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Sample records for coherent imaging technique

  1. Imaging of laboratory magnetospheric plasmas using coherence imaging technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiura, Masaki; Takahashi, Noriki; Yoshida, Zensho; Nakamura, Kaori; Kawazura, Yohei; Kenmochi, Naoki; Nakatsuka, Masataka; Sugata, Tetsuya; Katsura, Shotaro; Howard, John

    2017-10-01

    The ring trap 1 (RT-1) device creates a laboratory magnetosphere for the studies on plasma physics and advanced nuclear fusion. A levitated superconducting coil produces magnetic dipole fields that realize a high beta plasma confinement that is motivated by self-organized plasmas in planetary magnetospheres. The electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) with 8.2 GHz and 50 kW produces the plasmas with hot electrons in a few ten keV range. The electrons contribute to the local electron beta that exceeded 1 in RT-1. For the ion heating, ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) heating with 2-4 MHz and 10 kW has been performed in RT-1. The radial profile of ion temperature by a spectroscopic measurement indicates the signature of ion heating. In the holistic point of view, a coherence imaging system has been implemented for imaging the entire ion dynamics in the laboratory magnetosphere. The diagnostic system and obtained results will be presented.

  2. Spectral optical coherence tomography: a novel technique for cornea imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaluzny, Bartłomiej J; Kaluzy, Bartłomiej J; Kałuzny, Jakub J; Szkulmowska, Anna; Gorczyńska, Iwona; Szkulmowski, Maciej; Bajraszewski, Tomasz; Wojtkowski, Maciej; Targowski, Piotr

    2006-09-01

    Spectral optical coherence tomography (SOCT) is a new, noninvasive, noncontact, high-resolution technique that provides cross-sectional images of the objects that weakly absorb and scatter light. SOCT, because of very short acquisition time and high sensitivity, is capable of providing tomograms of substantially better quality than the conventional OCT. The aim of this paper is to show the application of the SOCT to cross-sectional imaging of the cornea and its pathologies. Eleven eyes with different corneal pathologies were examined with a slit lamp and the use of a prototype SOCT instrument constructed in the Institute of Physics, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Toruń, Poland. Our SOCT system provides high-resolution (4 microm axial, 10 microm transversal) tomograms composed of 3000-5000 A-scans with an acquisition time of 120-200 ms. The quality of the images is adequate for detailed cross-sectional evaluation of various corneal pathologies. Objective assessment of the localization, size, shape, and light-scattering properties of the changed tissue is possible. Corneal and epithelial thickness and the depth and width of lesions can be estimated. SOCT technique allows acquiring clinically valuable cross-sectional optical biopsy of the cornea and its pathologies.

  3. Optimization of coronary optical coherence tomography imaging using the attenuation-compensated technique: a validation study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teo, Jing Chun; Foin, Nicolas; Otsuka, Fumiyuki; Bulluck, Heerajnarain; Fam, Jiang Ming; Wong, Philip; Low, Fatt Hoe; Leo, Hwa Liang; Mari, Jean-Martial; Joner, Michael; Girard, Michael J A; Virmani, Renu; Bezerra, HG.; Costa, MA.; Guagliumi, G.; Rollins, AM.; Simon, D.; Gutiérrez-Chico, JL.; Alegría-Barrero, E.; Teijeiro-Mestre, R.; Chan, PH.; Tsujioka, H.; de Silva, R.; Otsuka, F.; Joner, M.; Prati, F.; Virmani, R.; Narula, J.; Members, WC.; Levine, GN.; Bates, ER.; Blankenship, JC.; Bailey, SR.; Bittl, JA.; Prati, F.; Guagliumi, G.; Mintz, G.S.; Costa, Marco; Regar, E.; Akasaka, T.; Roleder, T.; Jąkała, J.; Kałuża, GL.; Partyka, Ł.; Proniewska, K.; Pociask, E.; Girard, MJA.; Strouthidis, NG.; Ethier, CR.; Mari, JM.; Mari, JM.; Strouthidis, NG.; Park, SC.; Girard, MJA.; van der Lee, R.; Foin, N.; Otsuka, F.; Wong, P.K.; Mari, J-M.; Joner, M.; Nakano, M.; Vorpahl, M.; Otsuka, F.; Taniwaki, M.; Yazdani, SK.; Finn, AV.; Nakano, M.; Yahagi, K.; Yamamoto, H.; Taniwaki, M.; Otsuka, F.; Ladich, ER.; Girard, MJ.; Ang, M.; Chung, CW.; Farook, M.; Strouthidis, N.; Mehta, JS.; Foin, N.; Mari, JM.; Nijjer, S.; Sen, S.; Petraco, R.; Ghione, M.; Liu, X.; Kang, JU.; Virmani, R.; Kolodgie, F.D.; Burke, AP.; Farb, A.; Schwartz, S.M.; Yahagi, K.; Kolodgie, F.D.; Otsuka, F.; Finn, AV.; Davis, HR.; Joner, M.; Kume, T.; Akasaka, T.; Kawamoto, T.; Watanabe, N.; Toyota, E.; Neishi, Y.; Rieber, J.; Meissner, O.; Babaryka, G.; Reim, S.; Oswald, M.E.; Koenig, A.S.; Tearney, G. J.; Regar, E.; Akasaka, T.; Adriaenssens, T.; Barlis, P.; Bezerra, HG.; Yabushita, H.; Bouma, BE.; Houser, S. L.; Aretz, HT.; Jang, I-K.; Schlendorf, KH.; Guo, J.; Sun, L.; Chen, Y.D.; Tian, F.; Liu, HB.; Chen, L.; Kawasaki, M.; Bouma, BE.; Bressner, J. E.; Houser, S. L.; Nadkarni, S. K.; MacNeill, BD.; Jansen, CHP.; Onthank, DC.; Cuello, F.; Botnar, RM.; Wiethoff, AJ.; Warley, A.; von Birgelen, C.; Hartmann, A. M.; Kubo, T.; Akasaka, T.; Shite, J.; Suzuki, T.; Uemura, S.; Yu, B.; Habara, M.; Nasu, K.; Terashima, M.; Kaneda, H.; Yokota, D.; Ko, E.; Virmani, R.; Burke, AP.; Kolodgie, F.D.; Farb, A.; Takarada, S.; Imanishi, T.; Kubo, T.; Tanimoto, T.; Kitabata, H.; Nakamura, N.; Hattori, K.; Ozaki, Y.; Ismail, TF.; Okumura, M.; Naruse, H.; Kan, S.; Nishio, R.; Shinke, T.; Otake, H.; Nakagawa, M.; Nagoshi, R.; Inoue, T.; Sinclair, H.D.; Bourantas, C.; Bagnall, A.; Mintz, G.S.; Kunadian, V.; Tearney, G. J.; Yabushita, H.; Houser, S. L.; Aretz, HT.; Jang, I-K.; Schlendorf, KH.; van Soest, G.; Goderie, T.; Regar, E.; Koljenović, S.; Leenders, GL. van; Gonzalo, N.; Xu, C.; Schmitt, JM.; Carlier, SG.; Virmani, R.; van der Meer, FJ; Faber, D.J.; Sassoon, DMB.; Aalders, M.C.; Pasterkamp, G.; Leeuwen, TG. van; Schmitt, JM.; Knuttel, A.; Yadlowsky, M.; Eckhaus, MA.; Karamata, B.; Laubscher, M.; Leutenegger, M.; Bourquin, S.; Lasser, T.; Lambelet, P.; Vermeer, K.A.; Mo, J.; Weda, J.J.A.; Lemij, H.G.; Boer, JF. de

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE To optimize conventional coronary optical coherence tomography (OCT) images using the attenuation-compensated technique to improve identification of plaques and the external elastic lamina (EEL) contour. METHOD The attenuation-compensated technique was optimized via manipulating contrast

  4. Deformation Analysis Employing the Coherent Pixel Technique and Envisat and ERS Images in Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjona, A.; Monells, D.; Fernandez, J.; Duque, S.; Mallorqui, J.

    2010-03-01

    Geodetic measurements in volcanic areas are crucial as they serve as input information to the deformation analysis techniques in order to achieve pre-eruption ground displacement predictions. In particular, Satellite Radar Interferometry (InSAR) has been proven to be a useful and powerful tool in this kind of areas. We present some results obtained by applying the Coherent Pixel Technique, an Advanced Differential SAR Interferometry algorithm, which reveal surface deformation episodes in Canary Islands (La Palma and Tenerife Island). The study is carried out by employing DInSAR interferograms concerning the 1992-2008 period corresponding to both ascending and descending images acquired by the ENVISAT and ERS sensors.

  5. Intraoperative Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging and Assessment of the Macula During Cataract Surgery: A Novel Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Koushik; Chawla, Rohan; Kumawat, Babulal; Sharma, Yog Raj

    2016-09-01

    The authors describe a technique to qualitatively analyze the posterior segment during cataract surgery using intraoperative optical coherence tomography (iOCT). Macular iOCT can be done before and after intraocular lens implantation after the media is rendered clear following phacoemulsification. A handheld irrigating planoconcave contact lens is placed over the cornea with the operating microscope in retroillumination mode. After focusing the microscope and upon getting a clear view of the posterior segment, iOCT is switched on, centered at the macula, and focused. This technique enables the surgeon to intraoperatively analyze and document the macular morphology and vitreoretinal interface. Potential uses of this technique include intraoperative decision-making regarding concurrent use of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents or steroids in cases with dense cataracts where preoperative OCT is difficult. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2016;47:846-847.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. An elegant technique for ex vivo imaging in experimental research—Optical coherence tomography (OCT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tschernig, T.; Thrane, Lars; Jørgensen, Thomas Martini

    2013-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an elegant technology for imaging of tissues and organs and has been established for clinical use for around a decade. Thus, it is used in vivo but can also serve as a valuable ex vivo imaging tool in experimental research. Here, a brief overview is given...... with a focus on an ex vivo application of OCT. Image and video examples of freshly obtained murine lungs are included. The main advantage of OCT for ex vivo analysis is the non-contact, non-invasive, and non-destructive fast acquisition of a three-dimensional data set with micrometer-resolution....

  7. Tenerife Island Ddeformation Analysis in the 2003-2006 Period Employing the Coherent Pixel Technique and ENVISAT SAR Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjona, A.; Mallorqui, J. J.; Fernandez, J.; Blanco, P.; Camacho, A. G.; Duque, S.; Gonzalez, P. J.; Monells, D.

    2007-12-01

    Geodetic measurements in volcanic areas are crucial as they serve as input information to the deformation analysis techniques in order to achieve pre-eruption ground displacement predictions. We present ground motion results obtained by applying the Coherent Pixel Technique, an Advanced Differential SAR Interferometry algorithm, which reveal surface deformation episodes in the Tenerife Island. The study is carried out by employing DInSAR interferograms concerning the 2003-2006 period corresponding to both ascending and descending images acquired by the ENVISAT ASAR sensor. The obtained results highlight a clear deformation areas in several parts of the island Tenerife, which is consistent with previous results.

  8. A novel technique of contrast-enhanced optical coherence tomography imaging in evaluation of clearance of lipids in human tears.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Emanuele Napoli

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The aim of this work was to gather preliminary data in different conditions of healthy eyes, aqueous tear deficient dry eyes, obstructive meibomian gland disease (MGD and non-obvious obstructive MGD (NOMGD individuals, using a new, contrast-enhanced optical coherence tomography (OCT imaging method to evaluate the clearance of lipids in human tears. METHODS: Eighty-two adult patients presenting with complaints of ocular irritation were studied for abnormalities of the ocular surface and classified as healthy (n = 21, aqueous tear deficient dry eyes (n = 20, obstructive MGD (n = 15 and NOMGD (n = 26 individuals. A lipid-based tracer, containing an oil-in-water emulsion, was used to obtain an enhanced OCT imaging of the lower tear meniscus. After instillation, a dramatic initial increase of reflectivity of the lower tear meniscus was detected by OCT, followed by a decay back to baseline values over time. Based on this finding, the clearance of lipids was measured in real-time by Fourier-domain anterior segment OCT. RESULTS: The differences in the clearance of lipids among the four groups as well as the correlations between symptom questionnaire score, standardized visual scale test, fluorescein break-up time, ocular surface fluorescein staining score, Schirmer I test scores were found to be statistically significant. The individual areas under the curve of the clearance of lipids calculated by the receiver operating characteristic curve technique ranged from 0.66 to 0.98, suggesting reliable sensitivity and specificity of lipid-enhanced OCT imaging. CONCLUSIONS: This new technique of contrast-enhanced OCT imaging of the tear film following lipid-based tracer instillation provides a measure of the clearance of lipids. The quantitative values found are in agreement with other methods of evaluation of the lacrimal system. An improvement of the clinician's ability in the diagnosis and understanding of abnormalities of the ocular surface may be

  9. A novel technique of contrast-enhanced optical coherence tomography imaging in evaluation of clearance of lipids in human tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoli, Pietro Emanuele; Coronella, Franco; Satta, Giovanni Maria; Fossarello, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to gather preliminary data in different conditions of healthy eyes, aqueous tear deficient dry eyes, obstructive meibomian gland disease (MGD) and non-obvious obstructive MGD (NOMGD) individuals, using a new, contrast-enhanced optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging method to evaluate the clearance of lipids in human tears. Eighty-two adult patients presenting with complaints of ocular irritation were studied for abnormalities of the ocular surface and classified as healthy (n = 21), aqueous tear deficient dry eyes (n = 20), obstructive MGD (n = 15) and NOMGD (n = 26) individuals. A lipid-based tracer, containing an oil-in-water emulsion, was used to obtain an enhanced OCT imaging of the lower tear meniscus. After instillation, a dramatic initial increase of reflectivity of the lower tear meniscus was detected by OCT, followed by a decay back to baseline values over time. Based on this finding, the clearance of lipids was measured in real-time by Fourier-domain anterior segment OCT. The differences in the clearance of lipids among the four groups as well as the correlations between symptom questionnaire score, standardized visual scale test, fluorescein break-up time, ocular surface fluorescein staining score, Schirmer I test scores were found to be statistically significant. The individual areas under the curve of the clearance of lipids calculated by the receiver operating characteristic curve technique ranged from 0.66 to 0.98, suggesting reliable sensitivity and specificity of lipid-enhanced OCT imaging. This new technique of contrast-enhanced OCT imaging of the tear film following lipid-based tracer instillation provides a measure of the clearance of lipids. The quantitative values found are in agreement with other methods of evaluation of the lacrimal system. An improvement of the clinician's ability in the diagnosis and understanding of abnormalities of the ocular surface may be achieved by this simple approach.

  10. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a 3-dimensional imaging technique for non-destructive testing of roll-to-roll coated polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Lars; Jørgensen, Thomas Martini; Jørgensen, Mikkel

    2013-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated the first application of optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a 3-dimensional (3D) imaging technique to visualize the internal structure of complete multilayered polymer solar cell modules (Thrane et al., Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 97, 181-185 (2012)). The 3......D imaging of complete polymer solar cells prepared by roll-to-roll coating was carried out using a high-resolution 1322nm OCT system having a 4.5 microns axial resolution and a 12 microns lateral resolution. It was possible to image the 3-dimensional structure of the entire solar cell that comprise...

  11. SAR image effects on coherence and coherence estimation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bickel, Douglas Lloyd

    2014-01-01

    Radar coherence is an important concept for imaging radar systems such as synthetic aperture radar (SAR). This document quantifies some of the effects in SAR which modify the coherence. Although these effects can disrupt the coherence within a single SAR image, this report will focus on the coherence between separate images, such as for coherent change detection (CCD) processing. There have been other presentations on aspects of this material in the past. The intent of this report is to bring various issues that affect the coherence together in a single report to support radar engineers in making decisions about these matters.

  12. Application of optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a 3-dimensional imaging technique for roll-to-roll coated polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Lars; Jørgensen, Thomas Martini; Jørgensen, Mikkel

    2012-01-01

    The 3-dimensional imaging of complete polymer solar cells prepared by roll-to-roll coating was carried out using high-resolution 1322 nm optical coherence tomography (OCT) system. We found it possible to image the 3-dimensional structure of the entire solar cell that comprises UV-barrier, barrier...... material, adhesive, substrate and active solar cell multilayer structure. The achievable resolution was 12 μm in the lateral plane and 4.5 μm in the depth. We found that the OCT technique could be readily employed to identify coating defects in the functional layers. We finally identify the limitations...

  13. Applicability of quantitative optical imaging techniques for intraoperative perfusion diagnostics: a comparison of laser speckle contrast imaging, sidestream dark-field microscopy, and optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Sanne M.; de Bruin, Daniel M.; Faber, Dirk J.; Dobbe, Iwan J. G. G.; Heeg, Erik; Milstein, Dan M. J.; Strackee, Simon D.; van Leeuwen, Ton G.

    2017-08-01

    Patient morbidity and mortality due to hemodynamic complications are a major problem in surgery. Optical techniques can image blood flow in real-time and high-resolution, thereby enabling perfusion monitoring intraoperatively. We tested the feasibility and validity of laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI), optical coherence tomography (OCT), and sidestream dark-field microscopy (SDF) for perfusion diagnostics in a phantom model using whole blood. Microvessels with diameters of 50, 100, and 400 μm were constructed in a scattering phantom. Perfusion was simulated by pumping heparinized human whole blood at five velocities (0 to 20 mm/s). Vessel diameter and blood flow velocity were assessed with LSCI, OCT, and SDF. Quantification of vessel diameter was feasible with OCT and SDF. LSCI could only visualize the 400-μm vessel, perfusion units scaled nonlinearly with blood velocity. OCT could assess blood flow velocity in terms of inverse OCT speckle decorrelation time. SDF was not feasible to measure blood flow; however, for diluted blood the measurements were linear with the input velocity up to 1 mm/s. LSCI, OCT, and SDF were feasible to visualize blood flow. Validated blood flow velocity measurements intraoperatively in the desired parameter (mL·g-1) remain challenging.

  14. Dental diagnostics using optical coherence techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nathel, H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Colston, B. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States); Armitage, G. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)] [and others

    1994-11-15

    Optical radiation can be used for diagnostic purposes in oral medicine. However, due to the turbid, amorphous, and inhomogeneous nature of dental tissue conventional techniques used to transilluminate materials are not well suited to dental tissues. Optical coherence techniques either in the time- of frequency-domain offer the capabilities of discriminating scattered from unscattered light, thus allowing for imaging through turbid tissue. Currently, using optical time-domain reflectometry we are able to discriminate specular from diffuse reflections occurring at tissue boundaries. We have determined the specular reflectivity of enamel and dentin to be approximately 6.6 x 10{sup -5} and 1.3 x 10{sup -6}, respectively. Implications to periodontal imaging will be discussed.

  15. Retinal Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexler, Wolfgang; Fujimoto, James G.

    The eye is essentially transparent, transmitting light with only minimal optical attenuation and scattering providing easy optical access to the anterior segment as well as the retina. For this reason, ophthalmic and especially retinal imaging has been not only the first but also most successful clinical application for optical coherence tomography (OCT). This chapter focuses on the development of OCT technology for retinal imaging. OCT has significantly improved the potential for early diagnosis, understanding of retinal disease pathogenesis, as well as monitoring disease progression and response to therapy. Development of ultrabroad bandwidth light sources and high-speed detection techniques has enabled significant improvements in ophthalmic OCT imaging performance, demonstrating the potential of three-dimensional, ultrahigh-resolution OCT (UHR OCT) to perform noninvasive optical biopsy of the living human retina, i.e., the in vivo visualization of microstructural, intraretinal morphology in situ approaching the resolution of conventional histopathology. Significant improvements in axial resolution and speed not only enable three-dimensional rendering of retinal volumes but also high-definition, two-dimensional tomograms, topographic thickness maps of all major intraretinal layers, as well as volumetric quantification of pathologic intraretinal changes. These advances in OCT technology have also been successfully applied in several animal models of retinal pathologies. The development of light sources emitting at alternative wavelengths, e.g., around #1,060 nm, not only enabled three-dimensional OCT imaging with enhanced choroidal visualization but also improved OCT performance in cataract patients due to reduced scattering losses in this wavelength region. Adaptive optics using deformable mirror technology, with unique high stroke to correct higher-order ocular aberrations, with specially designed optics to compensate chromatic aberration of the human eye, in

  16. Review of advanced imaging techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Chen; Chia-Pin Liang; Yang Liu; Fischer, Andrew H.; Parwani, Anil V.; Liron Pantanowitz

    2012-01-01

    Pathology informatics encompasses digital imaging and related applications. Several specialized microscopy techniques have emerged which permit the acquisition of digital images ("optical biopsies") at high resolution. Coupled with fiber-optic and micro-optic components, some of these imaging techniques (e.g., optical coherence tomography) are now integrated with a wide range of imaging devices such as endoscopes, laparoscopes, catheters, and needles that enable imaging inside the body. These...

  17. Coherent Communications, Imaging and Targeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stappaerts, E; Baker, K; Gavel, D; Wilks, S; Olivier, S; Brase, J; Olivier, S; Brase, J

    2003-10-03

    Laboratory and field demonstration results obtained as part of the DARPA-sponsored Coherent Communications, Imaging and Targeting (CCIT) program are reviewed. The CCIT concept uses a Phase Conjugation Engine based on a quadrature receiver array, a hologram processor and a spatial light modulator (SLM) for high-speed, digital beam control. Progress on the enabling MEMS SLM, being developed by a consortium consisting of LLNL, academic institutions and small businesses, is presented.

  18. High-definition optical coherence tomography imaging of melanocytic lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boone, Marc A L M; Norrenberg, Sarah; Jemec, Gregor B E

    2014-01-01

    High-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT) is a non-invasive in vivo imaging technique with cellular resolution based on the principle of conventional optical coherence tomography. The objective of this study was to evaluate HD-OCT for its ability to identify architectural patterns and...

  19. Imaging granulomatous lesions with optical coherence tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banzhaf, Christina; Jemec, Gregor B E

    2012-01-01

    To investigate and compare the presentation of granulomatous lesions in optical coherence tomography (OCT) images and compare this to previous studies of nonmelanoma skin tumors.......To investigate and compare the presentation of granulomatous lesions in optical coherence tomography (OCT) images and compare this to previous studies of nonmelanoma skin tumors....

  20. Optical coherence tomography for endodontic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Soest, G.; Shemesh, H.; Wu, M.-K.; van der Sluis, L. W. M.; Wesselink, P. R.

    2008-02-01

    In root canal therapy, complications frequently arise as a result of root fracture or imperfect cleaning of fins and invaginations. To date, there is no imaging method for nondestructive in vivo evaluation of the condition of the root canal, during or after treatment. There is a clinical need for a technique to detect defects before they give rise to complications. In this study we evaluate the ability of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to image root canal walls, and its capacity to identify complicating factors in root canal treatment. While the potential of OCT to identify caries has been explored before, endodontic imaging has not been reported. We imaged extracted lower front teeth after endodontic preparation and correlated these images to histological sections. A 3D OCT pullback scan was made with an endoscopic rotating optical fiber probe inside the root canal. All oval canals, uncleaned fins, risk zones, and one perforation that were detected by histology were also imaged by OCT. As an example of an area where OCT has clinical potential, we present a study of vertical root fracture identification with OCT.

  1. Heisenberg scaling of imaging resolution by coherent enhancement

    CERN Document Server

    McConnell, Robert; Yoder, Theodore J; Bruzewicz, Colin D; Chuang, Isaac L; Chiaverini, John; Sage, Jeremy M

    2016-01-01

    Classical imaging works by scattering photons from an object to be imaged, and achieves resolution scaling as $1/\\sqrt{t}$, with $t$ the imaging time. By contrast, the laws of quantum mechanics allow one to utilize quantum coherence to obtain imaging resolution that can scale as quickly as $1/t$ -- the so-called "Heisenberg limit." However, ambiguities in the obtained signal often preclude taking full advantage of this quantum enhancement, while imaging techniques designed to be unambiguous often lose this optimal Heisenberg scaling. Here, we demonstrate an imaging technique which combines unambiguous detection of the target with Heisenberg scaling of the resolution. We also demonstrate a binary search algorithm which can efficiently locate a coherent target using the technique, resolving a target trapped ion to within 3% of the $1/e^2$ diameter of the excitation beam.

  2. Absolute calibration of Doppler coherence imaging velocity images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuell, C. M.; Allen, S. L.; Meyer, W. H.; Howard, J.

    2017-08-01

    A new technique has been developed for absolutely calibrating a Doppler Coherence Imaging Spectroscopy interferometer for measuring plasma ion and neutral velocities. An optical model of the interferometer is used to generate zero-velocity reference images for the plasma spectral line of interest from a calibration source some spectral distance away. Validation of this technique using a tunable diode laser demonstrated an accuracy better than 0.2 km/s over an extrapolation range of 3.5 nm; a two order of magnitude improvement over linear approaches. While a well-characterized and very stable interferometer is required, this technique opens up the possibility of calibrated velocity measurements in difficult viewing geometries and for complex spectral line-shapes.

  3. Lensless imaging based on coherent backscattering in random media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Xu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We studied lensless imaging due to coherent backscattering in random media both theoretically and experimentally. The point spread function of the lensless imaging system was derived. Parameters such as the volume fraction of the scatterer in the random scattering medium, the diameter of the scatterer, the distance between the object to be imaged and the surface of the random scattering medium were optimized to improve the image contrast and resolution. Moreover, for complicated objects, high contrast and quality images were achieved through the high-order intensity correlation measurement on the image plane, which may propel this imaging technique to practical applications.

  4. Review of advanced imaging techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Liang, Chia-Pin; Liu, Yang; Fischer, Andrew H; Parwani, Anil V; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2012-01-01

    Pathology informatics encompasses digital imaging and related applications. Several specialized microscopy techniques have emerged which permit the acquisition of digital images ("optical biopsies") at high resolution. Coupled with fiber-optic and micro-optic components, some of these imaging techniques (e.g., optical coherence tomography) are now integrated with a wide range of imaging devices such as endoscopes, laparoscopes, catheters, and needles that enable imaging inside the body. These advanced imaging modalities have exciting diagnostic potential and introduce new opportunities in pathology. Therefore, it is important that pathology informaticists understand these advanced imaging techniques and the impact they have on pathology. This paper reviews several recently developed microscopic techniques, including diffraction-limited methods (e.g., confocal microscopy, 2-photon microscopy, 4Pi microscopy, and spatially modulated illumination microscopy) and subdiffraction techniques (e.g., photoactivated localization microscopy, stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy, and stimulated emission depletion microscopy). This article serves as a primer for pathology informaticists, highlighting the fundamentals and applications of advanced optical imaging techniques.

  5. Review of advanced imaging techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathology informatics encompasses digital imaging and related applications. Several specialized microscopy techniques have emerged which permit the acquisition of digital images ("optical biopsies" at high resolution. Coupled with fiber-optic and micro-optic components, some of these imaging techniques (e.g., optical coherence tomography are now integrated with a wide range of imaging devices such as endoscopes, laparoscopes, catheters, and needles that enable imaging inside the body. These advanced imaging modalities have exciting diagnostic potential and introduce new opportunities in pathology. Therefore, it is important that pathology informaticists understand these advanced imaging techniques and the impact they have on pathology. This paper reviews several recently developed microscopic techniques, including diffraction-limited methods (e.g., confocal microscopy, 2-photon microscopy, 4Pi microscopy, and spatially modulated illumination microscopy and subdiffraction techniques (e.g., photoactivated localization microscopy, stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy, and stimulated emission depletion microscopy. This article serves as a primer for pathology informaticists, highlighting the fundamentals and applications of advanced optical imaging techniques.

  6. Coherent interferometric imaging, time gating and beamforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcea, Liliana; Garnier, Josselin; Papanicolaou, George; Tsogka, Chrysoula

    2011-06-01

    Coherent interferometric imaging is based on the backpropagation of local spacetime cross-correlations of array data and was introduced in order to improve images when the medium between the array and the object to be imaged is inhomogeneous and unknown (Borcea et al 2005 Inverse Problems 21 1419). Although this method has been shown to be effective and is well founded theoretically, the coherent interferometric imaging function is computationally expensive and therefore difficult to use. In this paper, we show that this function is equivalent to a windowed beamformer energy function, that is, a quadratic function that involves only time gating and time delaying signals in emission and in reception. In this form the coherent interferometric imaging can be implemented efficiently both in hardware and software, that is, at a computational cost that is comparable to the usual beamforming and migration imaging methods. We also revisit the trade-off between enhanced image stability and loss of resolution in coherent interferometry from the point of view of its equivalence to a windowed beamformer energy imaging function.

  7. Attenuation compensation for optical coherence tomography imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shoude; Flueraru, Costel; Mao, Youxin; Sherif, Sherif

    2009-12-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive technique that provides micrometer-scale imaging of tissue. As most biological tissues are considered turbid, it causes attenuation of the OCT signal and limits the depth penetration. Although a few algorithms had been developed to compensate the attenuation, almost all of them need to extract the scattering parameters before doing the compensation procedure. Because the real biological samples are anisotropic and multilayer-like structure, it is not time-efficient to model and solve these scattering parameters. This paper introduces a new method to compensate the OCT signal attenuation in depth. By analyzing the input signal, a compensation function is adaptively derived for each A-scan line, which can be used effectively to compensate the energy loss in the large sections and enhance the details in the deep, dark-like areas. Three bio-samples, a piece of onion, a Poecilia Wingei fish and a piece of rabbit abdominal aorta, were used to test our method. OCT images obtained by a swept-source OCT system were processed by the proposed method. Results show the visualization of structures in OCT images has been evidently improved, especially in deep region.

  8. Spaceborne SAR Imaging Algorithm for Coherence Optimized.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwei Qiu

    Full Text Available This paper proposes SAR imaging algorithm with largest coherence based on the existing SAR imaging algorithm. The basic idea of SAR imaging algorithm in imaging processing is that output signal can have maximum signal-to-noise ratio (SNR by using the optimal imaging parameters. Traditional imaging algorithm can acquire the best focusing effect, but would bring the decoherence phenomenon in subsequent interference process. Algorithm proposed in this paper is that SAR echo adopts consistent imaging parameters in focusing processing. Although the SNR of the output signal is reduced slightly, their coherence is ensured greatly, and finally the interferogram with high quality is obtained. In this paper, two scenes of Envisat ASAR data in Zhangbei are employed to conduct experiment for this algorithm. Compared with the interferogram from the traditional algorithm, the results show that this algorithm is more suitable for SAR interferometry (InSAR research and application.

  9. Coherent fiber supercontinuum laser for nonlinear biomedical imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tu, Haohua; Liu, Yuan; Liu, Xiaomin

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinear biomedical imaging has not benefited from the well-known techniques of fiber supercontinuum generation for reasons such as poor coherence (or high noise), insufficient controllability, low spectral power intensity, and inadequate portability. Fortunately, a few techniques involving...... nonlinear fiber optics and femtosecond fiber laser development have emerged to overcome these critical limitations. These techniques pave the way for conducting point-of-care nonlinear biomedical imaging by a low-maintenance cost-effective coherent fiber supercontinuum laser, which covers a broad emission...... wavelength of 350-1700 nm. A prototype of this laser has been demonstrated in label-free multimodal nonlinear imaging of cell and tissue samples.© (2012) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only....

  10. Mueller coherency matrix method for contrast image in tissue polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce-Diego, J. L.; Fanjul-Vélez, F.; Samperio-García, D.; Pereda-Cubián, D.

    2007-07-01

    In this work, we propose the use of the Mueller Coherency matrix of biological tissues in order to increase the information from tissue images and so their contrast. This method involves different Mueller Coherency matrix based parameters, like the eigenvalues analysis, the entropy factor calculation, polarization components crosstalks, linear and circular polarization degrees, hermiticity or the Quaternions analysis in case depolarisation properties of tissue are sufficiently low. All these parameters make information appear clearer and so increase image contrast, so pathologies like cancer could be detected in a sooner stage of development. The election will depend on the concrete pathological process under study. This Mueller Coherency matrix method can be applied to a single tissue point, or it can be combined with a tomographic technique, so as to obtain a 3D representation of polarization contrast parameters in pathological tissues. The application of this analysis to concrete diseases can lead to tissue burn depth estimation or cancer early detection.

  11. Microwave Breast Imaging Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Rubæk, Tonny

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines the applicability of microwave radiation for breast cancer detection. Microwave imaging systems are categorized based on their hardware architecture. The advantages and disadvantages of various imaging techniques are discussed. The fundamental tradeoffs are indicated between...

  12. Coherence techniques at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Chang [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The renaissance of Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) and soft x-ray (SXR) optics in recent years is mainly driven by the desire of printing and observing ever smaller features, as in lithography and microscopy. This attribute is complemented by the unique opportunity for element specific identification presented by the large number of atomic resonances, essentially for all materials in this range of photon energies. Together, these have driven the need for new short-wavelength radiation sources (e.g. third generation synchrotron radiation facilities), and novel optical components, that in turn permit new research in areas that have not yet been fully explored. This dissertation is directed towards advancing this new field by contributing to the characterization of spatial coherence properties of undulator radiation and, for the first time, introducing Fourier optical elements to this short-wavelength spectral region. The first experiment in this dissertation uses the Thompson-Wolf two-pinhole method to characterize the spatial coherence properties of the undulator radiation at Beamline 12 of the Advanced Light Source. High spatial coherence EUV radiation is demonstrated with appropriate spatial filtering. The effects of small vertical source size and beamline apertures are observed. The difference in the measured horizontal and vertical coherence profile evokes further theoretical studies on coherence propagation of an EUV undulator beamline. A numerical simulation based on the Huygens-Fresnel principle is performed.

  13. Experimental Demonstration of Quantum Imaging by Coherent Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Robert; Bruzewicz, Colin; Low, Guang Hao; Yoder, Theodore; Chiaverini, John; Sage, Jeremy; Chuang, Isaac

    2016-05-01

    Classical (incoherent) imaging requires scattering many photons from a target to be imaged and provides resolution which improves statistically with the square root of the number of scattered photons, and hence with the square root of interrogation time. In contrast, quantum imaging by coherent enhancement utilizes coherent excitation of the target to provide imaging resolution which improves linearly with time, achieving the Heisenberg limit for scaling. We present experimental progress towards the realization of quantum-enhanced imaging in a trapped-ion system. A narrow-linewidth laser drives a long-coherence-time transition in a confined 88 Sr+ ion; precise phase control over the excitation sequence allows an optimally narrow and unambiguous excitation of the ion as a function of laser intensity which results in very precise localization of the target within the profile of the addressing beam. This technique may have applications in radar imaging, where long-wavelength radiation is used to penetrate clouds or other obstructions but where large diffraction-limited spot size ordinarily limits resolution.

  14. Integrated intravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) - ultrasound (US) imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jiechen; Yang, Hao-Chung; Li, Xiang; Zhou, Qifa; Hu, Changhong; Zhang, Jun; Shung, K. Kirk; Chen, Zhongping

    2010-02-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) are considered two complementary imaging techniques in the detection and diagnosis of atherosclerosis. OCT permits visualization of micron-scale features of atherosclerosis plaque, and IVUS offers full imaging depth of vessel wall. Under the guidance of IVUS, minimal amount of flushing agent will be needed to obtain OCT imaging of the interested area. We report on a dual-modality optical coherence tomography (OCT) - ultrasound (US) system for intravascular imaging. To the best of our knowledge, we have developed the first integrated OCT-US probe that combines OCT optical components with an ultrasound transducer. The OCT optical components mainly consist of a single mode fiber, a gradient index (GRIN) lens for light beam focusing, and a right-angled prism for reflecting light into biological tissue. A 40MHz PZT-5H side-viewing ultrasound transducer was fabricated to obtain the ultrasound image. These components were integrated into a single probe, enabling both OCT and ultrasound imaging at the same time. In vitro OCT and ultrasound images of a rabbit aorta were obtained using this dual-modality imaging system. This study demonstrates the feasibility of an OCT-US system for intravascular imaging which is expected to have a prominent impact on early detection and characterization of atherosclerosis.

  15. Coherent Diffraction Imaging with Hard X-Ray Waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, Liberato De; Giannini, Cinzia; Pelliccia, Daniele; Cedola, Alessia; Lagomarsino, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Coherent X-ray diffraction imaging (CXDI) has been widely applied in the nanoscopic world, offering nanometric-scale imaging of noncrystallographic samples, and permitting the next-generation structural studies on living cells, single virus particles and biomolecules. The use of curved wavefronts in CXDI has caused a tidal wave in the already promising application of this emergent technique. The non-planarity of the wavefront allows to accelerate any iterative phase-retrieval process and to guarantee a reliable and unique solution. Nowadays, successful experiments have been performed with Fresnel zone plates and planar waveguides as optical elements. Here we describe the use of a single planar waveguide as well as two crossed waveguides in the experiments which first showed this optical element a promising tool for producing a line- or point-like coherent source, respectively.

  16. Pulse-compression ghost imaging lidar via coherent detection

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, Chenjin; Han, Shensheng

    2016-01-01

    Ghost imaging (GI) lidar, as a novel remote sensing technique,has been receiving increasing interest in recent years. By combining pulse-compression technique and coherent detection with GI, we propose a new lidar system called pulse-compression GI lidar. Our analytical results, which are backed up by numerical simulations, demonstrate that pulse-compression GI lidar can obtain the target's spatial intensity distribution, range and moving velocity. Compared with conventional pulsed GI lidar system, pulse-compression GI lidar, without decreasing the range resolution, is easy to obtain high single pulse energy with the use of a long pulse, and the mechanism of coherent detection can eliminate the influence of the stray light, which can dramatically improve the detection sensitivity and detection range.

  17. Geodesic denoising for optical coherence tomography images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrian Varnousfaderani, Ehsan; Vogl, Wolf-Dieter; Wu, Jing; Gerendas, Bianca S.; Simader, Christian; Langs, Georg; Waldstein, Sebastian M.; Schmidt-Erfurth, Ursula

    2016-03-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an optical signal acquisition method capturing micrometer resolution, cross-sectional three-dimensional images. OCT images are used widely in ophthalmology to diagnose and monitor retinal diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and Glaucoma. While OCT allows the visualization of retinal structures such as vessels and retinal layers, image quality and contrast is reduced by speckle noise, obfuscating small, low intensity structures and structural boundaries. Existing denoising methods for OCT images may remove clinically significant image features such as texture and boundaries of anomalies. In this paper, we propose a novel patch based denoising method, Geodesic Denoising. The method reduces noise in OCT images while preserving clinically significant, although small, pathological structures, such as fluid-filled cysts in diseased retinas. Our method selects optimal image patch distribution representations based on geodesic patch similarity to noisy samples. Patch distributions are then randomly sampled to build a set of best matching candidates for every noisy sample, and the denoised value is computed based on a geodesic weighted average of the best candidate samples. Our method is evaluated qualitatively on real pathological OCT scans and quantitatively on a proposed set of ground truth, noise free synthetic OCT scans with artificially added noise and pathologies. Experimental results show that performance of our method is comparable with state of the art denoising methods while outperforming them in preserving the critical clinically relevant structures.

  18. Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Microscopy: Computed Imaging for Scanned Coherent Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A. Boppart

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional image formation in microscopy is greatly enhanced by the use of computed imaging techniques. In particular, Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Microscopy (ISAM allows the removal of out-of-focus blur in broadband, coherent microscopy. Earlier methods, such as optical coherence tomography (OCT, utilize interferometric ranging, but do not apply computed imaging methods and therefore must scan the focal depth to acquire extended volumetric images. ISAM removes the need to scan the focus by allowing volumetric image reconstruction from data collected at a single focal depth. ISAM signal processing techniques are similar to the Fourier migration methods of seismology and the Fourier reconstruction methods of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR. In this article ISAM is described and the close ties between ISAM and SAR are explored. ISAM and a simple strip-map SAR system are placed in a common mathematical framework and compared to OCT and radar respectively. This article is intended to serve as a review of ISAM, and will be especially useful to readers with a background in SAR.

  19. Performance evaluation of Bragg coherent diffraction imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, H.; Huang, X.; Yan, H.; Robinson, I. K.; Noyan, I. C.; Chu, Y. S.

    2017-10-01

    In this study, we present a numerical framework for modeling three-dimensional (3D) diffraction data in Bragg coherent diffraction imaging (Bragg CDI) experiments and evaluating the quality of obtained 3D complex-valued real-space images recovered by reconstruction algorithms under controlled conditions. The approach is used to systematically explore the performance and the detection limit of this phase-retrieval-based microscopy tool. The numerical investigation suggests that the superb performance of Bragg CDI is achieved with an oversampling ratio above 30 and a detection dynamic range above 6 orders. The observed performance degradation subject to the data binning processes is also studied. This numerical tool can be used to optimize experimental parameters and has the potential to significantly improve the throughput of Bragg CDI method.

  20. Scalp imaging techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otberg, Nina; Shapiro, Jerry; Lui, Harvey; Wu, Wen-Yu; Alzolibani, Abdullateef; Kang, Hoon; Richter, Heike; Lademann, Jürgen

    2017-05-01

    Scalp imaging techniques are necessary tools for the trichological practice and for visualization of permeation, penetration and absorption processes into and through the scalp and for the research on drug delivery and toxicology. The present letter reviews different scalp imaging techniques and discusses their utility. Moreover, two different studies on scalp imaging techniques are presented in this letter: (1) scalp imaging with phototrichograms in combination with laser scanning microscopy, and (2) follicular measurements with cyanoacrylate surface replicas and light microscopy in combination with laser scanning microscopy. The experiments compare different methods for the determination of hair density on the scalp and different follicular measures. An average terminal hair density of 132 hairs cm-2 was found in 6 Caucasian volunteers and 135 hairs cm-2 in 6 Asian volunteers. The area of the follicular orifices accounts to 16.3% of the skin surface on average measured with laser scanning microscopy images. The potential volume of the follicular infundibulum was calculated based on the laser scanning measurements and is found to be 4.63 mm3 per cm2 skin on average. The experiments show that hair follicles are quantitatively relevant pathways and potential reservoirs for topically applied drugs and cosmetics.

  1. Tissue dispersion measurement techniques using optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Photiou, Christos; Pitris, Costas

    2017-02-01

    Dispersion, a result of wavelength-dependent index of refraction variations, causes pulse-width broadening with detrimental effects in many pulsed-laser applications. It is also considered to be one of the major causes of resolution degradation in Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). However, dispersion is material dependent and, in tissue, Group Velocity Dispersion (GVD) could be used, for example, to detect changes associated with early cancer and result in more accurate disease diagnosis. In this summary we compare different techniques for estimating the GVD from OCT images, in order to evaluate their accuracy and applicability in highly scattering samples such as muscle and adipose tissue. The methods investigated included estimation of the GVD from (i) the point spread function (PSF) degradation, (ii) the shift (walk-off) between images taken at different center wavelengths and (iii) the second derivative of the spectral phase. The measurements were degraded by the presence of strong Mie scattering and speckle noise with the most robust being the PSF degradation and the least robust the phase derivative method. If the GVD is to be used to provide sensitive diagnostic information from highly scattering human tissues, it would be preferable to use the resolution degradation as an estimator of GVD.

  2. The first demonstration of laser computed tomography achieved by Coherent Detection Imaging method for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toida, Masahiro; Ichimura, Tsutomu (Research Development Corp. of Japan (JRDC), Sendai (Japan). Inaba Biophoton Project); Inaba, Humio

    1991-06-01

    The first successful imaging by laser absorption computed tomography of in vitro specimens has been achieved by means of the Coherent Detection Imaging (CDI) method realized with the optical heterodyne detection technique and image reconstruction from back projection of the data obtained via optical absorption measurements in a parallel beam geometry. (author).

  3. Complete Two-dimensional Muellermetric Imaging of Biological Tissue Using Heterodyned Optical Coherence Tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xue; Shahriar, M S

    2010-01-01

    A polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography system based on heterodyning and filtering techniques is built to perform Stokesmetric imaging of different layers of depths in a porcine tendon sample. The complete 4\\times4 backscattering Muellermetric images of one layer are acquired using such a system. The images reveal information indiscernible from a conventional OCT system.

  4. Retinal imaging by spectral optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kałuzny, J J; Szkulmowska, A; Bajraszewski, T; Szkulmowski, M; Kałuzny, B J; Gorczyńska, I; Targowski, P; Wojtkowski, M

    2007-01-01

    To demonstrate applicability of high speed spectral optical coherence tomography (SOCT) method for imaging retinal pathologies in clinical conditions. SOCT was performed in 67 eyes with different macular diseases. Examinations were carried out with the prototype SOCT instrument constructed in the Institute of Physics, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Toruń, Poland. A broadband superluminescent diode was used as a light source. The disturbances of retinal layer structure concerning mainly outer segments of photoreceptors were observed in case of central serous chorioretinopathy and choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration. Large drusen were often related to significant changes of outer nuclear layer thickness and reflectivity. SOCT detects small disturbances of the retinal structure and helps to precisely determine layers involved in different pathologies.

  5. The Stonehenge technique. A method for aligning coherent bremsstrahlung radiators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Ken

    2009-05-01

    This paper describes a technique for the alignment of crystal radiators used to produce high energy, linearly polarized photons via coherent bremsstrahlung scattering at electron beam facilities. In these experiments the crystal is mounted on a goniometer which is used to adjust its orientation relative to the electron beam. The angles and equations which relate the crystal lattice, goniometer and electron beam direction are presented here, and the method of alignment is illustrated with data taken at MAMI (the Mainz microtron). A practical guide to setting up a coherent bremsstrahlung facility and installing new crystals using this technique is also included.

  6. Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging in Acute Coronary Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Kubo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical coherence tomography (OCT is a high-resolution imaging technique that offers microscopic visualization of coronary plaques. The clear and detailed images of OCT generate an intense interest in adopting this technique for both clinical and research purposes. Recent studies have shown that OCT is useful for the assessment of coronary atherosclerotic plaques, in particular the assessment of plaque rupture, erosion, and intracoronary thrombus in patients with acute coronary syndrome. In addition, OCT may enable identifying thin-cap fibroatheroma, the proliferation of vasa vasorum, and the distribution of macrophages surrounding vulnerable plaques. With its ability to view atherosclerotic lesions in vivo with such high resolution, OCT provides cardiologists with the tool they need to better understand the thrombosis-prone vulnerable plaques and acute coronary syndromes. This paper reviews the possibility of OCT for identification of vulnerable plaques in vivo.

  7. Fully automated lumen segmentation of intracoronary optical coherence tomography images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiou, L. S.; Rikhtegar, Farhad; Galon, Micheli Zanotti; Lopes, Augusto Celso; Lemos, Pedro Alves; Edelman, Elazer R.

    2017-02-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides high-resolution cross-sectional images of arterial luminal morphology. Traditionally lumen segmentation of OCT images is performed manually by expert observers; a laborious, time consuming effort, sensitive to inter-observer variability process. Although several automated methods have been developed, the majority cannot be applied in real time because of processing demands. To address these limitations we propose a new method for rapid image segmentation of arterial lumen borders using OCT images that involves the following steps: 1) OCT image acquisition using the raw OCT data, 2) reconstruction of longitudinal cross-section (LOCS) images from four different acquisition angles, 3) segmentation of the LOCS images and 4) lumen contour construction in each 2D cross-sectional image. The efficiency of the developed method was evaluated using 613 annotated images from 10 OCT pullbacks acquired from 10 patients at the time of coronary arterial interventions. High Pearson's correlation coefficient was obtained when lumen areas detected by the method were compared to areas annotated by experts (r=0.98, R2=0.96); Bland-Altman analysis showed no significant bias with good limits of agreement. The proposed methodology permits reliable border detection especially in lumen areas having artifacts and is faster than traditional techniques making it capable of being used in real time applications. The method is likely to assist in a number of research and clinical applications - further testing in an expanded clinical arena will more fully define the limits and potential of this approach.

  8. Brain Vascular Imaging Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bàrbara Laviña

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent major improvements in a number of imaging techniques now allow for the study of the brain in ways that could not be considered previously. Researchers today have well-developed tools to specifically examine the dynamic nature of the blood vessels in the brain during development and adulthood; as well as to observe the vascular responses in disease situations in vivo. This review offers a concise summary and brief historical reference of different imaging techniques and how these tools can be applied to study the brain vasculature and the blood-brain barrier integrity in both healthy and disease states. Moreover, it offers an overview on available transgenic animal models to study vascular biology and a description of useful online brain atlases.

  9. Imaging of oral pathological tissue using optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canjau, Silvana; Todea, Carmen; Sinescu, Cosmin; Duma, Virgil-Florin; Topala, Florin I.; Podoleanu, Adrian G.

    2014-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) constitutes 90% of oral cancer. Early detection is a cornerstone to improve survival. Interaction of light with tissues may highlight changes in tissue structure and metabolism. We propose optical coherence tomography (OCT), as a non-invasive diagnosis method, being a new high-resolution optical technique that permits tri-dimensional (3-D), real-time imaging of near surface abnormalities in complex tissues. In this study half of the excisional biopsy was directed to the pathologist and the other half was assigned for OCT investigation. Histopathology validated the results. Areas of OSCC of the buccal mucosa were identified in the OCT images. The elements obserced included extensive epithelial down-growth, the disruption of the basement membrane, with areas of erosion, an epithelial layer that was highly variable in thickness and invasion into the sub-epithelial layers. Therefore, OCT appears to be a highly promising imaging modality.

  10. Contribution of optical coherence tomography imaging in management of iatrogenic coronary dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber-Chamoux, Nicolas; Souteyrand, Géraud; Combaret, Nicolas; Ouedraogo, Edgar; Lusson, Jean René; Motreff, Pascal

    2016-03-01

    Iatrogenic coronary dissection is a rare but potentially serious complication of coronary angiography and angioplasty. Treatment with angioplasty guided only by angiography is often difficult. Optical coherence tomography imaging seems to be an interesting technique to lead the management of iatrogenic coronary dissection. Diagnosis can be made by optical coherence tomography; it can also eliminate differential diagnosis. Furthermore, this technique can guide safely the endovascular treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of optical localization techniques for optical coherence tomography of the hand for multi-fraction orthovoltage radiotherapy or photodynamic therapy: white light vs. optical surface imaging (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubovic, Raphael; Bains, Amitpal; Ramjist, Joel; Babic, Steve; Chin, Lee; Barnes, Elizabeth; Yang, Victor X. D.

    2017-02-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is considered the most commonly diagnosed cancer in the United States and Canada. Treatment options include radiotherapy, surgical excision, radiotherapy, topical therapies, electrocautery, and cryotherapy. For patients undergoing fractionated orthovoltage radiation therapy or photodynamic therapy (PDT), the lesions are typically delineated by clinical markup prior to treatment without providing any information about the underlying tissue thus increasing the risk of geographic miss. The development of biomarkers for response in NMSC is imperative considering the current treatment paradigm is based on clinical examination and biopsy confirmation. Therefore, a non-invasive image-based evaluation of skin structure would allow for faster and potentially more comprehensive microscopic evaluation of the treated region at the point of care. To address this, our group is investigating the use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for pre- and post- treatment evaluation of NMSC lesions during radiation therapy and PDT. Localization of the OCT probe for follow-up is complex, especially in the context of treatment response where the lesion is not present, precluding accurate delineation of the planning treatment area. Further, comparison to standard white light pre-treatment images is limited by the scale of the OCT probe (6 mm X 6 mm) relative to target region. In this study we compare the set-up accuracy of a typical OCT probe to detect a theoretical lesion on a patient's hand. White light images, optical surface imaging (OSI) and OCT will be obtained at baseline and used for probe set up on subsequent scans. Set-up error will be quantified using advanced image processing techniques.

  12. Optical Coherence Tomography and Biomolecular Imaging with Coherent Raman Scattering Microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson-Engels, Stefan; Andersen, Peter E.

    2014-01-01

    The Special Section on Selected Topics in Biophotonics: Optical Coherence Tomography and Biomolecular Imaging with Coherent Raman Scattering Microscopy comprises two invited review papers and several contributed papers from the summer school Biophotonics ’13, as well as contributed papers within...

  13. Review of the homodyne technique for coherent radar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Lintz; Madsen, Søren Nørvang; Skou, Niels

    1990-01-01

    The merits of using homodyne techniques for coherent radar are examined. The influence of various component deficiencies is discussed with relation to the choice between homodyne and heterodyne. The use of digital IQ signal generation and processing to correct for some of the problems of modulator...

  14. Array calibration technique for a coherent MIMO radar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belfiori, F.; Rossum, W. van; Hoogeboom, P.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present a technique to estimate the calibration coefficients of a coherent Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) array radar built on a printed circuit board (PCB). Due to the integrated structure and the MIMO nature of the system, a direct measurement of each antenna element

  15. Phase contrast imaging with coherent high energy X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snigireva, I. [ESRF, Grenoble (France)

    1997-02-01

    X-ray imaging concern high energy domain (>6 keV) like a contact radiography, projection microscopy and tomography is used for many years to discern the features of the internal structure non destructively in material science, medicine and biology. In so doing the main contrast formation is absorption that makes some limitations for imaging of the light density materials and what is more the resolution of these techniques is not better than 10-100 {mu}m. It was turned out that there is now way in which to overcome 1{mu}m or even sub-{mu}m resolution limit except phase contrast imaging. It is well known in optics that the phase contrast is realised when interference between reference wave front and transmitted through the sample take place. Examples of this imaging are: phase contrast microscopy suggested by Zernike and Gabor (in-line) holography. Both of this techniques: phase contrast x-ray microscopy and holography are successfully progressing now in soft x-ray region. For imaging in the hard X-rays to enhance the contrast and to be able to resolve phase variations across the beam the high degree of the time and more importantly spatial coherence is needed. Because of this it was reasonable that the perfect crystal optics was involved like Bonse-Hart interferometry, double-crystal and even triple-crystal set-up using Laue and Bragg geometry with asymmetrically cut crystals.

  16. REVIEW ARTICLE: Scan-free optical correlation techniques: history and applications to optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehly, Luc; Leitgeb, Rainer

    2010-08-01

    In parallel with progress in generating ultrafast pulse sources and characterization techniques, optical time correlation techniques have seen tremendous development over many years and paved the way for novel applications in non-destructive and high resolution 'optical coherence tomography' (OCT) imaging. Amongst the known correlation techniques, the scan-free approach presents the advantage of single shot detection and real-time acquisition for pulse measurements, but this is not generally considered and applied for OCT imaging. The aim of this paper is to review the scan-free correlation method, analyze its performance and extended features and discuss its application to OCT.

  17. The Coherent X-ray Imaging instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Mengning; Williams, Garth J.; Messerschmidt, Marc; Seibert, M. Marvin; Montanez, Paul A.; Hayes, Matt; Milathianaki, Despina; Aquila, Andrew; Hunter, Mark S.; Koglin, Jason E.; Schafer, Donald W.; Guillet, Serge; Busse, Armin; Bergan, Robert; Olson, William; Fox, Kay; Stewart, Nathaniel; Curtis, Robin; Miahnahri, Alireza Alan; Boutet, Sébastien, E-mail: sboutet@slac.stanford.edu [Linac Coherent Light Source, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Description of the Coherent X-ray Imaging (CXI) instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source. Recent scientific highlights illustrate the femtosecond crystallography, high power density and extreme matter capabilities of the CXI instrument. The Coherent X-ray Imaging (CXI) instrument specializes in hard X-ray, in-vacuum, high power density experiments in all areas of science. Two main sample chambers, one containing a 100 nm focus and one a 1 µm focus, are available, each with multiple diagnostics, sample injection, pump–probe and detector capabilities. The flexibility of CXI has enabled it to host a diverse range of experiments, from biological to extreme matter.

  18. Psoriatic arthritis: imaging techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Lubrano

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Imaging techniques to assess psoriatic arthritis (PsA include radiography, ultrasonography (US, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, computed tomography (CT and bone scintigraphy. The radiographic hallmark of PsA is the combination of destructive changes (joint erosions, tuft resorption, osteolysis with bone proliferation (including periarticular and shaft periostitis, ankylosis, spur formation and non-marginal syndesmophytes. US has an increasing important role in the evaluation of PsA. In fact, power Doppler US is useful mainly for its ability to assess musculoskeletal (joints, tendons, entheses and cutaneous (skin and nails involvement, to monitor efficacy of therapy and to guide steroid injections at the level of inflamed joints, tendon sheaths and entheses. MRI allows direct visualization of inflammation in peripheral and axial joints, and peripheral and axial entheses, and has dramatically improved the possibilities for early diagnosis and objective monitoring of the disease process in PsA. MRI has allowed explaining the relationships among enthesitis, synovitis and osteitis in PsA, supporting a SpA pattern of inflammation where enthesitis is the primary target of inflammation. CT has little role in assessment of peripheral joints, but it may be useful in assessing elements of spine disease. CT accuracy is similar to MRI in assessment of erosions in sacroiliac joint involvement, but CT is not as effective in detecting synovial inflammation. Bone scintigraphy lacks specificity and is now supplanted with US and MRI techniques.

  19. Optical coherence tomography of scattering media using frequency-modulated continuous-wave techniques with tunable near-infrared laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberland, Udo; Jansen, Peter; Blazek, Vladimir; Schmitt, Hans J.

    1997-05-01

    A new near-infrared coherent imaging technique that can reveal scattering bodies embedded in highly scattering media is presented. Its underlying principle is extended from frequency modulated continuous wave radar systems. This technique has advantages over low coherence tomography as it does not require the reference mirror to be scanned. The tunable laser is characterized and the system's performance is demonstrated on images recorded from solid scattering phantoms. Furthermore a combination of our chirp-tomography (C-OCT) and laser Doppler perfusion imaging (LDPI) is demonstrated. The influence of moving scatterers on the tomographic images are discussed.

  20. Monte Carlo modeling of human tooth optical coherence tomography imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Boya; Meng, Zhuo; Wang, Longzhi; Liu, Tiegen

    2013-07-01

    We present a Monte Carlo model for optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging of human tooth. The model is implemented by combining the simulation of a Gaussian beam with simulation for photon propagation in a two-layer human tooth model with non-parallel surfaces through a Monte Carlo method. The geometry and the optical parameters of the human tooth model are chosen on the basis of the experimental OCT images. The results show that the simulated OCT images are qualitatively consistent with the experimental ones. Using the model, we demonstrate the following: firstly, two types of photons contribute to the information of morphological features and noise in the OCT image of a human tooth, respectively. Secondly, the critical imaging depth of the tooth model is obtained, and it is found to decrease significantly with increasing mineral loss, simulated as different enamel scattering coefficients. Finally, the best focus position is located below and close to the dental surface by analysis of the effect of focus positions on the OCT signal and critical imaging depth. We anticipate that this modeling will become a powerful and accurate tool for a preliminary numerical study of the OCT technique on diseases of dental hard tissue in human teeth.

  1. Tomographic imaging of bone composition using coherently scattered x rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelar, Deidre L.; Dabrowski, W.; Cunningham, Ian A.

    2000-04-01

    Bone tissue consists primarily of calcium hydroxyapatite crystals (bone mineral) and collagen fibrils. Bone mineral density (BMD) is commonly used as an indicator of bone health. Techniques available at present for assessing bone health provide a measure of BMD, but do not provide information about the degree of mineralization of the bone tissue. This may be adequate for assessing diseases in which the collagen-mineral ratio remains constant, as assumed in osteoporosis, but is insufficient when the mineralization state is known to change, as in osteomalacia. No tool exists for the in situ examination of collagen and hydroxyapatite density distributions independently. Coherent-scatter computed tomography (CSCT) is a technique we are developing that produces images of the low- angle scatter properties of tissue. These depend on the molecular structure of the scatterer making it possible to produce material-specific maps of each component in a conglomerate. After corrections to compensate for exposure fluctuations, self-attenuation of scatter and the temporal response of the image intensifier, material-specific images of mineral, collagen, fat and water distributions are obtained. The gray-level in these images provides the volumetric density of each component independently.

  2. Vascular wall stress during intravascular optical coherence tomography imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Cuiru; Yang, Victor

    2015-03-01

    Biomechanical properties of arterial wall is crucial for understanding the changes in the cardiovascular system. Catheters are used during intravascular optical coherence tomography (IVOCT) imaging. The presence of a catheter alters the flow field, pressure distribution and frictional resistance to flow in an artery. In this paper, we first study the transmural stress distribution of the catheterized vessel. COMSOL (COMSOL 4.4) was used to simulate the blood flow induced deformation in a catheterized vessel. Blood is modeled as an incompressible Newtonian fluid. Stress distribution from an three-layer vascular model with an eccentric catheter are simulated, which provides a general idea about the distribution of the displacement and the stress. Optical coherence elastography techniques were then applied to porcine carotid artery samples to look at the deformation status of the vascular wall during saline or water injection. Preliminary simulation results show nonuniform stress distribution in the circumferential direction of the eccentrically catheterized vascular model. Three strain rate methods were tested for intravascular OCE application. The tissue Doppler method has the potential to be further developed to image the vascular wall biomechnical properties in vivo. Although results in this study are not validated quantitatively, the experiments and methods may be valuable for intravascular OCE studies, which may provide important information for cardiovascular disease prevention, diagnosis and treatment.

  3. Micro- and nano-imaging at the diamond beamline I13L-imaging and coherence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rau, C., E-mail: Christoph.rau@diamond.ac.uk [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, OX 11 0DE (United Kingdom); University of Manchester, School of Materials Grosvenor St., Manchester, M1 7HS (United Kingdom); Northwestern University School of Medicine, 303 E. Chicago Avenue, Chicago, IL 60611-3008 (United States); Wagner, U. H.; Vila-Comamala, J.; Bodey, A.; Parson, A.; García-Fernández, M.; Pešić, Z.; Zanette, I. [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, OX 11 0DE (United Kingdom); De Fanis, A. [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, OX 11 0DE (United Kingdom); European XFEL GmbH, Notkestraße 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Zdora, M. [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, OX 11 0DE (United Kingdom); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-27

    The Diamond Beamline I13L is dedicated to imaging on the micron- and nano-lengthscale, operating in the energy range between 6 and 30 keV. For this purpose two independent stations have been built. The imaging branch is fully operational for micro-tomography and in-line phase contrast imaging with micrometer resolution. Currently a full-field microscope providing 50nm spatial resolution over a field of view of 100 µm is being tested. On the coherence branch, coherent diffraction imaging techniques such as ptychography and coherent X-ray Bragg diffraction are currently developed. The beamline contains a number of unique features. The machine layout has been modified to the so-called mini-beta scheme, providing significantly increased flux from the two canted undulators. New instrumental designs such as a robot arm for the detector in diffraction experiments have been employed. The imaging branch is operated in collaboration with Manchester University, called therefore the Diamond-Manchester Branchline.

  4. Speckle suppression and companion detection using coherent differential imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottom, M.; Wallace, J. K.; Bartos, R. D.; Shelton, J. C.; Serabyn, E.

    2017-01-01

    Residual speckles due to aberrations arising from optical errors after the split between the wavefront sensor and the science camera path are the most significant barriers to imaging extrasolar planets. While speckles can be suppressed using the science camera in conjunction with the deformable mirror, this requires knowledge of the phase of the electric field in the focal plane. We describe a method which combines a coronagraph with a simple phase-shifting interferometer to measure and correct speckles in the full focal plane. We demonstrate its initial use on the Stellar Double Coronagraph at the Palomar Observatory. We also describe how the same hardware can be used to distinguish speckles from true companions by measuring the coherence of the optical field in the focal plane. We present results observing the brown dwarf HD49197b with this technique, demonstrating the ability to detect the presence of a companion even when it is buried in the speckle noise, without the use of any standard `calibration' techniques. We believe this is the first detection of a substellar companion using the coherence properties of light.

  5. Imaging of dental material by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dichtl, Sabine; Baumgartner, Angela; Hitzenberger, Christoph K.; Moritz, Andreas; Wernisch, Johann; Robl, Barbara; Sattmann, Harald; Leitgeb, Rainer; Sperr, Wolfgang; Fercher, Adolf F.

    1999-05-01

    Partial coherence interferometry (PCI) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) are noninvasive and noncontact techniques for high precision biometry and for obtaining cross- sectional images of biologic structures. OCT was initially introduced to depict the transparent tissue of the eye. It is based on interferometry employing the partial coherence properties of a light source with high spatial coherence ut short coherence length to image structures with a resolution of the order of a few microns. Recently this technique has been modified for cross section al imaging of dental and periodontal tissues. In vitro and in vivo OCT images have been recorded, which distinguish enamel, cemento and dentin structures and provide detailed structural information on clinical abnormalities. In contrast to convention OCT, where the magnitude of backscattered light as a function of depth is imaged, polarization sensitive OCT uses backscattered light to image the magnitude of the birefringence in the sample as a function of depth. First polarization sensitive OCT recordings show, that changes in the mineralization status of enamel or dentin caused by caries or non-caries lesions can result in changes of the polarization state of the light backscattered by dental material. Therefore polarization sensitive OCT might provide a new diagnostic imaging modality in clinical and research dentistry.

  6. The effects of spatiotemporal coherence on interferometric imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Shin, Seungwoo; Lee, KyeoReh; Lee, SangYun; Park, YongKeun

    2016-01-01

    Illumination coherence plays a major role in various imaging systems, from microscopy, metrology, digital holography, optical coherence tomography, to ultrasound imaging. Here, we present a systematic study on the effects of degrees of spatiotemporal coherence of an illumination (DSTCI) on imaging quality. An optical field with arbitrary DSTCI was decomposed into wavelets with constituent spatiotemporal frequencies, and the effects on image quality were quantitatively investigated. The results show the synergistic effects on reduction of speckle noise when DSTCI is decreased. This study presents a method to systematically control DSTCI, and the result provides an essential reference on the effects of DSTCI on imaging quality. We believe that the presented methods and results can be implemented in various imaging systems for characterising and improving imaging quality.

  7. Water window ptychographic imaging with characterized coherent X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Max [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Skopintsev, Petr [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region 141700 (Russian Federation); Dzhigaev, Dmitry [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); National Research Nuclear University ‘MEPhI’ (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Kashirskoe shosse 31, 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation); Gorobtsov, Oleg [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); National Research Center, ‘Kurchatov Institute’, Kurchatov Square 1, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Senkbeil, Tobias; Gundlach, Andreas von; Gorniak, Thomas [Analytical Chemistry - Biointerfaces, Ruhr University Bochum, Universitätsstrasse 150, 44780 Bochum (Germany); Applied Physical Chemistry, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 253, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Institute of Functional Interfaces, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Shabalin, Anatoly; Viefhaus, Jens [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Rosenhahn, Axel, E-mail: axel.rosenhahn@rub.de [Analytical Chemistry - Biointerfaces, Ruhr University Bochum, Universitätsstrasse 150, 44780 Bochum (Germany); Applied Physical Chemistry, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 253, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Institute of Functional Interfaces, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Vartanyants, Ivan, E-mail: axel.rosenhahn@rub.de [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); National Research Nuclear University ‘MEPhI’ (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Kashirskoe shosse 31, 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-04-23

    Water window ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging was demonstrated at the P04 beamline of PETRA III synchrotron radiation source. The beam coherence was characterized with the non-redundant array method. A ptychographical coherent diffractive imaging experiment in the water window with focused soft X-rays at 500 eV is reported. An X-ray beam with high degree of coherence was selected for ptychography at the P04 beamline of PETRA III synchrotron radiation source. The beam coherence was measured with the newly developed non-redundant array method, and a coherence length of 4.1 µm and global degree of coherence of 35% at 100 µm exit slit opening in the vertical direction were determined. A pinhole, 2.6 µm in size, selected the coherent part of the beam that was used to obtain ptychographic reconstruction results of a lithographically manufactured test sample and a fossil diatom. The achieved resolution was 53 nm for the test sample and was only limited by the size of the detector. The diatom was imaged at a resolution better than 90 nm.

  8. Other imaging techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isard, H J

    1984-02-01

    Images of the breast can now be produced by five modalities: x-ray, heat, sound, light, and magnetism. X-ray mammography is generally accepted as the most accurate of these in the detection of breast cancer, and the standard by which the others are judged. Despite the obvious attraction of nonionizing techniques, the economic factor attendant on multiple studies requires consideration. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is currently being investigated in several clinics, but as yet there is no large series of documented cases. This report addresses itself to thermography, ultrasonography and diaphanography (transillumination). The unique characteristics of each and their respective roles in evaluation of the breast, particularly in the detection of breast cancer, will be discussed. When used in conjunction with mammography, potential advantages include: enhanced diagnostic accuracy, reduction of unnecessary surgery, and, in proven cases of breast cancer, prognostic capability. Thus far it has not been demonstrated that any of the nonionizing techniques can serve as a sole screening modality for breast cancer detection in asymptomatic women.

  9. Imaging birefringent crystals using micro optical coherence tomography (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Gargi; Singh, Kanwarpal; Gardecki, Joseph A.; Tearney, Guillermo J.

    2017-02-01

    Background: Uric acid crystals have recently been identified as a possible therapeutic target for coronary artery disease. Being subcellular in size, it is difficult to identify these crystals in situ. Micro optical coherence tomography (Micro-OCT) allows one to image subcellular structures with 1-micron resolution. Even though Micro-OCT should be capable of resolving urate crystals, it's difficult to differentiate these structures from other scattering particles within tissue. In this work we developed a novel polarization sensitive micro OCT (ps-Micro-OCT) system for identification of uric acid crystals. Methods: A spectrometer based ps-Micro-OCT system was developed using a broadband light source. The broadband input light was divided into reference and sample signals using a beam splitter. The reference signal was further divided into two polarized signals with different polarization states. Reflected reference and sample signals were combined and sent to a spectrometer that recorded the interference signal. Results: To test the performance of system, a mirror was used as sample and a quarter wave-plate was placed in the sample path. The measured quarter wave-plate angle values matched closely to actual angle values. Next we prepared uric acid crystals in our lab and imaged them using this system.We were able to image and identify these crystals based on polarization measurements. Conclusion: In this work we imaged and identified uric acid crystals using a newly developed ps-Micro-OCT system. The proposed technique will enable imaging uric acid crystals in coronary artery.

  10. Contribution of optical coherence tomography imaging in management of iatrogenic coronary dissection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber-Chamoux, Nicolas, E-mail: nbarber-chamoux@chu-clermontferrand.fr [Department of Cardiology, Gabriel Montpied University Hospital, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Souteyrand, Géraud; Combaret, Nicolas [Department of Cardiology, Gabriel Montpied University Hospital, Clermont-Ferrand (France); ISIT, CaVITI, CNRS (UMR-6284), Auvergne University, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Ouedraogo, Edgar; Lusson, Jean René [Department of Cardiology, Gabriel Montpied University Hospital, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Motreff, Pascal [Department of Cardiology, Gabriel Montpied University Hospital, Clermont-Ferrand (France); ISIT, CaVITI, CNRS (UMR-6284), Auvergne University, Clermont-Ferrand (France)

    2016-03-15

    Iatrogenic coronary dissection is a rare but potentially serious complication of coronary angiography and angioplasty. Treatment with angioplasty guided only by angiography is often difficult. Optical coherence tomography imaging seems to be an interesting technique to lead the management of iatrogenic coronary dissection. Diagnosis can be made by optical coherence tomography; it can also eliminate differential diagnosis. Furthermore, this technique can guide safely the endovascular treatment. - Highlights: • Iatrogenic coronary dissection remains a challenging problem in angiography. • Endocoronary imaging is helpful for the diagnosis of iatrogenic coronary dissection. • OCT is a safe option to manage the endovascular treatment of coronary dissection.

  11. X-ray imaging microscope with a partial coherent illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Akihisa; Takano, Hidekazu; Uesugi, Kentaro; Suzuki, Yoshio

    2001-12-01

    An x-ray imaging microscopy experiment was performed at the x-ray energy of 8 keV. A Fresnel zone plate (FZP) fabricated by electron-beam lithography technique was used as an objective. Material of the zone structure is tantalum. The experiment was done at the undulator beamline BL47XU of Spring-8. Undulator radiation was monochromatized by passing through a liquid nitrogen cooled Si 111 double crystal monochromator. In order to eliminate speckle-like background noise, a partial coherent illumination was introduced by using a beam diffuser consisted of graphite powder. Beam spread of the illumination with the diffuser was about 35 (mu) rad. A charge coupled device (CCD) camera coupled with a phosphor screen and a microscope objective (x 12 or x 24) was used as an image detector. Converted pixel size with the x 24 lens was 0.5micrometers . Magnification of the x-ray microscope system was set to be 7.61-13. Pitch of 0.6micrometers (0.3 micrometers line and 0.3micrometers space) pattern of the test chart was resolved, and the outermost zone structure of the same type of FZP was observed. Imaging properties are also discussed by using Hopkins optical imaging theory.

  12. Spectrum multiplexing and coherent-state decomposition in Fourier ptychographic imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Siyuan; Nanda, Pariksheet; Zheng, Guoan

    2014-01-01

    Information multiplexing is important for biomedical imaging and chemical sensing. In this paper, we report a microscopy imaging technique, termed state-multiplexed Fourier ptychography (FP), for information multiplexing and coherent-state decomposition. Similar to a typical Fourier ptychographic setting, we use an array of light sources to illuminate the sample from different incident angles and acquire corresponding low-resolution images using a monochromatic camera. In the reported technique, however, multiple light sources are lit up simultaneously for information multiplexing, and the acquired images thus represent incoherent summations of the sample transmission profiles corresponding to different coherent states. We show that, by using the state-multiplexed FP recovery routine, we can decompose the incoherent mixture of the FP acquisitions to recover a high-resolution sample image. We also show that, color-multiplexed imaging can be performed by simultaneously turning on R/G/B LEDs for data acquisition...

  13. Hybrid ultrasound imaging techniques (fusion imaging).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandulescu, Daniela Larisa; Dumitrescu, Daniela; Rogoveanu, Ion; Saftoiu, Adrian

    2011-01-07

    Visualization of tumor angiogenesis can facilitate non-invasive evaluation of tumor vascular characteristics to supplement the conventional diagnostic imaging goals of depicting tumor location, size, and morphology. Hybrid imaging techniques combine anatomic [ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)] and molecular (single photon emission CT and positron emission tomography) imaging modalities. One example is real-time virtual sonography, which combines ultrasound (grayscale, colour Doppler, or dynamic contrast harmonic imaging) with contrast-enhanced CT/MRI. The benefits of fusion imaging include an increased diagnostic confidence, direct comparison of the lesions using different imaging modalities, more precise monitoring of interventional procedures, and reduced radiation exposure.

  14. Coherent imaging with pseudo-thermal incoherent light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gatti, A.; Bache, Morten; Magatti, D.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate experimentally fundamental properties of coherent ghost imaging using spatially incoherent beams generated from a pseudo-thermal source. A complementarity between the coher- ence of the beams and the correlation between them is demonstrated by showing a complementarity between ghost...... diffraction and ordinary diffraction patterns. In order for the ghost imaging scheme to work it is therefore crucial to have incoherent beams. The visibility of the information is shown for the ghost image to become better as the object size relative to the speckle size is decreased, and therefore...

  15. Multi-Chromatic Analysis of SAR Images for Coherent Target Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Bovenga

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates the possibility of performing target analysis through the Multi-Chromatic Analysis (MCA, a technique that basically explores the information content of sub-band images obtained by processing portions of the range spectrum of a synthetic aperture radar (SAR image. According to the behavior of the SAR signal at the different sub-bands, MCA allows target classification. Two strategies have been experimented by processing TerraSAR-X images acquired over the Venice Lagoon, Italy: one exploiting the phase of interferometric sub-band pairs, the other using the spectral coherence derived by computing the coherence between sub-band images of a single SAR acquisition. The first approach introduces the concept of frequency-persistent scatterers (FPS, which is complementary to that of the time-persistent scatterers (PS. FPS and PS populations have been derived and analyzed to evaluate the respective characteristics and the physical nature of the targets. Spectral coherence analysis has been applied to vessel detection, according to the property that, in presence of a random distribution of surface scatterers, as for open sea surfaces, spectral coherence is expected to be proportional to sub-band intersection, while in presence of manmade structures it is preserved anyhow. First results show that spectral coherence is well preserved even for very small vessels, and can be used as a complementary information channel to constrain vessel detection in addition to classical Constant False Alarm Rate techniques based on the sole intensity channel.

  16. Radar rainfall image repair techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Wesson, Stephen M.; Pegram, Geoffrey G. S.

    2004-01-01

    There are various quality problems associated with radar rainfall data viewed in images that include ground clutter, beam blocking and anomalous propagation, to name a few. To obtain the best rainfall estimate possible, techniques for removing ground clutter (non-meteorological echoes that influence radar data quality) on 2-D radar rainfall image data sets are presented here. These techniques concentrate on repairing the images in both a computationally fast and accurate manner, and...

  17. Radar rainfall image repair techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Wesson, Stephen M.; Pegram, Geoffrey G. S.

    2004-01-01

    There are various quality problems associated with radar rainfall data viewed in images that include ground clutter, beam blocking and anomalous propagation, to name a few. To obtain the best rainfall estimate possible, techniques for removing ground clutter (non-meteorological echoes that influence radar data quality) on 2-D radar rainfall image data sets are presented here. These techniques concentrate on repairing the images in both a computationally fast...

  18. Nanoscale Imaging Using Coherent and Incoherent Laboratory Based Soft X-Ray Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiel, H.; Dehlinger, A.; Janulewicz, K. A.; Jung, R.; Legall, H.; Pratsch, C.; Seim, C.; Tümmler, J.

    Nanoscale imaging of biological samples in the lab as well as mask inspection in extreme ultraviolet lithography near the production line with sub 30 nm resolution require high spectral brightness soft x-ray sources. Laser produced plasma (LPP) sources and plasma based X-ray lasers (XRL) emit soft X-ray radiation in the wavelength region of interest between 2 and 20 nm. Whereas LPP sources easily can be tuned to the so called water window (2.2-4.4 nm) the output of an XRL is restricted to relatively few fixed wavelengths in the extreme ultraviolet range. However due to the relatively high degree of coherence the XRL is well suited also for nanoscale imaging using coherent techniques like coherent diffraction imaging or Fourier transform holography.

  19. Retinal Imaging Techniques for Diabetic Retinopathy Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, James Kang Hao; Cheung, Carol Y.; Sim, Shaun Sebastian; Tan, Pok Chien; Tan, Gavin Siew Wei; Wong, Tien Yin

    2016-01-01

    Due to the increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus, demand for diabetic retinopathy (DR) screening platforms is steeply increasing. Early detection and treatment of DR are key public health interventions that can greatly reduce the likelihood of vision loss. Current DR screening programs typically employ retinal fundus photography, which relies on skilled readers for manual DR assessment. However, this is labor-intensive and suffers from inconsistency across sites. Hence, there has been a recent proliferation of automated retinal image analysis software that may potentially alleviate this burden cost-effectively. Furthermore, current screening programs based on 2-dimensional fundus photography do not effectively screen for diabetic macular edema (DME). Optical coherence tomography is becoming increasingly recognized as the reference standard for DME assessment and can potentially provide a cost-effective solution for improving DME detection in large-scale DR screening programs. Current screening techniques are also unable to image the peripheral retina and require pharmacological pupil dilation; ultra-widefield imaging and confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, which address these drawbacks, possess great potential. In this review, we summarize the current DR screening methods using various retinal imaging techniques, and also outline future possibilities. Advances in retinal imaging techniques can potentially transform the management of patients with diabetes, providing savings in health care costs and resources. PMID:26830491

  20. Noise models for low counting rate coherent diffraction imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godard, Pierre; Allain, Marc; Chamard, Virginie; Rodenburg, John

    2012-11-05

    Coherent diffraction imaging (CDI) is a lens-less microscopy method that extracts the complex-valued exit field from intensity measurements alone. It is of particular importance for microscopy imaging with diffraction set-ups where high quality lenses are not available. The inversion scheme allowing the phase retrieval is based on the use of an iterative algorithm. In this work, we address the question of the choice of the iterative process in the case of data corrupted by photon or electron shot noise. Several noise models are presented and further used within two inversion strategies, the ordered subset and the scaled gradient. Based on analytical and numerical analysis together with Monte-Carlo studies, we show that any physical interpretations drawn from a CDI iterative technique require a detailed understanding of the relationship between the noise model and the used inversion method. We observe that iterative algorithms often assume implicitly a noise model. For low counting rates, each noise model behaves differently. Moreover, the used optimization strategy introduces its own artefacts. Based on this analysis, we develop a hybrid strategy which works efficiently in the absence of an informed initial guess. Our work emphasises issues which should be considered carefully when inverting experimental data.

  1. Eye Redness Image Processing Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, M. R. H. Mohd; Zain, Azlan Mohd; Haron, Habibollah; Alwee, Razana; Zulfaezal Che Azemin, Mohd; Osman Ibrahim, Ashraf

    2017-09-01

    The use of photographs for the assessment of ocular conditions has been suggested to further standardize clinical procedures. The selection of the photographs to be used as scale reference images was subjective. Numerous methods have been proposed to assign eye redness scores by computational methods. Image analysis techniques have been investigated over the last 20 years in an attempt to forgo subjective grading scales. Image segmentation is one of the most important and challenging problems in image processing. This paper briefly outlines the comprehensive of image processing and the implementation of image segmentation in eye redness.

  2. Digital coherent receiver technique for onboard receiver of future optical data relay system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Tomohiro

    2016-03-01

    A digital coherent receiver technique for an onboard receiver for use in a future space optical communication system is investigated. Digital coherent technologies comprising coherent detection and digital signal processing are confirmed to possibly increase the signal speed, improve the receiver sensitivity, and extend tolerance for the Doppler frequency shift. As a facet of expandability, the concept of a multichannel-rate receiver using a digital coherent technique is introduced. Experimental results using 2.5 Gbps DBPSK signal light demodulation are presented together with future issues involved in implementation. This study confirms that the digital coherent receiver has higher expandability than other detection techniques.

  3. Determination of Probe Volume Dimensions in Coherent Measurement Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedder, Sarah A.; Weikl, Markus C.; Seeger, Thomas; Leipertz, Alfred

    2008-01-01

    When investigating combustion phenomena with pump-probe techniques, the spatial resolution is given by the overlapping region of the laser beams and thus defines the probe volume size. The size of this probe volume becomes important when the length scales of interest are on the same order or smaller. In this work, we present a new approach to measure the probe volume in three dimensions (3-D), which can be used to determine the probe volume length, diameter, and shape. The optical arrangement and data evaluation are demonstrated for a dual-pump dual-broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) setup which is used for combustion diagnostics. This new approach offers a simple, quick alternative with more capabilities than formerly used probe volume measurement methods.

  4. Coherence imaging by use of a Newton rings sampling function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podoleanu, A G; Dobre, G M; Webb, D J; Jackson, D A

    1996-11-01

    We show that, with suitable optics in the arm of a Michelson interferometer, orthogonal galvo-scanning mirrors build a sampling function in the form of Newton rings when the two interferometer arms are matched. Using a low-coherence source, one can obtain transversal depth-resolved images. A fast display procedure using a storage oscilloscope was devised based on this method.

  5. Coherence imaging by use of a Newton rings sampling function

    OpenAIRE

    Podoleanu, Adiran G.; George M. Dobre; Webb, David J; Jackson, David A.

    1996-01-01

    We show that, with suitable optics in the arm of a Michelson interferometer, orthogonal galvo-scanning mirrors build a sampling function in the form of Newton rings when the two interferometer arms are matched. Using a low-coherence source, one can obtain transversal depth-resolved images. A fast display procedure using a storage oscilloscope was devised based on this method.

  6. Imaging the retina by en face optical coherence tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Velthoven, Mirjam E. J.; Verbraak, Frank D.; Yannuzzi, Lawrence A.; Rosen, Richard B.; Podoleanu, Adrian G. H.; de Smet, Marc D.

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: To present the possibilities of a new system that combines optical coherence tomography (OCT) and confocal ophthalmoscopy, producing en face OCT images in patients with retinal diseases. METHODS: A prototype OCT Ophthalmoscope (OTI, Toronto, Canada) was used to scan patients with retinal

  7. Automated medical image segmentation techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Neeraj

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate segmentation of medical images is a key step in contouring during radiotherapy planning. Computed topography (CT and Magnetic resonance (MR imaging are the most widely used radiographic techniques in diagnosis, clinical studies and treatment planning. This review provides details of automated segmentation methods, specifically discussed in the context of CT and MR images. The motive is to discuss the problems encountered in segmentation of CT and MR images, and the relative merits and limitations of methods currently available for segmentation of medical images.

  8. Measurement of epithermal neutrons by a coherent demodulation technique

    CERN Document Server

    Horiuchi, N; Takahashi, H; Kobayashi, H; Harasawa, S

    2000-01-01

    Epithermal neutrons have been measured using a neutron dosimeter via a coherent demodulation technique. This dosimeter consists of CsI(Tl)-photodiode scintillation detectors, four of which are coupled to neutron-gamma converting foils of various sizes. Neutron-gamma converting foils of In, Au and Co materials were used, each of which has a large capture cross section which peaks in the epithermal neutron energy region. The type of foil was selected according to the material properties that best correspond to the energy of the epithermal neutrons to be measured. In addition, the proposed technique was applied using Au-foils in order to measure the Cd ratio. The validity of the proposed technique was examined using an sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am-Be source placed in a testing stack of polyethylene blocks, and the results were compared with the theoretical values calculated by the Monte Carlo calculation. Finally, the dosimeter was applied for measuring epithermal neutrons and the Cd ratio in an experimental beam-tube o...

  9. Comparison of envelope detection techniques in coherence scanning interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianto, G; Salzenstein, F; Montgomery, P

    2016-08-20

    The aim of this work is to make a comparison of the most current signal processing techniques used to analyze the fringe signal in coherence scanning interferometry (CSI), a major technique for optical surface roughness measurements. We focus here on classical AM-FM signal-processing algorithms such as the Hilbert transform (HT), the five-sample adaptive (FSA), and the continuous wavelet transform (CWT). We have recently also introduced a new family of compact and robust algorithms using the Teager-Kaiser energy operator (TKEO). We propose an improved version of TKEO using a combination of different techniques of pre-filtering and demodulation processing to remove the noise and offset component and to retrieve the fringe envelope to either determine the surface height information or to separate adjacent transparent layers. In particular, as a pre-filtering approach, we have focused on empirical mode decomposition in combination with the Savitzky-Golay filter. An added Gaussian post-filtering is helpful for a precise peak extraction. The experimental results show that TKEO performs better than CWT in terms of computation time and provides a better surface extraction than HT and FSA. Results have been obtained on synthetic and real data taken from a layer of resin on a silicon substrate.

  10. Coherent x-ray diffraction imaging of paint pigmentparticles by scanning a phase plate modulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu Y. S.; Chen B.; Zhang F.; Berenguer F.; Bean R.; Kewish C.; Vila-Comamala J.; Rodenburg J.; Robinson I.

    2011-10-19

    We have implemented a coherent x-ray diffraction imaging technique that scans a phase plate to modulate wave-fronts of the x-ray beam transmitted by samples. The method was applied to measure a decorative alkyd paint containing iron oxide red pigment particles. By employing an iterative algorithm for wave-front modulation phase retrieval, we obtained an image of the paint sample that shows the distribution of the pigment particles and is consistent with the result obtained from a transmission x-ray microscope. The technique has been experimentally proven to be a feasible coherent x-ray imaging method with about 120 nm spatial resolution and was shown to work well with industrially relevant specimens.

  11. Coherent x-ray diffraction imaging of paint pigment particles by scanning a phase plate modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bo; Zhang, Fucai; Berenguer, Felisa; Bean, Richard J.; Kewish, Cameron M.; Vila-Comamala, Joan; Chu, Yong S.; Rodenburg, John M.; Robinson, Ian K.

    2011-10-01

    We have implemented a coherent x-ray diffraction imaging technique that scans a phase plate to modulate wave-fronts of the x-ray beam transmitted by samples. The method was applied to measure a decorative alkyd paint containing iron oxide red pigment particles. By employing an iterative algorithm for wave-front modulation phase retrieval, we obtained an image of the paint sample that shows the distribution of the pigment particles and is consistent with the result obtained from a transmission x-ray microscope. The technique has been experimentally proven to be a feasible coherent x-ray imaging method with about 120 nm spatial resolution and was shown to work well with industrially relevant specimens.

  12. Imaging of hard- and soft-tissue structure in the oral cavity by optical coherence tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colston, Bill W.; Everett, Mathew J.; Da Silva, Luiz B. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Health Care Initiative, 7000 East Avenue L-399, Livermore, California (United States)] Otis, Linda L. [University of Connecticut Health Center, 263 Farmington Avenue, Farmington, Connecticut (United States)] Stroeve, Pieter [Department of Chemical Engineering and Material Science, University of California at Davis, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, California 95616 (United States)] Nathel, Howard [P. O. Box 7607, Berkeley, California 94707-0607 (United States)

    1998-06-01

    We have developed a prototype optical coherent tomography (OCT) system for the imaging of hard and soft tissue in the oral cavity. High-resolution images of {ital in vitro} porcine periodontal tissues have been obtained with this system. The images clearly show the enamel{endash}cementum and the gingiva{endash}tooth interfaces, indicating OCT is a potentially useful technique for diagnosis of periodontal diseases. To our knowledge, this is the first application of OCT for imaging biologic hard tissue. {copyright} 1998 Optical Society of America

  13. Coherent radar imaging: Signal processing and statistical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Ronald F.

    1997-11-01

    The recently developed technique for imaging radar scattering irregularities has opened a great scientific potential for ionospheric and atmospheric coherent radars. These images are obtained by processing the diffraction pattern of the backscattered electromagnetic field at a finite number of sampling points on the ground. In this paper, we review the mathematical relationship between the statistical covariance of these samples, (? ?†), and that of the radiating object field to be imaged, (??†), in a self-contained and comprehensive way. It is shown that these matrices are related in a linear way by (??†) = aM(FF†)M†a*, where M is a discrete Fourier transform operator and a is a matrix operator representing the discrete and limited sampling of the field. The image, or brightness distribution, is the diagonal of (FF†). The equation can be linearly inverted only in special cases. In most cases, inversion algorithms which make use of a priori information or maximum entropy constraints must be used. A naive (biased) "image" can be estimated in a manner analogous to an optical camera by simply applying an inverse DFT operator to the sampled field ? and evaluating the average power of the elements of the resulting vector ?. Such a transformation can be obtained either digitally or in an analog way. For the latter we can use a Butler matrix consisting of properly interconnected transmission lines. The case of radar targets in the near field is included as a new contribution. This case involves an additional matrix operator b, which is an analog of an optical lens used to compensate for the curvature of the phase fronts of the backscattered field. This "focusing" can be done after the statistics have been obtained. The formalism is derived for brightness distributions representing total powers. However, the derived expressions have been extended to include "color" images for each of the frequency components of the sampled time series. The frequency filtering

  14. A sparsity-based simplification method for segmentation of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiniel, William; Gan, Yu; Olivo-Marin, Jean-Christophe; Angelini, Elsa

    2017-08-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has emerged as a promising image modality to characterize biological tissues. With axio-lateral resolutions at the micron-level, OCT images provide detailed morphological information and enable applications such as optical biopsy and virtual histology for clinical needs. Image enhancement is typically required for morphological segmentation, to improve boundary localization, rather than enrich detailed tissue information. We propose to formulate image enhancement as an image simplification task such that tissue layers are smoothed while contours are enhanced. For this purpose, we exploit a Total Variation sparsity-based image reconstruction, inspired by the Compressed Sensing (CS) theory, but specialized for images with structures arranged in layers. We demonstrate the potential of our approach on OCT human heart and retinal images for layers segmentation. We also compare our image enhancement capabilities to the state-of-the-art denoising techniques.

  15. Registration techniques for speckle suppression in 2D LADAR image sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo, Darren R.; Cain, Stephen C.

    2005-03-01

    Air Force Research Labs, Sensors Directorate has constructed and tested a coherent imaging system. The Laservision coherent imaging system resolution goals are compatible with long-range target identification based on the image characteristics of the target. The system received reflected coherent light from the laser using an optical telescope, which fed a CCD detector to collect the scene intensity. Registration of individual images remains a significant problem in the generation of accurate images collected using coherent imaging systems. An investigation of the performance of an image registration algorithm was conducted using data collected from a coherent optical imaging. The algorithm under study was implemented on a general-purpose computer running the MATLAB simulation environment. This paper documents the performance of the proposed technique compared to that of the cross-correlation algorithm.

  16. Combining confocal microscopy and optical coherence tomography for imaging in developmental biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradu, A.; Ma, Lisha; Bloor, J.; Podoleanu, A.

    2008-04-01

    In-vivo Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) imaging of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster larval heart allows non invasive visualizations and assesment of its cardiac functions. To image Drosophila melanogaster heart, we have developed a dedicated imaging instrument able to provide simultaneous Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and Laser Confocal Scanning Microscopy (LCSM) or Laser Scanning Fluorescence Microscopy (LSFM) images and can be used to produce B-scan OCT images. With this dual imaging system, the image of heart can be easily located in the specimen and the change of the heart shape in a cardiac cycle monitored. This technique therefore provides an excellent tool for large scale screen of candidate genes responsible for the contractility of the Drosophila heart. As this technique can also image the dynamic process of the heartbeat in a non-invasive fashion, it provides a new avenue to study the physiology of the heart function. En-face and B-scan OCT images of the Drosophila melanogaster heart showing its chambers have been obtained with our imaging instruments. Our results are consistent with detailed anatomical studies from the literature.

  17. Biological elements carry out optical tasks in coherent imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, P.; Bianco, V.; Paturzo, M.; Miccio, L.; Memmolo, P.; Merola, F.; Marchesano, V.

    2016-03-01

    We show how biological elements, like live bacteria species and Red Blood Cells (RBCs) can accomplish optical functionalities in DH systems. Turbid media allow coherent microscopy despite the strong light scattering these provoke, acting on light just as moving diffusers. Furthermore, a turbid medium can have positive effects on a coherent imaging system, providing resolution enhancement and mimicking the action of noise decorrelation devices, thus yielding an image quality significantly higher than the quality achievable through a transparent medium in similar recording conditions. Besides, suspended RBCs are demonstrated to behave as controllable liquid micro-lenses, opening new possibilities in biophotonics for endoscopy imaging purposes, as well as telemedicine for point-of-care diagnostics in developing countries and low-resource settings.

  18. A miniature forward-imaging optical coherence tomography (OCT) probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joos, Karen M.; Shen, Jin-Hui

    2012-03-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has had a tremendous global health impact upon the current ability to diagnose, treat, and monitor multiple eye diseases. We propose that a miniature forward-imaging OCT probe can be developed for real-time ocular imaging. A miniature 25-gauge forward-imaging probe was designed and developed to use with an 850 nm spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) system (Bioptigen, Inc. Durham, NC). Imaging parameters were determined. Ocular tissues were examined with the miniature OCT probe. A miniature SDOCT probe was developed with the scanning driver within the hand piece. The SDOCT fiber-scanning probe maximally transmitted power of 800 μW. The scanning range was 3 mm when the probe tip was held 3 to 5 mm from the tissue surface. The axial resolution was 6 μm and the lateral resolution was 30-35 μm. The 25-gauge forward-imaging probe was used to image cellophane tape, eyelid skin, cornea, conjunctiva, sclera, iris, anterior lens, anterior chamber angle, retina, retinal tear, retinal detachment, optic nerve head, and optic nerve sheath. Images obtained from the miniature probe appeared similar to images from a 3 mm scanning range of a commercial large handheld OCT probe (Bioptigen, Inc. Durham, NC).

  19. Novel Fibre Optic-Based Interferometric Sensors Exploiting Coherent and Low-Coherence Signal Processing Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerges, Awad Samir

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. The work presented in this thesis is concerned with the introduction of several novel fibre-optic-based interferometric sensors. The main objectives have been to design practical sensors which are remote, passive, insensitive to environmental perturbations and capable of reinitialisation when it is switched on. A sensor for temperature or strain measurement is demonstrated using a short coherence length light source. A novel signal processing technique, based on either tracking the point of maximum visibility (zero path imbalance) or the first quadrature point, has been introduced. The advantages of both techniques are that the value of the measurand can be recovered when the sensor is 'powered up' and the accuracy of the sensor is nearly independent of drift in the source wavelength. The potential of using multi-mode laser diodes, as alternatives to the low coherence-length sources such as LED's or SLD's commonly used in 'white light' fibre-optic interferometric sensors has been studied. It is shown that the main advantage gained in using such sources is improved resolution due to the significant increase in the launched optical power. The use of such sources however is subject to certain restrictions. A novel form of sensor in which the sensing element is a miniature hemispherical air cavity Fabry Perot interferometer has been introduced. The properties of the cavity are theoretically studied and then verified experimentally. This new cavity design has been exploited for two different types of thermometers. A novel accelerometer, in which the sensing element is a weighted diaphragm, has also been introduced. The displacement of the diaphragm produced by acceleration is measured using a similar miniature hemispherical air -spaced Fabry-Perot interferometer, of which one mirror is mounted on the diaphragm. The design of the accelerometer has been developed to have minimal sensitivity to environmental and

  20. Enhanced vitreous imaging optical coherence tomography in primary macular holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Atsushi; Nagaoka, Taiji; Yoshida, Akitoshi

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the current pilot study is to investigate the efficacy of a novel enhanced vitreous imaging (EVI) in primary macular holes (MHs) using a spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Thirty-four eyes of 32 consecutive patients with a MH were examined in one time cross-sectional study. The vitreomacular interface was assessed using SD-OCT with conventional and EVI technique. Twenty-three of the 34 eyes did not show a Weiss ring, and in 22 of those, we observed a MH with an open roof or operculum and a detached posterior vitreous cortex with conventional vitreous imaging. Using EVI-OCT, we visualized the reflection of the posterior vitreous with a vitreopapillary attachment. One of the 23 eyes without a Weiss ring had a central round retinal defect without an operculum, and the conventional SD-OCT showed an empty vitreous, suggesting a complete posterior vitreous detachment. However, the EVI-OCT revealed the reflection of the posterior vitreous, and the cortex appeared to still be completely attached. In all the 23 eyes without a Weiss ring, EVI-OCT detected the reflection of the posterior vitreous and vitreopapillary attachment. In all 11 eyes with a Weiss ring (stage 4 hole), EVI-OCT showed an optically empty space in the posterior vitreous cavity without a vitreopapillary attachment. EVI-OCT may be a new reliable method for preoperative evaluations to determine the presence or absence of a complete posterior vitreous detachment in macular diseases with an indistinct Weiss ring.

  1. Coherent Lensless imaging with Ultra-Broadband Light Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eikema K. S. E.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate a method for efficient lensless imaging using ultra-broadband light sources. By using a pair of time-delayed, coherent pulses in a Fourier-transform scheme, spectrally resolved diffraction patterns are obtained throughout the entire spectrum of the incident light source. We perform a proof-of-principle experiment using an octave-spanning visible light source, and obtain images of a holographic test sample with near-diffraction limited resolution. Our approach provides a promising route towards efficient high-resolution imaging using table-top high-harmonic soft-X-ray sources.

  2. EDITORIAL: Imaging systems and techniques Imaging systems and techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wuqiang; Giakos, George; Nikita, Konstantina; Pastorino, Matteo; Karras, Dimitrios

    2009-10-01

    The papers in this special issue focus on providing the state-of-the-art approaches and solutions to some of the most challenging imaging areas, such as the design, development, evaluation and applications of imaging systems, measuring techniques, image processing algorithms and instrumentation, with an ultimate aim of enhancing the measurement accuracy and image quality. This special issue explores the principles, engineering developments and applications of new imaging systems and techniques, and encourages broad discussion of imaging methodologies, shaping the future and identifying emerging trends. The multi-faceted field of imaging requires drastic adaptation to the rapid changes in our society, economy, environment and technological evolution. There is an urgent need to address new problems, which tend to be either static but complex, or dynamic, e.g. rapidly evolving with time, with many unknowns, and to propose innovative solutions. For instance, the battles against cancer and terror, monitoring of space resources and enhanced awareness, management of natural resources and environmental monitoring are some of the areas that need to be addressed. The complexity of the involved imaging scenarios and demanding design parameters, e.g. speed, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), specificity, contrast, spatial resolution, scatter rejection, complex background and harsh environments, necessitate the development of a multi-functional, scalable and efficient imaging suite of sensors, solutions driven by innovation, and operation on diverse detection and imaging principles. Efficient medical imaging techniques capable of providing physiological information at the molecular level present another important research area. Advanced metabolic and functional imaging techniques, operating on multiple physical principles, and using high-resolution, high-selectivity nano-imaging methods, quantum dots, nanoparticles, biomarkers, nanostructures, nanosensors, micro-array imaging chips

  3. Integrated intravascular optical coherence tomography ultrasound imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jiechen; Yang, Hao-Chung; Li, Xiang; Zhang, Jun; Zhou, Qifa; Hu, Changhong; Shung, K. Kirk; Chen, Zhongping

    2010-01-01

    We report on a dual-modality optical coherence tomography (OCT) ultrasound (US) system for intravascular imaging. To the best of our knowledge, we have developed the first integrated OCT-US probe that combines OCT optical components with an US transducer. The OCT optical components mainly consist of a single-mode fiber, a gradient index lens for light-beam focusing, and a right-angled prism for reflecting light into biological tissue. A 40-MHz piezoelectric transducer (PZT-5H) side-viewing US transducer was fabricated to obtain the US image. These components were integrated into a single probe, enabling both OCT and US imaging at the same time. In vitro OCT and ultrasound images of a rabbit aorta were obtained using this dual-modality imaging system. This study demonstrates the feasibility of an OCT-US system for intravascular imaging, which is expected to have a prominent impact on early detection and characterization of atherosclerosis.

  4. Coherent multiscale image processing using dual-tree quaternion wavelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Wai Lam; Choi, Hyeokho; Baraniuk, Richard G

    2008-07-01

    The dual-tree quaternion wavelet transform (QWT) is a new multiscale analysis tool for geometric image features. The QWT is a near shift-invariant tight frame representation whose coefficients sport a magnitude and three phases: two phases encode local image shifts while the third contains image texture information. The QWT is based on an alternative theory for the 2-D Hilbert transform and can be computed using a dual-tree filter bank with linear computational complexity. To demonstrate the properties of the QWT's coherent magnitude/phase representation, we develop an efficient and accurate procedure for estimating the local geometrical structure of an image. We also develop a new multiscale algorithm for estimating the disparity between a pair of images that is promising for image registration and flow estimation applications. The algorithm features multiscale phase unwrapping, linear complexity, and sub-pixel estimation accuracy.

  5. High-Speed Coherent Raman Fingerprint Imaging of Biological Tissues

    CERN Document Server

    Camp, Charles H; Heddleston, John M; Hartshorn, Christopher M; Walker, Angela R Hight; Rich, Jeremy N; Lathia, Justin D; Cicerone, Marcus T

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a coherent Raman imaging platform using broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (BCARS) that provides an unprecedented combination of speed, sensitivity, and spectral breadth. The system utilizes a unique configuration of laser sources that probes the Raman spectrum over 3,000 cm$^{-1}$ and generates an especially strong response in the typically weak Raman "fingerprint" region through heterodyne amplification of the anti-Stokes photons with a large nonresonant background (NRB) while maintaining high spectral resolution of $<$ 13 cm$^{-1}$. For histology and pathology, this system shows promise in highlighting major tissue components in a non-destructive, label-free manner. We demonstrate high-speed chemical imaging in two- and three-dimensional views of healthy murine liver and pancreas tissues and interfaces between xenograft brain tumors and the surrounding healthy brain matter.

  6. Video-rate optical coherence tomography imaging with smart pixels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Stephan; Waldis, Severin; Seitz, Peter

    2003-10-01

    A novel concept for video-rate parallel acquisition of optical coherence tomography imaging is presented based on in-pixel demodulation. The main restrictions for parallel detection such as data rate, power consumption, circuit size and poor sensitivity are overcome with a smart pixel architecture incorporating an offset compensation circuit, a synchronous sampling stage, programmable time averaging and random pixel accessing, allowing envelope and phase detection in large 1D and 2D arrays.

  7. Image Inpainting Based On Coherence Transport With Adapted Distance Functions

    OpenAIRE

    März, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We discuss an extension of our method Image Inpainting Based on Coherence Transport. For the latter method the pixels of the inpainting domain have to be serialized into an ordered list. Up till now, to induce the serialization we have used the distance to boundary map. But there are inpainting problems where the distance to boundary serialization causes unsatisfactory inpainting results. In the present work we demonstrate cases where we can resolve the difficulties by employing other distanc...

  8. Imaging and graphing of cortical vasculature using dynamically focused optical coherence microscopy angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, Conor; Radhakrishnan, Harsha; Bernucci, Marcel; Srinivasan, Vivek J

    2016-02-01

    Recently, optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography has enabled label-free imaging of vasculature based on dynamic scattering in vessels. However, quantitative volumetric analysis of the vascular networks depicted in OCT angiography data has remained challenging. Multiple-scattering tails (artifacts specific to the imaging geometry) make automated assessment of vascular morphology problematic. We demonstrate that dynamically focused optical coherence microscopy (OCM) angiography with a high numerical aperture, chosen so the scattering length greatly exceeds the depth-of-field, significantly reduces the deleterious effect of multiple-scattering tails in synthesized angiograms. Capitalizing on the improved vascular image quality, we devised and tailored a self-correcting automated graphing approach that achieves a reconstruction of cortical microvasculature from OCM angiography data sets with accuracy approaching that attained by trained operators. The automated techniques described here will facilitate more widespread study of vascular network topology in health and disease.

  9. Real-time and static in vivo ophthalmic imaging by spectral optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtkowski, Maciej; Bajraszewski, Tomasz; Targowski, Piotr; Kowalczyk, Andrzej

    2004-07-01

    Fast Spectral Optical Coherence Tomography (SOCT) technique is used to perform cross sectional and three-dimensional ophthalmic images. Static, real-time and 3-D in vivo images of the human cornea, lens, iris, corneo-scleral junction, retinal layers, optic disc and macula lutea are presented. The ophthalmic application of SOCT is promising because this technique ensures fast acquisition with relatively low optical power of incident light. All demonstrated images are obtained with the aid of SOCT instrument, which was constructed in the optical laboratory of medical physics group at Nicolaus Copernicus University (Torun, Poland). What is to our knowledge there are the first good quality (>90dB sensitivity) ophthalmic OCT images obtained by technique, which is different than time domain OCT.

  10. Anorectal anatomy and imaging techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solan, Patrick; Davis, Bradley

    2013-12-01

    The rectum and anus are two anatomically complex organs with diverse pathologies. This article reviews the basic anatomy of the rectum and anus. In addition, it addresses the current radiographic techniques used to evaluate these structures, specifically ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, and defecography. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Radar rainfall image repair techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Wesson

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available There are various quality problems associated with radar rainfall data viewed in images that include ground clutter, beam blocking and anomalous propagation, to name a few. To obtain the best rainfall estimate possible, techniques for removing ground clutter (non-meteorological echoes that influence radar data quality on 2-D radar rainfall image data sets are presented here. These techniques concentrate on repairing the images in both a computationally fast and accurate manner, and are nearest neighbour techniques of two sub-types: Individual Target and Border Tracing. The contaminated data is estimated through Kriging, considered the optimal technique for the spatial interpolation of Gaussian data, where the 'screening effect' that occurs with the Kriging weighting distribution around target points is exploited to ensure computational efficiency. Matrix rank reduction techniques in combination with Singular Value Decomposition (SVD are also suggested for finding an efficient solution to the Kriging Equations which can cope with near singular systems. Rainfall estimation at ground level from radar rainfall volume scan data is of interest and importance in earth bound applications such as hydrology and agriculture. As an extension of the above, Ordinary Kriging is applied to three-dimensional radar rainfall data to estimate rainfall rate at ground level. Keywords: ground clutter, data infilling, Ordinary Kriging, nearest neighbours, Singular Value Decomposition, border tracing, computation time, ground level rainfall estimation

  12. Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography images based on wave atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yongzhao; Liu, Gangjun; Feng, Guoying; Chen, Zhongping

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging noninvasive imaging technique, which is based on low-coherence interferometry. OCT images suffer from speckle noise, which reduces image contrast. A shrinkage filter based on wave atoms transform is proposed for speckle reduction in OCT images. Wave atoms transform is a new multiscale geometric analysis tool that offers sparser expansion and better representation for images containing oscillatory patterns and textures than other traditional transforms, such as wavelet and curvelet transforms. Cycle spinning-based technology is introduced to avoid visual artifacts, such as Gibbs-like phenomenon, and to develop a translation invariant wave atoms denoising scheme. The speckle suppression degree in the denoised images is controlled by an adjustable parameter that determines the threshold in the wave atoms domain. The experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively remove the speckle noise and improve the OCT image quality. The signal-to-noise ratio, contrast-to-noise ratio, average equivalent number of looks, and cross-correlation (XCOR) values are obtained, and the results are also compared with the wavelet and curvelet thresholding techniques. PMID:24825507

  13. Ultrasound harmonic enhanced imaging using eigenspace-based coherence factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Wang, Yuanyuan; Yu, Jinhua

    2016-12-01

    Tissue harmonic imaging (THI) utilizes harmonic signals generating within the tissue as the result of nonlinear acoustic wave propagation. With inadequate transmitting acoustic energy, THI is incapable to detect the small objects since poor harmonic signals have been generated. In most cases, high transmission energy cannot be guaranteed because of the imaging safety issue or specific imaging modality such as the plane wave imaging (PWI). Discrimination of small point targets such as calcification, however, is particularly important in the ultrasound diagnosis. Few efforts have been made to pursue the THI with high resolution and good small target visibility at the same time. In this paper, we proposed a new eigenspace-based coherence factor (ESBCF) beamformer to solve this problem. A new kind of coherence factor (CF), named as ESBCF, is firstly proposed to detect the point targets. The detected region-of-interest (ROI) is then enhanced adaptively by using a newly developed beamforming method. The ESBCF combines the information from signal eigenspace and coherence factor by expanding the CF to the covariance matrix of signal. Analogous to the image processing but in the radio frequency (RF) data domain, the proposed method fully utilizes the information from the fundamental and harmonic components. The performance of the proposed method is demonstrated by simulation and phantom experiments. The improvement of the point contrast ratio (PCR) is 7.6dB in the simulated data, and 6.0dB in the phantom experiment. Thanks to the improved small point detection ability of the ESBCF, the proposed beamforming algorithm can enhance the PCR considerably and maintain the high resolution of the THI at the same time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Imaging cutaneous T-Cell lymphoma with optical coherence tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ring, H.C.; Hansen Stamp, I.M.; Jemec, G.B.E.

    2012-01-01

    .13 mm. A good immediate correlation was found between histology and OCT imaging of the sample. Conclusion: The aetiology of the elongated structures is thought to be lymphomatous infiltrates. Similar findings have been described in ocular lymphoma and may therefore be an important characteristic......Aim: To investigate the presentation of a patch-stage cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods: A patient with a patch caused by CTCL was photographed digitally, OCT-scanned and biopsied. A normal skin area adjacent to the patch was OCT......-scanned for comparison, but not biopsied. The OCT image and the histological image were compared. Results: The OCT images illustrated a thickened and hyperreflective stratum corneum. OCT also demonstrated several elongated hyporeflective structures in the dermis. The largest structure was measured to have a width of 0...

  15. Imaging of Phase Objects using Partially Coherent Illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravizza, F. L. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Screening high-power laser optics for light intensifying phase objects that cause laserinduced damage on downstream optics is critical to sustaining laser operation. Identifying such flaws on large-apertures is quite challenging since they are relatively small and invisible to conventional inspection methods. A Linescan Phase Differential Imaging (LPDI) system was developed to rapidly identify these flaws on large-aperture optics within a single full-aperture dark-field image. We describe a two-step production phase object screening process consisting of LPDI mapping and image analysis, followed by high-resolution interferometry and propagation based evaluation of the downstream damage potential of identified flaws. An image simulation code capable of modeling the LPDI partially coherent illumination was used to optimize its phase object sensitivity.

  16. Coherence Imaging Measurements of Impurity Flow in the CTH and W7-X Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennis, D. A.; Allen, N. R.; Hartwell, G. J.; Johnson, C. A.; Maurer, D. A.; Allen, S. L.; Samuell, C. M.; Gradic, D.; Konig, R.; Perseo, V.; W7-X Team

    2017-10-01

    Measurements of impurity ion emissivity and velocity in the Compact Toroidal Hybrid (CTH) experiment are achieved with a new optical coherence imaging diagnostic. The Coherence Imaging Spectroscopy (CIS) technique uses an imaging interferometer of fixed delay to provide 2D spectral images, making it ideal for investigating the non-axisymmetric geometry of CTH plasmas. Preliminary analysis of C III interferograms indicate a net toroidal flow on the order of 10 km/s during the time of peak current. Bench tests using Zn and Cd light sources reveal that the temperature of the interferometer optics must be controlled to within 0.01°C to limit phase drift resulting in artificially measured flow. A new collaboration between Auburn University and the Max-Planck-Institute for Plasma Physics is underway to develop two new coherence imaging instruments for ion impurity flow measurements in orthogonal directions to investigate the 3D physics of the W7-X island divertor during OP1.2. A continuous wave laser tunable over most of the visible region will be incorporated to provide immediate and accurate calibrations of both CIS systems during plasma operations. Work supported by USDoE Grant DE-FG02-00ER54610.

  17. Raman Imaging Techniques and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Raman imaging has long been used to probe the chemical nature of a sample, providing information on molecular orientation, symmetry and structure with sub-micron spatial resolution. Recent technical developments have pushed the limits of micro-Raman microscopy, enabling the acquisition of Raman spectra with unprecedented speed, and opening a pathway to fast chemical imaging for many applications from material science and semiconductors to pharmaceutical drug development and cell biology, and even art and forensic science. The promise of tip-enhanced raman spectroscopy (TERS) and near-field techniques is pushing the envelope even further by breaking the limit of diffraction and enabling nano-Raman microscopy.

  18. Imaging mouse cerebellum with serial optical coherence scanner (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao J.; Williams, Kristen; Orr, Harry; Taner, Akkin

    2017-02-01

    We present the serial optical coherence scanner (SOCS), which consists of a polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography and a vibratome with associated controls for serial imaging, to visualize the cerebellum and adjacent brainstem of mouse. The cerebellar cortical layers and white matter are distinguished by using intrinsic optical contrasts. Images from serial scans reveal the large-scale anatomy in detail and map the nerve fiber pathways in the cerebellum and adjacent brainstem. The optical system, which has 5.5 μm axial resolution, utilizes a scan lens or a water-immersion microscope objective resulting in 10 μm or 4 μm lateral resolution, respectively. The large-scale brain imaging at high resolution requires an efficient way to collect large datasets. It is important to improve the SOCS system to deal with large-scale and large number of samples in a reasonable time. The imaging and slicing procedure for a section took about 4 minutes due to a low speed of the vibratome blade to maintain slicing quality. SOCS has potential to investigate pathological changes and monitor the effects of therapeutic drugs in cerebellar diseases such as spinocerebellar ataxia 1 (SCA1). The SCA1 is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by atrophy and eventual loss of Purkinje cells from the cerebellar cortex, and the optical contrasts provided by SOCS is being evaluated for biomarkers of the disease.

  19. Applications of compressed sensing to coherent radar imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qian

    2016-03-01

    Although meteoroids fragmentation has been observed and studied in the optical meteor community since the 1950s, no definitive fragmentation mechanisms for the relatively small meteoroids (mass .10.4 kg) have been proposed. This is in part due to the lack of observations to constrain physical mechanisms of the fragmentation process. While it is challenging to record fragmentation in faint optical meteors, observing meteors using HPLA (High-Power, Large- Aperture) radars can yield considerable information especially when employing coherent radar imaging (CRI). CRI can potentially resolve the fragmentation process in three spatial dimensions by monitoring the evolution of the plasma in the meteor head-echo, flare-echo, and trail-echo regions. On the other hand, the emerging field of compressed sensing (CS) provides a novel paradigm for signal acquisition and processing. Furthermore, it has been, and continues to be, applied with great success in radar systems, offering various benefits such as better resolution compared to traditional techniques, reduced resource requirements, and so forth. In this dissertation, we examine how CS can be incorporated to improve the performance of CRI using HPLA radars. We propose a single CS-based formalism that enables the threedimensions (3D).the range, Doppler frequency, and cross range (represented by the direction cosines) domain.coherent imaging. We show that the CS-based CRI can not only reduce the system costs and decrease the needed number of baselines by spatial sparse sampling, which can be much less than the number required by Nyquist-Shannon sampling criterion, but also achieve high resolution for target detection. We implement the CS-based CRI for meteor studies with observations conducted at the Jicamarca Radio Observatory (JRO) in Peru. We present the unprecedented resolved details of meteoroids fragmentation, including both along and transverse to the trajectory spreading of the developing plasma, apparently caused by

  20. Improved contrast for high frame rate imaging using coherent compounding combined with spatial matched filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yang; Yen, Jesse T

    2017-07-01

    The concept of high frame rate ultrasound imaging (typically greater than 1000 frames per second) has inspired new fields of clinical applications for ultrasound imaging such as fast cardiovascular imaging, fast Doppler imaging and real-time 3D imaging. Coherent plane-wave compounding is a promising beamforming technique to achieve high frame rate imaging. By combining echoes from plane waves with different angles, dynamic transmit focusing is efficiently accomplished at all points in the image field. Meanwhile, the image frame rate can still be kept at a high level. Spatial matched filtering (SMF) with plane-wave insonification is a novel ultrafast beamforming method. An analytical study shows that SMF is equivalent to synthetic aperture methods that can provide dynamic transmit-receive focusing throughout the field of view. Experimental results show that plane-wave SMF has better performance than dynamic-receive focusing. In this paper, we propose integrating coherent plane-wave compounding with SMF to obtain greater image contrast. By using a combination of SMF beamformed images, image contrast is improved without degrading its high frame rate capabilities. The performance of compounded SMF (CSMF) is evaluated and compared with that of synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT) beamforming and compounded dynamic-receive-focus (CDRF) beamforming. The image quality of different beamforming methods was quantified in terms of contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). Our results show that the new SMF based plane-wave compounding method provides better contrast than DAS based compounding method. Also CSMF can obtain a similar contrast level to dynamic transmit-receive focusing with only 21 transmit events. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Learnable despeckling framework for optical coherence tomography images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adabi, Saba; Rashedi, Elaheh; Clayton, Anne; Mohebbi-Kalkhoran, Hamed; Chen, Xue-wen; Conforto, Silvia; Nasiriavanaki, Mohammadreza

    2018-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a prevalent, interferometric, high-resolution imaging method with broad biomedical applications. Nonetheless, OCT images suffer from an artifact called speckle, which degrades the image quality. Digital filters offer an opportunity for image improvement in clinical OCT devices, where hardware modification to enhance images is expensive. To reduce speckle, a wide variety of digital filters have been proposed; selecting the most appropriate filter for an OCT image/image set is a challenging decision, especially in dermatology applications of OCT where a different variety of tissues are imaged. To tackle this challenge, we propose an expandable learnable despeckling framework, we call LDF. LDF decides which speckle reduction algorithm is most effective on a given image by learning a figure of merit (FOM) as a single quantitative image assessment measure. LDF is learnable, which means when implemented on an OCT machine, each given image/image set is retrained and its performance is improved. Also, LDF is expandable, meaning that any despeckling algorithm can easily be added to it. The architecture of LDF includes two main parts: (i) an autoencoder neural network and (ii) filter classifier. The autoencoder learns the FOM based on several quality assessment measures obtained from the OCT image including signal-to-noise ratio, contrast-to-noise ratio, equivalent number of looks, edge preservation index, and mean structural similarity index. Subsequently, the filter classifier identifies the most efficient filter from the following categories: (a) sliding window filters including median, mean, and symmetric nearest neighborhood, (b) adaptive statistical-based filters including Wiener, homomorphic Lee, and Kuwahara, and (c) edge preserved patch or pixel correlation-based filters including nonlocal mean, total variation, and block matching three-dimensional filtering.

  2. Spectral optical coherence tomography in video-rate and 3D imaging of contact lens wear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaluzny, Bartlomiej J; Fojt, Wojciech; Szkulmowska, Anna; Bajraszewski, Tomasz; Wojtkowski, Maciej; Kowalczyk, Andrzej

    2007-12-01

    To present the applicability of spectral optical coherence tomography (SOCT) for video-rate and three-dimensional imaging of a contact lens on the eye surface. The SOCT prototype instrument constructed at Nicolaus Copernicus University (Torun, Poland) is based on Fourier domain detection, which enables high sensitivity (96 dB) and increases the speed of imaging 60 times compared with conventional optical coherence tomography techniques. Consequently, video-rate imaging and three-dimensional reconstructions can be achieved, preserving the high quality of the image. The instrument operates under clinical conditions in the Ophthalmology Department (Collegium Medicum Nicolaus Copernicus University, Bydgoszcz, Poland). A total of three eyes fitted with different contact lenses were examined with the aid of the instrument. Before SOCT measurements, slit lamp examinations were performed. Data, which are representative for each imaging mode, are presented. The instrument provided high-resolution (4 microm axial x 10 microm transverse) tomograms with an acquisition time of 40 micros per A-scan. Video-rate imaging allowed the simultaneous quantitative evaluation of the movement of the contact lens and assessment of the fitting relationship between the lens and the ocular surface. Three-dimensional scanning protocols further improved lens visualization and fit evaluation. SOCT allows video-rate and three-dimensional cross-sectional imaging of the eye fitted with a contact lens. The analysis of both imaging modes suggests the future applicability of this technology to the contact lens field.

  3. Effects of tissue fixation on coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering images of brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Roberta; Uckermann, Ortrud; Koch, Edmund; Schackert, Gabriele; Kirsch, Matthias; Steiner, Gerald

    2014-07-01

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy is an emerging multiphoton technique for the label-free histopathology of the central nervous system, by imaging the lipid content within the tissue. In order to apply the technique on standard histology sections, it is important to know the effects of tissue fixation on the CARS image. Here, we report the effects of two common fixation methods, namely with formalin and methanol-acetone, on mouse brain and human glioblastoma tissue. The variations induced by fixation on the CARS contrast and intensity were compared and interpreted using Raman microspectroscopy. The results show that, whenever unfixed cryosections cannot be used, fixation with formalin constitutes an alternative which does not deteriorate substantially the contrast generated by the different brain structures in the CARS image. Fixation with methanol-acetone strongly modifies the tissue lipid content and is therefore incompatible with the CARS imaging.

  4. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography: Employing a Novel Technique for Investigation in Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Giannakouras

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a case of Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH disease and describe the imaging findings by means of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA. Methods: Medical and ophthalmological history, ophthalmological examination, laboratory evaluation, B-scan ultrasonography, fluorescein and indocyanine angiography, and optical coherence tomography (OCT were performed at baseline, as well as OCTA. Results: A 50-year-old healthy female presented with decreased vision in both eyes. A Topcon DRI OCT Triton Plus swept source OCT system was used to visualize and evaluate the retinal and choroidal vascular plexus. Patchy and confluent dark areas in the superficial and deep retinal capillary plexus and choriocapillaris corresponded to areas of hypoperfusion, analyzed as areas of ischemia. Conclusions and Importance: VKH disease is characterized by ocular, neurological, and integumentary findings in its complete form. We present a case of incomplete disease in a 50-year-old female evaluated by means of OCTA which is a novel technique that provides depth-resolved images of the retina and choroidal microvasculature without dye injection that allows better visualization and detailed evaluation of the retinal and choroidal vascular plexus.

  5. Enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography and fundus autofluorescence findings in bilateral choroidal osteoma: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erol, Muhammet Kazim; Coban, Deniz Turgut; Ceran, Basak Bostanci; Bulut, Mehmet, E-mail: muhammetkazimerol@gmail.com [Kazim Erol. Antalya Training and Research Hospital, Ophthalmology Department, Antalya (Turkey)

    2013-11-01

    The authors present enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI OCT) and fundus autofluorescence (FAF) characteristics of a patient with bilateral choroidal osteoma and try to make a correlation between two imaging techniques. Two eyes of a patient with choroidal osteoma underwent complete ophthalmic examination. Enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography revealed a cage-like pattern, which corresponded to the calcified region of the tumor. Fundus autofluorescence imaging of the same area showed slight hyperautofluorescence. Three different reflectivity patterns in the decalcified area were defined. In the areas of subretinal fluid, outer segment elongations similar to central serous chorioretinopathy were observed. Hyperautofluorescent spots were evident in fundus autofluorescence in the same area. Calcified and decalcified portions of choroidal osteoma as well as the atrophy of choriocapillaris demonstrated different patterns with enhanced depth imaging and fundus autofluorescence imaging. Both techniques were found to be beneficial in the diagnosis and follow-up of choroidal osteoma. (author)

  6. Enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography and fundus autofluorescence findings in bilateral choroidal osteoma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet Kazim Erol

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors present enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI OCT and fundus autofluorescence (FAF characteristics of a patient with bilateral choroidal osteoma and try to make a correlation between two imaging techniques. Two eyes of a patient with choroidal osteoma underwent complete ophthalmic examination. Enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography revealed a cage-like pattern, which corresponded to the calcified region of the tumor. Fundus autofluorescence imaging of the same area showed slight hyperautofluorescence. Three different reflectivity patterns in the decalcified area were defined. In the areas of subretinal fluid, outer segment elongations similar to central serous chorioretinopathy were observed. Hyperautofluorescent spots were evident in fundus autofluorescence in the same area. Calcified and decalcified portions of choroidal osteoma as well as the atrophy of choriocapillaris demonstrated different patterns with enhanced depth imaging and fundus autofluorescence imaging. Both techniques were found to be beneficial in the diagnosis and follow-up of choroidal osteoma.

  7. Imaging at the X-ray Frontier: Coherent Diffraction Imaging (CDI) for Nano and Bioscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Jianwei (John)

    2013-03-01

    For centuries, lens-based microscopy, such as light, phase-contrast, fluorescence, confocal and electron microscopy, has played an important role in the evolution of modern sciences and technologies. In 1999, a novel form of microscopy, i.e. coherent diffraction imaging (also termed coherent diffraction microscopy or lensless imaging) was developed and transformed our traditional view of microscopy, in which the diffraction pattern of a noncrystalline object or a nanocrystal is first measured and then directly phased to obtain a high resolution image. The well-known phase problem is solved by the oversampling method in combination with iterative algorithms whose principle can be traced back to the Shannon sampling theorem. In this talk, I will briefly discuss the principle of coherent diffraction imaging and illustrate its broad application in nano and bioscience by using synchrotron radiation, high harmonic generation and X-ray free electron lasers.

  8. Synthetic-Aperture Coherent Imaging From A Circular Path

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Michael Y.

    1995-01-01

    Imaging algorithms based on exact point-target responses. Developed for use in reconstructing image of target from data gathered by radar, sonar, or other transmitting/receiving coherent-signal sensory apparatus following circular observation path around target. Potential applications include: Wide-beam synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) from aboard spacecraft in circular orbit around target planet; SAR from aboard airplane flying circular course at constant elevation around central ground point, toward which spotlight radar beam pointed; Ultrasonic reflection tomography in medical setting, using one transducer moving in circle around patient or else multiple transducers at fixed positions on circle around patient; and Sonar imaging of sea floor to high resolution, without need for large sensory apparatus.

  9. High-Resolution, Quantitative, and Three-Dimensional Coherent Diffractive Imaging with a Tabletop EUV Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanblatt, Elisabeth Rose

    Imaging is a critical tool used across a broad range of applications in science, technology, medicine, and manufacturing. Microscopy, the type of imaging which allows us to access the elusive yet rich world of what is smaller than we can naturally see--makes it possible to observe and design the nano-world of biological, material, and nanofabricated systems. In this thesis, I describe the development of a new type of microscopy that combines two powerful tools: coherent extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light sources produced by high harmonic generation, and ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging. This microscope produces high-resolution, chemically-specific, phase- and amplitude-contrast images with large fields of view on the order of hundreds of microns, while preserving a high spatial resolution on the scale of tens of nanometers. Recently, we extended this new tabletop microscopy technique to image reflective samples, periodic samples, and to image dynamic nano-scale elastic and thermal processes. I will discuss these advances and in particular demonstrate two new capabilities: first, a new imaging technique with high compositionally- and morphologically-sensitive quantitative information, capable of imaging reactions and diffusion at a buried interface. This capability will open up a new, exquisitely sensitive layer-by-layer imaging that has many applications in nanoscience and nanotechnology, including surface and materials science and metrology. Secondly, I will demonstrate imaging of a thick sample in three dimensions. By accounting for diffraction within a thick sample, it is possible to obtain high-resolution three-dimensional images of biological and meta-material samples non-invasively, and without the use of staining or labeling.

  10. Imaging outside the box: Resolution enhancement in X-ray coherent diffraction imaging by extrapolation of diffraction patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latychevskaia, Tatiana, E-mail: tatiana@physik.uzh.ch; Fink, Hans-Werner [Physics Institute, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Chushkin, Yuriy; Zontone, Federico [The European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, 38000 Grenoble (France)

    2015-11-02

    Coherent diffraction imaging is a high-resolution imaging technique whose potential can be greatly enhanced by applying the extrapolation method presented here. We demonstrate the enhancement in resolution of a non-periodical object reconstructed from an experimental X-ray diffraction record which contains about 10% missing information, including the pixels in the center of the diffraction pattern. A diffraction pattern is extrapolated beyond the detector area and as a result, the object is reconstructed at an enhanced resolution and better agreement with experimental amplitudes is achieved. The optimal parameters for the iterative routine and the limits of the extrapolation procedure are discussed.

  11. Image Inpainting Based on Coherence Transport with Adapted Distance Functions

    KAUST Repository

    März, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    We discuss an extension of our method image inpainting based on coherence transport. For the latter method the pixels of the inpainting domain have to be serialized into an ordered list. Until now, to induce the serialization we have used the distance to boundary map. But there are inpainting problems where the distance to boundary serialization causes unsatisfactory inpainting results. In the present work we demonstrate cases where we can resolve the difficulties by employing other distance functions which better suit the problem at hand. © 2011 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  12. Influence of HeartMath quick coherence technique on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This small scale study used mixed, quantitative and qualitative methods to investigate whether HeartMath practice of at least five consecutive sessions would be associated with higher psychophysiological coherence levels, decreases in negative feeling state, and increases in positive feeling state, ratings and experiences.

  13. Optical coherence tomography imaging of the basal ganglia: feasibility and brief review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, W. O. Contreras; Ângelos, J. S. [Divisão de Neurocirurgia Funcional, Departamento de Neurologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Martinez, R. C. R. [Laboratório de Neuromodulação e Dor Experimental, Hospital Sírio-Libanes, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Takimura, C. K. [Instituto do Coração, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Teixeira, M. J. [Divisão de Neurocirurgia Funcional, Departamento de Neurologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Lemos, P. A. Neto [Instituto do Coração, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Fonoff, E. T., E-mail: fonoffet@usp.br [Divisão de Neurocirurgia Funcional, Departamento de Neurologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-09-29

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a promising medical imaging technique that uses light to capture real-time cross-sectional images from biological tissues in micrometer resolution. Commercially available optical coherence tomography systems are employed in diverse applications, including art conservation and diagnostic medicine, notably in cardiology and ophthalmology. Application of this technology in the brain may enable distinction between white matter and gray matter, and obtainment of detailed images from within the encephalon. We present, herein, the in vivo implementation of OCT imaging in the rat brain striatum. For this, two male 60-day-old rats (Rattus norvegicus, Albinus variation, Wistar) were stereotactically implanted with guide cannulas into the striatum to guide a 2.7-French diameter high-definition OCT imaging catheter (Dragonfly™, St. Jude Medical, USA). Obtained images were compared with corresponding histologically stained sections to collect imaging samples. A brief analysis of OCT technology and its current applications is also reported, as well as intra-cerebral OCT feasibility on brain mapping during neurosurgical procedures.

  14. Near diffraction limited coherent diffractive imaging with tabletop soft x-ray sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandberg, Richard L; Raymondson, Daisy A; La-O-Vorakiat, Chan; Paul, Ariel; Murnane, Margaret M; Kapteyn, Henry C [Department of Physics and JILA, University of Colorado and NIST, Boulder, Colorado (United States); Schlotter, William F [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, SLAC, Menlo Park, California (United States); Raines, Kevin; Miao Jianwei, E-mail: richard.sandberg@colorado.ed [Department of Physics and Astronomy and California NanoSystems Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, California (United States)

    2009-09-01

    Tabletop coherent x-ray sources hold great promise for practical nanoscale imaging, in particular when coupled with diffractive imaging techniques. In initial work, we demonstrated lensless diffraction imaging using a tabletop high harmonic generation (HHG) source at 29 nm, achieving resolutions {approx} 200 nm. In recent work, we significantly enhanced our diffractive imaging resolution by implementing a new high numerical aperture (up to NA=0.6) scheme and field curvature correction where we achieved sub-100 nm resolution. Here we report the first demonstration of Fourier transform holography (FTH) with a tabletop SXR source, to acquire images with a resolution {approx} 90 nm. The resolution can be refined by applying phase retrieval. Additionally, we show initial results from FTH with 13.5 nm HHG radiation and demonstrate {approx} 180 nm resolution.

  15. Imaging the intact mouse cornea using coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering (CARS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, David A; Lei, Tim C; Kahook, Malik Y; Masihzadeh, Omid

    2013-08-05

    The aim of this study was to image the cellular and noncellular structures of the cornea and limbus in an intact mouse eye using the vibrational oscillation of the carbon-hydrogen bond in lipid membranes and autofluorescence as label-free contrast agents. Freshly enucleated mouse eyes were imaged using two nonlinear optical techniques: coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and two-photon autofluorescence (TPAF). Sequential images were collected through the full thickness of the cornea and limbal regions. Line scans along the transverse/sagittal axes were also performed. Analysis of multiple CARS/TPAF images revealed that corneal epithelial and endothelial cells could be identified by the lipid-rich plasma membrane CARS signal. The fluorescent signal from the collagen fibers of the corneal stroma was evident in the TPAF channel. The transition from the cornea to sclera at the limbus was marked by a change in collagen pattern (TPAF channel) and thickness of surface cells (CARS channel). Regions within the corneal stroma that lack collagen autofluorescence coincided with CARS signal, indicating the presence of stromal fibroblasts or nerve fibers. The CARS technique was successful in imaging cells in the intact mouse eye, both at the surface and within corneal tissue. Multiphoton images were comparable to histologic sections. The methods described here represent a new avenue for molecular specific imaging of the mouse eye. The lack of need for tissue fixation is unique compared with traditional histology imaging techniques.

  16. Tissue Equivalent Phantom Design for Characterization of a Coherent Scatter X-ray Imaging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albanese, Kathryn Elizabeth

    Scatter in medical imaging is typically cast off as image-related noise that detracts from meaningful diagnosis. It is therefore typically rejected or removed from medical images. However, it has been found that every material, including cancerous tissue, has a unique X-ray coherent scatter signature that can be used to identify the material or tissue. Such scatter-based tissue-identification provides the advantage of locating and identifying particular materials over conventional anatomical imaging through X-ray radiography. A coded aperture X-ray coherent scatter spectral imaging system has been developed in our group to classify different tissue types based on their unique scatter signatures. Previous experiments using our prototype have demonstrated that the depth-resolved coherent scatter spectral imaging system (CACSSI) can discriminate healthy and cancerous tissue present in the path of a non-destructive x-ray beam. A key to the successful optimization of CACSSI as a clinical imaging method is to obtain anatomically accurate phantoms of the human body. This thesis describes the development and fabrication of 3D printed anatomical scatter phantoms of the breast and lung. The purpose of this work is to accurately model different breast geometries using a tissue equivalent phantom, and to classify these tissues in a coherent x-ray scatter imaging system. Tissue-equivalent anatomical phantoms were designed to assess the capability of the CACSSI system to classify different types of breast tissue (adipose, fibroglandular, malignant). These phantoms were 3D printed based on DICOM data obtained from CT scans of prone breasts. The phantoms were tested through comparison of measured scatter signatures with those of adipose and fibroglandular tissue from literature. Tumors in the phantom were modeled using a variety of biological tissue including actual surgically excised benign and malignant tissue specimens. Lung based phantoms have also been printed for future

  17. Single myelin fiber imaging in living rodents without labeling by deep optical coherence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Arous, Juliette; Binding, Jonas; Léger, Jean-François; Casado, Mariano; Topilko, Piotr; Gigan, Sylvain; Boccara, A Claude; Bourdieu, Laurent

    2011-11-01

    Myelin sheath disruption is responsible for multiple neuropathies in the central and peripheral nervous system. Myelin imaging has thus become an important diagnosis tool. However, in vivo imaging has been limited to either low-resolution techniques unable to resolve individual fibers or to low-penetration imaging of single fibers, which cannot provide quantitative information about large volumes of tissue, as required for diagnostic purposes. Here, we perform myelin imaging without labeling and at micron-scale resolution with >300-μm penetration depth on living rodents. This was achieved with a prototype [termed deep optical coherence microscopy (deep-OCM)] of a high-numerical aperture infrared full-field optical coherence microscope, which includes aberration correction for the compensation of refractive index mismatch and high-frame-rate interferometric measurements. We were able to measure the density of individual myelinated fibers in the rat cortex over a large volume of gray matter. In the peripheral nervous system, deep-OCM allows, after minor surgery, in situ imaging of single myelinated fibers over a large fraction of the sciatic nerve. This allows quantitative comparison of normal and Krox20 mutant mice, in which myelination in the peripheral nervous system is impaired. This opens promising perspectives for myelin chronic imaging in demyelinating diseases and for minimally invasive medical diagnosis.

  18. Quantitative shear wave imaging optical coherence tomography for noncontact mechanical characterization of myocardium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shang; Lopez, Andrew L.; Morikawa, Yuka; Tao, Ge; Li, Jiasong; Larina, Irina V.; Martin, James F.; Larin, Kirill V.

    2015-03-01

    Optical coherence elastography (OCE) is an emerging low-coherence imaging technique that provides noninvasive assessment of tissue biomechanics with high spatial resolution. Among various OCE methods, the capability of quantitative measurement of tissue elasticity is of great importance for tissue characterization and pathology detection across different samples. Here we report a quantitative OCE technique, termed quantitative shear wave imaging optical coherence tomography (Q-SWI-OCT), which enables noncontact measurement of tissue Young's modulus based on the ultra-fast imaging of the shear wave propagation inside the sample. A focused air-puff device is used to interrogate the tissue with a low-pressure short-duration air stream that stimulates a localized displacement with the scale at micron level. The propagation of this tissue deformation in the form of shear wave is captured by a phase-sensitive OCT system running with the scan of the M-mode imaging over the path of the wave propagation. The temporal characteristics of the shear wave is quantified based on the cross-correlation of the tissue deformation profiles at all the measurement locations, and linear regression is utilized to fit the data plotted in the domain of time delay versus wave propagation distance. The wave group velocity is thus calculated, which results in the quantitative measurement of the Young's modulus. As the feasibility demonstration, experiments are performed on tissuemimicking phantoms with different agar concentrations and the quantified elasticity values with Q-SWI-OCT agree well with the uniaxial compression tests. For functional characterization of myocardium with this OCE technique, we perform our pilot experiments on ex vivo mouse cardiac muscle tissues with two studies, including 1) elasticity difference of cardiac muscle under relaxation and contract conditions and 2) mechanical heterogeneity of the heart introduced by the muscle fiber orientation. Our results suggest the

  19. Optical coherence tomography image denoising using Gaussianization transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Zahra; Rabbani, Hossein

    2017-08-01

    We demonstrate the power of the Gaussianization transform (GT) for modeling image content by applying GT for optical coherence tomography (OCT) denoising. The proposed method is a developed version of the spatially constrained Gaussian mixture model (SC-GMM) method, which assumes that each cluster of similar patches in an image has a Gaussian distribution. SC-GMM tries to find some clusters of similar patches in the image using a spatially constrained patch clustering and then denoise each cluster by the Wiener filter. Although in this method GMM distribution is assumed for the noisy image, holding this assumption on a dataset is not investigated. We illustrate that making a Gaussian assumption on a noisy dataset has a significant effect on denoising results. For this purpose, a suitable distribution for OCT images is first obtained and then GT is employed to map this original distribution of OCT images to a GMM distribution. Then, this Gaussianized image is used as the input of the SC-GMM algorithm. This method, which is a combination of GT and SC-GMM, remarkably improves the results of OCT denoising compared with earlier version of SC-GMM and even produces better visual and numerical results than the state-of-the art works in this field. Indeed, the main advantage of the proposed OCT despeckling method is texture preservation, which is important for main image processing tasks like OCT inter- and intraretinal layer analysis. Thus, to prove the efficacy of the proposed method for this analysis, an improvement in the segmentation of intraretinal layers using the proposed method as a preprocessing step is investigated. Furthermore, the proposed method can achieve the best expert ranking between other contending methods, and the results show the helpfulness and usefulness of the proposed method in clinical applications.

  20. Doppler coherence imaging of ion dynamics in VINETA.II and ASDEX-upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gradic, Dorothea; Ford, Oliver; Wolf, Robert [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Greifswald (Germany); Lunt, Tilmann [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    In magnetically confining plasma experiments, diagnosis of ion flows is of great importance to measure the plasma response to the magnetic field or the exhaust particle flows in the divertor areas. Doppler coherence imaging spectroscopy (CIS) is a relatively new technique for the observation of plasma bulk ion dynamics. It is a passive optical diagnostic enabling line-integrated measurements to obtain 2D images of the ion flow and ion temperature. The general principle is similar to traditional Doppler spectroscopy, however CIS uses an imaging interferometer to perform narrow-bandwidth Fourier spectroscopy. A major advantage of the coherence imaging technique is the large amount of spatial information recovered. This allows tomographic inversion of the line-integrated measurements. With existing CIS setups, scrape-off-layer and high field side edge impurity flows could be observed in the MAST, core and edge poloidal He II flows in the WEGA stellarator and divertor impurity flows in DIII-D. The main objective of this study is the research of ion dynamics in the small linear plasma experiment VINETA.II and ASDEX-Upgrade. First Doppler CIS measurements from Ar-II plasma discharges in VINETA.II and He-II, C-III divertor flows in ASDEX-Upgrade and their preliminary interpretation will be presented.

  1. Digital aberration correction of fluorescent images with coherent holographic image reconstruction by phase transfer (CHIRPT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Jeffrey J.; Bartels, Randy A.

    2016-03-01

    Coherent holographic image reconstruction by phase transfer (CHIRPT) is an imaging method that permits digital holographic propagation of fluorescent light. The image formation process in CHIRPT is based on illuminating the specimen with a precisely controlled spatio-temporally varying intensity pattern. This pattern is formed by focusing a spatially coherent illumination beam to a line focus on a spinning modulation mask, and image relaying the mask plane to the focal plane of an objective lens. Deviations from the designed spatio-temporal illumination pattern due to imperfect mounting of the circular modulation mask onto the rotation motor induce aberrations in the recovered image. Here we show that these aberrations can be measured and removed non-iteratively by measuring the disk aberration phase externally. We also demonstrate measurement and correction of systematic optical aberrations in the CHIRPT microscope.

  2. Label-free imaging of human breast tissues using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yaliang; Gao, Liang; Wang, Zhiyong; Thrall, Michael J.; Luo, Pengfei; Wong, Kelvin K.; Wong, Stephen T.

    2011-03-01

    Breast cancer is a common disease in women. Current imaging and diagnostic methods for breast cancer confront several limitations, like time-consuming, invasive and with a high cost. Alternative strategies are in high demand to alleviate patients' trauma and lower medical expenses. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) imaging technique offers many advantages, including label-free, sub-wavelength spatial resolution and video-rate imaging speed. Therefore, it has been demonstrated as a powerful tool for various biomedical applications. In this study, we present a label-free fast imaging method to identify breast cancer and its subtypes using CARS microscopy. Human breast tissues, including normal, benign and invasive carcinomas, were imaged ex vivo using a custom-built CARS microscope. Compared with results from corresponding hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stains, the CARS technique has demonstrated its capability in identifying morphological features in a similar way as in H&E stain. These features can be used to distinguish breast cancer from normal and benign tissues, and further separate cancer subtypes from each other. Our pilot study suggests that CARS microscopy could be used as a routine examination tool to characterize breast cancer ex vivo. Moreover, its label-free and fast imaging properties render this technique as a promising approach for in vivo and real-time imaging and diagnosis of breast cancer.

  3. MEMS-based handheld fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography for intraoperative microvascular anastomosis imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Huang

    Full Text Available To demonstrate the feasibility of a miniature handheld optical coherence tomography (OCT imager for real time intraoperative vascular patency evaluation in the setting of super-microsurgical vessel anastomosis.A novel handheld imager Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography based on a 1.3-µm central wavelength swept source for extravascular imaging was developed. The imager was minimized through the adoption of a 2.4-mm diameter microelectromechanical systems (MEMS scanning mirror, additionally a 12.7-mm diameter lens system was designed and combined with the MEMS mirror to achieve a small form factor that optimize functionality as a handheld extravascular OCT imager. To evaluate in-vivo applicability, super-microsurgical vessel anastomosis was performed in a mouse femoral vessel cut and repair model employing conventional interrupted suture technique as well as a novel non-suture cuff technique. Vascular anastomosis patency after clinically successful repair was evaluated using the novel handheld OCT imager.With an adjustable lateral image field of view up to 1.5 mm by 1.5 mm, high-resolution simultaneous structural and flow imaging of the blood vessels were successfully acquired for BALB/C mouse after orthotopic hind limb transplantation using a non-suture cuff technique and BALB/C mouse after femoral artery anastomosis using a suture technique. We experimentally quantify the axial and lateral resolution of the OCT to be 12.6 µm in air and 17.5 µm respectively. The OCT has a sensitivity of 84 dB and sensitivity roll-off of 5.7 dB/mm over an imaging range of 5 mm. Imaging with a frame rate of 36 Hz for an image size of 1000(lateral×512(axial pixels using a 50,000 A-lines per second swept source was achieved. Quantitative vessel lumen patency, lumen narrowing and thrombosis analysis were performed based on acquired structure and Doppler images.A miniature handheld OCT imager that can be used for intraoperative evaluation of

  4. A Survey on Various Image Inpainting Techniques to Restore Image

    OpenAIRE

    Rajul Suthar,; Mr. Krunal R. Patel

    2014-01-01

    Image Inpainting or Image Restore is technique which is used to recover the damaged image and to fill the regions which are missing in original image in visually plausible way. Inpainting, the technique of modifying an image in an invisible form, it is art which is used from the early year. Applications of this technique include rebuilding of damaged photographs& films, removal of superimposed text, removal/replacement of unwanted objects, red eye correction, image coding. The...

  5. Quantitative Fourier Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging of the Ocular Anterior Segment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNabb, Ryan Palmer

    Clinical imaging within ophthalmology has had transformative effects on ocular health over the last century. Imaging has guided clinicians in their pharmaceutical and surgical treatments of macular degeneration, glaucoma, cataracts and numerous other pathologies. Many of the imaging techniques currently used are photography based and are limited to imaging the surface of ocular structures. This limitation forces clinicians to make assumptions about the underlying tissue which may reduce the efficacy of their diagnoses. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive, non-ionizing imaging modality that has been widely adopted within the field of ophthalmology in the last 15 years. As an optical imaging technique, OCT utilizes low-coherence interferometry to produce micron-scale three-dimensional datasets of a tissue's structure. Much of the human body consists of tissues that significantly scatter and attenuate optical signals limiting the imaging depth of OCT in those tissues to only 1-2mm. However, the ocular anterior segment is unique among human tissue in that it is primarily transparent or translucent. This allows for relatively deep imaging of tissue structure with OCT and is no longer limited by the optical scattering properties of the tissue. This goal of this work is to develop methods utilizing OCT that offer the potential to reduce the assumptions made by clinicians in their evaluations of their patients' ocular anterior segments. We achieved this by first developing a method to reduce the effects of patient motion during OCT volume acquisitions allowing for accurate, three dimensional measurements of corneal shape. Having accurate corneal shape measurements then allowed us to determine corneal spherical and astigmatic refractive contribution in a given individual. This was then validated in a clinical study that showed OCT better measured refractive change due to surgery than other clinical devices. Additionally, a method was developed to combine

  6. Laparoscopic optical coherence tomographic imaging of human ovarian cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariri, Lida P.; Bonnema, Garret T.; Schmidt, Kathy; Korde, Vrushali; Winkler, Amy M.; Hatch, Kenneth; Brewer, Molly; Barton, Jennifer K.

    2009-02-01

    Ovarian cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death among women. If diagnosed at early stages, 5-year survival rate is 94%, but drops to 68% for regional disease and 29% for distant metastasis; only 19% of cases are diagnosed at early, localized stages. Optical coherence tomography is a recently emerging non-destructive imaging technology, achieving high axial resolutions (10-20 µm) at imaging depths up to 2 mm. Previously, we studied OCT in normal and diseased human ovary ex vivo. Changes in collagen were suggested with several images that correlated with changes in collagen seen in malignancy. Areas of necrosis and blood vessels were also visualized using OCT, indicative of an underlying tissue abnormality. We recently developed a custom side-firing laparoscopic OCT (LOCT) probe fabricated for in vivo imaging. The LOCT probe, consisting of a 38 mm diameter handpiece terminated in a 280 mm long, 4.6 mm diameter tip for insertion into the laparoscopic trocar, is capable of obtaining up to 9.5 mm image lengths at 10 µm axial resolution. In this pilot study, we utilize the LOCT probe to image one or both ovaries of 17 patients undergoing laparotomy or transabdominal endoscopy and oophorectomy to determine if OCT is capable of differentiating normal and neoplastic ovary. We have laparoscopically imaged the ovaries of seventeen patients with no known complications. Initial data evaluation reveals qualitative distinguishability between the features of undiseased post-menopausal ovary and the cystic, non-homogenous appearance of neoplastic ovary such as serous cystadenoma and endometroid adenocarcinoma.

  7. Imaging of cutaneous larva migrans by optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy, Hanan; Mogensen, Mette; Thomsen, Jakob; Thrane, Lars; Andersen, Peter E; Jemec, Gregor B E

    2007-07-01

    Cutaneous larva migrans is a parasitic skin eruption caused by migration of larvae of various nematodes. Diagnosis of cutaneous larva migrans is currently based on the clinical signs of the creeping eruption. We are investigating a new diagnostic technology called optical coherence tomography (OCT) , which is potentially able to visualize structures in the skin with an 8 microm resolution. This technology could therefore potentially allow rapid, non-invasive, in vivo diagnosis of infestations. Clinical cases of cutaneous larva migrans (n=3) were studied. All patients had a characteristic itching, serpinginous eruption typical of cutaneous larva migrans. The parasites were acquired on beach holidays in Thailand and Malaysia. All skin lesions were imaged by an OCT system developed at Risoe National Laboratory, Denmark. Two out of three patients showed a round to oval structure (diameter 0.3-0.5mm) in the epidermis, Thus distinct OCT morphology in skin areas affected by cutaneous larva migrans was demonstrated. The larvae were not visualized in any of the patients. This study demonstrates that OCT a novel optical imaging technology, can image the larva tunnel in the skin with adequate spatial resolution, but not the larvae itself. OCT has a potential in imaging of skin infestations.

  8. Optical coherence tomography: A new strategy to image planarian regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Sheng; Chu, Chin-Chou; Lin, Jen-Jen; Chang, Chien-Cheng; Wang, Chun-Chieh; Wang, Chiao-Yin; Tsui, Po-Hsiang

    2014-09-01

    The planarian is widely used as a model for studying tissue regeneration. In this study, we used optical coherence tomography (OCT) for the real-time, high-resolution imaging of planarian tissue regeneration. Five planaria were sliced transversely to produce 5 head and 5 tail fragments. During a 2-week regeneration period, OCT images of the planaria were acquired to analyze the signal attenuation rates, intensity ratios, and image texture features (including contrast, correlation, homogeneity, energy, and entropy) to compare the primitive and regenerated tissues. In the head and tail fragments, the signal attenuation rates of the regenerated fragments decreased from -0.2 dB/μm to -0.05 dB/μm, between Day 1 and Day 6, and then increased to -0.2 dB/μm on Day 14. The intensity ratios decreased to approximately 0.8 on Day 6, and increased to between 0.8 and 0.9 on Day 14. The texture parameters of contrast, correlation, and homogeneity exhibited trends similar to the signal attenuation rates and intensity ratios during the planarian regeneration. The proposed OCT parameters might provide biological information regarding cell apoptosis and the formation of a mass of new cells during planarian regeneration. Therefore, OCT imaging is a potentially effective method for planarian studies.

  9. High-definition optical coherence tomography imaging of melanocytic lesions: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Marc A L M; Norrenberg, Sarah; Jemec, Gregor B E; Del Marmol, V

    2014-01-01

    High-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT) is a non-invasive in vivo imaging technique with cellular resolution based on the principle of conventional optical coherence tomography. The objective of this study was to evaluate HD-OCT for its ability to identify architectural patterns and cytologic features of melanocytic lesions. All lesions were examined by one observer clinically and using dermoscopy. Cross-sectional HD-OCT images were compared with histopathology. En face HD-OCT images were compared with reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM). Twenty-six melanocytic lesions of 26 patients were imaged. Identification of architectural patterns in cross-sectional mode and cytologic features of pigmented cells in the epidermis, dermo-epidermal junction, papillary dermis, and superficial reticular dermis in the en face mode was possible by HD-OCT. HD-OCT provides morphological imaging with sufficient resolution and penetration depth to discriminate architectural patterns and cytologic features of pigmented cells in epidermis and dermis. The method appears to offer the possibility of additional three-dimensional structural information complementary to that of RCM, albeit at a slightly lower lateral resolution. The diagnostic potential of HD-OCT regarding malignant melanoma is not high enough for ruling out a diagnosis of malignant melanoma.

  10. Tooling Techniques Enhance Medical Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    mission. The manufacturing techniques developed to create the components have yielded innovations advancing medical imaging, transportation security, and even energy efficiency.

  11. Bayes Syndrome and Imaging Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancor, Ivan Hernandez; Izquierdo-Gomez, Maria Manuela; Niebla, Javier Garcia; Laynez-Cerdeña, Ignacio; Garcia-Gonzalez, Martin Jesus; Barragan-Acea, Antonio; Iribarren-Sarriá, Jose Luis; Jimenez-Rivera, Juan Jose; Lacalzada-Almeida, Juan

    2017-07-13

    Interatrial block (IAB) is due to disruption in the Bachmann region (BR). According to whether interatrial electrical conduction is delayed or completely blocked through the BR, it can be classified as IAB of first, second or third degree. On the surface electrocardiogram, a P wave ≥ 120 ms (partial IAB) is observed or associated to the prolongation of the P wave with a biphasic (positive / negative) morphology in the inferior leads (advanced IAB). Bayes syndrome is defined as an advanced IAB associated with atrial arrhythmia, more specifically atrial fibrillation. The purpose of this review is to describe the latest evidence about an entity considered an anatomical and electrical substrate with its own name, which may be a predictor of supraventricular arrhythmia and cardioembolic cerebrovascular accidents, as well as the role of new imaging techniques, such as echocardiographic strain and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, in characterizing atrial alterations associated with this syndrome and generally in the study of anatomy and atrial function. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  12. Noncontact Elastic Wave Imaging Optical Coherence Elastography for Evaluating Changes in Corneal Elasticity Due to Crosslinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manmohan; Li, Jiasong; Vantipalli, Srilatha; Wang, Shang; Han, Zhaolong; Nair, Achuth; Aglyamov, Salavat R.; Twa, Michael D.; Larin, Kirill V.

    2016-01-01

    The mechanical properties of tissues can provide valuable information about tissue integrity and health and can assist in detecting and monitoring the progression of diseases such as keratoconus. Optical coherence elastography (OCE) is a rapidly emerging technique, which can assess localized mechanical contrast in tissues with micrometer spatial resolution. In this work we present a noncontact method of optical coherence elastography to evaluate the changes in the mechanical properties of the cornea after UV-induced collagen cross-linking. A focused air-pulse induced a low amplitude (μm scale) elastic wave, which then propagated radially and was imaged in three dimensions by a phase-stabilized swept source optical coherence tomography (PhS-SSOCT) system. The elastic wave velocity was translated to Young’s modulus in agar phantoms of various concentrations. Additionally, the speed of the elastic wave significantly changed in porcine cornea before and after UV-induced corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL). Moreover, different layers of the cornea, such as the anterior stroma, posterior stroma, and inner region, could be discerned from the phase velocities of the elastic wave. Therefore, because of noncontact excitation and imaging, this method may be useful for in vivo detection of ocular diseases such as keratoconus and evaluation of therapeutic interventions such as CXL. PMID:27547022

  13. En face parametric imaging of tissue birefringence using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Lixin; Yang, Xiaojie; McLaughlin, Robert A.; Noble, Peter B.; Sampson, David D.

    2013-06-01

    A technique for generating en face parametric images of tissue birefringence from scans acquired using a fiber-based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) system utilizing only a single-incident polarization state is presented. The value of birefringence is calculated for each A-scan in the PS-OCT volume using a quadrature demodulation and phase unwrapping algorithm. The algorithm additionally uses weighted spatial averaging and weighted least squares regression to account for the variation in phase accuracies due to varying OCT signal-to-noise-ratio. The utility of this technique is demonstrated using a model of thermally induced damage in porcine tendon and validated against histology. The resulting en face images of tissue birefringence are more useful than conventional PS-OCT B-scans in assessing the severity of tissue damage and in localizing the spatial extent of damage.

  14. Noninvasive imaging of oral mucosae with optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cheng-Yu; Chen, Wei-Chuan; Tsai, Meng-Tsan

    2017-04-01

    In this study, a swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT) system is developed for in vivo visualization of structural and vascular morphology oral mucosa. For simplification of optical probe fabrication, probe weight, and system setup, the body of the scanning probe is fabricated by a 3D printer to fix the optical components and the mechanical scanning device, and a partially reflective slide is attached at the output end of probe to achieve a common-path configuration. Aside from providing the ability of 3D structural imaging with the developed system, 3D vascular images of oral mucosa can be simultaneously obtained. Then, different locations of oral mucosa are scanned with common-path OCT. The results show that epithelium and lamina propria layers as well as fungiform papilla can be identified and microvascular images can be acquired. With the proposed probe, the system cost and volume can be greatly reduced. Experimental results indicate that such common-path OCT system could be further implemented for oral cancer diagnosis.

  15. Surface imaging of metallic material fractures using optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutiu, Gheorghe; Duma, Virgil-Florin; Demian, Dorin; Bradu, Adrian; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh

    2014-09-10

    We demonstrate the capability of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to perform topography of metallic surfaces after being subjected to ductile or brittle fracturing. Two steel samples, OL 37 and OL 52, and an antifriction Sn-Sb-Cu alloy were analyzed. Using an in-house-built swept source OCT system, height profiles were generated for the surfaces of the two samples. Based on such profiles, it can be concluded that the first two samples were subjected to ductile fracture, while the third one was subjected to brittle fracture. The OCT potential for assessing the surface state of materials after fracture was evaluated by comparing OCT images with images generated using an established method for such investigations, scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Analysis of cause of fracture is essential in response to damage of machinery parts during various accidents. Currently the analysis is performed using SEM, on samples removed from the metallic parts, while OCT would allow in situ imaging using mobile units. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that the OCT capability to replace SEM has been demonstrated. SEM is a more costly and time-consuming method to use in the investigation of surfaces of microstructures of metallic materials.

  16. Laboratory demonstration of image reconstruction for coherent optical system of modular imaging collectors (COSMIC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traub, W. A.

    1984-01-01

    The first physical demonstration of the principle of image reconstruction using a set of images from a diffraction-blurred elongated aperture is reported. This is an optical validation of previous theoretical and numerical simulations of the COSMIC telescope array (coherent optical system of modular imaging collectors). The present experiment utilizes 17 diffraction blurred exposures of a laboratory light source, as imaged by a lens covered by a narrow-slit aperture; the aperture is rotated 10 degrees between each exposure. The images are recorded in digitized form by a CCD camera, Fourier transformed, numerically filtered, and added; the sum is then filtered and inverse Fourier transformed to form the final image. The image reconstruction process is found to be stable with respect to uncertainties in values of all physical parameters such as effective wavelength, rotation angle, pointing jitter, and aperture shape. Future experiments will explore the effects of low counting rates, autoguiding on the image, various aperture configurations, and separated optics.

  17. In vivo imaging of human photoreceptor mosaic with wavefront sensorless adaptive optics optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kevin S K; Jian, Yifan; Cua, Michelle; Bonora, Stefano; Zawadzki, Robert J; Sarunic, Marinko V

    2015-02-01

    Wavefront sensorless adaptive optics optical coherence tomography (WSAO-OCT) is a novel imaging technique for in vivo high-resolution depth-resolved imaging that mitigates some of the challenges encountered with the use of sensor-based adaptive optics designs. This technique replaces the Hartmann Shack wavefront sensor used to measure aberrations with a depth-resolved image-driven optimization algorithm, with the metric based on the OCT volumes acquired in real-time. The custom-built ultrahigh-speed GPU processing platform and fast modal optimization algorithm presented in this paper was essential in enabling real-time, in vivo imaging of human retinas with wavefront sensorless AO correction. WSAO-OCT is especially advantageous for developing a clinical high-resolution retinal imaging system as it enables the use of a compact, low-cost and robust lens-based adaptive optics design. In this report, we describe our WSAO-OCT system for imaging the human photoreceptor mosaic in vivo. We validated our system performance by imaging the retina at several eccentricities, and demonstrated the improvement in photoreceptor visibility with WSAO compensation.

  18. Simultaneous coherent imaging and strain measurement using coupled photorefractive holography and shearography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, Vanessa; Béland, Rémy; Renotte, Yvon; Habraken, Serge; Lion, Yves; Charette, Paul

    2008-04-15

    By coupling photorefractive holography with speckle shearography, it is possible to simultaneously perform both coherent imaging and strain measurement. Use of the photorefractive effect, which is insensitive to incoherently scattered light, is a significant advantage in coherent imaging as described. Experimental results obtained from a centrally loaded steel plate are presented.

  19. A coherent detection technique via optically biased field for broadband terahertz radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hai-Wei; Dong, Jia-Meng; Liu, Yi; Shi, Chang-Cheng; Wu, Jing-Wei; Peng, Xiao-Yu

    2017-09-01

    We demonstrate theoretically and experimentally a coherent terahertz detection technique based on an optically biased field functioning as a local oscillator and a second harmonic induced by the terahertz electric field in the air sensor working in free space. After optimizing the polarization angle and the energy of the probe pulse, and filling the system with dry nitrogen, the terahertz radiation generated from a two-color-femtosecond-laser-pulses induced plasma filament is measured by this technique with a bandwidth of 0.1-10 THz and a signal-to-noise ratio of 48 dB. Our technique provides an alternative simple method for coherent broadband terahertz detection.

  20. Target detection and recognition techniques of line imaging ladar sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhi-hui; Deng, Jia-hao; Yan, Xiao-wei

    2009-07-01

    A line imaging ladar sensor using linear diode laser array and linear avalanche photodiode (APD) array is developed for precise terminal guidance and intelligent proximity fuzing applications. The detection principle of line imaging ladar is discussed in detail, and design method of the line imaging ladar sensor system is given. Taking military tank target as example, simulated tank height and intensity images are obtained by the line imaging ladar simulation system. The subsystems of line imaging ladar sensor including transmitter and receiver are designed. Multi-pulse coherent algorithm and correlation detection method are adopted to improve the SNR of echo and to estimate time-of-flight, respectively. Experiment results show that the power SNR can be improved by N (number of coherent average) times and the maximum range error is 0.25 m. A few of joint transform correlation (JTC) techniques are discussed to improve noncooperative target recognition capability in height image with complex background. Simulation results show that binary JTC, non-zero-order modified fringe-adjusted JTC and non-zero-order amplitude-modulated JTC can improve the target recognition performance effectively.

  1. Medical Ultrasonic Elasticity Imaging Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Mok Keun [Department of Electronics and Communications Engineering, Daejin University, Pocheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Breast and prostate tumors or cancers tend to be stiffer than the surrounding normal tissue. However, the difference in echogenicity between cancerous and normal tissues is not clearly distinguishable in ultrasound B-mode imaging. Thus, imaging the stiffness contrast between the two different tissue types helps to diagnose lesions quantitatively, and such a method of imaging the elasticity of human tissue is termed ultrasound elasticity imaging. Recently, elasticity imaging has become an effective complementary diagnostic modality along with ultrasound B-mode imaging. This paper presents various elasticity imaging methods that have been reported up to now and describes their characteristics and principles of operation.

  2. Coherence switching of a vertical-cavity semiconductor-laser for multimode biomedical imaging (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hui; Knitter, Sebastian; Liu, Changgeng; Redding, Brandon; Khokha, Mustafa Kezar; Choma, Michael Andrew

    2017-02-01

    Speckle formation is a limiting factor when using coherent sources for imaging and sensing, but can provide useful information about the motion of an object. Illumination sources with tunable spatial coherence are therefore desirable as they can offer both speckled and speckle-free images. Efficient methods of coherence switching have been achieved with a solid-state degenerate laser, and here we demonstrate a semiconductor-based degenerate laser system that can be switched between a large number of mutually incoherent spatial modes and few-mode operation. Our system is designed around a semiconductor gain element, and overcomes barriers presented by previous low spatial coherence lasers. The gain medium is an electrically-pumped vertical external cavity surface emitting laser (VECSEL) with a large active area. The use of a degenerate external cavity enables either distributing the laser emission over a large ( 1000) number of mutually incoherent spatial modes or concentrating emission to few modes by using a pinhole in the Fourier plane of the self-imaging cavity. To demonstrate the unique potential of spatial coherence switching for multimodal biomedical imaging, we use both low and high spatial coherence light generated by our VECSEL-based degenerate laser for imaging embryo heart function in Xenopus, an important animal model of heart disease. The low-coherence illumination is used for high-speed (100 frames per second) speckle-free imaging of dynamic heart structure, while the high-coherence emission is used for laser speckle contrast imaging of the blood flow.

  3. Digital image registration by correlation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, D. J.; Mccormack, D. S.; Lee, G. M.

    1972-01-01

    This study considers the translation problem associated with digital image registration and develops a means for comparing commonly used correlation techniques. Using suitably defined constraints, an optimum and four suboptimum registration techniques are defined and evaluated. A computational comparison is made and Gaussian image statistics are used to compare the selected techniques in terms of radial position location error.

  4. Imaging Techniques in Endodontics: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepak, B. S.; Subash, T. S.; Narmatha, V. J.; Anamika, T.; Snehil, T. K.; Nandini, D. B.

    2012-01-01

    This review provides an overview of the relevance of imaging techniques such as, computed tomography, cone beam computed tomography, and ultrasound, to endodontic practice. Many limitations of the conventional radiographic techniques have been overcome by the newer methods. Advantages and disadvantages of various imaging techniques in endodontic practice are also discussed. PMID:22530184

  5. In vitro tomographic image of human pulp-dentin complex: optical coherence tomography and histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braz, Ana K S; Kyotoku, Bernardo B C; Gomes, Anderson S L

    2009-09-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT), a noninvasive imaging method, was used in this work to image the pulp-dentin complex. Pulp and dentin are integrally connected in the sense that physiologic and pathologic reactions in one of the tissues will also affect the other. An OCT system with 6-mum spatial resolution at 800 nm was used to image the pulp-dentin complex of in vitro samples. Five intact human maxillary premolars scheduled for surgical extraction were used in this in vitro study. The occlusal surfaces of teeth were polished with wet 600-, 1,000-, and 1,200-grit aluminum oxide abrasive paper perpendicular to the long axis of teeth, producing a plane on that surface. The images of pulp-dentin complex were taken by scanning the occlusal surface in a mesiodistal direction. The laser penetrated into the teeth structure and a tomographic image of pulp-dentin complex, parallel to the long axis of teeth, was obtained. Histological and OCT images were analyzed and compared. The results showed the capability of the OCT technique to generate images of the boundaries of pulp and its relation to the dentin. It could be clearly seen that the OCT image provided the insight into dentinal substrate about 0.65-mm deep (corrected for the dentin refractive index). OCT can be used in the future to prevent iatrogenic exposures of the pulp, complementing other existing methods, and will permit a more predictive prognosis of treatments.

  6. SEGMENTATION AND CORRELATION OF OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY AND X-RAY IMAGES FOR BREAST CANCER DIAGNOSTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JONATHAN G. SUN

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pre-operative X-ray mammography and intraoperative X-ray specimen radiography are routinely used to identify breast cancer pathology. Recent advances in optical coherence tomography (OCT have enabled its use for the intraoperative assessment of surgical margins during breast cancer surgery. While each modality offers distinct contrast of normal and pathological features, there is an essential need to correlate image-based features between the two modalities to take advantage of the diagnostic capabilities of each technique. We compare OCT to X-ray images of resected human breast tissue and correlate different tissue features between modalities for future use in real-time intraoperative OCT imaging. X-ray imaging (specimen radiography is currently used during surgical breast cancer procedures to verify tumor margins, but cannot image tissue in situ. OCT has the potential to solve this problem by providing intraoperative imaging of the resected specimen as well as the in situ tumor cavity. OCT and micro-CT (X-ray images are automatically segmented using different computational approaches, and quantitatively compared to determine the ability of these algorithms to automatically differentiate regions of adipose tissue from tumor. Furthermore, two-dimensional (2D and three-dimensional (3D results are compared. These correlations, combined with real-time intraoperative OCT, have the potential to identify possible regions of tumor within breast tissue which correlate to tumor regions identified previously on X-ray imaging (mammography or specimen radiography.

  7. 3D imaging of tomato seeds using frequency domain optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chuanmao; Yao, Gang

    2012-05-01

    A fast imaging system that can reveal internal sample structures is important for research and quality controls of seeds. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive optical imaging technique that can acquire high speed, high resolution depth-resolved images in scattering samples. It has found numerous applications in studying various biological tissues and other materials in vivo. A few studies have reported the use of OCT in studying seed morphology. However, 3D imaging of internal seed structure has not been reported before. In this study, we used a frequency domain OCT system to image tomato seeds. The system has a central wavelength of 844nm with a 46.8 nm FWHM bandwidth. The requirement for depth scan was eliminated by using a Fourier domain implementation. The B-scan imaging speed was limited by the spectroscopic imaging CCD at 52 kHz. The calibrated system has a 6.7μm depth resolution and a 15.4μm lateral resolution. Our results show that major seed structures can be clearly visualized in OCT images.

  8. Octave-spanning hyperspectral coherent diffractive imaging in the extreme ultraviolet range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yijian; Zhang, Chunmei; Marceau, Claude; Naumov, A Yu; Corkum, P B; Villeneuve, D M

    2015-11-02

    Soft x-ray microscopy is a powerful imaging technique that provides sub-micron spatial resolution, as well as chemical specificity using core-level near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS). Near the carbon K-edge (280-300 eV) biological samples exhibit high contrast, and the detailed spectrum contains information about the local chemical environment of the atoms. Most soft x-ray imaging takes place on dedicated beamlines at synchrotron facilities or at x-ray free electron laser facilities. Tabletop femtosecond laser systems are now able to produce coherent radiation at the carbon K-edge and beyond through the process of high harmonic generation (HHG). The broad bandwidth of HHG is seemingly a limitation to imaging, since x-ray optical elements such as Fresnel zone plates require monochromatic sources. Counter-intuitively, the broad bandwidth of HHG sources can be beneficial as it permits chemically-specific hyperspectral imaging. We apply two separate techniques - Fourier transform spectroscopy, and lensless holographic imaging - to obtain images of an object simultaneously at multiple wavelengths using an octave-spanning high harmonic source with photon energies up to 30 eV. We use an interferometric delay reference to correct for nanometer-scale fluctuations between the two HHG sources.

  9. Retinal Imaging of Infants on Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Vinekar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spectral domain coherence tomography (SD OCT has become an important tool in the management of pediatric retinal diseases. It is a noncontact imaging device that provides detailed assessment of the microanatomy and pathology of the infant retina with a short acquisition time allowing office examination without the requirement of anesthesia. Our understanding of the development and maturation of the infant fovea has been enhanced by SD OCT allowing an in vivo assessment that correlates with histopathology. This has helped us understand the critical correlation of foveal development with visual potential in the first year of life and beyond. In this review, we summarize the recent literature on the clinical applications of SD OCT in studying the pathoanatomy of the infant macula, its ability to detect subclinical features, and its correlation with disease and vision. Retinopathy of prematurity and macular edema have been discussed in detail. The review also summarizes the current status of SD OCT in other infant retinal conditions, imaging the optic nerve, the choroid, and the retinal nerve fibre in infants and children, and suggests future areas of research.

  10. Optical coherence tomography: imaging architect for dermal microdialysis in psoriasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, M.-L.; O'Connor, W.; Ramsay, B.; Guihen, E.; Ho, W. L.; Leahy, M. J.

    2011-03-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been used as part of a ground breaking translational study to shed some light on one of the worlds most prevalent autoimmune diseases; psoriasis. The work successfully integrates the fields of optical imaging, biochemistry and dermatology in conducting a dermal microdialysis (DMD) trial for quantitative histamine assessment amongst a group of psoriasis sufferers. The DMD process involves temporary insertion of microscopic hollow tubes into a layer of skin to measure the levels of histamine and other important biological molecules in psoriasis. For comparison purposes, DMD catheters were implanted into healthy, peri-lesional and lesional skin regions. The catheters' entry and exit points and their precise locations in the epidermal layer of the skin were confirmed using OCT thus obtaining high resolution, wide-field images of the affected skin as well as catheter placement whilst local microdialysis enabled a tissue chemistry profile to be obtained from these three skin regions including histamine, a local immune system activator known to contribute towards itch and inflammation. Together these tools offer a synergistic approach in the clinical assessment of the disease. In addition, OCT delivered a non-invasive and rapid method for analyzing the affected skin architecture.

  11. Real-time three-dimensional imaging of epidermal splitting and removal by high-definition optical coherence tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boone, Marc; Draye, Jean Pierre; Verween, Gunther

    2014-01-01

    While real-time 3-D evaluation of human skin constructs is needed, only 2-D non-invasive imaging techniques are available. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the potential of high-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT) for real-time 3-D assessment of the epidermal splitting...... and decellularization. Human skin samples were incubated with four different agents: Dispase II, NaCl 1 M, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and Triton X-100. Epidermal splitting, dermo-epidermal junction, acellularity and 3-D architecture of dermal matrices were evaluated by High-definition optical coherence tomography...

  12. Synthesis method from low-coherence digital holograms for improvement of image quality in holographic display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Yutaka; Nomura, Takanori

    2013-06-01

    In holographic displays, it is undesirable to observe the speckle noises with the reconstructed images. A method for improvement of reconstructed image quality by synthesizing low-coherence digital holograms is proposed. It is possible to obtain speckleless reconstruction of holograms due to low-coherence digital holography. An image sensor records low-coherence digital holograms, and the holograms are synthesized by computational calculation. Two approaches, the threshold-processing and the picking-a-peak methods, are proposed in order to reduce random noise of low-coherence digital holograms. The reconstructed image quality by the proposed methods is compared with the case of high-coherence digital holography. Quantitative evaluation is given to confirm the proposed methods. In addition, the visual evaluation by 15 people is also shown.

  13. Noninvasive imaging of biological tissue structure, function, and abnormalities with optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yingtian; Lavelle, John; Bastaky, S.; Farkas, Daniel L.; Zeidel, Mark L.

    2000-10-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a novel noninvasive optical imaging technique that enables cross-sectional imaging of highly scattering biological tissues at the axial resolution of 10 micrometers or less. Technological advances in our laboratory and others have been permitted high-contrast and high-resolution OCT imaging of turbid biological tissues at depths of up to 2-3 mm, highly desirable for screening various kinds of superficial lesions and the invasion of these lesions. In this study, we will demonstrate the potential of OCT as a powerful tool of optical biopsy or optical guided biopsy for the purpose of noninvasive imaging diagnosing malignancies in these tissues. We will present ex vivo OCT images of animal urinary bladders and lesions (including cancers) in these tissues in comparison with the corresponding histologic evaluations. Based on the comparative studies between OCT and histology, we will analyze the image contrast of OCT or the patterns in OCT images in relation to the micro morphologies in these tissues and their alternations or lesions at different stages of tumorigenesis. We will also analyze the image contrast of OCT related to the blood vessels as well as other tissue functions such as fluid penetration and buildup in these tissues. Our results demonstrate the utility of OCT in high- resolution imaging to delineate the micro morphology of highly scattering tissues such as urinary bladders and the clinical relevance of OCT in diagnosing alternations or tumor growth in these tissues. Because of limitations to specificity and resolution of current techniques, OCT is presently unable to provide distinctive diagnosis of malignancies that require subcellular imaging or identification of subtle changes in nuclear morphology. However, certain characteristics associated with malignancies in bladders such as heavy vascularization and proliferation within the urothelial tissue can be clearly demonstrated.

  14. Scattering angle resolved optical coherence tomography for in vivo murine retinal imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Michael R.; Katta, Nitesh; McElroy, Austin; Baruah, Vikram; Rylander, H. G.; Milner, Thomas E.

    2017-02-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) retinal imaging contributes to understanding central nervous system (CNS) diseases because the eye is an anatomical "window to the brain" with direct optical access to nonmylenated retinal ganglion cells. However, many CNS diseases are associated with neuronal changes beyond the resolution of standard OCT retinal imaging systems. Though studies have shown the utility of scattering angle resolved (SAR) OCT for particle sizing and detecting disease states ex vivo, a compact SAR-OCT system for in vivo rodent retinal imaging has not previously been reported. We report a fiber-based SAR-OCT system (swept source at 1310 nm +/- 65 nm, 100 kHz scan rate) for mouse retinal imaging with a partial glass window (center aperture) for angular discrimination of backscattered light. This design incorporates a dual-axis MEMS mirror conjugate to the ocular pupil plane and a high collection efficiency objective. A muring retina is imaged during euthanasia, and the proposed SAR-index is examined versus time. Results show a positive correlation between the SAR-index and the sub-cellular hypoxic response of neurons to isoflurane overdose during euthanasia. The proposed SAR-OCT design and image process technique offer a contrast mechanism able to detect sub-resolution neuronal changes for murine retinal imaging.

  15. The characteristics of three-dimensional skin imaging system by full-colored optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bor-Wen; Chan, Li-Ming; Wang, Kai-Cheng

    2009-05-01

    In the present cosmetic market, the skin image obtained from a hand-held camera is two-dimensional (2-D). Due to insufficient penetration, only the skin surface can be detected, and thus phenomena in the dermis cannot be observed. To take the place of the conventional 2D camera, a new hand-held imaging system is proposed for three-dimensional (3-D) skin imaging. Featuring non-invasiveness, optical coherence tomography (OCT) has become one of the popular medical imaging techniques. The dermal images shown in OCT-related reports were mainly single-colored because of the use of a monotonic light source. With three original-colored beams applied in OCT, a full-colored image can be derived for dermatology. The penetration depth of the system ranges from 0.43 to 0.78 mm, sufficient for imaging of main tissues in the dermis. Colorful and non-invasive perspectives of deep dermal structure help to advance skin science, dermatology and cosmetology.

  16. 4D optical coherence tomography of the embryonic heart using gated imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Michael W.; Rothenberg, Florence; Roy, Debashish; Nikolski, Vladimir P.; Wilson, David L.; Efimov, Igor R.; Rollins, Andrew M.

    2005-04-01

    Computed tomography (CT), ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging have been used to image and diagnose diseases of the human heart. By gating the acquisition of the images to the heart cycle (gated imaging), these modalities enable one to produce 3D images of the heart without significant motion artifact and to more accurately calculate various parameters such as ejection fractions [1-3]. Unfortunately, these imaging modalities give inadequate resolution when investigating embryonic development in animal models. Defects in developmental mechanisms during embryogenesis have long been thought to result in congenital cardiac anomalies. Our understanding of normal mechanisms of heart development and how abnormalities can lead to defects has been hampered by our inability to detect anatomic and physiologic changes in these small (structures of the living embryonic heart with high-resolution in two- and threedimensions. OCT offers higher resolution than ultrasound (30 um axial, 90 um lateral) and magnetic resonance microscopy (25 um axial, 31 um lateral) [4, 5], with greater depth penetration over confocal microscopy (200 um). Optical coherence tomography (OCT) uses back reflected light from a sample to create an image with axial resolutions ranging from 2-15 um, while penetrating 1-2 mm in depth [6]. In the past, OCT groups estimated ejection fractions using 2D images in a Xenopus laevis [7], created 3D renderings of chick embryo hearts [8], and used a gated reconstruction technique to produce 2D Doppler OCT image of an in vivo Xenopus laevis heart [9]. In this paper we present a gated imaging system that allowed us to produce a 16-frame 3D movie of a beating chick embryo heart. The heart was excised from a day two (stage 13) chicken embryo and electrically paced at 1 Hz. We acquired 2D images (B-scans) in 62.5 ms, which provides enough temporal resolution to distinguish end-contraction from end-relaxation. After acquiring the image set, we were able to measure the

  17. Performance evaluation of compounding and directional beamforming techniques for carotid strain imaging using plane wave transmissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hendrik H.G.; Stuart, Matthias Bo; Villagómez Hoyos, Carlos Armando

    2014-01-01

    techniques have been developed to cope with the low off - axis image quality when performing 2D (and in future 3D) motion estimation: cross correlation with directional beamforming (with or without RF (coherent) compounding) and displacement compounding. This study compares the precision of these techniques...

  18. MULTIMODALITY IMAGING OF TORPEDO MACULOPATHY WITH SWEPT-SOURCE, EN FACE OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY AND OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY ANGIOGRAPHY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papastefanou, Vasilios P; Vázquez-Alfageme, Clara; Keane, Pearse A; Sagoo, Mandeep S

    2016-10-19

    Multimodality image analysis of two cases of torpedo maculopathy. Imaging with fundus photography, autofluorescence (AF), swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT), en face OCT, and OCT angiography. The basal diameter of the torpedo lesions was 1 mm × 2 mm. One case had a satellite lesion. Autofluorescence indicated variable loss of signal. Swept-source OCT and en face OCT demonstrated fundus excavation, attenuation of nuclear layers and disruption of the outer plexiform layer, loss of photoreceptors and a subretinal cleft. In one case, Sattler layer appeared extended at the cleft. Optical coherence tomography angiography indicated loss of flow in deep retinal vessels and increased flow in choroidal vessels surrounding the cleft. Multimodal imaging findings of torpedo maculopathy include disruption of the deep retinal capillary network, expansion of Sattler layer, and increased signal around the subretinal cleft.

  19. Optical palpation: optical coherence tomography-based tactile imaging using a compliant sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Kelsey M; Es'haghian, Shaghayegh; Chin, Lixin; McLaughlin, Robert A; Sampson, David D; Kennedy, Brendan F

    2014-05-15

    We present optical palpation, a tactile imaging technique for mapping micrometer- to millimeter-scale mechanical variations in soft tissue. In optical palpation, a stress sensor consisting of translucent, compliant silicone with known stress-strain behavior is placed on the tissue surface and a compressive load is applied. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is used to measure the local strain in the sensor, from which the local stress at the sample surface is calculated and mapped onto an image. We present results in tissue-mimicking phantoms, demonstrating the detection of a feature embedded 4.7 mm below the sample surface, well beyond the depth range of OCT. We demonstrate the use of optical palpation to delineate the boundary of a region of tumor in freshly excised human breast tissue, validated against histopathology.

  20. Angular scan optical coherence tomography imaging and metrology of spherical gradient refractive index preforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jianing; Meemon, Panomsak; Ponting, Michael; Rolland, Jannick P

    2015-03-09

    The fabrication of high-performance spherical gradient refractive index (S-GRIN) optics requires nondestructive metrology techniques to inspect the samples. We have developed an angular-scan, swept-source-based, Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) system centered at 1318 nm with 5 mm imaging depth capable of 180° polar scan and 360° azimuthal scan to investigate polymeric S-GRIN preforms. We demonstrate a method that enables simultaneous mapping of the group optical thickness, physical thickness, the radially-averaged group refractive index, and the transmitted wavefront of the S-GRIN preforms. The angular scan OCT imaging and metrology enables direct visualization, molding uniformity characterization, and optical property evaluations of the preforms. The results on two generations of S-GRIN preforms are discussed that showcase the evolution of the manufacturing process in response to the OCT metrology feedback.

  1. Benefits of optical coherence tomography for imaging of skin diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utz S.R.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: working out the methods of visualization of information obtained during optical coherent tomography in normal skin and in series of inflammatory disorders. Materials and Methods. OCS1300SS (made in Thorlabs, USA was used in which the source of emission of radiation was a super-luminiscent diode with mean wavelength of 1325 nm. 12 patients with different skin conditions and 5 virtually healthy volunteers were examined with ОСТ procedure in OPD and IPD settings. High resolution USG numerical system DUB (TPM GmbH, Germany was used for comparative USG assessment. Results. ОСТ demonstrated considerably more detailed picture of the objects scanned compared to USG investigation. Image obtained with the help of ОСТ contains vital information about sizes of macro-morphological elements, status of vascular elements and their density in different depths of the skin. Conclusion. Additional results obtained from ОСТ of the skin lesions in plane section improves attraction for ОСТ in practical dermatology.

  2. Multi-contrast imaging of human posterior eye by Jones matrix optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuno, Yoshiaki

    2017-04-01

    A multi-contrast imaging of pathologic posterior eyes is demonstrated by Jones matrix optical coherence tomography (Jones matrix OCT). The Jones matrix OCT provides five tomographies, which includes scattering, local attenuation, birefringence, polarization uniformity, and optical coherence angiography, by a single scan. The hardware configuration, algorithms of the Jones matrix OCT as well as its application to ophthalmology is discussed.

  3. Beamline Design and Instrumentation for the Imaging and Coherence Beamline I13L at the Diamond Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, U. H.; Pešić, Z. D.; De Fanis, A.; Rau, C.

    2013-03-01

    I13L is a 250 m long hard x-ray beamline (6 keV to 35 keV) at the Diamond Light Source. The beamline comprises of two independent experimental endstations: one for imaging in direct space using x-ray microscopy and one for imaging in reciprocal space using coherent diffraction based imaging techniques. In this paper we will discuss the fundamental design concepts of the beamline and explain their implications for the civil engineering of the endstation building and the beamline instrumentation. For the latter this paper will focus on the beamline mirror systems and monochromators.

  4. The application of optical coherence tomography to image subsurface tissue structure of Antarctic krill Euphausia superba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Bellini

    Full Text Available Many small open ocean animals, such as Antarctic krill, are an important part of marine ecosystems. To discover what will happen to animals such as krill in a changing ocean, experiments are run in aquaria where conditions can be controlled to simulate water characteristics predicted to occur in the future. The response of individual animals to changing water conditions can be hard to observe, and with current observation techniques it is very difficult to follow the progress of an individual animal through its life. Optical coherence tomography (OCT is an optical imaging technique that allows images at high resolution to be obtained from depths up to a few millimeters inside biological specimens. It is compatible with in vivo imaging and can be used repeatedly on the same specimens. In this work, we show how OCT may be applied to post mortem krill samples and how important physiological data such as shell thickness and estimates of organ volume can be obtained. Using OCT we find an average value for the thickness of krill exoskeleton to be (30±4 µm along a 1 cm length of the animal body. We also show that the technique may be used to provide detailed imagery of the internal structure of a pleopod joint and provide an estimate for the heart volume of (0.73±0.03 mm3.

  5. Direct extraction of coherent mode properties from imaging measurements in a linear plasma column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Adam; Thakur, Saikat; Brandt, Christian; Sechrest, Yancey; Tynan, George; Munsat, Tobin

    2013-10-01

    We present imaging measurements of coherent waves in the Controlled Shear Decorrelation Experiment (CSDX). CSDX is a well-characterized linear machine producing dense plasmas relevant to the tokamak edge (Te ~ 3 eV, ne ~1013 /cc). Visible light from ArII line emission is collected at high frame rates using an intensified digital camera. A cross-spectral phase technique allows direct visualization of dominant phase structures as a function of frequency, as well as identification of azimuthal asymmetries present in the system. Experimental dispersion estimates are constructed from imaging data alone. Drift-like waves are identified by comparison with theoretical dispersion curves, and a tentative match of a low-frequency spectral feature to Kelvin-Helmholtz-driven waves is presented. Imaging measurements are consistent with previous results, and provide non-invasive, single-shot measurements across the entire plasma cross-section. Relationships between imaging and electrostatic measurements are explored, including limitations of both techniques. The authors acknowledge support from the Center for Momentum Transport and Flow Organization, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy.

  6. Structural and functional optical coherence tomography imaging of the colon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welge, Weston Anthony

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains the second deadliest cancer in the United States, despite steady reduction in mortality rate over the last three decades. Colonoscopy is the gold-standard screening modality with high sensitivity and specificity to mature polyps. However, the miss rate for small (lateral and depth dimensions with resolution laterally sampling the tissue at the Nyquist limit. First, I describe the design of a miniature endoscope and the integration of this probe with a commercial OCT system. Then I describe the development of two OCT imaging methods, one structural and one functional, that could be used for future work in diagnostic or therapeutic studies. The structural method produces en face images of the colon surface showing the colonic crypts, the first such demonstration of crypt visualization in the mouse. Changes in the crypt pattern are correlated with adenoma and are one of the earliest morphological changes. The functional method uses a Doppler OCT algorithm and image processing to detect the colon microvasculature. This technique can be used for vessel counting and blood flow measurements. Angiogenesis occurs at the beginning of tumorigenesis, and the tumor-originated arterioles are incapable of regular vasodilation. This Doppler OCT technique could potentially detect tumors at the earliest stages by measuring the change in local blood flow velocity in response to vasodilatory stimuli.

  7. Combining deep learning and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging for automated differential diagnosis of lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Sheng; Xu, Xiaoyun; Li, Jiasong; Wong, Stephen T. C.

    2017-10-01

    Lung cancer is the most prevalent type of cancer and the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) is capable of providing cellular-level images and resolving pathologically related features on human lung tissues. However, conventional means of analyzing CARS images requires extensive image processing, feature engineering, and human intervention. This study demonstrates the feasibility of applying a deep learning algorithm to automatically differentiate normal and cancerous lung tissue images acquired by CARS. We leverage the features learned by pretrained deep neural networks and retrain the model using CARS images as the input. We achieve 89.2% accuracy in classifying normal, small-cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma lung images. This computational method is a step toward on-the-spot diagnosis of lung cancer and can be further strengthened by the efforts aimed at miniaturizing the CARS technique for fiber-based microendoscopic imaging.

  8. Concurrent multiscale imaging with magnetic resonance imaging and optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chia-Pin; Yang, Bo; Kim, Il Kyoon; Makris, George; Desai, Jaydev P.; Gullapalli, Rao P.; Chen, Yu

    2013-04-01

    We develop a novel platform based on a tele-operated robot to perform high-resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging under continuous large field-of-view magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance. Intra-operative MRI (iMRI) is a promising guidance tool for high-precision surgery, but it may not have sufficient resolution or contrast to visualize certain small targets. To address these limitations, we develop an MRI-compatible OCT needle probe, which is capable of providing microscale tissue architecture in conjunction with macroscale MRI tissue morphology in real time. Coregistered MRI/OCT images on ex vivo chicken breast and human brain tissues demonstrate that the complementary imaging scales and contrast mechanisms have great potential to improve the efficiency and the accuracy of iMRI procedure.

  9. Dual-scanning optical coherence elastography for rapid imaging of two tissue volumes (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Qi; Frewer, Luke; Wijesinghe, Philip; Hamzah, Juliana; Ganss, Ruth; Allen, Wes M.; Sampson, David D.; Curatolo, Andrea; Kennedy, Brendan F.

    2017-02-01

    In many applications of optical coherence elastography (OCE), it is necessary to rapidly acquire images in vivo, or within intraoperative timeframes, over fields-of-view far greater than can be achieved in one OCT image acquisition. For example, tumour margin assessment in breast cancer requires acquisition over linear dimensions of 4-5 centimetres in under 20 minutes. However, the majority of existing techniques are not compatible with these requirements, which may present a hurdle to the effective translation of OCE. To increase throughput, we have designed and developed an OCE system that simultaneously captures two 3D elastograms from opposite sides of a sample. The optical system comprises two interferometers: a common-path interferometer on one side of the sample and a dual-arm interferometer on the other side. This optical system is combined with scanning mechanisms and compression loading techniques to realize dual-scanning OCE. The optical signals scattered from two volumes are simultaneously detected on a single spectrometer by depth-encoding the interference signal from each interferometer. To demonstrate dual-scanning OCE, we performed measurements on tissue-mimicking phantoms containing rigid inclusions and freshly isolated samples of murine hepatocellular carcinoma, highlighting the use of this technique to visualise 3D tumour stiffness. These findings indicate that our technique holds promise for in vivo and intraoperative applications.

  10. Characterization of nanowires by coherent X-ray diffractive imaging and ptychography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzhigaev, Dmitry

    2017-03-15

    Imaging techniques are of paramount importance for our understanding of the universe. From galaxies and stars explored by huge telescopes down to micro and nanostructures studied by microscopes, imaging systems provide invaluable scientific information. When an object under investigation has a size of about 100 nanometers, X-rays become a perfect probe for non-destructive imaging. The manufacturing process of image forming lenses for X-rays becomes much more complicated comparing to optical ones. Therefore, ''lensless'' techniques which rely on the coherent properties of radiation were developed. With third generation of synchrotron sources highly coherent and intense X-ray beams became widely accessible. They are used in new imaging methods such as coherent X-ray diffractive imaging (CXDI) and X-ray ptychography. Modern nanotechnology opens a wide spectrum of possible applications in different branches of physics, chemistry, biology and engineering. At the nanoscale, matter has different physical and chemical properties compared to the macroscale bulk material. The continuing trend of miniaturization of functional components in semiconductor industry brings new challenges both in growth and characterization methods. This Thesis is focused on application of coherent diffractive imaging methods to reveal the structure of single semiconductor nanowires (NWs). They have been attracting significant attention for a couple of decades due to their efficient strain relaxation properties. And since the strain plays a significant role in NW performance the projects carried out in this work are oriented on Bragg CXDI approaches. Three distinct projects were carried out during my research activity at DESY research center of the Helmholtz Association. Experimental work was performed at P06 and P10 beamlines at PETRA III synchrotron. The first part of this Thesis extends the application of the three-dimensional (3D) Bragg CXDI to strain field mapping in a

  11. Validation of Dynamic optical coherence tomography for non-invasive, in vivo microcirculation imaging of the skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Themstrup, L.; Welzel, Julia; Ciardo, Silvana

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Dynamic optical coherence tomography (D-OCT) is an angiographic variation of OCT that non-invasively provides images of the in vivo microvasculature of the skin by combining conventional OCT images with flow data. The objective of this study was to investigate and report on the D......-OCT technique for imaging of the vascular networks in skin as well as to validate the method by comparing the results against already accepted blood flow measuring tools. Methods: 35 healthy subjects were recruited for the multicentre study, consisting of three experiments set up to examine the vascular blood...... perfusion during different induced physiologic changes in the blood flow. In order to validate the D-OCT images against existing techniques for blood flow measuring we performed consecutive D-OCT, chromametry and laser speckle contrast imager (LSCI) measurements on identical skin sites in all...

  12. Intracoronary optical coherence tomography: Clinical and research applications and intravascular imaging software overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tenekecioglu, Erhan; Albuquerque, Felipe N.; Sotomi, Yohei; Zeng, Yaping; Suwannasom, Pannipa; Tateishi, Hiroki; Cavalcante, Rafael; Ishibashi, Yuki; Nakatani, Shimpei; Abdelghani, Mohammad; Dijkstra, Jouke; Bourantas, Christos; Collet, Carlos; Karanasos, Antonios; Radu, Maria; Wang, Ancong; Muramatsu, Takashi; Landmesser, Ulf; Okamura, Takayuki; Regar, Evelyn; Räber, Lorenz; Guagliumi, Giulio; Pyo, Robert T.; Onuma, Yoshinobu; Serruys, Patrick W.

    2017-01-01

    By providing valuable information about the coronary artery wall and lumen, intravascular imaging may aid in optimizing interventional procedure results and thereby could improve clinical outcomes following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Intravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) is

  13. Research on the space-borne coherent wind lidar technique and the prototype experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Long; Tao, Yuliang; An, Chao; Yang, Jukui; Du, Guojun; Zheng, Yongchao

    2016-10-01

    Space-borne coherent wind lidar technique is considered as one of the most promising and appropriate remote Sensing methods for successfully measuring the whole global vector wind profile between the lower atmosphere and the middle atmosphere. Compared with other traditional methods, the space-borne coherent wind lidar has some advantages, such as, the all-day operation; many lidar systems can be integrated into the same satellite because of the light-weight and the small size, eye-safe wavelength, and being insensitive to the background light. Therefore, this coherent lidar could be widely applied into the earth climate research, disaster monitoring, numerical weather forecast, environment protection. In this paper, the 2μm space-borne coherent wind lidar system for measuring the vector wind profile is proposed. And the technical parameters about the sub-system of the coherent wind lidar are simulated and the all sub-system schemes are proposed. For sake of validating the technical parameters of the space-borne coherent wind lidar system and the optical off-axis telescope, the weak laser signal detection technique, etc. The proto-type coherent wind lidar is produced and the experiments for checking the performance of this proto-type coherent wind lidar are finished with the hard-target and the soft target, and the horizontal wind and the vertical wind profile are measured and calibrated, respectively. For this proto-type coherent wind lidar, the wavelength is 1.54μm, the pulse energy 80μJ, the pulse width 300ns, the diameter of the off-axis telescope 120mm, the single wedge for cone scanning with the 40°angle, and the two dualbalanced InGaAs detector modules are used. The experiment results are well consisted with the simulation process, and these results show that the wind profile between the vertical altitude 4km can be measured, the accuracy of the wind velocity and the wind direction are better than 1m/s and +/-10°, respectively.

  14. Filtering technique for image analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maggi, F.

    2003-01-01

    The measuring of the flocculation parameters is based on the analysis of the optical records obtained with the settling column. These records consist of images of aggregates or flocs grabbed with a digital camera. Flocs are lightened by means of a laser sheet coming from the side. The laser light is

  15. Master/slave: A better tool for Gabor filtering optical coherence tomography imaging instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cernat, Ramona; Bradu, Adrian; Israelsen, Niels Møller

    2017-01-01

    In this report, the benefits that the Master/Slave (MS) implementation of optical coherence tomography (OCT) can bring to a Gabor filtering (GF) imaging instrument are illustrated. The MS allows simultaneous display of three categories of images in one frame: multiple depth en-face OCT images, tw...

  16. Impact of Multiple En Face Image Averaging on Quantitative Assessment from Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uji, Akihito; Balasubramanian, Siva; Lei, Jianqin; Baghdasaryan, Elmira; Al-Sheikh, Mayss; Sadda, SriniVas R

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the impact of multiple en face image averaging on quantitative measurements of the retinal microvasculature using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Prospective, observational, cross-sectional case series. Twenty-one healthy individuals with normal eyes. Macular OCTA images were acquired from all participants using the Zeiss Cirrus 5000 with Angioplex OCTA software (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA). Nine OCTA cube scans per eye were obtained and 9 superficial retinal layer (SRL) and deep retinal layer (DRL) en face OCTA image slabs were averaged individually after registration. Quantitative parameters from the retinal microvasculature were measured on binarized and skeletonized OCTA images and compared with single OCTA images without averaging. Vessel density (VD), vessel length density (VLD), vessel diameter index (VDI), and fractal dimension (FD). Participants with artifact or poor image quality were excluded, leaving 18 eyes for the analysis. After averaging, qualitatively there was apparent reduction in background noise, and fragmented vessels in the images before averaging became continuous with smoother walls and showed sharper contrast in both the SRL and DRL. Binarized and skeletonized derivates of these averaged images also showed fewer line fragments and dots in nonvascular areas and more continuous vessel images than those of images without averaging. In both SRL and DRL, VD (P = 0.0010 and P = 0.0003, respectively), VLD (P images improves image quality and also significantly impacts quantitative measurements. Reducing noise that could be misinterpreted as flow and annealing discontinuous vessel segments seem to be major mechanisms by which averaging may be of benefit. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Simultaneous, label-free, multispectral fluorescence lifetime imaging and optical coherence tomography using a double-clad fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherlock, Benjamin E; Phipps, Jennifer E; Bec, Julien; Marcu, Laura

    2017-10-01

    We present a novel fiber-based imaging platform that allows simultaneous fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIm) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) using a double-clad fiber. This platform acquires co-registered images showing structural and compositional contrast in unlabeled biological samples by scanning the fiber tip across the sample surface. In this Letter, we report a characterization of each modality and show examples of co-registered FLIm and OCT images acquired from a lemon segment and a section of human coronary artery. The close comparison between the combined FLIm and OCT images and a co-registered histology section provides a qualitative validation of the technique and highlights its potential for minimally invasive, multimodal imaging of tissue structure and composition.

  18. Image processing techniques for remote sensing data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshKumar, M.R.

    interpretation and for processing of scene data for autonomous machine perception. The technique of digital image processing are used for' automatic character/pattern recognition, industrial robots for product assembly and inspection, military recognizance...

  19. Experimental generation of optical coherence lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yahong; Cai, Yangjian, E-mail: serpo@dal.ca, E-mail: yangjiancai@suda.edu.cn [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Key Lab of Advanced Optical Manufacturing Technologies of Jiangsu Province and Key Lab of Modern Optical Technologies of Education Ministry of China, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Ponomarenko, Sergey A., E-mail: serpo@dal.ca, E-mail: yangjiancai@suda.edu.cn [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3J 2X4 (Canada)

    2016-08-08

    We report experimental generation and measurement of recently introduced optical coherence lattices. The presented optical coherence lattice realization technique hinges on a superposition of mutually uncorrelated partially coherent Schell-model beams with tailored coherence properties. We show theoretically that information can be encoded into and, in principle, recovered from the lattice degree of coherence. Our results can find applications to image transmission and optical encryption.

  20. Image transfer with spatial coherence for aberration corrected transmission electron microscopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosokawa, Fumio, E-mail: hosokawa@bio-net.co.jp [BioNet Ltd., 2-3-28 Nishikityo, Tachikwa, Tokyo (Japan); Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midoriku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Sawada, Hidetaka [JEOL (UK) Ltd., JEOL House, Silver Court, Watchmead, Welwyn Garden City, Herts AL7 1LT (United Kingdom); Shinkawa, Takao [BioNet Ltd., 2-3-28 Nishikityo, Tachikwa, Tokyo (Japan); Sannomiya, Takumi [Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midoriku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan)

    2016-08-15

    The formula of spatial coherence involving an aberration up to six-fold astigmatism is derived for aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy. Transfer functions for linear imaging are calculated using the newly derived formula with several residual aberrations. Depending on the symmetry and origin of an aberration, the calculated transfer function shows characteristic symmetries. The aberrations that originate from the field’s components, having uniformity along the z direction, namely, the n-fold astigmatism, show rotational symmetric damping of the coherence. The aberrations that originate from the field’s derivatives with respect to z, such as coma, star, and three lobe, show non-rotational symmetric damping. It is confirmed that the odd-symmetric wave aberrations have influences on the attenuation of an image via spatial coherence. Examples of image simulations of haemoglobin and Si [211] are shown by using the spatial coherence for an aberration-corrected electron microscope. - Highlights: • The formula of partial coherence for aberration corrected TEM is derived. • Transfer functions are calculated with several residual aberrations. • The calculated transfer function shows the characteristic damping. • The odd-symmetric wave aberrations can cause the attenuation of image via coherence. • The examples of aberration corrected TEM image simulations are shown.

  1. Interior tomographic imaging for x-ray coherent scattering (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Sean; Zhu, Zheyuan

    2017-05-01

    Conventional computed tomography reconstructs the attenuation only high-dimensional images. Coherent scatter computed tomography, which reconstructs the angular dependent scattering profiles of 3D objects, can provide molecular signatures that improves the accuracy of material identification and classification. Coherent scatter tomography are traditionally acquired by setups similar to x-ray powder diffraction machine; a collimated source in combination with 2D or 1D detector collimation in order to localize the scattering point. In addition, the coherent scatter cross-section is often 3 orders of magnitude lower than that of the absorption cross-section for the same material. Coded aperture and structured illumination approaches has been shown to greatly improve the collection efficiency. In many applications, especially in security imaging and medical diagnosis, fast and accurate identification of the material composition of a small volume within the whole object would lead to an accelerated imaging procedure and reduced radiation dose. Here, we report an imaging method to reconstruct the material coherent scatter profile within a small volume. The reconstruction along one radial direction can reconstruct a scalar coherent scattering tomographic image. Our methods takes advantage of the finite support of the scattering profile in small angle regime. Our system uses a pencil beam setup without using any detector side collimation. Coherent scatter profile of a 10 mm scattering sample embedded in a 30 mm diameter phantom was reconstructed. The setup has small form factor and is suitable for various portable non-destructive detection applications.

  2. Terahertz Imaging Systems With Aperture Synthesis Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krozer, Viktor; Löffler, Torsten; Dall, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    in this paper. An active system operation allows for a wide dynamic range, which is important for image quality. The described instruments employ a multichannel high-sensitivity heterodyne architecture and aperture filling techniques, with close to real-time image acquisition time. In the case of the photonic...... imaging system, mechanical scanning is completely obsolete. We show 2-D images of simulated 3-D image data for both systems. The reconstruction algorithms are suitable for 3-D real-time operation, only limited by mechanical scanning....

  3. Intracoronary imaging using attenuation-compensated optical coherence tomography allows better visualisation of coronary artery diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foin, Nicolas, E-mail: nicolas.foin@gmail.com [International Centre for Circulatory Health, Imperial College London, W2 1LA London (United Kingdom); Mari, Jean Martial [University College London, London (United Kingdom); Nijjer, Sukhjinder; Sen, Sayan; Petraco, Ricardo [International Centre for Circulatory Health, Imperial College London, W2 1LA London (United Kingdom); Ghione, Matteo; Di Mario, Carlo [Biomedical Research Unit, Royal Brompton Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Davies, Justin E. [International Centre for Circulatory Health, Imperial College London, W2 1LA London (United Kingdom); Girard, Michaël J.A. [Department of Bioengineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Singapore Eye Research Institute (Singapore)

    2013-05-15

    Purpose: To allow an accurate diagnosis of coronary artery diseases by enhancing optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of atheromatous plaques using a novel automated attenuation compensation technique. Background: One of the major drawbacks of coronary OCT imaging is the rapid attenuation of the OCT signal, limiting penetration in tissue to only few millimetres. Visualisation of deeper anatomy is however critical for accurate assessment of plaque burden in-vivo. Methods: A compensation algorithm, previously developed to correct for light attenuation in soft tissues and to enhance contrast in ophthalmic OCT images, was applied to intracoronary plaque imaging using spectral-domain OCT. Results: Application of the compensation algorithm significantly increased tissue contrast in the vessel wall and atherosclerotic plaque boundaries. Contrast enhancement allows a better differentiation of plaque morphology, which is particularly important for the identification of lipid rich fibro atheromatous plaques and to guide decision on treatment strategy. Conclusion: The analysis of arterial vessel structure clinically captured with OCT is improved when used in conjunction with automated attenuation compensation. This approach may improve the OCT-based interpretation of coronary plaque morphology in clinical practice.

  4. A comparison of image inpainting techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaojie; Shu, Chang

    2015-03-01

    Image inpainting is an important research topic in the field of image processing. The objective of inpainting is to "guess" the lost information according to surrounding image information, which can be applied in old photo restoration, object removal and demosaicing. Based on the foundation of previous literature of image inpainting and image modeling, this paper provides an overview of the state-of-art image inpainting methods. This survey first covers mathematics models of inpainting and different kinds of image impairment. Then it goes to the main components of an image, the structure and the texture, and states how these inpainting models and algorithms deal with the two separately, using PDE's method, exemplar-based method and etc. Afterwards sparse-representation-based inpainting and related techniques are introduced. Experimental analysis will be presented to evaluate the relative merits of different algorithms, with the measure of Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) as well as direct visual perception.

  5. Lung Cancer Detection Using Image Processing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhled S. AL-TARAWNEH

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently, image processing techniques are widely used in several medical areas for image improvement in earlier detection and treatment stages, where the time factor is very important to discover the abnormality issues in target images, especially in various cancer tumours such as lung cancer, breast cancer, etc. Image quality and accuracy is the core factors of this research, image quality assessment as well as improvement are depending on the enhancement stage where low pre-processing techniques is used based on Gabor filter within Gaussian rules. Following the segmentation principles, an enhanced region of the object of interest that is used as a basic foundation of feature extraction is obtained. Relying on general features, a normality comparison is made. In this research, the main detected features for accurate images comparison are pixels percentage and mask-labelling.

  6. Optical Coherence Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fercher, A.F.; Andersen, Peter E.

    2017-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a technique that is used to peer inside a body noninvasively. Tissue structure defined by tissue absorption and scattering coefficients, and the speed of blood flow, are derived from the characteristics of light remitted by the body. Singly backscattered light...... detected by partial coherence interferometry (PCI) is used to synthesize the tomographic image coded in false colors. A prerequisite of this technique is a low time-coherent but high space-coherent light source, for example, a superluminescent diode or a supercontinuum source. Alternatively, the imaging...... technique can be realized by using ultrafast wavelength scanning light sources. For tissue imaging, the light source wavelengths are restricted to the red and near-infrared (NIR) region from about 600 to 1300 nm, the so-called therapeutic window, where absorption (μa ≈ 0.01 mm−1) is small enough. Transverse...

  7. Simultaneous structural and functional imaging of the macula using combined optical coherence tomography ophthalmoscope and multifocal electroretinogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudgeon, Sinead M.; Keating, David; Parks, Stuart

    2007-05-01

    Multimodal imaging (MMI) is a new imaging technique that combines an electrophysiological test (multifocal electroretinogram) with an optical coherence tomography ophthalmoscope. MMI allows the two technologies to operate simultaneously yet independently to provide accurate correlation of macular structure and function at multiple sites. Preliminary work with MMI in patients with macular holes showed that functional deficits existed beyond the geographical area of structural alterations and that macular hole size did not always correlate with the severity of functional loss. Functional information may therefore be important when assessing prognosis in these patients. We envisage that MMI may prove a useful new tool in the assessment of many macular pathologies.

  8. Choroidal vasculature characteristics based choroid segmentation for enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Qiang; Niu, Sijie [School of Computer Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Yuan, Songtao; Fan, Wen, E-mail: fanwen1029@163.com; Liu, Qinghuai [Department of Ophthalmology, The First Affiliated Hospital with Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China)

    2016-04-15

    Purpose: In clinical research, it is important to measure choroidal thickness when eyes are affected by various diseases. The main purpose is to automatically segment choroid for enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT) images with five B-scans averaging. Methods: The authors present an automated choroid segmentation method based on choroidal vasculature characteristics for EDI-OCT images with five B-scans averaging. By considering the large vascular of the Haller’s layer neighbor with the choroid-sclera junction (CSJ), the authors measured the intensity ascending distance and a maximum intensity image in the axial direction from a smoothed and normalized EDI-OCT image. Then, based on generated choroidal vessel image, the authors constructed the CSJ cost and constrain the CSJ search neighborhood. Finally, graph search with smooth constraints was utilized to obtain the CSJ boundary. Results: Experimental results with 49 images from 10 eyes in 8 normal persons and 270 images from 57 eyes in 44 patients with several stages of diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration demonstrate that the proposed method can accurately segment the choroid of EDI-OCT images with five B-scans averaging. The mean choroid thickness difference and overlap ratio between the authors’ proposed method and manual segmentation drawn by experts were −11.43 μm and 86.29%, respectively. Conclusions: Good performance was achieved for normal and pathologic eyes, which proves that the authors’ method is effective for the automated choroid segmentation of the EDI-OCT images with five B-scans averaging.

  9. Statistical normalization techniques for magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell T. Shinohara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While computed tomography and other imaging techniques are measured in absolute units with physical meaning, magnetic resonance images are expressed in arbitrary units that are difficult to interpret and differ between study visits and subjects. Much work in the image processing literature on intensity normalization has focused on histogram matching and other histogram mapping techniques, with little emphasis on normalizing images to have biologically interpretable units. Furthermore, there are no formalized principles or goals for the crucial comparability of image intensities within and across subjects. To address this, we propose a set of criteria necessary for the normalization of images. We further propose simple and robust biologically motivated normalization techniques for multisequence brain imaging that have the same interpretation across acquisitions and satisfy the proposed criteria. We compare the performance of different normalization methods in thousands of images of patients with Alzheimer's disease, hundreds of patients with multiple sclerosis, and hundreds of healthy subjects obtained in several different studies at dozens of imaging centers.

  10. Superresolution imaging: a survey of current techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristóbal, G.; Gil, E.; Šroubek, F.; Flusser, J.; Miravet, C.; Rodríguez, F. B.

    2008-08-01

    Imaging plays a key role in many diverse areas of application, such as astronomy, remote sensing, microscopy, and tomography. Owing to imperfections of measuring devices (e.g., optical degradations, limited size of sensors) and instability of the observed scene (e.g., object motion, media turbulence), acquired images can be indistinct, noisy, and may exhibit insuffcient spatial and temporal resolution. In particular, several external effects blur images. Techniques for recovering the original image include blind deconvolution (to remove blur) and superresolution (SR). The stability of these methods depends on having more than one image of the same frame. Differences between images are necessary to provide new information, but they can be almost unperceivable. State-of-the-art SR techniques achieve remarkable results in resolution enhancement by estimating the subpixel shifts between images, but they lack any apparatus for calculating the blurs. In this paper, after introducing a review of current SR techniques we describe two recently developed SR methods by the authors. First, we introduce a variational method that minimizes a regularized energy function with respect to the high resolution image and blurs. In this way we establish a unifying way to simultaneously estimate the blurs and the high resolution image. By estimating blurs we automatically estimate shifts with subpixel accuracy, which is inherent for good SR performance. Second, an innovative learning-based algorithm using a neural architecture for SR is described. Comparative experiments on real data illustrate the robustness and utilization of both methods.

  11. Visualization of Radial Peripapillary Capillaries Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography: The Effect of Image Averaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley Mo

    Full Text Available To assess the effect of image registration and averaging on the visualization and quantification of the radial peripapillary capillary (RPC network on optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA.Twenty-two healthy controls were imaged with a commercial OCTA system (AngioVue, Optovue, Inc.. Ten 10x10° scans of the optic disc were obtained, and the most superficial layer (50-μm slab extending from the inner limiting membrane was extracted for analysis. Rigid registration was achieved using ImageJ, and averaging of each 2 to 10 frames was performed in five ~2x2° regions of interest (ROI located 1° from the optic disc margin. The ROI were automatically skeletonized. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR, number of endpoints and mean capillary length from the skeleton, capillary density, and mean intercapillary distance (ICD were measured for the reference and each averaged ROI. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to assess statistical significance. Three patients with primary open angle glaucoma were also imaged to compare RPC density to controls.Qualitatively, vessels appeared smoother and closer to histologic descriptions with increasing number of averaged frames. Quantitatively, number of endpoints decreased by 51%, and SNR, mean capillary length, capillary density, and ICD increased by 44%, 91%, 11%, and 4.5% from single frame to 10-frame averaged, respectively. The 10-frame averaged images from the glaucomatous eyes revealed decreased density correlating to visual field defects and retinal nerve fiber layer thinning.OCTA image registration and averaging is a viable and accessible method to enhance the visualization of RPCs, with significant improvements in image quality and RPC quantitative parameters. With this technique, we will be able to non-invasively and reliably study RPC involvement in diseases such as glaucoma.

  12. Three-dimensional imaging of nanoscale materials by using coherent x-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Jianwei

    2011-04-18

    X-ray crystallography is currently the primary methodology used to determine the 3D structure of materials and macromolecules. However, many nanostructures, disordered materials, biomaterials, hybrid materials and biological specimens are noncrystalline and, hence, their structures are not accessible by X-ray crystallography. Probing these structures therefore requires the employment of different approaches. A very promising technique currently under rapid development is X-ray diffraction microscopy (or lensless imaging), in which the coherent X-ray diffraction pattern of a noncrystalline specimen is measured and then directly phased to obtain a high-resolution image. Through the DOE support over the past three years, we have applied X-ray diffraction microscopy to quantitative imaging of GaN quantum dot particles, and revealed the internal GaN-Ga2O3 core shell structure in three dimensions. By exploiting the abrupt change in the scattering cross-section near electronic resonances, we carried out the first experimental demonstration of resonant X-ray diffraction microscopy for element specific imaging. We performed nondestructive and quantitative imaging of buried Bi structures inside a Si crystal by directly phasing coherent X-ray diffraction patterns acquired below and above the Bi M5 edge. We have also applied X-ray diffraction microscopy to nondestructive imaging of mineral crystals inside biological composite materials - intramuscular fish bone - at the nanometer scale resolution. We identified mineral crystals in collagen fibrils at different stages of mineralization and proposed a dynamic mechanism to account for the nucleation and growth of mineral crystals in the collagen matrix. In addition, we have also discovered a novel 3D imaging modality, denoted ankylography, which allows for complete 3D structure determination without the necessity of sample titling or scanning. We showed that when the diffraction pattern of a finite object is sampled at a

  13. Magnetomotive imaging of iron oxide nanoparticles as cellular contrast agents for optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimalla, Peter; Werner, Theresa; Gaertner, Maria; Mueller, Claudia; Walther, Julia; Wittig, Dierk; Ader, Marius; Karl, Mike; Koch, Edmund

    2013-06-01

    Recent studies in animal models provided proof-of-principle evidence for cell transplantation as a potential future therapeutic approach for retinal pathologies in humans such as Retinitis pigmentosa or age-related macular degeneration. In this case, donor cells are injected into the eye in order to protect or replace degenerating photoreceptors or retinal pigment epithelium. However, currently there is no three-dimensional imaging technique available that allows tracking of cell migration and integration into the host tissue under in vivo conditions. Therefore, we investigate about magnetomotive optical coherence tomography (OCT) of substances labeled with iron oxide nanoparticles as a potential method for noninvasive, three-dimensional cell tracking in the retina. We use a self-developed spectral domain OCT system for high-resolution imaging in the 800 nm-wavelength region. A suitable AC magnetic field for magnetomotive imaging was generated using two different setups, which consist of an electrically driven solenoid in combination with a permanent magnet, and a mechanically driven all-permanent magnet configuration. In the sample region the maximum magnetic flux density was 100 mT for both setups, with a field gradient of 9 T/m and 13 T/m for the solenoid and the allpermanent magnet setup, respectively. Magnetomotive OCT imaging was performed in elastic tissue phantoms and single cells labeled with iron oxide nanoparticles. Particle-induced sub-resolution movement of the elastic samples and the single cells could successfully be detected and visualized by means of phase-resolved Doppler OCT analysis. Therefore, this method is a potential technique to enhance image contrast of specific cells in OCT.

  14. Ultrasonic Imaging Techniques for Breast Cancer Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulding, N. R.; Marquez, J. D.; Prewett, E. M.; Claytor, T. N.; Nadler, B. R.

    2008-02-01

    Improving the resolution and specificity of current ultrasonic imaging technology is needed to enhance its relevance to breast cancer detection. A novel ultrasonic imaging reconstruction method is described that exploits classical straight-ray migration. This novel method improves signal processing for better image resolution and uses novel staging hardware options using a pulse-echo approach. A breast phantom with various inclusions is imaged using the classical migration method and is compared to standard computed tomography (CT) scans. These innovative ultrasonic methods incorporate ultrasound data acquisition, beam profile characterization, and image reconstruction. For an ultrasonic frequency of 2.25 MHz, imaged inclusions of approximately 1 cm are resolved and identified. Better resolution is expected with minor modifications. Improved image quality and resolution enables earlier detection and more accurate diagnoses of tumors thus reducing the number of biopsies performed, increasing treatment options, and lowering remission percentages. Using these new techniques the inclusions in the phantom are resolved and compared to the results of standard methods. Refinement of this application using other imaging techniques such as time-reversal mirrors (TRM), synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT), decomposition of the time reversal operator (DORT), and factorization methods is also discussed.

  15. Combination of optical coherence tomography and reflectometry technique for eye measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hui; Wang, Michael R.

    2013-03-01

    A spectral domain optical coherence tomography system is integrated with an optical reflectometer to provide dualfunctional eye measurement. The system is capable of performing anterior segment imaging and tear film thickness evaluation at the same time. The axial resolution of the anterior segment imaging is 6μm while for tear film thickness measurement the resolution is about 21 nm. We use the integrated device to examine a model eye with artificial tear film. Structures such as the cornea, the ciliary muscle, and the front boundary of the crystalline lens are clearly visible. Artificial tear film thickness is determined simultaneously with anterior segment imaging. The integrated device is also flexible for separated anterior segment imaging or tear thickness evaluation.

  16. Optical coherence tomography imaging of psoriasis vulgaris: correlation with histology and disease severity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morsy, Hanan; Kamp, Søren; Thrane, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Epidermal thickness (ET) has been suggested as a surrogate measure of psoriasis severity. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a recent imaging technology that provides real-time skin images to a depth of 1.8 mm with a micrometre resolution. OCT may provide an accurate in vivo measure of ET. It ...

  17. Phase-space evolution of x-ray coherence in phase-sensitive imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xizeng; Liu, Hong

    2008-08-01

    X-ray coherence evolution in the imaging process plays a key role for x-ray phase-sensitive imaging. In this work we present a phase-space formulation for the phase-sensitive imaging. The theory is reformulated in terms of the cross-spectral density and associated Wigner distribution. The phase-space formulation enables an explicit and quantitative account of partial coherence effects on phase-sensitive imaging. The presented formulas for x-ray spectral density at the detector can be used for performing accurate phase retrieval and optimizing the phase-contrast visibility. The concept of phase-space shearing length derived from this phase-space formulation clarifies the spatial coherence requirement for phase-sensitive imaging with incoherent sources. The theory has been applied to x-ray Talbot interferometric imaging as well. The peak coherence condition derived reveals new insights into three-grating-based Talbot-interferometric imaging and gratings-based x-ray dark-field imaging.

  18. Rapid identification of heterogeneous mixture components with hyperspectral coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garbacik, E.T.; Herek, Jennifer Lynn; Otto, Cornelis; Offerhaus, Herman L.

    2012-01-01

    For the rapid analysis of complicated heterogeneous mixtures, we have developed a method to acquire and intuitively display hyperspectral coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) images. The imaging is performed with a conventional optical setup based around an optical parametric oscillator.

  19. Dual illumination for cornea and retina imaging using spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, Muhammad Faizan; Wijesinghe, Ruchire Eranga; Ravichandran, Naresh Kumar; Jeon, Mansik; Kim, Jeehyun

    2017-04-01

    A dual illumination system is proposed for cornea and retina imaging using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). The system is designed to acquire cornea and retina imaging with dual illumination with limited optics and using a single spectrometer. The beam propagation for cornea and retina imaging in dual illumination enables to acquire the images of different segments. This approach will reduce the imaging time for separate corneal and retinal imaging. The in vivo imaging of both the cornea and retina of a health volunteer shows the feasibility of the system for clinical applications

  20. Dual-path handheld system for cornea and retina imaging using optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, Muhammad Faizan; Wijesinghe, Ruchire Eranga; Ravichandran, Naresh Kumar; Kim, Pilun; Jeon, Mansik; Kim, Jeehyun

    2017-04-01

    A dual-path handheld system is proposed for cornea and retina imaging using spectral domain optical coherence tomography. The handheld sample arm is designed to acquire two images simultaneously. Both eyes of a person can be imaged at the same time to obtain the images of the cornea of one eye and the retina of the other eye. Cornea, retina, and optic disc images are acquired with the proposed sample arm. Experimental results demonstrate the usefulness of this system for imaging of different eye segments. This system reduces the time required for imaging of the two eyes and is cost effective.

  1. Multimodal ophthalmic imaging using spectrally encoded scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Haddad, Mohamed T.; Malone, Joseph D.; Li, Jianwei D.; Bozic, Ivan; Arquitola, Amber M.; Joos, Karen M.; Patel, Shriji N.; Tao, Yuankai K.

    2017-08-01

    Ophthalmic surgery involves manipulation of delicate, layered tissue structures on milli- to micrometer scales. Traditional surgical microscopes provide an inherently two-dimensional view of the surgical field with limited depth perception which precludes accurate depth-resolved visualization of these tissue layers, and limits the development of novel surgical techniques. We demonstrate multimodal swept-source spectrally encoded scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and optical coherence tomography (SS-SESLO-OCT) to address current limitations of image-guided ophthalmic microsurgery. SS-SESLO-OCT provides inherently co-registered en face and cross-sectional field-of-views (FOVs) at a line rate of 400 kHz and >2 GPix/s throughput. We show in vivo imaging of the anterior segment and retinal fundus of a healthy volunteer, and preliminary results of multi-volumetric mosaicking for ultrawide-field retinal imaging with 90° FOV. Additionally, a scan-head was rapid-prototyped with a modular architecture which enabled integration of SS-SESLO-OCT with traditional surgical microscope and slit-lamp imaging optics. Ex vivo surgical maneuvers were simulated in cadaveric porcine eyes. The system throughput enabled volumetric acquisition at 10 volumes-per-second (vps) and allowed visualization of surgical dynamics in corneal sweeps, compressions, and dissections, and retinal sweeps, compressions, and elevations. SESLO en face images enabled simple real-time co-registration with the surgical microscope FOV, and OCT cross-sections provided depth-resolved visualization of instrument-tissue interactions. Finally, we demonstrate novel augmented-reality integration with the surgical view using segmentation overlays to aid surgical guidance. SS-SESLO-OCT may benefit clinical diagnostics by enabling aiming, registration, and mosaicking; and intraoperative imaging by allowing for real-time surgical feedback, instrument tracking, and overlays of computationally extracted biomarkers of disease.

  2. Image fusion techniques in permanent seed implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Polo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the last twenty years major software and hardware developments in brachytherapy treatment planning, intraoperative navigation and dose delivery have been made. Image-guided brachytherapy has emerged as the ultimate conformal radiation therapy, allowing precise dose deposition on small volumes under direct image visualization. In thisprocess imaging plays a central role and novel imaging techniques are being developed (PET, MRI-MRS and power Doppler US imaging are among them, creating a new paradigm (dose-guided brachytherapy, where imaging is used to map the exact coordinates of the tumour cells, and to guide applicator insertion to the correct position. Each of these modalities has limitations providing all of the physical and geometric information required for the brachytherapy workflow.Therefore, image fusion can be used as a solution in order to take full advantage of the information from each modality in treatment planning, intraoperative navigation, dose delivery, verification and follow-up of interstitial irradiation.Image fusion, understood as the visualization of any morphological volume (i.e. US, CT, MRI together with an additional second morpholo gical volume (i.e. CT, MRI or functional dataset (functional MRI, SPECT, PET, is a well known method for treatment planning, verification and follow-up of interstitial irradiation. The term image fusion is used when multiple patient image datasets are registered and overlaid or merged to provide additional information. Fused images may be created from multiple images from the same imaging modality taken at different moments (multi-temporalapproach, or by combining information from multiple modalities. Quality means that the fused images should provide additional information to the brachythe rapy process (diagnosis and staging, treatment planning, intraoperative imaging, treatment delivery and follow-up that cannot be obtained in other ways. In this review I will focus on the role of

  3. High-definition optical coherence tomography imaging for noninvasive examination of heritage works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, Farzana; Hou, Isabella; Cooper, Denver; Patel, Divya; Yang, Yi; Liu, Xuan

    2016-12-20

    Cultural heritage works, such as ancient murals and historical paintings, are examined routinely for the purpose of conservation. Previous works have applied optical coherence tomography (OCT), which is a three-dimensional (3D) microscopic imaging modality in the field of heritage works conservation. The data acquired by OCT provides both 3D surface information of the object and structure information underneath the surface. Therefore, cross-sectional information on the object can be utilized to study layer structure of the painting and brush stroke techniques used by the artist. However, as demonstrated in previous studies, OCT has limited capability in high-definition (HD) examination of paintings or murals that are in macroscopic scale. HD examination of heritage works needs to scan large areas and process huge amounts of data, while OCT imaging has a limited field of view and processing power. To further advance the application of OCT in the conservation of heritage works, we demonstrate what we believe is a novel high-speed, large field-of-view (FOV) OCT imaging platform. Our results suggest that this OCT platform has the potential to become a nondestructive alternative for the analysis and conservation of paintings and murals.

  4. Diagnostic Imaging Of The Vitreous By Optical Coherence Tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Itakura H

    2013-01-01

    Recently, a new treatment to the vitreoretinal interface diseases, vitreous injection of enzymatic vitreous melting drug is beginning to take place. This is a treatment to release the adhesion between the incompletely detached vitreous and the retina. Because the vitreous is transparent, to observe the relationship between the vitreous and the retina using only slit lamp microscope is difficult, optical coherence tomography (OCT) is necessary for adaptation decision of the vitreous injection....

  5. High-dynamic-range microscope imaging based on exposure bracketing in full-field optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong-Hoi, Audrey; Montgomery, Paul C; Serio, Bruno; Twardowski, Patrice; Uhring, Wilfried

    2016-04-01

    By applying the proposed high-dynamic-range (HDR) technique based on exposure bracketing, we demonstrate a meaningful reduction in the spatial noise in image frames acquired with a CCD camera so as to improve the fringe contrast in full-field optical coherence tomography (FF-OCT). This new signal processing method thus allows improved probing within transparent or semitransparent samples. The proposed method is demonstrated on 3 μm thick transparent polymer films of Mylar, which, due to their transparency, produce low contrast fringe patterns in white-light interference microscopy. High-resolution tomographic analysis is performed using the technique. After performing appropriate signal processing, resulting XZ sections are observed. Submicrometer-sized defects can be lost in the noise that is present in the CCD images. With the proposed method, we show that by increasing the signal-to-noise ratio of the images, submicrometer-sized defect structures can thus be detected.

  6. Pulse wave imaging using coherent compounding in a phantom and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharias Apostolakis, Iason; McGarry, Matthew D. J.; Bunting, Ethan A.; Konofagou, Elisa E.

    2017-03-01

    Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is a surrogate marker of arterial stiffness linked to cardiovascular morbidity. Pulse wave imaging (PWI) is a technique developed by our group for imaging the pulse wave propagation in vivo. PWI requires high temporal and spatial resolution, which conventional ultrasonic imaging is unable to simultaneously provide. Coherent compounding is known to address this tradeoff and provides full aperture images at high frame rates. This study aims to implement PWI using coherent compounding within a GPU-accelerated framework. The results of the implemented method were validated using a silicone phantom against static mechanical testing. Reproducibility of the measured PWVs was assessed in the right common carotid of six healthy subjects (n  =  6) approximately 10-15 mm before the bifurcation during two cardiac cycles over the course of 1-3 d. Good agreement of the measured PWVs (3.97  ±  1.21 m s-1, 4.08  ±  1.15 m s-1, p  =  0.74) was obtained. The effects of frame rate, transmission angle and number of compounded plane waves on PWI performance were investigated in the six healthy volunteers. Performance metrics such as the reproducibility of the PWVs, the coefficient of determination (r 2), the SNR of the PWI axial wall velocities (\\text{SN}{{\\text{R}}{{\\text{v}_{\\text{PWI}}}}} ) and the percentage of lateral positions where the pulse wave appears to arrive at the same time-point, indicating inadequacy of the temporal resolution (i.e. temporal resolution misses) were used to evaluate the effect of each parameter. Compounding plane waves transmitted at 1° increments with a linear array yielded optimal performance, generating significantly higher r 2 and \\text{SN}{{\\text{R}}{{\\text{v}_{\\text{PWI}}}}} values (p  ⩽  0.05). Higher frame rates (⩾1667 Hz) produced improvements with significant gains in the r 2 coefficient (p  ⩽  0.05) and significant increase in both r 2 and \\text

  7. Development of a low-cost hand-held system for optical coherence tomography imaging (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pande, Paritosh; Shelton, Ryan L.; Monroy, Guillermo L.; Nolan, Ryan M.; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2016-03-01

    We report the development of a low-cost hand-held optical coherence imaging system. The proposed system is based on the principle of linear optical coherence tomography (Linear OCT), a technique which was proposed in the early 2000s as a simpler alternative to the conventional time-domain and Fourier-domain OCT. In our design, as in the traditional Michaelson interferometer, light from a broadband source is split into sample and reference beams. Unlike in a Michaelson interferometer though, upon return, a tilt is introduced to the reference beam before it is combined with the sample beam to illuminate a detector array. The resulting fringe pattern encodes information about the relative time-of-flight of photons between the sample and reference arms, which can be decoded by standard signal processing techniques to obtain depth resolved reflectivity profiles of the sample. The axial resolution and the SNR of our system was measured to be approximately 5.2 μm and 80 dB, respectively. The performance of the proposed system was compared with a standard state-of-the-art Fourier-domain low coherence interferometry (LCI) system by imaging several biological and non-biological samples. The results of this study indicate that the proposed low-cost system might be a suitable choice for applications where the imaging depth and SNR can be traded for lower cost and simpler optical design. Two potentially useful applications of the proposed imaging system could be for imaging the human tympanic membrane (TM) for diagnosing middle ear pathologies, and to visualize the sub-surface features of materials for non-destructive evaluation and quality inspection.

  8. Acute Solar Retinopathy Imaged With Adaptive Optics, Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography, and En Face Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chris Y; Jansen, Michael E; Andrade, Jorge; Chui, Toco Y P; Do, Anna T; Rosen, Richard B; Deobhakta, Avnish

    2018-01-01

    Solar retinopathy is a rare form of retinal injury that occurs after direct sungazing. To enhance understanding of the structural changes that occur in solar retinopathy by obtaining high-resolution in vivo en face images. Case report of a young adult woman who presented to the New York Eye and Ear Infirmary with symptoms of acute solar retinopathy after viewing the solar eclipse on August 21, 2017. Results of comprehensive ophthalmic examination and images obtained by fundus photography, microperimetry, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT), adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy, OCT angiography, and en face OCT. The patient was examined after viewing the solar eclipse. Visual acuity was 20/20 OD and 20/25 OS. The patient was left-eye dominant. Spectral-domain OCT images were consistent with mild and severe acute solar retinopathy in the right and left eye, respectively. Microperimetry was normal in the right eye but showed paracentral decreased retinal sensitivity in the left eye with a central absolute scotoma. Adaptive optics images of the right eye showed a small region of nonwaveguiding photoreceptors, while images of the left eye showed a large area of abnormal and nonwaveguiding photoreceptors. Optical coherence tomography angiography images were normal in both eyes. En face OCT images of the right eye showed a small circular hyperreflective area, with central hyporeflectivity in the outer retina of the right eye. The left eye showed a hyperreflective lesion that intensified in area from inner to middle retina and became mostly hyporeflective in the outer retina. The shape of the lesion on adaptive optics and en face OCT images of the left eye corresponded to the shape of the scotoma drawn by the patient on Amsler grid. Acute solar retinopathy can present with foveal cone photoreceptor mosaic disturbances on adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy imaging. Corresponding reflectivity changes can be seen on en face OCT, especially

  9. Accuracy and safety verification of ovarian reserve assessment technique for ovarian tissue transplantation using optical coherence tomography in mice ovary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takae, Seido; Tsukada, Kosuke; Sato, Yorino; Okamoto, Naoki; Kawahara, Tai; Suzuki, Nao

    2017-03-01

    Except for histological study, there are currently no suitable techniques available for the detection and identification of primordial follicles in ovary of primary ovarian insufficiency patients who have undetectable AMH levels. Also, the ability to locate and quantify follicles on ovarian cortex strips, without fixation, is valuable for patients who could undergo subsequent successful ovarian tissue transplantation. Although optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a well-established high resolution imaging technique without fixation commonly applied in biomedicine, few reports are available on ovarian tissue imaging. In present study, we established standard OCT follicle images at each developmental stage, including the primordial follicle, and demonstrated the efficacy of OCT to estimate IVF outcome in transplanted mice ovary like ovarian reserve tests. Unfortunately, the current commercial OCT could not be used to accurate follicle count the number of follicles for whole ovary, because the maximum depth of examination was 100 μm. And we demonstrated the safety of OCT examination, it did not affect IVF outcome and birth defect rate, and reproductive ability. Although there is room for improvement, these findings will be first step to bring OCT examination a step closer to clinical application for measuring true ovarian reserve and localizing follicles.

  10. Cellular imaging electron tomography and related techniques

    CERN Document Server

    2018-01-01

    This book highlights important techniques for cellular imaging and covers the basics and applications of electron tomography and related techniques. In addition, it considers practical aspects and broadens the technological focus by incorporating techniques that are only now becoming accessible (e.g. block face imaging).  The first part of the book describes the electron microscopy 3D technique available to scientists around the world, allowing them to characterize organelles, cells and tissues. The major emphasis is on new technologies like scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) tomography, though the book also reviews some of the more proven technologies like electron tomography. In turn, the second part is dedicated to the reconstruction of data sets, signal improvement and interpretation.

  11. Retinal Image Simulation of Subjective Refraction Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perches, Sara; Collados, M Victoria; Ares, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Refraction techniques make it possible to determine the most appropriate sphero-cylindrical lens prescription to achieve the best possible visual quality. Among these techniques, subjective refraction (i.e., patient's response-guided refraction) is the most commonly used approach. In this context, this paper's main goal is to present a simulation software that implements in a virtual manner various subjective-refraction techniques--including Jackson's Cross-Cylinder test (JCC)--relying all on the observation of computer-generated retinal images. This software has also been used to evaluate visual quality when the JCC test is performed in multifocal-contact-lens wearers. The results reveal this software's usefulness to simulate the retinal image quality that a particular visual compensation provides. Moreover, it can help to gain a deeper insight and to improve existing refraction techniques and it can be used for simulated training.

  12. Concept of coherence aperture and pathways toward white light high-resolution correlation imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchal, P.; Bouchal, Z.

    2013-12-01

    Self-interference correlation imaging is a recently discovered method that takes advantage of holographic reconstruction when using a spatially incoherent light. Although the temporal coherence of light significantly influences the resolution of the method, it has not been studied either theoretically or experimentally. We present the first systematic study of the resolution in a broadband correlation imaging based on the concept of coherence-induced diffraction. We show that the physical limits of the resolution are reached in a non-dispersive experiment and their examination can be performed by the coherence aperture whose width depends on the coherence length of light and the optical path difference of interfering waves. As the main result, the optimal configuration of the non-dispersive experimental system is found in which the sub-diffraction image resolution previously demonstrated for monochromatic light can be retained even when the white light is used. Dispersion effects that prevent reaching the physical resolution limits are discussed and the dispersion sensitivity of the currently available experiments examined. The proposed concept of the coherence aperture is verified experimentally and its generalization to the concept of the dispersion-induced aperture suggested. As a challenge for future research, possible methods of dispersion elimination are outlined that allow the design of advanced optical systems enabling implementation of the high-resolution white light correlation imaging.

  13. En-face optical coherence tomography - a novel application of non-invasive imaging to art conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Haida; Cid, Marta; Cucu, R; Dobre, G; Podoleanu, A; Pedro, Justin; Saunders, David

    2005-08-08

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is an optical interferometric technique developed mainly for in vivo imaging of the eye and biological tissues. In this paper, we demonstrate the potential of OCT for non-invasive examination of museum paintings. Two en-face scanning OCT systems operating at 850 nm and 1300 nm were used to produce B-scan and C-scan images at typical working distances of 2 cm. The 3D images produced by the OCT systems show not only the structure of the varnish layer but also the paint layers and underdrawings (preparatory drawings under the paint layers). The highest ever resolution and dynamic range images of underdrawings are presented and for the first time it is possible to find out non-invasively on which layer the underdrawings were drawn.

  14. Red flag imaging techniques in Barrett's esophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Payal; Canto, Marcia Irene

    2013-07-01

    The key to detection and treatment of early neoplasia in Barrett's esophagus (BE) is thorough and careful inspection of the Barrett's segment. The greatest role for red flag techniques is to help identify neoplastic lesions for targeted biopsy and therapy. High-definition white light endoscopy (HD-WLE) can potentially improve endoscopic imaging of BE compared with standard endoscopy, but little scientific evidence supports this. The addition of autofluorescence imaging to HD-WLE and narrow band imaging increases sensitivity and the false-positive rate without significantly improving overall detection of BE-related neoplasia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Two Decades of Multi-Sensor Subsidence Monitoring over Ebro Delta Using Coherence-Based DInSAR Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipia, Luca; Perez, Fernando; Marturia, Jordi; Corbera, Jordi; Jornet, Lluis; Rovira, Albert

    2016-08-01

    This work presents the historical study of the subsidence phenomenon over the Ebro Delta plain carried out as WPB6 in the frame of Ebro-ADMICLIM LIFE project, using coherence-based differential interferometric SAR techniques (DInSAR). To this end, the whole SAR archive available at ESA over the area of interest (AOI) at C-Band and L-Band has been analyzed. The results provided by each stack term of absolute deformation and deformation-rate maps are first shown. Then, a space-time filtering method to take advantage of the redundant information provided by ERS and ENVISAT data is put forward. C-band and L-band retrievals are then compared, and future monitoring activity based on Sentinel-1 imaging is discussed.

  16. The stonehenge technique: a new method of crystal alignment for coherent bremsstrahlung experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Kenneth

    2005-08-01

    In the coherent bremsstrahlung technique a thin diamond crystal oriented correctly in an electron beam can produce photons with a high degree of linear polarization.1 The crystal is mounted on a goniometer to control its orientation and it is necessary to measure the angular offsets a) between the crystal axes and the goniometer axes and b) between the goniometer and the electron beam axis. A method for measuring these offsets and aligning the crystal was developed by Lohman et al, and has been used successfully in Mainz.2 However, recent attempts to investigate new crystals have shown that this approach has limitations which become more serious at higher beam energies where more accurate setting of the crystal angles, which scale with l/Ebeam, is required. (Eg. the recent installation of coherent bremsstrahlung facility at Jlab, with Ebeam = 6 GeV ) This paper describes a new, more general alignment technique, which overcomes these limitations. The technique is based on scans where the horizontal and vertical rotation axes of the goniometer are adjusted in a series of steps to make the normal to the crystal describe a cone of a given angle. For each step in the scan, the photon energy spectrum is measured using a tagging spectrometer, and the offsets between the electron beam and the crystal lattice are inferred from the resulting 2D plot. Using this method, it is possible to align the crystal with the beam quickly, and hence to set any desired orientation of the crystal relative to the beam. This is essential for any experiment requiring linearly polarized photons produced via coherent bremsstrahlung, and is also required for a systematic study of the channeling radiation produced by the electron beam incident on the crystal.

  17. Improved technique for the characterization of micro-ring resonator using low coherence measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei Kang; Chen, Chun Yen; Wei, Chia-Chien; Chen, Yung Jui

    2015-06-15

    Low-coherence interferometric measurement has been used to investigate optical waveguide devices with high accuracy. By utilizing an incoherent light source, one can generate separate interferogram features for each optical path. The distance between adjacent features of a ring resonator is related to ring length. With small ring radius, the interferogram spectrum exhibits severe cross-interference between adjacent features that hinders one to analyze the optical path individually. We propose a novel technique to overcome the light-source bandwidth limitation by signal-processing technique, which allows one to characterize small radius micro-ring resonator. This technique has been applied to both numerical simulations and experimental data with significant improvement of the extracted ring parameters. The improvements allow one to better understand the wavelength dependency properties of small radius micro-ring resonators.

  18. Quantitative micro-elastography: imaging of tissue elasticity using compression optical coherence elastography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Kelsey M.; Chin, Lixin; McLaughlin, Robert A.; Latham, Bruce; Saunders, Christobel M.; Sampson, David D.; Kennedy, Brendan F.

    2015-10-01

    Probing the mechanical properties of tissue on the microscale could aid in the identification of diseased tissues that are inadequately detected using palpation or current clinical imaging modalities, with potential to guide medical procedures such as the excision of breast tumours. Compression optical coherence elastography (OCE) maps tissue strain with microscale spatial resolution and can delineate microstructural features within breast tissues. However, without a measure of the locally applied stress, strain provides only a qualitative indication of mechanical properties. To overcome this limitation, we present quantitative micro-elastography, which combines compression OCE with a compliant stress sensor to image tissue elasticity. The sensor consists of a layer of translucent silicone with well-characterized stress-strain behaviour. The measured strain in the sensor is used to estimate the two-dimensional stress distribution applied to the sample surface. Elasticity is determined by dividing the stress by the strain in the sample. We show that quantification of elasticity can improve the ability of compression OCE to distinguish between tissues, thereby extending the potential for inter-sample comparison and longitudinal studies of tissue elasticity. We validate the technique using tissue-mimicking phantoms and demonstrate the ability to map elasticity of freshly excised malignant and benign human breast tissues.

  19. Optical coherence tomography for image-guided dermal filler injection and biomechanical evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manmohan; Wang, Shang; Yee, Richard W.; Han, Zhaolong; Aglyamov, Salavat R.; Larin, Kirill V.

    2017-02-01

    Dermal fillers are a very popular anti-ag ing treatment with estimated sales in the billions of dollars and millions of procedures performed. As the aging population continues to grow, these figures are only e xpected to increase. Dermal fillers have various compositions depending on their intended applicati on. Reactions to dermal fillers can be severe, such as ischemic events and filler migration to the eyes. Howe ver, these adverse reactions are rare. Nevertheless, the capability to perform imag e-guided filler injections would minimize th e risk of such reacti ons. In addition, the biomechanical properties of various fillers have been evalua ted, but there has been no investigation on the effects of filler on the biomechanical properties of skin. In this work, we utilize optical cohe rence tomography (OCT) for visualizing dermal filler injections with micrometer-scale sp atial resolution. In addition, we utilize noncontact optical coherence elastography (OCE) to quantify the changes in the biomechan ical properties of pig skin after the dermal filler injections. OCT was successfully able to visualize the dermal filler injecti on process, and OCE showed that the viscoelasticity of the pig skin was increased locally at the filler injection sites. OCT may be able to provide real-time image guidance in 3D, and when combined with functional OCT techniques such as optical microangiography, could be used to avoid blood vessels during the injection.

  20. Quantitative micro-elastography: imaging of tissue elasticity using compression optical coherence elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Kelsey M; Chin, Lixin; McLaughlin, Robert A; Latham, Bruce; Saunders, Christobel M; Sampson, David D; Kennedy, Brendan F

    2015-10-27

    Probing the mechanical properties of tissue on the microscale could aid in the identification of diseased tissues that are inadequately detected using palpation or current clinical imaging modalities, with potential to guide medical procedures such as the excision of breast tumours. Compression optical coherence elastography (OCE) maps tissue strain with microscale spatial resolution and can delineate microstructural features within breast tissues. However, without a measure of the locally applied stress, strain provides only a qualitative indication of mechanical properties. To overcome this limitation, we present quantitative micro-elastography, which combines compression OCE with a compliant stress sensor to image tissue elasticity. The sensor consists of a layer of translucent silicone with well-characterized stress-strain behaviour. The measured strain in the sensor is used to estimate the two-dimensional stress distribution applied to the sample surface. Elasticity is determined by dividing the stress by the strain in the sample. We show that quantification of elasticity can improve the ability of compression OCE to distinguish between tissues, thereby extending the potential for inter-sample comparison and longitudinal studies of tissue elasticity. We validate the technique using tissue-mimicking phantoms and demonstrate the ability to map elasticity of freshly excised malignant and benign human breast tissues.

  1. Quantitative Techniques in PET-CT Imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basu, Sandip; Zaidi, Habib; Holm, Soren; Alavi, Abass

    The appearance of hybrid PET/CT scanners has made quantitative whole body scanning of radioactive tracers feasible. This paper deals with the novel concepts for assessing global organ function and disease activity based on combined functional (PET) and structural (CT or MR) imaging techniques, their

  2. In vivo images of the epidural space with two- and three-dimensional optical coherence tomography in a porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Wen-Chuan; Kao, Meng-Chun; Tsou, Mei-Yung; Ting, Chien-Kun

    2017-01-01

    No reports exist concerning in vivo optical coherence tomography visualization of the epidural space and the blood patch process in the epidural space. In this study, we produced real-time two-dimensional and reconstructed three-dimensional images of the epidural space by using optical coherence tomography in a porcine model. We also aimed to produce three-dimensional optical coherence tomography images of the dura puncture and blood patch process. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional optical coherence tomography images were obtained using a swept source optical coherence tomography (SSOCT) system. Four laboratory pigs were intubated and ventilated after the induction of general anesthesia. An 18-gauge Tuohy needle was used as a tunnel for the optical coherence tomography probe to the epidural space. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional reconstruction optical coherence tomography images of the epidural space were acquired in four stages. In stage 1, real-time two-dimensional and reconstructed three-dimensional optical coherence tomography of the lumbar and thoracic epidural space were successfully acquired. In stage 2, the epidural catheter in the epidural space was successfully traced in the 3D optical coherence tomography images. In stage 3, water injection and lumbar puncture were successfully monitored in all study animals. In stage 4, 10 mL of fresh blood was injected into the epidural space and two-dimensional and three-dimensional optical coherence tomography images were successfully acquired. These animal experiments suggest the potential capability of using an optical coherence tomography-based imaging needle in the directed two-dimensional and three-dimensional visualization of the epidural space. More investigations involving humans are required before optical coherence tomography can be recommended for routine use. However, three-dimensional optical coherence tomography may provide a novel, minimally invasive, and safe way to observe the spinal

  3. A versatile setup using femtosecond adaptive spectroscopic techniques for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Yujie, E-mail: styojm@physics.tamu.edu [Texas A& M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Voronine, Dmitri V.; Sokolov, Alexei V. [Texas A& M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Baylor University, Waco, Texas 76798 (United States); Scully, Marlan O. [Texas A& M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Baylor University, Waco, Texas 76798 (United States); Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    We report a versatile setup based on the femtosecond adaptive spectroscopic techniques for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering. The setup uses a femtosecond Ti:Sapphire oscillator source and a folded 4f pulse shaper, in which the pulse shaping is carried out through conventional optical elements and does not require a spatial light modulator. Our setup is simple in alignment, and can be easily switched between the collinear single-beam and the noncollinear two-beam configurations. We demonstrate the capability for investigating both transparent and highly scattering samples by detecting transmitted and reflected signals, respectively.

  4. Tabletop Nanometer Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging in an Extended Reflection Mode using Coherent Fresnel Ptychography

    CERN Document Server

    Seaberg, Matthew D; Gardner, Dennis F; Shanblatt, Elisabeth R; Murnane, Margaret M; Kapteyn, Henry C; Adams, Daniel E

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate high resolution extreme ultraviolet (EUV) coherent diffractive imaging in the most general reflection geometry by combining ptychography with tilted plane correction. This method makes it possible to image extended surfaces at any angle of incidence. Refocused light from a tabletop coherent high harmonic light source at 29 nm illuminates a nanopatterned surface at 45 degree angle of incidence. The reconstructed image contains quantitative amplitude and phase (in this case pattern height) information, comparing favorably with both scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscopy images. In the future, this approach will enable imaging of complex surfaces and nanostructures with sub-10 nm-spatial resolution and fs-temporal resolution, which will impact a broad range of nanoscience and nanotechnology including for direct application in actinic inspection in support of EUV lithography.

  5. Longitudinal three-dimensional visualisation of autoimmune diabetes by functional optical coherence imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berclaz, Corinne; Schmidt-Christensen, Anja; Szlag, Daniel; Extermann, Jerome; Hansen, Lisbeth; Bouwens, Arno; Villiger, Martin; Goulley, Joan; Schuit, Frans; Grapin-Botton, Anne; Lasser, Theo; Holmberg, Dan

    2016-03-01

    It is generally accepted that structural and functional quantitative imaging of individual islets would be beneficial to elucidate the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes. We here introduce functional optical coherence imaging (FOCI) for fast, label-free monitoring of beta cell destruction and associated alterations of islet vascularisation. NOD mouse and human islets transplanted into the anterior chamber of the eye (ACE) were imaged with FOCI, in which the optical contrast of FOCI is based on intrinsic variations of the index of refraction resulting in a faster tomographic acquisition. In addition, the phase sensitivity allows simultaneous label-free acquisition of vascularisation. We demonstrate that FOCI allows longitudinal quantification of progressive autoimmune insulitis, including the three-dimensional quantification of beta cell volume, inflammation and vascularisation. The substantially increased backscattering of islets is dominated by the insulin-zinc nanocrystals in the beta cell granules. This translates into a high specificity for the functional beta cell volume of islets. Applying FOCI to a spontaneous mouse model of type 1 diabetes, we quantify the modifications of the pancreatic microvasculature accompanying the progression of diabetes and reveal a strong correlation between increasing insulitis and density of the vascular network of the islet. FOCI provides a novel imaging technique for investigating functional and structural diabetes-induced alterations of the islets. The label-free detection of beta cell volume and infiltration together with vascularisation offers a unique extension to study ACE-transplanted human islets. These results are contributing to a deeper understanding of human islet transplant rejection and label-free in vivo monitoring of drug efficacy.

  6. Enhanced truncated-correlation photothermal coherence tomography with application to deep subsurface defect imaging and 3-dimensional reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakolian, Pantea; Sivagurunathan, Koneswaran; Mandelis, Andreas

    2017-07-01

    Photothermal diffusion-wave imaging is a promising technique for non-destructive evaluation and medical applications. Several diffusion-wave techniques have been developed to produce depth-resolved planar images of solids and to overcome imaging depth and image blurring limitations imposed by the physics of parabolic diffusion waves. Truncated-Correlation Photothermal Coherence Tomography (TC-PCT) is the most successful class of these methodologies to-date providing 3-D subsurface visualization with maximum depth penetration and high axial and lateral resolution. To extend the depth range and axial and lateral resolution, an in-depth analysis of TC-PCT, a novel imaging system with improved instrumentation, and an optimized reconstruction algorithm over the original TC-PCT technique is developed. Thermal waves produced by a laser chirped pulsed heat source in a finite thickness solid and the image reconstruction algorithm are investigated from the theoretical point of view. 3-D visualization of subsurface defects utilizing the new TC-PCT system is reported. The results demonstrate that this method is able to detect subsurface defects at the depth range of ˜4 mm in a steel sample, which exhibits dynamic range improvement by a factor of 2.6 compared to the original TC-PCT. This depth does not represent the upper limit of the enhanced TC-PCT. Lateral resolution in the steel sample was measured to be ˜31 μm.

  7. Retrieval of Sentence Sequences for an Image Stream via Coherence Recurrent Convolutional Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Cesc; Kim, Youngjin; Kim, Gunhee

    2017-05-02

    We propose an approach for retrieving a sequence of natural sentences for an image stream. Since general users often take a series of pictures on their experiences, much online visual information exists in the form of image streams, for which it would better take into consideration of the whole image stream to produce natural language descriptions. While almost all previous studies have dealt with the relation between a single image and a single natural sentence, our work extends both input and output dimension to a sequence of images and a sequence of sentences. For retrieving a coherent flow of multiple sentences for a photo stream, we propose a multimodal neural architecture called coherence recurrent convolutional network (CRCN), which consists of convolutional neural networks, bidirectional long short-term memory (LSTM) networks, and an entity-based local coherence model. Our approach directly learns from vast user-generated resource of blog posts as text-image parallel training data. We collect more than 22K unique blog posts with 170K associated images for the travel topics of NYC, Disneyland, Australia, and Hawaii. We demonstrate that our approach outperforms other state-of-the-art image captioning methods for text sequence generation, using both quantitative measures and user studies via Amazon Mechanical Turk.

  8. A new algorithm for speckle reduction of optical coherence tomography images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avanaki, Mohammadreza R. N.; Marques, Manuel J.; Bradu, Adrian; Hojjatoleslami, Ali; Podoleanu, Adrian G.

    2014-03-01

    In this study, we present a new algorithm based on an artificial neural network (ANN) for reducing speckle noise from optical coherence tomography (OCT) images. The noise is modeled for different parts of the image using Rayleigh distribution with a noise parameter, sigma, estimated by the ANN. This is then used along with a numerical method to solve the inverse Rayleigh function to reduce the noise in the image. The algorithm is tested successfully on OCT images of retina, demonstrating a significant increase in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the contrast of the processed images.

  9. Radiation damage in a micron-sized protein crystal studied via reciprocal space mapping and Bragg coherent diffractive imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. D. Coughlan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available For laboratory and synchrotron based X-ray sources, radiation damage has posed a significant barrier to obtaining high-resolution structural data from biological macromolecules. The problem is particularly acute for micron-sized crystals where the weaker signal often necessitates the use of higher intensity beams to obtain the relevant data. Here, we employ a combination of techniques, including Bragg coherent diffractive imaging to characterise the radiation induced damage in a micron-sized protein crystal over time. The approach we adopt here could help screen for potential protein crystal candidates for measurement at X-ray free election laser sources.

  10. Heart wall velocimetry and exogenous contrast-based cardiac flow imaging in Drosophila melanogaster using Doppler optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choma, Michael A.; Suter, Melissa J.; Vakoc, Benjamin J.; Bouma, Brett E.; Tearney, Guillermo J.

    2010-09-01

    Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly) is a central organism in biology and is becoming increasingly important in the cardiovascular sciences. Prior work in optical imaging of the D. melanogaster heart has focused on static and dynamic structural anatomy. In the study, it is demonstrated that Doppler optical coherence tomography can quantify dynamic heart wall velocity and hemolymph flow in adult D. melanogaster. Since hemolymph is optically transparent, a novel exogenous contrast technique is demonstrated to increase the backscatter-based intracardiac Doppler flow signal. The results presented here open up new possibilities for functional cardiovascular phenotyping of normal and mutant D. melanogaster.

  11. Optical Coherence Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter E.

    2015-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive imaging technique that provides real-time two- and three-dimensional images of scattering samples with micrometer resolution. Mapping the local reflectivity, OCT visualizes the morphology of the sample, in real time or at video rate. In addition...

  12. Novel silica stabilization method for the analysis of fine nanocrystals using coherent X-ray diffraction imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteforte, Marianne; Estandarte, Ana K.; Chen, Bo; Harder, Ross; Huang, Michael H.; Robinson, Ian K.

    2016-06-23

    High-energy X-ray Bragg coherent diffraction imaging (BCDI) is a well established synchrotron-based technique used to quantitatively reconstruct the three-dimensional morphology and strain distribution in nanocrystals. The BCDI technique has become a powerful analytical tool for quantitative investigations of nanocrystals, nanotubes, nanorods and more recently biological systems. BCDI has however typically failed for fine nanocrystals in sub-100?nm size regimes ? a size routinely achievable by chemical synthesis ? despite the spatial resolution of the BCDI technique being 20?30?nm. The limitations of this technique arise from the movement of nanocrystals under illumination by the highly coherent beam, which prevents full diffraction data sets from being acquired. A solution is provided here to overcome this problem and extend the size limit of the BCDI technique, through the design of a novel stabilization method by embedding the fine nanocrystals into a silica matrix. Chemically synthesized FePt nanocrystals of maximum dimension 20?nm and AuPd nanocrystals in the size range 60?65?nm were investigated with BCDI measurement at beamline 34-ID-C of the APS, Argonne National Laboratory. Novel experimental methodologies to elucidate the presence of strain in fine nanocrystals are a necessary pre-requisite in order to better understand strain profiles in engineered nanocrystals for novel device development.

  13. Photonic crystal fiber-generated coherent supercontinuum for fast stain-free histopathology and intraoperative multiphoton imaging (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Haohua; You, Sixian; Sun, Yi; Spillman, Darold R.; Ray, Partha S.; Liu, George; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2017-03-01

    In contrast to a broadband Ti:sapphire laser that mode locks a continuum of emission and enables broadband biophotonic applications, supercontinuum generation moves the spectral broadening outside the laser cavity into a nonlinear medium, and may thus improve environmental stability and more readily enable clinical translation. Using a photonic crystal fiber for passive spectral broadening, this technique becomes widely accessible from a narrowband fixed-wavelength mode-locked laser. Currently, fiber supercontinuum sources have benefited single-photon biological imaging modalities, including light-sheet or confocal microscopy, diffuse optical tomography, and retinal optical coherence tomography. However, they have not fully benefited multiphoton biological imaging modalities with proven capability for high-resolution label-free molecular imaging. The reason can be attributed to the amplitude/phase noise of fiber supercontinuum, which is amplified from the intrinsic noise of the input laser and responsible for spectral decoherence. This instability deteriorates the performance of multiphoton imaging modalities more than that of single-photon imaging modalities. Building upon a framework of coherent fiber supercontinuum generation, we have avoided this instability or decoherence, and balanced the often conflicting needs to generate strong signal, prevent sample photodamage, minimize background noise, accelerate imaging speed, improve imaging depth, accommodate different modalities, and provide user-friendly operation. Our prototypical platforms have enabled fast stain-free histopathology of fresh tissue in both laboratory and intraoperative settings to discover a wide variety of imaging-based cancer biomarkers, which may reduce the cost and waiting stress associated with disease/cancer diagnosis. A clear path toward intraoperative multiphoton imaging can be envisioned to help pathologists and surgeons improve cancer surgery.

  14. Characterization of Polycrystalline Materials Using Synchrotron X-ray Imaging and Diffraction Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ludwig, Wolfgang; King, A.; Herbig, M.

    2010-01-01

    The combination of synchrotron radiation x-ray imaging and diffraction techniques offers new possibilities for in-situ observation of deformation and damage mechanisms in the bulk of polycrystalline materials. Minute changes in electron density (i.e., cracks, porosities) can be detected using...... propagation based phase contrast imaging, a 3-D imaging mode exploiting the coherence properties of third generation synchrotron beams. Furthermore, for some classes of polycrystalline materials, one may use a 3-D variant of x-ray diffraction imaging, termed x-ray diffraction contrast tomography. X-ray...

  15. Ultra-high performance mirror systems for the imaging and coherence beamline I13 at the Diamond Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, U. H.; Alcock, S.; Ludbrook, G.; Wiatryzk, J.; Rau, C.

    2012-05-01

    I13L is a 250m long hard x-ray beamline (6 keV to 35 keV) currently under construction at the Diamond Light Source. The beamline comprises of two independent experimental endstations: one for imaging in direct space using x-ray microscopy and one for imaging in reciprocal space using coherent diffraction based imaging techniques. To minimise the impact of thermal fluctuations and vibrations onto the beamline performance, we are developing a new generation of ultra-stable beamline instrumentation with highly repeatable adjustment mechanisms using low thermal expansion materials like granite and large piezo-driven flexure stages. For minimising the beam distortion we use very high quality optical components like large ion-beam polished mirrors. In this paper we present the first metrology results on a newly designed mirror system following this design philosophy.

  16. An all-fiber image-reject homodyne coherent Doppler wind lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foroughi Abari, Farzad; Pedersen, Anders Tegtmeier; Mann, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present an alternative approach to the down-conversion (translation) of the received optical signals collected by the antenna of an all-fiber coherent Doppler lidar (CDL). The proposed method, widely known as image-reject, quadrature detection, or in-phase/quadrature-phase detec...

  17. Imaging of basal cell carcinoma by high-definition optical coherence tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boone, M A L M; Norrenberg, S; Jemec, G B E

    2012-01-01

    With the continued development of noninvasive therapies for basal cell carcinoma (BCC) such as photodynamic therapy and immune therapies, noninvasive diagnosis and monitoring become increasingly relevant. High-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT) is a high-resolution imaging tool...

  18. Imaging actinic keratosis by high-definition optical coherence tomography. Histomorphologic correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boone, Marc A L M; Norrenberg, Sarah; Jemec, Gregor B E

    2013-01-01

    With the continued development of non-invasive therapies for actinic keratosis such as PDT and immune therapies, the non-invasive diagnosis and monitoring become increasingly relevant. High-definition optical coherence tomography is a high-resolution imaging tool, with micrometre resolution in both...

  19. Novelty detection-based internal fingerprint segmentation in optical coherence tomography images

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Khutlang, R

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available present an automatic segmentation of the papillary layer method, in 3-D swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) images. The papillary contour represents the internal fingerprint, which does not suffer external skin problems. The slices composing...

  20. Coherent imaging of a pure phase object with classical incoherent light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Morten; Magatti, D.; Gatti, A.

    2007-01-01

    A ghost imaging scheme is used to observe the diffraction pattern of a pure phase object . It is observed that when increasing the spatial coherence the diffraction pattern disappeared from the cross-correlation, while it appeared in the autocorrelation. The cross-correlation contains information...... about the phase object only when the light is spatially incoherent....

  1. Novelty detection-based internal fingerprint segmentation in optical coherence tomography images

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Khutlang, Rethabile

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available present an automatic segmentation of the papillary layer method, from images acquired using contact-less 3-D swept source optical coherence tomography (OCT). The papillary contour represents the internal fingerprint, which does not suffer from the external...

  2. Effect of spatial coherence of LED sources on image resolution in holographic displays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pourreza Ghoushchi, Vahid; Aas, Mehdi; Ulusoy, Erdem; Ürey, Hakan

    2017-01-01

    Holographic Displays (HDs) provide 3D images with all natural depth cues via computer generated holograms (CGHs) implemented on spatial light modulators (SLMs). HDs are coherent light processing systems based on interference and diffraction, thus they generally use laser light. However, laser

  3. Tablet surface characterisation by various imaging techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seitavuopio, Paulus; Rantanen, Jukka; Yliruusi, Jouko

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise tablet surfaces using different imaging and roughness analytical techniques including optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), laser profilometry and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The test materials compressed were potassium chloride (KCl......) and sodium chloride (NaCl). It was found that all methods used suggested that the KCl tablets were smoother than the NaCl tablets and higher compression pressure made the tablets smoother. Imaging methods like optical microscopy and SEM can give useful information about the roughness of the sample surface...

  4. Microwave photonics filtering interrogation technique under coherent regime for hot spot detection on cascaded FBG fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervás, Javier; Barrera, David; Madrigal, Javier; Sales, Salvador

    2017-04-01

    An interrogation technique of cascaded FBGs sensors based on a Microwave Photonics filtering technique under coherent regime is presented. The sensing information of a 5m fiber coil with 500 weak FBGs with a similar central wavelength is retrieved. The principle of operation is based on the calculation of the impulsive response by recording the electrical frequency response of the system. Hot spot detection and temperature measurement are demonstrated through experimental measurements with a temperature sensitivity of 0.6dB/ºC. The resolution in the measurement is related to the bandwidth of the electrical measurement and we have obtained a resolution of 20 cm for an electrical bandwidth of 1 GHz and a SNR bigger than 16dB.

  5. Imaging of collagen deposition disorders using optical coherence tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ring, H C; Mogensen, M; Hussain, A A

    2015-01-01

    images from scleroderma patients, both systemic and morphea (10 patients), keloid patients (10 patients) and healthy skin adjacent to keloids (10 patients). RESULTS: OCT images of scarring diseases showed varying degrees of disruption to the skin architecture. OCT characteristics were identified for each...... with ordinary scars, hypertrophic scars, keloid scarring, lichen sclerosus et atrophicus and localized or systemic scleroderma were recruited for this pilot study. Affected tissue and adjacent healthy skin were scanned using OCT and digitally photographed. Density measurements were performed in ImageJ on OCT...... of scleroderma, keloid and healthy skin (P = 0.07). CONCLUSION: The OCT imaging appears to identify different scarring mechanisms, and therefore be of potential use in the assessment of outcomes following non-invasive therapy of e.g. early or progressive lesions....

  6. Optical Coherence Tomographic Imaging and Delivery for Surgical Guidance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fujimoto, James G

    2004-01-01

    .... OCT can thus function as a type of "optical biopsy," enabling imaging of tissue with resolution approaching conventional biopsy and histopathology, but without the need to remove and process specimens...

  7. THz imaging techniques for nondestructive inspections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawase, Kodo; Shibuya, Takayuki; Hayashi, Shin'ichiro; Suizu, Koji

    2010-08-01

    We have suggested a wide range of real-life applications using novel terahertz imaging techniques. A high-resolution terahertz tomography has been demonstrated by ultra short terahertz pulses using optical fiber and a nonlinear organic crystal. We also describe a nondestructive inspection system that can monitor the soot distribution in a ceramic filter using millimeter-to-terahertz wave computed tomography. Further, we report on the thickness measurement of very thin films using high-sensitivity metal mesh filter. These techniques are directly applicable to the nondestructive testing in industries.

  8. Optical coherence tomography – near infrared spectroscopy system and catheter for intravascular imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Fard, Ali M.; Vacas-Jacques, Paulino; Hamidi, Ehsan; Wang, Hao; Carruth, Robert W.; Gardecki, Joseph A.; Tearney, Guillermo J.

    2013-01-01

    Owing to its superior resolution, intravascular optical coherence tomography (IVOCT) is a promising tool for imaging the microstructure of coronary artery walls. However, IVOCT does not identify chemicals and molecules in the tissue, which is required for a more complete understanding and accurate diagnosis of coronary disease. Here we present a dual-modality imaging system and catheter that uniquely combines IVOCT with diffuse near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in a single dual-modality imagi...

  9. [Imaging techniques in modern trauma diagnostics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogl, T J; Eichler, K; Marzi, I; Wutzler, S; Zacharowski, K; Frellessen, C

    2017-10-01

    Modern trauma room management requires interdisciplinary teamwork and synchronous communication between a team of anaesthesists, surgeons and radiologists. As the length of stay in the trauma room influences morbidity and mortality of a severely injured person, optimizing time is one of the main targets. With the direct involvement of modern imaging techniques the injuries caused by trauma should be detected within a very short period of time in order to enable a priority-orientated treatment. Radiology influences structure and process quality, management and development of trauma room algorithms regarding the use of imaging techniques. For the individual case interventional therapy methods can be added. Based on current data and on the Frankfurt experience the current diagnostic concepts of trauma diagnostics are presented.

  10. Cardiac Imaging Techniques for Physicians: Late Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellman, Peter; Arai, Andrew E.

    2012-01-01

    Late enhancement imaging is used to diagnose and characterize a wide range of ischemic and non-ischemic cardiomyopathies, and its use has become ubiquitous in the cardiac MR exam. As the use of late enhancement imaging has matured and the span of applications has widened, the demands on image quality have grown. The characterization of sub-endocardial MI now includes the accurate quantification of scar size, shape, and characterization of borders which have been shown to have prognostic significance. More diverse patterns of late enhancement including patchy, mid-wall, sub-epicardial, or diffuse enhancement are of interest in diagnosing non-ischemic cardiomyopathies. As clinicians are examining late enhancement images for more subtle indication of fibrosis, the demand for lower artifacts has increased. A range of new techniques have emerged to improve the speed and quality of late enhancement imaging including: methods for acquisition during free breathing, and fat water separated imaging for characterizing fibro-fatty infiltration and reduction of artifacts related to the presence of fat. Methods for quantification of T1 and extracellular volume fraction are emerging to tackle the issue of discriminating globally diffuse fibrosis from normal healthy tissue which is challenging using conventional late enhancement methods. The aim of this review will be to describe the current state of the art and to provide a guide to various clinical protocols that are commonly used. PMID:22903654

  11. Advanced imaging techniques in pediatric body MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtier, Jesse [UCSF Benioff Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States); Rao, Anil G. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology, Charleston, SC (United States); Anupindi, Sudha A. [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2017-05-15

    While there are many challenges specific to pediatric abdomino-pelvic MRI, many recent advances are addressing these challenges. It is therefore essential for radiologists to be familiar with the latest advances in MR imaging. Laudable efforts have also recently been implemented in many centers to improve the overall experience of pediatric patients, including the use of dedicated radiology child life specialists, MRI video goggles, and improved MR suite environments. These efforts have allowed a larger number of children to be scanned while awake, with fewer studies being done under sedation or anesthesia; this has resulted in additional challenges from patient motion and difficulties with breath-holding and tolerating longer scan times. In this review, we highlight common challenges faced in imaging the pediatric abdomen and pelvis and discuss the application of the newest techniques to address these challenges. Additionally, we highlight the newest advances in quantified imaging techniques, specifically in MR liver iron quantification. The techniques described in this review are all commercially available and can be readily implemented. (orig.)

  12. VR interaction techniques for medical imaging applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapichler, C; Haubner, M; Engelbrecht, R; Englmeier, K H

    1998-04-01

    Methods of virtual reality (VR) offer new ways of human-computer interaction. Medicine is predestined to benefit from this new technology in many ways. Virtual environments can support physicians in their work, alleviate communication between specialists from different fields or be established in educational and training applications. For the field of visualization and analysis of three-dimensional anatomical images (e.g. CT or MRI scans), an application is introduced which expedites recognition of spatial coherencies and the exploration and manipulation of the 3D data. To avoid long periods of learning and accustoming and to facilitate work in such an environment, a powerful human-oriented interface is required allowing interactions similar to the real world and utilization of our natural experiences. This paper shows the use of eye tracking parameters for a level-of-detail algorithm and the integration of a glove-based hand gesture recognition into the virtual environment as an essential component of the human-machine interface. Furthermore, virtual bronchoscopy and virtual angioscopy are presented as examples for the use of the virtual environment.

  13. Optical coherence tomography imaging of chorioretinal folds associated with hypotony maculopathy following pars plana vitrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Jr BK

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Basil K Williams Jr, Jonathan S Chang, Harry W Flynn Jr Department of Ophthalmology, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA Abstract: Chorioretinal folds may occur as a consequence of hypotony and can be a cause of vision loss when associated with macular involvement. In this report, the spectral domain ocular coherence tomography imaging of three patients with chorioretinal folds before and after management are presented. The cases had unique presentations and each underwent different management approaches, but the results included improved visual acuities and lessened chorioretinal folds. Keywords: hypotony, chorioretinal folds, ocular coherence tomography

  14. Mobile depth profiling and sub-surface imaging techniques for historical paintings—A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfeld, Matthias, E-mail: matthias.alfeld@desy.de [University of Hamburg, Department of Chemistry, Martin-Luther-King Platz 6, D-20146 Hamburg (Germany); University of Antwerp, Department of Chemistry, Groenenbrogerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Broekaert, José A.C., E-mail: jose.broekaert@chemie.uni-hamburg.de [University of Hamburg, Department of Chemistry, Martin-Luther-King Platz 6, D-20146 Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-10-01

    Hidden, sub-surface paint layers and features contain valuable information for the art-historical investigation of a painting's past and for its conservation for coming generations. The number of techniques available for the study of these features has been considerably extended in the last decades and established techniques have been refined. This review focuses on mobile non-destructive subsurface imaging and depth profiling techniques, which allow for the in-situ investigation of easel paintings, i.e. paintings on a portable support. Among the techniques discussed are: X-ray radiography and infrared reflectography, which are long established methods and are in use for several decades. Their capabilities of element/species specific imaging have been extended by the introduction of energy/wavelength resolved measurements. Scanning macro-X-ray fluorescence analysis made it for the first time possible to acquire elemental distribution images in-situ and optical coherence tomography allows for the non-destructive study the surface paint layers in virtual cross-sections. These techniques and their variants are presented next to other techniques, such as Terahertz imaging, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance depth profiling and established techniques for non destructive testing (thermography, ultrasonic imaging and laser based interference methods) applied in the conservation of historical paintings. Next to selected case studies the capabilities and limitations of the techniques are discussed. - Highlights: • All mobile sub-surface and depth-profiling techniques for paintings are reviewed. • The number of techniques available has increased considerably in the last years. • X-ray radiography and infrared reflectography are still the most used techniques. • Scanning macro-XRF and optical coherence tomography begin to establish. • Industrial non destructive testing techniques support the preservation of paintings.

  15. Permutation coding technique for image recognition systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kussul, Ernst M; Baidyk, Tatiana N; Wunsch, Donald C; Makeyev, Oleksandr; Martín, Anabel

    2006-11-01

    A feature extractor and neural classifier for image recognition systems are proposed. The proposed feature extractor is based on the concept of random local descriptors (RLDs). It is followed by the encoder that is based on the permutation coding technique that allows to take into account not only detected features but also the position of each feature on the image and to make the recognition process invariant to small displacements. The combination of RLDs and permutation coding permits us to obtain a sufficiently general description of the image to be recognized. The code generated by the encoder is used as an input data for the neural classifier. Different types of images were used to test the proposed image recognition system. It was tested in the handwritten digit recognition problem, the face recognition problem, and the microobject shape recognition problem. The results of testing are very promising. The error rate for the Modified National Institute of Standards and Technology (MNIST) database is 0.44% and for the Olivetti Research Laboratory (ORL) database it is 0.1%.

  16. Dual wavelength full field imaging in low coherence digital holographic microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monemhaghdoust, Zahra; Montfort, Frédéric; Emery, Yves; Depeursinge, Christian; Moser, Christophe

    2011-11-21

    A diffractive optical element (DOE) is presented to simultaneously manipulate the coherence plane tilt of a beam containing a plurality of discrete wavelengths. The DOE is inserted into the reference arm of an off-axis dual wavelength low coherence digital holographic microscope (DHM) to provide a coherence plane tilt so that interference with the object beam generates fringes over the full detector area. The DOE maintains the propagation direction of the reference beam and thus it can be inserted in-line in existing DHM set-ups. We demonstrate full field imaging in a reflection commercial DHM with two wavelengths, 685 nm and 794 nm, resulting in an unambiguous range of 2.494 micrometers. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  17. Comparative study of shear wave-based elastography techniques in optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvietcovich, Fernando; Rolland, Jannick P.; Yao, Jianing; Meemon, Panomsak; Parker, Kevin J.

    2017-03-01

    We compare five optical coherence elastography techniques able to estimate the shear speed of waves generated by one and two sources of excitation. The first two techniques make use of one piezoelectric actuator in order to produce a continuous shear wave propagation or a tone-burst propagation (TBP) of 400 Hz over a gelatin tissue-mimicking phantom. The remaining techniques utilize a second actuator located on the opposite side of the region of interest in order to create three types of interference patterns: crawling waves, swept crawling waves, and standing waves, depending on the selection of the frequency difference between the two actuators. We evaluated accuracy, contrast to noise ratio, resolution, and acquisition time for each technique during experiments. Numerical simulations were also performed in order to support the experimental findings. Results suggest that in the presence of strong internal reflections, single source methods are more accurate and less variable when compared to the two-actuator methods. In particular, TBP reports the best performance with an accuracy error TBP was tested in a fresh chicken tibialis anterior muscle with a localized thermally ablated lesion in order to evaluate its performance in biological tissue.

  18. Probabilistic image: a concise image representation technique for multiple parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, L.C.; Yeh, S.H.; Liu, R.S. (Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan; National Yang-Mills Medical Coll., Taipei, Taiwan); Chen, Z. (National Chiao Tung Univ., Hsinchu, Taiwan)

    1984-09-01

    In scintiscanning studies, an attempt has been made to use multiple parametric information to evaluate functional abnormalities in human organs, using the probabilistic domain instead of the parametric domain to present single or multiple parameters in one image. The construction of such a probabilistic image (PBI) has been illustrated from a /sup 99/Tcsup(m)-HIDA study in 32 normal subjects and in 20 patients with intrahepatic lithiasis. The results show that this technique shows the functional abnormalities in a structural format with a good contrast and probabilistic sense.

  19. Enhancement and bias removal of optical coherence tomography images: An iterative approach with adaptive bilateral filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudeep, P V; Issac Niwas, S; Palanisamy, P; Rajan, Jeny; Xiaojun, Yu; Wang, Xianghong; Luo, Yuemei; Liu, Linbo

    2016-04-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has continually evolved and expanded as one of the most valuable routine tests in ophthalmology. However, noise (speckle) in the acquired images causes quality degradation of OCT images and makes it difficult to analyze the acquired images. In this paper, an iterative approach based on bilateral filtering is proposed for speckle reduction in multiframe OCT data. Gamma noise model is assumed for the observed OCT image. First, the adaptive version of the conventional bilateral filter is applied to enhance the multiframe OCT data and then the bias due to noise is reduced from each of the filtered frames. These unbiased filtered frames are then refined using an iterative approach. Finally, these refined frames are averaged to produce the denoised OCT image. Experimental results on phantom images and real OCT retinal images demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed filter. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fusion of Multi-Temporal Interferometric Coherence and Optical Image Data for the 2016 Kumamoto Earthquake Damage Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nopphawan Tamkuan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Earthquakes are one of the most devastating types of natural disasters, and happen with little to no warning. This study combined Landsat-8 and interferometric ALOS-2 coherence data without training area techniques by classifying the remote sensing ratios of specific features for damage assessment. Waterbodies and highly vegetated areas were extracted by the modified normalized difference water index (MNDWI and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, respectively, from after-earthquake images in order to improve the accuracy of damage maps. Urban areas were classified from pre-event interferometric coherence data. The affected areas from the earthquake were detected with the normalized difference (ND between the pre- and co-event interferometric coherence. The results presented three damage types; namely, damage to buildings caused by ground motion, liquefaction, and landslides. The overall accuracy (94% of the confusion matrix was excellent. Results for urban areas were divided into three damage levels (e.g., none–slight, slight–heavy, heavy–destructive at a high (90% overall accuracy level. Moreover, data on buildings damaged by liquefaction and landslides were in good agreement with field survey information. Overall, this study illustrates an effective damage assessment mapping approach that can support post-earthquake management activities for future events, especially in areas where geographical data are sparse.

  1. Special feature on imaging systems and techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wuqiang; Giakos, George

    2013-07-01

    The IEEE International Conference on Imaging Systems and Techniques (IST'2012) was held in Manchester, UK, on 16-17 July 2012. The participants came from 26 countries or regions: Austria, Brazil, Canada, China, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, India, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Japan, Korea, Latvia, Malaysia, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tunisia, UAE, UK and USA. The technical program of the conference consisted of a series of scientific and technical sessions, exploring physical principles, engineering and applications of new imaging systems and techniques, as reflected by the diversity of the submitted papers. Following a rigorous review process, a total of 123 papers were accepted, and they were organized into 30 oral presentation sessions and a poster session. In addition, six invited keynotes were arranged. The conference not only provided the participants with a unique opportunity to exchange ideas and disseminate research outcomes but also paved a way to establish global collaboration. Following the IST'2012, a total of 55 papers, which were technically extended substantially from their versions in the conference proceeding, were submitted as regular papers to this special feature of Measurement Science and Technology . Following a rigorous reviewing process, 25 papers have been finally accepted for publication in this special feature and they are organized into three categories: (1) industrial tomography, (2) imaging systems and techniques and (3) image processing. These papers not only present the latest developments in the field of imaging systems and techniques but also offer potential solutions to existing problems. We hope that this special feature provides a good reference for researchers who are active in the field and will serve as a catalyst to trigger further research. It has been our great pleasure to be the guest editors of this special feature. We would like to thank the authors for their contributions, without which it would

  2. Advanced Imaging Techniques for Multiphase Flows Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoresano, A.; Langella, G.; Di Santo, M.; Iodice, P.

    2017-08-01

    Advanced numerical techniques, such as fuzzy logic and neural networks have been applied in this work to digital images acquired on two applications, a centrifugal pump and a stationary spray in order to define, in a stochastic way, the gas-liquid interface evolution. Starting from the numeric matrix representing the image it is possible to characterize geometrical parameters and the time evolution of the jet. The algorithm used works with the fuzzy logic concept to binarize the chromatist of the pixels, depending them, by using the difference of the light scattering for the gas and the liquid phase.. Starting from a primary fixed threshold, the applied technique, can select the ‘gas’ pixel from the ‘liquid’ pixel and so it is possible define the first most probably boundary lines of the spray. Acquiring continuously the images, fixing a frame rate, a most fine threshold can be select and, at the limit, the most probably geometrical parameters of the jet can be detected.

  3. Full-Wave Techniques for the Analysis of Electrodynamics and Coherent Quantum Transport in Graphene Nanodevices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Pierantoni

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We report on full-wave techniques in the frequency (energy-domain and the time-domain, aimed at the investigation of the combined electromagnetic-coherent transport problem in carbon based nanostructured materials and devices viz. graphene nanoribbons. The frequency-domain approach is introduced in order to describe a Poisson-Schrödinger / Dirac system in a quasi static framework. Thetime-domain approach deals with the full-wave solution of the combined Maxwell-Schrödinger / Dirac system of equations. From the above theoretical platforms, home-made solvers are provided, aimed atdealing with challenging problems in realistic devices / systems environments, typical of the area of radio-frequency nanoelectronics.

  4. Diffractive Imaging of Coherent Nuclear Motion in Isolated Molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jie; Guehr, Markus; Shen, Xiaozhe; Li, Renkai; Vecchione, Theodore; Coffee, Ryan; Corbett, Jeff; Fry, Alan; Hartmann, Nick; Hast, Carsten; Hegazy, Kareem; Jobe, Keith; Makasyuk, Igor; Robinson, Joseph; Robinson, Matthew S.; Vetter, Sharon; Weathersby, Stephen; Yoneda, Charles; Wang, Xijie; Centurion, Martin

    2016-10-03

    Observing the motion of the nuclear wave packets during a molecular reaction, in both space and time, is crucial for understanding and controlling the outcome of photoinduced chemical reactions. We have imaged the motion of a vibrational wave packet in isolated iodine molecules using ultrafast electron diffraction with relativistic electrons. The time-varying interatomic distance was measured with a precision 0.07 Å and temporal resolution of 230 fs full width at half maximum. The method is not only sensitive to the position but also the shape of the nuclear wave packet.

  5. Coherent control of dressed images of four-wave mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhen-Kun; Zhang, Yi-Qi; Liu, Tai-Kun; Zhang, Zhao-Yang; Li, Cheng; Zhang, Yan-Peng; Xiao, Min

    2013-04-01

    In two-level as well as V-type three-level atomic systems, we study probe transmission, four-wave mixing (FWM) and fluorescence signals with dressing effect experimentally and theoretically. We find both the hyperfine structure (at the same energy level) and the transition dipole moment (at different energy levels) can affect the dressing effect. We also experimentally investigate that angle-control dynamics in the nonlinear propagation of the images of the probe and generated FWM in two-level atomic systems, and find that the focusing and defocusing of probe beam and FWM signals can be greatly affected by the angles between dressing fields.

  6. Optical coherence tomography for imaging of skin and skin diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mette; Thrane, Lars; Jørgensen, Thomas Martini

    2009-01-01

    , as have many diseases. The method can provide accurate measures of epidermal and nail changes in normal tissue. Skin cancer and other tumors, as well as inflammatory diseases, have been studied and good agreement found between OCT images and histopathological architecture. OCT also allows noninvasive...... monitoring of morphologic changes in skin diseases and may have a particular role in the monitoring of medical treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer. The technology is however still evolving and continued technological development will necessitate an ongoing evaluation of its diagnostic accuracy. Several...

  7. Imaging ischemic strokes in rodents using visible-light optical coherence tomography (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Siyu; Liu, Qi; Shu, Xiao; Soetikno, Brian T.; Tong, Shanbao; Zhang, Hao F.

    2017-02-01

    Monitoring cortical hemodynamic response after ischemic stroke (IS) is essential for understanding the pathophysiological mechanisms behind IS-induced neuron loss. Functional optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging technology that can fulfill the requirement, providing label-free, high-resolution 3D images of cerebral hemodynamics. Unfortunately, strong tissue scattering pose a significant challenge for existing OCT oximetry techniques, as they either ignore the effect or compensate it numerically. Here we developed a novel dual-depth sampling and normalization strategy using visible-light OCT (vis-OCT) angiograms that can provide robust and precise sO2 estimations within cerebral circulation. The related theoretical formulation were established, and its implication and limitations were discussed. We monitored mouse cortical hemodynamics using the newly-developed method. Focal ischemic stroke was induced through photothrombosis. The analysis on pre- and post-IS vis-OCT images revealed both vascular morphology and oxygenation altered substantially after the occlusion. First, the ischemic core could be clearly identified as angiographic intensity fell below the detection limit. In addition, vessel dilation presented universally in the penumbra region. Notably for pial arteriles, the percentage of increase demonstrated inverse relationship with their pre-occlusion, pre-dilation dimeter. Vis-OCT oxygenation maps on intact cortex revealed spatial sO2 variations within pial vessels. Specifically, sO2 in arterioles decreased as it bifurcated and plunged into deeper tissue. Similarly, venous sO2 was higher in the larger, more superficial pial brunches. However, such difference was no longer appreciable after photothrombosis. Averaged arteriole sO2 dropped to 64% - 67% in the penumbra region.

  8. Nondestructive Characterization by Advanced Synchrotron Light Techniques: Spectromicroscopy and Coherent Radiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Ho Je

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The advanced characteristics of synchrotron light has led in recent years to the development of a series of new experimental techniques to investigate chemical and physical properties on a microscopic scale. Although originally developed for materials science and biomedical research, such techniques find increasing applications in other domains – and could be quite useful for the study and conservation of cultural heritage. Specifically, they can nondestructively provide detailed chemical composition information that can be useful for the identification of specimens, for the discovery of historical links based on the sources of chemical raw materials and on chemical processes, for the analysis of damage, their causes and remedies and for many other issues. Likewise, morphological and structural information on a microscopic scale is useful for the identification, study and preservation of many different cultural and historical specimens. We concentrate here on two classes of techniques: in the first case, photoemission spectromicroscopy. This is the result of the advanced evolution of photoemission techniques like ESCA (Electron Microscopy for Chemical Analysis. By combining high lateral resolution to spectroscopy, photoemission spectromicroscopy can deliver fine chemical information on a microscopic scale in a nondestructive fashion. The second class of techniques exploits the high lateral coherence of modern synchrotron sources, a byproduct of the quest for high brightness or brilliance. We will see that such techniques now push radiology into the submicron scale and the submillisecond time domain. Furthermore, they can be implemented in a tomographic mode, increasing the information and becoming potentially quite useful for the analysis of cultural heritage specimens.

  9. Three-dimensional photoacoustic tomography through coherent-weighted focal-line-based image reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Depeng; Wang, Yuehang; Zhou, Yang; Lovell, Jonathan F.; Xia, Jun

    2017-03-01

    Here, we introduce a new image reconstruction algorithm that combines coherent weighting with focal-line-based three-dimensional image reconstruction. The new algorithm addresses the major limitation of a linear ultrasound transducer array, i.e., the poor elevation resolution, and does not require any modification to the imaging system or the scanning geometry. We first numerically validated our approach through simulation and then experimentally tested it in phantom and in vivo. Both simulation and experimental results proved that the method can significantly improve the elevation resolution (up to 3.4 times in our experiment) and enhance object contrast.

  10. How histological features of basal cell carcinomas influence image quality in optical coherence tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mette; Nürnberg, Birgit M.; Thrane, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has the potential to diagnose and measure the depth of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) in skin, but some lesions appear blurred in OCT images. The aim of this study is to identify histological characteristics of basal cell carcinomas (BCC) that correlate with good...... quality OCT images of the same lesions. A total of 34 patients with BCC were OCT scanned. The influence of histology parameters (e.g. inflammation, sun damage of skin, carcinoma cell size) on OCT image quality was studied by comparing 15 BCC lesions easily identified compared to 19 BCC lesions...

  11. High sensitivity contrast enhanced optical coherence tomography for functional in vivo imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liba, Orly; SoRelle, Elliott D.; Sen, Debasish; de la Zerda, Adam

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we developed and applied highly-scattering large gold nanorods (LGNRs) and custom spectral detection algorithms for high sensitivity contrast-enhanced optical coherence tomography (OCT). We were able to detect LGNRs at a concentration as low as 50 pM in blood. We used this approach for noninvasive 3D imaging of blood vessels deep in solid tumors in living mice. Additionally, we demonstrated multiplexed imaging of spectrally-distinct LGNRs that enabled observations of functional drainage in lymphatic networks. This method, which we call MOZART, provides a platform for molecular imaging and characterization of tissue noninvasively at cellular resolution.

  12. Metamaterial apertures for coherent computational imaging on the physical layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipworth, Guy; Mrozack, Alex; Hunt, John; Marks, Daniel L; Driscoll, Tom; Brady, David; Smith, David R

    2013-08-01

    We introduce the concept of a metamaterial aperture, in which an underlying reference mode interacts with a designed metamaterial surface to produce a series of complex field patterns. The resonant frequencies of the metamaterial elements are randomly distributed over a large bandwidth (18-26 GHz), such that the aperture produces a rapidly varying sequence of field patterns as a function of the input frequency. As the frequency of operation is scanned, different subsets of metamaterial elements become active, in turn varying the field patterns at the scene. Scene information can thus be indexed by frequency, with the overall effectiveness of the imaging scheme tied to the diversity of the generated field patterns. As the quality (Q-) factor of the metamaterial resonators increases, the number of distinct field patterns that can be generated increases-improving scene estimation. In this work we provide the foundation for computational imaging with metamaterial apertures based on frequency diversity, and establish that for resonators with physically relevant Q-factors, there are potentially enough distinct measurements of a typical scene within a reasonable bandwidth to achieve diffraction-limited reconstructions of physical scenes.

  13. Information surfing with the JHU/APL coherent imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratto, Christopher R.; Shipley, Kara R.; Beagley, Nathaniel; Wolfe, Kevin C.

    2015-05-01

    The ability to perform remote forensics in situ is an important application of autonomous undersea vehicles (AUVs). Forensics objectives may include remediation of mines and/or unexploded ordnance, as well as monitoring of seafloor infrastructure. At JHU/APL, digital holography is being explored for the potential application to underwater imaging and integration with an AUV. In previous work, a feature-based approach was developed for processing the holographic imagery and performing object recognition. In this work, the results of the image processing method were incorporated into a Bayesian framework for autonomous path planning referred to as information surfing. The framework was derived assuming that the location of the object of interest is known a priori, but the type of object and its pose are unknown. The path-planning algorithm adaptively modifies the trajectory of the sensing platform based on historical performance of object and pose classification. The algorithm is called information surfing because the direction of motion is governed by the local information gradient. Simulation experiments were carried out using holographic imagery collected from submerged objects. The autonomous sensing algorithm was compared to a deterministic sensing CONOPS, and demonstrated improved accuracy and faster convergence in several cases.

  14. Multi-technique imaging of sarcoidosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balan, A. [Department of Clinical Radiology, Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Leeds (United Kingdom); Hoey, E.T.D. [Department of Clinical Radiology, Heartlands Hospital, Bordesley Green, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Sheerin, F. [Department of Neuroradiology, The John Radcliffe, Headington, Oxford (United Kingdom); Lakkaraju, A. [Department of Clinical Radiology, Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Leeds (United Kingdom); Chowdhury, F.U., E-mail: fahmid.chowdhury@leedsth.nhs.u [Department of Clinical Radiology, Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Leeds (United Kingdom)

    2010-09-15

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disorder of unknown aetiology. The diagnosis is suggested on the basis of wide ranging clinical and radiological manifestations, and is supported by the histological demonstration of non-caseating granulomas in affected tissues. This review highlights the multisystem radiological features of the disease across a variety of imaging methods including multidetector computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as well as functional radionuclide techniques, particularly 2-[{sup 18}F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). It is important for the radiologist to be aware of the varied radiological manifestations of sarcoidosis in order to recognize and suggest the diagnosis in the appropriate clinical setting.

  15. Monitoring a boreal wildfire using multi-temporal Radarsat-1 intensity and coherence images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rykhus, Russell P.; Lu, Zhong

    2011-01-01

    Twenty-five C-band Radarsat-1 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images acquired from the summer of 2002 to the summer of 2005 are used to map a 2003 boreal wildfire (B346) in the Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska under conditions of near-persistent cloud cover. Our analysis is primarily based on the 15 SAR scenes acquired during arctic growing seasons. The Radarsat-1 intensity data are used to map the onset and progression of the fire, and interferometric coherence images are used to qualify burn severity and monitor post-fire recovery. We base our analysis of the fire on three test sites, two from within the fire and one unburned site. The B346 fire increased backscattered intensity values for the two burn study sites by approximately 5–6 dB and substantially reduced coherence from background levels of approximately 0.8 in unburned background forested areas to approximately 0.2 in the burned area. Using ancillary vegetation information from the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) and information on burn severity from Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) data, we conclude that burn site 2 was more severely burned than burn site 1 and that C-band interferometric coherence data are useful for mapping landscape changes due to fire. Differences in burn severity and topography are determined to be the likely reasons for the observed differences in post-fire intensity and coherence trends between burn sites.

  16. Optical design of an optical coherence tomography and multispectral fluorescence imaging endoscope to detect early stage ovarian cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Tyler; Keenan, Molly; Swan, Elizabeth; Black, John; Utzinger, Urs; Barton, Jennifer

    2014-12-01

    The five year survival rate for ovarian cancer is over 90% if early detection occurs, yet no effective early screening method exists. We have designed and are constructing a dual modality Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and Multispectral Fluorescence Imaging (MFI) endoscope to optically screen the Fallopian tube and ovary for early stage cancer. The endoscope reaches the ovary via the natural pathway of the vagina, cervix, uterus and Fallopian tube. In order to navigate the Fallopian tube the endoscope must have an outer diameter of 600 μm, be highly flexible, steerable, tracking and nonperforating. The imaging systems consists of six optical subsystems, two from OCT and four from MFI. The optical subsystems have independent and interrelated design criteria. The endoscope will be tested on realistic tissue models and ex vivo tissue to prove feasibility of future human trials. Ultimately the project aims to provide women the first effective ovarian cancer screening technique.

  17. Cascaded multi-dithering technique using PZT modulators for high control bandwidth in coherent laser beam combining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Hee Kyung; Kong, Hong Jin

    2017-09-01

    A cascaded multi-dithering (CMD) technique using piezoelectric ceramic transducer (PZT) tubes as phase modulators is proposed as a tool for obtaining high control bandwidth in coherent laser beam combination. To prove its validity, eight coherent fiber beam elements were combined using the CMD technique with PZT tubes. As a result, residual phase error was recorded to be λ/54 at 100 Hz control bandwidth, which is comparable to that of a four laser beam combination in the previous experiment. To our knowledge, this is the first case to date of combining eight laser beam elements using PZT tubes as phase modulators and achieving such good results.

  18. Novel imaging technique for birefringent materials

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, J G

    1998-01-01

    less than 40 seconds. Retardation and orientation changes of less than 1nm and 1 deg, respectively, can be resolved with a spatial resolution close to that of a conventional polarizing microscope image. A wide variety of optically anisotropic materials have been examined to demonstrate both the quantitative and qualitative nature of this new sensitive polarization microscopy technique. Preliminary measurements have shown that when the system is extended to use two or more wavelengths it is also capable of directly extracting information about the order of the phase difference. Many transparent materials including crystals, polymers, biological tissues and textile fibres are birefringent or optically anisotropic, i.e. the refractive index varies with the direction of vibration of light. Birefringent measurements are important as they provide information about the underlying structure of a material. In general, the most sensitive techniques for measuring birefringence are those that modulate the polarization st...

  19. Morphology and epidermal thickness of normal skin imaged by optical coherence tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mette; Morsy, Hanan A.; Thrane, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Background: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an optical imaging technology with a potential in the non-invasive diagnosis of skin cancer. To identify skin pathologies using OCT, it is of prime importance to establish baseline morphological features of normal skin. Aims: The aim of this study...... is to describe normal skin morphology using OCT and polarization-sensitive OCT (PS-OCT), which is a way of representing birefringent tissue such as collagen in OCT images. Anatomical locations in 20 healthy volunteers were imaged, and epidermal thickness (ET) was measured and compared to age, gender and skin...... colour. Methods: OCT imaging is based on infrared light reflection/backscatter from tissue. PS-OCT detects birefringence of tissue. Imaging was performed in 12 skin regions. ET was calculated from the OCT images. Results: Normal skin has a layered structure. Layering is less pronounced in adults...

  20. In vivo deep tissue imaging using wavefront shaping optical coherence tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Hyeonseung; Lee, KyeoReh; Jang, Jaeduck; Lim, Jaeguyn; Jang, Wooyoung; Jeong, Yong; Park, YongKeun

    2015-01-01

    Multiple light scattering in tissue limits the penetration of optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging. Here, we present in-vivo OCT imaging of a live mouse using wavefront shaping to enhance the penetration depth. A digital micro-mirror device (DMD) was used in a spectral-domain OCT system for complex wavefront shaping of an incident beam which resulted in the optimal delivery of light energy into deep tissue. Ex-vivo imaging of chicken breasts and mouse ear tissues showed enhancements in the strength of the image signals and the penetration depth, and in-vivo imaging of the tail of a live mouse provided a multilayered structure inside the tissue, otherwise invisible in conventional OCT imaging. Signal enhancements by a factor of 3-7 were acquired for various experimental conditions and samples.

  1. Optical Coherence Tomography: An Emerging Technology for Biomedical Imaging and Optical Biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James G. Fujimoto

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical coherence tomography (OCT is an emerging technology for performing high-resolution cross-sectional imaging. OCT is analogous to ultrasound imaging, except that it uses light instead of sound. OCT can provide cross-sectional images of tissue structure on the micron scale in situ and in real time. Using OCT in combination with catheters and endoscopes enables high-resolution intraluminal imaging of organ systems. OCT can function as a type of optical biopsy and is a powerful imaging technology for medical diagnostics because unlike conventional histopathology which requires removal of a tissue specimen and processing for microscopic examination, OCT can provide images of tissue in situ and in real time. OCT can be used where standard excisional biopsy is hazardous or impossible, to reduce sampling errors associated with excisional biopsy, and to guide interventional procedures. In this paper, we review OCT technology and describe its potential biomedical and clinical applications.

  2. Development Of Polarimetric Decomposition Techniques For Indian Forest Resource Assessment Using Radar Imaging Satellite (Risat-1) Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, J.

    2015-12-01

    The focus of this work is to examine polarimetric decomposition techniques primarily focussed on Pauli decomposition and Sphere Di-Plane Helix (SDH) decomposition for forest resource assessment. The data processing methods adopted are Pre-processing (Geometric correction and Radiometric calibration), Speckle Reduction, Image Decomposition and Image Classification. Initially to classify forest regions, unsupervised classification was applied to determine different unknown classes. It was observed K-means clustering method gave better results in comparison with ISO Data method.Using the algorithm developed for Radar Tools, the code for decomposition and classification techniques were applied in Interactive Data Language (IDL) and was applied to RISAT-1 image of Mysore-Mandya region of Karnataka, India. This region is chosen for studying forest vegetation and consists of agricultural lands, water and hilly regions. Polarimetric SAR data possess a high potential for classification of earth surface.After applying the decomposition techniques, classification was done by selecting region of interests andpost-classification the over-all accuracy was observed to be higher in the SDH decomposed image, as it operates on individual pixels on a coherent basis and utilises the complete intrinsic coherent nature of polarimetric SAR data. Thereby, making SDH decomposition particularly suited for analysis of high-resolution SAR data. The Pauli Decomposition represents all the polarimetric information in a single SAR image however interpretation of the resulting image is difficult. The SDH decomposition technique seems to produce better results and interpretation as compared to Pauli Decomposition however more quantification and further analysis are being done in this area of research. The comparison of Polarimetric decomposition techniques and evolutionary classification techniques will be the scope of this work.

  3. Exploring coherent phenomena and energy discrimination in X-ray imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, Thomas

    2011-05-04

    Conventional X-ray imaging is based on the generation of photons in materials that are selected for different applications according to their densities, dimensions, and atomic numbers. The photons produced in these targets are commonly detected by measuring the integrated amount of energy released in films or digital imaging systems. This thesis aims at extending these two paradigms. First, it is shown that the use of single-crystalline, i.e. well-ordered targets, can significantly soften photon spectra created by megavoltage electrons when compared to usual targets. The reason for this is an effect called ''coherent bremsstrahlung''. It is shown that this type of radiation bears the potential of increasing the quality of megavoltage images and reducing radiation dose for image guided radiotherapy. Second, new spectroscopic pixel detectors of the Medipix2 family operated with cadmium telluride sensors are characterised and thus potential benefits and difficulties for X-ray imaging are investigated. Besides describing in detail how to calibrate these detectors, emphasis is placed on determining their energy responses, modulation transfer functions, and detective quantum efficiencies. Requirements for photon counting megavoltage imaging are discussed. The detector systems studied are finally used to perform spectral computed tomography and to illustrate the benefits of energy discrimination for coherent scatter imaging. (orig.)

  4. New Frontiers in Heart Rate Variability and Social Coherence Research: Techniques, Technologies, and Implications for Improving Group Dynamics and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCraty, Rollin

    2017-01-01

    . (2) Training in techniques to increase group coherence and heart rhythm synchronization will correlate with increased prosocial behaviors, such as kindness and cooperation among individuals, improved communication, and decreases in social discord and adversarial interactions. (3) Biomagnetic fields produced by the heart may be a primary mechanism in mediating HRV synchronization among group members. Data supporting each of the hypothesis is discussed.

  5. New Frontiers in Heart Rate Variability and Social Coherence Research: Techniques, Technologies, and Implications for Improving Group Dynamics and Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rollin McCraty

    2017-10-01

    among group members. (2 Training in techniques to increase group coherence and heart rhythm synchronization will correlate with increased prosocial behaviors, such as kindness and cooperation among individuals, improved communication, and decreases in social discord and adversarial interactions. (3 Biomagnetic fields produced by the heart may be a primary mechanism in mediating HRV synchronization among group members. Data supporting each of the hypothesis is discussed.

  6. Non-contact rapid optical coherence elastography by high-speed 4D imaging of elastic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shaozhen; Yoon, Soon Joon; Ambroziński, Łukasz; Pelivanov, Ivan; Li, David; Gao, Liang; Shen, Tueng T.; O'Donnell, Matthew; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2017-02-01

    Shear wave OCE (SW-OCE) uses an OCT system to track propagating mechanical waves, providing the information needed to map the elasticity of the target sample. In this study we demonstrate high speed, 4D imaging to capture transient mechanical wave propagation. Using a high-speed Fourier domain mode-locked (FDML) swept-source OCT (SS-OCT) system operating at 1.62 MHz A-line rate, the equivalent volume rate of mechanical wave imaging is 16 kvps (kilo-volumes per second), and total imaging time for a 6 x 6 x 3 mm volume is only 0.32 s. With a displacement sensitivity of 10 nanometers, the proposed 4D imaging technique provides sufficient temporal and spatial resolution for real-time optical coherence elastography (OCE). Combined with a new air-coupled, high-frequency focused ultrasound stimulator requiring no contact or coupling media, this near real-time system can provide quantitative information on localized viscoelastic properties. SW-OCE measurements are demonstrated on tissue-mimicking phantoms and porcine cornea under various intra-ocular pressures. In addition, elasticity anisotropy in the cornea is observed. Images of the mechanical wave group velocity, which correlates with tissue elasticity, show velocities ranging from 4-20 m/s depending on pressure and propagation direction. These initial results strong suggest that 4D imaging for real-time OCE may enable high-resolution quantitative mapping of tissue biomechanical properties in clinical applications.

  7. Improved quality of optical coherence tomography imaging of basal cell carcinomas using speckle reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mette; Jørgensen, Thomas Martini; Thrane, Lars

    2010-01-01

    suggests a method for improving OCT image quality for skin cancer imaging. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: OCT is an optical imaging method analogous to ultrasound. Two basal cell carcinomas (BCC) were imaged using an OCT speckle reduction technique (SR-OCT) based on repeated scanning by altering the distance between...

  8. Optical coherence tomography image in gelatinous drop-like corneal dystrophy: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Magalhães,Otávio de Azevedo; Rymer,Samuel; Marinho,Diane Ruschel; Kwitko,Sérgio; Cardoso,Isabel Habeyche; Kliemann,Lúcia

    2012-01-01

    Gelatinous drop-like corneal dystrophy is a rare disorder with few cases described in the present literature. The following report will show how difficult it is to diagnose this disease in early stages. Modern image exams, such as optical coherence tomography helps to diagnose and can be crucial to establish the best treatment. We will present the histopathological changes and clinical features in this unusual dystrophy.

  9. Three-Dimensional Imaging of Ureter with Endoscopic Optical Coherence Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Kang, Wei; Zhu, Hui; MacLennan, Gregory; Rollins, Andrew M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To verify the ability to identify the layered structures of ureteral wall and to image a segment of ureter in three dimensions with a high speed endoscopic optical coherence tomography (EOCT). METHODS We imaged a porcine ureter ex vivo using a spectral domain EOCT with an specially designed circumferential scanning fiber catheter. The images were correlated with the histology to identify corresponding structures. Three-dimensional images and en face images at different depths from the luminal surface were reconstructed from the multiple cross-sectional images to visualize the layered structure of a segment of the ureter from different perspectives. RESULTS EOCT images can clearly reveal all layers of the ureteral wall as shown in the histological images. Especially, with the specially designed fiber catheter, the light beam was well centered during the rotation and pull back, which allowed constant acquisition of high fidelity images and unambiguous identification of the smooth muscle layers in all images. With high speed EOCT, a segment of ureter (20 mm) can be imaged in less than 90 seconds at a high resolution. CONCLUSIONS With its ability to visualize all layers of the ureteral wall, EOCT imaging offers the potential to stage urothelial cancers that have infiltrated the muscular wall (stage T2). This information will be complimentary to the diagnostic information obtained through ureteroscopic biopsy and CT urogram. PMID:21256548

  10. Image processing and form recognition applied to the quantitative visualisation of coherent flow structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonneau, P. E.; Marquis, G.; Roy, A. G.

    2007-12-01

    Flow visualisation methods such as dye tracers have long been a core methodology for the analysis of turbulent flows. These methods are ideally suited to qualitative observations of coherent structures and their past usage has yielded important insights into turbulent flows. However, the analysis of flow visualisation data need not be limited to qualitative observations. Digital image processing and basic form recognition methods largely developed in the context of remote sensing and earth observation can be applied to flow visualisation experiments in order to extract quantitative information. This paper will demonstrate how such methods can be used on digital films of dye tracer experiments. Specifically, we will examine naturally occurring flow structures observed during a dye tracer experiment conducted in a gravel bed river in Quebec, Canada. The image analysis will be applied in order to automatically identify individual coherent flow structures, measure their size, their orientation in the flow and finally their mean downstream velocity. This novel application of image processing methods to dye tracer experiments allows for quantitative flow visualisations which in turn yield a much more detailed description of coherent flow structures.

  11. Low-kilovolt coherent electron diffractive imaging instrument based on a single-atom electron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chun-Yueh [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Chang, Wei-Tse; Chen, Yi-Sheng; Hwu, En-Te; Chang, Chia-Seng; Hwang, Ing-Shouh, E-mail: ishwang@phys.sinica.edu.tw [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Wei-Hao [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2016-03-15

    In this work, a transmission-type, low-kilovolt coherent electron diffractive imaging instrument was constructed. It comprised a single-atom field emitter, a triple-element electrostatic lens, a sample holder, and a retractable delay line detector to record the diffraction patterns at different positions behind the sample. It was designed to image materials thinner than 3 nm. The authors analyzed the asymmetric triple-element electrostatic lens for focusing the electron beams and achieved a focused beam spot of 87 nm on the sample plane at the electron energy of 2 kV. High-angle coherent diffraction patterns of a suspended graphene sample corresponding to (0.62 Å){sup −1} were recorded. This work demonstrated the potential of coherent diffractive imaging of thin two-dimensional materials, biological molecules, and nano-objects at a voltage between 1 and 10 kV. The ultimate goal of this instrument is to achieve atomic resolution of these materials with high contrast and little radiation damage.

  12. Photoreceptor outer segment layer thickness measured manually on images from spectral domain optical coherence tomography in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkaya, A; Alkin, Z; Karatas, G; Karakucuk, Y; Perente, I; Taylan Yazici, A; Demirok, A

    2014-06-01

    To investigate photoreceptor outer segment layer thickness measured with a manual technique on images from spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) in healthy volunteers. In 60 eyes of 30 healthy volunteers, a spectral domain OCT device (Spectralis, Heidelberg Engineering) was used to obtain cross-sectional images of the retina. For each volunteer, two images of each eye were obtained in one sitting. Images were digitally enlarged and the manual calipers feature of the device's software was used to measure, at the lowest point in the fovea, the thickness of the photoreceptor outer segment layer. All measurements were performed by the same investigator. Repeatability was evaluated with the Bland-Altman repeatability coefficient, and intersubject variability with Pearson's coefficient of variation. The mean values of measurements across all the volunteers were as follows: right eye first image 38.1 micrometers, right eye second image 37.9 micrometers, left eye first image 37.9 micrometers, left eye second image 37.9 micrometers. The repeatability coefficient, i.e. the difference between repeated measurements which would be exceeded in only 5% of cases, was 1.6 micrometers. Coefficients of variation for the right eye were 3.4% for the first images and 3.4% for the second images, and for the left eye they were 3.2 and 4.0% respectively. With a manual method based on spectral domain OCT, the thickness of the photoreceptor outer segment layer at the central fovea can be measured within a useful range of repeatability and appears to be relatively constant across healthy volunteers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging of Normal, Chronologically Aged, Photoaged and Photodamaged Skin: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamalis, Andrew; Ho, Derek; Jagdeo, Jared

    2015-09-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is capable of providing a noninvasive real-time cross-sectional image of the skin through light-based interferometry, a method sometimes described as "light-based ultrasound." One key application of OCT in dermatology is the visualization of dermal collagen during chronological aging, photoaging, or photodamage. These skin conditions are typically managed by the practitioner's subjective assessment of severity and response to therapy. The purpose of this review is to present available evidence on the ability of OCT to image normal, chronologically aged, photoaged and photodamaged skin in human subjects. The authors have searched Medline, PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and Cochrane Library databases for published literature on the imaging of skin collagen by OCT using the following search terms: "optical coherence tomography," "OCT," "skin," "collagen," "photoaging," "wrinkles," and "photodamage." The search resulted in 23 articles investigating OCT-based skin collagen imaging, which met their search criteria. The authors anticipate tremendous growth in the field of OCT-based skin imaging that will parallel the development ultrasound technology has experienced over the past 30 years. They foresee that the use of OCT imaging to evaluate skin aging will not only help identify pathological changes earlier, but will also assist in the evaluation of the response to therapy longitudinally without biopsy.

  14. Swept source optical coherence tomography for in vivo imaging and vibrometry in the apex of the mouse cochlea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hee Yoon [E.L. Ginzton Laboratory and Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Raphael, Patrick D.; Oghalai, John S. [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Ellerbee, Audrey K. [E.L. Ginzton Laboratory and Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Applegate, Brian E. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, Texas (United States)

    2015-12-31

    Cochlear amplification has been most commonly investigated by measuring the vibrations of the basilar membrane in animal models. Several different techniques have been used for measuring these vibrations such as laser Doppler vibrometry, miniature pressure sensors, low coherence interferometry, and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). We have built a swept-source OCT (SS-OCT) system, which is similar to SD-OCT in that it is capable of performing both imaging and vibration measurements within the mouse cochlea in vivo without having to open the bone. In vivo 3D images of a mouse cochlea were obtained, and the basilar membrane, tectorial membrane, Reissner’s membrane, tunnel of Corti, and reticular lamina could all be resolved. We measured vibrations of multiple structures within the mouse cochlea to sound stimuli. As well, we measured the radial deflections of the reticular lamina and tectorial membrane to estimate the displacement of the outer hair cell stereocilia. These measurements have the potential to more clearly define the mechanisms underlying the linear and non-linear processes within the mammalian cochlea.

  15. Evaluation of strain caused by coherent precipitates in an Al alloy using TEM techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Rivera, J.L., E-mail: jose.hernandez@cimav.edu.mx [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnologia, Miguel de Cervantes 120, Z.C. 31109, Chihuahua (Mexico); Universidad del Valle de Mexico, Robles 600, Fraccionamiento Jacarandas, Z. C. 78220, San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Rivera, J.J. Cruz; Garay-Reyes, C.G.; Azpeitia, M. Ramos; Zuniga-Alonso, I. [Facultad de Ingenieria-Instituto de Metalurgia, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Sierra Leona 550, Lomas 2a seccion, Z.C. 78210, San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Martinez-Sanchez, R. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnologia, Miguel de Cervantes 120, Z.C. 31109, Chihuahua (Mexico)

    2012-11-15

    Elastic strains, caused by GP zones in an aged Al alloy, were determined quantitatively using two techniques: Dark Field In-line Holography (DFH) and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy-Geometric Phase Analysis (HRTEM-GPA). The results obtained by both techniques showed that the elastic strain was not uniform along the precipitate-matrix interface. In some areas, it was found that strain had negligible value and this was attributed to the loss of coherence between the lattices. It is suggested that a possible explanation for this fact could be a variation in the 'vacancies pump mechanism' kinetics. To obtain a better interpretation of the experimental deformation maps, a reference GP precipitate-matrix structure was built using QSTEM software. The main advantages of DFH over HRTEM-GPA were a bigger field of view and low electron dose requirements without spatial resolution loss. Another difference found was that crystalline defects such as dislocations were evidenced by HRTEM-GPA in contrast to the result obtained by DFH. However, strain measurements were affected by mask size effect in the former. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Strain around GP precipitates was not uniform and was in a more relaxed state. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Strain values determined by HRTEM had more artifacts compared with holography ones. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Strain distribution was attributed to differences in the release of vacancies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Holography showed important advantages over HRTEM regarding field of view mainly.

  16. Quantitative Chemically-Specific Coherent Diffractive Imaging of Buried Interfaces using a Tabletop EUV Nanoscope

    CERN Document Server

    Shanblatt, Elisabeth R; Gardner, Dennis F; Mancini, Giulia F; Karl, Robert M; Tanksalvala, Michael D; Bevis, Charles S; Vartanian, Victor H; Kapteyn, Henry C; Adams, Daniel E; Murnane, Margaret M

    2016-01-01

    Characterizing buried layers and interfaces is critical for a host of applications in nanoscience and nano-manufacturing. Here we demonstrate non-invasive, non-destructive imaging of buried interfaces using a tabletop, extreme ultraviolet (EUV), coherent diffractive imaging (CDI) nanoscope. Copper nanostructures inlaid in SiO2 are coated with 100 nm of aluminum, which is opaque to visible light and thick enough that neither optical microscopy nor atomic force microscopy can image the buried interfaces. Short wavelength (29 nm) high harmonic light can penetrate the aluminum layer, yielding high-contrast images of the buried structures. Moreover, differences in the absolute reflectivity of the interfaces before and after coating reveal the formation of interstitial diffusion and oxidation layers at the Al-Cu and Al-SiO2 boundaries. Finally, we show that EUV CDI provides a unique capability for quantitative, chemically-specific imaging of buried structures, and the material evolution that occurs at these buried ...

  17. In vivo sectional imaging of the retinal periphery using conventional optical coherence tomography systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Kothari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical coherence tomography (OCT has transformed macular disease practices. This report describes the use of conventional OCT systems for peripheral retinal imaging. Thirty-six eyes with peripheral retinal pathology underwent imaging with conventional OCT systems. In vivo sectional imaging of lattice degeneration, snail-track degeneration, and paving-stone degeneration was performed. Differences were noted between phenotypes of lattice degeneration. Several findings previously unreported in histopathology studies were encountered. Certain anatomic features were seen that could conceivably explain clinical and intraoperative behavior of peripheral lesions. Peripheral OCT imaging helped elucidate clinically ambiguous situations such as retinal breaks, subclinical retinal detachment, retinoschisis, choroidal nevus, and metastasis. Limitations of such scanning included end-gaze nystagmus and far peripheral lesions. This first of its kind study demonstrates the feasibility of peripheral retinal OCT imaging and expands the spectrum of indications for which OCT scanning may be clinically useful.

  18. Mobile depth profiling and sub-surface imaging techniques for historical paintings—A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfeld, Matthias; Broekaert, José A. C.

    2013-10-01

    Hidden, sub-surface paint layers and features contain valuable information for the art-historical investigation of a painting's past and for its conservation for coming generations. The number of techniques available for the study of these features has been considerably extended in the last decades and established techniques have been refined. This review focuses on mobile non-destructive subsurface imaging and depth profiling techniques, which allow for the in-situ investigation of easel paintings, i.e. paintings on a portable support. Among the techniques discussed are: X-ray radiography and infrared reflectography, which are long established methods and are in use for several decades. Their capabilities of element/species specific imaging have been extended by the introduction of energy/wavelength resolved measurements. Scanning macro-X-ray fluorescence analysis made it for the first time possible to acquire elemental distribution images in-situ and optical coherence tomography allows for the non-destructive study the surface paint layers in virtual cross-sections. These techniques and their variants are presented next to other techniques, such as Terahertz imaging, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance depth profiling and established techniques for non destructive testing (thermography, ultrasonic imaging and laser based interference methods) applied in the conservation of historical paintings. Next to selected case studies the capabilities and limitations of the techniques are discussed.

  19. Micro-beam Laue alignment of multi-reflection Bragg coherent diffraction imaging measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Felix; Phillips, Nicholas W; Harder, Ross J; Liu, Wenjun; Clark, Jesse N; Robinson, Ian K; Abbey, Brian

    2017-09-01

    Multi-reflection Bragg coherent diffraction imaging has the potential to allow three-dimensional (3D) resolved measurements of the full lattice strain tensor in specific micro-crystals. Until now such measurements were hampered by the need for laborious, time-intensive alignment procedures. Here a different approach is demonstrated, using micro-beam Laue X-ray diffraction to first determine the lattice orientation of the micro-crystal. This information is then used to rapidly align coherent diffraction measurements of three or more reflections from the crystal. Based on these, 3D strain and stress fields in the crystal are successfully determined. This approach is demonstrated on a focused ion beam milled micro-crystal from which six reflections could be measured. Since information from more than three independent reflections is available, the reliability of the phases retrieved from the coherent diffraction data can be assessed. Our results show that rapid, reliable 3D coherent diffraction measurements of the full lattice strain tensor in specific micro-crystals are now feasible and can be successfully carried out even in heavily distorted samples.

  20. Normative data of outer photoreceptor layer thickness obtained by software image enhancing based on Stratus optical coherence tomography images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, U.C.; Kroyer, K.; Thomadsen, J.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To present normative data of outer photoreceptor layer thickness obtained by a new semiautomatic image analysis algorithm operating on contrast-enhanced optical coherence tomography (OCT) images. Methods: Eight Stratus OCT3 scans from identical retinal locations from 25 normal eyes were...... registered and combined to form a contrast-enhanced average image. Utilising the vertical intensity gradients of the enhanced OCT images to demarcate retinal layers, thickness measurements of the outer photoreceptor- and retinal pigment epithelium layer (RPE-OScomplex) were obtained. Additionally...... in the superior macula 0.5-3 mm of the centre was significantly increased as compared with the corresponding inferior retina. In healthy subjects, the I-ratio-ONL was 1.06. Conclusions: Contrast-enhanced OCT images enable quantification of outer photoreceptor layer thickness, and normative values may help...

  1. High-resolution retinal imaging using adaptive optics and Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Scot S.; Werner, John S.; Zawadzki, Robert J.; Laut, Sophie P.; Jones, Steven M.

    2010-09-07

    This invention permits retinal images to be acquired at high speed and with unprecedented resolution in three dimensions (4.times.4.times.6 .mu.m). The instrument achieves high lateral resolution by using adaptive optics to correct optical aberrations of the human eye in real time. High axial resolution and high speed are made possible by the use of Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography. Using this system, we have demonstrated the ability to image microscopic blood vessels and the cone photoreceptor mosaic.

  2. Time Series of RADARSAT-1 Fine Mode Images Using Sequential Coherent Target Monitoring Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-01

    2007 Time Series of RADARSAT-1 Fine Mode Images Using Sequential Coherent Target Monitoring Software Prepared By: David... pratiques ont été déterminées et documentées. Un produit nouveau est l’image de la rétrodiffusion moyenne laquelle est la moyenne non cohérente des...cartes de cohérences bonnes ou excellentes. Importance : À l’aide du logiciel Sequential CTM et des procédures inhérentes, nous pouvons produire des

  3. Path-length-multiplexed scattering-angle-diverse optical coherence tomography for retinal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bingqing; Yin, Biwei; Dwelle, Jordan; Rylander, H Grady; Markey, Mia K; Milner, Thomas E

    2013-11-01

    A low-resolution path-length-multiplexed scattering angle diverse optical coherence tomography (PM-SAD-OCT) is constructed to investigate the scattering properties of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL). Low-resolution PM-SAD-OCT retinal images acquired from a healthy human subject show the variation of RNFL scattering properties at retinal locations around the optic nerve head. The results are consistent with known retinal ganglion cell neural anatomy and principles of light scattering. Application of PM-SAD-OCT may provide potentially valuable diagnostic information for clinical retinal imaging.

  4. Numerical Simulation of Partially-Coherent Broadband Optical Imaging Using the FDTD Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çapoğlu, İlker R.; White, Craig A.; Rogers, Jeremy D.; Subramanian, Hariharan; Taflove, Allen; Backman, Vadim

    2012-01-01

    Rigorous numerical modeling of optical systems has attracted interest in diverse research areas ranging from biophotonics to photolithography. We report the full-vector electromagnetic numerical simulation of a broadband optical imaging system with partially-coherent and unpolarized illumination. The scattering of light from the sample is calculated using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) numerical method. Geometrical optics principles are applied to the scattered light to obtain the intensity distribution at the image plane. Multilayered object spaces are also supported by our algorithm. For the first time, numerical FDTD calculations are directly compared to and shown to agree well with broadband experimental microscopy results. PMID:21540939

  5. Real-time in vivo imaging of dental tissue by means of optical coherence tomography (OCT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandenburg, Roland; Haller, Bernd; Hauger, Christoph

    2003-11-01

    We have carried out real-time in vivo and in vitro imaging of human dental tissue in a clinical setting by means of optical coherence tomography (OCT). We have used a compact, commercial prototype OCT system applying for the first time a surgical microscope as a beam delivery system for investigations of dental tissue. We have imaged demineralised tissue, caries lesions, restored teeth and oral mucosa and demonstrate the detection of changes in tissue microstructure. We discuss the details of this system and its potential and limitations with respect to dental applications.

  6. Application of optical coherence tomography attenuation imaging for quantification of optical properties in medulloblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Barry; Skowron, Patryk; Kiehl, Tim-Rasmus; Kyan, Matthew; Garzia, Livia; Genis, Helen; Sun, Cuiru; Taylor, Michael D.; Yang, Victor X. D.

    2015-03-01

    The hemodynamic environment is known to play a crucial role in the progression, rupture, and treatment of intracranial aneurysms. Currently there is difficulty assessing and measuring blood flow profiles in vivo. An emerging high resolution imaging modality known as split spectrum Doppler optical coherence tomography (ssDOCT) has demonstrated the capability to quantify hemodynamic patterns as well as arterial microstructural changes. In this study, we present a novel in vitro method to acquire precise blood flow patterns within a patient- specific aneurysm silicone flow models using ssDOCT imaging. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models were generated to verify ssDOCT results.

  7. Three-dimensional morphological imaging of human induced pluripotent stem cells by using low-coherence quantitative phase microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Toyohiko; Kakuno, Yumi; Goto, Kentaro; Fukami, Tadashi; Sugiyama, Norikazu; Iwai, Hidenao; Mizuguchi, Yoshinori; Yamashita, Yutaka

    2014-03-01

    There is an increasing need for non-invasive imaging techniques in the field of stem cell research. Label-free techniques are the best choice for assessment of stem cells because the cells remain intact after imaging and can be used for further studies such as differentiation induction. To develop a high-resolution label-free imaging system, we have been working on a low-coherence quantitative phase microscope (LC-QPM). LC-QPM is a Linnik-type interference microscope equipped with nanometer-resolution optical-path-length control and capable of obtaining three-dimensional volumetric images. The lateral and vertical resolutions of our system are respectively 0.5 and 0.93 μm and this performance allows capturing sub-cellular morphological features of live cells without labeling. Utilizing LC-QPM, we reported on three-dimensional imaging of membrane fluctuations, dynamics of filopodia, and motions of intracellular organelles. In this presentation, we report three-dimensional morphological imaging of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPS cells). Two groups of monolayer hiPS cell cultures were prepared so that one group was cultured in a suitable culture medium that kept the cells undifferentiated, and the other group was cultured in a medium supplemented with retinoic acid, which forces the stem cells to differentiate. The volumetric images of the 2 groups show distinctive differences, especially in surface roughness. We believe that our LC-QPM system will prove useful in assessing many other stem cell conditions.

  8. Accurate, rapid identification of dislocation lines in coherent diffractive imaging via a min-max optimization formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulvestad, A.; Menickelly, M.; Wild, S. M.

    2018-01-01

    Defects such as dislocations impact materials properties and their response during external stimuli. Imaging these defects in their native operating conditions to establish the structure-function relationship and, ultimately, to improve performance via defect engineering has remained a considerable challenge for both electron-based and x-ray-based imaging techniques. While Bragg coherent x-ray diffractive imaging (BCDI) is successful in many cases, nuances in identifying the dislocations has left manual identification as the preferred method. Derivative-based methods are also used, but they can be inaccurate and are computationally inefficient. Here we demonstrate a derivative-free method that is both more accurate and more computationally efficient than either derivative- or human-based methods for identifying 3D dislocation lines in nanocrystal images produced by BCDI. We formulate the problem as a min-max optimization problem and show exceptional accuracy for experimental images. We demonstrate a 227x speedup for a typical experimental dataset with higher accuracy over current methods. We discuss the possibility of using this algorithm as part of a sparsity-based phase retrieval process. We also provide MATLAB code for use by other researchers.

  9. Normative data of outer photoreceptor layer thickness obtained by software image enhancing based on Stratus optical coherence tomography images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, U.C.; Krøyer, K.; Thomadsen, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To present normative data of outer photoreceptor layer thickness obtained by a new semiautomatic image analysis algorithm operating on contrast-enhanced optical coherence tomography (OCT) images. Methods: Eight Stratus OCT3 scans from identical retinal locations from 25 normal eyes were...... backscattered light within the outer nuclear layer (ONL) in the fovea was registered and compared with backscattered light within the ONL in the peripheral part of the macula (I-ratio-ONL). Results: The mean RPE-OScomplex thickness in the foveal centre was 77.2 mu m (SD = 3.95). The RPE-OScomplex thickness...

  10. Comparison of registration techniques for speckle suppression in 2D ladar image sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Adam; Armstrong, Ernest; Cain, Stephen C.

    2004-11-01

    Registration of individual images remains a significant problem in the generation of accurate images collected using coherent imaging systems. An investigation of the performance of eight distinct image registration algorithms was conducted using data collected from a coherent optical imaging system developed by the Air Force Research Laboratories, Sensors Division, ARFL/SNJT. A total of 400 images of three distinct scenes were collected by SRJT and made available to the Air Force Institute of Technology (AFIT) for this study. Scenery was collected at 3 and 10 kilometers of wheeled vehicles supporting resolution and uniform target boards. The algorithms under study were developed by scientists and engineers at AFRL, and had varying levels of performance in terms of image miss-registration and execution time. These eight algorithms were implemented on a general-purpose computer running the MATLAB simulation environment. The algorithms compared included: block-match, cross-correlation, cross-search, directional-search, gradient-based, hierarchical-block, three-step, and vector-block methods. It was found that the cross-correlation, gradient-based and vector-block search techniques typically had the lowest error metric. The vector-block and cross-correlation methods proved to have the fastest execution times, while not suffering significant error degradation when estimating the registration shift of the test images.

  11. Fibroatheroma identification in Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography images using deep features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengdi Xu; Jun Cheng; Annan Li; Lee, Jimmy Addison; Wong, Damon Wing Kee; Taruya, Akira; Tanaka, Atsushi; Foin, Nicolas; Wong, Philip

    2017-07-01

    Identifying vulnerable plaque is important in coronary heart disease diagnosis. Recent emerged imaging modality, Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography (IVOCT), has been proved to be able to characterize the appearance of vulnerable plaques. Comparing with the manual method, automated fibroatheroma identification would be more efficient and objective. Deep convolutional neural networks have been adopted in many medical image analysis tasks. In this paper, we introduce deep features to resolve fibroatheroma identification problem. Deep features which extracted using four deep convolutional neural networks, AlexNet, GoogLeNet, VGG-16 and VGG-19, are studied. And a dataset of 360 IVOCT images from 18 pullbacks are constructed to evaluate these features. Within these 360 images, 180 images are normal IVOCT images and the rest 180 images are IVOCT images with fibroatheroma. Here, one pullback belongs to one patient; leave-one-patient-out cross-validation is employed for evaluation. Data augmentation is applied on training set for each classification scheme. Linear support vector machine is conducted to classify the normal IVOCT image and IVOCT image with fibroatheroma. The experimental results show that deep features could achieve relatively high accuracy in fibroatheroma identification.

  12. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging of spectacular ecdysis in the royal python (Python regius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tusler, Charlotte A; Maggs, David J; Kass, Philip H; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R; Schwab, Ivan R; Murphy, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    To describe using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), digital slit-lamp biomicroscopy, and external photography, changes in the ophidian cuticle, spectacle, and cornea during ecdysis. Four normal royal pythons (Python regius). Snakes were assessed once daily throughout a complete shed cycle using nasal, axial, and temporal SD-OCT images, digital slit-lamp biomicroscopy, and external photography. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) images reliably showed the spectacular cuticle and stroma, subcuticular space (SCS), cornea, anterior chamber, iris, and Schlemm's canal. When visible, the subspectacular space (SSS) was more distended peripherally than axially. Ocular surface changes throughout ecdysis were relatively conserved among snakes at all three regions imaged. From baseline (7 days following completion of a full cycle), the spectacle gradually thickened before separating into superficial cuticular and deep, hyper-reflective stromal components, thereby creating the SCS. During spectacular separation, the stroma regained original reflectivity, and multiple hyper-reflective foci (likely fragments from the cuticular-stromal interface) were noted within the SCS. The cornea was relatively unchanged in character or thickness throughout all stages of ecdysis. Slit-lamp images did not permit observation of these changes. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) provided excellent high-resolution images of the snake anterior segment, and especially the cuticle, spectacle, and cornea of manually restrained normal snakes at all stages of ecdysis and warrants investigation in snakes with anterior segment disease. The peripheral spectacle may be the preferred entry point for diagnostic or therapeutic injections into the SSS and for initiating spectacular surgery. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  13. Techniques calm fear of imaging machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Pelt, D.

    1990-04-02

    Magnetic resonance imaging has become a valuable tool in diagnosing diseases, and the imaging devices are now used as often as 2 million times a year in the United States. But as many as 10 percent of patients advised to undergo the procedure cannot because they become overwhelmed with claustrophobialike fear triggered by having to lie motionless in the machine's tunnel-like cylinder for about 45 minutes. To counteract this fear, several hospitals now practice various techniques to help reduce the feelings of confinement. One popular method is to give a patient special eyeglasses that allow him to look beyond his feet and see the tunnel opening. Other glasses use mirrors to direct the patient's vision out the back of the unit to large wilderness photographs or murals that simulate a sense of spaciousness. Even a basic item like a set of headphones that plays music can often distract a patient, and technicians frequently hold a patient's hand or foot during the procedure. Another trick is to invite family members and friends to remain with the patient during the scan to provide company and reassurance.

  14. Polarization-Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging of Benign and Malignant Laryngeal Lesions: An In Vivo Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burns, J.A.; Kim, K.H.; de Boer, J.F.; Anderson, R.R.; Zeitels, S. M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. Optical coherence tomography (OCT), an imaging technology that provides cross-sectional subsurface tissue structure images using back-scattered light, is a promising noninvasive imaging modality for in vivo assessment of vocal fold layered microstructure. Polarization-sensitive OCT

  15. Benign familial fleck retina: multimodal imaging including optical coherence tomography angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Jose Mauricio Botto de Barros; Isaac, David Leonardo Cruvinel; Sardeiro, Tainara; Aquino, Érika; Avila, Marcos

    2017-01-01

    This report presents multimodal imaging of a 27-year-old woman diagnosed with benign familial fleck retina (OMIM 228980), an uncommon disorder. Fundus photographs revealed retinal flecks that affected her post-equatorial retina but spared the macular area. Fundus autofluorescence and infrared imaging demonstrated a symmetrical pattern of yellow-white fleck lesions that affected both eyes. Her full-field electroretinogram and electrooculogram were normal. An optical coherence tomography B-scan was performed for both eyes, revealing increased thickness of the retinal pigmented epithelium leading to multiple small pigmented epithelium detachments. The outer retina remained intact in both eyes. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography angiography with split-spectrum amplitude decorrelation algorithm and 3 × 3 mm structural en face optical coherence tomography did not show macular lesions. Benign familial fleck retina belongs to a heterogenous group of so-called flecked retina syndromes, and should be considered in patients with yellowish-white retinal lesions without involvement of the macula.

  16. Phase-shift effect of amplitude spread function on spectrum and image formation in coherent Raman scattering microspectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukutake, Naoki

    2016-03-01

    Coherent Raman scattering microspectroscopy, which includes coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microspectroscopy, permits label-free hyperspectral imaging. We report the theoretical study of the phase-shift effect of the impulse response function on the spectral and image-forming properties of coherent Raman scattering microspectroscopy. We show that the spectrum and image are influenced by not only the NA of objective for excitation (NA(ex)) but also that for signal collection (NA(col)), in association with the phase-shift effect. We discuss that, under the condition NA(ex)≠NA(col), both the spectrum and the image become deformed by the phase-shift effect, which can be applied to the direct measurement of the imaginary part of the nonlinear susceptibility in CARS spectroscopy. We point out that, even in SRS microscopy, the nonresonant background can contribute to the image formation and cause the artifact in the image.

  17. ELHnet: a convolutional neural network for classifying cochlear endolymphatic hydrops imaged with optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, George S; Zhu, Michael H; Kim, Jinkyung; Raphael, Patrick; Applegate, Brian E; Oghalai, John S

    2017-10-01

    Detection of endolymphatic hydrops is important for diagnosing Meniere's disease, and can be performed non-invasively using optical coherence tomography (OCT) in animal models as well as potentially in the clinic. Here, we developed ELHnet, a convolutional neural network to classify endolymphatic hydrops in a mouse model using learned features from OCT images of mice cochleae. We trained ELHnet on 2159 training and validation images from 17 mice, using only the image pixels and observer-determined labels of endolymphatic hydrops as the inputs. We tested ELHnet on 37 images from 37 mice that were previously not used, and found that the neural network correctly classified 34 of the 37 mice. This demonstrates an improvement in performance from previous work on computer-aided classification of endolymphatic hydrops. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first deep CNN designed for endolymphatic hydrops classification.

  18. Descemet Membrane Endothelial Keratoplasty: Intraoperative and Postoperative Imaging Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Ang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case report of using the same handheld spectral-domain anterior segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT for rapid intraoperative and postoperative imaging in a case of Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK. A 67-year-old woman, with Fuchs dystrophy and corneal decompensation, underwent DMEK with intraoperative ASOCT imaging using the handheld Envisu spectral domain ASOCT system (Bioptigen, Inc., Morrisville, NC, USA. We found that this easy-to-use portable system with handheld probe allowed for rapid imaging of the anterior segment during donor manipulation to visualize the orientation of the DMEK donor, as well as to confirm the initial adhesion of the DMEK donor. Moreover, the same system may be used for postoperative monitoring of graft adhesion, corneal thickness, and stromal remodeling in the clinic with very high-definition images.

  19. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as a contrast agent for imaging of animal tissue using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SSOCT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Indranil; Raj, Shipra; Roy, Poulomi; Poddar, Raju

    2018-01-01

    We present noninvasive three-dimensional depth-resolved imaging of animal tissue with a swept-source optical coherence tomography system at 1064 nm center wavelength and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as a potential contrast agent. A swept-source laser light source is used to enable an imaging rate of 100 kHz (100 000 A-scans s‑1). Swept-source optical coherence tomography is a new variant of the optical coherence tomography (OCT) technique, offering unique advantages in terms of sensitivity, reduction of motion artifacts, etc. To enhance the contrast of an OCT image, AgNPs are utilized as an exogeneous contrast agent. AgNPs are synthesized using a modified Tollens method and characterization is done by UV–vis spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. In vitro imaging of chicken breast tissue, with and without the application of AgNPs, is performed. The effect of AgNPs is studied with different exposure times. A mathematical model is also built to calculate changes in the local scattering coefficient of tissue from OCT images. A quantitative estimation of scattering coefficient and contrast is performed for tissues with and without application of AgNPs. Significant improvement in contrast and increase in scattering coefficient with time is observed.

  20. Coherent light microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Ferraro, Pietro; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2011-01-01

    This book deals with the latest achievements in the field of optical coherent microscopy. While many other books exist on microscopy and imaging, this book provides a unique resource dedicated solely to this subject. Similarly, many books describe applications of holography, interferometry and speckle to metrology but do not focus on their use for microscopy. The coherent light microscopy reference provided here does not focus on the experimental mechanics of such techniques but instead is meant to provide a users manual to illustrate the strengths and capabilities of developing techniques. Th

  1. Dynamical effects in Bragg coherent x-ray diffraction imaging of finite crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabalin, A. G.; Yefanov, O. M.; Nosik, V. L.; Bushuev, V. A.; Vartanyants, I. A.

    2017-08-01

    We present simulations of Bragg coherent x-ray diffractive imaging (CXDI) data from finite crystals in the frame of the dynamical theory of x-ray diffraction. The developed approach is based on a numerical solution of modified Takagi-Taupin equations and can be applied for modeling of a broad range of x-ray diffraction experiments with finite three-dimensional crystals of arbitrary shape also in the presence of strain. We performed simulations for nanocrystals of a cubic and hemispherical shape of different sizes and provided a detailed analysis of artifacts in the Bragg CXDI reconstructions introduced by the dynamical diffraction. Based on our theoretical analysis we developed an analytical procedure to treat effects of refraction and absorption in the reconstruction. Our results elucidate limitations for the kinematical approach in the Bragg CXDI and suggest a natural criterion to distinguish between kinematical and dynamical cases in coherent x-ray diffraction on a finite crystal.

  2. In vivo and in situ imaging of controlled-release dissolving silk microneedles into the skin by optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ran; Zhang, Mingtian; Jin, Cuiyun

    2017-06-01

    Nowadays, transdermal drug delivery has become a hot topic with regard to delivery. Also, the percutaneous microneedle patch made of water-soluble material makes this technique one step closer to clinical application. The process of the microneedle patch penetrates and dissolves in the animal skin can directly reflect the efficiency of drug delivery. Hence, it is important to reflect the situation of microneedles dissolution and drug release by in vivo and in situ imaging in real time. This paper's purpose is to use the means of OCT (optical coherence tomography) to realize assessment of dissolving microneedles delivery efficiency in vivo and in situ imaging. This is the first study to utilize OCT to observe the dissolving process of silk microneedles (SFM) in different carriers. Dissolving process es of silk fibroin microneedles in different carriers were captured by the OCT system. The solution rate of silk fibroin microneedles in water is rapid. It also has good solution in the skin of mouse in vivo. OCT is a noncontact, noninvasive imaging technique with high resolution, the detecting depth of which is generally 1-3 mm under the skin. OCT has great potential to observe the solution process of dissolving microneedles in the skin. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Semi-automated International Cartilage Repair Society scoring of equine articular cartilage lesions in optical coherence tomography images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Te Moller, N C R; Pitkänen, M; Sarin, J K; Väänänen, S; Liukkonen, J; Afara, I O; Puhakka, P H; Brommer, H; Niemelä, T; Tulamo, R-M; Argüelles Capilla, D; Töyräs, J

    2017-07-01

    Arthroscopic optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a promising tool for the detailed evaluation of articular cartilage injuries. However, OCT-based articular cartilage scoring still relies on the operator's visual estimation. To test the hypothesis that semi-automated International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) scoring of chondral lesions seen in OCT images could enhance intra- and interobserver agreement of scoring and its accuracy. Validation study using equine cadaver tissue. Osteochondral samples (n = 99) were prepared from 18 equine metacarpophalangeal joints and imaged using OCT. Custom-made software was developed for semi-automated ICRS scoring of cartilage lesions on OCT images. Scoring was performed visually and semi-automatically by five observers, and levels of inter- and intraobserver agreement were calculated. Subsequently, OCT-based scores were compared with ICRS scores based on light microscopy images of the histological sections of matching locations (n = 82). When semi-automated scoring of the OCT images was performed by multiple observers, mean levels of intraobserver and interobserver agreement were higher than those achieved with visual OCT scoring (83% vs. 77% and 74% vs. 33%, respectively). Histology-based scores from matching regions of interest agreed better with visual OCT-based scoring than with semi-automated OCT scoring; however, the accuracy of the software was improved by optimising the threshold combinations used to determine the ICRS score. Images were obtained from cadavers. Semi-automated scoring software improved the reproducibility of ICRS scoring of chondral lesions in OCT images and made scoring less observer-dependent. The image analysis and segmentation techniques adopted in this study warrant further optimisation to achieve better accuracy with semi-automated ICRS scoring. In addition, studies on in vivo applications are required. © 2016 EVJ Ltd.

  4. Effect of multimodal coupling in imaging micro-endoscopic fiber bundle on optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jae-Ho; Kang, Jin U

    2012-01-14

    The effect of higher order modes in fiber bundle imager-based optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been theoretically modeled using coupled fiber mode analysis ignoring the polarization and core size variation in order to visualize the pure effect of multimodal coupling of the imaging bundle. In this model, the optical imaging fiber couples several higher order modes in addition to the fundamental one due to its high numerical aperture for achieving light confinement to the single core pixel. Those modes become evident in a distance domain using A-mode (depth) OCT based on a mirror sample experiment where multiple peaks are generated by the spatial convolution and coherence function of the light source. The distance between the peaks corresponding to each mode can be estimated by considering the effective indices of coupled (guided) modes obtained from numerically solving the fiber mode characteristics equations and the fiber length. The results have been compared for various types (fiber dimensions and wavelengths) and lengths of fibers, which have mode separation of 715 μm (1404 μm) and 764 μm (1527 μm) for the measurement and analysis, respectively in a 152.5 mm (305 mm)-long imaging fiber.

  5. Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography by two-step image registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hang; Li, Zhongliang; Wang, Xiangzhao; Zhang, Xiangyang

    2015-03-01

    The image quality of optical coherence tomography can be severely influenced by speckle noise (i.e., signal-degrading speckle). Averaging multiple B-scans can effectively suppress speckle noise. Because of sample motion, images subject to averaging must be aligned exactly. We propose a two-step image registration scheme that combines global and local registrations for speckle reduction by the averaging of multiple B-scans. The method begins with a global registration to compensate for overall motion, which is estimated based on the rigid transformation model involving translation and rotation. Then each A-scan is aligned by cross-correlation using a graph-based algorithm, followed by a pixel subdivision method to improve smoothness in local registration. The method does not rely on any information about the retinal layer boundaries. We have applied this method to the registration of macular optical coherence tomography images. The results show the reduction of speckle noise and the enhanced visualization of layer structures. A signal-to-noise ratio improvement of nearly the square root of the number of averaged B-scans and a contrast-to-noise ratio improvement of around 11 are achieved through our method.

  6. Three-dimensional coherent X-ray surface scattering imaging near total external reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tao; Jiang, Zhang; Strzalka, Joseph; Ocola, Leonidas; Wang, Jin

    2012-09-01

    Lensless X-ray coherent diffraction imaging (CDI) has emerged as a thriving field promising applications in materials and biological sciences with a theoretical imaging resolution only limited by the X-ray wavelength. Most CDI methods use transmission geometry, which is not suitable for nanostructures grown on opaque substrates or for objects of interest comprising only surfaces or interfaces. Attempts have been made to perform CDI experiments in reflection geometry, both optically and with X-rays, but the reconstruction resulted in mostly planar images, with less success in the third dimension. Here, we discuss the development of coherent surface scattering imaging in grazing-incidence geometry that takes advantage of enhanced X-ray surface scattering and interference near total external reflection. We demonstrate the successful reconstruction of substrate-supported non-periodic surface patterns in three dimensions with nanometre resolution in the direction normal to the substrate, promising wide applications in elucidating structures in substrate-supported and buried nanoelectronics and photonics.

  7. Analysis of optical amplifier noise in coherent optical communication systems with optical image rejection receivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Bo Foged; Mikkelsen, Benny; Mahon, Cathal J.

    1992-01-01

    A detailed theoretical analysis of optical amplifier noise in coherent optical communication systems with heterodyne receivers is presented. The analysis quantifies in particular how optical image rejection receiver configurations reduce the influence of optical amplifier noise on system performa......A detailed theoretical analysis of optical amplifier noise in coherent optical communication systems with heterodyne receivers is presented. The analysis quantifies in particular how optical image rejection receiver configurations reduce the influence of optical amplifier noise on system...... performance. Two types of optical image rejection receivers are investigated: a novel, all-optical configuration and the conventional, microwave-based configuration. The analysis shows that local oscillator-spontaneous emission beat noise (LO-SP), signal-spontaneous emission beat noise (S-SP), and spontaneous......-spontaneous beat noise (SP-SP) can all be reduced by 3 dB, thereby doubling the dynamic range of the optical amplifier. A 2.5-dB improvement in dynamic range has been demonstrated experimentally with the all-optical image rejection configuration. The implications of the increased dynamic range thus obtained...

  8. Fractal analysis of en face tomographic images obtained with full field optical coherence tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Wanrong; Zhu, Yue [Department of Optical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Jiangsu (China)

    2017-03-15

    The quantitative modeling of the imaging signal of pathological areas and healthy areas is necessary to improve the specificity of diagnosis with tomographic en face images obtained with full field optical coherence tomography (FFOCT). In this work, we propose to use the depth-resolved change in the fractal parameter as a quantitative specific biomarker of the stages of disease. The idea is based on the fact that tissue is a random medium and only statistical parameters that characterize tissue structure are appropriate. We successfully relate the imaging signal in FFOCT to the tissue structure in terms of the scattering function and the coherent transfer function of the system. The formula is then used to analyze the ratio of the Fourier transforms of the cancerous tissue to the normal tissue. We found that when the tissue changes from the normal to cancerous the ratio of the spectrum of the index inhomogeneities takes the form of an inverse power law and the changes in the fractal parameter can be determined by estimating slopes of the spectra of the ratio plotted on a log-log scale. The fresh normal and cancer liver tissues were imaged to demonstrate the potential diagnostic value of the method at early stages when there are no significant changes in tissue microstructures. (copyright 2016 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Spatiotemporal closure of fractional laser-ablated channels imaged by optical coherence tomography and reflectance confocal microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banzhaf, Christina A.; Wind, Bas S.; Mogensen, Mette

    2016-01-01

    laser (AFXL)-induced channels and dynamics in their spatiotemporal closure using in vivo OCT and RCM techniques. Study design/Materials and Methods The inner forearm of healthy subjects (n = 6) was exposed to 10,600 nm fractional CO2 laser using 5 and 25% densities, 120 μm beam diameter, 5, 15, and 25 m......Background and Objective Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) offer high-resolution optical imaging of the skin, which may provide benefit in the context of laser-assisted drug delivery. We aimed to characterize postoperative healing of ablative fractional......, indicating tissue fluid. By OCT the median percentage of open channels was evaluated at several time points within the first 24 hours and laser channels were found to gradually close, depending on the used energy level. Thus, at 5 mJ/microbeam, 87% (range 73-100%) of channels were open one hour after laser...

  10. Three-dimensional coherent diffraction imaging of Mie-scattering spheres by laser single-orientation measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Fan, Jia-Dong; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Sun, Zhi-Bin; Huang, Qing-Jie; Jiang, Huai-Dong

    2015-09-01

    Three-dimensional imaging with single orientation is a potential and novel technique. We successfully demonstrate that three-dimensional (3D) structure can be determined by a single orientation diffraction measurement for a phase object of double-layer Mie-scattering silica spheres on a Si3N4 membrane. Coherent diffraction pattern at high numerical aperture was acquired with an optical laser, and the oversampled pattern was projected from a planar detector onto the Ewald sphere. The double-layered spheres are reconstructed from the spherical diffraction pattern and a 2D curvature-corrected pattern, which improve convergence speed and stability of reconstruction. Project supported by the Major State Basic Research Development Program of China (Grant No. 2014CB910401) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 31430031, 21390414, and U1332118).

  11. Speckle noise reduction for optical coherence tomography images via non-local weighted group low-rank representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chang; Cao, Lijuan; Chen, Jiajia; Zheng, Xiao

    2017-05-01

    In this work, a non-local weighted group low-rank representation (WGLRR) model is proposed for speckle noise reduction in optical coherence tomography (OCT) images. It is based on the observation that the similarity between patches within the noise-free OCT image leads to a high correlation between them, which means that the data matrix grouped by these similar patches is low-rank. Thus, the low-rank representation (LRR) is used to recover the noise-free group data matrix. In order to maintain the fidelity of the recovered image, the corrupted probability of each pixel is integrated into the LRR model as a weight to regularize the error term. Considering that each single patch might belong to several groups, and multiple estimates of this patch can be obtained, different estimates of each patch is aggregated to obtain its denoised result. The aggregating weights are exploited depending on the rank of each group data matrix, which can assign higher weights to those better estimates. Both qualitative and quantitative experimental results on real OCT images show the superior performance of the WGLRR model compared with other state-of-the-art speckle removal techniques.

  12. An integrated optical coherence microscopy imaging and optical stimulation system for optogenetic pacing in Drosophila melanogaster (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex, Aneesh; Li, Airong; Men, Jing; Jerwick, Jason; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Zhou, Chao

    2016-03-01

    Electrical stimulation is the clinical standard for cardiac pacing. Although highly effective in controlling cardiac rhythm, the invasive nature, non-specificity to cardiac tissues and possible tissue damage limits its applications. Optogenetic pacing of the heart is a promising alternative, which is non-invasive and more specific, has high spatial and temporal precision, and avoids the shortcomings in electrical stimulation. Drosophila melanogaster, which is a powerful model organism with orthologs of nearly 75% of human disease genes, has not been studied for optogenetic pacing in the heart. Here, we developed a non-invasive integrated optical pacing and optical coherence microscopy (OCM) imaging system to control the heart rhythm of Drosophila at different developmental stages using light. The OCM system is capable of providing high imaging speed (130 frames/s) and ultrahigh imaging resolutions (1.5 μm and 3.9 μm for axial and transverse resolutions, respectively). A light-sensitive pacemaker was developed in Drosophila by specifically expressing the light-gated cation channel, channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) in transgenic Drosophila heart. We achieved non-invasive and specific optical control of the Drosophila heart rhythm throughout the fly's life cycle (larva, pupa, and adult) by stimulating the heart with 475 nm pulsed laser light. Heart response to stimulation pulses was monitored non-invasively with OCM. This integrated non-invasive optogenetic control and in vivo imaging technique provides a novel platform for performing research studies in developmental cardiology.

  13. Ex vivo and in vivo coherent Raman imaging of the peripheral and central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Terry Brandon

    A hallmark of nervous system disorders is damage or degradation of the myelin sheath. Unraveling the mechanisms underlying myelin degeneration and repair represent one of the great challenges in medicine. This thesis work details the development and utilization of advanced optical imaging methods to gain insight into the structure and function of myelin in both healthy and diseased states in the in vivo environment. This first part of this thesis discusses ex vivo studies of the effects of high-frequency stimulation of spinal tissues on the structure of the node of Ranvier as investigated by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) imaging (manuscript submitted to Journal of Neurosciece). Reversible paranodal myelin retraction at the nodes of Ranvier was observed during 200 Hz electrical stimulation, beginning minutes after the onset and continuing for up to 10 min after stimulation was ceased. A mechanistic study revealed a Ca2+ dependent pathway: high-frequency stimulation induced paranodal myelin retraction via pathologic calcium influx into axons, calpain activation, and cytoskeleton degradation through spectrin break-down. Also, the construction of dual-scanning CARS microscope for large area mapping of CNS tissues is detailed (Optics Express, 2008, 16:19396-193409). A confocal scanning head equipped with a rotating polygon mirror provides high speed, high resolution imaging and is coupled with a motorized sample stage to generate high-resolution large-area images of mouse brain coronal section and guinea pig spinal cord cross section. The polygon mirror decreases the mosaic acquisition time significantly without reducing the resolution of individual images. The ex vivo studies are then extended to in vivo imaging of mouse sciatic nerve tissue by CARS and second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging (Journal of Microscopy, 2007, 225: 175-182). Following a minimally invasive surgery to open the skin, CARS imaging of myelinated axons and SHG imaging of the

  14. Enhancement of Corneal Visibility in Optical Coherence Tomography Images with Corneal Opacification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Cheuk Wang; Ang, Marcus; Farook, Mohamed; Strouthidis, Nicholas G; Mehta, Joddhbir S; Mari, Jean Martial; Girard, Michaël J A

    2016-09-01

    To establish and to rank the performance of a corneal adaptive compensation (CAC) algorithm in enhancing corneal images with scars acquired from three commercially available anterior segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT) devices. Horizontal B-scans of the cornea were acquired from 10 patients using three ASOCT devices (Spectralis, RTVue, and Cirrus). We compared ASOCT image quality (with and without CAC) by computing the intralayer contrast (a measure of shadow removal), the interlayer contrast (a measure of tissue boundary visibility), and the tissue/background contrast (a measure of overall corneal visibility). All six groups (Spectralis, RTVue, Cirrus, Spectralis+CAC, RTVue+CAC, and Cirrus+CAC) were ranked according to a global performance index that averaged all contrast quantities. CAC provided mean intralayer contrasts improvement for all devices (all P images of corneal scars may be enhanced by CAC through shadow removal, improved tissue boundary visibility, and enhanced corneal visibility against the image background. RTVue produces the finest baseline images but the best image quality can be achieved by applying CAC to Spectralis images. CAC could enhance visibility of corneal images with scars acquired from commercially available ASOCT devices and could aid preoperative planning of patients for ophthalmic procedures.

  15. Automated segmentation and enhancement of optical coherence tomography-acquired images of rodent brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Utku; Zhu, Wenbin; Choi, Woo June; Omori, Michael; Zhang, Wenri; Alkayed, Nabil J; Wang, Ruikang K

    2016-09-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive optical imaging method that has proven useful in various fields such as ophthalmology, dermatology and neuroscience. In ophthalmology, significant progress has been made in retinal layer segmentation and enhancement of OCT images. There are also segmentation algorithms to separate epidermal and dermal layers in OCT-acquired images of human skin. We describe simple image processing methods that allow automatic segmentation and enhancement of OCT images of rodent brain. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods for OCT-based microangiography (OMAG) and tissue injury mapping (TIM) of mouse cerebral cortex. The results show significant improvement in image contrast, delineation of tissue injury, allowing visualization of different layers of capillary beds. Previously reported methods for other applications are yet to be used in neuroscience due to the complexity of tissue anatomy, unique physiology and technical challenges. OCT is a promising tool that provides high resolution in vivo microvascular and structural images of rodent brain. By automatically segmenting and enhancing OCT images, structural and microvascular changes in mouse cerebral cortex after stroke can be monitored in vivo with high contrast. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Neuro-endovascular optical coherence tomography imaging: clinical feasibility and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Marlon S.; Su, Jianping; Heidari, Esmaeil; Linskey, Mark E.; Chen, Zhongping

    2011-03-01

    The authors report on the feasibility of clinical neuroendovascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging as well as its efficacy and safety by comparing findings with histology in animal, cadaveric and clinical studies. Catheter-based in vivo endovascular OCT imaging was carried out intracranially in four patients, three in the anterior circulation and one in the posterior circulation (vertebral artery). The neuroendovascular OCT device was delivered to the desired location using groin access and standard endovascular procedures. In vivo findings were reproduced using ex vivo OCT imaging in corresponding animal and human (cadaveric) harvested tissue segments with findings matched by histology. OCT images correlated well with the images obtained after histologic sectioning, and visualized in vivo the laminar vascular structure. Satisfactory imaging findings were obtained with no complications. Neuroendovascular OCT imaging is thus feasible for clinical use and can detect with high resolution the structure of arterial segments. Understanding OCT imaging in non-diseased arteries is important in establishing baseline findings necessary for interpreting pathologic processes. This allows neuroendovascular optical biopsies of vascular tissue to be obtained without the need for excision and processing, and potentially allows prophylactic interventions against stroke and other cerebrovascular disease before they become symptomatic.

  17. Dentomaxillofacial imaging with computed-radiography techniques: a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Chris C.; Kapa, Stanley F.; Furkart, Audrey J.; Gur, David

    1993-09-01

    A preliminary study was conducted to investigate the feasibility of using high resolution computed radiography techniques for dentomaxillofacial imaging. Storage phosphors were cut into various sizes and used with an experimental laser scanning reader for three different imaging procedures: intraoral, cephalometric and panoramic. Both phantom and patient images were obtained for comparing the computed radiography technique with the conventional screen/film or dental film techniques. It has been found that current computed radiography techniques are largely adequate for cephalometric and panoramic imaging but need further improvement on their spatial resolution capability for intraoral imaging. In this paper, the methods of applying the computer radiography techniques to dentomaxillofacial imaging are described and discussed. Images of phantoms, resolution bar patterns and patients are presented and compared. Issues on image quality and cost are discussed.

  18. Perspectives on Imaging the Left Main Coronary Artery Using Intravascular Ultrasound and Optical Coherence Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry C Lowe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI for significant left main coronary artery (LMCA stenosis is increasingly being viewed as a viable alternative to Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG (1. This is leading to an expectation of increasing numbers of such procedures, with a consequent focus on both the ability to image both lesion severity, and assess more accurately the results of PCI. While there have been advances in physiologic assessment of left main severity using fractional flow reserve (FFR, imaging of the LMCA using Intravascular Ultrasound (IVUS and more recently Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT has the specific advantage of being able to provide detailed anatomical information both pre and post PCI, such that it is timely to review briefly the current status of these two imaging technologies in the context of LMCA intervention.

  19. Simultaneous strain and coherent imaging using coupled photorefractive holography and shearography through scattering media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, Vanessa; Béland, Rémy; Lecler, Sylvain; Renotte, Yvon; Habraken, Serge; Lion, Yves; Charette, Paul

    2008-01-01

    The direct simultaneous acquisition of coherent imaging and strain information is of particular importance in the biomechanical characterization of biological tissue. This type of simultaneous information acquisition can be accomplished using a coupled photorefractive holography and shearography system for imaging and strain measurements, respectively. Optical scattering in a conventional speckle shearing interferometer rapidly reduces the contrast of the shearing fringes, thereby limiting the use of such interferometers with opaque surfaces. By coupling photorefractive holography with speckle shearing interferometry, properties of the photorefractive effect (spatial high-pass filtering and temporal low-pass filtering) combine to restore the shearing fringe contrast and enable strain imaging in diffusing media. This effect is demonstrated using synthetic scattering phantoms built from suspensions of silica spheres in water.

  20. MULTIMODAL IMAGING OF ACUTE EXUDATIVE POLYMORPHOUS VITELLIFORM MACULOPATHY WITH OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY ANGIOGRAPHY AND ADAPTIVE OPTICS SCANNING LASER OPHTHALMOSCOPY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skondra, Dimitra; Nesper, Peter L; Fawzi, Amani A

    2017-05-16

    To report a case of acute exudative polymorphous vitelliform maculopathy including the findings of optical coherence tomography angiography and adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy. Findings on clinical examination, color fundus photography, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, infrared reflectance, autofluorescence, optical coherence tomography angiography, and adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy. A 54-year-old white man with no significant medical history and history of smoking presented with bilateral multiple serous and vitelliform detachments consistent with acute exudative polymorphous vitelliform maculopathy. Extensive infectious, inflammatory, and malignancy workup was negative. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography showed thickened, hyperreflective ellipsoid zone, subretinal fluid, and focal as well as diffuse subretinal hyperreflective material corresponding to the vitelliform lesions. Optical coherence tomography angiography showed normal retinal and choroidal vasculature, whereas adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy showed circular focal "target" lesions at the level of the photoreceptors in the area of foveal detachment. Multimodal imaging is valuable in evaluating patients with acute exudative polymorphous vitelliform maculopathy.

  1. Continuous motion scan ptychography: characterization for increased speed in coherent x-ray imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Junjing; Nashed, Youssef S. G.; Chen, Si; Phillips, Nicholas W.; Peterka, Tom; Ross, Rob; Vogt, Stefan; Jacobsen, Chris; Vine, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Ptychography is a coherent diffraction imaging (CDI) method for extended objects in which diffraction patterns are acquired sequentially from overlapping coherent illumination spots. The object's complex transmission function can be reconstructed from those diffraction patterns at a spatial resolution limited only by the scattering strength of the object and the detector geometry. Most experiments to date have positioned the illumination spots on the sample using a move-settle-measure sequence in which the move and settle steps can take longer to complete than the measure step. We describe here the use of a continuous "fly-scan" mode for ptychographic data collection in which the sample is moved continuously, so that the experiment resembles one of integrating the diffraction patterns from multiple probe positions. This allows one to use multiple probe mode reconstruction methods to obtain an image of the object and also of the illumination function. We show in simulations, and in x-ray imaging experiments, some of the characteristics of fly-scan ptychography, including a factor of 25 reduction in the data acquisition time. This approach will become increasingly important as brighter x-ray sources are developed, such as diffraction limited storage rings.

  2. Continuous motion scan ptychography: characterization for increased speed in coherent x-ray imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Junjing; Nashed, Youssef S. G.; Chen, Si; Phillips, Nicholas W.; Peterka, Tom; Ross, Rob; Vogt, Stefan; Jacobsen, Chris; Vine, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Ptychography is a coherent diffraction imaging (CDI) method for extended objects in which diffraction patterns are acquired sequentially from overlapping coherent illumination spots. The object’s complex transmission function can be reconstructed from those diffraction patterns at a spatial resolution limited only by the scattering strength of the object and the detector geometry. Most experiments to date have positioned the illumination spots on the sample using a move-settle-measure sequence in which the move and settle steps can take longer to complete than the measure step. We describe here the use of a continuous “fly-scan” mode for ptychographic data collection in which the sample is moved continuously, so that the experiment resembles one of integrating the diffraction patterns from multiple probe positions. This allows one to use multiple probe mode reconstruction methods to obtain an image of the object and also of the illumination function. We show in simulations, and in x-ray imaging experiments, some of the characteristics of fly-scan ptychography, including a factor of 25 reduction in the data acquisition time. This approach will become increasingly important as brighter x-ray sources are developed, such as diffraction limited storage rings.

  3. A Review of Imaging Techniques for Plant Phenotyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Zhang, Qin; Huang, Danfeng

    2014-01-01

    Given the rapid development of plant genomic technologies, a lack of access to plant phenotyping capabilities limits our ability to dissect the genetics of quantitative traits. Effective, high-throughput phenotyping platforms have recently been developed to solve this problem. In high-throughput phenotyping platforms, a variety of imaging methodologies are being used to collect data for quantitative studies of complex traits related to the growth, yield and adaptation to biotic or abiotic stress (disease, insects, drought and salinity). These imaging techniques include visible imaging (machine vision), imaging spectroscopy (multispectral and hyperspectral remote sensing), thermal infrared imaging, fluorescence imaging, 3D imaging and tomographic imaging (MRT, PET and CT). This paper presents a brief review on these imaging techniques and their applications in plant phenotyping. The features used to apply these imaging techniques to plant phenotyping are described and discussed in this review. PMID:25347588

  4. A Review of Imaging Techniques for Plant Phenotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Li

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Given the rapid development of plant genomic technologies, a lack of access to plant phenotyping capabilities limits our ability to dissect the genetics of quantitative traits. Effective, high-throughput phenotyping platforms have recently been developed to solve this problem. In high-throughput phenotyping platforms, a variety of imaging methodologies are being used to collect data for quantitative studies of complex traits related to the growth, yield and adaptation to biotic or abiotic stress (disease, insects, drought and salinity. These imaging techniques include visible imaging (machine vision, imaging spectroscopy (multispectral and hyperspectral remote sensing, thermal infrared imaging, fluorescence imaging, 3D imaging and tomographic imaging (MRT, PET and CT. This paper presents a brief review on these imaging techniques and their applications in plant phenotyping. The features used to apply these imaging techniques to plant phenotyping are described and discussed in this review.

  5. Limitations in imaging common conjunctival and corneal pathologies with fourier-domain optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Hakan; Steen, Daniel W

    2014-01-01

    To describe the limitations of Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) in imaging common conjunctival and corneal pathology. Retrospective, single-center case series of 40 patients with conjunctival and cornea pathology. Fourier-domain OCT imaged laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) flaps in detail, including its relation to other corneal structures and abnormalities. Similarly, in infectious or degenerative corneal disorders, Fourier-domain OCT successfully showed the extent of infiltration or material deposition, which appeared as hyper-reflective areas. In cases with pterygium, the underlying cornea could not be imaged. All cases of common conjunctival pathologies, such as nevus or pinguecula, were successfully imaged in detail. Nevi, scleritis, pterygium, pinguecula, and subconjunctival hemorrhage were hyper-reflective lesions, while cysts and lymphangiectasia were hyporeflective. The details of the underlying sclera were not uniformly imaged in conjunctival pathologies. Fourier-domain OCT imaged the trabeculectomy bleb in detail, whereas the details of structures of the anterior chamber angle were not routinely visualized in all cases. Light scatter through vascularized, densely inflamed, or thick lesions limits the imaging capabilities of Fourier-domain anterior segment OCT.

  6. Contrast improvement for swept source optical coherence tomography image of sub-surface tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinyu; Liang, Shanshan; Zhang, Jun

    2017-02-01

    Swept source optical coherence tomography (SSOCT) is an attractive biological imaging technology due to its advantages of simple setup and high imaging speed. As the light intensity attenuated rapidly in high scattering biological tissues, the contrast of OCT image will drop with depth. In this paper a new method was introduced to compensate the attenuation of imaging contrast in SSOCT. The interference signal was divided into two channels of analog to digital converter (ADC) with a splitting ratio of 1:5. The higher level signal in one channel was used to reconstruct deeper structure of tissue and the lower level signal in the other channel was used to reconstruct surface structure of tissue. Lowfrequency signals in one channel were filtered by a high pass filter and then combined with the signal in the other channel to obtain a high contrast image in both surface and deep area of tissue. Human finger and porcine airway imaging obtained with the system show that the contrast of SSOCT images can be improved in deeper region of tissue.

  7. Ex-vivo imaging of blood and lymphatic vessels in conjunctiva using optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Peijun; Karnowski, Karol; Yu, Paula; An, Dong; Yu, Dao-Yi; Sampson, David D.

    2017-04-01

    Label-free imaging of the blood and lymphatic vessel networks of the conjunctiva of the eye is important in assessing the drainage pathways affected by glaucoma. We utilize the characteristically low signal in optical coherence tomography (OCT) provided by such vessels in ex vivo tissue to characterize their morphology in two and three dimensions. We demonstrate this method on conjunctiva from six porcine eyes, showing the ready visualization of both vessel networks. Such ex vivo characterization is a necessary precursor for future in vivo studies directed towards improving glaucoma surgery.

  8. A Flexible Phase Retrieval Framework for Flux-limited Coherent X-Ray Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Liang; Lane, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    Coherent X-ray diffraction imaging~(CXDI) experiments are intrinsically limited by shot noise, a lack of prior knowledge about the sample's support, and missing measurements due to the experimental geometry. We propose a flexible, iterative phase retrieval framework that allows for accurate modeling of Gaussian or Poissonian noise statistics, modified support updates, regularization of reconstructed signals, and handling of missing data in the observations. The proposed method is efficiently solved using alternating direction method of multipliers~(ADMM) and is demonstrated to consistently outperform state-of-the-art algorithms for low-photon phase retrieval from CXDI experiments, both for simulated diffraction patterns and for experimental measurements.

  9. Quantitative reconstructions in multi-modal photoacoustic and optical coherence tomography imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbau, P.; Mindrinos, L.; Scherzer, O.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we perform quantitative reconstruction of the electric susceptibility and the Grüneisen parameter of a non-magnetic linear dielectric medium using measurement of a multi-modal photoacoustic and optical coherence tomography system. We consider the mathematical model presented in Elbau et al (2015 Handbook of Mathematical Methods in Imaging ed O Scherzer (New York: Springer) pp 1169–204), where a Fredholm integral equation of the first kind for the Grüneisen parameter was derived. For the numerical solution of the integral equation we consider a Galerkin type method.

  10. Performance evaluation of an all-fiber image-reject homodyne coherent Doppler wind lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foroughi Abari, Farzad; Pedersen, A. T.; Dellwik, Ebba

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the near-zero wind velocity measurement performance of two separate 1.5 μm all-fiber coherent Doppler lidars (CDL). The performance characterization is performed through the presentation of the results from two separate atmospheric field campaigns...... a sonic anemometer, as the reference instrument. The measurements clearly show that the image-reject architecture results in more accurate measurements of radial wind velocities close to zero. Close-to-zero velocities are usually associated with the vertical component of the wind and are important...

  11. Performance evaluation of an all-fiber image-reject homodyne coherent Doppler wind lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abari, Cyrus F.; Pedersen, Anders Tegtmeier; Dellwik, Ebba

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the near-zero wind velocity measurement performance of two separate 1.5 µm all-fiber coherent Doppler lidars (CDLs). The performance characterization is carried out through the presentation of the results from two separate atmospheric field campaigns...... a sonic anemometer, as the reference instrument. The measurements clearly show that the image-reject architecture results in more accurate measurements of radial wind velocities close to zero. Close-to-zero velocities are usually associated with the vertical component of the wind and are important...

  12. FABRICATION OF TISSUE-SIMULATIVE PHANTOMS AND CAPILLARIES AND THEIR INVESTIGATION BY OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Bykov

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Methods of tissue-simulative phantoms and capillaries fabrication from PVC-plastisol and silicone for application as test-objects in optical coherence tomography (OCT and skin and capillary emulation are considered. Comparison characteristics of these materials and recommendations for their application are given. Examples of phantoms visualization by optical coherence tomography method are given. Possibility of information using from B-scans for refractive index evaluation is shown.

  13. Assessment of Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging in the Diagnosis of Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer and Benign Lesions Versus Normal Skin:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mette; Jørgensen, Thomas Martini; Nürnberg, Birgit Meincke

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an optical imaging technique that may be useful in diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). OBJECTIVES To describe OCT features in NMSC such as actinic keratosis (AK) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and in benign lesions and to assess...... the diagnostic accuracy of OCT in differentiating NMSC from benign lesions and normal skin. METHODS AND MATERIALS OCT and polarization-sensitive (PS) OCT from 104 patients were studied. Observer-blinded evaluation of OCT images from 64 BCCs, 1 baso-squamous carcinoma, 39 AKs, two malignant melanomas, nine benign...... lesions, and 105 OCT images from perilesional skin was performed; 50 OCT images of NMSC and 50 PS-OCT images of normal skin were evaluated twice. RESULTS Sensitivity was 79% to 94% and specificity 85% to 96% in differentiating normal skin from lesions. Important features were absence of well...

  14. Digital image processing techniques in archaeology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Santanam, K.; Vaithiyanathan, R.; Tripati, S.

    Digital image processing involves the manipulation and interpretation of digital images with the aid of a computer. This form of remote sensing actually began in the 1960's with a limited number of researchers analysing multispectral scanner data...

  15. Enhancement of SAR images using fuzzy shrinkage technique in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Speckle degrades the features in the image and reduces the ability of a human observer to resolve fine detail, hence despeckling is very much required for SAR images. This paper presents speckle noise reduction in SAR images using a combination of curvelet and fuzzy logic technique to restore speckle-affected images.

  16. Statistical signal processing techniques for coherent transversal beam dynamics in synchrotrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alhumaidi, Mouhammad

    2015-03-04

    Transversal coherent beam oscillations can occur in synchrotrons directly after injection due to errors in position and angle, which stem from inaccurate injection kicker reactions. Furthermore, the demand for higher beam intensities is always increasing in particle accelerators. The wake fields generated by the traveling particles will be increased by increasing the beam intensity. This leads to a stronger interaction between the beam and the different accelerator components, which increases the potential of coherent instabilities. Thus, undesired beam oscillations will occur when the natural damping is not enough to attenuate the oscillations generated by the coherent beam-accelerator interactions. The instabilities and oscillations can be either in transversal or longitudinal direction. In this work we are concerned with transversal beam oscillations only. In normal operation, transversal beam oscillations are undesired since they lead to beam quality deterioration and emittance blow up caused by the decoherence of the oscillating beam. This decoherence is caused by the tune spread of the beam particles. The emittance blow up reduces the luminosity of the beam, and thus the collision quality. Therefore, beam oscillations must be suppressed in order to maintain high beam quality during acceleration. A powerful way to mitigate coherent instabilities is to employ a feedback system. A Transversal Feedback System (TFS) senses instabilities of the beam by means of Pickups (PUs), and acts back on the beam through actuators, called kickers. In this thesis, a novel concept to use multiple PUs for estimating the beam displacement at the position with 90 phase advance before the kicker is proposed. The estimated values should be the driving feedback signal. The signals from the different PUs are delayed such that they correspond to the same bunch. Subsequently, a weighted sum of the delayed signals is suggested as an estimator of the feedback correction signal. The

  17. Contrast in coherent raman scattering microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garbacik, E.T.

    2014-01-01

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy is becoming a widely used technique for sub-micron, chemically-selective imaging at high rates of speed In this thesis I discuss three methods for increasing the specificity and selectivity of coherent Raman experiments. The first method is the

  18. Coherent backscatter radar imaging in Brazil: large-scale waves in the bottomside F-region at the onset of equatorial spread F

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. S. Rodrigues

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The 30 MHz coherent backscatter radar located at the equatorial observatory in São Luís, Brazil (2.59° S, 44.21° W, −2.35° dip lat has been upgraded to perform coherent backscatter radar imaging. The wide field-of-view of this radar makes it well suited for radar imaging studies of ionospheric irregularities. Radar imaging observations were made in support to the spread F Experiment (SpreadFEx campaign. This paper describes the system and imaging technique and presents results from a bottom-type layer that preceded fully-developed radar plumes on 25 October 2005. The radar imaging technique was able to resolve decakilometric structures within the bottom-type layer. These structures indicate the presence of large-scale waves (~35 km in the bottomside F-region with phases that are alternately stable and unstable to wind-driven gradient drift instabilities. The observations suggest that these waves can also cause the initial perturbation necessary to initiate the Generalized Rayleigh-Taylor instability leading to spread F. The electrodynamic conditions and the scale length of the bottom-type layer structures suggest that the waves were generated by the collisional shear instability. These results indicate that monitoring bottom-type layers may provide helpful diagnostics for spread F forecasting.

  19. 3D measurements in the polar mesosphere using coherent radar imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zecha, M.; Sommer, S.; Rapp, M.; Stober, G.; Latteck, R.

    2012-12-01

    Radars provide the opportunity of continuous measurements in the interesting area of the polar mesosphere. Usually the spatial resolution of measurements by pulsed VHF radars is limited by the radar beam width, transmitting pulse length, and sampling time. Due to these technical restrictions the typical small-scale structures in the mesosphere often cannot be resolved. Furthermore the quality of the estimation of dynamic atmosphere parameters is reduced if the position and direction of scatter returns cannot determined exactly. Radar interferometry methods have been developed to reduce these limitations. The coherent radar imaging method gives a high resolving image of the scatter structure insight the radar beam volume. In recent years the VHF radar MAARSY was installed in Andenes/Norway (69°N). This new radar was designed to allow improved three-dimensional observations in the atmosphere. It consists of 433 Yagis and allows a minimum beam width of about 4 degree. The beam direction can be changed pulse-by-pulse freely in azimuth angle and practicable up to 40 degree in zenith angle. The pulse length can be varied from a couple of km down to 50 m. Up to 16 receiving channels of spaced antennas can be used. In this presentation we show the detection of the angles-of-arrival of radar echoes and the correction of the wind measurements. We demonstrate the improvement of measurement results by using coherent radar imaging. The differences to the results of conventional methods depend on the beam width, range resolution, antenna distances, and beam tilting. We show that the application of interferometry is necessary to improve considerably the quality of 3D-measurement results. Furthermore we demonstrate the synthesis of high resolved images to get a real 3D image of the mesosphere.

  20. A Document Imaging Technique for Implementing Electronic Loan Approval Process

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    J. Manikandan; C.S. Celin; V.M. Gayathri

    2015-01-01

    ...), research fields, crime investigation fields and military fields. In this paper, we proposed a document image processing technique, for establishing electronic loan approval process (E-LAP) [2...

  1. A Hybrid Technique for Medical Image Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alamgir Nyma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical image segmentation is an essential and challenging aspect in computer-aided diagnosis and also in pattern recognition research. This paper proposes a hybrid method for magnetic resonance (MR image segmentation. We first remove impulsive noise inherent in MR images by utilizing a vector median filter. Subsequently, Otsu thresholding is used as an initial coarse segmentation method that finds the homogeneous regions of the input image. Finally, an enhanced suppressed fuzzy c-means is used to partition brain MR images into multiple segments, which employs an optimal suppression factor for the perfect clustering in the given data set. To evaluate the robustness of the proposed approach in noisy environment, we add different types of noise and different amount of noise to T1-weighted brain MR images. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms other FCM based algorithms in terms of segmentation accuracy for both noise-free and noise-inserted MR images.

  2. Spectral contrast-enhanced optical coherence tomography for improved detection of tumor microvasculature and functional imaging of lymphatic drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    SoRelle, Elliott D.; Liba, Orly; Sen, Debasish; de la Zerda, Adam

    2017-03-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is well-suited to study in vivo dynamics of blood circulation and lymphatic flow because of the technique's combination of rapid image acquisition, micron spatial resolution, and penetration depth in turbid tissues. However, OCT has been historically constrained by a dearth of contrast agents that are readily distinguished from the strong scattering intrinsic to biological tissues. In this study, we demonstrate large gold nanorods (LGNRs) as optimized contrast agents for OCT. LGNRs produce 32-fold greater backscattering than GNRs previously tested for contrast-enhanced OCT. Furthermore, LGNRs exhibit 110-fold stronger spectral signal than conventional GNRs when coupled with custom spectral detection algorithms. This signal enhancement enables picomolar OCT detection sensitivity in vivo and single-particle detection against optically-clear backgrounds. Moreover, the ability to synthesize LGNRs with tunable spectral peaks provides a viable platform for multiplexed imaging studies. To explore the advantages of LGNRs as OCT contrast agents, we implemented them for noninvasive 3D imaging of tumor blood supply and active lymphatic drainage in mice. Spectral detection of LGNRs enabled 100% improvement in imaging depth for detecting microvasculature (vessels 20 μm in diameter) in U87MG glioblastoma xenografts in mice pinnae. We also demonstrated our approach's ability to map the spatial dependence of lymph drainage and flow directionality within lymphatic capillaries. Using LGNRs with distinct spectra, we further identified the functional states of individual lymphatic valves in vivo. Thus, this approach provides a powerful new platform for functional imaging that may be extended for future molecular imaging studies with OCT.

  3. A simplified method to measure choroidal thickness using adaptive compensation in enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Gupta

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate a simplified method to measure choroidal thickness (CT using commercially available enhanced depth imaging (EDI spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT. METHODS: We measured CT in 31 subjects without ocular diseases using Spectralis EDI SD-OCT. The choroid-scleral interface of the acquired images was first enhanced using a post-processing compensation algorithm. The enhanced images were then analysed using Photoshop. Two graders independently graded the images to assess inter-grader reliability. One grader re-graded the images after 2 weeks to determine intra-grader reliability. Statistical analysis was performed using intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC and Bland-Altman plot analyses. RESULTS: Using adaptive compensation both the intra-grader reliability (ICC: 0.95 to 0.97 and inter-grader reliability (ICC: 0.93 to 0.97 were perfect for all five locations of CT. However, with the conventional technique of manual CT measurements using built-in callipers provided with the Heidelberg explorer software, the intra- (ICC: 0.87 to 0.94 and inter-grader reliability (ICC: 0.90 to 0.93 for all the measured locations is lower. Using adaptive compensation, the mean differences (95% limits of agreement for intra- and inter-grader sub-foveal CT measurements were -1.3 (-3.33 to 30.8 µm and -1.2 (-36.6 to 34.2 µm, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The measurement of CT obtained from EDI SD-OCT using our simplified method was highly reliable and efficient. Our method is an easy and practical approach to improve the quality of choroidal images and the precision of CT measurement.

  4. Application of digital image processing techniques to astronomical imagery 1977

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorre, J. J.; Lynn, D. J.

    1978-01-01

    Nine specific techniques of combination of techniques developed for applying digital image processing technology to existing astronomical imagery are described. Photoproducts are included to illustrate the results of each of these investigations.

  5. Statistical modeling of Optical Coherence Tomography images by asymmetric Normal Laplace mixture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorjandi, Sahar; Rabbani, Hossein; Kafieh, Raheleh; Amini, Zahra

    2017-07-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is known as a non-invasive and high resolution imaging modality in ophthalmology. Effecting noise on the OCT images as well as other reasons cause a random behavior in these images. In this study, we introduce a new statistical model for retinal layers in healthy OCT images. This model, namely asymmetric Normal Laplace (NL), fits well the advent of asymmetry and heavy-tailed in intensity distribution of each layer. Due to the layered structure of retina, a mixture model is addressed. It is proposed to evaluate the fitness criteria called Kull-back Leibler Divergence (KLD) and chi-square test along visual results. The results express the well performance of proposed model in fitness of data except for 6th and 7th layers. Using a complicated model, e.g. a mixture model with two component, seems to be appropriate for these layers. The mentioned process for train images can then be devised for a test image by employing the Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm to estimate the values of parameters in mixture model.

  6. Multimodal noncontact photoacoustic and optical coherence tomography imaging using wavelength-division multiplexing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berer, Thomas; Leiss-Holzinger, Elisabeth; Hochreiner, Armin; Bauer-Marschallinger, Johannes; Buchsbaum, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    We present multimodal noncontact photoacoustic (PA) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging. PA signals are acquired remotely on the surface of a specimen with a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The interferometer is realized in a fiber-optic network using a fiber laser at 1550 nm as the source. In the same fiber-optic network, a spectral-domain OCT system is implemented. The OCT system utilizes a supercontinuum light source at 1310 nm and a spectrometer with an InGaAs line array detector. Light from the fiber laser and the OCT source is multiplexed into one fiber using a wavelength-division multiplexer; the same objective is used for both imaging modalities. Reflected light is spectrally demultiplexed and guided to the respective imaging systems. We demonstrate two-dimensional and three-dimensional imaging on a tissue-mimicking sample and a chicken skin phantom. The same fiber network and same optical components are used for PA and OCT imaging, and the obtained images are intrinsically coregistered.

  7. A spatially-variant deconvolution method based on total variation for optical coherence tomography images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almasganj, Mohammad; Adabi, Saba; Fatemizadeh, Emad; Xu, Qiuyun; Sadeghi, Hamid; Daveluy, Steven; Nasiriavanaki, Mohammadreza

    2017-03-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) has a great potential to elicit clinically useful information from tissues due to its high axial and transversal resolution. In practice, an OCT setup cannot reach to its theoretical resolution due to imperfections of its components, which make its images blurry. The blurriness is different alongside regions of image; thus, they cannot be modeled by a unique point spread function (PSF). In this paper, we investigate the use of solid phantoms to estimate the PSF of each sub-region of imaging system. We then utilize Lucy-Richardson, Hybr and total variation (TV) based iterative deconvolution methods for mitigating occurred spatially variant blurriness. It is shown that the TV based method will suppress the so-called speckle noise in OCT images better than the two other approaches. The performance of proposed algorithm is tested on various samples, including several skin tissues besides the test image blurred with synthetic PSF-map, demonstrating qualitatively and quantitatively the advantage of TV based deconvolution method using spatially-variant PSF for enhancing image quality.

  8. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the size and shape of protein microcrystals using Bragg coherent diffractive imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coughlan, H. D.; Darmanin, C.; Kirkwood, H. J.; Phillips, N. W.; Hoxley, D.; Clark, J. N.; Harder, R. J.; Maxey, E.; Abbey, B.

    2016-03-14

    Three-dimensional imaging of protein crystals during X-ray diffraction experiments opens up a range of possibilities for optimising crystal quality and gaining new insights into the fundamental processes that drive radiation damage. Obtaining this information at the appropriate lengthscales however is extremely challenging. One approach that has been recently demonstrated as a promising avenue for charactering the size and shape of protein crystals at nanometre lengthscales is Bragg Coherent Diffractive Imaging (BCDI). BCDI is a recently developed technique that is able to recover the phase of the continuous diffraction intensity signal around individual Bragg peaks. When data is collected at multiple points on a rocking curve a Reciprocal Space Map (RSM) can be assembled and then inverted using BCDI to obtain a three-dimensional image of the crystal. The first demonstration of two-dimensional BCDI of protein crystals was reported by Boutet at al., recently this work was extended to the study of radiation damage of micron-sized crystals. Here we present the first three-dimensional reconstructions of a Lysozyme protein crystal using BDI. The results are validated against RSM and TEM data and have implications for both radiation damage studies and for developing new approaches to structure retrieval from micron-sized protein crystals.

  9. Medical image compression using block-based transform coding techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Neve, Peter; Philips, Wilfried R.; Van Overloop, Jeroen; Lemahieu, Ignace L.

    1996-09-01

    The JPEG lossy compression technique in medical imagery has several disadvantages (at higher compression ratios), mainly due to block-distortion. We therefore investigated two methods, the lapped orthogonal transform (LOT) and the DCT/DST coder, for the use on medical image data. These techniques are block-based but they reduce the block- distortion by spreading it out over the entire image. These compression techniques were applied on four different types of medical images (MRI image, x-ray image, angiogram and CT- scan). They were then compared with results from JPEG and variable block size DCT coders. At a first stage, we determined the optimal block size for each image and for each technique. It was found that for a specific image, the optimal block size was independent of the different transform coders. For the x-ray image, the CT-scan and the angiogram an optimal block size of 32 by 32 was found, while for the MRI image the optimal block size was 16 by 16. Afterwards, for all images the rate-distortion curves of the different techniques were calculated, using the optimal block size. The overall conclusion from our experiments is that the LOT is the best transform among the ones being investigated for compressing medical images of many different kinds. However, JPEG should be used for very high image qualities, as it then requires almost the same bit rate as the LOT and as it requires fewer computations than the LOT technique.

  10. Ophthalmic diagnostics using optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izatt, Joseph A.; Hee, Michael R.; Huang, David; Fujimoto, James G.; Swanson, Eric A.; Lin, Charles P.; Shuman, Joel S.; Puliafito, Carmen A.

    1993-06-01

    We present a new technique for coherent optical imaging of ocular structure based on optical coherence tomography (OCT). OCT is a noncontact, noninvasive, tomographic imaging technique with superior spatial resolution to ultrasound (cataract and corneal refractive surgeries. In the posterior segment, we have obtained high-resolution images of retinal structure in human subjects in vivo. These images demonstrate higher resolution than available with any other existing technique, and include characterization of optic disk morphology and topology. These measurements have potential applications in early diagnosis and assessment of glaucoma and other retinal diseases.

  11. Diagnostic potential of iris cross-sectional imaging in albinism using optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Viral; Gottlob, Irene; Mohammad, Sarim; McLean, Rebecca J; Maconachie, Gail D E; Kumar, Anil; Degg, Christopher; Proudlock, Frank A

    2013-10-01

    To characterize in vivo anatomic abnormalities of the iris in albinism compared with healthy controls using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) and to explore the diagnostic potential of this technique for albinism. We also investigated the relationship between iris abnormalities and other phenotypical features of albinism. Prospective cross-sectional study. A total of 55 individuals with albinism and 45 healthy controls. We acquired 4.37×4.37-mm volumetric scans (743 A-scans, 50 B-scans) of the nasal and temporal iris in both eyes using AS-OCT (3-μm axial resolution). Iris layers were segmented and thicknesses were measured using ImageJ software. Iris transillumination grading was graded using Summers and colleagues' classification. Retinal OCT, eye movement recordings, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), visual evoked potential (VEP), and grading of skin and hair pigmentation were used to quantify other phenotypical features associated with albinism. Iris AS-OCT measurements included (1) total iris thickness, (2) stroma/anterior border (SAB) layer thickness, and (3) posterior epithelial layer (PEL) thickness. Correlation with other phenotypical measurements, including (1) iris transillumination grading, (2) retinal layer measurements at the fovea, (3) nystagmus intensity, (4) BCVA, (5) VEP asymmetry, (6) skin pigmentation, and (7) hair pigmentation (of head hair, lashes, and brows). The mean iris thickness was 10.7% thicker in controls (379.3 ± 44.0 μm) compared with the albinism group (342.5 ± 52.6 μm; P>0.001), SAB layers were 5.8% thicker in controls (315.1 ± 43.8 μm) compared with the albinism group (297.7 ± 50.0 μm; P=0.044), and PEL was 44.0% thicker in controls (64.1 ± 11.7 μm) compared with the albinism group (44.5 ± 13.9 μm; Palbinism. Phenotypic features of albinism, such as skin and hair pigmentation, BCVA, and nystagmus intensity, were significantly correlated to AS-OCT iris thickness measurements. We have

  12. Coherence properties of blackbody radiation and application to energy harvesting and imaging with nanoscale rectennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Peter B.; Cutler, Paul H.; Miskovsky, Nicholas M.

    2015-01-01

    Modern technology allows the fabrication of antennas with a characteristic size comparable to the electromagnetic wavelength in the optical region. This has led to the development of new technologies using nanoscale rectifying antennas (rectennas) for solar energy conversion and sensing of terahertz, infrared, and visible radiation. For example, a rectenna array can collect incident radiation from an emitting source and the resulting conversion efficiency and operating characteristics of the device will depend on the spatial and temporal coherence properties of the absorbed radiation. For solar radiation, the intercepted radiation by a micro- or nanoscale array of devices has a relatively narrow spatial and angular distribution. Using the Van Cittert-Zernike theorem, we show that the coherence length (or radius) of solar radiation on an antenna array is, or can be, tens of times larger than the characteristic wavelength of the solar spectrum, i.e., the thermal wavelength, λT=2πℏc/(kBT), which for T=5000 K is about 3 μm. Such an effect is advantageous, making possible the rectification of solar radiation with nanoscale rectenna arrays, whose size is commensurate with the coherence length. Furthermore, we examine the blackbody radiation emitted from an array of antennas at temperature T, which can be quasicoherent and lead to a modified self-image, analogous to the Talbot-Lau self-imaging process but with thermal rather than monochromatic radiation. The self-emitted thermal radiation may be important as a nondestructive means for quality control of the array.

  13. Characterization of high-resolution diffractive X-ray optics by ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila-Comamala, Joan; Diaz, Ana; Guizar-Sicairos, Manuel; Mantion, Alexandre; Kewish, Cameron M; Menzel, Andreas; Bunk, Oliver; David, Christian

    2011-10-24

    We have employed ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging to completely characterize the focal spot wavefield and wavefront aberrations of a high-resolution diffractive X-ray lens. The ptychographic data from a strongly scattering object was acquired using the radiation cone emanating from a coherently illuminated Fresnel zone plate at a photon energy of 6.2 keV. Reconstructed images of the object were retrieved with a spatial resolution of 8 nm by combining the difference-map phase retrieval algorithm with a non-linear optimization refinement. By numerically propagating the reconstructed illumination function, we have obtained the X-ray wavefield profile of the 23 nm round focus of the Fresnel zone plate (outermost zone width, Δr = 20 nm) as well as the X-ray wavefront at the exit pupil of the lens. The measurements of the wavefront aberrations were repeatable to within a root mean square error of 0.006 waves, and we demonstrate that they can be related to manufacturing aspects of the diffractive optical element and to errors on the incident X-ray wavefront introduced by the upstream beamline optics. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  14. CLEAN Technique to Classify and Detect Objects in Subsurface Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Karpat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An image domain CLEAN technique, for nondestructive and noncontacting subsurface imaging, is discussed. Recently introduced finite-difference time-domain- (FDTD- based virtual tool, GrGPR, is used to create imaging scenarios and to generate synthetic scattering data through synthetic aperture (SAR type scanning. Matlab-based imaging algorithms are used to process recorded FDTD data. The location and the geometry of the targets are obtained by image domain CLEAN technique which is extracting scattering centers from the SAR image. The effectiveness of the algorithm is tested in simulated data.

  15. Application of digital imaging techniques to flare monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Shaun J.; Yan, Yong

    2011-08-01

    This paper presents a technique for detecting and monitoring flares in harsh industrial environments with the use of an imaging sensor combined with digital image processing. Flare images are captured via an imaging fibre and analysed to detect the flare's presence and region of interest. The flare characteristics are then determined using various image processing algorithms. A prototype system is designed, constructed and evaluated on a purpose built laboratory scale flare test rig. Results indicate that the imaging based technique has potential for the detection, monitoring and analysis of flares amidst various background conditions in the chemical and oil industries for plant safety, pollution prevention and control.

  16. Design and optimization of a miniaturized imaging probe for simultaneous endomicroscopy and optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretschmer, Simon; Vilches, Sergio; Blattmann, Marc; Ataman, Caglar; Zappe, Hans

    2017-02-01

    A highly-integrated MEMS-based bimodal probe design with integrated piezoelectric fiber scanner for simul- taneous endomicroscopy and optical coherence tomography (OCT) is presented. The two modalities rely on spectrally-separated optical paths that run partially in parallel through a micro-optical bench system, which has dimensions of only 13 x 2 x 3mm3 (l x w x h). An integrated tubular piezoelectric fiber scanner is used to perform en face scanning required for three dimensional OCT measurements. This scanning engine has an outer diameter of 0.9mm and a length of 9mm, and features custom fabricated 10 μm thick polyimide flexible interconnect lines to address the four piezoelectric electrodes. As a platform combining a full-field and a scanning imaging modality, the developed probe design constitutes a blue print for a wide range of multi-modal endoscopic imaging probes.

  17. Classification of wet aged related macular degeneration using optical coherence tomographic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Anam; Mir, Fouwad Jamil; Yasin, Ubaid Ullah; Khan, Shoab A.

    2013-12-01

    Wet Age related macular degeneration (AMD) is a type of age related macular degeneration. In order to detect Wet AMD we look for Pigment Epithelium detachment (PED) and fluid filled region caused by choroidal neovascularization (CNV). This form of AMD can cause vision loss if not treated in time. In this article we have proposed an automated system for detection of Wet AMD in Optical coherence tomographic (OCT) images. The proposed system extracts PED and CNV from OCT images using segmentation and morphological operations and then detailed feature set are extracted. These features are then passed on to the classifier for classification. Finally performance measures like accuracy, sensitivity and specificity are calculated and the classifier delivering the maximum performance is selected as a comparison measure. Our system gives higher performance using SVM as compared to other methods.

  18. Longitudinal three-dimensional visualisation of autoimmune diabetes by functional optical coherence imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berclaz, Corinne; Schmidt-Christensen, Anja; Szlag, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: It is generally accepted that structural and functional quantitative imaging of individual islets would be beneficial to elucidate the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes. We here introduce functional optical coherence imaging (FOCI) for fast, label-free monitoring of beta cell...... tomographic acquisition. In addition, the phase sensitivity allows simultaneous label-free acquisition of vascularisation. RESULTS: We demonstrate that FOCI allows longitudinal quantification of progressive autoimmune insulitis, including the three-dimensional quantification of beta cell volume, inflammation...... and vascularisation. The substantially increased backscattering of islets is dominated by the insulin-zinc nanocrystals in the beta cell granules. This translates into a high specificity for the functional beta cell volume of islets. Applying FOCI to a spontaneous mouse model of type 1 diabetes, we quantify...

  19. Visualization of sarcoid choroidal granuloma by enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostaqui, Olga; Querques, Giuseppe; Haymann, Patricia; Fardeau, Christine; Coscas, Gabriel; Souied, Eric H

    2014-06-01

    To report, in vivo, on the quasi-histologic characteristics of a sarcoid choroidal granuloma as visualized by Enhanced Depth Imaging Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (EDI SD-OCT). A 49 year-old woman showing a choroidal granuloma secondary to sarcoidosis was imaged by EDI OCT. On EDI SD-OCT examination, sarcoid choroidal granuloma appears as a localized hyporeflectivechoroidalthickening. Two weeks after systemic corticosteroids, the thickness of the granuloma decreased from 568 μm to 356 μm. Five months later, it reached 274 μm, and after eleven months, it decreased to 150 μm. EDI SD-OCT allows direct visualization of choroidal granuloma secondary to sarcoidosis and evaluation of lesion regression after treatment.

  20. En Face Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging for the Detection of Nascent Geographic Atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaal, Karen B; Gregori, Giovanni; Rosenfeld, Philip J

    2017-02-01

    To determine if en face optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging can identify nascent geographic atrophy (nGA) in eyes with intermediate age-related macular degeneration (iAMD). Retrospective observational case series. Patients with iAMD from the COMPLETE study at the Bascom Palmer Eye Institute were evaluated to determine if nGA was present at baseline and at follow-up using high-density Spectralis OCT B-scans and en face OCT images from the Cirrus OCT instrument. If available, additional en face OCT images and B-scans were analyzed at follow-up times beyond the 52-week period. A total of 37 eyes (27 patients) were evaluated for at least 1 year using both B-scans and en face images. Two drusen suspicious for nGA at baseline were identified, but neither druse developed GA after 24 and 62 months of follow-up, respectively. Another druse displayed hypertransmission into the choroid at week 52 on B-scan imaging and was classified as nGA. En face OCT imaging identified this druse as a focal bright area. Drusen breakdown occurred during a follow-up of 39 months. En face OCT imaging appeared to be as useful as routine B-scan imaging for identifying areas suspicious for nGA in this population from the COMPLETE Study. Additional longitudinal follow-up of eyes with drusen is needed to determine if en face OCT imaging can replace the evaluation of individual B-scans for the detection of nGA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Coherent x-ray imaging of spins on nanoscale (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpyrko, Oleg

    2016-10-01

    Understanding electronic structure at nanometer resolution is crucial to understanding physics such as phase separation and emergent behavior in correlated electron materials. Nondestructive probes which have the ability to see beyond surfaces on nanometer length and sub-picosecond time scales can greatly enhance our understanding of these systems and will impact development of future technologies, such as magnetic storage. Polarized x-rays are an appealing choice of probe due to their penetrating power, elemental and magnetic specificity, and high spatial resolution. The resolution of traditional x-ray microscopy is limited by the nanometer precision required to fabricate x-ray optics. In this thesis, a novel approach to lensless imaging of an extended magnetic nanostructure is presented. We demonstrate this approach by imaging ferrimagnetic "maze" domains in a Gd/Fe multilayer with perpendicular anisotropy. A series of dichroic coherent diffraction patterns, ptychographically recorded, are numerically inverted using non-convex and non-linear optimization theory, and we follow the magnetic domain configuration evolution through part of its magnetization hysteresis loop by applying an external magnetic field. Unlike holographic methods, it does not require a reference wave or precision optics, and so is a far simpler experiment. In addition, it enables the imaging of samples with arbitrarily large spatial dimensions, at a spatial resolution limited solely by the coherent x-ray flux and wavelength. It can readily be extended to other non-magnetic systems that exhibit circular or linear dichroism. This approach is scalable to imaging with diffraction-limited resolution, a prospect rapidly becoming a reality in view of the new generation of phenomenally brilliant x-ray sources.

  2. In vivo oral imaging with integrated portable photoacoustic microscopy and optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Wei; Qi, Weizhi; Jin, Tian; Guo, Heng; Xi, Lei

    2017-12-01

    Oral diseases, especially oral cancers, are becoming serious health problems in humans. To image vasculatures and structures simultaneously in the human oral cavity which are tightly associated with various oral diseases, we develop a dual-modality portable optical resolution photoacoustic microscopy (ORPAM) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) system. This system utilizes a new rotary scanning mechanism and a compact design of the imaging head, making it portable and free of translation of the imaging interface or samples. Through the phantom experiments, both modalities yield high lateral resolutions of 8.1 μm (ORPAM) and 8.56 μm (OCT), respectively. The axial resolutions are measured to be 116.5 μm for ORPAM and 6.1 μm for OCT. In vivo imaging of a mouse ear was carried out to evaluate the performance of the system in biological tissues. In addition, in vivo oral imaging of a healthy human lip and monitoring recovery progress of a lip ulcer demonstrate the clinical potential of this system.

  3. Probe alignment and design issues of microelectromechanical system based optical coherence tomography endoscopic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Can; Sun, Jingjing; Samuelson, Sean; Xie, Huikai

    2013-09-10

    Endoscopic optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging has been demonstrated using microelectromechanical system (MEMS) technology by several research groups. The focus of this work is to study how the OCT imaging performance is affected by the radius of curvature of MEMS mirrors as well as the optical alignment accuracy inside small imaging probes. The goal of this study is to provide guidance for assembly tolerance and design optimization of OCT endoscopic probes. Gaussian beam propagation is used for theoretical analysis which is confirmed by optical simulation and verified experimentally with a time-domain OCT system as well. It has been found that the OCT imaging is very sensitive to the distance from the fiber end to the gradient-index (GRIN) lens, which needs to be controlled within 0.1 mm to achieve working distance (WD) longer than 3.5 mm and lateral resolution around 25 μm. The impact on image quality of the MEMS mirror is negligible if the radius of curvature of the mirror surface is greater than 200 mm. In addition, we studied the astigmatism introduced by cylindrical plastic tubing; the maximum astigmatism ratio is 1.1 when the WD is around 2.5 mm.

  4. In vivo imaging of the Drosophila Melanogaster heart using a novel optical coherence tomography microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izatt, Susan D.; Choma, Michael A.; Israel, Steven; Wessells, Robert J.; Bodmer, Rolf; Izatt, Joseph A.

    2005-03-01

    Real time in vivo optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging of the adult fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster heart using a newly designed OCT microscope allows accurate assessment of cardiac anatomy and function. D. melanogaster has been used extensively in genetic research for over a century, but in vivo evaluation of the heart has been limited by available imaging technology. The ability to assess phenotypic changes with micrometer-scale resolution noninvasively in genetic models such as D. melanogaster is needed in the advancing fields of developmental biology and genetics. We have developed a dedicated small animal OCT imaging system incorporating a state-of-the-art, real time OCT scanner integrated into a standard stereo zoom microscope which allows for simultaneous OCT and video imaging. System capabilities include A-scan, B-scan, and M-scan imaging as well as automated 3D volumetric acquisition and visualization. Transverse and sagittal B-mode scans of the four chambered D. melanogaster heart have been obtained with the OCT microscope and are consistent with detailed anatomical studies from the literature. Further analysis by M-mode scanning is currently under way to assess cardiac function as a function of age and sex by determination of shortening fraction and ejection fraction. These studies create control cardiac data on the wild type D. melanogaster, allowing subsequent evaluation of phenotypic cardiac changes in this model after regulated genetic mutation.

  5. Contrast-enhanced optical coherence tomography with picomolar sensitivity for functional in vivo imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liba, Orly; Sorelle, Elliott D.; Sen, Debasish; de La Zerda, Adam

    2016-03-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) enables real-time imaging of living tissues at cell-scale resolution over millimeters in three dimensions. Despite these advantages, functional biological studies with OCT have been limited by a lack of exogenous contrast agents that can be distinguished from tissue. Here we report an approach to functional OCT imaging that implements custom algorithms to spectrally identify unique contrast agents: large gold nanorods (LGNRs). LGNRs exhibit 110-fold greater spectral signal per particle than conventional GNRs, which enables detection of individual LGNRs in water and concentrations as low as 250 pM in the circulation of living mice. This translates to ~40 particles per imaging voxel in vivo. Unlike previous implementations of OCT spectral detection, the methods described herein adaptively compensate for depth and processing artifacts on a per sample basis. Collectively, these methods enable high-quality noninvasive contrast-enhanced imaging of OCT in living subjects, including detection of tumor microvasculature at twice the depth achievable with conventional OCT. Additionally, multiplexed detection of spectrally-distinct LGNRs was demonstrated to observe discrete patterns of lymphatic drainage and identify individual lymphangions and lymphatic valve functional states. These capabilities provide a powerful platform for molecular imaging and characterization of tissue noninvasively at cellular resolution, called MOZART.

  6. Segmentation of optical coherence tomography images for differentiation of the cavernous nerves from the prostate gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitchian, Shahab; Weldon, Thomas P.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2009-07-01

    The cavernous nerves course along the surface of the prostate and are responsible for erectile function. Improvements in identification, imaging, and visualization of the cavernous nerves during prostate cancer surgery may improve nerve preservation and postoperative sexual potency. Two-dimensional (2-D) optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of the rat prostate were segmented to differentiate the cavernous nerves from the prostate gland. To detect these nerves, three image features were employed: Gabor filter, Daubechies wavelet, and Laws filter. The Gabor feature was applied with different standard deviations in the x and y directions. In the Daubechies wavelet feature, an 8-tap Daubechies orthonormal wavelet was implemented, and the low-pass sub-band was chosen as the filtered image. Last, Laws feature extraction was applied to the images. The features were segmented using a nearest-neighbor classifier. N-ary morphological postprocessing was used to remove small voids. The cavernous nerves were differentiated from the prostate gland with a segmentation error rate of only 0.058+/-0.019. This algorithm may be useful for implementation in clinical endoscopic OCT systems currently being studied for potential intraoperative diagnostic use in laparoscopic and robotic nerve-sparing prostate cancer surgery.

  7. Standard resolution spectral domain optical coherence tomography in clinical ophthalmic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szkulmowska, Anna; Cyganek, Marta; Targowski, Piotr; Kowalczyk, Andrzej; Kaluzny, Jakub J.; Wojtkowski, Maciej; Fujimoto, James G.

    2005-04-01

    In this study we show clinical application of Spectral Optical Coherence Tomography (SOCT), which enables operation with 40 times higher speed than commercial Stratus OCT instrument. Using high speed SOCT instrument it is possible to collect more information and increase the quality of reconstructed cross-sectional retinal images. Two generations of compact and portable clinical SOCT instruments were constructed in Medical Physics Group at Nicolaus Copernicus University in Poland. The first SOCT instrument is a low-cost system operating with standard, 12 micrometer axial resolution and the second is high resolution system using combined superluminescent diodes light source, which enables imaging with 4.8 micrometer axial resolution. Both instruments have worked in Ophthalmology Clinic of Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz. During the study we have examined 44 patients with different pathologies of the retina including: Central Serous Chorioretinopathy (CSC), Choroidal Neovascularization (CNV), Pigment Epithelial Detachment (PED), Macular Hole, Epiretinal Membrane, Outer Retinal Infarction etc. All these pathologies were first diagnosed by classical methods (like fundus camera imaging and angiography) and then examined with the aid of SOCT system. In this contribution we present examples of SOCT cross-sectional retinal imaging of pathologic eyes measured with standard resolution. We also compare cross-sectional images of pathology obtained by standard and high resolution systems.

  8. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography staging and autofluorescence imaging in achromatopsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Jonathan P; Sherman, Jerome; Zweifel, Sandrine A; Chen, Royce W S; Duncker, Tobias; Kohl, Susanne; Baumann, Britta; Wissinger, Bernd; Yannuzzi, Lawrence A; Tsang, Stephen H

    2014-04-01

    IMPORTANCE Evidence is mounting that achromatopsia is a progressive retinal degeneration, and treatments for this condition are on the horizon. OBJECTIVES To categorize achromatopsia into clinically identifiable stages using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and to describe fundus autofluorescence imaging in this condition. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A prospective observational study was performed between 2010 and 2012 at the Edward S. Harkness Eye Institute, New York-Presbyterian Hospital. Participants included 17 patients (aged 10-62 years) with full-field electroretinography-confirmed achromatopsia. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography features and staging system, fundus autofluorescence and near-infrared reflectance features and their correlation to optical coherence tomography, and genetic mutations served as the outcomes and measures. RESULTS Achromatopsia was categorized into 5 stages on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography: stage 1 (2 patients [12%]), intact outer retina; stage 2 (2 patients [12%]), inner segment ellipsoid line disruption; stage 3 (5 patients [29%]), presence of an optically empty space; stage 4 (5 patients [29%]), optically empty space with partial retinal pigment epithelium disruption; and stage 5 (3 patients [18%]), complete retinal pigment epithelium disruption and/or loss of the outer nuclear layer. Stage 1 patients showed isolated hyperreflectivity of the external limiting membrane in the fovea, and the external limiting membrane was hyperreflective above each optically empty space. On near infrared reflectance imaging, the fovea was normal, hyporeflective, or showed both hyporeflective and hyperreflective features. All patients demonstrated autofluorescence abnormalities in the fovea and/or parafovea: 9 participants (53%) had reduced or absent autofluorescence surrounded by increased autofluorescence, 4 individuals (24%) showed only reduced or absent autofluorescence, 3

  9. Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Staging and Autofluorescence Imaging in Achromatopsia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Jonathan P.; Sherman, Jerome; Zweifel, Sandrine A.; Chen, Royce W. S.; Duncker, Tobias; Kohl, Susanne; Baumann, Britta; Wissinger, Bernd; Yannuzzi, Lawrence A.; Tsang, Stephen H.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Evidence is mounting that achromatopsia is a progressive retinal degeneration, and treatments for this condition are on the horizon. Objectives To categorize achromatopsia into clinically identifiable stages using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and to describe fundus autofluorescence imaging in this condition. Design, Setting, and Participants A prospective observational study was performed between 2010 and 2012 at the Edward S. Harkness Eye Institute, New York-Presbyterian Hospital. Participants included 17 patients (aged 10-62 years) with full-field electroretinography-confirmed achromatopsia. Main outcomes and Measures Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography features and staging system, fundus autofluorescence and near-infrared reflectance features and their correlation to optical coherence tomography, and genetic mutations served as the outcomes and measures. Results Achromatopsia was categorized into 5 stages on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography: stage 1 (2 patients [12%]), intact outer retina; stage 2 (2 patients [12%]), inner segment ellipsoid line disruption; stage 3 (5 patients [29%]), presence of an optically empty space; stage 4 (5 patients [29%]), optically empty space with partial retinal pigment epithelium disruption; and stage 5 (3 patients [18%]), complete retinal pigment epithelium disruption and/or loss of the outer nuclear layer. Stage 1 patients showed isolated hyperreflectivity of the external limiting membrane in the fovea, and the external limiting membrane was hyperreflective above each optically empty space. On near infrared reflectance imaging, the fovea was normal, hyporeflective, or showed both hyporeflective and hyperreflective features. All patients demonstrated autofluorescence abnormalities in the fovea and/or parafovea: 9 participants (53%) had reduced or absent autofluorescence surrounded by increased autofluorescence, 4 individuals (24%) showed only reduced or absent autofluorescence, 3

  10. Examination of diagnostic features in multiphoton microscopy and optical coherence tomography images of ovarian tumorigenesis in a mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jennifer M.

    Ovarian cancer is a deadly disease owing to the non-specific symptoms and suspected rapid progression, leading to frequent late stage detection and poor prognosis. Medical imaging methods such as CT, MRI and ultrasound as well as serum testing for cancer markers have had extremely poor performance for early disease detection. Due to the poor performance of available screening methods, and the impracticality and ineffectiveness of taking tissue biopsies from the ovary, women at high risk for developing ovarian cancer are often advised to undergo prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy. This surgery results in many side effects and is most often unnecessary since only a fraction of high risk women go on to develop ovarian cancer. Better understanding of the early development of ovarian cancer and characterization of morphological changes associated with early disease could lead to the development of an effective screening test for women at high risk. Optical imaging methods including optical coherence tomography (OCT) and multiphoton microscopy (MPM) are excellent tools for studying disease progression owing to the high resolution and depth sectioning capabilities. Further, these techniques are excellent for optical biopsy because they can image in situ non-destructively. In the studies described in this dissertation OCT and MPM are used to identify cellular and tissue morphological changes associated with early tumor development in a mouse model of ovarian cancer. This work is organized into three specific aims. The first aim is to use the images from the MPM phenomenon of second harmonic generation to quantitatively examine the morphological differences in collagen structure in normal mouse ovarian tissue and mouse ovarian tumors. The second aim is to examine the differences in endogenous two-photon excited fluorescence in normal mouse ovarian tissue and mouse ovarian tumors. The third and final aim is to identify changes in ovarian microstructure resulting from early

  11. Hyperspectral imaging and characterization of live cells by broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy with singular value decomposition (SVD) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khmaladze, Alexander; Jasensky, Joshua; Price, Erika; Zhang, Chi; Boughton, Andrew; Han, Xiaofeng; Seeley, Emily; Liu, Xinran; Banaszak Holl, Mark M; Chen, Zhan

    2014-01-01

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy can be used as a powerful imaging technique to identify chemical compositions of complex samples in biology, biophysics, medicine, and materials science. In this work we developed a CARS microscopic system capable of hyperspectral imaging. By employing an ultrafast laser source, a photonic crystal fiber, and a scanning laser microscope together with spectral detection by a highly sensitive back-illuminated cooled charge-coupled device (CCD) camera, we were able to rapidly acquire and process hyperspectral images of live cells with chemical selectivity. We discuss various aspects of hyperspectral CARS image analysis and demonstrate the use of singular value decomposition methods to characterize the cellular lipid content.

  12. Unconventional techniques of fundus imaging: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh P Shanmugam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The methods of fundus examination include direct and indirect ophthalmoscopy and imaging with a fundus camera are an essential part of ophthalmic practice. The usage of unconventional equipment such as a hand-held video camera, smartphone, and a nasal endoscope allows one to image the fundus with advantages and some disadvantages. The advantages of these instruments are the cost-effectiveness, ultra portability and ability to obtain images in a remote setting and share the same electronically. These instruments, however, are unlikely to replace the fundus camera but then would always be an additional arsenal in an ophthalmologist's armamentarium.

  13. A new real-time non-coherent to coherent light image converter - The hybrid field effect liquid crystal light valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinberg, J.; Jacobson, A.; Bleha, W.; Miller, L.; Fraas, L.; Boswell, D.; Myer, G.

    1975-01-01

    A new, high-performance device has been developed for application to real-time coherent optical data processing. The new device embodies a CdS photoconductor, a CdTe light-absorbing layer, a dielectric mirror, and a liquid crystal layer sandwiched between indium-tin-oxide transparent electrodes deposited on optical quality glass flats. The noncoherent image is directed onto the photoconductor; this reduces the impedance of the photoconductor, thereby switching the ac voltage that is impressed across the electrodes onto the liquid crystal to activate the device. The liquid crystal is operated in a hybrid field effect mode. It utilizes the twisted nematic effect to create a dark off-state and the optical birefringence effect to create the bright on-state. The liquid crystal modulates the polarization of the coherent read-out light so an analyzer must be used to create an intensity modulated output beam.

  14. Techniques in Iterative Proton CT Image Reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Penfold, Scott

    2015-01-01

    This is a review paper on some of the physics, modeling, and iterative algorithms in proton computed tomography (pCT) image reconstruction. The primary challenge in pCT image reconstruction lies in the degraded spatial resolution resulting from multiple Coulomb scattering within the imaged object. Analytical models such as the most likely path (MLP) have been proposed to predict the scattered trajectory from measurements of individual proton location and direction before and after the object. Iterative algorithms provide a flexible tool with which to incorporate these models into image reconstruction. The modeling leads to a large and sparse linear system of equations that can efficiently be solved by projection methods-based iterative algorithms. Such algorithms perform projections of the iterates onto the hyperlanes that are represented by the linear equations of the system. They perform these projections in possibly various algorithmic structures, such as block-iterative projections (BIP), string-averaging...

  15. Massively parallel data processing for quantitative total flow imaging with optical coherence microscopy and tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylwestrzak, Marcin; Szlag, Daniel; Marchand, Paul J.; Kumar, Ashwin S.; Lasser, Theo

    2017-08-01

    We present an application of massively parallel processing of quantitative flow measurements data acquired using spectral optical coherence microscopy (SOCM). The need for massive signal processing of these particular datasets has been a major hurdle for many applications based on SOCM. In view of this difficulty, we implemented and adapted quantitative total flow estimation algorithms on graphics processing units (GPU) and achieved a 150 fold reduction in processing time when compared to a former CPU implementation. As SOCM constitutes the microscopy counterpart to spectral optical coherence tomography (SOCT), the developed processing procedure can be applied to both imaging modalities. We present the developed DLL library integrated in MATLAB (with an example) and have included the source code for adaptations and future improvements. Catalogue identifier: AFBT_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AFBT_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU GPLv3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 913552 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 270876249 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: CUDA/C, MATLAB. Computer: Intel x64 CPU, GPU supporting CUDA technology. Operating system: 64-bit Windows 7 Professional. Has the code been vectorized or parallelized?: Yes, CPU code has been vectorized in MATLAB, CUDA code has been parallelized. RAM: Dependent on users parameters, typically between several gigabytes and several tens of gigabytes Classification: 6.5, 18. Nature of problem: Speed up of data processing in optical coherence microscopy Solution method: Utilization of GPU for massively parallel data processing Additional comments: Compiled DLL library with source code and documentation, example of utilization (MATLAB script with raw data) Running time: 1,8 s for one B-scan (150 × faster in comparison to the CPU

  16. Red blood cell image enhancement techniques for cells with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    quality or challenging conditions of the images such as poor illumination of blood smear and most importantly overlapping RBC. The algorithm comprises of two RBC segmentation that can be selected based on the image quality, circle mask technique and grayscale blood smear image processing. Detail explanations ...

  17. Image processing techniques for quantification and assessment of brain MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijf, H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a widely used technique to acquire digital images of the human brain. A variety of acquisition protocols is available to generate images in vivo and noninvasively, giving great opportunities to study the anatomy and physiology of the human brain. In my thesis,

  18. Millimeter-wave Imaging Systems with Aperture Synthesis Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löffler, Torsten; Krozer, Viktor; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes development of a millimetre-wave imaging system using multi-element aperture filling techniques [1]. Such imaging systems are increasingly demonstrated for security applications and in particular standoff imaging of persons and bonding flaw and defect detection [2]. The major...

  19. Four-dimensional optical coherence tomography imaging of total liquid ventilated rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsten, Lars; Schnabel, Christian; Gaertner, Maria; Koch, Edmund

    2013-06-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) can be utilized for the spatially and temporally resolved visualization of alveolar tissue and its dynamics in rodent models, which allows the investigation of lung dynamics on the microscopic scale of single alveoli. The findings could provide experimental input data for numerical simulations of lung tissue mechanics and could support the development of protective ventilation strategies. Real four-dimensional OCT imaging permits the acquisition of several OCT stacks within one single ventilation cycle. Thus, the entire four-dimensional information is directly obtained. Compared to conventional virtual four-dimensional OCT imaging, where the image acquisition is extended over many ventilation cycles and is triggered on pressure levels, real four-dimensional OCT is less vulnerable against motion artifacts and non-reproducible movement of the lung tissue over subsequent ventilation cycles, which widely reduces image artifacts. However, OCT imaging of alveolar tissue is affected by refraction and total internal reflection at air-tissue interfaces. Thus, only the first alveolar layer beneath the pleura is visible. To circumvent this effect, total liquid ventilation can be carried out to match the refractive indices of lung tissue and the breathing medium, which improves the visibility of the alveolar structure, the image quality and the penetration depth and provides the real structure of the alveolar tissue. In this study, a combination of four-dimensional OCT imaging with total liquid ventilation allowed the visualization of the alveolar structure in rat lung tissue benefiting from the improved depth range beneath the pleura and from the high spatial and temporal resolution.

  20. Optimization-based adaptive optics for optical coherence tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstraete, H.R.G.W.

    2017-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a technique for non-invasive imaging based on low coherence interferometry. Its main application is found in ophthalmology, where it is used for 3D in vivo imaging of the cornea and the retina. OCT has evolved over the past decade as one of the most important

  1. Noninvasive Vascular Elastography With Plane Strain Incompressibility Assumption Using Ultrafast Coherent Compound Plane Wave Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porée, Jonathan; Garcia, Damien; Chayer, Boris; Ohayon, Jacques; Cloutier, Guy

    2015-12-01

    Plane strain tensor estimation using non-invasive vascular ultrasound elastography (NIVE) can be difficult to achieve using conventional focus beamforming due to limited lateral resolution and frame rate. Recent developments in compound plane wave (CPW) imaging have led to high speed and high resolution imaging. In this study, we present the performance of NIVE using coherent CPW. We show the impact of CPW beamforming on strain estimates compared to conventional focus sequences. To overcome the inherent variability of lateral strains, associated with the low lateral resolution of linear array transducers, we use the plane strain incompressibility to constrain the estimator. Taking advantage of the approximate tenfold increase in frame rate of CPW compared with conventional focus imaging, we introduce a time-ensemble estimation approach to further improve the elastogram quality. By combining CPW imaging with the constrained Lagrangian speckle model estimator, we observe an increase in elastography quality (∼ 10 dB both in signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratios) over a wide range of applied strains (0.02 to 3.2%).

  2. Using optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging in the evaluation of airway dynamics (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabari, Margit V.; Kelly, Vanessa J.; Applegate, Matthew B.; Chee, Chunmin; Tan, Khay M.; Hariri, Lida P.; Harris, R. Scott; Winkler, Tilo; Suter, Melissa J.

    2016-03-01

    Asthma is a chronic disease resulting in periodic attacks of coughing and wheezing due to temporarily constricted and clogged airways. The pathophysiology of asthma and the process of airway narrowing are not completely understood. Appropriate in vivo imaging modality with sufficient spatial and temporal resolution to dynamically assess the behavior of airways is missing. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) enables real-time evaluation of the airways during dynamic and static breathing maneuvers. Our aim was to visualize the structure and function of airways in healthy and Methacholine (MCh) challenged lung. Sheep (n=3) were anesthetized, mechanically ventilated and imaged with OCT in 4 dependent and 4 independent airways both pre- and post-MCh administration. The OCT system employed a 2.4 Fr (0.8 mm diameter) catheter and acquired circumferential cross-sectional images in excess of 100 frames per second during dynamic tidal breathing, 20 second static breath-holds at end-inspiration and expiration pressure, and in a response to a single deep inhalation. Markedly different airway behavior was found in dependent versus non-dependent airway segments before and after MCh injection. OCT is a non-ionizing light-based imaging modality, which may provide valuable insight into the complex dynamic behavior of airway structure and function in the normal and asthmatic lung.

  3. Validating Intravascular Imaging with Serial Optical Coherence Tomography and Confocal Fluorescence Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier-Luc Tardif

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases are characterized by the formation of a plaque in the arterial wall. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS provides high-resolution images allowing delineation of atherosclerotic plaques. When combined with near infrared fluorescence (NIRF, the plaque can also be studied at a molecular level with a large variety of biomarkers. In this work, we present a system enabling automated volumetric histology imaging of excised aortas that can spatially correlate results with combined IVUS/NIRF imaging of lipid-rich atheroma in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Pullbacks in the rabbit aortas were performed with a dual modality IVUS/NIRF catheter developed by our group. Ex vivo three-dimensional (3D histology was performed combining optical coherence tomography (OCT and confocal fluorescence microscopy, providing high-resolution anatomical and molecular information, respectively, to validate in vivo findings. The microscope was combined with a serial slicer allowing for the imaging of the whole vessel automatically. Colocalization of in vivo and ex vivo results is demonstrated. Slices can then be recovered to be tested in conventional histology.

  4. Three-dimensional coherent X-ray diffractive imaging of whole frozen-hydrated cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose A. Rodriguez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A structural understanding of whole cells in three dimensions at high spatial resolution remains a significant challenge and, in the case of X-rays, has been limited by radiation damage. By alleviating this limitation, cryogenic coherent diffractive imaging (cryo-CDI can in principle be used to bridge the important resolution gap between optical and electron microscopy in bio-imaging. Here, the first experimental demonstration of cryo-CDI for quantitative three-dimensional imaging of whole frozen-hydrated cells using 8 keV X-rays is reported. As a proof of principle, a tilt series of 72 diffraction patterns was collected from a frozen-hydrated Neospora caninum cell and the three-dimensional mass density of the cell was reconstructed and quantified based on its natural contrast. This three-dimensional reconstruction reveals the surface and internal morphology of the cell, including its complex polarized sub-cellular structure. It is believed that this work represents an experimental milestone towards routine quantitative three-dimensional imaging of whole cells in their natural state with spatial resolutions in the tens of nanometres.

  5. Validating Intravascular Imaging with Serial Optical Coherence Tomography and Confocal Fluorescence Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardif, Pier-Luc; Bertrand, Marie-Jeanne; Abran, Maxime; Castonguay, Alexandre; Lefebvre, Joël; Stähli, Barbara E; Merlet, Nolwenn; Mihalache-Avram, Teodora; Geoffroy, Pascale; Mecteau, Mélanie; Busseuil, David; Ni, Feng; Abulrob, Abedelnasser; Rhéaume, Éric; L'Allier, Philippe; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Lesage, Frédéric

    2016-12-15

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases are characterized by the formation of a plaque in the arterial wall. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) provides high-resolution images allowing delineation of atherosclerotic plaques. When combined with near infrared fluorescence (NIRF), the plaque can also be studied at a molecular level with a large variety of biomarkers. In this work, we present a system enabling automated volumetric histology imaging of excised aortas that can spatially correlate results with combined IVUS/NIRF imaging of lipid-rich atheroma in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Pullbacks in the rabbit aortas were performed with a dual modality IVUS/NIRF catheter developed by our group. Ex vivo three-dimensional (3D) histology was performed combining optical coherence tomography (OCT) and confocal fluorescence microscopy, providing high-resolution anatomical and molecular information, respectively, to validate in vivo findings. The microscope was combined with a serial slicer allowing for the imaging of the whole vessel automatically. Colocalization of in vivo and ex vivo results is demonstrated. Slices can then be recovered to be tested in conventional histology.

  6. In vivo imaging of human burn injuries with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Hean; Pierce, Mark C.; Maguluri, Gopi; Park, B. Hyle; Yoon, Sang June; Lydon, Martha; Sheridan, Robert; de Boer, Johannes F.

    2012-06-01

    The accurate determination of burn depth is critical in the clinical management of burn wounds. Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) has been proposed as a potentially non-invasive method for determining burn depth by measuring thermally induced changes in the structure and birefringence of skin, and has been investigated in pre-clinical burn studies with animal models and ex vivo human skin. In this study, we applied PS-OCT to the in-vivo imaging of two pediatric burn patients. Deep and superficial burned skins along with contralateral controls were imaged in 3D. The imaging size was 8 mm×6 mm×2 mm in width, length, and depth in the air respectively, and the imaging time was approximately 6 s per volume. Superficially burned skins exhibited the same layered structure as the contralateral controls, but more visible vasculature and reduced birefringence compared to the contralateral controls. In contrast, a deeply burned skin showed loss of the layered structure, almost absent vasculature, and smaller birefringence compared to superficial burns. This study suggested the vasculature and birefringence as parameters for characterizing burn wounds.

  7. Imaging caries lesions and lesion progression with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Daniel; Xie, John; Shafi, Sahar; Featherstone, John D B; Breunig, Thomas M; Le, Charles

    2002-10-01

    New diagnostic tools are needed for the characterization of dental caries in the early stages of development. If carious lesions are detected early enough, they can be arrested without the need for surgical intervention. The objective of this study was to demonstrate that polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) can be used for the imaging of early caries lesions and for the monitoring of lesion progression over time. High-resolution polarization resolved images were acquired of natural caries lesions and simulated caries lesions of varying severity created over time periods of 1 to 14 days. Linearly polarized light was incident on the tooth samples and the reflected intensity in both orthogonal polarizations was measured. PS-OCT was invaluable for removing the confounding influence of surface reflections and native birefringence necessary for the enhanced resolution of the surface structure of caries lesions. This study demonstrated that PS-OCT is well suited for the imaging of interproximal and occlusal caries, early root caries, and for imaging decay under composite fillings. Longitudinal measurements of the reflected light intensity in the orthogonal polarization state from the area of simulated caries lesions linearly correlated with the square root of time of demineralization indicating that PS-OCT is well suited for monitoring changes in enamel mineralization over time.

  8. Techniques and software architectures for medical visualisation and image processing

    OpenAIRE

    Botha, C.P.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis presents a flexible software platform for medical visualisation and image processing, a technique for the segmentation of the shoulder skeleton from CT data and three techniques that make contributions to the field of direct volume rendering. Our primary goal was to investigate the use of visualisation techniques to assist the shoulder replacement process. This motivated the need for a flexible environment within which to test and develop new visualisation and also image processin...

  9. Optical Coherence Tomography for Retinal Surgery: Perioperative Analysis to Real-Time Four-Dimensional Image-Guided Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco-Zevallos, Oscar M.; Keller, Brenton; Viehland, Christian; Shen, Liangbo; Seider, Michael I.; Izatt, Joseph A.; Toth, Cynthia A.

    2016-01-01

    Magnification of the surgical field using the operating microscope facilitated profound innovations in retinal surgery in the 1970s, such as pars plana vitrectomy. Although surgical instrumentation and illumination techniques are continually developing, the operating microscope for vitreoretinal procedures has remained essentially unchanged and currently limits the surgeon's depth perception and assessment of subtle microanatomy. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has revolutionized clinical management of retinal pathology, and its introduction into the operating suite may have a similar impact on surgical visualization and treatment. In this article, we review the evolution of OCT for retinal surgery, from perioperative analysis to live volumetric (four-dimensional, 4D) image-guided surgery. We begin by briefly addressing the benefits and limitations of the operating microscope, the progression of OCT technology, and OCT applications in clinical/perioperative retinal imaging. Next, we review intraoperative OCT (iOCT) applications using handheld probes during surgical pauses, two-dimensional (2D) microscope-integrated OCT (MIOCT) of live surgery, and volumetric MIOCT of live surgery. The iOCT discussion focuses on technological advancements, applications during human retinal surgery, translational difficulties and limitations, and future directions. PMID:27409495

  10. Enhanced Depth Imaging Optical Coherence Tomography: A New Way Measuring Choroidal Thickness in Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The body changes markedly during pregnancy; each system behaves differently from a nonpregnant state. As the eyes are the only windows to see directly what is going on in the internal environment, more and more researches have been done to explain the association between ocular changes and the physiological and pathological changes during pregnancy. The choroid is one of the critical parts of the eye, providing nutrition. And abnormal choroid may result in ocular dysfunction and visual problems. As the optical coherence tomography develops, a rapid, direct, noninvasive, and nontoxic way is available to obtain the choroid situation of pregnant women, which may explain the mechanism of pregnancy-related eye diseases. This review would summarize relevant original articles published from January 1, 2008 to December 1, 2016 to assess the changes of choroidal thickness (CT with enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT during pregnancy. And the relationship between choroidal thickness changes and pregnancy remains uncertain. To our knowledge, this is the first review of EDI-OCT in assessing the choroidal thickness of the pregnant women.

  11. Non-destructive 3D imaging of composite restorations using optical coherence tomography: marginal adaptation of self-etch adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makishi, Patricia; Shimada, Yasushi; Sadr, Alireza; Tagami, Junji; Sumi, Yasunori

    2011-04-01

    To investigate the potential use of swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) as a new tool to evaluate marginal adaptation of composite restorations in class I cavities. Round-shaped class I cavities (3mm diameter × 1.5mm depth) were prepared on buccal enamel of bovine teeth with cavity floor located in dentine. The cavities were restored with a flowable resin composite (Clearfil Majesty LV) using two-step self-etch adhesive (SE Bond), all-in-one self-etch adhesive (G-Bond) or no adhesive (Control). The specimens were subjected to water storage (37 °C, 24 h) or thermal stress challenge (5000 cycles, 5 °C and 55 °C). 3D scans (4 mm×4 mm×2.6 mm obtained in 4 s) of the restoration were obtained using SS-OCT before and after immersion into a contrast agent. 2D images obtained from the 3D scans (n=30/group) were analysed to evaluate marginal adaptation. Area fraction of pixels with high brightness values at the interfacial zone was calculated using a digital image analysis software. The results were statistically compared with statistical significance defined as p≤0.05. Wilcoxon signed ranks test showed that there was no statistically significant difference in the results of SS-OCT before and after infiltration of the contrast agent when a ranking transformation was applied on to the data (p>0.05). A significant positive linear correlation was found between the two SS-OCT images. Confocal laser scanning photomicrographs of samples cut after silver infiltration confirmed the presence of gap. 3D imaging by SS-OCT can be considered as a non-invasive technique for fast detection of gaps at the restoration interface. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Automatic biometry of the anterior segment during accommodation imaged by optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dexi; Shao, Yilei; Leng, Lin; Xu, Zhe; Wang, Jianhua; Lu, Fan; Shen, Meixiao

    2014-07-01

    To test accuracy and repeatability of a software algorithm that performs automatic biometry of the anterior segment of the human eye imaged with long scan depth optical coherence tomography (OCT). The ocular anterior segment imaging was performed with custom-built long scan depth OCT. An automatic software algorithm including boundary segmentation, image registration, and optical correction was developed for fast and reliable biometric measurements based on the OCT images. The boundary segmentation algorithm mainly used the gradient information of images and applied the shortest path search based on the dynamic programming to optimize the edge finding. The automatic algorithm was validated by comparison of the biometric dimensions between automatic and manual measurements and repeatability study. Biometric dimensions of the anterior segment, including central corneal thickness, anterior chamber depth, pupil diameter, crystalline lens thickness, and radii of curvature of the anterior and posterior surfaces of lens, were obtained by the automatic algorithm successfully. There were no significant differences between the automatic and manual measurements for all biometric dimensions. The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) of agreement between automatic and manual measurements ranged from 0.85 to 0.98. The coefficients of repeatability and ICC for all automatic dimensions were satisfactory (1.1%-6.1% and 0.663-0.990, respectively). The high accuracy, good repeatability, and fast execution speed for automatic measurement of the anterior segment dimensions on the OCT images were demonstrated. The application of this automatic biometry is promising for investigating dynamic changes of human anterior segment during accommodation in real time.

  13. Buffered Fourier domain mode locking: Unidirectional swept laser sources for optical coherence tomography imaging at 370,000 lines/s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Robert; Adler, Desmond C; Fujimoto, James G

    2006-10-15

    We describe buffered Fourier domain mode locking (FDML), a technique for tailoring the output and multiplying the sweep rate of FDML lasers. Buffered FDML can be used to create unidirectional wavelength sweeps from the normal bidirectional sweeps in an FDML laser without sacrificing sweep rate. We also investigate the role of the laser source in dynamic range versus sensitivity performance in optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging. Unidirectional sweep rates of 370 kHz over a 100 nm range at a center wavelength of 1300 nm are achieved. High-speed, swept-source OCT is demonstrated at record speeds of up to 370,000 axial scans per second.

  14. Full Parallax Integral 3D Display and Image Processing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Gook Lee

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – Full parallax integral 3D display is one of the promising future displays that provide different perspectives according to viewing direction. In this paper, the authors review the recent integral 3D display and image processing techniques for improving the performance, such as viewing resolution, viewing angle, etc.Design/methodology/approach – Firstly, to improve the viewing resolution of 3D images in the integral imaging display with lenslet array, the authors present 3D integral imaging display with focused mode using the time-multiplexed display. Compared with the original integral imaging with focused mode, the authors use the electrical masks and the corresponding elemental image set. In this system, the authors can generate the resolution-improved 3D images with the n×n pixels from each lenslet by using n×n time-multiplexed display. Secondly, a new image processing technique related to the elemental image generation for 3D scenes is presented. With the information provided by the Kinect device, the array of elemental images for an integral imaging display is generated.Findings – From their first work, the authors improved the resolution of 3D images by using the time-multiplexing technique through the demonstration of the 24 inch integral imaging system. Authors’ method can be applied to a practical application. Next, the proposed method with the Kinect device can gain a competitive advantage over other methods for the capture of integral images of big 3D scenes. The main advantage of fusing the Kinect and the integral imaging concepts is the acquisition speed, and the small amount of handled data.Originality / Value – In this paper, the authors review their recent methods related to integral 3D display and image processing technique.Research type – general review.

  15. Image Retrieval and Re-Ranking Techniques - A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Mayuri D. Joshi; Revati M. Deshmukh; Kalashree N.Hemke; Ashwini Bhake; Rakhi Wajgi

    2014-01-01

    There is a huge amount of research work focusing on the searching, retrieval and re-ranking of images in the image database. The diverse and scattered work in this domain needs to be collected and organized for easy and quick reference. Relating to the above context, this paper gives a brief overview of various image retrieval and re-ranking techniques. Starting with the introduction to existing system the paper proceeds through the core architecture of image harvesti...

  16. Imaging in anatomy: a comparison of imaging techniques in embalmed human cadavers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background A large variety of imaging techniques is an integral part of modern medicine. Introducing radiological imaging techniques into the dissection course serves as a basis for improved learning of anatomy and multidisciplinary learning in pre-clinical medical education. Methods Four different imaging techniques (ultrasound, radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging) were performed in embalmed human body donors to analyse possibilities and limitations of the respective techniques in this peculiar setting. Results The quality of ultrasound and radiography images was poor, images of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were of good quality. Conclusion Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging have a superior image quality in comparison to ultrasound and radiography and offer suitable methods for imaging embalmed human cadavers as a valuable addition to the dissection course. PMID:24156510

  17. Including the effect of molecular interference in the coherent x-ray scattering modeling in MC-GPU and PENELOPE for the study of novel breast imaging modalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghammraoui, B.; Peng, R.; Suarez, I.; Bettolo, C.; Badal, A.

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To present upgraded versions of MC-GPU and PenEASY Imaging, two open-source Monte Carlo codes for the simulation of radiographic projections and CT. The codes have been extended with the aim of studying breast imaging modalities that rely on the accurate modeling of coherent x-ray scatter. Methods: The simulation codes were extended to account for the effect of molecular interference in coherent scattering using experimentally measured molecular interference functions. The validity of the new model was tested experimentally using the Energy Dispersive X-Ray Diffraction (EDXRD) technique with a polychromatic x-ray source and an energy-resolved Germanium detector at a fixed scattering angle. Experiments and simulations of a full field digital mammography system with and without a 1D focused antiscatter grid were conducted for additional validation. The modified MC-GPU code was also used to examine the possibility of characterizing breast cancer within a mathematical breast phantom using the EDXRD technique. Results: The measured EDXRD spectra were correctly reproduced by the simulation with the modified code while the previous code using the Independent Atomic Approximation led to large errors in the predicted diffraction spectra. There was good agreement between the simulated and measured rejection factor for the 1D focused antiscatter grid with both models. The simulation study in a whole breast showed that the x-ray scattering profiles of adipose, fibrosis, cancer and benign tissues are differentiable. Conclusion: MC-GPU and PENELOPE were successfully extended and validated for accurate modeling of coherent x-ray scatter. The EDXRD technique with pencil-cone geometry in a whole breast was investigated by a simulation study and it was concluded that this technique has potential to characterize breast cancer lesions.

  18. Rotational coherence as an alternative to coincidence techniques at x-ray free electron lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffee, Ryan; Hegazy, Kareem; Hartmann, Nick; Walter, Peter; Osipov, Timur; Lindahl, Anton; Helml, Wolfram; Ilchen, Markus; Galler, Andreas; Liu, Jia; Buck, Jens; Shevchuk, Ivan; Viefhaus, Jens; Hartmann, Gregor; Knie, Andre; Demekhin, Philipp; Inhester, Ludger; Li, Zheng; Ziaja-Motyka, Beata; Medvedev, Nikita; Bostedt, Christoph; Guillemin, Renaud; Simon, Marc; Novella-Piancastelli, Maria; Miron, Catalin; LCLS-AMOI0314 Team

    2017-04-01

    We demonstrate an alternative approach to coincidence particle detection, based on impulsive rotational Raman excitation, for molecular frame measurements at x-ray FELs. A train of 8 infrared laser pulses induces the lab-frame observable coherence. At a field-free alignment revival, we register the angle-resolved laboratory frame Auger and photo-electron spectral feature variations with the tumbling molecular body frame. The time and angle dependence of the electron emission patterns that constrain theory are amenable to large numbers of interactions per pulse and, more importantly, has no axial recoil requirement for kinematic reconstruction. We see this as a method to bypass experimental challenges at XFELs by accepting The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is supported by the U.S. DoE-BES Contract No. DE-AC02-76SF0051.

  19. Tomographic imaging of incipient dental-caries using optical coherence tomography and comparison with various modalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Jihoon; Baek, Jae Ho; Ryu, Seon Young; Lee, Changsu; Lee, Byeong Ha

    2009-07-01

    We present the optical coherence tomography (OCT) made to investigate the early dental caries in human teeth and compare its results with those taken by conventional imaging modalities including light illuminating examination (LIE), digital intra-oral radiography (DIOR), and electron probe micro analyzer (EPMA). Morphological features and caries-involved areas of the dental structure were mainly investigated by LIE, DIOR, and OCT to study the infection of the caries lesion in pits and fissures. The biochemical information acquired with EPMA and the morphological features taken with OCT in the early stage of caries were compared and analyzed to present an objective and practical index for the degree of caries. The experimental results allow us to conclude that OCT could be used to provide quantitative analysis of caries based on the reflectivity difference in the specimen.

  20. In vivo imaging of coral tissue and skeleton with optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangpraseurt, Daniel; Wentzel, Camilla; Jacques, Steven L; Wagner, Michael; Kühl, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Application of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for in vivo imaging of tissue and skeleton structure of intact living corals enabled the non-invasive visualization of coral tissue layers (endoderm versus ectoderm), skeletal cavities and special structures such as mesenterial filaments and mucus release from intact living corals. Coral host chromatophores containing green fluorescent protein-like pigment granules appeared hyper-reflective to near-infrared radiation allowing for excellent optical contrast in OCT and a rapid characterization of chromatophore size, distribution and abundance. In vivo tissue plasticity could be quantified by the linear contraction velocity of coral tissues upon illumination resulting in dynamic changes in the live coral tissue surface area, which varied by a factor of 2 between the contracted and expanded state of a coral. Our study provides a novel view on the in vivo organization of coral tissue and skeleton and highlights the importance of microstructural dynamics for coral ecophysiology. © 2017 The Author(s).

  1. Chemical imaging and microspectroscopy with spectral focusing coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bi-Chang; Sung, Jiha; Wu, Xiaoxi; Lim, Sang-Hyun

    2011-02-01

    We demonstrate two different coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy and microspectroscopy methods based on the spectral focusing mechanism. The first method uses strongly chirped broadband pulses from a single Ti:sapphire laser and generates CARS signals at the fingerprint region. Fast modulation of the time delay between the pump and Stokes laser pulses coupled with lock-in signal detection significantly reduces the nonresonant background and produces Raman-like CARS signals with a spectral resolution of 20 cm-1. The second method generates CARS signals in the CH (carbon-hydrogen) stretching region with IR supercontinuum pulses from a photonic crystal fiber. The spectral resolution of 30 cm-1 is achieved. Maximum entropy method is used to retrieve a Raman-equivalent CARS spectrum from lipid membranes. Chemical imaging and microspectroscopy are demonstrated with various samples.

  2. Microscope-integrated optical coherence tomography for image-aided positioning of glaucoma surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiqi; Wei, Ling; Dong, Xuechuan; Huang, Ping; Zhang, Chun; He, Yi; Shi, Guohua; Zhang, Yudong

    2015-07-01

    Most glaucoma surgeries involve creating new aqueous outflow pathways with the use of a small surgical instrument. This article reported a microscope-integrated, real-time, high-speed, swept-source optical coherence tomography system (SS-OCT) with a 1310-nm light source for glaucoma surgery. A special mechanism was designed to produce an adjustable system suitable for use in surgery. A two-graphic processing unit architecture was used to speed up the data processing and real-time volumetric rendering. The position of the surgical instrument can be monitored and measured using the microscope and a grid-inserted image of the SS-OCT. Finally, experiments were simulated to assess the effectiveness of this integrated system. Experimental results show that this system is a suitable positioning tool for glaucoma surgery.

  3. Investigation of horizontal structures at mesospheric altitudes using coherent radar imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, S.; Stober, G.; Schult, C.; Zecha, M.; Latteck, R.

    2013-07-01

    The Middle Atmosphere Alomar Radar System (MAARSY) in Northern Norway (69.30°N, 16.04°E) was used to perform interferometric observations of Polar Mesosperic Summer Echoes (PMSE) in June 2012. Coherent Radar Imaging (CRI) using Capon's method was applied allowing a high spatial resolution. The algorithm was validated by simulation and trajectories of meteor head echoes. Both data sets show a good correspondence with the algorithm. Using this algorithm, the aspect sensitivity of PMSE was analysed in a case study, making use of the capability of CRI to resolve the pattern within the beam volume. No correction of the beam pattern was made yet. It was found in this case study, that no large variations in the scattering width and the scattering center occured apart from a very short period of time at the upper edge of the PMSE.

  4. In vivo Imaging of Sarcoptes scabiei Infestation Using Optical Coherence Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banzhaf, Christina Alette; Themstrup, Lotte; Ring, Hans Christian

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sarcoptes scabiei can be visualized with different imaging tools. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) may have the potential to describe the changes in skin morphology due to scabies infestation and visualize the parasite. METHODS: Five patients from the Departments of Dermatology......, Augsburg, Germany, and Roskilde, Denmark, were OCT scanned (VivoSight(®); Michelson Diagnostics Ltd., UK). Mites were identified by epiluminescence and light microscopy to confirm the diagnosis. RESULTS: OCT identified S. scabiei mites in all patients in vivo. Mites and burrows were visualized, and some...... detail on burrow content was provided. CONCLUSION: OCT can visualize S. scabiei mites in vivo, suggesting that it may be used to study the biology of the mites in vivo and provide early assessment of scabicide therapy. OCT is able to visualize structures in the skin with an 8-μm resolution. Therefore...

  5. In vivo Imaging of Sarcoptes scabiei Infestation Using Optical Coherence Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Alette Banzhaf

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background:Sarcoptes scabiei can be visualized with different imaging tools. Optical coherence tomography (OCT may have the potential to describe the changes in skin morphology due to scabies infestation and visualize the parasite. Methods: Five patients from the Departments of Dermatology, Augsburg, Germany, and Roskilde, Denmark, were OCT scanned (VivoSight®; Michelson Diagnostics Ltd., UK. Mites were identified by epiluminescence and light microscopy to confirm the diagnosis. Results: OCT identified S. scabiei mites in all patients in vivo. Mites and burrows were visualized, and some detail on burrow content was provided. Conclusion: OCT can visualize S. scabiei mites in vivo, suggesting that it may be used to study the biology of the mites in vivo and provide early assessment of scabicide therapy. OCT is able to visualize structures in the skin with an 8-µm resolution. Therefore, this technology could potentially allow rapid, non-invasive, in vivo diagnosis and analysis of infestations.

  6. On the Image Watermarking Techniques Applications, Properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract:With the coming and the expansion of the World Wide Web an increased amount of digital information, such as documents, images audio and video ... for copyright protection and a considerable interest in methods for inserting in a multimedia document a visible, or preferably invisible, mark to identify the owner.

  7. Long-range and depth-selective imaging of macroscopic targets using low-coherence and wide-field interferometry (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Sungsoo; Kang, Sungsam; Yoon, Changhyeong; Choi, Wonshik

    2016-03-01

    With the advancement of 3D display technology, 3D imaging of macroscopic objects has drawn much attention as they provide the contents to display. The most widely used imaging methods include a depth camera, which measures time of flight for the depth discrimination, and various structured illumination techniques. However, these existing methods have poor depth resolution, which makes imaging complicated structures a difficult task. In order to resolve this issue, we propose an imaging system based upon low-coherence interferometry and off-axis digital holographic imaging. By using light source with coherence length of 200 micro, we achieved the depth resolution of 100 micro. In order to map the macroscopic objects with this high axial resolution, we installed a pair of prisms in the reference beam path for the long-range scanning of the optical path length. Specifically, one prism was fixed in position, and the other prism was mounted on a translation stage and translated in parallel to the first prism. Due to the multiple internal reflections between the two prisms, the overall path length was elongated by a factor of 50. In this way, we could cover a depth range more than 1 meter. In addition, we employed multiple speckle illuminations and incoherent averaging of the acquired holographic images for reducing the specular reflections from the target surface. Using this newly developed system, we performed imaging targets with multiple different layers and demonstrated imaging targets hidden behind the scattering layers. The method was also applied to imaging targets located around the corner.

  8. Jet-images: computer vision inspired techniques for jet tagging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cogan, Josh; Kagan, Michael; Strauss, Emanuel; Schwarztman, Ariel [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory,Menlo Park, CA 94028 (United States)

    2015-02-18

    We introduce a novel approach to jet tagging and classification through the use of techniques inspired by computer vision. Drawing parallels to the problem of facial recognition in images, we define a jet-image using calorimeter towers as the elements of the image and establish jet-image preprocessing methods. For the jet-image processing step, we develop a discriminant for classifying the jet-images derived using Fisher discriminant analysis. The effectiveness of the technique is shown within the context of identifying boosted hadronic W boson decays with respect to a background of quark- and gluon-initiated jets. Using Monte Carlo simulation, we demonstrate that the performance of this technique introduces additional discriminating power over other substructure approaches, and gives significant insight into the internal structure of jets.

  9. Effect of Enhancement Technique on Nonuniform and Uniform Ultrasound Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parveen Lehana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The absence of adequate scientific resources in the area of medical sciences sometimes leads to improper diagnosis of diseases and hence the treatments of such diseases are affected badly. However, with the advancement of technology, the complicacy of various malfunctions inside the human body reduces. Ultrasound imaging is one of the biomedical scanning techniques that let the pathologist make comment reasonably and accurately on the disease or irregularity seen in the scan while low imaging quality lets the diagnosis go wrong. Even a little distortion can route the pathologist away from the main cause of the disease. In this research work, the enhancement of dark ultrasound images has been done. An algorithm is developed using enhancement technique for nonuniform and uniform dark images. Finally, we compared the quality of the processed and unprocessed images. Both ETNUD and mean and median filtering techniques were used for image analysis.

  10. Towards Automatic Image Segmentation Using Optimised Region Growing Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alazab, Mamoun; Islam, Mofakharul; Venkatraman, Sitalakshmi

    Image analysis is being adopted extensively in many applications such as digital forensics, medical treatment, industrial inspection, etc. primarily for diagnostic purposes. Hence, there is a growing interest among researches in developing new segmentation techniques to aid the diagnosis process. Manual segmentation of images is labour intensive, extremely time consuming and prone to human errors and hence an automated real-time technique is warranted in such applications. There is no universally applicable automated segmentation technique that will work for all images as the image segmentation is quite complex and unique depending upon the domain application. Hence, to fill the gap, this paper presents an efficient segmentation algorithm that can segment a digital image of interest into a more meaningful arrangement of regions and objects. Our algorithm combines region growing approach with optimised elimination of false boundaries to arrive at more meaningful segments automatically. We demonstrate this using X-ray teeth images that were taken for real-life dental diagnosis.

  11. Recovering depth from focus using iterative image estimation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitria, J.; Llacer, J.

    1993-09-01

    In this report we examine the possibility of using linear and nonlinear image estimation techniques to build a depth map of a three dimensional scene from a sequence of partially focused images. In particular, the techniques proposed to solve the problem of construction of a depth map are: (1) linear methods based on regularization procedures and (2) nonlinear methods based on statistical modeling. In the first case, we have implemented a matrix-oriented method to recover the point spread function (PSF) of a sequence of partially defocused images. In the second case, the chosen method has been a procedure based on image estimation by means of the EM algorithm, a well known technique in image reconstruction in medical applications. This method has been generalized to deal with optically defocused image sequences.

  12. Quasi-optical coherence vibration tomography technique for damage detection in beam-like structures based on auxiliary mass induced frequency shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shuncong; Zhong, Jianfeng; Zhang, Qiukun; Maia, Nuno

    2017-09-01

    A novel quasi-optical coherence vibration tomography (Quasi-OCVT) measurement system suitable for structural damage detection is proposed by taking the concept of two-dimensional optical coherence vibration tomography (2D-OCVT) technique. An artificial quasi-interferogram fringe pattern (QIFP) similar to the interferogram of 2D-OCVT system, as a sensor, was pasted on the surface of a vibrating structure. Image sequences of QIFP were captured by a high-speed camera that worked as a detector. The period density of the imaged QIFP changed due to the structural vibration, from which the vibration information of the structure could be obtained. Noise influence on the measurement accuracy, torsional sensitivity and optical distortion effect of the Quasi-OCVT system were investigated. The efficiency and reliability of the proposed method were demonstrated by applying the system to damage detection of a cracked beam-like structure with a roving auxiliary mass. The roving of the mass along the cracked beam brings about the change of natural frequencies that could be obtained by the Quasi-OCVT technique. Therefore, frequency-shift curves can be achieved and these curves provide additional spatial information for structural damage detection. Same cases were also analyzed by the finite element method (FEM) and conventional accelerometer-based measurement method. Comparisons were carried out among these results. Results obtained by the proposed Quasi-OCVT method had a good agreement with the ones obtained by FEM, from which the damage could be directly detected. However, the results obtained by conventional accelerometer showed misleading ambiguous peaks at damage position owing to the mass effect on the structure, where the damage location cannot be identified confidently without further confirmation. The good performance of the cost-effective Quasi-OCVT method makes it attractive for vibration measurement and damage detection of beam-like structures.

  13. Communication: X-ray coherent diffractive imaging by immersion in nanodroplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rico Mayro P. Tanyag

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Lensless x-ray microscopy requires the recovery of the phase of the radiation scattered from a specimen. Here, we demonstrate a de novo phase retrieval technique by encapsulating an object in a superfluid helium nanodroplet, which provides both a physical support and an approximate scattering phase for the iterative image reconstruction. The technique is robust, fast-converging, and yields the complex density of the immersed object. Images of xenon clusters embedded in superfluid helium droplets reveal transient configurations of quantum vortices in this fragile system.

  14. Virtual four-dimensional imaging of lung parenchyma by optical coherence tomography in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, Sven; Tabuchi, Arata; Mertens, Michael; Kuebler, Wolfgang M.; Koch, Edmund

    2010-05-01

    In this feasibility study, we present a method for virtual 4-D imaging of healthy and injured subpleural lung tissue in the ventilated mouse. We use triggered swept source optical coherence tomography (OCT) with an A-scan frequency of 20 kHz to image murine subpleural alveoli during the inspiratory phase. The data acquisition is gated to the ventilation pressure to take single B-scans in each respiration cycle for different pressure levels. The acquired B-scans are combined off-line into one volume scan for each pressure level. The air fraction in healthy lungs and injured lungs is measured using 2-D OCT en-face images. Upon lung inspiration from 2 to 12 cmH2O ventilation pressure, the air fraction increases in healthy lungs by up to 11% and in injured lungs by 8%. This expansion correlates well with results of previous studies, reporting increased alveolar area with increased ventilation pressures. We demonstrate that OCT is a useful tool to investigate alveolar dynamics in spatial dimensions.

  15. Multimodal imaging of lung tissue using optical coherence tomography and two photon microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaertner, Maria; Cimalla, Peter; Geissler, Stefan; Meissner, Sven; Schnabel, Christian; Kuebler, Wolfgang M.; Koch, Edmund

    2012-02-01

    In the context of protective artificial ventilation strategies for patients with severe lung diseases, the contribution of ventilator settings to tissue changes on the alveolar level of the lung is still a question under debate. To understand the impact of respiratory settings as well as the dynamic process of respiration, high-resolution monitoring and visualization of the dynamics of lung alveoli are essential. An instrument allowing 3D imaging of lung tissue as well as imaging of functional constituents, such as elastin fibers, in in situ experimental conditions is presented in this study using a combination of Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) and fiber-guided two photon microscopy. In a comparative study, fixed lung tissue, stained with sulforhodamine B for elastin fibers, was used to illustrate the ability of fiber-guided two photon excitation and single photon excitation for the visualization of elastin fibers within the tissue. Together with the fast 3D imaging capability of OCT, a new tool is given for the monitoring of alveolar lung dynamics in future in vivo experiments.

  16. In vivo volumetric imaging of the human upper eyelid with ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizheva, Kostadinka; Lee, Patrick; Sorbara, Luigina; Hutchings, Natalie; Simpson, Trefford

    2010-07-01

    The upper eyelid is a biological tissue with complex structure, essential for the maintenance of an optically clear ocular surface due to its physical (blinking) effect. The Meibomian glands (MGs) are structures that lie beneath the surface of the inner eyelid and are partially responsible for the production of the superficial oily layer of the tear film. The MGs are only superficially visible under magnification when the eyelid is everted. We present for the first time in vivo 3-D images of healthy and inflamed human MGs. Tomograms were acquired from the tarsal plate of everted human eyelids with a 1060-nm ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography (UHOCT) system, with ~3 μm×10 μm (axial×lateral) resolution in biological tissue at the rate of 91,911 A-scans/s. Comparison with histology shows that the UHOCT images reveal a spatial distribution of structures that appear to correspond with the MGs' acini and ducts (in healthy subjects), and accumulation of heterogeneous, highly scattering biological material and clear fluids in the visibly blocked glands. Noninvasive, volumetric high-resolution morphological imaging of the human tarsal area could have a significant impact in the clinical diagnosis of inflammatory and noninflammatory lid pathologies.

  17. Classification of coronary artery tissues using optical coherence tomography imaging in Kawasaki disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdolmanafi, Atefeh; Prasad, Arpan Suravi; Duong, Luc; Dahdah, Nagib

    2016-03-01

    Intravascular imaging modalities, such as Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) allow nowadays improving diagnosis, treatment, follow-up, and even prevention of coronary artery disease in the adult. OCT has been recently used in children following Kawasaki disease (KD), the most prevalent acquired coronary artery disease during childhood with devastating complications. The assessment of coronary artery layers with OCT and early detection of coronary sequelae secondary to KD is a promising tool for preventing myocardial infarction in this population. More importantly, OCT is promising for tissue quantification of the inner vessel wall, including neo intima luminal myofibroblast proliferation, calcification, and fibrous scar deposits. The goal of this study is to classify the coronary artery layers of OCT imaging obtained from a series of KD patients. Our approach is focused on developing a robust Random Forest classifier built on the idea of randomly selecting a subset of features at each node and based on second- and higher-order statistical texture analysis which estimates the gray-level spatial distribution of images by specifying the local features of each pixel and extracting the statistics from their distribution. The average classification accuracy for intima and media are 76.36% and 73.72% respectively. Random forest classifier with texture analysis promises for classification of coronary artery tissue.

  18. Scalable wide-field optical coherence tomography-based angiography for in vivo imaging applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingjiang; Wei, Wei; Song, Shaozhen; Qi, Xiaoli; Wang, Ruikang K

    2016-05-01

    Recent advances in optical coherence tomography (OCT)-based angiography have demonstrated a variety of biomedical applications in the diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of diseases with vascular involvement. While promising, its imaging field of view (FOV) is however still limited (typically less than 9 mm(2)), which somehow slows down its clinical acceptance. In this paper, we report a high-speed spectral-domain OCT operating at 1310 nm to enable wide FOV up to 750 mm(2). Using optical microangiography (OMAG) algorithm, we are able to map vascular networks within living biological tissues. Thanks to 2,048 pixel-array line scan InGaAs camera operating at 147 kHz scan rate, the system delivers a ranging depth of ~7.5 mm and provides wide-field OCT-based angiography at a single data acquisition. We implement two imaging modes (i.e., wide-field mode and high-resolution mode) in the OCT system, which gives highly scalable FOV with flexible lateral resolution. We demonstrate scalable wide-field vascular imaging for multiple finger nail beds in human and whole brain in mice with skull left intact at a single 3D scan, promising new opportunities for wide-field OCT-based angiography for many clinical applications.

  19. Extratympanic imaging of middle and inner ear structures of mouse and rat using optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Se-Joon; Lee, Il-Woo; Wang, Soo-Geun; Kong, Soo-Keun; Kim, Hong-Ki; Goh, Eui-Kyung

    2017-02-01

    Background and Objective: Noninvasive middle and inner ear imaging using optical coherence tomography (OCT) presents some unique challenges for real-time, clinical use in animals and humans. The goal of this study was to investigate whether OCT provides information about the middle and inner ear microstructures by examining extratympanic structures. Materials and Methods: Five mice and rats were included in the experiment, and the swept-source OCT system was tested to identify the middle and inner ear microstructures and to measure the length or thickness of various structures. Results: It was possible to see middle ear structures through the tympanic membrane with the OCT instrument located extratympanically in both rats and mice. We could also obtain the inner ear images through the otic capsule in the mice, but the bulla needed to be removed to visualize the inner ear structures in the rats. The whole apical, middle and basals of the cochlea and the thickness of the otic capsule covering the cochlea could be visualized simultaneously. Conclusions: OCT is a promising technology to assess middle ear and inner ear microanatomy noninvasively in both mice and rats. OCT imaging could provide additional diagnostic information about the diseases of the middle and inner ear.

  20. Quantitative chemical imaging and unsupervised analysis using hyperspectral coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masia, Francesco; Glen, Adam; Stephens, Phil; Borri, Paola; Langbein, Wolfgang

    2013-11-19

    In this work, we report a method to acquire and analyze hyperspectral coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy images of organic materials and biological samples resulting in an unbiased quantitative chemical analysis. The method employs singular value decomposition on the square root of the CARS intensity, providing an automatic determination of the components above noise, which are retained. Complex CARS susceptibility spectra, which are linear in the chemical composition, are retrieved from the CARS intensity spectra using the causality of the susceptibility by two methods, and their performance is evaluated by comparison with Raman spectra. We use non-negative matrix factorization applied to the imaginary part and the nonresonant real part of the susceptibility with an additional concentration constraint to obtain absolute susceptibility spectra of independently varying chemical components and their absolute concentration. We demonstrate the ability of the method to provide quantitative chemical analysis on known lipid mixtures. We then show the relevance of the method by imaging lipid-rich stem-cell-derived mouse adipocytes as well as differentiated embryonic stem cells with a low density of lipids. We retrieve and visualize the most significant chemical components with spectra given by water, lipid, and proteins segmenting the image into the cell surrounding, lipid droplets, cytosol, and the nucleus, and we reveal the chemical structure of the cells, with details visualized by the projection of the chemical contrast into a few relevant channels.

  1. Adaptive optics-assisted optical coherence tomography for imaging of patients with age related macular degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudo, Kenta; Cense, Barry

    2013-03-01

    We developed an optical coherence tomography (OCT) prototype with a sample arm that uses a 3.4 mm beam, which is considerably larger than the 1.2 to 1.5 mm beam that is used in commercialized OCT systems. The system is equipped with adaptive optics (AO), and to distinguish it from traditional AO-OCT systems with a larger 6 mm beam we have coined this concept AO-assisted OCT. Compared to commercialized OCT systems, the 3.4 mm aperture combined with AO improves light collection efficiency and imaging lateral resolution. In this paper, the performance of the AOa-OCT system was compared to a standard OCT system and demonstrated for imaging of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Measurements were performed on the retinas of three human volunteers with healthy eyes and on one eye of a patient diagnosed with AMD. The AO-assisted OCT system imaged retinal structures of healthy human eyes and a patient eye affected by AMD with higher lateral resolution and a 9° by 9° field of view. This combination of a large isoplanatic patch and high lateral resolution can be expected to fill a gap between standard OCT with a 1.2 mm beam and conventional AO-OCT with a 6 mm beam and a 1.5° by 1.5° isoplanatic patch.

  2. Optical coherence tomography imaging and fluorescence spectroscopy of a novel rat model of ovarian cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Elizabeth; Walker, Ross; Marion, Sam; Hoyer, Patricia; Barton, Jennifer K.

    2005-08-01

    Ovarian cancer is relatively rare but is the fifth leading cause of death from cancer in women. Little is known about the precursors and early stages of ovarian cancer partially due to the lack of a realistic animal model. A cohesive model that incorporates ovarian cancer induction into a menopausal rodent would be well suited for comprehensive studies of ovarian cancer, and non-destructive imaging would allow carcinogenesis to be followed. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and Light-Induced Fluorescence (LIF) are minimally invasive optical modalities that allow both structural and biochemical changes to be noted. Rat ovaries were exposed to 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) for 20 days in order to destroy the primordial follicles. Sutures coated with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) were implanted in the right ovary, in order to produce epithelial based ovarian cancers. Rats were sacrificed at 1, 3, and 5 months and ovaries were harvested and imaged with a combined OCT/LIF system. Histology was preformed on the harvested ovaries and any pathology determined. OCT was able to visualize follicle loss and DMBA-induced abnormalities. LIF spectra were also different between cycling, follicle deplete, and DMBA-exposed ovaries. Overall this pilot study demonstrated the feasibility of both the animal model and optical imaging.

  3. GPU-Accelerated Framework for Intracoronary Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging at the Push of a Button

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Myounghee; Kim, Kyunghun; Jang, Sun-Joo; Cho, Han Saem; Bouma, Brett E.; Oh, Wang-Yuhl; Ryu, Sukyoung

    2015-01-01

    Frequency domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) has become one of the important clinical tools for intracoronary imaging to diagnose and monitor coronary artery disease, which has been one of the leading causes of death. To help more accurate diagnosis and monitoring of the disease, many researchers have recently worked on visualization of various coronary microscopic features including stent struts by constructing three-dimensional (3D) volumetric rendering from series of cross-sectional intracoronary FD-OCT images. In this paper, we present the first, to our knowledge, "push-of-a-button" graphics processing unit (GPU)-accelerated framework for intracoronary OCT imaging. Our framework visualizes 3D microstructures of the vessel wall with stent struts from raw binary OCT data acquired by the system digitizer as one seamless process. The framework reports the state-of-the-art performance; from raw OCT data, it takes 4.7 seconds to provide 3D visualization of a 5-cm-long coronary artery (of size 1600 samples x 1024 A-lines x 260 frames) with stent struts and detection of malapposition automatically at the single push of a button. PMID:25880375

  4. In Vivo Noninvasive Imaging of Healthy Lower Lip Mucosa: A Correlation Study between High-Definition Optical Coherence Tomography, Reflectance Confocal Microscopy, and Histology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra García-Hernández

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, technology has allowed the development of new diagnostic techniques which allow real-time, in vivo, noninvasive evaluation of morphological changes in tissue. This study compares and correlates the images and findings obtained by high-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT and reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM with histology in normal healthy oral mucosa. The healthy lip mucosa of ten adult volunteers was imaged with HD-OCT and RCM. Each volunteer was systematically evaluated by RCM starting in the uppermost part of the epithelium down to the lamina propia. Afterwards, volunteers were examined with a commercially available full-field HD-OCT system using both the “slice” and the “en-face” mode. A “punch” biopsy of the lower lip mucosa was obtained and prepared for conventional histology. The architectural overview offered by “slice” mode HD-OCT correlates with histologic findings at low magnification. In the superficial uppermost layers of the epithelium, RCM imaging provided greater cellular detail than histology. As we deepened into the suprabasal layers, the findings are in accordance with physiological cellular differentiation and correlate with the images obtained from conventional histology. The combined use of these two novel non-invasive imaging techniques provides morphological imaging with sufficient resolution and penetration depth, resulting in quasihistological images.

  5. Offline fusion of co-registered intravascular ultrasound and frequency domain optical coherence tomography images for the analysis of human atherosclerotic plaques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Räber, Lorenz; Heo, Jung Ho; Radu, Maria D

    2012-01-01

    To demonstrate the feasibility and potential usefulness of an offline fusion of matched optical coherence tomography (OCT) and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)/virtual histology (IVUS-VH) images.......To demonstrate the feasibility and potential usefulness of an offline fusion of matched optical coherence tomography (OCT) and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)/virtual histology (IVUS-VH) images....

  6. Microscope-integrated intraoperative optical coherence tomography-guided small-incision lenticule extraction: New surgical technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Namrata; Urkude, Jayanand; Chaniyara, Manthan; Titiyal, Jeewan S

    2017-10-01

    We describe the surgical technique of microscope-integrated intraoperative optical coherence tomography (OCT)-guided small-incision lenticule extraction. The technique enables manual tracking of surgical instruments and identification of the desired dissection plane. It also helps discern the relation between the dissector and the intrastromal lenticule. The dissection plane becomes hyperreflective on dissection, ensuring complete separation of the intrastromal lenticule from the overlying and underlying stroma. Inadvertent posterior plane entry, cap-lenticule adhesion, incomplete separation of the lenticule, creation of a false plane, and lenticule remnants may be recognized intraoperatively so corrective steps can be taken immediately. In cases with a hazy overlying cap, microscope-integrated intraoperative OCT enables localization and extraction of the lenticule. The technique is helpful for inexperienced surgeons, especially in cases with low amplitudes of refractive errors, ie, thin lenticules. Copyright © 2017 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Image and video compression fundamentals, techniques, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Joshi, Madhuri A; Dandawate, Yogesh H; Joshi, Kalyani R; Metkar, Shilpa P

    2014-01-01

    Image and video signals require large transmission bandwidth and storage, leading to high costs. The data must be compressed without a loss or with a small loss of quality. Thus, efficient image and video compression algorithms play a significant role in the storage and transmission of data.Image and Video Compression: Fundamentals, Techniques, and Applications explains the major techniques for image and video compression and demonstrates their practical implementation using MATLAB® programs. Designed for students, researchers, and practicing engineers, the book presents both basic principles

  8. A review of imaging techniques for systems biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po Ming J

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents a review of imaging techniques and of their utility in system biology. During the last decade systems biology has matured into a distinct field and imaging has been increasingly used to enable the interplay of experimental and theoretical biology. In this review, we describe and compare the roles of microscopy, ultrasound, CT (Computed Tomography, MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging, PET (Positron Emission Tomography, and molecular probes such as quantum dots and nanoshells in systems biology. As a unified application area among these different imaging techniques, examples in cancer targeting are highlighted.

  9. High-resolution optical coherence tomography, autofluorescence, and infrared reflectance imaging in Sjögren reticular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauwvlieghe, Pieter-Paul; Torre, Kara Della; Coppieters, Frauke; Van Hoey, Anneleen; De Baere, Elfride; De Zaeytijd, Julie; Leroy, Bart P; Brodie, Scott E

    2013-01-01

    To describe the phenotype of three cases of Sjögren reticular dystrophy in detail, including high-resolution optical coherence tomography, autofluorescence imaging, and near-infrared reflectance imaging. Two unrelated teenagers were independently referred for ophthalmologic evaluation. Both underwent a full ophthalmologic workup, including electrophysiologic and extensive imaging with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, autofluorescence imaging, and near-infrared reflectance imaging. In addition, mutation screening of ABCA4, PRPH2, and the mitochondrial tRNA gene was performed in Patient 1. Subsequently, the teenage sister of Patient 2 was examined. Strikingly similar phenotypes were present in these three patients. Fundoscopy showed bilateral foveal pigment alterations, and a lobular network of deep retinal, pigmented deposits throughout the posterior pole, tapering toward the midperiphery, with relative sparing of the immediate perifoveal macula and peripapillary area. This network is mildly to moderately hyperautofluorescent on autofluorescence and bright on near-infrared reflectance imaging. Optical coherence tomography showed abnormalities of the retinal pigment epithelium-Bruch membrane complex, photoreceptor outer segments, and photoreceptor inner/outer segment interface. The results of retinal function test were entirely normal. No molecular cause was detected in Patient 1. Imaging suggested that the lobular network of deep retinal deposits in Sjögren reticular dystrophy is the result of accumulation of both pigment and lipofuscin between photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium, as well as within the retinal pigment epithelium.

  10. Label-Free In Vivo Imaging of Corneal Lymphatic Vessels Using Microscopic Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horstmann, Jens; Schulz-Hildebrandt, Hinnerk; Bock, Felix; Siebelmann, Sebastian; Lankenau, Eva; Hüttmann, Gereon; Steven, Philipp; Cursiefen, Claus

    2017-11-01

    Corneal neovascularization, in particular lymphangiogenesis, is a limiting factor in corneal transplant survival. Novel treatment approaches focus on (selective) inhibition and regression of lymphatic vessels. Imaging clinically invisible corneal lymphatic vessels is a prerequisite for these strategies. Using a murine model, this study investigates whether corneal lymphatic vessels can be imaged using microscopic optical coherence tomography (mOCT). Corneal neovascularization was induced by intrastromal placement of 11.0 nylon sutures in one eye of BALB/c mice. After 2 weeks, cross-sectional images and volumes of the corneas with a 0.5 mm lateral and axial field of view were acquired using a custom-built mOCT system enabling a resolution of 1 μm at a B-scan rate of 165/s. Three of the six animals received an additional intrastromal injection of India ink 24 hours before the measurement to stain the corneal lymphatic system in vivo. Immunohistochemistry using CD31 and LYVE-1 was used to validate the mOCT findings. Using mOCT, lymphatic vessels were visible as dark vessel-like structures with the lumen lacking a hyperreflective wall and mostly lacking cells. However, individual, slowly moving particles, which most likely are immune cells, occasionally could be observed inside the lumen. In lymphatic vessels of ink-stained corneas, hyperreflection and shadowing underneath was observed. Ink-filled lymphatic vessels were colocalized in consecutive corneal flat mounts of the same specimen. Corneal lymphatic vessels can be imaged using mOCT. This novel approach opens new options for noninvasive clinical imaging of corneal lymphatic vessels for diagnostic and therapeutic indications.

  11. Histopathological Image Analysis Using Image Processing Techniques: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    A. D. Belsare; M.M. Mushrif

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews computer assisted histopathology image analysis for cancer detection and classification. Histopathology refers to the examination of invasive or less invasive biopsy sample by a pathologist under microscope for locating, analyzing and classifying most of the diseases like cancer. The analysis of histoapthological image is done manually by the pathologist to detect disease which leads to subjective diagnosis of sample and varies with level of expertise of examine...

  12. Enhanced-Depth Imaging Optical Coherence Tomography of the Human Choroid In Vivo Compared With Histology After Enucleation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiao Qiang; Heegaard, Steffen; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study compared in vivo enhanced-depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT) with ex vivo histology of the choroid in human eyes. METHODS: Three eyes in three patients with advanced iris melanoma without posterior segment involvement underwent EDI-OCT less than 24 hours prio...

  13. Spatiotemporal closure of fractional laser-ablated channels imaged by optical coherence tomography and reflectance confocal microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banzhaf, Christina A.; Wind, Bas S.; Mogensen, Mette; Meesters, Arne A.; Paasch, Uwe; Wolkerstorfer, Albert; Haedersdal, Merete

    2016-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) offer high-resolution optical imaging of the skin, which may provide benefit in the context of laser-assisted drug delivery. We aimed to characterize postoperative healing of ablative fractional laser (AFXL)-induced

  14. A Comparison of X-Ray Image Segmentation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STOLOJESCU-CRISAN, C.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Image segmentation operation has a great importance in most medical imaging applications, by extracting anatomical structures from medical images. There are many image segmentation techniques available in the literature, each of them having advantages and disadvantages. The extraction of bone contours from X-ray images has received a considerable amount of attention in the literature recently, because they represent a vital step in the computer analysis of this kind of images. The aim of X-ray segmentation is to subdivide the image in various portions, so that it can help doctors during the study of the bone structure, for the detection of fractures in bones, or for planning the treatment before surgery. The goal of this paper is to review the most important image segmentation methods starting from a data base composed by real X-ray images. We will discuss the principle and the mathematical model for each method, highlighting the strengths and weaknesses.

  15. New approaches in intelligent image analysis techniques, methodologies and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamatsu, Kazumi

    2016-01-01

    This book presents an Introduction and 11 independent chapters, which are devoted to various new approaches of intelligent image processing and analysis. The book also presents new methods, algorithms and applied systems for intelligent image processing, on the following basic topics: Methods for Hierarchical Image Decomposition; Intelligent Digital Signal Processing and Feature Extraction; Data Clustering and Visualization via Echo State Networks; Clustering of Natural Images in Automatic Image Annotation Systems; Control System for Remote Sensing Image Processing; Tissue Segmentation of MR Brain Images Sequence; Kidney Cysts Segmentation in CT Images; Audio Visual Attention Models in Mobile Robots Navigation; Local Adaptive Image Processing; Learning Techniques for Intelligent Access Control; Resolution Improvement in Acoustic Maps. Each chapter is self-contained with its own references. Some of the chapters are devoted to the theoretical aspects while the others are presenting the practical aspects and the...

  16. Employing image processing techniques for cancer detection using microarray images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghan Khalilabad, Nastaran; Hassanpour, Hamid

    2017-02-01

    Microarray technology is a powerful genomic tool for simultaneously studying and analyzing the behavior of thousands of genes. The analysis of images obtained from this technology plays a critical role in the detection and treatment of diseases. The aim of the current study is to develop an automated system for analyzing data from microarray images in order to detect cancerous cases. The proposed system consists of three main phases, namely image processing, data mining, and the detection of the disease. The image processing phase performs operations such as refining image rotation, gridding (locating genes) and extracting raw data from images the data mining includes normalizing the extracted data and selecting the more effective genes. Finally, via the extracted data, cancerous cell is recognized. To evaluate the performance of the proposed system, microarray database is employed which includes Breast cancer, Myeloid Leukemia and Lymphomas from the Stanford Microarray Database. The results indicate that the proposed system is able to identify the type of cancer from the data set with an accuracy of 95.45%, 94.11%, and 100%, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. "Relative CIR": an image enhancement and visualization technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Michael D.

    1993-01-01

    Many techniques exist to spectrally and spatially enhance digital multispectral scanner data. One technique enhances an image while keeping the colors as they would appear in a color-infrared (CIR) image. This "relative CIR" technique generates an image that is both spectrally and spatially enhanced, while displaying a maximum range of colors. The technique enables an interpreter to visualize either spectral or land cover classes by their relative CIR characteristics. A relative CIR image is generated by developed spectral statistics for each class in the classifications and then, using a nonparametric approach for spectral enhancement, the means of the classes for each band are ranked. A 3 by 3 pixel smoothing filter is applied to the classification for spatial enhancement and the classes are mapped to the representative rank for each band. Practical applications of the technique include displaying an image classification product as a CIR image that was not derived directly from a spectral image, visualizing how a land cover classification would look as a CIR image, and displaying a spectral classification or intermediate product that will be used to label spectral classes.

  18. Technique development for photoacoustic imaging guided interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qian; Zhang, Haonan; Yuan, Jie; Feng, Ting; Xu, Guan; Wang, Xueding

    2015-03-01

    Laser-induced thermotherapy (LITT), i.e. tissue destruction induced by a local increase of temperature by means of laser light energy transmission, has been frequently used for minimally invasive treatments of various diseases such as benign thyroid nodules and liver cancer. The emerging photoacoustic (PA) imaging, when integrated with ultrasound (US), could contribute to LITT procedure. PA can enable a good visualization of percutaneous apparatus deep inside tissue and, therefore, can offer accurate guidance of the optical fibers to the target tissue. Our initial experiment demonstrated that, by picking the strong photoacoustic signals generated at the tips of optical fibers as a needle, the trajectory and position of the fibers could be visualized clearly using a commercial available US unit. When working the conventional US Bscan mode, the fibers disappeared when the angle between the fibers and the probe surface was larger than 60 degree; while working on the new PA mode, the fibers could be visualized without any problem even when the angle between the fibers and the probe surface was larger than 75 degree. Moreover, with PA imaging function integrated, the optical fibers positioned into the target tissue, besides delivering optical energy for thermotherapy, can also be used to generate PA signals for on-line evaluation of LITT. Powered by our recently developed PA physio-chemical analysis, PA measurements from the tissue can provide a direct and accurate feedback of the tissue responses to laser ablation, including the changes in not only chemical compositions but also histological microstructures. The initial experiment on the rat liver model has demonstrated the excellent sensitivity of PA imaging to the changes in tissue temperature rise and tissue status (from native to coagulated) when the tissue is treated in vivo with LITT.

  19. Numerical model of optical coherence tomographic vibrography imaging to estimate corneal biomechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kling, Sabine; Akca, Imran B; Chang, Ernest W; Scarcelli, Giuliano; Bekesi, Nandor; Yun, Seok-Hyun; Marcos, Susana

    2014-12-06

    Most techniques measuring corneal biomechanics in vivo are biased by side factors. We demonstrate the ability of optical coherence tomographic (OCT) vibrography to determine corneal material parameters, while reducing current prevalent restrictions of other techniques (such as intraocular pressure (IOP) and thickness dependency). Modal analysis was performed in a finite-element (FE) model to study the oscillation response in isolated thin corneal flaps/eye globes and to analyse the dependency of the frequency response function on: corneal elasticity, viscoelasticity, geometry (thickness and curvature), IOP and density. The model was verified experimentally in flaps from three bovine corneas and in two enucleated porcine eyes using sound excitation (100-110 dB) together with a phase-sensitive OCT to measure the frequency response function (range 50-510 Hz). Simulations showed that corneal vibration in flaps is sensitive to both, geometrical and biomechanical parameters, whereas in whole globes it is primarily sensitive to corneal biomechanical parameters only. Calculations based on the natural frequency shift revealed that flaps of the posterior cornea were 0.8 times less stiff than flaps from the anterior cornea and cross-linked corneas were 1.6 times stiffer than virgin corneas. Sensitivity analysis showed that natural vibration frequencies of whole globes were nearly independent from corneal thickness and IOP within the physiological range. OCT vibrography is a promising non-invasive technique to measure corneal elasticity without biases from corneal thickness and IOP.

  20. Numerical model of optical coherence tomographic vibrography imaging to estimate corneal biomechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kling, Sabine; Akca, Imran B.; Chang, Ernest W.; Scarcelli, Giuliano; Bekesi, Nandor; Yun, Seok-Hyun; Marcos, Susana

    2014-01-01

    Most techniques measuring corneal biomechanics in vivo are biased by side factors. We demonstrate the ability of optical coherence tomographic (OCT) vibrography to determine corneal material parameters, while reducing current prevalent restrictions of other techniques (such as intraocular pressure (IOP) and thickness dependency). Modal analysis was performed in a finite-element (FE) model to study the oscillation response in isolated thin corneal flaps/eye globes and to analyse the dependency of the frequency response function on: corneal elasticity, viscoelasticity, geometry (thickness and curvature), IOP and density. The model was verified experimentally in flaps from three bovine corneas and in two enucleated porcine eyes using sound excitation (100–110 dB) together with a phase-sensitive OCT to measure the frequency response function (range 50–510 Hz). Simulations showed that corneal vibration in flaps is sensitive to both, geometrical and biomechanical parameters, whereas in whole globes it is primarily sensitive to corneal biomechanical parameters only. Calculations based on the natural frequency shift revealed that flaps of the posterior cornea were 0.8 times less stiff than flaps from the anterior cornea and cross-linked corneas were 1.6 times stiffer than virgin corneas. Sensitivity analysis showed that natural vibration frequencies of whole globes were nearly independent from corneal thickness and IOP within the physiological range. OCT vibrography is a promising non-invasive technique to measure corneal elasticity without biases from corneal thickness and IOP. PMID:25320067

  1. Double imaging with an intensified visible fast camera to visualize the fine structure of turbulent coherent plasma structures (blobs) in TJ-II

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Cal, E.; Semwal, P.; Martín Aguilera, A.; van Milligen, B.; de Pablos, J. L.; Khan, Z.; Hidalgo, C.

    2014-10-01

    A visible fast camera coupled with an image intensifier was employed to view turbulent coherent plasma structures (blobs) at the gas plume being puffed through a poloidal limiter. The image intensifier amplifies the light intensity thereby allowing the imaging system to be operated at ultra-short exposure times down to 100 ns. The idea behind operating at such low exposure times is to study the features of the turbulent coherent structure at smaller time scales than usual. Possible effects that can distort the blob's characteristics if the camera exposure time is larger than its dynamics are the smoothing effect (averaging of multiple events within the integration time) or the blurring effect (integrating the emission in time during the movement of the blob). This can be especially important when looking for space scales below 1 cm, which we call the fine structure. The image intensifier, however, introduces some grainy noise to the camera image and in the fine structure analysis this noise can sometimes become comparable to the size of the structure itself and may lead to a false interpretation of the image. To distinguish real physical signal from noise we get two simultaneous images with the same view and compare them. We call this the double imaging technique and it allows us to validate the detected blob shape to scales down to a few millimetres, limited by our optical resolution. We have studied the influence of camera exposure time on the blob features and observed that for shorter times more intense bursts are recorded in the TJ-II stellarator. The most intense bursts are smoothed, even using an exposure time of 1 µs. Further, for the low-density electron cyclotron resonance heated (ECRH) plasmas analysed, the detected structures with positive density above the background (blobs) show strong intensity excursions not visible in the negative structures (holes), these however being more numerous at the low-intermediate intensity range. Other results

  2. Segmentation techniques for extracting humans from thermal images

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dickens, JS

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A pedestrian detection system for underground mine vehicles is being developed that requires the segmentation of people from thermal images in underground mine tunnels. A number of thresholding techniques are outlined and their performance on a...

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging techniques: fMRI, DWI, and PWI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdsworth, Samantha J; Bammer, Roland

    2008-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive technique which can acquire important quantitative and anatomical information from an individual in any plane or volume at comparatively high resolution. Over the past several years, developments in scanner hardware and software have enabled the acquisition of fast MRI imaging, proving extremely useful in various clinical and research applications such as in brain mapping or functional MRI (fMRI), perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI), and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). These techniques have revolutionized the use of MRI in the clinics, providing great insight into physiologic mechanisms and pathologic conditions. Since these relatively new areas of MRI have relied on fast scanning techniques, they have only recently been widely introduced to clinical sites. As such, this review article is devoted to the technological aspects of these techniques, as well as their roles and limitations in neuroimaging applications.

  4. Development of simultaneous hyperspectral coherent Raman imaging for advancing reduced emission combustion technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohlin, G.A.

    2016-01-01

    Overall aim and key objectives Advances in optical imaging techniques over the past decades have revolutionized our ability to study chemically reactive flows encountered in air-breathing combustion systems. Emerging technology for unravelling clean- and efficient

  5. IMAGING WITH MULTIMODAL ADAPTIVE-OPTICS OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY IN MULTIPLE EVANESCENT WHITE DOT SYNDROME: THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONAL RELATIONSHIP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labriola, Leanne T; Legarreta, Andrew D; Legarreta, John E; Nadler, Zach; Gallagher, Denise; Hammer, Daniel X; Ferguson, R Daniel; Iftimia, Nicusor; Wollstein, Gadi; Schuman, Joel S

    2016-01-01

    To elucidate the location of pathological changes in multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (MEWDS) with the use of multimodal adaptive optics (AO) imaging. A 5-year observational case study of a 24-year-old female with recurrent MEWDS. Full examination included history, Snellen chart visual acuity, pupil assessment, intraocular pressures, slit lamp evaluation, dilated fundoscopic exam, imaging with Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT), blue-light fundus autofluorescence (FAF), fundus photography, fluorescein angiography, and adaptive-optics optical coherence tomography. Three distinct acute episodes of MEWDS occurred during the period of follow-up. Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography and adaptive-optics imaging showed disturbance in the photoreceptor outer segments (PR OS) in the posterior pole with each flare. The degree of disturbance at the photoreceptor level corresponded to size and extent of the visual field changes. All findings were transient with delineation of the photoreceptor recovery from the outer edges of the lesion inward. Hyperautofluorescence was seen during acute flares. Increase in choroidal thickness did occur with each active flare but resolved. Although changes in the choroid and RPE can be observed in MEWDS, Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography, and multimodal adaptive optics imaging localized the visually significant changes seen in this disease at the level of the photoreceptors. These transient retinal changes specifically occur at the level of the inner segment ellipsoid and OS/RPE line. En face optical coherence tomography imaging provides a detailed, yet noninvasive method for following the convalescence of MEWDS and provides insight into the structural and functional relationship of this transient inflammatory retinal disease.

  6. New imaging techniques: principles, limitations and the question of cost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsault, C.; Heran, F.; Brugieres, P.; Le Bras, F.; Castrec-Carpo, A.

    1989-03-01

    The new imaging techniques modify the diagnostic, or even sometimes therapeutic, decision lines. Their efficiency is much greater than that of the old techniques, while pretium doloris and side-effects are considerably reduced. Such advances are not without a major disadvantage: the ever increasing cost of imaging explorations. Radiological guidance (with conventional radiology, ultrasounds and computerized tomography) facilitates percutaneous procedures for diagnostic (biopsy) or therapeutic purposes (emptying of abscesses, chemonucleolysis of herniated lumbar disc, etc.).

  7. A Digital Staining Algorithm for Optical Coherence Tomography Images of the Optic Nerve Head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mari, Jean-Martial; Aung, Tin; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Strouthidis, Nicholas G.; Girard, Michaël J. A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To digitally stain spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of the optic nerve head (ONH), and highlight either connective or neural tissues. Methods OCT volumes of the ONH were acquired from one eye of 10 healthy subjects. We processed all volumes with adaptive compensation to remove shadows and enhance deep tissue visibility. For each ONH, we identified the four most dissimilar pixel-intensity histograms, each of which was assumed to represent a tissue group. These four histograms formed a vector basis on which we ‘projected' each OCT volume in order to generate four digitally stained volumes P1 to P4. Digital staining was also verified using a digital phantom, and compared with k-means clustering for three and four clusters. Results Digital staining was able to isolate three regions of interest from the proposed phantom. For the ONH, the digitally stained images P1 highlighted mostly connective tissues, as demonstrated through an excellent contrast increase across the anterior lamina cribrosa boundary (3.6 ± 0.6 times). P2 highlighted the nerve fiber layer and the prelamina, P3 the remaining layers of the retina, and P4 the image background. Further, digital staining was able to separate ONH tissue layers that were not well separated by k-means clustering. Conclusion We have described an algorithm that can digitally stain connective and neural tissues in OCT images of the ONH. Translational Relevance Because connective and neural tissues are considerably altered in glaucoma, digital staining of the ONH tissues may be of interest in the clinical management of this pathology. PMID:28174676

  8. Enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography of the sclera in dome-shaped macula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Yutaka; Iida, Tomohiro; Maruko, Ichiro; Zweifel, Sandrine A; Spaide, Richard F

    2011-02-01

    To examine the posterior anatomic structure of eyes with dome-shaped macula using enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT). Retrospective observational case series. Patients with dome-shaped macula, a condition defined as convex elevation of the macula as compared with the surrounding staphylomatous region in a highly myopic eye, were identified through routine examinations using optical coherence tomography (OCT). EDI-OCT was used to examine their posterior anatomic changes. The scleral thickness was measured from the outer border of the choroid to the outer scleral border under the fovea and 3000 μm temporal to the fovea. The mean age of the 15 patients (23 eyes) was 59.3 (± 12.2) years, and the mean refractive error was -13.6 (± 5.0) diopters. The best-corrected visual acuity ranged from 20/15 to 20/800 (median: 20/30). Eight patients (53%) had dome-shaped macula bilaterally. The mean subfoveal scleral thickness in 23 eyes with dome-shaped macula was 570 (± 221) μm, and that in 25 eyes of 15 myopic patients with staphyloma but without dome-shaped macula was 281 (± 85) μm (P macula is the result of a relative localized thickness variation of the sclera under the macula in highly myopic patients, and it cannot be categorized into any of the known types of staphyloma. This finding suggests the ocular expansion in myopia may be more complex than previously thought. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Dynamic pelvic floor imaging: MRI techniques and imaging parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, Caecilia S; Weishaupt, Dominik

    2013-10-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an excellent tool to understand the complex anatomy of the pelvic floor and to assess pelvic floor disorders. MRI enables static and dynamic imaging of the pelvic floor. Using static T2-weighted sequences the morphology of the pelvic floor can be visualized in great detail. A rapid half-Fourier T2-weighted, balanced steady state free precession, or gradient-recalled echo sequence are used to obtain sagittal images while the patient is at rest, during pelvic squeeze, during pelvic strain and to document the evacuation process. On these images the radiologist identifies the pubococcygeal line (PCL) (which represents the level of the pelvic floor). In normal findings, the base of the anterior and the middle compartment are above the PCL at rest, and the pelvic floor elevates during contraction. During straining the pelvic floor muscles should relax and the pelvic floor descends normally less than 3 cm below the PCL. Pelvic floor MRI based on the static and dynamic MRI sequences allows for the detection and characterization of a vast array of morphologic and functional pelvic floor disorders. In this review, we focus on technical aspects of static and dynamic pelvic floor MRI.

  10. Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography for imaging of biological tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaodong; Wang, Yi; Li, Wanhui; Yu, Daoyin

    2006-09-01

    Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) is a new non-contact and non-invasive method for measuring the change of birefringence in biological tissues caused by pathological changes of body. It has great potential in imaging the structural properties of turbid biological media because the polarization state of light backscattered from biological tissues is influenced by the birefringence of fibrous structures. The arrangement is based on a Michelson interferometer with use of quarter-wave plates and polarimeter. Through the detection of light backscattered from biological tissues and reflected from a reference mirror, the optical phase delay between orthogonal polarization compositions propagating in the birefringence media can be measured. PS-OCT is a powerful tool for research of tendon, dentin, lesions, which have strong polarization effective. We in this paper describe the experimental scheme and its mathematical representation, along with the theory of PS-OCT imaging. Besides, we introduce a fiber-based PS-OCT system for measuring the tissue birefringence.

  11. In vivo imaging of raptor retina with ultra high resolution spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggeri, Marco; Major, James C., Jr.; McKeown, Craig; Wehbe, Hassan; Jiao, Shuliang; Puliafito, Carmen A.

    2008-02-01

    Among birds, raptors are well known for their exceptional eyesight, which is partly due to the unique structure of their retina. Because the raptor retina is the most advanced of any animal species, in vivo examination of its structure would be remarkable. Furthermore, a noticeable percentage of traumatic ocular injuries are identified in birds of prey presented to rehabilitation facilities. Injuries affecting the posterior segment have been considered as a major impact on raptor vision. Hence, in vivo examination of the structure of the posterior segment of the raptors would be helpful for the diagnosis of traumatized birds. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the application of ultrahigh-resolution Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT) for non contact in vivo imaging of the retina of birds of prey, which to the best of our knowledge has never been attempted. For the first time we present high quality OCT images of the retina of two species of bird of prey, one diurnal hawk and one nocturnal owl.

  12. Differences between time domain and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography in imaging tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, W; Wu, X

    2017-11-01

    It has been numerously demonstrated that both time domain and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) can generate high-resolution depth-resolved images of living tissues and cells. In this work, we compare the common points and differences between two methods when the continuous and random properties of live tissue are taken into account. It is found that when relationships that exist between the scattered light and tissue structures are taken into account, spectral interference measurements in Fourier domain OCT (FDOCT) is more advantageous than interference fringe envelope measurements in time domain OCT (TDOCT) in the cases where continuous property of tissue is taken into account. It is also demonstrated that when random property of tissue is taken into account FDOCT measures the Fourier transform of the spatial correlation function of the refractive index and speckle phenomena will limit the effective limiting imaging resolution in both TDOCT and FDOCT. Finally, the effective limiting resolution of both TDOCT and FDOCT are given which can be used to estimate the effective limiting resolution in various practical applications. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  13. Needle Segmentation in Volumetric Optical Coherence Tomography Images for Ophthalmic Microsurgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingchuan Zhou

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Needle segmentation is a fundamental step for needle reconstruction and image-guided surgery. Although there has been success stories in needle segmentation for non-microsurgeries, the methods cannot be directly extended to ophthalmic surgery due to the challenges bounded to required spatial resolution. As the ophthalmic surgery is performed by finer and smaller surgical instruments in micro-structural anatomies, specifically in retinal domains, difficulties are raised for delicate operation and sensitive perception. To address these challenges, in this paper we investigate needle segmentation in ophthalmic operation on 60 Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT cubes captured during needle injection surgeries on ex-vivo pig eyes. Furthermore, we developed two different approaches, a conventional method based on morphological features (MF and a specifically designed full convolution neural networks (FCN method, moreover, we evaluate them on the benchmark for needle segmentation in the volumetric OCT images. The experimental results show that FCN method has a better segmentation performance based on four evaluation metrics while MF method has a short inference time, which provides valuable reference for future works.

  14. 3D optical coherence tomography image registration for guiding cochlear implant insertion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheon, Gyeong-Woo; Jeong, Hyun-Woo; Chalasani, Preetham; Chien, Wade W.; Iordachita, Iulian; Taylor, Russell; Niparko, John; Kang, Jin U.

    2014-03-01

    In cochlear implant surgery, an electrode array is inserted into the cochlear canal to restore hearing to a person who is profoundly deaf or significantly hearing impaired. One critical part of the procedure is the insertion of the electrode array, which looks like a thin wire, into the cochlear canal. Although X-ray or computed tomography (CT) could be used as a reference to evaluate the pathway of the whole electrode array, there is no way to depict the intra-cochlear canal and basal turn intra-operatively to help guide insertion of the electrode array. Optical coherent tomography (OCT) is a highly effective way of visualizing internal structures of cochlea. Swept source OCT (SSOCT) having center wavelength of 1.3 micron and 2D Galvonometer mirrors was used to achieve 7-mm depth 3-D imaging. Graphics processing unit (GPU), OpenGL, C++ and C# were integrated for real-time volumetric rendering simultaneously. The 3D volume images taken by the OCT system were assembled and registered which could be used to guide a cochlear implant. We performed a feasibility study using both dry and wet temporal bones and the result is presented.

  15. Ultrahigh speed endoscopic optical coherence tomography using micromotor imaging catheter and VCSEL technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tsung-Han; Potsaid, Benjamin; Tao, Yuankai K; Jayaraman, Vijaysekhar; Jiang, James; Heim, Peter J S; Kraus, Martin F; Zhou, Chao; Hornegger, Joachim; Mashimo, Hiroshi; Cable, Alex E; Fujimoto, James G

    2013-07-01

    We developed a micromotor based miniature catheter with an outer diameter of 3.2 mm for ultrahigh speed endoscopic swept source optical coherence tomography (OCT) using a vertical cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) at a 1 MHz axial scan rate. The micromotor can rotate a micro-prism at several hundred frames per second with less than 5 V drive voltage to provide fast and stable scanning, which is not sensitive to the bending of the catheter. The side-viewing probe can be pulled back to acquire a three-dimensional (3D) data set covering a large area on the specimen. The VCSEL provides a high axial scan rate to support dense sampling under high frame rate operation. Using a high speed data acquisition system, in vivo 3D-OCT imaging in the rabbit GI tract and ex vivo imaging of a human colon specimen with 8 μm axial resolution, 8 μm lateral resolution and 1.2 mm depth range in tissue at a frame rate of 400 fps was demonstrated.

  16. Imaging caries lesions and lesion progression with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Daniel; Xie, John; Shafi, Sahar; Featherstone, John D. B.; Breunig, Thomas; Le, Charles Q.

    2002-06-01

    New diagnostic tools are needed for the characterization of dental caries in the early stages of development. If carious lesions are detected early enough, they can be arrested without the need for surgical intervention. The objective of this study was to demonstrate that polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) can be used for the imaging of early caries lesions and for the monitoring of lesion progression over time. High-resolution polarization resolved images were acquired of natural caries lesions and simulated caries lesions of varying severity created over time periods of 1 to 14 days. Linearly polarized light was incident on the tooth samples and the reflected intensity in both orthogonal polarizations was measured. PS-OCT was invaluable for removing the confounding influence of surface reflections and native birefringence and for resolving the surface structure of caries lesions. This study demonstrated that PS-OCT is well suited for the resolution of interproximal and occlusal caries, early root caries, and secondary caries around composite fillings. Longitudinal measurements of lesion progression established a strong correlation (p<0.001) between the reflected light from the lesion area and the square root of time indicating that PS-OCT is well suited for monitoring changes in enamel mineralization over time.

  17. Review of spectral domain enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography of tumors of the choroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol L Shields

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Spectral domain enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT can provide anatomic localization of intraocular tumors. Aims: The aim was to identify topographical and intrinsic patterns of choroidal tumors on EDI-OCT. Settings and Design: Retrospective review. Materials and Methods: Analysis of published reports and personal observations using office based EDI-OCT. Results: Using EDI-OCT, choroidal nevus displayed a smooth, dome-shaped topography with overlying retinal pigment epithelium alterations, drusen, and occasional subretinal cleft demonstrating photoreceptor loss. Small choroidal melanoma showed smooth, moderately dome-shaped topography, commonly with overlying shallow subretinal fluid that often depicted "shaggy" photoreceptors. Choroidal metastasis showed a minimally "lumpy, bumpy" surface topography and with overlying subretinal fluid and shaggy photoreceptors. Choroidal hemangioma showed a smooth, dome-shaped topography, with expansion of the affected small, medium, and large choroidal vessels. Choroidal lymphoma showed varying topography with increasing tumor thickness as "flat, rippled, or undulating (seasick" surface. Choroidal osteoma displayed a smooth undulating surface with visible intralesional horizontal lines suggestive of bone lamellae and occasional horizontal and vertical tubules with intralesional "spongy" flecks. Choroidal melanocytosis appeared as uniformly thickened choroid with increased stromal density surrounding the normal choroidal vascular structures. Conclusions: Enhanced depth imaging-OCT can depict characteristic patterns that are suggestive of various choroidal tumors.

  18. Enhancement of SAR images using fuzzy shrinkage technique in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shivakumara Swamy Puranik Math

    2017-08-03

    Aug 3, 2017 ... combination of curvelet and fuzzy logic technique to restore speckle-affected images. This method overcomes the limitation of discontinuity in hard threshold and permanent deviation in soft threshold. First, it decomposes noise image into different frequency scales using curvelet transform, and then applies ...

  19. An improved technique for the prediction of optimal image resolution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2010-10-04

    Oct 4, 2010 ... two simultaneous equations of values of image noise index (INI) and degradation level Index (LDI), a robust technique for predicting optimal image resolution for the mapping of savannah ecosystems was developed. ..... of aerial photography, Landsat TM and SPOT satellite imagery. Int. J. Remote Sens.

  20. The current role of imaging techniques in faecal incontinence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terra, M.P.; Stoker, J. [University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, G1-229, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2006-08-15

    Faecal incontinence is a common multifactorial disorder. Major causes of faecal incontinence are related to vaginal delivery and prior anorectal surgery. In addition to medical history and physical examination, several anorectal functional tests and imaging techniques can be used to assess the underlying pathophysiology and to guide treatment planning in faecal incontinent patients. Anorectal functional tests provide functional information, but the potential strength comes from combining test results. Imaging techniques, including defecography, endoanal sonography, and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, provide structural information about the anorectal region with a direct clinical impact. The major role of imaging techniques in faecal incontinence is visualising the structural and functional integrity of the anal sphincter complex. Both two-dimensional endoanal sonography and endoanal MR imaging are accurate tools to depict anal sphincter defects. The major advantage of endoanal MR imaging is the accurate demonstration of external anal sphincter atrophy. Recent studies have suggested that external phased array MR imaging and three-dimensional endoanal sonography are also valuable tools in the diagnostic work up of faecal incontinence. Decisions about the preferred technique will mainly be determined by availability and local expertise. This article demonstrates the current role of tests, predominantly imaging tests, in the diagnostic work up of faecal incontinence. (orig.)