WorldWideScience

Sample records for coherence spectroscopy investigations

  1. Coherent atomic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garton, W.R.S.

    1988-01-01

    The Argonne Spectroscopy Laboratory, initiated and advanced over several decades by F.S. Tomkins and M. Fred, has been a major international facility. A range of collaborative work in atomic spectroscopy is selected to illustrate advances in experimental physics which have been made possible by combination of the talents of Tomkins and Fred with the unique facilities of the Argonne Laboratory. (orig.)

  2. Multidimensional coherent spectroscopy made easy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gundogdu, Kenan; Stone, Katherine W.; Turner, Daniel B. [Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Mass Ave. 6-026 Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Nelson, Keith A. [Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Mass Ave. 6-026 Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)], E-mail: kanelson@mit.edu

    2007-11-15

    We have demonstrated a highly efficient fully coherent 2D spectrometer based on 2D pulse shaping and Fourier beam shaping. The versatility of the design allows one to measure different 2D spectral surfaces consecutively. Easy alignment, inherent phase stability, rotating wave frame detection, and arbitrary waveform generation in all of the beams are important features of this design. We have demonstrated the functionality of the 2D spectrometer by measuring a 2D spectral surface of a GaAs quantum well.

  3. Multidimensional coherent spectroscopy made easy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gundogdu, Kenan; Stone, Katherine W.; Turner, Daniel B.; Nelson, Keith A.

    2007-01-01

    We have demonstrated a highly efficient fully coherent 2D spectrometer based on 2D pulse shaping and Fourier beam shaping. The versatility of the design allows one to measure different 2D spectral surfaces consecutively. Easy alignment, inherent phase stability, rotating wave frame detection, and arbitrary waveform generation in all of the beams are important features of this design. We have demonstrated the functionality of the 2D spectrometer by measuring a 2D spectral surface of a GaAs quantum well

  4. Coherent spectroscopies on ultrashort time and length scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider C.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Three spectroscopic techniques are presented that provide simultaneous spatial and temporal resolution: modified confocal microscopy with heterodyne detection, space-time-resolved spectroscopy using coherent control concepts, and coherent two-dimensional nano-spectroscopy. Latest experimental results are discussed.

  5. Construction of coherent antistokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zidan, M. D.; Jazmati, A.

    2007-01-01

    Coherent Antistokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS) has been built. It consists of a Raman cell, which is filled with CO 2 gas at 5 atm pressure and a frequency doubled Nd-YAG laser pumped dye laser. The two beams are focused by means of a bi-convex lens into Raman cell. The Antistokes signals (CARS signals) are generated due to Four-wave mixing process. The antistokes signals were directed to monochrometer entrance slit by prism . The signals are detected by photomultiplier detector which is fixed on the exit slit and connected to data acquisition card located inside the computed case. The dye laser frequency has to be tuned to satisfy the energy difference between the ν 1 beam (Nd- YAG laser beam) and the ν 2 beam (the stokes beam or the dye laser beam) exactly corresponds to a vibrational - rotational Raman resonance (ν 2 - ν 1 = ν M ) in the 12 CO 2 or 13 CO 2 molecule, then the antistokes signals (ν 3 ) will be generated. The spectra of the CARS signals have been recorded to determine the isotope shift of 12 CO 2 , 13 CO 2 , which is 18.3 cm -1 . (author)

  6. Coherent cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Fleisher, Adam J.; Long, David A.; Reed, Zachary D.; Hodges, Joseph T.; Plusquellic, David F.

    2016-01-01

    Dual-comb spectroscopy allows for the rapid, multiplexed acquisition of high-resolution spectra without the need for moving parts or low-resolution dispersive optics. This method of broadband spectroscopy is most often accomplished via tight phase locking of two mode-locked lasers or via sophisticated signal processing algorithms, and therefore, long integration times of phase coherent signals are difficult to achieve. Here we demonstrate an alternative approach to dual-comb spectroscopy usin...

  7. Black Hole Spectroscopy with Coherent Mode Stacking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huan; Yagi, Kent; Blackman, Jonathan; Lehner, Luis; Paschalidis, Vasileios; Pretorius, Frans; Yunes, Nicolás

    2017-04-21

    The measurement of multiple ringdown modes in gravitational waves from binary black hole mergers will allow for testing the fundamental properties of black holes in general relativity and to constrain modified theories of gravity. To enhance the ability of Advanced LIGO/Virgo to perform such tasks, we propose a coherent mode stacking method to search for a chosen target mode within a collection of multiple merger events. We first rescale each signal so that the target mode in each of them has the same frequency and then sum the waveforms constructively. A crucial element to realize this coherent superposition is to make use of a priori information extracted from the inspiral-merger phase of each event. To illustrate the method, we perform a study with simulated events targeting the ℓ=m=3 ringdown mode of the remnant black holes. We show that this method can significantly boost the signal-to-noise ratio of the collective target mode compared to that of the single loudest event. Using current estimates of merger rates, we show that it is likely that advanced-era detectors can measure this collective ringdown mode with one year of coincident data gathered at design sensitivity.

  8. Rotational coherence spectroscopy at FLASH. Toward dynamic studies in nanosuperfluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kickermann, Andreas

    2013-07-15

    The field of molecular physics, which is focusing on molecular motion in the transition states of physical, chemical, and biological changes, is a wide-spread research area. It strives to reveal the structural and functional properties of molecules, the chemical bonds between atoms and the time evolution. Many processes occurring in nature upon electronic excitation proceed on the ultrafast femtosecond timescale and can be triggered by modern ultrashort femtosecond-laser sources under laboratory conditions. In the present thesis pump-probe studies were performed to follow molecular motion using ultrashort light pulses in the nanometer wavelength range provided by an XUV freeelectron laser (FEL). In detail, alignment of molecular species in space under field-free conditions was investigated. In the specific case of rotational wave packets in molecules the rotational dynamics shows characteristic temporal features, which contain a wealth of information on molecular structure and give insight into molecular coupling mechanisms, i.e. rotational constants and transition frequencies. Within this thesis, Rotational Coherence Spectroscopy (RCS) reveals wave-packet motion observed by subsequent Coulomb explosion of Raman excited carbon monoxide, which results in a time-dependent asymmetry of spatial fragmentation patterns. With the method presented here, the time resolution to elucidate the fast dynamics of strong couplings can be pushed toward a single rotational period even for the fastest rotors. This is due to large pump-probe delays with small subpicosecond step size. This kind of spectroscopy can also be expanded to molecular species, which are not accessible by other powerful spectroscopic methods, such as Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy (FTMW). Furthermore, it allows to measure weak molecular couplings on a long timescale (large pump-probe delays), e.g. couplings of molecules in a solution or molecules dissolved in quantum fluids. This is valuable to

  9. Rotational coherence spectroscopy at FLASH. Toward dynamic studies in nanosuperfluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kickermann, Andreas

    2013-07-01

    The field of molecular physics, which is focusing on molecular motion in the transition states of physical, chemical, and biological changes, is a wide-spread research area. It strives to reveal the structural and functional properties of molecules, the chemical bonds between atoms and the time evolution. Many processes occurring in nature upon electronic excitation proceed on the ultrafast femtosecond timescale and can be triggered by modern ultrashort femtosecond-laser sources under laboratory conditions. In the present thesis pump-probe studies were performed to follow molecular motion using ultrashort light pulses in the nanometer wavelength range provided by an XUV freeelectron laser (FEL). In detail, alignment of molecular species in space under field-free conditions was investigated. In the specific case of rotational wave packets in molecules the rotational dynamics shows characteristic temporal features, which contain a wealth of information on molecular structure and give insight into molecular coupling mechanisms, i.e. rotational constants and transition frequencies. Within this thesis, Rotational Coherence Spectroscopy (RCS) reveals wave-packet motion observed by subsequent Coulomb explosion of Raman excited carbon monoxide, which results in a time-dependent asymmetry of spatial fragmentation patterns. With the method presented here, the time resolution to elucidate the fast dynamics of strong couplings can be pushed toward a single rotational period even for the fastest rotors. This is due to large pump-probe delays with small subpicosecond step size. This kind of spectroscopy can also be expanded to molecular species, which are not accessible by other powerful spectroscopic methods, such as Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy (FTMW). Furthermore, it allows to measure weak molecular couplings on a long timescale (large pump-probe delays), e.g. couplings of molecules in a solution or molecules dissolved in quantum fluids. This is valuable to

  10. Linearity of Air-Biased Coherent Detection for Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Tianwu; Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Wrisberg, Emil Astrup

    2016-01-01

    The performance of air-biased coherent detection (ABCD) in a broadband two-color laser-induced air plasma system for terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) has been investigated. Fundamental parameters of the ABCD detection, including signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), dynamic range (DR), and lin...

  11. High-resolution coherent three-dimensional spectroscopy of Br2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peter C; Wells, Thresa A; Strangfeld, Benjamin R

    2013-07-25

    In the past, high-resolution spectroscopy has been limited to small, simple molecules that yield relatively uncongested spectra. Larger and more complex molecules have a higher density of peaks and are susceptible to complications (e.g., effects from conical intersections) that can obscure the patterns needed to resolve and assign peaks. Recently, high-resolution coherent two-dimensional (2D) spectroscopy has been used to resolve and sort peaks into easily identifiable patterns for molecules where pattern-recognition has been difficult. For very highly congested spectra, however, the ability to resolve peaks using coherent 2D spectroscopy is limited by the bandwidth of instrumentation. In this article, we introduce and investigate high-resolution coherent three-dimensional spectroscopy (HRC3D) as a method for dealing with heavily congested systems. The resulting patterns are unlike those in high-resolution coherent 2D spectra. Analysis of HRC3D spectra could provide a means for exploring the spectroscopy of large and complex molecules that have previously been considered too difficult to study.

  12. Spectroscopy and coherent manipulation of single and coupled flux qubits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yu-Lin; Deng Hui; Huang Ke-Qiang; Tian Ye; Yu Hai-Feng; Xue Guang-Ming; Jin Yi-Rong; Li Jie; Zhao Shi-Ping; Zheng Dong-Ning

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of three-junction flux qubits, both single flux qubits and coupled flux qubits, using a coupled direct current superconducting quantum interference device (dc-SQUID) for readout are reported. The measurement procedure is described in detail. We performed spectroscopy measurements and coherent manipulations of the qubit states on a single flux qubit, demonstrating quantum energy levels and Rabi oscillations, with Rabi oscillation decay time T Rabi = 78 ns and energy relaxation time T 1 = 315 ns. We found that the value of T Rabi depends strongly on the mutual inductance between the qubit and the magnetic coil. We also performed spectroscopy measurements on inductively coupled flux qubits. (general)

  13. Optical Biopsy Using Tissue Spectroscopy and Optical Coherence Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman S Nishioka

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available ‘Optical biopsy’ or ‘optical diagnostics’ is a technique whereby light energy is used to obtain information about the structure and function of tissues without disrupting them. In fluorescence spectroscopy, light energy (usually provided by a laser is used to excite tissues and the resulting fluorescence provides information about the target tissue. Its major gastrointestinal application has been in the evaluation of colonic polyps, in which it can reliably distinguish malignant from benign lesions. Optical coherence tomography (OCT has been used in the investigation of Barrett’s epithelium (and dysplasia, although a variety of other applications are feasible. For example, OCT could assist in the identification and staging of mucosal and submucosal neoplasms, the grading of inflammation in the stomach and intestine, the diagnosis of biliary tumours and the assessment of villous architecture. OCT differs from endoscopic ultrasound, a complementary modality, in that it has a much higher resolution but lesser depth of penetration. The images correlate with the histopathological appearance of tissues, and the addition of Doppler methods may enable it to evaluate the vascularity of tumours and the amount of blood flow in varices. Refinements in these new optical techniques will likely make them valuable in clinical practice, although their specific roles have yet to be determined.

  14. Coherent radio-frequency detection for narrowband direct comb spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anstie, James D; Perrella, Christopher; Light, Philip S; Luiten, Andre N

    2016-02-22

    We demonstrate a scheme for coherent narrowband direct optical frequency comb spectroscopy. An extended cavity diode laser is injection locked to a single mode of an optical frequency comb, frequency shifted, and used as a local oscillator to optically down-mix the interrogating comb on a fast photodetector. The high spectral coherence of the injection lock generates a microwave frequency comb at the output of the photodiode with very narrow features, enabling spectral information to be further down-mixed to RF frequencies, allowing optical transmittance and phase to be obtained using electronics commonly found in the lab. We demonstrate two methods for achieving this step: a serial mode-by-mode approach and a parallel dual-comb approach, with the Cs D1 transition at 894 nm as a test case.

  15. Coherent cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleisher, Adam J; Long, David A; Reed, Zachary D; Hodges, Joseph T; Plusquellic, David F

    2016-05-16

    Dual-comb spectroscopy allows for the rapid, multiplexed acquisition of high-resolution spectra without the need for moving parts or low-resolution dispersive optics. This method of broadband spectroscopy is most often accomplished via tight phase locking of two mode-locked lasers or via sophisticated signal processing algorithms, and therefore, long integration times of phase coherent signals are difficult to achieve. Here we demonstrate an alternative approach to dual-comb spectroscopy using two phase modulator combs originating from a single continuous-wave laser capable of > 2 hours of coherent real-time averaging. The dual combs were generated by driving the phase modulators with step-recovery diodes where each comb consisted of > 250 teeth with 203 MHz spacing and spanned > 50 GHz region in the near-infrared. The step-recovery diodes are passive devices that provide low-phase-noise harmonics for efficient coupling into an enhancement cavity at picowatt optical powers. With this approach, we demonstrate the sensitivity to simultaneously monitor ambient levels of CO2, CO, HDO, and H2O in a single spectral region at a maximum acquisition rate of 150 kHz. Robust, compact, low-cost and widely tunable dual-comb systems could enable a network of distributed multiplexed optical sensors.

  16. XIX International Youth School on Coherent Optics and Optical Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The XIX International Youth School on Coherent Optics and Optical Spectroscopy (COOS2015) was held in Kazan, Russia, from October 5 to October 7 at the Nikolai Lobachevsky Scientific Library of Kazan Federal University. The School follows the global tendency toward comprehensive studies of matter properties and its interaction with electromagnetic fields. Since 1997 more than 100 famous scientists from USA, Germany, Ukraine, Belarussia and Russia had plenary lecture presentations. This is the right place, where over 1000 young scientists had an opportunity to participate in hot discussions regarding the latest scientific news. Many young people have submitted interesting reports on photonics, quantum electronics, laser physics, quantum optics, traditional optical and laser spectroscopy, non-linear optics, material science and nanotechnology. Here we are publishing the full-size papers prepared from the most interesting lectures and reports selected by the Program Committee of the School. (paper)

  17. Coherent photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy of semicrystalline polymeric semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carlos; Grégoire, Pascal; Thouin, Félix

    In polymeric semiconductors, the competition between through-bond (intrachain) and through-space (interchain) electronic coupling determines two-dimensional spatial coherence of excitons. The balance of intra- and interchain excitonic coupling depends very sensitively on solid-state microstructure of the polymer film (polycrystalline, semicrystalline with amorphous domains, etc.). Regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) has emerged as a model material because its photoluminescence (PL) spectral lineshape reveals intricate information on the magnitude of excitonic coupling, the extent of energetic disorder, and on the extent to which the disordered energy landscape is correlated. I discuss implementation of coherent two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy. We identify cross peaks between 0-0 and 0-1 excitation peaks, and we measure their time evolution, which we interpret within the context of a hybrid HJ aggregate model. By measurement of the homogeneous linewidth in diverse polymer microstructures, we address the nature of optical transitions within such hynbrid aggregate model. These depend strongly on sample processing, and I discuss the relationship between microstructure, steady-state absorption and PL spectral lineshape, and 2D coherent PL excitation spectral lineshapes.

  18. Dynamic cerebral autoregulation measured with coherent hemodynamics spectroscopy (CHS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kainerstorfer, Jana M.; Sassaroli, Angelo; Tgavalekos, Kristen T.; Fantini, Sergio

    2015-03-01

    Coherent Hemodynamics Spectroscopy (CHS) is a novel technique for non-invasive measurements of local microcirculation quantities such as the capillary blood transit times and dynamic autoregulation. The basis of CHS is to measure, for instance with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), peripheral coherent hemodynamic changes that are induced by controlled perturbations in the systemic mean arterial pressure (MAP). In this study, the MAP perturbation was induced by the fast release of two pneumatic cuffs placed around the subject's thighs after they were kept inflated (at 200 mmHg) for two minutes. The resulting transient changes in cerebral oxy- (O) and deoxy- (D) hemoglobin concentrations measured with NIRS on the prefrontal cortex are then described by a novel hemodynamic model, from which quantifiable parameters such as the capillary blood transit time and a cutoff frequency for cerebral autoregulation are obtained. We present results on eleven healthy volunteers in a protocol involving measurements during normal breathing and during hyperventilation, which is known to cause a hypocapnia-induced increase in cerebral autoregulation. The measured capillary transit time was unaffected by hyperventilation (normal breathing: 1.1±0.1 s; hyperventilation: 1.1±0.1 s), whereas the cutoff frequency of autoregulation, which increases for higher autoregulation efficiency, was indeed found to be significantly greater during hyperventilation (normal breathing: 0.017±0.002 Hz; hyperventilation: 0.034±0.005 Hz). These results provide a validation of local cerebral autoregulation measurements with the new technique of CHS.

  19. Coherent Femtosecond Spectroscopy and Nonlinear Optical Imaging on the Nanoscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravtsov, Vasily

    Optical properties of many materials and macroscopic systems are defined by ultrafast dynamics of electronic, vibrational, and spin excitations localized on the nanoscale. Harnessing these excitations for material engineering, optical computing, and control of chemical reactions has been a long-standing goal in science and technology. However, it is challenging due to the lack of spectroscopic techniques that can resolve processes simultaneously on the nanometer spatial and femtosecond temporal scales. This thesis describes the fundamental principles, implementation, and experimental demonstration of a novel type of ultrafast microscopy based on the concept of adiabatic plasmonic nanofocusing. Simultaneous spatio-temporal resolution on a nanometer-femtosecond scale is achieved by using a near-field nonlinear optical response induced by ultrafast surface plasmon polaritons nanofocused on a metal tip. First, we study the surface plasmon response in metallic structures and evaluate its prospects and limitations for ultrafast near-field microscopy. Through plasmon emission-based spectroscopy, we investigate dephasing times and interplay between radiative and non-radiative decay rates of localized plasmons and their modification due to coupling. We identify a new regime of quantum plasmonic coupling, which limits the achievable spatial resolution to several angstroms but at the same time provides a potential channel for generating ultrafast electron currents at optical frequencies. Next, we study propagation of femtosecond wavepackets of surface plasmon polaritons on a metal tip. In time-domain interferometric measurements we detect group delays that correspond to slowing of the plasmon polaritons down to 20% of the speed of light at the tip apex. This provides direct experimental verification of the plasmonic nanofocusing mechanism and suggests enhanced nonlinear optical interactions at the tip apex. We then measure a plasmon-generated third-order nonlinear optical

  20. Coherence and population dynamics of chlorophyll excitations in FCP complex: Two-dimensional spectroscopy study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butkus, Vytautas; Gelzinis, Andrius; Valkunas, Leonas [Department of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics, Vilnius University, Sauletekio Ave. 9-III, 10222 Vilnius (Lithuania); Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Savanoriu Ave. 231, 02300 Vilnius (Lithuania); Augulis, Ramūnas [Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Savanoriu Ave. 231, 02300 Vilnius (Lithuania); Gall, Andrew; Robert, Bruno [Institut de Biologie et Technologies de Saclay, Bât 532, Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Büchel, Claudia [Institut für Molekulare Biowissenschaften, Universität Frankfurt, Max-von-Laue-Straße 9, Frankfurt (Germany); Zigmantas, Donatas [Department of Chemical Physics, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, 22100 Lund (Sweden); Abramavicius, Darius, E-mail: darius.abramavicius@ff.vu.lt [Department of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics, Vilnius University, Sauletekio Ave. 9-III, 10222 Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2015-06-07

    Energy transfer processes and coherent phenomena in the fucoxanthin–chlorophyll protein complex, which is responsible for the light harvesting function in marine algae diatoms, were investigated at 77 K by using two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy. Experiments performed on femtosecond and picosecond timescales led to separation of spectral dynamics, witnessing evolutions of coherence and population states of the system in the spectral region of Q{sub y} transitions of chlorophylls a and c. Analysis of the coherence dynamics allowed us to identify chlorophyll (Chl) a and fucoxanthin intramolecular vibrations dominating over the first few picoseconds. Closer inspection of the spectral region of the Q{sub y} transition of Chl c revealed previously not identified, mutually non-interacting chlorophyll c states participating in femtosecond or picosecond energy transfer to the Chl a molecules. Consideration of separated coherent and incoherent dynamics allowed us to hypothesize the vibrations-assisted coherent energy transfer between Chl c and Chl a and the overall spatial arrangement of chlorophyll molecules.

  1. Precision of coherence analysis to detect cerebral autoregulation by near-infrared spectroscopy in preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahn, GH; Christensen, KB; Leung, TS

    2010-01-01

    Coherence between spontaneous fluctuations in arterial blood pressure (ABP) and the cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy signal can detect cerebral autoregulation. Because reliable measurement depends on signals with high signal-to-noise ratio, we hypothesized that coherence is more precisely...... determined when fluctuations in ABP are large rather than small. Therefore, we investigated whether adjusting for variability in ABP (variabilityABP) improves precision. We examined the impact of variabilityABP within the power spectrum in each measurement and between repeated measurements in preterm infants....... We also examined total monitoring time required to discriminate among infants with a simulation study. We studied 22 preterm infants (GAABP within the power spectrum did not improve the precision. However, adjusting...

  2. Study of high-temperature multiplex HCl coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, J P; Yueh, F Y; Kao, W; Cook, R L

    1993-02-20

    A feasibility study of temperature measurement with multiplex HCl coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) is investigated. The HCl CARS spectra of a 100% HCl gas sample are recorded in a quartz sample cell placed in a furnace at 1 atm pressure and at different temperatures. The nonlinear susceptibility of HCl (chi(nr)(HCl)), which is measured with the present CARS experimental setup, is reported. The experimental spectra are fit by using a library of simulated HCl CARS spectra with a least-squares-fitting program to infer the temperature. The inferred temperatures from HCl CARS spectra are in agreement with thermocouple temperatures.

  3. Analysis of organic pollutant degradation in pulsed plasma by coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratescu, Maria Antoneta; Hieda, Junko; Umemura, Tomonari; Saito, Nagahiro; Takai, Osamu

    2011-01-01

    The degradation of p-benzoquinone (p-BQ) in water was investigated by the coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) method, in which the change of the anti-Stokes signal intensity corresponding to the vibrational transitions of the molecule is monitored during and after solution plasma processing (SPP). In the beginning of SPP treatment, the CARS signal intensity of the ring vibrational molecular transitions at 1233 and 1660 cm -1 increases under the influence of the electric field of the plasma, depending on the delay time between the plasma pulse and the laser firing pulse. At the same time, the plasma contributes to the degradation of p-BQ molecules by generating hydrogen and hydroxyl radicals, which decompose p-BQ into different carboxylic acids. After SPP, the CARS signal intensity of the vibrational bands of p-BQ ceased and the degradation of p-BQ was confirmed by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy and liquid chromatography analysis.

  4. Femtosecond Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS) As Next Generation Nonlinear LIDAR Spectroscopy and Microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooi, C. H. Raymond

    2009-01-01

    Nonlinear spectroscopy using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering and femtosecond laser pulses has been successfully developed as powerful tools for chemical analysis and biological imaging. Recent developments show promising possibilities of incorporating CARS into LIDAR system for remote detection of molecular species in airborne particles. The corresponding theory is being developed to describe nonlinear scattering of a mesoscopic particle composed of complex molecules by laser pulses with arbitrary shape and spectral content. Microscopic many-body transform theory is used to compute the third order susceptibility for CARS in molecules with known absorption spectrum and vibrational modes. The theory is combined with an integral scattering formula and Mie-Lorentz formulae, giving a rigorous formalism which provides powerful numerical experimentation of CARS spectra, particularly on the variations with the laser parameters and the direction of detection.

  5. Coherent spectroscopy of a {Lambda} atomic system and its prospective application to tunable frequency offset locking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kale, Y B [Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Ray, Ayan [Radioactive Ion Beam Group, Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata 700064 (India); Lawande, Q V [Theoretical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Jagatap, B N, E-mail: yogeshwar84@rediffmail.com, E-mail: ayan_ray_in@rediffmail.com, E-mail: bnj@barc.gov.in [Atomic and Molecular Physics Division and Homi Bhabha National Institute, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2011-09-15

    We investigate the coherent pump-probe spectroscopy of a three-level {Lambda} system, 6s{sub 1/2}F = 3,4{yields}6p{sub 3/2}F{sup '}= 4, in the hyperfine manifold of D{sub 2} transition (852 nm) of cesium with particular reference to the sub-Doppler linewidth resonance arising from Aulter-Townes (AT) splitting and the possibility of using it for realizing a scheme for tunable atomic frequency offset locking (AFOL). We discuss here the theoretical framework for a {Lambda} system interacting with a coherent pump and probe and use it to describe the process of modulation transfer in the AT and electromagnetically induced transparency regimes. We further employ an experimental scheme consisting of a strong pump and a pair of weak probes to resolve the sub-Doppler linewidth ({approx}8 MHz) AT resonance and study its dependence on pump intensity and detuning. In order to explore the possibility of using such a sub-Doppler linewidth resonance for AFOL, we use its first derivative signal as a frequency discriminator to stabilize the probe laser. The frequency stability of the probe is characterized by means of error signal analysis. This study reveals that while the frequency stability of the AT locked laser is limited by the pump laser, the tuning range of the offset frequency lock can cover the entire Doppler profile and its immediate neighbourhood, thereby providing a simple and cost effective alternative to the external modulator. The study described in this paper contributes to the discussion on the subtle link between dressed state spectroscopy and AFOL, which is relevant for developing a master-slave-type laser system in the domain of coherent photon-atom interaction.

  6. Ultrafast optical responses of {beta}-carotene and lycopene probed by sub-20-fs time-resolved coherent spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, M.; Sugisaki, M. [CREST-JST and Department of Physics, Osaka City University, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Gall, A.; Robert, B. [CEA, Institut de Biologie et Technologies de Saclay, and CNRS, Gif-sur-Yvette F-91191 (France); Cogdell, R.J. [IBLS, Glasgow Biomedical Research Centre, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Hashimoto, H., E-mail: hassy@sci.osaka-cu.ac.j [CREST-JST and Department of Physics, Osaka City University, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan)

    2009-12-15

    We investigate how structural distortions in carotenoid cause decoherences of its high-frequency vibrational modes by applying the sub-20-fs time-resolved transient grating spectroscopy to {beta}-carotene and lycopene. The results indicate that the C=C central stretching mode shows significant loss of coherence under the effects of the steric hindrance between {beta}-ionone ring and polyene backbone, whereas the other high-frequency modes do not show such dependency on the structural distortions.

  7. Ultrafast optical responses of β-carotene and lycopene probed by sub-20-fs time-resolved coherent spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, M.; Sugisaki, M.; Gall, A.; Robert, B.; Cogdell, R.J.; Hashimoto, H.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate how structural distortions in carotenoid cause decoherences of its high-frequency vibrational modes by applying the sub-20-fs time-resolved transient grating spectroscopy to β-carotene and lycopene. The results indicate that the C=C central stretching mode shows significant loss of coherence under the effects of the steric hindrance between β-ionone ring and polyene backbone, whereas the other high-frequency modes do not show such dependency on the structural distortions.

  8. Coherent atomic and molecular spectroscopy in the far infrared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inguscio, M.

    1988-01-01

    Recent advances in far infrared spectroscopy of atoms (fine structure transitions) and molecules (rotational transitions) are reviewed. Results obtained by means of Laser Magnetic Resonance, using fixed frequency lasers, and Tunable Far Infrared spectrometers are illustrated. The importance of far infrared spectroscopy for several fields, including astrophysics, atmospheric physics, atomic structure and metology, is discussed. (orig.)

  9. Preservice Teachers Developing Coherent Inquiry Investigations in Elementary Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Julia D.; Tanis Ozcelik, Arzu

    2015-01-01

    For students to attain deep understanding of scientific practices, they will need to have opportunities to participate in sustained engagement in doing science. Such opportunities begin with elementary teachers implementing coherent and well-sequenced inquiry-based investigations in their classrooms. This study explored how preservice teachers (N…

  10. Communication: Coherences observed in vivo in photosynthetic bacteria using two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlberg, Peter D.; Norris, Graham J.; Wang, Cheng; Viswanathan, Subha; Singh, Ved P.; Engel, Gregory S.

    2015-01-01

    Energy transfer through large disordered antenna networks in photosynthetic organisms can occur with a quantum efficiency of nearly 100%. This energy transfer is facilitated by the electronic structure of the photosynthetic antennae as well as interactions between electronic states and the surrounding environment. Coherences in time-domain spectroscopy provide a fine probe of how a system interacts with its surroundings. In two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy, coherences can appear on both the ground and excited state surfaces revealing detailed information regarding electronic structure, system-bath coupling, energy transfer, and energetic coupling in complex chemical systems. Numerous studies have revealed coherences in isolated photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes, but these coherences have not been observed in vivo due to the small amplitude of these signals and the intense scatter from whole cells. Here, we present data acquired using ultrafast video-acquisition gradient-assisted photon echo spectroscopy to observe quantum beating signals from coherences in vivo. Experiments were conducted on isolated light harvesting complex II (LH2) from Rhodobacter sphaeroides, whole cells of R. sphaeroides, and whole cells of R. sphaeroides grown in 30% deuterated media. A vibronic coherence was observed following laser excitation at ambient temperature between the B850 and the B850 ∗ states of LH2 in each of the 3 samples with a lifetime of ∼40-60 fs

  11. Communication: Coherences observed in vivo in photosynthetic bacteria using two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlberg, Peter D. [Graduate Program in the Biophysical Sciences, Institute for Biophysical Dynamics, and The James Franck Institute, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Norris, Graham J.; Wang, Cheng; Viswanathan, Subha; Singh, Ved P.; Engel, Gregory S., E-mail: gsengel@uchicago.edu [Department of Chemistry, Institute for Biophysical Dynamics, and The James Franck Institute, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

    2015-09-14

    Energy transfer through large disordered antenna networks in photosynthetic organisms can occur with a quantum efficiency of nearly 100%. This energy transfer is facilitated by the electronic structure of the photosynthetic antennae as well as interactions between electronic states and the surrounding environment. Coherences in time-domain spectroscopy provide a fine probe of how a system interacts with its surroundings. In two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy, coherences can appear on both the ground and excited state surfaces revealing detailed information regarding electronic structure, system-bath coupling, energy transfer, and energetic coupling in complex chemical systems. Numerous studies have revealed coherences in isolated photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes, but these coherences have not been observed in vivo due to the small amplitude of these signals and the intense scatter from whole cells. Here, we present data acquired using ultrafast video-acquisition gradient-assisted photon echo spectroscopy to observe quantum beating signals from coherences in vivo. Experiments were conducted on isolated light harvesting complex II (LH2) from Rhodobacter sphaeroides, whole cells of R. sphaeroides, and whole cells of R. sphaeroides grown in 30% deuterated media. A vibronic coherence was observed following laser excitation at ambient temperature between the B850 and the B850{sup ∗} states of LH2 in each of the 3 samples with a lifetime of ∼40-60 fs.

  12. Laser excitation of SF6: spectroscopy and coherent pulse propagation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantrell, C.D.; Makarov, A.A.; Louisell, W.H.

    1978-01-01

    Recent theoretical studies of coherent propagation effects in SF 6 and other polyatomic molecules are summarized beginning with an account of relevant aspects of the high-resolution spectroscopy of the ν 3 band of SF 6 . A laser pulse propagating in a molecular gas can acquire new frequencies which were not initially present in the pulse, and, in fact, a wave is coherently generated at the frequency of every molecular transition accessible from the initial molecular energy levels. The possible consequences of coherent generation of sidebands for the multiple-photon excitation of SF 6 and other polyatomic molecules are discussed

  13. Accelerating two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance correlation spectroscopy via selective coherence transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Qimiao; Chen, Lin; Qiu, Wenqi; Lin, Liangjie; Sun, Huijun; Cai, Shuhui; Wei, Zhiliang; Chen, Zhong

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy serves as an important tool for both qualitative and quantitative analyses of various systems in chemistry, biology, and medicine. However, applications of one-dimensional 1H NMR are often restrained by the presence of severe overlap among different resonances. The advent of two-dimensional (2D) 1H NMR constitutes a promising alternative by extending the crowded resonances into a plane and thereby alleviating the spectral congestions. However, the enhanced ability in discriminating resonances is achieved at the cost of extended experimental duration due to necessity of various scans with progressive delays to construct the indirect dimension. Therefore, in this study, we propose a selective coherence transfer (SECOT) method to accelerate acquisitions of 2D correlation spectroscopy by converting chemical shifts into spatial positions within the effective sample length and then performing an echo planar spectroscopic imaging module to record the spatial and spectral information, which generates 2D correlation spectrum after 2D Fourier transformation. The feasibility and effectiveness of SECOT have been verified by a set of experiments under both homogeneous and inhomogeneous magnetic fields. Moreover, evaluations of SECOT for quantitative analyses are carried out on samples with a series of different concentrations. Based on these experimental results, the SECOT may open important perspectives for fast, accurate, and stable investigations of various chemical systems both qualitatively and quantitatively.

  14. Femtosecond spectroscopy in semiconductors: a key to coherences, correlations and quantum kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axt, V M; Kuhn, T

    2004-01-01

    The application of femtosecond spectroscopy to the study of ultrafast dynamics in semiconductor materials and nanostructures is reviewed with particular emphasis on the physics that can be learned from it. Excitation with ultrashort optical pulses in general results in the creation of coherent superpositions and correlated many-particle states. The review comprises a discussion of the dynamics of this correlated many-body system during and after pulsed excitation as well as its analysis by means of refined measurements and advanced theories. After an introduction of basic concepts-such as coherence, correlation and quantum kinetics-a brief overview of the most important experimental techniques and theoretical approaches is given. The remainder of this paper is devoted to specific results selected in order to highlight how femtosecond spectroscopy gives access to the physics of coherences, correlations and quantum kinetics involving charge, spin and lattice degrees of freedom. First examples deal with the dynamics of basic laser-induced coherences that can be observed, e.g. in quantum beat spectroscopy, in coherent control measurements or in experiments using few-cycle pulses. The phenomena discussed here are basic in the sense that they can be understood to a large extent on the mean-field level of the theory. Nevertheless, already on this level it is found that semiconductors behave substantially differently from atomic systems. Subsequent sections report on the occurrence of coherences and correlations beyond the mean-field level that are mediated either by carrier-phonon or carrier-carrier interactions. The corresponding analysis gives deep insight into fundamental issues such as the energy-time uncertainty, pure dephasing in quantum dot structures, the role of two-pair or even higher correlations and the build-up of screening. Finally results are presented concerning the ultrafast dynamics of resonantly coupled excitations, where a combination of different

  15. Nonadiabatic Dynamics May Be Probed through Electronic Coherence in Time-Resolved Photoelectron Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Kochise; Kowalewski, Markus; Mukamel, Shaul

    2016-02-09

    We present a hierarchy of Fermi golden rules (FGRs) that incorporate strongly coupled electronic/nuclear dynamics in time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (TRPES) signals at different levels of theory. Expansion in the joint electronic and nuclear eigenbasis yields the numerically most challenging exact FGR (eFGR). The quasistatic Fermi Golden Rule (qsFGR) neglects nuclear motion during the photoionization process but takes into account electronic coherences as well as populations initially present in the pumped matter as well as those generated internally by coupling between electronic surfaces. The standard semiclassical Fermi Golden Rule (scFGR) neglects the electronic coherences and the nuclear kinetic energy during the ionizing pulse altogether, yielding the classical Condon approximation. The coherence contributions depend on the phase-profile of the ionizing field, allowing coherent control of TRPES signals. The photoelectron spectrum from model systems is simulated using these three levels of theory. The eFGR and the qsFGR show temporal oscillations originating from the electronic or vibrational coherences generated as the nuclear wave packet traverses a conical intersection. These oscillations, which are missed by the scFGR, directly reveal the time-evolving splitting between electronic states of the neutral molecule in the curve-crossing regime.

  16. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy temperature measurements in an internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Don; Driver, H. Steve T.; Hutcheon, Richard J.; Lockett, Russel J.; Robertson, Gerald N.

    1994-09-01

    Part of a project to investigate the physics and chemistry of alternative fuels in internal combustion engines is reported. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) is used to probe the fuel-air mixture in the cylinder of a Richardo E6 variable compression ratio research engine. The laser system comprises a passively Q- switched single-longitudinal-mode frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser and a broadband dye laser, both with a pulse length of 15 ns. A crankshaft encoder and electronic delay are used to fire the lasers at specified times during the engine cycle, and CARS spectra are acquired using a 0.75 m spectrometer and a 1024 optical multichannel analyzer. Because of the uncertainties associated with collisional narrowing in the theoretical modeling of high-pressure CARS spectra, temperatures are determined by comparing the engine spectra with a library of experimental CARS spectra from a calibrated high-pressure, high- temperature cell. This purely experimental technique is shown to be superior to two theoretical models under the considered conditions, giving temperatures during the compression stroke of the engine with standard deviations of typically 10 K and a possible systematic error of 15 K. Together with pressure records, this information is used as input data for chemical kinetic modeling of the combustion process.

  17. Theory of coherent Stark nonlinear spectroscopy in a three-level system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loiko, Yurii; Serrat, Carles

    2007-01-01

    Coherent Stark nonlinear spectroscopy (CSNS) is a spectroscopic tool based on the cancellation of the phase sensitivity at frequency 5ω in the ultrafast four-wave mixing (FWM) of two-color pulses with frequencies ω and 3ω. We develop a theory for CSNS in three-level V-type systems, and reveal that the mechanism for the phase sensitivity at 5ω is the quantum interference between the two primary paths in the FWM of the ω and 3ω fields. We find that the cancellation phenomenon occurs when the probability amplitude of one of these two primary pathways becomes equal to zero due to the competition effect between the two allowed transitions in the V-type system. The analytical expressions that describe the phase-sensitivity phenomenon and the conditions for its cancellation have been derived on the basis of perturbation theory, and are confirmed by numerical integration of the density matrix and Maxwell equations. We argue that CSNS can be utilized, in particular, for the investigation of optically dense media

  18. Liquid sorption investigation of porous media by optical coherence tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabritius, Tapio; Myllylae, Risto

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces an alternative optical method to measuring liquid penetration into porous highly scattering media. Using pure glycerol, the method was tested by measuring glycerol sorption into cellulose fibre tissue with a grammage of 115 g m -2 . During the wetting process, dynamical changes in the scattering properties of the fibre tissue were detected by optical coherence tomography. Measurements were made from a single point on the front and back surface of a sample. Although the effect of penetration on the optical properties of a porous structure can be seen independent of measurement direction, the border between the dry and wetted area is detectable only in front surface measurements. In addition, the paper experimentally investigates the temporally and spatially dependent swelling behaviour of paper

  19. Rapid-scan Fourier-transform coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy with heterodyne detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramatsu, Kotaro; Luo, Yizhi; Ideguchi, Takuro; Goda, Keisuke

    2017-11-01

    High-speed Raman spectroscopy has become increasingly important for analyzing chemical dynamics in real time. To address the need, rapid-scan Fourier-transform coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (FT-CARS) spectroscopy has been developed to realize broadband CARS measurements at a scan rate of more than 20,000 scans/s. However, the detection sensitivity of FT-CARS spectroscopy is inherently low due to the limited number of photons detected during each scan. In this Letter, we show our experimental demonstration of enhanced sensitivity in rapid-scan FT-CARS spectroscopy by heterodyne detection. Specifically, we implemented heterodyne detection by superposing the CARS electric field with an external local oscillator (LO) for their interference. The CARS signal was amplified by simply increasing the power of the LO without the need for increasing the incident power onto the sample. Consequently, we achieved enhancement in signal intensity and the signal-to-noise ratio by factors of 39 and 5, respectively, compared to FT-CARS spectroscopy with homodyne detection. The sensitivity-improved rapid-scan FT-CARS spectroscopy is expected to enable the sensitive real-time observation of chemical dynamics in a broad range of settings, such as combustion engines and live biological cells.

  20. Versatile silicon-waveguide supercontinuum for coherent mid-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, Nima; Maser, Daniel L.; Cruz, Flavio C.; Kowligy, Abijith; Timmers, Henry; Chiles, Jeff; Fredrick, Connor; Westly, Daron A.; Nam, Sae Woo; Mirin, Richard P.; Shainline, Jeffrey M.; Diddams, Scott

    2018-03-01

    Laser frequency combs, with their unique combination of precisely defined spectral lines and broad bandwidth, are a powerful tool for basic and applied spectroscopy. Here, we report offset-free, mid-infrared frequency combs and dual-comb spectroscopy through supercontinuum generation in silicon-on-sapphire waveguides. We leverage robust fabrication and geometrical dispersion engineering of nanophotonic waveguides for multi-band, coherent frequency combs spanning 70 THz in the mid-infrared (2.5 μm-6.2 μm). Precise waveguide fabrication provides significant spectral broadening with engineered spectra targeted at specific mid-infrared bands. We characterize the relative-intensity-noise of different bands and show that the measured levels do not pose any limitation for spectroscopy applications. Additionally, we use the fabricated photonic devices to demonstrate dual-comb spectroscopy of a carbonyl sulfide gas sample at 5 μm. This work forms the technological basis for applications such as point sensors for fundamental spectroscopy, atmospheric chemistry, trace and hazardous gas detection, and biological microscopy.

  1. Versatile silicon-waveguide supercontinuum for coherent mid-infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima Nader

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Laser frequency combs, with their unique combination of precisely defined spectral lines and broad bandwidth, are a powerful tool for basic and applied spectroscopy. Here, we report offset-free, mid-infrared frequency combs and dual-comb spectroscopy through supercontinuum generation in silicon-on-sapphire waveguides. We leverage robust fabrication and geometrical dispersion engineering of nanophotonic waveguides for multi-band, coherent frequency combs spanning 70 THz in the mid-infrared (2.5 μm–6.2 μm. Precise waveguide fabrication provides significant spectral broadening with engineered spectra targeted at specific mid-infrared bands. We characterize the relative-intensity-noise of different bands and show that the measured levels do not pose any limitation for spectroscopy applications. Additionally, we use the fabricated photonic devices to demonstrate dual-comb spectroscopy of a carbonyl sulfide gas sample at 5 μm. This work forms the technological basis for applications such as point sensors for fundamental spectroscopy, atmospheric chemistry, trace and hazardous gas detection, and biological microscopy.

  2. Optically controlled locking of the nuclear field via coherent dark-state spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaodong; Yao, Wang; Sun, Bo; Steel, Duncan G; Bracker, Allan S; Gammon, Daniel; Sham, L J

    2009-06-25

    A single electron or hole spin trapped inside a semiconductor quantum dot forms the foundation for many proposed quantum logic devices. In group III-V materials, the resonance and coherence between two ground states of the single spin are inevitably affected by the lattice nuclear spins through the hyperfine interaction, while the dynamics of the single spin also influence the nuclear environment. Recent efforts have been made to protect the coherence of spins in quantum dots by suppressing the nuclear spin fluctuations. However, coherent control of a single spin in a single dot with simultaneous suppression of the nuclear fluctuations has yet to be achieved. Here we report the suppression of nuclear field fluctuations in a singly charged quantum dot to well below the thermal value, as shown by an enhancement of the single electron spin dephasing time T(2)*, which we measure using coherent dark-state spectroscopy. The suppression of nuclear fluctuations is found to result from a hole-spin assisted dynamic nuclear spin polarization feedback process, where the stable value of the nuclear field is determined only by the laser frequencies at fixed laser powers. This nuclear field locking is further demonstrated in a three-laser measurement, indicating a possible enhancement of the electron spin T(2)* by a factor of several hundred. This is a simple and powerful method of enhancing the electron spin coherence time without use of 'spin echo'-type techniques. We expect that our results will enable the reproducible preparation of the nuclear spin environment for repetitive control and measurement of a single spin with minimal statistical broadening.

  3. Metrological-grade tunable coherent source in the mid-infrared for molecular precision spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insero, G.; Clivati, C.; D'Ambrosio, D.; Cancio Pastor, P.; Verde, M.; Schunemann, P. G.; Zondy, J.-J.; Inguscio, M.; Calonico, D.; Levi, F.; De Natale, P.; Santambrogio, G.; Borri, S.

    2018-02-01

    We report on a metrological-grade mid-IR source with a 10-14 short-term instability for high-precision spectroscopy. Our source is based on the combination of a quantum cascade laser and a coherent radiation obtained by difference-frequency generation in an orientation-patterned gallium phosphide (OP-GaP) crystal. The pump and signal lasers are locked to an optical frequency comb referenced to the primary frequency standard via an optical fiber link. We demonstrate the robustness of the apparatus by measuring a vibrational transition around 6 μm on a metastable state of CO molecuels with 11 digits of precision.

  4. Dual-Comb Coherent Raman Spectroscopy with Lasers of 1-GHz Pulse Repetition Frequency

    OpenAIRE

    Mohler, Kathrin J.; Bohn, Bernhard J.; Yan, Ming; Hänsch, Theodor W.; Picqué, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    We extend the technique of multiplex coherent Raman spectroscopy with two femtosecond mode-locked lasers to oscillators of a pulse repetition frequency of 1 GHz. We demonstrate spectra of liquids, which span 1100 cm$^{-1}$ of Raman shifts. At a resolution of 6 cm$^{-1}$, their measurement time may be as short as 5 microseconds for a refresh rate of 2 kHz. The waiting period between acquisitions is improved ten-fold compared to previous experiments with two lasers of 100-MHz repetition frequen...

  5. Dual-comb coherent Raman spectroscopy with lasers of 1-GHz pulse repetition frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohler, Kathrin J; Bohn, Bernhard J; Yan, Ming; Mélen, Gwénaëlle; Hänsch, Theodor W; Picqué, Nathalie

    2017-01-15

    We extend the technique of multiplex coherent Raman spectroscopy with two femtosecond mode-locked lasers to oscillators of a pulse repetition frequency of 1 GHz. We demonstrate a spectra of liquids, which span 1100  cm-1 of Raman shifts. At a resolution of 6  cm-1, their measurement time may be as short as 5 μs for a refresh rate of 2 kHz. The waiting period between acquisitions is improved 10-fold compared to previous experiments with two lasers of 100-MHz repetition frequencies.

  6. Control of phase transition dynamics in media with nanoscale nonuniformities by coherence loss spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, Anatol M

    2010-01-01

    The optical nondestructive characterization of chemical transformation dynamics and diffusion kinetics, including phase transitions, in heterogeneous media with a random distribution of nanoparticles (nano-nonuniformities), is of great theoretical and practical importance. Such characterization, with the help of coherence loss spectroscopy, considered in this paper can be applied for the control of a number of industrial processes dynamics, environmental monitoring, and medical diagnostics and therapy. As a specific example, the growth of crystal nuclei (embrions) as a result of the diffusion to them of a substance from the surrounding supersaturated solution is considered

  7. Dicke coherent narrowing in two-photon and Raman spectroscopy of thin vapor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutier, Gabriel; Todorov, Petko; Hamdi, Ismahene; Maurin, Isabelle; Saltiel, Solomon; Bloch, Daniel; Ducloy, Martial

    2005-01-01

    The principle of coherent Dicke narrowing in a thin vapor cell, in which sub-Doppler spectral line shapes are observed under a normal irradiation for a λ/2 thickness, is generalized to two-photon spectroscopy. Only the sum of the two wave vectors must be normal to the cell, making the two-photon scheme highly versatile. A comparison is provided between the Dicke narrowing with copropagating fields, and the residual Doppler broadening occurring with counterpropagating geometries. The experimental feasibility is discussed on the basis of a first observation of a two-photon resonance in a 300-nm-thick Cs cell. Extension to the Raman situation is finally considered

  8. Investigation of biomineralization by Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatscher, Robert William

    implants. These implants are designed to osteointegrate with the native healthy tissues in order to create a functionally stable and structural interface. Biomaterials such as hydroxyapatite and titania are known to increase the rate of bone regeneration in vivo.1 By accelerating the early response of bone forming cells to these implants, better fixation is achieved between the implant and the bone, shortening recovery times and increasing the viability of these implants. In the last part of this research an investigation of osteoblasts cultured at 14 days on five different heat-treated titania substrates was investigated by Raman spectroscopy, in order to observe the initial cellular response to the titania substrates. The heat-treatment of titania changes the amount of oxygen on it's surface which in turn effects the surface energy. A change in the surface energy of a material will affect the cellular response, by culturing cells on various heat-treated titania substrates a relationship between the surface energy and cellular response can be investigated. A faster cellular response would lead to an increased rate of bone regeneration shortening healing times and allowing for better fixation of the implant.

  9. Investigation of optical currents in coherent and partially coherent vector fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelsky, O. V.; Gorsky, M. P.; Maksimyak, P. P.

    2011-01-01

    We present the computer simulation results of the spatial distri-bution of the Poynting vector and illustrate motion of micro and nanopar-ticles in spatially inhomogeneously polarized fields. The influence of phase relations and the degree of mutual coherence of superimposing waves...... by polarization characteristics of an optical field alone, using nanoscale me-tallic particles has been shown experimentally....

  10. Characterizing interstate vibrational coherent dynamics of surface adsorbed catalysts by fourth-order 3D SFG spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingmin; Wang, Jiaxi; Clark, Melissa L.; Kubiak, Clifford P.; Xiong, Wei

    2016-04-01

    We report the first fourth-order 3D SFG spectroscopy of a monolayer of the catalyst Re(diCN-bpy)(CO)3Cl on a gold surface. Besides measuring the vibrational coherences of single vibrational modes, the fourth-order 3D SFG spectrum also measures the dynamics of interstate coherences and vibrational coherences states between two vibrational modes. By comparing the 3D SFG to the corresponding 2D and third-order 3D IR spectroscopy of the same molecules in solution, we found that the interstate coherences exist in both liquid and surface systems, suggesting that the interstate coherence is not disrupted by surface interactions. However, by analyzing the 3D spectral lineshape, we found that the interstate coherences also experience non-negligible homogenous dephasing dynamics that originate from surface interactions. This unique ability of determining interstate vibrational coherence dynamics of the molecular monolayer can help in understanding of how energy flows within surface catalysts and other molecular monolayers.

  11. Resolving fine spectral features in lattice vibrational modes using femtosecond coherent spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Card

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We show resolution of fine spectral features within several Raman active vibrational modes in potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP crystal. Measurements are performed using a femtosecond time-domain coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy technique that is capable of delivering equivalent spectral resolution of 0.1 cm−1. The Raman spectra retrieved from our measurements show several spectral components corresponding to vibrations of different symmetry with distinctly different damping rates. In particular, linewidths for unassigned optical phonon mode triplet centered at around 820 cm−1 are found to be 7.5 ± 0.2 cm−1, 9.1 ± 0.3 cm−1, and 11.2 ± 0.3 cm−1. Results of our experiments will ultimately help to design an all-solid-state source for sub-optical-wavelength waveform generation that is based on stimulated Raman scattering.

  12. Characterization of Cs vapor cell coated with octadecyltrichlorosilane using coherent population trapping spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hafiz, Moustafa Abdel; Maurice, Vincent; Chutani, Ravinder; Passilly, Nicolas; Gorecki, Christophe; Boudot, Rodolphe [FEMTO-ST, CNRS, UFC, 26 Chemin de l' Epitaphe, 25030 Besançon Cedex (France); Guérandel, Stéphane; Clercq, Emeric de [LNE-SYRTE, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, UPMC, 61 avenue de l' Observatoire, 75014 Paris (France)

    2015-05-14

    We report the realization and characterization using coherent population trapping (CPT) spectroscopy of an octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS)-coated centimeter-scale Cs vapor cell. The dual-structure of the resonance lineshape, with presence of a narrow structure line at the top of a Doppler-broadened structure, is clearly observed. The linewidth of the narrow resonance is compared to the linewidth of an evacuated Cs cell and of a buffer gas Cs cell of similar size. The Cs-OTS adsorption energy is measured to be (0.42 ± 0.03) eV, leading to a clock frequency shift rate of 2.7 × 10{sup −9}/K in fractional unit. A hyperfine population lifetime, T{sub 1}, and a microwave coherence lifetime, T{sub 2}, of 1.6 and 0.5 ms are reported, corresponding to about 37 and 12 useful bounces, respectively. Atomic-motion induced Ramsey narrowing of dark resonances is observed in Cs-OTS cells by reducing the optical beam diameter. Ramsey CPT fringes are detected using a pulsed CPT interrogation scheme. Potential applications of the Cs-OTS cell to the development of a vapor cell atomic clock are discussed.

  13. Characterization of Cs vapor cell coated with octadecyltrichlorosilane using coherent population trapping spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafiz, Moustafa Abdel; Maurice, Vincent; Chutani, Ravinder; Passilly, Nicolas; Gorecki, Christophe; Boudot, Rodolphe; Guérandel, Stéphane; Clercq, Emeric de

    2015-01-01

    We report the realization and characterization using coherent population trapping (CPT) spectroscopy of an octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS)-coated centimeter-scale Cs vapor cell. The dual-structure of the resonance lineshape, with presence of a narrow structure line at the top of a Doppler-broadened structure, is clearly observed. The linewidth of the narrow resonance is compared to the linewidth of an evacuated Cs cell and of a buffer gas Cs cell of similar size. The Cs-OTS adsorption energy is measured to be (0.42 ± 0.03) eV, leading to a clock frequency shift rate of 2.7 × 10 −9 /K in fractional unit. A hyperfine population lifetime, T 1 , and a microwave coherence lifetime, T 2 , of 1.6 and 0.5 ms are reported, corresponding to about 37 and 12 useful bounces, respectively. Atomic-motion induced Ramsey narrowing of dark resonances is observed in Cs-OTS cells by reducing the optical beam diameter. Ramsey CPT fringes are detected using a pulsed CPT interrogation scheme. Potential applications of the Cs-OTS cell to the development of a vapor cell atomic clock are discussed

  14. Polarization Sensitive Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy of DCVJ in Doped Polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujj, Laszlo

    2014-05-01

    Coherent Raman Microscopy is an emerging technic and method to image biological samples such as living cells by recording vibrational fingerprints of molecules with high spatial resolution. The race is on to record the entire image during the shortest time possible in order to increase the time resolution of the recorded cellular events. The electronically enhanced polarization sensitive version of Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering is one of the method which can shorten the recording time and increase the sharpness of an image by enhancing the signal level of special molecular vibrational modes. In order to show the effectiveness of the method a model system, a highly fluorescence sample, DCVJ in a polymer matrix is investigated. Polarization sensitive resonance CARS spectra are recorded and analyzed. Vibrational signatures are extracted with model independent methods. Details of the measurements and data analysis will be presented. The author gratefully acknowledge the UWF for financial support.

  15. Beyond Readability: Investigating Coherence of Clinical Text for Consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzel, Scott; Dalrymple, Prudence; Keselman, Alla

    2011-01-01

    Background A basic tenet of consumer health informatics is that understandable health resources empower the public. Text comprehension holds great promise for helping to characterize consumer problems in understanding health texts. The need for efficient ways to assess consumer-oriented health texts and the availability of computationally supported tools led us to explore the effect of various text characteristics on readers’ understanding of health texts, as well as to develop novel approaches to assessing these characteristics. Objective The goal of this study was to compare the impact of two different approaches to enhancing readability, and three interventions, on individuals’ comprehension of short, complex passages of health text. Methods Participants were 80 university staff, faculty, or students. Each participant was asked to “retell” the content of two health texts: one a clinical trial in the domain of diabetes mellitus, and the other typical Visit Notes. These texts were transformed for the intervention arms of the study. Two interventions provided terminology support via (1) standard dictionary or (2) contextualized vocabulary definitions. The third intervention provided coherence improvement. We assessed participants’ comprehension of the clinical texts through propositional analysis, an open-ended questionnaire, and analysis of the number of errors made. Results For the clinical trial text, the effect of text condition was not significant in any of the comparisons, suggesting no differences in recall, despite the varying levels of support (P = .84). For the Visit Note, however, the difference in the median total propositions recalled between the Coherent and the (Original + Dictionary) conditions was significant (P = .04). This suggests that participants in the Coherent condition recalled more of the original Visit Notes content than did participants in the Original and the Dictionary conditions combined. However, no difference was seen

  16. Resonant acoustic spectroscopy of soft tissues using embedded magnetomotive nanotransducers and optical coherence tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oldenburg, Amy L; Boppart, Stephen A

    2010-01-01

    We present a new method for performing dynamic elastography of soft tissue samples. By sensing nanoscale displacements with optical coherence tomography, a chirped, modulated force is applied to acquire the mechanical spectrum of a tissue sample within a few seconds. This modulated force is applied via magnetic nanoparticles, named 'nanotransducers', which are diffused into the tissue, and which contribute negligible inertia to the soft tissue mechanical system. Using this novel system, we observed that excised tissues exhibit mechanical resonance modes which are well described by a linear damped harmonic oscillator. Results are validated by using cylindrical tissue phantoms of agarose in which resonant frequencies (30-400 Hz) are consistent with longitudinal modes and the sample boundary conditions. We furthermore show that the Young's modulus can be computed from their measured resonance frequencies, analogous to resonant ultrasound spectroscopy for stiff material analysis. Using this new technique, named magnetomotive resonant acoustic spectroscopy (MRAS), we monitored the relative stiffening of an excised rat liver during a chemical fixation process.

  17. [MR spectroscopy of amygdala: investigation of methodology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hehan; Yue, Qiang; Gong, Qiyong

    2013-08-01

    This study was aimed to optimize the methods of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to improve its quality in amygdala. Forty-three volunteers were examined at right and left amygdala using stimulated-echo acquisition mode (STEAM), and point-resolved spectroscopy series (PRESS) with and without saturation bands. The Cr-SNR, water-suppression level, water full width at half maximum (FWHM) and RMS noise of three sequences were compared. The results showed that (1) the Cr-SNR and water-suppression lelvel of PRESS with saturation bands were better than that of PRESS without saturation bands and STEAM (P<0.001); (2) the left and right RMS noise was significantly different both using PRESS with saturation bands and using STEAM (P<0.05); (3) there was a positive, significant correlation between Cr-SNR and voxel size (P<0.05). Therefore, PRESS with saturation bands is better than PRESS without saturation bands or STEAM for the spectroscopy of amygdala. It is also useful to make the voxel as big as possible to improve the spectral quality.

  18. Photothermal deflection spectroscopy investigations of uranium electrochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, R.E.; Rudnicki, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    Photothermal Deflection Spectroscopy (PDS) has been successfully applied to the study of uranium oxide electrochemistry. A brief description of PDS and preliminary results that demonstrate the technique are presented. Concentration gradients formed at the electrode surface are measured by this technique. The gradients give insight into the reaction mechanisms. There is some evidence of the initiation of non-electrochemical dissolution of the uranium oxide. Optical absorption by the uranium oxide is measured by PDS and the first results indicate that the absorption of the surface does not change during electrochemical experiments. This result is contrary to literature measurements of bulk samples that indicate that the optical absorption should be strongly changing

  19. Differentiation of bacterial versus viral otitis media using a combined Raman scattering spectroscopy and low coherence interferometry probe (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Youbo; Shelton, Ryan L.; Tu, Haohua; Nolan, Ryan M.; Monroy, Guillermo L.; Chaney, Eric J.; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2016-02-01

    Otitis media (OM) is a highly prevalent disease that can be caused by either a bacterial or viral infection. Because antibiotics are only effective against bacterial infections, blind use of antibiotics without definitive knowledge of the infectious agent, though commonly practiced, can lead to the problems of potential harmful side effects, wasteful misuse of medical resources, and the development of antimicrobial resistance. In this work, we investigate the feasibility of using a combined Raman scattering spectroscopy and low coherence interferometry (LCI) device to differentiate OM infections caused by viruses and bacteria and improve our diagnostic ability of OM. Raman spectroscopy, an established tool for molecular analysis of biological tissue, has been shown capable of identifying different bacterial species, although mostly based on fixed or dried sample cultures. LCI has been demonstrated recently as a promising tool for determining tympanic membrane (TM) thickness and the presence and thickness of middle-ear biofilm located behind the TM. We have developed a fiber-based ear insert that incorporates spatially-aligned Raman and LCI probes for point-of-care diagnosis of OM. As shown in human studies, the Raman probe provides molecular signatures of bacterial- and viral-infected OM and normal middle-ear cavities, and LCI helps to identify depth-resolved structural information as well as guide and monitor positioning of the Raman spectroscopy beam for relatively longer signal acquisition time. Differentiation of OM infections is determined by correlating in vivo Raman data collected from human subjects with the Raman features of different bacterial and viral species obtained from cultured samples.

  20. Measurements of coherent hemodynamics to enrich the physiological information provided by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and functional MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassaroli, Angelo; Tgavalekos, Kristen; Pham, Thao; Krishnamurthy, Nishanth; Fantini, Sergio

    2018-02-01

    Hemodynamic-based neuroimaging techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) sense hemoglobin concentration in cerebral tissue. The local concentration of hemoglobin, which is differentiated into oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin by NIRS, features spontaneous oscillations over time scales of 10-100 s in response to a number of local and systemic physiological processes. If one of such processes becomes the dominant source of cerebral hemodynamics, there is a high coherence between this process and the associated hemodynamics. In this work, we report a method to identify such conditions of coherent hemodynamics, which may be exploited to study and quantify microvasculature and microcirculation properties. We discuss how a critical value of significant coherence may depend on the specific data collection scheme (for example, the total acquisition time) and the nature of the hemodynamic data (in particular, oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin concentrations measured with NIRS show an intrinsic level of correlation that must be taken into account). A frequency-resolved study of coherent hemodynamics is the basis for the new technique of coherent hemodynamics spectroscopy (CHS), which aims to provide measures of cerebral blood flow and cerebral autoregulation. While these concepts apply in principle to both fMRI and NIRS data, in this article we focus on NIRS data.

  1. Wave-packet dynamics in alkaline dimers. Investigation and control through coherent excitation with fs-pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, F.N.B.

    2007-01-01

    During my PhD thesis I investigated alkaline dimers with coherent control in a molecular beam as well as with pump-probe spectroscopy in a magneto-optical trap (MOT). The aim of the coherent control experiments were the isotope selective ionization with phase- and amplitude-shaped fs-pulses. Chapter 4 described the gained results of isotope selective ionization of NaK and KRb in a molecular beam by using different pulse formers. For the NaK dimer was the reached optimization factor R Ph and Ampl 770 =R max /R min =25 between maximization and minimization of the isotopomer ratio ( 23 Na 39 K) + /( 23 Na 41 K) + with phase and amplitude modulation of the fs-pulse with a central wavelength of λ=770 nm. From the electronic ground-state X(1) 1 Σ + ;ν''=0 transfers a one-photon-excitation population in the first excited A(2) 1 Σ + state. The coherent control experiment on KRb was used to maximize and minimize the isotopomer ratio ( 124 KRb) + /( 126 KRb) + . It was the first coherent control experiment with a spectral resolution of 1.84 cm -1 /Pixel. For the phase and amplitude optimization was the received optimization factor between minimization and maximization of the isotopomer ratio R Ph and Ampl =R max /R min =7 at a central wavelength of 840 nm. The results showed a stepwise excitation process from the electronic ground-state in the first excited (2) 1 Σ + state with a further excitation, that is possible over three resonant energy potential curves into the ionic ground-state. In the second part of my thesis I realized pump-probe spectroscopy of Rb 2 dimers in a dark SPOT. (orig.)

  2. Exploratory investigations of hypervelocity intact capture spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsou, P.; Griffiths, D. J.

    1993-01-01

    The ability to capture hypervelocity projectiles intact opens a new technique available for hypervelocity research. A determination of the reactions taking place between the projectile and the capture medium during the process of intact capture is extremely important to an understanding of the intact capture phenomenon, to improving the capture technique, and to developing a theory describing the phenomenon. The intact capture of hypervelocity projectiles by underdense media generates spectra, characteristic of the material species of projectile and capture medium involved. Initial exploratory results into real-time characterization of hypervelocity intact capture techniques by spectroscopy include ultra-violet and visible spectra obtained by use of reflecting gratings, transmitting gratings, and prisms, and recorded by photographic and electronic means. Spectrometry proved to be a valuable real-time diagnostic tool for hypervelocity intact capture events, offering understanding of the interactions of the projectile and the capture medium during the initial period and providing information not obtainable by other characterizations. Preliminary results and analyses of spectra produced by the intact capture of hypervelocity aluminum spheres in polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), and polyurethane (PU) foams are presented. Included are tentative emission species identifications, as well as gray body temperatures produced in the intact capture process.

  3. Resolution enhancement in MR spectroscopy of red bone marrow fat via intermolecular double-quantum coherences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Jianfeng; Cui, Xiaohong; Huang, Yuqing; Zhong, Jianhui; Chen, Zhong

    2015-08-01

    High-resolution 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is generally inaccessible in red bone marrow (RBM) tissues using conventional MRS techniques. This is because signal from these tissues suffers from severe inhomogeneity in the main static B0 field originated from the intrinsic honeycomb structures in trabecular bone. One way to reduce effects of B0 field inhomogeneity is by using the intermolecular double quantum coherence (iDQC) technique, which has been shown in other systems to obtain signals insensitive to B0 field inhomogeneity. In the present study, we employed an iDQC approach to enhance the spectral resolution of RBM. The feasibility and performance of this method for achieving high resolution MRS was verified by experiments on phantoms and pig vertebral bone samples. Unsaturated fatty acid peaks which overlap in the conventional MRS were well resolved and identified in the iDQC spectrum. Quantitative comparison of fractions of three types of fatty acids was performed between iDQC spectra on the in situ RMB and conventional MRS on the extracted fat from the same RBM. Observations of unsaturated fatty acids with iDQC MRS may provide valuable information and may hold potential in diagnosis of diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and leukemia.

  4. Nonequilibrium Supersonic Freestream Studied Using Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, Andrew D.; Cantu, Luca M.; Gallo, Emanuela C. A.; Baurle, Rob; Danehy, Paul M.; Rockwell, Robert; Goyne, Christopher; McDaniel, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Measurements were conducted at the University of Virginia Supersonic Combustion Facility of the flow in a constant-area duct downstream of a Mach 2 nozzle. The airflow was heated to approximately 1200 K in the facility heater upstream of the nozzle. Dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy was used to measure the rotational and vibrational temperatures of N2 and O2 at two planes in the duct. The expectation was that the vibrational temperature would be in equilibrium, because most scramjet facilities are vitiated air facilities and are in vibrational equilibrium. However, with a flow of clean air, the vibrational temperature of N2 along a streamline remains approximately constant between the measurement plane and the facility heater, the vibrational temperature of O2 in the duct is about 1000 K, and the rotational temperature is consistent with the isentropic flow. The measurements of N2 vibrational temperature enabled cross-stream nonuniformities in the temperature exiting the facility heater to be documented. The measurements are in agreement with computational fluid dynamics models employing separate lumped vibrational and translational/rotational temperatures. Measurements and computations are also reported for a few percent steam addition to the air. The effect of the steam is to bring the flow to thermal equilibrium, also in agreement with the computational fluid dynamics.

  5. Investigating Coherent Structures in the Standard Turbulence Models using Proper Orthogonal Decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliassen, Lene; Andersen, Søren

    2016-01-01

    The wind turbine design standards recommend two different methods to generate turbulent wind for design load analysis, the Kaimal spectra combined with an exponential coherence function and the Mann turbulence model. The two turbulence models can give very different estimates of fatigue life, especially for offshore floating wind turbines. In this study the spatial distributions of the two turbulence models are investigated using Proper Orthogonal Decomposition, which is used to characterize large coherent structures. The main focus has been on the structures that contain the most energy, which are the lowest POD modes. The Mann turbulence model generates coherent structures that stretches in the horizontal direction for the longitudinal component, while the structures found in the Kaimal model are more random in their shape. These differences in the coherent structures at lower frequencies for the two turbulence models can be the reason for differences in fatigue life estimates for wind turbines. (paper)

  6. Voyager infrared spectroscopy and radiometry investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanel, R; Conrath, B; Gautier, D; Gierasch, P; Kumar, S; Kunde, V; Lowman, P; Maguire, W; Pearl, J; Pirraglia, J [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, Md. (USA). Goddard Space Flight Center

    1977-11-01

    The infrared investigation on Voyager uses two interferometers covering the spectral ranges 60-600 cm/sup -1/ (17-170 ..mu..m) and 1000-7000 cm/sup -1/ (1.4-10 ..mu..m), and a radiometer covering the range 8000-25000 cm/sup -1/ (0.4-1.2 ..mu..m). Two spectral resolutions (approximately 6.5 and 2.0 cm/sup -1/) are available for each of the interferometers. In the middle of the thermal channel (far infrared interferometer) the noise level is equivalent to the signal from a target at 50 K; in the middle of the reflected sunlight channel (near infrared interferometer) the noise level is equivalent to the signal from an object of albedo 0.2 at the distance of Uranus. For planets and satellites with substantial atmospheres, the data will be used to investigate cloud and gas composition (including isotopic ratios), haze scale height, atmospheric vertical thermal structure, local and planetary circulation and dynamics, and planetary energy balance. For satellites with tenuous atmospheres, data will be gathered on surface and atmospheric compositon, surface temperature and thermal properties, local and global phase functions, and surface structure. For Saturn's rings, the composition and radial structure, particle size and thermal characteristics will be investigated. Comparative studies of the planets and their satellite systems will be carried out.

  7. Investigating models for associating fluids using spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Solms, Nicolas; Michelsen, Michael Locht; Passos, Claudia Pereira

    2005-01-01

    on the way the parameters were obtained. The selection of appropriate association schemes is also investigated using spectroscopic data. For pure water a four-site scheme is shown to be the most appropriate scheme. In the case of pure alcohols, a three-site scheme is best for methanol; two- or three......Two equations of state (PC-SAFT and CPA) are used to predict the monomer fraction of pure associating fluids. The models each require five pure-component parameters usually obtained by fitting to experimental liquid density and vapor pressure data. Here we also incorporate monomer fractions...

  8. Temperature Measurements in Reacting Flows Using Time-Resolved Femtosecond Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (fs-CARS) Spectroscopy (Postprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roy, Sukesh; Kinnius, Paul J; Lucht, Robert P; Gord, James R

    2007-01-01

    Time-resolved femtosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (fs-CARS) spectroscopy of the nitrogen molecule is used for the measurement of temperature in atmospheric-pressure, near-adiabatic, hydrogen-air diffusion flames...

  9. The use of the partial coherence function technique for the investigation of BWR noise dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostic, Lj.

    1983-01-01

    The extensive experimental investigations, at the last time, indicate that the partial coherence function technique can be a powerful method of the investigation of BWR noise dynamics. Symple BWR noise dynamics model for the global noise study, based on different noise phenomena, is proposed in this paper. (author)

  10. Multi-modal approach using Raman spectroscopy and optical coherence tomography for the discrimination of colonic adenocarcinoma from normal colon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, Praveen C.; Praveen, Bavishna B.; Bellini, Nicola; Riches, Andrew; Dholakia, Kishan; Herrington, C. Simon

    2013-01-01

    We report a multimodal optical approach using both Raman spectroscopy and optical coherence tomography (OCT) in tandem to discriminate between colonic adenocarcinoma and normal colon. Although both of these non-invasive techniques are capable of discriminating between normal and tumour tissues, they are unable individually to provide both the high specificity and high sensitivity required for disease diagnosis. We combine the chemical information derived from Raman spectroscopy with the texture parameters extracted from OCT images. The sensitivity obtained using Raman spectroscopy and OCT individually was 89% and 78% respectively and the specificity was 77% and 74% respectively. Combining the information derived using the two techniques increased both sensitivity and specificity to 94% demonstrating that combining complementary optical information enhances diagnostic accuracy. These data demonstrate that multimodal optical analysis has the potential to achieve accurate non-invasive cancer diagnosis. PMID:24156073

  11. Two-pulse atomic coherent control spectroscopy of Eley-Rideal reactions: An application of an atom laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joergensen, Solvejg; Kosloff, Ronnie

    2003-01-01

    A spectroscopic application of the atom laser is suggested. The spectroscopy termed 2PACC (two-pulse atomic coherent control) employs the coherent properties of matter waves from a two-pulse atom laser. These waves are employed to control a gas-surface chemical recombination reaction. The method is demonstrated for an Eley-Rideal reaction of a hydrogen or alkali atom-laser pulse where the surface target is an adsorbed hydrogen atom. The reaction yields either a hydrogen or alkali hydride molecule. The desorbed gas-phase molecular yield and its internal state is shown to be controlled by the time and phase delay between two atom-laser pulses. The calculation is based on solving the time-dependent Schroedinger equation in a diabatic framework. The probability of desorption which is the predicted 2PACC signal has been calculated as a function of the pulse parameters

  12. Broadband pump-probe spectroscopy with sub-10-fs resolution for probing ultrafast internal conversion and coherent phonons in carotenoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polli, D.; Antognazza, M.R.; Brida, D.; Lanzani, G.; Cerullo, G.; De Silvestri, S.

    2008-01-01

    We use pump-probe spectroscopy with broadband detection to study electronic energy relaxation and coherent vibrational dynamics in carotenoids. A fast optical multichannel analyzer combined with a non-collinear optical parametric amplifier allows simultaneous acquisition of the differential transmission dynamics on the 500-700 nm wavelength range with sub-10-fs temporal resolution. The broad spectral coverage enables on the one hand a detailed study of the ultrafast bright-to-dark state internal conversion process; on the other hand, the tracking of the motion of the vibrational wavepacket launched on the ground state multidimensional potential energy surface. We present results on all-trans β-carotene and on a long-chain polyene in solution. The developed experimental setup enables the straightforward acquisition and analysis of coherent vibrational dynamics, highlighting time-frequency domain features with extreme resolution

  13. A theoretical investigation of super-resolution CARS imaging via coherent and incoherent saturation of transitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beeker, W.P.; Beeker, Willem; Lee, Christopher James; Boller, Klaus J.; Gross, Petra; Gross, P.; Cleff, Carsten; Fallnich, Carsten; Offerhaus, Herman L.; Herek, Jennifer Lynn

    2011-01-01

    We review two approaches to achieving sub-diffraction-limited resolution coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy (Beeker et al., Opt. Express, 2009, 17, 22632 and Beeker et al., J. Herek, Phys. Rev. A, 2010, 81, 012507). We performed a numerical investigation, based on the density

  14. Tunnel splitting in biaxial spin models investigated with spin-coherent-state path integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhide; Liang, J.-Q.; Pu, F.-C.

    2003-01-01

    Tunnel splitting in biaxial spin models is investigated with a full evaluation of the fluctuation functional integrals of the Euclidean kernel in the framework of spin-coherent-state path integrals which leads to a magnitude of tunnel splitting quantitatively comparable with the numerical results in terms of diagonalization of the Hamilton operator. An additional factor resulted from a global time transformation converting the position-dependent mass to a constant one seems to be equivalent to the semiclassical correction of the Lagrangian proposed by Enz and Schilling. A long standing question whether the spin-coherent-state representation of path integrals can result in an accurate tunnel splitting is therefore resolved

  15. Investigation of optical coherence tomography as an imaging modality in tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Ying; Dubois, Arnaud; Qin Xiangpei; Li Jian; Haj, Alicia El; Wang, Ruikang K

    2006-01-01

    Monitoring cell profiles in 3D porous scaffolds presents a major challenge in tissue engineering. In this study, we investigate optical coherence tomography (OCT) as an imaging modality to monitor non-invasively both structures and cells in engineered tissue constructs. We employ time-domain OCT to visualize macro-structural morphology, and whole-field optical coherence microscopy to delineate the morphology of cells and constructs in a developing in vitro engineered bone tissue. The results show great potential for the use of OCT in non-invasive monitoring of cellular activities in 3D developing engineered tissues

  16. Anomalous Phase Change in [(GeTe)2/(Sb2Te3)]20 Superlattice Observed by Coherent Phonon Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, K.; Saito, Y.; Mitrofanov, K.; Tominaga, J.; Kolobov, A. V.; Nakano, T.; Fons, P.; Hase, M.

    The temperature-dependent ultrafast coherent phonon dynamics of topological (GeTe)2/(Sb2Te3) super lattice phase change memory material was investigated. By comparing with Ge-Sb-Te alloy, a clear contrast suggesting the unique phase change behavior was found.

  17. A versatile setup for ultrafast broadband optical spectroscopy of coherent collective modes in strongly correlated quantum systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edoardo Baldini

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A femtosecond pump-probe setup is described that is optimised for broadband transient reflectivity experiments on solid samples over a wide temperature range. By combining high temporal resolution and a broad detection window, this apparatus can investigate the interplay between coherent collective modes and high-energy electronic excitations, which is a distinctive characteristic of correlated electron systems. Using a single-shot readout array detector at frame rates of 10 kHz allows resolving coherent oscillations with amplitudes <10−4. We demonstrate its operation on the charge-transfer insulator La2CuO4, revealing coherent phonons with frequencies up to 13 THz and providing access into their Raman matrix elements.

  18. Longitudinal bunch diagnostics using coherent transition radiation spectroscopy. Physical principles, multichannel spectrometer, experimental results, mathematical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Bernhard; Wesch, Stephan; Behrens, Christopher; Koevener, Toke; Hass, Eugen; Casalbuoni, Sara

    2018-03-01

    The generation and properties of transition radiation (TR) are thoroughly treated. The spectral energy density, as described by the Ginzburg-Frank formula, is computed analytically, and the modifications caused by the finite size of the TR screen and by near-field diffraction effects are carefully analyzed. The principles of electron bunch shape reconstruction using coherent transition radiation are outlined. Spectroscopic measurements yield only the magnitude of the longitudinal form factor but not its phase. Two phase retrieval methods are investigated and illustrated with model calculations: analytic phase computation by means of the Kramers-Kronig dispersion relation, and iterative phase retrieval. Particular attention is paid to the ambiguities which are unavoidable in the reconstruction of longitudinal charge density profiles from spectroscopic data. The origin of these ambiguities has been identified and a thorough mathematical analysis is presented. The experimental part of the paper comprises a description of our multichannel infrared and THz spectrometer and a selection of measurements at FLASH, comparing the bunch profiles derived from spectroscopic data with those determined with a transversely deflecting microwave structure. A rigorous derivation of the Kramers-Kronig phase formula is presented in Appendix A. Numerous analytic model calculations can be found in Appendix B. The differences between normal and truncated Gaussians are discussed in Appendix C. Finally, Appendix D contains a short description of the propagation of an electromagnetic wave front by two-dimensional fast Fourier transformation. This is the basis of a powerful numerical Mathematica trademark code THzTransport, which permits the propagation of electromagnetic wave fronts through a beam line consisting of drift spaces, lenses, mirrors and apertures.

  19. Longitudinal bunch diagnostics using coherent transition radiation spectroscopy. Physical principles, multichannel spectrometer, experimental results, mathematical methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Bernhard; Wesch, Stephan; Behrens, Christopher [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Koevener, Toke [Hamburg Univ. (Germany); European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Hass, Eugen [Hamburg Univ. (Germany); Casalbuoni, Sara [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany). Inst. for Beam Physics and Technology; Schmueser, Peter [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Hamburg Univ. (Germany)

    2018-03-15

    The generation and properties of transition radiation (TR) are thoroughly treated. The spectral energy density, as described by the Ginzburg-Frank formula, is computed analytically, and the modifications caused by the finite size of the TR screen and by near-field diffraction effects are carefully analyzed. The principles of electron bunch shape reconstruction using coherent transition radiation are outlined. Spectroscopic measurements yield only the magnitude of the longitudinal form factor but not its phase. Two phase retrieval methods are investigated and illustrated with model calculations: analytic phase computation by means of the Kramers-Kronig dispersion relation, and iterative phase retrieval. Particular attention is paid to the ambiguities which are unavoidable in the reconstruction of longitudinal charge density profiles from spectroscopic data. The origin of these ambiguities has been identified and a thorough mathematical analysis is presented. The experimental part of the paper comprises a description of our multichannel infrared and THz spectrometer and a selection of measurements at FLASH, comparing the bunch profiles derived from spectroscopic data with those determined with a transversely deflecting microwave structure. A rigorous derivation of the Kramers-Kronig phase formula is presented in Appendix A. Numerous analytic model calculations can be found in Appendix B. The differences between normal and truncated Gaussians are discussed in Appendix C. Finally, Appendix D contains a short description of the propagation of an electromagnetic wave front by two-dimensional fast Fourier transformation. This is the basis of a powerful numerical Mathematica trademark code THzTransport, which permits the propagation of electromagnetic wave fronts through a beam line consisting of drift spaces, lenses, mirrors and apertures.

  20. Utilizing Raman Spectroscopy and Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy to investigate healthy and cancerous colon samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barzegar, A.; Rezaei, H.; Malekfar, R.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, spontaneous Raman scattering and surface-enhanced Raman scattering, Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy spectra have been investigated. The samples which were kept in the formalin solution selected from the human's healthy and cancerous colon tissues. The Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy spectra were collected by adding colloidal solution contained silver nanoparticles to the top of the samples. The recorded spectra were compared for the spontaneous Raman spectra of healthy and cancerous colon samples. The spontaneous and surface enhanced Raman scattering data were also collected and compared for both healthy and damaged samples.

  1. Atomic and molecular spectroscopy with optical-frequency-comb-referenced IR coherent sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancio, P.; Bartalini, S.; De Rosa, M.; Giusfredi, G.; Mazzotti, D.; Maddaloni, P.; Vitiello, M. S.; De Natale, P.

    2013-01-01

    We provide a review of progress in the development of metrological-grade measurements in atomic and molecular systems through the extension, in the mid-infrared and far-infrared range, of optical frequency combs (OFCs) and the introduction of new techniques and highly coherent sources. (authors)

  2. Application of Moessbauer spectroscopy in investigating Egyptian archaeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eissa, N.A.; Sallam, H.A.

    1988-01-01

    This article summarizes the results of applications of the Moessbauer spectroscopy to investigate Ancient Egyptian pottery from the periods: Ancient Egyptian (3200-525 B.C.), Greek-Roman (320 B.C.-640 A.C.) and Early Islamic (800-1000 A.C.). Many objective informations deduced about: provinance, manufacturing techniques for different domestic purposes, civilization transfer between the Arab countries, methods of colouration and applying decorating glazes, and finally dating of ancient pottery. (orig.)

  3. Combination of laser correlation and dielectric spectroscopy in albumin investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nepomnyashchaya, E; Cheremiskina, A; Velichko, E; Aksenov, E; Bogomaz, T

    2015-01-01

    Joint use of laser correlation and dielectric spectroscopies for studies of biomolecular properties of albumin in water solution is considered. The conditions and parameters of the experiments are discussed. Similar behaviours of albumin molecular sizes and maximum frequency of peak of dielectric dissipation factor with increasing acidity were revealed. Using the suggested approach, biomolecular aggregation dynamics and changes in electrophysical properties on transition from one molecular structure to another may be investigated. (paper)

  4. Method and system to measure temperature of gases using coherent anti-stokes doppler spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Mark

    2013-12-17

    A method of measuring a temperature of a noble gas in a chamber includes providing the noble gas in the chamber. The noble gas is characterized by a pressure and a temperature. The method also includes directing a first laser beam into the chamber and directing a second laser beam into the chamber. The first laser beam is characterized by a first frequency and the second laser beam is characterized by a second frequency. The method further includes converting at least a portion of the first laser beam and the second laser beam into a coherent anti-Stokes beam, measuring a Doppler broadening of the coherent anti-Stokes beam, and computing the temperature using the Doppler broadening.

  5. Quantum coherence spectroscopy reveals complex dynamics in bacterial light-harvesting complex 2 (LH2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel, Elad; Engel, Gregory S

    2012-01-17

    Light-harvesting antenna complexes transfer energy from sunlight to photosynthetic reaction centers where charge separation drives cellular metabolism. The process through which pigments transfer excitation energy involves a complex choreography of coherent and incoherent processes mediated by the surrounding protein and solvent environment. The recent discovery of coherent dynamics in photosynthetic light-harvesting antennae has motivated many theoretical models exploring effects of interference in energy transfer phenomena. In this work, we provide experimental evidence of long-lived quantum coherence between the spectrally separated B800 and B850 rings of the light-harvesting complex 2 (LH2) of purple bacteria. Spectrally resolved maps of the detuning, dephasing, and the amplitude of electronic coupling between excitons reveal that different relaxation pathways act in concert for optimal transfer efficiency. Furthermore, maps of the phase of the signal suggest that quantum mechanical interference between different energy transfer pathways may be important even at ambient temperature. Such interference at a product state has already been shown to enhance the quantum efficiency of transfer in theoretical models of closed loop systems such as LH2.

  6. High-resolution x-ray spectroscopy of coherent bremsstrahlung fine structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, M.W.

    1989-01-01

    The aim of this research was to provide experimental evidence for fine structure due to umklapp by distinct reciprocal lattice vectors in coherent bremsstrahlung spectra. The spontaneous emission of photons by relativistic electrons transversing thin crystals is made possible by recoil of the crystal, which absorbs momentum in multiples of ℎG where G is a reciprocal lattice vector. Previous work in the MeV-GeV beam energy range used detectors whose energy resolution was greater than 10%. By fitting a Johann wavelength dispersive spectrometer to a transmission electron microscope the author obtained coherent bremsstrahlung spectra of very high quality with energy resolution of 1%. Important to this result were also the fine angular collimation, small energy width of the electron beam in the microscope, and the accurate control of crystal orientation possible in a modern goniometer stage. The theory of the design of bent crystal x-ray spectrometers is extended to include effects of defocus and aberrations. The theory for diffraction from a stationary three dimensional grating due to a dipole radiator moving at relativistic speeds is derived as well as several other broadening mechanisms stemming from experimental variables. This dissertation provides the first experimental observations and corresponding theoretical background for the fine structure of coherent bremsstrahlung due to umklapp by different G-vectors in the same reciprocal lattice plane

  7. Two-beam ultrabroadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy for high resolution gas-phase multiplex imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohlin, Alexis; Kliewer, Christopher J., E-mail: cjkliew@sandia.gov [Combustion Research Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2014-01-20

    We propose and develop a method for wideband coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) in the gas phase and demonstrate the single-shot measurement of N{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and CH{sub 4}. Pure-rotational and vibrational O-, Q-, and S- branch spectra are collected simultaneously, with high spectral and spatial resolution, and within a single-laser-shot. The relative intensity of the rotational and vibrational signals can be tuned arbitrarily using polarization techniques. The ultrashort 7 fs pump and Stokes pulses are automatically overlapped temporally and spatially using a two-beam CARS technique, and the crossed probe beam allows for excellent spatial sectioning of the probed location.

  8. The Israeli EA-FEL Upgrade Towards Long Pulse Operation for Ultra-High Resolution Single Pulse Coherent Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Gover, A; Kanter, M; Kapilevich, B; Litvak, B; Peleg, S; Socol, Y; Volshonok, M

    2005-01-01

    The Israeli Electrostatic Accelerator FEL (EA-FEL) is now being upgraded towards long pulse (1005s) operation and ultra-high resolution (10(-6)) single pulse coherent spectroscopy. We present quantitative estimations regarding the applications of controlled radiation chirp for spectroscopic applications with pulse-time Fourier Transform limited spectral resolution. Additionally, we describe a novel extraction-efficiency-improving scheme based on increase of accelerating voltage (boosting) after saturation is achieved. The efficiency of the proposed scheme is confirmed by theoretical and numerical calculations. The latter are performed using software, based on 3D space-frequency domain model. The presentation provides an overview of the upgrade status: the high-voltage terminal is being reconfigured to accept the accelerating voltage boost system; a new broad band low-loss resonator is being manufactured; multi-stage depressed collector is assembled.

  9. Two-beam ultrabroadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy for high resolution gas-phase multiplex imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohlin, Alexis; Kliewer, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    We propose and develop a method for wideband coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) in the gas phase and demonstrate the single-shot measurement of N 2 , H 2 , CO 2 , O 2 , and CH 4 . Pure-rotational and vibrational O-, Q-, and S- branch spectra are collected simultaneously, with high spectral and spatial resolution, and within a single-laser-shot. The relative intensity of the rotational and vibrational signals can be tuned arbitrarily using polarization techniques. The ultrashort 7 fs pump and Stokes pulses are automatically overlapped temporally and spatially using a two-beam CARS technique, and the crossed probe beam allows for excellent spatial sectioning of the probed location

  10. Investigation on the properties of the formation and coherence of intense fringe near nonlinear medium slab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghua Hu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Near medium intense (NMI fringe is a kind of intense fringe which can be formed near Kerr medium in high-power laser beam propagation. The formation properties of NMI fringe and the relations between NMI fringe and related important parameters are systematically investigated. It is found that it is the co-existence of two wirelike phase-typed scatterers in the incident beam spot which is mainly responsible for the high intensity of NMI fringe. From the viewpoint of coherent superposition, the formation process of NMI fringe is analyzed, and the mechanism that NMI fringe is formed by the coherent superposition of the localized bright fringes in the exit field of Kerr medium slab is demonstrated. The fluctuations of NMI fringe properties with beam wavelength, scatterer spacing and object distance are studied, the coherence of NMI fringe are revealed, and the approximate periodicity of the appearance of remarkable NMI fringe for these parameters are obtained. Especially, it is found that the intensity of NMI fringe is very sensitive to scatterer spacing. Besides, the laws about how NMI fringe properties will be changed by the modulation properties of scatterers and the medium thickness are demonstrated. Keywords: High-power laser beam, Nonlinear propagation, Kerr medium, Small-scale scatterer, Nonlinear imaging

  11. Investigation on the properties of the formation and coherence of intense fringe near nonlinear medium slab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yonghua; Qiu, Yaqiong; Li, Yang; Shi, Lin

    2018-03-01

    Near medium intense (NMI) fringe is a kind of intense fringe which can be formed near Kerr medium in high-power laser beam propagation. The formation properties of NMI fringe and the relations between NMI fringe and related important parameters are systematically investigated. It is found that it is the co-existence of two wirelike phase-typed scatterers in the incident beam spot which is mainly responsible for the high intensity of NMI fringe. From the viewpoint of coherent superposition, the formation process of NMI fringe is analyzed, and the mechanism that NMI fringe is formed by the coherent superposition of the localized bright fringes in the exit field of Kerr medium slab is demonstrated. The fluctuations of NMI fringe properties with beam wavelength, scatterer spacing and object distance are studied, the coherence of NMI fringe are revealed, and the approximate periodicity of the appearance of remarkable NMI fringe for these parameters are obtained. Especially, it is found that the intensity of NMI fringe is very sensitive to scatterer spacing. Besides, the laws about how NMI fringe properties will be changed by the modulation properties of scatterers and the medium thickness are demonstrated.

  12. Localized vibrations in superconducting YB a2C u3O7 revealed by ultrafast optical coherent spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novelli, Fabio; Giovannetti, Gianluca; Avella, Adolfo; Cilento, Federico; Patthey, Luc; Radovic, Milan; Capone, Massimo; Parmigiani, Fulvio; Fausti, Daniele

    2017-05-01

    The interaction between phonons and high-energy excitations of electronic origin in cuprates and their role in the superconducting mechanisms is still controversial. Here we use coherent vibrational time-domain spectroscopy together with density functional and dynamical mean-field theory calculations to establish a direct link between the c -axis phonon modes and the in-plane electronic charge excitations in optimally doped YB a2C u3O7 . The nonequilibrium Raman tensor is measured by means of the broadband "coherent-phonon" response in pump-probe experiments and is qualitatively described by our model using density functional theory in the frozen-phonon approximation plus single-band dynamical mean-field theory to account for the electronic correlations. The major outcome of our experimental and theoretical study is to establish the link between out-of-plane copper ion displacements and the in-plane electronic correlations, and to estimate at a few unit cells the correlation length of the associated phonon mode. The approach introduced here could help in revealing the complex interplay between fluctuations of different nature and spatial correlation in several strongly correlated materials.

  13. On ionospheric investigations by coherent radiowaves emitted from artificial Earth satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al'fert, Ja. L.

    1976-01-01

    Results of radio-investigations of the ionosphere with the help of coherent radiowaves emitted by beacons placed on artificial Earth satellites are given. The data discussed cover the period from 1958, after the launch of Sputniks 1 and 3, until the last years, when the geostationary satellites ATS were launched. It is shown that up to the present justice has not been done in these experiments to investigations of the local properties of the near Earth plasma. This is a great deficiency in this field of investigation. Data are given which illustrate results of investigations of local ionospheric characteristics. Such data may help to solve some problems in the present stage of the near Earth plasma study. A new possibility of radio-investigation of the near Earth plasma with the help of a chain of satellites connected together is pointed out. (Auth.)

  14. Russian Federal nuclear center facilities for nuclear spectroscopy investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilkaev, R.I.; Punin, V.T.; Abramovich, S.N.

    2001-01-01

    Russian Federal Nuclear Center facilities for Spectroscopy investigation in the field of nuclear spectroscopy are described. Here are discussed basic properties of used radiation sources, facilities and technologies for target material production and manufacture of targets from rare, high-toxic or radioactive materials. Here are also reported basic features of complex detector systems and technologies for manufacture of scintillation detectors with special properties VNIIEF was founded as a weapons laboratory. The development of nuclear and thermonuclear bombs was followed by a wide complex of nuclear-physics investigations. Naturally, data on nuclear-physics properties of active and structure materials being part of nuclear weapons were of greatest interest.At the initial stage of work on the development of nuclear weapons the information on nuclear constants of materials including the most important neutron ones was rather scant. Data published in scientific literature had low exactness and were insecure. Results of measurements sometimes differed greatly by various groups of investigators. At the same time it was clear that, for example, a 1,5-times mistake in the fission cross-section could cause a several times mistake in the choice of uranium or plutonium mass, which is necessary for the bomb development. These circumstances determined importance of the nuclear-physics investigations. Demands on knowledge of process details occurring inside the nuclei conditioned by a problem of developing and improving of nuclear weapons and atomic power are rather limited. However, the further development of nuclear industry has proved a well-known point that this knowledge being accumulated forms a critical mass that leads to an explosive situation in the elaboration both of ideological and technological aspects of these problems. It is the tendency of inside development of nuclear science that has conditioned preparedness of knowledge about intranuclear processes for

  15. Visualization experimental investigation on long stripe coherent structure in small-scale rectangular channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Jiqiang; Sun Zhongning; Fan Guangming; Wang Shiming

    2013-01-01

    The long stripe coherent structure of the turbulent boundary layer in a small- scale vertical rectangular channel was observed by using hydrogen bubble flow trace visualization technique. The statistical properties of the long stripe in the experimental channel boundary layer were compared with that in the smooth flat plate boundary layer. The pitch characteristics were explained by the formation mechanism of the long stripe. It was analyzed that how the change of y + affected the distribution of the long stripe. In addition, the frequency characteristics of the long stripe were also investigated, and the correlation of the long stripe frequency in such a flow channel was obtained. (authors)

  16. NIRS - Near infrared spectroscopy - investigations in neurovascular diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schytz, Henrik Winther

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to explore and develop methods, where continuous wave near infrared spectroscopy (CW-NIRS) can be applied in different neurovascular diseases, in order to find biological markers that are useful in clinical neurology. To develop a new method to detect changes...... tomography (133Xe-SPECT) and the corrected BFI value. It was concluded, that it was not possible to obtain reliable BFI data with the ICG CW-NIRS method. NIRS measurements of low frequency oscillations (LFOs) may be a reliable method to investigate vascular alterations in neurovascular diseases......, but this requires an acceptable LFOs variation between hemispheres and over time in the healthy brain. The second study therefore investigated day-to-day and hemispheric variations in LFOs with NIRS. It was shown that NIRS might be useful in assessing LFOs between hemispheres, as well as interhemispheric phase...

  17. Dispersion-based stimulated Raman scattering spectroscopy, holography, and optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Francisco E; Fischer, Martin C; Warren, Warren S

    2016-01-11

    Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) enables fast, high resolution imaging of chemical constituents important to biological structures and functional processes, both in a label-free manner and using exogenous biomarkers. While this technology has shown remarkable potential, it is currently limited to point scanning and can only probe a few Raman bands at a time (most often, only one). In this work we take a fundamentally different approach to detecting the small nonlinear signals based on dispersion effects that accompany the loss/gain processes in SRS. In this proof of concept, we demonstrate that the dispersive measurements are more robust to noise compared to amplitude-based measurements, which then permit spectral or spatial multiplexing (potentially both, simultaneously). Finally, we illustrate how this method may enable different strategies for biochemical imaging using phase microscopy and optical coherence tomography.

  18. Investigating superconductivity by tunneling spectroscopy using oxide heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fillis-Tsirakis, Evangelos

    2017-06-19

    Electronic systems which are as highly-functional as the LaAlO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} interface are rare, as the emergent high-mobility two-dimensional electron system (2DES) exhibits ferromagnetism, incipient ferroelectricity, piezoelectricity, Rashba spin-orbit coupling, superconductivity and high electronic correlations; properties that may also coexist with one another. The possibility of tuning its electrical properties by external parameters such as a gate-field, temperature, pressure and magnetic-field makes the LaAlO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3}-2DES the scientific analogue of a multi-tool. LaAlO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} samples were grown by pulsed-laser-deposition. Using this system, planar tunnel junctions were constructed that allowed for tunneling spectroscopy measurements. The resemblance of the LaAlO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} 2DES to the high-temperature superconductors undoubtedly adds value to the findings of this work. Further investigation of its nature has revealed that by depleting from the optimally doped region, the electron-phonon coupling strength increases and accounts for the persisting superconducting behavior within the macroscopically resistive regime at very low doping. Transport measurements at T = 50 mK were performed while tuning the carrier concentration and sweeping magnetic fields in the perpendicular-to-interface orientation, to investigate the superconductor-to-insulator transition by carrier depletion. The transition in LaAlO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3}, induced by tuning the carrier concentration, has thus been characterized as a superconductor-metal-insulator transition (SMIT). One aim of these measurements was to investigate the possible existence of the ''superinsulator'' phase, identified by several authors in thin metallic films. Such a phase has not been observed during transport measurements at the LaAlO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} 2DES. The nature of superconductivity in the entire phase diagram and particularly across the SMIT has

  19. Investigating superconductivity by tunneling spectroscopy using oxide heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillis-Tsirakis, Evangelos

    2017-01-01

    Electronic systems which are as highly-functional as the LaAlO 3 /SrTiO 3 interface are rare, as the emergent high-mobility two-dimensional electron system (2DES) exhibits ferromagnetism, incipient ferroelectricity, piezoelectricity, Rashba spin-orbit coupling, superconductivity and high electronic correlations; properties that may also coexist with one another. The possibility of tuning its electrical properties by external parameters such as a gate-field, temperature, pressure and magnetic-field makes the LaAlO 3 /SrTiO 3 -2DES the scientific analogue of a multi-tool. LaAlO 3 /SrTiO 3 samples were grown by pulsed-laser-deposition. Using this system, planar tunnel junctions were constructed that allowed for tunneling spectroscopy measurements. The resemblance of the LaAlO 3 /SrTiO 3 2DES to the high-temperature superconductors undoubtedly adds value to the findings of this work. Further investigation of its nature has revealed that by depleting from the optimally doped region, the electron-phonon coupling strength increases and accounts for the persisting superconducting behavior within the macroscopically resistive regime at very low doping. Transport measurements at T = 50 mK were performed while tuning the carrier concentration and sweeping magnetic fields in the perpendicular-to-interface orientation, to investigate the superconductor-to-insulator transition by carrier depletion. The transition in LaAlO 3 /SrTiO 3 , induced by tuning the carrier concentration, has thus been characterized as a superconductor-metal-insulator transition (SMIT). One aim of these measurements was to investigate the possible existence of the ''superinsulator'' phase, identified by several authors in thin metallic films. Such a phase has not been observed during transport measurements at the LaAlO 3 /SrTiO 3 2DES. The nature of superconductivity in the entire phase diagram and particularly across the SMIT has been investigated by magnetic-field-dependent tunneling

  20. Investigation of radiosterilization feasibility of sulfamethoxazole by ESR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çolak, Şeyda

    2017-12-01

    In the present study, the spectroscopic features of the radiolytic intermediates that were produced in gamma-irradiated (5, 10, 25 and 50 kGy) sulfamethoxazole (SMX) have been investigated by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy and the radiation sterilization feasibility of SMX by ionizing radiation was examined. Gamma-irradiated SMX exhibited a complex ESR spectrum consisting of 13 resonance lines where spectral parameters for the central resonance line were found to be g = 2.0062 and ΔHpp = 0.6 mT. The radiation yield of SMX was calculated to be relatively low (G = 0.1) by ESR spectroscopy and no meaningful difference was observed in the comparison of unirradiated and 50 kGy gamma irradiated SMX by the Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) technique, confirming that SMX is a radioresistive material. Although SMX could not be accepted to be a good dosimetric material, the identification of irradiated SMX from the unirradiated sample was possible even for the low absorbed radiation doses and for a relatively long time (three months) after the irradiation process. Decay activation energy of the radical species, which is mostly responsible for the central intense resonance line, is calculated to be 45.15 kJ/mol by using the signal intensity decay data derived from annealing studies. Four radical species with different spectroscopic properties were accepted to be responsible for the ESR spectra of gamma-irradiated SMX, by simulation calculations. It is concluded that SMX and SMX-containing drugs can be sterilized by gamma radiation and ESR spectroscopy is an appropriate technique for the characterization of these induced radical intermediates during the gamma irradiation process of SMX. Toxicology tests should also be done for its safe usage.

  1. Coherent Spectroscopy of Ultra-Cold Mercury for the UV to VUV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-20

    cw   laser   source.  The  spectroscopy   laser  system  utilizes  a   cw  fiber   laser  that  is  amplified  and...this,  we  first  lock  a   secondary  external  cavity  semiconductor   diode   laser  to  an  ultrastable  ULE  reference...system  to   the   diode   laser .  This

  2. High-resolution 1H NMR spectroscopy of fish muscle, eggs and small whole fish via Hadamard-encoded intermolecular multiple-quantum coherence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honghao Cai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy has become an important technique for tissue studies. Since tissues are in semisolid-state, their high-resolution (HR spectra cannot be obtained by conventional NMR spectroscopy. Because of this restriction, extraction and high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR MAS are widely applied for HR NMR spectra of tissues. However, both of the methods are subject to limitations. In this study, the feasibility of HR (1H NMR spectroscopy based on intermolecular multiple-quantum coherence (iMQC technique is explored using fish muscle, fish eggs, and a whole fish as examples. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Intact salmon muscle tissues, intact eggs from shishamo smelt and a whole fish (Siamese algae eater are studied by using conventional 1D one-pulse sequence, Hadamard-encoded iMQC sequence, and HR MAS. RESULTS: When we use the conventional 1D one-pulse sequence, hardly any useful spectral information can be obtained due to the severe field inhomogeneity. By contrast, HR NMR spectra can be obtained in a short period of time by using the Hadamard-encoded iMQC method without shimming. Most signals from fatty acids and small metabolites can be observed. Compared to HR MAS, the iMQC method is non-invasive, but the resolution and the sensitivity of resulting spectra are not as high as those of HR MAS spectra. CONCLUSION: Due to the immunity to field inhomogeneity, the iMQC technique can be a proper supplement to HR MAS, and it provides an alternative for the investigation in cases with field distortions and with samples unsuitable for spinning. The acquisition time of the proposed method is greatly reduced by introduction of the Hadamard-encoded technique, in comparison with that of conventional iMQC method.

  3. Investigation of microbial-mineral interactions by Moessbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawicki, J.A.; Brown, D.A.

    1998-01-01

    Moessbauer spectroscopy was used to investigate the reactions of microbes with iron minerals in aqueous solutions and as components of rocks in banded iron formations and granite. A microbial biofilm that formed on a wall of an excavated granite vault in a deep underground laboratory initiated this research. At the aerobic face of the biofilm, iron was found in a form of ferrihydrite; in the anaerobic face against the rock, iron was found as very small siderite particles. Laboratory incubations of the biofilm microbial consortium showed different mineral species could be formed. When the microbial consortium from the biofilm was incubated with magnetite grains, up to about 10% of the iron was altered in three weeks to hematite. The ability of the consortium to precipitate iron both as Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ in close proximity may have a bearing on the deposition of banded iron formations. These reactions could also be important in microbially induced corrosion

  4. Vibrational motions associated with primary processes in bacteriorhodopsin studied by coherent infrared emission spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groma, Géza I; Colonna, Anne; Martin, Jean-Louis; Vos, Marten H

    2011-03-16

    The primary energetic processes driving the functional proton pump of bacteriorhodopsin take place in the form of complex molecular dynamic events after excitation of the retinal chromophore into the Franck-Condon state. These early events include a strong electronic polarization, skeletal stretching, and all-trans-to-13-cis isomerization upon formation of the J intermediate. The effectiveness of the photoreaction is ensured by a conical intersection between the electronic excited and ground states, providing highly nonadiabatic coupling to nuclear motions. Here, we study real-time vibrational coherences associated with these motions by analyzing light-induced infrared emission from oriented purple membranes in the 750-1400 cm(-)(1) region. The experimental technique applied is based on second-order femtosecond difference frequency generation on macroscopically ordered samples that also yield information on phase and direction of the underlying motions. Concerted use of several analysis methods resulted in the isolation and characterization of seven different vibrational modes, assigned as C-C stretches, out-of-plane methyl rocks, and hydrogen out-of-plane wags, whereas no in-plane H rock was found. Based on their lifetimes and several other criteria, we deduce that the majority of the observed modes take place on the potential energy surface of the excited electronic state. In particular, the direction sensitivity provides experimental evidence for large intermediate distortions of the retinal plane during the excited-state isomerization process. Copyright © 2011 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Optical phase nanoscopy in red blood cells using low-coherence spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shock, Itay; Barbul, Alexander; Girshovitz, Pinhas; Nevo, Uri; Korenstein, Rafi; Shaked, Natan T

    2012-10-01

    We propose a low-coherence spectral-domain phase microscopy (SDPM) system for accurate quantitative phase measurements in red blood cells (RBCs) for the prognosis and monitoring of disease conditions that affect the visco-elastic properties of RBCs. Using the system, we performed time-recordings of cell membrane fluctuations, and compared the nano-scale fluctuation dynamics of healthy and glutaraldehyde-treated RBCs. Glutaraldehyde-treated RBCs possess lower amplitudes of fluctuations, reflecting an increased membrane stiffness. To demonstrate the ability of our system to measure fluctuations of lower amplitudes than those measured by the commonly used holographic phase microscopy techniques, we also constructed wide-field digital interferometry (WFDI) system and compared the performances of both systems. Due to its common-path geometry, the optical-path-delay stability of SDPM was found to be less than 0.3 nm in liquid environment, at least three times better than WFDI under the same conditions. In addition, due to the compactness of SDPM and its inexpensive and robust design, the system possesses a high potential for clinical applications.

  6. Investigation of Surface Enhanced Coherent Raman Scattering on Nano-patterned Insect Wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujj, Laszlo; Lawhead, Carlos

    2015-03-01

    Many insect wings (cicadas, butterflies, mosquitos) poses nano-patterned surface structure. Characterization of surface morphology and chemical composition of insect wings is important to understand the extreme mechanical properties and the biophysical functionalities of the wings. We have measured the image of the membrane of a cicada's wing with the help of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The results confirm the existing periodic structure of the wing measured previously. In order to identify the chemical composition of the wing, we have deposited silver nanoparticles on it and applied Coherent anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy to measure the vibrational spectra of the molecules comprising the wing for the first time. The measured spectra are consistent with the original assumption that the wing membrane is composed of protein, wax, and chitin. The results of these studies can be used to measure other nano-patterned surfaces and to make artificial materials in the future. Authors grateful for financial support from the Department of Physics of the College of Sciences Engineering and Health of UWF and the Pall Corporation for SEM imaging.

  7. Investigation of polyelectrolyte desorption by single molecule force spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedsam, C; Seitz, M; Gaub, H E

    2004-01-01

    Single molecule force spectroscopy has evolved into a powerful method for the investigation of intra- and intermolecular interactions at the level of individual molecules. Many examples, including the investigation of the dynamic properties of complex biological systems as well as the properties of covalent bonds or intermolecular transitions within individual polymers, are reported in the literature. The technique has recently been extended to the systematic investigation of desorption processes of individual polyelectrolyte molecules adsorbed on generic surfaces. The stable covalent attachment of polyelectrolyte molecules to the AFM-tip provides the possibility of performing long-term measurements with the same set of molecules and therefore allows the in situ observation of the impact of environmental changes on the adsorption behaviour of individual molecules. Different types of interactions, e.g. electrostatic or hydrophobic interactions, that determine the adsorption process could be identified and characterized. The experiments provided valuable details that help to understand the nature and the properties of non-covalent interactions, which is helpful with regard to biological systems as well as for technical applications. Apart from this, desorption experiments can be utilized to characterize the properties of surfaces or polymer coatings. Therefore they represent a versatile tool that can be further developed in terms of various aspects

  8. Investigation of pollutant gases with molecular absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izairi, N; Ajredini, F.; Shehabi, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper contains the molecular absorption spectroscopic investigation on environmental pollution by many pollutants. For this purpose a laser absorption spectroscopy at 630 nm wavelength has been applied to excite the molecular spectra in order to identify the presence of main gas pollutants. The following was the experimental procedure. Preliminary the presence of pollutants was identified. The gas champions were taken in live environment, in Tetovo streets where cars moved, and in some points in Tetovo suburbia, during different periods of the day. A special civet, part of the apparatus, has been filled by environmental air, and latter, put into the apparatus. A laser beam pulse passes throughout absorbing gas medium in the civet to excite the gas, and the absorbing spectra were automatically registered. The molecular band spectra registration has been performed by an FT-IR Spectrometer (Spectrum BX FT-IR Perkin Elmer). For this purpose the measurements were focused in spectral region of 2075 cm -1 to 2384 cm -1 for CO 2 and CO bands investigation. The importance of such measurements is to investigate the spectral properties of absorption spectra and molecular structure, and for monitoring the environmental pollution. (Author)

  9. Coherent Two-Dimensional Terahertz Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of Collective Spin Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jian; Li, Xian; Hwang, Harold Y; Ofori-Okai, Benjamin K; Kurihara, Takayuki; Suemoto, Tohru; Nelson, Keith A

    2017-05-19

    We report a demonstration of two-dimensional (2D) terahertz (THz) magnetic resonance spectroscopy using the magnetic fields of two time-delayed THz pulses. We apply the methodology to directly reveal the nonlinear responses of collective spin waves (magnons) in a canted antiferromagnetic crystal. The 2D THz spectra show all of the third-order nonlinear magnon signals including magnon spin echoes, and 2-quantum signals that reveal pairwise correlations between magnons at the Brillouin zone center. We also observe second-order nonlinear magnon signals showing resonance-enhanced second-harmonic and difference-frequency generation. Numerical simulations of the spin dynamics reproduce all of the spectral features in excellent agreement with the experimental 2D THz spectra.

  10. GEAS Spectroscopy Tools for Authentic Research Investigations in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rector, Travis A.; Vogt, Nicole P.

    2018-06-01

    Spectroscopy is one of the most powerful tools that astronomers use to study the universe. However relatively few resources are available that enable undergraduates to explore astronomical spectra interactively. We present web-based applications which guide students through the analysis of real spectra of stars, galaxies, and quasars. The tools are written in HTML5 and function in all modern web browsers on computers and tablets. No software needs to be installed nor do any datasets need to be downloaded, enabling students to use the tools in or outside of class (e.g., for online classes).Approachable GUIs allow students to analyze spectra in the same manner as professional astronomers. The stellar spectroscopy tool can fit a continuum with a blackbody and identify spectral features, as well as fit line profiles and determine equivalent widths. The galaxy and AGN tools can also measure redshifts and calcium break strengths. The tools provide access to an archive of hundreds of spectra obtained with the optical telescopes at Kitt Peak National Observatory. It is also possible to load your own spectra or to query the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) database.We have also developed curricula to investigate these topics: spectral classification, variable stars, redshift, and AGN classification. We will present the functionality of the tools and describe the associated curriculum. The tools are part of the General Education Astronomy Source (GEAS) project based at New Mexico State University, with support from the National Science Foundation (NSF, AST-0349155) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA, NNX09AV36G). Curriculum development was supported by the NSF (DUE-0618849 and DUE-0920293).

  11. Investigation into constant envelope orthogonal frequency division multiplexing for polarization-division multiplexing coherent optical communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yupeng; Ding, Ding

    2017-09-01

    Benefiting from the high spectral efficiency and low peak-to-average power ratio, constant envelope orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is a promising technique in coherent optical communication. Polarization-division multiplexing (PDM) has been employed as an effective way to double the transmission capacity in the commercial 100 Gb/s PDM-QPSK system. We investigated constant envelope OFDM together with PDM. Simulation results show that the acceptable maximum launch power into the fiber improves 10 and 6 dB for 80- and 320-km transmission, respectively (compared with the conventional PDM OFDM system). The maximum reachable distance of the constant envelope OFDM system is able to reach 800 km, and even 1200 km is reachable if an ideal erbium doped fiber amplifier is employed.

  12. Qualitative investigation of fresh human scalp hair with full-field optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woo June; Pi, Long-Quan; Min, Gihyeon; Lee, Won-Soo; Lee, Byeong Ha

    2012-03-01

    We have investigated depth-resolved cellular structures of unmodified fresh human scalp hairs with ultrahigh-resolution full-field optical coherence tomography (FF-OCT). The Linnik-type white light interference microscope has been home-implemented to observe the micro-internal layers of human hairs in their natural environment. In hair shafts, FF-OCT has qualitatively revealed the cellular hair compartments of cuticle and cortex layers involved in keratin filaments and melanin granules. No significant difference between black and white hair shafts was observed except for absence of only the melanin granules in the white hair, reflecting that the density of the melanin granules directly affects the hair color. Anatomical description of plucked hair bulbs was also obtained with the FF-OCT in three-dimensions. We expect this approach will be useful for evaluating cellular alteration of natural hairs on cosmetic assessment or diagnosis of hair diseases.

  13. Coherent Synchrotron Radiation for Rotational Spectroscopy: Application to the Rotational Spectrum of Propynal in the 200-750 GHz Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, J.; Roy, P.; Appadoo, D.; Naughton, D. Mc; Robertson, E.; Manceron, L.

    2013-06-01

    In storage rings, short electron bunches can produce an intense THz radiation called Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR). The flux of this emission between 250 and 750 GHz (in the mW range, up the 10000 times the regular synchrotron emission) is very advantageous for broad band absorption spectroscopy, using interferometric techniques. This source is, however, inherently difficult to stabilize, and intensity fluctuations lead to artifacts on the FT-based measurements, which strongly limit the use of CSR in particular for high-resolution measurements. At SOLEIL however, by screening different currents and bunch lengths, we defined stable CSR conditions for which the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) allows for measurements at high resolution. Moreover, we developed an artifact correction system, based on a simultaneous detection of the input and the output signals of the interferometer, which allows to further improve the S/N. For this purpose, the optics and electronics of two bolometers were matched. The stable CSR combined with this ingenious technique allowed us to record for the first time high-resolution FT spectra in the sub-THz range, with a S/N of 100 in a few hours. This enables many applications such as broadband rotational spectra in the THz range, studies of molecules with low frequency torsional modes, absolute intensities determinations, or studies of unstable species. Results obtained on Propynal illustrate these possibilities and enabled to improve significantly the ground state spectroscopic constants.

  14. Investigating Low-Cost Optical Spectroscopy for Sensing Pressure Ulcers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirchandani, Smruti Suresh

    Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy has been used widely to characterize tissue properties for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. This thesis focuses on the use of spectroscopy for early pressure ulcer detection. The most common early diagnosis technique for pressure ulcers is a blanch test. A major issue with a blanch test is that it is purely visual and cannot be visibly observed on dark skinned individuals. Studies have already proven that spectroscopy can be used to detect blanch response in skin across light and dark skinned individuals. The portable reflectance spectroscopy setup showed that pressure changes to the skin can be detected spectroscopically. Some work on an iPhone based spectrometer was also done to have a low-cost spectroscopy alternative to the usual DRS equipment. This study failed to develop an iPhone based spectrometer but various factors that can be changed to better this research have been mentioned in this thesis.

  15. Signatures of Förster and Dexter transfer processes in coupled nanostructures for linear and two-dimensional coherent optical spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specht, Judith F.; Richter, Marten

    2015-03-01

    In this manuscript, we study the impact of the two Coulomb induced resonance energy transfer processes, Förster and Dexter coupling, on the spectral signatures obtained by double quantum coherence spectroscopy. We show that the specific coupling characteristics allow us to identify the underlying excitation transfer mechanism by means of specific signatures in coherent spectroscopy. Therefore, we control the microscopic calculated coupling strength of spin preserving and spin flipping Förster transfer processes by varying the mutual orientation of the two quantum emitters. The calculated spectra reveal the optical selection rules altered by Förster and Dexter coupling between two semiconductor quantum dots. We show that Dexter coupling between bright and dark two-exciton states occurs.

  16. Thermal desorption spectroscopy for investigating hydrogen isotope behavior in materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Tirui; Yang Hongguang; Zhan Qin; Han Zhibo; He Changshui

    2012-01-01

    The behavior of hydrogen isotope generated in fusion reactor materials is the key issue for safety and economic operation of fusion reactors and becomes an interesting field. In order to investigate the mechanism of hydrogen isotope such as diffusion, release and retention, a high-sensitivity thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) in combination with a quadruple mass spectrometer (QMS) was developed. A major technical breakthrough in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV), low hydrogen background, linear heating and sensitivity calibration of TDS system was made. UHV of l × 10 -7 Pa and low hydrogen background of l × 10 -9 Pa were obtained by combining turbo molecule pump and sputter ion pump. Specimens can be linearly heated up to 1173 K at the rate of 1 to 50 K/min under the MCGS PID software. Sensitivity calibration of the TDS system was accomplished using a special deuterium leak in the detector mode of QMS second electron multiplier. The desorption sensitivity coefficient and the minimum detection limit of deuterium desorption rate are 6.22 × l0 24 s -l · and l.24 × l0 -10 s -1 , respectively. The measurement was also routinely conducted on a specimen of standard, deuterium-containing Zr-4 alloy maintained in the laboratory, so as to validate the TDS method. (authors)

  17. Photoacoustic spectroscopy investigation of sintered zinc-tin-oxide ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivetić Tamara B.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the changes that occurred in differently activated ZnO-SnO2 and sintered samples were investigated using photoacoustic spectroscopy. ZnO and SnO2 powders, mixed in the molar ratio 2:1, were mechanically activated in a planetary ball mill for 10-160 min. The mixtures were pres­sed and isothermally sintered at 1300°C for two hours. X-ray diffraction analysis of the obtained sintered samples was performed in order to investigate changes of the phase composition and confirmed only the presence of a pure zinc stannate (Zn2SnO4 phase in all the sintered samples as a result of the solid state reaction and reaction sintering between the starting ZnO and SnO2 powders. The microstructure of the sintered sam­ples was examined by scanning electron microscopy and showed that mechanical activation leads to the formation of a structure with reduced particle size which accelerates spinel formation. Grain growth of the spinel phase slows down the densification process and together with the agglomerates formed during mechanical activation causes the appearance of a porous microstructure. The photoacoustic (PA phase and amplitude spectra of the sintered samples were recorded as a function of the chopped frequency of the laser beam used (red laser with a power of 25 mW, λ=632 nm in a thermal-transmission detection configuration. PA experimental data were analyzed using the Rosenzweig-Gersho thermal-piston model, which enabled determination of the thermal diffusivity, ZT (m2s-1, diffusion coefficient of the minority free carriers D (m2s-1 and the optical absorption coefficient (m-1. The detected differences of the measured thermal-electrical properties of the obtained Zn2SnO4 ceramics indicate changes in the material induced by the different preparation procedure of the starting powders before the sintering process.

  18. Preliminary optical coherence tomography investigation of the temporo-mandibular joint disc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mărcăuteanu, Corina; Demjan, Enikö; Sinescu, Cosmin; Negrutiu, Meda; Motoc, Adrian; Lighezan, Rodica; Vasile, Liliana; Hughes, Mike; Bradu, Adrian; Dobre, George; Podoleanu, Adrian G.

    2010-02-01

    Aim and objectives. The morphology and position of the temporo-mandibular disc are key issues in the diagnosis and treatment of arthrogenous temporo-mandibular disorders. Magnetic resonance imaging and arthroscopy are used today to identify: flattening of the pars posterior of the disc, perforation and/or adhesions in the pars intermedia of the disc and disc displacements. The present study proposes the investigation of the temporo-mandibular joint disc by optical coherence tomography (OCT). Material and methods. 8 human temporo-mandibular joint discs were harvested from dead subjects, under 40 year of age, and conserved in formalin. They had a normal morphology, with a thicker pars posterior (2,6 mm on the average) and a thinner pars intermedia (1mm on the average). We investigated the disc samples using two different OCT systems: an en-face OCT (time domain (TD)-OCT) system, working at 1300 nm (C-scan and B-scan mode) and a spectral OCT system (a Fourier domain (FD)-OCT) system , working at 840 nm (B-scan mode). Results. The OCT investigation of the temporo-mandibular joint discs revealed a homogeneous microstructure. The longer wavelength of the TD-OCT offers a higher penetration depth (2,5 mm in air), which is important for the analysis of the pars posterior, while the FD-OCT is much faster. Conclusions: OCT is a promising imaging method for the microstructural characterization of the temporo-mandibular disc.

  19. Investigation of tissue cellularity at the tip of the core biopsy needle with optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iftimia, Nicusor; Park, Jesung; Maguluri, Gopi; Krishnamurthy, Savitri; McWatters, Amanda; Sabir, Sharjeel H

    2018-02-01

    We report the development and the pre-clinical testing of a new technology based on optical coherence tomography (OCT) for investigating tissue composition at the tip of the core biopsy needle. While ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging are routinely used to guide needle placement within a tumor, they still do not provide the resolution needed to investigate tissue cellularity (ratio between viable tumor and benign stroma) at the needle tip prior to taking a biopsy core. High resolution OCT imaging, however, can be used to investigate tissue morphology at the micron scale, and thus to determine if the biopsy core would likely have the expected composition. Therefore, we implemented this capability within a custom-made biopsy gun and evaluated its capability for a correct estimation of tumor tissue cellularity. A pilot study on a rabbit model of soft tissue cancer has shown the capability of this technique to provide correct evaluation of tumor tissue cellularity in over 85% of the cases. These initial results indicate the potential benefit of the OCT-based approach for improving the success of the core biopsy procedures.

  20. Determining the Effect of Calculus, Hypocalcification, and Stain on Using Optical Coherence Tomography and Polarized Raman Spectroscopy for Detecting White Spot Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Huminicki

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical coherence tomography (OCT and polarized Raman spectroscopy (PRS have been shown as useful methods for distinguishing sound enamel from carious lesions ex vivo. However, factors in the oral environment such as calculus, hypocalcification, and stain could lead to false-positive results. OCT and PRS were used to investigate extracted human teeth clinically examined for sound enamel, white spot lesion (WSL, calculus, hypocalcification, and stain to determine whether these factors would confound WSL detection with these optical methods. Results indicate that OCT allowed differentiating caries from sound enamel, hypocalcification, and stain, with calculus deposits recognizable on OCT images. ANOVA and post-hoc unequal N HSD analyses to compare the mean Raman depolarization ratios from the various groups showed that the mean values were statistically significant at P<.05, except for several comparison pairs. With the current PRS analysis method, the mean depolarization ratios of stained enamel and caries are not significantly different due to the sloping background in the stained enamel spectra. Overall, calculus and hypocalcification are not confounding factors affecting WSL detection using OCT and PRS. Stain does not influence WSL detection with OCT. Improved PRS analysis methods are needed to differentiate carious from stained enamel.

  1. Three-dimensional simultaneous optical coherence tomography and confocal fluorescence microscopy for investigation of lung tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaertner, Maria; Cimalla, Peter; Meissner, Sven; Kuebler, Wolfgang M; Koch, Edmund

    2012-07-01

    Although several strategies exist for a minimal-invasive treatment of patients with lung failure, the mortality rate of acute respiratory distress syndrome still reaches 30% at minimum. This striking number indicates the necessity of understanding lung dynamics on an alveolar level. To investigate the dynamical behavior on a microscale, we used three-dimensional geometrical and functional imaging to observe tissue parameters including alveolar size and length of embedded elastic fibers during ventilation. We established a combined optical coherence tomography (OCT) and confocal fluorescence microscopy system that is able to monitor the distension of alveolar tissue and elastin fibers simultaneously within three dimensions. The OCT system can laterally resolve a 4.9 μm line pair feature and has an approximately 11 μm full-width-half-maximum axial resolution in air. confocal fluorescence microscopy visualizes molecular properties of the tissue with a resolution of 0.75 μm (laterally), and 5.9 μm (axially) via fluorescence detection of the dye sulforhodamine B specifically binding to elastin. For system evaluation, we used a mouse model in situ to perform lung distension by application of different constant pressure values within the physiological regime. Our method enables the investigation of alveolar dynamics by helping to reveal basic processes emerging during artificial ventilation and breathing.

  2. Compensation of spectral artifacts in dual-modality intravascular optical coherence tomography and near-infrared spectroscopy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fard, Ali M.; Gardecki, Joseph A.; Ughi, Giovanni J.; Hyun, Chulho; Tearney, Guillermo J.

    2016-02-01

    Intravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a high-resolution catheter-based imaging method that provides three-dimensional microscopic images of coronary artery in vivo, facilitating coronary artery disease treatment decisions based on detailed morphology. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has proven to be a powerful tool for identification of lipid-rich plaques inside the coronary walls. We have recently demonstrated a dual-modality intravascular imaging technology that integrates OCT and NIRS into one imaging catheter using a two-fiber arrangement and a custom-made dual-channel fiber rotary junction. It therefore enables simultaneous acquisition of microstructural and composition information at 100 frames/second for improved diagnosis of coronary lesions. The dual-modality OCT-NIRS system employs a single wavelength-swept light source for both OCT and NIRS modalities. It subsequently uses a high-speed photoreceiver to detect the NIRS spectrum in the time domain. Although use of one light source greatly simplifies the system configuration, such light source exhibits pulse-to-pulse wavelength and intensity variation due to mechanical scanning of the wavelength. This can be in particular problematic for NIRS modality and sacrifices the reliability of the acquired spectra. In order to address this challenge, here we developed a robust data acquisition and processing method that compensates for the spectral variations of the wavelength-swept light source. The proposed method extracts the properties of the light source, i.e., variation period and amplitude from a reference spectrum and subsequently calibrates the NIRS datasets. We have applied this method on datasets obtained from cadaver human coronary arteries using a polygon-scanning (1230-1350nm) OCT system, operating at 100,000 sweeps per second. The results suggest that our algorithm accurately and robustly compensates the spectral variations and visualizes the dual-modality OCT-NIRS images. These

  3. Femtosecond pulse laser notch shaping via fiber Bragg grating for the excitation source on the coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seung Ryeol; Kwon, Won Sik; Kim, Jin Hwan; Kim, Kyung-Soo; Kim, Soohyun

    2015-03-01

    Single-pulse coherently controlled nonlinear Raman spectroscopy is the simplest method among the coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy systems. In recent research, it has been proven that notch-shaped femtosecond pulse laser can be used to collect the coherent anti-Stokes Raman signals. In this study, we applied a fiber Bragg grating to the notch filtering component on the femtosecond pulse lasers. The experiment was performed incorporating a titanium sapphire femtosecond pulse laser source with a 100 mm length of 780-HP fiber which is inscribed 30 mm of Bragg grating. The fiber Bragg grating has 785 nm Bragg wavelength with 0.9 nm bandwidth. We proved that if the pulse lasers have above a certain level of positive group delay dispersion, it is sufficient to propagate in the fiber Bragg grating without any spectral distortion. After passing through the fiber Bragg grating, the pulse laser is reflected on the chirped mirror for 40 times to make the transform-limited pulse. Finally, the pulse time duration was 37 fs, average power was 50mW, and showed an adequate notch shape. Furthermore, the simulation of third order polarization signal is performed using MATLAB tools and the simulation result shows that spectral characteristic and time duration of the pulse is sufficient to use as an excitation source for single-pulse coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy. In conclusion, the proposed method is more simple and cost-effective than the methods of previous research which use grating pairs and resonant photonic crystal slab.

  4. Characteristic MR spectroscopy in fucosidosis: in vitro investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamourian, Alex C.; Chawla, Sanjeev; Poptani, Harish; Hopkin, Jeremy R.

    2010-01-01

    Fucosidosis is a rare lysosomal storage disorder that results in the deposition of the sugar fucose within various organs, including the central nervous system. Neuroimaging abnormalities on MR, specifically T2 shortening in the basal ganglia, have been reported as suggestive of fucosidosis. A more recent report of MR spectroscopy (MRS) of one patient provided evidence that MRS is specific for fucosidosis. We present another confirmed case with nearly identical MR spectroscopic findings along with in vitro data that support the contention that MR spectroscopy, in the setting of typical clinical and imaging features, is characteristic for this rare disorder. (orig.)

  5. Characteristic MR spectroscopy in fucosidosis: in vitro investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamourian, Alex C.; Chawla, Sanjeev; Poptani, Harish [Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Hopkin, Jeremy R. [Barrow Neurological Institute, Department of Neuroradiology, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    2010-08-15

    Fucosidosis is a rare lysosomal storage disorder that results in the deposition of the sugar fucose within various organs, including the central nervous system. Neuroimaging abnormalities on MR, specifically T2 shortening in the basal ganglia, have been reported as suggestive of fucosidosis. A more recent report of MR spectroscopy (MRS) of one patient provided evidence that MRS is specific for fucosidosis. We present another confirmed case with nearly identical MR spectroscopic findings along with in vitro data that support the contention that MR spectroscopy, in the setting of typical clinical and imaging features, is characteristic for this rare disorder. (orig.)

  6. Experimental investigation of a coherent flute instability using a heavy ion beam probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glowienka, J.C.; Jennings, W.C.; Hickok, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    A coherent, low-frequency instability found in a cylindrical, hollow cathode arc plasma has been investigated by using a heavy ion beam probe (HIBP). The energy density of the plasma was high enough to render it inaccessible to Langmuir probes, but the HIBP was able to provide measurements throughout the plasma cross section. The data clearly show that azimuthal symmetry does not exist. Radial profiles of steady-state density and space potential and of simultaneous n, phi amplitude and phase were obtained to allow detailed comparison between theory and experiment. Predictions from a cylindrically symmetric, small-perturbation theoretical model provide reasonably conclusive identification of the instability as a Kelvin--Helmholtz flute driven by and localized in a region of fluid shear. The most serious discrepancy was with regard to the oscillation frequency, which was consistently predicted to be three to four times lower than that observed experimentally. The reason for the discrepancy is not understood, but it is probably related to inadequacies in the theory caused by assumptions of azimuthal symmetry and of small linear perturbations

  7. Investigation in clinical potential of polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography in laryngeal tumor model study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xin; Oak, Chulho; Ahn, Yeh-Chan; Kim, Sung Won; Tang, Shuo

    2018-02-01

    Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) is capable of measuring tissue birefringence. It has been widely applied to access the birefringence in tissues such as skin and cartilage. The vocal cord tissue consists of three anatomical layers from the surface to deep inside, the epithelium that contains almost no collagen, the lamina propria that is composed with abundant collagen, and the vocalis muscle layer. Due to the variation in the organization of collagen fibers, the different tissue layers show different tissue birefringence, which can be evaluated by PS-OCT phase retardation measurement. Furthermore, collagen fibers in healthy connective tissues are usually well organized, which provides relatively high birefringence. When the collagen organization is destroyed by diseases such as tumor, the birefringence of the tissue will decrease. In this study, a rabbit laryngeal tumor model with different stages of tumor progression is investigated ex-vivo by PS-OCT. The PS-OCT images show a gradual decrease in birefringence from normal tissue to severe tumor tissue. A phase retardation slope-based analysis is conducted to distinguish the epithelium, lamina propria, and muscle layers, respectively. The phase retardation slope quantifies the birefringence in different layers. The quantitative study provides a more detailed comparison among different stages of the rabbit laryngeal tumor model. The PS-OCT result is validated by the corresponding histology images of the same samples.

  8. Acute skin lesions following psoralen plus ultraviolet A radiation investigated by optical coherence tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Z M; Zhong, H Q; Zhai, J; Wang, C X; Xiong, H L; Guo, Z Y

    2013-01-01

    Psoralen plus ultraviolet A radiation (PUVA) therapy is a very important clinical treatment of skin diseases such as vitiligo and psoriasis, but associated with an increased risk of skin photodamage, especially photoaging. In this work, optical coherence tomography (OCT), a novel non-invasive imaging technology, was introduced to investigate in vivo the photodamage induced by PUVA qualitatively and quantitatively. Balb/c mouse dorsal skin was treated with 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP), and then exposed to UVA radiation. OCT images of the tissues were obtained by an OCT system with a 1310 nm central wavelength. Skin thickness and the attenuation coefficient were extracted from the OCT images to analyze the degree of injury to mouse skin. The results demonstrated that PUVA-treated skin showed an increase in skin thickness, and a reduction of attenuation coefficient in the OCT signal compared with the control groups. The data also showed good correlation with the results observed in histological sections using hematoxylin and eosin staining. In conclusion, OCT is a promising tool for photobiological studies aimed at assessing the effect of PUVA therapy in vivo. (paper)

  9. Statistical Investigation on Coherent Vortex Structure in Turbulent Drag Reducing Channel Flow with Blown Polymer Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishitsuka, Shota; Motozawa, Masaaki; Kawaguchi, Yasuo; Iwamoto, Kaoru; Ando, Hirotomo; Senda, Tetsuya

    2011-01-01

    Coherent vortex structure in turbulent drag-reducing channel flow with blown polymer solution from the wall was investigated. As a statistical analysis, we carried out Galilean decomposition, swirling strength and linear stochastic estimation of the PIV data obtained by the PIV measurement in x – y plane. Reynolds number based on bulk velocity and channel height was set to 40000. As a result, the angle of shear layer that cleared up by using Galilean decomposition becomes small in the drag-reducing flow. Q3 events were observed near the shear layer. In addition, as a result of linear stochastic estimation (LSE) based on swirling strength, we confirmed that the velocity under the vortex core is strong in the water flow. This result shows Q2 (ejection) are dominant in the water flow. However, in the drag-reducing flow with blown polymer solution, the velocity above the vortex core become strong, that is, Q4 (sweep) events are relatively strong around the vortex core. This is the result of Q4 events to come from the channel center region because the polymer solution does not exist in this region. The typical structure like this was observed in the drag -reducing flow with blown polymer solution from the wall.

  10. Investigation of Ferroelectric Domain Walls by Raman Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Gregory A.

    Ferroelectric materials are characterized by an intrinsic spontaneous electric dipole moment that can be manipulated by the application of an electric field. Regions inside the crystal, known as domains, can have the spontaneous dipole moments oriented in a different direction than the surrounding crystal. Due to favorable piezoelectric, pyroelectric, electro-optic, and nonlinear optical properties, ferroelectric materials are attractive for commercial applications. Many devices, such as nonlinear frequency converters, require precisely engineered domain patterns. The properties of domains and their boundaries, known as domain walls, are vital to the performance and limitations of these devices. As a result, ferroelectric domains and the domain walls have been the focus of many scientific studies. Despite all this work, questions remain regarding their properties. This work is aimed at developing a better understanding of the properties of the domain wall using confocal Raman spectroscopy. Raman spectra taken from domain walls in Lithium Niobate and Lithium Tantalate reveal two distinct changes in the Raman spectra: (1) Shifts in frequency of the bulk Raman modes, which persists over a range of 0.2-0.5 mu m from the domain wall. The absence of this effect in defect free stoichiometric Lithium Tantalate indicates that the shifts are related to defects inside the crystal. (2) The presence of Raman modes corresponding to phonons propagating orthogonal to the laser beam axis, which are not collected in the bulk crystal. The phonons also preferential propagate normal to the domain wall. These modes are detected up to 0.35 mum from the domain wall. The observation and separation of these effects was made possible by the optimized spatial resolution (0.23 mum) of a home-built scanning confocal microscope and the fact that degeneracy of the transverse and longitudinal phonon polarization is lifted by polar phonons in Lithium Niobate and Lithium Tantalate. Raman

  11. Estimating side-chain order in methyl-protonated, perdeuterated proteins via multiple-quantum relaxation violated coherence transfer NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Hechao; Godoy-Ruiz, Raquel; Tugarinov, Vitali

    2012-01-01

    Relaxation violated coherence transfer NMR spectroscopy (Tugarinov et al. in J Am Chem Soc 129:1743–1750, 2007) is an established experimental tool for quantitative estimation of the amplitudes of side-chain motions in methyl-protonated, highly deuterated proteins. Relaxation violated coherence transfer experiments monitor the build-up of methyl proton multiple-quantum coherences that can be created in magnetically equivalent spin-systems as long as their transverse magnetization components relax with substantially different rates. The rate of this build-up is a reporter of the methyl-bearing side-chain mobility. Although the build-up of multiple-quantum 1 H coherences is monitored in these experiments, the decay of the methyl signal during relaxation delays occurs when methyl proton magnetization is in a single-quantum state. We describe a relaxation violated coherence transfer approach where the relaxation of multiple-quantum 1 H– 13 C methyl coherences during the relaxation delay period is quantified. The NMR experiment and the associated fitting procedure that models the time-dependence of the signal build-up, are applicable to the characterization of side-chain order in [ 13 CH 3 ]-methyl-labeled, highly deuterated protein systems up to ∼100 kDa in molecular weight. The feasibility of extracting reliable measures of side-chain order is experimentally verified on methyl-protonated, perdeuterated samples of an 8.5-kDa ubiquitin at 10°C and an 82-kDa Malate Synthase G at 37°C.

  12. FABRICATION OF TISSUE-SIMULATIVE PHANTOMS AND CAPILLARIES AND THEIR INVESTIGATION BY OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Bykov

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Methods of tissue-simulative phantoms and capillaries fabrication from PVC-plastisol and silicone for application as test-objects in optical coherence tomography (OCT and skin and capillary emulation are considered. Comparison characteristics of these materials and recommendations for their application are given. Examples of phantoms visualization by optical coherence tomography method are given. Possibility of information using from B-scans for refractive index evaluation is shown.

  13. Iron speciation in natural hyperacid water investigated by Mossbauer spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, C. Bender; Rasmussen, Helge Kildahl; Mørup, Steen

    2009-01-01

    We have demonstrated the usefulness of the archetypical solid state-technique of Mössbauer spectroscopy to non-invasive studies of the redox and coordination chemistry of iron in a natural hyperacid solution from Iron Mountain, CA. Suitable fast cooling conditions were used to prepare a glass from...

  14. Raman spectroscopy as a tool for investigating lipid protein interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Frederic Nicolas Rønne; Helix Nielsen, Claus

    2009-01-01

    ]) as well as improved technical equipment for signal capture (such as improved sensitivity of charge-coupled devices [CCDs]). Combined, these technological advances have brought Raman spectroscopy into a new era in which hitherto inaccessible or hardly accessible research areas now are becoming possible...

  15. Investigations on the electronic surface properties of the stoichiometric superconductor LiFeAs using scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlegel, Ronny

    2014-01-01

    This work presents scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy investigations on the stoichiometric superconductor lithium iron arsenide (LiFeAs). To reveal the electronic properties, measurements on defect-free surfaces as well as near defects have been performed. The former shows a shift of atomic position with respect to the applied bias voltage. Furthermore, temperature dependent spectroscopic measurements indicate the coupling of quasiparticles in the vicinity of the superconducting coherence peaks. LiFeAs surfaces influenced by atomic defects show a spacial variation of the superconducting gap. The defects can be characterized by their symmetry and thus can be assigned to a position in the atomic lattice. Detailed spectroscopic investigations of defects reveal their influence on the quasiparticle density of states. In particular, Fe-defects show a small effect on the superconductivity while As-defects strongly disturb the superconducting gap. Measurements in magnetic field have been performed for the determination of the Ginzburg-Landau coherence length ξ GL . For this purpose, a suitable fit-function has been developed in this work. This function allows to fit the differential conductance of a magnetic vortex at E F . The fit results in a coherence length of ξ GL = 3,9 nm which corresponds to an upper critical field of 21 Tesla. Besides measurements on a single vortex, investigation on the vortex lattice have been performed. The vortex lattice constant follows thereby the predicted behavior of a trigonal vortex lattice. However, for magnetic fields larger than 6 Tesla an increasing lattice disorder sets in, presumably due to vortex-vortex-interactions.

  16. A multi-channel THz and infrared spectrometer for femtosecond electron bunch diagnostics by single-shot spectroscopy of coherent radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesch, Stephan; Schmidt, Bernhard; Behrens, Christopher; Delsim-Hashemi, Hossein; Schmueser, Peter

    2011-08-15

    The high peak current required in free-electron lasers (FELs) is realized by longitudinal compression of the electron bunches to sub-picosecond length. In this paper, a frequency-domain diagnostic method is described that is capable of resolving structures in the femtosecond regime. A novel in-vacuum spectrometer has been developed for spectroscopy of coherent radiation in the THz and infrared range. The spectrometer is equipped with five consecutive dispersion gratings and 120 parallel readout channels; it can be operated either in short wavelength mode (5-44 {mu}m) or in long wavelength mode (45-430 {mu}m). Fast parallel readout permits the spectroscopy of coherent radiation from single electron bunches. Test measurements at the soft X-ray free-electron laser FLASH, using coherent transition radiation, demonstrate excellent performance of the spectrometer. The high sensitivity down to a few micrometers allows study of short bunch features caused for example by microbunching e ects in magnetic chicanes. The device is planned for use as an online bunch profile monitor during regular FEL operation. (orig.)

  17. A multi-channel THz and infrared spectrometer for femtosecond electron bunch diagnostics by single-shot spectroscopy of coherent radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesch, Stephan; Schmidt, Bernhard; Behrens, Christopher; Delsim-Hashemi, Hossein; Schmueser, Peter

    2011-08-01

    The high peak current required in free-electron lasers (FELs) is realized by longitudinal compression of the electron bunches to sub-picosecond length. In this paper, a frequency-domain diagnostic method is described that is capable of resolving structures in the femtosecond regime. A novel in-vacuum spectrometer has been developed for spectroscopy of coherent radiation in the THz and infrared range. The spectrometer is equipped with five consecutive dispersion gratings and 120 parallel readout channels; it can be operated either in short wavelength mode (5-44 μm) or in long wavelength mode (45-430 μm). Fast parallel readout permits the spectroscopy of coherent radiation from single electron bunches. Test measurements at the soft X-ray free-electron laser FLASH, using coherent transition radiation, demonstrate excellent performance of the spectrometer. The high sensitivity down to a few micrometers allows study of short bunch features caused for example by microbunching e ects in magnetic chicanes. The device is planned for use as an online bunch profile monitor during regular FEL operation. (orig.)

  18. Burned bones forensic investigations employing near infrared spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Cascant, Mari Merce; Rubio, Sonia; Gallello, Gianni; Pastor, Agustin; Garrigues, Salvador; De la Guardia, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    The use of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy was evaluated, by using chemometric tools, for the study of the environmental impact on burned bones. Spectra of internal and external parts of burned bones, together with sediment samples, were treated by Principal Component Analysis and cluster classification as exploratory techniques to select burned bone samples, less affected by environmental processes, to properly carry out forensic studies. Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis was used ...

  19. Mass spectroscopy of recoiled ions, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, and Auger electron spectroscopy investigation of Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2(100) and (110)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, G.S.; Henderson, M.A.; Starkweather, K.A.; McDaniel, E.P.

    1999-01-01

    We have studied the (100) and (110) surfaces of yttria-stabilized cubic ZrO 2 using Auger electron spectroscopy, low energy electron diffraction (LEED), direct recoil spectroscopy, mass spectroscopy of recoiled ions (MSRI), and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). The concentration of yttrium at the surface was weakly influenced by the surface structure under the experimental conditions investigated. Both MSRI and SIMS indicated a more enhanced yttrium signal than zirconium signal at the surface compared to the respective bulk concentrations. The surfaces were not very well ordered as indicated by LEED. The yttria-stabilized cubic ZrO 2 single crystal surfaces may not be a suitable model material for pure phase ZrO 2 surfaces due to significant yttria concentrations at the surface. copyright 1999 American Vacuum Society

  20. Time domain optical coherence tomography investigation of bone matrix interface in rat femurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Laura-Cristina; Negruá¹±iu, Meda-Lavinia; Sinescu, Cosmin; Hoinoiu, Bogdan; Topala, Florin-Ionel; Duma, Virgil-Florin; Rominu, Mihai; Podoleanu, Adrian G.

    2013-08-01

    The materials used to fabricate scaffolds for tissue engineering are derived from synthetic polymers, mainly from the polyester family, or from natural materials (e.g., collagen and chitosan). The mechanical properties and the structural properties of these materials can be tailored by adjusting the molecular weight, the crystalline state, and the ratio of monomers in the copolymers. Quality control and adjustment of the scaffold manufacturing process are essential to achieve high standard scaffolds. Most scaffolds are made from highly crystalline polymers, which inevitably result in their opaque appearance. Their 3-D opaque structure prevents the observation of internal uneven surface structures of the scaffolds under normal optical instruments, such as the traditional light microscope. The inability to easily monitor the inner structure of scaffolds as well as the interface with the old bone poses a major challenge for tissue engineering: it impedes the precise control and adjustment of the parameters that affect the cell growth in response to various mimicked culture conditions. The aim of this paper is to investigate the interface between the femur rat bone and the new bone that is obtained using a method of tissue engineering that is based on different artificial matrixes inserted in previously artificially induced defects. For this study, 15 rats were used in conformity with ethical procedures. In all the femurs a round defect was induced by drilling with a 1 mm spherical Co-Cr surgical drill. The matrixes used were Bioss and 4bone. These materials were inserted into the induced defects. The femurs were investigated at 1 week, 1 month, 2 month and three month after the surgical procedures. The interfaces were examined using Time Domain (TD) Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) combined with Confocal Microscopy (CM). The optical configuration uses two single mode directional couplers with a superluminiscent diode as the source centered at 1300 nm. The scanning

  1. Applications of Infrared and Raman Spectroscopies to Probiotic Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Mauricio I.; Gerbino, Esteban; Tymczyszyn, Elizabeth; Gomez-Zavaglia, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    In this review, we overview the most important contributions of vibrational spectroscopy based techniques in the study of probiotics and lactic acid bacteria. First, we briefly introduce the fundamentals of these techniques, together with the main multivariate analytical tools used for spectral interpretation. Then, four main groups of applications are reported: (a) bacterial taxonomy (Subsection 4.1); (b) bacterial preservation (Subsection 4.2); (c) monitoring processes involving lactic acid bacteria and probiotics (Subsection 4.3); (d) imaging-based applications (Subsection 4.4). A final conclusion, underlying the potentialities of these techniques, is presented. PMID:28231205

  2. Applications of Infrared and Raman Spectroscopies to Probiotic Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio I. Santos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we overview the most important contributions of vibrational spectroscopy based techniques in the study of probiotics and lactic acid bacteria. First, we briefly introduce the fundamentals of these techniques, together with the main multivariate analytical tools used for spectral interpretation. Then, four main groups of applications are reported: (a bacterial taxonomy (Subsection 4.1; (b bacterial preservation (Subsection 4.2; (c monitoring processes involving lactic acid bacteria and probiotics (Subsection 4.3; (d imaging-based applications (Subsection 4.4. A final conclusion, underlying the potentialities of these techniques, is presented.

  3. Investigation of the influence of crystal quality on Borrmann spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalaydzhyan, Aram

    2012-12-01

    The goal of thesis is to apply the dynamical theory of X-ray diffraction for perfect crystals to mosaic crystals, which are composed of slightly misoriented blocks. For this purpose statistical methods were used for the description of crystal defects. This concept was combined with the diffraction theory and implemented in code. This program was used for numerical simulations of diffraction processes in transmission geometry by plane barium titanate crystals. The computed dependencies on defects for Borrmann spectroscopy satisfy the initial expectations for medium orders of crystal defects qualitatively.

  4. Investigation of the influence of crystal quality on Borrmann spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalaydzhyan, Aram

    2012-12-15

    The goal of thesis is to apply the dynamical theory of X-ray diffraction for perfect crystals to mosaic crystals, which are composed of slightly misoriented blocks. For this purpose statistical methods were used for the description of crystal defects. This concept was combined with the diffraction theory and implemented in code. This program was used for numerical simulations of diffraction processes in transmission geometry by plane barium titanate crystals. The computed dependencies on defects for Borrmann spectroscopy satisfy the initial expectations for medium orders of crystal defects qualitatively.

  5. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectroscopy in Caenorhabditis elegans and Globodera pallida: evidence for an ivermectin-activated decrease in lipid stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smus, Justyna P; Ludlow, Elizabeth; Dallière, Nicolas; Luedtke, Sarah; Monfort, Tual; Lilley, Catherine; Urwin, Peter; Walker, Robert J; O'Connor, Vincent; Holden-Dye, Lindy; Mahajan, Sumeet

    2017-12-01

    Macrocyclic lactones are arguably the most successful chemical class with efficacy against parasitic nematodes. Here we investigated the effect of the macrocyclic lactone ivermectin on lipid homeostasis in the plant parasitic nematode Globodera pallida and provide new insight into its mode of action. A non-invasive, non-destructive, label-free and chemically selective technique called Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectroscopy was used to study lipid stores in G. pallida. We optimised the protocol using the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and then used CARS to quantify lipid stores in the pre-parasitic, non-feeding J2 stage of G. pallida. This revealed a concentration of lipid stores in the posterior region of J2 s within 24 h of hatching which decreased to undetectable levels over the course of 28 days. We tested the effect of ivermectin on J2 viability and lipid stores. Within 24 h, ivermectin paralysed J2 s. Counterintuitively, over the same time-course ivermectin increased the rate of depletion of J2 lipid, suggesting that in ivermectin-treated J2 s there is a disconnection between the energy requirements for motility and metabolic rate. This decrease in lipid stores would be predicted to negatively impact on J2 infective potential. These data suggest that the benefit of macrocyclic lactones as seed treatments may be underpinned by a multilevel effect involving both neuromuscular inhibition and acceleration of lipid metabolism. © 2017 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Stationary and coherent spectroscopy of 167Er3+ in waveguides in 7LiYF4 crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minnegaliev Mansur

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We have conducted a spectroscopic investigation of 167Er3+ ions in optical waveguides on an optical transition between the hyperfine sublevels of 4I15/2 and 4I9/2 multiplets. Waveguides with diameters ranging from 20 to 100 µm were produced in the crystal by a femtosecond laser using the depressed-cladding approach. The spectroscopy results of 167Er3+ ions inside the waveguides show additional broadening and an overall shifts of the spectra compared to the bulk spectrum of ions. The sign of the observed frequency shift depends on the diameter of the specific waveguide. We have also observed a two-pulse photon echo in several waveguides. The acquired results show the possibility for integrated quantum schemes in rare-earth ions doped crystals.

  7. Cognitive architectures as a tool for investigating the role of oscillatory power and coherence in cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vugt, Marieke K.

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to our increasing knowledge of the role that oscillations in single brain regions play in cognition, very little is known about how coherence between oscillations in distant brain regions is related to information transmission. Here I present a cognitive modeling approach that can

  8. Investigation of collective excitations in fluid neon by coherent neutron scattering at small scattering vectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, H.G.

    1976-07-01

    The energy spectra of Ne studied under different temperatures and pressures with the aid of inelastic, coherent neutron scattering can be described by a scattering law derived from the basic hydrodynamic equations. The Brillouin lines found with very small momentum transfer 0.06 A -1 -1 are interpreted as collective, adiabatic pressure fluctuations. (orig./WL) [de

  9. Broadband dielectric spectroscopy and calorimetric investigations of D-lyxose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Lokendra P; Alegría, A; Colmenero, J

    2011-10-18

    Using broadband dielectric spectroscopy, we have studied different types of relaxation processes, namely, primary (α), secondary (β), and another sub-T(g) process called γ-process, in the supercooled state of D-lyxose, over a wide frequency (10(-2)-10(9) Hz) and temperature range (120-340 K). In addition, the same sample was analyzed by differential scanning calorimeter. The temperature dependence of the relaxation times as well as the dielectric strength of different processes has been critically examined. It has been observed that the slower secondary relaxation (designated as β-) process shifts to lower frequencies with increasing applied pressure, but not the faster one. This pressure dependence indicates that the observed slower secondary relaxation (β-) is Johari-Goldstein relaxation process and faster one (γ-process) is probably the rotation of hydroxymethyl (-CH(2)OH) side group attached to the sugar ring, that is, of intramolecular origin. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Toward a High-Stability Coherent Population Trapping Cs Vapor-Cell Atomic Clock Using Autobalanced Ramsey Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Hafiz, Moustafa; Coget, Grégoire; Petersen, Michael; Rocher, Cyrus; Guérandel, Stéphane; Zanon-Willette, Thomas; de Clercq, Emeric; Boudot, Rodolphe

    2018-06-01

    Vapor-cell atomic clocks are widely appreciated for their excellent short-term fractional frequency stability and their compactness. However, they are known to suffer on medium and long time scales from significant frequency instabilities, generally attributed to light-induced frequency-shift effects. In order to tackle this limitation, we investigate the application of the recently proposed autobalanced Ramsey (ABR) interrogation protocol onto a pulsed hot-vapor Cs vapor-cell clock based on coherent population trapping (CPT). We demonstrate that the ABR protocol, developed initially to probe the one-photon resonance of quantum optical clocks, can be successfully applied to a two-photon CPT resonance. The applied method, based on the alternation of two successive Ramsey-CPT sequences with unequal free-evolution times and the subsequent management of two interconnected phase and frequency servo loops, is found to allow a relevant reduction of the clock-frequency sensitivity to laser-power variations. This original ABR-CPT approach, combined with the implementation of advanced electronics laser-power stabilization systems, yields the demonstration of a CPT-based Cs vapor-cell clock with a short-term fractional frequency stability at the level of 3.1×10 -13τ-1 /2 , averaging down to the level of 6 ×10-15 at 2000-s integration time. These encouraging performances demonstrate that the use of the ABR interrogation protocol is a promising option towards the development of high-stability CPT-based frequency standards. Such clocks could be attractive candidates in numerous applications including next-generation satellite-based navigation systems, secure communications, instrumentation, or defense systems.

  11. Optical properties of photoreceptor and retinal pigment epithelium cells investigated with adaptive optics optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhuolin

    Human vision starts when photoreceptors collect and respond to light. Photoreceptors do not function in isolation though, but share close interdependence with neighboring photoreceptors and underlying retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells. These cellular interactions are essential for normal function of the photoreceptor-RPE complex, but methods to assess these in the living human eye are limited. One approach that has gained increased promise is high-resolution retinal imaging that has undergone tremendous technological advances over the last two decades to probe the living retina at the cellular level. Pivotal in these advances has been adaptive optics (AO) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) that together allow unprecedented spatial resolution of retinal structures in all three dimensions. Using these high-resolution systems, cone photoreceptor are now routinely imaged in healthy and diseased retina enabling fundamental structural properties of cones to be studied such as cell spacing, packing arrangement, and alignment. Other important cell properties, however, have remained elusive to investigation as even better imaging performance is required and thus has resulted in an incomplete understanding of how cells in the photoreceptor-RPE complex interact with light. To address this technical bottleneck, we expanded the imaging capability of AO-OCT to detect and quantify more accurately and completely the optical properties of cone photoreceptor and RPE cells at the cellular level in the living human retina. The first objective of this thesis was development of a new AO-OCT method that is more precise and sensitive, thus enabling a more detailed view of the 3D optical signature of the photoreceptor-RPE complex than was previously possible (Chapter 2). Using this new system, the second objective was quantifying the waveguide properties of individual cone photoreceptor inner and outer segments across the macula (Chapter 3). The third objective extended the AO

  12. Quantitative investigation of two metallohydrolases by X-ray absorption spectroscopy near-edge spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, W. [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); Chu, W.S.; Yang, F.F.; Yu, M.J.; Chen, D.L.; Guo, X.Y. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhou, D.W.; Shi, N. [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); Marcelli, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, P.O. Box 13, Frascati 00044 (Italy); Niu, L.W.; Teng, M.K. [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); Gong, W.M. [Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Benfatto, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, P.O. Box 13, Frascati 00044 (Italy); Wu, Z.Y. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, P.O. Box 13, Frascati 00044 (Italy)], E-mail: wuzy@ihep.ac.cn

    2007-09-21

    The last several years have witnessed a tremendous increase in biological applications using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (BioXAS), thanks to continuous advancements in synchrotron radiation (SR) sources and detector technology. However, XAS applications in many biological systems have been limited by the intrinsic limitations of the Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) technique e.g., the lack of sensitivity to bond angles. As a consequence, the application of the X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy changed this scenario that is now continuously changing with the introduction of the first quantitative XANES packages such as Minut XANES (MXAN). Here we present and discuss the XANES code MXAN, a novel XANES-fitting package that allows a quantitative analysis of experimental data applied to Zn K-edge spectra of two metalloproteins: Leptospira interrogans Peptide deformylase (LiPDF) and acutolysin-C, a representative of snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) from Agkistrodon acutus venom. The analysis on these two metallohydrolases reveals that proteolytic activities are correlated to subtle conformation changes around the zinc ion. In particular, this quantitative study clarifies the occurrence of the LiPDF catalytic mechanism via a two-water-molecules model, whereas in the acutolysin-C we have observed a different proteolytic activity correlated to structural changes around the zinc ion induced by pH variations.

  13. Quantitative investigation of two metallohydrolases by X-ray absorption spectroscopy near-edge spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, W.; Chu, W.S.; Yang, F.F.; Yu, M.J.; Chen, D.L.; Guo, X.Y.; Zhou, D.W.; Shi, N.; Marcelli, A.; Niu, L.W.; Teng, M.K.; Gong, W.M.; Benfatto, M.; Wu, Z.Y.

    2007-01-01

    The last several years have witnessed a tremendous increase in biological applications using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (BioXAS), thanks to continuous advancements in synchrotron radiation (SR) sources and detector technology. However, XAS applications in many biological systems have been limited by the intrinsic limitations of the Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) technique e.g., the lack of sensitivity to bond angles. As a consequence, the application of the X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy changed this scenario that is now continuously changing with the introduction of the first quantitative XANES packages such as Minut XANES (MXAN). Here we present and discuss the XANES code MXAN, a novel XANES-fitting package that allows a quantitative analysis of experimental data applied to Zn K-edge spectra of two metalloproteins: Leptospira interrogans Peptide deformylase (LiPDF) and acutolysin-C, a representative of snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) from Agkistrodon acutus venom. The analysis on these two metallohydrolases reveals that proteolytic activities are correlated to subtle conformation changes around the zinc ion. In particular, this quantitative study clarifies the occurrence of the LiPDF catalytic mechanism via a two-water-molecules model, whereas in the acutolysin-C we have observed a different proteolytic activity correlated to structural changes around the zinc ion induced by pH variations

  14. Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellman, Hal

    1968-01-01

    This booklet discusses spectroscopy, the study of absorption of radiation by matter, including X-ray, gamma-ray, microwave, mass spectroscopy, as well as others. Spectroscopy has produced more fundamental information to the study of the detailed structure of matter than any other tools.

  15. Speckles generated by skewed, short-coherence light beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brogioli, D; Salerno, D; Ziano, R; Mantegazza, F; Croccolo, F

    2011-01-01

    When a coherent laser beam impinges on a random sample (e.g. a colloidal suspension), the scattered light exhibits characteristic speckles. If the temporal coherence of the light source is too short, then the speckles disappear, along with the possibility of performing homodyne or heterodyne scattering detection or photon correlation spectroscopy. Here we investigate the scattering of a so-called ‘skewed coherence beam’, i.e. a short-coherence beam modified such that the field is coherent within slabs that are skewed with respect to the wave fronts. We show that such a beam generates speckles and can be used for heterodyne scattering detection, despite its short temporal coherence. Moreover, we show that the heterodyne signal is not affected by multiple scattering. We suggest that the phenomenon presented here can be used as a means of carrying out heterodyne scattering measurement with any short-coherence radiation, including x-rays. (paper)

  16. What are the intensities and line-shapes of the twenty four polarization terms in coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, Kai; Lee, Soo-Y.

    2015-01-01

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) is conventionally described by just one diagram/term where the three electric field interactions act on the ket side in a Feynman dual time-line diagram in a specific time order of pump, Stokes and probe pulses. In theory, however, any third-order nonlinear spectroscopy with three different electric fields interacting with a molecule can be described by forty eight diagrams/terms. They reduce to just 24 diagrams/terms if we treat the time ordering of the electric field interactions on the ket independently of those on the bra, i.e. the ket and bra wave packets evolve independently. The twenty four polarization terms can be calculated in the multidimensional, separable harmonic oscillator model to obtain the intensities and line-shapes. It is shown that in fs/ps CARS, for the two cases of off-resonance CARS in toluene and resonance CARS in rhodamine 6G, where we use a fs pump pulse, a fs Stokes pulse and a ps probe pulse, we obtain sharp vibrational lines in four of the polarization terms where the pump and Stokes pulses can create a vibrational coherence on the ground electronic state, while the spectral line-shapes of the other twenty terms are broad and featureless. The conventional CARS term with sharp vibrational lines is the dominant term, with intensity at least one order of magnitude larger than the other terms

  17. What are the intensities and line-shapes of the twenty four polarization terms in coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Kai [School of Science, Tianjin University of Technology and Education, Tianjin, 300222 (China); Lee, Soo-Y., E-mail: sooying@ntu.edu.sg [Division of Physics & Applied Physics, and Division of Chemistry & Biological Chemistry, School of Physical & Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637371 (Singapore)

    2015-12-15

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) is conventionally described by just one diagram/term where the three electric field interactions act on the ket side in a Feynman dual time-line diagram in a specific time order of pump, Stokes and probe pulses. In theory, however, any third-order nonlinear spectroscopy with three different electric fields interacting with a molecule can be described by forty eight diagrams/terms. They reduce to just 24 diagrams/terms if we treat the time ordering of the electric field interactions on the ket independently of those on the bra, i.e. the ket and bra wave packets evolve independently. The twenty four polarization terms can be calculated in the multidimensional, separable harmonic oscillator model to obtain the intensities and line-shapes. It is shown that in fs/ps CARS, for the two cases of off-resonance CARS in toluene and resonance CARS in rhodamine 6G, where we use a fs pump pulse, a fs Stokes pulse and a ps probe pulse, we obtain sharp vibrational lines in four of the polarization terms where the pump and Stokes pulses can create a vibrational coherence on the ground electronic state, while the spectral line-shapes of the other twenty terms are broad and featureless. The conventional CARS term with sharp vibrational lines is the dominant term, with intensity at least one order of magnitude larger than the other terms.

  18. What are the intensities and line-shapes of the twenty four polarization terms in coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Kai; Lee, Soo-Y.

    2015-12-01

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) is conventionally described by just one diagram/term where the three electric field interactions act on the ket side in a Feynman dual time-line diagram in a specific time order of pump, Stokes and probe pulses. In theory, however, any third-order nonlinear spectroscopy with three different electric fields interacting with a molecule can be described by forty eight diagrams/terms. They reduce to just 24 diagrams/terms if we treat the time ordering of the electric field interactions on the ket independently of those on the bra, i.e. the ket and bra wave packets evolve independently. The twenty four polarization terms can be calculated in the multidimensional, separable harmonic oscillator model to obtain the intensities and line-shapes. It is shown that in fs/ps CARS, for the two cases of off-resonance CARS in toluene and resonance CARS in rhodamine 6G, where we use a fs pump pulse, a fs Stokes pulse and a ps probe pulse, we obtain sharp vibrational lines in four of the polarization terms where the pump and Stokes pulses can create a vibrational coherence on the ground electronic state, while the spectral line-shapes of the other twenty terms are broad and featureless. The conventional CARS term with sharp vibrational lines is the dominant term, with intensity at least one order of magnitude larger than the other terms.

  19. Dynamic focus optical coherence tomography: feasibility for improved basal cell carcinoma investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri-Avanaki, M. R.; Aber, Ahmed; Hojjatoleslami, S. A.; Sira, Mano; Schofield, John B.; Jones, Carole; Podoleanu, A. Gh.

    2012-03-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common form of skin cancer. To improve the diagnostic accuracy, additional non-invasive methods of making a preliminary diagnosis have been sought. We have implemented an En-Face optical coherence tomography (OCT) for this study in which the dynamic focus was integrated into it. With the dynamic focus scheme, the coherence gate moves synchronously with the peak of confocal gate determined by the confocal interface optics. The transversal resolution is then conserved throughout the depth range and an enhanced signal is returned from all depths. The Basal Cell Carcinoma specimens were obtained from the eyelid a patient. The specimens under went analysis by DF-OCT imaging. We searched for remarkable features that were visualized by OCT and compared these findings with features presented in the histology slices.

  20. Executive functioning and central coherence in anorexia nervosa: Pilot investigation of a neurocognitive endophenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Melanie; Loeb, Katharine L; McGrath, Robert E; Tiersky, Lana; Zucker, Nancy; Carlin, Amanda

    2018-04-27

    A neurocognitive profile characterized by problems in set shifting, executive functioning, and central coherence may pre-date and maintain anorexia nervosa (AN). To test this pattern as a possible endophenotype for AN, 10 youth with current AN, 14 healthy youth, and their biological parents, participated in a neuropsychological battery. Youth with AN demonstrated significantly weaker central coherence, related to enhanced detail-focused processing. Youth with AN and their parents demonstrated significantly greater psychopathology relative to controls, and youth-parent scores were significantly correlated. The study, limited by a small sample size, found little evidence supporting a neuropsychological endophenotype for AN. Identifying a neurocognitive profile for children and adolescents with AN has important implications for the treatment of young patients. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  1. Investigation of metal ions in fusion plasmas using emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tale, I.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The Latvian and Portugal Associations are performing development of advanced plasma - facing system using the liquid metal limiter. The objectives of this project require study of the influence of the liquid metal limiter on the main plasma parameters, including concentration of evaporated metal atoms in plasma. The fusion plasmas are related to the dense hot plasmas. The required average ion temperature according to the ITER project (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) is 8,0 keV (9,3 x 10 7 0 K), the average electron temperature - 8,9 keV (1,04 x 10 8 0 K). Plasma temperature operated in the research tokamak ISSTOK, involved in testing of liquid metal limiter concept is considerably less, being of order of 10 50 K. The ionization degree of metal atoms considerably depends on the plasma ion temperature. Density of metal vapours in plasma can be estimated using the following two spectroscopic methods: The fluorescence of the multiple ionised metal ions in steady state concentration; The charge exchange emission during ionisation of evaporated metal ions. In the first step of development of testing system of metal vapours the equipment and instrumentation for charge exchange spectroscopy of Ga and In has been elaborated taking into account the following features of plasma emission. The Ga emission lines occur on the background high temperature plasma black body emission and stray light. Radial distribution of Ga in plasma in the facing plane of Ga flux is desirable

  2. Tuneable diode laser spectroscopy correction factor investigation on ammonia measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nilton; El-Hamalawi, Ashraf; Baxter, Jim; Barrett, Richard; Wheatley, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    Current diesel engine aftertreatment systems, such as Selective Catalyst Reduction (SCR) use ammonia (NH3) to reduce Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) into Nitrogen (N2) and water (H2O). However, if the reaction between NH3 and NOx is unbalanced, it can lead either NH3 or NOx being released into the environment. As NH3 is classified as a dangerous compound in the environment, its accurate measurement is essential. Tuneable Diode Laser (TDL) spectroscopy is one of the methods used to measure raw emissions inside engine exhaust pipes, especially NH3. This instrument requires a real-time exhaust temperature, pressure and other interference compounds in order to adjust itself to reduce the error in NH3 readings. Most researchers believed that exhaust temperature and pressure were the most influential factors in TDL when measuring NH3 inside exhaust pipes. The aim of this paper was to quantify these interference effects on TDL when undertaking NH3 measurement. Surprisingly, the results show that pressure was the least influential factor when compared to temperature, H2O, CO2 and O2 when undertaking NH3 measurement using TDL.

  3. Investigating single molecule adhesion by atomic force spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetter, Frank W S; Kienle, Sandra; Krysiak, Stefanie; Hugel, Thorsten

    2015-02-27

    Atomic force spectroscopy is an ideal tool to study molecules at surfaces and interfaces. An experimental protocol to couple a large variety of single molecules covalently onto an AFM tip is presented. At the same time the AFM tip is passivated to prevent unspecific interactions between the tip and the substrate, which is a prerequisite to study single molecules attached to the AFM tip. Analyses to determine the adhesion force, the adhesion length, and the free energy of these molecules on solid surfaces and bio-interfaces are shortly presented and external references for further reading are provided. Example molecules are the poly(amino acid) polytyrosine, the graft polymer PI-g-PS and the phospholipid POPE (1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine). These molecules are desorbed from different surfaces like CH3-SAMs, hydrogen terminated diamond and supported lipid bilayers under various solvent conditions. Finally, the advantages of force spectroscopic single molecule experiments are discussed including means to decide if truly a single molecule has been studied in the experiment.

  4. Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Walker, S

    1976-01-01

    The three volumes of Spectroscopy constitute the one comprehensive text available on the principles, practice and applications of spectroscopy. By giving full accounts of those spectroscopic techniques only recently introduced into student courses - such as Mössbauer spectroscopy and photoelectron spectroscopy - in addition to those techniques long recognised as being essential in chemistry teaching - sucha as e.s.r. and infrared spectroscopy - the book caters for the complete requirements of undergraduate students and at the same time provides a sound introduction to special topics for graduate students.

  5. Relaxations and fast dynamics of the plastic crystal cyclo-octanol investigated by broadband dielectric spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Lunkenheimer, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Relaxations and fast dynamics of the plastic crystal cyclo-octanol investigated by broadband dielectric spectroscopy / R. Brand, P. Lunkenheimer, A. Loidl. - In: Physical review. B. 56. 1997. S. R5713-R5716

  6. Two-dimensional spectroscopy of a molecular dimer unveils the effects of vibronic coupling on exciton coherences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halpin, Alexei; Johnson, Philip J. M.; Tempelaar, Roel; Murphy, R. Scott; Knoester, Jasper; Jansen, Thomas L. C.; Miller, R. J. Dwayne

    The observation of persistent oscillatory signals in multidimensional spectra of protein-pigment complexes has spurred a debate on the role of coherence-assisted electronic energy transfer as a key operating principle in photosynthesis. Vibronic coupling has recently been proposed as an explanation

  7. Generation of continuous coherent radiation at Lyman-alpha and 1S-2P Spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pahl, A.; Fendel, P.; Henrich, B.R.; Walz, J.; Hansch, T.W.; Eikema, K.S.E.

    2005-01-01

    Continuous coherent radiation from wavelengths from 121 to 123 nm in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) was generated by four-wave sum-frequency mixing in mercury vapor. A yield of 20 nW at Lyman-alpha (121.57 nm) was achieved. We describe the experimental setup in detail and present a calculation of the

  8. Copper alloys selected for ITER investigated by positron annihilation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slugen, V.; Domonkos, P.; Ballo, P.

    2003-01-01

    The work is oriented towards the study of the high-energy neutron (proton) flux induced disorder in selected Cu-alloys by positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS). These Cu-alloys should be applied in the reactor as a cooler and they should be used to the diffuse heat. For the simulation of the radiation damage of neutron flux, the ion implantation of protons has been applied. We supposed that the ballistic influence of protons at the primary -knocked- on atoms (PKA) production could simulate the ballistic influence of neutrons at Cu-alloys in fusion reactor ITER. Defects in the form of vacancies (loops, voids, etc.) in selected Cu-alloys were studied using pulsed low energy system (PLEPS). The selected specimens were implanted in Ion beam laboratory of FEI STU Bratislava. The energy of implantation was E H =2x95 keV for the molecular H 2 + ion beam. Two implantation doses were chosen for both of the alloys: 1.3x10 19 ions/cm 2 (1.1 C/cm 2 ) and 5x10 18 ions/cm 2 (0.4C/cm 2 ). Using PLEPS a depth profiling and a void creation (probably filled with H 2 ) in the area from 50-480 nm was observed. Although the influence of neutrons with energy 14 MeV and protons with energy 95 keV is not the same (differences in energy and existence of proton charge), the experimental simulation (for the range where protons and neutron are not thermalized) of radiation damage of ITER construction materials was successfully performed. After isochronal annealing of both materials in vacuum in range 100-600 deg C, the recovering of defects in CuCrZr was much more effective than in CuAl25. (author)

  9. Polarization Sensitive Coherent Raman Measurements of DCVJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Josiah; Cooper, Nathan; Lawhead, Carlos; Shiver, Tegan; Ujj, Laszlo

    2014-03-01

    Coherent Raman spectroscopy which recently developed into coherent Raman microscopy has been used to produce label free imaging of thin layers of material and find the spatial distributions of certain chemicals within samples, e.g. cancer cells.(1) Not all aspects of coherent scattering have been used for imaging. Among those for example are special polarization sensitive measurements. Therefore we have investigated the properties of polarization sensitive CARS spectra of a highly fluorescent molecule, DCVJ.(2) Spectra has been recorded by using parallel polarized and perpendicular polarized excitations. A special polarization arrangement was developed to suppress the non-resonant background scattering from the sample. These results can be used to improve the imaging properties of a coherent Raman microscope in the future. This is the first time coherent Raman polarization sensitive measurements have been used to characterize the vibrational modes of DCVJ. 1: K. I. Gutkowski, et al., ``Fluorescence of dicyanovinyl julolidine in a room temperature ionic liquid '' Chemical Physics Letters 426 (2006) 329 - 333 2: Fouad El-Diasty, ``Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering: Spectroscopy and microscopy'' Vibrational Spectroscopy 55 (2011) 1-37

  10. Coherence and relaxation in energy transfer processes in condensed phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelby, R.M.

    1978-03-01

    Investigations of electronic triplet and vibrational energy transfer dynamics and relaxation processes are presented. Emphasis is placed on understanding the role of coherence and interactions which tend to destroy the coherence. In the case of triplet excitons at low temperatures, the importance of coherence in energy migration can be established, and the average coherence parameters can be experimentally determined. In the case of vibrational excitations, both picosecond spectroscopic studies of vibrational relaxation and spontaneous Raman spectroscopy are used to characterize the dynamics and give increased insight into the nature of the mechanisms responsible for vibrational dephasing. The design and operation of the picosecond apparatus used in these experiments is also described

  11. Occlusal overload investigations by noninvasive technology: fluorescence microscopy and en-face optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcauteanu, Corina; Negrutiu, Meda; Sinescu, Cosmin; Demjan, Enikö; Hughes, Michael; Bradu, Adrian; Dobre, George; Podoleanu, Adrian G.

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study is the early detection and monitoring of occlusal overload in bruxing patients. En-Face Optical coherence tomography (eF-OCT) and fluorescence microscopy (FM) were used for the imaging of several anterior teeth extracted from patients with light active bruxism. We found a characteristic pattern of enamel cracks, that reached the tooth surface. We concluded that the combination of the en-Face OCT and FM is a promising non-invasive alternative technique for reliable monitoring of occlusal overload.

  12. Investigation into photostability of soybean oils by thermal lens spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savi, E. L.; Malacarne, L. C.; Baesso, M. L.; Pintro, P. T. M.; Croge, C.; Shen, J.; Astrath, N. G. C.

    2015-06-01

    Assessment of photochemical stability is essential for evaluating quality and the shelf life of vegetable oils, which are very important aspects of marketing and human health. Most of conventional methods used to investigate oxidative stability requires long time experimental procedures with high consumption of chemical inputs for the preparation or extraction of sample compounds. In this work we propose a time-resolved thermal lens method to analyze photostability of edible oils by quantitative measurement of photoreaction cross-section. An all-numerical routine is employed to solve a complex theoretical problem involving photochemical reaction, thermal lens effect, and mass diffusion during local laser excitation. The photostability of pure oil and oils with natural and synthetic antioxidants is investigated. The thermal lens results are compared with those obtained by conventional methods, and a complete set of physical properties of the samples is presented.

  13. Investigating Functional Extension of Optical Coherence Tomography for Spectroscopic Analysis of Blood Oxygen Saturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Siyu

    Over the past two decades, optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been successfully applied to various fields of biomedical researching and clinical studies, including cardiology, urology, dermatology, dentistry, oncology, and most successfully, ophthalmology. This dissertation seeks to extend the current OCT practice, which is still largely morphology-based, into a new dimension, functional analysis of metabolic activities in vivo. More specifically, the investigation is focused on retrieving blood oxygen saturation (sO2) using intrinsic hemoglobin optical absorption contrast. Most mammalian cells rely on aerobic respiration to support cellular function, which means they consume oxygen to create adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Metabolic rate of oxygen (MRO2), a key hemodynamic parameter, characterizes how much oxygen is consumed during a given period of time, reflecting the metabolic activity of the target tissue. For example, retinal neurons are highly active and almost entirely rely on the moment-to-moment oxygen supply from retinal circulations. Thus, variation in MRO2 reveals the instantaneous activity of these neurons, shedding light on the physiological and pathophysiological change of cellular functions. Eventually, measuring MRO2 can potentially provide a biomarker for early-stage disease diagnosis, and serve as one benchmark for evaluating effectiveness of medical intervention during disease management. Essential in calculating MRO2, blood sO2 measurements using spectroscopic OCT analysis has been attempted as early as 2003. OCT is intrinsically sensitive to the blood optical absorption spectrum due to its wide-band illumination and detection scheme relying on back-scattered photon. However, accurate retrieval of blood sO2 using conventional near infrared (NIR) OCT systems in vivo has remained challenging. It was not until the development of OCT systems using visible light illumination (vis-OCT) when accurate measurement of blood sO2 was reported in live

  14. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography: Employing a Novel Technique for Investigation in Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakouras, Panagiotis; Andreanos, Konstantinos; Giavi, Barbara; Diagourtas, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    To report a case of Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) disease and describe the imaging findings by means of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Medical and ophthalmological history, ophthalmological examination, laboratory evaluation, B-scan ultrasonography, fluorescein and indocyanine angiography, and optical coherence tomography (OCT) were performed at baseline, as well as OCTA. A 50-year-old healthy female presented with decreased vision in both eyes. A Topcon DRI OCT Triton Plus swept source OCT system was used to visualize and evaluate the retinal and choroidal vascular plexus. Patchy and confluent dark areas in the superficial and deep retinal capillary plexus and choriocapillaris corresponded to areas of hypoperfusion, analyzed as areas of ischemia. VKH disease is characterized by ocular, neurological, and integumentary findings in its complete form. We present a case of incomplete disease in a 50-year-old female evaluated by means of OCTA which is a novel technique that provides depth-resolved images of the retina and choroidal microvasculature without dye injection that allows better visualization and detailed evaluation of the retinal and choroidal vascular plexus.

  15. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography: Employing a Novel Technique for Investigation in Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Giannakouras

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a case of Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH disease and describe the imaging findings by means of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA. Methods: Medical and ophthalmological history, ophthalmological examination, laboratory evaluation, B-scan ultrasonography, fluorescein and indocyanine angiography, and optical coherence tomography (OCT were performed at baseline, as well as OCTA. Results: A 50-year-old healthy female presented with decreased vision in both eyes. A Topcon DRI OCT Triton Plus swept source OCT system was used to visualize and evaluate the retinal and choroidal vascular plexus. Patchy and confluent dark areas in the superficial and deep retinal capillary plexus and choriocapillaris corresponded to areas of hypoperfusion, analyzed as areas of ischemia. Conclusions and Importance: VKH disease is characterized by ocular, neurological, and integumentary findings in its complete form. We present a case of incomplete disease in a 50-year-old female evaluated by means of OCTA which is a novel technique that provides depth-resolved images of the retina and choroidal microvasculature without dye injection that allows better visualization and detailed evaluation of the retinal and choroidal vascular plexus.

  16. Investigations of GMAW plasma by optical emission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zielinska, S [Instytut Fizyki im. Mariana Smoluchowskiego, Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, ulica Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Musiol, K [Instytut Fizyki im. Mariana Smoluchowskiego, Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, ulica Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Dzierzega, K [Instytut Fizyki im. Mariana Smoluchowskiego, Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, ulica Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Pellerin, S [LASEP, Faculte des Sciences-Bourges, Universite d' Orleans, BP 4043, 18028 Bourges Cedex (France); Valensi, F [LASEP, Faculte des Sciences-Bourges, Universite d' Orleans, BP 4043, 18028 Bourges Cedex (France); Izarra, Ch de [LASEP, Faculte des Sciences-Bourges, Universite d' Orleans, BP 4043, 18028 Bourges Cedex (France); Briand, F [CTAS - Air Liquide Welding, Rue des Epluches, Saint Ouen l' Aumone (France)

    2007-11-15

    We report on investigations of gas metal arc welding plasma operated in pure argon and in a mixture of argon and CO{sub 2} at a dc current of 326 A. The spatially resolved electron densities and temperatures were directly obtained by measuring the Stark widths of the Ar I 695.5 nm and Fe I 538.3 nm spectral lines. Our experimental results show a reduction of the plasma conductivity and transfer from spray arc to globular arc operation with increasing CO{sub 2} concentration. Although the electron density n{sub e} increases while approaching the core of the plasma in the spray-arc mode, a drop in the electron temperature T{sub e} is observed. Moreover, the maximum T{sub e} that we measure is about 13 000 K. Our experimental results differ from the Haidar model where T{sub e} is always maximum on the arc axis and its values exceed 20 000 K. These discrepancies can be explained as a result of underestimation of the amount of metal vapours in the plasma core and of the assumption of local thermal equilibrium plasma in the model.

  17. Investigating Atmospheric Oxidation with Molecular Dynamics Imaging and Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, W. G.; Case, A. S.; Keutsch, F. N.

    2013-06-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the Earth's atmosphere constitute trace gas species emitted primarily from the biosphere, and are the subject of inquiry for a variety of air quality and climate studies. Reactions intiated (primarily) by the hydroxyl radical (OH) lead to a myriad of oxygenated species (OVOCs), which in turn are prone to further oxidation. Investigations of the role that VOC oxidation plays in tropospheric chemistry have brought to light two troubling scenarios: (1) VOCs are responsible in part for the production of two EPA-regulated pollutants---tropospheric ozone and organic aerosol---and (2) the mechanistic details of VOC oxidation remain convoluted and poorly understood. The latter issue hampers the implementation of near-explicit atmospheric simulations, and large discrepancies in OH reactivity exist between measurements and models at present. Such discrepancies underscore the need for a more thorough description of VOC oxidation. Time-of-flight measurements and ion-imaging techniques are viable options for resolving some of the mechanistic and energetic details of VOC oxidation. Molecular beam studies have the advantage of foregoing unwanted bimolecular reactions, allowing for the characterization of specific processes which must typically compete with the complex manifold of VOC oxidation pathways. The focus of this work is on the unimolecular channels of organic peroxy radical intermediates, which are necessarily generated during VOC oxidation. Such intermediates may isomerize and decompose into distinct chemical channels, enabling the unambiguous detection of each pathway. For instance, a (1 + 1') resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) scheme may be employed to detect carbon monoxide generated from a particular unimolecular process. A number of more subtle mechanistic details may be explored as well. By varying the mean free path of the peroxy radicals in a flow tube, the role of collisional quenching in these unimolecular

  18. Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.

    This introductory booklet covers the basics of molecular spectroscopy, infrared and Raman methods, instrumental considerations, symmetry analysis of molecules, group theory and selection rules, as well as assignments of fundamental vibrational modes in molecules.......This introductory booklet covers the basics of molecular spectroscopy, infrared and Raman methods, instrumental considerations, symmetry analysis of molecules, group theory and selection rules, as well as assignments of fundamental vibrational modes in molecules....

  19. Investigations of soft and hard tissues in oral cavity by spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madjarova, Violeta Dimitrova; Yasuno, Yoshiaki; Makita, Shuichi; Hori, Yasuaki; Voeffray, Jean-Baptiste; Itoh, Masahide; Yatagai, Toyohiko; Tamura, Masami; Nanbu, Toshiyuki

    2006-02-01

    Fourier Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT) systems for dental measurements are demonstrated. Two systems have been developed. The first system is fiber based Michelson interferometer with super luminescent diodes at 1310 nm and 100 nm FWHM as a light source. The sensitivity of the system was 106 dB with depth measurement range in air of 2.5 mm. The second systems is a fiber based Mach-Zehnder interferometer with wavelength scanning laser as light source at center wavelength of 1310 nm, wavelength range of 110 nm and scanning rate of 20 KHz. The sensitivity of the system is 112 dB and depth measurement range in air is 6 mm. Both systems can acquire real-time three dimensional (3-D) images in the range of several second. The systems were applied for early caries detection in tooth, for diagnostics of tooth condition after operational tooth treatment, and for diagnostics of the alveolar bone structure. In-vivo measurements were performed on two volunteers. The systems were able to detect discontinuities in tooth and resin filling after tooth treatment. In addition early carries lesion was detected in one of the volunteers. The 3-D profile of the alveolar bone was acquired for first time with non-contact method.

  20. Investigation of lipid homeostasis in living Drosophila by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Cheng-Hao; Chen, Wei-Wen; Wu, June-Tai; Chang, Ta-Chau

    2012-12-01

    To improve our understanding of lipid metabolism, Drosophila is used as a model animal, and its lipid homeostasis is monitored by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy. We are able to achieve in vivo imaging of larval fat body (analogous to adipose tissue in mammals) and oenocytes (analogous to hepatocytes) in Drosophila larvae at subcellular level without any labeling. By overexpressing two lipid regulatory proteins-Brummer lipase (Bmm) and lipid storage droplet-2 (Lsd-2)-we found different phenotypes and responses under fed and starved conditions. Comparing with the control larva, we observed more lipid droplet accumulation by ˜twofold in oenocytes of fat-body-Bmm-overexpressing (FB-Bmm-overexpressing) mutant under fed condition, and less lipid by ˜fourfold in oenocytes of fat-body-Lsd-2-overexpressing (FB-Lsd-2-overexpressing) mutant under starved condition. Moreover, together with reduced size of lipid droplets, the lipid content in the fat body of FB-Bmm-overexpressing mutant decreases much faster than that of the control and FB-Lsd-2-overexpressing mutant during starvation. From long-term starvation assay, we found FB-Bmm-overexpressing mutant has a shorter lifespan, which can be attributed to faster consumption of lipid in its fat body. Our results demonstrate in vivo observations of direct influences of Bmm and Lsd-2 on lipid homeostasis in Drosophila larvae.

  1. Optimization of a coherent synchrotron radiation source in the Tera-hertz range for high-resolution spectroscopy of molecules of astrophysical interest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, J.

    2012-01-01

    Fourier Transform spectroscopy is the most used multiplex tool for high-resolution measurements in the infrared range. Its extension to the Tera-hertz domain is of great interest for spectroscopic studies of interstellar molecules. This application is however hampered by the lack of dedicated, broadband sources with a sufficient intensity and stability. In this work, Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) was used as a source for molecular spectroscopy at high resolution on the AILES infrared and Tera-hertz beamline of SOLEIL synchrotron. The beamline being optimized for far-infrared, we could characterize the properties of CSR and compare them to the incoherent synchrotron radiation. A double detection system allowed to correct the effect of the source-related instabilities, hence to significantly increase the signal-to-noise ratio. Pure rotational spectra were measured using these developments. The case of the propynal molecule, for which a refined set of rotational and centrifugal distortion constants was calculated, proves the complementarity between CSR and the classical microwave or infrared sources. (author)

  2. Correlation effects in magnetic materials: An ab initio investigation on electronic structure and spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minár, J.; Braun, J.; Ebert, H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We compare spin-resolved ARPES data of ferromagnetic 3d transition metals to many-body LSDA + DMFT based spectroscopic calculations. ► We document LSDA + DMFT provides a detailed and reliable interpretation of the data. ► We demonstrate that local correlations are dominant in Ni, whereas non-local correlations are important in Fe and Co. ► We reproduce the 6 eV satellite structure in ferromagnetic Ni LDSDA + DMFT in combination with the one-step model of photoemission provides a more or less complete description of the electronic structure of Fe, Co and Ni. -- Abstract: Various technical developments enlarged the potential of angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) tremendously during the last two decades. In particular improved momentum and energy resolution in combination with spin-resolution as well as the use of photon energies from few eV up to several keV makes ARPES a rather unique tool to investigate the electronic properties of solids and surfaces. Obviously, this rises the need for a corresponding theoretical formalism that allows to accompany experimental ARPES studies in an adequate way. As will be demonstrated by several examples this goal could be achieved by various recent developments on the basis of density functional theory (DFT) in combination with dynamical mean field theory (DMFT) and with the one-step model of photoemission (1SM). A concrete realization of electronic structure calculations in the framework of multiple scattering theory further more provides direct access to the spectral function of the initial states via the one-electron Green function. Based on this bare spectral function matrix-element and final-state effects as well as surface related features may be calculated in addition using the one-step formalism that offers the possibility to analyse corresponding angle-resolved photoemission experiments in a quantitative sense. The impact of chemical disorder can be handled by means of the coherent

  3. spectroscopy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2015-10-14

    Oct 14, 2015 ... characterized by using phenotypic, API and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy methods. One hundred and fifty-seven (157) strains were isolated from 13 cheese samples, and identification test was performed for 83 strains. At the end of the study, a total of 22 Lactococcus sp., 36 Enterecoccus ...

  4. Moessbauer and EXAFS spectroscopy investigation of iron and arsenic adsorption to lettuce leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, Igor F.; Silva, Gabriela C.; Carvalho, Regina P.; Dantas, Maria Sylvia S.; Ciminelli, Virginia S. T.

    2010-01-01

    The accumulation of iron and arsenic from aqueous solution by lettuce leaves biomass was investigated using Moessbauer and EXAFS spectroscopic techniques. Moessbauer spectroscopy results show that iron is oxidized during sorption while EXAFS results indicate that iron is coordinated by approximately 6 oxygen and 2 carbon atoms while arsenic is coordinated by approximately 4 oxygen atoms with iron as a second neighbor.

  5. Moessbauer and EXAFS spectroscopy investigation of iron and arsenic adsorption to lettuce leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcelos, Igor F., E-mail: ifvasco@ufc.br [Universidade Federal do Ceara, Dep. Eng. Metalurgica e de Materiais (Brazil); Silva, Gabriela C.; Carvalho, Regina P.; Dantas, Maria Sylvia S.; Ciminelli, Virginia S. T. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Dep. Eng. Metalurgica e de Materiais (Brazil)

    2010-01-15

    The accumulation of iron and arsenic from aqueous solution by lettuce leaves biomass was investigated using Moessbauer and EXAFS spectroscopic techniques. Moessbauer spectroscopy results show that iron is oxidized during sorption while EXAFS results indicate that iron is coordinated by approximately 6 oxygen and 2 carbon atoms while arsenic is coordinated by approximately 4 oxygen atoms with iron as a second neighbor.

  6. 1064nm FT-Raman spectroscopy for investigations of plant cell walls and other biomass materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh P. Agarwal

    2014-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy with its various special techniques and methods has been applied to study plant biomass for about 30 years. Such investigations have been performed at both macro- and micro-levels. However, with the availability of the Near Infrared (NIR) (1064 nm) Fourier Transform (FT)-Raman instruments where, in most materials, successful fluorescence suppression...

  7. Ultrahigh-Resolution Magnetic Resonance in Inhomogeneous Magnetic Fields: Two-Dimensional Long-Lived-Coherence Correlation Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinthalapalli, Srinivas; Bornet, Aurélien; Segawa, Takuya F.; Sarkar, Riddhiman; Jannin, Sami; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey

    2012-07-01

    A half-century quest for improving resolution in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has enabled the study of molecular structures, biological interactions, and fine details of anatomy. This progress largely relied on the advent of sophisticated superconducting magnets that can provide stable and homogeneous fields with temporal and spatial variations below ΔB0/B0LLC-COSY) opens the way to overcome both inhomogeneous and homogeneous broadening, which arise from local variations in static fields and fluctuating dipole-dipole interactions, respectively. LLC-COSY makes it possible to obtain ultrahigh resolution two-dimensional spectra, with linewidths on the order of Δν=0.1 to 1 Hz, even in very inhomogeneous fields (ΔB0/B0>10ppm or 5000 Hz at 9.7 T), and can improve resolution by a factor up to 9 when the homogeneous linewidths are determined by dipole-dipole interactions. The resulting LLC-COSY spectra display chemical shift differences and scalar couplings in two orthogonal dimensions, like in “J spectroscopy.” LLC-COSY does not require any sophisticated gradient switching or frequency-modulated pulses. Applications to in-cell NMR and to magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of selected volume elements in MRI appear promising, particularly when susceptibility variations tend to preclude high resolution.

  8. One-, two- and three-photon spectroscopy of π-conjugated dendrimers: cooperative enhancement and coherent domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drobizhev, M.; Rebane, A.; Suo, Z.; Spangler, C.W.

    2005-01-01

    We use wavelength tunable femtosecond pulses to measure intrinsic (simultaneous) two-photon absorption (2PA) and three-photon absorption (3PA) molecular cross section in two series of π-conjugated dendrimers built of identical 4,4'-bis(diphenylamino) stilbene (BDPAS) and 4,4'-bis(diphenylamino) distyrylbenzene (BDPADSB) repeat units. Record large 2PA cross sections, σ 2 =10 -46 cm 4 s are obtained for the largest second-generation BDPAS-based dendrimer, as well as zeroth-generation 4-arm BDPADSB-based dendrimer. In both series, maximum 2PA cross section increases nonlinearly with the number of π-electrons, whereas for higher generations this dependence turns to linear one. 3PA cross section also increases nonlinearly with the size of the system in the series of BDPAS-based molecules, amounting a record large value, σ 3 =10 -79 cm 6 s 2 , for the largest, second-generation dendrimer. We interpret these results in terms of direct inter-branch conjugation, which facilitates cooperative enhancement of the nonlinear-optical response. We propose a simple model which allows us to determine the effective size of coherent domains (extent of conjugation), which, in turn, determines the optimum dendrimer size for most efficient nonlinear response

  9. Using Moessbauer spectroscopy as key technique in the investigation of nanosized magnetic particles for drug delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morais, P. C., E-mail: pcmor@unb.br [Universidade de Brasilia, Nucleo de Fisica Aplicada, Instituto de Fisica (Brazil)

    2008-01-15

    This paper describes how cobalt ferrite nanoparticles, suspended as ionic or biocompatible magnetic fluids, can be used as a platform to built complex nanosized magnetic materials, more specifically magnetic drug delivery systems. In particular, the paper is addressed to the discussion of the use of the Moessbauer spectroscopy as an extremely useful technique in supporting the investigation of key aspects related to the properties of the hosted magnetic nanosized particle. Example of the use of the Moessbauer spectroscopy in accessing information regarding the nanoparticle modification due to the empirical process which provides long term chemical stability is included in the paper.

  10. Coherent evolution of parahydrogen induced polarisation using laser pump, NMR probe spectroscopy: Theoretical framework and experimental observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halse, Meghan E; Procacci, Barbara; Henshaw, Sarah-Louise; Perutz, Robin N; Duckett, Simon B

    2017-05-01

    We recently reported a pump-probe method that uses a single laser pulse to introduce parahydrogen (p-H 2 ) into a metal dihydride complex and then follows the time-evolution of the p-H 2 -derived nuclear spin states by NMR. We present here a theoretical framework to describe the oscillatory behaviour of the resultant hyperpolarised NMR signals using a product operator formalism. We consider the cases where the p-H 2 -derived protons form part of an AX, AXY, AXYZ or AA'XX' spin system in the product molecule. We use this framework to predict the patterns for 2D pump-probe NMR spectra, where the indirect dimension represents the evolution during the pump-probe delay and the positions of the cross-peaks depend on the difference in chemical shift of the p-H 2 -derived protons and the difference in their couplings to other nuclei. The evolution of the NMR signals of the p-H 2 -derived protons, as well as the transfer of hyperpolarisation to other NMR-active nuclei in the product, is described. The theoretical framework is tested experimentally for a set of ruthenium dihydride complexes representing the different spin systems. Theoretical predictions and experimental results agree to within experimental error for all features of the hyperpolarised 1 H and 31 P pump-probe NMR spectra. Thus we establish the laser pump, NMR probe approach as a robust way to directly observe and quantitatively analyse the coherent evolution of p-H 2 -derived spin order over micro-to-millisecond timescales. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Investigating Coherence among Turkish Elementary Science Teachers' Teaching Belief Systems, Pedagogical Content Knowledge and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahcivan, Eralp; Cobern, William W.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated comprehensive science teaching belief systems and their relation to science teachers' pedagogical content knowledge and teaching practices. Rokeach's (1968) belief system was used as a framework for representing the hierarchy among in-service teachers' teaching beliefs. This study employed a multiple case study design with…

  12. Investigation of organometallic reaction mechanisms with one and two dimensional vibrational spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cahoon, James Francis [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2008-12-01

    One and two dimensional time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy has been used to investigate the elementary reactions of several prototypical organometallic complexes in room temperature solution. The electron transfer and ligand substitution reactions of photogenerated 17-electron organometallic radicals CpW(CO)3 and CpFe(CO)2 have been examined with one dimensional spectroscopy on the picosecond through microsecond time-scales, revealing the importance of caging effects and odd-electron intermediates in these reactions. Similarly, an investigation of the photophysics of the simple Fischer carbene complex Cr(CO)5[CMe(OMe)] showed that this class of molecule undergoes an unusual molecular rearrangement on the picosecond time-scale, briefly forming a metal-ketene complex. Although time-resolved spectroscopy has long been used for these types of photoinitiated reactions, the advent of two dimensional vibrational spectroscopy (2D-IR) opens the possibility to examine the ultrafast dynamics of molecules under thermal equilibrium conditions. Using this method, the picosecond fluxional rearrangements of the model metal carbonyl Fe(CO)5 have been examined, revealing the mechanism, time-scale, and transition state of the fluxional reaction. The success of this experiment demonstrates that 2D-IR is a powerful technique to examine the thermally-driven, ultrafast rearrangements of organometallic molecules in solution.

  13. Investigation of bracket bonding for orthodontic treatments using en-face optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinescu, Cosmin; Negrutiu, Meda L.; Hughes, Michael; Bradu, Adrian; Todea, Carmen; Rominu, Roxana; Dodenciu, Dorin; Laissue, Philippe L.; Podoleanu, Adrian G.

    2008-04-01

    Despite good diagnosis and treatment planning, orthodontic treatment can fail if bonding fails. It is now common practice to address the aesthetic appearance of patients using aesthetic brackets instead of metal ones. Therefore, bonding aesthetic brackets has become an issue for orthodontists today. Orthodontic bonding is mainly achieved using composite resin but can also be performed with glass ionomer or resin cements. For improving the quality of bonding, the enamel is acid etched for 30 seconds with 38% phosphoric acid and then a bonding agent is applied. In our study we investigated and compared the quality of bonding between ceramic brackets, polymeric brackets and enamel, respectively using a new investigation method-OCT. The aim of our study was to evaluate the resin layer at the bracket base-tooth interface.

  14. Coherent investigation of nuclear data at CEA DAM: Theoretical models, experiments and evaluated data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauge, E.; Belier, G.; Cartier, J.; Chatillon, A.; Daugas, J.M.; Delaroche, J.P.; Dossantos-Uzarralde, P.; Duarte, H.; Dubray, N.; Ducauze-Philippe, M.; Gaudefroy, L.; Gosselin, G.; Granier, T.; Hilaire, S.; Chau, Huu-Tai P.; Laborie, J.M.; Laurent, B.; Ledoux, X.; Le Luel, C.; Meot, V.; Morel, P.; Morillon, B.; Roig, O.; Romain, P.; Taieb, J.; Varignon, C.; Authier, N.; Casoli, P.; Richard, B.

    2012-01-01

    The domain of evaluated nuclear data involves at the same time, a close interaction between the field of nuclear applications and that of nuclear physics, and a close interaction between experiments and theory. The final product, the evaluated data file, synthesises vast amounts of information stemming from all of the above fields. In CEA DAM, all these aspects of nuclear data are investigated in a consistent way, making full use of experimental facilities and high-performance computing as well as numerous national and international collaborations, for the measurement, calculation, evaluation, and validation of nuclear data. (orig.)

  15. Coherent investigation of nuclear data at CEA DAM: Theoretical models, experiments and evaluated data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauge, E.; Belier, G.; Cartier, J.; Chatillon, A.; Daugas, J.M.; Delaroche, J.P.; Dossantos-Uzarralde, P.; Duarte, H.; Dubray, N.; Ducauze-Philippe, M.; Gaudefroy, L.; Gosselin, G.; Granier, T.; Hilaire, S.; Chau, Huu-Tai P.; Laborie, J.M.; Laurent, B.; Ledoux, X.; Le Luel, C.; Meot, V.; Morel, P.; Morillon, B.; Roig, O.; Romain, P.; Taieb, J.; Varignon, C. [CEA, DAM, DIF, Arpajon (France); Authier, N.; Casoli, P.; Richard, B. [CEA Valduc, Is-sur-Tille (France)

    2012-08-15

    The domain of evaluated nuclear data involves at the same time, a close interaction between the field of nuclear applications and that of nuclear physics, and a close interaction between experiments and theory. The final product, the evaluated data file, synthesises vast amounts of information stemming from all of the above fields. In CEA DAM, all these aspects of nuclear data are investigated in a consistent way, making full use of experimental facilities and high-performance computing as well as numerous national and international collaborations, for the measurement, calculation, evaluation, and validation of nuclear data. (orig.)

  16. Depth-resolved multilayer pigment identification in paintings: combined use of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and optical coherence tomography (OCT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaszewska, Ewa A; Sylwestrzak, Marcin; Marczak, Jan; Skrzeczanowski, Wojciech; Iwanicka, Magdalena; Szmit-Naud, Elżbieta; Anglos, Demetrios; Targowski, Piotr

    2013-08-01

    A detailed feasibility study on the combined use of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy with optical coherence tomography (LIBS/OCT), aiming at a realistic depth-resolved elemental analysis of multilayer stratigraphies in paintings, is presented. Merging a high spectral resolution LIBS system with a high spatial resolution spectral OCT instrument significantly enhances the quality and accuracy of stratigraphic analysis. First, OCT mapping is employed prior to LIBS analysis in order to assist the selection of specific areas of interest on the painting surface to be examined in detail. Then, intertwined with LIBS, the OCT instrument is used as a precise profilometer for the online determination of the depth of the ablation crater formed by individual laser pulses during LIBS depth-profile analysis. This approach is novel and enables (i) the precise in-depth scaling of elemental concentration profiles, and (ii) the recognition of layer boundaries by estimating the corresponding differences in material ablation rate. Additionally, the latter is supported, within the transparency of the object, by analysis of the OCT cross-sectional views. The potential of this method is illustrated by presenting results on the detailed analysis of the structure of an historic painting on canvas performed to aid planned restoration of the artwork.

  17. Investigation on Clarified Fruit Juice Composition by Using Visible Light Micro-Raman Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Camerlingo, Carlo; Zenone, Flora; Delfino, Ines; Diano, Nadia; Mita, Damiano Gustavo; Lepore, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Liquid samples of clarified apple and apricot juices at different production stages were investigated using visible light micro-Raman spectroscopy in order to assess its potential in monitoring fruit juice production. As is well-known, pectin plays a strategic role in the production of clarified juice and the possibility of using Raman for its detection during production was therefore evaluated. The data analysis has enabled the clear identification of pectin. In particular, Raman spectra of ...

  18. MICROFLUIDIC MIXERS FOR THE INVESTIGATION OF PROTEIN FOLDING USING SYNCHROTRON RADIATION CIRCULAR DICHROISM SPECTROSCOPY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, A; Hertzog, D; Baumgartel, P; Lengefeld, J; Horsley, D; Schuler, B; Bakajin, O

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to design, fabricate and optimize microfluidic mixers to investigate the kinetics of protein secondary structure formation with Synchrotron Radiation Circular Dichroism (SRCD) spectroscopy. The mixers are designed to rapidly initiate protein folding reaction through the dilution of denaturant. The devices are fabricated out of fused silica, so that they are transparent in the UV. We present characterization of mixing in the fabricated devices, as well as the initial SRCD data on proteins inside the mixers

  19. Investigation by raman spectroscopy of the decomposition process of HKUST-1 upon exposure to air

    OpenAIRE

    Todaro, M.; Alessi, A.; Sciortino, L.; Agnello, S.; Cannas, M.; Gelardi, F.; Buscarino, G.

    2016-01-01

    We report an experimental investigation by Raman spectroscopy of the decomposition process of Metal-Organic Framework (MOF) HKUST-1 upon exposure to air moisture (T=300 K, 70% relative humidity). The data collected here are compared with the indications obtained from a model of the process of decomposition of this material proposed in literature. In agreement with that model, the reported Raman measurements indicate that for exposure times longer than 20 days relevant irreversible processes t...

  20. Timescales of Coherent Dynamics in the Light Harvesting Complex 2 (LH2) of Rhodobacter sphaeroides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, Andrew F; Singh, Ved P; Long, Phillip D; Dahlberg, Peter D; Engel, Gregory S

    2013-05-02

    The initial dynamics of energy transfer in the light harvesting complex 2 from Rhodobacter sphaeroides were investigated with polarization controlled two-dimensional spectroscopy. This method allows only the coherent electronic motions to be observed revealing the timescale of dephasing among the excited states. We observe persistent coherence among all states and assign ensemble dephasing rates for the various coherences. A simple model is utilized to connect the spectroscopic transitions to the molecular structure, allowing us to distinguish coherences between the two rings of chromophores and coherences within the rings. We also compare dephasing rates between excited states to dephasing rates between the ground and excited states, revealing that the coherences between excited states dephase on a slower timescale than coherences between the ground and excited states.

  1. Investigation of thermochemical conversions of coal pitches using high resolution PMR and IR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kekin, N.A.; Belkina, T.V.; Stepanenko, M.A.; Gordienko, V.G.

    1982-01-01

    The hydrogen bonds in organic compounds present in coal pitch and fractions were investigated by infrared spectroscopy and proton magnetic resonance. The investigation was extended to include pitch that was thermally treated at 360 degrees C to raise the softening point to 85-90 degrees C. The infrared spectra revealed hydrogen present in OH groups, NH groups, COOH groups, unsaturated carbon double bonds, and multiple carbon double bonds. It was also determined that thermal treating increased the hydrogen present in aromatic compounds and decreased hydrogen present in aliphatic forms. (JMT)

  2. International workshop on phase retrieval and coherent scattering. Coherence 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nugent, K.A.; Fienup, J.R.; Van Dyck, D.; Van Aert, S.; Weitkamp, T.; Diaz, A.; Pfeiffer, F.; Cloetens, P.; Stampanoni, M.; Bunk, O.; David, C.; Bronnikov, A.V.; Shen, Q.; Xiao, X.; Gureyev, T.E.; Nesterets, Ya.I.; Paganin, D.M.; Wilkins, S.W.; Mokso, R.; Cloetens, P.; Ludwig, W.; Hignette, O.; Maire, E.; Faulkner, H.M.L.; Rodenburg, J.M.; Wu, X.; Liu, H.; Grubel, G.; Ludwig, K.F.; Livet, F.; Bley, F.; Simon, J.P.; Caudron, R.; Le Bolloc'h, D.; Moussaid, A.; Gutt, C.; Sprung, M.; Madsen, A.; Tolan, M.; Sinha, S.K.; Scheffold, F.; Schurtenberger, P.; Robert, A.; Madsen, A.; Falus, P.; Borthwick, M.A.; Mochrie, S.G.J.; Livet, F.; Sutton, M.D.; Ehrburger-Dolle, F.; Bley, F.; Geissler, E.; Sikharulidze, I.; Jeu, W.H. de; Lurio, L.B.; Hu, X.; Jiao, X.; Jiang, Z.; Lurio, L.B.; Hu, X.; Jiao, X.; Jiang, Z.; Naryanan, S.; Sinha, S.K.; Lal, J.; Naryanan, S.; Sinha, S.K.; Lal, J.; Robinson, I.K.; Chapman, H.N.; Barty, A.; Beetz, T.; Cui, C.; Hajdu, J.; Hau-Riege, S.P.; He, H.; Stadler, L.M.; Sepiol, B.; Harder, R.; Robinson, I.K.; Zontone, F.; Vogl, G.; Howells, M.; London, R.; Marchesini, S.; Shapiro, D.; Spence, J.C.H.; Weierstall, U.; Eisebitt, S.; Shapiro, D.; Lima, E.; Elser, V.; Howells, M.R.; Huang, X.; Jacobsen, C.; Kirz, J.; Miao, H.; Neiman, A.; Sayre, D.; Thibault, P.; Vartanyants, I.A.; Robinson, I.K.; Onken, J.D.; Pfeifer, M.A.; Williams, G.J.; Pfeiffer, F.; Metzger, H.; Zhong, Z.; Bauer, G.; Nishino, Y.; Miao, J.; Kohmura, Y.; Yamamoto, M.; Takahashi, Y.; Koike, K.; Ebisuzaki, T.; Ishikawa, T.; Spence, J.C.H.; Doak, B.

    2005-01-01

    The contributions of the participants have been organized into 3 topics: 1) phase retrieval methods, 2) X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy, and 3) coherent diffraction imaging. This document gathers the abstracts of the presentations and of the posters

  3. International workshop on phase retrieval and coherent scattering. Coherence 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nugent, K.A.; Fienup, J.R.; Van Dyck, D.; Van Aert, S.; Weitkamp, T.; Diaz, A.; Pfeiffer, F.; Cloetens, P.; Stampanoni, M.; Bunk, O.; David, C.; Bronnikov, A.V.; Shen, Q.; Xiao, X.; Gureyev, T.E.; Nesterets, Ya.I.; Paganin, D.M.; Wilkins, S.W.; Mokso, R.; Cloetens, P.; Ludwig, W.; Hignette, O.; Maire, E.; Faulkner, H.M.L.; Rodenburg, J.M.; Wu, X.; Liu, H.; Grubel, G.; Ludwig, K.F.; Livet, F.; Bley, F.; Simon, J.P.; Caudron, R.; Le Bolloc' h, D.; Moussaid, A.; Gutt, C.; Sprung, M.; Madsen, A.; Tolan, M.; Sinha, S.K.; Scheffold, F.; Schurtenberger, P.; Robert, A.; Madsen, A.; Falus, P.; Borthwick, M.A.; Mochrie, S.G.J.; Livet, F.; Sutton, M.D.; Ehrburger-Dolle, F.; Bley, F.; Geissler, E.; Sikharulidze, I.; Jeu, W.H. de; Lurio, L.B.; Hu, X.; Jiao, X.; Jiang, Z.; Lurio, L.B.; Hu, X.; Jiao, X.; Jiang, Z.; Naryanan, S.; Sinha, S.K.; Lal, J.; Naryanan, S.; Sinha, S.K.; Lal, J.; Robinson, I.K.; Chapman, H.N.; Barty, A.; Beetz, T.; Cui, C.; Hajdu, J.; Hau-Riege, S.P.; He, H.; Stadler, L.M.; Sepiol, B.; Harder, R.; Robinson, I.K.; Zontone, F.; Vogl, G.; Howells, M.; London, R.; Marchesini, S.; Shapiro, D.; Spence, J.C.H.; Weierstall, U.; Eisebitt, S.; Shapiro, D.; Lima, E.; Elser, V.; Howells, M.R.; Huang, X.; Jacobsen, C.; Kirz, J.; Miao, H.; Neiman, A.; Sayre, D.; Thibault, P.; Vartanyants, I.A.; Robinson, I.K.; Onken, J.D.; Pfeifer, M.A.; Williams, G.J.; Pfeiffer, F.; Metzger, H.; Zhong, Z.; Bauer, G.; Nishino, Y.; Miao, J.; Kohmura, Y.; Yamamoto, M.; Takahashi, Y.; Koike, K.; Ebisuzaki, T.; Ishikawa, T.; Spence, J.C.H.; Doak, B

    2005-07-01

    The contributions of the participants have been organized into 3 topics: 1) phase retrieval methods, 2) X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy, and 3) coherent diffraction imaging. This document gathers the abstracts of the presentations and of the posters.

  4. INSTRUMENTS AND METHODS OF INVESTIGATION: Positron annihilation spectroscopy in materials structure studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafutin, Viktor I.; Prokop'ev, Evgenii P.

    2002-01-01

    A relatively new method of materials structure analysis — positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) — is reviewed. Measurements of positron lifetimes, the determination of positron 3γ- and 2γ-annihilation probabilities, and an investigation of the effects of different external factors on the fundamental characteristics of annihilation constitute the basis for this promising method. The ways in which the positron annihilation process operates in ionic crystals, semiconductors, metals and some condensed matter systems are analyzed. The scope of PAS is described and its prospects for the study of the electronic and defect structures are discussed. The applications of positron annihilation spectroscopy in radiation physics and chemistry of various substances as well as in physics and chemistry of solutions are exemplified.

  5. Communication: Investigation of the electron momentum density distribution of nanodiamonds by electron energy-loss spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Zhenbao; Yang, Bing; Lin, Yangming; Su, Dangsheng, E-mail: dssu@imr.ac.cn [Shenyang National Laboratory of Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wenhua Road 72, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2015-12-07

    The electron momentum distribution of detonation nanodiamonds (DND) was investigated by recording electron energy-loss spectra at large momentum transfer in the transmission electron microscope (TEM), which is known as electron Compton scattering from solid (ECOSS). Compton profile of diamond film obtained by ECOSS was found in good agreement with prior photon experimental measurement and theoretical calculation that for bulk diamond. Compared to the diamond film, the valence Compton profile of DND was found to be narrower, which indicates a more delocalization of the ground-state charge density for the latter. Combining with other TEM characterizations such as high-resolution transmission electron spectroscopy, diffraction, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy measurements, ECOSS was shown to be a great potential technique to study ground-state electronic properties of nanomaterials.

  6. Topological Properties of Spatial Coherence Function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji-Rong, Ren; Tao, Zhu; Yi-Shi, Duan

    2008-01-01

    The topological properties of the spatial coherence function are investigated rigorously. The phase singular structures (coherence vortices) of coherence function can be naturally deduced from the topological current, which is an abstract mathematical object studied previously. We find that coherence vortices are characterized by the Hopf index and Brouwer degree in topology. The coherence flux quantization and the linking of the closed coherence vortices are also studied from the topological properties of the spatial coherence function

  7. Wave-packet dynamics in alkaline dimers. Investigation and control through coherent excitation with fs-pulses; Wellenpaketdynamik in Alkali-Dimeren. Untersuchung und Steuerung durch kohaerente Anregung mit fs-Pulsen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauer, F.N.B.

    2007-07-01

    During my PhD thesis I investigated alkaline dimers with coherent control in a molecular beam as well as with pump-probe spectroscopy in a magneto-optical trap (MOT). The aim of the coherent control experiments were the isotope selective ionization with phase- and amplitude-shaped fs-pulses. Chapter 4 described the gained results of isotope selective ionization of NaK and KRb in a molecular beam by using different pulse formers. For the NaK dimer was the reached optimization factor R{sub Ph} and {sub Ampl}{sup 770}=R{sub max}/R{sub min}=25 between maximization and minimization of the isotopomer ratio ({sup 23}Na{sup 39}K){sup +}/({sup 23}Na{sup 41}K){sup +} with phase and amplitude modulation of the fs-pulse with a central wavelength of {lambda}=770 nm. From the electronic ground-state X(1){sup 1}{sigma}{sup +};{nu}''=0 transfers a one-photon-excitation population in the first excited A(2) {sup 1}{sigma}{sup +} state. The coherent control experiment on KRb was used to maximize and minimize the isotopomer ratio ({sup 124}KRb){sup +}/({sup 126}KRb){sup +}. It was the first coherent control experiment with a spectral resolution of 1.84 cm{sup -1}/Pixel. For the phase and amplitude optimization was the received optimization factor between minimization and maximization of the isotopomer ratio R{sub Ph} and {sub Ampl}=R{sub max}/R{sub min}=7 at a central wavelength of 840 nm. The results showed a stepwise excitation process from the electronic ground-state in the first excited (2){sup 1}{sigma}{sup +} state with a further excitation, that is possible over three resonant energy potential curves into the ionic ground-state. In the second part of my thesis I realized pump-probe spectroscopy of Rb{sub 2} dimers in a dark SPOT. (orig.)

  8. Investigation of natural frequencies of laser inertial confinement fusion capsules using resonant ultrasound spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Xiaojun [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Research Center of Laser Fusion, CAEP, Mianyang 621900 (China); Tang, Xing; Wang, Zongwei [Research Center of Laser Fusion, CAEP, Mianyang 621900 (China); Chen, Qian; Qian, Menglu [Institute of Acoustic, Tongji University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Meng, Jie [Research Center of Laser Fusion, CAEP, Mianyang 621900 (China); Tang, Yongjian [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Research Center of Laser Fusion, CAEP, Mianyang 621900 (China); Zou, Yaming; Shen, Hao [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Gao, Dangzhong, E-mail: dgaocn@163.com [Research Center of Laser Fusion, CAEP, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • The frequency equation of isotropic multi-layer hollow spheres was derived using three-dimension (3D) elasticity theory and transfer matrix method. • The natural frequencies of the capsules with a millimeter-sized diameter are determined experimentally using resonant ultrasound spectrum (RUS) system. • The predicted natural frequencies of the frequency equation accord well with the observed results. • The theoretical and experimental investigation has proved the potential applicability of RUS to both metallic and non-metallic capsules. - Abstract: The natural frequency problem of laser inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsules is one of the basic problems for determining non-destructively the elasticity modulus of each layer material using resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS). In this paper, the frequency equation of isotropic one-layer hollow spheres was derived using three dimension (3D) elasticity theory and some simplified frequency equations were discussed under axisymmetric and spherical symmetry conditions. The corresponding equation of isotropic multi-layer hollow spheres was given employing transfer matrix method. To confirm the validity of the frequency equation and explore the feasibility of RUS for characterizing the ICF capsules, three representative capsules with a millimeter-sized diameter were determined by piezoelectric-based resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (PZT-RUS) and laser-based resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (LRUS) techniques. On the basis of both theoretical and experimental results, it is proved that the calculated and measured natural frequencies are accurate enough for determining the ICF capsules.

  9. Investigation of complexing of vitamine B-6 with rare earth ions by PMR and luminescent spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buiklinskij, V.D.; Zelenov, V.I.; Zolin, V.F.; Koreneva, L.G.; Panyushkin, V.T.

    1981-01-01

    To investigate the complexing of pyridoxine (P), pyridoxal (PL) and pyridoxamine (PM) with lanthanide ions the changes of PMR spectra of ligands in the presence of cerium, praseodymium, neodymium, europium, gadolinium ions, as well as luminescence and absorption spectra of europium in the presence of ligands are used. Using the optical spectroscopy it has been shown that the PL and PM complexes do not have axial symmetry. The values of parameters of the crystalline field of the second order, determining the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility of europium complexes are evaluated. With an aid of PMR and luminescence spectroscopy it is shown that lanthanide ions coordinate the hydroxy groups of ligands. In the case of P and especially PL oxygen of the substituent in position 4 takes part in the coordination. Using the PMR spectroscopy the difference of the substituent location near C4 in the PM complex from its location in the P and PL complexes as well as the difference in the position of lanthanide ion in the complexes of all the three ligands are detected. The reasons for the differences above are discussed [ru

  10. Application of the Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy for Chromium Effect Investigation in Binary Fe-Cr Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sojak, S.; Krsjak, V.; Slugen, V.; Stancek, S.; Petriska, M.; Vitazek, K.; Stacho, M.

    2008-01-01

    Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) is one of the non-destructive techniques applied with advantage for evaluation of the radiation treated materials microstructure. In this work, the PAS was used for study of different Fe-Cr alloys implanted by ions of helium. Investigation was focused on the chromium effect and the radiation defects resistance. In particular, the vacancy type defects (mono-vacancies, vacancy clusters) have been studied. The results show that the specific content of chromium has important influence on the size and distribution of induced defects. (authors)

  11. Raman spectroscopy used for structural investigations of anodically formed ZrO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koneska, Zagorka; Arsova, Irena

    2003-01-01

    The structure of the oxide formed on Zr(99% + Hf) with anodic oxidation at different potentials in 1 mol/dm 3 H 3 PO 4 and 2 mol/dm 3 KOH solutions were investigated using Raman spectroscopy. Normally the anodic oxides of Zr form only crystals. Under certain circumstances, amorphous anodic ZrO 2 can be observed. Amorphous phase is observed for the anodically formed zirconium oxides in H 3 PO 4 . The oxide formed in KOH at potential of 80 V, where sparks appears on the Zr electrode showed crystalline structure. (Original)

  12. Solid-state amorphization in the Ni-Zr system investigated by positron lifetime spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernal, M.J.; De La Cruz, R.M.; Leguey, T.; Pareja, R.; Riveiro, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    The process of mechanical alloying and amorphization of Ni-Zr powders is investigated by positron lifetime spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. The short-lived component of the lifetime spectra is composition and milling-time dependent. The second lifetime component, found during the initial stages of the milling process, appears to be due to annihilation from states trapped at crystalline interface joints. The results indicate that the solid-state reactions induced by ball milling involve the transformation and disappearance of the crystalline interface joints in the powder particles. (orig.)

  13. Investigation of changes in fractal dimension from layered retinal structures of healthy and diabetic eyes with optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Zakharov, Valery P.; Myakinin, Oleg O.; Bratchenko, Ivan A.; Artemyev, Dmitry N.; Kornilin, Dmitry V.

    2015-07-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is usually employed for the measurement of retinal thickness characterizing the structural changes of tissue. However, fractal dimension (FD) could also character the structural changes of tissue. Therefore, fractal dimension changes may provide further information regarding cellular layers and early damage in ocular diseases. We investigated the possibility of OCT in detecting changes in fractal dimension from layered retinal structures. OCT images were obtained from diabetic patients without retinopathy (DM, n = 38 eyes) or mild diabetic retinopathy (MDR, n = 43 eyes) and normal healthy subjects (Controls, n = 74 eyes). Fractal dimension was calculated using the differentiate box counting methodology. We evaluated the usefulness of quantifying fractal dimension of layered structures in the detection of retinal damage. Generalized estimating equations considering within-subject intereye relations were used to test for differences between the groups. A modified p value of <0.001 was considered statistically significant. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed to describe the ability of fractal dimension to discriminate between the eyes of DM, MDR and healthy eyes. Significant decreases of fractal dimension were observed in all layers in the MDR eyes compared with controls except in the inner nuclear layer (INL). Significant decreases of fractal dimension were also observed in all layers in the MDR eyes compared with DM eyes. The highest area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) values estimated for fractal dimension were observed for the outer plexiform layer (OPL) and outer segment photoreceptors (OS) when comparing MDR eyes with controls. The highest AUROC value estimated for fractal dimension were also observed for the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and OS when comparing MDR eyes with DM eyes. Our results suggest that fractal dimension of the intraretinal layers may provide useful

  14. Investigation of germanium implanted with aluminum by multi-laser micro-Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanson, A., E-mail: andrea.sanson@unipd.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Napolitani, E. [MATIS IMM-CNR at Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Impellizzeri, G. [MATIS IMM-CNR and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Giarola, M. [Dipartimento di Informatica, Università di Verona, Strada le Grazie 15, I-37134 Verona (Italy); De Salvador, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Privitera, V.; Priolo, F. [MATIS IMM-CNR and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Mariotto, G. [Dipartimento di Informatica, Università di Verona, Strada le Grazie 15, I-37134 Verona (Italy); Carnera, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy)

    2013-08-31

    Germanium samples, implanted with aluminum and annealed, have been investigated by micro-Raman spectroscopy using different excitation lines with the aim of gaining insights about the Al distribution at different depths beneath the sample surface and to correlate the Raman spectra with the electrical and chemical profiles, obtained by Spreading Resistance Profiling (SRP) and Secondary Ions Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) measurements, respectively. The intensity of the Al–Ge Raman peak at about 370 cm{sup −1}, due to the local vibrational mode of the substitutional Al atoms in the Ge matrix, has been directly related to the SRP behavior, while no correlation has been observed with SIMS profiles. These findings show that the electrically active content is entirely due to the substitutional Al atoms. Finally, a clear down shift is observed for the Ge–Ge Raman peak at ∼ 300 cm{sup −1}, which also seems to be directly related to the active content of Al dopant atoms. This work shows that micro-Raman spectroscopy can be a suitable tool for the study of doping profiles in Ge. - Highlights: ► Al-implanted Ge and annealed were studied by micro-Raman spectroscopy. ► Using different laser lines we have investigated the implants at different depths. ► The Al–Ge Raman peak at about 370 cm{sup −1} is directly related to the SRP behavior. ► The electrically active content is entirely due to the substitutional Al atoms. ► Carrier effects are observed on the Ge–Ge peak at ∼ 300 cm{sup −1}.

  15. Investigation of germanium implanted with aluminum by multi-laser micro-Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanson, A.; Napolitani, E.; Impellizzeri, G.; Giarola, M.; De Salvador, D.; Privitera, V.; Priolo, F.; Mariotto, G.; Carnera, A.

    2013-01-01

    Germanium samples, implanted with aluminum and annealed, have been investigated by micro-Raman spectroscopy using different excitation lines with the aim of gaining insights about the Al distribution at different depths beneath the sample surface and to correlate the Raman spectra with the electrical and chemical profiles, obtained by Spreading Resistance Profiling (SRP) and Secondary Ions Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) measurements, respectively. The intensity of the Al–Ge Raman peak at about 370 cm −1 , due to the local vibrational mode of the substitutional Al atoms in the Ge matrix, has been directly related to the SRP behavior, while no correlation has been observed with SIMS profiles. These findings show that the electrically active content is entirely due to the substitutional Al atoms. Finally, a clear down shift is observed for the Ge–Ge Raman peak at ∼ 300 cm −1 , which also seems to be directly related to the active content of Al dopant atoms. This work shows that micro-Raman spectroscopy can be a suitable tool for the study of doping profiles in Ge. - Highlights: ► Al-implanted Ge and annealed were studied by micro-Raman spectroscopy. ► Using different laser lines we have investigated the implants at different depths. ► The Al–Ge Raman peak at about 370 cm −1 is directly related to the SRP behavior. ► The electrically active content is entirely due to the substitutional Al atoms. ► Carrier effects are observed on the Ge–Ge peak at ∼ 300 cm −1

  16. Nano-FTIR Spectroscopy to Investigate the Silicate Mineralogy of Mercury Analogues: Supporting MERTIS Onboard BepiColombo Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varatharajan, I.; Maturilli, A.; Helbert, J.; Ulrich, G.; Born, K.; Namur, O.; Kästner, B.; Hecht, L.; Charlier, B.; Hiesinger, H.

    2018-05-01

    Nano-FTIR Spectroscopy is used to investigate the silicate mineralogy of synthetic Mercury analogues produced under reduced conditions representing different Mercury terrains. The study will support MERTIS payload onboard BepiColombo mission.

  17. Investigation of magnetoimpedance effect on electrodeposited NiFe/Cu wire using inductance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Amaresh Chandra; Sahoo, Trilochan; Srinivas, V.; Thakur, Awalendra K.

    2011-01-01

    In this report, inductance spectroscopy (IS) has been used as a tool to investigate the thickness dependence of magnetoimpedance (MI) on electrodeposited NiFe thin films. An MI value as high as 140% has been observed under an applied magnetic field of 76 Oe at 300 kHz frequency for a film thickness of 6.8 μm. This result is in sharp contrast to earlier reports in literature showing monotonous increase in MI as a function of thickness. Maximum of MI was found at an optimum film thickness whose position varies with frequency. These reports exhibiting strong frequency dependence of MI prompted us to investigate the underlying physics using IS. The origin of MI lies in the combined effect of domain wall motion and spin rotation, which contributes to permeability. A parallel inductance and resistance (LR) circuit in series with series LR circuit model has been proposed as an equivalent electrical model to describe the property of these coated wires. The circuit elements have been linked with the phenomenon of domain wall motion and spin rotation. The experimental results obtained appear to be consistent with the proposed equivalent circuit model. -- Research Highlights: →GMI study on electrodeposited NiFe/Cu wire has been done to resolve the existing controversies. →Inductance spectroscopy has been used to evaluate the magnetic character. →The sample has been modeled as an equivalent electrical circuit. →A correlation between circuit parameters and GMI has been achieved.

  18. Investigation of the interaction between magnetic nanoparticles surface-coated with carboxymethyldextran and blood cells using Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santana, J.F.B.; Soler, M.A.G.; Silva, S.W. da; Guedes, M.H.; Lacava, Z.G.M.; Azevedo, R.B.; Morais, P.C.

    2005-01-01

    This study reports on in vitro biological tests performed with a biocompatible magnetic fluid based on carboxymethyldextran-coated magnetite nanoparticles (CMDM). Micro Raman spectroscopy was used to investigate the effect of dispersing (CMDM) nanoparticles in mice blood. We focused our investigation in the use of the Raman spectroscopy for monitoring the hemoglobin structural changes, which may be associated with the oxygen-binding process

  19. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Investigation of the Anodic Functionalities and Processes in LSCM-CGO-Ni Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Boulfrad, Samir

    2015-07-17

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to characterize anode compositions made of (La0.75Sr0.25)0.97Cr0.5Mn0.5O3 (LSCM) and gadolinia doped ceria (CGO) with and without additional submicron Ni, or exsoluted Ni nanoparticles. In addition, the effects of the anode gas flow rate and the working temperature were investigated. Higher content of the ionic conductor leads to a decrease of the impedance in the frequency range from 100 Hz to 10 Hz. The effect of the catalyst component was investigated while keeping the electronic conductivity unchanged in the tested materials. Enhanced catalytic activity was demonstrated to considerably decrease the impedance especially in the frequency range between 100 Hz to 1 Hz. The change in the gas flow rate affects mainly the impedance bellow 1 Hz. © The Electrochemical Society.

  20. Investigation of the Sensitivity of Transmission Raman Spectroscopy for Polymorph Detection in Pharmaceutical Tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Hanzhou; Bondi, Robert W; Anderson, Carl A; Drennen, James K; Igne, Benoît

    2017-08-01

    Polymorph detection is critical for ensuring pharmaceutical product quality in drug substances exhibiting polymorphism. Conventional analytical techniques such as X-ray powder diffraction and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance are utilized primarily for characterizing the presence and identity of specific polymorphs in a sample. These techniques have encountered challenges in analyzing the constitution of polymorphs in the presence of other components commonly found in pharmaceutical dosage forms. Laborious sample preparation procedures are usually required to achieve satisfactory data interpretability. There is a need for alternative techniques capable of probing pharmaceutical dosage forms rapidly and nondestructively, which is dictated by the practical requirements of applications such as quality monitoring on production lines or when quantifying product shelf lifetime. The sensitivity of transmission Raman spectroscopy for detecting polymorphs in final tablet cores was investigated in this work. Carbamazepine was chosen as a model drug, polymorph form III is the commercial form, whereas form I is an undesired polymorph that requires effective detection. The concentration of form I in a direct compression tablet formulation containing 20% w/w of carbamazepine, 74.00% w/w of fillers (mannitol and microcrystalline cellulose), and 6% w/w of croscarmellose sodium, silicon dioxide, and magnesium stearate was estimated using transmission Raman spectroscopy. Quantitative models were generated and optimized using multivariate regression and data preprocessing. Prediction uncertainty was estimated for each validation sample by accounting for all the main variables contributing to the prediction. Multivariate detection limits were calculated based on statistical hypothesis testing. The transmission Raman spectroscopic model had an absolute prediction error of 0.241% w/w for the independent validation set. The method detection limit was estimated at 1.31% w/w. The

  1. Vigilance task-related change in brain functional connectivity as revealed by wavelet phase coherence analysis of near-infrared spectroscopy signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Wei

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to assess the vigilance task-related change in connectivity in healthy adults using wavelet phase coherence (WPCO analysis of near-infrared spectroscopy signals (NIRS. NIRS is a non-invasive neuroimaging technique for assessing brain activity. Continuous recordings of the NIRS signals were obtained from the prefrontal cortex (PFC and sensorimotor cortical areas of 20 young healthy adults (24.9±3.3 years during a 10-min resting state and a 20-min vigilance task state. The vigilance task was used to simulate driving mental load by judging three random numbers (i.e., whether odd numbers. The task was divided into two sessions: the first 10 minutes (Task t1 and the second 10 minutes (Task t2. The WPCO of six channel pairs were calculated in five frequency intervals: 0.6–2 Hz (I, 0.145–0.6 Hz (II, 0.052–0.145 Hz (III, 0.021–0.052 Hz (IV, and 0.0095–0.021 Hz (V. The significant WPCO formed global connectivity (GC maps in intervals I and II and functional connectivity (FC maps in intervals III to V. Results show that the GC levels in interval I and FC levels in interval III were significantly lower in the Task t2 than in the resting state (p < 0.05, particularly between the left PFC and bilateral sensorimotor regions. Also, the reaction time shows an increase in Task t2 compared with that in Task t1. However, no significant difference in WPCO was found between Task t1 and resting state. The results showed that the change in FC at the range of 0.6-2 Hz was not attributed to the vigilance task pe se, but the interaction effect of vigilance task and time factors. The findings suggest that the decreased attention level might be partly attributed to the reduced GC levels between the left prefrontal region and sensorimotor area. The present results provide a new insight into the vigilance task-related brain activity.

  2. Electronic structure of germanium selenide investigated using ultra-violet photo-electron spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, P.; Lohani, H.; Kundu, A. K.; Patel, R.; Solanki, G. K.; Menon, Krishnakumar S. R.; Sekhar, B. R.

    2015-07-01

    The valence band electronic structure of GeSe single crystals has been investigated using angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The experimentally observed bands from ARPES, match qualitatively with our LDA-based band structure calculations along the Γ-Z, Γ-Y and Γ-T symmetry directions. The valence band maximum occurs nearly midway along the Γ-Z direction, at a binding energy of -0.5 eV, substantiating the indirect band gap of GeSe. Non-dispersive features associated with surface states and indirect transitions have been observed. The difference in hybridization of Se and Ge 4p orbitals leads to the variation of dispersion along the three symmetry directions. The predominance of the Se 4pz orbitals, evidenced from theoretical calculations, may be the cause for highly dispersive bands along the Γ-T direction. Detailed electronic structure analysis reveals the significance of the cation-anion 4p orbitals hybridization in the valence band dispersion of IV-VI semiconductors. This is the first comprehensive report of the electronic structure of a GeSe single crystal using ARPES in conjugation with theoretical band structure analysis.

  3. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy investigation on the clinical lifetime of ProTaper rotary file system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penta, Virgil; Pirvu, Cristian; Demetrescu, Ioana

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of the current paper is to show that electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) could be a method for evaluating and predicting of ProTaper rotary file system clinical lifespan. This particular aspect of everyday use of the endodontic files is of great importance in each dental practice and has profound clinical implications. The method used for quantification resides in the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy theory and has in its main focus the characteristics of the surface titanium oxide layer. This electrochemical technique has been adapted successfully to identify the quality of the Ni-Ti files oxide layer. The modification of this protective layer induces changes in corrosion behavior of the alloy modifying the impedance value of the file. In order to assess the method, 14 ProTaper sets utilized on different patients in a dental clinic have been submitted for testing using EIS. The information obtained in regard to the surface oxide layer has offered an indication of use and proves that the said layer evolves with each clinical application. The novelty of this research is related to an electrochemical technique successfully adapted for Ni-Ti file investigation and correlation with surface and clinical aspects.

  4. Feasibility study of Raman spectroscopy for investigating the mouse retina in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Suman K.; de Oliveira, Marcos A. S.; Zhang, Pengfei; Maleppat, Ratheesh K.; Chang, Che-Wei; Pugh, Edward N.; Chan, James W.; Zawadzki, Robert J.

    2018-02-01

    The use of Raman spectroscopy in biochemistry has been very successful, particularly because of its ability to identify elementary chemical species. However, application of this spectroscopic technique for in vivo assessment is often limited by autofluorescence, which make detection of Raman signatures difficult. The mouse eye has been used as an optical testbed for investigation of a variety of disease models and therapeutic pathways. Implementation of in vivo Raman spectroscopy in mice retina would be valuable but needs to be examined in context of the intrinsic auto-fluorescence artifact and potential light damage if high probing beam powers were used. To evaluate feasibility, a Raman system was built on a custom SLO/OCT platform allowing mouse positioning and morphological data acquisition along with the Raman signal from a desired retinal eccentricity. The performance of the Raman system was first assessed with a model eye consisting of polystyrene in the image plane (retina), using excitation wavelengths of 488 nm, 561 nm, and 785 nm to determine whether auto-fluorescence would be reduced at longer wavelengths. To improve the SNR, the combined system is featured with the optical compatibility for these three excitations such that their corresponding spectra from a typical region of interest can be acquired consecutively during single imaging run. Our results include emission spectra acquired over 10 s with excitation energy less than 160 J.s-1.m-2 for all wavelengths and corresponding retinal morphology for different mouse strains including WT, BALB/c and ABCA4-/-.

  5. Real-time imaging, spectroscopy, and structural investigation of cathodic plasma electrolytic oxidation of molybdenum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stojadinović, Stevan, E-mail: sstevan@ff.bg.ac.rs; Tadić, Nenad; Šišović, Nikola M.; Vasilić, Rastko [Faculty of Physics, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 12-16, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2015-06-21

    In this paper, the results of the investigation of cathodic plasma electrolytic oxidation (CPEO) of molybdenum at 160 V in a mixed solution of borax, water, and ethylene glycol are presented. Real-time imaging and optical emission spectroscopy were used for the characterization of the CPEO. During the process, vapor envelope is formed around the cathode and strong electric field within the envelope caused the generation of plasma discharges. The spectral line shape analysis of hydrogen Balmer line H{sub β} (486.13 nm) shows that plasma discharges are characterized by the electron number density of about 1.4 × 10{sup 21 }m{sup −3}. The electron temperature of 15 000 K was estimated by measuring molybdenum atomic lines intensity. Surface morphology, chemical, and phase composition of coatings formed by CPEO were characterized by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. The elemental components of CPEO coatings are Mo and O and the predominant crystalline form is MoO{sub 3}.

  6. Electronic structure of germanium selenide investigated using ultra-violet photo-electron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, P; Lohani, H; Sekhar, B R; Kundu, A K; Menon, Krishnakumar S R; Patel, R; Solanki, G K

    2015-01-01

    The valence band electronic structure of GeSe single crystals has been investigated using angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The experimentally observed bands from ARPES, match qualitatively with our LDA-based band structure calculations along the Γ–Z, Γ–Y and Γ–T symmetry directions. The valence band maximum occurs nearly midway along the Γ–Z direction, at a binding energy of −0.5 eV, substantiating the indirect band gap of GeSe. Non-dispersive features associated with surface states and indirect transitions have been observed. The difference in hybridization of Se and Ge 4p orbitals leads to the variation of dispersion along the three symmetry directions. The predominance of the Se 4p z orbitals, evidenced from theoretical calculations, may be the cause for highly dispersive bands along the Γ–T direction. Detailed electronic structure analysis reveals the significance of the cation–anion 4p orbitals hybridization in the valence band dispersion of IV–VI semiconductors. This is the first comprehensive report of the electronic structure of a GeSe single crystal using ARPES in conjugation with theoretical band structure analysis. (paper)

  7. Investigations into the electronic structure of the high-Tc superconductors by means of photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dauth, B.H.

    1989-08-01

    The electronic structure of various polycrystalline samples including the new YBaCuO- and BiCaSrCuO- high T c superconductors (HTSC) and related systems is investigated by photoelectron spectroscopy. Additional characterization is performed by conductivity measurements. In particular, the binding energy of the Cu-2p 3/2 - and the O-1s-levels of various HTSC is determined. For the first time the controversial 531 eV oxygen line was shown to be an intrinsic electronic structure effect. Sintered CuO-samples are obtained for the first time. The electronic structure of the sintered CuO turns out to be drastically different with respect to pressed CuO powder. For the first time a crossover resonance from a O-1s- into a Cu-3d-level was observed with synchrotron radiation. This is additional evidence for the strong hybridization between the Cu-3d and the O-2p states. Photoemission spectroscopy shows that the holes in the HTSC's are located at the oxygen p-band. Fe and Al overlayers on the HTSC-samples induce a drastic change in the electronic properties of the interface: apparently oxygen is removed from the HTSC to the overlayer. (orig./BHO)

  8. Spectroscopy of carbonated chains: experimental investigation and observation of Titan's atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolly, Antoine

    2012-01-01

    In this report for an Accreditation to Supervise Research (HDR), the author proposes an overview of his research works. These works first addressed quantitative spectroscopy and more particularly the measurement of absolute absorption coefficients which are necessary parameters for the quantification of molecules which are remotely sensed through their spectroscopic signature. Secondly, the author addresses the adjustment of line lists in the infrared for a better investigation of recent observations of Titan's atmosphere made by the Cassini mission. Thirdly, he reports the use of this line list for the processing of observations of Titan. The last part addresses an experimental atmospheric simulation which aims at reproducing Titan's atmosphere by submitting its main components (nitrogen and methane) to an energetic flow representative of what is present on Titan

  9. Uranium sorption from aqueous solutions by activated biochar fibres investigated by FTIR spectroscopy and batch experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loukia Hadjittofi; Ioannis Pashalidis

    2015-01-01

    The efficiency of activated biochar fibres obtained from Opuntia ficus indica regarding the sorption of hexavalent uranium (U(VI)) from aqueous solutions has been investigated by batch experiments, as a function of various physicochemical parameters, and FTIR spectroscopy prior and after U(VI) sorption. The experimental results show that the activated biochar fibres possess extraordinary sorption capacity for U(VI) even in acidic solutions (q max = 210 g kg -1 ), which is attributed to the formation of inner-sphere complexes with the surface carboxylic moieties, available in high density on the lamellar structures of the bio-sorbent. The adsorption process is described by a two-step exothermic reaction. (author)

  10. Low energy nuclear spin excitations in Ho metal investigated by high resolution neutron spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterji, Tapan; Jalarvo, Niina

    2013-04-17

    We have investigated the low energy excitations in metallic Ho by high resolution neutron spectroscopy. We found at T = 3 K clear inelastic peaks in the energy loss and energy gain sides, along with the central elastic peak. The energy of this low energy excitation, which is 26.59 ± 0.02 μeV at T = 3 K, decreased continuously and became zero at TN ≈ 130 K. By fitting the data in the temperature range 100-127.5 K with a power law we obtained the power-law exponent β = 0.37 ± 0.02, which agrees with the expected value β = 0.367 for a three-dimensional Heisenberg model. Thus the energy of the low energy excitations can be associated with the order parameter.

  11. Investigation on the porosity of zeolite NU-88 by means of positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consolati, G.; Mariani, M.; Millini, R.; Quasso, F.

    2009-01-01

    Seven well characterized zeolites were investigated by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy. The lifetime spectra were analysed in four discrete components. The third one was associated with ortho-positronium annihilation in the channels, framed in terms of infinite cylinders. Differences between the radii determined from the positron annihilation technique and X-ray diffraction data were found and explained in terms of the physical structure of the channel. An analogous study on a high-silica NU-88 zeolite gave a value of 0.33 nm for the corresponding radius, in agreement with Ar and N 2 adsorption data as well as with the catalytic behaviour of this zeolite in several acid catalyzed reactions. The longest lifetime component in NU-88 reveals the existence of mesopores, with average radius of about 1.8 nm, which could explain the importance of hydrogen transfer reactions in this zeolite.

  12. Long-term ageing effects in reactor pressure vessel steels investigated by positron annihilation spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butterling, Maik; Anwand, Wolfgang; Wagner, Andreas [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Radiation Physics, Dresden (Germany); Bergner, Frank; Ulbricht, Andreas; Wagner, Arne [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Dresden (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    Neutron irradiation of reactor pressure vessel steels leads to the formation of nano-sized defects which can deteriorate the material. An understanding of the microstructural evolution of the material is important for making reliable security assessments about possible future long-term operation of nuclear power plants. So-called late-blooming phases are formed after long-term irradiation and lead to considerable material ageing effects. Encouraging factors for the formation of these phases are a low Cu-content, moderate to high contents of Mn and Ni, low irradiation temperatures and different neutron fluxes. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy which is ideally suited for the detection and characterization of these irradiation-induced defects was applied for different selected materials which fulfill these conditions in order to investigate the occurrence and behavior of these phases.

  13. Lyophilized histidine investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and cryogenics: Deprotonation in vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardenas, Juan F.; Groebner, Gerhard

    2005-01-01

    Lyophilized histidine samples were investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Lyophilized samples were prepared from aqueous solutions at a pH in the range between ∼1.5 and ∼10, and with no further addition of electrolyte. The use of cryogenics allowed the determination of protonated to unprotonated molar ratios of sites in L-histidine, which correlates well with the dissociation constants of the residual amino acid sites. When cryogenics was not used deprotonation of the lyophilized samples occurred, where the degree and the total concentration of deprotonated sites correlates well with the formation constants and the decrease in Cl concentration, respectively. This later relation clearly indicates a correlation between deprotonation and the desorption of HCl from lyophilized samples

  14. Investigation of the phase separation of PNIPAM using infrared spectroscopy together with multivariate data analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Tommy; Baldursdottir, Stefania G.; Hietala, S.

    2013-01-01

    and Gaussian peak fitting was used to investigate the structural changes in aqueous solutions of a polymer, using poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) (PNIPAM) in the atactic form and with controlled tacticity as a model system. Subtle spectral changes associated with the dehydration and phase separation upon heating...... included peak shifts, an area ratio change of the amide I band to the amide II band and formation of a new peak in the amide I band were efficiently detected. Dehydration and phase separation of PNIPAM occurred in two temperature ranges, one for the atactic and one for isotactic rich part, both involving...... a complex re-organization of the hydrogen bonds and change of the hydration layer. The changes agreed with existing results from other techniques, and new insights were gained into the effect of controlled tacticity on phase transformation behaviour. The study demonstrates that infrared spectroscopy...

  15. Investigation of optical pump on dielectric tunability in PZT/PT thin film by THz spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jie; Luo, Chunya; Rao, Yunkun; Ling, Furi; Yao, Jianquan

    2016-07-11

    The dielectric spectra of single-layer PbTiO3 (PT), single-layer PbZrxTi1-xO3 (PZT) and multilayer PZT/PT thin films under an external optical field were investigated at room temperature by time-domain terahertz (THz) spectroscopy. Results showed that the real part of permittivity increased upon application of an external optical field, which could be interpreted as hardening of the soft mode and increasing of the damping coefficient and oscillator strength. Furthermore, the central mode was observed in the three films. Among the dielectric property of the three thin films studied, the tunability of the PZT/PT superlattice was the largest.

  16. Lyophilized histidine investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and cryogenics: Deprotonation in vacuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardenas, Juan F. [Inorganic Chemistry, Umeaa University, 90187 Umeaa (Sweden)]. E-mail: juan.cardenas@chem.umu.se; Groebner, Gerhard [Biophysical Chemistry, Umeaa University, 90187 Umeaa (Sweden)

    2005-08-15

    Lyophilized histidine samples were investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Lyophilized samples were prepared from aqueous solutions at a pH in the range between {approx}1.5 and {approx}10, and with no further addition of electrolyte. The use of cryogenics allowed the determination of protonated to unprotonated molar ratios of sites in L-histidine, which correlates well with the dissociation constants of the residual amino acid sites. When cryogenics was not used deprotonation of the lyophilized samples occurred, where the degree and the total concentration of deprotonated sites correlates well with the formation constants and the decrease in Cl concentration, respectively. This later relation clearly indicates a correlation between deprotonation and the desorption of HCl from lyophilized samples.

  17. Investigation of Fat Metabolism during Antiobesity Interventions by Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunima Pola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of current treatments for obesity is to reduce the body weight or visceral fat, which requires longer duration to show effect. In this study, we investigated the short-term changes in fat metabolism in liver, abdomen, and skeletal muscle during antiobesity interventions including Sibutramine treatment and diet restriction in obese rats using magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and blood chemistry. Sibutramine is an antiobesity drug that results in weight loss by increasing satiety and energy expenditure. The Sibutramine-treated rats showed reduction of liver fat and intramyocellular lipids on day 3. The triglycerides (TG decreased on day 1 and 3 compared to baseline (day 0. The early response/nonresponse in different fat depots will permit optimization of treatment for better clinical outcome rather than staying with a drug for longer periods.

  18. Investigation of the chlorine A-Center in polycrystalline CdTe layers by photoluminescence spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraft, Christian; Metzner, Heiner; Haedrich, Mathias [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Universitaet Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Schley, Pascal [Institut fuer Physik, Technische Universitaet Ilmenau, 98684 Ilmenau (Germany); Goldhahn, Ruediger [Institut fuer Experimentelle Physik, Universitaet Magdeburg, 39016 Magdeburg (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Polycrystalline CdTe is a well known absorber material for thin film solar cells. However, the improvement of CdTe-based solar cells for industrial application is mainly based on empirical enhancements of certain process steps which are not concerning the absorber itself. Hence, the defect structure of CdTe is still not understood in detail. One of the most discussed defects in CdTe is the so called chlorine A-center. In general, the A-Center describes a defect complex of the intrinsic cadmium vacancy defect and an extrinsic impurity. By means of photoluminescence spectroscopy at temperatures of 5 K we investigated the behavior of the chlorine A-center under different CdTe activation techniques. Therefore, we were able to determine the electronic level of that defect and to analyze its influence on the crystal quality and the functionality of solar cells that were prepared of the corresponding samples.

  19. Investigation of photoelectronic processes in CdIn2S4 by photoinduced current transient spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serpi, A.

    1986-01-01

    Photoelectronic processes in CdIn 2 S 4 are investigated by four-gate photoinduced current transient spectroscopy. In general the photocurrent decay transients are non-exponential because of a nonlinear multichannel recombination mechanism. Nevertheless suitable extrinsic excitation allows to open one recombination channel only and so to evidence a purely exponential relaxation. The detailed analysis of this process leads to the interpretation that the defects associated with the energy levels continuously distributed below the conduction band act as relay centres for radiative recombination of photoelectrons rather than as thermal emitting traps. An electron trapping level located at about 0.6 eV from the bottom of the conduction band is also evidenced. (author)

  20. Investigation of Detectability of Elementary Composition of Rainbow trout muscle with EDS (Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saltuk Buğrahan CEYHUN

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In present study, it is investigated that detectability of elementary composition of rainbow trout muscle using Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS. EDS system which has worked with attached to scanning electron microscope can do qualitative and semi-quantitative elementary analyses on selected region of sample using characteristic X-rays. For this purpose, it was performed four point and two mapping analyses from four samples. According to results, it was detected 13 elements which are consist of C, N and O in 87.70 percentage. As a result, although the method is sensitive and reliable, it is concluded that not adequate for elemental analysis alone but can be used as a support for analyzes with systems such as especially atomic absorption and ICP-MS.

  1. Prion structure investigated in situ, ex vivo, and in vitro by FTIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneipp, Janina; Miller, Lisa M.; Spassov, Sashko; Sokolowski, Fabian; Lasch, Peter; Beekes, Michael; Naumann, Dieter

    2004-07-01

    Syrian hamster nervous tissue was investigated by FTIR microspectroscopy with conventional and synchrotron infrared light sources. Various tissue structures from the cerebellum and medulla oblongata of scrapie-infected and control hamsters were investigated at a spatial resolution of 50 μm. Single neurons in dorsal root ganglia of scrapie-infected hamsters were analyzed by raster scan mapping at 6 μm spatial resolution. These measurements enabled us to (i) scrutinize structural differences between infected and non-infected tissue and (ii) analyze for the first time the distribution of different protein structures in situ within single nerve cells. Single nerve cells exhibited areas of increased β-sheet content, which co-localized consistently with accumulations of the pathological prion protein (PrPSc). Spectral data were also obtained from purified, partly proteinase K digested PrPSc isolated from scrapie-infected nervous tissue of hamsters to elucidate similarities/dissimilarities between prion structure in situ and ex vivo. A further comparison is drawn to the recombinant Syrian hamster prion protein SHaPrP90-232, whose in vitro transition from the predominantly a-helical isoform to β-sheet rich oligomeric structures was also investigated by FTIR spectroscopy.

  2. Investigation of the chemical effects of nuclear transformations by Moessbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    Moessbauer spectroscopy proved to be a very successful method for the investigation of the effect of nuclear transformations in solid matrixes. This method makes possible the observation of the atoms to be investigated without the dissolution of the sample i.e. without interfering with the eventual intermediates or their environment, ensuring thus ''in situ'' analysis. The method besides the informations concerning the chemical state of the derivative gives data concerning its immediate environment and its site in the crystal lattice. Products having a very short lifetime can be observed, too. Though the method is suitable only for the investigation of such nucleogenetic nuclei which are at the same time also Moessbauer atoms, the method has several times given fundamental information on the chemical and crystal-structural effects of transformations in solid compounds. Isotopes from nuclear reactions are in general pushed back at a high kinetical energy during their formation, and the method makes possible to deduce the consequences of this push-back effect and of radioactive decays and nuclear reactions. A separate chapter summarizes the recent statements concerning the consequences of the electron capture in solid cobalt compounds, the consequences of the isomer transition of Sn-119 in solid tin compounds etc. (P.J.)

  3. Investigating the bioavailability of graphene quantum dots in lung tissues via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabish, Tanveer A; Lin, Liangxu; Ali, Muhammad; Jabeen, Farhat; Ali, Muhammad; Iqbal, Rehana; Horsell, David W; Winyard, Paul G; Zhang, Shaowei

    2018-06-06

    Biomolecular fractions affect the fate and behaviour of quantum dots (QDs) in living systems but how the interactions between biomolecules and QDs affect the bioavailability of QDs is a major knowledge gap in risk assessment analysis. The transport of QDs after release into a living organism is a complex process. The majority accumulate in the lungs where they can directly affect the inhalation process and lung architecture. Here, we investigate the bioavailability of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) to the lungs of rats by measuring the alterations in macromolecular fractions via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). GQDs were intravenously injected into the rats in a dose-dependent manner (low (5 mg kg -1 ) and high (15 mg kg -1 ) doses of GQDs per body weight of rat) for 7 days. The lung tissues were isolated, processed and haematoxylin-eosin stained for histological analysis to identify cell death. Key biochemical differences were identified by spectral signatures: pronounced changes in cholesterol were found in two cases of low and high doses; a change in phosphorylation profile of substrate proteins in the tissues was observed in low dose at 24 h. This is the first time biomolecules have been measured in biological tissue using FTIR to investigate the biocompatibility of foreign material. We found that highly accurate toxicological changes can be investigated with FTIR measurements of tissue sections. As a result, FTIR could form the basis of a non-invasive pre-diagnostic tool for predicting the toxicity of GQDs.

  4. Comparison between measurements of hyperfine structures of Pr II - lines investigated by collinear laser ion beam spectroscopy (CLIBS) ans saturation spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhtar, Nadeem; Anjum, Naveed [Inst. f. Experimentalphysik, Techn. Univ. Graz, Petersgasse 16, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Optics Labs, Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Huehnermann, Harry [Inst. f. Experimentalphysik, Techn. Univ. Graz, Petersgasse 16, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Fachbereich Physik, Univ. Marburg/Lahn (Germany); Windholz, Laurentius [Inst. f. Experimentalphysik, Techn. Univ. Graz, Petersgasse 16, A-8010 Graz (Austria)

    2011-07-01

    Investigation of narrow hyperfine structures needs a reduction of the Doppler broadening of the investigated lines. Here we have used two methods: collinear laser spectroscopy (CLIBS) and laser saturation spectroscopy. In the first method, the Doppler width is reduced by accelerating Pr ions to a high velocity and excitation with a collinear laser beam, while in the second method ions with velocity group zero are selected by nonlinear saturation. In this work the hyperfine spectra of several Pr II lines were investigated using CLIBS. A line width of ca. 60 MHz was measured. The same lines were then investigated in a hollow cathode discharge lamp using intermodulated laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. Using this technique a spectral line width of about 200 MHz was achieved. In both methods, the excitation source is a ring dye laser operated with R6G. Using a fit program, magnetic dipole interaction constants A and the electric-quadrupole interaction constants B of the involved levels have been determined in both cases. We discuss advantages and disadvantages of both methods.

  5. Charge transfer in carbon nanotube actuators investigated using in situ Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, S.; Hughes, M.; Windle, A.H.; Robertson, J.

    2004-01-01

    Charge transfer dynamics on the surface of single-wall carbon nanotube sheets is investigated using in situ Raman spectroscopy in order to understand the actuation mechanism of an electrochemical actuator and to determine associated parameters. We built an actuator from single-wall carbon nanotube mat and studied its actuation in several alkali metal (Li, Na, and K) and alkaline earth (Ca) halide and sulfate solutions in order to clarify the role of counterion as mobile ions in the film. The variation of bonding with applied potential was monitored using in situ Raman spectroscopy. This is because Raman can detect changes in C-C bond length: the radial breathing mode at ∼190 cm-1 varies inversely with the nanotube diameter, and the G band at ∼1590 cm-1 varies with the axial bond length. In addition, the intensities of both the modes vary with the emptying/depleting or filling of the bonding and antibonding states due to electrochemical charge injection. We discussed the variation of peak height and wave numbers of these modes providing valuable information concerning electrochemical charge injection on the carbon nanotube mat surface. We found in-plane microscopic compressive strain (∼-0.25%) and the equivalent charge transfer per carbon atom (f c ∼-0.005) as an upper bound for the actuators studied hereby. It is demonstrated that though the present analysis does comply with the proposition for the actuation principle made earlier, the quantitative estimates are significantly lower if compared with those of reported values. Furthermore, the extent of variation, i.e., coupled electro-chemo-mechanical response of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT) mat depended upon the type of counterion used (Group I versus Group II). The cyclic voltammetry and ac electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results were described briefly, which help to demonstrate well-developed capacitive behavior of SWNT mat and to estimate the specific capacitances as well. Summarizing, the

  6. Investigating Nanoscale Electrochemistry with Surface- and Tip-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaleski, Stephanie; Wilson, Andrew J; Mattei, Michael; Chen, Xu; Goubert, Guillaume; Cardinal, M Fernanda; Willets, Katherine A; Van Duyne, Richard P

    2016-09-20

    The chemical sensitivity of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) methodologies allows for the investigation of heterogeneous chemical reactions with high sensitivity. Specifically, SERS methodologies are well-suited to study electron transfer (ET) reactions, which lie at the heart of numerous fundamental processes: electrocatalysis, solar energy conversion, energy storage in batteries, and biological events such as photosynthesis. Heterogeneous ET reactions are commonly monitored by electrochemical methods such as cyclic voltammetry, observing billions of electrochemical events per second. Since the first proof of detecting single molecules by redox cycling, there has been growing interest in examining electrochemistry at the nanoscale and single-molecule levels. Doing so unravels details that would otherwise be obscured by an ensemble experiment. The use of optical spectroscopies, such as SERS, to elucidate nanoscale electrochemical behavior is an attractive alternative to traditional approaches such as scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM). While techniques such as single-molecule fluorescence or electrogenerated chemiluminescence have been used to optically monitor electrochemical events, SERS methodologies, in particular, have shown great promise for exploring electrochemistry at the nanoscale. SERS is ideally suited to study nanoscale electrochemistry because the Raman-enhancing metallic, nanoscale substrate duly serves as the working electrode material. Moreover, SERS has the ability to directly probe single molecules without redox cycling and can achieve nanoscale spatial resolution in combination with super-resolution or scanning probe microscopies. This Account summarizes the latest progress from the Van Duyne and Willets groups toward understanding nanoelectrochemistry using Raman spectroscopic methodologies. The first half of this Account highlights three techniques that have been recently used to probe few- or single-molecule electrochemical

  7. Electronic structure investigation of atomic layer deposition ruthenium(oxide) thin films using photoemission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, Michael, E-mail: mvschaefer@mail.usf.edu, E-mail: schlaf@mail.usf.edu [Department of Physics, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33620 (United States); Schlaf, Rudy, E-mail: mvschaefer@mail.usf.edu, E-mail: schlaf@mail.usf.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33620 (United States)

    2015-08-14

    Analyzing and manipulating the electronic band line-up of interfaces in novel micro- and nanoelectronic devices is important to achieve further advancement in this field. Such band alignment modifications can be achieved by introducing thin conformal interfacial dipole layers. Atomic layer deposition (ALD), enabling angstrom-precise control over thin film thickness, is an ideal technique for this challenge. Ruthenium (Ru{sup 0}) and its oxide (RuO{sub 2}) have gained interest in the past decade as interfacial dipole layers because of their favorable properties like metal-equivalent work functions, conductivity, etc. In this study, initial results of the electronic structure investigation of ALD Ru{sup 0} and RuO{sub 2} films via photoemission spectroscopy are presented. These experiments give insight into the band alignment, growth behavior, surface structure termination, and dipole formation. The experiments were performed in an integrated vacuum system attached to a home-built, stop-flow type ALD reactor without exposing the samples to the ambient in between deposition and analysis. Bis(ethylcyclopentadienyl)ruthenium(II) was used as precursor and oxygen as reactant. The analysis chamber was outfitted with X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (LIXPS, XPS). The determined growth modes are consistent with a strong growth inhibition situation with a maximum average growth rate of 0.21 Å/cycle for RuO{sub 2} and 0.04 Å/cycle for Ru.{sup 0} An interface dipole of up to −0.93 eV was observed, supporting the assumption of a strongly physisorbed interface. A separate experiment where the surface of a RuO film was sputtered suggests that the surface is terminated by an intermediate, stable, non-stoichiometric RuO{sub 2}/OH compound whose surface is saturated with hydroxyl groups.

  8. Electronic structure investigation of atomic layer deposition ruthenium(oxide) thin films using photoemission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Michael; Schlaf, Rudy

    2015-08-01

    Analyzing and manipulating the electronic band line-up of interfaces in novel micro- and nanoelectronic devices is important to achieve further advancement in this field. Such band alignment modifications can be achieved by introducing thin conformal interfacial dipole layers. Atomic layer deposition (ALD), enabling angstrom-precise control over thin film thickness, is an ideal technique for this challenge. Ruthenium (Ru0) and its oxide (RuO2) have gained interest in the past decade as interfacial dipole layers because of their favorable properties like metal-equivalent work functions, conductivity, etc. In this study, initial results of the electronic structure investigation of ALD Ru0 and RuO2 films via photoemission spectroscopy are presented. These experiments give insight into the band alignment, growth behavior, surface structure termination, and dipole formation. The experiments were performed in an integrated vacuum system attached to a home-built, stop-flow type ALD reactor without exposing the samples to the ambient in between deposition and analysis. Bis(ethylcyclopentadienyl)ruthenium(II) was used as precursor and oxygen as reactant. The analysis chamber was outfitted with X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (LIXPS, XPS). The determined growth modes are consistent with a strong growth inhibition situation with a maximum average growth rate of 0.21 Å/cycle for RuO2 and 0.04 Å/cycle for Ru.0 An interface dipole of up to -0.93 eV was observed, supporting the assumption of a strongly physisorbed interface. A separate experiment where the surface of a RuO film was sputtered suggests that the surface is terminated by an intermediate, stable, non-stoichiometric RuO2/OH compound whose surface is saturated with hydroxyl groups.

  9. Electronic structure investigation of atomic layer deposition ruthenium(oxide) thin films using photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, Michael; Schlaf, Rudy

    2015-01-01

    Analyzing and manipulating the electronic band line-up of interfaces in novel micro- and nanoelectronic devices is important to achieve further advancement in this field. Such band alignment modifications can be achieved by introducing thin conformal interfacial dipole layers. Atomic layer deposition (ALD), enabling angstrom-precise control over thin film thickness, is an ideal technique for this challenge. Ruthenium (Ru 0 ) and its oxide (RuO 2 ) have gained interest in the past decade as interfacial dipole layers because of their favorable properties like metal-equivalent work functions, conductivity, etc. In this study, initial results of the electronic structure investigation of ALD Ru 0 and RuO 2 films via photoemission spectroscopy are presented. These experiments give insight into the band alignment, growth behavior, surface structure termination, and dipole formation. The experiments were performed in an integrated vacuum system attached to a home-built, stop-flow type ALD reactor without exposing the samples to the ambient in between deposition and analysis. Bis(ethylcyclopentadienyl)ruthenium(II) was used as precursor and oxygen as reactant. The analysis chamber was outfitted with X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (LIXPS, XPS). The determined growth modes are consistent with a strong growth inhibition situation with a maximum average growth rate of 0.21 Å/cycle for RuO 2 and 0.04 Å/cycle for Ru. 0 An interface dipole of up to −0.93 eV was observed, supporting the assumption of a strongly physisorbed interface. A separate experiment where the surface of a RuO film was sputtered suggests that the surface is terminated by an intermediate, stable, non-stoichiometric RuO 2 /OH compound whose surface is saturated with hydroxyl groups

  10. Investigating the binding behaviour of two avidin-based testosterone binders using molecular recognition force spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangl, Martina; Leitner, Michael; Riihimäki, Tiina; Lehtonen, Soili; Hytönen, Vesa P; Gruber, Hermann J; Kulomaa, Markku; Hinterdorfer, Peter; Ebner, Andreas

    2014-02-01

    Molecular recognition force spectroscopy, a biosensing atomic force microscopy technique allows to characterise the dissociation of ligand-receptor complexes at the molecular level. Here, we used molecular recognition force spectroscopy to study the binding capability of recently developed testosterone binders. The two avidin-based proteins called sbAvd-1 and sbAvd-2 are expected to bind both testosterone and biotin but differ in their binding behaviour towards these ligands. To explore the ligand binding and dissociation energy landscape of these proteins, we tethered biotin or testosterone to the atomic force microscopy probe while the testosterone-binding protein was immobilized on the surface. Repeated formation and rupture of the ligand-receptor complex at different pulling velocities allowed determination of the loading rate dependence of the complex-rupturing force. In this way, we obtained the molecular dissociation rate (k(off)) and energy landscape distances (x(β)) of the four possible complexes: sbAvd-1-biotin, sbAvd-1-testosterone, sbAvd-2-biotin and sbAvd-2-testosterone. It was found that the kinetic off-rates for both proteins and both ligands are similar. In contrast, the x(β) values, as well as the probability of complex formations, varied considerably. In addition, competitive binding experiments with biotin and testosterone in solution differ significantly for the two testosterone-binding proteins, implying a decreased cross-reactivity of sbAvd-2. Unravelling the binding behaviour of the investigated testosterone-binding proteins is expected to improve their usability for possible sensing applications. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Investigation of the potential of optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a non-invasive diagnostic tool in reproductive medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trottmann, Matthias; Homann, Christian; Leeb, R.; Doering, D.; Kuznetsova, J.; Reese, S.; Stief, C. G.; Koelle, S.; Sroka, R.

    2015-02-01

    Introduction and objective: In Europe, nearly every sixth couple in the reproductive age is involuntarily childless. In about 30%, both male and female reveal fertility problems. In about 10% of infertile men, azoospermia is the underlying cause. As conventional therapeutic options are limited, surgical testicular sperm extraction (TESE) is necessary to obtain sperms for assisted reproductive techniques. Regarding the females, up to 30% of all idiopathic infertilities are due to alterations of the uterine tube So far, no imaging technique, which does not require any labelling, is available to evaluate the male and female genital tract at a microscopic level under in vivo conditions. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the potential of optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a non-invasive diagnostic tool in gynaecology and andrology. Material and Methods: Tissues samples from the bovine testis, epididymis, vas deferens, ovary, oviduct (ampulla and isthmus) and uterus were obtained immediately after slaughter (14 cows aged 3 to 8 years and 14 bulls aged 3 to 6 years; breeds: Holstein- Friesian, and Deutsches Fleckvieh). Imaging was done by using the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved probe-based Niris Imaging System (Imalux, Cleveland, Ohio, USA) and the Telesto 1325 nm OCT System and Ganymede 930 nm OCT System (Thorlabs Inc., Dachau, Germany). All images obtained were compared to histological images after paraffin embedding and HE staining. Results: OCT imaging visualized the microarchitecture of the testis, epididymis, spermatic duct and the ovary, oviduct and uterus. Using the Thorlabs systems a axial resolution of approx. 5μm and lateral resolution of 8- 15μm could be achieved. Different optical tissue volumes could be visualized, which depends on the optical penetration depth of the wavelength of the system used. While the tissue volume observed by probe based Imalux-OCT is similar to the used Thorlabs systems, the optical resolution is

  12. LDRD final report on theory and exploration of quantum-dot optical nonlinearities and coherences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, Weng Wah

    2008-01-01

    A microscopic theory for investigating quantum-dot optical properties was developed. The theory incorporated advances on various aspects of quantum-dot physics developed at Sandia and elsewhere. Important components are a non-Markovian treatment of polarization dephasing due to carrier-carrier scattering (developed at Sandia) and a nonperturbative treatment within a polaron picture of the scattering of carriers by longitudinal-optical phonons (developed at Bremen University). A computer code was also developed that provides a detailed accounting of electronic structure influences and a consistent treatment of many-body effects, the latter via the incorporation of results from the microscopic theory. This code was used to explore quantum coherence physics in a quantum-dot system. The investigation furthers the understanding of the underlying differences between atomic quantum coherence and semiconductor quantum coherence, and helps improve the potential of using quantum coherences in quantum computing, coherent control and high-resolution spectroscopy

  13. Scanning angle Raman spectroscopy: Investigation of Raman scatter enhancement techniques for chemical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Matthew W. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This thesis outlines advancements in Raman scatter enhancement techniques by applying evanescent fields, standing-waves (waveguides) and surface enhancements to increase the generated mean square electric field, which is directly related to the intensity of Raman scattering. These techniques are accomplished by employing scanning angle Raman spectroscopy and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy. A 1064 nm multichannel Raman spectrometer is discussed for chemical analysis of lignin. Extending dispersive multichannel Raman spectroscopy to 1064 nm reduces the fluorescence interference that can mask the weaker Raman scattering. Overall, these techniques help address the major obstacles in Raman spectroscopy for chemical analysis, which include the inherently weak Raman cross section and susceptibility to fluorescence interference.

  14. Plasma Wind Tunnel Investigation of European Ablators in Nitrogen/Methane Using Emission Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricarda Wernitz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For atmospheric reentries at high enthalpies ablative heat shield materials are used, such as those for probes entering the atmosphere of Saturn’s moon Titan, such as Cassini-Huygens in December, 2004. The characterization of such materials in a nitrogen/methane atmosphere is of interest. A European ablative material, AQ60, has been investigated in plasma wind tunnel tests at the IRS plasma wind tunnel PWK1 using the magnetoplasma dynamic generator RD5 as plasma source in a nitrogen/methane atmosphere. The dimensions of the samples are 45 mm in length with a diameter of 39 mm. The actual ablator has a thickness of 40 mm. The ablator is mounted on an aluminium substructure. The experiments were conducted at two different heat flux regimes, 1.4 MW/m2 and 0.3 MW/m2. In this paper, results of emission spectroscopy at these plasma conditions in terms of plasma species’ temperatures will be presented, including the investigation of the free-stream species, N2 and N2+, and the major erosion product C2, at a wavelength range around 500 nm–600 nm.

  15. Creation of free excitons in solid krypton investigated by time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisand, Vambola; Kirm, Marco; Negodin, Evgeni; Sombrowski, Elke; Steeg, Barbara; Vielhauer, Sebastian; Zimmerer, Georg

    2003-01-01

    The creation and relaxation of secondary excitons in solid Kr was investigated using energy-and time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy in the vacuum ultraviolet region. The spectrally selected emission of the free exciton (FE) was used as a probe for an investigation of the different exciton creation processes. Delayed FE creation via electron-hole recombination and 'prompt' (in terms of the time-resolution of the experiment) creation of excitons were separated. The 'prompt' creation of a FE appears in the region above threshold energy E th , which is equal to the sum of the band gap energy and the free exciton energy. 'Prompt' creation of excitons above E th is ascribed to a superposition of two processes: (i) creation of the electronic polaron complex (one-step process) and (ii) inelastic scattering of photoelectrons described in the framework of the multiple-parabolic-branch band model (two-step process). In addition, the ratio spectrum of the time-integrated FE and self-trapped exciton (STE) emission was analysed. The behaviour of the ratio spectrum is a proof that electron-hole recombination leads to STE states through FE states as precursors

  16. Investigation of reordered (001) Au surfaces by positive ion channeling spectroscopy, LEED and AES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appleton, B.R.; Noggle, T.S.; Miller, J.W.; Schow, O.E. III; Zehner, D.M.; Jenkins, L.H.; Barrett, J.H.

    1974-01-01

    As a consequence of the channeling phenomenon of positive ions in single crystals, the yield of ions Rutherford scattered from an oriented single crystal surface is dependent on the density of surface atoms exposed to the incident ion beam. Thus, the positive ion channeling spectroscopy (PICS) technique should provide a useful tool for studying reordered surfaces. This possibility was explored by examining the surfaces of epitaxially grown thin Au single crystals with the combined techniques of LEED-AES and PICS. The LEED and AES investigations showed that when the (001) surface was sputter cleaned in ultra-high vacuum, the normal (1 x 1) symmetry of the (001) surfaces reordered into a structure which gave a complex (5 x 20) LEED pattern. The yield and energy distributions of 1 MeV He ions scattered from the Au surfaces were used to determine the number of effective monolayers contributing to the normal and reordered surfaces. These combined measurements were used to characterize the nature of the reordered surface. The general applicability of the PICS technique for investigations of surface and near surface regions is discussed

  17. Investigation of retinal morphology alterations using spectral domain optical coherence tomography in a mouse model of retinal branch and central retinal vein occlusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Ebneter

    Full Text Available Retinal vein occlusion is a leading cause of visual impairment. Experimental models of this condition based on laser photocoagulation of retinal veins have been described and extensively exploited in mammals and larger rodents such as the rat. However, few reports exist on the use of this paradigm in the mouse. The objective of this study was to investigate a model of branch and central retinal vein occlusion in the mouse and characterize in vivo longitudinal retinal morphology alterations using spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Retinal veins were experimentally occluded using laser photocoagulation after intravenous application of Rose Bengal, a photo-activator dye enhancing thrombus formation. Depending on the number of veins occluded, variable amounts of capillary dropout were seen on fluorescein angiography. Vascular endothelial growth factor levels were markedly elevated early and peaked at day one. Retinal thickness measurements with spectral domain optical coherence tomography showed significant swelling (p<0.001 compared to baseline, followed by gradual thinning plateauing two weeks after the experimental intervention (p<0.001. Histological findings at day seven correlated with spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging. The inner layers were predominantly affected by degeneration with the outer nuclear layer and the photoreceptor outer segments largely preserved. The application of this retinal vein occlusion model in the mouse carries several advantages over its use in other larger species, such as access to a vast range of genetically modified animals. Retinal changes after experimental retinal vein occlusion in this mouse model can be non-invasively quantified by spectral domain optical coherence tomography, and may be used to monitor effects of potential therapeutic interventions.

  18. Laser spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Demtröder, Wolfgang

    Keeping abreast of the latest techniques and applications, this new edition of the standard reference and graduate text on laser spectroscopy has been completely revised and expanded. While the general concept is unchanged, the new edition features a broad array of new material, e.g., ultrafast lasers (atto- and femto-second lasers) and parametric oscillators, coherent matter waves, Doppler-free Fourier spectroscopy with optical frequency combs, interference spectroscopy, quantum optics, the interferometric detection of gravitational waves and still more applications in chemical analysis, medical diagnostics, and engineering.

  19. Analytical Investigations on Carrier Phase Recovery in Dispersion-Unmanaged n-PSK Coherent Optical Communication Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianhua Xu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Using coherent optical detection and digital signal processing, laser phase noise and equalization enhanced phase noise can be effectively mitigated using the feed-forward and feed-back carrier phase recovery approaches. In this paper, theoretical analyses of feed-back and feed-forward carrier phase recovery methods have been carried out in the long-haul high-speed n-level phase shift keying (n-PSK optical fiber communication systems, involving a one-tap normalized least-mean-square (LMS algorithm, a block-wise average algorithm, and a Viterbi-Viterbi algorithm. The analytical expressions for evaluating the estimated carrier phase and for predicting the bit-error-rate (BER performance (such as the BER floors have been presented and discussed in the n-PSK coherent optical transmission systems by considering both the laser phase noise and the equalization enhanced phase noise. The results indicate that the Viterbi-Viterbi carrier phase recovery algorithm outperforms the one-tap normalized LMS and the block-wise average algorithms for small phase noise variance (or effective phase noise variance, while the one-tap normalized LMS algorithm shows a better performance than the other two algorithms for large phase noise variance (or effective phase noise variance. In addition, the one-tap normalized LMS algorithm is more sensitive to the level of modulation formats.

  20. Investigation of hyperfine interactions in DNA nitrogenous bases using perturbed angular correlation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Andreia dos Santos; Carbonari, Artur Wilson; Lapolli, Andre Luis; Saxena, Rajendra Narain; Saitovitch, Henrique

    2013-01-01

    Perturbed γγ angular correlations (PAC) spectroscopy has been used to study the DNA nitrogenous bases (adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine), using 111 In→ 111 Cd and 111m Cd→ 111 Cd probe nuclei. One of the advantages of applying PAC technique to biological molecules is that the experiments can be carried out on molecules in aqueous solution [1], approaching the function of molecules under conditions that are close to in vivo conditions. The measurements were carried out for DNA nitrogenous bases molecules at 295 K and 77 K in order to investigate dynamic and static hyperfine interactions, respectively. The interpretation of the results was based on the measurements of dynamic interaction characterized by the decay constant from which valuable information on the macroscopic behavior of the molecules was obtained [2; 3]. On the other hand, PAC measurements at low temperature showed interaction frequency (ν Q ), asymmetry parameter (η) and the distribution of the quadrupole frequency (δ). These parameters provide a local microscopic description of the chemical environment in the neighborhood of the probe nuclei. Results showed differences in the hyperfine interactions of probe nuclei bound to the studied biomolecules. Such differences were observed by variations in the hyperfine parameters, which depended on the type of biomolecule and the results also showed that the probe nuclei bounded at the molecules in some cases and at others did not. (author)

  1. Ion implantation effects in single crystal Si investigated by Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harriman, T.A.; Lucca, D.A.; Lee, J.-K.; Klopfstein, M.J.; Herrmann, K.; Nastasi, M.

    2009-01-01

    A study of the effects of Ar ion implantation on the structural transformation of single crystal Si investigated by confocal Raman spectroscopy is presented. Implantation was performed at 77 K using 150 keV Ar ++ with fluences ranging from 2 x 10 13 to 1 x 10 15 ions/cm 2 . The Raman spectra showed a progression from crystalline to highly disordered structure with increasing fluence. The 520 cm -1 c-Si peak was seen to decrease in intensity, broaden and exhibit spectral shifts indicating an increase in lattice disorder and changes in the residual stress state. In addition, an amorphous Si band first appeared as a shoulder on the 520 cm -1 peak and then shifted to lower wavenumbers as a single broadband peak with a spectral center of 465 cm -1 . Additionally, the emergence of the a-Si TA phonon band and the decrease of the c-Si 2TA and 2TO phonon bands also indicated the same structural transition from crystalline to highly disordered. The Raman results were compared to those obtained by channeling RBS.

  2. Investigation into structure of berylliumaluminium silicate glasses and crystals by X-ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tykachinskij, I.D.; Gorbachev, V.V.; Petrakov, V.N.; Varshal, B.G.; Bystrakov, A.S.; Dmitriev, I.D.; Zatsepin, A.F.; Blaginina, L.A.

    1983-01-01

    For the purpose of elucidating the structural state of Be 2+ and Al 3+ ions as well as the nature of Be-O bond the investigation of glasses obtained from BeO, Al 2 O 3 and SiO 2 with different component composition is undertaken by X-ray spectroscopy. In three-component beryllium alumosilicate glasses at the ratio γ=Al 2 O 3 /BeO=0.34-1.92 the main part of Al 3+ cations forms AlO 4 groups. Be 2+ cations probably occupy several non-equivalent states. At the ''crystal-glass'' transition the reorganization of near structure of beryllium alumosilicate frame with appearance in a glass in contrast to crystal analog of beryllium cations playing the role of a glass former (being a part of glass net) as well as a modifier role occurs. For compositions with γ=1 the degree of ionic character of the Be-O bond is the greatest. The increase of Be 2+ cations fraction being a part of the glass net is characteristic feature of the glasses with parameter values γ not equal to 1

  3. Differentiation of Apple Varieties and Investigation of Organic Status Using Portable Visible Range Reflectance Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Vincent

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Food fraud, the sale of goods that have in some way been mislabelled or tampered with, is an increasing concern, with a number of high profile documented incidents in recent years. These recent incidents and their scope show that there are gaps in the food chain where food authentication methods are not applied or otherwise not sufficient and more accessible detection methods would be beneficial. This paper investigates the utility of affordable and portable visible range spectroscopy hardware with partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA when applied to the differentiation of apple types and organic status. This method has the advantage that it is accessible throughout the supply chain, including at the consumer level. Scans were acquired of 132 apples of three types, half of which are organic and the remaining non-organic. The scans were preprocessed with zero correction, normalisation and smoothing. Two tests were used to determine accuracy, the first using 10-fold cross-validation and the second using a test set collected in different ambient conditions. Overall, the system achieved an accuracy of 94% when predicting the type of apple and 66% when predicting the organic status. Additionally, the resulting models were analysed to find the regions of the spectrum that had the most significance. Then, the accuracy when using three-channel information (RGB is presented and shows the improvement provided by spectroscopic data.

  4. Differentiation of Apple Varieties and Investigation of Organic Status Using Portable Visible Range Reflectance Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Jordan; Wang, Hui; Nibouche, Omar; Maguire, Paul

    2018-05-25

    Food fraud, the sale of goods that have in some way been mislabelled or tampered with, is an increasing concern, with a number of high profile documented incidents in recent years. These recent incidents and their scope show that there are gaps in the food chain where food authentication methods are not applied or otherwise not sufficient and more accessible detection methods would be beneficial. This paper investigates the utility of affordable and portable visible range spectroscopy hardware with partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) when applied to the differentiation of apple types and organic status. This method has the advantage that it is accessible throughout the supply chain, including at the consumer level. Scans were acquired of 132 apples of three types, half of which are organic and the remaining non-organic. The scans were preprocessed with zero correction, normalisation and smoothing. Two tests were used to determine accuracy, the first using 10-fold cross-validation and the second using a test set collected in different ambient conditions. Overall, the system achieved an accuracy of 94% when predicting the type of apple and 66% when predicting the organic status. Additionally, the resulting models were analysed to find the regions of the spectrum that had the most significance. Then, the accuracy when using three-channel information (RGB) is presented and shows the improvement provided by spectroscopic data.

  5. Investigation of L(+)-Ascorbic Acid with Raman Spectroscopy in Visible and UV Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Raman spectroscopy investigations of l(+)-ascorbic acid and its mono- and di-deprotonated anions (AH(-) and A(2-)) are reviewed and new measurements reported with several wavelengths, 229, 244, 266, 488, and 532nm. Results are interpreted, assisted by new DFT/B3LYP quantum chemical calc......). Relatively weak preresonance enhancement was seen for A(2-) when excitation was done with 229nm UV light, allowing water bands to become observable as for normal visible light Raman spectra....... calculations with 6-311++G(d,p) basis sets for several conformations of ascorbic acid and the anions. Raman spectra were measured during titration with NaOH base in an oxygen-poor environment to avoid fluorescence when solutions were alkaline. The ultraviolet (UV) absorption band for ascorbic acid in aqueous......cm(-1). Finally, for the ascorbate di-anion, absorption was found at similar to 298.4nm with molar absorptivity of similar to 7,000 L mol(-1) cm(-1) and below similar to 220nm. With UV light (244 and 266nm), strongly basic solutions gave pronounced Raman resonance enhancement at similar to 1556cm(-1...

  6. Investigation on Clarified Fruit Juice Composition by Using Visible Light Micro-Raman Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerlingo, Carlo; Zenone, Flora; Delfino, Ines; Diano, Nadia; Mita, Damiano Gustavo; Lepore, Maria

    2007-10-03

    Liquid samples of clarified apple and apricot juices at different productionstages were investigated using visible light micro-Raman spectroscopy in order to assessits potential in monitoring fruit juice production. As is well-known, pectin plays a strategicrole in the production of clarified juice and the possibility of using Raman for its detectionduring production was therefore evaluated. The data analysis has enabled the clearidentification of pectin. In particular, Raman spectra of apple juice samples from washedand crushed fruits revealed a peak at 845 cm -1 (typical of pectin) which disappears in theRaman spectra of depectinised samples. The fructose content was also revealed by thepresence of four peaks at 823 cm -1 , 872 cm -1 , 918 cm -1 and 975 cm -1 . In the case of apricotjuice, several Raman fingerprints of β-carotene at 1008, 1159 and 1520 cm -1 were alsohighlighted. Present results resulted interesting for the exclusive use of optical methods forthe quantitative determination of the above-mentioned substances in place of thebiochemical assays generally used for this purpose, which are time consuming and requiredifferent chemical reagents for each of them.

  7. Investigation on Clarified Fruit Juice Composition by Using Visible Light Micro-Raman Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lepore

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Liquid samples of clarified apple and apricot juices at different productionstages were investigated using visible light micro-Raman spectroscopy in order to assessits potential in monitoring fruit juice production. As is well-known, pectin plays a strategicrole in the production of clarified juice and the possibility of using Raman for its detectionduring production was therefore evaluated. The data analysis has enabled the clearidentification of pectin. In particular, Raman spectra of apple juice samples from washedand crushed fruits revealed a peak at 845 cm-1 (typical of pectin which disappears in theRaman spectra of depectinised samples. The fructose content was also revealed by thepresence of four peaks at 823 cm-1, 872 cm-1, 918 cm-1 and 975 cm-1. In the case of apricotjuice, several Raman fingerprints of β-carotene at 1008, 1159 and 1520 cm-1 were alsohighlighted. Present results resulted interesting for the exclusive use of optical methods forthe quantitative determination of the above-mentioned substances in place of thebiochemical assays generally used for this purpose, which are time consuming and requiredifferent chemical reagents for each of them.

  8. Influence of Zn and Pb on Rhizopogon roseolus mycelium - energy dispersion spectroscopy and cytochemical investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Turnau

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycelium isolated from fruitbodies of Rhizopogon roseolus, collected from calamine wastes in Poland, was cultivated on agar media supplemented with Zn or Pb salts. The stimulation of exudate production by the aerial mycelium and the mycelium growing on the surface of the media, accompanied by the change of mycelium pigmentation, was found as a result of Zn application. The presence of Pb resulted mainly in the stimulation of crystalloid production on the surface of mycelium, in direct contact with the medium. Exudate droplets formed on the surface of mycelium cultivated on media with and without the Zn addition, were investigated by means of cytochemical tests (PATAg and Gomori-Swift reaction. In the control media most droplets gave a diffused, positive reaction to both tests. In media supplemented with Zn salts, besides the droplet-like material described in the control also another kind of exudate was observed. It was characterized by the collar showing apositive Gomori-Swift reaction, while the rest of the exudate had an oily appearance and gave a faint or no reaction to both tests. Comparative research by means of scanning electron microscopy accompanied by energy dispersion spectroscopy, was carried out showing the differences in exudate and in mycelia composition as a result of the Zn and Pb presence in the medium.

  9. Application of 119Sn Moessbauer spectroscopy to investigations of RET2-X2-type phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goerlich, E.

    1991-01-01

    Moessbauer spectroscopy of 119 Sn is an effective tool to study nuclear hyperfine interactions which in turn are important as a source of information complementary to that supplied by ''classical'' methods. However, particularly when the effects are subtle, experimental conditions as well as data analysis should be handled with care. The attention is devoted primarily to the finite absorber thickness effects. As examples serve our recent results obtained from investigations of ternary tetragonal phases of RET 2 X 2 -type. In EuPd 2 Si 2 mixed valent system 119 Sn was used as probe which detects the influence of Eu-valency change at a distant site of Si. Electrical resistivity measurements in CeNi 2 Sn 2 may indicate a Kondo-type behaviour while Moessbauer effect leads to the conclusion in favour of a magnetically ordered state. The analysis of resonance absorption spectra of CeAg 2 Sn 2 using a full transmission integral indicates the presence of a metallic β-tin in the sample, while data fitting within the thin absorber approximation has lead to the opposite conclusion. Neither in CeNi 2 Sn 2 nor in ErNi 2 Sn 2 the temperature dependence of the recoil free factors alone cannot explain the observed broadening of spectra at low temperatures. (author). 14 refs, 13 figs

  10. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy investigation of the carburization of 310 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabet, N.; Allam, I.; Yin, R.C.

    2003-01-01

    The surface of 310 stainless steel (310SS) samples was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) after 500 h cyclic exposure to two carburizing atmospheres: CH 4 (2%)-H 2 (98%) at 800 deg. C, and CH 4 (10%)-H 2 (90%) at 1100 deg. C. The depth distribution of various elements in the surface region was obtained by XPS after successive cycles of argon etching. The microstructure of the alloy was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the phases formed during the exposure were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that the major phases that were formed within few micrometer depth during exposure at 800 deg. C include both iron and chromium carbides. (Mn, Cr) oxide was also formed as a result of the reaction with the residual oxygen of the atmosphere. A region of few microns width that was relatively depleted of chromium was formed under the surface as a result of the outwards diffusion of chromium. The exposure to the reducing atmosphere at 1100 deg. C led to the formation of various iron and chromium carbides. No oxide was formed during exposure. In all exposed samples, the surface was Cr enriched while nickel remained buried under the surface region that reacted with the atmosphere

  11. Investigation of LaBr3:Ce probe for gamma-ray spectroscopy and dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghraby, Ahmed M.; Alzimami, K. S.; Alkhorayef, M. A.; Alsafi, K. G.; Ma, A.; Alfuraih, A. A.; Alghamdi, A. A.; Spyrou, N. M.

    2014-02-01

    The main thrust of this work is the investigation of performance of relatively new commercial LaBr3:Ce probe (Inspector 1000™ with LaBr3:Ce crystal) for gamma-ray spectroscopy and dosimetry measurements in comparison to LaCl3:Ce and NaI:Tl scintillators. The crystals were irradiated by a wide range of energies (57Co, 22Na, 18F, 137Cs and 60Co). The study involved recording of detected spectra and measurement of energy resolution, photopeak efficiency, internal radioactivity measurements as well as dose rate. The Monte Carlo package, Geant4 Application for Tomographic Emission (GATE) was used to validate the experiments. Overall results showed very good agreement between the measurements and the simulations. The LaBr3:Ce crystal has excellent energy resolution, energy resolutions of (3.37±0.05)% and (2.98±0.07)% for a 137Cs 662 keV and a 60Co 1332 keV gamma-ray point sources respectively, were recorded. The disadvantage of the lanthanum halide scintillators is their internal radioactivity. Inspector 1000™ with LaBr3:Ce scintillator has shown an accurate and quick dose measurements at Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Units which allows accurate assessment of the radiation dose received by staff members compared to the use of electronic personal dosimeters (EPD).

  12. Investigation of Oxidative Degradation in Polymers Using (17)O NMR Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, Todd M.; Celina, Mathew; Assink, Roger A.; Clough, Roger L.; Gillen, Kenneth T.; Wheeler David R.

    1999-07-20

    The thermal oxidation of pentacontane (C{sub 50}H{sub 102}), and of the homopolymer polyisoprene, has been investigated using {sup 17}O NMR spectroscopy. By performing the oxidation using {sup 17}O labeled O{sub 2} gas, it is possible to easily identify degradation products, even at relatively low concentrations. It is demonstrated that details of the degradation mechanism can be obtained from analysis of the {sup 17}O NMR spectra as a function of total oxidation. Pentacontane reveals the widest variety of reaction products, and exhibits changes in the relative product distributions with increasing O{sub 2} consumption. At low levels of oxygen incorporation, peroxides are the major oxidation product, while at later stages of degradation these species are replaced by increasing concentrations of ketones, alcohols, carboxylic acids and esters. Analyzing the product distribution can help in identification of the different free-radical decomposition pathways of hydroperoxides, including recombination, proton abstraction and chain scission, as well as secondary reactions. The {sup 17}O NMR spectra of thermally oxidized polyisoprene reveal fewer degradation functionalities, but exhibit an increased complexity in the type of observed degradation species due to structural features such as unsaturation and methyl branching. Alcohols and ethers formed from hydrogen abstraction and free radical termination.

  13. Investigation of buried metal-organic interface with photoelectron spectroscopy (PES)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrdoljak, Pavo; Schoell, Achim; Reinert, Friedrich [Universitaet Wuerzburg, Experimentelle Physik II, 97074 Wuerzburg (Germany); Umbach, Eberhard [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Metal-organic interfaces are of crucial importance for electronic devices since they influence the layer morphology, the electronic structure at contacts, and the charge carrier transport. Various investigations have addressed this issue from the viewpoint of surface science, applying model systems with thin organic films on flat (single crystalline or amorphous) metal substrates. The contacts in electronic devices, however, can be very different. This is mainly due to the morphological roughness of the interface in case of a metal top contact deposited on an organic layer and the possible influence on the electronic structure. In case of real contacts also interdiffusion has to be taken into account. However, surface sensitive techniques such as photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) can not immediately access the buried interface. To tackle this problem we have applied and optimised a lift-off technique which allows the removal of the metal top-contact in the UHV and analyse the interface between the contact and the organic film. We present first PES and AFM results of Au contacts deposited on PTCDA layers.

  14. Investigation of iron-containing complexes of deoxyribonucleic acid nucleosides by Moessbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greguskova, M.; Novotny, J.; Cernohorsky, I.; Cirak, J.

    1975-01-01

    DNA and nucleoside complexes with ferric and ferrous ions were investigated for the concentration of iron ions, ionic strength, temperature, and the nature and spatial configuration of neighbouring atoms of the iron ions in the complexes. Moessbauer spectroscopy was used. The Moessbauer measurements were conducted on lyophilized samples at room temperature (300 K) and on frozen solutions at liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K). Quadrupole splitting was found in all spectra obtained by a Pd(Co) source, with the exception of thymidine, thus indicating that the formation of complexes had not affected the oxidation state of iron ions. A decrease in isomer shift and an increase in quadrupole splitting were found in all spectra obtained by an iron(III) chloride source as well as in all spectra obtained by an iron chloride tetrahydrate source. UV irradiation of the samples prior to the Moessbauer measurements was found to have no effect on the Moessbauer spectra but to result in changes in the oxidation state of iron ions, mainly their valency and the ferrous/ferric ion ratio. The results are shown in a table and in graphs. (L.O.)

  15. Investigation of the hydrated 7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin dimer by combined IR/UV spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamm, A.; Schwing, K.; Gerhards, M.

    2014-01-01

    The first molecular beam investigations on a coumarin dimer and clusters of a coumarin dimer with water both in the neutral (S 0 ) and cationic (D 0 ) electronic ground state are performed. The structure and structural changes due to ionization of the isolated 7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin dimer (7H4MC) 2 as well as its mono- and dihydrate (7H4MC) 2 (H 2 O) 1-2 are analyzed by applying combined IR/UV spectroscopy compared with density functional theory calculations. In case of the neutral dimer of 7H4MC a doubly hydrogen-bonded structure is formed. This doubly hydrogen-bonded arrangement opens to a singly hydrogen-bonded structure in the ion presenting a rearrangement reaction within an isolated dimer. By attaching one or two water molecules to the neutral 7H4MC dimer water is inserted into the hydrogen bonds. In contrast to the non-hydrated species this general binding motif with water in a bridging function does not change via ionization but especially for the dihydrate the spatial arrangement of the two 7H4MC units changes strengthening the interaction between the aromatic chromophores. The presented analyses illustrate the strong dependence of binding motifs as a function of successive hydration and charge including a rearrangement reaction

  16. Phase transitions of amorphous solid acetone in confined geometry investigated by reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sunghwan; Kang, Hani; Kim, Jun Soo; Kang, Heon

    2014-11-26

    We investigated the phase transformations of amorphous solid acetone under confined geometry by preparing acetone films trapped in amorphous solid water (ASW) or CCl4. Reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS) and temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) were used to monitor the phase changes of the acetone sample with increasing temperature. An acetone film trapped in ASW shows an abrupt change in the RAIRS features of the acetone vibrational bands during heating from 80 to 100 K, which indicates the transformation of amorphous solid acetone to a molecularly aligned crystalline phase. Further heating of the sample to 140 K produces an isotropic solid phase, and eventually a fluid phase near 157 K, at which the acetone sample is probably trapped in a pressurized, superheated condition inside the ASW matrix. Inside a CCl4 matrix, amorphous solid acetone crystallizes into a different, isotropic structure at ca. 90 K. We propose that the molecularly aligned crystalline phase formed in ASW is created by heterogeneous nucleation at the acetone-water interface, with resultant crystal growth, whereas the isotropic crystalline phase in CCl4 is formed by homogeneous crystal growth starting from the bulk region of the acetone sample.

  17. Investigation by Raman Spectroscopy of the Decomposition Process of HKUST-1 upon Exposure to Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Todaro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report an experimental investigation by Raman spectroscopy of the decomposition process of Metal-Organic Framework (MOF HKUST-1 upon exposure to air moisture (T=300 K, 70% relative humidity. The data collected here are compared with the indications obtained from a model of the process of decomposition of this material proposed in literature. In agreement with that model, the reported Raman measurements indicate that for exposure times longer than 20 days relevant irreversible processes take place, which are related to the occurrence of the hydrolysis of Cu-O bonds. These processes induce small but detectable variations of the peak positions and intensities of the main Raman bands of the material, which can be related to Cu-Cu, Cu-O, and O-C-O stretching modes. The critical analyses of these changes have permitted us to obtain a more detailed description of the process of decomposition taking place in HKUST-1 upon interaction with moisture. Furthermore, the reported Raman data give further strong support to the recently proposed model of decomposition of HKUST-1, contributing significantly to the development of a complete picture of the properties of this considerable deleterious effect.

  18. Temperature Dependent Electron Transport Properties of Gold Nanoparticles and Composites: Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy Investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Sumati; Datar, Suwarna; Dharmadhikari, C V

    2018-03-01

    Scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) is used for investigating variations in electronic properties of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and its composite with urethane-methacrylate comb polymer (UMCP) as function of temperature. Films are prepared by drop casting AuNPs and UMCP in desired manner on silicon substrates. Samples are further analyzed for morphology under scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). STS measurements performed in temperature range of 33 °C to 142 °C show systematic variation in current versus voltage (I-V) curves, exhibiting semiconducting to metallic transition/Schottky behavior for different samples, depending upon preparation method and as function of temperature. During current versus time (I-t) measurement for AuNPs, random telegraphic noise is observed at room temperature. Random switching of tunneling current between two discrete levels is observed for this sample. Power spectra derived from I-t show 1/f2 dependence. Statistical analysis of fluctuations shows exponential behavior with time width τ ≈ 7 ms. Local density of states (LDOS) plots derived from I-V curves of each sample show systematic shift in valance/conduction band edge towards/away from Fermi level, with respect to increase in temperature. Schottky emission is best fitted electron emission mechanism for all samples over certain range of bias voltage. Schottky plots are used to calculate barrier heights and temperature dependent measurements helped in measuring activation energies for electron transport in all samples.

  19. Stereochemistry of quinoxaline antagonist binding to a glutamate receptor investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, D R; Thiran, S; Zimmermann, H; Romm, J; Jayaraman, V

    2001-10-12

    The stereochemistry of the interactions between quinoxaline antagonists and the ligand-binding domain of the glutamate receptor 4 (GluR4) have been investigated by probing their vibrational modes using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In solution, the electron-withdrawing nitro groups of both compounds establish a resonance equilibrium that appears to stabilize the keto form of one of the cyclic amide carbonyl bonds. Changes in the 6,7-dinitro-2,3-dihydroxyquinoxaline vibrational spectra on binding to the glutamate receptor, interpreted within the framework of a published crystal structure, illuminate the stereochemistry of the interaction and suggest that the binding site imposes a more polarized electronic bonding configuration on this antagonist. Similar spectral changes are observed for 6-cyano-7-dinitro-2,3-dihydroxyquinoxaline, confirming that its interactions with the binding site are highly similar to those of 6,7-dinitro-2,3-dihydroxyquinoxaline and leading to a model of the 6-cyano-7-dinitro-2,3-dihydroxyquinoxaline-S1S2 complex, for which no crystal structure is available. Conformational changes within the GluR ligand binding domain were also monitored. Compared with the previously reported spectral changes seen on binding of the agonist glutamate, only a relatively small change is detected on antagonist binding. This correlation between the functional effects of different classes of ligand and the magnitude of the spectroscopic changes they induce suggests that the spectral data reflect physiologically relevant conformational processes.

  20. The spectroscopy investigation of ZnWO{sub 4}:Tm{sup 3+} single crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Fugui, E-mail: ruopiao@fjirsm.ac.cn [Department of Electronic Information Science, Fujian Jiangxia University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350108 (China); Tu Chaoyang [Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The spectroscopy and refractive index of single crystal ZnWO{sub 4}:Tm{sup 3+} are investigated systematically. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Judd-Ofelt parameters are obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The gain cross sections at {approx}2 {mu}m are estimated by reciprocity method (RM). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The laser operation at {approx}2 {mu}m is discussed. - Abstract: The single crystal ZnWO{sub 4}:Tm{sup 3+} has been grown by Czochralski method. The XRD, refractive index, absorption and fluorescence spectra are measured. The Judd-Ofelt parameters{Omega}{sub 2}, {Omega}{sub 4}, {Omega}{sub 6} are obtained to be 6.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -20}, 1.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -20}, 1.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -20} cm{sup 2}, respectively. The fluorescence decay time of the {sup 3}H{sub 4} level is measured to be 0.113 ms and the quantum efficiency is 57%. The gain cross sections corresponding to {sup 3}F{sub 4}{yields}{sup 3}H{sub 6} transition at {approx}2 {mu}m are estimated by the reciprocity method (RM). The strong gain at {approx}2 {mu}m indicates that the ZnWO{sub 4}:Tm{sup 3+} crystal is a promising laser host for {approx}2 {mu}m laser.

  1. An Investigation of Consolidants Penetration in Wood. Part 2: FTIR Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina TIMAR

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available FTIR spectroscopy was used in this work for studying the penetration of some consolidants frequentlyused in old wood conservation into test pieces of sound spruce wood (Picea abies wood. Thin microsections(30-60 μm of control and treated wood were analysed in reflectance mode using an ATR system. Theconsolidation products investigated were Paraloid B72, bee wax, a mixture of bee wax / linseed oil and twotypes of paraffins. These products presented FTIR spectra with characteristic common and specific bands,allowing their identification in the treated wood with no impediments coming from their colour, transparencyor the percent of cell lumena filling. The treatment of wood with these products brought about alterations ofthe spectra aspect by the appearance or intensification of some characteristic bands and the modification ofthe ratio between the areas of some characteristic absorption bands so that a qualitative and semiquantitativeevaluation of the presence and penetration depth and distribution of these consolidationproducts in wood was possible, proving the adopted method as valuable and useful for further research inthis field.

  2. Investigation of the molecular conformations of ethanol using electron momentum spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ning, C G; Luo, Z H; Huang, Y R; Liu, K; Zhang, S F; Deng, J K; Hajgato, B; Morini, F; Deleuze, M S

    2008-01-01

    The valence electronic structure and momentum-space electron density distributions of ethanol have been investigated with our newly constructed high-resolution electron momentum spectrometer. The measurements are compared to thermally averaged simulations based on Kohn-Sham (B3LYP) orbital densities as well as one-particle Green's function calculations of ionization spectra and Dyson orbital densities, assuming Boltzmann's statistical distribution of the molecular structure over the two energy minima defining the anti and gauche conformers. One-electron ionization energies and momentum distributions in the outer-valence region were found to be highly dependent upon the molecular conformation. Calculated momentum distributions indeed very sensitively reflect the distortions and topological changes that molecular orbitals undergo due to the internal rotation of the hydroxyl group, and thereby exhibit variations which can be traced experimentally. The B3LYP model Kohn-Sham orbital densities are overall in good agreement with the experimental distributions, and closely resemble benchmark ADC(3) Dyson orbital densities. Both approaches fail to quantitatively reproduce the experimental momentum distributions characterizing the highest occupied molecular orbital. Since electron momentum spectroscopy measurements at various electron impact energies indicate that the plane wave impulse approximation is valid, this discrepancy between theory and experiment is tentatively ascribed to thermal disorder, i.e. large-amplitude and thermally induced dynamical distortions of the molecular structure in the gas phase

  3. Coherent radiation from high-current electron beams of linear accelerators and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuda, Shuichi; Takanaka, Makoto; Nakamura, Mitsumi; Kato, Ryukou; Takahashi, Toshiharu; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Taniguchi, Ryouichi; Kojima, Takao

    2006-01-01

    The characteristics of the far-infrared light source using the coherent radiation emitted from a high-energy short electron bunch have been investigated. The coherent radiation has a continuous spectrum in a submillimeter to millimeter wavelength range and the brightness is relatively high. The spectrum of the radiation is determined by the longitudinal form factor of the electron bunch. The operational conditions of a high-current linear accelerator have been optimized using an electron bunch shape monitor. The coherent transition radiation light source has been applied to absorption spectroscopy for liquid water and to an imaging experiment for a leaf of rose

  4. INVESTIGATION OF CEMENT CONCRETE CONGLOMERATE SOLIDIFICATION PROCESS BY IMPEDANCE SPECTROSCOPY METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Bandarenka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most prospective directions in preservation  and increase of service live of  road pavements is a construction of  automobile roads with cement concrete surface. Modern tendencies for provision of road construction quality presuppose a necessity to control processes of solidification and subsequent destruction of the material while forming and using cement concrete conglomerate being considered as a basic element of the road surface.  Multiyear practical experience of  automobile road operation using cement concrete pavements reveals an importance for monitoring  such processes as formation and destruction of cement concrete materials. An impedance spectroscopy method has been tried out and proposed as a tool for solution of the given problem.Experimental samples of cement concrete have been prepared for execution of tests, graded silica sand and granite chippings with particle size from 0.63 to 2.5 mm have been used as a fine aggregate in the samples. Dependencies of resistance (impedance on AC-current frequency  have been studied for samples of various nature and granulometric composition. The Gamry  G300 potentiostat has been used for measurement of complex impedance value. A spectrum analysis and calculation of equivalent circuit parameters calculation have been carried out while using EIS Spectrum Analyzer program.Comparison of impedance spectra for the prepared cement concrete samples have made it possible to reveal tendencies in changing spectrum parameters during solidification and subsequent contact with moisture in respect of every type of the sample. An equivalent electrical circuit has been developed that  characterizes physical and chemical processes which are accompanied by charge transfer in cement concrete conglomerate. The paper demonstrates a possibility to use an impedance spectroscopy for solution of a number of actual problems in the field of cement concrete technology problems. Particularly, the problems

  5. Remote Raman - laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) geochemical investigation under Venus atmospheric conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clegg, Sanuel M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Barefield, James E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Humphries, Seth D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wiens, Roger C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Vaniman, D. T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sharma, S. K. [UNIV OF HAWAII; Misra, A. K. [UNIV OF HAWAII; Dyar, M. D. [MT. HOLYOKE COLLEGE; Smrekar, S. E. [JET PROPULSION LAB.

    2010-12-13

    The extreme Venus surface temperatures ({approx}740 K) and atmospheric pressures ({approx}93 atm) create a challenging environment for surface missions. Scientific investigations capable of Venus geochemical observations must be completed within hours of landing before the lander will be overcome by the harsh atmosphere. A combined remote Raman - LIBS (Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) instrument is capable of accomplishing the geochemical science goals without the risks associated with collecting samples and bringing them into the lander. Wiens et al. and Sharma et al. demonstrated that both analytical techniques can be integrated into a single instrument capable of planetary missions. The focus of this paper is to explore the capability to probe geologic samples with Raman - LIBS and demonstrate quantitative analysis under Venus surface conditions. Raman and LIBS are highly complementary analytical techniques capable of detecting both the mineralogical and geochemical composition of Venus surface materials. These techniques have the potential to profoundly increase our knowledge of the Venus surface composition, which is currently limited to geochemical data from Soviet Venera and VEGA landers that collectively suggest a surface composition that is primarily tholeiitic basaltic with some potentially more evolved compositions and, in some locations, K-rich trachyandesite. These landers were not equipped to probe the surface mineralogy as can be accomplished with Raman spectroscopy. Based on the observed compositional differences and recognizing the imprecise nature of the existing data, 15 samples were chosen to constitute a Venus-analog suite for this study, including five basalts, two each of andesites, dacites, and sulfates, and single samples of a foidite, trachyandesite, rhyolite, and basaltic trachyandesite under Venus conditions. LIBS data reduction involved generating a partial least squares (PLS) model with a subset of the rock powder standards to

  6. Investigations of 131I concentration in indoor air using charcoal filters and gamma spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, H.W.; Pittauerova, D.; Foschepoth, S.; Poppe, B.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Radiation protection standards require the recording of staff radiation dose in nuclear medicine thyroid radiotherapy. A commonly used method measures the 131 I thyroid activity externally with a gamma detector, followed by calculation of the committed equivalent thyroid dose. The main disadvantages are the low sensitivity and the uncertainty of the time of uptake, which can only be compensated by long measurement times and short measurement intervals. The measurements have to be applied to all staff members. An alternative can be provided by the measurement of the cumulated concentration of 131 I in indoor air using charcoal filters. The filters are placed in patient rooms at representative locations, exposed for several days and then investigated for absorbed 131 I activity. Both above mentioned disadvantages can be overcome: the measurement records the cumulated concentration history of the room and the obtained value can be used for dose calculation for all staff members knowing their working history. Standard charcoal filters (PicoRad vials, Accustar Labs, normally used for indoor radon measurements) were placed into patient rooms in a thyroid therapy department and exposed to room air for 72 hours. The vials were then subjected to high resolution low level gamma spectroscopy using a high purity germanium (hpGe) detector (50% relative efficiency, 10 cm lead shielding). Absolute activity determination was based on the net count rate in the 364 keV gamma peak and absolute counting efficiency obtained mathematically from detector and vial geometry using the commercial Labsocs (Canberra Inc.) program. Using the mean air activity/vial activity calibration factor obtained in a similar study pioneering this application, but using liquid scintillation spectroscopy as detection method (F. Jimenez et al, 2nd. European IRPA Congress, Paris 2006), mean air concentrations between 0.09 and 2.01 Bq/m 3 were found. The data correlated well with patient administered

  7. High resolution neutron spectroscopy - a tool for the investigation of dynamics of polymers and soft matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monkenbusch, M.; Richter, D.

    2007-01-01

    Neutron scattering, with the ability to vary the contrast of molecular items by hydrogen/deuterium exchanges, is an invaluable tool for soft matter research. Besides the structural information on the mesoscopic scale that is obtained by diffraction methods like small angle neutron scattering, the slow dynamics of molecular motion on mesoscopic scale is accessible by high resolution neutron spectroscopy. The basic features of neutron backscattering spectroscopy, and in particular neutron spin-echo spectroscopy, are presented, in combination with illustrations of results from polymer melt dynamics to protein dynamics which are obtained by these techniques. (authors)

  8. Coherent detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, C R; Church, S; Gaier, T; Lai, R; Ruf, C; Wollack, E

    2009-01-01

    Coherent systems offer significant advantages in simplicity, testability, control of systematics, and cost. Although quantum noise sets the fundamental limit to their performance at high frequencies, recent breakthroughs suggest that near-quantum-limited noise up to 150 or even 200 GHz could be realized within a few years. If the demands of component separation can be met with frequencies below 200 GHz, coherent systems will be strong competitors for a space CMB polarization mission. The rapid development of digital correlator capability now makes space interferometers with many hundreds of elements possible. Given the advantages of coherent interferometers in suppressing systematic effects, such systems deserve serious study.

  9. Coherent detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, C R [M/C 169-327, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Church, S [Room 324 Varian Physics Bldg, 382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, CA 94305-4060 (United States); Gaier, T [M/C 168-314, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Lai, R [Northrop Grumman Corporation, Redondo Beach, CA 90278 (United States); Ruf, C [1533 Space Research Building, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2143 (United States); Wollack, E, E-mail: charles.lawrence@jpl.nasa.go [NASA/GSFC, Code 665, Observational Cosmology Laboratory, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2009-03-01

    Coherent systems offer significant advantages in simplicity, testability, control of systematics, and cost. Although quantum noise sets the fundamental limit to their performance at high frequencies, recent breakthroughs suggest that near-quantum-limited noise up to 150 or even 200 GHz could be realized within a few years. If the demands of component separation can be met with frequencies below 200 GHz, coherent systems will be strong competitors for a space CMB polarization mission. The rapid development of digital correlator capability now makes space interferometers with many hundreds of elements possible. Given the advantages of coherent interferometers in suppressing systematic effects, such systems deserve serious study.

  10. Effects of anions on the zwitterion stability of Glu, His and Arg investigated by IRMPD spectroscopy and theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Brien, J.T.; Prell, J.S.; Berden, G.; Oomens, J.; Williams, E.R.

    2010-01-01

    Interactions of halide anions (Cl-, Br-, and I-) with glutamic acid (Glu), histidine (His), and arginine (Arg) and their effects on stabilizing the zwitterionic form of these amino acids were investigated using infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy between 850 and 1900 cm(-1)

  11. Structural changes of human RNase L upon homodimerization investigated by Raman spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kříž, M.; Snášel, Jan; Kopecký, V. Jr.; Páv, Ondřej; Rosenberg, Ivan; Štepánek, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 1824, č. 9 (2012), s. 1039-1044 ISSN 1570-9639 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/0193; GA AV ČR KAN200520801 Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB101120805 Program:KJ Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : RNase L * Raman spectroscopy * DCDR spectroscopy * phosphonate oligoadenylate * ligand binding Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.733, year: 2012

  12. Investigation of Diode Pumped Alkali Laser Atmospheric Transmission Using Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Optics Letters, 28(23):2336–2338, 2003. 48. Lavan, M. “High Energy Laser Systems for Short Range Defense”. Acta Physica Polonica -Series A General Physics...able diode laser spectrometer for the remote sensing of vehicle emissions”. Spec- trochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, 60...P. “A review of recent advances in semiconductor laser based gas mon- itors”. Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, 54

  13. Spectral coherence in windturbine wakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hojstrup, J. [Riso National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes an experiment at a Danish wind farm to investigate the lateral and vertical coherences in the nonequilibrium turbulence of a wind turbine wake. Two meteorological masts were instrumented for measuring profiles of mean speed, turbulence, and temperature. Results are provided graphically for turbulence intensities, velocity spectra, lateral coherence, and vertical coherence. The turbulence was somewhat influenced by the wake, or possibly from aggregated wakes further upstream, even at 14.5 diameters. Lateral coherence (separation 5m) seemed to be unaffected by the wake at 7.5 diameters, but the flow was less coherent in the near wake. The wake appeared to have little influence on vertical coherence (separation 13m). Simple, conventional models for coherence appeared to be adequate descriptions for wake turbulence except for the near wake situation. 3 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Magnetic radio-spectroscopy investigation of quinoid radiotoxin action on blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibragimova, M.I.; Petukhov, V. Yu.; Zheglov, E.P.; Konjukhov, G.V.; Nizamov, R.N.; Mukharnetshin, I.R.; Obynochny, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    According to the current concepts after γ-irradiation the primary defects in biological tissue induce the secondary damages. Nowadays, enhancing effect of primary defects in organic cells is attributed to low-molecular toxic substances, a broad class of which has come to be known as radiotoxins. In this work, the action of quinoid radiotoxin (QRT) on blood has been investigated using magnetic radio-spectroscopy technique. QRT has been obtained from potato tubers irradiated by γ-rays of 60 Co with doses of 400 Gy. 3 ml of freshly prepared sheep blood has been mixed with 0.2 ml QRT. EPR spectra have been recorded using spectrometer 'Varian E-12' at working frequency 9.5 GHz within the temperature range 90-250 K. Variations in the EPR spectra as functions of an incubation period and sample temperature have been investigated. The process of changing in EPR spectra of sheep blood with QRT after different incubation period is shown. For all samples, two signals have been observed in this region. The first signal with g∼6 corresponds to methemoglobin and the second one with g∼4.3 to transferrin. Right after adding QRT into blood the intensity of signal with g∼6 increases by a factor of 5, whereas both the shape and the intensity of transferrin signal are changed slightly. The signal growth is observed for 4 hours of the incubation period. It must be emphasized that the methemoglobin line has being resolved into two components with time The intensity and the shape of the methemoglobin signal strongly depend on the sample temperature during the experiment. In summary, the results of this work showed that EPR is a promising method in investigation of peripheral blood. EPR spectra analysis reveals the action of QRT as radiomimetic, which leads to the formation of a pathological hemoglobin form - methemoglobin with a hemo-toxic impact on living organisms. Thus we can conclude that QRT possesses of the radiomimetic properties and can be used as an agent for the

  15. Spectroscopic Investigations of Highly Charged Tungsten Ions - Atomic Spectroscopy and Fusion Plasma Diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clementson, Joel [Lund Univ. (Sweden)

    2010-05-01

    The spectra of highly charged tungsten ions have been investigated using x-ray and extreme ultraviolet spectroscopy. These heavy ions are of interest in relativistic atomic structure theory, where high-precision wavelength measurements benchmark theoretical approaches, and in magnetic fusion research, where the ions may serve to diagnose high-temperature plasmas. The work details spectroscopic investigations of highly charged tungsten ions measured at the Livermore electron beam ion trap (EBIT) facility. Here, the EBIT-I and SuperEBIT electron beam ion traps have been employed to create, trap, and excite tungsten ions of M- and L-shell charge states. The emitted spectra have been studied in high resolution using crystal, grating, and x-ray calorimeter spectrometers. In particular, wavelengths of n = 0 M-shell transitions in K-like W55+ through Ne-like W64+, and intershell transitions in Zn-like W44+ through Co-like W47+ have been measured. Special attention is given to the Ni-like W46+ ion, which has two strong electric-dipole forbidden transitions that are of interest for plasma diagnostics. The EBIT measurements are complemented by spectral modeling using the Flexible Atomic Code (FAC), and predictions for tokamak spectra are presented. The L-shell tungsten ions have been studied at electron-beam energies of up to 122 keV and transition energies measured in Ne-like W64+ through Li-like W71+. These spectra constitute the physics basis in the design of the ion-temperature crystal spectrometer for the ITER tokamak. Tungsten particles have furthermore been introduced into the Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment (SSPX) spheromak in Livermore in order to investigate diagnostic possibilities of extreme ultraviolet tungsten spectra for the ITER divertor. The spheromak measurement and spectral modeling using FAC suggest that tungsten ions in charge states around Er-like W6+ could be useful for

  16. The stoichiometry of synthetic alunite as a function of hydrothermal aging investigated by solid-state NMR spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grube, Elisabeth; Nielsen, Ulla Gro

    2015-01-01

    The stoichiometry of a series of synthetic alunite (nominally KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6) samples prepared by hydrothermal methods as a function of reaction time (1 – 31 days) has been investigated by powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy as well as solid-state 1H and 27Al magic...... of potassium defects present, from 17.261(1) to 17.324(5) Å. Solid-state 27Al MAS NMR revealed a decrease in the defect concentration as a function of time and showed the presence of 7-10 % impurities in the samples....

  17. Investigation of Filtration Membranes from the Dairy Protein Industry for Residual Fouling Using Infrared Spectroscopy and Chemometrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jannie Krog

    the reversible fouling can be removed/cleaned. The aim of this thesis is to investigate the residual fouling that is deposited on ultrafiltration and microfiltration membranes after usage. The membrane surfaces are investigated using infrared spectroscopy with an attenuated reflectance sampling unit...... and this is thesis work highlights the strengths and weaknesses of using infrared spectroscopy to investigate residual fouling on membranes and in particular the challenges with the infrared penetration depth when layering in the samples occurs. Real size production membrane cartridges at different stages of use...... microfiltration membrane cartridges were investigated with Attenuated- Total-Reflection Fourier-Transform-Infrared (ATR FT-IR) to map the residual fouling on both types of cartridges. The height of the characteristic amide peaks from proteins were used to determine the relative concentrations. The first...

  18. Wavelength dependence of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) on questioned document investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsherbiny, Nany; Aied Nassef, O

    2015-07-01

    The fast and nearly non-destructive criteria of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique has been exploited for forensic purposes, specifically, document investigation. The dependence of the optical emission spectra of different black gel ink samples on the excitation laser wavelength, namely the visible wavelength at λ=532 nm and the IR wavelength at λ=1064 nm, was studied. The inks of thirty black gel-ink pens comprising ten brands were analyzed to determine the variation of the chemical composition of ink and to discriminate among them with minimum mass removal and minimum damage to the document's paper. Under the adopted experimental conditions, the ability of the visible LIBS to differentiate among the different ink samples was successful compared to IR LIBS at the same laser pulse energy (~25 mJ/pulse, laser fluence is ~1400J·cm(-2) for visible laser and ~1100J·cm(-2) for IR laser) which could be attributed to the IR absorption effects by the black ink. However, the visible LIBS produces deeper crater with respect to that produced by IR LIBS. Applying IR LIBS with higher pulse energy of ~87mJ (laser fluence is ~4100J·cm(-2)), identification and differentiation of the adopted samples was performed with producing a larger-diameter but superficial crater. The plasma parameters are discussed at the adopted experimental conditions. The results support the potential of LIBS technique using both the visible and IR lasers to be commercially developed for forensic document examination. Copyright © 2015 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Investigation of the inclusion behavior between p-sulfoniccalix[8]arene and norfloxacin by fluorescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xueying; Luo Chuannan; Lv Zhen; Lu Fuguang

    2011-01-01

    The host-guest complexation between p-sulfoniccalix[8]arene (SC 8 A) and norfloxacin (NFLX) in aqueous solution was investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy. Strong fluorescence intensity of the NFLX aqueous solution alone and obvious fluorescence quenching of NFLX solution in the presence of SC 8 A were observed. The fluorescence lifetimes of NFLX and SC 8 A-NFLX inclusion complex were determined and the effect of temperature on SC 8 A-NFLX inclusion complex was studied. The static quenching of the inclusion was obtained, that is the SC 8 A can form a nonfluorescent ground-state inclusion complex with NFLX. As the results show, the combined ratio (n) was 1:1 and association constant K was 1.17x10 5 L/mol. Based on the experimental results, the mechanism of the inclusion complex was explored. The space matching, electrostatic force and hydrogen bond play important effects in the inclusion process. Subsequently, the addition of bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution led to the recovery of fluorescence intensity. It is indicated that BSA can liberate the NFLX into the solution by destructing the SC 8 A-NFLX inclusion complex. Hence SC 8 A may be used for controlled-release drug delivery in the pharmaceutical industry. - Highlights: → Fluorescence lifetimes of NFLX and SC8A-NFLX inclusion complex were determined. → Mechanism of the SC8A-NFLX inclusion complex was explored. → It is proved that SC8A can form a nonfluorescent ground-state inclusion complex with NFLX.

  20. Thermal structural evolutions of DMPC-water biomimetic systems investigated by Raman Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasanella, A; Cosentino, K; Beneduci, A; Chidichimo, G; Cazzanelli, E; Barberi, R C; Castriota, M

    2018-06-01

    Many cell membranes of living organisms can be represented as phospholipid bilayers immersed into a water environment. The physical-chemical interactions at the membranes/water interface are responsible for the stabilization of the membranes. In addition, the drug efficiency, the pharmaceutical mechanism and the improvement of the drug design can be addressed to the interactions between the membranes-water interface with the drug and to the membrane-drug interface. In this framework, it is important to find membranes models able to simulate and simultaneously simplify the biological systems to better understand both physical and chemical interactions at the interface level. Dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) is a synthetic phospholipid used in order to make Multilamellar Vesicle (MLV), Large Unilamellar Vesicle (LUV) and Giant Unilamellar Vesicle (GUV). In order to understand the mechanisms of vesicle formation, we have analyzed mixtures of DMPC and water by micro-Raman spectroscopy at different temperatures in the range between 10 and 35 °C. Particularly, we analyzed the temperature dependence of the CN vibrational frequency, which appears well correlated to the order degree of the various phases. These investigations, beyond the determination of phospholipid hydrocarbon chains order, provide information about the conformation of the lipid membranes. We have identified the mixture of DMPC/water that is best suited for Raman studies and can be used as an in-vitro model for biological systems. A peculiar frequency shift across the transition gel-ripple-liquid crystalline phases has been proposed as a useful diagnostic marker to detect the "order degree" and subsequently the phases of biomimetic membranes made by DMPC. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Acid Aging Effects on Surfaces of PTFE Gaskets Investigated by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Giorgini

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of a prolonged acid and thermal attack, on the surface of PTFE by Fourier Transform Infrared Micro-Spectroscopy (FT-IR. The materials are commercialized by two alternative producers in form of Teflon tapes. These tapes are installed in process plants where tires moulds are cleaned inside a multistage ultrasonic process. In these cases, Teflon tapes, having a role of gaskets, show inexplicably phenomena of degradation in relatively short operation periods. Even considering that these gaskets are exposed to the combined effect of ultrasonic waves, temperature, humidity and acid attack, the PTFE properties of resistance nominally exclude the possibility of these severe erosion phenomena. An interesting explanation can be related to the potential presence in the cleaning solution, mainly based on sulfamic acid, of highly reactive chemical compounds, as chlorides and fluorides, originated by the disaggregation of elements from the tire composition and/or additives used as processing aids and/or by catalytic effect generated by fluorine produced by PTFE degradation. In general, up to 300 different chemical elements, both organic and inorganic, natural and synthetic, are merged in a tire. Since this composition is practically unknown, especially regarding additives and “unusual elements”, representing a secrecy of each tire manufactures, it is really complex to define the chemical composition of the cleaning solution with an appropriate precision. As a consequence, the gaskets have been treated with different mixtures of acids in the way to combine a larger range of possibilities. Thus, the FT-IR experimental characterization of PTFE surface properties followed an appropriate accelerated aging, aiming at actuating the specific mechanics of wearing as in industrial use. The different acid treatments adopted for accelerating the aging of gaskets have highlighted the different behaviour of the PTFE matrix, but

  2. Molecular spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokh, Eh.; Zonntag, B.

    1981-01-01

    The latest investigation results on molecular spectroscopy with application of synchrotron radiation in the region of vacuum ultraviolet are generalized. Some results on investigation of excited, superexcited and ionized molecule states with the use of adsorption spectroscopy, photoelectron spectroscopy, by fluorescent and mass-spectrometric methods are considered [ru

  3. On the investigation of electronic defect states in ZnO thin films by space charge spectroscopy with optical excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Matthias; Wenckstern, Holger von; Pickenhain, Rainer; Grundmann, Marius

    2012-09-01

    Electronic defect states in a n-type conducting zinc oxide thin film sample were investigated by means of space charge spectroscopy focussing on levels in the midgap region as well as on hole traps. To overcome the experimental difficulties arising from the wide bandgap and the lack of p-type conduction, optical excitation was employed to measure the emission of trapped charge carriers from these levels. Therefore - besides deep-level transient spectroscopy measurements - photo-capacitance, optically chopped photo-current, minority carrier transient spectroscopy, and optical capacitance-voltage experiments were conducted. In doing so, a midgap level labelled T4, and hole traps labelled TH1 and TH2 were detected. In the case of T4 and TH1 the photo-ionisation cross-section spectra were determined.

  4. Do we notice when communication goes awry? An investigation of people's sensitivity to coherence in spontaneous conversation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Galantucci

    Full Text Available In the dominant theoretical framework, human communication is modeled as the faithful transmission of information. This implies that when people are involved in communicational exchanges, they should be sensitive to the success with which information is transmitted, easily detecting when conversations lack coherence. The expectation that humans are good at detecting conversational incoherence is in line with common intuition, but there are several reasons to suspect that it might be unrealistic. First, similar intuitions have been shown to be unrealistic for a number of psychological processes. Second, faithful information transmission may conflict with other conversational goals. Third, mechanisms supporting information transmission may themselves lead to cases of incoherence being missed. To ascertain the extent to which people are insensitive to patches of serious conversational incoherence, we generated such patches in the laboratory by repeatedly crossing two unrelated conversations. Across two studies, involving both narrowly and broadly focused conversations, between 27% and 42% of the conversants did not notice that their conversations had been crossed. The results of these studies suggest that it may indeed be unrealistic to model spontaneous conversation as faithful information transmission. Rather, our results are more consistent with models of communication that view it as involving noisy and error-prone inferential processes, serving multiple independent goals.

  5. Investigation of Antioxidant Activity of Pomegranate Juices by Means of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance and UV-Vis Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozik, Violetta; Jarzembek, Krystyna; Jędrzejowska, Agnieszka; Bąk, Andrzej; Polak, Justyna; Bartoszek, Mariola; Pytlakowska, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Pomegranate fruit (Punica granatum L.) is a source of numerous phenolic compounds, and it contains flavonoids such as anthocyanins, anthocyanidins, cyanidins, catechins and other complexes of flavonoids, ellagitannins, and hydrolyzed tannins. Pomegranate juice shows antioxidant, antiproliferative, and anti-atherosclerotic properties. The antioxidant capacity (TEAC) of the pomegranate juices was measured using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) as a source of free radicals, and the total phenolic (TP) content was measured using UV-Vis spectroscopy. All the examined pomegranate juices exhibited relatively high antioxidant properties. The TEAC values determined by means of EPR spectroscopy using Trolox (TE) as a free radical scavenger were in the range of 463.12 to 1911.91 μmol TE/100 mL juice. The TP content measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, using gallic acid (GA) as a free radical scavenger, widely varied in the investigated pomegranate juice samples and ranged from 1673.62 to 5263.87 mg GA/1 L juice. The strongest antioxidant properties were observed with the fresh pomegranate juices obtained from the fruits originating from Israel, Lebanon, and Azerbaijan. Correlation analysis of numerical data obtained by means of EPR spectroscopy (TEAC) and UV-Vis spectroscopy (TP) gave correlation coefficient (r)=0.90 and determination coefficient (r2)=0.81 (P<0.05).

  6. Experimental investigations of atomic ordering effects in the epitaxial Ga{sub x}In{sub 1-x}P, coherently grown on GaAs (100) substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seredin, P.V., E-mail: paul@phys.vsu.ru [Voronezh State University, Universitetskaya pl., 1, 394006 Voronezh (Russian Federation); Goloshchapov, D.L.; Khudyakov, Yu.Yu.; Lenshin, A.S.; Lukin, A.N. [Voronezh State University, Universitetskaya pl., 1, 394006 Voronezh (Russian Federation); Arsentyev, I.N., E-mail: arsentyev@mail.ioffe.ru [Ioffe Physical and Technical Institute, Polytekhnicheskaya, 26, 194021 St-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Prutskij, Tatiana, E-mail: prutskij@yahoo.com [Instituto de Ciencias, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Privada 17 Norte, No 3417, Col San Miguel Hueyotlipan, 72050 Puebla, Puebla (Mexico)

    2017-03-15

    A range of structural and spectroscopic techniques were used for the study of the properties of epitaxial Ga{sub x}In{sub 1-x}P alloys with an ordered arrangement of atoms in a crystal lattice grown by MOCVD on single-crystalline substrates of GaAs (100). The appearance of atomic ordering in the coherent growth conditions of the ordered Ga{sub x}In{sub 1-x}P alloy on GaAs (100) resulted in cardinal changes of the structural and optical properties of semiconductor in comparison to disordered alloys, including the change of the crystal lattice parameter and, consequently, reduced crystal symmetry, decreased band gap and formation of two different types of surface nanorelief. This is the first report of the calculation of parameters of the crystal lattice in Ga{sub x}In{sub 1-x}P with ordering taking into account the elastic stresses dependent on long-range ordering. Based on the variance analysis data with regard to the IR-reflection spectra as well as the UV-spectroscopy data obtained in the transmission-reflection mode, the main optical characteristics of the ordered Ga{sub x}In{sub 1-x}P alloys were determined for the first time, namely, refractive index dispersion and high-frequency dielectric constant. All of the experimental results were in good agreement with the previously developed theoretical beliefs.

  7. Substrate binding to SGLT1 investigated by single molecule force spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neundlinger, I. J.

    2010-01-01

    D-glucose serves as one of the most important fuels in various organism due to its fundamental role in ATP-, protein and lipid synthesis. Thus, sustaining glucose homeostasis is a crucial issue of life as disorders can cause severe malfunctions such as glucose-galactose-malabsorbtion (GGM). Sodium-glucose co-transporter, SGLTs, especially the high affinity transporter SGLT1, play a crucial role in accumulation of glucose in the cell as they facilitate transport of the sugar into the cytoplasma across the cell membrane by a Na+-electrochemical potential. Even recently, members of the SGLT transporter family have become a therapeutic target for the treatment of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes. Hence, it is of particular importance to gain insights on the dynamic behavior of SGLTs during substrate binding and transport across the cell membrane on the single molecular level. In the present study, the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) was employed to investigate the dynamic properties of the sodium-glucose co-transporter SGLT1 upon substrate binding under nearly physiological conditions. Hereto, new glucose derivatives were synthesized in order to probe the recognition efficiency of these molecules to SGLT1 embedded in the plasma membrane of living cells. A well established coupling protocol was used to covalently link (i) amino-modified D-glucose owning a conserved pyranose ring, (ii) 1-thio-β-D-glucose having a sulphur atom at C1 of the pyranose ring and (iii) the competitive inhibitor phlorizin to the AFM tip via poly(ethylene)glycol (PEG)-tether using different functional end groups and varying lengths. Binding characteristics, e.g. binding probability, interaction forces, influence of substances (glucose, phlorizin, sodium) and of molecule-linker compounds were obtained by performing single molecular recognition force spectroscopy (SMRFS) measurements. Moreover, temperature controlled radioactive binding/transport assays and SMRFS experiments yielded insights into

  8. Investigation of the hyperfine structure of Praseodymium-transitions using laser spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamim Khan

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive knowledge of the electron levels in an atom is one of the prerequisite for understanding the electron-electron and electron-nucleus interactions inside an atom and for the classification of the atomic spectrum of an element. The spin-orbit interaction is the largest relativistic effect and is responsible for the fine structure splitting in an atom. The hyperfine structure splitting of the fine structure atomic energy levels arise as a result of the interaction between spinning and orbiting electrons and electromagnetic multipole nuclear moments. The electronic ground state configuration of praseodymium 59 Pr 141 is [Xe] 4f 3 6s 2 , with ground state level 4 I 9/2 . Because of its 5 outer electrons Praseodymium has a high density of energy levels which give rise to an extremely line rich emission spectrum. Due to this fact praseodymium serves as an efficient testing ground for hyperfine structure studies. The thesis is mainly devoted to the finding of previously unknown energy levels by the investigation of spectral lines and their hyperfine structures. In a hollow cathode discharge lamp praseodymium atoms and ions in ground and excited states are excited to high lying states by laser light. The excitation source is a tunable ring-dye laser system, operated with Stilbene 3, Rhodamine 6G, Kiton Red, DCM and LD 700. A high resolution Fourier Transform spectrum is used for extracting excitation wavelengths. Then the laser wavelength is tuned to a strong hyperfine component of the spectral line to be investigated, and a search for fluorescence from excited levels is performed. From the observed hyperfine structure pattern, J-values and hyperfine interaction constants A of the combining levels are determined. This information, together with excitation and fluorescence wavelengths, allows us to find the energies of the involved levels. During the course of this dissertation 313 new energy levels of Pr I and 4 new energy levels of Pr II were discovered

  9. Solid state structural investigations of the bis(chalcone) compound with single crystal X-ray crystallography, DFT, gamma-ray spectroscopy and chemical spectroscopy methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakalı, Gül; Biçer, Abdullah; Eke, Canel; Cin, Günseli Turgut

    2018-04-01

    A bis(chalcone), (2E,6E)-2,6-bis((E)-3phenylallidene)cyclohexanone, was characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, FTIR, UV-Vis spectroscopy, gamma-ray spectroscopy and single crystal X- ray structural analysis. The optimized molecular structure of the compound is calculated using DFT/B3LYP with 6-31G (d,p) level. The calculated geometrical parameters are in good agreement with the experimental data obtained from our reported X-ray structure. The powder and single crystal compounds were gama-irradiated using clinical electron linear accelerator and 60Co gamma-ray source, respectively. Spectral studies (1H NMR, 13C NMR, FTIR and UV-Vis) of powder chalcone compound were also investigated before and after irradiation. Depending on the irradiation notable changes were observed in spectral features powder sample. Single crystal X-ray diffraction investigation shows that both unirradiated and irradiated single crystal samples crystallizes in a orthorhombic crystal system in the centrosymmetric space group Pbcn and exhibits an C-H..O intramolecular and intermolecular hydrogen bonds. The crystal packing is stabilised by strong intermolecular bifurcate C-H..O hydrogen bonds and π…π stacking interactions. The asymmetric unit of the title compound contains one-half of a molecule. The other half of the molecule is generated with (1-x,y,-3/2-z) symmetry operator. The molecule is almost planar due to having π conjugated system of chalcones. However, irradiated single crystal compound showed significant changes lattice parameters, crystal volume and density. According to results of gamma-ray spectroscopy, radioactive elements of powder compound which are 123Sb(n,g),124Sb,57Fe(g,p),56Mn, 55Mn(g,n), and 54Mn were determined using photoactivation analysis. However, the most intensive gamma-ray energy signals are 124Sb.

  10. Nanosecond retinal structure changes in K-590 during the room-temperature bacteriorhodopsin photocycle: picosecond time-resolved coherent anti-stokes Raman spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Weidlich, O.; Ujj, L.; Jäger, F.; Atkinson, G.H.

    1997-01-01

    Time-resolved vibrational spectra are used to elucidate the structural changes in the retinal chromophore within the K-590 intermediate that precedes the formation of the L-550 intermediate in the room-temperature (RT) bacteriorhodopsin (BR) photocycle. Measured by picosecond time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (PTR/CARS), these vibrational data are recorded within the 750 cm-1 to 1720 cm-1 spectral region and with time delays of 50-260 ns after the RT/BR photocycle is optical...

  11. Investigation of periodically driven systems by x-ray absorption spectroscopy using asynchronous data collection mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, H.; Donetsky, D.; Liu, J.; Attenkofer, K.; Cheng, B.; Trelewicz, J. R.; Lubomirsky, I.; Stavitski, E.; Frenkel, A. I.

    2018-04-01

    We report the development, testing, and demonstration of a setup for modulation excitation spectroscopy experiments at the Inner Shell Spectroscopy beamline of National Synchrotron Light Source - II. A computer algorithm and dedicated software were developed for asynchronous data processing and analysis. We demonstrate the reconstruction of X-ray absorption spectra for different time points within the modulation pulse using a model system. This setup and the software are intended for a broad range of functional materials which exhibit structural and/or electronic responses to the external stimulation, such as catalysts, energy and battery materials, and electromechanical devices.

  12. In vivo crystalline lens measurements with novel swept-source optical coherent tomography: an investigation on variability of measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Takuhei; Kato, Naoko; Ishikawa, Sho; Ibuki, Hisashi; Yamada, Norihiro; Kimura, Itaru; Shinoda, Kei

    2017-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the reproducibility of in vivo crystalline lens measurements obtained by novel commercially available swept-source (SS) optical coherence tomography (OCT) specifically designed for anterior segment imaging. Methods and analysis One eye from each of 30 healthy subjects was randomly selected using the CASIA2 (Tomey, Nagoya, Japan) in two separate visits within a week. Each eye was imaged twice. After image scanning, the anterior and posterior lens curvatures and lens thickness were calculated automatically by the CASIA2 built-in program at 0 dioptre (D) (static), −1 D, −3 D and −5 D accommodative stress. The intraobserver and intervisit reproducibility coefficient (RC) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were calculated. Results The intraobserver and intervisit RCs ranged from 0.824 to 1.254 mm and 0.789 to 0.911 mm for anterior lens curvature, from 0.276 to 0.299 mm and 0.221 to 0.270 mm for posterior lens curvature and from 0.065 to 0.094 mm and 0.054 to 0.132 mm for lens thickness, respectively. The intraobserver and intervisit ICCs ranged from 0.831 to 0.865 and 0.828 to 0.914 for anterior lens curvature, from 0.832 to 0.898 and 0.840 to 0.933 for posterior lens curvature and from 0.980 to 0.992 and 0.942 to 0.995 for lens thickness. High ICC values were observed for each measurement regardless of accommodative stress. RCs in younger subjects tended to be larger than those in older subjects. Conclusions This novel anterior segment SS-OCT instrument produced reliable in vivo crystalline lens measurement with good repeatability and reproducibility regardless of accommodation stress. PMID:29354706

  13. High-coherence mid-infrared dual-comb spectroscopy spanning 2.6 to 5.2 μm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ycas, Gabriel; Giorgetta, Fabrizio R.; Baumann, Esther; Coddington, Ian; Herman, Daniel; Diddams, Scott A.; Newbury, Nathan R.

    2018-04-01

    Mid-infrared dual-comb spectroscopy has the potential to supplant conventional Fourier-transform spectroscopy in applications requiring high resolution, accuracy, signal-to-noise ratio and speed. Until now, mid-infrared dual-comb spectroscopy has been limited to narrow optical bandwidths or low signal-to-noise ratios. Using digital signal processing and broadband frequency conversion in waveguides, we demonstrate a mid-infrared dual-comb spectrometer covering 2.6 to 5.2 µm with comb-tooth resolution, sub-MHz frequency precision and accuracy, and a spectral signal-to-noise ratio as high as 6,500. As a demonstration, we measure the highly structured, broadband cross-section of propane from 2,840 to 3,040 cm-1, the complex phase/amplitude spectra of carbonyl sulfide from 2,000 to 2,100 cm-1, and of a methane, acetylene and ethane mixture from 2,860 to 3,400 cm-1. The combination of broad bandwidth, comb-mode resolution and high brightness will enable accurate mid-infrared spectroscopy in precision laboratory experiments and non-laboratory applications including open-path atmospheric gas sensing, process monitoring and combustion.

  14. Investigation of photon counting pixel detectors for X-ray spectroscopy and imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talla, Patrick Takoukam

    2011-04-07

    The Medipix2 and Medipix3 detectors are hybrid pixelated photon counting detectors with a pixel pitch of 55 {mu}m. The sensor material used in this thesis was silicon. Because of their small pixel size they suffer from charge sharing i.e. an incoming photon can be registered by more than one pixel. In order to correct for charge sharing due to lateral diffusion of charge carriers, the Medipix3 detector was developed: with its Charge Summing Mode, the charge collected in a cluster of 2 x 2 pixel is added up and attributed to only one pixel whose counter is incremented. The adjustable threshold of the detectors allows to count the photons and to gain information on their energy. The main purposes of the thesis are to investigate spectral and imaging properties of pixelated photon counting detectors from the Medipix family such as Medipix2 and Medipix3. The investigations are based on simulations and measurements. In order to investigate the spectral properties of the detectors measurements were performed using fluorescence lines of materials such as molybdenum, silver but also some radioactive sources such as Am-241 or Cd-109. From the measured data, parameters like the threshold dispersion and the gain variation from pixel-to-pixel were extracted and used as input in the Monte Carlo code ROSI to model the responses of the detector to monoenergetic photons. The measured data are well described by the simulations for Medipix2 and for Medipix3 operating in Charge Summing Mode. Due to charge sharing and due to the energy dependence of attenuation processes in silicon and to Compton scattering the incoming and the measured spectrum differ substantially from each other. Since the responses to monoenergetic photons are known, a deconvolution was performed to determine the true incoming spectrum. Several direct and iterative methods were successfully applied on measured and simulated data of an X-ray tube and radioactive sources. The knowledge of the X-ray spectrum is

  15. Investigation of photon counting pixel detectors for X-ray spectroscopy and imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talla, Patrick Takoukam

    2011-01-01

    The Medipix2 and Medipix3 detectors are hybrid pixelated photon counting detectors with a pixel pitch of 55 μm. The sensor material used in this thesis was silicon. Because of their small pixel size they suffer from charge sharing i.e. an incoming photon can be registered by more than one pixel. In order to correct for charge sharing due to lateral diffusion of charge carriers, the Medipix3 detector was developed: with its Charge Summing Mode, the charge collected in a cluster of 2 x 2 pixel is added up and attributed to only one pixel whose counter is incremented. The adjustable threshold of the detectors allows to count the photons and to gain information on their energy. The main purposes of the thesis are to investigate spectral and imaging properties of pixelated photon counting detectors from the Medipix family such as Medipix2 and Medipix3. The investigations are based on simulations and measurements. In order to investigate the spectral properties of the detectors measurements were performed using fluorescence lines of materials such as molybdenum, silver but also some radioactive sources such as Am-241 or Cd-109. From the measured data, parameters like the threshold dispersion and the gain variation from pixel-to-pixel were extracted and used as input in the Monte Carlo code ROSI to model the responses of the detector to monoenergetic photons. The measured data are well described by the simulations for Medipix2 and for Medipix3 operating in Charge Summing Mode. Due to charge sharing and due to the energy dependence of attenuation processes in silicon and to Compton scattering the incoming and the measured spectrum differ substantially from each other. Since the responses to monoenergetic photons are known, a deconvolution was performed to determine the true incoming spectrum. Several direct and iterative methods were successfully applied on measured and simulated data of an X-ray tube and radioactive sources. The knowledge of the X-ray spectrum is

  16. An investigation of the molecular properties of 1,1,1-trichloroethane using laser spectroscopy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mametja, MB

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available in the calculations using Spartan [2004]. Ultravioletvisible absorption spectroscopy was used to determine the wavelength needed for excitation and ionization of TCE and it was confirmed that the absorption of energy by TCE is in the deep UV region. The time of flight...

  17. Structural investigation of bistrifluron using x-ray crystallography, NMR spectroscopy, and molecular modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Moon, J K; Rhee, S K; Kim, G B; Yun, H S; Chung, B J; Lee, S S; Lim, Y H

    2002-01-01

    A new insecticide, bistrifluron acts as an inhibitor of insect development and interferes with the cuticle formation of insects. Since it shows low acute oral and dermal toxicities, it can be one of potent insecticides. Based on X-ray crystallography, NMR spectroscopy and molecular modeling, the structural studies of bistrifluron have been carried out.

  18. Influence of water on stability of geopolymers investigated by NMR solid state spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kobera, Libor; Brus, Jiří; Urbanová, Martina; Slavík, R.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 33, - (2008), s. 86 ISSN 1896-2203. [Mid-European Clay Conference MECC 08 /4./. 22.09.2008-27.09.2008, Zakopane] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400500602 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : stability * NMR * solid state spectroscopy * geopolymer Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  19. Silicon oxide particle formation in RF plasmas investigated by infrared absorption spectroscopy and mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollenstein, Ch.; Howling, A.A.; Courteille, C.; Magni, D.; Scholz, S.M.; Kroesen, G.M.W.; Simons, N.; de Zeeuw, W.; Schwarzenbach, W.

    1998-01-01

    In situ Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy has been used to study the composition of particles formed and suspended in radio-frequency discharges of silane - oxygen-argon gas mixtures. The silane gas consumption was observed by infrared absorption. The stoichiometry of the produced

  20. Investigation of vegetation history of buried chernozem soils using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vysloužilová, B.; Ertlen, D.; Šefrna, L.; Novák, T.; Virágh, K.; Rué, M.; Campaner, A.; Dreslerová, Dagmar; Schwartz, D.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 365, 16 April (2015), s. 203-211 ISSN 1040-6182 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : Holocene * paleopedology * paleoecology * near-infrared spectroscopy * chernozem * buried paleosol Subject RIV: DF - Soil Science Impact factor: 2.067, year: 2015

  1. Role of hydration in the phase transition of polypeptides investigated by NMR and Raman spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dybal, Jiří; Schmidt, Pavel; Kříž, Jaroslav; Kurková, Dana; Rodriguez-Cabello, J. C.; Alonso, M.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 205, - (2004), s. 143-150 ISSN 1022-1360 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4050208 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : NMR * quantum chemistry * Raman spectroscopy Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.691, year: 2004

  2. Deamidation reactions of protonated asparagine and glutamine investigated by ion spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempkes, L.J.M.; Martens, J.K.; Grzetic, J.; Berden, G.; Oomens, J.

    2016-01-01

    RATIONALE: Deamidation of Asn and Gln residues is a primary route for spontaneous post-translational protein modification. Several structures have been proposed for the deamidation products of the protonated amino acids. Here we verify these structures by ion spectroscopy, as well as the structures

  3. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Investigation on Electrochemical Degradation of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Shuang Ma; Dhiman, Rajnish; Skou, Eivind Morten

    2015-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies were systematically carried out on the electrodes before and after the electrochemical stress tests in an aqueous electrolyte at 20 °C and 70 °C. The electrodes have different ionomer structures (no ionomer, only ionomer, physically mixed ionomer and hot p...

  4. MRI and P-31 Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Hardware for Axillary Lymph Node Investigation at 7T

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rivera, Debra S.; Wijnen, Jannie P.; van der Kemp, Wybe J. M.; Raaijmakers, Alexander J.; Luijten, Peter R.; Klomp, DWJ

    PurposeNeoadjuvant treatment response in lymph nodes predicts patient outcome, but existing methods do not track response during therapy accurately. In this study, specialized hardware was used to adapt high-field (7T) P-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), which has been shown to track

  5. Auger-electron spectroscopy investigation of thin Ag-As-S-Se films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorov, R; Spasov, G; Petkov, K; Tasseva, J

    2010-01-01

    The photoinduced changes in the refractive index and optical band-gap of thin As 32 S 34 Se 34 films photodoped with silver were studied using spectrophotometric methods. The compositional profile of the films was revealed by means of Auger-electron spectroscopy.

  6. Auger-electron spectroscopy investigation of thin Ag-As-S-Se films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todorov, R; Spasov, G; Petkov, K; Tasseva, J, E-mail: jordanka@clf.bas.b [Acad. J. Malinowski Central Laboratory of Photoprocesses, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Bl. 109, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2010-04-01

    The photoinduced changes in the refractive index and optical band-gap of thin As{sub 32}S{sub 34}Se{sub 34} films photodoped with silver were studied using spectrophotometric methods. The compositional profile of the films was revealed by means of Auger-electron spectroscopy.

  7. Coherent dynamics in semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    1998-01-01

    enhanced in quantum confined lower-dimensional systems, where exciton and biexciton effects dominate the spectra even at room temperature. The coherent dynamics of excitons are at modest densities well described by the optical Bloch equations and a number of the dynamical effects known from atomic......Ultrafast nonlinear optical spectroscopy is used to study the coherent dynamics of optically excited electron-hole pairs in semiconductors. Coulomb interaction implies that the optical inter-band transitions are dominated, at least at low temperatures, by excitonic effects. They are further...... and molecular systems are found and studied in the exciton-biexciton system of semiconductors. At densities where strong exciton interactions, or many-body effects, become dominant, the semiconductor Bloch equations present a more rigorous treatment of the phenomena Ultrafast degenerate four-wave mixing is used...

  8. Investigating tautomeric polymorphism in crystalline anthranilic acid using terahertz spectroscopy and solid-state density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Sean P; Witko, Ewelina M; Smith, Tiffany M; Korter, Timothy M

    2012-08-02

    Terahertz spectroscopy is sensitive to the interactions between molecules in the solid-state and recently has emerged as a new analytical tool for investigating polymorphism. Here, this technique is applied for the first time to the phenomenon of tautomeric polymorphism where the crystal structures of anthranilic acid (2-aminobenzoic acid) have been investigated. Three polymorphs of anthranilic acid (denoted Forms I, II and III) were studied using terahertz spectroscopy and the vibrational modes and relative polymorph stabilities analyzed using solid-state density functional theory calculations augmented with London dispersion force corrections. Form I consists of both neutral and zwitterionic molecules and was found to be the most stable polymorph as compared to Forms II and III (both containing only neutral molecules). The simulations suggest that a balance between steric interactions and electrostatic forces is responsible for the favoring of the mixed neutral/zwitterion solid over the all neutral or all zwitterion crystalline arrangements.

  9. Investigation of in-pile formed corrosion films on zircaloy fuel-rod claddings by impedance spectroscopy and galvanostatic anodization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebhardt, O.

    1993-01-01

    Hot-cell investigations have been executed to study the corrosion behaviour of irradiated Zircaloy fuel-rod claddings by impedance spectroscopy and galvanostatic anodization. The thickness of the compact oxide at the metal/oxide interface and the thickness of the minimum barrier oxide have been determined at different positions along the claddings. As shown by analysis, both quantities first increase and then decrease with increasing thickness of the total oxide. (author) 6 figs., 33 refs

  10. The optimisation of an intense Z-pinch discharge as a plasma source for absorption spectroscopy investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandolache, Gabriela; Zoita, Vasile; Iova, Iancu; Fleurier, Claude; Hong, Dunpin; Bauchire, Jean Marc

    2002-01-01

    The characterisation of the low voltage circuit breaker arc from the optical and plasma physics points of view represents an element of importance for understanding the operating mechanism and the current interruption process. The development of the broad band optical absorption spectroscopy method seems to be well adapted in order to perform the circuit breaker arc analysis. A pulsed power device based on a Z-pinch type discharge has been developed as a plasma source for absorption spectroscopy investigations. The spatial extension of this radiation source, its brightness, reproducibility are well adapted to characterize the circuit-breaker arc. In addition, a very short emission period compared to the lifetime of the arc discharge provides an excellent time resolution for the absorption spectroscopy method. The first compression phase of the linear pinch produced in argon has been studied from the point of view of its use as a light source. The initial pressure of argon was varied from 0.5 to 2 mbar and the condenser bank energy from 5.1 to 8.7 kJ. The characterization of the emitted radiation, especially the influence of the condenser bank voltage and the argon pressure on the discharge has been studied. Collapse dynamics of the argon compressional pinch and the spectrally resolved continuum emission at the time of maximum compression have been observed. A very satisfactory plasma source optimisation has been achieved that fulfils the conditions required for the absorption spectroscopy method. (authors)

  11. Adiabatic nanofocusing: Spectroscopy, transport and imaging investigation of the nano world

    KAUST Repository

    Giugni, Andrea

    2014-11-01

    Adiabatic compression plays a fundamental role in the realization of localized enhanced electromagnetic field hot spots, it provides the possibility to focus at nanoscale optical excitation. It differs from the well-known lightning rod effect since it is based on the lossless propagation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) up to a nano-sized metal tip where the energy density is largely enhanced. Here we discuss two important applications of adiabatic compression: Raman and hot electron spectroscopy at nanometric resolution. The underlying phenomena are the conversion of SPPs into photons or hot electrons. New scanning probe spectroscopy techniques along with experimental results are discussed. We foresee that these techniques will play a key role in relating the functional and structural properties of matter at the nanoscale.

  12. Adiabatic nanofocusing: Spectroscopy, transport and imaging investigation of the nano world

    KAUST Repository

    Giugni, Andrea; Allione, Marco; Torre, Bruno; Das, Gobind; Francardi, Marco; Moretti, Manola; Malerba, Mario; Perozziello, Gerardo; Candeloro, Patrizio; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.

    2014-01-01

    Adiabatic compression plays a fundamental role in the realization of localized enhanced electromagnetic field hot spots, it provides the possibility to focus at nanoscale optical excitation. It differs from the well-known lightning rod effect since it is based on the lossless propagation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) up to a nano-sized metal tip where the energy density is largely enhanced. Here we discuss two important applications of adiabatic compression: Raman and hot electron spectroscopy at nanometric resolution. The underlying phenomena are the conversion of SPPs into photons or hot electrons. New scanning probe spectroscopy techniques along with experimental results are discussed. We foresee that these techniques will play a key role in relating the functional and structural properties of matter at the nanoscale.

  13. Deep-level optical spectroscopy investigation of N-doped TiO2 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Yoshitaka; Morikawa, Takeshi; Ohwaki, Takeshi; Taga, Yasunori

    2005-01-01

    N-doped TiO 2 films were deposited on n + -GaN/Al 2 O 3 substrates by reactive magnetron sputtering and subsequently crystallized by annealing at 550 deg. C in flowing N 2 gas. The N-doping concentration was ∼8.8%, as determined from x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. Deep-level optical spectroscopy measurements revealed two characteristic deep levels located at ∼1.18 and ∼2.48 eV below the conduction band. The 1.18 eV level is probably attributable to the O vacancy state and can be active as an efficient generation-recombination center. Additionally, the 2.48 eV band is newly introduced by the N doping and contributes to band-gap narrowing by mixing with the O 2p valence band

  14. Investigating the effects of Pentoxifylline on human breast cancer cells using Raman spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peeyush N. Goel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths in a global scenario. In the present study, biochemical changes exerted upon Pentoxifylline (PTX treatment had been appraised in human breast cancer cells using Raman spectroscopy. There are no clinically approved methods to monitor such therapeutic responses available. The spectral profiling is suggestive of changes in DNA, protein and lipid contents showing a linear relationship with drug dosage. Further, multivariate analysis using principal-component based linear-discriminant-analysis (PC-LDA was employed for classifying the control and the PTX treated groups. These findings support the feasibility of Raman spectroscopy as an alternate/adjunct label-free, objective method for monitoring drug-induced modifications against breast cancer cells.

  15. Raman spectroscopy in investigations of mechanism of binding of human serum albumin to molecular probe fluorescein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlasova, I M; Saletsky, A M

    2008-01-01

    The mechanism of binding of molecular probe fluorescein to molecules of human serum albumin was studied by the Raman spectroscopy method. The position of binding Center on human serum albumin molecule for fluorescein is determined. The amino acid residues of albumin molecule, participating in binding of fluorescein at different pH values of solution, are established. The conformation rearrangements of globules of human serum albumin, taking place at binding of fluorescein at different pH values of solution, are registered

  16. In-situ investigation of the calcination process of mixed oxide xerogels with Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panitz, J C [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    The controlled calcination of materials derived by sol-gel reactions is important for the evolution of the final structure. Raman spectroscopy is an ideal tool for the identification of surface species under in-situ conditions, as demonstrated in the following for the example of a molybdenum oxide-silica xerogel. Raman spectra of this particular sample were recorded at temperatures as high as 1173 K, and compared with those of a reference material.(author) 3 figs., 4 refs.

  17. Partially coherent isodiffracting pulsed beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivurova, Matias; Ding, Chaoliang; Turunen, Jari; Pan, Liuzhan

    2018-02-01

    We investigate a class of isodiffracting pulsed beams, which are superpositions of transverse modes supported by spherical-mirror laser resonators. By employing modal weights that, for stationary light, produce a Gaussian Schell-model beam, we extend this standard model to pulsed beams. We first construct the two-frequency cross-spectral density function that characterizes the spatial coherence in the space-frequency domain. By assuming a power-exponential spectral profile, we then employ the generalized Wiener-Khintchine theorem for nonstationary light to derive the two-time mutual coherence function that describes the space-time coherence of the ensuing beams. The isodiffracting nature of the laser resonator modes permits all (paraxial-domain) calculations at any propagation distance to be performed analytically. Significant spatiotemporal coupling is revealed in subcycle, single-cycle, and few-cycle domains, where the partial spatial coherence also leads to reduced temporal coherence even though full spectral coherence is assumed.

  18. Investigation of the spectroscopy and relaxation dynamics of benzaldehyde using molecular orbital calculations and laser ionization time-of-flight mass spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Maria Cristina Rodrigues

    1998-11-01

    Molecular orbital methods and laser ionization mass spectrometry measurements are used to investigate the spectroscopy and relaxation dynamics of benzaldehyde following excitation to its S2(/pi/pi/sp/*) state. Energies, equilibrium geometries and vibrational frequencies of ground and low-lying excited states of benzaldehyde neutral and cation determined by ab initio calculations provide a theoretical description of the electronic spectroscopy of benzaldehyde and of the changes occurring on excitation and ionization. The S2(/pi/pi/sp/*)[/gets]S0 excitation spectrum of jet-cooled benzaldehyde acquired using two-color laser ionization mass spectrometry techniques is interpreted with the aid of these calculations. The spectrum is dominated by the origin band and by transitions involving some of the ring modes consistent with the results of the molecular orbital calculations that indicate that the major geometric changes on excitation to S2 are located in the aromatic ring. Ten fundamental vibrations of the S2(/pi/pi/sp/*) state are assigned. The dissociation dynamics of benzaldehyde into benzene and carbon monoxide following excitation to its S2(/pi/pi/sp/*) state are investigated under jet- cooled conditions by two-color laser ionization mass spectrometry using a pump-probe technique. This experimental arrangement allows monitoring the benzaldehyde reactant and the benzene product ion signals as a function of the time delay between the excitation and ionization steps. A kinetic model is proposed to explain the observed biexponential decay of the benzaldehyde signal and the single exponential growth of the benzene product signal in terms of a sequential decay of two excited states of benzaldehyde, one of which leads to formation of benzene molecules in its lowest triplet state. Reactant disappearance and product appearance rates are determined for a number of vibronic transitions of the S2 state. They are found to increase with excitation energy without any indication

  19. Investigations of the functional states of dendritic cells under different conditioned microenvironments by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Rong; Long, Jinhua; Xu, Xiaoli; Zhang, Chunlin; Wen, Zongyao; Li, Long; Yao, Weijuan; Zeng, Zhu

    2014-01-10

    Dendritic cells are potent and specialized antigen presenting cells, which play a crucial role in initiating and amplifying both the innate and adaptive immune responses. The dendritic cell-based vaccination against cancer has been clinically achieved promising successes. But there are still many challenges in its clinical application, especially for how to identify the functional states. The CD14+ monocytes were isolated from human peripheral blood after plastic adherence and purified to approximately 98% with cocktail immunomagnetic beads. The immature dendritic cells and mature dendritic cells were induced by traditional protocols. The resulting dendritic cells were cocultured with normal cells and cancer cells. The functional state of dendritic cells including immature dendritic cells (imDCs) and mature dendritic cells (mDCs) under different conditioned microenvironments were investigated by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and molecular biological methods. The results of Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy showed that the gene transcription activity and energy states of dendritic cells were specifically suppressed by tumor cells (P Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy at given wave numbers were closely correlated with the expression levels of NF-κB (R2:0.69 and R2:0.81, respectively). Our results confirmed that the ratios of absorption intensities of Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy at given wave numbers were positively correlated with the expression levels of NF-κB, suggesting that Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy technology could be clinically applied to identify the functional states of dendritic cell when performing dendritic cell-based vaccination. It's significant for the simplification and standardization of dendritic cell-based vaccination clinical preparation protocols.

  20. Investigation of electrically-active deep levels in single-crystalline diamond by particle-induced charge transient spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kada, W., E-mail: kada.wataru@gunma-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Science and Technology, Gunma University, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan); Kambayashi, Y.; Ando, Y. [Faculty of Science and Technology, Gunma University, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan); Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Onoda, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Umezawa, H.; Mokuno, Y. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-8-31 Midorigaoka, Ikeda, Osaka 563-8577 (Japan); Shikata, S. [Kwansei Gakuin Univ., 2-1, Gakuen, Mita, Hyogo 669-1337 (Japan); Makino, T.; Koka, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Hanaizumi, O. [Faculty of Science and Technology, Gunma University, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan); Kamiya, T.; Ohshima, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)

    2016-04-01

    To investigate electrically-active deep levels in high-resistivity single-crystalline diamond, particle-induced charge transient spectroscopy (QTS) techniques were performed using 5.5 MeV alpha particles and 9 MeV carbon focused microprobes. For unintentionally-doped (UID) chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond, deep levels with activation energies of 0.35 eV and 0.43 eV were detected which correspond to the activation energy of boron acceptors in diamond. The results suggested that alpha particle and heavy ion induced QTS techniques are the promising candidate for in-situ investigation of deep levels in high-resistivity semiconductors.

  1. [The Detection of Ultra-Broadband Terahertz Spectroscopy of InP Wafer by Using Coherent Heterodyne Time-Domain Spectrometer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang-liang; Zhang, Rui; Xu, Xiao-yan; Zhang, Cun-lin

    2016-02-01

    Indium Phosphide (InP) has attracted great physical interest because of its unique characteristics and is indispensable to both optical and electronic devices. However, the optical property of InP in the terahertz range (0. 110 THz) has not yet been fully characterized and systematically studied. The former researches about the properties of InP concentrated on the terahertz frequency between 0.1 and 4 THz. The terahertz optical properties of the InP in the range of 4-10 THz are still missing. It is fairly necessary to fully understand its properties in the entire terahertz range, which results in a better utilization as efficient terahertz devices. In this paper, we study the optical properties of undoped (100) InP wafer in the ultra-broad terahertz frequency range (0.5-18 THz) by using air-biased-coherent-detection (ABCD) system, enabling the coherent detection of terahertz wave in gases, which leads to a significant improvement on the dynamic range and sensitivity of the system. The advantage of this method is broad frequency bandwidth from 0.2 up to 18 THz which is only mainly limited by laser pulse duration since it uses ionized air as terahertz emitter and detector instead of using an electric optical crystal or photoconductive antenna. The terahertz pulse passing through the InP wafer is delayed regarding to the reference pulse and has much lower amplitude. In addition, the frequency spectrum amplitude of the terahertz sample signal drops to the noise floor level from 6.7 to 12.1 THz. At the same time InP wafer is opaque at the frequencies spanning from 6.7 to 12.1 THz. In the frequency regions of 0.8-6.7 and 12.1-18 THz it has relativemy low absorption coefficient. Meanwhile, the refractive index increases monotonously in the 0.8-6.7 THz region and 12.1-18 THz region. These findings will contribute to the design of InP based on nonlinear terahertz devices.

  2. Using Low Temperature Photoluminescence Spectroscopy to Investigate CH3NH3PbI3 Hybrid Perovskite Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaoula Jemli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Investigating the stability and evaluating the quality of the CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite structures is quite critical both to the design and fabrication of high-performance perovskite devices and to fundamental studies of the photophysics of the excitons. In particular, it is known that, under ambient conditions, CH3NH3PbI3 degrades producing some PbI2. We show here that low temperature Photoluminescence (PL spectroscopy is a powerful tool to detect PbI2 traces in hybrid perovskite layers and single crystals. Because PL spectroscopy is a signal detection method on a black background, small PbI2 traces can be detected, when other methods currently used at room temperature fail. Our study highlights the extremely high stability of the single crystals compared to the thin layers and defects and grain boundaries are thought to play an important role in the degradation mechanism.

  3. Investigation of Sm(3) and Eu(3) coordination compounds with pyrazolones by IR spectroscopy method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panyushkin, V.T.; Grishenko, T.V.; Afanas'ev, Yu.A.; Garnovskij, A.D.; Osipov, O.A.

    1978-01-01

    The synthesis is described of the coordination nitrate compounds of Sm(3) and Eu(3) with pyrazolones: 4-aminoantipyrine (A), 1-ethylpyridyl- 3-phenyl-pyrazolone-5(B); 1-(3'-ethylpyridyl)-3(phenylamine-n)-pyrazolone-5(C). It has been determined by the infrared spectroscopy method that exocyclic oxygen atom is the place of coordination bond localization in the pentioned compounds. The infrared spectra analysis of complexes in the 1700-1800 cm -1 region makes it possible to mention bidentate character of NO 3 -groups in the studied complex compounds

  4. Photoacoustic spectroscopy, FTIR spectra and thermal diffusivity investigation of emeraldine pellet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phing, T.E.; Fanny, C.Y.J.; Wan Mahmood Mat Yunus

    2001-01-01

    Photoacoustic spectra for both emeraldine base and emeraldine salt in bulk form were measured in the wavelength range of 350 nm to 700 nm. The Fourier transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) have also been studied to determine the structure changes due to the protonation process. For the thermal diffusivity measurement, the open photoacoustic cell (OPC) technique has been used. It was found that the emeraldine salt exhibit higher thermal diffusivity compare to emeraldine base and this is similar to the higher conductivity characteristics of emeraldine salt. (Author)

  5. Coherence and Sense of Coherence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Constraints in the implementation of models of blended learning can be explained by several causes, but in this paper, it is illustrated that lack of sense of coherence is a major factor of these constraints along with the referential whole of the perceived learning environments. The question exa...

  6. X-ray absorption spectroscopy investigation of structurally modified lithium niobate crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitova, Tonya

    2008-02-15

    The type and concentration of impurity centers in different valence states are crucial for tuning the photorefractive properties of doped Lithium Niobate (LN) crystals. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) is an appropriate tool for studying the local structure of impurity centers. XAS combined with absorption in UV/VIS/IR and High Resolution X-ray Emission Spectroscopy (HRXES) provide information about the valence state of the dopant ions in as-grown, reduced or oxidized doped LN crystals. Cu (Cu{sup 1+} and Cu{sup 2+}) and Fe (Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}) atoms are found in two different valence states, whereas there are indications for a third Mn valency, in addition to Mn{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 3+} in manganese-doped LN crystals. One of the charge compensation mechanisms during reduction of copper- doped LN crystals is outgassing of oxygen atoms. Cu ions in the reduced crystals have at least two different site symmetries: twofold (Cu{sup 1+}) and sixfold (Cu{sup 2+}) coordinated by O atoms. Fe and Mn atoms are coordinated by six O atoms. Cu and Fe ions are found to occupy only Li sites, whereas Mn ions are also incorporated into Li and Nb sites. The refractive index change in LN crystals irradiated with {sup 3}He{sup 2+} ions is caused by structurally disordered centers, where Nb atoms are displaced from normal crystallographic sites and Li or/and O vacancies are present. (orig.)

  7. X-ray absorption spectroscopy investigation of structurally modified lithium niobate crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitova, Tonya

    2008-02-01

    The type and concentration of impurity centers in different valence states are crucial for tuning the photorefractive properties of doped Lithium Niobate (LN) crystals. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) is an appropriate tool for studying the local structure of impurity centers. XAS combined with absorption in UV/VIS/IR and High Resolution X-ray Emission Spectroscopy (HRXES) provide information about the valence state of the dopant ions in as-grown, reduced or oxidized doped LN crystals. Cu (Cu 1+ and Cu 2+ ) and Fe (Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ ) atoms are found in two different valence states, whereas there are indications for a third Mn valency, in addition to Mn 2+ and Mn 3+ in manganese-doped LN crystals. One of the charge compensation mechanisms during reduction of copper- doped LN crystals is outgassing of oxygen atoms. Cu ions in the reduced crystals have at least two different site symmetries: twofold (Cu 1+ ) and sixfold (Cu 2+ ) coordinated by O atoms. Fe and Mn atoms are coordinated by six O atoms. Cu and Fe ions are found to occupy only Li sites, whereas Mn ions are also incorporated into Li and Nb sites. The refractive index change in LN crystals irradiated with 3 He 2+ ions is caused by structurally disordered centers, where Nb atoms are displaced from normal crystallographic sites and Li or/and O vacancies are present. (orig.)

  8. An impedance spectroscopy investigation of nanocrystalline CsPbBr{sub 3} films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitale, G. [Department of Electronic Engineering and INFM, University of Rome ' Roma Tre' , Via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Rome (Italy); Conte, G. [Department of Electronic Engineering and INFM, University of Rome ' Roma Tre' , Via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Rome (Italy)]. E-mail: gconte@ele.uniroma3.it; Aloe, P. [Department of Physics and INFM, University of Rome ' Roma Tre' , Via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Rome (Italy); Somma, F. [Department of Physics and INFM, University of Rome ' Roma Tre' , Via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Rome (Italy)

    2005-12-15

    Thin films of CsPbBr{sub 3} were prepared by co-evaporation of CsBr and PbBr{sub 2} powders. Deposited materials are constituted by nanometer-sized crystals as evidenced by atomic force microscopy and X ray diffraction. Impedance spectroscopy measurements, aimed to study the dielectric relaxation processes and transport mechanisms at grain boundary and grain interior, reveal a complex response of the material both on the frequency and on the temperature variations. DC current voltage curves are ohmic for applied electric field strength up to 2 x 10{sup 6} V/cm. The DC conductivity Arrhenius plot gives a value of the activation energy equal to 0.85 eV, smaller then that expected for an intrinsic semiconductor. On the other hand, impedance measurements on a wide frequency range and at different temperatures can be reduced to a single master curve addressing hopping transport mechanism and dielectric relaxation processes being active. Finally, a simple model based on multiple Voigt's elements has been used to fit the impedance spectroscopy data and to evaluate relevant material parameters.

  9. Dissociation mechanism of HNIW ions investigated by chemical ionization and electron impact mass spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Rongjie; Xiao, Hemiao [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2006-04-15

    Chemical Ionization (CI) with Collision-Induced Dissociation (CID) spectroscopy and Electron Impacting (EI) with metastable Mass analyzed Ion Kinetic Energy (MIKE) spectroscopy have been applied to study ionic dissociations of Hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (HNIW). Similarities and differences between EI/MIKE and CI/CID mass spectra of HNIW were analyzed. In EI mass spectra, the ions [HNIW-n NO{sub 2}]{sup +} (n=2-5), such as the ion at m/z 347, were less frequent (1-2% relative abundance), but in CI mass spectra, these ions were very abundant. For some ions of large molar mass from HNIW, their dissociations pathways from parent ions to daughter ions were built according to CID and MIKE spectra. Molecular ions of HNIW with a protonated nitro group at five-member ring seem more stable than at six-member ring. The HNIW ions losing five of six nitro groups are very stable based on CID spectra, which agrees with some research results for thermal decomposition of HNIW in literature. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  10. Investigation of Deuterium Implantation into Beryllium Sample by Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanas'ev, V. P.; Gryazev, A. S.; Kaplya, P. S.; Köppen, M.; Ridzel, O. Yu; Subbotin, N. Yu; Hansen, P.

    2017-11-01

    Quantitative analysis of hydrogen isotopes in first wall as well as in construction materials of future fusion devices plays a crucial role to understand the evolution of those materials under operation conditions. A quantitative understanding of hydrogen in materials is also an important issue for storing energy as well as for fuel cells. A combination of Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS) and Elastic Peak Electron Spectroscopy (EPES) is presented in this study to tackle these problems of modern material research for energy production and storage. Accurate inelastic scattering background subtraction is a key part of the presented quantitative measurement of the Be/D ratio. The differential inelastic scattering cross-section is determined by the fitting procedure. The fitting procedure is based on the iterative solution of the direct problem and minimization of the residual between computed and measured spectra. This study also takes into account the difference in electron energy loss laws for surface and bulk. The inelastic scattering cross-sections for different doses of deuterium ions in beryllium substrate (5.5·1021 m-2 and 2.01·1022 m-2) were defined in a two-layered model. The analysis is carried out for the EELS spectra. Relative concentration of D atoms is defined.

  11. Investigation of the heparin-thrombin interaction by dynamic force spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Congzhou; Jin, Yingzi; Desai, Umesh R; Yadavalli, Vamsi K

    2015-06-01

    The interaction between heparin and thrombin is a vital step in the blood (anti)coagulation process. Unraveling the molecular basis of the interactions is therefore extremely important in understanding the mechanisms of this complex biological process. In this study, we use a combination of an efficient thiolation chemistry of heparin, a self-assembled monolayer-based single molecule platform, and a dynamic force spectroscopy to provide new insights into the heparin-thrombin interaction from an energy viewpoint at the molecular scale. Well-separated single molecules of heparin covalently attached to mixed self-assembled monolayers are demonstrated, whereby interaction forces with thrombin can be measured via atomic force microscopy-based spectroscopy. Further these interactions are studied at different loading rates and salt concentrations to directly obtain kinetic parameters. An increase in the loading rate shows a higher interaction force between the heparin and thrombin, which can be directly linked to the kinetic dissociation rate constant (koff). The stability of the heparin/thrombin complex decreased with increasing NaCl concentration such that the off-rate was found to be driven primarily by non-ionic forces. These results contribute to understanding the role of specific and nonspecific forces that drive heparin-thrombin interactions under applied force or flow conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The separation of vibrational coherence from ground- and excited-electronic states in P3HT film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Yin; Hellmann, Christoph; Stingelin, Natalie; Scholes, Gregory D.

    2015-01-01

    Concurrence of the vibrational coherence and ultrafast electron transfer has been observed in polymer/fullerene blends. However, it is difficult to experimentally investigate the role that the excited-state vibrational coherence plays during the electron transfer process since vibrational coherence from the ground- and excited-electronic states is usually temporally and spectrally overlapped. Here, we performed 2-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2D ES) measurements on poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) films. By Fourier transforming the whole 2D ES datasets (S(λ 1 ,T ~ 2 ,λ 3 )) along the population time (T ~ 2 ) axis, we develop and propose a protocol capable of separating vibrational coherence from the ground- and excited-electronic states in 3D rephasing and nonrephasing beating maps (S(λ 1 ,ν ~ 2 ,λ 3 )). We found that the vibrational coherence from pure excited electronic states appears at positive frequency (+ν ~ 2 ) in the rephasing beating map and at negative frequency (−ν ~ 2 ) in the nonrephasing beating map. Furthermore, we also found that vibrational coherence from excited electronic state had a long dephasing time of 244 fs. The long-lived excited-state vibrational coherence indicates that coherence may be involved in the electron transfer process. Our findings not only shed light on the mechanism of ultrafast electron transfer in organic photovoltaics but also are beneficial for the study of the coherence effect on photoexcited dynamics in other systems

  13. The separation of vibrational coherence from ground- and excited-electronic states in P3HT film

    KAUST Repository

    Song, Yin

    2015-06-07

    © 2015 AIP Publishing LLC. Concurrence of the vibrational coherence and ultrafast electron transfer has been observed in polymer/fullerene blends. However, it is difficult to experimentally investigate the role that the excited-state vibrational coherence plays during the electron transfer process since vibrational coherence from the ground- and excited-electronic states is usually temporally and spectrally overlapped. Here, we performed 2-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2D ES) measurements on poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) films. By Fourier transforming the whole 2D ES datasets (S (λ 1, T∼ 2, λ 3)) along the population time (T∼ 2) axis, we develop and propose a protocol capable of separating vibrational coherence from the ground- and excited-electronic states in 3D rephasing and nonrephasing beating maps (S (λ 1, ν∼ 2, λ 3)). We found that the vibrational coherence from pure excited electronic states appears at positive frequency (+ ν∼ 2) in the rephasing beating map and at negative frequency (- ν∼ 2) in the nonrephasing beating map. Furthermore, we also found that vibrational coherence from excited electronic state had a long dephasing time of 244 fs. The long-lived excited-state vibrational coherence indicates that coherence may be involved in the electron transfer process. Our findings not only shed light on the mechanism of ultrafast electron transfer in organic photovoltaics but also are beneficial for the study of the coherence effect on photoexcited dynamics in other systems.

  14. Ultrafast Transient Absorption Spectroscopy Investigation of Photoinduced Dynamics in Novel Donor-Acceptor Core-Shell Nanostructures for Organic Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strain, Jacob; Jamhawi, Abdelqader; Abeywickrama, Thulitha M.; Loomis, Wendy; Rathnayake, Hemali; Liu, Jinjun

    2016-06-01

    Novel donor-acceptor nanostructures were synthesized via covalent synthesis and/or UV cross-linking method. Their photoinduced dynamics were investigated with ultrafast transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy. These new nanostructures are made with the strategy in mind to reduce manufacturing steps in the process of fabricating an organic photovoltaic cell. By imitating the heterojunction interface within a fixed particle domain, several fabrication steps can be bypassed reducing cost and giving more applicability to other film deposition methods. Such applications include aerosol deposition and ink-jet printing. The systems that were studied by TA spectroscopy include PDIB core, PDIB-P3HT core-shell, and PDIB-PANT core-shell which range in size from 60 to 130 nm. Within the experimentally accessible spectra range there resides a region of ground state bleaching, stimulated emission, and excited-state absorption of both neutrals and anions. Control experiments have been carried out to assign these features. At high pump fluences the TA spectra of PDIB core alone also indicate an intramolecular charge separation. The TA spectroscopy results thus far suggest that the core-shells resemble the photoinduced dynamics of a standard film although the particles are dispersed in solution, which indicates the desired outcome of the work.

  15. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy investigation on indium tin oxide films under cathodic polarization in NaOH solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Wenjiao; Cao, Si; Yang, Yanze; Wang, Hao; Li, Jin; Jiang, Yiming

    2012-01-01

    The electrochemical corrosion behaviors of indium tin oxide (ITO) films under the cathodic polarization in 0.1 M NaOH solution were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The as-received and the cathodically polarized ITO films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction for morphological, compositional and structural studies. The results showed that ITO films underwent a corrosion process during the cathodic polarization and the main component of the corrosion products was body-centered cubic indium. The electrochemical impedance parameters were related to the effect of the cathodic polarization on the ITO specimens. The capacitance of ITO specimens increased, while the charge transfer resistance and the inductance decreased with the increase of the polarization time. The proposed mechanism indicated that the corrosion products (metallic indium) were firstly formed during the cathodic polarization and then absorbed on the surface of the ITO film. As the surface was gradually covered by indium particles, the corrosion process was suppressed. - Highlights: ► Cathodic polarization of indium tin oxide (ITO) in 0.1 M NaOH. ► Cathodic polarization studied with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. ► ITO underwent a corrosion attack during cathodic polarization, indium was observed. ► Electrochemical parameters of ITO were obtained using equivalent electrical circuit. ► A corrosion mechanism is proposed.

  16. Interface Energy Alignment of Atomic-Layer-Deposited VOx on Pentacene: an in Situ Photoelectron Spectroscopy Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ran; Gao, Yuanhong; Guo, Zheng; Su, Yantao; Wang, Xinwei

    2017-01-18

    Ultrathin atomic-layer-deposited (ALD) vanadium oxide (VO x ) interlayer has recently been demonstrated for remarkably reducing the contact resistance in organic electronic devices (Adv. Funct. Mater. 2016, 26, 4456). Herein, we present an in situ photoelectron spectroscopy investigation (including X-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopies) of ALD VO x grown on pentacene to understand the role of the ALD VO x interlayer for the improved contact resistance. The in situ photoelectron spectroscopy characterizations allow us to monitor the ALD growth process of VO x and trace the evolutions of the work function, pentacene HOMO level, and VO x defect states during the growth. The initial VO x growth is found to be partially delayed on pentacene in the first ∼20 ALD cycles. The underneath pentacene layer is largely intact after ALD. The ALD VO x is found to contain a high density of defect states starting from 0.67 eV below the Fermi level, and the energy level of these defect states is in excellent alignment with the HOMO level of pentacene, which therefore allows these VO x defect states to provide an efficient hole-injection pathway at the contact interface.

  17. Investigations of Deep-Level Fe-centres in Si by Mössbauer Spectroscopy

    CERN Multimedia

    Dietrich, M

    2002-01-01

    %IS359\\\\ \\\\Electronic, vibrational and diffusional properties of interstitial and substitutional Fe impurities in silicon are studied by $ ^{57} $Fe Mössbauer emission spectroscopy utilizing implanted radioactive $ ^{57}$Mn$^{+} $ parent ions from ISOLDE as probe atoms. Thus the electronic charge density and the impurity mean-square vibrational amplitude shall be determined for substitutional Fe$_{s} $ and for interstitial Fe$_{i}^{0/+} $ in its two different charge states. These quantities are complementary to previously determined hyperfine interaction parameters and are expected to shed light on the nature of the deviations between calculated and measured parameters. The supposedly different diffusivities of interstitial Fe$_{i}^{0} $ and Fe$_{i}^{+} $ shall be measured by the broadening of the Mössbauer lines, i.e. at a temperature where diffusion jumps occur on an atomic scale within the lifetime of the Mössbauer state.

  18. The Optical Absorption Coefficient of Maize Grains Investigated by Photoacoustic Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Páez, C. L.; Carballo-Carballo, A.; Rico-Molina, R.; Hernández-Aguilar, C.; Domínguez-Pacheco, A.; Cruz-Orea, A.; Moreno-Martínez, E.

    2017-01-01

    In the maize and tortilla industry, it is important to characterize the color of maize ( Zea mays L.) grain, as it is one of the attributes that directly affect the quality of the tortillas consumed by the population. For this reason, the availability of alternative techniques for assessing and improving the quality of grain is valued. Photoacoustic spectroscopy has proven to be a useful tool for characterizing maize grain. So, the objective of the present study was to determine the optical absorption coefficient β of the maize grain used to make tortillas from two regions of Mexico: (a) Valles Altos, 2012-2013 production cycle and (b) Guasave, Sinaloa, 2013-2014 production cycle. Traditional reflectance measurements, physical characteristics of the grain and nutrient content were also calculated. The experimental results show different characteristics for maize grains.

  19. Investigation into interaction of CO/sub 2/ molecules with zeolites by infrared spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignat' eva, L A; Levshin, L V; Chukin, G D; Efimenko, L V; Kozlova, T I [Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR). Kafedra Optiki

    1975-07-01

    Interaction of CO/sub 2/ molecules with zeolites, particularly with SrNaJ was studied by infrared-spectroscopy. To obtain infrared-spectra the zeolites were pressed into tablets and were calcinated at 500 deg. In the spectra the bands of chemisorbed CO/sub 2/ absorption were found in the range 1300 - 1600 cm/sup -1/. The CO/sub 2/ molecule was found to be strongly deformed due to chemisorption. In terms of electronic structure of the zeolite crystalline skeleton several types of CO/sub 2/ molecules interaction with different active zeolites were found. The position of the high-frequency band of CO/sub 2/ absorption in zeolites spectra was found to be a linear function of electrostatic field of the cations.

  20. Clustering mechanism of ethanol-water mixtures investigated with photothermal microfluidic cantilever deflection spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoraishi, M. S.; Hawk, J. E.; Phani, Arindam; Khan, M. F.; Thundat, T.

    2016-04-01

    The infrared-active (IR) vibrational mode of ethanol (EtOH) associated with the asymmetrical stretching of the C-C-O bond in pico-liter volumes of EtOH-water binary mixtures is calorimetrically measured using photothermal microfluidic cantilever deflection spectroscopy (PMCDS). IR absorption by the confined liquid results in wavelength dependent cantilever deflections, thus providing a complementary response to IR absorption revealing a complex dipole moment dependence on mixture concentration. Solvent-induced blue shifts of the C-C-O asymmetric vibrational stretch for both anti and gauche conformers of EtOH were precisely monitored for EtOH concentrations ranging from 20-100% w/w. Variations in IR absorption peak maxima show an inverse dependence on induced EtOH dipole moment (μ) and is attributed to the complex clustering mechanism of EtOH-water mixtures.

  1. Auger electron spectroscopy investigation of metallic fusible links in programmable read-only memories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, A.E.; Quackenbush, T.R.; Lim, S.C.P.

    1983-01-01

    The composition of Ni-Cr, Ti-W and Ti-W-N thin film fuses as used in bipolar programmable read-only memories was studied using Auger electron spectroscopy. Measurements were performed on both intact and blown fuses in actual devices, and also on thin film samples processed so as to duplicate device fabrication. Topics of interest were (a) selection of film deposition technique, (b) minimization of contact resistance to aluminum, (c) promotion of good adhesion to SiO 2 , (d) avoidance of chemical attack during device production, (e) fuse corrosion in the finished product and (f) the fusing mechanism during device programming. The results are used to compare and contrast the behavior of the different types of fuses. From these studies, it appears that Ni-Cr could be beneficially replaced as the fuse material by Ti-W or Ti-W-N. (Auth.)

  2. Investigation of archaeological metal artefacts by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tankova, V.; Malcheva, G.; Blagoev, K.; Leshtakov, L.

    2018-03-01

    In this work, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy was applied to determining the elemental composition of a set of ancient bronze artefacts dated from the Late Bronze Age and Early Iron Age (14th – 10th century BC). We used a Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm with pulse duration of 10 ns and energy of 10 mJ and determined the elemental composition of the bronze alloy that was used in manufacturing the samples under study. The concentrations of tin and lead in the bulk of the examined materials was estimated after generating calibration curves for a set of four standard samples. The preliminary results of the analysis will provide information on the artefacts provenance and on the production process.

  3. Investigation of carbonates in the Sutter's Mill meteorite grains with hyperspectral infrared imaging micro-spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesiltas, Mehmet

    2018-04-01

    Synchrotron-based high spatial resolution hyperspectral infrared imaging technique provides thousands of infrared spectra with high resolution, thus allowing us to acquire detailed spatial maps of chemical molecular structures for many grains in short times. Utilizing this technique, thousands of infrared spectra were analyzed at once instead of inspecting each spectrum separately. Sutter's Mill meteorite is a unique carbonaceous type meteorite with highly heterogeneous chemical composition. Multiple grains from the Sutter's Mill meteorite have been studied using this technique and the presence of both hydrous and anhydrous silicate minerals have been observed. It is observed that the carbonate mineralogy varies from simple to more complex carbonates even within a few microns in the meteorite grains. These variations, the type and distribution of calcite-like vs. dolomite-like carbonates are presented by means of hyperspectral FTIR imaging spectroscopy with high resolution. Various scenarios for the formation of different carbonate compositions in the Sutter's Mill parent body are discussed.

  4. Ultrafast carrier dynamics of titanic acid nanotubes investigated by transient absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Zhao, Hui; Pan, Lin Yun; Weng, Yu Xiang; Nakato, Yoshihiro; Tamai, Naoto

    2010-12-01

    Carrier dynamics of titanic acid nanotubes (phase of H2Ti2O5.H2O) deposited on a quartz plate was examined by visible/near-IR transient absorption spectroscopy with an ultraviolet excitation. The carrier dynamics of titanic acid nanotubes follows the fast trapping process which attributed to the intrinsic tubular structure, the relaxation of shallow trapped carriers and the recombination as a second-order kinetic process. Transient absorption of titanic acid nanotubes was dominated by the absorption of surface-trapped holes in visible region around 500 nm, which was proved by the faster decay dynamics in the presence of polyvinyl alcohol as a hole-scavenger. However, the slow relaxation of free carriers was much more pronounced in the TiO2 single crystals, as compared with the transient absorption spectra of titanic acid nanotubes under the similar excitation.

  5. Investigation of melt structure and crystallization processes by high-temperature Raman spectroscopy method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voron'ko, Yu.K.; Kudryavtsev, A.B.; Osiko, V.V.; Sobol', A.A.

    1988-01-01

    A review of studies dealing with the melts of alkali, rare earth and other element phosphates, gallates, germanates, niobates and tungstates, which are carried out by the method of high-temperature Raman spectroscopy, is given. The effect of the melt structure on the mechanism of the substance cystallization is considered. It is shown that vitrification and supercooling of the melt, as well as its crystallization in the from of metastable structures, are related to the effect of nonconformity between the melt and crystal strucure. The effect of nonconformity between anion motives in the melt and crystal creates obstacles for equilibrium structure nucleation, which results in the formation mainly of metastable forms with lattice structure for from the structure of the melt, though cases of equilibrium phase crystallization are also possible. 37 refs.; 13 figs.; 2 tabs

  6. The precipitation process in Mg-Ca-(Zn) alloys investigated by positron annihilation spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, Yanicet [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganes (Spain); Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: yanicet@fis.ucm.es; Monge, Miguel Angel; Pareja, Ramiro [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganes (Spain)

    2008-09-08

    Coincidence doppler broadening (CDB) spectroscopy has been applied to study the precipitation process induced by aging in Mg-1.0 wt.% Ca and Mg-1.0 wt.% Ca-1.0 wt.% Zn alloys. In addition positron lifetime experiments and microhardness measurements have been performed. A peak centered at {approx}11.5 x 10{sup -3}m{sub 0}c is found in the CDB ratio spectra of the alloys aged at 473 K. It is attributed to annihilations with the core electrons of Ca. The results indicate the formation of a particle dispersion that hardens the alloys. This dispersion is correlated with the appearance of the peak attributed to Ca atoms. Zn atoms in the Mg matrix inhibit the formation of quenched-in vacancies bound to Ca atoms in the aged ternary alloy producing the dispersion refinement.

  7. The precipitation process in Mg-Ca-(Zn) alloys investigated by positron annihilation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega, Yanicet; Monge, Miguel Angel; Pareja, Ramiro

    2008-01-01

    Coincidence doppler broadening (CDB) spectroscopy has been applied to study the precipitation process induced by aging in Mg-1.0 wt.% Ca and Mg-1.0 wt.% Ca-1.0 wt.% Zn alloys. In addition positron lifetime experiments and microhardness measurements have been performed. A peak centered at ∼11.5 x 10 -3 m 0 c is found in the CDB ratio spectra of the alloys aged at 473 K. It is attributed to annihilations with the core electrons of Ca. The results indicate the formation of a particle dispersion that hardens the alloys. This dispersion is correlated with the appearance of the peak attributed to Ca atoms. Zn atoms in the Mg matrix inhibit the formation of quenched-in vacancies bound to Ca atoms in the aged ternary alloy producing the dispersion refinement

  8. Investigation of the suppression effect of polyethylene glycol on copper electroplating by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, C.-C.; Lee, W.-H.; Wang, Y.-L.; Chan, D.-Y.; Hwang, G.-J.

    2008-01-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is an additive that is commonly used as a suppressor in the semiconductor copper (Cu)-electroplating process. In this study, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to analyze the electrochemical behavior of PEG in the Cu-electroplating process. Polarization analysis, cyclic-voltammetry stripping, and cell voltage versus plating time were examined to clarify the suppression behavior of PEG. The equivalent circuit simulated from the EIS data shows that PEG inhibited the Cu-electroplating rate by increasing the charge-transfer resistance as well as the resistance of the adsorption layer. The presence of a large inductance demonstrated the strong adsorption of cuprous-PEG-chloride complexes on the Cu surface during the Cu-electroplating process. Increasing the PEG concentration appears to increase the resistances of charge transfer, the adsorption layer, and the inductance of the electroplating system

  9. Component dynamics in polymer blends a combined QENS and dielectric spectroscopy investigation

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, S; Arbe, A; Colmenero, J; Faragó, B

    2002-01-01

    The individual dynamics of the two constituents of a binary polymer blend was studied by means of quasielastic neutron scattering and dielectric spectroscopy (DS). The combination of neutron spin-echo and backscattering techniques allowed us to cover the complete crossover from entropy-driven chain dynamics on mesoscopic scales to the alpha relaxation on local length scales. The observed blending effects on the respective relaxation times suggest a purely dynamic origin of the dynamic heterogeneity in polymer blends at temperatures well above the glass-transition temperature without the need to assume local phase separation. In contrast, the results from DS experiments towards much lower temperatures indicate systematic deviations of the segmental dynamics in the blend from its mean-field-like behavior at high temperatures. This additionally increases the dynamic heterogeneity in the segmental dynamics of the two components in the mixture. In the case of the chain dynamics, no similar effect could be observed...

  10. Investigation of steel passivation in inhibited cooling waters by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusmano, G.; Montesperelli, G.; Traversa, E.

    1992-01-01

    The corrosion of mild steel, which is one of the main problems in industrial cooling equipments, is greatly influenced by total alkalinity, pH and oxygen concentration. The low concentration of oxygen present in natural waters and the low solubility of CaCO 3 greatly affect the passivation mechanism, hindering the growth of a compact and protective film. The all-organic inhibitors, which have the property of supersaturating waters with CaCO 3 , overcome this problem. In this paper the electrical characteristics of the protective film formed by this kind of inhibitors in the presence of different levels of carbonatic alkalinity and at different pH values is studied by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

  11. Contrasting organic aerosol particles from boreal and tropical forests during HUMPPA-COPEC-2010 and AMAZE-08 using coherent vibrational spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Ebben

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We present the vibrational sum frequency generation spectra of organic particles collected in a boreal forest in Finland and a tropical forest in Brazil. These spectra are compared to those of secondary organic material produced in the Harvard Environmental Chamber. By comparing coherent vibrational spectra of a variety of terpene and olefin reference compounds, along with the secondary organic material synthesized in the environmental chamber, we show that submicron aerosol particles sampled in Southern Finland during HUMPPA-COPEC-2010 are composed to a large degree of material similar in chemical composition to synthetic α-pinene-derived material. For material collected in Brazil as part of AMAZE-08, the organic component is found to be chemically complex in the coarse mode but highly uniform in the fine mode. When combined with histogram analyses of the isoprene and monoterpene abundance recorded during the HUMPPA-COPEC-2010 and AMAZE-08 campaigns, the findings presented here indicate that if air is rich in monoterpenes, submicron-sized secondary aerosol particles that form under normal OH and O3 concentration levels can be described in terms of their hydrocarbon content as being similar to α-pinene-derived model secondary organic aerosol particles. If the isoprene concentration dominates the chemical composition of organic compounds in forest air, then the hydrocarbon component of secondary organic material in the submicron size range is not simply well-represented by that of isoprene-derived model secondary organic aerosol particles but is more complex. Throughout the climate-relevant size range of the fine mode, however, we find that the chemical composition of the secondary organic particle material from such air is invariant with size, suggesting that the particle growth does not change the chemical composition of the hydrocarbon component of the particles in a significant way.

  12. Vibrational spectrum of the K-590 intermediate in the bacteriorhodopsin photocycle at room temperature: picosecond time-resolved resonance coherent anti-Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujj, L.; Jäger, F.; Popp, A.; Atkinson, G. H.

    1996-12-01

    The vibrational spectrum of the K-590 intermediate, thought to contribute significantly to the energy storage and transduction mechanism in the bacteriorhodopsin (BR) photocycle, is measured at room temperature using picosecond time-resolved resonance coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (PTR/CARS). The room-temperature BR photocycle is initiated by the 3 ps, 570 nm excitation of the ground-state species, BR-570, prepared in both H 2O and D 2O suspensions of BR. PTR/CARS data, recorded 50 ps after BR-570 excitation, at which time only BR-570 and K-590 are present, have an excellent S/N which provides a significantly more detailed view of the K-590 vibrational degrees of freedom than previously available. Two picosecond (6 ps FWHM) laser pulses, ω1 (633.4 nm) and ωS (675-700 nm), are used to record PTR/CARS data via electronic resonance enhancement in both BR-570 and K-590, each of which contains a distinct retinal structure (assigned as 13- rans, 15- anti, 13- cis, respectively). To obtain the vibrational spectrum of K-590 separately, the PTR/CARS spectra from the mixture of isomeric retinals is quantitatively analyzed in terms of third-order susceptibility ( η(3)) relationships. PTR/CARS spectra of K-590 recorded from both H 2O and D 2O suspensions of BR are compared with the analogous vibrational data obtained via spontaneous resonance Raman (RR) scattering at both low (77 K) and room temperature. Analyses of these vibrational spectra identify temperature-dependent effects and changes assignable to the substitution of deuterium at the Schiff-base nitrogen not previously reported.

  13. Infrared multiple photon dissociation spectroscopy of ciprofloxacin: Investigation of the protonation site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodo, E. [Dip. Di Chimica, Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , p.le A. Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Ciavardini, A. [Dip. di Chimica e Tecnologie del Farmaco, Universita di Roma ' ' La Sapienza' ' , p.le A. Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Dip. di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche, Universita di Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , via della Ricerca Scientifica, 00133 Rome (Italy); Giardini, A.; Paladini, A. [CNR - IMIP, Tito Scalo (PZ) (Italy); Piccirillo, S., E-mail: picciril@uniroma2.it [Dip. di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche, Universita di Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , via della Ricerca Scientifica, 00133 Rome (Italy); Rondino, F. [ENEA, C.R. Casaccia, (UTT-MAT), Via Anguillarese, 301, 00123 Rome (Italy); Scuderi, D. [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique, Universite Paris Sud 11, UMR 8000, Orsay (France)

    2012-04-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer IRMPD spectroscopy of protonated ciprofloxacin electrosprayed from methanol solution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quantum chemical calculations to identify the possible isomers differing in the protonation site. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bands are assigned to the isomer protonated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bands are assigned to the isomer protonated at the piperazinyl amino group. - Abstract: The vibrational spectrum of isolated protonated ciprofloxacin was recorded in the range 1100-2000 cm{sup -1} by means of infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy. The spectrum was obtained by electrospraying a methanol solution of ciprofloxacin in a Paul ion trap, coupled to the tunable IR radiation of a free electron laser. This spectroscopic study has been complemented by quantum chemical calculations at the DFT and MP2 levels of theory to identify the possible structures present under our experimental conditions. Several low-energy isomers with protonation occurring at the piperazinyl amino group and at the carbonyl group are predicted in the energy range 0-84 kJ mol{sup -1}. A good agreement between the measured IRMPD spectrum and the calculated absorption spectrum is observed for the isomer protonated at the piperazinyl amino group. This isomer is calculated at MP2 level of theory to lie about 76 kJ/mol above the most stable isomer which is protonated at the quinone carbonyl group. This discrepancy can be rationalized by assuming that the protonation at the piperazinyl amino group, typical of the zwitterionic form that is found in protic solvents, is retained in the ESI process. The vibrational bands observed in the IRMPD spectrum are assigned to normal modes of the isomer protonated at the piperazinyl amino group, with deviations of less than 20 cm{sup -1} between measured and calculated frequencies.

  14. Spatially resolved investigation of the oil composition in single intact hyphae of Mortierella spp. with micro-Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münchberg, Ute; Wagner, Lysett; Spielberg, Eike T; Voigt, Kerstin; Rösch, Petra; Popp, Jürgen

    2013-02-01

    Zygomycetes are well known for their ability to produce various secondary metabolites. Fungi of the genus Mortierella can accumulate highly unsaturated lipids in large amounts as lipid droplets. However, no information about the spatial distribution or homogeneity of the oil inside the fungi is obtainable to date due to the invasive and destructive analytical techniques applied so far. Raman spectroscopy has been demonstrated to be well suited to investigate biological samples on a micrometre scale. It also has been shown that the degree of unsaturation of lipids can be determined from Raman spectra. We applied micro-Raman spectroscopy to investigate the spatial distribution and composition of lipid vesicles inside intact hyphae. For Mortierella alpina and Mortierella elongata distinct differences in the degree of unsaturation and even the impact of growth conditions are determined from the Raman spectra. In both species we found that the fatty acid saturation in the vesicles is highly variable in the first 600 μm of the growing hyphal tip and fluctuates towards a constant composition and saturation ratio in all of the remaining mycelium. Our approach facilitates in vivo monitoring of the lipid production and allows us to investigate the impact of cultivation parameters on the oil composition directly in the growing hyphae without the need for extensive extraction procedures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Impedance spectroscopy of heterojunction solar cell a-SiC/c-Si with ITO antireflection film investigated at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Šály, V; Pern, M; Janíček, F; Mikolášek, M; Packa, J; Huran, J

    2017-01-01

    Progressive smart photovoltaic technologies including heterostructures a-SiC/c-Si with ITO antireflection film are one of the prospective replacements of conventional photovoltaic silicon technology. Our paper is focused on the investigation of heterostructures a-SiC/c-Si provided with a layer of ITO (indium oxide/tin oxide 90/10 wt.%) which acts as a passivating and antireflection coating. Prepared photovoltaic cell structure was investigated at various temperatures and the influence of temperature on its operation was searched. The investigation of the dynamic properties of heterojunction PV cells was carried out using impedance spectroscopy. The equivalent AC circuit which approximates the measured impedance data was proposed. Assessment of the influence of the temperature on the operation of prepared heterostructure was carried out by analysis of the temperature dependence of AC equivalent circuit elements. (paper)

  16. Impedance spectroscopy of heterojunction solar cell a-SiC/c-Si with ITO antireflection film investigated at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šály, V.; Perný, M.; Janíček, F.; Huran, J.; Mikolášek, M.; Packa, J.

    2017-04-01

    Progressive smart photovoltaic technologies including heterostructures a-SiC/c-Si with ITO antireflection film are one of the prospective replacements of conventional photovoltaic silicon technology. Our paper is focused on the investigation of heterostructures a-SiC/c-Si provided with a layer of ITO (indium oxide/tin oxide 90/10 wt.%) which acts as a passivating and antireflection coating. Prepared photovoltaic cell structure was investigated at various temperatures and the influence of temperature on its operation was searched. The investigation of the dynamic properties of heterojunction PV cells was carried out using impedance spectroscopy. The equivalent AC circuit which approximates the measured impedance data was proposed. Assessment of the influence of the temperature on the operation of prepared heterostructure was carried out by analysis of the temperature dependence of AC equivalent circuit elements.

  17. Coherent Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering measurements of bulk viscosity of polar and nonpolar gases, and kinetic theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, A.S.; Wijn, de A.S.; Peters, M.F.E.; Dam, N.J.; Water, van de W.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate coherent Rayleigh–Brillouin spectroscopy as an efficient process to measure the bulk viscosity of gases at gigahertz frequencies. Scattered spectral distributions are measured using a Fizeau spectrometer. We discuss the statistical error due to the fluctuating mode structure of the

  18. Development of positron annihilation spectroscopy for investigating deuterium decorated voids in neutron-irradiated tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, C.N., E-mail: chase.taylor@inl.gov [Fusion Safety Program, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States); Shimada, M.; Merrill, B.J. [Fusion Safety Program, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States); Akers, D.W. [Experimental Programs, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States); Hatano, Y. [Hydrogen Isotope Research Center, University of Toyama, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan)

    2015-08-15

    The present work is a continuation of a recent research to develop and optimize positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) for characterizing neutron-irradiated tungsten. Tungsten samples were exposed to neutrons in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and damaged to 0.025 and 0.3 dpa. Subsequently, they were exposed to deuterium plasmas in the Tritium Plasma Experiment (TPE) at Idaho National Laboratory. The implanted deuterium was desorbed through sample heating to 900 °C, and Doppler broadening (DB)-PAS was performed both before and after heating. Results show that deuterium impregnated tungsten is identified as having a smaller S-parameter. The S-parameter increases after deuterium desorption. Microstructural changes also occur during sample heating. These effects can be isolated from deuterium desorption by comparing the S-parameters from the deuterium-free back face with the deuterium-implanted front face. The application of using DB-PAS to examine deuterium retention in tungsten is examined.

  19. Development of positron annihilation spectroscopy for investigating deuterium decorated voids in neutron-irradiated tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, C. N.; Shimada, M.; Merrill, B. J.; Akers, D. W.; Hatano, Y.

    2015-08-01

    The present work is a continuation of a recent research to develop and optimize positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) for characterizing neutron-irradiated tungsten. Tungsten samples were exposed to neutrons in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and damaged to 0.025 and 0.3 dpa. Subsequently, they were exposed to deuterium plasmas in the Tritium Plasma Experiment (TPE) at Idaho National Laboratory. The implanted deuterium was desorbed through sample heating to 900 °C, and Doppler broadening (DB)-PAS was performed both before and after heating. Results show that deuterium impregnated tungsten is identified as having a smaller S-parameter. The S-parameter increases after deuterium desorption. Microstructural changes also occur during sample heating. These effects can be isolated from deuterium desorption by comparing the S-parameters from the deuterium-free back face with the deuterium-implanted front face. The application of using DB-PAS to examine deuterium retention in tungsten is examined.

  20. Investigation of electric fields in B-implanted Si by positron beam spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdulmalik, D.A.; Coleman, P.G.

    2007-01-01

    Besides its conventional applications in defect characterization, variable-energy positron annihilation spectroscopy can be employed to monitor internal electric fields in the depletion regions in semiconductor structures. In this work, electric fields were studied in pre-amorphized Cz Si wafers (background dopant level ∝10 15 cm -3 ) implanted with 0.5 keV B ions at a dose of 10 15 cm -2 , and then annealed isothermally at 800 C for times ranging from 1 to 2700 s. Differences in the S parameter with annealing time were observed in samples implanted (a) with B ions only and (b) with B followed by F ions at 10 keV; these were attributed to different electric fields, which drift positrons back (a) to the surface, or (b) to a vacancy-like defected layer. Fitting of the data revealed depletion regions of widths between 150-350 nm centered at depths between 250-350 nm, with electric field values in the range -9 x 10 6 to -3 x 10 6 Vm -1 . The depth and width of the depletion regions increase significantly for annealing times greater than 100 s, attributed to B diffusion. The results are consistent with simple theoretical estimates, but the uncertainties on the latter are large. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  1. Characterization of Maize Grains with Different Pigmentation Investigated by Photoacoustic Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico Molina, R.; Hernández Aguilar, C.; Dominguez Pacheco, A.; Cruz-Orea, A.; López Bonilla, J. L.

    2014-10-01

    A knowledge of grains' optical parameters is of great relevance in the maize grain technology practice. Such parameters provide information about its absorption and reflectance, which in turn is related to its color. In the dough and tortilla industries, it is important to characterize this attribute of the corn kernel, as it is one of the attributes that directly affects the quality of the food product. Thus, it is important to have techniques that contribute to the characterization of this raw material. It is traditionally characterized by conventional methods, which usually destroy the grain and involve a laborious preparation of material plus they are expensive. The objective of this study was to determine the optical absorption coefficient for maize grains ( Zea mays L.) with different pigmentations by means of photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS). The genotype A had bluish coloration and genotype B had yellowish coloration. In addition, the photoacoustic signal obtained by two methods was analyzed mathematically: the standard deviation and the first derivative; both results were compared (Fig. 1). In combination with mathematical analysis, PAS may be considered as a potential diagnostic tool for the characterization of the grains. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  2. Structure and Dynamics of Urea/Water Mixtures Investigated by Vibrational Spectroscopy and Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, J. K.; Buchanan, L. E.; Schmidt, J. R.; Zanni, M. T.; Skinner, J. L.

    2013-01-01

    Urea/water is an archetypical “biological” mixture, and is especially well known for its relevance to protein thermodynamics, as urea acts as a protein denaturant at high concentration. This behavior has given rise to an extended debate concerning urea’s influence on water structure. Based on a variety of methods and of definitions of water structure, urea has been variously described as a structure-breaker, a structure-maker, or as remarkably neutral towards water. Because of its sensitivity to microscopic structure and dynamics, vibrational spectroscopy can help resolve these debates. We report experimental and theoretical spectroscopic results for the OD stretch of HOD/H2O/urea mixtures (linear IR, 2DIR, and pump-probe anisotropy decay) and for the CO stretch of urea-D4/D2O mixtures (linear IR only). Theoretical results are obtained using existing approaches for water, and a modification of a frequency map developed for acetamide. All absorption spectra are remarkably insensitive to urea concentration, consistent with the idea that urea only very weakly perturbs water structure. Both this work and experiments by Rezus and Bakker, however, show that water’s rotational dynamics are slowed down by urea. Analysis of the simulations casts doubt on the suggestion that urea immobilizes particular doubly hydrogen bonded water molecules. PMID:23841646

  3. Cortical response to categorical color perception in infants investigated by near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiale; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K; Kuriki, Ichiro

    2016-03-01

    Perceptual color space is continuous; however, we tend to divide it into only a small number of categories. It is unclear whether categorical color perception is obtained solely through the development of the visual system or whether it is affected by language acquisition. To address this issue, we recruited prelinguistic infants (5- to 7-mo-olds) to measure changes in brain activity in relation to categorical color differences by using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). We presented two sets of geometric figures to infants: One set altered in color between green and blue, and the other set altered between two different shades of green. We found a significant increase in hemodynamic responses during the between-category alternations, but not during the within-category alternations. These differences in hemodynamic response based on categorical relationship were observed only in the bilateral occipitotemporal regions, and not in the occipital region. We confirmed that categorical color differences yield behavioral differences in infants. We also observed comparable hemodynamic responses to categorical color differences in adults. The present study provided the first evidence, to our knowledge, that colors of different categories are represented differently in the visual cortex of prelinguistic infants, which implies that color categories may develop independently before language acquisition.

  4. Investigation of microstructure in additive manufactured Inconel 625 by spatially resolved neutron transmission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremsin, Anton S.; Gao, Yan; Dial, Laura C.; Grazzi, Francesco; Shinohara, Takenao

    2016-01-01

    Non-destructive testing techniques based on neutron imaging and diffraction can provide information on the internal structure of relatively thick metal samples (up to several cm), which are opaque to other conventional non-destructive methods. Spatially resolved neutron transmission spectroscopy is an extension of traditional neutron radiography, where multiple images are acquired simultaneously, each corresponding to a narrow range of energy. The analysis of transmission spectra enables studies of bulk microstructures at the spatial resolution comparable to the detector pixel. In this study we demonstrate the possibility of imaging (with 100 μm resolution) distribution of some microstructure properties, such as residual strain, texture, voids and impurities in Inconel 625 samples manufactured with an additive manufacturing method called direct metal laser melting (DMLM). Although this imaging technique can be implemented only in a few large-scale facilities, it can be a valuable tool for optimization of additive manufacturing techniques and materials and for correlating bulk microstructure properties to manufacturing process parameters. In addition, the experimental strain distribution can help validate finite element models which many industries use to predict the residual stress distributions in additive manufactured components.

  5. Application of terahertz spectroscopy and theoretical calculation in dimethylurea isomers investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yonghong; Li, Zhi; Liu, Jianjun; Chen, Tao; Zhang, Huo; Qin, Binyi; Wu, Yifang

    2018-03-01

    The characteristic absorption spectra of two structural isomers of dimethylurea(DMU) in 0.6-1.8 THz region have been measured using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THZ-TDS) at room temperature. Significant differences have been found between their terahertz spectra and implied that the THZ-TDS is an effective means of identifying structural isomers. To simulate their spectra, calculations on single molecule and cluster of 1,1-DMU and 1,3-DMU were performed, and we found that the cluster calculations using DFT-D3 method are better to predict the experimental spectra. Using the normal mode as displacements in redundant internal coordinates and the GaussView program, most observed THz vibrational modes are assigned to bending and rocking modes related to the intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions, and twisting mode of ethyl groups. The different spectral features of two isomers mainly arise from different intermolecular hydrogen bonds resulting from different atom arrangements in molecules and different molecule arrangements in crystals. Using the reduced-density-gradient (RDG) analysis, the positions and types of intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions in 1,1-DMU and 1,3-DMU crystals are visualized. Therefore, we can confirm that THz-TDS can be used as an effective means for the recognition of structural isomers and detection of intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions in these crystals.

  6. Investigation into rare earth n-aminobenzoates by thermography and IR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efremova, G.I.; Buchkova, R.T.; Lapitskaya, A.V.; Pirkes, S.B.

    1977-01-01

    N-aminobenzoates of r.e.e. of the composition of M(C 6 H 4 NH 2 COO) 3 x nH 2 O have been studied by thermography and infrared spectroscopy (M=La,Ce,Pr,Nd,Sm,Eu,Cd,TdHo,Er, Tm,Yb,Lu; n=1,2). It has been established that thermal decomposition of crystallohydrates of r.e.e. n-aminobenzoates is accompanied by the formation as intermediates of non-aqueous r.e.e. n-aminobenzoates stable within a rather wide temperature range (200-300 deg). The final products of thermolysis are oxides of the corresponding r.e.e. The assignment is given of the main absorption bands in infrared spectra of n-aminobenzoates of r.e.e. The assumptions have been made about their nature: crystallization water in crystallohydrates is outward of the sphere and connected with the ligand aminogroup; the metal is, evidently, not coordinated with the nitrogen of the aminogroup. n-aminobenzoate ion is a bidentate ligand

  7. Investigating temperature effects on extra virgin olive oil using fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, M.; Ahmad, Naveed; Ali, H.; Bilal, M.; Khan, Saranjam; Ullah, Rahat; Ahmed, M.; Mahmood, S.

    2017-12-01

    The potential of fluorescence spectroscopy has been utilized to study the heating effects on extra virgin olive oil (EVOO). Through a series of experiments, a temperature range from 140 °C  -  150 °C has been found where cooking with EVOO is possible without destroying its natural ingredients. Fluorescence emission spectra from all heated and non-heated EVOO samples were recorded using an excitation source at 350 nm, where emission bands in non-heated EVOO at 380, 440, 455, and 525 nm are labelled for vitamin E and a band at 673 nm is assigned for chlorophyll a. The emission band at 525 nm is also responsible for beta carotenoids (vitamin A). As a result of heating, prominent intensity variations have been observed in all spectral bands, but it is particularly affected at 525 nm, indicating the deterioration of vitamin E and beta carotenoids. However, if the temperature of oil can be maintained in the above defined range, then frying food with EVOO is possible by preserving its natural ingredients. The spectral variations resulting from the heating effects have been further highlighted by using principal component analysis for classification purposes.

  8. Surface State Dynamics of Topological Insulators Investigated by Femtosecond Time- and Angle-Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamoon Hedayat

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Topological insulators (TI are known for striking quantum phenomena associated with their spin-polarized topological surface state (TSS. The latter in particular forms a Dirac cone that bridges the energy gap between valence and conduction bands, providing a unique opportunity for prospective device applications. In TI of the BixSb2−xTeySe3−y (BSTS family, stoichiometry determines the morphology and position of the Dirac cone with respect to the Fermi level. In order to engineer specific transport properties, a careful tuning of the TSS is highly desired. Therefore, we have systematically explored BSTS samples with different stoichiometries by time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (TARPES. This technique provides snapshots of the electronic structure and discloses the carrier dynamics in surface and bulk states, providing crucial information for the design of electro-spin current devices. Our results reveal the central role of doping level on the Dirac cone structure and its femtosecond dynamics. In particular, an extraordinarily long TSS lifetime is observed when the the vertex of the Dirac cone lies at the Fermi level.

  9. Electronic structure investigation of oxidized aluminium films with electron momentum spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, X.; Canney, S.; Kheifets, A.S.; Vos, M.; Fang, Z.; Utteridge, S.; McCarthy, I.E.; Weigold, E.

    1996-09-01

    Electron momentum spectroscopy (EMS) of (e, 2e) measurements with oxidized aluminium thin films have been performed. Due to the surface sensitive mature of the EMS spectrometer employed the measured (e, 2e) events come from the front oxidized layer as viewed by the electron detectors. The measurements show clearly two major features in the spectral momentum density distribution and they are related to the upper valence band and the lower valence band of aluminum oxide. The first is a 'dual parabola' energy-momentum dispersion pattern spanning about 8 eV in the upper valence band. This 'dual parabola' pattern has been qualitatively reproduced by a linear muffin-tin orbital (LMTO) calculation on spherically averaged α-A1 2 O 3 with nearly the same energy span. In the lower valence band, the LMTO calculation indicates a dispersion spanning about 5 eV, and the measured spectral momentum density plot shows a similar 'bowl' shape but with less dispersion. The possible causes which blur the dispersion in the lower valence band are discussed. Other features in the spectral momentum density distribution are also discussed and compared with the LMTO calculation. 45 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs

  10. Investigation of proton damage in III-V semiconductors by optical spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaccuzzi, E.; Giudici, P. [Departamento Energía Solar, Centro Atómico Constituyentes, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, 1650 San Martín (Argentina); CONICET, Godoy Cruz 2290 (C1425FQB), CABA (Argentina); Khachadorian, S.; Strittmatter, A.; Hoffmann, A. [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Suárez, S. [Laboratorio de Colisiones Atómicas, Centro Atómico Bariloche, E. Bustillo 9500, 8400 Bariloche (Argentina); CONICET, Godoy Cruz 2290 (C1425FQB), CABA (Argentina); Reinoso, M. [Departamento Física Experimental, Centro Atómico Constituyentes, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, 1650 San Martín (Argentina); CONICET, Godoy Cruz 2290 (C1425FQB), CABA (Argentina); Goñi, A. R. [ICREA, Passeig Lluís Companys 23, 08010 Barcelona (Spain); Institut de Ciència de Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB-CSIC), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)

    2016-06-21

    We studied the damage produced by 2 MeV proton radiation on epitaxially grown InGaP/GaAs structure by means of spatially resolved Raman and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The irradiation was performed parallel to the sample surface in order to determine the proton penetration range in both compounds. An increase in the intensity of longitudinal optical phonons and a decrease in the luminescence were observed. We associate these changes with the creation of defects in the damaged region, also responsible for the observed change of the carrier concentration in the GaAs layer, determined by the shift of the phonon-plasmon coupled mode frequency. From the spatially resolved profile of the PL and phonon intensities, we obtained the proton range in both materials and we compared them with stopping and range of ions in matter simulations. The comparison between the experimentally obtained proton range and simulations shows a very good agreement for GaAs but a discrepancy of 20% for InGaP. This discrepancy can be explained in terms of limitations of the model to simulate the electronic orbitals and bonding structure of the simulated compound. In order to overcome this limitation, we propose an increase in 40% in the electronic stopping power for InGaP.

  11. Some antarctic lacustrine sediments from northern Victoria Land investigation by Moessbauer spectroscopy, INNA and XRD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stievano, L.; Bertelle, M.; Leotta, G.; Calogero, S.; Constantinescu, S.; Oddone, M.

    1999-01-01

    Fifteen lacustrine sediments, sampled during the 1994-1995 Austral summer in Northern Victoria Land (Antarctica), were characterised by 57 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy, instrumental neutron activation analysis and X-ray diffraction. These sediments are related to the intrusive rocks from Granite Harbour, to the metamorphic rocks of the Complex of Wilson Terrane and the volcanic rocks from Mc Murdo. The samples contain quartz, alkaline feldspars, plagioclases, amphiboles, biotite, chlorite and muscovite except for the sediments of volcanic origin that contain alkaline feldspars, plagioclases and pyroxenes. The paramagnetic components of the Moessbauer spectra were assigned mainly to the iron sides in biotites except for those displayed from the sediments of volcanic origin assigned mainly to pyroxenes. Moessbauer spectra at room temperature do not display magnetic ordering except for those of the sediments of volcanic origin containing bulk magnetite, hematite and goethite. Moessbauer spectra collected at the liquid helium temperature always exhibit magnetic ordering. This spectral difference has been attributed to the different dimensions of the iron oxide particles in the sediments. The scarce weathering involves a partial transformation of magnetite in hematite and goethite in the sediment of volcanic origin. In the remaining sediments a partial hydrolysis of biotite together with a partial oxidation of iron (II) retained in silicates is present. (authors)

  12. Investigation of stroke in sickle cell disease by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z.; Bogdan, A.R.; Zimmermann, R.A.; Gusnard, D.A.; Leigh, J.S.; Ohene-Frempong, K.

    1992-01-01

    Localized proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), obtained with stimulated echo and spin echo sequences, MR imaging (MRI) and MR angiography (MRA) were used to study the brain in 13 children and adolescents with sickle cell disease. Regions of interest (ROI) studied by MRS included regions appearing normal on MRI as well as regions showing complications of sickle cell disease, including focal deep white matter areas of high signal intensity (deep white matter ischemia, DWMI) seen on long TR images, focal atropic brain areas, and infarcts. The findings in these studies are summarized as follows: Normal-appearing regions on MRI have normal MRS. In ROI including small areas of DWMI, lactate elevation was not detected, but the levels of N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) appeared slightly elevated. In areas of DWMI 1-2 cm in size, reduced blood flow could be seen on MRA and lactate elevation could be detected with MRS. When blood flow to a DWMI region was normal, NAA was reduced and there was little lactate elevation, as cell death had already occurred. ROI consisting of atrophic tissue had reduced NAA levels but total creatine levels were not changed. Sometimes lipids, presumably from broken cell membrane, could be detected. In regions of past massive stroke, all metabolites were absent except for small amounts of lactate or lipids. (orig.)

  13. MDM2-MDM4 molecular interaction investigated by atomic force spectroscopy and surface plasmon resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscetti, Ilaria; Teveroni, Emanuela; Moretti, Fabiola; Bizzarri, Anna Rita; Cannistraro, Salvatore

    Murine double minute 2 (MDM2) and 4 (MDM4) are known as the main negative regulators of p53, a tumor suppressor. They are able to form heterodimers that are much more effective in the downregulation of p53. Therefore, the MDM2-MDM4 complex could be a target for promising therapeutic restoration of p53 function. To this aim, a deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlining the heterodimerization is needed. The kinetic and thermodynamic characterization of the MDM2-MDM4 complex was performed with two complementary approaches: atomic force spectroscopy and surface plasmon resonance. Both techniques revealed an equilibrium dissociation constant (KD ) in the micromolar range for the MDM2-MDM4 heterodimer, similar to related complexes involved in the p53 network. Furthermore, the MDM2-MDM4 complex is characterized by a relatively high free energy, through a single energy barrier, and by a lifetime in the order of tens of seconds. New insights into the MDM2-MDM4 interaction could be highly important for developing innovative anticancer drugs focused on p53 reactivation.

  14. Polymer chain dynamics in epoxy based composites as investigated by broadband dielectric spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad K. Hassan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Epoxy networks of the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA were prepared using 3,3′- and 4,4′-diaminodiphenyl sulfone isomer crosslinkers. Secondary relaxations and the glass transitions of resultant networks were probed using broadband dielectric spectroscopy (BDS. A sub-Tg γ relaxation peak for both networks shifts to higher frequencies (f with increasing temperature in Arrhenius fashion, both processes having the same activation energy and being assigned to phenyl ring flipping in DGEBA chains. A β relaxation is assigned to local motions of dipoles that were created during crosslinking reactions. 4,4′-based networks exhibited higher Tg relative to 3,3′-based networks as per dynamic mechanical as well as BDS analyses. The Vogel–Fulcher–Tammann–Hesse equation fitted well to relaxation time vs. temperature data and comparison of Vogel temperatures suggests lower free volume per mass for the 3,3′-based network. The Kramers–Krönig transformation was used to directly calculate dc-free ɛ″ vs. f data from experimental ɛ′ vs. f data. Distribution of relaxation times (DRT curves are bi-modal for the 3,3′-crosslinked resin suggesting large-scale microstructural heterogeneity as opposed to homogeneity for the 4,4′-based network whose DRT consists of a single peak.

  15. Coherent Baryogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    Garbrecht, B; Schmidt, M G; Garbrecht, Bjorn; Prokopec, Tomislav; Schmidt, Michael G.

    2004-01-01

    We propose a new baryogenesis scenario based on coherent production and mixing of different fermionic species. The mechanism is operative during phase transitions, at which the fermions acquire masses via Yukawa couplings to scalar fields. Baryon production is efficient when the mass matrix is nonadiabatically varying, nonsymmetric and when it violates CP and B-L directly, or some other charges that are eventually converted to B-L. We first consider a toy model, which involves two mixing fermionic species, and then a hybrid inflationary scenario embedded in a supersymmetric Pati-Salam GUT. We show that, quite generically, a baryon excess in accordance with observation can result.

  16. Preliminary clinical experience using the method of 31P MR spectroscopy in investigations of neuromuscular diseases in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajek, M.; Horska, A.; Grosmanova, A.; Urban, P.; Suchanek, M.; Jirasek, A.

    1990-01-01

    31 P MR spectroscopy was used to investigate neuromuscular diseases of various origin in 35 patients, mostly children. In devising the procedure of MR examination and of evaluation of results, pattern recognition analysis was used. According to the results of 31 P MR spectroscopy, the patients can be divided into three groups. Group A comprises patients with severe muscular lesions such as Duchenne dystrophy. The second, B group is characterized by milder atrophic changes of muscle fibres. The third group comprises dubious cases. The 31 P MRS method was also used for investigating the development of the disease in time - a decrease in parameter P CR /P i (P CR is an indicator of phosphocreatinine and P i an indicator of inorganic phosphate) corresponds to a deterioration of the clinical condition of patients from group one. In group B fairly stable values of the parameter were observed. An increase in P CR /P i was also observed during administration of Prednisone in a patient with child polymyositis. 3 figs., 3 tabs., 23 refs

  17. Investigation of uranyl sorbed to Wyoming montmorillonite at amphoteric and exchange sites by optical spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, D.E.; Chisholm-Brause, C.J.; Berg, J.M.; McKinley, J.P.; Zachara, J.M.; Smith, S.C.

    1993-01-01

    Using optical spectroscopy, the authors have characterized aqueous uranyl (UO 2 2+ ) sorption complexes on a sodium-saturated Wyoming montmorillonite (SWy-1) at low and high ionic strength (IS, as NaClO 4 . McKinley et al. (1193), ACS Spring Meeting) have shown that uranyl uptake is suppressed at high IS at these pH values, reflecting increased cation competition for exchange sites, and an increase in the ratio of uranyl species sorbed on amphoteric edge sites to those in exchange sites. At higher pH, sorption is less dependent on IS, with complexation by amphoteric edge sites becoming dominant as pH increases. At low pH, emission spectra for uranyl sorbed to SWy-1 from solutions with high IS ([Na]/[U] > 1000) are distinct from those at low IS ([Na]/[U] < 10). The low IS spectra are dominanted by a short lifetime component (τ∼0.5μs), and have low integrated intensities (normalized for uranium concentration). However, gated detection clearly resolves an additional, longer-loved component. The high IS spectra have significant contributions form 2-3 longer-lived components (5<τ120μs), and have much stronger intensities. Based on comparison to solution data, these results suggest that the uranyl moiety in the exchange sites is strikingly similar to the fully aquated uranyl monomer in solution, whereas the uranyl species occupying the edge sites are structurally more similar to hydrolyzed uranyl species in solution. At higher pH values, the emission spectra represent composites of at least the two distinct spectra identified at lower pH. However, the ratios of the different components and thus the overall emission spectra vary as a function of ionic strength. These results demonstrate that several spectroscopically (and therefore structurally) distinct sorption complexes exist in exchange and edges of SWy-1

  18. Investigation of the surface composition of electrodeposited black chromium by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Survilienė, S.; Češūnienė, A.; Jasulaitienė, V.; Jurevičiūtė, I.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Black chromium electrodeposited from a Cr(III) bath is composed of oxide, hydroxide and metallic chromium. • Metallic phase is absent in black chromium electrodeposited from a Cr(III) + ZnO bath. • The near-surface layer is rich in hydroxides, whereas oxides of both metals predominate in the depth of the coatings. - Abstract: The paper reviews black chromium electrodeposited from a trivalent chromium bath containing ZnO as a second main component. The chemical compositions of the top layers of the black chromium coatings were studied by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy method. The surface of black chromium was found to be almost entirely covered with organic substances. To gain information on the state of each element in the deposit bulk, the layer-by-layer etching of the black chromium surface with argon gas was used. Analysis of XPS spectra has shown that the top layers of black chromium without zinc are composed of various Cr(III) components, organic substances and metallic Cr, whereas metallic Cr is almost absent in black chromium containing some amount of Zn(II) compounds. The ratios of metal/oxide phases were found to be 10/27 and 2/28 for black chromium without and with zinc, respectively. It has been determined that owing to the presence of ZnO in the Cr(III) bath, the percentage of metallic chromium is substantially reduced in black chromium which is quite important for good solar selective characteristics of the coating. The results confirm some of earlier observations and provide new information on the composition of the near-surface layers

  19. Ag clustering investigation in laser irradiated ion-exchanged glasses by optical and vibrational spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trave, E., E-mail: enrico.trave@unive.it [Department of Molecular Sciences and Nanosystems, Ca' Foscari University of Venezia, Dorsoduro 2137, I-30123 Venezia (Italy); Cattaruzza, E.; Gonella, F.; Calvelli, P. [Department of Molecular Sciences and Nanosystems, Ca' Foscari University of Venezia, Dorsoduro 2137, I-30123 Venezia (Italy); Quaranta, A. [Department of Materials Engineering and Industrial Technologies, University of Trento, via Mesiano 77, I-38050 Povo (Italy); Rahman, A.; Mariotto, G. [Department of Computer Science, University of Verona, Strada le Grazie 15, 37134 Verona (Italy)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We modify the properties of Ag{sup +} exchanged glasses by thermal and laser treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The induced microstructural changes are analyzed by optical and Raman spectroscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ag-based species in the glass show a peculiar PL activity in the UV-Vis range. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Raman and OA analysis allow for determining the Ag cluster size evolution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Laser processing leads to different cluster formation and fragmentation mechanisms. - Abstract: Ion exchange process is widely used to dope silicate glass layers with silver for several applications, ranging from light waveguide to nanostructured composite glass fabrication. The silver-doped structure and its physical properties depend on the preparation parameters as well as on subsequent treatments. In particular, laser irradiation of the ion exchanged glasses has been demonstrated to be an effective tool to control cluster size and size distribution. Nevertheless, a complete comprehension of the basic phenomena and a systematic characterization of these systems are still lacking. In this paper, an extended optical characterization is presented for soda-lime glass slides, doped with silver by Ag{sup +}-Na{sup +} ion exchange, thermally treated and irradiated with a Nd:YAG laser beam at different wavelengths, and for different energy density. The samples were characterized by various spectroscopic techniques, namely, optical absorption, photoluminescence and micro-Raman analysis. The availability of all these characterization techniques allowed pointing out a suitable scenario for the Ag clustering evolution as a function of the ion exchange, annealing and laser irradiation parameters.

  20. Investigations of suspension stability of iron oxide nanoparticles using time-resolved UV–visible spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vikram, S.; Vasanthakumari, R. [B. S. Abdur Rahman University, Polymer Nanotechnology Centre (India); Tsuzuki, Takuya [Australian National University, Research School of Engineering, College of Engineering and Computer Science (Australia); Rangarajan, Murali, E-mail: r-murali@cb.amrita.edu [Amrita University, Center of Excellence in Advanced Materials and Green Technologies, Amrita School of Engineering Coimbatore (India)

    2016-09-15

    This study examines the suspension stability of iron oxide nanoparticles of different sizes, magnetic susceptibility, and saturation magnetization over long time scales in dilute systems using time-resolved UV–visible spectroscopy. The effects of citric acid as a chelating agent and applied external magnetic field are also studied. UV–visible spectra are obtained at different times for citric-acid-stabilized nanoparticles dispersed in water, and the peak absorbance is tracked with time, in the presence and absence of external magnetic fields. It is seen that the nanoparticles sediment slowly even in the absence of chain formation, with the phenomenon occurring in two-to-three regimes for the systems studied. Sedimentation exhibits either exponential or power-law behavior of maximum absorbance with time. In the dilute dispersions studied, thermal dispersion is about two orders of magnitude stronger than van der Waals interactions, and chain formation is not easy. Yet, it is likely that local anisotropic structures of the nanoparticles form, through which the attractive interactions result in sedimentation. Citric acid gradually stabilizes the aggregating particles; after an initial faster sedimentation, electrostatic repulsion causes the particles to segregate, as observed by a linear increase in the concentration of the nanoparticles at long times. In the presence of magnetic field, stabilization effects are significantly reduced. It is seen that though the attractive force between the nanoparticles and the external field is smaller than Brownian forces, together with van der Waals interactions, these attractive forces likely act as directing agents facilitating sedimentation. This study demonstrates that aggregation-induced sedimentation of magnetic nanoparticles is likely to play a significant role in magnetic drug targeting even when the particles are stabilized with chelating agents.Graphical abstract.

  1. Investigations of suspension stability of iron oxide nanoparticles using time-resolved UV–visible spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikram, S.; Vasanthakumari, R.; Tsuzuki, Takuya; Rangarajan, Murali

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the suspension stability of iron oxide nanoparticles of different sizes, magnetic susceptibility, and saturation magnetization over long time scales in dilute systems using time-resolved UV–visible spectroscopy. The effects of citric acid as a chelating agent and applied external magnetic field are also studied. UV–visible spectra are obtained at different times for citric-acid-stabilized nanoparticles dispersed in water, and the peak absorbance is tracked with time, in the presence and absence of external magnetic fields. It is seen that the nanoparticles sediment slowly even in the absence of chain formation, with the phenomenon occurring in two-to-three regimes for the systems studied. Sedimentation exhibits either exponential or power-law behavior of maximum absorbance with time. In the dilute dispersions studied, thermal dispersion is about two orders of magnitude stronger than van der Waals interactions, and chain formation is not easy. Yet, it is likely that local anisotropic structures of the nanoparticles form, through which the attractive interactions result in sedimentation. Citric acid gradually stabilizes the aggregating particles; after an initial faster sedimentation, electrostatic repulsion causes the particles to segregate, as observed by a linear increase in the concentration of the nanoparticles at long times. In the presence of magnetic field, stabilization effects are significantly reduced. It is seen that though the attractive force between the nanoparticles and the external field is smaller than Brownian forces, together with van der Waals interactions, these attractive forces likely act as directing agents facilitating sedimentation. This study demonstrates that aggregation-induced sedimentation of magnetic nanoparticles is likely to play a significant role in magnetic drug targeting even when the particles are stabilized with chelating agents.Graphical abstract

  2. Structural Investigations of Portland Cement Components, Hydration, and Effects of Admixtures by Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skibsted, Jørgen Bengaard; Andersen, Morten D.; Jakobsen, Hans Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    for the C-S-H phase formed during hydration. It will be demonstrated that Al3+ and flouride guest-ions in the anhydrous and hydrated calcium silicates can be studied in detail by 27Al and 19F MAS NMR, thereby providing information on the local structure and the mechanisms for incorporation of these ions......Solid-state, magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy represents a valuable tool for structural investigations on the nanoscale of the most important phases in anhydrous and hydrated Portland cements and of various admixtures. This is primarily due to the fact that the method reflects the first......- and second-coordination spheres of the spin nucleus under investigation while it is less sensitive to long-range order. Thus, crystalline as well as amorphous phases can be detected in a quantitative manner by solid-state NMR. In particular the structure of the calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H) phase have...

  3. MR spectroscopy of liver in overweight children and adolescents: Investigation of 1H T2 relaxation times at 3 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabanova, Elizaveta; Bille, Dorthe S.; Thisted, Ebbe; Holm, Jens-Christian; Thomsen, Henrik S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to investigate T 2 relaxation values and to optimize hepatic fat quantification using proton MR spectroscopy ( 1 H MRS) at 3 T in overweight and obese children and adolescents. Subjects: The study included 123 consecutive children and adolescents with a body mass index above the 97th percentile according to age and sex. 1 H MR spectroscopy was performed at 3.0 T using point resolved spectroscopy sequence with series TE. T 2 relaxation values and hepatic fat content corrected for the T 2 relaxation effects were calculated. Results: T 2 values for water ranged from 22 ms to 42 ms (mean value 28 ms) and T 2 values for fat ranged from 36 ms to 99 ms (mean value 64 ms). Poor correlation was observed: (1) between T 2 relaxation times of fat and T 2 relaxation times of water (correlation coefficient r = 0.038, P = 0.79); (2) between T 2 relaxation times of fat and fat content (r = 0.057, P = 0.69); (3) between T 2 relaxation times of water and fat content (r = 0.160, P = 0.26). Correlation between fat peak content and the T 2 corrected fat content decreased with increasing echo time TE: r = 0.97 for TE = 45, r = 0.93 for TE = 75, r = 0.89 for TE = 105, P 1 H MRS at 3 T is an effective technique for measuring hepatic fat content in overweight and obese children and adolescents. It is necessary to measure T 2 relaxation values and to correct the spectra for the T 2 relaxation effects in order to obtain an accurate estimate of the hepatic fat content.

  4. Investigation of electric quadrupole interaction in TiO2 by means of perturbed gamma-gamma angular correlation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martucci, Thiago; Ramos, Juliana Marques; Carbonari, Artur Wilson; Silva, Andreia S.; Saxena, Rajendra Narain

    2011-01-01

    TiO 2 has called attention in both basic research and technological applications as an energy converter in solar cells, photo catalyst for water purification, sunscreen material, drug detection, and other applications. In addition TiO 2 is a candidate for use in medical devices, food preparation surfaces, air conditioning filters and sanitary ware surfaces.TiO 2 has two crystalline phases: anatase and rutile. The structural properties and hyperfine interactions in TiO 2 were investigated by perturbed gamma-gamma angular correlation (PAC) spectroscopy using 111 In and 181 Hf as probe nuclei. The PAC spectroscopy provides information on crystalline and electronic structure at an atomic scale. In the present work, PAC measurements on TiO 2 were focused on the development of a methodology to prepare bulk samples, which have been characterized by conventional techniques such as x-ray diffraction, (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). The samples were prepared by the sol gel Pechini method. The resulting powders were annealed at different temperatures in a tubular furnace under nitrogen atmosphere. The PAC measurements were carried out at room temperature in air. The occupation fraction of the probe nuclei reached 50% when the sample was annealed at 1373K and after measured at room temperature.In this case the frequency measured in site 1 is in agreement with that found in literature for substitutional titanium site in rutile structure when 111 In were used as probe nuclei. It was measured a frequency more closely to that was found in literature[7] for the case in which 181 Hf were used as probe nuclei when the sample annealed at 1373 K and measured at 973 K. (author)

  5. Adsorbate induced surface alloy formation investigated by near ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nierhoff, Anders Ulrik Fregerslev; Conradsen, Christian Nagstrup; McCarthy, David Norman

    2014-01-01

    for engineering of more active or selective catalyst materials. Dynamical surface changes on alloy surfaces due to the adsorption of reactants in high gas pressures are challenging to investigate using standard characterization tools. Here we apply synchrotron illuminated near ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron...

  6. Deamidation Reactions of Asparagine- and Glutamine-Containing Dipeptides Investigated by Ion Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempkes, L.J.M.; Martens, J.; Grzetic, J.; Berden, G.; Oomens, J.

    2016-01-01

    Deamidation is a major fragmentation channel upon activation by collision induced dissociation (CID) for protonated peptides containing glutamine (Gln) and asparagine (Asn) residues. Here, we investigate these NH3-loss reactions for four Asn- and Gln-containing protonated peptides in terms of the

  7. Laser spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Demtröder, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    Keeping abreast of the latest techniques and applications, this new edition of the standard reference and graduate text on laser spectroscopy has been completely revised and expanded. While the general concept is unchanged, the new edition features a broad array of new material, e.g., frequency doubling in external cavities, reliable cw-parametric oscillators, tunable narrow-band UV sources, more sensitive detection techniques, tunable femtosecond and sub-femtosecond lasers (X-ray region and the attosecond range), control of atomic and molecular excitations, frequency combs able to synchronize independent femtosecond lasers, coherent matter waves, and still more applications in chemical analysis, medical diagnostics, and engineering.

  8. Electronic states of model hydrocarbon chromophores investigated by Synchrotron Radiation Linear Dichroism (SRLD) spectroscopy on aligned samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Duy Duc; Hoffmann, Søren Vrønning; Jones, Nykola

    2010-01-01

    Conventional UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy provides information on transition energies and intensities. Linear dichroism (LD) spectroscopy on aligned molecular samples yields additional information on transition moment directions, thereby frequently leading to resolution of otherwise overlapping...

  9. Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy investigation of interface formation in an indium-tin oxide/fluorocarbon/organic semiconductor contact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong, S.W.; Lau, K.M.; Sun, H.Y.; Fung, M.K.; Lee, C.S.; Lifshitz, Y.; Lee, S.T.

    2006-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that hole-injection in organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) can be enhanced by inserting a UV-illuminated fluorocarbon (CF x ) layer between indium-tin oxide (ITO) and organic hole-transporting layer (HTL). In this work, the process of interface formation and electronic properties of the ITO/CF x /HTL interface were investigated with ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. It was found that UV-illuminated fluorocarbon layer decreases the hole-injection barrier from ITO to α-napthylphenylbiphenyl diamine (NPB). Energy level diagrams deduced from the ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) spectra show that the hole-injection barrier in ITO/UV-treated CF x /NPB is the smallest (0.46 eV), compared to that in the ITO/untreated CF x /NPB (0.60 eV) and the standard ITO/NPB interface (0.68 eV). The improved current density-voltage (I-V) characteristics in the UV-treated CF x -coated ITO contact are consistent with its smallest barrier height

  10. Investigation of the degradation of LSM-YSZ SOFC cathode by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres da Silva, Iris Maura

    The aim of this PhD study was to investigate degradation of the LSM-YSZ cathode of anode supported Ni-YSZ/YSZ/LSM-YSZ solid oxide fuel cells. The chosen cathode materials LSM25 and 8YSZ were investigated for their compatibility and stability, to confirm that expansion/contraction or decreasing......, at different operating conditions. An equivalent circuit was developed for the symmetrical cell, describing the processes taking place at the LSM-YSZ cathode. This equivalent circuit was applied in degradation studies, where the processes affected by degradation over time could be pinpointed. Furthermore......, it was discovered that impurities in air cause significant degradation of the cathode. Humidity was found to increase the degradation rate, but other impurities might also be present and increasing degradation. Then the anode supported Ni-YSZ/YSZ/LSM-YSZ single cells were prepared and tested. It was found...

  11. Fire debris analysis for forensic fire investigation using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soojin; Yoh, Jack J.

    2017-08-01

    The possibility verification of the first attempt to apply LIBS to arson investigation was performed. LIBS has capabilities for real time in-situ analysis and depth profiling. It can provide valuable information about the fire debris that are complementary to the classification of original sample components and combustion residues. In this study, fire debris was analyzed to determine the ignition source and existence of a fire accelerant using LIBS spectra and depth profiling analysis. Fire debris chemical composition and carbon layer thickness determines the possible ignition source while the carbon layer thickness of combusted samples represents the degree of sample carbonization. When a sample is combusted with fire accelerants, a thicker carbon layer is formed because the burning rate is increased. Therefore, depth profiling can confirm the existence of combustion accelerants, which is evidence of arson. Also investigation of fire debris by depth profiling is still possible when a fire is extinguished with water from fire hose. Such data analysis and in-situ detection of forensic signals via the LIBS may assist fire investigation at crime scenes.

  12. Influence of the Chemical Design on the Coherent Photoisomerization of Biomimetic Molecular Switches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivucci Massimo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy reveals the effect of chemical substitutions on the photoreaction kinetics of biomimetic photoswitches displaying coherent dynamics. Ground state vibrational coherences are no longer observed when the excited state lifetime exceeds 300fs.

  13. Solar Coronal UV Spectroscopy for Solar Wind and SEP Acceleration Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, John Daniel; Ko, Yuan-Kuen; Laming, John Martin; Strachan, Leonard; Tun Beltran, Samuel

    2015-04-01

    Of all the new areas of solar physics opened by the landmark SOHO mission, the scientific discoveries of the Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer (UVCS) are unique in both the importance of the new questions raised by these observations and the lack of subsequent investigations to resolve these questions. For example, the first direct evidence of wave-particle coupling as an acceleration mechanism for the solar wind was obtained from UVCS spectro-coronagraphic observations, yet the real limits on the ratio of the parallel to perpendicular ion temperatures (with respect to the magnetic field) in coronal holes and streamers is still unresolved. Another unresolved issue is the role of suprathermal seed particles in rapid diffusive shock acceleration of SEPs. Although the theory has been placed on firmer theoretical ground by recent in situ investigations, observations of these suprathermal particles in the corona was never conclusively obtained with UVCS.Any follow-on UV Spectro-coronagraph must possess two improvements over UVCS in order to address the questions raised during the SOHO mission: 1) increased effective aperture and 2) improved spectrographic contrast (i.e. reduced scattered light). Technological developments in optics, optical design, UV detectors, composite structures, cleanliness control and electronics make it possible to achieve the requisite improvements in a next-generation UV spectro-coronagraph within the constraints of an affordable mission. We discuss specific instrument and mission approaches developed over the last 5 years and the feasibility of implementing them within the next 5 years.

  14. Electrooxidation of ethanol on Pt and PtRu surfaces investigated by ATR surface-enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marcio F.; Camara, Giuseppe A., E-mail: giuseppe.silva@ufms.br [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande-MS (Brazil); Batista, Bruno C.; Boscheto, Emerson [Instituto de Quimica de Sao Carlos, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos-SP, (Brazil); Varela, Hamilton, E-mail: varela@iqsc.usp.br [Ertl Center for Electrochemistry and Catalysis, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Herein, it was investigated for the first time the electro-oxidation of ethanol on Pt and PtRu electrodeposits in acidic media by using in situ surface enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy with attenuated total reflection (ATR-SEIRAS). The experimental setup circumvents the weak absorbance signals related to adsorbed species, usually observed for rough, electrodeposited surfaces, and allows a full description of the CO coverage with the potential for both catalysts. The dynamics of adsorption-oxidation of CO was accessed by ATR-SEIRAS experiments (involving four ethanol concentrations) and correlated with expressions derived from a simple kinetic model. Kinetic analysis suggests that the growing of the CO adsorbed layer is nor influenced by the presence of Ru neither by the concentration of ethanol. The results suggest that the C-C scission is not related to the presence of Ru and probably happens at Pt sites. (author)

  15. Salt Effects on Surface Structures of Polyelectrolyte Multilayers (PEMs) Investigated by Vibrational Sum Frequency Generation (SFG) Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Aimin; Matsusaki, Michiya; Qiao, Lin; Akashi, Mitsuru; Ye, Shen

    2016-04-26

    Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy was employed to investigate the surface structures of polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) constructed by sequentially alternating adsorption of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) and poly(styrenesulfonate) (PSS). It was found that the surface structures and surface charge density of the as-deposited PEMs of PDDA/PSS significantly depend on the concentration of sodium chloride (NaCl) present in the polyelectrolyte solutions. Furthermore, it was found that the surface structure of the as-deposited PEMs is in a metastable state and will reach the equilibrium state by diffusion of the polyelectrolyte chain after an aging process, resulting in a polyelectrolyte mixture on the PEM surfaces.

  16. Some investigation on trace elements content of Iranian breads using neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharib, A.; Fatemi, K.; Moazezi, A.; Mahmoodzadeh, A.; Koushkestani, R.

    1988-01-01

    Since bread is consumed as a principal dietary staple by the majority of Iranian communities, actual natural portion of required protein and energy are provided via bread. Therefore, with respect to this matter, a considerable amount of needed minerals must also be met through this way. Literature survey indicates some elemental deficiencies as the result of consumption of bread in Iran. On the other hand, essentiality of these elements to human which are mostly in the range of trace amounts, makes this investigation very much important and interesting from both sides, nutritionally and instrumentally. To meet the above requirements, applications of very sensitive analytical tools are unavoidable. Hence, atomic absorption spectroscopy and neutron activation analysis both RNAA and INAA are employed. Results are controversial and constructive

  17. Investigation of the generation of singlet oxygen in ensembles of photoexcited silicon nanocrystals by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstantinova, E. A.; Demin, V. A.; Timoshenko, V. Yu.

    2008-01-01

    The generation of singlet oxygen is investigated and its concentration upon photoexcitation of silicon nanocrystals in porous silicon layers is determined using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. The relaxation times of spin centers, i.e., silicon dangling bonds, in vacuum and in an oxygen atmosphere in the dark and under illumination of the samples are measured for the first time. It is revealed that the spin-lattice relaxation in porous silicon is retarded as compared to that in a single-crystal substrate. From analyzing experimental data, a microscopic model is proposed for interaction of oxygen molecules in the triplet state and spin centers at the surface of silicon nanocrystals. The results obtained have demonstrated that porous silicon holds promise for the use as a photosensitizer of molecular oxygen in biomedical applications

  18. Investigation of the dynamics of dissipative U+Au collisions with δ-electron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroth, J.; Dahlinger, M.; Konen, W.; Stiebing, K.

    1997-01-01

    δ-electron emission in elastic and dissipative collisions of U+Au at E/A=8.65 MeV has been investigated. The velocity vectors of the reaction products were measured in coincidence with electrons of energies up to 3.2 MeV. The δ-electron yield measured for elastic collisions is in good agreement with coupled-channel calculations. The δ-electron spectra of dissipative reactions show a clear dependence on the violence of the collision, i.e. the total kinetic energy loss (TKEL). The shape of the spectra are analysed with an atomic model by a fitting procedure using phenomenological trajectories. The results indicate an increasing contact time of the united system with increasing total kinetic energy loss reaching 1.16(4) x 10 -21 s at left angle TKEL right angle =375 MeV. (orig.). With 2 figs

  19. Microscopic description of protein thermostabilization mechanisms with disaccharides from Raman spectroscopy investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedoux, A; Affouard, F; Descamps, M; Guinet, Y; Paccou, L [Laboratoire de Dynamique et Structure des Materiaux Moleculaires UMR CNRS 8024, Universite de Lille 1, UFR de Physique, Batiment P5, 59 655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France)

    2007-05-23

    The mechanisms of protein thermostabilization by sugar were analysed for three disaccharides (maltose, sucrose and trehalose) characterized by the same chemical formula (C{sub 12}H{sub 22}O{sub 11}). Raman scattering investigations simultaneously carried out in the low-frequency range and in the amide I band region provide a microscopic description of the process of protein thermal denaturation. From this detailed description, the influence of sugar on this process was analysed. The principal effect of sugars is to stabilize the tertiary structure, in which the biomolecule preserves its native conformation, through a strengthening of O-H interactions. This study shows that the bioprotective properties of sugars are mainly based on interactions between water and sugar. The exceptional properties of trehalose to preserve the native state of lysozyme by heating can be associated with its capability to distort the tetra-bonded hydrogen bond network of water.

  20. Multiple capture investigated by coincident electron spectroscopy in X7++Ar, at 70 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretto-Capelle, P.; Bordenave-Montesquieu, D.; Bordenave-Montesquieu, A.

    1999-01-01

    The multiple electron capture in N 7+ + Ar and F 7+ (1s 2 ) + Ar systems is investigated at 70 keV with a new electron-recoil ion charge coincidence experiment. The whole electron energy range has been studied. Up to six electrons are found to be captured into autoionizing states. The recoil ion charge distribution associated with the emission of electrons is similar for both systems and found to be in good agreement with the prediction of Niehaus's model roughly adapted to take into account autoionizing cascades. New findings for the coincident double and triple captures are briefly discussed. A capture of an inner L-shell electron of Ar into the K-shell of the projectile is also observed in N 7+ + Ar collisions. (orig.)

  1. Investigation of the chemical vicinity of defects in Mg and AZ31 with positron coincident Doppler boarding spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stadlbauer, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Within the scope of the present work, two main goals have been achieved: Firstly, the coincident Doppler broadening spectrometer (CDBS) at the high intense positron source NEPOMUC has been elaborately improved in order to increase the spatial resolution for defect mapping measurements and to investigate samples with shallow positron trapping sites which are present e. g. in magnesium. Secondly, as an application, the chemical vicinity of defects in the industrially used magnesium based alloy AZ31 has been examined by means of the detailed investigation of ion-irradiated specimen with positron annihilation spectroscopy. Detailed simulations with the finite-element simulation tool COMSOL were used to optimize the focal diameter of the positron beam at the sample position in order to increase the spatial resolution. With a value of 0.3 mm, sub-mm resolution has now been reached. The CDBS has been furthermore equipped with a sample cooling unit in order to reach liquid nitrogen temperature, maintaining the feature of scanning the sample for defect mapping. Defects and their chemical surrounding in ion irradiated magnesium and the magnesium based alloy AZ31 were then investigated on an atomic scale with the CDBS. In the respective spectra the chemical information and the defect contribution have been thoroughly separated. For this purpose, samples of annealed Mg were irradiated with Mg-ions in order to create exclusively defects. In addition Al- and Zn-ion irradiations on Mg-samples were performed in order to create samples with both defects and impurity atoms. The ion irradiated area on the samples was investigated with laterally and depth resolved positron Doppler broadening spectroscopy (DBS) and compared with SRIM-simulations of the vacancy distribution. The investigation of the chemical vicinity of crystal defects in AZ31 was performed with CDBS on Mg-ion irradiated AZ31 with Mg-ion irradiated Mg. The outer tail of the energy distribution in the annihilation

  2. Investigation of the chemical vicinity of defects in Mg and AZ31 with positron coincident Doppler boarding spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadlbauer, Martin

    2008-03-10

    Within the scope of the present work, two main goals have been achieved: Firstly, the coincident Doppler broadening spectrometer (CDBS) at the high intense positron source NEPOMUC has been elaborately improved in order to increase the spatial resolution for defect mapping measurements and to investigate samples with shallow positron trapping sites which are present e. g. in magnesium. Secondly, as an application, the chemical vicinity of defects in the industrially used magnesium based alloy AZ31 has been examined by means of the detailed investigation of ion-irradiated specimen with positron annihilation spectroscopy. Detailed simulations with the finite-element simulation tool COMSOL were used to optimize the focal diameter of the positron beam at the sample position in order to increase the spatial resolution. With a value of 0.3 mm, sub-mm resolution has now been reached. The CDBS has been furthermore equipped with a sample cooling unit in order to reach liquid nitrogen temperature, maintaining the feature of scanning the sample for defect mapping. Defects and their chemical surrounding in ion irradiated magnesium and the magnesium based alloy AZ31 were then investigated on an atomic scale with the CDBS. In the respective spectra the chemical information and the defect contribution have been thoroughly separated. For this purpose, samples of annealed Mg were irradiated with Mg-ions in order to create exclusively defects. In addition Al- and Zn-ion irradiations on Mg-samples were performed in order to create samples with both defects and impurity atoms. The ion irradiated area on the samples was investigated with laterally and depth resolved positron Doppler broadening spectroscopy (DBS) and compared with SRIM-simulations of the vacancy distribution. The investigation of the chemical vicinity of crystal defects in AZ31 was performed with CDBS on Mg-ion irradiated AZ31 with Mg-ion irradiated Mg. The outer tail of the energy distribution in the annihilation

  3. Heavy-ion-induced sucrose radicals investigated using EPR and UV spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Kouichi; Karakirova, Yordanka; Yordanov, Nicola D.

    2015-01-01

    The potential use of a sucrose dosimeter for estimating both linear energy transfer (LET) and the absorbed dose of heavy ion and X-ray radiation was investigated. The stable free radicals were produced when sucrose was irradiated with heavy ions, such as helium, carbon, silicon and neon ions, and when the X-ray radiation was similar to the obtained electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra, which were ∼7 mT wide and composed of several hyperfine structures. In addition, the total spin concentration resulting from heavy-ion irradiation increased linearly as the absorbed dose increased, and decreased logarithmically as the LET increased. These empirical relations imply that the LET at a certain dose can be determined from the spin concentration. For sucrose and alanine, both cross-sections following C-ion irradiation with a 50 Gy dose were ∼1.3 × 10−12 [μm2], taking into account the molecular size of the samples. The values of these cross-sections imply that multiple ionizing particles were involved in the production of stable radicals. Furthermore, UV absorbance at 267 nm of an aqueous solution of irradiated sucrose was found to linearly increase with increasing absorbed dose. Therefore, the EPR and UV results suggest that sucrose can be a useful dosimeter for heavy-ion irradiation. PMID:25480828

  4. Investigation of hydrogen-deformation interactions in β-21S titanium alloy using thermal desorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tal-Gutelmacher, E.; Eliezer, D.; Boellinghaus, Th.

    2007-01-01

    The focus of this paper is the investigation of the combined influence of hydrogen and pre-plastic deformation on hydrogen's absorption/desorption behavior, the microstructure and microhardness of a single-phased β-21S alloy. In this study, thermal desorption analyses (TDS) evaluation of various desorption and trapping parameters provide further insight on the relationships between hydrogen absorption/desorption processes and deformation, and their mutual influence on the microstructure and the microhardness of β-21S alloy. TDS spectra were supported by other experimental techniques, such as X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, hydrogen quantity analyses and microhardness tests. Pre-plastic deformation, performed before the electrochemical hydrogenation of the alloy, increased significantly the hydrogen absorption capacity. Its influence was also evident on the notably expanded lattice parameter of β-21S alloy after hydrogenation. However, no hydride precipitation was observed. An interesting softening effect of the pre-deformed hydrogenated alloy was revealed by microhardness tests. TDS demonstrated the significant effect of pre-plastic deformation on the hydrogen evolution process. Hydrogen desorption temperature and the activation energy for hydrogen release increased, additional trap states were observed and the amount of desorbed hydrogen decreased

  5. Exciplex formation in bimolecular photoinduced electron-transfer investigated by ultrafast time-resolved infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Marius; Letrun, Romain; Vauthey, Eric

    2014-03-12

    The dynamics of bimolecular photoinduced electron-transfer reactions has been investigated with three donor/acceptor (D/A) pairs in tetrahydrofuran (THF) and acetonitrile (ACN) using a combination of ultrafast spectroscopic techniques, including time-resolved infrared absorption. For the D/A pairs with the highest driving force of electron transfer, all transient spectroscopic features can be unambiguously assigned to the excited reactant and the ionic products. For the pair with the lowest driving force, three additional transient infrared bands, more intense in THF than in ACN, with a time dependence that differs from those of the other bands are observed. From their frequency and solvent dependence, these bands can be assigned to an exciplex. Moreover, polarization-resolved measurements point to a relatively well-defined mutual orientation of the constituents and to a slower reorientational time compared to those of the individual reactants. Thanks to the minimal overlap of the infrared signature of all transient species in THF, a detailed reaction scheme including the relevant kinetic and thermodynamic parameters could be deduced for this pair. This analysis reveals that the formation and recombination of the ion pair occur almost exclusively via the exciplex.

  6. Investigation of spatial resolution dependent variability in transcutaneous oxygen saturation using point spectroscopy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philimon, Sheena P.; Huong, Audrey K. C.; Ngu, Xavier T. I.

    2017-08-01

    This paper aims to investigate the variation in one’s percent mean transcutaneous oxygen saturation (StO2) with differences in spatial resolution of data. This work required the knowledge of extinction coefficient of hemoglobin derivatives in the wavelength range of 520 - 600 nm to solve for the StO2 value via an iterative fitting procedure. A pilot study was conducted on three healthy subjects with spectroscopic data collected from their right index finger at different arbitrarily selected distances. The StO2 value estimated by Extended Modified Lambert Beer (EMLB) model revealed a higher mean StO2 of 91.1 ± 1.3% at a proximity distance of 30 mm compared to 60.83 ± 2.8% at 200 mm. The results showed a high correlation between data spatial resolution and StO2 value, and revealed a decrease in StO2 value as the sampling distance increased. The preliminary findings from this study contribute to the knowledge of the appropriate distance range for consistent and high repeatability measurement of skin oxygenation.

  7. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) investigation of the surface film on magnesium powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Paul J; Bayindir, Zeynel; Kipouros, Georges J

    2012-05-01

    Magnesium (Mg) and its alloys are attractive for use in automotive and aerospace applications because of their low density and good mechanical properties. However, difficulty in forming magnesium and the limited number of available commercial alloys limit their use. Powder metallurgy may be a suitable solution for forming near-net-shape parts. However, sintering pure magnesium presents difficulties due to surface film that forms on the magnesium powder particles. The present work investigates the composition of the surface film that forms on the surface of pure magnesium powders exposed to atmospheric conditions and on pure magnesium powders after compaction under uniaxial pressing at a pressure of 500 MPa and sintering under argon at 600 °C for 40 minutes. Initially, focused ion beam microscopy was utilized to determine the thickness of the surface layer of the magnesium powder and found it to be ~10 nm. The X-ray photoelectron analysis of the green magnesium sample prior to sintering confirmed the presence of MgO, MgCO(3)·3H(2)O, and Mg(OH)(2) in the surface layer of the powder with a core of pure magnesium. The outer portion of the surface layer was found to contain MgCO(3)·3H(2)O and Mg(OH)(2), while the inner portion of the layer is primarily MgO. After sintering, the MgCO(3)·3H(2)O was found to be almost completely absent, and the amount of Mg(OH)(2) was also decreased significantly. This is postulated to occur by decomposition of the compounds to MgO and gases during the high temperature of sintering. An increase in the MgO content after sintering supports this theory.

  8. Phase sensitive molecular dynamics of self-assembly glycolipid thin films: A dielectric spectroscopy investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velayutham, T. S.; Ng, B. K.; Gan, W. C.; Majid, W. H. Abd.; Hashim, R.; Zahid, N. I.; Chaiprapa, Jitrin

    2014-08-01

    Glycolipid, found commonly in membranes, is also a liquid crystal material which can self-assemble without the presence of a solvent. Here, the dielectric and conductivity properties of three synthetic glycolipid thin films in different thermotropic liquid crystal phases were investigated over a frequency and temperature range of (10-2-106 Hz) and (303-463 K), respectively. The observed relaxation processes distinguish between the different phases (smectic A, columnar/hexagonal, and bicontinuous cubic Q) and the glycolipid molecular structures. Large dielectric responses were observed in the columnar and bicontinuous cubic phases of the longer branched alkyl chain glycolipids. Glycolipids with the shortest branched alkyl chain experience the most restricted self-assembly dynamic process over the broad temperature range studied compared to the longer ones. A high frequency dielectric absorption (Process I) was observed in all samples. This is related to the dynamics of the hydrogen bond network from the sugar group. An additional low-frequency mechanism (Process II) with a large dielectric strength was observed due to the internal dynamics of the self-assembly organization. Phase sensitive domain heterogeneity in the bicontinuous cubic phase was related to the diffusion of charge carriers. The microscopic features of charge hopping were modelled using the random walk scheme, and two charge carrier hopping lengths were estimated for two glycolipid systems. For Process I, the hopping length is comparable to the hydrogen bond and is related to the dynamics of the hydrogen bond network. Additionally, that for Process II is comparable to the bilayer spacing, hence confirming that this low-frequency mechanism is associated with the internal dynamics within the phase.

  9. New sources of high-power coherent radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprehngl, F.

    1985-01-01

    New sources of high-power coherent radiation in the wavelength range from millimeter to ultraviolet are reviewed. Physical mechanisms underlying concepts of free electrons laser, cyclotron resonance laser and other new radiation sources are described. Free electron lasers and cyclotron resonance lasers are shown to suggest excellent possibilities for solving problems of spectroscopy, plasma heating radar and accelerator technology. Results of experiments with free electron laser in the Compton mode using linear accelerators microtrons and storage rings are given. Trends in further investigations are shown

  10. Spectroscopy in catalysis : an introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niemantsverdriet, J.W.

    2000-01-01

    Spectroscopy in Catalysis describes the most important modern analytical techniques used to investigate catalytic surfaces. These include electron spectroscopy (XPS, UPS, AES, EELS), ion spectroscopy (SIMS, SNMS, RBS, LEIS), vibrational spectroscopy (infrared, Raman, EELS), temperature-programmed

  11. Using 13C-labeled benzene and Raman gas spectroscopy to investigate respiration and biodegradation kinetics following soil contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochum, Tobias; Popp, Juergen; Frosch, Torsten

    2016-04-01

    Soil and groundwater contamination with benzene can cause serious environmental damages. However, many soil microorganisms are capable to adapt and known to strongly control the fate of organic contamination. Cavity enhanced Raman gas spectroscopy (CERS) was applied to investigate the short-term response of indigenous soil bacteria to a sudden surface contamination with benzene regarding the temporal variations of gas products and their exchange rates with the adjacent atmosphere. 13C-labeled benzene was spiked on a silty-loamy soil column (sampled from Hainich National Park, Germany) in order to track and separate the changes in heterotrophic soil respiration - involving 12CO2 and O2 - from the microbial process of benzene degradation, which ultimately forms 13CO2.1 The respiratory quotient (RQ) of 0.98 decreased significantly after the spiking and increased again within 33 hours to a value of 0.72. This coincided with maximum 13CO2 concentration rates (0.63 μ mol m-2 s-1), indicating highest benzene degradation at 33 hours after the spiking event. The diffusion of benzene in the headspace and the biodegradation into 13CO2 were simultaneously monitored and 12 days after the benzene spiking no measurable degradation was detected anymore.1 The RQ finally returned to a value of 0.96 demonstrating the reestablished aerobic respiration. In summary, this study shows the potential of combining Raman gas spectroscopy and stable isotopes to follow soil microbial biodegradation dynamics while simultaneously monitoring the underlying respiration behavior. Support by the Collaborative Research Center 1076 Aqua Diva is kindly acknowledged. We thank Beate Michalzik for soil analysis and discussion. 1. T. Jochum, B. Michalzik, A. Bachmann, J. Popp and T. Frosch, Analyst, 2015, 140, 3143-3149.

  12. Structural investigations of LiFePO4 electrodes and in situ studies by Fe X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deb, Aniruddha; Bergmann, Uwe; Cramer, S.P.; Cairns, Elton J.

    2005-01-01

    Fe K-edge X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) have been performed on electrodes containing LiFePO 4 to determine the local atomic and electronic structure and their stability with electrochemical cycling. A versatile electrochemical in situ cell has been constructed for long-term soft and hard X-ray experiments for the structural investigation on battery electrodes during the lithium-insertion/extraction processes. The device is used here for an X-ray absorption spectroscopic study of lithium insertion/extraction in a LiFePO 4 electrode, where the electrode contained about 7.7 mg of LiFePO 4 on a 20 μm thick Al-foil. Fe K-edge X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) have been performed on this electrode to determine the local atomic and electronic structure and their stability with electrochemical cycling. The initial state (LiFePO 4 ) showed iron to be in the Fe 2+ state corresponding to the initial state (0.0 mAh) of the cell, whereas in the delithiated state (FePO 4 ) iron was found to be in the Fe 3+ state corresponding to the final charged state (3 mAh). XANES region of the XAS spectra revealed a high spin configuration for the two states (Fe (II), d 6 and Fe (III), d 5 ). The results confirm that the olivine structure of the LiFePO 4 and FePO 4 is retained by the electrodes in agreement with the XRD observations reported previously. These results confirm that LiFePO 4 cathode material retains good structural short-range order leading to superior cycling capability

  13. Investigation of the chemistry of the dielectric/FeCoTb interface by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stickle, W.F.; Coulman, D.

    1987-01-01

    The interfacial chemistry of magneto-optic structures of sputter deposited SiO, SiO 2 , Si 3 N 4 /FeCoTb/SiO, SiO 2 , and Si 3 N 4 was studied in detail by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). XPS and AES depth profiles have revealed a substantial amount of redox chemistry at the dielectric/rare-earth transition metal interfaces. The chemical reactions occur preferentially with the terbium as revealed in the XPS portion of the study by the formation of terbium oxide and terbium silicide. In the case of Si 3 N 4 evidence of TbN/sub x/ has also been observed. ''As deposited'' and annealed samples of the magneto-optic structures are compared and contrasted. It is concluded that Si 3 N 4 is a superior dielectric for magneto-optic media

  14. Fundamental aspects of Am and Cm in zirconia-based materials. Investigations using X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raison, P.E.; Haire, R.G.; Assefa, Z.

    2002-01-01

    We have investigated incorporation of americium and curium in selected zirconia-based materials. Fundamental aspects were explored via X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. First explored was the pseudo ternary system, AmO 2 -ZrO 2 -Y 2 O 3 . It was found that stable, cubic solid solutions (Am x Zr 1-x Y y )O 2-2/y can be obtained for selected compositions. The cell parameters of the cubic phases were established as being linear with the AmO 2 content. For the Cm 2 O 3 -ZrO 2 system, it was determined that diphasic materials are produced, except for two compositions: 25 mol% and 50 mol% of CmO 1.5 . For these compositions a single-phase cubic fluorite type solid solution (a=5.21A±0.01) and a pyrochlore oxide Cm 2 Zr 2 O 7 (a=10.63A±0.02) are formed, respectively. The stability of pyrochlore oxides is also being investigated as a function of self-irradiation, using shorter-lived isotopes, one being the californium pyrochlore 249 Cf 2 Zr 2 O 7 . We obtained evidence that after six months of storage the pyrochlore oxide is undergoing structural change. Additional studies are in progress. (author)

  15. Enantiodiscrimination of flexible cyclic solutes using NMR spectroscopy in polypeptide chiral mesophases: investigation of cis-decalin and THF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroulanda, Christie; Lafon, Olivier; Lesot, Philippe

    2009-08-06

    The conformational dynamics and orientational behavior of two model cyclic molecules, cis-decalin (cis-dec) and tetrahydrofurane (THF), dissolved in weakly ordering, polypeptidic chiral liquid crystals (CLCs) are theoretically discussed and experimentally investigated using deuterium and carbon-13 NMR spectroscopies. The analysis of enantiomeric and enantiotopic discriminations in these compounds is shown to depend on the rate of conformational exchange regime, slow or fast. The slow exchange regime is illustrated through the case of cis-dec at low temperature (243 K). We show that the deuterium NMR spectra in this regime can be qualitatively and quantitatively interpreted by restricting the conformational pathway of cis-dec to two enantiomeric conformers of C(2)-symmetry. The orientational order parameters of these interconverting enantiomers are calculated by matching the (2)H quadrupolar splittings with calculated conformer structures. The fast exchange regime is investigated through the examples of cis-dec at high temperature (356 K) and THF at room temperature (300 K). The (2)H NMR spectra above the coalescence temperature are analyzed by introducing the concept of "average molecular structure". This fictitious structure allows easily identifying NMR equivalences of solutes dissolved in CLC. However, it cannot be applied to determine consistent orientational order parameters. This study emphasizes that enantiotopic discriminations observed for flexible molecules in the fast exchange regime can be quantitatively interpreted only by considering the orientational order of each conformer.

  16. Dye lasers in atomic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, W.; Luther, J.; Steudel, A.

    1974-01-01

    The properties of dye lasers which are relevant to atomic spectroscopy are discussed. Several experiments made possible by tunable dye lasers are discussed. Applications of high spectral density dye lasers are covered in areas such as absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, photoionization and photodetachment, and two- and multi-photon processes. Applications which take advantage of the narrow bandwidth of tunable dye lasers are discussed, including saturation spectroscopy, fluorescence line narrowing, classic absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, nonoptical detection of optical resonances, heterodyne spectroscopy, and nonlinear coherent resonant phenomena. (26 figures, 180 references) (U.S.)

  17. Optical coherence techniques for plasma doppler spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, J.; Michael, C.; Glass, F.; Cheetham, A.D.

    2000-01-01

    A new electro-optically Modulated Optical Solid-State (MOSS) interferometer has been constructed for measurement of the low order spectral moments of line emission from optically thin radiant media. The instrument, which is based on the principle of the Fourier transform spectrometer, has high etendue and is rugged, compact and inexpensive. By employing electro-optical path-length modulation techniques, the spectral information is transferred to the temporal frequency domain and can be obtained using a single photodetector. Specifically, the zeroth moment (brightness) is given by the average signal level, the first moment (shift) by the modulation phase and the second moment (line width) by the modulation amplitude. (author)

  18. Coherent Quantum Control of Multidimensional Vibrational Spectroscopy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mukamel, Shaul; Sanda, Frantisek; Harbola, Upendra; Venkatramani, Ravi; Varonine, Dmitri

    2006-01-01

    .... Factorial moments of photon counting statistics from a single molecule coupled to a quantum bath were expressed in terms of multipoint quantum correlation functions and represented by double-sided Feynman diagrams...

  19. Imaging granulomatous lesions with optical coherence tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banzhaf, Christina; Jemec, Gregor B E

    2012-01-01

    To investigate and compare the presentation of granulomatous lesions in optical coherence tomography (OCT) images and compare this to previous studies of nonmelanoma skin tumors.......To investigate and compare the presentation of granulomatous lesions in optical coherence tomography (OCT) images and compare this to previous studies of nonmelanoma skin tumors....

  20. Quantum oscillators in the canonical coherent states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, R. de Lima [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Lima, A.F. de; Ferreira, K. de Araujo [Paraiba Univ., Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Vaidya, A.N. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2001-11-01

    The main characteristics of the quantum oscillator coherent states including the two-particle Calogero interaction are investigated. We show that these Calogero coherent states are the eigenstates of the second-order differential annihilation operator which is deduced via Wigner-Heisenberg algebraic technique and correspond exactly to the pure uncharged-bosonic states. They posses the important properties of non-orthogonality and completeness. The minimum uncertainty relation for the Wigner oscillator coherent states are investigated. New sets of even and odd coherent states are point out. (author)

  1. Chemical composition and surfactant characteristics of marine foams investigated by means of UV-vis, FTIR and FTNIR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecozzi, Mauro; Pietroletti, Marco

    2016-11-01

    In this study, we collected the ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Fourier transform near-infrared (FTNIR) spectra of marine foams from different sites and foams produced by marine living organisms (i.e. algae and molluscs) to retrieve information about their molecular and structural composition. UV-vis spectra gave information concerning the lipid and pigment contents of foams. FTIR spectroscopy gave a more detailed qualitative information regarding carbohydrates, lipids and proteins in addition with information about the mineral contents of foams. FTNIR spectra confirmed the presence of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins in foams. Then, due to the higher content of structural information of FTIR spectroscopy with respect to FTNIR and UV-vis, we join the FTIR spectra of marine foams to those of humic substance from marine sediments and to the spectra of foams obtained by living organisms. We submitted this resulting FTIR spectral dataset to statistical multivariate methods to investigate specific aspects of foams such as structural similarity among foams and in addition, contributions from the organic matter of living organisms. Cluster analysis (CA) evidenced several cases (i.e. clusters) of marine foams having high structural similarity with foams from vegetal and animal samples and with humic substance extracted from sediments. These results suggested that all the living organisms of the marine environment can give contributions to the chemical composition of foams. Moreover, as CA also evidenced cases of structural differences within foam samples, we applied two-dimensional correlation analysis (2DCORR) to the FTIR spectra of marine foams to investigate the molecular characteristics which caused these structural differences. Asynchronous spectra of two-dimensional correlation analysis showed that the structural heterogeneity among foam samples depended reasonably on the presence and on the qualitative difference of

  2. Photoelectron spectroscopy at a free-electron laser. Investigation of space-charge effects in angle-resolved and core-level spectroscopy and realizaton of a time-resolved core-level photoemission experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marczynski-Buehlow, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The free-electron laser (FEL) in Hamburg (FLASH) is a very interesting light source with which to perform photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) experiments. Its special characteristics include highly intense photon pulses (up to 100 J/pulse), a photon energy range of 30 eV to 1500 eV, transverse coherence as well as pulse durations of some ten femtoseconds. Especially in terms of time-resolved PES (TRPES), the deeper lying core levels can be reached with photon energies up to 1500 eV with acceptable intensity now and, therefore, element-specific, time-resolved core-level PES (XPS) is feasible at FLASH. During the work of this thesis various experimental setups were constructed in order to realize angle-resolved (ARPES), core-level (XPS) as well as time-resolved PES experiments at the plane grating monochromator beamline PG2 at FLASH. Existing as well as newly developed systems for online monitoring of FEL pulse intensities and generating spatial and temporal overlap of FEL and optical laser pulses for time-resolved experiments are successfully integrated into the experimental setup for PES. In order to understand space-charge effects (SCEs) in PES and, therefore, being able to handle those effects in future experiments using highly intense and pulsed photon sources, the origin of energetic broadenings and shifts in photoelectron spectra are studied by means of a molecular dynamic N-body simulation using a modified Treecode Algorithm for sufficiently fast and accurate calculations. It turned out that the most influencing parameter is the ''linear electron density'' - the ratio of the number of photoelectrons to the diameter of the illuminated spot on the sample. Furthermore, the simulations could reproduce the observations described in the literature fairly well. Some rules of thumb for XPS and ARPES measurements could be deduced from the simulations. Experimentally, SCEs are investigated by means of ARPES as well as XPS measurements as a function of FEL pulse

  3. Photoelectron spectroscopy at a free-electron laser. Investigation of space-charge effects in angle-resolved and core-level spectroscopy and realizaton of a time-resolved core-level photoemission experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marczynski-Buehlow, Martin

    2012-01-30

    The free-electron laser (FEL) in Hamburg (FLASH) is a very interesting light source with which to perform photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) experiments. Its special characteristics include highly intense photon pulses (up to 100 J/pulse), a photon energy range of 30 eV to 1500 eV, transverse coherence as well as pulse durations of some ten femtoseconds. Especially in terms of time-resolved PES (TRPES), the deeper lying core levels can be reached with photon energies up to 1500 eV with acceptable intensity now and, therefore, element-specific, time-resolved core-level PES (XPS) is feasible at FLASH. During the work of this thesis various experimental setups were constructed in order to realize angle-resolved (ARPES), core-level (XPS) as well as time-resolved PES experiments at the plane grating monochromator beamline PG2 at FLASH. Existing as well as newly developed systems for online monitoring of FEL pulse intensities and generating spatial and temporal overlap of FEL and optical laser pulses for time-resolved experiments are successfully integrated into the experimental setup for PES. In order to understand space-charge effects (SCEs) in PES and, therefore, being able to handle those effects in future experiments using highly intense and pulsed photon sources, the origin of energetic broadenings and shifts in photoelectron spectra are studied by means of a molecular dynamic N-body simulation using a modified Treecode Algorithm for sufficiently fast and accurate calculations. It turned out that the most influencing parameter is the ''linear electron density'' - the ratio of the number of photoelectrons to the diameter of the illuminated spot on the sample. Furthermore, the simulations could reproduce the observations described in the literature fairly well. Some rules of thumb for XPS and ARPES measurements could be deduced from the simulations. Experimentally, SCEs are investigated by means of ARPES as well as XPS measurements as a function of

  4. Investigation of adulteration of sunflower oil with thermally deteriorated oil using Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Vilela

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy based on attenuated total reflectance sampling technique, combined with multivariate analysis methods was used to monitor the adulteration of pure sunflower oil (SO with thermally deteriorated oil (TDO. Contrary to published research, in this work, SO was thermally deteriorated in the absence of foodstuff. SO samples were exposed to temperatures between 125 and 225°C from 6 to 24 h. Quantification of adulteration of SO with TDO, based on principal components regression (PCR, partial least squares regression (PLS-R, and linear discriminant analysis (LDA applied to mid-infrared spectra and to their first and second derivatives is reported for the first time. Infrared frequencies associated with the biochemical differences between TDO samples deteriorated in different conditions were investigated by principal component analysis (PCA. LDA was effective in the twofold classification presence/absence of TDO in adulterated SO (with 5% V/V of less of TDO. It provided 93.7% correct classification for the calibration set and 91.3% correct classification when cross-validated. A detection limit of 1% V/V of TDO in SO was determined. Investigation of an external set of samples allowed the evaluation of the predictability of the models. The regression coefficient (R2 for prediction was 0.95 and 0.96 and the RMSE was 2.1 and 1.9% V/V when using the PCR or PLS-R models, respectively, and the first derivative of spectra. To the best of our knowledge, no investigation of adulteration of SO with TDO based on PCR, PLS-R, and LDA has been reported so far.

  5. High-resolution inverse Raman and resonant-wave-mixing spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahn, L.A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    These research activities consist of high-resolution inverse Raman spectroscopy (IRS) and resonant wave-mixing spectroscopy to support the development of nonlinear-optical techniques for temperature and concentration measurements in combustion research. Objectives of this work include development of spectral models of important molecular species needed to perform coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) measurements and the investigation of new nonlinear-optical processes as potential diagnostic techniques. Some of the techniques being investigated include frequency-degenerate and nearly frequency-degenerate resonant four-wave-mixing (DFWM and NDFWM), and resonant multi-wave mixing (RMWM).

  6. [Investigation of the distribution of water clusters in vegetables, fruits, and natural waters by flicker noise spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubov, A V; Zubov, K V; Zubov, V A

    2007-01-01

    The distribution of water clusters in fresh rain water and in rain water that was aged for 30 days (North Germany, 53 degrees 33' N, 12 degrees 47' E, 293 K, rain on 25.06.06) as well as in fresh vegetables and fruits was studied by flicker noise spectroscopy. In addition, the development of water clusters in apples and potatoes during ripening in 2006 was investigated. A different distribution of water clusters in irrigation water (river and rain) and in the biomatrix of vegetables (potatoes, onions, tomatoes, red beets) and fruits (apples, bananas) was observed. It was concluded that the cluster structure of irrigation water differs from that of water of the biomatrix of vegetables and fruits and depends on drought and the biomatrix nature. Water clusters in plants are more stable and reproducible than water clusters in natural water. The main characteristics of cluster formation in materials studied were given. The oscillation frequencies of water clusters in plants (biofield) are given at which they interact with water clusters of the Earth hydrosphere. A model of series of clusters 16(H2O)100 4(H2O)402 2(H2O)903 (H2O)1889 in the biomatrix of vegetables and fruits was discussed.

  7. Band gap and defect states of MgO thin films investigated using reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Heo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The band gap and defect states of MgO thin films were investigated by using reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy (REELS and high-energy resolution REELS (HR-REELS. HR-REELS with a primary electron energy of 0.3 keV revealed that the surface F center (FS energy was located at approximately 4.2 eV above the valence band maximum (VBM and the surface band gap width (EgS was approximately 6.3 eV. The bulk F center (FB energy was located approximately 4.9 eV above the VBM and the bulk band gap width was about 7.8 eV, when measured by REELS with 3 keV primary electrons. From a first-principles calculation, we confirmed that the 4.2 eV and 4.9 eV peaks were FS and FB, induced by oxygen vacancies. We also experimentally demonstrated that the HR-REELS peak height increases with increasing number of oxygen vacancies. Finally, we calculated the secondary electron emission yields (γ for various noble gases. He and Ne were not influenced by the defect states owing to their higher ionization energies, but Ar, Kr, and Xe exhibited a stronger dependence on the defect states owing to their small ionization energies.

  8. Dielectric spectroscopy investigation of proton transfer processes in carboxymethyl alpha-cyclodextrin polymer cross-linked by epichlorohydrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannou, Panagoula K.; Karagianni, Chaido S.; Kakali, Glykeria; Charalampopoulos, Vasileios G.

    2018-03-01

    The carboxymethyl-α-cyclodextrin polymer (cross-linked by epichlorohydrin) is investigated by dielectric spectroscopy over a frequency range of 0.1-100 kHz and the temperature ranges of 137.2-297.6 K (cooling) and 137.2-472 K (heating). Upon cooling to 288.1 K, the ac-conductivity invariance is attributed to slight changes in the topology of the H-bonded chains. From 288.1 to 244.0 K, the ac-conductivity decreases abruptly (following the Arrhenius law with Eα = 0.40 eV), whereas below 244.0 K it presents no important variations. During heating from 137.2 to 302.6 K, no thermal hysteresis is observed. From 302.6 to 364.9 K, the ac-conductivity increases (Eα = 0.71 eV), whereas above 383 K it decreases up to 436.7 K since the dehydration process has been completed and the H-bonded chains can no longer be retained. From 436.7 to 472 K, the ac-conductivity increases again (Eα = 0.76 eV) indicating the formation of "new" H-bonded chains. Curve fitting of various relaxation processes is done by Havriliak-Negami equation at selective temperatures.

  9. Electron beam exposure mechanisms in hydrogen silsesquioxane investigated by vibrational spectroscopy and in-situ electron beam induced desorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olynick, D.L.; Cord, B.; Schipotinin, A.; Ogletree, D.F.; Schuck, P.J.

    2009-11-13

    Hydrogen Silsesquioxane (HSQ) is used as a high-resolution resist with resolution down below 10nm half-pitch. This material or materials with related functionalities could have widespread impact in nanolithography and nanoscience applications if the exposure mechanism was understood and instabilities controlled. Here we have directly investigated the exposure mechanism using vibrational spectroscopy (both Raman and Fourier transform Infrared) and electron beam desorption spectrocscopy (EBDS). In the non-networked HSQ system, silicon atoms sit at the corners of a cubic structure. Each silicon is bonded to a hydrogen atom and bridges 3 oxygen atoms (formula: HSiO3/2). For the first time, we have shown, via changes in the Si-H2 peak at ~;;2200 cm -1 in the Raman spectra and the release of SiHx products in EBID, that electron-bam exposed materials crosslinks via a redistribution reaction. In addition, we observe the release of significantly more H2 than SiH2 during EBID, which is indicative of additional reaction mechanisms. Additionally, we compare the behavior of HSQ in response to both thermal and electron-beam induced reactions.

  10. Investigation on LPCVD SiON films by means of Rutherford backscattering, FT-IR and UV-VIS Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudu, D.; Ivanov, E.; Bercu, B.N.; Bercu, M.; Modreanu, M.

    2003-01-01

    The SiON layers deposited by LPCVD (Low Vapour Chemical Deposition ) on Si (111) substrate has been investigated by complementary techniques as Rutherford backscattering and optical spectroscopy. We have determined the evolution of chemical content in respect with oxygen relative to nitrogen. The change in oxygen content versus time was produced by exposing the sample in wet oxygen at 1000 deg. C for different periods. The change in oxygen amount was determined by monitoring the Si-O-Si integral intensity of the absorption band at 1071cm -1 . Also the behavior of the refractive index versus time in an oxidative atmosphere gave a complementary information about the oxygen content. Alpha scattering spectra obtained by means of cyclotron facilities was used as another technique for oxygen to nitrogen ratio determination. Both visible spectra and RBS data were fitted by using the corresponding simulating approaches based on light propagation in non-homogeneous media and respectively on multiple scattering theory. The time evolution of O content indicated a diffused controlled process through the gas/solid interface. (authors)

  11. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy-based investigation and classification of pharmaceutical tablets using multivariate chemometric analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myakalwar, Ashwin Kumar; Sreedhar, S.; Barman, Ishan; Dingari, Narahara Chari; Rao, S. Venugopal; Kiran, P. Prem; Tewari, Surya P.; Kumar, G. Manoj

    2012-01-01

    We report the effectiveness of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) in probing the content of pharmaceutical tablets and also investigate its feasibility for routine classification. This method is particularly beneficial in applications where its exquisite chemical specificity and suitability for remote and on site characterization significantly improves the speed and accuracy of quality control and assurance process. Our experiments reveal that in addition to the presence of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen, which can be primarily attributed to the active pharmaceutical ingredients, specific inorganic atoms were also present in all the tablets. Initial attempts at classification by a ratiometric approach using oxygen to nitrogen compositional values yielded an optimal value (at 746.83 nm) with the least relative standard deviation but nevertheless failed to provide an acceptable classification. To overcome this bottleneck in the detection process, two chemometric algorithms, i.e. principal component analysis (PCA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA), were implemented to exploit the multivariate nature of the LIBS data demonstrating that LIBS has the potential to differentiate and discriminate among pharmaceutical tablets. We report excellent prospective classification accuracy using supervised classification via the SIMCA algorithm, demonstrating its potential for future applications in process analytical technology, especially for fast on-line process control monitoring applications in the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:22099648

  12. Characterization of Bifunctional Spin Labels for Investigating the Structural and Dynamic Properties of Membrane Proteins Using EPR Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Indra D; Craig, Andrew F; Dunagum, Megan M; McCarrick, Robert M; Lorigan, Gary A

    2017-10-05

    Site-directed spin labeling (SDSL) coupled with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy is a very powerful technique to study structural and dynamic properties of membrane proteins. The most widely used spin label is methanthiosulfonate (MTSL). However, the flexibility of this spin label introduces greater uncertainties in EPR measurements obtained for determining structures, side-chain dynamics, and backbone motion of membrane protein systems. Recently, a newer bifunctional spin label (BSL), 3,4-bis(methanethiosulfonylmethyl)-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-2,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrol-1-yloxy, has been introduced to overcome the dynamic limitations associated with the MTSL spin label and has been invaluable in determining protein backbone dynamics and inter-residue distances due to its restricted internal motion and fewer size restrictions. While BSL has been successful in providing more accurate information about the structure and dynamics of several proteins, a detailed characterization of the spin label is still lacking. In this study, we characterized BSLs by performing CW-EPR spectral line shape analysis as a function of temperature on spin-labeled sites inside and outside of the membrane for the integral membrane protein KCNE1 in POPC/POPG lipid bilayers and POPC/POPG lipodisq nanoparticles. The experimental data revealed a powder pattern spectral line shape for all of the KCNE1-BSL samples at 296 K, suggesting the motion of BSLs approaches the rigid limit regime for these series of samples. BSLs were further utilized to report for the first time the distance measurement between two BSLs attached on an integral membrane protein KCNE1 in POPC/POPG lipid bilayers at room temperature using dipolar line broadening CW-EPR spectroscopy. The CW dipolar line broadening EPR data revealed a 15 ± 2 Å distance between doubly attached BSLs on KCNE1 (53/57-63/67) which is consistent with molecular dynamics modeling and the solution NMR structure of KCNE1 which yielded a

  13. Band bending at copper and gold interfaces with ferroelectric Pb(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} investigated by photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apostol, Nicoleta G.; Ştoflea, Laura E.; Tănase, Liviu C.; Bucur, Ioana Cristina; Chirilă, Cristina; Negrea, Raluca F.; Teodorescu, Cristian M., E-mail: teodorescu@infim.ro

    2015-11-01

    Highlights: • Synthesis of lead zirco-titanate (0 0 1) layers with nearly perfect stoichiometric transfer from substrates by pulsed laser deposition. • Copper forms continuous layers on Pb(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3}, gold is deposited in form of nanoparticles. • Derivation of Schottky mechanism for band bending for gold deposited on lead zirco-titanate. • Cancellation of polarization-induced band bending for copper deposited on lead zirco-titanate. • Pb reduction observed only in the case of copper deposited on lead zirco-titanate. - Abstract: Interfaces formed by gold and copper on single crystal layers of (0 0 1) PbZr{sub 0.2}Ti{sub 0.8}O{sub 3} (PZT) produced by pulsed laser deposition and exhibiting outwards polarization are analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The stoichiometry of the layers reproduces reasonably that of the PZT target. The band bending occurring at the interface between PZT and the metals is investigated by analyzing the core level shifts as function on the metal deposition. It is found that for Au/PZT(0 0 1) the gold layer is not continuous and the observed band bendings can be attributed to a Schottky mechanism, whereas for Cu/PZT(0 0 1) the copper layer is continuous; in this latter case, the observed band bendings towards higher energies (lower binding energies) can be attributed to a concomitant bending due to the Schottky effect together with the disappearance of the initial bending due to the outwards polarization of the samples. Metal Pb is observed to segregate only in the case of Cu/PZT(0 0 1), therefore the surface self-reduction might also be connected to the presence of a metal with lower work function, which for larger coverage forms a continuous metal layer, able to provide electrons to the surface. High resolution transmission electron spectroscopy yielded the disappearance of the tetragonal distortion in the case of Cu/PZT(0 0 1), in line with the assumption of disappearance of the polarization-induced band bending.

  14. Coherent vibrational dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Lanzani, Guglielmo; De Silvestri, Sandro

    2007-01-01

    Vibrational spectroscopy is a powerful investigation tool for a wide class of materials covering diverse areas in physics, chemistry and biology. The continuous development in the laser field regarding ultrashort pulse generation has led to the possibility of producing light pulses that can follow vibrational motion coupled to the electronic transitions in molecules and solids in real time. Aimed at researchers and graduate students using vibrational spectroscopy, this book provides both introductory chapters as well as more advanced contents reporting on recent progress. It also provides a good starting point for scientists seeking a sound introduction to ultrafast optics and spectroscopic techniques.

  15. Ultrafast Transient Absorption Spectroscopy Investigation of Photoinduced Dynamics in POLY(3-HEXYLTHIOPHENE)-BLOCK-OLIGO(ANTHRACENE-9,10-DIYL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strain, Jacob; Rathnayake, Hemali; Liu, Jinjun

    2017-06-01

    Semiconducting polymer nanostructures featuring bulk heterojunction (BHJ) architecture are promising light harvesters in photovoltaic (PV) devices because they allow control of individual domain sizes, internal structure and ordering, as well as well-defined contact between the electron donor and acceptor. Power conversion efficiency (PCE) of PV devices strongly depends on photoinduced dynamics. Understanding and optimizing photoinduced charge transfer processes in BHJ's hence help improve the performance of PV devices and increase their PCE in particular. We have investigated the photoinduced dynamics of a block polymer containing moieties of poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT) and polyanthracene (PANT) in solution and in solid state with femtosecond transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy. The dynamics of the polymer PANT alone are also studied as a control. The TA spectra of PANT includes a strong excited state absorption centered at 610 (nm) along with a stimulated emission signal stretching past the detection limit into the UV region which is absent in the monomer's spectra in the detection window. The block polymer's TA spectra strongly resembles that of P3HT but a noticeable positive pull on P3HT's stimulated emission signal residing at 575-620 (nm) is indicative of the excited state absorption of PANT in the adjacent spectral region. The doubling of the lifetime exciton delocalization on the block polymer versus P3HT alone have alluded that the lifetime of P3HT is extended by the covalent addition of PANT. The current spectroscopic investigation represents an interesting example of photoinduced processes in systems with complex energy level structure. Studies of dependence of change generation and separation on composition, dimension, and morphology of the heterojunctions are in process.

  16. Electronic properties and bonding in Zr Hx thin films investigated by valence-band x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnuson, Martin; Schmidt, Susann; Hultman, Lars; Högberg, Hans

    2017-11-01

    The electronic structure and chemical bonding in reactively magnetron sputtered Zr Hx (x =0.15 , 0.30, 1.16) thin films with oxygen content as low as 0.2 at.% are investigated by 4d valence band, shallow 4p core-level, and 3d core-level x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. With increasing hydrogen content, we observe significant reduction of the 4d valence states close to the Fermi level as a result of redistribution of intensity toward the H 1s-Zr 4d hybridization region at ˜6 eV below the Fermi level. For low hydrogen content (x =0.15 , 0.30), the films consist of a superposition of hexagonal closest-packed metal (α phase) and understoichiometric δ -Zr Hx (Ca F2 -type structure) phases, while for x =1.16 , the films form single-phase Zr Hx that largely resembles that of stoichiometric δ -Zr H2 phase. We show that the cubic δ -Zr Hx phase is metastable as thin film up to x =1.16 , while for higher H contents the structure is predicted to be tetragonally distorted. For the investigated Zr H1.16 film, we find chemical shifts of 0.68 and 0.51 eV toward higher binding energies for the Zr 4 p3 /2 and 3 d5 /2 peak positions, respectively. Compared to the Zr metal binding energies of 27.26 and 178.87 eV, this signifies a charge transfer from Zr to H atoms. The change in the electronic structure, spectral line shapes, and chemical shifts as a function of hydrogen content is discussed in relation to the charge transfer from Zr to H that affects the conductivity by charge redistribution in the valence band.

  17. Cell surface groups of two picocyanobacteria strains studied by zeta potential investigations, potentiometric titration, and infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich, Maria; Sibler, Sabine

    2005-06-15

    In order to clarify the role of picocyanobacteria in aquatic biogeochemical processes (e.g., calcite precipitation), cell surface properties need to be investigated. An experimental study of the cell surface characteristics of two Synechococcus-type unicellular autotrophic picocyanobacterial strains was carried out. One strain was isolated from Lake Plon and contained phycocyanin, the other strain came from Lago Maggiore and was rich in phycoerythrin. Potentiometric titrations were conducted to determine the different types of sites present on the bacteria cell walls. Infrared spectroscopy allowed characterization of the various functional groups (RNH(2), RCOOH, ROH, RPO(2)) and investigations of zeta potential provided insight into the isoelectrical points of the strains. Titrations reveal three distinct sites on the bacterial surfaces of phycocyanin- and phycoerythrin-rich strains with pK values of 4.8+/-0.3/5.0+/-0.2, 6.6+/-0.2/6.7+/-0.4, and 8.8+/-0.1/8.7+/-0.2, corresponding to carboxyl, phosphate, and amine groups with surface densities of 2.6+/-0.4/7.4+/-1.6 x 10(-4), 1.9+/-0.5/4.4+/-0.8 x 10(-4), and 2.5+/-0.4/4.8+/-0.7 x 10(-4) mol/g of dry bacteria. The deprotonation constants are similar to those of bacterial strains and site densities are also within an order of magnitude of other strains. The phycoerythrin-rich strain had a higher number of binding sites than the phycocyanin-rich strain. The results showed that picocyanobacteria may adsorb either calcium cations or carbonate anions and therefore strongly influence the biogeochemical cycling of calcite in pelagic systems.

  18. Investigation of adhesion and mechanical properties of human glioma cells by single cell force spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andolfi, Laura; Bourkoula, Eugenia; Migliorini, Elisa; Palma, Anita; Pucer, Anja; Skrap, Miran; Scoles, Giacinto; Beltrami, Antonio Paolo; Cesselli, Daniela; Lazzarino, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Active cell migration and invasion is a peculiar feature of glioma that makes this tumor able to rapidly infiltrate into the surrounding brain tissue. In our recent work, we identified a novel class of glioma-associated-stem cells (defined as GASC for high-grade glioma--HG--and Gasc for low-grade glioma--LG) that, although not tumorigenic, act supporting the biological aggressiveness of glioma-initiating stem cells (defined as GSC for HG and Gsc for LG) favoring also their motility. Migrating cancer cells undergo considerable molecular and cellular changes by remodeling their cytoskeleton and cell interactions with surrounding environment. To get a better understanding about the role of the glioma-associated-stem cells in tumor progression, cell deformability and interactions between glioma-initiating stem cells and glioma-associated-stem cells were investigated. Adhesion of HG/LG-cancer cells on HG/LG-glioma-associated stem cells was studied by time-lapse microscopy, while cell deformability and cell-cell adhesion strengths were quantified by indentation measurements by atomic force microscopy and single cell force spectroscopy. Our results demonstrate that for both HG and LG glioma, cancer-initiating-stem cells are softer than glioma-associated-stem cells, in agreement with their neoplastic features. The adhesion strength of GSC on GASC appears to be significantly lower than that observed for Gsc on Gasc. Whereas, GSC spread and firmly adhere on Gasc with an adhesion strength increased as compared to that obtained on GASC. These findings highlight that the grade of glioma-associated-stem cells plays an important role in modulating cancer cell adhesion, which could affect glioma cell migration, invasion and thus cancer aggressiveness. Moreover this work provides evidence about the importance of investigating cell adhesion and elasticity for new developments in disease diagnostics and therapeutics.

  19. Investigating Surface and Interface Phenomena in LiFeBO3 Electrodes Using Photoelectron Spectroscopy Depth Profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maibach, Julia; Younesi, Reza; Schwarzburger, Nele

    2014-01-01

    The formation of surface and interface layers at the electrodes is highly important for the performance and stability of lithium ion batteries. To unravel the surface composition of electrode materials, photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) is highly suitable as it probes chemical surface and interface...... properties with high surface sensitivity. Additionally, by using synchrotron-generated hard x-rays as excitation source, larger probing depths compared to in-house PES can be achieved. Therefore, the combination of in-house soft x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy...

  20. Selective Coherent Excitation of Charged Density Waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsvetkov, A.A.; Sagar, D.M.; Loosdrecht, P.H.M. van; Marel, D. van der

    2003-01-01

    Real time femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy is used to study collective and single particle excitations in the charge density wave state of the quasi-1D metal, blue bronze. Along with the previously observed collective amplitudon excitation, the spectra show several additional coherent features.

  1. From quantum coherence to quantum correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuan; Mao, Yuanyuan; Luo, Shunlong

    2017-06-01

    In quantum mechanics, quantum coherence of a state relative to a quantum measurement can be identified with the quantumness that has to be destroyed by the measurement. In particular, quantum coherence of a bipartite state relative to a local quantum measurement encodes quantum correlations in the state. If one takes minimization with respect to the local measurements, then one is led to quantifiers which capture quantum correlations from the perspective of coherence. In this vein, quantum discord, which quantifies the minimal correlations that have to be destroyed by quantum measurements, can be identified as the minimal coherence, with the coherence measured by the relative entropy of coherence. To advocate and formulate this idea in a general context, we first review coherence relative to Lüders measurements which extends the notion of coherence relative to von Neumann measurements (or equivalently, orthonomal bases), and highlight the observation that quantum discord arises as minimal coherence through two prototypical examples. Then, we introduce some novel measures of quantum correlations in terms of coherence, illustrate them through examples, investigate their fundamental properties and implications, and indicate their applications to quantum metrology.

  2. Wave mixing spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.W.

    1980-08-01

    Several new aspects of nonlinear or wave mixing spectroscopy were investigated utilizing the polarization properties of the nonlinear output field and the dependence of this field upon the occurrence of multiple resonances in the nonlinear susceptibility. First, it is shown theoretically that polarization-sensitive detection may be used to either eliminate or controllably reduce the nonresonant background in coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy, allowing weaker Raman resonances to be studied. The features of multi-resonant four-wave mixing are examined in the case of an inhomogeneously broadened medium. It is found that the linewidth of the nonlinear output narrows considerably (approaching the homogeneous width) when the quantum mechanical expressions for the doubly- and triply-resonant susceptibilities are averaged over a Doppler or strain broadened profile. Experimental studies of nonlinear processes in Pr +3 :LaF 3 verify this linewidth narrowing, but indicate that this strain broadened system cannot be treated with a single broadening parameter as in the case of Doppler broadening in a gas. Several susceptibilities are measured from which are deduced dipole matrix elements and Raman polarizabilities related to the 3 H 4 , 3 H 6 , and 3 P 0 levels of the praseodymium ions

  3. Ultrabroadband THz time-domain spectroscopy of biomolecular crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaltenecker, Korbinian J.; Engelbrecht, Sebastian; Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Ultrabroadband THz time-domain spectroscopy based on two-color plasma generation and air biased coherent detection is used for the investigation of molecular dynamics of crystalline materials in the frequency range from 0.3 THz to 20 THz. We show that the spectral features in this extended...... frequency range are a result of inter- and intramolecular vibrations which are identified by means of simulations of the crystalline materials....

  4. Investigations of the cathode region of an argon arc plasma by degenerate four-wave mixing laser spectroscopy and optical emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzierzega, K; Pokrzywka, B; Pellerin, S

    2004-01-01

    Degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM) laser spectroscopy was used in local studies of atmospheric pressure argon plasma generated in a free-burning arc. The results of plasma diagnostics using the DFWM method were compared to the results obtained with optical emission measurements. In the cathode region of the arc the maxima of both the DFWM signal and the emission coefficient for the 696.5 nm Ar I line depend on the distance from the cathode tip. This effect proves the departure of the plasma state from local thermal equilibrium (LTE) as it has been reported by many authors. On the other hand the Stark shifts of the 696.5 nm Ar I line determined by the DFWM method in relation to plasma diagnostic results show no deviations from LTE on the arc axis down to 1.0 mm from the cathode tip

  5. Coherent Structures in Numerically Simulated Plasma Turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed-Hansen, O.; Pécseli, H.L.; Trulsen, J.

    1989-01-01

    Low level electrostatic ion acoustic turbulence generated by the ion-ion beam instability was investigated numerically. The fluctuations in potential were investigated by a conditional statistical analysis revealing propagating coherent structures having the form of negative potential wells which...

  6. Amorphous surface layer versus transient amorphous precursor phase in bone - A case study investigated by solid-state NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Euw, Stanislas; Ajili, Widad; Chan-Chang, Tsou-Hsi-Camille; Delices, Annette; Laurent, Guillaume; Babonneau, Florence; Nassif, Nadine; Azaïs, Thierry

    2017-09-01

    The presence of an amorphous surface layer that coats a crystalline core has been proposed for many biominerals, including bone mineral. In parallel, transient amorphous precursor phases have been proposed in various biomineralization processes, including bone biomineralization. Here we propose a methodology to investigate the origin of these amorphous environments taking the bone tissue as a key example. This study relies on the investigation of a bone tissue sample and its comparison with synthetic calcium phosphate samples, including a stoichiometric apatite, an amorphous calcium phosphate sample, and two different biomimetic apatites. To reveal if the amorphous environments in bone originate from an amorphous surface layer or a transient amorphous precursor phase, a combined solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiment has been used. The latter consists of a double cross polarization 1 H→ 31 P→ 1 H pulse sequence followed by a 1 H magnetization exchange pulse sequence. The presence of an amorphous surface layer has been investigated through the study of the biomimetic apatites; while the presence of a transient amorphous precursor phase in the form of amorphous calcium phosphate particles has been mimicked with the help of a physical mixture of stoichiometric apatite and amorphous calcium phosphate. The NMR results show that the amorphous and the crystalline environments detected in our bone tissue sample belong to the same particle. The presence of an amorphous surface layer that coats the apatitic core of bone apatite particles has been unambiguously confirmed, and it is certain that this amorphous surface layer has strong implication on bone tissue biogenesis and regeneration. Questions still persist on the structural organization of bone and biomimetic apatites. The existing model proposes a core/shell structure, with an amorphous surface layer coating a crystalline bulk. The accuracy of this model is still debated because amorphous calcium

  7. Cohering power of quantum operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bu, Kaifeng, E-mail: bkf@zju.edu.cn [School of Mathematical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Kumar, Asutosh, E-mail: asukumar@hri.res.in [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad 211019 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai 400094 (India); Zhang, Lin, E-mail: linyz@zju.edu.cn [Institute of Mathematics, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Wu, Junde, E-mail: wjd@zju.edu.cn [School of Mathematical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2017-05-18

    Highlights: • Quantum coherence. • Cohering power: production of quantum coherence by quantum operations. • Study of cohering power and generalized cohering power, and their comparison for differentmeasures of quantum coherence. • Operational interpretation of cohering power. • Bound on cohering power of a generic quantum operation. - Abstract: Quantum coherence and entanglement, which play a crucial role in quantum information processing tasks, are usually fragile under decoherence. Therefore, the production of quantum coherence by quantum operations is important to preserve quantum correlations including entanglement. In this paper, we study cohering power–the ability of quantum operations to produce coherence. First, we provide an operational interpretation of cohering power. Then, we decompose a generic quantum operation into three basic operations, namely, unitary, appending and dismissal operations, and show that the cohering power of any quantum operation is upper bounded by the corresponding unitary operation. Furthermore, we compare cohering power and generalized cohering power of quantum operations for different measures of coherence.

  8. Investigation of modified thin SnO2 layers treated by rapid thermal annealing by means of hollow cathode spectroscopy and AFM technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djulgerova, R; Popova, L; Beshkov, G; Petrovic, Z Lju; Rakocevic, Z; Mihailov, V; Gencheva, V; Dohnalik, T

    2006-01-01

    By means of hollow cathode spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy the surface morphology and composition of SnO 2 thin film, modified with hexamethyldisilazane after rapid thermal annealing treatment (800-1200 deg. C), are investigated. Formation of crystalline structure is suggested at lower temperatures. Depolimerization, destruction and dehydration are developed at temperatures of 1200 deg. C. It is shown that the rapid thermal annealing treatment could modify both the surface morphology and the composition of the layer, thus changing the adsorption ability of the sensing layer. The results confirm the ability of hollow cathode emission spectroscopy for depth profiling of new materials especially combined with standard techniques

  9. Investigation of the cleanliness of transferred graphene. The first step toward its application as a window material for electron microscopy and spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Tao; Miyazaki, Kotaro; Ariga, Hiroko; Takakusagi, Satoru; Asakura, Kiyotaka

    2015-01-01

    The cleanliness of transferred graphene is of significant importance for its application as the window material in environmental cells used for electron microscopy and spectroscopy. We investigated the dependence of the cleanliness of graphene on transfer routes, including FeCl 3 etching, (NH 4 ) 2 S 2 O 8 etching, electrochemical delamination, and O 2 -bubbling, by means of transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It was found that electrochemical delamination provided the cleanest graphene with only a small amount of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) residue existing on the surface. (author)

  10. Investigating the Effect of Nanoscale Changes on the Chemistry and Energetics of Nanocrystals with a Novel Photoemission Spectroscopy Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Michael W.

    This dissertation explores the effect of nanometer-scale changes in structure on the energetics of photocatalytic and photovoltaic materials. Of particular interest are semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs), which have interesting chemical properties that lead to novel structures and applications. Chief among these properties are quantum confinement and the high surface area-to-volume ratio, which allow for chemical tuning of the energetics and structure of NCs. This tunable energetic landscape has led to increasing application of NCs in various areas of research, including solar energy conversion, light-emitting diode technologies, and photocatalysis. However, spectroscopic methods to determine the energetics of NCs have not been well developed, due to chemical complexities of relevant NCs such as polydispersity, capping ligand effects, core-shell structures, and other chemical modifications. In this work, we demonstrate and expand the utility of photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) to probe the energetics of NCs by considering the physical processes that lead to background and secondary photoemission to enhance photoemission from the sample of interest. A new methodology for the interpretation of UP spectra was devised in order to emphasize the minute changes to the UP spectra line shape that arise from nanoscopic changes to the NCs. We applied various established subtractions that correct for photon source satellites, secondary photoelectrons, and substrate photoemission. We then investigated the effect of ligand surface coverage on the surface chemistry and density of states at the top of valence band (VB). We systematically removed ligands by increasing numbers of purification steps for two diameters of NCs and found that doing so increased photoemission density at the top of the VB, which is due to undercoordinated surface atoms. Deeper VB structure was also altered, possibly due to reorganization of the atoms in the NC. Using the new UPS interpretation methodology

  11. Long-lived coherence in carotenoids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, J A; Cannon, E; Van Dao, L; Hannaford, P [ARC Centre of Excellence for Coherent X-ray Science, Centre for Atom Optics and Ultrafast Spectroscopy, Swinburne University of Technology, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Quiney, H M; Nugent, K A, E-mail: jdavis@swin.edu.a [ARC Centre of Excellence for Coherent X-ray Science, School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia)

    2010-08-15

    We use two-colour vibronic coherence spectroscopy to observe long-lived vibrational coherences in the ground electronic state of carotenoid molecules, with decoherence times in excess of 1 ps. Lycopene and spheroidene were studied isolated in solution, and within the LH2 light-harvesting complex extracted from purple bacteria. The vibrational coherence time is shown to increase significantly for the carotenoid in the complex, providing further support to previous assertions that long-lived electronic coherences in light-harvesting complexes are facilitated by in-phase motion of the chromophores and surrounding proteins. Using this technique, we are also able to follow the evolution of excited state coherences and find that for carotenoids in the light-harvesting complex the (S{sub 2}|S{sub 0}) superposition remains coherent for more than 70 fs. In addition to the implications of this long electronic decoherence time, the extended coherence allows us to observe the evolution of the excited state wavepacket. These experiments reveal an enhancement of the vibronic coupling to the first vibrational level of the C-C stretching mode and/or methyl-rocking mode in the ground electronic state 70 fs after the initial excitation. These observations open the door to future experiments and modelling that may be able to resolve the relaxation dynamics of carotenoids in solution and in natural light-harvesting systems.

  12. Long-lived coherence in carotenoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J A; Cannon, E; Van Dao, L; Hannaford, P; Quiney, H M; Nugent, K A

    2010-01-01

    We use two-colour vibronic coherence spectroscopy to observe long-lived vibrational coherences in the ground electronic state of carotenoid molecules, with decoherence times in excess of 1 ps. Lycopene and spheroidene were studied isolated in solution, and within the LH2 light-harvesting complex extracted from purple bacteria. The vibrational coherence time is shown to increase significantly for the carotenoid in the complex, providing further support to previous assertions that long-lived electronic coherences in light-harvesting complexes are facilitated by in-phase motion of the chromophores and surrounding proteins. Using this technique, we are also able to follow the evolution of excited state coherences and find that for carotenoids in the light-harvesting complex the (S 2 |S 0 ) superposition remains coherent for more than 70 fs. In addition to the implications of this long electronic decoherence time, the extended coherence allows us to observe the evolution of the excited state wavepacket. These experiments reveal an enhancement of the vibronic coupling to the first vibrational level of the C-C stretching mode and/or methyl-rocking mode in the ground electronic state 70 fs after the initial excitation. These observations open the door to future experiments and modelling that may be able to resolve the relaxation dynamics of carotenoids in solution and in natural light-harvesting systems.

  13. Investigation of Co nanoparticle formation using time-dependent and spatially-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinoveva, S.

    2008-04-15

    A crucial step towards controlled synthesis of nanoparticles is the detailed understanding of the various chemical processes that take place during the synthesis. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) is especially suitable for elucidating the type and structure of the intermediate metal species. It is applicable to materials that have no long range order and provides information on both electronic and geometric structures. Here a comparative study is reported of the formation of cobalt nanoparticles via thermolysis of two organometallic precursors dicobalt octacarbonyl (DCO) and alkyne-bridged dicobalt hexacarbonyl (ADH) in the presence of aluminum organics. Using time-dependent XAS a reaction pathway different from both the atom based La Mer model and the Watzky and Finsky autocatalytic surface growth model is observed. Where prior to the nucleation several intermediates are formed and the initial nucleus is composed of Co atoms coordinated with ligands Co{sub n}(CO){sub m} with n=2-3, m=3-5. The formation of Co nanoparticles was also investigated using a reaction different from thermolysis of cobalt carbonyls, namely reduction of Co (II) acetate by sodium borohydrate. Here the combination of microreactor system and spatially resolved XAS allowed ''in situ'' monitoring of the wet chemical synthesis. Several steps of the reaction were spatially resolved in the microreactor. The vertical size of the X-ray beam (50 {mu}m) focused with Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror system, determines the time resolution (better than 2 ms). The results provide direct insight into rapid process of nanoparticles formation and demonstrate the potential of this new technique for the fundamental studies of such type of processes where miniaturization and timeresolution are important. Like in the carbonyls thermolysis no evidence for the reduction of the starting complex to isolated Co{sup 0} atoms followed by nucleation of Co{sup 0} atoms was observed. (orig.)

  14. Investigation of Co nanoparticle formation using time-dependent and spatially-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinoveva, S

    2008-04-15

    A crucial step towards controlled synthesis of nanoparticles is the detailed understanding of the various chemical processes that take place during the synthesis. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) is especially suitable for elucidating the type and structure of the intermediate metal species. It is applicable to materials that have no long range order and provides information on both electronic and geometric structures. Here a comparative study is reported of the formation of cobalt nanoparticles via thermolysis of two organometallic precursors dicobalt octacarbonyl (DCO) and alkyne-bridged dicobalt hexacarbonyl (ADH) in the presence of aluminum organics. Using time-dependent XAS a reaction pathway different from both the atom based La Mer model and the Watzky and Finsky autocatalytic surface growth model is observed. Where prior to the nucleation several intermediates are formed and the initial nucleus is composed of Co atoms coordinated with ligands Co{sub n}(CO){sub m} with n=2-3, m=3-5. The formation of Co nanoparticles was also investigated using a reaction different from thermolysis of cobalt carbonyls, namely reduction of Co (II) acetate by sodium borohydrate. Here the combination of microreactor system and spatially resolved XAS allowed ''in situ'' monitoring of the wet chemical synthesis. Several steps of the reaction were spatially resolved in the microreactor. The vertical size of the X-ray beam (50 {mu}m) focused with Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror system, determines the time resolution (better than 2 ms). The results provide direct insight into rapid process of nanoparticles formation and demonstrate the potential of this new technique for the fundamental studies of such type of processes where miniaturization and timeresolution are important. Like in the carbonyls thermolysis no evidence for the reduction of the starting complex to isolated Co{sup 0} atoms followed by nucleation of Co{sup 0} atoms was observed. (orig.)

  15. Development of pore interconnectivity/morphology in porous silica films investigated by cyclic voltammetry and slow positron annihilation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Xiuqin; Xiong, Bangyun; Li, Qichao; Mao, Wenfeng; Xiao, Wei; Fang, Pengfei; He, Chunqing

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: •Porous silica films were studied by cyclic voltammetry and positron annihilation. •Highly interconnected pores were formed in the film fabricated with more CTAB. •Aligned nanochannels were observed in the porous flim prepared with 25 wt.% CTAB. •I − and Ps diffusion in the films was governed by pore interconnectivity/morphology. •Cyclic voltammetry is feasible to explore pore interconnectivity/morphology. -- Abstract: Cyclic voltammetry and positronium (Ps) 3γ-annihilation spectroscopy were applied to investigate pore interconnectivity/morphology of porous silica films fabricated with various loading of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB). With increasing the ratio of CTAB up to 15 wt.%, the total charge Q, resulted from I − diffusion across the silica films, increased remarkably, indicative of formation of highly interconnected pores in the films prepared with more porogen. However, it decreased dramatically with further loading CTAB of 25 wt.%. Interestingly, 3γ-annihilation fraction I 3γ due to a triplet-state Ps (ortho-positronium, o-Ps) emission from the silica films showed a similar behavior as a function of CTAB loading. The abnormal decrement in Q and I 3γ in the film fabricated with 25 wt.% CTAB was well explained by formation of long nanochannels aligning parallel to the film surface. The results indicated that the total charge Q and Ps 3γ-annihilation fraction were closely associated with I − and Ps diffusion governed by the pore interconnectivity/morphology of the silica films, which made cyclic voltammetry possible to be a feasible tool to characterize pore interconnectivity/morphology of porous thin films

  16. Partially coherent imaging and spatial coherence wavelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaneda, Roman

    2003-03-01

    A description of spatially partially coherent imaging based on the propagation of second order spatial coherence wavelets and marginal power spectra (Wigner distribution functions) is presented. In this dynamics, the spatial coherence wavelets will be affected by the system through its elementary transfer function. The consistency of the model with the both extreme cases of full coherent and incoherent imaging was proved. In the last case we obtained the classical concept of optical transfer function as a simple integral of the elementary transfer function. Furthermore, the elementary incoherent response function was introduced as the Fourier transform of the elementary transfer function. It describes the propagation of spatial coherence wavelets form each object point to each image point through a specific point on the pupil planes. The point spread function of the system was obtained by a simple integral of the elementary incoherent response function. (author)

  17. Nanoscale investigation of the degradation mechanism of a historical chrome yellow paint by quantitative electron energy loss spectroscopy mapping of chromium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Haiyan; Tian, He; Verbeeck, Jo; Monico, Letizia; Janssens, Koen; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf

    2013-10-18

    Getting the picture: The investigation of 100 year old chrome yellow paint by transmission electron microscopy and spectroscopy has led to the identification of four types of core-shell particles. This nanoscale investigation has allowed a mechanism to be proposed for the darkening of some bright yellow colors in Van Gogh's paintings (e.g. in Falling leaves (Les Alyscamps), 1888). Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Coherent acceptability measures in multiperiod models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roorda, Berend; Schumacher, Hans; Engwerda, Jacob

    2005-01-01

    The framework of coherent risk measures has been introduced by Artzner et al. (1999; Math. Finance 9, 203–228) in a single-period setting. Here, we investigate a similar framework in a multiperiod context. We add an axiom of dynamic consistency to the standard coherence axioms, and obtain a

  19. Investigation of spectral interference effects on determination of uranium concentration in phosphate ore by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachari, Ayoob H.; Jalali, Fatemeh; Alahyarizadeh, Ghasem [Tehran Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Engineering Dept.

    2017-04-01

    Effects of spectral interferences on determination of the uranium concentration in phosphate ore were investigated by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Eleven high intensity emission lines including four lines recommended by ICP-OES apparatus were chosen to determine the uranium concentration. The ore samples were collected from phosphate acid producing industry in the south of Iran. Three different acid combinations [(HNO{sub 3}:HCl:HF-2:6:2), (H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}:H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}:HF-3:3:3), (HNO{sub 3}:H{sub 2}O{sub 2}:HF-4:2:2)] used in microwave digestion method to explore the spectral interference effects in different solvent environments. The results showed that the trusty uranium concentration, obtained in the 367.007 nm, 386.592 nm, 389.036 nm and 409.014 nm by second acid digestion method which were 0.665 ppm, 0.972 ppm, 0.670 ppm and 0.801 ppm, respectively. Although the line of 409.014 nm was reported as the best line for determining of the uranium concentration in several literatures, the results showed that this line has a significant spectral interference with vanadium in some ores which should be considered in determining of the uranium concentration. Spectral interference effects of some elements which have high concentrations in the phosphate ore including Ca, Fe, Mg, Pb, V, Mn, and Ti on the line intensities were also investigated. Results indicated that the chosen elements affect emission intensities of all of 11 lines. They also indicated that the line of 409.014 nm provides a trusty precision in the determination of the uranium concentration in the ore sample with low vanadium concentration (at least, U/V ratio of 1:5). Results show that the line of 409.014 nm provides acceptable precision with some corrections in comparison with other selected lines. For instance in high concentrations of other elements including Fe and Ti in the ore samples, strong influences on the line intensities of the 367.007 nm (by Fe

  20. On Longitudinal Spectral Coherence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Leif

    1979-01-01

    It is demonstrated that the longitudinal spectral coherence differs significantly from the transversal spectral coherence in its dependence on displacement and frequency. An expression for the longitudinal coherence is derived and it is shown how the scale of turbulence, the displacement between ...... observation sites and the turbulence intensity influence the results. The limitations of the theory are discussed....

  1. Coherent beam-beam effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, A.W.; Keil, E.

    1979-06-01

    The stability of the coherent beam-beam effect between rigid bunches is studied analytically and numerically for a linear force by evaluating eigenvalues. For a realistic force, the stability is investigated by following the bunches for many revolutions. 4 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Experimental investigation of silicon photomultipliers as compact light readout systems for gamma-ray spectroscopy applications in fusion plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nocente, M., E-mail: massimo.nocente@mib.infn.it; Gorini, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica “G. Occhialini,” Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Milano (Italy); Istituto di Fisica del Plasma “P. Caldirola,” EURATOM-ENEA-CNR Association, Milano (Italy); Fazzi, A.; Lorenzoli, M.; Pirovano, C. [Dipartimento di Energia, CeSNEF, Politecnico di Milano, Milano (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano, Milano (Italy); Tardocchi, M. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma “P. Caldirola,” EURATOM-ENEA-CNR Association, Milano (Italy); Cazzaniga, C.; Rebai, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica “G. Occhialini,” Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Milano (Italy); Uboldi, C.; Varoli, V. [Dipartimento di Energia, CeSNEF, Politecnico di Milano, Milano (Italy)

    2014-11-15

    A matrix of Silicon Photo Multipliers has been developed for light readout from a large area 1 in. × 1 in. LaBr{sub 3} crystal. The system has been characterized in the laboratory and its performance compared to that of a conventional photo multiplier tube. A pulse duration of 100 ns was achieved, which opens up to spectroscopy applications at high counting rates. The energy resolution measured using radioactive sources extrapolates to 3%–4% in the energy range E{sub γ} = 3–5 MeV, enabling gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements at good energy resolution. The results reported here are of relevance in view of the development of compact gamma-ray detectors with spectroscopy capabilities, such as an enhanced gamma-ray camera for high power fusion plasmas, where the use of photomultiplier is impeded by space limitation and sensitivity to magnetic fields.

  3. Wet-cleaning of MgO(001): Modification of surface chemistry and effects on thin film growth investigated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Le Febvrier, Arnaud; Jensen, Jens; Eklund, Per

    2017-01-01

    The effect of the wet-cleaning process using solvents and detergent on the surface chemistry of MgO(001) substrate for film deposition was investigated. Six different wet-cleaning processes using solvent and detergent were compared. The effect on film growth was studied by the example system ScN. The surface chemistry of the cleaned surface was studied by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and the film/substrate interface after film growth was investigated by time-of-flight secondary ion mass s...

  4. Infrared spectroscopy and density functional theory investigation of calcite, chalk, and coccoliths-do we observe the mineral surface?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Martin Peter; Hem, Caroline Piper; Schultz, Logan Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    broadening from macroscopic dielectric effects. We detect water adsorbed on the high surface area synthetic calcite, which permits observation of the chemistry of thin liquid films on calcite using transmission infrared spectroscopy. The combination of infrared spectroscopy and density functional theory also...... asymmetric for the coccoliths and the synthetic calcite prepared using the carbonation method. It can be very well fitted by two peaks: a narrow Lorenzian at lower frequency and a broader Gaussian at higher frequency. These two samples both have a high specific surface area. Density functional theory...

  5. Compact Micro-Imaging Spectrometer (CMIS): Investigation of Imaging Spectroscopy and Its Application to Mars Geology and Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staten, Paul W.

    2005-01-01

    Future missions to Mars will attempt to answer questions about Mars' geological and biological history. The goal of the CMIS project is to design, construct, and test a capable, multi-spectral micro-imaging spectrometer use in such missions. A breadboard instrument has been constructed with a micro-imaging camera and Several multi-wavelength LED illumination rings. Test samples have been chosen for their interest to spectroscopists, geologists and astrobiologists. Preliminary analysis has demonstrated the advantages of isotropic illumination and micro-imaging spectroscopy over spot spectroscopy.

  6. Investigation of protein distribution in solid lipid particles and its impact on protein release using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, Philip C.; Birch, Ditlev; Saarinen, Jukka

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain new insights into protein distribution in solid lipid microparticles (SLMs) and subsequent release mechanisms using a novel label-free chemical imaging method, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy. Lysozyme-loaded SLMs were prepared using...... in the solid lipid matrix, which required full lipolysis of the entire matrix to release lysozyme completely. Therefore, SLMs with lysozyme incorporated in an aqueous solution released lysozyme much faster than with lysozyme incorporated as a solid. In conclusion, CARS microscopy was an efficient and non......-destructive method for elucidating the distribution of lysozyme in SLMs. The interpretation of protein distribution and release during lipolysis enabled elucidation of protein release mechanisms. In future, CARS microscopy analysis could facilitate development of a wide range of protein-lipid matrices with tailor...

  7. Asymmetry and coherence weight of quantum states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Kaifeng; Anand, Namit; Singh, Uttam

    2018-03-01

    The asymmetry of quantum states is an important resource in quantum information processing tasks such as quantum metrology and quantum communication. In this paper, we introduce the notion of asymmetry weight—an operationally motivated asymmetry quantifier in the resource theory of asymmetry. We study the convexity and monotonicity properties of asymmetry weight and focus on its interplay with the corresponding semidefinite programming (SDP) forms along with its connection to other asymmetry measures. Since the SDP form of asymmetry weight is closely related to asymmetry witnesses, we find that the asymmetry weight can be regarded as a (state-dependent) asymmetry witness. Moreover, some specific entanglement witnesses can be viewed as a special case of an asymmetry witness—which indicates a potential connection between asymmetry and entanglement. We also provide an operationally meaningful coherence measure, which we term coherence weight, and investigate its relationship to other coherence measures like the robustness of coherence and the l1 norm of coherence. In particular, we show that for Werner states in any dimension d all three coherence quantifiers, namely, the coherence weight, the robustness of coherence, and the l1 norm of coherence, are equal and are given by a single letter formula.

  8. Investigating the Role of Coherence Effects on Jet Quenching in Pb-Pb Collisions at √{sNN} = 2.76 TeV using Jet Substructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zardoshti, Nima; Alice Collaboration

    2017-11-01

    We report measurements of two jet shapes, the ratio of 2-Subjettiness to 1-Subjettiness (τ2 /τ1) and the opening angle between the two axes of the 2-Subjettiness jet shape, which is obtained by reclustering the jet with the exclusive-kT algorithm [S.D.Ellis and D.E.Soper, Phys.Rev.B 48, 3160] and undoing the final clustering step. The aim of this measurement is to explore a possible change in the rate of 2-pronged objects in Pb-Pb compared to pp due to colour coherence. Coherence effects [Y.Mehtar-Tani, C.A.Salgado and K.Tywoniuk Phys. Rev. Lett. 106:122002, 2011] relate to the ability of the medium to resolve a jet's substructure, which has an impact on the energy loss magnitude and mechanism of the traversing jet. In both collision systems charged jets are found with the anti-kT algorithm [M.Cacciari, G.P.Salam and G.Soyez JHEP 0804:063, 2008], a resolution parameter of R = 0.4 and a constituent cut off of 0.15 GeV. This analysis uses hadron-jet coincidence techniques in Pb-Pb collisions to reject the combinatorial background and corrects further for background effects by employing various jet shape subtraction techniques and two dimensional unfolding. Measurements of the Nsubjettiness for jet momenta of 40-60 GeV/c in Pb-Pb collisions at √{sNN} = 2.76 TeV and pp collisions at √{ s} = 7 TeV will be presented and compared to PYTHIA simulations.

  9. Coherent control of photoelectron wavepacket angular interferograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hockett, P; Wollenhaupt, M; Baumert, T

    2015-01-01

    Coherent control over photoelectron wavepackets, via the use of polarization-shaped laser pulses, can be understood as a time and polarization-multiplexed process, where the final (time-integrated) observable coherently samples all instantaneous states of the light–matter interaction. In this work, we investigate this multiplexing via computation of the observable photoelectron angular interferograms resulting from multi-photon atomic ionization with polarization-shaped laser pulses. We consider the polarization sensitivity of both the instantaneous and cumulative continuum wavefunction; the nature of the coherent control over the resultant photoelectron interferogram is thus explored in detail. Based on this understanding, the use of coherent control with polarization-shaped pulses as a methodology for a highly multiplexed coherent quantum metrology is also investigated, and defined in terms of the information content of the observable. (paper)

  10. Coherent control of photoelectron wavepacket angular interferograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockett, P.; Wollenhaupt, M.; Baumert, T.

    2015-11-01

    Coherent control over photoelectron wavepackets, via the use of polarization-shaped laser pulses, can be understood as a time and polarization-multiplexed process, where the final (time-integrated) observable coherently samples all instantaneous states of the light-matter interaction. In this work, we investigate this multiplexing via computation of the observable photoelectron angular interferograms resulting from multi-photon atomic ionization with polarization-shaped laser pulses. We consider the polarization sensitivity of both the instantaneous and cumulative continuum wavefunction; the nature of the coherent control over the resultant photoelectron interferogram is thus explored in detail. Based on this understanding, the use of coherent control with polarization-shaped pulses as a methodology for a highly multiplexed coherent quantum metrology is also investigated, and defined in terms of the information content of the observable.

  11. Investigations into the free-volume changes within starch/plasticizer/nanoclay systems using Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Huihua, E-mail: h.liu@federation.edu.au [School of Health Sciences, Federation University Australia, Ballarat, Vic (Australia); Chaudhary, Deeptangshu, E-mail: deepc@ers.com.au [ERS Environmental Risk Solutions PTY LTD, Perth, WA (Australia); Campbell, Colin, E-mail: colin.campbell@anu.edu.au [ARC Centre of Excellence for Antimatter-Matter Studies (CAMS), Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra (Australia); Roberts, Jason, E-mail: jxr107@physics.anu.edu.au [ARC Centre of Excellence for Antimatter-Matter Studies (CAMS), Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra (Australia); Buckman, Stephen, E-mail: stephen.buckman@anu.edu.au [ARC Centre of Excellence for Antimatter-Matter Studies (CAMS), Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra (Australia); Sullivan, James, E-mail: james.sullivan@anu.edu.au [ARC Centre of Excellence for Antimatter-Matter Studies (CAMS), Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra (Australia)

    2014-11-14

    The free-volume of a matrix is a fundamental parameter that relates to its molecular and bulk characteristics, such as crystalline change and glass transition behavior. In starch-based bionanocomposite, we investigated the effect of the addition of montmorillonite nanoclay (MMT) and food plasticizers (glycerol and sorbitol) on changes of molecular pore size (including pore volume and pore distribution) using the Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS) method. The results demonstrated counter-intuitive impact of MMT on the total free-volume where the total free-volume increased within the polymeric matrix. When compared to the pure matrix free-volume, the addition of MMT also resulted in the appearance of a broader distribution of the void sizes. The plasticizers, on the other hand, apparently occupied the void spaces, and therefore decreased the free-volume of the matrix. Further, together with the small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analysis, we concluded that this is a result of interplay between the plasticizer-plasticizer interactions and the polymer–plasticizer interactions. For example, in the starch/glycerol/MMT system, the pore radii slightly decrease upon the increasing of glycerol amount (OG210 = O.27 nm and OG220 = 0.26 nm), but the relative weight did increase with the increasing glycerol concentration. However, increasing the sorbitol amount increased the pore size from 0.23 nm(OS210) to 0.28 nm(OS220). Furthermore, the addition MMT in the OS010 system, promote the emergence of a new dateable pore radius(0.90 nm), and the total weight significantly increased from 13.70 (OS010) to 19.5% (OS210). We suggest that the pore variation (size and distribution) due to the MMT and plasticizers are reflected in the polymer glass transition and crystallinity because ultimately, the, total free-volume is a reflection of level of interactions existing within the bulk of these nanocomposites. - Highlights: • PALS is applied to explore the

  12. In operando Raman spectroscopy as a tool for investigation of solid oxide electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traulsen, Marie Lund; Holtappels, Peter; Walker, Robert

    potential of combining in operando Raman spectroscopy with electrochemical characterisation, DTU Energy Conversion decided in 2014 to invest in a set-up dedicated to this purpose, At the end of the talk a short description will be given of this set-up, and the future plans will be described for combined...

  13. CO Adsorption and Oxidation at the Catalyst-Water Interface: An Investigation by Attenuated Total Reflection Infrared Spectroscopy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebbesen, S.D.; Mojet, Barbara; Lefferts, Leonardus

    2006-01-01

    Adsorption of carbon monoxide and oxidation of preadsorbed carbon monoxide from gas and aqueous phases were studied on a platinum catalyst deposited on a ZnSe internal reflection element (IRE) using attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy. The results of this study convincingly

  14. Selectively deuterated liquid crystalline cyanoazobenzene side-chain polyesters. 3. Investigations of laser induced segmental mobility by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulinna, Christian; Hvilsted, Søren; Hendann, Claudia

    1998-01-01

    The laser-induced anisotropy in thin films of an extensive number of cyanoazobenzene sidechain liquid crystalline polytetradecanedioates, -dodecanedioates, and -adipates selectively deuterated at different positions have been investigated with polarized FTIR spectroscopy. The analysis of the segm......The laser-induced anisotropy in thin films of an extensive number of cyanoazobenzene sidechain liquid crystalline polytetradecanedioates, -dodecanedioates, and -adipates selectively deuterated at different positions have been investigated with polarized FTIR spectroscopy. The analysis...... of the segmental orientation based on dichroic ratios of characteristic absorption bands shows that, in polyesters with long main-chain spacing (tetradecanedioates and dodecanedioates), not only the light sensitive azo chromophore but also the main-chain methylene segment and to a smaller extent the flexible...

  15. Conformational order of n-dodecanethiol and n-dodecaneselenol monolayers on polycrystalline copper investigated by PM-IRRAS and SFG spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonder, G.; Cecchet, F.; Peremans, A.; Thiry, P. A.; Delhalle, J.; Mekhalif, Z.

    2009-08-01

    Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of n-dodecanethiol (C 12H 25SH) and n-dodecaneselenol (C 12H 25SeH) on polycrystalline copper have been elaborated with the purpose of achieving densely packed and crystalline-like assemblies. By combining the surface sensitivity of polarization modulation infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS) and sum-frequency generation spectroscopy (SFG), the effect of the self-assembly time (15 min, 30 min, 1 h, 2 h and 24 h) on the formation of n-dodecanethiol and n-dodecaneselenol monolayers on untreated and electrochemically reduced polycrystalline copper has been investigated. On electrochemically reduced copper, PM-IRRAS spectroscopy shows that both molecules are able to form well organized layers. SFG spectroscopy indicates that the C 12H 25SeH SAMs are slightly better ordered than those achieved with C 12H 25SH. On untreated copper, the two molecules lead to different film organizations. Both PM-IRRAS and SFG indicate that C 12H 25SH SAMs are of the same film quality as those obtained on electrochemically reduced copper. On the contrary, C 12H 25SeH monolayers are invariably poorly organized at the molecular level.

  16. Partial coherence with application to the monotonicity problem of coherence involving skew information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shunlong; Sun, Yuan

    2017-08-01

    Quantifications of coherence are intensively studied in the context of completely decoherent operations (i.e., von Neuamnn measurements, or equivalently, orthonormal bases) in recent years. Here we investigate partial coherence (i.e., coherence in the context of partially decoherent operations such as Lüders measurements). A bona fide measure of partial coherence is introduced. As an application, we address the monotonicity problem of K -coherence (a quantifier for coherence in terms of Wigner-Yanase skew information) [Girolami, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 170401 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.170401], which is introduced to realize a measure of coherence as axiomatized by Baumgratz, Cramer, and Plenio [Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 140401 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.140401]. Since K -coherence fails to meet the necessary requirement of monotonicity under incoherent operations, it is desirable to remedy this monotonicity problem. We show that if we modify the original measure by taking skew information with respect to the spectral decomposition of an observable, rather than the observable itself, as a measure of coherence, then the problem disappears, and the resultant coherence measure satisfies the monotonicity. Some concrete examples are discussed and related open issues are indicated.

  17. Effect of quantum lattice fluctuations on quantum coherent oscillations in a coherently driven quantum dot-cavity system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Ka-Di; Li, Wai-Sang

    2003-01-01

    The quantum coherent oscillations in a coherently driven quantum dot-cavity system with the presence of strong exciton-phonon interactions are investigated theoretically in a fully quantum treatment. It is shown that even at zero temperature, the strong exciton-phonon interactions still affect the quantum coherent oscillations significantly

  18. Using Polarized Spectroscopy to Investigate Order in Thin-Films of Ionic Self-Assembled Materials Based on Azo-Dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mariam; Andersen, Frederik; Brend Bech, Ári; Bendixen, H. Krestian L.; Nawrocki, Patrick R.; Bloch, Anders J.; Bora, Ilkay; Bukhari, Tahreem A.; Bærentsen, Nicolai V.; Carstensen, Jens; Chima, Smeeah; Colberg, Helene; Dahm, Rasmus T.; Daniels, Joshua A.; Dinckan, Nermin; El Idrissi, Mohamed; Erlandsen, Ricci; Førster, Marc; Ghauri, Yasmin; Gold, Mikkel; Hansen, Andreas; Hansen, Kenn; Helmsøe-Zinck, Mathias; Henriksen, Mathias; Hoffmann, Sophus V.; Hyllested, Louise O. H.; Jensen, Casper; Kallenbach, Amalie S.; Kaur, Kirandip; Khan, Suheb R.; Kjær, Emil T. S.; Kristiansen, Bjørn; Langvad, Sylvester; Lund, Philip M.; Munk, Chastine F.; Møller, Theis; Nehme, Ola M. Z.; Nejrup, Mathilde Rove; Nexø, Louise; Nielsen, Simon Skødt Holm; Niemeier, Nicolai; Nikolajsen, Lasse V.; Nøhr, Peter C. T.; Skaarup Ovesen, Jacob; Paustian, Lucas; Pedersen, Adam S.; Petersen, Mathias K.; Poulsen, Camilla M.; Praeger-Jahnsen, Louis; Qureshi, L. Sonia; Schiermacher, Louise S.; Simris, Martin B.; Smith, Gorm; Smith, Heidi N.; Sonne, Alexander K.; Zenulovic, Marko R.; Winther Sørensen, Alma; Vogt, Emil; Væring, Andreas; Westermann, Jonas; Özcan, Sevin B.

    2018-01-01

    Three series of ionic self-assembled materials based on anionic azo-dyes and cationic benzalkonium surfactants were synthesized and thin films were prepared by spin-casting. These thin films appear isotropic when investigated with polarized optical microscopy, although they are highly anisotropic. Here, three series of homologous materials were studied to rationalize this observation. Investigating thin films of ordered molecular materials relies to a large extent on advanced experimental methods and large research infrastructure. A statement that in particular is true for thin films with nanoscopic order, where X-ray reflectometry, X-ray and neutron scattering, electron microscopy and atom force microscopy (AFM) has to be used to elucidate film morphology and the underlying molecular structure. Here, the thin films were investigated using AFM, optical microscopy and polarized absorption spectroscopy. It was shown that by using numerical method for treating the polarized absorption spectroscopy data, the molecular structure can be elucidated. Further, it was shown that polarized optical spectroscopy is a general tool that allows determination of the molecular order in thin films. Finally, it was found that full control of thermal history and rigorous control of the ionic self-assembly conditions are required to reproducibly make these materials of high nanoscopic order. Similarly, the conditions for spin-casting are shown to be determining for the overall thin film morphology, while molecular order is maintained. PMID:29462883

  19. Using Polarized Spectroscopy to Investigate Order in Thin-Films of Ionic Self-Assembled Materials Based on Azo-Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel R. Carro-Temboury Martin Kühnel

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Three series of ionic self-assembled materials based on anionic azo-dyes and cationic benzalkonium surfactants were synthesized and thin films were prepared by spin-casting. These thin films appear isotropic when investigated with polarized optical microscopy, although they are highly anisotropic. Here, three series of homologous materials were studied to rationalize this observation. Investigating thin films of ordered molecular materials relies to a large extent on advanced experimental methods and large research infrastructure. A statement that in particular is true for thin films with nanoscopic order, where X-ray reflectometry, X-ray and neutron scattering, electron microscopy and atom force microscopy (AFM has to be used to elucidate film morphology and the underlying molecular structure. Here, the thin films were investigated using AFM, optical microscopy and polarized absorption spectroscopy. It was shown that by using numerical method for treating the polarized absorption spectroscopy data, the molecular structure can be elucidated. Further, it was shown that polarized optical spectroscopy is a general tool that allows determination of the molecular order in thin films. Finally, it was found that full control of thermal history and rigorous control of the ionic self-assembly conditions are required to reproducibly make these materials of high nanoscopic order. Similarly, the conditions for spin-casting are shown to be determining for the overall thin film morphology, while molecular order is maintained.

  20. Using Polarized Spectroscopy to Investigate Order in Thin-Films of Ionic Self-Assembled Materials Based on Azo-Dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühnel, Miguel R Carro-Temboury Martin; Ahmad, Mariam; Andersen, Frederik; Bech, Ári Brend; Bendixen, H Krestian L; Nawrocki, Patrick R; Bloch, Anders J; Bora, Ilkay; Bukhari, Tahreem A; Bærentsen, Nicolai V; Carstensen, Jens; Chima, Smeeah; Colberg, Helene; Dahm, Rasmus T; Daniels, Joshua A; Dinckan, Nermin; Idrissi, Mohamed El; Erlandsen, Ricci; Førster, Marc; Ghauri, Yasmin; Gold, Mikkel; Hansen, Andreas; Hansen, Kenn; Helmsøe-Zinck, Mathias; Henriksen, Mathias; Hoffmann, Sophus V; Hyllested, Louise O H; Jensen, Casper; Kallenbach, Amalie S; Kaur, Kirandip; Khan, Suheb R; Kjær, Emil T S; Kristiansen, Bjørn; Langvad, Sylvester; Lund, Philip M; Munk, Chastine F; Møller, Theis; Nehme, Ola M Z; Nejrup, Mathilde Rove; Nexø, Louise; Nielsen, Simon Skødt Holm; Niemeier, Nicolai; Nikolajsen, Lasse V; Nøhr, Peter C T; Orlowski, Dominik B; Overgaard, Marc; Ovesen, Jacob Skaarup; Paustian, Lucas; Pedersen, Adam S; Petersen, Mathias K; Poulsen, Camilla M; Praeger-Jahnsen, Louis; Qureshi, L Sonia; Ree, Nicolai; Schiermacher, Louise S; Simris, Martin B; Smith, Gorm; Smith, Heidi N; Sonne, Alexander K; Zenulovic, Marko R; Sørensen, Alma Winther; Sørensen, Karina; Vogt, Emil; Væring, Andreas; Westermann, Jonas; Özcan, Sevin B; Sørensen, Thomas Just

    2018-02-15

    Three series of ionic self-assembled materials based on anionic azo-dyes and cationic benzalkonium surfactants were synthesized and thin films were prepared by spin-casting. These thin films appear isotropic when investigated with polarized optical microscopy, although they are highly anisotropic. Here, three series of homologous materials were studied to rationalize this observation. Investigating thin films of ordered molecular materials relies to a large extent on advanced experimental methods and large research infrastructure. A statement that in particular is true for thin films with nanoscopic order, where X-ray reflectometry, X-ray and neutron scattering, electron microscopy and atom force microscopy (AFM) has to be used to elucidate film morphology and the underlying molecular structure. Here, the thin films were investigated using AFM, optical microscopy and polarized absorption spectroscopy. It was shown that by using numerical method for treating the polarized absorption spectroscopy data, the molecular structure can be elucidated. Further, it was shown that polarized optical spectroscopy is a general tool that allows determination of the molecular order in thin films. Finally, it was found that full control of thermal history and rigorous control of the ionic self-assembly conditions are required to reproducibly make these materials of high nanoscopic order. Similarly, the conditions for spin-casting are shown to be determining for the overall thin film morphology, while molecular order is maintained.