zibar, Darko; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso
2011-01-01
The performance of optical phase-modulated (PM) radio-over-fiber (RoF) links assisted with coherent detection and digital signal processing (PM-Coh) is analyzed and experimentally demonstrated for next-generation wireless-over-fiber systems. PM-Coh offers high linearity for transparent transport......-bandwidth electronics. Analytical assessment and simulations are used to determine the ultimate performance with respect to laser linewidth, modulation index, and receiver sensitivity. Then, two different scenarios are studied and experimentally demonstrated as an application of PM-Coh links: a high...
Detection of neural activity using phase-sensitive optical low-coherence reflectometry
Akkin, Taner; Davã©, Digant P.; Milner, Thomas E.; Rylander, H. Grady, III
2004-05-01
We demonstrate non-contact sub-nanometer optical measurement of neural surface displacement associated with action potential propagation. Experimental results are recorded from nerve bundles dissected from crayfish walking leg using a phase-sensitive optical low coherence reflectometer. No exogenous chemicals or reflection coatings are applied. Transient neural surface displacement is less than 1 nm in amplitude, 1 ms in duration and is coincident with action potential arrival to the optical measurement site. Because the technique uses back-reflected light, noninvasive detection of various neuropathies may be possible.
Kashani, Fatemeh Dabbagh; Yousefi, Masoud
2016-08-10
In this research, based on an analytical expression for cross-spectral density (CSD) matrix elements, coherence and polarization properties of phase-locked partially coherent flat-topped (PCFT) radial array laser beams propagating through weak oceanic turbulence are analyzed. Spectral degrees of coherence and polarization are analytically calculated using CSD matrix elements. Also, the effective width of spatial degree of coherence (EWSDC) is calculated numerically. The simulation is done by considering the effects of source parameters (such as radius of the array setup's circle, effective width of the spectral degree of coherence, and wavelength) and turbulent ocean factors (such as the rate of dissipation of the turbulent kinetic energy per unit mass of fluid and relative strength of temperature and salinity fluctuations, Kolmogorov micro-scale, and rate of dissipation of the mean squared temperature) in detail. Results indicate that any change in the amount of turbulence factors that increase the turbulence power reduces the EWSDC significantly and causes the reduction in the degree of polarization, and occurs at shorter propagation distances but with smaller magnitudes. In addition, being valid for all conditions, the degradation rate of the EWSDC of Gaussian array beams are more in comparison with the PCFT ones. The simulation and calculation results are shown by graphs.
Phase Retrieval for Radio Telescope and Antenna Control
Dean, Bruce
2011-01-01
Phase-retrieval is a general term used in optics to describe the estimation of optical imperfections or "aberrations." The purpose of this innovation is to develop the application of phase retrieval to radio telescope and antenna control in the millimeter wave band. Earlier techniques do not approximate the incoherent subtraction process as a coherent propagation. This approximation reduces the noise in the data and allows a straightforward application of conventional phase retrieval techniques for radio telescope and antenna control. The application of iterative-transform phase retrieval to radio telescope and antenna control is made by approximating the incoherent subtraction process as a coherent propagation. Thus, for systems utilizing both positive and negative polarity feeds, this approximation allows both surface and alignment errors to be assessed without the use of additional hardware or laser metrology. Knowledge of the antenna surface profile allows errors to be corrected at a given surface temperature and observing angle. In addition to imperfections of the antenna surface figure, the misalignment of multiple antennas operating in unison can reduce or degrade the signal-to-noise ratio of the received or broadcast signals. This technique also has application to the alignment of antenna array configurations.
Yashiki, Satoshi
2016-09-01
We analyze the controllability of interference phenomena between partially coherent fields by introducing the Wigner distribution function (WDF) and entropy, which is defined using the intensity matrix [H. Gamo, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 976 (1957)]. The analytical derivation of the WDF and entropy is presented for a partially coherent imaging system consisting of two pinholes illuminated by a circular source. It is shown that the WDF, defined in the 4D space-spatial frequency region, and entropy can be useful tools to understand how one can freely and quantitatively control the interference when any optical components in the partially coherent imaging system are changed.
Evidence for coherent quantum phase slips across a Josephson junction array
Manucharyan, Vladimir E.; Masluk, Nicholas A.; Kamal, Archana; Koch, Jens; Glazman, Leonid I.; Devoret, Michel H.
2012-01-01
Superconducting order in a sufficiently narrow and infinitely long wire is destroyed at zero temperature by quantum fluctuations, which induce 2π slips of the phase of the order parameter. However, in a finite-length wire, coherent quantum phase slips would manifest themselves simply as shifts of energy levels in the excitation spectrum of an electrical circuit incorporating this wire. The higher the phase slips' probability amplitude, the larger are the shifts. Phase slips occurring at different locations along the wire interfere with each other. Due to the Aharonov-Casher effect, the resulting full amplitude of a phase slip depends on the offset charges surrounding the wire. Slow temporal fluctuations of the offset charges make the phase-slip amplitudes random functions of time, and therefore turn energy level shifts into linewidths. We experimentally observed this effect on a long Josephson junction array acting as a “slippery” wire. The slip-induced linewidths, despite being only of order 100kHz, were resolved from the flux-dependent dephasing of the fluxonium qubit.
On phase-space representations of quantum mechanics using Glauber coherent states
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
DIÓGENES CAMPOS
2016-08-01
A phase-space formulation of quantum mechanics is proposed by constructing two representations (identified as $pq$ and $qp$) in terms of the Glauber coherent states, in which phase-space wave functions (probability amplitudes) play the central role, and position $q$ and momentum $p$ are treated on equal footing. After finding some basic properties of the $pq$ and $qp$ wave functions, the quantum operators in phase-space are represented by differential operators, and the Schrödinger equation is formulated in both pictures. Afterwards, the method is generalized to work with the density operator by converting the quantum Liouville equation into $pq$ and $qp$ equations of motion for two-point functions in phase-space. A coordinate transformation between those points allows one to construct a cell in phase-space, whose central point can be treated as a parameter. In this way, one gets equations of motion describing the evolution of one-point functions in phase-space. Finally, it is shown that some quantities obtained in this paper are related in a natural way with cross-Wigner functions, which are constructed with either the position or the momentum wave functions.
Lu, Guo-Wei; Bo, Tianwai; Sakamoto, Takahide; Yamamoto, Naokatsu; Chan, Calvin Chun-Kit
2016-10-03
Recently the ever-growing demand for dynamic and high-capacity services in optical networks has resulted in new challenges that require improved network agility and flexibility in order for network resources to become more "consumable" and dynamic, or elastic, in response to requests from higher network layers. Flexible and scalable wavelength conversion or multicast is one of the most important technologies needed for developing agility in the physical layer. This paper will investigate how, using a reconfigurable coherent multi-carrier as a pump, the multicast scalability and the flexibility in wavelength allocation of the converted signals can be effectively improved. Moreover, the coherence in the multiple carriers prevents the phase noise transformation from the local pump to the converted signals, which is imperative for the phase-noise-sensitive multi-level single- or multi-carrier modulated signal. To verify the feasibility of the proposed scheme, we experimentally demonstrate the wavelength multicast of coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (CO-OFDM) signals using a reconfigurable coherent multi-carrier pump, showing flexibility in wavelength allocation, scalability in multicast, and tolerance against pump phase noise. Less than 0.5 dB and 1.8 dB power penalties at a bit-error rate (BER) of 10-3 are obtained for the converted CO-OFDM-quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) and CO-OFDM-16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (16QAM) signals, respectively, even when using a distributed feedback laser (DFB) as a pump source. In contrast, with a free-running pumping scheme, the phase noise from DFB pumps severely deteriorates the CO-OFDM signals, resulting in a visible error-floor at a BER of 10-2 in the converted CO-OFDM-16QAM signals.
Yang, Xiaodong
lasing in the designed high-Q silicon photonic crystal nanocavities are proposed and numerically analyzed through the derived coupled-mode equations, with various contributions on Raman gain, optical losses, and dispersion effects. In Chapter 5, the observation of enhanced optical nonlinearities and optical bistabilities due to the two-photon-absorption induced thermo-optic effect in high-Q silicon photonic crystal nanocavities with both Lorentzian resonances and Fano resonances is presented. The experimental results highlight the ultra-low switching energy, high switching contrast, and the low threshold wavelength detuning for Fano resonances, benefiting from the sharp and asymmetric Fano lineshapes. The third topic is all-optical analogue to coherent interference phenomena in atomic systems including Fano interference and electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). In Chapter 5, the optical analogue to Fano interference is studied in an optical system consisting of a photonic crystal nanocavity side-coupled to a waveguide with two partially reflecting elements, where the coherent interference between the discrete energy state and the continuum will give sharp and asymmetric Fano lineshapes, which can be used for low-threshold optical bistable switching with a high switching contrast. In Chapter 6, another coherent interference phenomenon called electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) is introduced. The deterministic tuning of all-optical analogue to EIT in coherently-coupled silicon photonic crystal nanocavities is demonstrated experimentally. Through thermo-optic tuning of wavelength detuning and phase difference between these coupled nanocavities, the stepwise control of the EIT-like coherent interference is realized. The designed EIT-like optical system is analyzed well through the coupled-mode equations. These results can be used for realization of all-optical stopping of light.
Moss, Jarrod; Schunn, Christian D
2015-01-01
Discourse comprehension processes attempt to produce an elaborate and well-connected representation in the reader's mind. A common network of regions including the angular gyrus, posterior cingulate, and dorsal frontal cortex appears to be involved in constructing coherent representations in a variety of tasks including social cognition tasks, narrative comprehension, and expository text comprehension. Reading strategies that require the construction of explicit inferences are used in the present research to examine how this coherence network interacts with other brain regions. A psychophysiological interaction analysis was used to examine regions showing changed functional connectivity with this coherence network when participants were engaged in either a non-inferencing reading strategy, paraphrasing, or a strategy requiring coherence-building inferences, self-explanation. Results of the analysis show that the coherence network increases in functional connectivity with a cognitive control network that may be specialized for the manipulation of semantic representations and the construction of new relations among these representations.
The self-coherent camera-phasing sensor : from numerical simulations to early experiments
Janin-Potiron, P.; Martinez, P.; Baudoz, P.; Carbillet, M.; Gouvret, C.; Spang, A.
2016-07-01
Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs) are the next technological step when considering astrophysical observation. They will provide unprecedented angular resolution, thus improving the imaging capability and hopefully allow the imaging of the first Earth-like exoplanet. For technological and mechanical reasons, the primary mirror of these instruments will have to be segmented. To reach the image quality needed for the most demanding observational programs, the segments must be kept aligned below tens of nm RMS. The development of cophasing technics is of prime importance for the next generation of space- and ground-based segmented telescopes. We propose to describe in this paper a new focal plane cophasing sensor that exploits the scientific image of a coronagraphic instrument to retrieve simultaneously piston and tip-tilt misalignments. It is based on the self- coherent camera (SCC) principle and provides a non-invasive system and an efficient phasing sensor from the image domain. Numerical simulations have successfully demonstrated the proper functioning of this system and its algorithms. Along this, work to implement and test the self-coherent camera - phasing sensor (SCC-PS) is currently ongoing and a first look at the cophasing stage of the Segmented Pupil Experiment for Exoplanet Detection (SPEED) will be proposed.
Phase sensitivity of two nonlinear interferometers with inputting entangled coherent states
Wei, Chao-Ping; Xiao-Yu, Hu; Ya-Fei, Yu; Zhi-Ming, Zhang
2016-04-01
We investigate the phase sensitivity of the SU(1,1) interfereometer [SU(1,1)I] and the modified Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MMZI) with the entangled coherent states (ECS) as inputs. We consider the ideal case and the situations in which the photon losses are taken into account. We find that, under ideal conditions, the phase sensitivity of both the MMZI and the SU(1,1)I can beat the shot-noise limit (SNL) and approach the Heisenberg limit (HL). In the presence of photon losses, the ECS can beat the coherent and squeezed states as inputs in the SU(1,1)I, and the MMZI is more robust against internal photon losses than the SU(1,1)I. Project supported by the Major Research Plan of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 91121023), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11574092, 61378012, and 60978009), the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20124407110009), the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2011CBA00200 and 2013CB921804), and the Program for Innovative Research Team in University (Grant No. IRT1243).
Phase coherence of 0.1 Hz microvascular tone oscillations during the local heating
Mizeva, I. A.
2017-06-01
The origin of the mechanisms of blood flow oscillations at low frequencies is discussed. It is known that even isolated arteriole demonstrates oscillations with the frequency close to 0.1 Hz, which is caused by the synchronous activity of myocyte cells. On the other hand, oscillations with close frequency are found in the heart rate, which are associated with quite different mechanism. The main purpose of this work is to study phase coherence of the blood flow oscillations in the peripheral vessels under basal and perturbed conditions. Local heating which locally influences the microvascular tone, as one of currently elucidated in sufficient detail physiological test, was chosen. During such provocation blood flow though the small vessels significantly increases because of vasodilation induced by the local synthesis of nitric oxide. In the first part of the paper microvascular response to the local test is quantified in healthy and pathological conditions of diabetes mellitus type 1. It is obtained that regardless of the pathology, subjects with high basal perfusion had lower reserve for vasodilation, which can be caused by the low elasticity of microvascular structure. Further synchronization of pulsations of the heated and undisturbed skin was evaluated on the base of wavelet phase coherency analysis. Being highly synchronised in basal conditions 0.1 Hz pulsations became more independent during heating, especially during NO-mediated vasodilation.
Long phase coherence length and anisotropic magnetoresistance in MgZnO thin film
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lv, Meng; Xu, Yonggang; Yu, Guolin, E-mail: yug@mail.sitp.ac.cn; Lin, Tie; Hu, Gujin; Chu, Junhao [National Laboratory for Infrared Physics, Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai 200083 (China); Wang, Hao; Zhang, Huahan, E-mail: huahan@xmu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Dai, Ning [National Laboratory for Infrared Physics, Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai 200083 (China); Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Photovoltaic Science and Engineering, Changzhou 213164 (China)
2015-04-21
We comprehensively investigate magnetotransport properties of MgZnO thin film grown on ZnO substrate by molecular-beam epitaxy. We measure the weak localization effect and extract the electron phase coherence length by fitting to a three-dimensional weak localization theory and by analyzing the different changing rate of the magnetoresistance, results of which are in good agreement with each other. The phase coherence length ranges from 38.4±1 nm at 50 K to 99.8±3.6 nm at 1.4 K, almost the same as that of ZnO nanoplates and In-doped ZnO nanowires, and its temperature dependence is found to scale as T{sup −3/4}. Meanwhile, we study the anisotropic magnetoresistance resulting from the geometric effect as well as the Lorentz force induced path-length effect, which will be enhanced in higher magnetic fields.
BCH Codes for Coherent Star DQAM Systems with Laser Phase Noise
Leong, Miu Yoong; Larsen, Knud J.; Jacobsen, Gunnar; Zibar, Darko; Sergeyev, Sergey; Popov, Sergei
2017-03-01
Coherent optical systems have relatively high laser phase noise, which affects the performance of forward error correction (FEC) codes. In this paper, we propose a method for selecting Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (BCH) codes for coherent systems with star-shaped constellations and M-ary differential quadrature amplitude modulation (DQAM). Our method supports constellations of any order M which is a power of 2, and includes differential M-ary phase shift keying as a special case. Our approach is straightforward, requiring only short pre-FEC simulations to parameterize a statistical model, based on which we select codes analytically. It is applicable to pre-FEC bit error rates (BERs) of around 10-3. We evaluate the accuracy of our approach using numerical simulations. For a target post-FEC BER of 10-5, codes selected with our method yield BERs within 2× target. Lastly, we extend our method to systems with interleaving, which enables us to use codes with lower overhead.
Chen, Yu; Fingler, Jeff; Trinh, Le A.; Fraser, Scott E.
2016-03-01
A phase variance optical coherence microscope (pvOCM) has been created to visualize blood flow in the vasculature of zebrafish embryos, without using exogenous labels. The pvOCM imaging system has axial and lateral resolutions of 2 μm in tissue, and imaging depth of more than 100 μm. Imaging of 2-5 days post-fertilization zebrafish embryos identified the detailed structures of somites, spinal cord, gut and notochord based on intensity contrast. Visualization of the blood flow in the aorta, veins and intersegmental vessels was achieved with phase variance contrast. The pvOCM vasculature images were confirmed with corresponding fluorescence microscopy of a zebrafish transgene that labels the vasculature with green fluorescent protein. The pvOCM images also revealed functional information of the blood flow activities that is crucial for the study of vascular development.
Camp, Charles H; Cicerone, Marcus T
2015-01-01
Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microspectroscopy has demonstrated significant potential for biological and materials imaging. To date, however, the primary mechanism of disseminating CARS spectroscopic information is through pseudocolor imagery, which explicitly neglects a vast majority of the hyperspectral data. Furthermore, current paradigms in CARS spectral processing do not lend themselves to quantitative sample-to-sample comparability. The primary limitation stems from the need to accurately measure the so-called nonresonant background (NRB) that is used to extract the chemically-sensitive Raman information from the raw spectra. Measurement of the NRB on a pixel-by-pixel basis is a nontrivial task; thus, reference NRB from glass or water are typically utilized, resulting in error between the actual and estimated amplitude and phase. In this manuscript, we present a new methodology for extracting the Raman spectral features that significantly suppresses these errors through phase detrending ...
Common phase error estimation in coherent optical OFDM systems using best-fit bounding box.
Bo, Tianwai; Chan, Chun-Kit
2016-10-17
In this paper, we investigate and characterize a new approach of adopting best-fit bounding box method for common phase error estimation in coherent optical OFDM systems. The method is based on the calculation of the 2-D convex hull of the received signal constellation, which is generally adopted in image processing area to correct the skew of images. We further perform detailed characterizations including root mean square error analysis, laser linewidth tolerance, noise tolerance, and computation complexity analysis, via numerical simulations and experiments. The results show the proposed method achieves much improved spectral efficiency and comparable system performance than the pilot-aided method, while it exhibits good estimation accuracy and reduced complexity than the blind phase searching method.
Simulation of single-photon state tomography using phase-randomized coherent states
Valente, P
2016-01-01
We have experimentally simulated the quantum state tomography of single-photon states of temporal modes of duration T and constant amplitude using phase randomized coherent states (PRCS). A stationary laser beam, whose phase relative to a local oscillator is varied at random, was used as a multiple realization of a PRCS of the temporal mode. The quadrature fluctuations histograms corresponding to the marginal distributions of the PRCS, were acquired with an oscilloscope using a sampling period T. Following a recent suggestion by Yuan et al \\cite{YUAN16}, we have derived estimates for the marginal distribution of the single-photon state. Based on these estimates, the approximate Wigner function and density matrix of the single-photon state were reconstructed with good precision. The sensitivity of the simulation to experimental errors and the number of PRCS used is addressed.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Iglesias Olmedo, Miguel; Pang, Xiaodan; Schatz, Richard
2015-01-01
We discuss about digital signal processing approaches that can enable coherent links based on semiconductor lasers. A state-of-the art analysis on different carrier-phase recovery (CPR) techniques is presented. We show that these techniques are based on the assumption of lorentzian linewidth, which...... does not hold for monolithically integrated semiconductor lasers. We investigate the impact of such lineshape on both 3 and 20 dB linewidth and experimentally conduct a systematic study for 56-GBaud DP-QPSK and 28-GBaud DP-16QAM systems using a decision directed phase look loop algorithm. We show how...... carrier induced frequency noise has no impact on linewidth but a significant impact on system performance; which rises the question on whether 3-dB linewidth should be used as performance estimator for semiconductor lasers....
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
TANG Xu-Bing; FAN Hong-Yi
2008-01-01
For studying the interference between two Bose-Einstein condensates we introduce the atomic coherent state (ACS) in the Schwinger bosonic realization along with the phase operator to directly calculate the interference pattern with steady relative phase cos φ. Eigenstates of the density operator of condensates are classified as ACS is also demonstrated. The entangled state representation is used in some calculations.
Power inverter implementing phase skipping control
Somani, Utsav; Amirahmadi, Ahmadreza; Jourdan, Charles; Batarseh, Issa
2016-10-18
A power inverter includes a DC/AC inverter having first, second and third phase circuitry coupled to receive power from a power source. A controller is coupled to a driver for each of the first, second and third phase circuitry (control input drivers). The controller includes an associated memory storing a phase skipping control algorithm, wherein the controller is coupled to receive updating information including a power level generated by the power source. The drivers are coupled to control inputs of the first, second and third phase circuitry, where the drivers are configured for receiving phase skipping control signals from the controller and outputting mode selection signals configured to dynamically select an operating mode for the DC/AC inverter from a Normal Control operation and a Phase Skipping Control operation which have different power injection patterns through the first, second and third phase circuitry depending upon the power level.
Phased-array cancellation of nonlinear FWM in coherent OFDM dispersive multi-span links.
Nazarathy, Moshe; Khurgin, Jacob; Weidenfeld, Rakefet; Meiman, Yehuda; Cho, Pak; Noe, Reinhold; Shpantzer, Isaac; Karagodsky, Vadim
2008-09-29
We develop an analytic model of Coherent Optical Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) propagation and detection over multi-span long-haul fiber links, comprehensively and rigorously analyzing the impairments due the combined effects of FWM, Dispersion and ASE noise. Consistent with prior work of Innoe and Schadt in the WDM context, our new closed-form expressions for the total FWM received power fluctuations in the wake of dispersive phase mismatch in OFDM transmission, indicate that the FWM contributions of the multitude of spans build-up on a phased-array basis. For particular ultra-long haul link designs, the effectiveness of dispersion in reducing FWM is far greater than previously assumed in OFDM system analysis. The key is having the dominant FWM intermodulation products due to the multiple spans, destructively interfere, mutually cancelling their FWM intermodulation products, analogous to operating at the null of a phased-array antenna system. By applying the new analysis tools, this mode of effectively mitigating the FWM impairment, is shown under specific dispersion and spectral management conditions, to substantially suppress the FWM power fluctuations. Accounting for the phased-array concept and applying the compact OFDM design formulas developed here, we analyzed system performance of a 40 Gbps coherent OFDM system, over standard G.652 fiber, with cyclic prefix based electronic dispersion compensation but no optical compensation along the link. The transmission range for 10-3 target BER is almost tripled from 2560 km to 6960 km, relative to a reference system performing optical dispersion compensation in every span (ideally accounting for FWM and ASE noise and the cyclic prefix overhead, but excluding additional impairments).
Ratheesh, K. M.; Seah, L. K.; Murukeshan, V. M.
2016-11-01
The automatic calibration in Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) systems allows for high resolution imaging with precise depth ranging functionality in many complex imaging scenarios, such as microsurgery. However, the accuracy and speed of the existing automatic schemes are limited due to the functional approximations and iterative operations used in their procedures. In this paper, we present a new real-time automatic calibration scheme for swept source-based optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) systems. The proposed automatic calibration can be performed during scanning operation and does not require an auxiliary interferometer for calibration signal generation and an additional channel for its acquisition. The proposed method makes use of the spectral component corresponding to the sample surface reflection as the calibration signal. The spectral phase function representing the non-linear sweeping characteristic of the frequency-swept laser source is determined from the calibration signal. The phase linearization with improved accuracy is achieved by normalization and rescaling of the obtained phase function. The fractional-time indices corresponding to the equidistantly spaced phase intervals are estimated directly from the resampling function and are used to resample the OCT signals. The proposed approach allows for precise calibration irrespective of the path length variation induced by the non-planar topography of the sample or galvo scanning. The conceived idea was illustrated using an in-house-developed SS-OCT system by considering the specular reflection from a mirror and other test samples. It was shown that the proposed method provides high-performance calibration in terms of axial resolution and sensitivity without increasing computational and hardware complexity.
Tekavec, Patrick F; Lott, Geoffrey A; Marcus, Andrew H
2007-12-07
Two-dimensional electronic coherence spectroscopy (ECS) is an important method to study the coupling between distinct optical modes of a material system. Such studies often involve excitation using a sequence of phased ultrashort laser pulses. In conventional approaches, the delays between pulse temporal envelopes must be precisely monitored or maintained. Here, we introduce a new experimental scheme for phase-selective nonlinear ECS, which combines acousto-optic phase modulation with ultrashort laser excitation to produce intensity modulated nonlinear fluorescence signals. We isolate specific nonlinear signal contributions by synchronous detection, with respect to appropriately constructed references. Our method effectively decouples the relative temporal phases from the pulse envelopes of a collinear train of four sequential pulses. We thus achieve a robust and high signal-to-noise scheme for phase-selective ECS to investigate the resonant nonlinear optical response of photoluminescent systems. We demonstrate the validity of our method using a model quantum three-level system-atomic Rb vapor. Moreover, we show how our measurements determine the resonant complex-valued third-order susceptibility.
Ultrafast Coherent Control and Characterization of Surface Reactions using FELs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ogasawara, Hirohito; Nordlund, Dennis a Nilsson, Anders; /SLAC, SSRL
2005-09-30
The microscopic understanding of reactions at surfaces requires an in-depth knowledge of the dynamics of elementary processes on an ultrafast timescale. This can be accomplished using an ultrafast excitation to initiate a chemical reaction and then probe the progression of the reaction with an ultrashort x-ray pulse from the FEL. There is a great potential to use atom-specific spectroscopy involving core levels to probe the chemical nature, structure and bonding of species on surfaces. The ultrashort electron pulse obtained in the linear accelerator to feed the X-ray FEL can also be used for generation of coherent synchrotron radiation in the low energy THz regime to be used as a pump. This radiation has an energy close to the thermal excitations of low-energy vibrational modes of molecules on surfaces and phonons in substrates. The coherent THz radiation will be an electric field pulse with a certain direction that can collectively manipulate atoms or molecules on surfaces. In this respect a chemical reaction can be initiated by collective atomic motion along a specific reaction coordinate. If the coherent THz radiation is generated from the same source as the X-ray FEL radiation, full-time synchronization for pump-probe experiments will be possible. The combination of THz and X-ray spectroscopy could be a unique opportunity for FEL facilities to conduct ultrafast chemistry studies at surfaces.
Ziółkowski, Andrzej
2016-09-01
An apparatus of micromechanics is used to isolate the key ingredients entering macroscopic Gibbs free energy function of a shape memory alloy (SMA) material. A new self-equilibrated eigenstrains influence moduli (SEIM) method is developed for consistent estimation of effective (macroscopic) thermostatic properties of solid materials, which in microscale can be regarded as amalgams of n-phase linear thermoelastic component materials with eigenstrains. The SEIM satisfy the self-consistency conditions, following from elastic reciprocity (Betti) theorem. The method allowed expressing macroscopic coherency energy and elastic complementary energy terms present in the general form of macroscopic Gibbs free energy of SMA materials in the form of semilinear and semiquadratic functions of the phase composition. Consistent SEIM estimates of elastic complementary energy, coherency energy and phase transformation strains corresponding to classical Reuss and Voigt conjectures are explicitly specified. The Voigt explicit relations served as inspiration for working out an original engineering practice-oriented semiexperimental SEIM estimates. They are especially conveniently applicable for an isotropic aggregate (composite) composed of a mixture of n isotropic phases. Using experimental data for NiTi alloy and adopting conjecture that it can be treated as an isotropic aggregate of two isotropic phases, it is shown that the NiTi coherency energy and macroscopic phase strain are practically not influenced by the difference in values of austenite and martensite elastic constants. It is shown that existence of nonzero fluctuating part of phase microeigenstrains field is responsible for building up of so-called stored energy of coherency, which is accumulated in pure martensitic phase after full completion of phase transition. Experimental data for NiTi alloy show that the stored coherency energy cannot be neglected as it considerably influences the characteristic phase transition
Ziółkowski, Andrzej
2017-01-01
An apparatus of micromechanics is used to isolate the key ingredients entering macroscopic Gibbs free energy function of a shape memory alloy (SMA) material. A new self-equilibrated eigenstrains influence moduli (SEIM) method is developed for consistent estimation of effective (macroscopic) thermostatic properties of solid materials, which in microscale can be regarded as amalgams of n-phase linear thermoelastic component materials with eigenstrains. The SEIM satisfy the self-consistency conditions, following from elastic reciprocity (Betti) theorem. The method allowed expressing macroscopic coherency energy and elastic complementary energy terms present in the general form of macroscopic Gibbs free energy of SMA materials in the form of semilinear and semiquadratic functions of the phase composition. Consistent SEIM estimates of elastic complementary energy, coherency energy and phase transformation strains corresponding to classical Reuss and Voigt conjectures are explicitly specified. The Voigt explicit relations served as inspiration for working out an original engineering practice-oriented semiexperimental SEIM estimates. They are especially conveniently applicable for an isotropic aggregate (composite) composed of a mixture of n isotropic phases. Using experimental data for NiTi alloy and adopting conjecture that it can be treated as an isotropic aggregate of two isotropic phases, it is shown that the NiTi coherency energy and macroscopic phase strain are practically not influenced by the difference in values of austenite and martensite elastic constants. It is shown that existence of nonzero fluctuating part of phase microeigenstrains field is responsible for building up of so-called stored energy of coherency, which is accumulated in pure martensitic phase after full completion of phase transition. Experimental data for NiTi alloy show that the stored coherency energy cannot be neglected as it considerably influences the characteristic phase transition
Coherent open-loop optimal control of light-harvesting dynamics
Caruso, Filippo; Calarco, Tommaso; Huelga, Susana F; Plenio, Martin B
2011-01-01
We apply theoretically open-loop quantum optimal control techniques to provide methods for the verification of various quantum coherent transport mechanisms in natural and artificial light-harvesting complexes under realistic experimental constraints. We demonstrate that optimally shaped laser pulses allow to faithfully prepare the photosystem in specified initial states (such as localized excitation or coherent superposition, i.e. propagating and non-propagating states) and to probe efficiently the dynamics. These results provide a path towards the discrimination of the different transport pathways and to the characterization of environmental properties, enhancing our understanding of the role that coherent processes may play in biological complexes.
Fukutake, Naoki
2016-03-01
Coherent Raman scattering microspectroscopy, which includes coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microspectroscopy, permits label-free hyperspectral imaging. We report the theoretical study of the phase-shift effect of the impulse response function on the spectral and image-forming properties of coherent Raman scattering microspectroscopy. We show that the spectrum and image are influenced by not only the NA of objective for excitation (NA(ex)) but also that for signal collection (NA(col)), in association with the phase-shift effect. We discuss that, under the condition NA(ex)≠NA(col), both the spectrum and the image become deformed by the phase-shift effect, which can be applied to the direct measurement of the imaginary part of the nonlinear susceptibility in CARS spectroscopy. We point out that, even in SRS microscopy, the nonresonant background can contribute to the image formation and cause the artifact in the image.
Coherent phonon optics in a chip with an electrically controlled active device.
Poyser, Caroline L; Akimov, Andrey V; Campion, Richard P; Kent, Anthony J
2015-02-05
Phonon optics concerns operations with high-frequency acoustic waves in solid media in a similar way to how traditional optics operates with the light beams (i.e. photons). Phonon optics experiments with coherent terahertz and sub-terahertz phonons promise a revolution in various technical applications related to high-frequency acoustics, imaging, and heat transport. Previously, phonon optics used passive methods for manipulations with propagating phonon beams that did not enable their external control. Here we fabricate a phononic chip, which includes a generator of coherent monochromatic phonons with frequency 378 GHz, a sensitive coherent phonon detector, and an active layer: a doped semiconductor superlattice, with electrical contacts, inserted into the phonon propagation path. In the experiments, we demonstrate the modulation of the coherent phonon flux by an external electrical bias applied to the active layer. Phonon optics using external control broadens the spectrum of prospective applications of phononics on the nanometer scale.
Estimating the Coherence of Noise in Quantum Control of a Solid-State Qubit
Feng, Guanru; Wallman, Joel J.; Buonacorsi, Brandon; Cho, Franklin H.; Park, Daniel K.; Xin, Tao; Lu, Dawei; Baugh, Jonathan; Laflamme, Raymond
2016-12-01
To exploit a given physical system for quantum information processing, it is critical to understand the different types of noise affecting quantum control. Distinguishing coherent and incoherent errors is extremely useful as they can be reduced in different ways. Coherent errors are generally easier to reduce at the hardware level, e.g., by improving calibration, whereas some sources of incoherent errors, e.g., T2* processes, can be reduced by engineering robust pulses. In this work, we illustrate how purity benchmarking and randomized benchmarking can be used together to distinguish between coherent and incoherent errors and to quantify the reduction in both of them due to using optimal control pulses and accounting for the transfer function in an electron spin resonance system. We also prove that purity benchmarking provides bounds on the optimal fidelity and diamond norm that can be achieved by correcting the coherent errors through improving calibration.
Deng, Linhua
2015-07-01
Three nonlinear analysis techniques, including cross-recurrence plot, line of synchronization, and cross-wavelet transform, are proposed to estimate the coherent phase vibrations of nonlinear and non-stationary time series. The case study utilizes the monthly averages of sunspot areas during the time interval from May 1874 to August 2014. The following prominent results are found: (1) the phase-leading hemisphere of long-term sunspot areas has changed twice in the past 140 years, indicating that the hemispheric imbalances and apparent phase differences on both hemispheres are a prevalent behavior and are not anomalous; (2) the alternating regularity of hemispheric asynchronism exhibits a cyclical pattern of 4.5+3.5 cycles, and the magnetic flux excess in a certain hemisphere during the ascending branch of a cycle can be taken as an indication of the phase-leading hemisphere in this cycle. We firmly believe that powerful nonlinear approaches are more advanced than classical linear methods when they are combined to determine the dynamic complexity of nonlinear physical systems.
Popov, A K; George, T F; Shalaev, V M; Bayev, Alexander S.; George, Thomas F.; Shalaev, Vladimir M.
2000-01-01
New feasibity of coherent quantum control of four-wave mixing processes in a resonant Doppler-broadened medium are studied. We propose a technique which enables one to enhance the quantum efficiency of nonlinear optical conversion. At the same time, it allows one to decrease the required intensities of the fundamental beams compared to those necessary in the approach based on coherent population trapping. The major outcomes of the analysis are illustrated with numerical simulation addressed within a practical medium.
Brillouin amplification in phase coherent transfer of optical frequencies over 480 km fiber
Terra, O; Schnatz, H
2010-01-01
We describe the use of fiber Brillouin amplification (FBA) for the coherent transmission of optical frequencies over a 480 km long optical fiber link. FBA uses the transmission fiber itself for efficient, bi-directional coherent amplification of weak signals with pump powers around 30 mW. In a test setup we measured the gain and the achievable signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of FBA and compared it to that of the widely used uni-directional Erbium doped fiber amplifiers (EDFA) and to our recently built bi-directional EDFA. We measured also the phase noise introduced by the FBA and used a new and simple technique to stabilize the frequency of the FBA pump laser. We then transferred a stabilized laser frequency over a wide area network with a total fiber length of 480 km using only one intermediate FBA station. After compensating the noise induced by the fiber, the frequency is delivered to the user end with an uncertainty below 2x10-18 and an instability sigma(tau) = 2x10-14/(tau/second).
Brillouin amplification in phase coherent transfer of optical frequencies over 480 km fiber.
Terra, O; Grosche, G; Schnatz, H
2010-07-19
We describe the use of fiber Brillouin amplification (FBA) for the coherent transmission of optical frequencies over a 480 km long optical fiber link. FBA uses the transmission fiber itself for efficient, bi-directional coherent amplification of weak signals with pump powers around 30 mW. In a test setup we measured the gain and the achievable signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of FBA and compared it to that of the widely used uni-directional Erbium doped fiber amplifiers (EDFA) and to our recently built bi-directional EDFA. We measured also the phase noise introduced by the FBA and used a new and simple technique to stabilize the frequency of the FBA pump laser. We then transferred a stabilized laser frequency over a wide area network with a total fiber length of 480 km using only one intermediate FBA station. After compensating the noise induced by the fiber, the frequency is delivered to the user end with an uncertainty below 2 x 10(-18) and an instability sigma y(tau) = 2 x 10(-14) /(tau/s).
Round-robin differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution with heralded pair-coherent sources
Wang, Le; Zhao, Shengmei
2017-04-01
Round-robin differential-phase-shift (RRDPS) quantum key distribution (QKD) scheme provides an effective way to overcome the signal disturbance from the transmission process. However, most RRDPS-QKD schemes use weak coherent pulses (WCPs) as the replacement of the perfect single-photon source. Considering the heralded pair-coherent source (HPCS) can efficiently remove the shortcomings of WCPs, we propose a RRDPS-QKD scheme with HPCS in this paper. Both infinite-intensity decoy-state method and practical three-intensity decoy-state method are adopted to discuss the tight bound of the key rate of the proposed scheme. The results show that HPCS is a better candidate for the replacement of the perfect single-photon source, and both the key rate and the transmission distance are greatly increased in comparison with those results with WCPs when the length of the pulse trains is small. Simultaneously, the performance of the proposed scheme using three-intensity decoy states is close to that result using infinite-intensity decoy states when the length of pulse trains is small.
Ansari, Rehman; Buj, Christian; Pieper, Mario; König, Peter; Schweikard, Achim; Hüttmann, Gereon
2015-09-07
Motile cilia perform a range of important mechanosensory and chemosensory functions, along with expulsion of mucus and inhaled pathogens from the lungs. Here we demonstrate that spectral domain optical coherence phase microscopy (SD-OCPM), which combines the principles of optical coherence tomography (OCT) and confocal microscopy, is particularly well-suited for characterization of both morphology and the ciliary dynamics of mouse trachea. We present micro-anatomical images of mouse trachea, where different cell types can be clearly visualized. The phase contrast, which measures the sub-nanometer changes in axial optical pathlength is used to determine the frequency and direction of cilia beatings.
Maldonado-Basilio, Ramón; Li, Ran; Abdul-Majid, Sawsan; Nikkhah, Hamdam; Leong, Kin-Wai; Hall, Trevor J.
2013-01-01
The deployment of high capacity Radio-over-Fiber (RoF) systems rely, among many aspects, on the capability to efficiently generate, transport, and detect millimeter-wave carriers modulated at high data rates. Photonic approaches based on the heterodyne beating of two free-running laser sources have been proposed as an alternative to generate multi-Gbps quadrature phase modulated signals imposed on millimeter wave carriers. Implementing photonic approaches in the down-link avoids the need for electronic generation of high frequency carriers and decreases the requirements at the base band electronics. In addition, implementing complex modulation formats overcomes some of the typical issues found in intensity modulation direct detection approaches such as non linearity, receiver sensitivity and dynamic range. In this work, the performance improvement of a coherent RoF system carrying 10 Gbps QPSK signals is numerically analyzed in terms of both the frequency linewidth and the degree of phase correlation between the lasers utilised at the down-link (for the optical heterodyne beating) and at the up-link (for the optical coherent detection). Relative to phase correlated lasers featuring linewidths of 5 MHz, the peak power of the 60 G Hz carrier generated at the down-link is reduced by 8 dB for un-correlated lasers. In addition, the error vector magnitude of the received signal at the up-link is improved from over 20% (for un-correlated lasers and linewidths of 5 MHz) to around 15% (for correlated lasers) at an optical received power of -30 dBm. The results obtained reinforce the idea of using coherent comb laser sources with phase correlated modes located at the Central Office. It also motivates the eventual deployment of techniques to control the degree of phase correlation between the lasers used as signal and local oscillator at the optical coherent receivers.
Zhang, Yun; Dong, Bo; Bai, Yulei; Ye, Shuangli; Lei, Zhenkun; Zhou, Yanzhou
2015-10-19
An updated B-scan method is proposed for measuring the evolution of thermal deformation fields in polymers. In order to measure the distributions of out-of-plane deformation and normal strain field, phase-contrast spectral optical coherence tomography (PC-SOCT) was performed with the depth range and resolution of 4.3 mm and 10.7 μm, respectively, as thermal loads were applied to three different multilayer samples. The relation between temperature and material refractive index was predetermined before the measurement. After accounting for the refractive index, the thermal deformation fields in the polymer were obtained. The measured thermal expansion coefficient of silicone sealant was approximately equal to its reference value. This method allows correctly assessing the mechanical properties in semitransparent polymers.
Phase-coherent frequency comparison of optical clocks using a telecommunication fiber link.
Schnatz, Harald; Terra, Osama; Predehl, Katharina; Feldmann, Thorsten; Legero, Thomas; Lipphardt, Burghard; Sterr, Uwe; Grosche, Gesine; Holzwarth, Ronald; Hänsch, Theodor W; Udem, Thomas; Lu, Zehuang H; Wang, Li J; Ertmer, Wolfgang; Friebe, Jan; Pape, Andrè; Rasel, Ernst-M; Riedmann, Mathias; Wübbena, Temmo
2010-01-01
We have explored the performance of 2 "dark fibers" of a commercial telecommunication fiber link for a remote comparison of optical clocks. These fibers establish a network in Germany that will eventually link optical frequency standards at PTB with those at the Institute of Quantum Optics (IQ) at the Leibniz University of Hanover, and the Max Planck Institutes in Erlangen (MPL) and Garching (MPQ). We demonstrate for the first time that within several minutes a phase coherent comparison of clock lasers at the few 10(-15) level can also be accomplished when the lasers are more than 100 km apart. Based on the performance of the fiber link to the IQ, we estimate the expected stability for the link from PTB to MPQ via MPL that bridges a distance of approximately 900 km.
The self-coherent camera as a focal plane fine phasing sensor
Janin-Potiron, Pierre; Baudoz, Pierre; Carbillet, Marcel
2016-01-01
Direct imaging of Earth-like exoplanets requires high contrast imaging capability and high angular resolution. Primary mirror segmentation is a key technological solution for large-aperture telescopes because it opens the path toward significantly increasing the angular resolution. The segments are kept aligned by an active optics system that must reduce segment misalignments below tens of nm RMS to achieve the high optical quality required for astronomical science programs. The development of cophasing techniques is mandatory for the next generation of space- and ground-based segmented telescopes, which both share the need for increasing spatial resolution. We propose a new focal plane cophasing sensor that exploits the scientific image of a coronagraphic instrument to retrieve simultaneously piston and tip-tilt misalignments. The self-coherent camera phasing sensor (SCC-PS) adequately combines the SCC properties to segmented telescope architectures with adapted segment misalignment estimators and image proc...
Clarke, Patrick J; Collins, Robert J; Dunjko, Vedran; Andersson, Erika; Jeffers, John; Buller, Gerald S
2012-01-01
Digital signatures are frequently used in data transfer to prevent impersonation, repudiation and message tampering. Currently used classical digital signature schemes rely on public key encryption techniques, where the complexity of so-called 'one-way' mathematical functions is used to provide security over sufficiently long timescales. No mathematical proofs are known for the long-term security of such techniques. Quantum digital signatures offer a means of sending a message, which cannot be forged or repudiated, with security verified by information-theoretical limits and quantum mechanics. Here we demonstrate an experimental system, which distributes quantum signatures from one sender to two receivers and enables message sending ensured against forging and repudiation. Additionally, we analyse the security of the system in some typical scenarios. Our system is based on the interference of phase-encoded coherent states of light and our implementation utilizes polarization-maintaining optical fibre and photons with a wavelength of 850 nm.
Tillem, Scott; Ryan, Jonathan; Wu, Jia; Crowley, Michael J; Mayes, Linda C; Baskin-Sommers, Arielle
2016-09-01
Psychopathic offenders are described as emotionally cold, displaying deficits in affective responding. However, research demonstrates that many of the psychopathy-related deficits are moderated by attention, such that under conditions of high attentional and perceptual load psychopathic offenders display deficits in affective responses, but do not in conditions of low load. To date, most studies use measures of defensive reflex (i.e., startle) and conditioning manipulations to examine the impact of load on psychopathy-related processing, but have not examined more direct measures of attention processing. In a sample of adult male offenders, the present study examined time-frequency EEG phase coherence in response to a picture-viewing paradigm that manipulated picture familiarity to assess neural changes in processing based on perceptual demands. Results indicated psychopathy-related differences in the theta response, an index of readiness to perceive and integrate sensory information. These data provide further evidence that psychopathic offenders have disrupted integration of sensory information.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tianhua Xu
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Using coherent optical detection and digital signal processing, laser phase noise and equalization enhanced phase noise can be effectively mitigated using the feed-forward and feed-back carrier phase recovery approaches. In this paper, theoretical analyses of feed-back and feed-forward carrier phase recovery methods have been carried out in the long-haul high-speed n-level phase shift keying (n-PSK optical fiber communication systems, involving a one-tap normalized least-mean-square (LMS algorithm, a block-wise average algorithm, and a Viterbi-Viterbi algorithm. The analytical expressions for evaluating the estimated carrier phase and for predicting the bit-error-rate (BER performance (such as the BER floors have been presented and discussed in the n-PSK coherent optical transmission systems by considering both the laser phase noise and the equalization enhanced phase noise. The results indicate that the Viterbi-Viterbi carrier phase recovery algorithm outperforms the one-tap normalized LMS and the block-wise average algorithms for small phase noise variance (or effective phase noise variance, while the one-tap normalized LMS algorithm shows a better performance than the other two algorithms for large phase noise variance (or effective phase noise variance. In addition, the one-tap normalized LMS algorithm is more sensitive to the level of modulation formats.
Harvesting, Coupling, and Control of Single-Exciton Coherences in Photonic Waveguide Antennas.
Mermillod, Q; Jakubczyk, T; Delmonte, V; Delga, A; Peinke, E; Gérard, J-M; Claudon, J; Kasprzak, J
2016-04-22
We perform coherent nonlinear spectroscopy of individual excitons strongly confined in single InAs quantum dots (QDs). The retrieval of their intrinsically weak four-wave mixing (FWM) response is enabled by a one-dimensional dielectric waveguide antenna. Compared to a similar QD embedded in bulk media, the FWM detection sensitivity is enhanced by up to 4 orders of magnitude, over a broad operation bandwidth. Three-beam FWM is employed to investigate coherence and population dynamics within individual QD transitions. We retrieve their homogenous dephasing in a presence of low-frequency spectral wandering. Two-dimensional FWM reveals off-resonant Förster coupling between a pair of distinct QDs embedded in the antenna. We also detect a higher order QD nonlinearity (six-wave mixing) and use it to coherently control the FWM transient. Waveguide antennas enable us to conceive multicolor coherent manipulation schemes of individual emitters.
Tianhua Xu; Gunnar Jacobsen; Sergei Popov; Jie Li; Tiegen Liu; Yimo Zhang; Polina Bayvel
2016-01-01
Using coherent optical detection and digital signal processing, laser phase noise and equalization enhanced phase noise can be effectively mitigated using the feed-forward and feed-back carrier phase recovery approaches. In this paper, theoretical analyses of feed-back and feed-forward carrier phase recovery methods have been carried out in the long-haul high-speed n-level phase shift keying (n-PSK) optical fiber communication systems, involving a one-tap normalized least-mean-square (LMS) al...
Coherent spontaneous emission and spontaneous phase locking in a free-electron laser
Weits, H. H.; Oepts, D.
1999-01-01
We present measurements that demonstrate the existence of spontaneous coherence between independently generated laser pulses in the FELIX free-electron laser, The experiments show that the interpulse coherence is caused by a high level of coherently enhanced spontaneous emission. We have been able t
Study on the fine control of atoms by coherent interaction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Min, Han Jae; Rho, S. P.; Park, H. M.; Lee, K. S.; Rhee, Y. J.; Yi, J. H.; Jeong, D. Y.; Jung, E. C.; Choe, A. S.; Lee, J. M
1999-01-01
The doppler-free saturation spectroscopy of Na atoms has been performed and the proper conditions for the frequency stabilization of narrow band cw dye lasers, which was used as laser sources for the laser cooling and trapping, have been obtained as follows : a) optimum pressure of a Na vapor cell: 10 mTorr b) intensity of a pump laser : a few {mu}W c) intensity of a probe laser : 1/10 of that of a pump laser. EIT (Electromagnetically Induced Transparency) generated by coherent laser-atom interactions was investigated experimentally and analyzed theoretically. The absorption of a probe laser could be remarkably reduced more than 90 % due to EIT effect. The EIT spectrum as narrow as 6 MHz which is even narrower than the natural linewidth of an excited state could be obtained under proper conditions.
Nonadiabatic dynamics and coherent control of nonequilibrium superconductors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schnyder, Andreas; Manske, Dirk [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Heisenbergstrasse 1, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Krull, Holger; Uhrig, Goetz [Lehrstuhl fuer Theoretische Physik I, Technische Univeritaet Dortmund, Otto-Hahn Strasse 4, 44221 Dortmund (Germany)
2015-07-01
Inspired by recent THz pump-THz probe experiments on NbN films, we theoretically study the pump-probe response of nonequilibrium superconductors coupled to optical phonons. For ultrashort pump pulses a nonadiabatic regime emerges, which is characterized by amplitude oscillations of the superconducting gap and by the generation of coherent phonons. Using density-matrix theory as well as analytical methods, we compute the pump-probe response of the superconductor in the nonadiabatic regime and determine the signatures of the order parameter and of the phonon oscillations in the pump-probe conductivity. We find that the nonadiabatic dynamics of the superconductor reflects itself in oscillations of the pump-probe response as a function of delay time between pump and probe pulses. We also consider two-band superconductors and study the interplay of the two amplitude oscillations of the two gaps.
Strong field coherent control of molecular torsions—Analytical models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ashwell, Benjamin A.; Ramakrishna, S.; Seideman, Tamar, E-mail: t-seideman@northwestern.edu [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)
2015-08-14
We introduce analytical models of torsional alignment by moderately intense laser pulses that are applicable to the limiting cases of the torsional barrier heights. Using these models, we explore in detail the role that the laser intensity and pulse duration play in coherent torsional dynamics, addressing both experimental and theoretical concerns. Our results suggest strategies for minimizing the risk of off-resonant ionization, noting the qualitative differences between the case of torsional alignment subject to a field-free torsional barrier and that of torsional alignment of a barrier-less system (equivalent to a 2D rigid rotor). We also investigate several interesting torsional phenomena, including the onset of impulsive alignment of torsions, field-driven oscillations in quantum number space, and the disappearance of an alignment upper bound observed for a rigid rotor in the impulsive torsional alignment limit.
Coherent beam combining of high powerfiber lasers: Progress and prospect
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU; ZeJin; ZHOU; Pu; XU; XiaoJun; WANG; XiaoLin; MA; YanXing
2013-01-01
The recent research progress of coherent beam combining of high power fiber lasers is reviewed. Key technologies like coherently combinable fiber laser, phase control of multiple beams and beam tilling are specially analyzed. Prospects for single coherently combinable high power fiber amplifier, beam tilling and target-in-the-loop control for propagation in real atmosphere are presented.
Bina, Matteo; Allevi, Alessia; Bondani, Maria; Olivares, Stefano
2016-05-01
Phase estimation represents a crucial challenge in many fields of Physics, ranging from Quantum Metrology to Quantum Information Processing. This task is usually pursued by means of interferometric schemes, in which the choice of the input states and of the detection apparatus is aimed at minimizing the uncertainty in the estimation of the relative phase between the inputs. State discrimination protocols in communication channels with coherent states also require the monitoring of the optical phase. Therefore, the problem of phase estimation is relevant to face the issue of coherent states discrimination. Here we consider a quasi-optimal Kennedy-like receiver, based on the interference of two coherent signals, to be discriminated, with a reference local oscillator. By means of the Bayesian processing of a small amount of data drawn from the outputs of the shot-by-shot discrimination protocol, we demonstrate the achievement of the minimum uncertainty in phase estimation, also in the presence of uniform phase noise. Moreover, we show that the use of photon-number resolving detectors in the receiver improves the phase-estimation strategy, especially with respect to the usually employed on/off detectors. From the experimental point of view, this comparison is realized by employing hybrid photodetectors.
Entangled Radiation through an Atomic Reservoir Controlled by Coherent Population Trapping
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Li Qian; ZHONG Wen-Xue; HU Xiang-Ming
2008-01-01
We show that it is possible to generate Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) entangled radiation using an atomic reservoir controlled by coherent population trapping. A beam of three-level atoms is initially prepared in nearcoherent population trapping (CPT) state and acts as a long-lived coherence-controlled reservoir. Four-wave mixing leads to amplification of cavity modes resonant with Rabi sidebands of the atomic dipole transitions. The cavity modes evolve into an EPR state, whose degree of entanglement is controlled by the intensities and the frequencies of the driving fields. This scheme uses the long-lived CPT coherence and is robust against spontaneous emission of the atomic beam. At the same time, this scheme is implemented in a one-step procedure, not in a two-step procedure as was required in Phys. Rev. Lett. 98 (2007) 240401.
Yeh, Leehwa
1993-01-01
The phase-space-picture approach to quantum non-equilibrium statistical mechanics via the characteristic function of infinite-mode squeezed coherent states is introduced. We use quantum Brownian motion as an example to show how this approach provides an interesting geometrical interpretation of quantum non-equilibrium phenomena.
The photo-induced phase and coherent phonon in the organic conductor (EDO-TTF)2PF6
Onda, Ken; Ogihara, Sho; Ishikawa, Tadahiko; Okimoto, Yoichi; Shao, Xiangfeng; Yamochi, Hideki; Saito, Gunzi; Koshihara, Shin-ya
2008-06-01
We have investigated the nature of the photo-induced state and coherent phonon in the conducting charge transfer complex (EDO-TTF)2PF6 by measuring the ultrafast reflectivity change over a wide photon energy range from 0.069 eV (18 µm) to 2.1 eV (580 nm). The photo-induced spectra just after photo-excitation indicate that the photo-induced phase is similar to but clearly different from that in a thermally induced metal phase though they are the same for general photo-induced phase transition. The temporal profiles at each probe photon energy are accompanied by extraordinarily large amplitude oscillation originating from coherent phonon generation. The period of the coherent phonon depends discretely on the probe photon energy, while the generation efficiency of both the photo-induced phase and coherent photon reaches a maximum when the peak top of a charge transfer band is excited. These results are probably attributable to the strong electron-vibration coupling in this complex.
Nonlinear Phase Control and Anomalous Phase Matching in Plasmonic Metasurfaces
Almeida, Euclides; Prior, Yehiam
2015-01-01
Metasurfaces, and in particular those containing plasmonic-based metallic elements, constitute a particularly attractive set of materials. By means of modern nanolithographic fabrication techniques, flat, ultrathin optical elements may be constructed. However, in spite of their strong optical nonlinearities, plasmonic metasurfaces have so far been investigated mostly in the linear regime. Here we introduce full nonlinear phase control over plasmonic elements in metasurfaces. We show that for nonlinear interactions in a phase-gradient nonlinear metasurface a new anomalous nonlinear phase matching condition prevails, which is the nonlinear analog of the generalized Snell law demonstrated for linear metasurfaces. This phase matching condition is very different from the other known phase matching schemes. The subwavelength phase control of optical nonlinearities provides a foundation for the design of flat nonlinear optical elements based on metasurfaces. Our demonstrated flat nonlinear elements (i.e. lenses) act...
The self-coherent camera as a focal plane fine phasing sensor
Janin-Potiron, P.; Martinez, P.; Baudoz, P.; Carbillet, M.
2016-08-01
Context. Direct imaging of Earth-like exoplanets requires very high contrast imaging capability and high angular resolution. Primary mirror segmentation is a key technological solution for large-aperture telescopes because it opens the path toward significantly increasing the angular resolution. The segments are kept aligned by an active optics system that must reduce segment misalignments below tens of nm rms to achieve the high optical quality required for astronomical science programs. Aims: The development of cophasing techniques is mandatory for the next generation of space- and ground-based segmented telescopes, which both share the need for increasing spatial resolution. We propose a new focal plane cophasing sensor that exploits the scientific image of a coronagraphic instrument to retrieve simultaneously piston and tip-tilt misalignments. Methods: The self-coherent camera phasing sensor (SCC-PS) adequately combines the SCC properties to segmented telescope architectures with adapted segment misalignment estimators and image processing. An overview of the system architecture, and a thorough performance and sensitivity analysis, including a closed-loop efficiency, are presented by means of numerical simulations. Results: The SCC-PS estimates simultaneously piston and tip-tilt misalignments and corrects them in closed-loop operation in a few iterations. As opposed to numerous phasing sensor concepts the SCC-PS does not require any a priori on the signal at the segment boundaries or any dedicated optical path. We show that the SCC-PS has a moderate sensitivity to misalignments, virtually none to pupil shear, and is by principle insensitive to segment gaps and edge effects. Primary mirror phasing can be achieved with a relatively bright natural guide star with the SCC-PS. Conclusions: The SCC-PS is a noninvasive concept and an efficient phasing sensor from the image domain. It is an attractive candidate for segment cophasing at the instrument level or
Synchronization in area-preserving maps: Effects of mixed phase space and coherent structures
Mahata, Sasibhusan; Das, Swetamber; Gupte, Neelima
2016-06-01
The problem of synchronization of coupled Hamiltonian systems presents interesting features due to the mixed nature (regular and chaotic) of the phase space. We study these features by examining the synchronization of unidirectionally coupled area-preserving maps coupled by the Pecora-Caroll method. The master stability function approach is used to study the stability of the synchronous state and to identify the percentage of synchronizing initial conditions. The transient to synchronization shows intermittency with an associated power law. The mixed nature of the phase space of the studied map has notable effects on the synchronization times as is seen in the case of the standard map. Using finite-time Lyapunov exponent analysis, we show that the synchronization of the maps occurs in the neighborhood of invariant curves in the phase space. The phase differences of the coevolving trajectories show intermittency effects, due to the existence of stable periodic orbits contributing locally stable directions in the synchronizing neighborhoods. Furthermore, the value of the nonlinearity parameter, as well as the location of the initial conditions play an important role in the distribution of synchronization times. We examine drive response combinations which are chaotic-chaotic, chaotic-regular, regular-chaotic, and regular-regular. A range of scaling behavior is seen for these cases, including situations where the distributions show a power-law tail, indicating long synchronization times for at least some of the synchronizing trajectories. The introduction of coherent structures in the system changes the situation drastically. The distribution of synchronization times crosses over to exponential behavior, indicating shorter synchronization times, and the number of initial conditions which synchronize increases significantly, indicating an enhancement in the basin of synchronization. We discuss the implications of our results.
Serrat, C
2004-01-01
A theoretical investigation on the phase control of optical transient four-wave mixing interactions in two-level systems driven by two intense temporal coherent femtosecond laser pulses of central angular frequencies $\\omega$ and $3\\omega$ is reported. By solving the full Maxwell-Bloch equations beyond the slowly-varying envelope and rotating-wave approximations in the time domain, the parametric nonlinear coupling to the optical field at frequency $5\\omega$ is found to depend critically on the initial relative phase $\\phi$ of the two propagating pulses; the coupling is enhanced when the pulses interfere constructively in the center ($\\phi=0$), while it is nearly suppressed when they are out of phase ($\\phi=\\pi$).
Geng, Chao; Luo, Wen; Tan, Yi; Liu, Hongmei; Mu, Jinbo; Li, Xinyang
2013-10-21
A novel approach of tip/tilt control by using divergence cost function in stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD) algorithm for coherent beam combining (CBC) is proposed and demonstrated experimentally in a seven-channel 2-W fiber amplifier array with both phase-locking and tip/tilt control, for the first time to our best knowledge. Compared with the conventional power-in-the-bucket (PIB) cost function for SPGD optimization, the tip/tilt control using divergence cost function ensures wider correction range, automatic switching control of program, and freedom of camera's intensity-saturation. Homemade piezoelectric-ring phase-modulator (PZT PM) and adaptive fiber-optics collimator (AFOC) are developed to correct piston- and tip/tilt-type aberrations, respectively. The PIB cost function is employed for phase-locking via maximization of SPGD optimization, while the divergence cost function is used for tip/tilt control via minimization. An average of 432-μrad of divergence metrics in open loop has decreased to 89-μrad when tip/tilt control implemented. In CBC, the power in the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the main lobe increases by 32 times, and the phase residual error is less than λ/15.
Dynamic phase-sensitive optical coherence elastography at a true kilohertz frame-rate
Singh, Manmohan; Wu, Chen; Liu, Chih-Hao; Li, Jiasong; Schill, Alexander; Nair, Achuth; Larin, Kirill V.
2016-03-01
Dynamic optical coherence elastography (OCE) techniques have rapidly emerged as a noninvasive way to characterize the biomechanical properties of tissue. However, clinical applications of the majority of these techniques have been unfeasible due to the extended acquisition time because of multiple temporal OCT acquisitions (M-B mode). Moreover, multiple excitations, large datasets, and prolonged laser exposure prohibit their translation to the clinic, where patient discomfort and safety are critical criteria. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of noncontact true kilohertz frame-rate dynamic optical coherence elastography by directly imaging a focused air-pulse induced elastic wave with a home-built phase-sensitive OCE system. The OCE system was based on a 4X buffered Fourier Domain Mode Locked swept source laser with an A-scan rate of ~1.5 MHz, and imaged the elastic wave propagation at a frame rate of ~7.3 kHz. Because the elastic wave directly imaged, only a single excitation was utilized for one line scan measurement. Rather than acquiring multiple temporal scans at successive spatial locations as with previous techniques, here, successive B-scans were acquired over the measurement region (B-M mode). Preliminary measurements were taken on tissue-mimicking agar phantoms of various concentrations, and the results showed good agreement with uniaxial mechanical compression testing. Then, the elasticity of an in situ porcine cornea in the whole eye-globe configuration at various intraocular pressures was measured. The results showed that this technique can acquire a depth-resolved elastogram in milliseconds. Furthermore, the ultra-fast acquisition ensured that the laser safety exposure limit for the cornea was not exceeded.
Performance of carrier phase recovery for electronically dispersion compensated coherent systems.
Farhoudi, Ramtin; Ghazisaeidi, Amirhossein; Rusch, Leslie Ann
2012-11-19
An analytical approach taking into account carrier phase estimation (CPE) is presented to predict performance of quadrature phase shift-keying (QPSK) systems using coherent detection. Using this approach, system performance is found as a function of symbol rate, local oscillator (LO) linewidth, chromatic dispersion (CD) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). A new expression is derived for the covariance matrix of the conditional probability density function (pdf) of the decision statistic. This pdf is used to find bit error rate (BER) semi-analytically. Our analytical derivation assumes perfect removal of data modulation which corresponds to an ideal decision feedback (DF) carrier recovery. The validity of the analytical pdf for predicting BER is verified for a wide range of system parameters of interest in long haul systems. In addition, our semi-analytical BER provides a lower bound for the Viterbi-Viterbi (VV) BER, while showing the analytical BER previously proposed in the literature shows an overly pessimistic prediction of VV BER performance. We show that inaccuracy in previous analysis stems from overly simple model for the CPE when compensating large accumulated dispersion electronically. Finally, we study extension of our results to quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM). Preliminary simulation results are promising but the accuracy of our semi-analytical approach for predicting BER should be investigated further.
Chaos control applied to coherent states in transitional flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pausch, Marina; Eckhardt, Bruno, E-mail: bruno.eckhardt@physik.uni-marburg.de [Fachbereich Physik, Philipps-Universitaet Marburg, Renthof 6, 35032 Marburg (Germany)
2011-12-22
Chaos control refers to a group of techniques by which an otherwise unstable dynamical state of a system can be maintained by small control forces. We here discuss their application to stabilizing the fixed points in a low dimensional model for shear flows. The simulations demonstrate a prototypical application of chaos control, show that control is almost always possible, and give insights into optimizing the control matrix from a design point of view.
Coherent control with shaped femtosecond laser pulses applied to ultracold molecules
Salzmann, W; Wester, R; Weidemüller, M; Merli, A; Weber, S M; Sauer, F; Plewicki, M; Weise, F; Esparza, A M; Wöste, L; Lindinger, A; Salzmann, Wenzel; Poschinger, Ulrich; Wester, Roland; Weidemueller, Matthias; Merli, Andrea; Weber, Stefan M.; Sauer, Franziska; Plewicki, Mateusz; Weise, Fabian; Esparza, Aldo Mirabal; Woeste, Ludger; Lindinger, Albrecht
2005-01-01
We report on coherent control of excitation processes of translationally ultracold rubidium dimers in a magneto-optical trap by using shaped femtosecond laser pulses. Evolution strategies are applied in a feedback loop in order to optimize the photoexcitation of the Rb2 molecules, which subsequently undergo ionization or fragmentation. A superior performance of the resulting pulses compared to unshaped pulses of the same pulse energy is obtained by distributing the energy among specific spectral components. The demonstration of coherent control to ultracold ensembles opens a path to actively influence fundamental photo-induced processes in molecular quantum gases.
Yan, Zhihui; Jia, Xiaojun
2017-06-01
A quantum mechanical model of the non-measurement based coherent feedback control (CFC) is applied to deterministic atom-light entanglement with imperfect retrieval efficiency, which is generated based on Raman process. We investigate the influence of different experimental parameters on entanglement property of CFC Raman system. By tailoring the transmissivity of coherent feedback controller, it is possible to manipulate the atom-light entanglement. Particularly, we show that CFC allows atom-light entanglement enhancement under appropriate operating conditions. Our work can provide entanglement source between atomic ensemble and light of high quality for high-fidelity quantum networks and quantum computation based on atomic ensemble.
Yamauchi, Toyohiko; Iwai, Hidenao; Yamashita, Yutaka
2011-11-01
We demonstrate tomographic imaging of intracellular activity of living cells by a low-coherent quantitative phase microscope. The intracellular organelles, such as the nucleus, nucleolus, and mitochondria, are moving around inside living cells, driven by the cellular physiological activity. In order to visualize the intracellular motility in a label-free manner we have developed a reflection-type quantitative phase microscope which employs the phase shifting interferometric technique with a low-coherent light source. The phase shifting interferometry enables us to quantitatively measure the intensity and phase of the optical field, and the low-coherence interferometry makes it possible to selectively probe a specific sectioning plane in the cell volume. The results quantitatively revealed the depth-resolved fluctuations of intracellular surfaces so that the plasma membrane and the membranes of intracellular organelles were independently measured. The transversal and the vertical spatial resolutions were 0.56 μm and 0.93 μm, respectively, and the mechanical sensitivity of the phase measurement was 1.2 nanometers. The mean-squared displacement was applied as a statistical tool to analyze the temporal fluctuation of the intracellular organelles. To the best of our knowledge, our system visualized depth-resolved intracellular organelles motion for the first time in sub-micrometer resolution without contrast agents.
Cheng, Jingchi; Tang, Ming; Fu, Songnian; Shum, Perry Ping; Liu, Deming
2013-04-01
We show for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, that, in a coherent communication system that employs a phase-shift-keying signal and Raman amplification, besides the pump relative intensity noise (RIN) transfer to the amplitude, the signal's phase will also be affected by pump RIN through the pump-signal cross-phase modulation. Although the average pump power induced linear phase change can be compensated for by the phase-correction algorithm, a relative phase noise (RPN) parameter has been found to characterize pump RIN induced stochastic phase noise. This extra phase noise brings non-negligible system impairments in terms of the Q-factor penalty. The calculation shows that copumping leads to much more stringent requirements to pump RIN, and relatively larger fiber dispersion helps to suppress the RPN induced impairment. A higher-order phase-shift keying (PSK) signal is less tolerant to noise than a lower-order PSK.
Jorgensen, S F; Jorgensen, Solvejg; Kosloff, Ronnie
2003-01-01
A spectroscopic application of the atom laser is suggested. The spectroscopy termed 2PACC employs the coherent properties of matter-waves from a two pulse atom laser. These waves are employed to control a gas-surface chemical recombination reaction. The method is demonstrated for an Eley-Rideal reaction of a hydrogen or alkali atom-laser pulse where the surface target is an adsorbed hydrogen atom. The reaction yields either a hydrogen or alkali hydride molecule. The desorbed gas phase molecular yield and its internal state is shown to be controlled by the time and phase delay between two atom-laser pulses. The calculation is based on solving the time-dependent Schrodinger equation in a diabatic framework. The probability of desorption which is the predicted 2PACC signal has been calculated as a function of the pulse parameters.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Korotkevich, Alexander O.; Lushnikov, Pavel M., E-mail: plushnik@math.unm.edu [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 (United States); Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, 2 Kosygin Str., Moscow 119334 (Russian Federation); Rose, Harvey A. [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS-B213, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); New Mexico Consortium, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States)
2015-01-15
We developed a linear theory of backward stimulated Brillouin scatter (BSBS) of a spatially and temporally random laser beam relevant for laser fusion. Our analysis reveals a new collective regime of BSBS (CBSBS). Its intensity threshold is controlled by diffraction, once cT{sub c} exceeds a laser speckle length, with T{sub c} the laser coherence time. The BSBS spatial gain rate is approximately the sum of that due to CBSBS, and a part which is independent of diffraction and varies linearly with T{sub c}. The CBSBS spatial gain rate may be reduced significantly by the temporal bandwidth of KrF-based laser systems compared to the bandwidth currently available to temporally smoothed glass-based laser systems.
Quantum interferences and their classical limit in laser driven coherent control scenarios
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Franco, Ignacio, E-mail: ifranco@chem.northwestern.edu [Chemical Physics Theory Group, Department of Chemistry, Center for Quantum Information and Quantum Control, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5S 3H6 (Canada); Spanner, Michael; Brumer, Paul [Chemical Physics Theory Group, Department of Chemistry, Center for Quantum Information and Quantum Control, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5S 3H6 (Canada)
2010-05-12
Graphical abstract: The analogy between Young's double-slit experiment with matter and laser driven coherent control schemes is investigated, and shown to be limited. To do so, a general decomposition of observables in the Heisenberg picture into direct terms and interference contributions is introduced, and formal quantum-classical correspondence arguments in the Heisenberg picture are employed to define classical analogs of quantum interference terms. While the classical interference contributions in the double-slit experiment are shown to be zero, they can be nonzero in laser driven coherent control schemes and lead to laser control in the classical limit. This classical limit is interpreted in terms of nonlinear response theory arguments. - Abstract: The analogy between Young's double-slit experiment with matter and laser driven coherent control schemes is investigated, and shown to be limited. To do so, a general decomposition of observables in the Heisenberg picture into direct terms and interference contributions is introduced, and formal quantum-classical correspondence arguments in the Heisenberg picture are employed to define classical analogs of quantum interference terms. While the classical interference contributions in the double-slit experiment are shown to be zero, they can be nonzero in laser driven coherent control schemes and lead to laser control in the classical limit. This classical limit is interpreted in terms of nonlinear response theory arguments.
Coherent LQG Control, Free-Carrier Oscillations, Optical Ising Machines and Pulsed OPO Dynamics
Hamerly, Ryan
2016-01-01
Broadly speaking, this thesis is about nonlinear optics, quantum mechanics, and computing. More specifically, it covers four main topics: Coherent LQG Control, Free-Carrier Oscillations, Optical Ising Machines and Pulsed OPO Dynamics. Tying them all together is a theory of open quantum systems called the SLH model, which I introduce in Chapters 1-2. The SLH model is a general framework for open quantum systems that interact through bosonic fields, and is the basis for the quantum circuit theory developed in the text. Coherent LQG control is discussed in Chapters 3-4, where I demonstrate that coherent feedback outperforms measurement-based feedback for certain linear quadratic-Gaussian (LQG) problems, and explain the discrepancy by the former's simultaneous utilization of both light quadratures. Semiclassical truncated-Wigner techniques for quantum-optical networks are discussed in Chapter 5, leading to a thorough discussion of quantum noise in systems with free-carrier nonlinearities (Chapter 6), comparison t...
Fully coherent hard X-ray generation by two-stage of Phase-merging Enhanced Harmonic Generation
Wang, Guanglei; Yang, Xueming; Feng, Chao; Deng, Haixiao
2016-01-01
Cascading stages of seeded free electron laser (FEL) is a promising way to produce fully coherent X-ray radiations. We study a new approach to produce coherent hard X-rays by cascading the recently proposed phase-merging enhanced harmonic generation (PEHG). The scheme consists of one dogleg and two PEHG configurations, which may be one of the leading candidates for the extracted undulator branch in future X-ray FEL facilities. FEL physics studies show that such a scheme is feasible within the present technology and can provide high brightness X-ray radiation pulses with narrow bandwidth and fully coherence, and the radiated peak power at 1 angstrom wavelength converted from an initial 200 nm seed laser is over 2 GW.
Fully coherent hard X-ray generation by two-stage phase-merging enhanced harmonic generation
Wang, Guang-Lei; Zhang, Wei-Qing; Yang, Xue-Ming; Feng, Chao; Deng, Hai-Xiao
2016-09-01
Cascading stages of seeded free electron lasers (FELs) is a promising way to produce fully coherent X-ray radiation. We study a new approach to produce coherent hard X-rays by cascading the recently proposed phase-merging enhanced harmonic generation (PEHG) The scheme consists of one dogleg and two PEHG configurations, and may be one of the leading candidates for the extracted undulator branch in future X-ray FEL facilities. FEL physics studies show that such a scheme is feasible within the present technology and can provide high brightness X-ray radiation pulses with narrow bandwidth and full coherence The radiated peak power at 1 Å wavelength converted from an initial 200 nm seed laser is over 2 GW Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (21127902 & 11322550) and Ten Thousand Talent Program
Coherent control of the formation of cold heteronuclear molecules by photoassociation
de Lima, Emanuel F.
2017-01-01
We consider the formation of cold diatomic molecules in the electronic ground state by photoassociation of atoms of dissimilar species. A combination of two transition pathways from the free colliding pair of atoms to a bound vibrational level of the electronic molecular ground state is envisioned. The first pathway consists of a pump-dump scheme with two time-delayed laser pulses in the near-infrared frequency domain. The pump pulse drives the transition to a bound vibrational level of an excited electronic state, while the dump pulse transfers the population to a bound vibrational level of the electronic ground state. The second pathway takes advantage of the existing permanent dipole moment and employs a single pulse in the far-infrared domain to drive the transition from the unbound atoms directly to a bound vibrational level in the electronic ground state. We show that this scheme offers the possibility to coherently control the photoassociation yield by manipulating the relative phase and timing of the pulses. The photoassociation mechanism is illustrated for the formation of cold LiCs molecules.
Observation and control of coherent torsional dynamics in a quinquethiophene molecule.
Cirmi, Giovanni; Brida, Daniele; Gambetta, Alessio; Piacenza, Manuel; Della Sala, Fabio; Favaretto, Laura; Cerullo, Giulio; Lanzani, Guglielmo
2010-07-28
By applying femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy to a substituted quinquethiophene molecule in solution, we observe in the time domain the coherent torsional dynamics that drives planarization of the excited state. Our interpretation is based on numerical modeling of the ground and excited state potential energy surfaces and simulation of wavepacket dynamics, which reveals two symmetric excited state deactivation pathways per oscillation period. We use the acquired knowledge on torsional dynamics to coherently control the excited state population with a pump-dump scheme, exploiting the non-stationary Franck-Condon overlap between ground and excited states.
A Coherence Preservation Control Strategy in Cavity QED Based on Classical Quantum Feedback
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ming Li
2013-01-01
Full Text Available For eliminating the unexpected decoherence effect in cavity quantum electrodynamics (cavity QED, the transfer function of Rabi oscillation is derived theoretically using optical Bloch equations. In particular, the decoherence in cavity QED from the atomic spontaneous emission is especially considered. A feedback control strategy is proposed to preserve the coherence through Rabi oscillation stabilization. In the scheme, a classical quantum feedback channel for the quantum information acquisition is constructed via the quantum tomography technology, and a compensation system based on the root locus theory is put forward to suppress the atomic spontaneous emission and the associated decoherence. The simulation results have proved its effectiveness and superiority for the coherence preservation.
Direct and Indirect Couplings in Coherent Feedback Control of Linear Quantum Systems
Zhang, Guofeng
2010-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to study and design direct and indirect couplings for use in coherent feedback control of a class of linear quantum stochastic systems. A general physical model for a nominal linear quantum system coupled directly and indirectly to external systems is presented. Fundamental properties of stability, dissipation, passivity, and gain for this class of linear quantum models are presented and characterized using complex Lyapunov equations and linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). Coherent $H^\\infty$ and LQG synthesis methods are extended to accommodate direct couplings using multistep optimization. Examples are given to illustrate the results.
Characterising the rotational irregularities of the Vela pulsar from 21 yr of phase-coherent timing
Shannon, R M; Kerr, M; Johnston, S; Hobbs, G; Manchester, R N
2016-01-01
Pulsars show two classes of rotational irregularities that can be used to understand neutron-star interiors and magnetospheres: glitches and timing noise. Here we present an analysis of the Vela pulsar spanning nearly 21 yr of observation and including 8 glitches. We identify the relative pulse number of all of the observations between glitches, with the only pulse-number ambiguities existing over glitch events. We use the phase coherence of the timing solution to simultaneously model the timing noise and glitches in a Bayesian framework, allowing us to select preferred models for both. We find the glitches can be described using only permanent and transient changes in spin frequency, i.e., no step changes in frequency derivative. For all of the glitches, we only need two exponentially decaying changes in spin frequency to model the transient components. In contrast to previous studies, we find that the dominant transient components decay on a common $\\approx$ 1300 d time scale, and that a larger fraction ( $...
Phase Coherent Timing of RX J0806.3+1527 with ROSAT and CHANDRA
Strohmayer, T E
2003-01-01
RX J0806.3+1527 is an ultra-compact, double degenerate binary with the shortest known orbital period (321.5 s). Hakala et al. (2003) have recently reported new optical measurements of the orbital frequency of the source which indicate that the frequency has increased over the ~9 years since the earliest ROSAT observations. They find two candidate solutions for the long term change in the frequency; df/dt = 3 or 6 x 10E-16 Hz/s. Here we present the results of a phase coherent timing study of the archival ROSAT and Chandra data for RX J0806.3+1527 in the light of these new constraints. We find that the ROSAT -- Chandra timing data are consistent with both of the solutions reported by Hakala et al., but that the higher df/dt = 6.1 x 10E-16 Hz/s solution is favored at the ~97 % level. Such a large df/dt can be accomodated by an ~1 Msun detached double degenerate system powered in the X-ray by electrical energy (Wu et al. 2002). With such a large df/dt the system provides a unique opportunity to explore the intera...
Shimizu, K; Horiguchi, T; Koyamada, Y
1996-11-15
A novel method for the broadband absolute frequency synthesis of pulsed coherent lightwaves is demonstrated. It is based on pulse recirculation around an active optical feedback ring containing a delay-line fiber, an external phase modulator, an acousto-optic frequency shifter (AOFS), and a high-finesse Fabry-Perot étalon. The modulation frequency F(M) and the frequency shift F(AO) that are due to AOFS are designed so that their sum or difference equals the free-spectral range of the étalon and F(AO) is set at larger than the half-width at full maximum of its resonant peaks. If one of the peak frequencies is tuned to the frequency of the initial pulse, the frequency of the recirculating pulse jumps to the next peak for each round trip. In the experiment the absolute frequency is synthesized over a frequency span of 700 GHz around the initial stabilized frequency of the master laser.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jarrod eMoss
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Discourse comprehension processes attempt to produce an elaborate and well-connected representation in the reader’s mind. A common network of regions including the angular gyrus, posterior cingulate, and dorsal frontal cortex appears to be involved in constructing coherent representations in a variety of tasks including social cognition tasks, narrative comprehension, and expository text comprehension. Reading strategies that require the construction of explicit inferences are used in the present research to examine how this coherence network interacts with other brain regions. A psychophysiological interaction analysis was used to examine regions showing changed functional connectivity with this coherence network when participants were engaged in either a non-inferencing reading strategy, paraphrasing, or a strategy requiring coherence-building inferences, self-explanation. Results of the analysis show that the coherence network increases in functional connectivity with a cognitive control network that may be specialized for the manipulation of semantic representations and the construction of new relations among these representations.
Coherently controlling Raman-induced grating in atomic media
Arkhipkin, V G; Timofeev, I V
2015-01-01
We consider dynamically controllable periodic structures, called Raman induced gratings, in three- and four-level atomic media, resulting from Raman interaction in a standing-wave pump. These gratings are due to periodic spatial modulation of the Raman nonlinearity and fundamentally differ from the ones based on electromagnetically induced transparency. The transmission and reflection spectra of such gratings can be simultaneously amplified and controlled by varying the pump field intensity. It is shown that a transparent medium with periodic spatial modulation of the Raman gain can be opaque near the Raman resonance and yet at the same time it can be a non-linear amplifying mirror. We also show that spectral properties of the Raman induced grating can be controlled with the help of an additional weak control field.
Coherent spin control of a nanocavity-enhanced qubit in diamond
Li, Luozhou; Chen, Edward H; Walsh, Michael; Bayn, Igal; Goldstein, Jordan; Gaathon, Ophir; Trusheim, Matthew E; Lu, Ming; Mower, Jacob; Cotlet, Mircea; Markham, Matthew L; Twitchen, Daniel J; Englund, Dirk
2014-01-01
A central aim of quantum information processing is the efficient entanglement of multiple stationary quantum memories via photons. Among solid-state systems, the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centre in diamond has emerged as an excellent optically addressable memory with second-scale electron spin coherence times. Recently, quantum entanglement and teleportation have been shown between two NV-memories, but scaling to larger networks requires more efficient spin-photon interfaces such as optical resonators. Here, we demonstrate such NV-nanocavity systems with optical quality factors approaching 10,000 and electron spin coherence times exceeding 200 $\\mu$s using a silicon hard-mask fabrication process. This spin-photon interface is integrated with on-chip microwave striplines for coherent spin control, providing an efficient quantum memory for quantum networks.
Fang, Xu; Zheludev, Nikolay I
2014-01-01
Vast amounts of information are conveyed by photons in optical fibres, but most data processing is performed electronically, creating the infamous 'information bottleneck' and consuming energy at an increasingly unsustainable rate. The potential for photonic devices to manipulate light themselves remains unfulfilled, largely due to the absence of materials with strong, fast optical nonlinearities. Here we show that small-signal amplifier, summator and invertor functions for optical signals may all be realized with a 4-port device exploiting the coherent interaction of beams on a planar plasmonic metamaterial, assuming no intrinsic nonlinearity. We show that coherently controlled redistribution of energy among ports can deliver various forms of optical switching. Such devices can operate even at the single photon level, with THz bandwidth, and without introducing signal distortion, presenting powerful opportunities for novel optical data processing architectures, complexity oracles and the locally coherent net...
Bu, Lingguo; Zhang, Ming; Li, Jianfeng; Li, Fangyi; Liu, Heshan; Li, Zengyong
2017-01-01
Purpose To reveal the physiological mechanism of the decline in cognitive function after sleep deprivation, a within-subject study was performed to assess sleep deprivation effects on phase synchronization, as revealed by wavelet phase coherence (WPCO) analysis of prefrontal tissue oxyhemoglobin signals. Materials and Methods Twenty subjects (10 male and 10 female, 25.5 ± 3.5 years old) were recruited to participate in two tests: one without sleep deprivation (group A) and the other with 24 h of sleep deprivation (group B). Before the test, each subject underwent a subjective evaluation using visual analog scales. A cognitive task was performed by judging three random numbers. Continuous recordings of the near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) signals were obtained from both the left and right prefrontal lobes during rest, task, and post-task periods. The WPCO of cerebral Delta [HbO2] signals were analyzed for these three periods for both groups A and B. Results Six frequency intervals were defined: I: 0.6–2 Hz (cardiac activity), II: 0.145–0.6 Hz (respiratory activity), III: 0.052–0.145 Hz (myogenic activity), IV: 0.021–0.052 Hz (neurogenic activity), V: 0.0095–0.021 Hz (nitric oxide related endothelial activity) and VI: 0.005–0.0095 Hz (non-nitric oxide related endothelial activity). WPCO in intervals III (F = 5.955, p = 0.02) and V (F = 4.7, p = 0.037) was significantly lower in group B than in group A at rest. During the task period, WPCO in intervals III (F = 5.175, p = 0.029) and IV (F = 4.585, p = 0.039) was significantly lower in group B compared with group A. In the post-task recovery period, the WPCO in interval III (F = 6.125, p = 0.02) was significantly lower in group B compared with group A. Reaction time was significantly prolonged, and the accuracy rate and F1 score both declined after sleep deprivation. Conclusions The decline in WPCO after sleep deprivation indicates reduced phase synchronization between left and right prefrontal
Weiss, N.M.
2016-01-01
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) uses a low coherence light source and a Michelson interferometer to measure path-length resolved backscatter profiles of samples with micrometer resolution and up to a few millimeters long. The OCT amplitude is typically used to generate images of the sample. Addit
Holographic microscopy in low coherence
Chmelík, Radim; Petráček, Jiří; Slabá, Michala; Kollárová, Věra; Slabý, Tomáš; Čolláková, Jana; Komrska, Jiří; Dostál, Zbyněk.; Veselý, Pavel
2016-03-01
Low coherence of the illumination substantially improves the quality of holographic and quantitative phase imaging (QPI) by elimination of the coherence noise and various artefacts and by improving the lateral resolution compared to the coherent holographic microscopy. Attributes of coherence-controlled holographic microscope (CCHM) designed and built as an off-axis holographic system allowing QPI within the range from complete coherent to incoherent illumination confirmed these expected advantages. Low coherence illumination also furnishes the coherence gating which constraints imaging of some spatial frequencies of an object axially thus forming an optical section in the wide sense. In this way the depth discrimination capability of the microscope is introduced at the price of restricting the axial interval of possible numerical refocusing. We describe theoretically these effects for the whole range of illumination coherence. We also show that the axial refocusing constraints can be overcome using advanced mode of imaging based on mutual lateral shift of reference and object image fields in CCHM. Lowering the spatial coherence of illumination means increasing its numerical aperture. We study how this change of the illumination geometry influences 3D objects QPI and especially the interpretation of live cells QPI in terms of the dry mass density measurement. In this way a strong dependence of the imaging process on the light coherence is demonstrated. The theoretical calculations and numerical simulations are supported by experimental data including a chance of time-lapse watching of live cells even in optically turbid milieu.
Golmohammady, Sh; Ghafary, B.
2016-06-01
In this study, generalized Stokes parameters of a phase-locked partially coherent flat-topped array beam based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle and the unified theory of coherence and polarization have been reported. Analytical formulas for 2 × 2 cross-spectral density matrix elements, and consequently Stokes parameters of a phase-locked partially coherent flat-topped array beam propagating through the turbulent atmosphere have been formulated. Effects of many physical attributes such as wavelength, turbulence strength, flatness order and other source parameters on the Stokes parameters, and therefore spectral degree of polarization upon propagation have been studied thoroughly. The behaviour of the spectral degree of coherence of a delineated beam for different source conditions has been investigated. It can be shown that four generalized Stokes parameters increase by raising the flatness order at the same propagation distance. Increasing the number of beams leads to a decrease in the Stokes parameters to zero slowly. The results are of utmost importance for optical communications.
The Dynamics of Coupled Oscillator Phase Control
Pogorzelski, R. J.; Maccarini, P. F.; York, R. A.
1998-01-01
Arrays of coupled oscillators have been proposed as means of realizing high power rf sources via coherent spatial power combining. In such applications, a uniform phase distribution over the aperture is usually desired. However, it has been shown that by detuning some of the oscillators away from the oscillation frequency of the ensemble of oscillators, one may achieve other useful aperture phase distributions. Of particular interest among those achievable are linear phase distributions because these result in steering of the output rf beam away from the broadside direction. The theory describing the behavior of such arrays of coupled oscillators is quite complicated since the phenomena involved are inherently nonlinear. However, a simplified theory has been developed which facilitates intuitive understanding. This simplified theory is based on a "continuum model" in which the aperture phase is represented by a continuous function of the aperture coordinates. A challenging aspect of the development of this theory is the derivation of appropriate boundary conditions at the edges or ends of the array.
Phase Change Fabrics Control Temperature
2009-01-01
Originally featured in Spinoff in 1997, Outlast Technologies Inc. (formerly Gateway Technologies Inc.) has built its entire product line on microencapsulated phase change materials, developed in Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Johnson Space Center after initial development for the U.S. Air Force. The Boulder, Colorado-based company acquired the exclusive patent rights and now integrates these materials into textiles or onto finished apparel, providing temperature regulation in bedding materials and a full line of apparel for both ordinary and extreme conditions.
A new paradigm for photodynamic therapy: coherent control
Yang, Di; Savolainen, Janne; Jafarpour, Aliakbar; Sprünken, Daan P.; Herek, Jennifer L.; Kessel, David H.
2009-01-01
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a treatment based on the interaction of light, photosensitizing agents and tissue oxygen. The light delivery in PDT is usually optimized by controlling the intensity, the spectrum, and/or the dosage of excitation light. In this paper, we introduce a novel method that ai
Zhang, Yao; Meng, Qiu-Shi; Zhang, Li; Luo, Yang; Yu, Yun-Jie; Yang, Ben; Zhang, Yang; Esteban, Ruben; Aizpurua, Javier; Luo, Yi; Yang, Jin-Long; Dong, Zhen-Chao; Hou, J. G.
2017-05-01
The coherent interaction between quantum emitters and photonic modes in cavities underlies many of the current strategies aiming at generating and controlling photonic quantum states. A plasmonic nanocavity provides a powerful solution for reducing the effective mode volumes down to nanometre scale, but spatial control at the atomic scale of the coupling with a single molecular emitter is challenging. Here we demonstrate sub-nanometre spatial control over the coherent coupling between a single molecule and a plasmonic nanocavity in close proximity by monitoring the evolution of Fano lineshapes and photonic Lamb shifts in tunnelling electron-induced luminescence spectra. The evolution of the Fano dips allows the determination of the effective interaction distance of ~1 nm, coupling strengths reaching ~15 meV and a giant self-interaction induced photonic Lamb shift of up to ~3 meV. These results open new pathways to control quantum interference and field-matter interaction at the nanoscale.
Randomized Dynamical Decoupling Techniques for Coherent Quantum Control
Viola, L; Viola, Lorenza; Santos, Lea F.
2006-01-01
The need for strategies able to accurately manipulate quantum dynamics is ubiquitous in quantum control and quantum information processing. We investigate two scenarios where randomized dynamical decoupling techniques become more advantageous with respect to standard deterministic methods in switching off unwanted dynamical evolution in a closed quantum system: when dealing with decoupling cycles which involve a large number of control actions and/or when seeking long-time quantum information storage. Highly effective hybrid decoupling schemes, which combine deterministic and stochastic features are discussed, as well as the benefits of sequentially implementing a concatenated method, applied at short times, followed by a hybrid protocol, employed at longer times. A quantum register consisting of a chain of spin-1/2 particles interacting via the Heisenberg interaction is used as a model for the analysis throughout.
Controlling coherence in epsilon-near-zero metamaterials (Conference Presentation)
Caglayan, Humeyra; Hajian, Hodjat; Ozbay, Ekmel
2017-05-01
Recently, metamaterials with near-zero refractive index have attracted much attention. Light inside these materials experiences no spatial phase change and extremely large phase velocity, makes these peculiar systems applicable for realizing directional emission, tunneling waveguides, large-area single-mode devices and electromagnetic cloaks. In addition, epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) metamaterials can also enhance light transmission through a subwavelength aperture. Impedance-matched all-dielectric zero-index metamaterials which exhibit Dirac cone dispersions at center of the Brillouin zone, have been experimentally demonstrated at microwave regime and optical frequencies for transverse-magnetic (TM) polarization of light. More recently, it has been also proved that these systems can be realized in a miniaturized in-plane geometry useful for integrated photonic applications, i.e. these metamaterials can be integrated with other optical elements, including waveguides, resonators and interferometers. In this work, using a zero-index metamaterial at the inner and outer sides of a subwavelength aperture, we numerically and experimental study light transmission through and its extraction from the aperture. The metamaterial consists of a combination of two double-layer arrays of scatterers with dissimilar subwavelength dimensions. The metamaterial exhibits zero-index optical response in microwave region. Our numerical investigation shows that the presence of the metamaterial at the inner side of the aperture leads to a considerable increase in the transmission of light through the subwavelength aperture. This enhancement is related to the amplification of the amplitude of the electromagnetic field inside the metamaterial which drastically increases the coupling between free space and the slit. By obtaining the electric field profile of the light passing through the considered NZI/aperture/NZI system at this frequency we found out that in addition to the enhanced transmission
Seghilani, Mohamed S; Myara, Mikhael; Sellahi, Mohamed; Legratiet, Luc; Sagnes, Isabelle; Beaudoin, Grégoire; Lalanne, Philippe; Garnache, Arnaud
2016-12-05
The generation of a coherent state, supporting a large photon number, with controlled orbital-angular-momentum L = ħl (of charge l per photon) presents both fundamental and technological challenges: we demonstrate a surface-emitting laser, based on III-V semiconductor technology with an integrated metasurface, generating vortex-like coherent state in the Laguerre-Gauss basis. We use a first order phase perturbation to lift orbital degeneracy of wavefunctions, by introducing a weak anisotropy called here "orbital birefringence", based on a dielectric metasurface. The azimuthal symmetry breakdown and non-linear laser dynamics create "orbital gain dichroism" allowing selecting vortex handedness. This coherent photonic device was characterized and studied, experimentally and theoretically. It exhibits a low divergence (50 dB vortex purity), and single frequency operation in a stable low noise regime (0.1% rms). Such high performance laser opens the path to widespread new photonic applications.
Grinev, Timur; Shapiro, Moshe; Brumer, Paul
2015-09-01
Coherent control of internal conversion (IC) between the first (S1) and second (S2) singlet excited electronic states in pyrazine, where the S2 state is populated from the ground singlet electronic state S0 by weak field excitation, is examined. Control is implemented by shaping the laser which excites S2. Excitation and IC are considered simultaneously, using the recently introduced resonance-based control approach. Highly successful control is achieved by optimizing both the amplitude and phase profiles of the laser spectrum. The dependence of control on the properties of resonances in S2 is demonstrated.
Quasi-Coherent Noise Jamming to LFM Radar Based on Pseudo-random Sequence Phase-modulation
2015-01-01
A novel quasi-coherent noise jamming method is proposed against linear frequency modulation (LFM) signal and pulse compression radar. Based on the structure of digital radio frequency memory (DRFM), the jamming signal is acquired by the pseudo-random sequence phase-modulation of sampled radar signal. The characteristic of jamming signal in time domain and frequency domain is analyzed in detail. Results of ambiguity function indicate that the blanket jamming effect along the range direction wi...
Quantum coherent control of ultra short laser pulses
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHOU JianYing; ZENG JianHua; LI JunTao
2008-01-01
The effective photonic control is one of the key issues in photo-physics. Significant advancement in photonic crystals, quantum optics, ultrafast optics as well as micro-nano-optics gives rise to new op-portunities to manipulate the emission and propagation in optical fields, leading to a number of new and interesting discoveries, e.g., ultrashort light pulse storage and efficient energy conversion. This paper reviews the latest research progress in storage, release and energy conversion for ultrashort laser pulses in periodical arrays of absorbing medium. Techniques to fabricate such devices are also presented.
Optimizing discrete control systems with phase limitations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shakhverdian, S.B.; Abramian, A.K.
1981-01-01
A new method is proposed for solving discrete problems of optimizing control systems with limitations on the phase coordinates. Results are given from experimental research which demonstrate the need to introduce tangential limitations independent of the method of accounting for the phase limitations.
Miles, Jeffrey Hilton
2015-01-01
A cross-power spectrum phase based adaptive technique is discussed which iteratively determines the time delay between two digitized signals that are coherent. The adaptive delay algorithm belongs to a class of algorithms that identifies a minimum of a pattern matching function. The algorithm uses a gradient technique to find the value of the adaptive delay that minimizes a cost function based in part on the slope of a linear function that fits the measured cross power spectrum phase and in part on the standard error of the curve fit. This procedure is applied to data from a Honeywell TECH977 static-engine test. Data was obtained using a combustor probe, two turbine exit probes, and far-field microphones. Signals from this instrumentation are used estimate the post-combustion residence time in the combustor. Comparison with previous studies of the post-combustion residence time validates this approach. In addition, the procedure removes the bias due to misalignment of signals in the calculation of coherence which is a first step in applying array processing methods to the magnitude squared coherence data. The procedure also provides an estimate of the cross-spectrum phase-offset.
Witt, Annette; Palmigiano, Agostina; Neef, Andreas; El Hady, Ahmed; Wolf, Fred; Battaglia, Demian
2013-01-01
Dynamic oscillatory coherence is believed to play a central role in flexible communication between brain circuits. To test this communication-through-coherence hypothesis, experimental protocols that allow a reliable control of phase-relations between neuronal populations are needed. In this modeling study, we explore the potential of closed-loop optogenetic stimulation for the control of functional interactions mediated by oscillatory coherence. The theory of non-linear oscillators predicts that the efficacy of local stimulation will depend not only on the stimulation intensity but also on its timing relative to the ongoing oscillation in the target area. Induced phase-shifts are expected to be stronger when the stimulation is applied within specific narrow phase intervals. Conversely, stimulations with the same or even stronger intensity are less effective when timed randomly. Stimulation should thus be properly phased with respect to ongoing oscillations (in order to optimally perturb them) and the timing of the stimulation onset must be determined by a real-time phase analysis of simultaneously recorded local field potentials (LFPs). Here, we introduce an electrophysiologically calibrated model of Channelrhodopsin 2 (ChR2)-induced photocurrents, based on fits holding over two decades of light intensity. Through simulations of a neural population which undergoes coherent gamma oscillations—either spontaneously or as an effect of continuous optogenetic driving—we show that precisely-timed photostimulation pulses can be used to shift the phase of oscillation, even at transduction rates smaller than 25%. We consider then a canonic circuit with two inter-connected neural populations oscillating with gamma frequency in a phase-locked manner. We demonstrate that photostimulation pulses applied locally to a single population can induce, if precisely phased, a lasting reorganization of the phase-locking pattern and hence modify functional interactions between the
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Annette eWitt
2013-04-01
Full Text Available Dynamic oscillatory coherence is believed to play a central role in flexible communication between brain circuits. To test this communication-through-coherence hypothesis, experimental protocols that allow a reliable control of phase-relations between neuronal populations are needed. In this modeling study, we explore the potential of closed-loop optogenetic stimulation for the control of functional interactions mediated by oscillatory coherence. The theory of nonlinear oscillators predicts that the efficacy of local stimulation will depend not only on the stimulation intensity but also on its timing relative to the ongoing oscillation in the target area. Induced phase-shifts are expected to be stronger when the stimulation is applied within specific narrow phase intervals. Conversely, stimulations with the same or even stronger intensity are less effective when timed randomly. Stimulation should thus be properly phased with respect to ongoing oscillations (in order to optimally perturb them and the timing of the stimulation onset must be determined by a real-time phase analysis of simultaneously recorded local field potentials (LFPs.Here, we introduce an electrophysiologically calibrated model of Channelrhodopsin 2 (ChR2-induced photocurrents, based on fits holding over two decades of light intensity. Through simulations of a neural population which undergoes coherent gamma oscillations —either spontaneously or as an effect of continuous optogenetic driving—, we show that precisely-timed photostimulation pulses can be used to shift phase, even at transduction rates smaller than 25%. We consider then a canonic circuit with two inter-connected neural populations oscillating with gamma frequency in a phase-locked manner. We demonstrate that photostimulation pulses applied locally to a single population can induce, if precisely phased, a lasting reorganization of the phase-locking pattern and hence modify functional interactions between the two
Ghafoor, Fazal; Bacha, Bakht Amin; Khan, Salman
2015-05-01
A gain-based four-level atomic medium for the stability in superluminal light propagation using control field and inverse Doppler shift as coherence generators is studied. In regimes of weak and strong control field, a broadband and multiple controllable transparency windows are, respectively, identified with significantly enhanced group indices. The observed Doppler effect for the class of high atomic velocity of the medium is counterintuitive in comparison to the effect of the class of low atomic velocity. The intensity of each of the two pump fields is kept less than the optimum limit reported in [M. D. Stenner and D. J. Gauthier, Phys. Rev. A 67, 063801 (2003), 10.1103/PhysRevA.67.063801] for stability in the superluminal light pulse. Consequently, superluminal stable domains with the generated coherence are explored.
Theory of nonlinear phononics for coherent light control of solids
Subedi, Alaska; Cavalleri, Andrea; Georges, Antoine
2014-06-01
We present a microscopic theory for ultrafast control of solids with high-intensity terahertz frequency optical pulses. When resonant with selected infrared-active vibrations, these pulses transiently modify the crystal structure and lead to new collective electronic properties. The theory predicts the dynamical path taken by the crystal lattice using first-principles calculations of the energy surface and classical equations of motion, as well as symmetry considerations. Two classes of dynamics are identified. In the perturbative regime, displacements along the normal mode coordinate of symmetry-preserving Raman active modes can be achieved by cubic anharmonicities. This explains the light-induced insulator-to-metal transition reported experimentally in manganites. We predict a regime in which ultrafast instabilities that break crystal symmetry can be induced. This nonperturbative effect involves a quartic anharmonic coupling and occurs above a critical threshold, below which the nonlinear dynamics of the driven mode displays softening and dynamical stabilization.
Coherent Solid-State Phase Transitions with Atomic Diffusion: A Thermomechanical Treatment
Fried, Eliot; Gurtin, Morton E.
1999-06-01
Using the framework of modern continuum thermomechanics, we develop sharp- and diffuse-interface theories for coherent solid-state phase transitions. These theories account for atomic diffusion and for deformation. Of essential importance in our formulation of the sharp-interface theory are a system of "configurational forces" and an associated "configurational force balance." These forces, which are distinct from standard Newtonian forces, describe the intrinsic material structure of a body. The configurational balance, when restricted to the interface, leads to a generalization of the classical Gibbs-Thomson relation, a generalization that accounts for the orientation dependence of the interfacial energy density and also for a broad spectrum of dissipative transition kinetics. Our diffuse-interface theory involves nonstandard "microforces" and an associated "microforce balance." These forces arise naturally from an interpretation of the atomic densities as macroscopic parameters that describe atomistic kinematics distinct from the motion of material particles. When supplemented by thermodynamically consistent constitutive relations, the microforce balance yields a generalization of the Cahn-Hilliard relation giving the chemical potentials as variational derivatives of the total free energy with respect to the atomic densities. A formal asymptotic analysis (thickness of the transition layer approaching zero) demonstrates the correspondence between versions of our theories specialized to the case of a single mobile species for situations in which the time scale for interface propagation is small compared to that for bulk diffusion. While the configurational force balance is redundant in the diffuse-interface theory, when integrated over the transition layer, the limit of this balance is the interfacial configurational force balance (i.e., generalized Gibbs-Thomson relation) of the sharp-interface theory.
Coherent control of injection currents in high-quality films of Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bas, D. A.; Vargas-Velez, K.; Babakiray, S.; Johnson, T. A.; Borisov, P.; Stanescu, T. D.; Lederman, D.; Bristow, A. D., E-mail: alan.bristow@mail.wvu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506-6315 (United States)
2015-01-26
Films of the topological insulator Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} are grown by molecular beam epitaxy with in-situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction. The films are shown to be high-quality by X-ray reflectivity and diffraction and atomic-force microscopy. Quantum interference control of photocurrents is observed by excitation with harmonically related pulses and detected by terahertz radiation. The injection current obeys the expected excitation irradiance dependence, showing linear dependence on the fundamental pulse irradiance and square-root irradiance dependence of the frequency-doubled optical pulses. The injection current also follows a sinusoidal relative-phase dependence between the two excitation pulses. These results confirm the third-order nonlinear optical origins of the coherently controlled injection current. Experiments are compared to a tight-binding band structure to illustrate the possible optical transitions that occur in creating the injection current.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
De, Arijit K., E-mail: akde@lbl.gov; Fleming, Graham R., E-mail: grfleming@lbl.gov [Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94702 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94702 (United States); Monahan, Daniele; Dawlaty, Jahan M. [Department of Chemistry, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94702 (United States)
2014-05-21
We present a novel experimental scheme for two-dimensional fluorescence-detected coherent spectroscopy (2D-FDCS) using a non-collinear beam geometry with the aid of “confocal imaging” of dynamic (population) grating and 27-step phase-cycling to extract the signal. This arrangement obviates the need for distinct experimental designs for previously developed transmission detected non-collinear two-dimensional coherent spectroscopy (2D-CS) and collinear 2D-FDCS. We also describe a novel method for absolute phasing of the 2D spectrum. We apply this method to record 2D spectra of a fluorescent dye in solution at room temperature and observe “spectral diffusion.”.
Double acting stirling engine phase control
Berchowitz, David M.
1983-01-01
A mechanical device for effecting a phase change between the expansion and compression volumes of a double-acting Stirling engine uses helical elements which produce opposite rotation of a pair of crankpins when a control rod is moved, so the phase between two pairs of pistons is changed by +.psi. and the phase between the other two pairs of pistons is changed by -.psi.. The phase can change beyond .psi.=90.degree. at which regenerative braking and then reversal of engine rotation occurs.
Jeger, Patrick; Znoj, Hansjörg; Grawe, Klaus
2003-01-01
The authors investigated the hypothesis that utterances of patients and therapists concerning action control theory (Kuhl, 1985) would converge in successful therapies. This study focused on the motivational content of patient and therapist statements from 128 therapy sessions of 32 different therapies. Using sequential analysis, the authors analyzed the starting and final therapy phases, different therapeutic conditions, and outcome. Generally, successful therapies had more action-oriented successions of utterances. In successful therapies, patients adhered less to their preferred action control style and moved closer to the motivational attitude of their psychotherapists. Independent of therapy success, more coherent action control sequences were found in therapies focusing on clarification than in those focusing on behavioral change. An increase of coherent action control sequences, either action or state oriented, promoted a successful course of therapy.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Unsleber, Sebastian; Maier, Sebastian; McCutcheon, Dara;
2015-01-01
Resonant excitation of solid state quantum emitters has the potential to deterministically excite a localized exciton while ensuring a maximally coherent emission. In this work, we demonstrate the coherent coupling of an exciton localized in a lithographically positioned, site-controlled semicond...
Control of cell interaction using quasi-monochromatic light with varying spatiotemporal coherence
Budagovsky, A. V.; Maslova, M. V.; Budagovskaya, O. N.; Budagovsky, I. A.
2017-02-01
By the example of plants, fungi and bacteria, we consider the possibility of controlling the interaction of cells, being in competitive, antagonistic, or parasitic relations. For this aim we used short-time irradiation (a few seconds or minutes) with the red (633 nm) quasi-monochromatic light having different spatiotemporal coherence. It is shown that the functional activity is mostly increased in the cells whose size does not exceed the coherence length and the correlation radius of the light field. Thus, in the case of cells essentially differing in size, it is possible to increase the activity of smaller cells, avoiding the stimulation of larger ones. For example, the radiation having relatively low coherence (Lcoh, rcor plant cells by pathogen fungi, while the exposure to light with less statistical regularity (Lcoh = 4 μm, rcor = 5 μm) inhibits the growth of the Fusarium microcera fungus, infected by the bacterium of the Pseudomonas species. The quasi-monochromatic radiation with sufficiently high spatiotemporal coherence stimulated all interacting species (bacteria, fungi, plants). In the considered biocenosis, the equilibrium was shifted towards the favour of organisms having the highest rate of cell division or the ones better using their adaptation potential.
Deterministic Photon Pairs and Coherent Optical Control of a Single Quantum Dot
Jayakumar, Harishankar; Predojević, Ana; Huber, Tobias; Kauten, Thomas; Solomon, Glenn S.; Weihs, Gregor
2013-03-01
The strong confinement of semiconductor excitons in a quantum dot gives rise to atomlike behavior. The full benefit of such a structure is best observed in resonant excitation where the excited state can be deterministically populated and coherently manipulated. Because of the large refractive index and device geometry it remains challenging to observe resonantly excited emission that is free from laser scattering in III/V self-assembled quantum dots. Here we exploit the biexciton binding energy to create an extremely clean single photon source via two-photon resonant excitation of an InAs/GaAs quantum dot. We observe complete suppression of the excitation laser and multiphoton emissions. Additionally, we perform full coherent control of the ground-biexciton state qubit and observe an extended coherence time using an all-optical echo technique. The deterministic coherent photon pair creation makes this system suitable for the generation of time-bin entanglement and experiments on the interaction of photons from dissimilar sources.
Controlled spatial separation of spins and coherent dynamics in spin-orbit-coupled nanostructures
Lo, Shun-Tsung; Chen, Chin-Hung; Fan, Ju-Chun; Smith, L. W.; Creeth, G. L.; Chang, Che-Wei; Pepper, M.; Griffiths, J. P.; Farrer, I.; Beere, H. E.; Jones, G. A. C.; Ritchie, D. A.; Chen, Tse-Ming
2017-07-01
The spatial separation of electron spins followed by the control of their individual spin dynamics has recently emerged as an essential ingredient in many proposals for spin-based technologies because it would enable both of the two spin species to be simultaneously utilized, distinct from most of the current spintronic studies and technologies wherein only one spin species could be handled at a time. Here we demonstrate that the spatial spin splitting of a coherent beam of electrons can be achieved and controlled using the interplay between an external magnetic field and Rashba spin-orbit interaction in semiconductor nanostructures. The technique of transverse magnetic focusing is used to detect this spin separation. More notably, our ability to engineer the spin-orbit interactions enables us to simultaneously manipulate and probe the coherent spin dynamics of both spin species and hence their correlation, which could open a route towards spintronics and spin-based quantum information processing.
Coherent control and suppressed nuclear feedback of a single quantum dot hole qubit
De Greve, Kristiaan; Press, David; Ladd, Thaddeus D; Bisping, Dirk; Schneider, Christian; Kamp, Martin; Worschech, Lukas; Hoefling, Sven; Forchel, Alfred; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa
2011-01-01
Future communication and computation technologies that exploit quantum information require robust and well-isolated qubits. Electron spins in III-V semiconductor quantum dots, while promising candidates, see their dynamics limited by undesirable hysteresis and decohering effects of the nuclear spin bath. Replacing electrons with holes should suppress the hyperfine interaction and consequently eliminate strong nuclear effects. Using picosecond optical pulses, we demonstrate coherent control of a single hole qubit and examine both free-induction and spin-echo decay. In moving from electrons to holes, we observe significantly reduced hyperfine interactions, evidenced by the reemergence of hysteresis-free dynamics, while obtaining similar coherence times, limited by non-nuclear mechanisms. These results demonstrate the potential of optically controlled, quantum dot hole qubits.
Jiang, Y; Poggiolini, P; Forghieri, F
2014-01-01
We accurately characterize nonlinear phase noise in uncompensated coherent optical systems. We find that, though present, its impact on system performance is typically negligible in a wide range of practical system scenarios.
Controllability of wavepacket dynamics in coherently driven double-well potential
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Igarashi, Akira [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, Ikarashi 2-Nochou 8050, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan)], E-mail: f99j806b@mail.cc.niigata-u.ac.jp; Yamada, Hiroaki [YPRL, 5-7-14 Aoyama, Niigata 950-2002 (Japan)], E-mail: hyamada@uranus.dti.ne.jp
2006-09-11
We numerically study the controllability of quantum dynamics in perturbed one-dimensional double-well potential by using an optimal control theory. As the perturbation strength is small the dynamics of the initially localized Gaussian wavepacket shows coherent oscillation between the wells. It is found that as there is an increase in strength and/or the number of frequency components of perturbation, the coherent motion of the Gaussian wavepacket changes to an irregular one with irreversible delocalization. We investigate the controllability of the system depending on the perturbation parameters and the initial quantum state by focusing mainly on the delocalized state generated by the polychromatical perturbation. In the relatively long-time control for the Gaussian wavepacket and the delocalized state, we show that it is well-controllable via the first excited state doublet in spite of the perturbation parameters. On the other hand, in the relatively short-time control we show the difficulty of the control for the delocalized state because of the numerous local minima. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the short-time control of the delocalized state can be assisted by chaotic behavior in the controlled-system with the polychromatic perturbation.
Wavefront sensing and adaptive control in phased array of fiber collimators
Lachinova, Svetlana L.; Vorontsov, Mikhail A.
2011-03-01
A new wavefront control approach for mitigation of atmospheric turbulence-induced wavefront phase aberrations in coherent fiber-array-based laser beam projection systems is introduced and analyzed. This approach is based on integration of wavefront sensing capabilities directly into the fiber-array transmitter aperture. In the coherent fiber array considered, we assume that each fiber collimator (subaperture) of the array is capable of precompensation of local (onsubaperture) wavefront phase tip and tilt aberrations using controllable rapid displacement of the tip of the delivery fiber at the collimating lens focal plane. In the technique proposed, this tip and tilt phase aberration control is based on maximization of the optical power received through the same fiber collimator using the stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD) technique. The coordinates of the fiber tip after the local tip and tilt aberrations are mitigated correspond to the coordinates of the focal-spot centroid of the optical wave backscattered off the target. Similar to a conventional Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor, phase function over the entire fiber-array aperture can then be retrieved using the coordinates obtained. The piston phases that are required for coherent combining (phase locking) of the outgoing beams at the target plane can be further calculated from the reconstructed wavefront phase. Results of analysis and numerical simulations are presented. Performance of adaptive precompensation of phase aberrations in this laser beam projection system type is compared for various system configurations characterized by the number of fiber collimators and atmospheric turbulence conditions. The wavefront control concept presented can be effectively applied for long-range laser beam projection scenarios for which the time delay related with the double-pass laser beam propagation to the target and back is compared or even exceeds the characteristic time of the atmospheric turbulence change
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Yuan; Deng, Li [Department of Applied Physics, East China Jiaotong University, Nanchang, 330013 (China); Chen, Aixi, E-mail: aixichen@ecjtu.jx.cn [Department of Applied Physics, East China Jiaotong University, Nanchang, 330013 (China); Institute for Quantum Computing, University of Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)
2015-02-15
We investigate the nonlinear optical phenomena of the optical bistability and multistability via spontaneously generated coherence in an asymmetric double quantum well structure coupled by a weak probe field and a controlling field. It is shown that the threshold and hysteresis cycle of the optical bistability can be conveniently controlled only by adjusting the intensity of the SGC or the controlling field. Moreover, switching between optical bistability and multistability can be achieved. These studies may have practical significance for the preparation of optical bistable switching device.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
JIANG Nan; LIU Wei; LIU JianHua; TIAN Yan
2008-01-01
The time sequence signals of instantaneous longitudinal and normal velocity components at different vertical locations in the turbulent boundary layer over a smooth flat plate have been finely measured by constant temperature anemometry of model IFA-300 and X-shaped hot-wire sensor probe in a wind tunnel. The longitudinal and normal velocity components have been decomposed into multi-scales by wavelet transform. The upward eject and downward sweep motions in a burst process of coherent structure have been detected by the maximum energy criterion of identifying burst event in wall turbulence through wavelet analysis. The relationships of phase-averaged waveforms among longitudinal velocity component, normal velocity component and Reynolds stress component have been studied through a correlation function method. The dynamics course of coherent structures and their effects on statistical characteristics of turbulent flows are analyzed.
Anderson localization and its ramifications disorder, phase coherence and electron correlations
Kettemann, S
2003-01-01
The phenomenon of localization of the electronic wave function in a random medium can be regarded as the key manifestation of quantum coherence in a condensed matter system. As one of the most remarkable phenomena in condensed matter physics discovered in the 20th century, the localization problem is an indispensable part of the theory of the quantum Hall effects and rivals superconductivity in its significance as a manifestation of quantum coherence at a macroscopic scale. The present volume, written by some of the leading experts in the field, is intended to highlight some of the recent progress in the field of localization, with particular emphasis on the effect of interactions on quantum coherence. The chapters are written in textbook style and should serve as a reliable and thorough introduction for advanced students or researchers already working in the field of mesoscopic physics.
Srivastava, Amar; Saha, S.; Annadi, A.; Zhao, Y. L.; Gopinadhan, K.; Wang, X.; Naomi, N.; Liu, Z. Q.; Dhar, S.; Herng, T. S.; Nina, Bao; Ariando, -; Ding, Jun; Venkatesan, T.
2012-02-01
In this work we report a study of a coherently coupled interface consisting of a ZnO layer grown on top of an oriented VO2 layer on sapphire by photoluminescence and electrical transport measurements across the VO2 metal insulator phase transition (MIT). The photoluminescence of the ZnO layer showed a broad hysteresis induced by the phase transition of VO2 while the width of the electrical hysteresis was narrow and unaffected by the over layer. The enhanced width of the PL hysteresis was due to the formation of defects during the MIT as evidenced by a broad hysteresis in the opposite direction to that of the band edge PL in the defect luminescense. Unlike VO2 the defects in ZnO did not fully recover across the phase transition. From the defect luminescence data, oxygen interstitials were found to be the predominant defects in ZnO mediated by the strain from the VO2 phase transition. Such coherently coupled interfaces could be of use in characterizing the stability of a variety of interfaces and also for novel device application.
Robert, Clélia; Conan, Jean-Marc; Wolf, Peter
2016-06-01
Bidirectional ground-satellite laser links suffer from turbulence-induced scintillation and phase distortion. We study how turbulence impacts on coherent detection capacity and on the associated phase noise that restricts clock transfer precision. We evaluate the capacity to obtain a two-way cancellation of atmospheric effects despite the asymmetry between up and down link that limits the link reciprocity. For ground-satellite links, the asymmetry is induced by point-ahead angle and possibly the use, for the ground terminal, of different transceiver diameters, in reception and emission. The quantitative analysis is obtained thanks to refined end- to-end simulations under realistic turbulence and wind conditions as well as satellite cinematic. These temporally resolved simulations allow characterizing the coherent detection in terms of time series of heterodyne efficiency for different system parameters. We show that Tip/Tilt correction on ground is mandatory at reception for the down link and as a pre-compensation of the up link. Good correlation between up and down phase noise is obtained even with asymmetric apertures of the ground transceiver and in spite of pointing ahead angle. The reduction to less than 1 rad2 of the two-way differential phase noise is very promising for clock comparisons.
Synchronization and coherent combining of two pulsed fiber lasers
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2008-01-01
We demonstrate a scalable architecture for coherent combining of pulsed fiber lasers.A new method for generating synchronous pulsed fiber lasers by direct phase modulation is proposed and investigated.It is shown that phase modulated mutually coupled laser array can be a steady synchronous pulsed fiber laser source.The synchronous pulsed fiber lasers are coherently combined with an invariable phase difference of π in adjacent lasers.Neither active phase control nor polarization control is taken in our experiment.
Theoretical study of Acousto-optical coherence tomography using random phase jumps on US and light
Gross, Michel; Ramaz, François; Farahi, Salma; Boccara, A C
2011-01-01
Acousto-optical coherence tomography (AOCT) is a variant of acousto-optic imaging (also called ultrasonic modulation imaging) that makes it possible to get the z resolution with acoustic and optic continuous wave beams. We describe here theoretically the AOCT effect, and we show that the acousto-optic "tagged photons" remain coherent if they are generated within a specific z region of the sample. We quantify the z selectivity for both the "tagged photon" field and for the Lesaffre et al. [Opt. Express 17, 18211 (2009)] photorefractive signal.
Bacha, Bakht Amin; Nazmidinov, Rashid G
2014-01-01
A Field Generated Coherence (FGC)' based 3-field cyclically-driven 4-level atomic system, which is an extended version of $\\Lambda$ type schemes, is investigated for Autler-Townes triplet absorption (ATT) spectroscopy. Two dark lines which appear in the ATT spectrum, are the essence of the generated multiple controllable EIT windows for a superluminal Gaussian light pulse. We also investigate enhancement in the group velocity for the Gaussian light pulse, using a nonlinear coherence Kerr effect. Consequently, the superluminal probing pulse leaves a steep anomalous region of the medium by $28 \\mu s$ sooner than the light pulse of the Kerr-free system. A co-linear propagation of the driving fields is suggested to minimize our explored Doppler broadening incoherence effect on the probe pulse. Indeed, the analytically observed undistorted retrieved light pulse, which is a necessary and useful requirement for realization of the results in laboratory, is also shown and analyzed explicitly.
Control of coherent information via on chip photonic-phononic emitter-receivers
Shin, Heedeuk; Jarecki, Robert; Starbuck, Andrew; Wang, Zheng; Rakich, Peter T
2014-01-01
Rapid progress in silicon photonics has fostered numerous chip-scale sensing, computing, and signal processing technologies. However, many crucial filtering and signal delay operations are difficult to perform with all-optical devices. Unlike photons propagating at luminal speeds, GHz-acoustic phonons with slow velocity allow information to be stored, filtered, and delayed over comparatively smaller length-scales with remarkable fidelity. Hence, controllable and efficient coupling between coherent photons and phonons enables new signal processing technologies that greatly enhance the performance and potential impact of silicon photonics. Here, we demonstrate a novel mechanism for coherent information processing based on traveling-wave photon-phonon transduction, which achieves a phonon emit-and-receive process between distinct nanophotonic waveguides. Using this device physics-which can support 1-20GHz frequencies-we create wavelength-insensitive radio-frequency photonic filters with an unrivaled combination ...
0-π phase-controllable thermal Josephson junction
Fornieri, Antonio; Timossi, Giuliano; Virtanen, Pauli; Solinas, Paolo; Giazotto, Francesco
2017-05-01
Two superconductors coupled by a weak link support an equilibrium Josephson electrical current that depends on the phase difference ϕ between the superconducting condensates. Yet, when a temperature gradient is imposed across the junction, the Josephson effect manifests itself through a coherent component of the heat current that flows opposite to the thermal gradient for |ϕ| fundamental step towards the realization of caloritronic logic components such as thermal transistors, switches and memory devices. These elements, combined with heat interferometers and diodes, would complete the thermal conversion of the most important phase-coherent electronic devices and benefit cryogenic microcircuits requiring energy management, such as quantum computing architectures and radiation sensors.
Coherence and control of quantum registers based on electronic spin in a nuclear spin bath.
Cappellaro, P; Jiang, L; Hodges, J S; Lukin, M D
2009-05-29
We consider a protocol for the control of few-qubit registers comprising one electronic spin embedded in a nuclear spin bath. We show how to isolate a few proximal nuclear spins from the rest of the bath and use them as building blocks for a potentially scalable quantum information processor. We describe how coherent control techniques based on magnetic resonance methods can be adapted to these solid-state spin systems, to provide not only efficient, high fidelity manipulation but also decoupling from the spin bath. As an example, we analyze feasible performances and practical limitations in the realistic setting of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond.
A Dynamic Programming Approach to Finite-horizon Coherent Quantum LQG Control
Vladimirov, Igor G
2011-01-01
The paper considers the coherent quantum Linear Quadratic Gaussian (CQLQG) control problem for time-varying quantum plants governed by linear quantum stochastic differential equations over a bounded time interval. A controller is sought among quantum linear systems satisfying physical realizability (PR) conditions. The latter describe the dynamic equivalence of the system to an open quantum harmonic oscillator and relate its state-space matrices to the free Hamiltonian, coupling and scattering operators of the oscillator. Using the Hamiltonian parameterization of PR controllers, the CQLQG problem is recast into an optimal control problem for a deterministic system governed by a differential Lyapunov equation. The state of this subsidiary system is the symmetric part of the quantum covariance matrix of the plant-controller state vector. The resulting covariance control problem is treated using dynamic programming and Pontryagin's minimum principle. The associated Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation for the minimu...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
L R Botha; L E De Clercq; A M Smit; N Botha; E Ronander; H J Strydom
2014-02-01
We simulate adaptive feedback control to coherently shape a femtosecond infrared laser pulse by means of a 4f-spatial light modulator in order to selectively excite the rovibrational modes of a polyatomic molecule. We preferentially populate an arbitrarily chosen upper rovibrational level by only employing these tailored temporally shaped pulses. A second laser would then allow for mode selective chemistry to interact selectively with the excited population. Alternatively the excited molecules enhanced reactivity could be exploited for selective chemistry.
Manojlović, Lazo M; Zivanov, Miloš B; Slankamenac, Miloš P; Bajić, Jovan S; Stupar, Dragan Z
2012-07-01
A novel high-speed and high-sensitivity displacement measurement sensing system, based on the phase-locked low-coherence interferometry, is presented. The sensing system is realized by comprising the Michelson fiber-optic interferometer. In order to obtain quadrature signals at the interferometer outputs, a 3×3 fused silica fiber-optic directional coupler is used. Therefore, the usage of the interferometer phase modulation as well as the usage of the lock-in amplification has been avoided. In this way, the speed of such a realized sensing system is significantly increased in comparison with the standard phase-locked interferometric systems that can be found elsewhere in the literature. The bandwidth of the realized sensing system is limited by the first resonance frequency of the used piezo actuator to 4.6 kHz. The estimated noise floor in the displacement measurement is approximately 180 pm/√Hz.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bourgeois, Laure, E-mail: laure.bourgeois@monash.edu [Monash Centre for Electron Microscopy, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); ARC Centre of Excellence for Design in Light Metals, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Dwyer, Christian [Monash Centre for Electron Microscopy, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); ARC Centre of Excellence for Design in Light Metals, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Weyland, Matthew [Monash Centre for Electron Microscopy, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Nie Jianfeng; Muddle, Barrington C. [ARC Centre of Excellence for Design in Light Metals, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia)
2011-10-15
The {theta}' phase is a well-known intermediate phase that forms as part of the classic decomposition sequence of an aluminium-copper solid solution. It is also the archetypal precipitate phase of high-strength aluminium alloys. Here we use atomic-resolution electron microscopy imaging to reveal that the coherent interface of {theta}' with aluminium can adopt a structure that differs from that previously assumed based on the bulk crystal structures. These observations, combined with first-principles energetics calculations for realistic models of embedded {theta}' precipitates, show that this new interfacial structure constitutes an intermediate state in the atomistics of precipitate thickening. These findings will require revision of theoretical models of {theta}' precipitate growth and nucleation.
Lu, Guo-Wei; Albuquerque, André; Puttnam, Benjamin J; Sakamoto, Takahide; Drummond, Miguel; Nogueira, Rogério; Kanno, Atsushi; Shinada, Satoshi; Wada, Naoya; Kawanishi, Tetsuya
2016-02-22
An important challenge for implementing optical signal processing functions such as wavelength conversion or wavelength data exchange (WDE) is to avoid the introduction of linear and nonlinear phase noise in the subsystem. This is particularly important for phase noise sensitive, high-order quadrature-amplitude modulation (QAM) signals. In this paper, we propose and experimentally demonstrate an optical data exchange scheme through cascaded 2nd-order nonlinearities in periodically-poled lithium niobate (PPLN) waveguides using coherent pumping. The proposed coherent pumping scheme enables noise from the coherent pumps to be cancelled out in the swapped data after WDE, even with broad linewidth distributed feedback (DFB) pump lasers. Hence, this scheme allows phase noise tolerant processing functions, enabling the low-cost implementation of WDE for high-order QAM signals. We experimentally demonstrate WDEs between 10-Gbaud 4QAM (4QAM) signal and 12.5-Gbaud 4QAM (16QAM) signal with 3.5-MHz linewidth DFB pump lasers and 50-GHz channel spacing. Error-free operation is observed for the swapped QAM signals with coherent DFB pumping whilst use of free-running DFB pumps leads to visible error floors and unrecoverable phase errors. The phase noise cancellation in the coherent pump scheme is further confirmed by study of the recovered carrier phase of the converted signals. In addition to pump phase noise, the influence of crosstalk caused by the finite extinction ratio in WDE is also experimentally investigated for the swapped QAM signals.
Alam, Mohosin; Mandal, Swapan; Wahiddin, Mohamed Ridza
2017-09-01
The essence of the rotating wave approximation (RWA) is to eliminate the non-conserving energy terms from the interaction Hamiltonian. The cost of using RWA is heavy if the frequency of the input radiation field is low (e.g. below optical region). The well known Bloch-Siegert effect is the out come of the inclusion of the terms which are normally neglected under RWA. We investigate the fluctuations of the quantum phase of the coherent light and the thermal light coupled to a nondegenerate parametric oscillator (NDPO). The Hamiltonian and hence the equations of motion involving the signal and idler modes are framed by using the strong (classical) pump condition. These differential equations are nonlinear in nature and are found coupled to each other. Without using the RWA, we obtain the analytical solutions for the signal and idler fields. These solutions are obtained up to the second orders in dimensionless coupling constants. The analytical expressions for the quantum phase fluctuation parameters due to Carruther's and Nieto are obtained in terms of the coupling constants and the initial photon numbers of the input radiation field. Moreover, we keep ourselves confined to the Pegg-Barnett formalism for measured phase operators. With and without using the RWA, we compare the quantum phase fluctuations for coherent and thermal light coupled to the NDPO. In spite of the significant departures (quantitative), the qualitative features of the phase fluctuation parameters for the input thermal light are identical for NDPO with and without RWA. On the other hand, we report some interesting results of input coherent light coupled to the NDPO which are substantially different from their RWA counterpart. In spite of the various quantum optical phenomena in a NDPO, we claim that it is the first effort where the complete analytical approach towards the solutions and hence the quantum phase fluctuations of input radiation fields coupled to it are obtained beyond rotating wave
Extinction controlled adaptive phase-mask coronagraph
Bourget, P; Mawet, D; Haguenauer, P
2012-01-01
Context. Phase-mask coronagraphy is advantageous in terms of inner working angle and discovery space. It is however still plagued by drawbacks such as sensitivity to tip-tilt errors and chromatism. A nulling stellar coronagraph based on the adaptive phase-mask concept using polarization interferometry is presented in this paper. Aims. Our concept aims at dynamically and achromatically optimizing the nulling efficiency of the coronagraph, making it more immune to fast low-order aberrations (tip-tilt errors, focus, ...). Methods. We performed numerical simulations to demonstrate the value of the proposed method. The active control system will correct for the detrimental effects of image instabilities on the destructive interference. The mask adaptability both in size, phase and amplitude also compensates for manufacturing errors of the mask itself, and potentially for chromatic effects. Liquid-crystal properties are used to provide variable transmission of an annulus around the phase mask, but also to achieve t...
Number-Phase Wigner Representation for Scalable Stochastic Simulations of Controlled Quantum Systems
Hush, M R; Hope, J J
2011-01-01
Simulation of conditional master equations is important to describe systems under continuous measurement and for the design of control strategies in quantum systems. For large bosonic systems, such as BEC and atom lasers, full quantum field simulations must rely on scalable stochastic methods whose convergence time is restricted by the use of representations based on coherent states. Here we show that typical measurements on atom-optical systems have a common form that allows for an efficient simulation using the number-phase Wigner (NPW) phase-space representation. We demonstrate that a stochastic method based on the NPW can converge over an order of magnitude longer and more precisely than its coherent equivalent. This opens the possibility of realistic simulations of controlled multi-mode quantum systems.
Lesaffre, Max; Ramaz, François; Gross, Michel; 10.1364/AO.52.000949
2013-01-01
Acousto-Optical Coherence Tomography (AOCT) is a variant of Acousto Optic Imaging (also called Ultrasound modulated Optical Tomography) that makes possible to get resolution along the ultrasound propagation axis $z$. We present here new AOCT experimental results, and we study how the $z$ resolution depends on time step between phase jumps $T_\\phi$, or on the correlation length $\\Delta z$. By working at low resolution, we perform a quantitative comparison of the $z$ measurements with the theoretical Point Spread Function (PSF). We present also images recorded with different $z$ resolution, and we qualitatively show how the image quality varies with $T_\\phi$, or $\\Delta z$.
Barnes, Jack A.; Loock, Hans-Peter
2016-10-01
Several mathematical models exist in the literature to describe the properties of optical resonators. Here, coupled mode theory and coherent superposition theory are compared and their consistency is demonstrated as they are applied to phase-shift cavity ring-down measurements in optical (micro-)cavities. In the particular case of a whispering gallery mode in a microsphere cavity these models are applied to transmission measurements and backscattering measurements through the fiber taper that couples light into the microresonator. It is shown that both models produce identical relations when applied to these traveling wave cavities.
阻尼奇偶相干态中的相位性质及其演化%Properties of Phase and Their Evolutions in Damped Odd and Even Coherent States
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2000-01-01
The properties of measured phase operators in damped odd and even coherent states have been studied. The fluctuations associated with measured phase and their squeezing in these states are investigated. The phase properties in damped superposition coherent states are considered too with the help of measured phase operators. These fluctuations and their squeezing are affected by damping and evolve with time elapsing.
Li, Jun; Lu, Dawei; Luo, Zhihuang; Laflamme, Raymond; Peng, Xinhua; Du, Jiangfeng
2016-07-01
Precisely characterizing and controlling realistic quantum systems under noises is a challenging frontier in quantum sciences and technologies. In developing reliable controls for open quantum systems, one is often confronted with the problem of the lack of knowledge on the system controllability. The purpose of this paper is to give a numerical approach to this problem, that is, to approximately compute the reachable set of states for coherently controlled quantum Markovian systems. The approximation consists of setting both upper and lower bounds for system's reachable region of states. Furthermore, we apply our reachability analysis to the control of the relaxation dynamics of a two-qubit nuclear magnetic resonance spin system. We implement some experimental tasks of quantum state engineering in this open system at a near optimal performance in view of purity: e.g., increasing polarization and preparing pseudopure states. These results demonstrate the usefulness of our theory and show interesting and promising applications of environment-assisted quantum dynamics.
Advanced Emissions Control Development Program: Phase III
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
G.T. Amrhein; R.T. Bailey; W. Downs; M.J. Holmes; G.A. Kudlac; D.A. Madden
1999-07-01
The primary objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers. The project goal is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas clean-up equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), fabric filters (baghouses - BH), and wet flue gas desulfurization systems (WFGD). Development work concentrated on the capture of trace metals, fine particulate, hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride, with an emphasis on the control of mercury. The AECDP project is jointly funded by the US Department of Energy's Federal Energy Technology Center (DOE), the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Department of Development (OCDO), and Babcock and Wilcox, a McDermott company (B and W). This report discusses results of all three phases of the AECDP project with an emphasis on Phase III activities. Following the construction and evaluation of a representative air toxics test facility in Phase I, Phase II focused on characterization of the emissions of mercury and other air toxics and the control of these emissions for typical operating conditions of conventional flue gas clean-up equipment. Some general comments that can be made about the control of air toxics while burning a high-sulfur bituminous coal are as follows: (1) particulate control devices such as ESP's and baghouses do a good job of removing non-volatile trace metals, (2) particulate control devices (ESPs and baghouses) effectively remove the particulate-phase mercury, but the particulate-phase mercury was only a small fraction of the total for the coals tested, (3) wet scrubbing can effectively remove hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride, and (4) wet scrubbers show good potential for the removal of mercury when operated under certain conditions, however, for certain applications, system enhancements can be required to achieve
Gao, Zhensen; Dai, Bo; Wang, Xu; Kataoka, Nobuyuki; Wada, Naoya
2010-12-01
We propose and experimentally demonstrate a reconfigurable two-dimensional (temporal-spectral) time domain spectral phase encoding (SPE) scheme for coherent optical code-division-multiple-access (OCDMA) application. The time-domain SPE scheme is robust to wavelength drift of the light source and is very flexible and compatible with the fiber optical system. In the proposed scheme, the ultra-short optical pulse is stretched by dispersive device and the SPE is done in time domain using high speed phase modulator. A Fiber Bragg Gratings array is used for generating the two-dimensional wavelength hopping pattern while the high speed phase modulator is used for generating the spectral phase pattern. The proposed scheme can enable simultaneous generation of the time domain spectral phase encoding and DPSK data modulation using only a single phase modulator. In the experiment, the two-dimensional SPE codes have been generated and modulated with 2.5-Gb/s DPSK data using a single phase modulator. Transmission of the 2.5-Gb/s DPSK data over 49km fiber with BER<10-9 has been demonstrated successfully. The proposed scheme exhibits the potential to simplify the architecture and improve the security of the OCDMA system.
Sliding Mode Control of Induction Motor Phase Currents
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, R.B.; Hattel, T.; Bork, J
1995-01-01
Sliding mode control of induction motor phase currents are investigated through development of two control concepts.......Sliding mode control of induction motor phase currents are investigated through development of two control concepts....
Sliding Mode Control of Induction Motor Phase Currents
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, R.B.; Hattel, T.; Bork, J
1995-01-01
Sliding mode control of induction motor phase currents are investigated through development of two control concepts.......Sliding mode control of induction motor phase currents are investigated through development of two control concepts....
Shaping femtosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectra using optimal control theory.
Pezeshki, Soroosh; Schreiber, Michael; Kleinekathöfer, Ulrich
2008-04-21
Optimal control theory is used to tailor laser pulses which enhance a femtosecond time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (fs-CARS) spectrum in a certain frequency range. For this aim the optimal control theory has to be applied to a target state distributed in time. Explicit control mechanisms are given for shaping either the Stokes or the probe pulse in the four-wave mixing process. A simple molecule for which highly accurate potential energy surfaces are available, namely molecular iodine, is used to test the procedure. This approach of controlling vibrational motion and delivering higher intensities to certain frequency ranges might also be important for the improvement of CARS microscopy.
Coherent control for the spherical symmetric box potential in short and intensive XUV laser fields
Barna, I F
2007-01-01
Coherent control calculations are presented for a spherically symmetric box potential for non-resonant two photon transition probabilities. With the help of a genetic algorithm (GA) the population of the excited states are maximized and minimized. The external driving field is a superposition of three intensive extreme ultraviolet (XUV) linearly polarized laser pulses with different frequencies in the femtosecond duration range. We solved the quantum mechanical problem within the dipole approximation. Our investigation clearly shows that the dynamics of the electron current has a strong correlation with the optimized and neutralizing pulse shape.
Coherent control of light-matter interactions in polarization standing waves
Fang, Xu; MacDonald, Kevin F.; Plum, Eric; Zheludev, Nikolay I.
2016-08-01
We experimentally demonstrate that standing waves formed by two coherent counter-propagating light waves can take a variety of forms, offering new approaches to the interrogation and control of polarization-sensitive light-matter interactions in ultrathin (subwavelength thickness) media. In contrast to familiar energy standing waves, polarization standing waves have constant electric and magnetic energy densities and a periodically varying polarization state along the wave axis. counterintuitively, anisotropic ultrathin (meta)materials can be made sensitive or insensitive to such polarization variations by adjusting their azimuthal angle.
Karni, Ouri; Eisenstein, Gadi; Ivanov, Vitalii; Reithmaier, Johann Peter
2016-01-01
We demonstrate the ability to control quantum coherent Rabi-oscillations in a room-temperature quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) by shaping the light pulses that trigger them. The experiments described here show that when the excitation is resonant with the short wavelength slope of the SOA gain spectrum, a linear frequency chirp affects its ability to trigger Rabi-oscillations within the SOA: A negative chirp inhibits Rabi-oscillations whereas a positive chirp can enhance them, relative to the interaction of a transform limited pulse. The experiments are confirmed by a numerical calculation that models the propagation of the experimentally shaped pulses through the SOA.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Codas, Andrés; Hanssen, Kristian G.; Foss, Bjarne
2017-01-01
The production life of oil reservoirs starts under significant uncertainty regarding the actual economical return of the recovery process due to the lack of oil field data. Consequently, investors and operators make management decisions based on a limited and uncertain description of the reservoir....... In this work, we propose a new formulation for robust optimization of reservoir well controls. It is inspired by the multiple shooting (MS) method which permits a broad range of parallelization opportunities and output constraint handling. This formulation exploits coherent risk measures, a concept...
Dynamic control of coherent orbital-angular-momentum beams in turbid environments
Morgan, K. S.; Miller, J. K.; Cochenour, B. M.; Johnson, E. G.
2016-05-01
This work examines the propagation properties of two superimposed coherent orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes for use in underwater systems as an alternative to amplitude modulation. An OAM mode of l=+2 is interfered with OAM mode l=-1 from a λ = 540 nm laser source. These OAM modes are superimposed using a Mach-Zehnder (MZ) interferometer combined with diffractive optical elements. By manipulating the optical path length of one of the MZ legs, the interference of these beams can be temporally controlled. The spatial profile is maintained in a turbid environment up through 4.9 attenuation lengths for both cases.
Ceccarelli, Giacomo; Delfino, Francesco; Mesiti, Michele; Vicari, Ettore
2016-11-01
We investigate the equilibrium phase-coherence properties of Bose-condensed particle systems, focusing on their shape dependence and finite-size scaling (FSS). We consider three-dimensional (3D) homogeneous systems confined to anisotropic L ×L ×La boxes, below the Bose-Einstein-condensate (BEC) transition temperature Tc. We show that the phase correlations develop peculiar anisotropic FSS for any T universality is confirmed by quantum Monte Carlo simulations of the 3D Bose-Hubbard model in the BEC phase. The phase-coherence correlations of very elongated BEC systems, λ →∞ , are characterized by the coherence length ξa˜Atρs/T , where At is the transverse area and ρs is the superfluid density.
Osinski, Jules S.; Mehuys, David G.; Welch, David F.; Dzurko, Kenneth M.; Lang, Robert J.
1995-04-01
A monolithically integrated array of InGaAs/AlGaAs flared amplifiers driven by a single DBR laser through a power splitter network and individually addressed phase modulators is described. Phase adjustment of > 2(pi) per element by free-carrier effects is verified by monitoring the interference pattern of 4 emitters, and typically requires 5 W, and, combined with the proper external lensing, could therefore result in an ultra-narrow, single-lobed far-field pattern whose width is determined by the extended aperture of the array. This architecture is capable of providing single-mode, diffraction-limited performance from each emitter and is scalable to unprecedented power levels. Over 20 W of pulsed, spectrally coherent emission is generated at 955 nm from a 4-element array, and 39 W is obtained from an 8-element array.
Ma, Kang; Xie, Huimin; Fan, Bozhao
2017-02-01
In this study, the Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of Ni-Cr Alloy are measured using phase-shifted reflective coherent gradient sensing (CGS) method. Three-point bending experiment is applied to obtain the Young's modulus by measuring the specimen out-of-plane displacement slopes. Bending experiment of a circular plate with fixed edges loaded by a centric concentrated force is applied to obtain the specimen bending stiffness. The Poisson's ratio is then solved by substituting the bending stiffness into Young's modulus. The results show that the phase-shifted reflective CGS method is valid for measuring Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of metals and alloys. In addition, the reflective specimen surfaces are obtained with precision finishing operations and the polishing parameters are optimized for CGS measurement. This method is more effective than the reflecting film transfer method, which is widely used in previous studies.
Chen, Yu; Trinh, Le A.; Fingler, Jeff; Fraser, Scott E.
2016-12-01
A phase variance optical coherence microscope (pvOCM) has been created to image blood flow in the microvasculature of zebrafish embryos, without the use of exogenous labels. The pvOCM imaging system has axial and lateral resolutions of 2.8 μm in tissue and imaging depth of more than 100 μm. Images of 2 to 5 days postfertilization zebrafish embryos identified the detailed anatomical structure based on OCM intensity contrast. Phase variance contrast offered visualization of blood flow in the arteries, veins, and capillaries. The pvOCM images of the vasculature were confirmed by direct comparisons with fluorescence microscopy images of transgenic embryos in which the vascular endothelium is labeled with green fluorescent protein. The ability of pvOCM to capture activities of regional blood flow permits it to reveal functional information that is of great utility for the study of vascular development.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koyama, Y; Okamura, H; Kohmoto, T [Graduate School of Science, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Moriyasu, T [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Yamada, Y [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Tanaka, K, E-mail: kohmoto@kobe-u.ac.j [Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)
2009-02-01
Photo-induced effect in Ca-doped SrTiO{sub 3} was investigated by observing coherent phonons. Coherent phonons of soft modes were studied by using ultrafast polarization spectroscopy. Under an ultraviolet (UV) illumination, a shift of the ferroelectric phase transition point at 28 K toward the lower temperature side was observed, and a decrease of phonon frequencies after the UV illumination was found.
Ultrafast all-optical coherent control of single silicon vacancy colour centres in diamond
Becker, Jonas Nils; Görlitz, Johannes; Arend, Carsten; Markham, Matthew; Becher, Christoph
2016-11-01
Complete control of the state of a quantum bit (qubit) is a fundamental requirement for any quantum information processing (QIP) system. In this context, all-optical control techniques offer the advantage of a well-localized and potentially ultrafast manipulation of individual qubits in multi-qubit systems. Recently, the negatively charged silicon vacancy centre (SiV-) in diamond has emerged as a novel promising system for QIP due to its superior spectral properties and advantageous electronic structure, offering an optically accessible Λ-type level system with large orbital splittings. Here, we report on all-optical resonant as well as Raman-based coherent control of a single SiV- using ultrafast pulses as short as 1 ps, significantly faster than the centre's phonon-limited ground state coherence time of about 40 ns. These measurements prove the accessibility of a complete set of single-qubit operations relying solely on optical fields and pave the way for high-speed QIP applications using SiV- centres.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eugin Hyun
2016-01-01
Full Text Available For an automotive pedestrian detection radar system, fast-ramp based 2D range-Doppler Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW radar is effective for distinguishing between moving targets and unwanted clutter. However, when a weak moving target such as a pedestrian exists together with strong clutter, the pedestrian may be masked by the side-lobe of the clutter even though they are notably separated in the Doppler dimension. To prevent this problem, one popular solution is the use of a windowing scheme with a weighting function. However, this method leads to a spread spectrum, so the pedestrian with weak signal power and slow Doppler may also be masked by the main-lobe of clutter. With a fast-ramp based FMCW radar, if the target is moving, the complex spectrum of the range- Fast Fourier Transform (FFT is changed with a constant phase difference over ramps. In contrast, the clutter exhibits constant phase irrespective of the ramps. Based on this fact, in this paper we propose a pedestrian detection for highly cluttered environments using a coherent phase difference method. By detecting the coherent phase difference from the complex spectrum of the range-FFT, we first extract the range profile of the moving pedestrians. Then, through the Doppler FFT, we obtain the 2D range-Doppler map for only the pedestrian. To test the proposed detection scheme, we have developed a real-time data logging system with a 24 GHz FMCW transceiver. In laboratory tests, we verified that the signal processing results from the proposed method were much better than those expected from the conventional 2D FFT-based detection method.
Hyun, Eugin; Jin, Young-Seok; Lee, Jong-Hun
2016-01-01
For an automotive pedestrian detection radar system, fast-ramp based 2D range-Doppler Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) radar is effective for distinguishing between moving targets and unwanted clutter. However, when a weak moving target such as a pedestrian exists together with strong clutter, the pedestrian may be masked by the side-lobe of the clutter even though they are notably separated in the Doppler dimension. To prevent this problem, one popular solution is the use of a windowing scheme with a weighting function. However, this method leads to a spread spectrum, so the pedestrian with weak signal power and slow Doppler may also be masked by the main-lobe of clutter. With a fast-ramp based FMCW radar, if the target is moving, the complex spectrum of the range- Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) is changed with a constant phase difference over ramps. In contrast, the clutter exhibits constant phase irrespective of the ramps. Based on this fact, in this paper we propose a pedestrian detection for highly cluttered environments using a coherent phase difference method. By detecting the coherent phase difference from the complex spectrum of the range-FFT, we first extract the range profile of the moving pedestrians. Then, through the Doppler FFT, we obtain the 2D range-Doppler map for only the pedestrian. To test the proposed detection scheme, we have developed a real-time data logging system with a 24 GHz FMCW transceiver. In laboratory tests, we verified that the signal processing results from the proposed method were much better than those expected from the conventional 2D FFT-based detection method. PMID:26805835
Hyun, Eugin; Jin, Young-Seok; Lee, Jong-Hun
2016-01-20
For an automotive pedestrian detection radar system, fast-ramp based 2D range-Doppler Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) radar is effective for distinguishing between moving targets and unwanted clutter. However, when a weak moving target such as a pedestrian exists together with strong clutter, the pedestrian may be masked by the side-lobe of the clutter even though they are notably separated in the Doppler dimension. To prevent this problem, one popular solution is the use of a windowing scheme with a weighting function. However, this method leads to a spread spectrum, so the pedestrian with weak signal power and slow Doppler may also be masked by the main-lobe of clutter. With a fast-ramp based FMCW radar, if the target is moving, the complex spectrum of the range- Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) is changed with a constant phase difference over ramps. In contrast, the clutter exhibits constant phase irrespective of the ramps. Based on this fact, in this paper we propose a pedestrian detection for highly cluttered environments using a coherent phase difference method. By detecting the coherent phase difference from the complex spectrum of the range-FFT, we first extract the range profile of the moving pedestrians. Then, through the Doppler FFT, we obtain the 2D range-Doppler map for only the pedestrian. To test the proposed detection scheme, we have developed a real-time data logging system with a 24 GHz FMCW transceiver. In laboratory tests, we verified that the signal processing results from the proposed method were much better than those expected from the conventional 2D FFT-based detection method.
Kikuchi, Kazuro
2012-02-27
We develop a systematic method for characterizing semiconductor-laser phase noise, using a low-speed offline digital coherent receiver. The field spectrum, the FM-noise spectrum, and the phase-error variance measured with such a receiver can completely describe phase-noise characteristics of lasers under test. The sampling rate of the digital coherent receiver should be much higher than the phase-fluctuation speed. However, 1 GS/s is large enough for most of the single-mode semiconductor lasers. In addition to such phase-noise characterization, interpolating the taken data at 1.25 GS/s to form a data stream at 10 GS/s, we can predict the bit-error rate (BER) performance of multi-level modulated optical signals at 10 Gsymbol/s. The BER degradation due to the phase noise is well explained by the result of the phase-noise measurements.
Sample-Clock Phase-Control Feedback
Quirk, Kevin J.; Gin, Jonathan W.; Nguyen, Danh H.; Nguyen, Huy
2012-01-01
To demodulate a communication signal, a receiver must recover and synchronize to the symbol timing of a received waveform. In a system that utilizes digital sampling, the fidelity of synchronization is limited by the time between the symbol boundary and closest sample time location. To reduce this error, one typically uses a sample clock in excess of the symbol rate in order to provide multiple samples per symbol, thereby lowering the error limit to a fraction of a symbol time. For systems with a large modulation bandwidth, the required sample clock rate is prohibitive due to current technological barriers and processing complexity. With precise control of the phase of the sample clock, one can sample the received signal at times arbitrarily close to the symbol boundary, thus obviating the need, from a synchronization perspective, for multiple samples per symbol. Sample-clock phase-control feedback was developed for use in the demodulation of an optical communication signal, where multi-GHz modulation bandwidths would require prohibitively large sample clock frequencies for rates in excess of the symbol rate. A custom mixedsignal (RF/digital) offset phase-locked loop circuit was developed to control the phase of the 6.4-GHz clock that samples the photon-counting detector output. The offset phase-locked loop is driven by a feedback mechanism that continuously corrects for variation in the symbol time due to motion between the transmitter and receiver as well as oscillator instability. This innovation will allow significant improvements in receiver throughput; for example, the throughput of a pulse-position modulation (PPM) with 16 slots can increase from 188 Mb/s to 1.5 Gb/s.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
García-Vela, Alberto; Henriksen, Niels Engholm
2016-01-01
The role played by quantum interference in the laser phase modulation coherent control of photofragment distributions in the weak-field regime is investigated in detail in this work. The specific application involves realistic wave packet calculations of the transient vibrational populations of t...
On coherent-state representations of quantum mechanics: Wave mechanics in phase space
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Møller, Klaus Braagaard; Jørgensen, Thomas Godsk; Torres-Vega, Gabino
1997-01-01
one wants to solve the stationary Schrodinger equation in phase space and we devise two schemes for the removal of these ambiguities. The physical interpretation of the phase-space wave functions is discussed and a procedure for computing expectation values as integrals over phase space is presented...
Accurate Control of Josephson Phase Qubits
2016-04-14
61 ~1986!. 23 K. Kraus, States, Effects, and Operations: Fundamental Notions of Quantum Theory, Lecture Notes in Physics , Vol. 190 ~Springer-Verlag... PHYSICAL REVIEW B 68, 224518 ~2003!Accurate control of Josephson phase qubits Matthias Steffen,1,2,* John M. Martinis,3 and Isaac L. Chuang1 1Center...for Bits and Atoms and Department of Physics , MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA 2Solid State and Photonics Laboratory, Stanford University
Pshenichnikov, M.S; de Boeij, W.P.; Wiersma, D. A.
1996-01-01
A novel interference effect in transient four-wave mixing is demonstrated. The phenomenon is based on phase-controlled Liouville-space pathways interference and observed in the heterodyne-detected stimulated photon echo. Changing the phase difference between the first two excitation pulses from pi/2
Erimaki, Sophia; Christakos, Constantinos N
2008-02-01
In quasi-sinusoidal (0.5-3.0 Hz) voluntary muscle contractions, we studied the 6- to 10-Hz motor unit (MU) firing synchrony and muscle force oscillation with emphasis on their neural substrate and relation to rhythmical motor control. Our analyses were performed on data from 121 contractions of a finger muscle in 24 human subjects. They demonstrate that coherent 6- to 10-Hz components of MU discharges coexist with carrier components and coherent modulation components underlying the voluntary force variations. The 6- to 10-Hz synchrony has the frequency of the tremor synchrony in steady contractions and is also widespread and in-phase. Its strength ranges from very small to very large (MU/MU coherence >0.50) among contractions; moreover, it is not related to the contraction parameters, in accord with the notion of a distinct 6- to 10-Hz synaptic input to the MUs. Unlike the coherent MU modulations and the voluntary force variations, the in-phase 6- to 10-Hz MU components are suppressed or even eliminated during ischemia, while the respective force component is drastically reduced. These findings agree with the widely assumed supraspinal origin of the MU modulations, but they also strongly suggest a key role for muscle spindle feedback in the generation of the 6- to 10-Hz synaptic input. They therefore provide important information for the study of generators of the 6- to 10-Hz rhythm which subserves the postulated rhythmical control and is manifested as force and movement components. Moreover, they argue for a participation of oscillating spinal stretch reflex loops in the rhythm generation, possibly in interaction with supraspinal oscillators.
Ling, Yuye; Hendon, Christine P.
2016-02-01
Functional extensions to optical coherence tomography (OCT) provide useful imaging contrasts that are complementary to conventional OCT. Our goal is to characterize tissue types within the myocardial due to remodeling and therapy. High-speed imaging is necessary to extract mechanical properties and dynamics of fiber orientation changes in a beating heart. Functional extensions of OCT such as polarization sensitive and optical coherence elastography (OCE) require high phase stability of the system, which is a drawback of current mechanically tuned swept source OCT systems. Here we present a high-speed functional imaging platform, which includes an ultrahigh-phase-stable swept source equipped with KTN deflector from NTT-AT. The swept source does not require mechanical movements during the wavelength sweeping; it is electrically tuned. The inter-sweep phase variance of the system was measured to be less than 300 ps at a path length difference of ~2 mm. The axial resolution of the system is 20 µm and the -10 dB fall-off depth is about 3.2 mm. The sample arm has an 8 mmx8 mm field of view with a lateral resolution of approximately 18 µm. The sample arm uses a two-axis MEMS mirror, which is programmable and capable of scanning arbitrary patterns at a sampling rate of 50 kHz. Preliminary imaging results showed differences in polarization properties and image penetration in ablated and normal myocardium. In the future, we will conduct dynamic stretching experiments with strips of human myocardial tissue to characterize mechanical properties using OCE. With high speed imaging of 200 kHz and an all-fiber design, we will work towards catheter-based functional imaging.
Collin, Jeff
2012-03-01
The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) demonstrates the international political will invested in combating the tobacco pandemic and a newfound prominence for tobacco control within the global health agenda. However, major difficulties exist in managing conflicts with foreign and trade policy priorities, and significant obstacles confront efforts to create synergies with development policy and avoid tensions with other health priorities. This paper uses the concept of policy coherence to explore congruence and inconsistencies in objectives, policy, and practice between tobacco control and trade, development and global health priorities. Following the inability of the FCTC negotiations to satisfactorily address the relationship between trade and health, several disputes highlight the challenges posed to tobacco control policies by multilateral and bilateral agreements. While the work of the World Bank has demonstrated the potential contribution of tobacco control to development, the absence of non-communicable diseases from the Millennium Development Goals has limited scope to offer developing countries support for FCTC implementation. Even within international health, tobacco control priorities may be hard to reconcile with other agendas. The paper concludes by discussing the extent to which tobacco control has been pursued via a model of governance very deliberately different from those used in other health issues, in what can be termed 'tobacco exceptionalism'. The analysis developed here suggests that non-communicable disease (NCD) policies, global health, development and tobacco control would have much to gain from re-examining this presumption of difference.
Tobacco control, global health policy and development: towards policy coherence in global governance
Collin, Jeff
2015-01-01
The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) demonstrates the international political will invested in combating the tobacco pandemic and a newfound prominence for tobacco control within the global health agenda. However, major difficulties exist in managing conflicts with foreign and trade policy priorities, and significant obstacles confront efforts to create synergies with development policy and avoid tensions with other health priorities. This paper uses the concept of policy coherence to explore congruence and inconsistencies in objectives, policy, and practice between tobacco control and trade, development and global health priorities. Following the inability of the FCTC negotiations to satisfactorily address the relationship between trade and health, several disputes highlight the challenges posed to tobacco control policies by multilateral and bilateral agreements. While the work of the World Bank has demonstrated the potential contribution of tobacco control to development, the absence of non-communicable diseases from the Millennium Development Goals has limited scope to offer developing countries support for FCTC implementation. Even within international health, tobacco control priorities may be hard to reconcile with other agendas. The paper concludes by discussing the extent to which tobacco control has been pursued via a model of governance very deliberately different from those used in other health issues, in what can be termed ‘tobacco exceptionalism’. The analysis developed here suggests that non-communicable disease (NCD) policies, global health, development and tobacco control would have much to gain from re-examining this presumption of difference. PMID:22345267
Takahashi, Yukio; Suzuki, Akihiro; Zettsu, Nobuyuki; Oroguchi, Tomotaka; Takayama, Yuki; Sekiguchi, Yuki; Kobayashi, Amane; Yamamoto, Masaki; Nakasako, Masayoshi
2013-01-01
We report the first demonstration of the coherent diffraction imaging analysis of nanoparticles using focused hard X-ray free-electron laser pulses, allowing us to analyze the size distribution of particles as well as the electron density projection of individual particles. We measured 1000 single-shot coherent X-ray diffraction patterns of shape-controlled Ag nanocubes and Au/Ag nanoboxes and estimated the edge length from the speckle size of the coherent diffraction patterns. We then reconstructed the two-dimensional electron density projection with sub-10 nm resolution from selected coherent diffraction patterns. This method enables the simultaneous analysis of the size distribution of synthesized nanoparticles and the structures of particles at nanoscale resolution to address correlations between individual structures of components and the statistical properties in heterogeneous systems such as nanoparticles and cells.
Coherent cancellation of geometric phase for the OH molecule in external fields
Marin, M Bhattacharya S
2014-01-01
The OH molecule in its ground state presents a versatile platform for precision measurement and quantum information processing. These applications depend vitally on the accurate measurement of transition energies between the OH levels. Significant sources of systematic errors in these measurements are shifts based on the geometric phase arising from the magnetic and electric fields used for manipulating OH. In this article, we present these geometric phases for fields that vary harmonically in time, as in the Ramsey technique. Our calculation of the phases is exact within the description provided by our recent analytic solution of an effective Stark-Zeeman Hamiltonian for the OH ground state. This Hamiltonian has earlier been shown to model experimental data accurately. We find that the OH geometric phases exhibit rich structure as a function of the field rotation rate. Remarkably, we find rotation rates where the geometric phase accumulated by a specific state is zero, or where the relative geometric phase b...
Kaemingk, Michael; Cooper, Robert; Coherent Collaboration
2016-09-01
COHERENT is a collaboration whose goal is to measure coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (CEvNS). COHERENT plans to deploy a suite of detectors to measure the expected number-of-neutrons squared dependence of CEvNS at the Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. One of these detectors is a liquid argon detector which can measure these low energy nuclear recoil interactions. Ensuring optimal functionality requires the development of a slow control system to monitor and control various aspects, such as the temperature and pressure, of these detectors. Electronics manufactured by Beckhoff, Digilent, and Arduino among others are being used to create these slow control systems. This poster will generally discuss the assembly and commissioning of this CENNS-10 liquid argon detector at Indiana University and will feature work on the slow control systems.
Culcer, Dimitrie; Sekine, Akihiko; MacDonald, Allan H.
2017-07-01
In solid state conductors, linear response to a steady electric field is normally dominated by Bloch state occupation number changes that are correlated with group velocity and lead to a steady state current. Recently it has been realized that, for a number of important physical observables, the most important response even in conductors can be electric-field induced coherence between Bloch states in different bands, such as that responsible for screening in dielectrics. Examples include the anomalous and spin-Hall effects, spin torques in magnetic conductors, and the minimum conductivity and chiral anomaly in Weyl and Dirac semimetals. In this paper we present a general quantum kinetic theory of linear response to an electric field which can be applied to solids with arbitrarily complicated band structures and includes the interband coherence response and the Bloch-state repopulation responses on an equal footing. One of the principal aims of our work is to enable extensive transport theory applications using computational packages constructed in terms of maximally localized Wannier functions. To this end we provide a complete correspondence between the Bloch and Wannier formulations of our theory. The formalism is based on density-matrix equations of motion, on a Born approximation treatment of disorder, and on an expansion in scattering rate to leading nontrivial order. Our use of a Born approximation omits some physical effects and represents a compromise between comprehensiveness and practicality. The quasiparticle bands are treated in a completely general manner that allows for arbitrary forms of the spin-orbit interaction and for the broken time reversal symmetry of magnetic conductors. We demonstrate that the interband response in conductors consists primarily of two terms: an intrinsic contribution due to the entire Fermi sea that captures, among other effects, the Berry curvature contribution to wave-packet dynamics, and an anomalous contribution caused
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Duffy Frank H
2012-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The autism rate has recently increased to 1 in 100 children. Genetic studies demonstrate poorly understood complexity. Environmental factors apparently also play a role. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI studies demonstrate increased brain sizes and altered connectivity. Electroencephalogram (EEG coherence studies confirm connectivity changes. However, genetic-, MRI- and/or EEG-based diagnostic tests are not yet available. The varied study results likely reflect methodological and population differences, small samples and, for EEG, lack of attention to group-specific artifact. Methods Of the 1,304 subjects who participated in this study, with ages ranging from 1 to 18 years old and assessed with comparable EEG studies, 463 children were diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; 571 children were neuro-typical controls (C. After artifact management, principal components analysis (PCA identified EEG spectral coherence factors with corresponding loading patterns. The 2- to 12-year-old subsample consisted of 430 ASD- and 554 C-group subjects (n = 984. Discriminant function analysis (DFA determined the spectral coherence factors' discrimination success for the two groups. Loading patterns on the DFA-selected coherence factors described ASD-specific coherence differences when compared to controls. Results Total sample PCA of coherence data identified 40 factors which explained 50.8% of the total population variance. For the 2- to 12-year-olds, the 40 factors showed highly significant group differences (P Conclusions Classification success suggests a stable coherence loading pattern that differentiates ASD- from C-group subjects. This might constitute an EEG coherence-based phenotype of childhood autism. The predominantly reduced short-distance coherences may indicate poor local network function. The increased long-distance coherences may represent compensatory processes or reduced neural pruning. The wide average spectral range
McArthur, Duncan; Hourahine, Ben; Papoff, Francesco
2015-11-24
We model a scheme for the coherent control of light waves and currents in metallic nanospheres which applies independently of the nonlinear multiphoton processes at the origin of waves and currents. Using exact mathematical formulae, we calculate numerically with a custom fortran code the effect of an external control field which enable us to change the radiation pattern and suppress radiative losses or to reduce absorption, enabling the particle to behave as a perfect scatterer or as a perfect absorber. Data are provided in tabular, comma delimited value format and illustrate narrow features in the response of the particles that result in high sensitivity to small variations in the local environment, including subwavelength spatial shifts.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
O. Wid
2015-11-01
Full Text Available We demonstrate coherent control of time domain ferromagnetic resonance by all electrical excitation and detection. Using two ultrashort magnetic field steps with variable time delay we control the induction decay in yttrium iron garnet (YIG. By setting suitable delay times between the two steps the precession of the magnetization can either be enhanced or completely stopped. The method allows for a determination of the precession frequency within a few precession periods and with an accuracy much higher than can be achieved using fast fourier transformation. Moreover it holds the promise to massively increase precession amplitudes in pulsed inductive microwave magnetometry (PIMM using low amplitude finite pulse trains. Our experiments are supported by micromagnetic simulations which nicely confirm the experimental results.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wid, O.; Wahler, M.; Homonnay, N.; Richter, T. [Institut für Physik, Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, D-06099 (Germany); Schmidt, G., E-mail: georg.schmidt@physik.uni-halle.de [Institut für Physik, Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, D-06099 (Germany); IZM, Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, D-06099 (Germany)
2015-11-15
We demonstrate coherent control of time domain ferromagnetic resonance by all electrical excitation and detection. Using two ultrashort magnetic field steps with variable time delay we control the induction decay in yttrium iron garnet (YIG). By setting suitable delay times between the two steps the precession of the magnetization can either be enhanced or completely stopped. The method allows for a determination of the precession frequency within a few precession periods and with an accuracy much higher than can be achieved using fast fourier transformation. Moreover it holds the promise to massively increase precession amplitudes in pulsed inductive microwave magnetometry (PIMM) using low amplitude finite pulse trains. Our experiments are supported by micromagnetic simulations which nicely confirm the experimental results.
All-optical control of a solid-state spin using coherent dark states.
Yale, Christopher G; Buckley, Bob B; Christle, David J; Burkard, Guido; Heremans, F Joseph; Bassett, Lee C; Awschalom, David D
2013-05-07
The study of individual quantum systems in solids, for use as quantum bits (qubits) and probes of decoherence, requires protocols for their initialization, unitary manipulation, and readout. In many solid-state quantum systems, these operations rely on disparate techniques that can vary widely depending on the particular qubit structure. One such qubit, the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center spin in diamond, can be initialized and read out through its special spin-selective intersystem crossing, while microwave electron spin resonance techniques provide unitary spin rotations. Instead, we demonstrate an alternative, fully optical approach to these control protocols in an NV center that does not rely on its intersystem crossing. By tuning an NV center to an excited-state spin anticrossing at cryogenic temperatures, we use coherent population trapping and stimulated Raman techniques to realize initialization, readout, and unitary manipulation of a single spin. Each of these techniques can be performed directly along any arbitrarily chosen quantum basis, removing the need for extra control steps to map the spin to and from a preferred basis. Combining these protocols, we perform measurements of the NV center's spin coherence, a demonstration of this full optical control. Consisting solely of optical pulses, these techniques enable control within a smaller footprint and within photonic networks. Likewise, this unified approach obviates the need for both electron spin resonance manipulation and spin addressability through the intersystem crossing. This method could therefore be applied to a wide range of potential solid-state qubits, including those which currently lack a means to be addressed.
Boissoles, J.; Boulet, C.; Robert, D.; Green, S.
1989-01-01
Accurate coupled state calculations of line coupling are performed for infrared lines of carbon monoxide perturbed by helium. Such calculations lead to both real and imaginary line couplings. For the first time, the effect of this imaginary line couplings, connected with state-to-state rotational phase coherences, on infrared band shape, is analyzed. An extension of detailed balance principle to the complex plane is suggested from the present computed off-diagonal cross sections. This allows us to understand the physical mechanism underlying the weak effect of phase coherences on CO-He infrared band shape.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Guerrero Gonzalez, Neil; Caballero Jambrina, Antonio; Amaya Fernández, Ferney Orlando
2009-01-01
Highest reported bit rate of 2.5 Gbit/s for optically phase modulated radio-over-fibre link employing coherent detection is demonstrated. Demodulation of 3·2.5 Gbit/s QPSK modulated WDM channels, is achieved after 79km of transmission through deployed fiber.......Highest reported bit rate of 2.5 Gbit/s for optically phase modulated radio-over-fibre link employing coherent detection is demonstrated. Demodulation of 3·2.5 Gbit/s QPSK modulated WDM channels, is achieved after 79km of transmission through deployed fiber....
Extended Kalman filtering for joint mitigation of phase and amplitude noise in coherent QAM systems.
Pakala, Lalitha; Schmauss, Bernhard
2016-03-21
We numerically investigate our proposed carrier phase and amplitude noise estimation (CPANE) algorithm using extend Kalman filter (EKF) for joint mitigation of linear and non-linear phase noise as well as amplitude noise on 4, 16 and 64 polarization multiplexed (PM) quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) 224 Gb/s systems. The results are compared to decision directed (DD) carrier phase estimation (CPE), DD phase locked loop (PLL) and universal CPE (U-CPE) algorithms. Besides eliminating the necessity of phase unwrapping function, EKF-CPANE shows improved performance for both back-to-back (BTB) and transmission scenarios compared to the aforementioned algorithms. We further propose a weighted innovation approach (WIA) of the EKF-CPANE which gives an improvement of 0.3 dB in the Q-factor, compared to the original algorithm.
Coherent control of a {sup 13}C NV{sup -} center
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Scharfenberger, Burkhard; Nemoto, Kae [National Institute of Informatics, 2-1-2 Hitotsubashi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8430 (Japan); Munro, William J. [NTT Basic Research Laboratories, NTT Corporation, 3-1 Morinosato Wakamiya, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0198 (Japan)
2013-07-01
We investigate the theoretically achievable fidelity for coherently controlling an effective three qubit system consisting of a negatively charged NV center in diamond coupling via an hyperfine interaction to one nearby {sup 13}C nuclear spin using only micro- and radio wave pulses. With its long coherence times and comparatively simple optical accessibility, already the 'bare' NV{sup -} center has an interesting potential in quantum computing related applications. Although a number of experiments have already been conducted using NV centers with one or more {sup 13}C nearby, fidelity achieved are limited not only by experimental inaccuracies but a lack of theoretical understanding of the system dynamics. We seek to redress this by fully modelling the NVC systems behaviour in the ground state manifold, including all hyperfine interactions (between N and V as well as C and V) and dissipation where parameters are taken from previous experimental work as well as theoretical ab-initio studies. We show that for close-by carbons, the strong hyperfine interaction leads to unwanted mixing of levels which ultimately limits fidelity in single-qubit driving and entanglement generation to less than 99% in the experimentally interesting weak magnetic fields regime.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Degert, J
2002-12-15
This thesis deals with the theoretical and experimental study of coherent control of atomic and molecular systems with shaped pulses. At first, we present several experiments of control of coherent transients in rubidium. These transients appear when a two-level system is excited by a perturbative chirped pulse, and are characterized by oscillations in the excited state population. For a strong chirp, we show that a phase step in the spectrum modifies the phase of the oscillations. Then, by direct analogy with Fresnel zone lens, we conceive a chirped pulse with a highly modulated amplitude, allowing to suppress destructive contributions to the population transfer. In a second set of experiments, we focus on quantum path interferences in two-photon transitions excited by linearly chirped pulses. Owing to the broad bandwidth of ultrashort pulses, sequential and direct excitation paths contribute to the excited state population. Oscillations resulting from interferences between these two paths are observed in atomic sodium. Moreover, we show that they are observable whatever the sign of chirp. Theoretically, we study the control of the predissociation of a benchmark diatomic molecule: NaI. Predissociation leads to matter wave interferences in the fragments distribution. First, we show that a suitably chosen probe pulse allows the observation of theses interferences. Next, using a sequence of control pulse inducing electronic transition, we demonstrate the possibility to manipulate fragment energy distribution. (author)
Gillies, D.; Gamal, W.; Downes, A.; Reinwald, Y.; Yang, Y.; El Haj, A.; Bagnaninchi, P. O.
2017-02-01
There is an unmet need in tissue engineering for non-invasive, label-free monitoring of cell mechanical behaviour in their physiological environment. Here, we describe a novel optical coherence phase microscopy (OCPM) set-up which can map relative cell mechanical behaviour in monolayers and 3D systems non-invasively, and in real-time. 3T3 and MCF-7 cells were investigated, with MCF-7 demonstrating an increased response to hydrostatic stimulus indicating MCF-7 being softer than 3T3. Thus, OCPM shows the ability to provide qualitative data on cell mechanical behaviour. Quantitative measurements of 6% agarose beads have been taken with commercial Cell Scale Microsquisher system demonstrating that their mechanical properties are in the same order of magnitude of cells, indicating that this is an appropriate test sample for the novel method described.
Tian, Y.; Cormier, V. F.
2015-12-01
Traditional deterministic tomography cannot reveal the characteristics of small-scale (smaller than 100 km) heterogeneities in deep earth. Stochastic tomography, which inverts joint angular-transverse coherence functions (JATCF), can be used to image the statistics of small-scale heterogeneity. We test the resolution of this method using a pseudo-spectal method to synthesize the seismic wavefield in a reference radial symmetric Earth model perturbed by statistically described heterogeneity. JACTFs are calculated from the fluctuation of phase and log amplitude of transmitted waves in the heterogeneous model differenced from those predicted in the reference model. Example images are obtained from processing JACTFs measured from teleseismic data observed by Earthscope's USArray. Depth and lateral variations of the statistics of heterogeneity scales constrain the nature of chemical heterogeneity and mantle circulation
Santos, E; Chepel, V; Araujo, H M; Akimov, D Yu; Barnes, E J; Belov, V A; Burenkov, A A; Currie, A; DeViveiros, L; Ghag, C; Hollingsworth, A; Horn, M; Kalmus, G E; Kobyakin, A S; Kovalenko, A G; Lebedenko, V N; Lindote, A; Lopes, M I; Luscher, R; Majewski, P; Murphy, A StJ; Neves, F; Paling, S M; da Cunha, J Pinto; Preece, R; Quenby, J J; Reichhart, L; Scovell, P R; Silva, C; Solovov, V N; Smith, N J T; Smith, P F; Stekhanov, V N; Sumner, T J; Thorne, C; Walker, R J
2011-01-01
We present an experimental study of single electron emission in ZEPLIN-III, a two-phase xenon experiment built to search for dark matter WIMPs, and discuss applications enabled by the excellent signal-to-noise ratio achieved in detecting this signature. Firstly, we demonstrate a practical method for precise measurement of the free electron lifetime in liquid xenon during normal operation of these detectors. Then, using a realistic detector response model and backgrounds, we assess the feasibility of deploying such an instrument for measuring coherent neutrino-nucleus elastic scattering using the ionisation channel in the few-electron regime. We conclude that it should be possible to measure this elusive neutrino signature above an ionisation threshold of $\\sim$3 electrons both at a stopped pion source and at a nuclear reactor. Detectable signal rates are larger in the reactor case, but the triggered measurement and harder recoil energy spectrum afforded by the accelerator source enable lower overall backgroun...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thygesen, Kristian Sommer; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel
2005-01-01
We present a systematic study of interference and k-point sampling effects in the supercell approach to phase-coherent electron transport. We use a representative tight-binding model to show that interference between the repeated images is a small effect compared to the error introduced by using...... only the Gamma-point for a supercell containing (3,3) sites in the transverse plane. An insufficient k-point sampling can introduce strong but unphysical features in the transmission function which can be traced to the presence of van Hove singularities in the lead. We present a first......-principles calculation of the transmission through a Pt contact which shows that the k-point sampling is also important for realistic systems....
Quantum dynamics of tight-binding networks coherently controlled by external fields
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YANG Shuo; SONG Zhi; SUN Chang-pu
2007-01-01
With some reviews on the investigations on the schemes for quantum state transfer based on spin systems,we discuss the quantum dynamics of magnetically-controlled networks for Bloch electrons. The networks are constructed by connecting several tight-binding chains with uniform nearest-neighbor hopping integrals. The external magnetic field and the connecting hopping integrals can be used to control the intrinsic properties of the networks. For several typical networks, rigorous results are shown for some specific values of external magnetic field and the connecting hopping integrals: a complicated network can be reduced into a virtual network, which is a direct sum of some independent chains with uniform nearest-neighbor hopping integrals. These reductions are due to the fermionic statistics and the Aharonov-Bohm effects. In application, we study the quantum dynamics of wave packet motion of Bloch electrons in such networks. For various geometrical configurations, these networks can function as some optical devices,such as beam splitters, switches and interferometers. When the Bloch electrons as Gaussian wave packets input these devices, various quantum coherence phenomena can be observed, e.g., the perfect quantum state transfer without reflection in a Y-shaped beam, the multi-mode entanglers of electron wave by star-shaped network, magnetically controlled switches, and Bloch electron interferometer with the lattice Aharonov-Bohm effects. With these quantum coherent features, the networks are expected to be used as quantum information processors for the fermion system based on the possible engineered solid state systems, such as the array of quantum dots that can be implemented experimentally.
Faribault, Alexandre
On peut creer un gaz electronique bidimensionnel en utilisant le potentiel de confinement d'une couche mince d'un semiconducteur dans un substrat fait d'une autre semiconducteur de gap plus eleve. L'ajout d'un champ magnetique perpendiculaire au plan de confinement modifie de facon drastique les proprietes du gaz electronique. Pour des densites et des valeurs du champ magnetique adequatement choisies, on obtient un etat fondamental en onde de densite de charge. Dans un systeme compose de deux de ces gaz bidimensionnels suffisamment rapproches l'un de l'autre, on prevoit theoriquement l'existence d'un etat fondamental compose d'une onde de densite de charge dans chacun des puits et d'une serie de regions lineaires ou l'on a une delocalisation coherente des electrons entre les deux puits. Dans cette these, on etudie le comportement a temperature nulle de cet etat fondamental en rayures coherentes. L'etude numerique des modes collectifs de ces phases laisse croire qu'un deverrouillage des canaux coherents est envisageable dans ce systeme. Afin d'etudier cette possibilite, nous construisons d'abord un modele effectif de canaux quasi-unidimensionnels couples qui permettent de reproduire correctement les excitations collectives a basse energie de la phase en rayures coherentes du double puits quantique. Dans un systeme de coordonnees adequatement choisi, ces excitations peuvent etre decrites par des ondes de pseudospin. Les parametres de ce modele effectif simple peuvent etre extraits des calculs des fonctions de reponse realises dans l'approximation Hartree-Fock dependante du temps (appelee aussi Generalized Random Phase Approximation). On constate l'efficacite de ce modele a decrire la dynamique basse energie du systeme pour une certaine plage de distances inter-puits. En retirant de ce modele les contributions a l'hamiltonien provenant des couplages de type Josephson entre les canaux, on obtient alors un systeme ou les canaux sont deverrouilles. Un traitement en
Phased array of high-power, coherent, monolithic flared amplifier master oscillator power amplifiers
Osinski, J. S.; Mehuys, D.; Welch, D. F.; Waarts, R. G.; Major, J. S., Jr.; Dzurko, K. M.; Lang, R. J.
1995-01-01
A monolithically integrated array of InGaAs/AlGaAs flared amplifiers driven by a single DBR laser through a power splitter network and individually addressed phase modulators is described. Phase adjustment of ≳2π per element by free-carrier effects is verified by monitoring the interference pattern of all four emitters, and typically requires <15 mA of current to obtain a 2π phase shift. Phase matching is achieved among all four diffraction-limited emitters at a pulsed output power of ≳5 W, and, combined with the proper external lensing, could therefore result in an ultranarrow, single-lobed far-field pattern whose width is determined by the extended aperture of the array.
Hohle, M M; Vink, J; Turolla, R; Zane, S; de Vries, C P; Méndez, M
2010-01-01
Since the last phase coherent timing solution of the nearby radio-quiet isolated neutron star RX J0720.4-3125 six new XMM-Newton and three Chandra observations were carried out. The phase coherent timing solutions from previous authors were performed without restricting to a fixed energy band. However, we recently showed that the phase residuals are energy dependent, and thus phase coherent solutions must be computed referring always to the same energy band. We updated the phase coherent timing solution for RX J0720.4-3125 by including the recent XMM-Newton EPIC-pn, MOS1, MOS2 and Chandra ACIS data in the energy range 400-1000~eV. Altogether these observations cover a time span of almost 10~yrs. A further timing solution was obtained including the ROSAT pointed data. In this case, observations cover a time span of $\\approx$16~yrs. To illustrate the timing differences between the soft band (120-400~eV) and the hard band (400-1000~eV) a timing solution for the soft band is also presented and the results are ver...
Controlling the development of coherent structures in high speed jets and the resultant near field
Speth, Rachelle
This work uses Large-Eddy Simulations to examine the effect of actuator parameters and jet exit properties on the evolution of coherent structures and their impact on the near-acoustic field without and with control. For the controlled cases, Localized Arc Filament Plasma Actuators (LAFPAs) are considered, and modeled with a simple heating approach that successfully reproduces the main observations and trends of experiments. A parametric study is first conducted, using the flapping mode (m = +/-1), to investigate the sensitivity of the results to various actuator parameters including: actuator model temperature, actuator duty cycle, and excitation frequency. It is shown by considering a Mach 1.3 jet at Reynolds number of 1 x 106 that the response of the jet is relatively insensitive to actuator model temperature within the limits of the experimentally measured temperature values. Furthermore, duty cycles in the range of 20%--90% were observed to be effective in reproducing the characteristic coherent structures of the flapping mode. Next, jet flow parameters were explored to determine the control authority under different operating conditions. To begin, the effect of the laminar nozzle exit boundary layer thickness was examined by varying its value from essentially uniform flow to 25% of the diameter. In the absence of control, the distance between the nozzle lip and the initial appearance of breakdown is proportional to the boundary-layer thickness, which is consistent with theory and previous results obtained by other researchers at Mach 0.9. The second flow parameter studied was the effect of Reynolds number on a Mach 1.3 jet controlled by the flapping mode at an excitation Strouhal number of 0.3. The higher Reynolds number (Re=1,100,000) jet exhibited reduced control authority compared to the Re=100,000 jet. Like the effect of increasing the nozzle exit boundary layer thickness, increasing the Reynolds number cause a reduction in spreading on the flapping plane
Cavity-assisted measurement and coherent control of collective atomic spin oscillators
Kohler, Jonathan; Schreppler, Sydney; Stamper-Kurn, Dan M
2016-01-01
We demonstrate continuous measurement and coherent control of the collective spin of an atomic ensemble undergoing Larmor precession in a high-finesse optical cavity. The coupling of the precessing spin oscillator to the cavity field yields phenomena similar to those observed in cavity optomechanics, including cavity amplification, damping, and optical spring shifts. These effects arise from autonomous optical feedback onto the atomic spin dynamics, conditioned by the cavity spectrum. We use this feedback to stabilize the spin in either its high- or low-energy state, where it achieves a steady-state temperature in equilibrium with measurement back-action. We measure the effective spin temperature from the asymmetry between the Stokes and anti-Stokes sidebands and show that, for sufficiently large Larmor frequency, such a feedback-stabilized spin ensemble remains in a nearly pure quantum state, in spite of continuous interaction with the probe field.
All-optical control of a solid-state spin using coherent dark states
Yale, Christopher G; Christle, David J; Burkard, Guido; Heremans, F Joseph; Bassett, Lee C; Awschalom, David D
2013-01-01
The study of individual quantum systems in solids, for use as quantum bits (qubits) and probes of decoherence, requires protocols for their initialization, unitary manipulation, and readout. In many solid-state quantum systems, these operations rely on disparate techniques that can vary widely depending on the particular qubit structure. One such qubit, the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center spin in diamond, can be initialized and read out through its special spin selective intersystem crossing, while microwave electron spin resonance (ESR) techniques provide unitary spin rotations. Instead, we demonstrate an alternative, fully optical approach to these control protocols in an NV center that does not rely on its intersystem crossing. By tuning an NV center to an excited-state spin anticrossing at cryogenic temperatures, we use coherent population trapping and stimulated Raman techniques to realize initialization, readout, and unitary manipulation of a single spin. Each of these techniques can be directly performed ...
Trapping of Weak Signal Pulses by Soliton and Trajectory Control in a Coherent Atomic Gas
Chen, Zhiming
2016-01-01
We propose a method for trapping weak signal pulses by soliton and realizing its trajectory control via electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). The system we consider is a cold, coherent atomic gas with a tripod or multipod level configuration. We show that, due to the giant enhancement of Kerr nonlinearity contributed by EIT, several weak signal pulses can be effectively trapped by a soliton and cotravel stably with ultraslow propagating velocity. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the trajectories of the soliton and the trapped signal pulses can be manipulated by using a Stern-Gerlach gradient magnetic field. As a result, the soliton and the trapped signal pulses display a Stern-Gerlach deflection and both of them can bypass an obstacle together. The results predicted here may be used to design all-optical switching at very low light level.
Clutter noise reduction for phased array imaging using frequency-spatial polarity coherence
Gongzhang, Rui; Gachagan, Anthony; Xiao, Bo
2015-03-01
A number of materials used in industry exhibit highly-scattering properties which can reduce the performance of conventional ultrasonic NDE approaches. Moving Bandwidth Polarity Thresholding (MBPT) is a robust frequency diversity based algorithm for scatter noise reduction in single A-scan waveforms, using sign coherence across a range of frequency bands to reduce grain noise and improve Signal to Noise Ratio. Importantly, for this approach to be extended to array applications, spatial variation of noise characteristics must also be considered. This paper presents a new spatial-frequency diversity based algorithm for array imaging, extended from MBPT. Each A-scan in the full matrix capture array dataset is partitioned into a serial of overlapped frequency bands and then undergoes polarity thresholding to generate sign-only coefficients indicating possible flaw locations within each selected band. These coefficients are synthesized to form a coefficient matrix using a delay and sum approach in each frequency band. Matrices produced across the frequency bands are then summed to generate a weighting matrix, which can be applied on any conventional image. A 5MHz linear array has been used to acquire data from both austenitic steel and high nickel alloy (HNA) samples to validate the proposed algorithm. Background noise is significantly suppressed for both samples after applying this approach. Importantly, three side drilled holes and the back wall of the HNA sample are clearly enhanced in the processed image, with a mean 133% Contrast to Noise Ratio improvement when compared to a conventional TFM image.
Femtosecond Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Gas Phase Thermometry at 5 kHz
Fineman, Claresta; Lucht, Robert
2014-05-01
Understanding the thermal instabilities occurring in turbulent combustion, such as in modern gas turbine combustors, is critical for more reliable and fuel-efficient operation. Non-intrusive laser based spectroscopy methods have been documented as the techniques of choice for turbulent combustion diagnostics. Specifically, femtosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (fs-CARS) thermometry has been established for temporal resolution of turbulent fluctuations in flame structure and provides accurate measurements across a wide range of temperatures. Experiments performed to date include 5 kHz pure vibrational N2 chirped probe-pulse fs-CARS thermometry on non-premixed hydrogen jet diffusion flames, methane jet diffusion flames, and the DLR gas turbine model combustor (GTMC). The fs-CARS signal generation process requires precise spatial and temporal overlap of tightly focused pulsed laser beams of less than 100 fs pulse duration. Here, signal loss due to beam steering, pressure fluctuations, or shear layer density gradients can become a problem. The effect of such interferences has been investigated using high velocity flow of compressed nitrogen gas from a converging-diverging nozzle. Resulting changes in fs-CARS spectra have been studied. Funding for this work was provided by the U.S. Department of Energy, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences.
On-chip generation of high-dimensional entangled quantum states and their coherent control
Kues, Michael; Reimer, Christian; Roztocki, Piotr; Cortés, Luis Romero; Sciara, Stefania; Wetzel, Benjamin; Zhang, Yanbing; Cino, Alfonso; Chu, Sai T.; Little, Brent E.; Moss, David J.; Caspani, Lucia; Azaña, José; Morandotti, Roberto
2017-06-01
Optical quantum states based on entangled photons are essential for solving questions in fundamental physics and are at the heart of quantum information science. Specifically, the realization of high-dimensional states (D-level quantum systems, that is, qudits, with D > 2) and their control are necessary for fundamental investigations of quantum mechanics, for increasing the sensitivity of quantum imaging schemes, for improving the robustness and key rate of quantum communication protocols, for enabling a richer variety of quantum simulations, and for achieving more efficient and error-tolerant quantum computation. Integrated photonics has recently become a leading platform for the compact, cost-efficient, and stable generation and processing of non-classical optical states. However, so far, integrated entangled quantum sources have been limited to qubits (D = 2). Here we demonstrate on-chip generation of entangled qudit states, where the photons are created in a coherent superposition of multiple high-purity frequency modes. In particular, we confirm the realization of a quantum system with at least one hundred dimensions, formed by two entangled qudits with D = 10. Furthermore, using state-of-the-art, yet off-the-shelf telecommunications components, we introduce a coherent manipulation platform with which to control frequency-entangled states, capable of performing deterministic high-dimensional gate operations. We validate this platform by measuring Bell inequality violations and performing quantum state tomography. Our work enables the generation and processing of high-dimensional quantum states in a single spatial mode.
On-chip generation of high-dimensional entangled quantum states and their coherent control.
Kues, Michael; Reimer, Christian; Roztocki, Piotr; Cortés, Luis Romero; Sciara, Stefania; Wetzel, Benjamin; Zhang, Yanbing; Cino, Alfonso; Chu, Sai T; Little, Brent E; Moss, David J; Caspani, Lucia; Azaña, José; Morandotti, Roberto
2017-06-28
Optical quantum states based on entangled photons are essential for solving questions in fundamental physics and are at the heart of quantum information science. Specifically, the realization of high-dimensional states (D-level quantum systems, that is, qudits, with D > 2) and their control are necessary for fundamental investigations of quantum mechanics, for increasing the sensitivity of quantum imaging schemes, for improving the robustness and key rate of quantum communication protocols, for enabling a richer variety of quantum simulations, and for achieving more efficient and error-tolerant quantum computation. Integrated photonics has recently become a leading platform for the compact, cost-efficient, and stable generation and processing of non-classical optical states. However, so far, integrated entangled quantum sources have been limited to qubits (D = 2). Here we demonstrate on-chip generation of entangled qudit states, where the photons are created in a coherent superposition of multiple high-purity frequency modes. In particular, we confirm the realization of a quantum system with at least one hundred dimensions, formed by two entangled qudits with D = 10. Furthermore, using state-of-the-art, yet off-the-shelf telecommunications components, we introduce a coherent manipulation platform with which to control frequency-entangled states, capable of performing deterministic high-dimensional gate operations. We validate this platform by measuring Bell inequality violations and performing quantum state tomography. Our work enables the generation and processing of high-dimensional quantum states in a single spatial mode.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gliese, Ulrik Bo; Nielsen, Torben Nørskov; Bruun, Marlene;
1992-01-01
Experimental results of a wideband heterodyne second order optical phase locked loop with 1.5 Â¿m semiconductor lasers are presented. The loop has a bandwidth of 180 MHz, a gain of 181 dBHz and a propagation delay of only 400 ps. A beat signal of 8 MHz linewidth is phase locked to become a replica...... of a microwave reference source close to carrier with a noise level of Â¿125 dBc/Hz. The total phase variance of the locked carrier is 0.04 rad2 and carriers can be generated in a continuous range from 3 to 18 GHz. The loop reliability is excellent with an average time to cycle slip of 1011 seconds...
Phase coherence and spectral functions in the two-dimensional excitonic systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Apinyan, V., E-mail: V.Apinyan@int.pan.wroc.pl; Kopeć, T.K.
2015-09-15
The nonlocal correlation mechanism between excitonic pairs is considered for a two dimensional exciton system. On the base of the unitary decomposition of the usual electron operator, we include the electron phase degrees of freedom into the problem of interacting excitons. Applying the path integral formalism, we treat the excitonic insulator state (EI) and the Bose–Einstein condensation (BEC) of preformed excitonic pairs as two independent problems. For the BEC of excitons the phase field variables play a crucial role. We derive the expression of the local EI order parameter by integrating out the phase variables. Then, considering the zero temperature limit, we obtain the excitonic BEC transition probability function, by integrating out the fermions. We calculate the normal excitonic Green functions for the conduction and valence band electrons and we derive the excitonic spectral functions, both analytically and numerically. Different values of the Coulomb interaction parameter are considered.
Phase-matched generation of coherent soft and hard X-rays using IR lasers
Popmintchev, Tenio V.; Chen, Ming-Chang; Bahabad, Alon; Murnane, Margaret M.; Kapteyn, Henry C.
2013-06-11
Phase-matched high-order harmonic generation of soft and hard X-rays is accomplished using infrared driving lasers in a high-pressure non-linear medium. The pressure of the non-linear medium is increased to multi-atmospheres and a mid-IR (or higher) laser device provides the driving pulse. Based on this scaling, also a general method for global optimization of the flux of phase-matched high-order harmonic generation at a desired wavelength is designed.
Antoniou, P; Ma, Z; Zhang, P; Beratan, D N; Skourtis, S S
2015-12-14
Molecular vibrations and electron-vibrational interactions are central to the control of biomolecular electron and energy-transfer rates. The vibrational control of molecular electron-transfer reactions by infrared pulses may enable the precise probing of electronic-vibrational interactions and of their roles in determining electron-transfer mechanisms. This type of electron-transfer rate control is advantageous because it does not alter the electronic state of the molecular electron-transfer system or irreversibly change its molecular structure. For bridge-mediated electron-transfer reactions, infrared (vibrational) excitation of the bridge linking the electron donor to the electron acceptor was suggested as being capable of influencing the electron-transfer rate by modulating the bridge-mediated donor-to-acceptor electronic coupling. This kind of electron-transfer experiment has been realized, demonstrating that bridge-mediated electron-transfer rates can be changed by exciting vibrational modes of the bridge. Here, we use simple models and ab initio computations to explore the physical constraints on one's ability to vibrationally perturb electron-transfer rates using infrared excitation. These constraints stem from the nature of molecular vibrational spectra, the strengths of the electron-vibrational coupling, and the interaction between molecular vibrations and infrared radiation. With these constraints in mind, we suggest parameter regimes and molecular architectures that may enhance the vibrational control of electron transfer for fast coherent electron-transfer reactions.
Liu, Cheng; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Shouyuan; Golovin, Gregory; Banerjee, Sudeep; Zhao, Baozhen; Powers, Nathan; Ghebregziabher, Isaac; Umstadter, Donald
2014-01-01
Fourier-transform-limited light pulses were obtained at the laser-plasma interaction point of a 100-TW peak-power laser in vacuum. The spectral-phase distortion induced by the dispersion mismatching between the stretcher, compressor, and dispersive materials was fully compensated for by means of an adaptive closed-loop. The coherent temporal contrast on the sub-picosecond time scale was two orders of magnitude higher than that without adaptive control. This novel phase control capability enabled the experimental study of the dependence of laser wakefield acceleration on the spectral phase of intense laser light.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Erlin Sun
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Under a degenerate two-photon resonant excitation, the Rabi oscillation of the four-level biexciton system in a semiconductor quantum dot is theoretically investigated. The influence of the laser phases on the state manipulation is modeled and numerically calculated. Due to the interference between different excitation paths, the laser phase plays an important role and can be utilized as an alternate control knob to coherently manipulate the biexciton state. The phase control can be facilely implemented by changing the light polarization via a quarter-wave plate.
Phase lags and coherence of X-ray variability in black hole candidates
Nowak, M A; Nowak, Michael A; Vaughan, Brian A
1995-01-01
The ``low'' (hard or ``non-thermal'') state of black hole candidates is sometimes modelled via an optically thick, hot Compton cloud that obscures a softer input source such as an accretion disk. In these models the observed output spectra consist entirely of photons reprocessed by the cloud, making it difficult to extract information about the input spectra. Recently Miller (1995) has argued that the Fourier phase (or time) lag between hard and soft X-ray photons in actuality represents the phase lags intrinsic to the input source, modulo a multiplicative factor. The phase lags thus would be a probe of the input photon source. In this paper we examine this claim and find that, although true for the limited parameter space considered by Miller, the intrinsic phase lag disappears whenever the output photon energy is much greater than the input photon energy. The remaining time lags represent a ``shelf'' due to differences between mean diffusion times across the cloud. As pointed out by Miller, the amplitude of...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Ulrik; Dall, Jørgen; Kristensen, Steen Savstrup;
2012-01-01
Radar ice sounding enables measurement of the thickness and internal structures of the large ice sheets on Earth. Surface clutter masking the signal of interest is a major obstacle in ice sounding. Algorithms for surface clutter suppression based on multi-phase-center radars are presented...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Ulrik; Dall, Jørgen; Kristensen, Steen Savstrup
2012-01-01
Radar ice sounding enables measurement of the thickness and internal structures of the large ice sheets on Earth. Surface clutter masking the signal of interest is a major obstacle in ice sounding. Algorithms for surface clutter suppression based on multi-phase-center radars are presented. These ...
Quadrature phase shift keying coherent state discrimination via a hybrid receiver
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Müller, C. R.; Castaneda, Mario A. Usuga; Wittmann, C.;
2012-01-01
We propose and experimentally demonstrate a near-optimal discrimination scheme for the quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) protocol. We show in theory that the performance of our hybrid scheme is superior to the standard scheme—heterodyne detection—for all signal amplitudes and underpin the pred...
Hierarchical fringe tracker to co-phase and coherence very large optical interferometers
Petrov, Romain G.; Boskri, Abdelkarim; Bresson, Yves; Agabi, Karim; Folcher, Jean-Pierre; Elhalkouj, Thami; Lagarde, Stephane; Benkhaldoum, Zouhair
2016-08-01
The full scientific potential of the VLTI with its second generation instruments MATISSE and GRAVITY require fringe tracking up to magnitudes K>14 with the UTs and K>10 with the ATs. The GRAVITY fringe tracker (FT) will be limited to K 10.5 with UTs and K 7.5 with ATs, for fundamental conceptual reasons: the flux of each telescope is distributed among 3 cophasing pairs and then among 5 spectral channels for coherencing. To overcome this limit we propose a new FT concept, called Hierarchical Fringe Tracker (HFT) that cophase pairs of apertures with all the flux from two apertures and only one spectral channel. When the pair is cophased, most of the flux is transmitted as if it was produced by an unique single mode beam and then used to cophase pairs of pairs and then pairs of groups. At the deeper level, the flux is used in an optimized dispersed fringe device for coherencing. On the VLTI such a system allows a gain of about 3 magnitudes over the GRAVITY FT. On interferometers with more apertures such as CHARA (6 telescopes) or a future Planet Formation Imager (12 to 20 telescopes), the HFT would be even more decisive, as its performance does not decrease with the number of apertures. It would allow building a PFI reaching a coherent magnitude H 10 with 16 apertures with diameters smaller than 2 m. We present the HFT concept, the first steps of its feasibility demonstration from computer simulations and the optical design of a 4 telescopes HFT prototype.
Servin, M; Garnica, G; Estrada, J C; Quiroga, A
2013-10-21
Fringe projection profilometry is a well-known technique to digitize 3-dimensional (3D) objects and it is widely used in robotic vision and industrial inspection. Probably the single most important problem in single-camera, single-projection profilometry are the shadows and specular reflections generated by the 3D object under analysis. Here a single-camera along with N-fringe-projections is (digital) coherent demodulated in a single-step, solving the shadows and specular reflections problem. Co-phased profilometry coherently phase-demodulates a whole set of N-fringe-pattern perspectives in a single demodulation and unwrapping process. The mathematical theory behind digital co-phasing N-fringe-patterns is mathematically similar to co-phasing a segmented N-mirror telescope.
Coherent beam control through inhomogeneous media in multi-photon microscopy
Paudel, Hari Prasad
Multi-photon fluorescence microscopy has become a primary tool for high-resolution deep tissue imaging because of its sensitivity to ballistic excitation photons in comparison to scattered excitation photons. The imaging depth of multi-photon microscopes in tissue imaging is limited primarily by background fluorescence that is generated by scattered light due to the random fluctuations in refractive index inside the media, and by reduced intensity in the ballistic focal volume due to aberrations within the tissue and at its interface. We built two multi-photon adaptive optics (AO) correction systems, one for combating scattering and aberration problems, and another for compensating interface aberrations. For scattering correction a MEMS segmented deformable mirror (SDM) was inserted at a plane conjugate to the objective back-pupil plane. The SDM can pre-compensate for light scattering by coherent combination of the scattered light to make an apparent focus even at a depths where negligible ballistic light remains (i.e. ballistic limit). This problem was approached by investigating the spatial and temporal focusing characteristics of a broad-band light source through strongly scattering media. A new model was developed for coherent focus enhancement through or inside the strongly media based on the initial speckle contrast. A layer of fluorescent beads under a mouse skull was imaged using an iterative coherent beam control method in the prototype two-photon microscope to demonstrate the technique. We also adapted an AO correction system to an existing in three-photon microscope in a collaborator lab at Cornell University. In the second AO correction approach a continuous deformable mirror (CDM) is placed at a plane conjugate to the plane of an interface aberration. We demonstrated that this "Conjugate AO" technique yields a large field-of-view (FOV) advantage in comparison to Pupil AO. Further, we showed that the extended FOV in conjugate AO is maintained over a
Wang, Danshi; Zhang, Min; Cai, Zhongle; Cui, Yue; Li, Ze; Han, Huanhuan; Fu, Meixia; Luo, Bin
2016-06-01
An effective machine learning algorithm, the support vector machine (SVM), is presented in the context of a coherent optical transmission system. As a classifier, the SVM can create nonlinear decision boundaries to mitigate the distortions caused by nonlinear phase noise (NLPN). Without any prior information or heuristic assumptions, the SVM can learn and capture the link properties from only a few training data. Compared with the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) algorithm, a lower bit-error rate (BER) is achieved by the SVM for a given launch power; moreover, the launch power dynamic range (LPDR) is increased by 3.3 dBm for 8 phase-shift keying (8 PSK), 1.2 dBm for QPSK, and 0.3 dBm for BPSK. The maximum transmission distance corresponding to a BER of 1 ×10-3 is increased by 480 km for the case of 8 PSK. The larger launch power range and longer transmission distance improve the tolerance to amplitude and phase noise, which demonstrates the feasibility of the SVM in digital signal processing for M-PSK formats. Meanwhile, in order to apply the SVM method to 16 quadratic amplitude modulation (16 QAM) detection, we propose a parameter optimization scheme. By utilizing a cross-validation and grid-search techniques, the optimal parameters of SVM can be selected, thus leading to the LPDR improvement by 2.8 dBm. Additionally, we demonstrate that the SVM is also effective in combating the laser phase noise combined with the inphase and quadrature (I/Q) modulator imperfections, but the improvement is insignificant for the linear noise and separate I/Q imbalance. The computational complexity of SVM is also discussed. The relatively low complexity makes it possible for SVM to implement the real-time processing.
Kamaraju, N.; Kumar, Sunil; Saha, Surajit; Singh, Surjeet; Suryanarayanan, R.; Revcolevschi, A.; Sood, A. K.
2011-04-01
We study the generation of coherent optical phonons in spin-frustrated pyrochlore single crystals Dy2Ti2O7, Gd2Ti2O7, and Tb2Ti2O7 using femtosecond laser pulses (65 fs, 1.57 eV) in degenerate time-resolved transmission experiments as a function of temperature from 4 to 296 K. At 4 K, two coherent phonons are observed at ~5.3 THz (5.0 THz) and ~9.3 THz (9.4 THz) for Dy2Ti2O7 (Gd2Ti2O7), whereas three coherent phonons are generated at ~5.0, 8.6, and 9.7 THz for Tb2Ti2O7. In the case of spin-ice Dy2Ti2O7, a clear discontinuity is observed in the linewidths of both the coherent phonons as well as in the phase of lower-energy coherent phonon mode, indicating a subtle structural change at 110 K. Another important observation is a phase difference of π between the modes in all the samples, thus suggesting that the driving forces behind the generation of these modes could be different in nature, unlike a purely impulsive or displacive mechanism.
Koerner, Tess K; Zhang, Yang
2015-10-01
This study investigated the effects of a speech-babble background noise on inter-trial phase coherence (ITPC, also referred to as phase locking value (PLV)) and auditory event-related responses (AERP) to speech sounds. Specifically, we analyzed EEG data from 11 normal hearing subjects to examine whether ITPC can predict noise-induced variations in the obligatory N1-P2 complex response. N1-P2 amplitude and latency data were obtained for the /bu/syllable in quiet and noise listening conditions. ITPC data in delta, theta, and alpha frequency bands were calculated for the N1-P2 responses in the two passive listening conditions. Consistent with previous studies, background noise produced significant amplitude reduction and latency increase in N1 and P2, which were accompanied by significant ITPC decreases in all the three frequency bands. Correlation analyses further revealed that variations in ITPC were able to predict the amplitude and latency variations in N1-P2. The results suggest that trial-by-trial analysis of cortical neural synchrony is a valuable tool in understanding the modulatory effects of background noise on AERP measures.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stefan Berger
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Channel estimation protocols for wireless two-hop networks with amplify-and-forward (AF relays are compared. We consider multiuser relaying networks, where the gain factors are chosen such that the signals from all relays add up coherently at the destinations. While the destinations require channel knowledge in order to decode, our focus lies on the channel estimates that are used to calculate the relay gains. Since knowledge of the compound two-hop channels is generally not sufficient to do this, the protocols considered here measure all single-hop coefficients in the network. We start from the observation that the direction in which the channels are measured determines (1 the number of channel uses required to estimate all coefficient and (2 the need for global carrier phase reference. Four protocols are identified that differ in the direction in which the first-hop and the second-hop channels are measured. We derive a sensible measure for the accuracy of the channel estimates in the presence of additive noise and phase noise and compare the protocols based on this measure. Finally, we provide a quantitative performance comparison for a simple single-user application example. It is important to note that the results can be used to compare the channel estimation protocols for any two-hop network configuration and gain allocation scheme.
Kobayashi, Amane; Sekiguchi, Yuki; Takayama, Yuki; Oroguchi, Tomotaka; Nakasako, Masayoshi
2014-11-17
Coherent X-ray diffraction imaging (CXDI) is a lensless imaging technique that is suitable for visualizing the structures of non-crystalline particles with micrometer to sub-micrometer dimensions from material science and biology. One of the difficulties inherent to CXDI structural analyses is the reconstruction of electron density maps of specimen particles from diffraction patterns because saturated detector pixels and a beam stopper result in missing data in small-angle regions. To overcome this difficulty, the dark-field phase-retrieval (DFPR) method has been proposed. The DFPR method reconstructs electron density maps from diffraction data, which are modified by multiplying Gaussian masks with an observed diffraction pattern in the high-angle regions. In this paper, we incorporated Friedel centrosymmetry for diffraction patterns into the DFPR method to provide a constraint for the phase-retrieval calculation. A set of model simulations demonstrated that this constraint dramatically improved the probability of reconstructing correct electron density maps from diffraction patterns that were missing data in the small-angle region. In addition, the DFPR method with the constraint was applied successfully to experimentally obtained diffraction patterns with significant quantities of missing data. We also discuss this method's limitations with respect to the level of Poisson noise in X-ray detection.
Yeh, Yi-Jou; Black, Adam J; Akkin, Taner
2013-10-10
We describe a method for differential phase measurement of Faraday rotation from multiple depth locations simultaneously. A polarization-maintaining fiber-based spectral-domain interferometer that utilizes a low-coherent light source and a single camera is developed. Light decorrelated by the orthogonal channels of the fiber is launched on a sample as two oppositely polarized circular states. These states reflect from sample surfaces and interfere with the corresponding states of the reference arm. A custom spectrometer, which is designed to simplify camera alignment, separates the orthogonal channels and records the interference-related oscillations on both spectra. Inverse Fourier transform of the spectral oscillations in k-space yields complex depth profiles, whose amplitudes and phase difference are related to reflectivity and Faraday rotation within the sample, respectively. Information along a full depth profile is produced at the camera speed without performing an axial scan for a multisurface sample. System sensitivity for the Faraday rotation measurement is 0.86 min of arc. Verdet constants of clear liquids and turbid media are measured at 687 nm.
Partially dark optical molecule via phase control
Wang, Z. H.; Xu, Xun-Wei; Li, Yong
2017-01-01
We study the tunable photonic distribution in an optical molecule consisting of two linearly coupled single-mode cavities. With the intercavity coupling and two driving fields, the energy levels of the optical-molecule system form a closed cyclic energy-level diagram, and the phase difference between the driving fields serves as a sensitive controller on the dynamics of the system. Due to the quantum interference effect, we can realize a partially dark optical molecule, where the steady-state mean photon number in one of the cavities achieves zero even under the external driving. And the dark cavity can be changed from one of the cavities to the other by only adjusting the phase difference. We also show that our proposal is robust to the noise at zero temperature. Furthermore, we show that when one of the cavities couples with an atomic ensemble, it will be dark under the same condition as that in the case without atoms, but the condition for the other cavity to be dark is modified.
Dasbiswas, K.; Majkut, S.; Discher, D. E.; Safran, Samuel A.
2015-01-01
Recent experiments show that both striation, an indication of the structural registry in muscle fibres, as well as the contractile strains produced by beating cardiac muscle cells can be optimized by substrate stiffness. Here we show theoretically how the substrate rigidity dependence of the registry data can be mapped onto that of the strain measurements. We express the elasticity-mediated structural registry as a phase-order parameter using a statistical physics approach that takes the noise and disorder inherent in biological systems into account. By assuming that structurally registered myofibrils also tend to beat in phase, we explain the observed dependence of both striation and strain measurements of cardiomyocytes on substrate stiffness in a unified manner. The agreement of our ideas with experiment suggests that the correlated beating of heart cells may be limited by the structural order of the myofibrils, which in turn is regulated by their elastic environment.
Xu, X L; Zhang, C J; Li, F; Wan, Y; Hua, J F; Pai, C -H; Lu, W; Yu, P; An, W; Mori, W B; Joshi, C; Hogan, M J
2014-01-01
For the further development of plasma based accelerators, phase space matching between plasma acceleration stages and between plasma stages and traditional accelerator components becomes a very critical issue for high quality high energy acceleration and its applications in light sources and colliders. Without proper matching, catastrophic emittance growth in the presence of finite energy spread may occur when the beam propagating through different stages and components due to the drastic differences of transverse focusing strength. In this paper we propose to use longitudinally tailored plasma structures as phase space matching components to properly guide the beam through stages. Theoretical analysis and full 3-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations are utilized to show clearly how these structures may work in four different scenarios. Very good agreements between theory and simulations are obtained.
Non-iterative coherent diffractive imaging using a phase-shifting reference frame
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Enders, B; Giewekemeyer, K; Salditt, T [Institut fuer Roentgenphysik, Universitaet Goettingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Goettingen (Germany); Kurz, T [III. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Goettingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Goettingen (Germany); Podorov, S [School of Physics, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia)], E-mail: tsaldit@gwdg.de
2009-04-15
Lensless imaging is a high potential and currently intensely targeted research goal, in view of those fields of applications for which aberration-free high-resolution lenses are not available, for example for x-ray imaging. A recently proposed (direct inversion) variant of lensless imaging combines the advantages of two classical routes toward lensless imaging, the high-resolution characteristics of iterative object reconstruction, and the direct and deterministic nature of holographic reconstruction. Here, we use a simple standard optical setup using visible wavelength, a lithographic test object and a phase-shifting reference object to demonstrate the approach. Importantly, we show that a phase-shifting reference object, instead of the absorption mask proposed earlier, is sufficient for object reconstruction. This is relevant in view of the much easier implementation in future x-ray applications.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tiwari, Ashwani K., E-mail: ashwani@iiserkol.ac.in [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Kolkata, Mohanpur 741 246 (India); Henriksen, Niels E., E-mail: neh@kemi.dtu.dk [Department of Chemistry, Technical University of Denmark, Building 207, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)
2016-01-07
We demonstrate theoretically that laser-induced coherent quantum interference control of asymptotic states of dissociating molecules is possible, starting from a single vibrational eigenstate, after the interaction with two laser pulses—at a fixed time delay—both operating in the weak-field limit. Thus, phase dependence in the interaction with the second fixed-energy phase-modulated pulse persists after the pulse is over. This is illustrated for the nonadiabatic process: I + Br{sup *}←IBr → I + Br, where the relative yield of excited Br{sup *} can be changed by pure phase modulation. Furthermore, a strong frequency dependence of the branching ratio is observed and related to the re-crossing dynamics of the avoided crossing in the above-mentioned process.
Brown, B L; Walmsley, I A; Brown, Benjamin L.; Dicks, Alexander J.; Walmsley, Ian A.
2005-01-01
We have studied the effects of chirped femtosecond laser pulses on the formation of ultracold molecules in a Rb magneto-optical trap. We have found that application of chirped femtosecond pulses suppressed the formation of 85Rb-2 and 87Rb-2 lowest triplet state molecules in contrast to comparable non-chirped pulses, cw illumination, and background formation rates. Variation of the amount of chirp indicated that this suppression is coherent in nature, suggesting that coherent control is likely to be useful for manipulating the dynamics of ultracold quantum molecular gases.
Brown, Benjamin L; Dicks, Alexander J; Walmsley, Ian A
2006-05-05
We have studied the effects of chirped femtosecond laser pulses on the formation of ultracold molecules in a Rb magneto-optical trap. We have found that application of chirped femtosecond pulses suppressed the formation of (85)Rb and (87)Rb(2) a(3)sigma(+)(u) molecules in contrast to comparable nonchirped pulses, cw illumination, and background formation rates. Variation of the amount of chirp indicated that this suppression is coherent in nature, suggesting that coherent control is likely to be useful for manipulating the dynamics of ultracold quantum molecular gases.
Beaud, P; Johnson, S L; Streun, A; Abela, R; Abramsohn, D; Grolimund, D; Krasniqi, F; Schmidt, T; Schlott, V; Ingold, G
2007-10-26
We report on the temporal and spatial stability of the first tunable femtosecond undulator hard-x-ray source for ultrafast diffraction and absorption experiments. The 2.5-1 Angstrom output radiation is driven by an initial 50 fs laser pulse employing the laser-electron slicing technique. By using x-ray diffraction to probe laser-induced coherent optical phonons in bulk bismuth, we estimate an x-ray pulse duration of 140+/-30 fs FWHM with timing drifts below 30 fs rms measured over 5 days. Optical control of coherent lattice motion is demonstrated.
Real-time optical signal processors employing optical feedback: amplitude and phase control.
Gallagher, N C
1976-04-01
The development of real-time coherent optical signal processors has increased the appeal of optical computing techniques in signal processing applications. A major limitation of these real-time systems is the. fact that the optical processing material is generally of a phase-only type. The result is that the spatial filters synthesized with these systems must be either phase-only filters or amplitude-only filters. The main concern of this paper is the application of optical feedback techniques to obtain simultaneous and independent amplitude and phase control of the light passing through the system. It is shown that optical feedback techniques may be employed with phase-only spatial filters to obtain this amplitude and phase control. The feedback system with phase-only filters is compared with other feedback systems that employ combinations of phase-only and amplitude-only filters; it is found that the phase-only system is substantially more flexible than the other two systems investigated.